WorldWideScience

Sample records for providing timely drinking

  1. Characteristics of US Health Care Providers Who Counsel Adolescents on Sports and Energy Drink Consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Xiang, Nan; Wethington, Holly; Onufrak, Stephen; Belay, Brook

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To examine the proportion of health care providers who counsel adolescent patients on sports and energy drink (SED) consumption and the association with provider characteristics. Methods. This is a cross-sectional analysis of a survey of providers who see patients ≤17 years old. The proportion providing regular counseling on sports drinks (SDs), energy drinks (EDs), or both was assessed. Chi-square analyses examined differences in counseling based on provider characteristics. Multi...

  2. How important are peatlands globally in providing drinking water resources?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiren; Morris, Paul; Holden, Joseph

    2017-04-01

    The potential role of peatlands as water stores and sources of downstream water resources for human use is often cited in publications setting the context for the importance of peatlands, but is rarely backed up with substantive evidence. We sought to determine the global role of peatlands in water resource provision. We developed the Peat Population Index (PPI) that combines the coverage of peat and the local population density to show focused (hotspot) areas where there is a combination of both large areas of peat and large populations who would potentially use water sourced from those peatlands. We also developed a method for estimating the proportion of river water that interacted with contributing peatlands before draining into rivers and reservoirs used as a drinking water resource. The Peat Reservoir Index (PRI) estimates the contribution of peatlands to domestic water use to be 1.64 km3 per year which is 0.35 % of the global total. The results suggest that although peatlands are widespread, the spatial distribution of the high PPI and PRI river basins is concentrated in European middle latitudes particularly around major conurbations in The Netherlands, northern England, Scotland (Glasgow) and Ireland (Dublin), although there were also some important systems in Florida, the Niger Delta and Malaysia. More detailed research into water resource provision in high PPI areas showed that they were not always also high PRI areas as often water resources were delivered to urban centres from non-peat areas, despite a large area of peat within the catchment. However, particularly in the UK and Ireland, there are some high PRI systems where peatlands directly supply water to nearby urban centres. Thus both indices are useful and can be used at a global level while more local refinement enables enhanced use which supports global and local peatland protection measures. We now intend to study the impacts of peatland degradation and climate change on water resource

  3. Time-Of-Travel Tool Protects Drinking Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Lower Susquehanna Source Water Protection (SWP) Partnership utilizes the Incident Command Tool for Drinking Water Protection (ICWater) to support the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection (PADEP) with real-time spill tracking information.

  4. Mean Residence Time and Emergency Drinking Water Supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kralik, Martin; Humer, Franko

    2013-04-01

    Immediately after securing an endangered population, the first priority of aid workers following a disaster is the distribution of drinking water. Such emergency situations are reported from many parts of the world following regional chemical or nuclear pollution accidents, floods, droughts, rain-induced landslides, tsunami, and other extreme events. It is often difficult to organise a replacement water supply when regular water systems with short residence times are polluted, infiltrated or even flooded by natural or man-made disasters. They are either unusable or their restoration may take months or even years. Groundwater resources, proven safe and protected by the geological environment, with long residence times and the necessary infrastructure for their exploitation, would provide populations with timeous replacement of vulnerable water supply systems and make rescue activities more rapid and effective. Such resources have to be identified and investigated, as a substitute for affected drinking water supplies thereby eliminating or reducing the impact of their failure following catastrophic events. Even in many areas such water resources with long residence times in years or decades are difficult to find it should be known which water supply facilities in the region are matching these requirements to allow in emergency situation the transport of water in tankers to the affected regions to prevent epidemics, importing large quantities of bottled water. One should know the residence time of the water supply to have sufficient time to plan and install new safe water supply facilities. Development of such policy and strategy for human security - both long term and short term - is therefore needed to decrease the vulnerability of populations threatened by extreme events and water supplies with short residence times. Generally: The longer the residence time of groundwater in the aquifer, the lower its vulnerability. The most common and economic methods to estimate

  5. Maternal alcohol consumption producing fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD): quantity, frequency, and timing of drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Philip A; Blankenship, Jason; Marais, Anna-Susan; Gossage, J Phillip; Kalberg, Wendy O; Joubert, Belinda; Cloete, Marise; Barnard, Ronel; De Vries, Marlene; Hasken, Julie; Robinson, Luther K; Adnams, Colleen M; Buckley, David; Manning, Melanie; Parry, Charles D H; Hoyme, H Eugene; Tabachnick, Barbara; Seedat, Soraya

    2013-12-01

    Concise, accurate measures of maternal prenatal alcohol use are needed to better understand fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Measures of drinking by mothers of children with specific FASD diagnoses and mothers of randomly-selected controls are compared and also correlated with physical and cognitive/behavioral outcomes. Measures of maternal alcohol use can differentiate maternal drinking associated with FASD from that of controls and some from mothers of alcohol-exposed normals. Six variables that combine quantity and frequency concepts distinguish mothers of FASD children from normal controls. Alcohol use variables, when applied to each trimester and three months prior to pregnancy, provide insight on critical timing of exposure as well. Measures of drinking, especially bingeing, correlate significantly with increased child dysmorphology and negative cognitive/behavioral outcomes in children, especially low non-verbal IQ, poor attention, and behavioral problems. Logistic regression links (p<.001) first trimester drinking (vs. no drinking) with FASD, elevating FASD likelihood 12 times; first and second trimester drinking increases FASD outcomes 61 times; and drinking in all trimesters 65 times. Conversely, a similar regression (p=.008) indicates that drinking only in the first trimester makes the birth of a child with an FASD 5 times less likely than drinking in all trimesters. There is significant variation in alcohol consumption both within and between diagnostic groupings of mothers bearing children diagnosed within the FASD continuum. Drinking measures are empirically identified and correlated with specific child outcomes. Alcohol use, especially heavy use, should be avoided throughout pregnancy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Providing safe drinking water to 1.2 billion unserved people

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gadgil, Ashok J.; Derby, Elisabeth A.

    2003-06-01

    Despite substantial advances in the past 100 years in public health, technology and medicine, 20% of the world population, mostly comprised of the poor population segments in developing countries (DCs), still does not have access to safe drinking water. To reach the United Nations (UN) Millennium Goal of halving the number of people without access to safe water by 2015, the global community will need to provide an additional one billion urban residents and 600 million rural residents with safe water within the next twelve years. This paper examines current water treatment measures and implementation methods for delivery of safe drinking water, and offers suggestions for making progress towards the goal of providing a timely and equitable solution for safe water provision. For water treatment, based on the serious limitations of boiling water and chlorination, we suggest an approach based on filtration coupled with ultraviolet (UV) disinfection, combined with public education. Additionally, owing to the capacity limitations for non-governmental organizations (NGOs) to take on this task primarily on their own, we suggest a strategy based on financially sustainable models that include the private sector as well as NGOs.

  7. The influence of nutritional supplement drinks on providing adequate calorie and protein intake in older adults with dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, V; Methven, L; Gosney, M

    2013-09-01

    Investigate the impact of the provision of ONS on protein and energy intake from food and ability to meet protein and calorie requirements in people with dementia. After consent by proxy was obtained, participants took part in a cross over study comparing oral intake on an intervention day to an adjacent control day. The study occurred in Nursing homes and hospitalised settings. Older adults with dementia over the age of 65 were recruited. 26 participants (aged 83.9+/-8.4years, MMSE 13.08+/-8.13) took part. Intervention (if any): On the intervention day nutritional supplement drinks were provided three times. Each drink provided 283.3+/-41.8 Kcal of energy and 13.8+/-4.7g of protein. Supplements were removed approximately 1 hour before meals were served and weighed waste (g) was obtained. Intake of food consumed was determined on intervention and control days using the quartile method (none, quarter, half, three quarters, all) for each meal component. More people achieved their energy and protein requirements with the supplement drink intervention with no sufficient impact on habitual food consumption. Findings from these 26 participants with dementia indicate that supplement drinks may be beneficial in reducing the prevalence of malnutrition within the group as more people meet their nutritional requirements. As the provision of supplement drinks is also demonstrated to have an additive effect to consumption of habitual foods these can be used alongside other measures to also improve oral intake.

  8. Shouting and providing: Forms of exchange in the drinking accounts of young Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Dean A; Hart, Aaron; Moore, David

    2017-07-01

    Australian health promotion campaigns encourage people to manage their alcohol consumption by avoiding involvement in a form of round drinking known as 'shouting'. We consider this individualist advice in light of our analysis of the social relations established by young people through collective drinking, in which we conceptualise friends, family and work colleagues as participants in complex networks of exchange. Data were gathered during in-depth, semistructured interviews and ethnographic fieldwork conducted in a socioeconomically disadvantaged outer suburb of Melbourne, Australia. The interview sample comprised nine men and seven women of diverse ethnic backgrounds, with a median age of 21 years. We identified two types of exchange-'shouting' and 'providing'-enacted by round drinking and other collective drinking practices. 'Shouting' is a form of balanced reciprocity in which participants take turns buying drinks for all others in the group. It is an immediate, direct exchange of alcoholic gifts that are equivalent in value. 'Providing' is characterised by indirect reciprocity in which the social aspects of the transaction are emphasised over the value of the goods exchanged. In addition to risking social exclusion, rejecting this form of collective drinking may also risk rejecting the other resources exchanged in this form of sharing, such as food, transport and accommodation. Exchanges of alcoholic gifts complicate the straightforward application of individualist health promotion advice. Social relations need to be taken into account when designing health promotion interventions that seek to reduce alcohol-related harm. [Murphy DA, Hart A, Moore D. Shouting and providing: Forms of exchange in the drinking accounts of young Australians. Drug Alcohol Rev 2017;36:442-448]. © 2016 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  9. The Dutch secret: how to provide safe drinking water without chlorine in the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. J. Medema

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The Netherlands is one of the few countries where chlorine is not used at all, neither for primary disinfection nor to maintain a residual disinfectant in the distribution network. The Dutch approach that allows production and distribution of drinking water without the use of chlorine while not compromising microbial safety at the tap, can be summarized as follows:
    1. Use the best source available, in order of preference:
        – microbiologically safe groundwater,
        – surface water with soil passage such as artificial recharge or bank filtration,
        – direct treatment of surface water in a multiple barrier treatment;
    2. Use a preferred physical process treatment such as sedimentation, filtration and UV-disinfection. If absolutely necessary, also oxidation by means of ozone or peroxide can be used, but chlorine is avoided;
    3. Prevent ingress of contamination during distribution;
    4. Prevent microbial growth in the distribution system by production and distribution of biologically stable (biostable water and the use of biostable materials;
    5. Monitor for timely detection of any failure of the system to prevent significant health consequences.

    New developments in safe drinking water in the Netherlands include the adaptation of the Dutch drinking water decree, implementation of quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA by water companies and research into source water quality, drinking water treatment efficacy, safe distribution and biostability of drinking water during distribution and Legionella. This paper summarizes how the Dutch water companies warrant the safety of the drinking water without chlorine.

  10. Characteristics of US Health Care Providers Who Counsel Adolescents on Sports and Energy Drink Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Xiang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To examine the proportion of health care providers who counsel adolescent patients on sports and energy drink (SED consumption and the association with provider characteristics. Methods. This is a cross-sectional analysis of a survey of providers who see patients ≤17 years old. The proportion providing regular counseling on sports drinks (SDs, energy drinks (EDs, or both was assessed. Chi-square analyses examined differences in counseling based on provider characteristics. Multivariate logistic regression calculated adjusted odds ratios (aOR for characteristics independently associated with SED counseling. Results. Overall, 34% of health care providers regularly counseled on both SEDs, with 41% regularly counseling on SDs and 55% regularly counseling on EDs. On adjusted modeling regular SED counseling was associated with the female sex (aOR: 1.44 [95% CI: 1.07–1.93], high fruit/vegetable intake (aOR: 2.05 [95% CI: 1.54–2.73], family/general practitioners (aOR: 0.58 [95% CI: 0.41–0.82] and internists (aOR: 0.37 [95% CI: 0.20–0.70] versus pediatricians, and group versus individual practices (aOR: 0.59 [95% CI: 0.42–0.84]. Modeling for SD- and ED-specific counseling found similar associations with provider characteristics. Conclusion. The prevalence of regular SED counseling is low overall and varies. Provider education on the significance of SED counseling and consumption is important.

  11. MATERNAL ALCOHOL CONSUMPTION PRODUCING FETAL ALCOHOL SPECTRUM DISORDERS (FASD): QUANTITY, FREQUENCY, AND TIMING OF DRINKING

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Philip A.; Blankenship, Jason; Marais, Anna-Susan; Gossage, J. Phillip; Kalberg, Wendy O.; Joubert, Belinda; Cloete, Marise; Barnard, Ronel; De Vries, Marlene; Hasken, Julie; Robinson, Luther K.; Adnams, Colleen M.; Buckley, David; Manning, Melanie; Parry, Charles; Hoyme, H. Eugene; Tabachnick, Barbara; Seedat, Soraya

    2013-01-01

    Background Concise, accurate measures of maternal prenatal alcohol use are needed to better understand fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Methods Measures of drinking by mothers of children with specific FASD diagnoses and mothers of randomly-selected controls are compared and also correlated with physical and cognitive/behavioral outcomes. Results Measures of maternal alcohol use can differentiate maternal drinking associated with FASD from that of controls and some from mothers of alcohol-exposed normals. Six variables that combine quantity and frequency concepts distinguish mothers of FASD children from normal controls. Alcohol use variables, when applied to each trimester and three months prior to pregnancy, provide insight on critical timing of exposure as well. Measures of drinking, especially bingeing, correlate significantly with increased child dysmorphology and negative cognitive/behavioral outcomes in children, especially low non-verbal IQ, poor attention, and behavioral problems. Logistic regression links (palcohol consumption both within and between diagnostic groupings of mothers bearing children diagnosed within the FASD continuum. Drinking measures are empirically identified and correlated with specific child outcomes. Alcohol use, especially heavy use, should be avoided throughout pregnancy. PMID:23932841

  12. Biological approaches for addressing the grand challenge of providing access to clean drinking water

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. National Academy of Engineering (NAE) recently published a document presenting "Grand Challenges for Engineering". This list was proposed by leading engineers and scientists from around the world at the request of the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF). Fourteen topics were selected for these grand challenges, and at least seven can be addressed using the tools and methods of biological engineering. Here we describe how biological engineers can address the challenge of providing access to clean drinking water. This issue must be addressed in part by removing or inactivating microbial and chemical contaminants in order to properly deliver water safe for human consumption. Despite many advances in technologies this challenge is expanding due to increased pressure on fresh water supplies and to new opportunities for growth of potentially pathogenic organisms. PMID:21453515

  13. Time to revisit arsenic regulations: comparing drinking water and rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauvé, Sébastien

    2014-05-17

    Current arsenic regulations focus on drinking water without due consideration for dietary uptake and thus seem incoherent with respect to the risks arising from rice consumption. Existing arsenic guidelines are a cost-benefit compromise and, as such, they should be periodically re-evaluated. Literature data was used to compare arsenic exposure from rice consumption relative to exposure arising from drinking water. Standard risk assessment paradigms show that arsenic regulations for drinking water should target a maximum concentration of nearly zero to prevent excessive lung and bladder cancer risks (among others). A feasibility threshold of 3 μg As l(-1) was determined, but a cost-benefit analysis concluded that it would be too expensive to target a threshold below 10 μg As l(-1). Data from the literature was used to compare exposure to arsenic from rice and rice product consumption relative to drinking water consumption. The exposure to arsenic from rice consumption can easily be equivalent to or greater than drinking water exposure that already exceeds standard risks and is based on feasibility and cost-benefit compromises. It must also be emphasized that many may disagree with the implications for their own health given the abnormally high cancer odds expected at the cost-benefit arsenic threshold. Tighter drinking water quality criteria should be implemented to properly protect people from excessive cancer risks. Food safety regulations must be put in place to prevent higher concentrations of arsenic in various drinks than those allowed in drinking water. Arsenic concentrations in rice should be regulated so as to roughly equate the risks and exposure levels observed from drinking water.

  14. Total arsenic concentrations in toenails quantified by two techniques provide a useful biomarker of chronic arsenic exposure in drinking water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adair, Blakely M.; Hudgens, Edward E.; Schmitt, Michael T.; Calderon, Rebecca L.; Thomas, David J.

    2006-01-01

    Accurate quantitation of any contaminant of interest is critical for exposure assessment and metabolism studies that support risk assessment. A preliminary step in an arsenic exposure assessment study in Nevada quantified total arsenic (TAs) concentrations in tissues as biomarkers of exposure. Participants in this study (n=95) were at least 45 years old, had lived in the area for more than 20 years, and were exposed to a wide range of arsenic concentrations in drinking water (3-2100ppb). Concentrations of TAs in blood, urine, and toenails determined by hydride generation-atomic fluorescence spectrometry (HG-AFS) ranged from below detection to 0.03, 0.76, and 12ppm, respectively; TAs in blood rarely exceeded the limit of detection. For comparison, TAs in toenails determined by neutron activation analysis (NAA) ranged from below detection to 16ppm. Significant (P 2 =0.3557 HG-AFS, adjusted r 2 =0.3922 NAA); TAs concentrations in urine were not described by drinking water As (adjusted r 2 =0.0170, P=0.1369). Analyses of TAs in toenails by HGAFS and NAA yielded highly concordant estimates (r=0.7977, P<0.0001). These results suggest that toenails are a better biomarker of chronic As exposure than urine in the current study, because the sequestration of As in toenails provides an integration of exposure over time that does not occur in urine

  15. Prevalence and correlates of drink driving within patrons of Australian night-time entertainment precincts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Ashlee; Coomber, Kerri; Hyder, Shannon; Droste, Nic; Pennay, Amy; Jenkinson, Rebecca; Mayshak, Richelle; Miller, Peter G

    2016-10-01

    Drink driving is a significant public health concern, and contributes to many road fatalities worldwide. The current study is the first to examine the prevalence and correlates of drink driving behavior in a sample of night-time entertainment precinct attendees in Australia. Interviews were conducted with 4214 night-time entertainment precinct attendees in two metropolitan and three regional cities in Australia. Seven correlates of self-reported drink driving were examined: gender, age, occupation, blood alcohol concentration (BAC), alcohol consumed prior to attending a licensed venue, energy drink consumption, and other drug consumption. Fourteen percent of night-time entertainment precinct attendees reported drink driving in the past three months. Bivariate logistic regression models indicated that males were significantly more likely than females to report drink driving in the past three months. Blue-collar workers and sales/clerical/administrative workers were significantly more likely to report drink driving behavior in the past three months than white-collar workers. The likelihood of reporting drink driving during the three months prior to interview significantly increased as BAC on the current night out increased, and when patrons reported engaging in pre-drinking or other drug use. The multivariate model presented a similar pattern of results, however BAC and pre-drinking on the night of the interview were no longer independent significant predictors. Males, blue collar/sales/clerical/administrative workers, and illicit drug consumers were more likely to report engaging in drink driving behavior than their counterparts. Interventions should focus on addressing the considerable proportion night-time entertainment precinct attendees who report engaging in drink driving behavior. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Making equipment to process paddy water for providing drinking water by using Ozone-UVC& Ultrafiltration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Styani, E.; Dja'var, N.; Irawan, C.; Hanafi

    2018-01-01

    This study focuses on making equipment which is useful to process paddy water to be consumable as drinking water by using ozone-UVC and ultrafiltration. The equipment which is made by the process of ozone-UVC and ultrafiltration or reverse osmosis is driven by electric power generated from solar panels. In the experiment, reverse osmosis system with ozone-UVC reactor proves to be good enough in producing high quality drinking water.

  17. Part-time work and adolescent heavy episodic drinking: the influence of family and community context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breslin, F Curtis; Adlaf, Edward M

    2005-11-01

    Previous studies on part-time work and alcohol use suggest that teenagers who work longer hours drink more heavily. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether family- and community-level factors moderate the relationship between part-time work hours and heavy episodic drinking. Data were drawn from the Canadian Community Health Survey, a cross-sectional study of a nationally representative sample of Canadians. The survey included 8,080 respondents 15-19 years of age who reported work hours and frequency of heavy episodic drinking over the past 12 months. These respondents were located in 136 counties or municipalities across Canada. On average, work hours were positively associated with the frequency of heavy drinking by teenagers in the past 12 months. At the community level, the proportion of teenagers in each community drinking any alcohol was independently and positively associated with respondents' frequency of heavy drinking. In terms of moderating effects, we found that the work hours-drinking association was weaker among youth from low socioeconomic status families. Examination of community-level factors indicated that longer work hours were more strongly associated with heavy episodic drinking in communities with high rates of teen alcohol abstinence. Although the cross-sectional data prohibit any firm conclusions on how family and community factors influence the work-alcohol use relationship, these data suggest that interventions to reduce heavy episodic drinking among teens should address the broader environmental as well as the individual determinants.

  18. Quantifying the role of National Forest system lands in providing surface drinking water supply for the Southern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter Caldwell; Corinne Muldoon; Chelcy Ford-Miniat; Erika Cohen; Suzanne Krieger; Ge Sun; Steven McNulty; Paul V. Bolstad

    2014-01-01

    Forests and water are inextricably linked, and people are dependent on forested lands to provide clean, reliable water supplies for drinking and to support local economies. These water supplies are at risk of degradation from a growing population, continued conversion of forests to other land uses, and climate change. Given the variety of threats to surface water, it...

  19. A Can of Bull? Do Energy Drinks Really Provide a Source of Energy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidemann, Merle; Urquhart, Gerald R.

    2005-01-01

    This case study involves the biochemical analysis of the components of commonly available energy drinks, which many students purchase at fairly high prices. Students research the ingredients in each product and their physiological role in the human body, and then attempt to match what they learn with the product manufacturers' marketing claims.…

  20. The Dutch secret : How to provide safe drinking water without chlorine in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeets, P.W.M.H.; Medema, G.J.; Van Dijk, J.C.

    2009-01-01

    The Netherlands is one of the few countries where chlorine is not used at all, neither for primary disinfection nor to maintain a residual disinfectant in the distribution network. The Dutch approach that allows production and distribution of drinking water without the use of chlorine while not

  1. Quantifying the role of forested lands in providing surface drinking water supply for Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erika Cohen; Ge Sun; Liangxia Zhang; Peter Caldwell; Suzanne Krieger

    2017-01-01

    The Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture published a General Technical Report (GTR-SRS-197) in 2014 that quantified the role that water originating on National Forest System lands contributed to the drinking water supply and determined what population and communities were being served in the 13 Southern States of Region 8 of the Forest Service. The...

  2. Risk Factors for first time Drink-Driving Convictions among Young Males

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Mogens; Soothill, Keith; Francis, Brian

    2008-01-01

    -driving conviction increased substantially in rural areas compared to metropolitan areas. The study concludes that disadvantages during adolescence, including parental substance abuse, having a teenage mother, and domestic violence, are associated with a first-time drink-driving conviction....

  3. Persistence of pharmaceuticals and other organic compounds in chlorinated drinking water as a function of time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibs, J.; Stackelberg, P.E.; Furlong, E.T.; Meyer, M.; Zaugg, S.D.; Lippincott, R.L.

    2007-01-01

    Ninety eight pharmaceuticals and other organic compounds (POOCs) that were amended to samples of chlorinated drinking-water were extracted and analyzed 1, 3, 6, 8, and 10 days after amendment to determine whether the total chlorine residual reacted with the amended POOCs in drinking water in a time frame similar to the residence time of drinking water in a water distribution system. Results indicated that if all 98 were present in the finished drinking water from a drinking-water treatment plant using free chlorine at 1.2??mg/L as the distribution system disinfectant residual, 52 POOCs would be present in the drinking water after 10??days at approximately the same concentration as in the newly finished drinking water. Concentrations of 16 POOCs would be reduced by 32% to 92%, and 22 POOCs would react completely with residual chlorine within 24??h. Thus, the presence of free chlorine residual is an effective means for transforming some POOCs during distribution. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Time trends in heavy drinking among middle-aged and older adults in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørk, Christina; Thygesen, Lau Caspar; Vinther-Larsen, Mathilde

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies have indicated an increasing proportion of heavy drinking among middle-aged and older Danes. Trends in consumption are often extremely sensitive to influence from various components of the time trends but only few have explored the age, period and cohort-related influences...... that the proportion of heavy drinking women increases in younger birth cohorts. This trend is not observed for men as their drinking pattern mainly increase slightly by calendar year. CONCLUSIONS: Our Danish observations for older aged individuals correspond to the social and cultural changes in the 1960s and 1970s...

  5. Tritium distribution in newborn mice after providing mother mice with drinking water containing tritiated thymidine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, M.; Streffer, C.; Molls, M.

    1983-01-01

    Throughout gestation pregnant mice received drinking water which contained [methyl- 3 H]thymidine (18.5 kBq/ml). The newborn mice were divided into two groups. One group was nursed by their own mothers, which were further supplied with tritiated thymidine until 4 weeks after delivery (Experiment I). The other group was nursed by ''nonradioactive mothers'' which were given no tritiated thymidine (Experiment II). Tritium incorporation into the small molecular components of the acid-soluble fraction, lipid, RNA, DNA, and protein was analyzed for the newborn mice at various ages. In Experiment II, total radioactivity per gram tissue decreased initially after birth with a half life of 2.5-2.9 days in spleen, liver, intestine, stomach, thymus, lung, kidney, heart, and brain. At about 2 weeks after birth, a slower component of tritium elimination due mainly to the DNA-bound tritium appeared. Specific activity of DNA at birth was organ specific, highest in heart and lowest in thymus. Cumulative absorbed dose in various organs was estimated for the first 4 weeks after birth based upon an assumption that total and DNA-bound tritium are uniformly distributed. The result showed that organ specificity of dose accumulation is obvious for DNA-bound tritium, highest in spleen (1.15 mGy) and lowest in brain (0.13 mGy). It was also shown that the tritium supply from mother's milk is of minor importance for dose accumulation of DNA-bound tritium in the cell nuclei of organs of suckling mice

  6. Tritium distribution in newborn mice after providing mother mice with drinking water containing tritiated thymidine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, M.; Streffer, C.; Molls, M.

    1983-01-01

    Throughout gestation pregnant mice received drinking water which contained [methyl- 3 H]thymidine (18.5 kBq/ml). The newborn mice were divided into two groups. One group was nursed by their own mothers, which were further supplied with tritiated thymidine until 4 weeks after delivery (Experiment I). The other group was nursed by nonradioactive mothers which were given no tritiated thymidine (Experiment II). Tritium incorporation into the small molecular components of the acid-soluble fraction, lipid, RNA, DNA, and protein was analyzed for the newborn mice at various ages. In Experiment II, total radioactivity per gram tissue decreased initially after birth with a half life of 2.5 to 2.9 days in spleen, liver, intestine, stomach, thymus, lung, kidney, heart, and brain. At about 2 weeks after birth, a slower component of tritium elimination due mainly to the DNA-bound tritium appeared. Specific activity of DNA at birth was organ specific, highest in heart and lowest in thymus. Cumulative absorbed dose in various organs was estimated for the first 4 weeks after birth based upon an assumption that total and DNA-bound tritium are uniformly distributed. The result showed that organ specificity of dose accumulation is obvious for DNA-bound tritium, highest in spleen (1.15 mGy) and lowest in brain (0.13 mGy). It was also shown that the tritium supply from mother's milk is of minor importance for dose accumulation of DNA-bound tritium in the cell nuclei of organs of suckling mice

  7. Ad-libitum drinking and performance during a 40-km cycling time trial in the heat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkulo, M.A.R.; Bol, S.; Levels, K.; Lamberts, R.P.; Daanen, H.A.M.; Noakes, T.D.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate if drinking ad-libitum can counteract potential negative effects of a hypohydrated start caused by fluid restriction during a 40-km time trial (TT) in the heat. Twelve trained males performed one 40-km cycling TT euhydrated (EU: no water during the TT) and

  8. Ad-libitum drinking and performance during a 40-km cycling time trial in the heat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkulo, M.A.R.; Bol, S.; Levels, K.; Lamberts, R.P.; Daanen, H.A.M.; Noakes, T.D.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate if drinking ad-libitum can counteract potential negative effects of a hypohydrated start caused by fluid restriction during a 40-km time trial (TT) in the heat. Twelve trained males performed one 40-km cycling TT euhydrated (EU: no water during the TT) and

  9. Real-time water quality monitoring and providing water quality ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) have initiated the “Village Blue” research project to provide real-time water quality monitoring data to the Baltimore community and increase public awareness about local water quality in Baltimore Harbor and the Chesapeake Bay. The Village Blue demonstration project complements work that a number of state and local organizations are doing to make Baltimore Harbor “swimmable and fishable” 2 by 2020. Village Blue is designed to build upon EPA’s “Village Green” project which provides real-time air quality information to communities in six locations across the country. The presentation, “Real-time water quality monitoring and providing water quality information to the Baltimore Community”, summarizes the Village Blue real-time water quality monitoring project being developed for the Baltimore Harbor.

  10. Perceived organizational tolerance for workplace harassment and distress and drinking over time [harassment and mental health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richman, Judith A; Rospenda, Kathleen M; Flaherty, Joseph A; Freels, Sally; Zlatoper, Ken

    2004-01-01

    Research has linked workplace harassment and abuse with distress and drinking. However, increasing societal attention to sexual harassment (SH) has been accompanied by pressures on work organizations to censure harassing behaviors. We address altered perceptions of the organizational tolerance (OT) for SH and generalized workplace abuse (GWA), changes in the prevalence and incidence of these experiences, and their impact on distress and drinking behaviors. A cohort of workers completed a mail survey at three points in time. Questionnaires assessed perceptions of OT for SH and GWA, experiences of SH and GWA, coping, and distress and drinking behaviors. Both sexes perceived that tolerance of SH and GWA has decreased over time. Changes in reported prevalence of these experiences differed by gender, and incidence for both genders decreased more strongly than prevalence. The linkages between SH/GWA and distress and drinking changed over time, but in different ways for women and men. SH and GWA still have deleterious consequences, and replications of this research and greater efforts at prevention are needed.

  11. The impact of time perspective latent profiles on college drinking: a multidimensional approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braitman, Abby L; Henson, James M

    2015-04-01

    Zimbardo and Boyd's(1) time perspective, or the temporal framework individuals use to process information, has been shown to predict health behaviors such as alcohol use. Previous studies supported the predictive validity of individual dimensions of time perspective, with some dimensions acting as protective factors and others as risk factors. However, some studies produced findings contrary to the general body of literature. In addition, time perspective is a multidimensional construct, and the combination of perspectives may be more predictive than individual dimensions in isolation; consequently, multidimensional profiles are a more accurate measure of individual differences and more appropriate for predicting health behaviors. The current study identified naturally occurring profiles of time perspective and examined their association with risky alcohol use. Data were collected from a college student sample (n = 431, mean age = 20.41 years) using an online survey. Time perspective profiles were identified using latent profile analysis. Bootstrapped regression models identified a protective class that engaged in significantly less overall drinking (β = -0.254) as well as engaging in significantly less episodic high risk drinking (β = -0.274). There was also emerging evidence of a high risk time perspective profile that was linked to more overall drinking (β = 0.198) and engaging in more high risk drinking (β = 0.245), though these differences were not significant. CONCLUSIONS/IMPORTANCE: These findings support examining time perspective in a multidimensional framework rather than individual dimensions in isolation. Implications include identifying students most in need of interventions, and tailoring interventions to target temporal framing in decision-making.

  12. Real-time monitoring and operational control of drinking-water systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ocampo-Martínez, Carlos; Pérez, Ramon; Cembrano, Gabriela; Quevedo, Joseba; Escobet, Teresa

    2017-01-01

    This book presents a set of approaches for the real-time monitoring and control of drinking-water networks based on advanced information and communication technologies. It shows the reader how to achieve significant improvements in efficiency in terms of water use, energy consumption, water loss minimization, and water quality guarantees. The methods and approaches presented are illustrated and have been applied using real-life pilot demonstrations based on the drinking-water network in Barcelona, Spain. The proposed approaches and tools cover: • decision-making support for real-time optimal control of water transport networks, explaining how stochastic model predictive control algorithms that take explicit account of uncertainties associated with energy prices and real demand allow the main flow and pressure actuators—pumping stations and pressure regulation valves—and intermediate storage tanks to be operated to meet demand using the most sustainable types of source and with minimum electricity costs;...

  13. Improved time to exhaustion following ingestion of the energy drink Amino Impact™

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratamess Nicholas A

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a commercially available energy drink on time to exhaustion during treadmill exercise. In addition, subjective measures of energy, focus, and fatigue were examined Methods Fifteen subjects (9 men and 6 women; 20.9 ± 1.0 y; 172.1 ± 9.1 cm; 71.0 ± 9.4 kg; 16.9 ± 9.7% body fat underwent two testing sessions administered in a randomized, double-blind fashion. Subjects reported to the laboratory in a 3-hr post-absorptive state and were provided either the supplement (SUP; commercially marketed as Amino Impact™ or placebo (P. During each laboratory visit subjects performed a treadmill run (70% VO2 max to exhaustion. Mean VO2 was measured during each endurance exercise protocol. Subjects were required to complete visual analog scales for subjective measures of energy, focus and fatigue at the onset of exercise (PRE, 10-mins into their run (EX10 and immediately post-exercise (IP. Results Time to exhaustion was significantly greater (p = 0.012 during SUP than P. Subjects consuming the supplement were able to run 12.5% longer than during the placebo treatment. Subjects consuming SUP reported significantly greater focus (p = 0.031, energy (p = 0.016, and less fatigue (p = 0.005 at PRE. Significant differences between groups were seen at EX10 for focus (p = 0.026 and energy (p = 0.004, but not fatigue (p = 0.123. No differences were seen at IP for either focus (p = 0.215, energy (p = 0.717 or fatigue (p = 0.430. Conclusions Results of this study indicate that the supplement Amino Impact™ can significantly increase time to exhaustion during a moderate intensity endurance run and improve subjective feelings of focus, energy and fatigue.

  14. FIRST TIME ONLINE LEARNERS’ PERCEPTIONS OF SUPPORT SERVICES PROVIDED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie HUNTE

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The number of online continuous education and training initiatives continues to increase in Caribbean Small Island Developing States (SIDS and by extension, the number of adult learners who are unfamiliar with the peculiarities of the online teaching and learning environment. The extent to which these learners can derive maximum benefit from these initiatives depends on the rate at which they can adapt to the new circumstances and, as a result, function effectively in this type of teaching and learning environment. To this end, while supporting learners is recognized as a critical success factor little has been explored or documented specific to the Caribbean-SIDS context. The purpose of this study therefore was to describe the support services provided first time online learners in the context of Caribbean-SIDS and examine what if any benefit learners derived from them through their perceptions of these services. The findings reveal that participants’ overall perception of the support services was high. They also reveal that although participants’ awareness of ongoing support services was variable, their rating of the need for and importance of this type of support was also high. The findings suggest that providing support for first time online learners in the context of Caribbean SIDS positively impacts their performance in the online teaching and learning environment.

  15. Patient Satisfaction Is Associated With Time With Provider But Not Clinic Wait Time Among Orthopedic Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Brendan M; Eskildsen, Scott M; Clement, R Carter; Lin, Feng-Chang; Olcott, Christopher W; Del Gaizo, Daniel J; Tennant, Joshua N

    2017-01-01

    Clinic wait time is considered an important predictor of patient satisfaction. The goal of this study was to determine whether patient satisfaction among orthopedic patients is associated with clinic wait time and time with the provider. The authors prospectively enrolled 182 patients at their outpatient orthopedic clinic. Clinic wait time was defined as the time between patient check-in and being seen by the surgeon. Time spent with the provider was defined as the total time the patient spent in the examination room with the surgeon. The Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems survey was used to measure patient satisfaction. Factors associated with increased patient satisfaction included patient age and increased time with the surgeon (P=.024 and P=.037, respectively), but not clinic wait time (P=.625). Perceived wait time was subject to a high level of error, and most patients did not accurately report whether they had been waiting longer than 15 minutes to see a provider until they had waited at least 60 minutes (P=.007). If the results of the current study are generalizable, time with the surgeon is associated with patient satisfaction in orthopedic clinics, but wait time is not. Further, the study findings showed that patients in this setting did not have an accurate perception of actual wait time, with many patients underestimating the time they waited to see a provider. Thus, a potential strategy for improving patient satisfaction is to spend more time with each patient, even at the expense of increased wait time. [Orthopedics. 2017; 40(1):43-48.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  16. New policies and measures for saving a great manmade reservoir providing drinking water for 20 million people in the Republic of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, K H

    2000-01-01

    Water quality of the Paldang reservoir, the largest drinking water supply source in the Republic Korea provides raw water for about 20 million people living in Seoul Metropolitan area. Water quality has been deteriorating mainly due to improperly treated livestock waste and domestic wastewater discharged from motels, restaurants, and private homes. A recent survey conducted by the Ministry of Environment (MOE) showed that the water quality of this reservoir has been identified as Class III must contain less than 6 ppm of BOD, which will require advanced purification treatment before it can be used as drinking water. The MOE also announced that this water source would no longer be potable unless wastewater in the catchment is treated efficiently. To protect drinking water resources, the MOE has set up comprehensive management. These programmes include new regulations, measures, land use planning and economic incentives.

  17. Alcohol Energy Drinks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home / About Addiction / Alcohol / Alcohol Energy Drinks Alcohol Energy Drinks Read 33960 times font size decrease font size increase font size Print Email Alcohol energy drinks (AEDs) or Caffeinated alcoholic beverages (CABs) are ...

  18. Postoperative risks associated with alcohol screening depend on documented drinking at the time of surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rubinsky, Anna D; Bishop, Michael J; Maynard, Charles

    2013-01-01

    Both AUDIT-C alcohol screening scores up to a year before surgery and clinical documentation of drinking over 2 drinks per day immediately prior to surgery ("documented drinking >2d/d") are associated with increased postoperative complications and health care utilization. The purpose of this study...

  19. Reinforcement of drinking by running: effect of fixed ratio and reinforcement time1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premack, David; Schaeffer, Robert W.; Hundt, Alan

    1964-01-01

    Rats were required to complete varying numbers of licks (FR), ranging from 10 to 300, in order to free an activity wheel for predetermined times (CT) ranging from 2 to 20 sec. The reinforcement of drinking by running was shown both by an increased frequency of licking, and by changes in length of the burst of licking relative to operant-level burst length. In log-log coordinates, instrumental licking tended to be a linear increasing function of FR for the range tested, a linear decreasing function of CT for the range tested. Pause time was implicated in both of the above relations, being a generally increasing function of both FR and CT. PMID:14120150

  20. REINFORCEMENT OF DRINKING BY RUNNING: EFFECT OF FIXED RATIO AND REINFORCEMENT TIME.

    Science.gov (United States)

    PREMACK, D; SCHAEFFER, R W; HUNDT, A

    1964-01-01

    Rats were required to complete varying numbers of licks (FR), ranging from 10 to 300, in order to free an activity wheel for predetermined times (CT) ranging from 2 to 20 sec. The reinforcement of drinking by running was shown both by an increased frequency of licking, and by changes in length of the burst of licking relative to operant-level burst length. In log-log coordinates, instrumental licking tended to be a linear increasing function of FR for the range tested, a linear decreasing function of CT for the range tested. Pause time was implicated in both of the above relations, being a generally increasing function of both FR and CT.

  1. The effects of Red Bull energy drink compared with caffeine on cycling time-trial performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinlivan, Alannah; Irwin, Christopher; Grant, Gary D; Anoopkumar-Dukie, Sheilandra; Skinner, Tina; Leveritt, Michael; Desbrow, Ben

    2015-10-01

    This study investigated the ergogenic effects of a commercial energy drink (Red Bull) or an equivalent dose of anhydrous caffeine in comparison with a noncaffeinated control beverage on cycling performance. Eleven trained male cyclists (31.7 ± 5.9 y 82.3 ± 6.1 kg, VO2max = 60.3 ± 7.8 mL · kg-1 · min-1) participated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover-design study involving 3 experimental conditions. Participants were randomly administered Red Bull (9.4 mL/kg body mass [BM] containing 3 mg/kg BM caffeine), anhydrous caffeine (3 mg/kg BM given in capsule form), or a placebo 90 min before commencing a time trial equivalent to 1 h cycling at 75% peak power output. Carbohydrate and fluid volumes were matched across all trials. Performance improved by 109 ± 153 s (2.8%, P = .039) after Red Bull compared with placebo and by 120 ± 172 s (3.1%, P = .043) after caffeine compared with placebo. No significant difference (P > .05) in performance time was detected between Red Bull and caffeine treatments. There was no significant difference (P > .05) in mean heart rate or rating of perceived exertion among the 3 treatments. This study demonstrated that a moderate dose of caffeine consumed as either Red Bull or in anhydrous form enhanced cycling time-trial performance. The ergogenic benefits of Red Bull energy drink are therefore most likely due to the effects of caffeine, with the other ingredients not likely to offer additional benefit.

  2. Pregnant at work: time for prenatal care providers to act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karkowsky, Chavi Eve; Morris, Liz

    2016-09-01

    Fifty years ago, when a woman became pregnant, she was expected to stop working. Today, however, most women who work are the primary, sole, or co-breadwinner for their families, and their earnings during pregnancy are often essential to their families' economic well-being. Medical data about working during pregnancy are sparse but generally show that both low-risk and high-risk women can tolerate work-related duties well, although some work accommodations (eg, providing a chair for sitting, allowing snacks, or modifying the work schedule) may be necessary. However, some employers refuse to accommodate pregnant women who need adjustments. This can result in a woman being forced to make the choice between working without accommodations and losing her income and health insurance or even her job. Prenatal care providers can play an important role by implementing changes in their own practice, shaping public policy, and conducting research to increase protections for pregnant women and to ensure that they receive medically recommended accommodations while continuing to earn income for their growing families. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Knowledge of sugar content of sports drinks is not associated with sports drink consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zytnick, Deena; Park, Sohyun; Onufrak, Stephen J; Kingsley, Beverly S; Sherry, Bettylou

    2015-01-01

    To examine U.S. adult knowledge of the sugar content of sports drinks and whether this knowledge and other characteristics are associated with their sports drink consumption. Nonexperimental. Nationally representative 2011 Summer ConsumerStyles survey data. 3929 U.S. adults. The outcome variable was sports drink consumption in the past 7 days. The main exposure variable was knowledge about sports drinks containing sugar. The covariates were sociodemographic characteristics, physical activity, and weight status. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for adults consuming sports drinks ≥1 times/wk after controlling for other characteristics. Approximately 22% of adults reported consuming sports drinks ≥1 times/wk. Most adults (71%) agreed that sports drinks contain sugar; however, this agreement was not significantly associated with adults' sports drink consumption. The odds of drinking sports drinks ≥1 times/wk were significantly higher among younger adults aged 18 to 64 years (OR range: 5.46-2.71), males (OR = 2.09), high-school graduates (OR = 1.52), and highly active adults (OR = 2.09). There were disparities in sports drink consumption by sociodemographic characteristics and physical activity level; however, knowledge of sports drinks' sugar content was not associated with consumption. Understanding why some population groups are higher consumers may assist in the development of education, providing those groups with a better understanding of sports drinks' nutritional value and health consequences of excessive sugar consumption in any form.

  4. Residence time distributions of artificially infiltrated groundwater used for drinking water production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popp, A. L.; Marçais, J.; Moeck, C.; Brennwald, M. S.; Kipfer, R.

    2017-12-01

    Public drinking water supply in urban areas is often challenging due to exposure to potential contamination and high water demands. At our study site, a drinking water supply field in Switzerland, managed aquifer recharge (MAR) was implemented to overcome an increasing water demand and decreasing water quality. Water from the river Rhine is put on a system of channels and ponds to artificially infiltrate and hence, increase the natural groundwater availability. The groundwater system consists of two overlying aquifers, with hydraulic connections related to fractures and faults. The deeper aquifer contains contaminants, which possibly originate from nearby landfills and industrial areas. The operating water works aims to pump recently infiltrated water only. However, we suspect that the pumped water contains a fraction of old water due to the fractured zones which serve as hydraulic connection between the two aquifers. With this study, we aim to better understand the mixing patterns between recently infiltrated water and old groundwater to evaluate the risk for contamination of the system. To reach our objective, we used a set of gas tracers (222Rn, 3H/3He, 4He) from fifteen wells distributed throughout the area to estimate the residence time distribution (RTD) of each well. We calibrated the RTD with a Binary Mixing Model, where the fraction of young groundwater is assumed to follow a Piston Flow Model. The older groundwater fraction is calibrated with a Dispersion Model. Our results reflect the heterogeneity of the system with some abstraction wells containing young water only and others showing an admixture of old water which can only be explained by a connection to the deeper aquifer. We also show that our results on calibrated RTDs are in accordance with other geochemical data such as electrical conductivity, major ions and pH. Our results will contribute to a sound conceptual flow and transport understanding and will help to optimize the water supply system.

  5. Online fluorescence spectroscopy for the real-time evaluation of the microbial quality of drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorensen, J P R; Vivanco, A; Ascott, M J; Gooddy, D C; Lapworth, D J; Read, D S; Rushworth, C M; Bucknall, J; Herbert, K; Karapanos, I; Gumm, L P; Taylor, R G

    2018-06-15

    We assessed the utility of online fluorescence spectroscopy for the real-time evaluation of the microbial quality of untreated drinking water. Online fluorimeters were installed on the raw water intake at four groundwater-derived UK public water supplies alongside existing turbidity sensors that are used to forewarn of the presence of microbial contamination in the water industry. The fluorimeters targeted fluorescent dissolved organic matter (DOM) peaks at excitation/emission wavelengths of 280/365 nm (tryptophan-like fluorescence, TLF) and 280/450 nm (humic-like fluorescence, HLF). Discrete samples were collected for Escherichia coli, total bacterial cell counts by flow cytometry, and laboratory-based fluorescence and absorbance. Both TLF and HLF were strongly correlated with E. coli (ρ = 0.71-0.77) and total bacterial cell concentrations (ρ = 0.73-0.76), whereas the correlations between turbidity and E. coli (ρ = 0.48) and total bacterial cell counts (ρ = 0.40) were much weaker. No clear TLF peak was observed at the sites and all apparent TLF was considered to be optical bleed-through from the neighbouring HLF peak. Therefore, a HLF fluorimeter alone would be sufficient to evaluate the microbial water quality at these sources. Fluorescent DOM was also influenced by site operations such as pump start-up and the precipitation of cations on the sensor windows. Online fluorescent DOM sensors are a better indicator of the microbial quality of untreated drinking water than turbidity and they have wide-ranging potential applications within the water industry. Copyright © 2018 British Geological Survey, a component institute of NERC - 'BGS © NERC 2018'. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Binge Drinking

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Break the Silence: Stop the Violence Injury Prevention Research In the Swim of Things Safe Teen Drivers ... Binge Drinking A Time To Act Injury Prevention Research In the Swim of Things Safe Teen Drivers ...

  7. Underage Drinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Organization Budget History NIH Almanac Public Involvement Outreach & Education Visitor Information RePORT ... Since Colonial times, drinking alcohol has been part of American culture and its use by young people has been accepted by many as part ...

  8. Workplace harassment, stress, and drinking behavior over time: gender differences in a national sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rospenda, Kathleen M; Fujishiro, Kaori; Shannon, Candice A; Richman, Judith A

    2008-07-01

    Research suggests that workplace harassment (WH) significantly predicts alcohol use and problem drinking behavior, but has generally failed to consider concurrent effects of other sources of stress. This two-wave study (n=1418) is the first to explore whether sexual harassment (SH) and generalized workplace harassment (GWH) predict increased drinking independently of the effects of job and life stress, and whether effects differ by gender, in a nationally representative sample. SH and GWH predicted increases in problem drinking one year later for men but not women, while life stress was associated with increased problem drinking for women but not men. This study confirms the importance of examining the associations between different types of stressors and drinking-related outcomes in gendered contexts.

  9. Expressive writing as a brief intervention for reducing drinking intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Chelsie M; Rodriguez, Lindsey M; Neighbors, Clayton

    2013-12-01

    The present study examined the effectiveness of expressive writing in reducing drinking behavior. We expected that students prompted to write about negative drinking experiences would show greater decreases in future drinking intentions compared to the neutral and the positive writing conditions. We also expected that decreases in drinking intentions following the writing prompts might differ based on current drinking and AUDIT scores. Participants included 200 (76% female) undergraduates who completed measures of their current drinking behavior. They were then randomly assigned to either write about: a time when they had a lot to drink that was a good time (Positive); a time when they had a lot to drink that was a bad time (Negative); or their first day of college (Neutral), followed by measures assessing intended drinking over the next three months. Results revealed that participants intended to drink significantly fewer drinks per week and engage in marginally fewer heavy drinking occasions after writing about a negative drinking occasion when compared to control. Interactions provided mixed findings suggesting that writing about a positive event was associated with higher drinking intentions for heavier drinkers. Writing about a negative event was associated with higher intentions among heavier drinkers, but lower intentions among those with higher AUDIT scores. This research builds on previous expressive writing interventions by applying this technique to undergraduate drinkers. Preliminary results provide some support for this innovative strategy but also suggest the need for further refinement, especially with heavier drinkers. © 2013.

  10. Workplace harassment, stress, and drinking behavior over time: Gender differences in a national sample

    OpenAIRE

    Rospenda, Kathleen M.; Fujishiro, Kaori; Shannon, Candice A.; Richman, Judith A.

    2008-01-01

    Research suggests that workplace harassment (WH) significantly predicts alcohol use and problem drinking behavior, but has generally failed to consider concurrent effects of other sources of stress. This two-wave study (n=1418) is the first to explore whether sexual harassment (SH) and generalized workplace harassment (GWH) predict increased drinking independently of the effects of job and life stress, and whether effects differ by gender, in a nationally representative sample. SH and GWH pre...

  11. Comparison of the effect of caffeine containing energy drink and Glucon D on auditory and visual reaction time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viswanathan Shanti

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available There has been an increase in the consumption of energy drinks in the last decade which raises a concern regarding its safety. Glucose improves information processing and cognition. But research on only glucose containing drink is lacking. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of Red Bull,a caffeine containing energy drink and Glucon D on visual and auditory reaction time in medical students. A total of 30 students,15 boys and 15 girls, in the age group 18 to 22 yrs were recruited for the study after taking approval from the Institutional Ethical Committee. At the beginning, a baseline record of pulse, blood pressure, ART and VRT were taken for all students. The students were given Red Bull and readings were taken after 30 minutes. After an interval of five days the same procedure was repeated with Glucon D. All readings were taken between 10-12 a.m. On comparing the effect of Red Bull on either sex, there was no significant difference. On comparing the effect of the two energy drinks, the p value between the effect of Red Bull and Glucon D on ART was 0.457 and on VRT was 0.314.Both were not statistically significant. There was a significant increase in pulse rate with Red Bull (P=0.036. The mean DBP increased marginally with Red Bull which was not significant (P=0.496.

  12. Modeling the effects of exposure time and turbidity on the elimination of bacteria in drinking water by natural ultraviolet radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elkarmi, A.

    1998-01-01

    Two models are developed in which the effect of exposure time on bacterial elimination from drinking water by natural ultraviolet radiation is modeled as a Gompertz growth curve and the effect of turbidity on the elimination of bacteria in drinking water is modeled as the reciprocal of Gompertz growth curve by using nonlinear regression analysis. The Quasi-Newton estimation procedure in combination with the simplex, Hooke-Jeeves and Rosenbrock methods are used to estimate the model parameters. The results of the two models can assist in determining the appropriate exposure time and turbidity needed to obtain a certain percentage of bacterial elimination to a high degree of accuracy and thus is useful in act ural practical applications. (author) . 13 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  13. Screen-based sedentary time: Association with soft drink consumption and the moderating effect of parental education in European children : The ENERGY study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gebremariam, M.K.; Chinapaw, M.J.; Bringolf-Isler, B.; Bere, E.; Kovacs, E.; Verloigne, M.; Stok, F.M.; Manios, Y.; Brug, J.; Lien, N.

    2017-01-01

    Aim The aim of the present study was to explore if children who spend more time on screen-based sedentary behaviors (i.e.TV viewing and computer use) drink more sugar-sweetened soft drinks. The study also assessed whether these associations were independent of individual and home environmental

  14. Chloraminated Concentrated Drinking Water for Disinfection Byproduct Mixtures Research: Evaluating Free Chlorine Contact Times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Complex mixtures of disinfection by-products (DBPs) are formed when the disinfectant oxidizes constituents (e.g., natural organic matter (NOM) and organic pollutants) present in the source water. Since 1974, over 600 DBPs have been identified in drinking water, yet a large portio...

  15. Time Perspective and Psychosocial Positive Functioning among Italian Adolescents Who Binge Eat and Drink

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laghi, Fiorenzo; Liga, Francesca; Baumgartner, Emma; Baiocco, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    Evidence of an association between binge eating and binge drinking and of related health consequences have stimulated investigators to examine and explore risk and protective factors plus the reasons why individuals engage in these risky behaviours (Benjamin & Wulfert, 2003; Ferriter & Ray, 2011). This study examined the relationship…

  16. Microbial biogeography of drinking water: patterns in phylogenetic diversity across space and time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roeselers, G.; Coolen, J.; Wielen, P.W. van der; Jaspers, M.C.; Atsma, A.; Graaf, B. de; Schuren, F.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we collected water from different locations in 32 drinking water distribution networks in the Netherlands and analysed the spatial and temporal variation in microbial community composition by high-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons. We observed that microbial community

  17. Pain is associated with risky drinking over time among HIV-infected persons in St. Petersburg, Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsui, Judith I; Cheng, Debbie M; Coleman, Sharon M; Lira, Marlene C; Blokhina, Elena; Bridden, Carly; Krupitsky, Evgeny; Samet, Jeffrey H

    2014-11-01

    Pain is highly prevalent among persons with HIV. Alcohol may be used to "self-medicate" pain. This study examined the association between pain and risky alcohol use over time in a cohort of HIV-infected Russian drinkers. This secondary analysis utilized longitudinal data from a randomized trial of a behavioral intervention. Subjects included HIV-infected adults who reported past 6-month risky drinking and unprotected sex and were recruited from HIV and addiction treatment sites in St. Petersburg, Russia. The main independent variable was pain that at least moderately interfered with daily living. The primary outcome was past month risky drinking amounts based on NIAAA guidelines. General estimating equations (GEE) logistic regression models were used to calculate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the association between pain and risky drinking over time (i.e., baseline, 6 and 12 months), adjusting for potential confounders. Baseline characteristics of participants (n=699) were mean age of 30 (SD ±5) years, 41% female, and 22% time. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A critical evaluation of two point-of-use water treatment technologies: can they provide water that meets WHO drinking water guidelines?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Heather M; McBean, Edward A; Farahbakhsh, Khosrow

    2010-12-01

    Point-of-use (POU) technologies have been proposed as solutions for meeting the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) for safe water. They reduce the risk of contamination between the water source and the home, by providing treatment at the household level. This study examined two POU technologies commonly used around the world: BioSand and ceramic filters. While the health benefits in terms of diarrhoeal disease reduction have been fairly well documented for both technologies, little research has focused on the ability of these technologies to treat other contaminants that pose health concerns, including the potential for formation of contaminants as a result of POU treatment. These technologies have not been rigorously tested to see if they meet World Health Organization (WHO) drinking water guidelines. A study was developed to evaluate POU BioSand and ceramic filters in terms of microbiological and chemical quality of the treated water. The following parameters were monitored on filters in rural Cambodia over a six-month period: iron, manganese, fluoride, nitrate, nitrite and Escherichia coli. The results revealed that these technologies are not capable of consistently meeting all of the WHO drinking water guidelines for these parameters.

  19. Responsible drinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcohol use disorder - responsible drinking; Drinking alcohol responsibly; Drinking in moderation; Alcoholism - responsible drinking ... 2016. National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Alcohol use disorder. www.niaaa.nih.gov/alcohol-health/overview-alcohol- ...

  20. Temporal behavior of 222Radon, 226Radium and 238Uranium in deep water wells which provide Valle de Toluca with drinking water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pena, P.; Tamez, E.; Iturbe, J.L.; Acosta, A.; Segovia, N.; Carrillo, J.; Armienta, M.

    1994-01-01

    The presence of radionuclides in underground waters may be an indication of its origin and also the sign of the hydraulic properties of the aquifers layers where circulate. Additionally, the ingestion by human beings of water with radioactive elements (Radon 222, Radium 226, Uranium 238) can give as a result the accumulation of such elements in several organs of the body producing then health damages. In this work, the concentrations of Radon 222, Radium 226 and Uranium 238, in waters coming from deep wells which provide with drinking water the Toluca Valley, were determined. For this purpose, during a year (june 1991 to August 1992) ten wells were sampled with a tracking of the radionuclides concentration as well as the physical-chemical components of water; it was established the relationship presented by the analyzed waters with the local geology and the local and regional systems. (Author)

  1. Low to Moderate Average Alcohol Consumption and Binge Drinking in Early Pregnancy: Effects on Choice Reaction Time and Information Processing Time in Five-Year-Old Children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina R Kilburn

    Full Text Available Deficits in information processing may be a core deficit after fetal alcohol exposure. This study was designed to investigate the possible effects of weekly low to moderate maternal alcohol consumption and binge drinking episodes in early pregnancy on choice reaction time (CRT and information processing time (IPT in young children.Participants were sampled based on maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy. At the age of 60-64 months, 1,333 children were administered a modified version of the Sternberg paradigm to assess CRT and IPT. In addition, a test of general intelligence (WPPSI-R was administered.Adjusted for a wide range of potential confounders, this study showed no significant effects of average weekly maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy on CRT or IPT. There was, however, an indication of slower CRT associated with binge drinking episodes in gestational weeks 1-4.This study observed no significant effects of average weekly maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy on CRT or IPT as assessed by the Sternberg paradigm. However, there were some indications of CRT being associated with binge drinking during very early pregnancy. Further large-scale studies are needed to investigate effects of different patterns of maternal alcohol consumption on basic cognitive processes in offspring.

  2. Alcohol and suicide in Russia, 1870-1894 and 1956-2005: evidence for the continuation of a harmful drinking culture across time?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickley, Andrew; Jukkala, Tanya; Norström, Thor

    2011-03-01

    Previous research suggests that a strong relation exists between alcohol consumption and suicide in Soviet and post-Soviet Russia. This study extends this analysis across a much longer historical time frame by examining the relationship between heavy drinking and suicide in tsarist and post-World War II Russia. Using alcohol poisoning mortality data as a proxy for heavy drinking, time-series analytical modeling techniques were used to examine the strength of the alcohol-suicide relation in the provinces of European Russia in the period 1870-1894 and for Russia in 1956-2005. During 1870-1894, a decreasing trend was recorded in heavy drinking in Russia that contrasted with the sharp increase observed in this phenomenon in the post-World War II period. A rising trend in suicide was recorded in both study periods, although the increase was much greater in the latter period. The strength of the heavy drinking-suicide relation nevertheless remained unchanged across time, with a 10% increase in heavy drinking resulting in a 3.5% increase in suicide in tsarist Russia and a 3.8% increase in post-World War II Russia. Despite the innumerable societal changes that have occurred in Russia across the two study periods and the growth in the level of heavy drinking, the strength of the heavy drinking-suicide relation has remained unchanged across time. This suggests the continuation of a highly detrimental drinking culture where the heavy episodic drinking of distilled spirits (vodka) is an essential element in the alcohol-suicide association.

  3. Life-time risk of mortality due to different levels of alcohol consumption in seven European countries: implications for low-risk drinking guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shield, Kevin D; Gmel, Gerrit; Gmel, Gerhard; Mäkelä, Pia; Probst, Charlotte; Room, Robin; Rehm, Jürgen

    2017-09-01

    Low-risk alcohol drinking guidelines require a scientific basis that extends beyond individual or group judgements of risk. Life-time mortality risks, judged against established thresholds for acceptable risk, may provide such a basis for guidelines. Therefore, the aim of this study was to estimate alcohol mortality risks for seven European countries based on different average daily alcohol consumption amounts. The maximum acceptable voluntary premature mortality risk was determined to be one in 1000, with sensitivity analyses of one in 100. Life-time mortality risks for different alcohol consumption levels were estimated by combining disease-specific relative risk and mortality data for seven European countries with different drinking patterns (Estonia, Finland, Germany, Hungary, Ireland, Italy and Poland). Alcohol consumption data were obtained from the Global Information System on Alcohol and Health, relative risk data from meta-analyses and mortality information from the World Health Organization. The variation in the life-time mortality risk at drinking levels relevant for setting guidelines was less than that observed at high drinking levels. In Europe, the percentage of adults consuming above a risk threshold of one in 1000 ranged from 20.6 to 32.9% for women and from 35.4 to 54.0% for men. Life-time risk of premature mortality under current guideline maximums ranged from 2.5 to 44.8 deaths per 1000 women in Finland and Estonia, respectively, and from 2.9 to 35.8 deaths per 1000 men in Finland and Estonia, respectively. If based upon an acceptable risk of one in 1000, guideline maximums for Europe should be 8-10 g/day for women and 15-20 g/day for men. If low-risk alcohol guidelines were based on an acceptable risk of one in 1000 premature deaths, then maximums for Europe should be 8-10 g/day for women and 15-20 g/day for men, and some of the current European guidelines would require downward revision. © 2017 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  4. Prospective association of peer influence, school engagement, drinking expectancies, and parent expectations with drinking initiation among sixth graders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons-Morton, Bruce

    2004-02-01

    Early initiation of drinking increases the lifetime risk for substance abuse and other serious health and social problems. An understanding of the predictors of early initiation is needed if successful preventive interventions are to be developed. Surveys were completed by 1009 sixth grade students at the beginning (Time 1) and end (Time 2) of the school year in four schools in one suburban school district. At Time 1, 55/1009 (5.5%) reported drinking in the past 30 days. From Time 1 to Time 2, the percentage of drinkers increase to 127/1009 (10.9%) of whom 101 were new drinkers. In multiple logistic regression analyses, school engagement was negatively associated and peer influence and drinking expectancies were positively associated with drinking initiation. A significant interaction was found between drinking expectancies and parental expectations. Among sixth graders with high drinking expectancies, those with low parental expectations for their behavior were 2.6 times more likely to start drinking than those with parents with high expectations for their behavior. Positive drinking expectancies were significantly associated with drinking initiation only among teens who believed their parents did not hold strong expectations for them not to drink. This finding held for boys and girls, Blacks and Whites and was particularly strong for Black youth. This finding provides new information about the moderating effect of parental expectations on drinking expectancies among early adolescents.

  5. Disinfection of drinking water by ultraviolet light. Minimum dose and shortest time of residence are central criteria when choosing plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-06-23

    It is no longer mandatory that a given residue of chlorine is present in drinking water and this has led to interest in the use of ultraviolet radiation for disinfection of water in large public waterworks. After a brief discussion of the effect of ultraviolet radiation related to wavelength, the most usual type of irradiation equipment is briefly described. Practioal considerations regarding the installation, such as attenuation of the radiation due to water quality and deposits are presented. The requirements as to dose and residence time are also discussed and finally it is pointed out that hydraulic imperfections can reduce the effectiveness drastically.

  6. Effect of probiotic and storage time of thiamine and riboflavin content in the milk drinks fermented by Lactobacillus casei KNE-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drywień, Małgorzata; Frąckiewicz, Joanna; Górnicka, Magdalena; Gadek, Joanna; Jałosińska, Małgorzata

    2015-01-01

    Fermented milk drinks are unique products due to content of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium that are recognized as probiotics. They are a natural component of the colon microbiota as well as commonly used probiotics in functional food. The effects of the storage time and prebiotic type (inuline or oligofructose) were studied in banana-milk drink after fermentation by Lactobacillus casei KNE-1 on the thiamine and riboflavin concentrations. The material for the study was fermented fruit milk drinks: banana-milk prepared in laboratory conditions and fruit milk drinks purchased in a local shop, as a comparative material. The thiamine was determined by thiochrome method and the riboflavin was determined by fluorometric method. The storage time after the end of the fermentation process did not increase the content of thiamine and riboflavin in fermented banana-milk drink more than the output level. The addition of oligofructose significantly affected the synthesis of thiamine by Lactobacillus casei KNE-1 irrespectively of the storage time. The storage time but not the type of prebiotic affected the riboflavin concentration. Taking into account the highest content of both vitamins, the banana-milk drink fermented by Lactobacillus casei KNE-1 should be consumed immediately or 24 days after fermentation. This information could be used by manufacturers for the planning of technological process. The content of thiamine and riboflavin in the fermented milk drinks is the result of the type of prebiotic, the individual bacterial strain properties as well as the storage time. These factors should be investigated to optimize the content of B vitamins in fermented milk drinks in the future.

  7. RUSSIAN DRINKING: TOO LATE FOR EMERGENCY MEASURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Evgenjevich Kuznetsov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Russian drinking for the first time demonstrates weakening of specialization in spirits drinking and stabilization of amount drunk. This suggests expectations of drinking qualitative turn, i.e. to consumer’s choice oriented to quality of drinking rather than to quantity, and further to lessening the drinking norm. Experience of wine-drinking countries of Europe and influence of pan-European homogenization of patterns of drinking, favor such a perspective. The marked decrease of drinking norm in wine-drinking countries was achieved with the minimal state intervention. Survey data (n=904 is provided to corroborate the claim that Russian drinking is able to self-regulate. The data witness weak support for government’s measures taken to restrict access to beverages sale in terms of age, time, place, and price; customers are likely to value freedom of choice unbridled. Governmental pursuance of simplistic access-and-pricing restrictive policies recently undertaken, may force Russian drinking back to another cycle of alcoholisation within the old ‘northern’ model. Bootlegging expansion, formerly progressive specialization in spirits drinking, habit of making gross purchases in population are explained by former experiences of coping with deficits, dry campaigns, and traditional culture of religious and secular abstinences. Scarcity of modes of compensatory behaviors and low concern for health also back up the special cultural status of alcohol. Government should seek for positive measures, viz. wider sporting involvement for students and inclusion for disabled to revive the nation’s regard for health and awareness of health-related risks.

  8. Drinking motives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacob Rosendahl; Lenka van Riemsdijk; Klaus Grunert; Johan van Berkel

    2013-01-01

    Chapter 8 in Comsumption Culture in Europe. This chapter presents an analysis of what consumer in Europe drink and why they drink what they drink. The concept of drinking motives is developed and defined, and analysis of data on drinking motives shows that these can be grouped into two major

  9. Time providing care outside visits in a home-based primary care program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedowitz, Elizabeth J; Ornstein, Katherine A; Farber, Jeffrey; DeCherrie, Linda V

    2014-06-01

    To assess how much time physicians in a large home-based primary care (HBPC) program spend providing care outside of home visits. Unreimbursed time and patient and provider-related factors that may contribute to that time were considered. Mount Sinai Visiting Doctors (MSVD) providers filled out research forms for every interaction involving care provision outside of home visits. Data collected included length of interaction, mode, nature, and with whom the interaction was for 3 weeks. MSVD, an academic home-visit program in Manhattan, New York. All primary care physicians (PCPs) in MSVD (n = 14) agreed to participate. Time data were analyzed using a comprehensive estimate and conservative estimates to quantify unbillable time. Data on 1,151 interactions for 537 patients were collected. An average 8.2 h/wk was spent providing nonhome visit care for a full-time provider. Using the most conservative estimates, 3.6 h/wk was estimated to be unreimbursed per full-time provider. No significant differences in interaction times were found between patients with and without dementia, new and established patients, and primary-panel and covered patients. Home-based primary care providers spend substantial time providing care outside home visits, much of which goes unrecognized in the current reimbursement system. These findings may help guide practice development and creation of new payment systems for HBPC and similar models of care. © 2014, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2014, The American Geriatrics Society.

  10. Screen-based sedentary time: Association with soft drink consumption and the moderating effect of parental education in European children: The ENERGY study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebremariam, Mekdes K; Chinapaw, Mai J; Bringolf-Isler, Bettina; Bere, Elling; Kovacs, Eva; Verloigne, Maïté; Stok, F Marijn; Manios, Yannis; Brug, Johannes; Lien, Nanna

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to explore if children who spend more time on screen-based sedentary behaviors (i.e.TV viewing and computer use) drink more sugar-sweetened soft drinks. The study also assessed whether these associations were independent of individual and home environmental correlates of soft drink consumption and whether they were moderated by parental education. Data were collected from 7886 children participating in the EuropeaN Energy balance Research to prevent excessive weight Gain among Youth (ENERGY) survey conducted in eight European countries. Self-report questionnaires were used. Multilevel linear regression analyses with soft drink consumption as dependent variable, TV viewing and computer use as independent variables and age, gender, parental education, attitude towards soft drinks, self-efficacy, parental modelling, parental rules and home availability of soft drinks as covariates were conducted. Further interactions were tested to explore if these associations were moderated by parental education. Country-specific analyses were conducted. In six of the eight included countries, a significant positive association was observed between TV viewing (min/day) and soft drink consumption (ml/day), independent of individual and home environmental correlates of soft drink consumption (B = 0.46 (0.26-0.66) in Greece, B = 0.77 (0.36-1.17) in Norway, B = 0.82 (0.12-1.51) in Hungary, B = 1.06 (0.67-1.46) in Spain, B = 1.21 (0.67-1.74) in Belgium and B = 1.49 (0.72-2.27) in Switzerland). There was no significant association between computer use and soft drink consumption in six of the eight included countries in the final models. Moderation effects of parental education in the association between TV viewing and soft drink consumption were found in Norway and Hungary, the association being stronger among those with low parental education. TV viewing appears to be independently associated with soft drink consumption and this association was moderated

  11. Energy Drinks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... R S T U V W X Y Z Energy Drinks Share: © Thinkstock Energy drinks are widely promoted as products that increase ... people has been quite effective. Next to multivitamins, energy drinks are the most popular dietary supplement consumed ...

  12. Binge Drinking

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... prepared for different audiences including, children, parents, and public health professionals. More > Binge Drinking (4:23) Recommend on ... More Information Vital Signs Binge Drinking Information Alcohol & Public Health Binge Drinking Factsheet Effective Prevention Strategies Send Us ...

  13. Adolescent drinking, academic achievement and leisure time use by secondary education students in a rural area of Crete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutra, Kleio; Papadovassilaki, Kyriaki; Kalpoutzaki, Pelagia; Kargatzi, Maria; Roumeliotaki, Theano; Koukouli, Sofia

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the alcohol consumption of secondary education students and their relationship to school life and leisure time use with peers. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in March 2007, and the study population consisted of 14- to 19-year-old students living in an agricultural area of Crete. The final sample consisted of 117 individuals (response rate 90.0%). A short previously validated self-completion questionnaire was used collecting information on: personal and family characteristics; school progress; leisure time activities and relations with other adolescents; and alcohol consumption. Alcohol consumption differed significantly between male (75.5%) and female (25.8%) students (P students consuming alcohol was lower compared with those who did not, but the difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.066). Statistical evidence supported the hypothesis that students who consumed alcohol had more absences and this association was stronger for male students. The frequency of alcohol consumption was found to relate to the number of absences for both sexes. Male students who had been suspended from school were more likely to drink alcohol than those who had not been suspended. Statistical evidence also supported the hypotheses that students who spent their free time in cafeterias, bars or billiard halls were more likely to drink alcohol and also consume alcohol at higher frequencies than those that did not spend their free time this way (P = 0.002 and P students, families, schools, communities and the state better understand the real dimensions of the problem. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. Providing Survivable Real-Time Communication Service for Distributed Mission Critical Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhao, Wei; Bettati, Riccardo; Vaidya, Nitin

    2005-01-01

    This document is the final report for Providing Survivable Real-Time Communication Service for Distributed Mission Critical Systems, a Texas A AND M project funded through the DARPA Fault Tolerant Networks Program...

  15. 77 FR 1708 - Cooperative Research and Development Agreement: Technology To Provide Wireless Precise Time...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-11

    ... Systems (GPS) as a means of providing precise time. The alternative under consideration is a wireless... authorized by the Federal Technology Transfer Act of 1986 (Pub. L. 99- 502, codified at 15 U.S.C. 3710(a)). A..., and document at least one alternative to Global Positioning Systems (GPS) as a means of providing...

  16. Underage Drinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 10/17. Drinking patterns vary by age and gender As adolescents get older, they tend to drink ... in risky behavior, including drinking and driving, sexual activity (such as unprotected ... the risk of physical and sexual assault Underage youth who drink are ...

  17. Energy drinks and alcohol-related risk among young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caviness, Celeste M; Anderson, Bradley J; Stein, Michael D

    2017-01-01

    Energy drink consumption, with or without concurrent alcohol use, is common among young adults. This study sought to clarify risk for negative alcohol outcomes related to the timing of energy drink use. The authors interviewed a community sample of 481 young adults, aged 18-25, who drank alcohol in the last month. Past-30-day energy drink use was operationalized as no-use, use without concurrent alcohol, and concurrent use of energy drinks with alcohol ("within a couple of hours"). Negative alcohol outcomes included past-30-day binge drinking, past-30-day alcohol use disorder, and drinking-related consequences. Just over half (50.5%) reported no use of energy drinks,18.3% reported using energy drinks without concurrent alcohol use, and 31.2% reported concurrent use of energy drinks and alcohol. Relative to those who reported concurrent use of energy drinks with alcohol, and controlling for background characteristics and frequency of alcohol consumption, those who didn't use energy drinks and those who used without concurrent alcohol use had significantly lower binge drinking, negative consequences, and rates of alcohol use disorder (P energy drink without concurrent alcohol groups on any alcohol-related measure (P > .10 for all outcomes). Concurrent energy drink and alcohol use is associated with increased risk for negative alcohol consequences in young adults. Clinicians providing care to young adults could consider asking patients about concurrent energy drink and alcohol use as a way to begin a conversation about risky alcohol consumption while addressing 2 substances commonly used by this population.

  18. Blood glucose and liver function in dogs administered a xylitol drinking water additive at zero, one and five times dosage rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James M.G. Anthony

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A study was designed to determine the safety of a drinking water additive that reduces plaque and calculus in dogs, and contains xylitol as an active ingredient. The randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was performed in 15 crossbred dogs that were randomly divided into three groups and had their drinking water treated for 14 days with either: i a commercial health care product (BreathaLyser Plus at the recommended dosage, ii an experimental health care product (BreathaLyser Plus containing five times the amount of xylitol, or iii a placebo of purified water with a colour additive. Results demonstrated that the continuous administration of a commercial, drinking water, oral health product containing xylitol, at one and five times the normal inclusion rate, does not cause hypoglycemia or alter liver function in dogs.

  19. Autoshaping of ethanol drinking: an animal model of binge drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomie, Arthur; di Poce, Jason; Derenzo, Christopher C; Pohorecky, Larissa A

    2002-01-01

    To examine the hypothesis that Pavlovian autoshaping provides an animal learning model of drug abuse, two studies evaluated the induction of ethanol drinking by autoshaping procedures. In Experiment 1, the sipper tube conditioned stimulus (CS) contained saccharin/ethanol solution and was repeatedly paired with food as an unconditioned stimulus (US). The CS-US paired group consumed more of the 0.1% saccharin-6% ethanol solution than did the CS-US random group, revealing that autoshaping conditioned responses (CR) induce ethanol drinking not attributable to pseudo-conditioning. Experiment 2 employed saccharin-fading procedures and showed that the paired vs random group differences in ethanol drinking were maintained, even as the saccharin was eliminated from the solution. The results show that Pavlovian autoshaping procedures induce high volumes of ethanol drinking when the presentation of a sipper tube containing an ethanol solution precedes the response-independent delivery of food. The high volume of ethanol consumed in a brief period of time suggests that Pavlovian autoshaping may be a model of binge drinking.

  20. Nuclear magnetic resonance provides a quantitative description of protein conformational flexibility on physiologically important time scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, Loïc; Bouvignies, Guillaume; Markwick, Phineus; Blackledge, Martin

    2011-04-12

    A complete description of biomolecular activity requires an understanding of the nature and the role of protein conformational dynamics. In recent years, novel nuclear magnetic resonance-based techniques that provide hitherto inaccessible detail concerning biomolecular motions occurring on physiologically important time scales have emerged. Residual dipolar couplings (RDCs) provide precise information about time- and ensemble-averaged structural and dynamic processes with correlation times up to the millisecond and thereby encode key information for understanding biological activity. In this review, we present the application of two very different approaches to the quantitative description of protein motion using RDCs. The first is purely analytical, describing backbone dynamics in terms of diffusive motions of each peptide plane, using extensive statistical analysis to validate the proposed dynamic modes. The second is based on restraint-free accelerated molecular dynamics simulation, providing statistically sampled free energy-weighted ensembles that describe conformational fluctuations occurring on time scales from pico- to milliseconds, at atomic resolution. Remarkably, the results from these two approaches converge closely in terms of distribution and absolute amplitude of motions, suggesting that this kind of combination of analytical and numerical models is now capable of providing a unified description of protein conformational dynamics in solution.

  1. 78 FR 38949 - Computer Security Incident Coordination (CSIC): Providing Timely Cyber Incident Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-28

    ... exposed to various forms of cyber attack. In some cases, attacks can be thwarted through the use of...-3383-01] Computer Security Incident Coordination (CSIC): Providing Timely Cyber Incident Response... systems will be successfully attacked. When a successful attack occurs, the job of a Computer Security...

  2. TIME-BASED COMPETITION IN THE SUPPLY-CHAIN: THE ROLE OF THE LOGISTICS SERVICE PROVIDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judit OLÁH

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Among the service industries, the analysis logistics as an academic field which has a great influence on firms’ creation of value and competitiveness, and within this the analysis of firms providing logistics services (3PLP, has become more relevant than in previous years. Among the expectations of logistics service providers, and among the sources of competitive advantage, are timeliness and flexibility, which can only be handled and measured together, because of the integration of services. At the same time, when supply chains (not corporations compete with each other, we must create the opportunity to manage chains beyond company boundaries. Our aim is to investigate the time-related problems of supply chains (and sections and logistics service providers, and their consequences and solutions. We have found that the development of time factors which appear and can be measured in the realization of logistics services contributes to the competitiveness of a logistics service company. The performance provided by companies that are integrated into the supply chain’s member companies and operate as flexible logistics service providers can have a significant impact on the (full operation and efficiency of the supply chain.

  3. Precision Neutron Time-of-Flight Detectors Provide Insight into NIF Implosion Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlossberg, David; Eckart, M. J.; Grim, G. P.; Hartouni, E. P.; Hatarik, R.; Moore, A. S.; Waltz, C. S.

    2017-10-01

    During inertial confinement fusion, higher-order moments of neutron time-of-flight (nToF) spectra can provide essential information for optimizing implosions. The nToF diagnostic suite at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) was recently upgraded to include novel, quartz Cherenkov detectors. These detectors exploit the rapid Cherenkov radiation process, in contrast with conventional scintillator decay times, to provide high temporal-precision measurements that support higher-order moment analyses. Preliminary measurements have been made on the NIF during several implosions and initial results are presented here. Measured line-of-sight asymmetries, for example in ion temperatures, will be discussed. Finally, advanced detector optimization is shown to advance accessible physics, with possibilities for energy discrimination, gamma source identification, and further reduction in quartz response times. Work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  4. The Drinking Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poe, Marshall

    2010-01-01

    Americans have been wrestling with college drinking for so long that they've forgotten there was a time when they didn't. Prior to World War II there were a number of "crises" on American campuses--loutish behavior at football games, the introduction of the research-heavy "German Method," the corruption of coeds--but excessive college drinking was…

  5. Integrating Behavioral Health into Pediatric Primary Care: Implications for Provider Time and Cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouge, Natasha; Polaha, Jodi; Rogers, Rachel; Harden, Amy

    2016-12-01

    Integrating a behavioral health consultant (BHC) into primary care is associated with improved patient outcomes, fewer medical visits, and increased provider satisfaction; however, few studies have evaluated the feasibility of this model from an operations perspective. Specifically, time and cost have been identified as barriers to implementation. Our study aimed to examine time spent, patient volume, and revenue generated during days when the on-site BHC was available compared with days when the consultant was not. Data were collected across a 10-day period when a BHC provided services and 10 days when she was not available. Data included time stamps of patient direct care; providers' direct reports of problems raised; and a review of medical and administrative records, including billing codes and reimbursement. This study took place in a rural, stand-alone private pediatric primary care practice. The participants were five pediatric primary care providers (PCPs; two doctors of medicine, 1 doctor of osteopathy, 2 nurse practitioners) and two supervised doctoral students in psychology (BHCs). Pediatric patients (N = 668) and their parents also participated. On days when a BHC was present, medical providers spent 2 fewer minutes on average for every patient seen, saw 42% more patients, and collected $1142 more revenue than on days when no consultant was present. The time savings demonstrated on days when the consultant was available point to the efficiency and potential financial viability of this model. These results have important implications for the feasibility of hiring behavioral health professionals in a fee-for-service system. They have equally useful implications for the utility of moving to a bundled system of care in which collaborative practice is valued.

  6. [Alcohol drinking in the time of political transition in Poland. Report of the National Health Programme ].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskalewicz, Jacek; Zulewska-Sak, Justyna

    2003-01-01

    The National Health Programme was adopted in Poland in the mid-1990s. It consists of 18 targets including target 4 that calls for diminishing alcohol consumption and changing its structure as well as limiting health harms associated with alcohol. The programme is being monitored on bi-annual basis. The monitoring covers a level of alcohol consumption and associated harm including trends in mortality and morbidity as well as in road accidents in 1990-2001 period. During the period in point, particularly in the beginning of the transition alcohol consumption increased at least by one third reaching 10-11 litres of pure ethanol per capita, mostly due to sudden disruption of the alcohol control system and high tide of unrecorded supply. Currently, the consumption is estimated to be 9.5-10.0 litres with 30% share of the unrecorded. During last decade recorded morbidity due to mental disorders associated with alcohol increased by 80% and 60% respectively in out- and in-patient system while mortality rates almost doubled. Male mortality due to liver diseases increased by 50% while that of women remained relatively flat. In last few years, alcohol related mortality tended to decline slightly parallel to consumption trends. Significant improvement has been achieved in prevention of drunken diving. The number of deaths in alcohol related road accidents decreased two fold while a rate of drunken crashes per 1000 vehicles dropped three times.

  7. Measuring physical inactivity: do current measures provide an accurate view of "sedentary" video game time?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullerton, Simon; Taylor, Anne W; Dal Grande, Eleonora; Berry, Narelle

    2014-01-01

    Measures of screen time are often used to assess sedentary behaviour. Participation in activity-based video games (exergames) can contribute to estimates of screen time, as current practices of measuring it do not consider the growing evidence that playing exergames can provide light to moderate levels of physical activity. This study aimed to determine what proportion of time spent playing video games was actually spent playing exergames. Data were collected via a cross-sectional telephone survey in South Australia. Participants aged 18 years and above (n = 2026) were asked about their video game habits, as well as demographic and socioeconomic factors. In cases where children were in the household, the video game habits of a randomly selected child were also questioned. Overall, 31.3% of adults and 79.9% of children spend at least some time playing video games. Of these, 24.1% of adults and 42.1% of children play exergames, with these types of games accounting for a third of all time that adults spend playing video games and nearly 20% of children's video game time. A substantial proportion of time that would usually be classified as "sedentary" may actually be spent participating in light to moderate physical activity.

  8. Health care providers under pressure: making the most of challenging times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Scott B; Robinson, Phillip J

    2010-01-01

    Whether the slowing economic recovery, tight credit markets, increasing costs, or the uncertainty surrounding health care reform, the health care industry faces some sizeable challenges. These factors have put considerable strain on the industry's traditional financing options that the industry has relied on in the past--bonds, banks, finance companies, private equity, venture capital, real estate investment trusts, private philanthropy, and grants. At the same time, providers are dealing with rising costs, lower reimbursement rates, shrinking demand for elective procedures, higher levels of charitable care and bad debt, and increased scrutiny of tax-exempt hospitals. Providers face these challenges against a back ground of uncertainty created by health care reform.

  9. Nitrate in drinking water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schullehner, Jörg

    is highly decentralized and fully relying on simple treated groundwater. At the same time, Denmark has an intensive agriculture, making groundwater resources prone to nitrate pollution. Drinking water quality data covering the entire country for over 35 years are registered in the public database Jupiter......Annual nationwide exposure maps for nitrate in drinking water in Denmark from the 1970s until today will be presented based on the findings in Schullehner & Hansen (2014) and additional work on addressing the issue of private well users and estimating missing data. Drinking water supply in Denmark....... In order to create annual maps of drinking water quality, these data had to be linked to 2,852 water supply areas, which were for the first time digitized, collected in one dataset and connected to the Jupiter database. Analyses of the drinking water quality maps showed that public water supplies...

  10. Up-to-date, real-time localized ITS services provided on a mobile platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tadayoni, Reza; Kloch, Christian

    2011-01-01

    and connection to the mobile platform, the smart phone provides the technologies and power to become the platform to provide and access up-to-date, real time infor-mation as requested by the drivers and becomes a central point for networking and coordinated actions. The purpose of this paper is to provide......-to-date infrastructure technology and is carried by lay-mans, like the smart-phones (with GPS receiver, Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, high speed cellular data connection and a large touch screen). With an 18 month replacement rate [1], and possibilities of combining navigational system, one-to-one communication, broadcast receiver...... in order to avoid local based solutions and to avoid proprietary solutions, a support that also shall be supported by political willingness above local level in order to realize the benefit of ITS....

  11. Impact of a narrative medicine programme on healthcare providers' empathy scores over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Po-Jui; Huang, Chien-Da; Yeh, San-Jou

    2017-07-05

    The cultivation of empathy for healthcare providers is an important issue in medical education. Narrative medicine (NM) has been shown to foster empathy. To our knowledge, there has been no research that examines whether a NM programme affects multi-professional healthcare providers' empathy. Our study aims to fill this gap by investigating whether a NM programme effects multi-professional healthcare providers' empathy. A pre-post questionnaire method was used.142 participants (n = 122 females) who attended the NM programme were divided into single (n = 58) and team groups (n = 84) on the basis of inter-professional education during a period of 2 months. Perceptions of the NM programme were collected using our developed questionnaire. Empathy levels were measured using the Chinese version of Jefferson Scale of Empathy - Healthcare Providers Version (JSE-HP) - at three time points: prior to (Time 1), immediately after (T2), and 1.5 years (T3) after the programme. Participants' perceptions about the NM programme (n = 116; n = 96 females) suggested an in enhancement of empathy (90.5%). Empathy scores via the JSE-HP increased after the NM programme (T1 mean 111.05, T2 mean 116.19) and were sustainable for 1.5 years (T3 mean 116.04) for all participants (F(2297) = 3.74, p empathy scores was found (F(1298) = 5.33, p empathy scores at T2, sustaining at T3, but males demonstrating a slow rise in empathy scores over time. NM programme as an educational tool for empathy is feasible. However, further research is needed to examine gender difference as it might be that males and females respond differently to a NM programme intervention.

  12. Breakthrough dynamics of s-metolachlor metabolites in drinking water wells: Transport pathways and time to trend reversal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farlin, Julien; Gallé, Tom; Bayerle, Michael; Pittois, Denis; Köppchen, Stephan; Krause, Martina; Hofmann, Diana

    2018-06-01

    We present the results of a two years study on the contamination of the Luxembourg Sandstone aquifer by metolachlor-ESA and metolachlor-OXA, two major transformation products of s-metolachlor. The aim of the study was twofold: (i) assess whether elevated concentrations of both transformation products (up to 1000 ng/l) were due to fast flow breakthough events of short duration or the signs of a contamination of the entire aquifer and (ii) estimate the time to trend reversal once the parent compound was withdrawn from the market. These two questions were addressed by a combined use of groundwater monitoring, laboratory experiments and numerical simulations of the fate of the degradation products in the subsurface. Twelve springs were sampled weekly over an eighteen month period, and the degradation rates of both the parent compound and its transformation products were measured on a representative soil in the laboratory using a radiolabeled precursor. Modelling with the numeric code PEARL simulating pesticide fate in soil coupled to a simple transfer function model for the aquifer compartment, and calibrated from the field and laboratory data, predicts a significant damping by the aquifer of the peaks of concentration of both metolachlor-ESA and -OXA leached from the soil. The time to trend reversal following the ban of s-metolachlor in spring protection zones should be observed before the end of the decade, while the return of contaminant concentrations below the drinking water limit of 100 ng/l however is expected to last up to twelve years. The calculated contribution to total water discharge of the fast-flow component from cropland and short-circuiting the aquifer was small in most springs (median of 1.2%), but sufficient to cause additional peaks of concentration of several hundred nanograms per litre in spring water. These peaks are superimposed on the more steady contamination sustained by the base flow, and should cease immediately once application of the

  13. Is there a link between per capita alcohol consumption and youth drinking? A time-series analysis for Sweden in 1972-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norström, Thor; Raninen, Jonas

    2015-06-01

    To estimate the relationship between per capita alcohol consumption and youth drinking in Sweden during the last 40 years and to estimate the relationship between female and male youth drinking during the 40-year study period. Per capita alcohol consumption was proxied by official sales data, supplemented by data on unrecorded consumption. Youth consumption was measured by a question on heavy episodic drinking (HED) included in an annual school survey of alcohol and drug habits among Swedish 9th -grade students (15-16 years of age). The annual samples comprise approximately 5000 individuals (with roughly equal numbers of boys and girls) with response rates in the range 80-93%. The study spans the period 1972-2012. Autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) time-series analysis was used to estimate the relation between per-capita alcohol consumption and youth drinking. Ocular inspection of the time-series data suggested a stronger synchronization between the two series in the early period, before the mid-1990s, than in the later period, indicating a structural shift in the relation at issue. We therefore conducted period specific time-series analyses with 1995 as the year of division. There was a statistically significant relation between per capita alcohol consumption and HED among youth for 1972-94. A 1% increase in per capita alcohol consumption was associated with an increase in HED of 1.52% (P = 0.008). The estimate for 1995-2012 (0.12) was well below statistical significance (P = 0.580). The estimated elasticity of the association between boys' and girls' HED during 1972-94 was close to unity (0.98, P < 0.001), suggesting proportional changes in boys' and girls' drinking. When controlling for per capita consumption, the association was halved (to 0.55) but still significant in table 3 (P = 0.045). Adult and youth drinking in Sweden were synchronized closely during the two last decades of the 20th century, but youth drinking developed an

  14. Simulation model for transcervical laryngeal injection providing real-time feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ainsworth, Tiffiny A; Kobler, James B; Loan, Gregory J; Burns, James A

    2014-12-01

    This study aimed to develop and evaluate a model for teaching transcervical laryngeal injections. A 3-dimensional printer was used to create a laryngotracheal framework based on de-identified computed tomography images of a human larynx. The arytenoid cartilages and intrinsic laryngeal musculature were created in silicone from clay casts and thermoplastic molds. The thyroarytenoid (TA) muscle was created with electrically conductive silicone using metallic filaments embedded in silicone. Wires connected TA muscles to an electrical circuit incorporating a cell phone and speaker. A needle electrode completed the circuit when inserted in the TA during simulated injection, providing real-time feedback of successful needle placement by producing an audible sound. Face validation by the senior author confirmed appropriate tactile feedback and anatomical realism. Otolaryngologists pilot tested the model and completed presimulation and postsimulation questionnaires. The high-fidelity simulation model provided tactile and audio feedback during needle placement, simulating transcervical vocal fold injections. Otolaryngology residents demonstrated higher comfort levels with transcervical thyroarytenoid injection on postsimulation questionnaires. This is the first study to describe a simulator for developing transcervical vocal fold injection skills. The model provides real-time tactile and auditory feedback that aids in skill acquisition. Otolaryngologists reported increased confidence with transcervical injection after using the simulator. © The Author(s) 2014.

  15. A PC parallel port button box provides millisecond response time accuracy under Linux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Neil

    2006-02-01

    For psychologists, it is sometimes necessary to measure people's reaction times to the nearest millisecond. This article describes how to use the PC parallel port to receive signals from a button box to achieve millisecond response time accuracy. The workings of the parallel port, the corresponding port addresses, and a simple Linux program for controlling the port are described. A test of the speed and reliability of button box signal detection is reported. If the reader is moderately familiar with Linux, this article should provide sufficient instruction for him or her to build and test his or her own parallel port button box. This article also describes how the parallel port could be used to control an external apparatus.

  16. Providing for transmission in times of scarcity: an ISO cannot do it all

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, E.; Ilic, M.; Younes, Z.

    1999-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to point out issues critical for establishing a good transmission strategy in an energy market. First, it is suggested that a transmission strategy must be discussed in the context of a specific market structure. Responsibilities of a transmission system provider differ fundamentally, depending on the type of energy market it is supposed to serve. To show this, a summary of information assumed to be known to an Independent System Operator (ISO) in three energy market structures is given, i.e., (1) a mandatory ISO, (2) an entirely multilateral market and (3) a voluntary ISO. The differences between these three proposals concerning an ISO's responsibility for achieving systemwide efficiency and fair charges for transmission service, particularly at times of scarcity, are analyzed. It is shown that an ISO equipped with the present types of optimization tools for both reliability and efficiency is generally 'blind' to questions of fairness with respect to the individual market participants when providing transmission system support. In order to get around this problem, much more work will have to he done by the technical and regulatory communities. The only tools at an ISO's disposal at present are used for systemwide objectives, such as systemwide reliability. While some of this work is under way, it will take some time to develop the actual ISO tools necessary for implementing the fairness criterion metrics ('standards'), whichever ones the community arrives at. (Developing metrics of fair reliability contributions for the individual market participants is a nonunique process, and it may be very difficult to actually agree upon). Meanwhile, in order to have an ISO actively help energy markets in a fair and efficient way in realistic markets, which are likely to be voluntary ISOs, a system user must become an active part of decision making, indicating how much it wishes to use the system at times of scarcity and at which price. One

  17. Who drinks where: youth selection of drinking contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipperman-Kreda, Sharon; Mair, Christina F; Bersamin, Melina; Gruenewald, Paul J; Grube, Joel W

    2015-04-01

    Different drinkers may experience specific risks depending on where they consume alcohol. This longitudinal study examined drinking patterns, and demographic and psychosocial characteristics associated with youth drinking in different contexts. We used survey data from 665 past-year alcohol-using youths (ages 13 to 16 at Wave 1) in 50 midsized California cities. Measures of drinking behaviors and drinking in 7 contexts were obtained at 3 annual time points. Other characteristics included gender, age, race, parental education, weekly disposable income, general deviance, and past-year cigarette smoking. Results of multilevel regression analyses show that more frequent past-year alcohol use was associated with an increased likelihood of drinking at parties and at someone else's home. Greater continued volumes of alcohol (i.e., heavier drinking) was associated with increased likelihood of drinking at parking lots or street corners. Deviance was positively associated with drinking in most contexts, and past-year cigarette smoking was positively associated with drinking at beaches or parks and someone else's home. Age and deviance were positively associated with drinking in a greater number of contexts. The likelihood of youth drinking at parties and someone else's home increased over time, whereas the likelihood of drinking at parking lots/street corners decreased. Also, deviant youths progress to drinking in their own home, beaches or parks, and restaurants/bars/nightclubs more rapidly. The contexts in which youths consume alcohol change over time. These changes vary by individual characteristics. The redistribution of drinking contexts over the early life course may contribute to specific risks associated with different drinking contexts. Copyright © 2015 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  18. Drinking Coffee

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strøbæk, Pernille Solveig

    2015-01-01

    The chapter explores how coffee is an integral part of our daily life. Focusing on coffee drinking at home, at work, and on the go I show that coffee consumption is a social practice. The chapter illustrates through everyday examples that coffee is more than a caffeine drug. Coffee, with or without...... caffeine, is a social lubricant. We talk to each other and share emotions with one another as we share a cup of coffee. Coffee makes conversation and we embrace coffee, to stay or to go, in the daily rhythm of our busy and global social existence. The practice and sociality of coffee consumption provide...... the coffee industry with the opportunity to make money on our coffee preferences – indeed, also for those of us who actually dislike the taste of coffee. Would you prefer coffee mixed and stirred with non-coffee products such as salt, caramel and licorice? Then you are one of us in the modern age of coffee...

  19. An Assessment of Dialysis Provider's Attitudes towards Timing of Dialysis Initiation in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bikaramjit S Mann

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Physicians' perceptions and opinions may influence when to initiate dialysis. Objective: To examine providers' perspectives and opinions regarding the timing of dialysis initiation. Design: Online survey. Setting: Community and academic dialysis practices in Canada. Participants: A nationally-representative sample of dialysis providers. Measurements and Methods: Dialysis providers opinions assessing reasons to initiate dialysis at low or high eGFR. Responses were obtained using a 9-point Likert scale. Early dialysis was defined as initiation of dialysis in an individual with an eGFR greater than or equal to 10.5 ml/min/m 2 . A detailed survey was emailed to all members of the Canadian Society of Nephrology (CSN in February 2013. The survey was designed and pre-tested to evaluate duration and ease of administration. Results: One hundred and forty one (25% response rate physicians participated in the survey. The majority were from urban, academic centres and practiced in regionally administered renal programs. Very few respondents had a formal policy regarding the timing of dialysis initiation or formally reviewed new dialysis starts (N = 4, 3.1%. The majority of respondents were either neutral or disagreed that late compared to early dialysis initiation improved outcomes (85–88%, had a negative impact on quality of life (89%, worsened AVF or PD use (84–90%, led to sicker patients (83% or was cost effective (61%. Fifty-seven percent of respondents felt uremic symptoms occurred earlier in patients with advancing age or co-morbid illness. Half (51.8% of the respondents felt there was an absolute eGFR at which they would initiate dialysis in an asymptomatic patient. The majority of respondents would initiate dialysis for classic indications for dialysis, such as volume overload (90.1% and cachexia (83.7% however a significant number chose other factors that may lead them to early dialysis initiation including avoiding an emergency (28

  20. Drinking Motives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G; Rosendahl, Jacob; Andronikidis, Andreas I.

    2013-01-01

    . This distinction is universal and henceapplies across Europe. However, the importance of self-expressive as compared to functional motives, as well as the way in which these relate to different beverages, does differ across Europe. Both dimensions are relevant for the motives for drinking non-alcoholic drinks...

  1. Binge Drinking

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast is based on the October, 2010 CDC Vital Signs report which indicates that drinking too much, including binge drinking, causes more than 79,000 deaths in the U.S. each year and is the third leading preventable cause of death.

  2. Drinking Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    This encyclopedic entry deals with various aspects of microbiology as it relates to drinking water treatment. The use of microbial indicators for assessing fecal contamination is discussed as well as current national drinking water regulations (U.S. EPA) and guidelines proposed ...

  3. Real-time contaminant detection and classification in a drinking water pipe using conventional water quality sensors: techniques and experimental results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey Yang, Y; Haught, Roy C; Goodrich, James A

    2009-06-01

    Accurate detection and identification of natural or intentional contamination events in a drinking water pipe is critical to drinking water supply security and health risk management. To use conventional water quality sensors for the purpose, we have explored a real-time event adaptive detection, identification and warning (READiw) methodology and examined it using pilot-scale pipe flow experiments of 11 chemical and biological contaminants each at three concentration levels. The tested contaminants include pesticide and herbicides (aldicarb, glyphosate and dicamba), alkaloids (nicotine and colchicine), E. coli in terrific broth, biological growth media (nutrient broth, terrific broth, tryptic soy broth), and inorganic chemical compounds (mercuric chloride and potassium ferricyanide). First, through adaptive transformation of the sensor outputs, contaminant signals were enhanced and background noise was reduced in time-series plots leading to detection and identification of all simulated contamination events. The improved sensor detection threshold was 0.1% of the background for pH and oxidation-reduction potential (ORP), 0.9% for free chlorine, 1.6% for total chlorine, and 0.9% for chloride. Second, the relative changes calculated from adaptively transformed residual chlorine measurements were quantitatively related to contaminant-chlorine reactivity in drinking water. We have shown that based on these kinetic and chemical differences, the tested contaminants were distinguishable in forensic discrimination diagrams made of adaptively transformed sensor measurements.

  4. Heterotrophic monitoring at a drinking water treatment plant by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry after different drinking water treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sala-Comorera, Laura; Blanch, Anicet R; Vilaró, Carles; Galofré, Belén; García-Aljaro, Cristina

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this work was to assess the suitability of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) for routine heterotrophic monitoring in a drinking water treatment plant. Water samples were collected from raw surface water and after different treatments during two campaigns over a 1-year period. Heterotrophic bacteria were studied and isolates were identified by MALDI-TOF MS. Moreover, the diversity index and the coefficient of population similarity were also calculated using biochemical fingerprinting of the populations studied. MALDI-TOF MS enabled us to characterize and detect changes in the bacterial community composition throughout the water treatment plant. Raw water showed a large and diverse population which was slightly modified after initial treatment steps (sand filtration and ultrafiltration). Reverse osmosis had a significant impact on the microbial diversity, while the final chlorination step produced a shift in the composition of the bacterial community. Although MALDI-TOF MS could not identify all the isolates since the available MALDI-TOF MS database does not cover all the bacterial diversity in water, this technique could be used to monitor bacterial changes in drinking water treatment plants by creating a specific protein profile database for tracking purposes.

  5. Impact of an Energy Drink on the Structure of Stomach and Pancreas of Albino Rat: Can Omega-3 Provide a Protection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayuob, Nasra; ElBeshbeishy, Rana

    2016-01-01

    A controversy developed between the benefits of energy drinks (EDs) versus the possible health threats since its revolution. Lack of information was a call to assess the effect of chronic consumption of Power Horse (PH) as one of the EDs, on the structure of pancreas and fundic mucosa of stomach in rats, and possible protective role of Omega-3. Thirty two adult male albino rats were divided equally into 4 groups; control received group which only received a standard diet, Omega-3 group, PH group which given PH and PH plus Omega-3 group received both PH plus Omega-3 for 4 weeks. Biochemical assessment of blood glucose, serum insulin, gastrin, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and inducible nitric oxide synthetase (iNOS) was performed. The antioxidant activity and histopathological examination of both pancreatic tissue and fundic mucosa of stomach were assessed. Administration of PH significantly increased serum insulin and glucose levels while it significantly reduced serum gastrin level compared to control. PH also caused oxidants/antioxidants imbalance in both pancreas and fundic mucosa. The latter revealed degenerative changes and increased apoptosis which was evident by increased caspase-3 immunoexpression. Pancreas exhibited signs of β-cells overstimulation. Fundic mucosa showed reduced number of parietal cells, gastrin hormone expression compared to control group. Omega-3 administration could alleviate, to some extent, these changes. It significantly decreased TNF-α, iNOS and reduced glutathione (GSH) as well as significantly increasing superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities compared to the group which received PH alone. Power Horse intake significantly injures islet cells, pancreatic acini as well as the glandular cells of the fundic mucosa. Omega-3 decreases these detrimental effects mostly through its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory action.

  6. Real-time detection of faecally contaminated drinking water with tryptophan-like fluorescence: defining threshold values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorensen, James P R; Baker, Andy; Cumberland, Susan A; Lapworth, Dan J; MacDonald, Alan M; Pedley, Steve; Taylor, Richard G; Ward, Jade S T

    2018-05-01

    We assess the use of fluorescent dissolved organic matter at excitation-emission wavelengths of 280nm and 360nm, termed tryptophan-like fluorescence (TLF), as an indicator of faecally contaminated drinking water. A significant logistic regression model was developed using TLF as a predictor of thermotolerant coliforms (TTCs) using data from groundwater- and surface water-derived drinking water sources in India, Malawi, South Africa and Zambia. A TLF threshold of 1.3ppb dissolved tryptophan was selected to classify TTC contamination. Validation of the TLF threshold indicated a false-negative error rate of 15% and a false-positive error rate of 18%. The threshold was unsuccessful at classifying contaminated sources containing water globally. Copyright © 2017 Natural Environment Research Council (NERC), as represented by the British Geological Survey (BGS. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Providing written language services in the schools: the time is now.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallon, Karen A; Katz, Lauren A

    2011-01-01

    The current study was conducted to investigate the provision of written language services by school-based speech-language pathologists (SLPs). Specifically, the study examined SLPs' knowledge, attitudes, and collaborative practices in the area of written language services as well as the variables that impact provision of these services. Public school-based SLPs from across the country were solicited for participation in an online, Web-based survey. Data from 645 full-time SLPs from 49 states were evaluated using descriptive statistics and logistic regression. Many school-based SLPs reported not providing any services in the area of written language to students with written language weaknesses. Knowledge, attitudes, and collaborative practices were mixed. A logistic regression revealed three variables likely to predict high levels of service provision in the area of written language. Data from the current study revealed that many struggling readers and writers on school-based SLPs' caseloads are not receiving services from their SLPs. Implications for SLPs' preservice preparation, continuing education, and doctoral preparation are discussed.

  8. Plant Outage Time Savings Provided by Subcritical Physics Testing at Vogtle Unit 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cupp, Philip; Heibel, M.D.

    2006-01-01

    The most recent core reload design verification physics testing done at Southern Nuclear Company's (SNC) Vogtle Unit 2, performed prior to initial power operations in operating cycle 12, was successfully completed while the reactor was at least 1% ΔK/K subcritical. The testing program used was the first application of the Subcritical Physics Testing (SPT) program developed by the Westinghouse Electric Company LLC. The SPT program centers on the application of the Westinghouse Subcritical Rod Worth Measurement (SRWM) methodology that was developed in cooperation with the Vogtle Reactor Engineering staff. The SRWM methodology received U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) approval in August of 2005. The first application of the SPT program occurred at Vogtle Unit 2 in October of 2005. The results of the core design verification measurements obtained during the SPT program demonstrated excellent agreement with prediction, demonstrating that the predicted core characteristics were in excellent agreement with the actual operating characteristics of the core. This paper presents an overview of the SPT Program used at Vogtle Unit 2 during operating cycle 12, and a discussion of the critical path outage time savings the SPT program is capable of providing. (authors)

  9. Average use of Alcohol and Binge Drinking in Pregnancy: Neuropsychological Effects at Age 5

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kilburn, Tina R.

    Objectives The objective of this PhD. was to examine the relation between low weekly average maternal alcohol consumption and ‘Binge drinking' (defined as intake of 5 or more drinks per occasion) during pregnancy and information processing time (IPT) in children aged five years. Since a method...... that provided detailed information on maternal alcohol drinking patterns before and during pregnancy and other lifestyle factors. These women were categorized in groups of prenatally average alcohol intake and binge drinking, timing and number of episodes. At the age of five years the children of these women...... and number of episodes) and between simple reaction time (SRT) and alcohol intake or binge drinking (timing and number of episodes) during pregnancy. Conclusion This was one of the first studies investigating IPT and prenatally average alcohol intake and binge drinking in early pregnancy. Daily prenatal...

  10. Study on Providing Professors with Efficient Service Based on Time Management Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunlin; Liu, Mengchao; Wang, Yining

    2016-01-01

    Time management is the study to use time scientifically by deploying skills, techniques and means, and maximizing time value to help individuals or organizations efficiently complete tasks and achieve goals. University professor as a body is an important force in teaching and research. In order to ensure high-quality teaching, productive research,…

  11. Problematic Drinking Among Postgraduate Students: Binge Drinking, Prepartying, and Mixing Alcohol With Energy Drinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutledge, Patricia C; Bestrashniy, Jessica R B M; Nelson, Toben F

    2016-07-02

    Although problematic alcohol use has been studied extensively in undergraduate students, little is known about problematic drinking among postgraduate students. This study examined binge drinking, prepartying, and mixing alcohol with energy drinks to determine: (1) the extent to which postgraduate students engage in these drinking behaviors, (2) how postgraduate students differ from undergraduate students in these behaviors, and (3) the demographic risk factors for these behaviors in postgraduate (and undergraduate) students. This study utilized data from n = 695 students (n = 298 postgraduate; n = 397 undergraduate) who participated in the Healthy Minds Study at a large, public university in the Midwestern US. Past-two-week binge drinking, past-year and past-30-day prepartying, and past-30-day mixing alcohol with energy drinks were reported by 26.2%, 28.6%, 14.9%, and 8.1% of postgraduate students, respectively. Multivariate analyses indicated that postgraduate status was a significant negative predictor of binge drinking and prepartying, and that status interacted with age in predicting prepartying such that the effect of age on prepartying was negative for postgraduate students and nonsignificant for undergraduates. Age was a significant negative predictor of mixing alcohol with energy drinks for all students. This study makes a unique contribution to the literature by providing information on problematic drinking in postgraduate students. Although there was evidence of "maturing out," a substantial number of postgraduate students were found to engage in binge drinking and prepartying, and a not insubstantial number of them were found to mix alcohol with energy drinks.

  12. Vis-A-Plan /visualize a plan/ management technique provides performance-time scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranck, N. H.

    1967-01-01

    Vis-A-Plan is a bar-charting technique for representing and evaluating project activities on a performance-time basis. This rectilinear method presents the logic diagram of a project as a series of horizontal time bars. It may be used supplementary to PERT or independently.

  13. Working and Providing Care: Increasing Student Engagement for Part-Time Community College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leingang, Daniel James

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship among external time obligations of work and care giving by part-time students, their participation within structured group learning experiences, and student engagement. The Structured Group Learning Experiences (SGLEs) explored within this study include community college programming…

  14. RiTE: Providing On-Demand Data for Right-Time Data Warehousing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Christian; Pedersen, Torben Bach; Lehner, Wolfgang

    2008-01-01

    Data warehouses (DWs) have traditionally been loaded with data at regular time intervals, e.g., monthly, weekly, or daily, using fast bulk loading techniques. Recently, the trend is to insert all (or only some) new source data very quickly into DWs, called near-realtime DWs (right-time DWs...

  15. Do wavelet filters provide more accurate estimates of reverberation times at low frequencies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sobreira Seoane, Manuel A.; Pérez Cabo, David; Agerkvist, Finn T.

    2016-01-01

    It has been amply demonstrated in the literature that it is not possible to measure acoustic decays without significant errors for low BT values (narrow filters and or low reverberation times). Recently, it has been shown how the main source of distortion in the time envelope of the acoustic deca...

  16. Binge Drinking

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Please Parents Want To Do What′s Best The Obesity Epidemic Outbreaks CDC: Protecting Americans through Global Health ... captioning. Videos are prepared for different audiences including, children, parents, and public health professionals. More > Binge Drinking ( ...

  17. Binge Drinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family Life First Aid & Safety Doctors & ... period of uncontrolled overeating). Today the generally accepted definition of binge drinking in the United States is ...

  18. Binge Drinking

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-10-05

    This podcast is based on the October, 2010 CDC Vital Signs report which indicates that drinking too much, including binge drinking, causes more than 79,000 deaths in the U.S. each year and is the third leading preventable cause of death.  Created: 10/5/2010 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 10/5/2010.

  19. Speedometer app videos to provide real-world velocity-time graph data 1: rail travel

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Julien

    2018-03-01

    The use of modern rail travel as a source of real-life velocity-time data to aid in the teaching of velocity and acceleration is discussed. A technique for using GPS speedometer apps to produce videos of velocity and time figures during a rail journey is described. The technique is applied to a UK rail journey, demonstrating how students can use its results to produce a velocity-time graph from which acceleration and deceleration figures can be calculated. These are compared with theoretical maximum figures, calculated from the train’s technical specification.

  20. Online genetic counseling from the providers' perspective : counselors' evaluations and a time and cost analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otten, Ellen; Birnie, Erwin; Ranchor, Adelita V.; van Langen, Irene M.

    Telemedicine applications are increasingly being introduced in patient care in various disciplines, including clinical genetics, mainly to increase access to care and to reduce time and costs for patients and professionals. Most telegenetics reports describe applications in large geographical areas,

  1. Two-way time transfer via optical fiber providing subpicosecond precision and high temperature stability

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kodet, J.; Pánek, Petr; Procházka, I.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 1 (2015), s. 18-26 ISSN 0026-1394 Institutional support: RVO:67985882 Keywords : optical fiber * time transfer * TWOTT Subject RIV: JB - Sensors, Measurment, Regulation Impact factor: 2.500, year: 2015

  2. Two-way time transfer via optical fiber providing subpicosecond precision and high temperature stability

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kodet, J.; Pánek, Petr; Procházka, I.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 1 (2016), s. 18-26 ISSN 0026-1394 Institutional support: RVO:67985882 Keywords : TWOTT * Time transfer * Optical fiber Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 3.411, year: 2016

  3. Time to standardise levels of care amongst Out-of-Hospital Emergency Care providers in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Mould-Millman, N.K.; Stein, C.; Wallis, L.A.

    2016-01-01

    The African Federation for Emergency Medicine’s Out-of-Hospital Emergency Care (OHEC) Committee convened 15 experts from various OHEC systems in Africa to participate in a consensus process to define levels of care within which providers in African OHEC systems should safely and effectively function. The expert panel concluded that four provider levels were relevant for African OHEC systems: (i) first aid, (ii) basic life support, (iii) intermediate life support, and (iv) advanced life suppor...

  4. Effects of storage temperature and time of antimony release from PET bottles into drinking water in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Fei; Lei, Kun; Li, Zicheng; Liu, Qing; Wei, Zhanliang; An, Lihui; Qi, Hongli; Cui, Song

    2018-01-01

    Antimony (Sb) concentrations were measured in 10 brands of PET bottled drinking water available in supermarkets in China. To simulate general storage habits based on market research, these PET bottles with drinking water were stored for 4 weeks in a lab or a car trunk during the summer. Although the PET package material of brand A had the lowest Sb level (142.71 ± 29.81 μg/g), it showed a significant increase in Sb concentrations when stored in both the car trunk and the lab. There was significant release of Sb from the PET bottles into the water following 24 h of incubation at ≥ 40 °C (40, 50, 60, and 70 °C), especially at 70 °C. The potential health risk of Sb release from PET bottles was calculated based on daily intake values and determined to be acceptable for consumers under normal storage conditions.

  5. Binge drinking: Health impact, prevalence, correlates and interventions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuntsche, E.N.; Kuntsche, S.; Thrul, J.; Gmel, G.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Binge drinking (also called heavy episodic drinking, risky single-occasion drinking etc.) is a major public health problem. This paper provides an overview of recently published evidence concerning the definition and measurement, prevalence rates, health impact, demographic and

  6. An algorithm to provide real time neutral beam substitution in the DIII-D tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, J.C.; Greene, K.L.; Hyatt, A.W.; McHarg, B.B. Jr.; Penaflor, B.G.

    1999-06-01

    A key component of the DIII-D tokamak fusion experiment is a flexible and easy to expand digital control system which actively controls a large number of parameters in real-time. These include plasma shape, position, density, and total stored energy. This system, known as the PCS (plasma control system), also has the ability to directly control auxiliary plasma heating systems, such as the 20 MW of neutral beams routinely used on DIII-D. This paper describes the implementation of a real-time algorithm allowing substitution of power from one neutral beam for another, given a fault in the originally scheduled beam. Previously, in the event of a fault in one of the neutral beams, the actual power profile for the shot might be deficient, resulting in a less useful or wasted shot. Using this new real-time algorithm, a stand by neutral beam may substitute within milliseconds for one which has faulted. Since single shots can have substantial value, this is an important advance to DIII-D's capabilities and utilization. Detailed results are presented, along with a description not only of the algorithm but of the simulation setup required to prove the algorithm without the costs normally associated with using physics operations time

  7. Methods for providing decision makers with optimal solutions for multiple objectives that change over time

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Greeff, M

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Decision making - with the goal of finding the optimal solution - is an important part of modern life. For example: In the control room of an airport, the goals or objectives are to minimise the risk of airplanes colliding, minimise the time that a...

  8. Comparing the AUDIT and 3 Drinking Indices as Predictors of Personal and Social Drinking Problems in Freshman First Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hare, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    The current study of 376 college freshman adjudicated the first time for breaking university drinking rules tested the predictive power of four alcohol consumption and problem drinking indices--recent changes in drinking (the Alcohol Change Index: ACI), heavy drinking, binge drinking index, and the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT)…

  9. Using ecological momentary assessment to test the effectiveness of a web-based brief alcohol intervention over time among heavy-drinking students: randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voogt, Carmen; Kuntsche, Emmanuel; Kleinjan, Marloes; Poelen, Evelien; Engels, Rutger

    2014-01-08

    Web-based brief alcohol interventions are effective in reducing alcohol use among students when measured at limited follow-up time points. To date, no studies have tested Web-based brief alcohol intervention effectiveness over time by using a large number of measurements. Testing whether the What Do You Drink (WDYD) Web-based brief alcohol intervention can sustain a reduction in alcohol use among heavy-drinking students aged 18-24 years at 1-, 3-, and 6-month follow-up intervals. A purely Web-based, 2-arm, parallel-group randomized controlled trial applying an ecological momentary assessment approach with 30 weekly measurements was conducted in the Netherlands (2010-2011). Participants were recruited offline and online. A total of 907 participants were randomized into the experimental condition (n=456) including the single-session and fully automated WDYD intervention, or into the control condition (n=451) including assessment only. Weekly alcohol consumption and frequency of binge drinking were the self-assessed outcome measures. Attrition rates of the 907 participants were 110 (12.1%), 130 (14.3%), and 162 (17.9%) at 1-, 3-, and 6-month follow-up intervals, respectively. Latent growth curve analyses according to the intention-to-treat principle revealed that participants in the experimental condition had significantly lower weekly alcohol consumption compared to participants in the control condition that was sustained at 3-month follow-up (intercept=-2.60, Padmin/rctview.asp?TC=2665 (Archived by WebCite at http://webcitation.org/6LuQVn12M).

  10. A METHOD AND AN APPARATUS FOR PROVIDING TIMING SIGNALS TO A NUMBER OF CIRCUITS, AN INTEGRATED CIRCUIT AND A NODE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2006-01-01

    A method of providing or transporting a timing signal between a number of circuits, electrical or optical, where each circuit is fed by a node. The nodes forward timing signals between each other, and at least one node is adapted to not transmit a timing signal before having received a timing...... signal from at least two nodes. In this manner, the direction of the timing skew between nodes and circuits is known and data transport between the circuits made easier....

  11. Online genetic counseling from the providers' perspective: counselors' evaluations and a time and cost analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otten, Ellen; Birnie, Erwin; Ranchor, Adelita V; van Langen, Irene M

    2016-01-01

    Telemedicine applications are increasingly being introduced in patient care in various disciplines, including clinical genetics, mainly to increase access to care and to reduce time and costs for patients and professionals. Most telegenetics reports describe applications in large geographical areas, showing positive patients' and professionals' satisfaction. One economic analysis published thus far reported lower costs than in-person care. We hypothesized that telegenetics can also be beneficial from the professional's view in relatively small geographical areas. We performed a pilot study in the Northern Netherlands of 51 home-based online counseling sessions for cardiogenetic and oncogenetic cascade screening, and urgent prenatal counseling. Previously, we showed patient satisfaction, anxiety, and perceived control of online counseling to be comparable to in-person counseling. This study focuses on expectations, satisfaction, and practical evaluations of the involved counselors, and the impact in terms of time and costs. Most counselors expected disadvantages of online counseling for themselves and their patients, mainly concerning insufficient non-verbal communication; few expected advantages for themselves. Afterwards, counselors additionally raised the disadvantage of insufficient verbal communication, and reported frequent technical problems. Their overall mean telemedicine satisfaction itemscore was 3.38 before, and 2.95 afterwards, being afterwards slightly below the minimum level we set for a satisfactory result. We estimated reduced time and costs by online counseling with about 8% and 10–12%, respectively. We showed online genetic counseling to be effective, feasible and cost-efficient, but technical improvements are needed to increase counselors' satisfaction. PMID:26785833

  12. Exploring Perceptions and Behaviors about Drinking Water in Australia and New Zealand: Is It Risky to Drink Water, When and Why?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Crampton

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Consumers in most developed countries, including Australia and New Zealand, presume their drinking water is safe. How social perceptions about drinking water are formed, however, remains inadequately explored in the research literature. This research contributes exploratory insights by examining factors that affect consumer perceptions and behaviors. Individual perceptions of drinking water quality and actions undertaken to mitigate perceived risks were collected during 183 face-to-face interviews conducted at six research sites. Qualitative thematic analysis revealed the majority did not consider drinking water a “risky” activity, trusted water management authorities to manage all safety issues and believed self-evaluation of drinking water’s taste and appearance were sufficient measures to ensure safe consumption. Quantitatively, significant relationships emerged between water quality perceptions and sex, employment status, drinking water treatment and trust in government to provide safe water. Expert advice was rarely sought, even by those who believed drinking tap water posed some health risks. Generational differences emerged in media usage for drinking water advice. Finally, precautionary measures taken at home and abroad often failed to meet national drinking water guidelines. Three major conclusions are drawn: a. broad lack of awareness exists about the most suitable and safe water treatment activities, as well as risks posed; b. health literacy and interest may be improved through greater consumer involvement in watershed management; and c. development of health campaigns that clearly communicate drinking water safety messages in a timely, relevant and easily understandable fashion may help mitigate actual risks and dispel myths.

  13. The Effect of a Patient-Provider Educational Intervention to Reduce At-Risk Drinking on Changes in Health and Health-Related Quality of Life Among Older Adults: The Project SHARE Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Andrew J; Xu, Haiyong; Tseng, Chi-Hong; Ang, Alfonso; Tallen, Louise; Moore, Alison A; Marshall, Deborah C; Mirkin, Michelle; Ransohoff, Kurt; Duru, O Kenrik; Ettner, Susan L

    2016-01-01

    At-risk drinking, defined as alcohol use that is excessive or potentially harmful in combination with select comorbidities or medications, affects about 10% of older adults in the United States and is associated with higher mortality. The Project SHARE intervention, which uses patient and provider educational materials, physician counseling, and health educator support, was designed to reduce at-risk drinking among this vulnerable population. Although an earlier study showed that this intervention was successful in reducing rates of at-risk drinking, it is unknown whether these reductions translate into improved health and health-related quality of life (HRQL). The aim of this study was to examine changes in health and HRQL of older adult at-risk drinkers resulting from a patient-provider educational intervention. A randomized controlled trial to compare the health and HRQL outcomes of patients assigned to the Project SHARE intervention vs. care as usual at baseline, 6- and 12-months post assignment. Control patients received usual care, which may or may not have included alcohol counseling. Intervention group patients received a personalized patient report, educational materials on alcohol and aging, a brief provider intervention, and a telephone health educator intervention. Current drinkers 60years and older accessing primary care clinics around Santa Barbara, California (N=1049). Data were collected from patients using baseline, 6- and 12-month mail surveys. Health and HRQL measures included mental and physical component scores (MCS and PCS) based on the Short Form-12v2 (SF-12v2), the SF-6D, which is also based on the SF-12, and the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS). Adjusted associations of treatment assignment with these outcomes were estimated using generalized least squares regressions with random provider effects. Regressions controlled for age group, sex, race/ethnicity, marital status, education, household income, home ownership and the baseline value of

  14. Sustainability of arsenic mitigation interventions – an evaluation of different alternative safe drinking water options provided in Matlab, an arsenic hot spot in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MOHAMMED eHOSSAIN

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The wide spread occurrence of geogenic arsenic (As in Bangladesh groundwater drastically reduced the safe water access across the country. Since its discovery in 1993, different mitigation options tested at household and community scale have resulted in limited success. In an arsenic hotspot of southeastern Bangladesh, 841 arsenic removal filter (ARF, 190 surface water filter membrane, 23 pond sand filter (PSF, 147 rain water harvester (RWH and 59 As-safe tubewell were distributed among the severely exposed population by AsMat, a Sida supported project. After three-four years of providing these safe water options, this study was carried out during 2010-2011 for performance analysis of these options, in terms of technical viability and effectiveness and thus to evaluate the preference of different options to the end users. Household and community based surveys were done to make an assessment of the current water use pattern as impact of the distributed options, overall condition of the options provided and to identify the reasons why these options are in use and/or abandoned. In total, 284 households were surveyed and information was collected for 23 PSF, 147 RWH and 59 tubewells. None of the filters was found in use. Among other options distributed, 13% of PSF, 40% RWH and 93% of tubewell were found functioning. In all cases, tubewells were found As-safe. About 89% of households are currently using tubewell water which was 58% before. Filter was abandoned for high cost and complicated maintenance. The use of RWH and PSF was not found user friendly and ensuring year round water quality is a big challenge. Arsenic-safe tubewell was found as a widely accepted option mainly because of its easy operation and availability of water, good water quality and negligible maintenance. This study validated tubewell as the most feasible option and holds significance for planning water supply projects, improving mitigation policy as well as developing awareness

  15. Different and Similar at the Same Time. Cultural Competence through the Leans of Healthcare Providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell'Aversana, Giuseppina; Bruno, Andreina

    2017-01-01

    Cultural competence (CC) for professionals and organizations has been recognized as a key strategy to reduce health care inequalities for migrants and to promote responsiveness to diversity. For decades its main aim has been matching health services to the cultural needs of migrant users. Otherwise literature highlighted the need to find a pragmatic middle way between the 'static' and the 'dynamic' views of culture that are recognizable in CC approaches. A pragmatic middle way to CC will be proposed as the way to respect diversity, even responding to cultural issues, without stereotyping or discriminating. To understand conditions that favor this pragmatic middle way this study aims to explore: (1) perceptions of healthcare providers in managing diversity; (2) strategies used to meet health needs at a professional and organizational level. A qualitative case study was conducted in a healthcare service renowned for its engagement in migrant sensitive care. Four different professional figures involved in CC strategies at different levels, both managerial and non-managerial, were interviewed. Data were analyzed using thematic analysis. Findings indicated that dealing with diversity poses challenges for healthcare providers, by confronting them with multilevel barriers to quality of care. A pragmatic middle way to CC seems to rely on complex understanding of the interaction between patients social conditions and the capacity of the institutional system to promote equity. Professional and organizational strategies, such as inter-professional and intersectional collaboration, cultural food adaptation and professional training can enhance quality of care, patient compliance responding to social and cultural needs.

  16. Does the real-time ultrasound guidance provide safer venipuncture in implantable venous port implantation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yıldırım, İlknur; Tütüncü, Ayşe Çiğdem; Bademler, Süleyman; Özgür, İlker; Demiray, Mukaddes; Karanlık, Hasan

    2018-03-01

    To examine whether the real-time ultrasound-guided venipuncture for implantable venous port placement is safer than the traditional venipuncture. The study analyzed the results of 2153 venous ports placed consecutively from January 2009 to January 2016. A total of 922 patients in group 1 and 1231 patients in group 2 were admitted with venous port placed using the traditional landmark subclavian approach and real-time ultrasound-guided axillary approach, respectively. Sociodemographic characteristics of patients, early (pneumothorax, pinch-off syndrome, arterial puncture, hematoma, and malposition arrhythmia) and late (deep vein thrombosis, obstruction, infection, erosion-dehiscence, and rotation of the port chamber) complications and the association of these complications with the implantation method were evaluated. There were no significant differences in the sociodemographic characteristics of the patients between the two groups. The overall and early complications in group 2 were significantly lower than those in group 1. Pinch-off syndrome only developed in group 1. Seven patients and two patients had pneumothorax in groups 1 and 2, respectively. Puncture number was significantly associated with the development of the overall complications. The ultrasound-guided axillary approach may be preferred as a method to reduce the risk of both early and late complications. Large, randomized, controlled prospective trials will be helpful in determining a safer implantable venous port implantation technique.

  17. Is the population level link between drinking and harm similar for women and men?--a time series analysis with focus on gender-specific drinking and alcohol-related hospitalizations in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engdahl, Barbro; Ramstedt, Mats

    2011-08-01

    A question that has not been addressed in the literature is whether the population level association between alcohol and harm differs between men and women. The main aim of this article is to fill this gap by analysing recently collected time series data of male and female self-reported drinking in relation to gender-specific harm indicators in Sweden. Male and female per capita and risk consumption was estimated on the basis of self-reported data from monthly alcohol surveys for the period 2002-07. Overall per capita consumption including recorded sales and estimates of unrecorded consumption were also collected for the same period. Alcohol-related hospitalizations were used as indicators of alcohol-related harm. Data were aggregated into quarterly observations and analysed by means of time series analyses (ARIMA-modelling). Overall per capita consumption was significantly related to both male and female alcohol-related hospitalizations. Male per capita consumption and risk consumption were also significantly related to alcohol-related hospitalizations among men. Female per capita consumption and risk consumption had also a positive association with alcohol-related hospitalizations but statistical significance was only reached for alcohol poisonings where the association was even stronger than for men. Changes in alcohol consumption in Sweden was associated with changes in male and female alcohol-related hospitalizations also in analyses based on gender-specific consumption measures. There was no clear evidence that the population level association between alcohol and harm differed between men and women.

  18. Laboratory-Scale Simulation and Real-Time Tracking of a Microbial Contamination Event and Subsequent Shock-Chlorination in Drinking Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D. Besmer

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Rapid contamination of drinking water in distribution and storage systems can occur due to pressure drop, backflow, cross-connections, accidents, and bio-terrorism. Small volumes of a concentrated contaminant (e.g., wastewater can contaminate large volumes of water in a very short time with potentially severe negative health impacts. The technical limitations of conventional, cultivation-based microbial detection methods neither allow for timely detection of such contaminations, nor for the real-time monitoring of subsequent emergency remediation measures (e.g., shock-chlorination. Here we applied a newly developed continuous, ultra high-frequency flow cytometry approach to track a rapid pollution event and subsequent disinfection of drinking water in an 80-min laboratory scale simulation. We quantified total (TCC and intact (ICC cell concentrations as well as flow cytometric fingerprints in parallel in real-time with two different staining methods. The ingress of wastewater was detectable almost immediately (i.e., after 0.6% volume change, significantly changing TCC, ICC, and the flow cytometric fingerprint. Shock chlorination was rapid and detected in real time, causing membrane damage in the vast majority of bacteria (i.e., drop of ICC from more than 380 cells μl-1 to less than 30 cells μl-1 within 4 min. Both of these effects as well as the final wash-in of fresh tap water followed calculated predictions well. Detailed and highly quantitative tracking of microbial dynamics at very short time scales and for different characteristics (e.g., concentration, membrane integrity is feasible. This opens up multiple possibilities for targeted investigation of a myriad of bacterial short-term dynamics (e.g., disinfection, growth, detachment, operational changes both in laboratory-scale research and full-scale system investigations in practice.

  19. Providing reliable energy in a time of constraints : a North American concern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egan, T.; Turk, E.

    2008-04-01

    The reliability of the North American electricity grid was discussed. Government initiatives designed to control carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and other emissions in some regions of Canada may lead to electricity supply constraints in other regions. A lack of investment in transmission infrastructure has resulted in constraints within the North American transmission grid, and the growth of smaller projects is now raising concerns about transmission capacity. Labour supply shortages in the electricity industry are also creating concerns about the long-term security of the electricity market. Measures to address constraints must be considered in the current context of the North American electricity system. The extensive transmission interconnects and integration between the United States and Canada will provide a framework for greater trade and market opportunities between the 2 countries. Coordinated actions and increased integration will enable Canada and the United States to increase the reliability of electricity supply. However, both countries must work cooperatively to increase generation supply using both mature and emerging technologies. The cross-border transmission grid must be enhanced by increasing transmission capacity as well as by implementing new reliability rules, building new infrastructure, and ensuring infrastructure protection. Barriers to cross-border electricity trade must be identified and avoided. Demand-side and energy efficiency measures must also be implemented. It was concluded that both countries must focus on developing strategies for addressing the environmental concerns related to electricity production. 6 figs

  20. EVALUATING CONTINUOUS-TIME SLAM USING A PREDEFINED TRAJECTORY PROVIDED BY A ROBOTIC ARM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Koch

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Recently published approaches to SLAM algorithms process laser sensor measurements and output a map as a point cloud of the environment. Often the actual precision of the map remains unclear, since SLAMalgorithms apply local improvements to the resulting map. Unfortunately, it is not trivial to compare the performance of SLAMalgorithms objectively, especially without an accurate ground truth. This paper presents a novel benchmarking technique that allows to compare a precise map generated with an accurate ground truth trajectory to a map with a manipulated trajectory which was distorted by different forms of noise. The accurate ground truth is acquired by mounting a laser scanner on an industrial robotic arm. The robotic arm is moved on a predefined path while the position and orientation of the end-effector tool are monitored. During this process the 2D profile measurements of the laser scanner are recorded in six degrees of freedom and afterwards used to generate a precise point cloud of the test environment. For benchmarking, an offline continuous-time SLAM algorithm is subsequently applied to remove the inserted distortions. Finally, it is shown that the manipulated point cloud is reversible to its previous state and is slightly improved compared to the original version, since small errors that came into account by imprecise assumptions, sensor noise and calibration errors are removed as well.

  1. Evaluating Continuous-Time Slam Using a Predefined Trajectory Provided by a Robotic Arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, B.; Leblebici, R.; Martell, A.; Jörissen, S.; Schilling, K.; Nüchter, A.

    2017-09-01

    Recently published approaches to SLAM algorithms process laser sensor measurements and output a map as a point cloud of the environment. Often the actual precision of the map remains unclear, since SLAMalgorithms apply local improvements to the resulting map. Unfortunately, it is not trivial to compare the performance of SLAMalgorithms objectively, especially without an accurate ground truth. This paper presents a novel benchmarking technique that allows to compare a precise map generated with an accurate ground truth trajectory to a map with a manipulated trajectory which was distorted by different forms of noise. The accurate ground truth is acquired by mounting a laser scanner on an industrial robotic arm. The robotic arm is moved on a predefined path while the position and orientation of the end-effector tool are monitored. During this process the 2D profile measurements of the laser scanner are recorded in six degrees of freedom and afterwards used to generate a precise point cloud of the test environment. For benchmarking, an offline continuous-time SLAM algorithm is subsequently applied to remove the inserted distortions. Finally, it is shown that the manipulated point cloud is reversible to its previous state and is slightly improved compared to the original version, since small errors that came into account by imprecise assumptions, sensor noise and calibration errors are removed as well.

  2. The Online GVP/USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report: Providing Timely Information About Worldwide Volcanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayberry, G. C.; Guffanti, M. C.; Luhr, J. F.; Venzke, E. A.; Wunderman, R. L.

    2001-12-01

    The awesome power and intricate inner workings of volcanoes have made them a popular subject with scientists and the general public alike. About 1500 known volcanoes have been active on Earth during the Holocene, approximately 50 of which erupt per year. With so much activity occurring around the world, often in remote locations, it can be difficult to find up-to-date information about current volcanism from a reliable source. To satisfy the desire for timely volcano-related information the Smithsonian Institution and US Geological Survey combined their strengths to create the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report. The Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program (GVP) has developed a network of correspondents while reporting worldwide volcanism for over 30 years in their monthly Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network. The US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program studies and monitors volcanoes in the United States and responds (upon invitation) to selected volcanic crises in other countries. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is one of the most popular sites on both organization's websites. The core of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is the brief summaries of current volcanic activity around the world. In addition to discussing various types of volcanism, the summaries also describe precursory activity (e.g. volcanic seismicity, deformation, and gas emissions), secondary activity (e.g. debris flows, mass wasting, and rockfalls), volcanic ash hazards to aviation, and preventative measures. The summaries are supplemented by links to definitions of technical terms found in the USGS photoglossary of volcano terms, links to information sources, and background information about reported volcanoes. The site also includes maps that highlight the location of reported volcanoes, an archive of weekly reports sorted by volcano and date, and links to commonly used acronyms. Since the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report's inception in November 2000, activity has been reported at

  3. Detection of caffeine in tea, instant coffee, green tea beverage, and soft drink by direct analysis in real time (DART) source coupled to single-quadrupole mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Zhao, Pengyue; Zhang, Fengzu; Bai, Aijuan; Pan, Canping

    2013-01-01

    Ambient ionization direct analysis in real time (DART) coupled to single-quadrupole MS (DART-MS) was evaluated for rapid detection of caffeine in commercial samples without chromatographic separation or sample preparation. Four commercial samples were examined: tea, instant coffee, green tea beverage, and soft drink. The response-related parameters were optimized for the DART temperature and MS fragmentor. Under optimal conditions, the molecular ion (M+H)+ was the major ion for identification of caffeine. The results showed that DART-MS is a promising tool for the quick analysis of important marker molecules in commercial samples. Furthermore, this system has demonstrated significant potential for high sample throughput and real-time analysis.

  4. A real-time fluorescent sensor specific to Mg2+: crystallographic evidence, DFT calculation and its use for quantitative determination of magnesium in drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Men, Guangwen; Chen, Chunrong; Zhang, Shitong; Liang, Chunshuang; Wang, Ying; Deng, Mengyu; Shang, Hongxing; Yang, Bing; Jiang, Shimei

    2015-02-14

    An "off-the-shelf" fluorescence "turn-on" Mg(2+) chemosensor 3,5-dichlorosalicylaldehyde (BCSA) was rationally designed and developed. This proposed sensor works based on Mg(2+)-induced formation of the 2 : 1 BCSA-Mg(2+) complex. The coordination of BSCA to Mg(2+) increases its structural rigidity generating a chelation-enhanced fluorescence (CHEF) effect which was confirmed by single crystal XRD studies of the BSCA-Mg(2+) complex and TD/DFT calculations. This sensor exhibits high sensitivity and selectivity for the quantitative monitoring of Mg(2+) with a wide detection range (0-40 μM), a low detection limit (2.89 × 10(-7) mol L(-1)) and a short response time (sensor can be utilized to monitor Mg(2+) in real time within actual samples from drinking water.

  5. Binge Drinking

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-04-13

    This podcast explores the health risks of binge drinking and discusses effective community strategies to prevent it.  Created: 4/13/2010 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 4/13/2010.

  6. 30 CFR 75.1718 - Drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drinking water. 75.1718 Section 75.1718 Mineral... SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1718 Drinking water. [Statutory Provisions] An adequate supply of potable water shall be provided for drinking purposes in the active workings of the mine...

  7. Perception of CPR quality: Influence of CPR feedback, Just-in-Time CPR training and provider role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Adam; Overly, Frank; Kessler, David; Nadkarni, Vinay M; Lin, Yiqun; Doan, Quynh; Duff, Jonathan P; Tofil, Nancy M; Bhanji, Farhan; Adler, Mark; Charnovich, Alex; Hunt, Elizabeth A; Brown, Linda L

    2015-02-01

    Many healthcare providers rely on visual perception to guide cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), but little is known about the accuracy of provider perceptions of CPR quality. We aimed to describe the difference between perceived versus measured CPR quality, and to determine the impact of provider role, real-time visual CPR feedback and Just-in-Time (JIT) CPR training on provider perceptions. We conducted secondary analyses of data collected from a prospective, multicenter, randomized trial of 324 healthcare providers who participated in a simulated cardiac arrest scenario between July 2012 and April 2014. Participants were randomized to one of four permutations of: JIT CPR training and real-time visual CPR feedback. We calculated the difference between perceived and measured quality of CPR and reported the proportion of subjects accurately estimating the quality of CPR within each study arm. Participants overestimated achieving adequate chest compression depth (mean difference range: 16.1-60.6%) and rate (range: 0.2-51%), and underestimated chest compression fraction (0.2-2.9%) across all arms. Compared to no intervention, the use of real-time feedback and JIT CPR training (alone or in combination) improved perception of depth (pCPR quality was poor for chest compression depth (0-13%), rate (5-46%) and chest compression fraction (60-63%). Perception of depth is more accurate in CPR providers versus team leaders (27.8% vs. 7.4%; p=0.043) when using real-time feedback. Healthcare providers' visual perception of CPR quality is poor. Perceptions of CPR depth are improved by using real-time visual feedback and with prior JIT CPR training. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. US Adults Drink 17 Billion Binge Drinks a Year

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... result in dangerous driving, risky sexual behavior, and violent behavior. Over time, binge drinking also increases the ... Am J Prev Med 2018; 54(4). Features Media Sign up for Features Get Email Updates To ...

  9. Evaluating the relationship between explicit and implicit drinking identity centrality and hazardous drinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen P. Lindgren

    2016-12-01

    Conclusions: These studies provide preliminary evidence that drinking identity centrality may be an important factor for predicting hazardous drinking. Future research should improve its measurement and evaluate implicit and explicit centrality in experimental and longitudinal studies.

  10. Drinking Water State Revolving Fund

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Drinking Water State Revolving Fund (DWSRF) National Information Management System collects information that provide a record of progress and accountability for...

  11. Simultaneous detection and identification of precursors, degradation and co-products of chemical warfare agents in drinking water by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tak, Vijay; Purohit, Ajay; Pardasani, Deepak; Goud, D Raghavender; Jain, Rajeev; Dubey, D K

    2014-11-28

    Environmental markers of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) comprise millions of chemical structures. The simultaneous detection and identification of these environmental markers poses difficulty due to their diverse chemical properties. In this work, by using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QTOF), a generic analytical method for the detection and identification of wide range of environmental markers of CWAs (including precursors, degradation and co-products of nerve agents and sesqui-mustards) in drinking water, was developed. The chromatographic analysis of 55 environmental markers of CWAs including isomeric and isobaric compounds was accomplished within 20 min, using 1.8 μm particle size column. Subsequent identification of the compounds was achieved by the accurate mass measurement of either protonated molecule [M+H](+) or ammonium adduct [M+NH4](+) and fragment ions. Isomeric and isobaric compounds were distinguished by chromatographic retention time, characteristic fragment ions generated by both in-source collision induced dissociation (CID) and CID in the collision cell by MS/MS experiments. The exact mass measurement errors for all ions were observed less than 3 ppm with internal calibration. The method limits of detection (LODs) and limits of quantification (LOQs) were determined in drinking water and found to be 1-50 ng mL(-1) and 5-125 ng mL(-1), respectively. Applicability of the proposed method was proved by determining the environmental markers of CWAs in aqueous samples provided by Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons during 34th official proficiency test. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Perceptions about energy drinks are associated with energy drink intake among U.S. youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Gayathri; Park, Sohyun; Onufrak, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Energy drinks are growing in popularity among youth because of their stimulant properties. However, they can increase blood pressure and are associated with serious consequences such as cardiac arrest. This study examined the associations between energy drink perceptions and energy drink consumption among youth. The design was a cross-sectional study using the YouthStyles Survey 2011. The online survey was administered at home. Subjects were youths aged 12 to 17 years in the summer of 2011 (n = 779). Energy drink consumption, perceptions about energy drinks, and sociodemographic and behavioral variables were measured. Chi-square and multivariable logistic regression analyses were used. Overall, 9% of youth drank energy drinks, 19.5% agreed that energy drinks are safe drinks for teens, and 12.5% agreed that energy drinks are a type of sports drink. The proportion of youth consuming energy drinks once per week or more was highest among youth aged 16 to 17 years and among those who are physically active three to six times a week. The odds for drinking energy drinks once per week or more was higher among youth who agreed that energy drinks are safe drinks for teens (odds ratios [OR] = 7.7, 95% confidence intervals [CI] =3.6, 16.4) and among those who agreed that energy drinks are a type of sports drink (OR = 5.0, 95% CI = 2.4, 10.7). These findings suggest that many youth may be unaware or misinformed about the potential health effects and nutritional content of energy drinks. Efforts to improve education among youth about the potential adverse effects of consuming energy drinks are needed.

  13. Integrating field plots, lidar, and landsat time series to provide temporally consistent annual estimates of biomass from 1990 to present

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren B. Cohen; Hans-Erik Andersen; Sean P. Healey; Gretchen G. Moisen; Todd A. Schroeder; Christopher W. Woodall; Grant M. Domke; Zhiqiang Yang; Robert E. Kennedy; Stephen V. Stehman; Curtis Woodcock; Jim Vogelmann; Zhe Zhu; Chengquan. Huang

    2015-01-01

    We are developing a system that provides temporally consistent biomass estimates for national greenhouse gas inventory reporting to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Our model-assisted estimation framework relies on remote sensing to scale from plot measurements to lidar strip samples, to Landsat time series-based maps. As a demonstration, new...

  14. 25 CFR 26.30 - Does the Job Training Program provide part-time training or short-term training?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Does the Job Training Program provide part-time training or short-term training? 26.30 Section 26.30 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES JOB PLACEMENT AND TRAINING PROGRAM Training Services § 26.30 Does the Job Training...

  15. Ecological momentary assessment of acute alcohol use disorder symptoms: associations with mood, motives, and use on planned drinking days.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvorak, Robert D; Pearson, Matthew R; Day, Anne M

    2014-08-01

    Several theories posit that alcohol is consumed both in relation to one's mood and in relation to different motives for drinking. However, there are mixed findings regarding the role of mood and motives in predicting drinking. Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) methods provide an opportunity to evaluate near real-time changes in mood and motives within individuals to predict alcohol use. In addition, endorsement of criteria of an alcohol use disorder (AUD) may also be sensitive to changes within subjects. The current study used EMA with 74 moderate drinkers who responded to fixed and random mood, motive, alcohol use, and AUD criteria prompts over a 21-day assessment period. A temporal pattern of daytime mood, evening drinking motivation, and nighttime alcohol use and acute AUD symptoms on planned drinking days was modeled to examine how these associations unfold throughout the day. The results suggest considerable heterogeneity in drinking motivation across drinking days. Additionally, an affect regulation model of drinking to cope with negative mood was observed. Specifically, on planned drinking days, the temporal association between daytime negative mood and the experience of acute AUD symptoms was mediated via coping motives and alcohol use. The current study found that motives are dynamic, and that changes in motives may predict differential drinking patterns across days. Further, the study provides evidence that emotion-regulation-driven alcohol involvement may need to be examined at the event level to fully capture the ebb and flow of negative affect motivated drinking.

  16. The Iowa new practice model: Advancing technician roles to increase pharmacists' time to provide patient care services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreski, Michael; Myers, Megan; Gainer, Kate; Pudlo, Anthony

    Determine the effects of an 18-month pilot project using tech-check-tech in 7 community pharmacies on 1) rate of dispensing errors not identified during refill prescription final product verification; 2) pharmacist workday task composition; and 3) amount of patient care services provided and the reimbursement status of those services. Pretest-posttest quasi-experimental study where baseline and study periods were compared. Pharmacists and pharmacy technicians in 7 community pharmacies in Iowa. The outcome measures were 1) percentage of technician verified refill prescriptions where dispensing errors were not identified on final product verification; 2) percentage of time spent by pharmacists in dispensing, management, patient care, practice development, and other activities; 3) the number of pharmacist patient care services provided per pharmacist hours worked; and 4) percentage of time that technician product verification was used. There was no significant difference in overall errors (0.2729% vs. 0.5124%, P = 0.513), patient safety errors (0.0525% vs. 0.0651%, P = 0.837), or administrative errors (0.2204% vs. 0.4784%, P = 0.411). Pharmacist's time in dispensing significantly decreased (67.3% vs. 49.06%, P = 0.005), and time in direct patient care (19.96% vs. 34.72%, P = 0.003), increased significantly. Time in other activities did not significantly change. Reimbursable services per pharmacist hour (0.11 vs. 0.30, P = 0.129), did not significantly change. Non-reimbursable services increased significantly (2.77 vs. 4.80, P = 0.042). Total services significantly increased (2.88 vs. 5.16, P = 0.044). Pharmacy technician product verification of refill prescriptions preserved dispensing safety while significantly increasing the time spent in delivery of pharmacist provided patient care services. The total number of pharmacist services provided per hour also increased significantly, driven primarily by a significant increase in the number of non

  17. Measuring Physical Inactivity: Do Current Measures Provide an Accurate View of “Sedentary” Video Game Time?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Fullerton

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Measures of screen time are often used to assess sedentary behaviour. Participation in activity-based video games (exergames can contribute to estimates of screen time, as current practices of measuring it do not consider the growing evidence that playing exergames can provide light to moderate levels of physical activity. This study aimed to determine what proportion of time spent playing video games was actually spent playing exergames. Methods. Data were collected via a cross-sectional telephone survey in South Australia. Participants aged 18 years and above (n=2026 were asked about their video game habits, as well as demographic and socioeconomic factors. In cases where children were in the household, the video game habits of a randomly selected child were also questioned. Results. Overall, 31.3% of adults and 79.9% of children spend at least some time playing video games. Of these, 24.1% of adults and 42.1% of children play exergames, with these types of games accounting for a third of all time that adults spend playing video games and nearly 20% of children’s video game time. Conclusions. A substantial proportion of time that would usually be classified as “sedentary” may actually be spent participating in light to moderate physical activity.

  18. Solid-phase nano-extraction and laser-excited time-resolved Shpol'skii spectroscopy for the analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in drinking water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huiyong; Yu, Shenjiang; Campiglia, Andres D

    2009-02-15

    A unique method for screening polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in drinking water samples is reported. Water samples (500 microl) are mixed and centrifuged with 950 microl of a commercial solution of 20 nm gold nanoparticles for pollutants extraction. The precipitate is treated with 2 microl of 1-pentanethiol and 48 microl of n-octane, and the supernatant is then analyzed via laser-excited time-resolved Shpol'skii spectroscopy. Fifteen priority pollutants are directly determined at liquid helium temperature (4.2 K) with the aid of a cryogenic fiber-optic probe. Unambiguous pollutant determination is carried out via spectral and lifetime analysis. Limits of detection are at the parts-per-trillion level. Analytical recoveries are similar to those obtained via high-performance liquid chromatography. The simplicity of the experimental procedure, use of microliters of organic solvent, short analysis time, selectivity, and excellent analytical figures of merit demonstrate the advantages of this environmentally friendly approach for routine analysis of numerous samples.

  19. Barriers to Real-Time Medical Direction via Cellular Communication for Prehospital Emergency Care Providers in Gujarat, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindquist, Benjamin; Strehlow, Matthew C; Rao, G V Ramana; Newberry, Jennifer A

    2016-07-08

    Many low- and middle-income countries depend on emergency medical technicians (EMTs), nurses, midwives, and layperson community health workers with limited training to provide a majority of emergency medical, trauma, and obstetric care in the prehospital setting. To improve timely patient care and expand provider scope of practice, nations leverage cellular phones and call centers for real-time online medical direction. However, there exist several barriers to adequate communication that impact the provision of emergency care. We sought to identify obstacles in the cellular communication process among GVK Emergency Management and Research Institute (GVK EMRI) EMTs in Gujarat, India. A convenience sample of practicing EMTs in Gujarat, India were surveyed regarding the barriers to call initiation and completion. 108 EMTs completed the survey. Overall, ninety-seven (89.8%) EMTs responded that the most common reason they did not initiate a call with the call center physician was insufficient time. Forty-six (42%) EMTs reported that they were unable to call the physician one or more times during a typical workweek (approximately 5-6 twelve-hour shifts/week) due to their hands being occupied performing direct patient care. Fifty-eight (54%) EMTs reported that they were unable to reach the call center physician, despite attempts, at least once a week. This study identified multiple barriers to communication, including insufficient time to call for advice and inability to reach call center physicians. Identification of simple interventions and best practices may improve communication and ensure timely and appropriate prehospital care.

  20. Effect of coffe and a cola-based soft drink on the color stability of bleached bovine incisors considering the time elapsed after bleaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo PIROLO

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available There is no consensus about the waiting time necessary for the patient to start consuming beverages containing colorants again after bleaching. Objective: To evaluate the influence of beverages with coloring agents on bleached bovine incisors considering the time elapsed after bleaching. Materials and methods: Sixty bovine incisors were bleached with 35% hydrogen peroxide for in-office use (Whiteness HP Max and divided into 10 groups. The color was evaluated with a spectrophotometer (Spectro Shade MICRO before and after bleaching, employing the CIE-Lab system. After bleaching, the teeth were exposed for 5 min to coffee or cola-based soft drink (CBSD at different periods after bleaching: 10 min, 1 h, 24 h, 48 h, and 72 h. Color (∆E and lightness (∆L variations were obtained from the CIE-Lab coordinates. Data were subjected to two-way ANOVA and Tukey HSD tests (p<0.05. Results: Significant differences were observed between groups for both the ∆L and ∆E values (p<0.001. All specimens presented a decrease in brightness (negative ∆L. The highest ∆E values were observed for teeth stained with a CBSD at 10 min and 1 h (4.12 and 4.16, respectively. Teeth pigmented with coffee presented ∆E values below 3.3 units for all evaluation times. Conclusion: The exposure to coffee after bleaching causes less color changes than the exposure to a CBSD regardless of the time after bleaching.

  1. Leisure activities are linked to mental health benefits by providing time structure: comparing employed, unemployed and homemakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, William K; Geiger, Ashley M; Wolf, Jutta M

    2017-01-01

    Unemployment has consistently been linked to negative mental health outcomes, emphasising the need to characterise the underlying mechanisms. The current study aimed at testing whether compared with other employment groups, fewer leisure activities observed in unemployment may contribute to elevated risk for negative mental health via loss of time structure. Depressive symptoms (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression), leisure activities (exercise, self-focused, social), and time structure (Time Structure Questionnaire (TSQ)) were assessed cross-sectionally in 406 participants (unemployed=155, employed=140, homemakers=111) recruited through Amazon Mechanical Turk. Controlling for gender and age, structural equation modelling revealed time structure partially (employed, homemakers) and fully (unemployed) mediated the relationship between leisure activities and depressive symptoms. With the exception of differential effects for structured routines, all other TSQ factors (sense of purpose, present orientation, effective organisation and persistence) contributed significantly to all models. These findings support the idea that especially for the unemployed, leisure activities impose their mental health benefits through increasing individuals' perception of spending their time effectively. Social leisure activities that provide a sense of daily structure may thereby be a particularly promising low-cost intervention to improve mental health in this population. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  2. Drinking Water - National Drinking Water Clearinghouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savings Septic Unsafe Disposable Wipe Woes FacebookLogo FOCUS AREAS Drinking Water Wastewater Training Security Conservation & Water Efficiency Water We Drink Source Water Protection SORA/COI EPA MOU CartIcon Links Listserv Educators Homeowners Operators Small Systems Drinking Water Read On Tap Latest

  3. Groundwater residence time : tell me who you are and I will tell which information you may provide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquilina, Luc; Labasque, Thierry; Kolbe, Tamara; Marçais, Jean; Leray, Sarah; Abbott, Ben; de Dreuzy, Jean-Raynald

    2016-04-01

    Groundwater residence-time or ages have been widely used in hydrogeology during the last decades. Following tritium measurements, anthropogenic gases (CFC, SF6, 35Kr) have been developed. They provide information at the aquifer scale on long residence times. They complement the more localized data obtained from sparse boreholes with hydraulic and geophysical methods. Anthropogenic tracer concentrations are most generally considered as "Groundwater ages" using a piston flow model providing an order of magnitude for the residence time. More advanced information can however be derived from the combined analysis of the tracer concentrations. For example, the residence time distribution over the last 50 years can be well approached by the concentration of two sufficient different anthropogenic tracers in the group (CFC, SF6, 35Kr), i.e. tracers whose anthropogenic chronicles are sufficiently different. And, with additional constrains on geological and hydraulic properties, groundwater ages contribute to characterize the aquifer structures and the groundwater resources. Complex geological environments also include old groundwater bodies in extremely confined aquifer sections. In such cases, various tracers are related to highly different processes. CFCs can be taken as a marker of modern contamination to track exchanges between shallower and deeper aquifers, leakage processes, and modification of circulations linked to recent anthropogenic changes. 14C or 36Cl can be used to evidence much older processes but have to be related to the history of the chemical element itself. Numerous field studies in fact demonstrate the broad-range extent of the residence time distribution spanning in some cases several orders of magnitude. Flow and transport models in heterogeneous structures confirm such wide residence times and help to characterize their distribution. Residence times also serve as a privileged interface to the fate of some contaminants in aquifers or to trace

  4. Influencing Anesthesia Provider Behavior Using Anesthesia Information Management System Data for Near Real-Time Alerts and Post Hoc Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Richard H; Dexter, Franklin; Patel, Neil

    2015-09-01

    In this review article, we address issues related to using data from anesthesia information management systems (AIMS) to deliver near real-time alerts via AIMS workstation popups and/or alphanumeric pagers and post hoc reports via e-mail. We focus on reports and alerts for influencing the behavior of anesthesia providers (i.e., anesthesiologists, anesthesia residents, and nurse anesthetists). Multiple studies have shown that anesthesia clinical decision support (CDS) improves adherence to protocols and increases financial performance through facilitation of billing, regulatory, and compliance documentation; however, improved clinical outcomes have not been demonstrated. We inform developers and users of feedback systems about the multitude of concerns to consider during development and implementation of CDS to increase its effectiveness and to mitigate its potentially disruptive aspects. We discuss the timing and modalities used to deliver messages, implications of outlier-only versus individualized feedback, the need to consider possible unintended consequences of such feedback, regulations, sustainability, and portability among systems. We discuss statistical issues related to the appropriate evaluation of CDS efficacy. We provide a systematic review of the published literature (indexed in PubMed) of anesthesia CDS and offer 2 case studies of CDS interventions using AIMS data from our own institution illustrating the salient points. Because of the considerable expense and complexity of maintaining near real-time CDS systems, as compared with providing individual reports via e-mail after the fact, we suggest that if the same goal can be accomplished via delayed reporting versus immediate feedback, the former approach is preferable. Nevertheless, some processes require near real-time alerts to produce the desired improvement. Post hoc e-mail reporting from enterprise-wide electronic health record systems is straightforward and can be accomplished using system

  5. Effect of environmental conditions on the migration of DI (2-Ethylhexyl) Phthalate from PET bottles into yogurt drinks: Influence of time, temperature and food simulant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farhoodi, M.; Emam-Djomeh, Z.; Ehsani, Mohammad Reza; Oromiehie, A.

    2008-01-01

    Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) is one of the materials that are widely used for packaging of beverages and edible oils. In this study, the migration of di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) from PET bottles into the Iranian yogurt drink was investigated. According to European Commission regulations, acetic acid (3% w/v) was chosen as stimulant. The acetic acid samples were stored at 4C, 25C and 45Cfor four months and analyzed periodically by gas chromatography. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) was used to investigate if contact with the food stimulant could affect the PET material. It was concluded that the storage temperature had a large effect on the migration of DEHP. Also, increasing storage time resulted in higher concentrations of migrating DEHP. The concentrations of migrating substance did not exceed its specific migration limit (Economic European Community (EEC) regulations). Determination of glass transition (Tg) and crystallinity percent of PET bottles using DSC method showed that the variations in the amount of migration at different storage condition did not induce any change in the PET material in contact with 3% acetic acid. (author)

  6. Effect of environmental conditions on the migration of di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate from pet bottles into yogurt drinks: influence of time, temperature, and food simulant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farhoodi, Mehdi; Djomeh, Zahra Emam; Ehsani, Mohammad Reza; Oromiehie, Abdolrasul

    2008-01-01

    Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) is one of the materials that are widely used for packaging of beverages and edible oils. In this study, the migration of di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) from PET bottles into the Iranian yogurt drink was investigated. According to European Commission regulations, acetic acid (3% w/v) was chosen as simulant. The acetic acid samples were stored at 4 degree C, 25 degree C, and 45 degree C for four months and analyzed periodically by gas chromatography. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) was used to investigate if contact with the food simulant could affect the PET material. It was concluded that the storage temperature had a large effect on the migration of DEHP. Also, increasing storage time resulted in higher concentrations of migrating DEHP. The concentrations of migrating substance did not exceed its specific migration limit (Economic European Community (EEC) regulations). Determination of glass transition (Tg) and crystallinity percent of PET bottles using DSC method showed that the variations in the amount of migration at different storage condition did not induce any change in the PET material in contact with 3% acetic acid. (author)

  7. Corrosion of aluminium in soft drinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seruga, M; Hasenay, D

    1996-04-01

    The corrosion of aluminium (Al) in several brands of soft drinks (cola- and citrate-based drinks) has been studied, using an electrochemical method, namely potentiodynamic polarization. The results show that the corrosion of Al in soft drinks is a very slow, time-dependent and complex process, strongly influenced by the passivation, complexation and adsorption processes. The corrosion of Al in these drinks occurs principally due to the presence of acids: citric acid in citrate-based drinks and orthophosphoric acid in cola-based drinks. The corrosion rate of Al rose with an increase in the acidity of soft drinks, i.e. with increase of the content of total acids. The corrosion rates are much higher in the cola-based drinks than those in citrate-based drinks, due to the facts that: (1) orthophosphoric acid is more corrosive to Al than is citric acid, (2) a quite different passive oxide layer (with different properties) is formed on Al, depending on whether the drink is cola or citrate based. The method of potentiodynamic polarization was shown as being very suitable for the study of corrosion of Al in soft drinks, especially if it is combined with some non-electrochemical method, e.g. graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS).

  8. Measurement and valuation of health providers' time for the management of childhood pneumonia in rural Malawi: an empirical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozzani, Fiammetta Maria; Arnold, Matthias; Colbourn, Timothy; Lufesi, Norman; Nambiar, Bejoy; Masache, Gibson; Skordis-Worrall, Jolene

    2016-07-28

    Human resources are a major cost driver in childhood pneumonia case management. Introduction of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV-13) in Malawi can lead to savings on staff time and salaries due to reductions in pneumonia cases requiring admission. Reliable estimates of human resource costs are vital for use in economic evaluations of PCV-13 introduction. Twenty-eight severe and twenty-four very severe pneumonia inpatients under the age of five were tracked from admission to discharge by paediatric ward staff using self-administered timesheets at Mchinji District Hospital between June and August 2012. All activities performed and the time spent on each activity were recorded. A monetary value was assigned to the time by allocating a corresponding percentage of the health workers' salary. All costs are reported in 2012 US$. A total of 1,017 entries, grouped according to 22 different activity labels, were recorded during the observation period. On average, 99 min (standard deviation, SD = 46) were spent on each admission: 93 (SD = 38) for severe and 106 (SD = 55) for very severe cases. Approximately 40 % of activities involved monitoring and stabilization, including administering non-drug therapies such as oxygen. A further 35 % of the time was spent on injecting antibiotics. Nurses provided 60 % of the total time spent on pneumonia admissions, clinicians 25 % and support staff 15 %. Human resource costs were approximately US$ 2 per bed-day and, on average, US$ 29.5 per severe pneumonia admission and US$ 37.7 per very severe admission. Self-reporting was successfully used in this context to generate reliable estimates of human resource time and costs of childhood pneumonia treatment. Assuming vaccine efficacy of 41 % and 90 % coverage, PCV-13 introduction in Malawi can save over US$ 2 million per year in staff costs alone.

  9. Comparison of in-and outpatients protocols for providence night time only bracing in AIS patients -- compliance and satisfaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Aubaidi, Zaid Tj; Tropp, Hans; Pedersen, Niels W

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Skeletally immature patients diagnosed with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) and a Cobb angle above 25degrees is usually treated with a brace. Standard protocols in many centers include hospitalisation for a few days for the purpose of brace adaptation and fitting. The aim...... of this study is to compare compliance and satisfaction in hospitalization and out patient clinic protocols, at the initiation phase of brace treatment.Materials and methodsTwenty-four consecutive patients with AIS were initiated with the Providence night time only brace at our department between October 2008...

  10. Primary Care Providers' Opening of Time-Sensitive Alerts Sent to Commercial Electronic Health Record InBaskets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutrona, Sarah L; Fouayzi, Hassan; Burns, Laura; Sadasivam, Rajani S; Mazor, Kathleen M; Gurwitz, Jerry H; Garber, Lawrence; Sundaresan, Devi; Houston, Thomas K; Field, Terry S

    2017-11-01

    Time-sensitive alerts are among the many types of clinical notifications delivered to physicians' secure InBaskets within commercial electronic health records (EHRs). A delayed alert review can impact patient safety and compromise care. To characterize factors associated with opening of non-interruptive time-sensitive alerts delivered into primary care provider (PCP) InBaskets. We analyzed data for 799 automated alerts. Alerts highlighted actionable medication concerns for older patients post-hospital discharge (2010-2011). These were study-generated alerts sent 3 days post-discharge to InBaskets for 75 PCPs across a multisite healthcare system, and represent a subset of all urgent InBasket notifications. Using EHR access and audit logs to track alert opening, we performed bivariate and multivariate analyses calculating associations between patient characteristics, provider characteristics, contextual factors at the time of alert delivery (number of InBasket notifications, weekday), and alert opening within 24 h. At the time of alert delivery, the PCPs had a median of 69 InBasket notifications and had received a median of 379.8 notifications (IQR 295.0, 492.0) over the prior 7 days. Of the 799 alerts, 47.1% were opened within 24 h. Patients with longer hospital stays (>4 days) were marginally more likely to have alerts opened (OR 1.48 [95% CI 1.00-2.19]). Alerts delivered to PCPs whose InBaskets had a higher number of notifications at the time of alert delivery were significantly less likely to be opened within 24 h (top quartile >157 notifications: OR 0.34 [95% CI 0.18-0.61]; reference bottom quartile ≤42). Alerts delivered on Saturdays were also less likely to be opened within 24 h (OR 0.18 [CI 0.08-0.39]). The number of total InBasket notifications and weekend delivery may impact the opening of time-sensitive EHR alerts. Further study is needed to support safe and effective approaches to care team management of InBasket notifications.

  11. Understanding standard drinks and drinking guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, William C; Stockwell, Tim

    2012-03-01

    For consumers to follow drinking guidelines and limit their risk of negative consequences they need to track their ethanol consumption. This paper reviews published research on the ability of consumers to utilise information about the alcohol content of beverages when expressed in different forms, for example in standard drinks or units versus percentage alcohol content. A review of the literature on standard drink definitions and consumer understanding of these, actual drink pouring, use of standard drinks in guidelines and consumer understanding and use of these. Standard drink definitions vary across countries and typically contain less alcohol than actual drinks. Drinkers have difficulty defining and pouring standard drinks with over-pouring being the norm such that intake volume is typically underestimated. Drinkers have difficulty using percentage alcohol by volume and pour size information in calculating intake but can effectively utilise standard drink labelling to track intake. Standard drink labelling is an effective but little used strategy for enabling drinkers to track their alcohol intake and potentially conform to safe or low-risk drinking guidelines. © 2011 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  12. Characteristics associated with consumption of sports and energy drinks among US adults: National Health Interview Survey, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sohyun; Onufrak, Stephen; Blanck, Heidi M; Sherry, Bettylou

    2013-01-01

    Sales of sports and energy drinks have increased dramatically, but there is limited information on regular consumers of sports and energy drinks. Characteristics associated with sports and energy drink intake were examined among a sample representing the civilian noninstitutionalized US adult population. The 2010 National Health Interview Survey data for 25,492 adults (18 years of age or older; 48% males) were used. Nationwide, 31.3% of adults were sports and energy drink consumers during the past 7 days, with 21.5% consuming sports and energy drinks one or more times per week and 11.5% consuming sports and energy drinks three or more times per week. Based on multivariable logistic regression, younger adults, males, non-Hispanic blacks and Hispanics, not-married individuals, adults with higher family income, those who lived in the South or West, adults who engaged in leisure-time physical activity, current smokers, and individuals whose satisfaction with their social activities/relationships was excellent had significantly higher odds for drinking sports and energy drinks one or more times per week. In this model, the factor most strongly associated with weekly sports and energy drink consumption was age (odds ratio [OR]=10.70 for 18- to 24-year-olds, OR=6.40 for 25- to 39-year-olds, OR=3.17 for 40- to 59-year-olds vs 60 years or older). Lower odds for consuming sports and energy drinks one or more times per week were associated with other/multiracial (OR=0.80 vs non-Hispanic white) and obesity (OR=0.87 vs underweight/normal weight). Separate modeling of the association between other beverage intake and sports and energy drink intake showed that higher intake of regular soda, sweetened coffee/tea drinks, fruit drinks, milk, 100% fruit juice, and alcohol were significantly associated with greater odds for drinking sports and energy drinks one or more times per week. These findings can help medical care providers and public health officials identify adults most in

  13. Time-driven activity-based costing: a driver for provider engagement in costing activities and redesign initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Nancy; Burke, Michael A; Setlur, Nisheeta P; Niedzwiecki, Douglas R; Kaplan, Alan L; Saigal, Christopher; Mahajan, Aman; Martin, Neil A; Kaplan, Robert S

    2014-11-01

    To date, health care providers have devoted significant efforts to improve performance regarding patient safety and quality of care. To address the lagging involvement of health care providers in the cost component of the value equation, UCLA Health piloted the implementation of time-driven activity-based costing (TDABC). Here, the authors describe the implementation experiment, share lessons learned across the care continuum, and report how TDABC has actively engaged health care providers in costing activities and care redesign. After the selection of pilots in neurosurgery and urology and the creation of the TDABC team, multidisciplinary process mapping sessions, capacity-cost calculations, and model integration were coordinated and offered to engage care providers at each phase. Reviewing the maps for the entire episode of care, varying types of personnel involved in the delivery of care were noted: 63 for the neurosurgery pilot and 61 for the urology pilot. The average cost capacities for care coordinators, nurses, residents, and faculty were $0.70 (range $0.63-$0.75), $1.55 (range $1.28-$2.04), $0.58 (range $0.56-$0.62), and $3.54 (range $2.29-$4.52), across both pilots. After calculating the costs for material, equipment, and space, the TDABC model enabled the linking of a specific step of the care cycle (who performed the step and its duration) and its associated costs. Both pilots identified important opportunities to redesign care delivery in a costconscious fashion. The experimentation and implementation phases of the TDABC model have succeeded in engaging health care providers in process assessment and costing activities. The TDABC model proved to be a catalyzing agent for cost-conscious care redesign.

  14. The Tehran Older Adults’ Leisure Time and Physical Activity With Emphesize of Sport Equipments Provided by Municipality in 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahboubeh Chamanpira

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of this research is to evaluate the quality of the older adults’ leisure time in Tehran focused on their physical activity and their satisfaction with outdoor sport facilities provided in the parks by municipality. Methods & Materials: The type of research is descriptive in which Tehran is divided into 5 (geographical districts. Through cluster sampling method, 366 individuals has been randomly selected out of 701300 people as Tehran elderly population. The information gathering tool is a questionnaire made by the researcher. Its validity and reliability was measured by experts and Cronbach’s alpha 0.80. Pearson’s r correlations were conducted in order to determine whether significant correlations exist between variables. All statistical analysis were done using SPSS 13 software and alpha level was set at <0.05 Results: findings show that about 74% of the elderly do exercise, most of which is walking. It has been revealed through this research that 59.7% are moderate with the quality of their leisure time. In addition, 48.2% does not use the sports equipments in the parks and 41.7% think that body-building equipment in the parks highly or absolutely highly appropriate for the elderly. There is a meaningful correlation between age and duration of leisure time (P<0.01.Whereas, the correlation between age and satisfaction with facilities is not meaningful (P≤0.05. Furthermore, there are also meaningful correlation between gender and the degree of satisfaction. Conclusion: According to findings of this research, the majority of elder were satisfied with their liesure time at moderately level. Doing physical activity have a significant role in their satisfaction of leisure time. Existing of appropriate sports equipments in parks encourage them to practice physical activities. As a result, the extension and development of these facilities are recommended.

  15. Drinking Game Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Debus, Michael S.

    2016-01-01

    The paper examines research on drinking game participation from a game studies ontological perspective, covering definition, classification and problems with the, in the studies implied, underlying ontology of drinking games.......The paper examines research on drinking game participation from a game studies ontological perspective, covering definition, classification and problems with the, in the studies implied, underlying ontology of drinking games....

  16. A Classical Based Derivation of Time Dilation Providing First Order Accuracy to Schwarzschild's Solution of Einstein's Field Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Rickey W.

    In Einstein's theory of Special Relativity (SR), one method to derive relativistic kinetic energy is via applying the classical work-energy theorem to relativistic momentum. This approach starts with a classical based work-energy theorem and applies SR's momentum to the derivation. One outcome of this derivation is relativistic kinetic energy. From this derivation, it is rather straight forward to form a kinetic energy based time dilation function. In the derivation of General Relativity a common approach is to bypass classical laws as a starting point. Instead a rigorous development of differential geometry and Riemannian space is constructed, from which classical based laws are derived. This is in contrast to SR's approach of starting with classical laws and applying the consequences of the universal speed of light by all observers. A possible method to derive time dilation due to Newtonian gravitational potential energy (NGPE) is to apply SR's approach to deriving relativistic kinetic energy. It will be shown this method gives a first order accuracy compared to Schwarzschild's metric. The SR's kinetic energy and the newly derived NGPE derivation are combined to form a Riemannian metric based on these two energies. A geodesic is derived and calculations compared to Schwarzschild's geodesic for an orbiting test mass about a central, non-rotating, non-charged massive body. The new metric results in high accuracy calculations when compared to Einsteins General Relativity's prediction. The new method provides a candidate approach for starting with classical laws and deriving General Relativity effects. This approach mimics SR's method of starting with classical mechanics when deriving relativistic equations. As a compliment to introducing General Relativity, it provides a plausible scaffolding method from classical physics when teaching introductory General Relativity. A straight forward path from classical laws to General Relativity will be derived. This derivation

  17. Providing critical laboratory results on time, every time to help reduce emergency department length of stay: how our laboratory achieved a Six Sigma level of performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blick, Kenneth E

    2013-08-01

    To develop a fully automated core laboratory, handling samples on a "first in, first out" real-time basis with Lean/Six Sigma management tools. Our primary goal was to provide services to critical care areas, eliminating turnaround time outlier percentage (TAT-OP) as a factor in patient length of stay (LOS). A secondary goal was to achieve a better laboratory return on investment. In 2011, we reached our primary goal when we calculated the TAT-OP distribution and found we had achieved a Six Sigma level of performance, ensuring that our laboratory service can be essentially eliminated as a factor in emergency department patient LOS. We also measured return on investment, showing a productivity improvement of 35%, keeping pace with our increased testing volume. As a result of our Lean process improvements and Six Sigma initiatives, in part through (1) strategic deployment of point-of-care testing and (2) core laboratory total automation with robotics, middleware, and expert system technology, physicians and nurses at the Oklahoma University Medical Center can more effectively deliver lifesaving health care using evidence-based protocols that depend heavily on "on time, every time" laboratory services.

  18. Safer-drinking strategies used by chronically homeless individuals with alcohol dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grazioli, Véronique S; Hicks, Jennifer; Kaese, Greta; Lenert, James; Collins, Susan E

    2015-07-01

    Chronically homeless individuals with alcohol dependence experience severe alcohol-related consequences. It is therefore important to identify factors that might be associated with reduced alcohol-related harm, such as the use of safer-drinking strategies. Whereas effectiveness of safer-drinking strategies has been well-documented among young adults, no studies have explored this topic among more severely affected populations, such as chronically homeless individuals with alcohol dependence. The aims of this study were thus to qualitatively and quantitatively document safer-drinking strategies used in this population. Participants (N=31) were currently or formerly chronically homeless individuals with alcohol dependence participating in a pilot study of extended-release naltrexone and harm-reduction counseling. At weeks 0 and 8, research staff provided a list of safer-drinking strategies for participants to endorse. Implementation of endorsed safer-drinking strategies was recorded at the next appointment. At both time points, strategies to buffer the effects of alcohol on the body (e.g., eating prior to and during drinking) were most highly endorsed, followed by changing the manner in which one drinks (e.g., spacing drinks), and reducing alcohol consumption. Quantitative analyses indicated that all participants endorsed safer-drinking strategies, and nearly all strategies were implemented (80-90% at weeks 0 and 8, respectively). These preliminary findings indicate that chronically homeless people with alcohol dependence use strategies to reduce harm associated with their drinking. Larger randomized controlled trials are needed to test whether interventions that teach safer-drinking strategies may reduce overall alcohol-related harm in this population. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Geographical distribution of drinking-water with high iodine level and association between high iodine level in drinking-water and goitre: a Chinese national investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Hongmei; Liu, Shoujun; Sun, Dianjun; Zhang, Shubin; Su, Xiaohui; Shen, Yanfeng; Han, Hepeng

    2011-07-01

    Excessive iodine intake can cause thyroid function disorders as can be caused by iodine deficiency. There are many people residing in areas with high iodine levels in drinking-water in China. The main aim of the present study was to map the geographical distribution of drinking-water with high iodine level in China and to determine the relationship between high iodine level in drinking-water and goitre prevalence. Iodine in drinking-water was measured in 1978 towns of eleven provinces in China, with a total of 28,857 water samples. We randomly selected children of 8-10 years old, examined the presence of goitre and measured their urinary iodine in 299 towns of nine provinces. Of the 1978 towns studied, 488 had iodine levels between 150 and 300 μg/l in drinking-water, and in 246 towns, the iodine level was >300 μg/l. These towns are mainly distributed along the original Yellow River flood areas, the second largest river in China. Of the 56 751 children examined, goitre prevalence was 6.3 % in the areas with drinking-water iodine levels of 150-300 μg/l and 11.0 % in the areas with drinking-water iodine >300 μg/l. Goitre prevalence increased with water and urinary iodine levels. For children with urinary iodine >1500 μg/l, goitre prevalence was 3.69 times higher than that for those with urinary iodine levels of 100-199 μg/l. The present study suggests that drinking-water with high iodine levels is distributed in eleven provinces of China. Goitre becomes more prevalent with the increase in iodine level in drinking-water. Therefore, it becomes important to prevent goitre through stopping the provision of iodised salt and providing normal drinking-water iodine through pipelines in these areas in China.

  20. Seven novel probe systems for real-time PCR provide absolute single-base discrimination, higher signaling, and generic components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, James L; Hu, Peixu; Shafer, David A

    2014-11-01

    We have developed novel probe systems for real-time PCR that provide higher specificity, greater sensitivity, and lower cost relative to dual-labeled probes. The seven DNA Detection Switch (DDS)-probe systems reported here employ two interacting polynucleotide components: a fluorescently labeled probe and a quencher antiprobe. High-fidelity detection is achieved with three DDS designs: two internal probes (internal DDS and Flip probes) and a primer probe (ZIPR probe), wherein each probe is combined with a carefully engineered, slightly mismatched, error-checking antiprobe. The antiprobe blocks off-target detection over a wide range of temperatures and facilitates multiplexing. Other designs (Universal probe, Half-Universal probe, and MacMan probe) use generic components that enable low-cost detection. Finally, single-molecule G-Force probes employ guanine-mediated fluorescent quenching by forming a hairpin between adjacent C-rich and G-rich sequences. Examples provided show how these probe technologies discriminate drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis mutants, Escherichia coli O157:H7, oncogenic EGFR deletion mutations, hepatitis B virus, influenza A/B strains, and single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the human VKORC1 gene. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Investigative Pathology and the Association for Molecular Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. New England's Drinking Water | Drinking Water in New ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-06

    Information on Drinking Water in New England. Major Topics covered include: Conservation, Private Wells, Preventing Contamination, Drinking Water Sources, Consumer Confidence Reports, and Drinking Water Awards.

  2. High-resolution, time-resolved MRA provides superior definition of lower-extremity arterial segments compared to 2D time-of-flight imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, F J; Du, J; Suleiman, S A; Dieter, R; Tefera, G; Pillai, K R; Korosec, F R; Mistretta, C A; Grist, T M

    2006-08-01

    To evaluate a novel time-resolved contrast-enhanced (CE) projection reconstruction (PR) magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) method for identifying potential bypass graft target vessels in patients with Class II-IV peripheral vascular disease. Twenty patients (M:F = 15:5, mean age = 58 years, range = 48-83 years), were recruited from routine MRA referrals. All imaging was performed on a 1.5 T MRI system with fast gradients (Signa LX; GE Healthcare, Waukesha, WI). Images were acquired with a novel technique that combined undersampled PR with a time-resolved acquisition to yield an MRA method with high temporal and spatial resolution. The method is called PR hyper time-resolved imaging of contrast kinetics (PR-hyperTRICKS). Quantitative and qualitative analyses were used to compare two-dimensional (2D) time-of-flight (TOF) and PR-hyperTRICKS in 13 arterial segments per lower extremity. Statistical analysis was performed with the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Fifteen percent (77/517) of the vessels were scored as missing or nondiagnostic with 2D TOF, but were scored as diagnostic with PR-hyperTRICKS. Image quality was superior with PR-hyperTRICKS vs. 2D TOF (on a four-point scale, mean rank = 3.3 +/- 1.2 vs. 2.9 +/- 1.2, P < 0.0001). PR-hyperTRICKS produced images with high contrast-to-noise ratios (CNR) and high spatial and temporal resolution. 2D TOF images were of inferior quality due to moderate spatial resolution, inferior CNR, greater flow-related artifacts, and absence of temporal resolution. PR-hyperTRICKS provides superior preoperative assessment of lower limb ischemia compared to 2D TOF.

  3. Using Sleep Interventions to Engage and Treat Heavy-Drinking College Students: A Randomized Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fucito, Lisa M.; DeMartini, Kelly S.; Hanrahan, Tess H.; Yaggi, Henry Klar; Heffern, Christina; Redeker, Nancy S.

    2017-01-01

    Background Continued high alcohol consumption levels by college students highlight the need for more effective alcohol interventions and novel treatment engagement strategies. The purpose of this study was to investigate a behavioral sleep intervention as a means to engage heavy-drinking college students in treatment and reduce alcohol use and alcohol-related consequences. Methods Heavy-drinking college students (N=42) were assigned to 1 of 2 web-based interventions comprised of 4 modules delivered over 4 weeks. The experimental intervention focused primarily on sleep and included evidence-based sleep content (i.e., stimulus control instructions, sleep scheduling (consistent bed/rise times; ideal sleep duration for adolescents/young adults), sleep hygiene advice, relaxation training, cognitive strategies to target sleep-disruptive beliefs) and alcohol content (i.e., normative and blood alcohol level feedback, moderate drinking guidelines, controlled drinking strategies, effects of alcohol on sleep and the body, advice to moderate drinking for improved sleep) in young adults. The healthy behaviors control condition provided basic advice about nutrition, exercise, sleep (i.e., good sleep hygiene only) and drinking (i.e., effects of alcohol on the body, moderate drinking guidelines, advice to moderate drinking for sleep). Participants in both conditions monitored their sleep using daily web-based diaries and a wrist-worn sleep tracker. Results Recruitment ads targeting college students with sleep concerns effectively identified heavy-drinking students. The program generated a high number of inquiries and treatment completion rates were high. Both interventions significantly reduced typical week drinking and alcohol-related consequences and improved sleep quality and sleep-related impairment ratings. The control condition yielded greater reductions in total drinks in a heaviest drinking week. The effects on drinking were larger than those observed in typical brief

  4. Portrayals of branded soft drinks in popular American movies: a content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassady, Diana; Townsend, Marilyn; Bell, Robert A; Watnik, Mitchell

    2006-03-09

    This study examines the portrayals of soft drinks in popular American movies as a potential vehicle for global marketing and an indicator of covert product placement. We conducted a content analysis of America's top-ten grossing films from 1991 through 2000 that included portrayals of beverages (95 movies total). Coding reliabilities were assessed with Cohen's kappa, and exceeded 0.80. If there was at least one instance of branding for a beverage, the film was considered having branded beverages. Fisher's exact test was used to determine if soft drink portrayals were related to audience rating or genre. Data on the amount of time soft drinks appeared onscreen was log transformed to satisfy the assumption of normality, and analyzed using a repeated measures ANOVA model. McNemar's test of agreement was used to test whether branded soft drinks are as likely to appear or to be actor-endorsed compared to other branded beverages. Rating was not associated with portrayals of branded soft drinks, but comedies were most likely to include a branded soft drink (p = 0.0136). Branded soft drinks appeared more commonly than other branded non-alcoholic beverages (p = 0.0001), branded beer (p = 0.0004), and other branded alcoholic beverages (p = 0.0006). Actors consumed branded soft drinks in five times the number of movies compared to their consumption of other branded non-alcoholic beverages (p = 0.0126). About half the revenue from the films with portrayals of branded soft drinks come from film sales outside the U.S. The frequent appearance of branded soft drinks provides indirect evidence that product placement is a common practice for American-produced films shown in the U.S. and other countries.

  5. Portrayals of branded soft drinks in popular American movies: a content analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bell Robert A

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study examines the portrayals of soft drinks in popular American movies as a potential vehicle for global marketing and an indicator of covert product placement. Methods We conducted a content analysis of America's top-ten grossing films from 1991 through 2000 that included portrayals of beverages (95 movies total. Coding reliabilities were assessed with Cohen's kappa, and exceeded 0.80. If there was at least one instance of branding for a beverage, the film was considered having branded beverages. Fisher's exact test was used to determine if soft drink portrayals were related to audience rating or genre. Data on the amount of time soft drinks appeared onscreen was log transformed to satisfy the assumption of normality, and analyzed using a repeated measures ANOVA model. McNemar's test of agreement was used to test whether branded soft drinks are as likely to appear or to be actor-endorsed compared to other branded beverages. Results Rating was not associated with portrayals of branded soft drinks, but comedies were most likely to include a branded soft drink (p = 0.0136. Branded soft drinks appeared more commonly than other branded non-alcoholic beverages (p = 0.0001, branded beer (p = 0.0004, and other branded alcoholic beverages (p = 0.0006. Actors consumed branded soft drinks in five times the number of movies compared to their consumption of other branded non-alcoholic beverages (p = 0.0126. About half the revenue from the films with portrayals of branded soft drinks come from film sales outside the U.S. Conclusion The frequent appearance of branded soft drinks provides indirect evidence that product placement is a common practice for American-produced films shown in the U.S. and other countries.

  6. Basic Information about Chloramines and Drinking Water Disinfection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chloramines are disinfectants used to treat drinking water. Chloramines are most commonly formed when ammonia is added to chlorine to treat drinking water. Chloramines provide longer-lasting disinfection as the water moves through pipes to consumers.

  7. Nitrification in Chloraminated Drinking Water Distribution Systems - Occurrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter discusses available information on nitrification occurrence in drinking water chloraminated distribution systems. Chapter 4 provides an introduction to causes and controls for nitrification in chloraminated drinking water systems. Both chapters are intended to serve ...

  8. [Electrochemical methods of control of iodine contents in drinks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakharova, E A; Slepchenko, G B; Kolpakova, E Iu

    2001-01-01

    The simple and express methods of determination of iodide ions (0.01-0.20 mg/decimeter3) in iodine-enriched drinks by potentiometry and inversion voltamperometry were developed. The studies on influencing a storage time hermetically packaged carbonated beverages, a storage time of the depressurized drinks, stuff of ware on the contents of iodine in drinks are held.

  9. Tracking drinking behaviour from age 15-19 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anette; Due, Pernille; Holstein, Bjørn E

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to assess (1) changes in drinking behaviour over time among Danish adolescents and (2) use of which alcoholic beverages and what drinking patterns would have the strongest predictive effect on later alcohol consumption....

  10. Stress, Immune Function and Collegiate Holiday Drinking: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceballos, Natalie A; Sharma, Shobhit; Patterson, Thomas L; Graham, Reiko; Howard, Krista

    2015-01-01

    Social aspects of collegiate holiday drinking have been studied frequently, but physiological consequences are often overlooked. This study examined self-reported stress, endocrine and immune indicators in students at an American university before and after their week-long spring break (SB) holiday. Participants (n = 27; 9 males) provided saliva samples and completed surveys pre- and post-SB. Based on their cortisol reaction to SB, participants were grouped as cortisol nonresponders (CNR; n = 14) or increasers (CI; n = 13). Groups were matched on demographics, baseline alcohol use, family history of alcoholism, and SB plans. Differences over time and between groups were examined for α-amylase, quantity/frequency of alcohol use (quantity/frequency index, QFI) and the immunoglobulin A (IgA) to albumin ratio (IgA:albumin). α-Amylase decreased over time. A time × group interaction was noted for QFI, in which CNRs increased drinking over SB, but CIs did not. Time and time × group effects occurred for IgA:albumin. CIs decreased IgA:albumin over SB, whereas CNRs did not. Pre-SB QFI and pre-/post-SB QFI changes were correlated with changes in IgA:albumin. These findings support previously published relationships between blunted cortisol responses and risk for problem drinking, as well as elevated cortisol and decreased immune response. These data also highlight the importance of physiological measures in the study of collegiate holiday drinking. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Time-resolved studies define the nature of toxic IAPP intermediates, providing insight for anti-amyloidosis therapeutics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abedini, Andisheh; Plesner, Annette; Cao, Ping; Ridgway, Zachary; Zhang, Jinghua; Tu, Ling-Hsien; Middleton, Chris T; Chao, Brian; Sartori, Daniel J; Meng, Fanling; Wang, Hui; Wong, Amy G; Zanni, Martin T; Verchere, C Bruce; Raleigh, Daniel P; Schmidt, Ann Marie

    2016-01-01

    Islet amyloidosis by IAPP contributes to pancreatic β-cell death in diabetes, but the nature of toxic IAPP species remains elusive. Using concurrent time-resolved biophysical and biological measurements, we define the toxic species produced during IAPP amyloid formation and link their properties to induction of rat INS-1 β-cell and murine islet toxicity. These globally flexible, low order oligomers upregulate pro-inflammatory markers and induce reactive oxygen species. They do not bind 1-anilnonaphthalene-8-sulphonic acid and lack extensive β-sheet structure. Aromatic interactions modulate, but are not required for toxicity. Not all IAPP oligomers are toxic; toxicity depends on their partially structured conformational states. Some anti-amyloid agents paradoxically prolong cytotoxicity by prolonging the lifetime of the toxic species. The data highlight the distinguishing properties of toxic IAPP oligomers and the common features that they share with toxic species reported for other amyloidogenic polypeptides, providing information for rational drug design to treat IAPP induced β-cell death. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.12977.001 PMID:27213520

  12. Modelling the effect of immigration on drinking behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Hong; Zhu, Cheng-Cheng; Huo, Hai-Feng

    2017-12-01

    A drinking model with immigration is constructed. For the model with problem drinking immigration, the model admits only one problem drinking equilibrium. For the model without problem drinking immigration, the model has two equilibria, one is problem drinking-free equilibrium and the other is problem drinking equilibrium. By employing the method of Lyapunov function, stability of all kinds of equilibria is obtained. Numerical simulations are also provided to illustrate our analytical results. Our results show that alcohol immigrants increase the difficulty of the temperance work of the region.

  13. Drinking or Not Drinking in Pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niclasen, Janni

    2014-01-01

    Studies investigating associations between prenatal exposure to low-moderate doses of alcohol and mental health development in childhood are inconsistent. The aim of the present study was to compare women who drink and who do not drink alcohol in pregnancy on a number of potential confounding...

  14. [One-time effects of drinking mineral water and tap water enriched with silver nanoparticles on the biochemical markers of liver condition and metabolic parameters in healthy rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efimenko, N V; Frolkov, V K; Kozlova, V V; Kaisinova, A S; Chalaya, E N

    2017-12-05

    appear to produce some destructive effect on the hepatocytes.  The silver nanoparticles present in the tap water have a significant biological potential of their own. Moreover, their one-time action is apt to alter the biological potential of the water into which they are administered. The single intake of the tap water enriched with silver nanoparticles by the healthy laboratory animals produces the response that resembles that of the drinking mineral water.

  15. Communication latencies of Apple push notification messages relevant for delivery of time-critical information to anesthesia providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothman, Brian S; Dexter, Franklin; Epstein, Richard H

    2013-08-01

    Tablet computers and smart phones have gained popularity in anesthesia departments for educational and patient care purposes. VigiVU(™) is an iOS application developed at Vanderbilt University for remote viewing of perioperative information, including text message notifications delivered via the Apple Push Notification (APN) service. In this study, we assessed the reliability of the APN service. Custom software was written to send a message every minute to iOS devices (iPad(®), iPod Touch(®), and iPhone(®)) via wireless local area network (WLAN) and cellular pathways 24 hours a day over a 4-month period. Transmission and receipt times were recorded and batched by days, with latencies calculated as their differences. The mean, SEM, and the exact 95% upper confidence limits for the percent of days with ≥1 prolonged (>100 seconds) latency were calculated. Acceptable performance was defined as mean latency 100 seconds. Testing conditions included fixed locations of devices in high signal strength locations. Mean latencies were 173,000 iPad and iPod latencies, none were >100 seconds. For iPhone latencies, 0.03% ± 0.01% were >100 seconds. The 95% upper confidence limits of days with ≥1 prolonged latency were 42% (iPhone) and 5% to 8% (iPad, iPod). The APN service was reliable for all studied devices over WLAN and cellular pathways, and performance was better than third party paging systems using Internet connections previously investigated using the same criteria. However, since our study was a best-case assessment, testing is required at individual sites considering use of this technology for critical messaging. Furthermore, since the APN service may fail due to Internet or service provider disruptions, a backup paging system is recommended if the APN service were to be used for critical messaging.

  16. Healthy Drinks for Kids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... drinks (not including 100% fruit juice). If soda habits start when kids are little, chances are they ... Alternative to Water? Energy Drinks and Food Bars: Power or Hype? A Guide to Eating for Sports ...

  17. Drinking Levels Defined

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Alcohol Consumption Alcohol's Effects on the Body Alcohol Use Disorder Fetal Alcohol Exposure Support & Treatment Alcohol Policy Special ... Definition of Drinking at Low Risk for Developing Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD): For women, low-risk drinking is defined ...

  18. Myths about drinking alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Not Have a Problem Because I Only Drink Wine and Beer Problem drinking is not about what ... this important distinction for online health information and services. Learn more about A.D.A.M.'s editorial ...

  19. Hypercoagulability after energy drink consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pommerening, Matthew J; Cardenas, Jessica C; Radwan, Zayde A; Wade, Charles E; Holcomb, John B; Cotton, Bryan A

    2015-12-01

    Energy drink consumption in the United States has more than doubled over the last decade and has been implicated in cardiac arrhythmias, myocardial infarction, and even sudden cardiac death. We hypothesized that energy drink consumption may increase the risk of adverse cardiovascular events by increasing platelet aggregation, thereby resulting in a relatively hypercoagulable state and increased risk of thrombosis. Thirty-two healthy volunteers aged 18-40 y were given 16 oz of bottled water or a standardized, sugar-free energy drink on two separate occasions, 1-wk apart. Beverages were consumed after an overnight fast over a 30-min period. Coagulation parameters and platelet function were measured before and 60 min after consumption using thrombelastography and impedance aggregometry. No statistically significant differences in coagulation were detected using kaolin or rapid thrombelastography. In addition, no differences in platelet aggregation were detected using ristocetin, collagen, thrombin receptor-activating peptide, or adenosine diphosphate-induced multiple impedance aggregometry. However, compared to water controls, energy drink consumption resulted in a significant increase in platelet aggregation via arachidonic acid-induced activation (area under the aggregation curve, 72.4 U versus 66.3 U; P = 0.018). Energy drinks are associated with increased platelet activity via arachidonic acid-induced platelet aggregation within 1 h of consumption. Although larger clinical studies are needed to further address the safety and health concerns of these drinks, the increased platelet response may provide a mechanism by which energy drinks increase the risk of adverse cardiovascular events. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Mixing an energy drink with an alcoholic beverage increases motivation for more alcohol in college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marczinski, Cecile A; Fillmore, Mark T; Henges, Amy L; Ramsey, Meagan A; Young, Chelsea R

    2013-02-01

    There has been a dramatic rise in the consumption of alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmEDs) in social drinkers. It has been suggested that AmED beverages might lead individuals to drink greater quantities of alcohol. This experiment was designed to investigate whether the consumption of AmEDs would alter alcohol priming (i.e., increasing ratings of wanting another drink) compared with alcohol alone. Participants (n = 80) of equal gender attended 1 session where they were randomly assigned to receive 1 of 4 doses (0.91 ml/kg vodka, 1.82 ml/kg energy drink, 0.91 ml/kg vodka mixed with 1.82 ml/kg energy drink [AmED], or a placebo beverage). Alcohol-induced priming of the motivation to drink was assessed by self-reported ratings on the Desire for Drug questionnaire. The priming dose of alcohol increased the subjective ratings of "desire" for more alcohol, consistent with previous research that small doses of alcohol can increase the motivation to drink. Furthermore, higher desire ratings over time were observed with AmEDs compared with alcohol alone. Finally, ratings of liking the drink were similar for the alcohol and AmED conditions. An energy drink may elicit increased alcohol priming. This study provides laboratory evidence that AmED beverages may lead to greater motivation to drink versus the same amount of alcohol consumed alone. Copyright © 2012 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  1. Social anxiety and drinking refusal self-efficacy moderate the relationship between drinking game participation and alcohol-related consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, Shannon R; Napper, Lucy E; LaBrie, Joseph W

    2014-09-01

    Participation in drinking games is associated with excessive drinking and alcohol risks. Despite the growing literature documenting the ubiquity and consequences of drinking games, limited research has examined the influence of psychosocial factors on the experience of negative consequences as the result of drinking game participation. The current event-level study examined the relationships among drinking game participation, social anxiety, drinking refusal self-efficacy (DRSE) and alcohol-related consequences in a sample of college students. Participants (n = 976) reported on their most recent drinking occasion in the past month in which they did not preparty. After controlling for sex, age, and typical drinking, higher levels of social anxiety, lower levels of DRSE, and playing drinking games predicted greater alcohol-related consequences. Moreover, two-way interactions (Social Anxiety × Drinking Games, DRSE × Drinking Games) demonstrated that social anxiety and DRSE each moderated the relationship between drinking game participation and alcohol-related consequences. Participation in drinking games resulted in more alcohol problems for students with high social anxiety, but not low social anxiety. Students with low DRSE experienced high levels of consequences regardless of whether they participated in drinking games; however, drinking game participation was associated with more consequences for students confident in their ability to resist drinking. Findings highlight the important role that social anxiety and DRSE play in drinking game-related risk, and hence provide valuable implications for screening at-risk students and designing targeted harm reduction interventions that address social anxiety and drink refusal in the context of drinking games.

  2. Energy Drinks: A Contemporary Issues Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, John P; Babu, Kavita; Deuster, Patricia A; Shearer, Jane

    2018-02-01

    Since their introduction in 1987, energy drinks have become increasingly popular and the energy drink market has grown at record pace into a multibillion-dollar global industry. Young people, students, office workers, athletes, weekend warriors, and service members frequently consume energy drinks. Both health care providers and consumers must recognize the difference between energy drinks, traditional beverages (e.g., coffee, tea, soft drinks/sodas, juices, or flavored water), and sports drinks. The research about energy drinks safety and efficacy is often contradictory, given the disparate protocols and types of products consumed: this makes it difficult to draw firm conclusions. Also, much of the available literature is industry-sponsored. After reports of adverse events associated with energy drink consumption, concerns including trouble sleeping, anxiety, cardiovascular events, seizures, and even death, have been raised about their safety. This article will focus on energy drinks, their ingredients, side effects associated with their consumption, and suggested recommendations, which call for education, regulatory actions, changes in marketing, and additional research.

  3. Drinking in the Dark” (DID) Procedures: A Model of Binge-Like Ethanol Drinking in Non-Dependent Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiele, Todd E.; Navarro, Montserrat

    2013-01-01

    This review provides an overview of an animal model of binge-like ethanol drinking that has come to be called “drinking in the dark” (DID), a procedure that promotes high levels of ethanol drinking and pharmacologically relevant blood ethanol concentrations (BECs) in ethanol-preferring strains of mice. Originally described by Rhodes et al. (2005), the most common variation of the DID procedure, using singly housed mice, involves replacing the water bottle with a bottle containing 20% ethanol for 2 to 4 hours, beginning 3 hours into the dark cycle. Using this procedure, high ethanol drinking strains of mice (e.g., C57BL/6J) typically consume enough ethanol to achieve BECs greater than 100 mg/dL and to exhibit behavioral evidence of intoxication. This limited access procedure takes advantage of the time in the animal’s dark cycle in which the levels of ingestive behaviors are high, yet high ethanol intake does not appear to stem from caloric need. Mice have the choice of drinking or avoiding the ethanol solution, eliminating the stressful conditions that are inherent in other models of binge-like ethanol exposure in which ethanol is administered by the experimenter, and in some cases, potentially painful. The DID procedure is a high throughput approach that does not require extensive training or the inclusion of sweet compounds to motivate high levels of ethanol intake. The high throughput nature of the DID procedure makes it useful for rapid screening of pharmacological targets that are protective against binge-like drinking and for identifying strains of mice that exhibit binge-like drinking behavior. Additionally, the simplicity of DID procedures allows for easy integration into other paradigms, such as prenatal ethanol exposure and adolescent ethanol drinking. It is suggested that the DID model is a useful tool for studying the neurobiology and genetics underlying binge-like ethanol drinking, and may be useful for studying the transition to ethanol

  4. College factors that influence drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presley, Cheryl A; Meilman, Philip W; Leichliter, Jami S

    2002-03-01

    The purpose of this article is to examine the aspects of collegiate environments, rather than student characteristics, that influence drinking. Unfortunately, the existing literature is scant on this topic. A literature review of articles primarily published within the last 10 years, along with some earlier "landmark" studies of collegiate drinking in the United States, was conducted to determine institutional factors that influence the consumption of alcohol. In addition, a demonstration analysis of Core Alcohol and Drug Survey research findings was conducted to further elucidate the issues. Several factors have been shown to relate to drinking: (1) organizational property variables of campuses, including affiliations (historically black institutions, women's institutions), presence of a Greek system, athletics and 2- or 4-year designation; (2) physical and behavioral property variables of campuses, including type of residence, institution size, location and quantity of heavy episodic drinking; and (3) campus community property variables, including pricing and availability and outlet density. Studies, however, tend to look at individual variables one at a time rather than in combination (multivariate analyses). Some new analyses, using Core Alcohol and Drug Survey data sets, are presented as examples of promising approaches to future research. Given the complexities of campus environments, it continues to be a challenge to the field to firmly establish the most compelling institutional and environmental factors relating to high-risk collegiate drinking.

  5. Home drinking-water purifiers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pizzichini, Massimo; Pozio, Alfonso; Russo, Claudio

    2005-01-01

    To salve the widespread problem of contaminated drinking water, home purifiers are now sold in Italy as well as other countries. This article describes how these devices work, how safe they are to use and how safe the water they produce, in the broad context of regulations on drinking water and mineral water. A new device being developed by ENEA to treat municipal water and ground water could provide greater chemical and bacteriological safety. However, the appearance of these new systems makes it necessary to update existing regulations [it

  6. Time allocation between feeding and incubation in uniparental arctic-breeding shorebirds: energy reserves provide leeway in a tight schedule

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tulp, I.Y.M.; Schekkerman, H.

    2006-01-01

    Birds with uniparental incubation may face a time allocation problem between incubation and feeding. Eggs need regular warming to hatch successfully, but the parent must leave the nest to feed and safeguard its own survival. Time allocation during incubation is likely to depend on factors

  7. [Social networks in drinking behaviors among Japanese: support network, drinking network, and intervening network].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshihara, Chika; Shimizu, Shinji

    2005-10-01

    The national representative sample was analyzed to examine the relationship between respondents' drinking practice and the social network which was constructed of three different types of network: support network, drinking network, and intervening network. Non-parametric statistical analysis was conducted with chi square method and ANOVA analysis, due to the risk of small samples in some basic tabulation cells. The main results are as follows: (1) In the support network of workplace associates, moderate drinkers enjoyed much more sociable support care than both nondrinkers and hard drinkers, which might suggest a similar effect as the French paradox. Meanwhile in the familial and kinship network, the more intervening care support was provided, the harder respondents' drinking practice. (2) The drinking network among Japanese people for both sexes is likely to be convergent upon certain types of network categories and not decentralized in various categories. This might reflect of the drinking culture of Japan, which permits people to drink everyday as a practice, especially male drinkers. Subsequently, solitary drinking is not optional for female drinkers. (3) Intervening network analysis showed that the harder the respondents' drinking practices, the more frequently their drinking behaviors were checked in almost all the categories of network. A rather complicated gender double-standard was found in the network of hard drinkers with their friends, particularly for female drinkers. Medical professionals played a similar intervening role for men as family and kinship networks but to a less degree than friends for females. The social network is considerably associated with respondents' drinking, providing both sociability for moderate drinkers and intervention for hard drinkers, depending on network categories. To minimize the risk of hard drinking and advance self-healthy drinking there should be more research development on drinking practice and the social network.

  8. 30 CFR 71.601 - Drinking water; quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drinking water; quality. 71.601 Section 71.601... Water § 71.601 Drinking water; quality. (a) Potable water provided in accordance with the provisions of § 71.600 shall meet the applicable minimum health requirements for drinking water established by the...

  9. Binge Drinking Among Women and Girls PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This 60 second public service announcement is based on the January 2013 CDC Vital Signs report, which presents information about binge drinking among women and girls. Binge drinking is defined for women as four or more drinks in a short period of time. It puts women and girls at greater risk for breast cancer, sexual assault, heart disease, and unintended pregnancy.

  10. Development of a Rapid and Sensitive Method Combining a Cellulose Ester Microfilter and a Real-Time Quantitative PCR Assay To Detect Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in 20 Liters of Drinking Water or Low-Turbidity Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tissier, Adeline; Denis, Martine; Hartemann, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    Investigations of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in samples of drinking water suspected of being at the origin of an outbreak very often lead to negative results. One of the reasons for this failure is the small volume of water typically used for detecting these pathogens (10 to 1,000 ml). The efficiencies of three microfilters and different elution procedures were determined using real-time quantitative PCR to propose a procedure allowing detection of Campylobacter in 20 liters of drinking water or low-turbidity water samples. The results showed that more than 80% of the bacteria inoculated in 1 liter of drinking water were retained on each microfilter. An elution with a solution containing 3% beef extract, 0.05 M glycine at pH 9, combined with direct extraction of the bacterial genomes retained on the cellulose ester microfilter, allowed recovery of 87.3% (±22% [standard deviation]) of Campylobacter per 1 liter of tap water. Recoveries obtained from 20-liter volumes of tap water spiked with a C. coli strain were 69.5% (±10.3%) and 78.5% (±15.1%) for 91 CFU and 36 CFU, respectively. Finally, tests performed on eight samples of 20 liters of groundwater collected from an alluvial well used for the production of drinking water revealed the presence of C. jejuni and C. coli genomes, whereas no bacteria were detected with the normative culture method in volumes ranging from 10 to 1,000 ml. In the absence of available epidemiological data and information on bacterial viability, these last results indicate only that the water resource is not protected from contamination by Campylobacter. PMID:22138985

  11. Underage drinking on saturday nights, sociodemographic and environmental risk factors: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galasso Laura

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Excessive alcohol consumption in underage people is a rising phenomenon. A major proportion of the disease burden and deaths of young people in developed nations is attributable to alcohol abuse. The aim of this study was to investigate social, demographic and environmental factors that may raise the risk of Saturday night drinking and binge drinking among Italian school students. Methods The study was conducted on a sample of 845 Italian underage school students, by means of an anonymous, self-test questionnaire. Multivariate logistic regression was applied to identify independent risk factors for alcohol drinking and binge drinking. Ordered logistic regression was used to identify independent risk factors for harmful drinking patterns. Results The independent variables that confer a higher risk of drinking in underage students are older age classes, male sex, returning home after midnight, belonging to a group with little respect for the rules, or to a group where young people are not seen as leaders. The higher the perception of alcohol consumption by the group, the higher the risk. Spending time in bars or discos coincides with a two-fold or four-fold increase, respectively, in the risk of alcohol consumption. Conclusion Our findings show that certain environmental and social risk factors are associated with underage drinking. The most important role for preventing young people's exposure to these factors lies with the family, because only parents can exert the necessary control and provide a barrier against potentially harmful situations.

  12. Exploring barriers to primary care for migrants in Greece in times of austerity: Perspectives of service providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadakaki, Maria; Lionis, Christos; Saridaki, Aristoula; Dowrick, Christopher; de Brún, Tomas; O'Reilly-de Brún, Mary; O'Donnell, Catherine A; Burns, Nicola; van Weel-Baumgarten, Evelyn; van den Muijsenbergh, Maria; Spiegel, Wolfgang; MacFarlane, Anne

    2017-12-01

    Migration in Europe is increasing at an unprecedented rate. There is an urgent need to develop 'migrant-sensitive healthcare systems'. However, there are many barriers to healthcare for migrants. Despite Greece's recent, significant experiences of inward migration during a period of economic austerity, little is known about Greek primary care service providers' experiences of delivering care to migrants. To identify service providers' views on the barriers to migrant healthcare. Qualitative study involving six participatory learning and action (PLA) focus group sessions with nine service providers. Data generation was informed by normalization process theory (NPT). Thematic analysis was applied to identify barriers to efficient migrant healthcare. Three main provider and system-related barriers emerged: (a) emphasis on major challenges in healthcare provision, (b) low perceived control and effectiveness to support migrant healthcare, and (c) attention to impoverished local population. The study identified major provider and system-related barriers in the provision of primary healthcare to migrants. It is important for the healthcare system in Greece to provide appropriate supports for communication in cross-cultural consultations for its diversifying population.

  13. The regional geography of alcohol consumption in England: Comparing drinking frequency and binge drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Javier Malda; Jivraj, Stephen; Ng Fat, Linda

    2017-01-01

    Alcohol consumption frequency and volume are known to be related to health problems among drinkers. Most of the existing literature that analyses regional variation in drinking behaviour uses measures of consumption that relate only to volume, such as 'binge drinking'. This study compares the regional association of alcohol consumption using measures of drinking frequency (daily drinking) and volume (binge drinking) using a nationally representative sample of residents using the Health Survey for England, 2011-2013. Results suggest the presence of two differentiated drinking patterns with relevant policy implications. We find that people in northern regions are more likely to binge drink, whereas people in southern regions are more likely to drink on most days. Regression analysis shows that regional variation in binge drinking remains strong when taking into account individual and neighbourhood level controls. The findings provide support for regional targeting of interventions that aim to reduce the frequency as well as volume of drinking. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Change and Stability in Active and Passive Social Influence Dynamics during Natural Drinking Events: A Longitudinal Measurement-Burst Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullum, Jerry; O’Grady, Megan; Armeli, Stephen; Tennen, Howard

    2011-01-01

    We examined the link between social norms and active social influences occurring during natural social drinking contexts. Across 4 yearly measurement-bursts, college students (N = 523) reported daily for 30-day periods on drinking norms, drinking offers, how many drinks they accepted, and personal drinking levels during social drinking events. In contexts where drinking norms were higher, students were more likely to both receive and comply with drinking offers. These acute social influences were highly stable throughout college, but affected men and women differently across time: Women received more drinking offers than men, especially at the beginning of college and when norms were higher, but men complied with more drinking offers per occasion. These effects were not attributable to between-person differences in social drinking motives or drinking levels, nor to within-person patterns of situation-selection. The present work suggests that context-specific drinking norms catalyze active social influence attempts, and further promote compliance drinking. PMID:22661826

  15. Help at 3:00 AM! Providing 24/7 Timely Support to Online Students via a Virtual Assistant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Phu; Fredrickson, Scott; Meyer, Richard

    2016-01-01

    With a dearth of research on human-robot interaction in education and relatively high non-completion rates of online students, this study was conducted to determine the feasibility of using a virtual assistant (VA) to respond to questions and concerns of students and provide 24/7 online course content support. During a 16 week-long academic…

  16. Can linear trend analyses of NDVI time series data truly detect land degradation? Simulations may provide the answer

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wessels, Konrad J

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available of sufficient field data. The authors suggest that such an approach is not sufficiently rigorous. Therefore, they demonstrate an approach which simulates land degradation so that the intensity, rate and timing of the reduction in NDVI can be controlled, in order...

  17. Supporting Youth with Special Needs in Out-of-School Time: A Study of OST Providers in New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Jane; Rodas, Elizabeth Rivera; Sadovnik, Alan R.

    2012-01-01

    Although the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) of 1990 requires accommodations for individuals with disabilities in community settings, many out-of-school time (OST) programs struggle to successfully support youth with special needs. Programs that fully include children with special needs are less available for school-age children and…

  18. Impact of a radio frequency management information system on the process and timing of providing respiratory care services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoller, James K; Kester, Lucy; Orens, Douglas K; McCarthy, Kevin

    2002-08-01

    Although radio frequency (RF) systems have proliferated and are designed to simplify care delivery in many clinical settings, little information is available on the impact of such RF systems on the delivery of patient care. Having used a hand-held-device-based management information system in our Respiratory Therapy Section for 16 years, we assessed the impact of an RF system on the delivery of respiratory therapy (RT) services. A single nursing unit dedicated to pulmonary and ear, nose, and throat care was selected for the RF system trial. Baseline (pre-RF) data were collected over 2 separate 1-month intervals (February 1999 and February 2000). The main outcome measures were (1) the amount of time needed at the beginning of the shift to organize and assign orders for RT services, (2) the time interval between notification of an RT consult order and completion of the RT consult, and (3) the time interval between notification of an RT treatment order and completion of the RT treatment. The activities required for organizing and assigning the orders were manually timed. Starting 6 weeks after therapists were trained to use the RF system, similar data were collected while using the RF system for two 1-month intervals (February and March 2001). The mean +/- SD time interval between receiving an RT consult order and completing the consult was reduced from 7.8 +/- 18.9 h to 2.8 +/- 2.4 h (p = 0.002). The percentage of patients who waited longer than 8 hours between receipt of a consult order and completion of the consult decreased from 18% to 4.7% (p = 0.026). The total time required for organizing and assigning RT work was reduced from 81.6 min to 43.6 min. The RF system had several advantages over the hand-held-device-based system: (1) shorter interval between the order for and completion of an RT consult, (2) lower percentage of patients for whom the interval between the order and the consult exceeded 8 hours, and (3) less time required to make shift assignments

  19. Management of drinking water quality in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Javed, A.A.

    2003-01-01

    Drinking water quality in both urban and rural areas of Pakistan is not being managed properly. Results of various investigations provide evidence that most of the drinking water supplies are faecally contaminated. At places groundwater quality is deteriorating due to the naturally occurring subsoil contaminants, or by anthropogenic activities. The poor bacteriological quality of drinking water has frequently resulted in high incidence of water borne diseases while subsoil contaminants have caused other ailments to consumers. This paper presents a detailed review of drinking water quality in the country and the consequent health impacts. It identifies various factors contributing to poor water quality and proposes key actions required to ensure safe drinking water supplies to consumers. (author)

  20. HIV and cancer in Africa: mutual collaboration between HIV and cancer programs may provide timely research and public health data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mbulaiteye Sam M

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The eruption of Kaposi sarcoma (KS and aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL in young homosexual men in 1981 in the West heralded the onset of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection epidemic, which remains one of the biggest challenges to global public health and science ever. Because KS and NHL were increased >10,000 and 50-600 times, respectively, with HIV, they were designated AIDS defining cancers (ADC. Cervical cancer (CC, increased 5-10 times was also designated as an ADC. A few other cancers are elevated with HIV, including Hodgkin lymphoma (10 times, anal cancer (15-30 times, and lung cancer (4 times are designated as non-AIDS defining cancers (NADCs. Since 1996 when combination antiretroviral therapy (cART became widely available in the West, dramatic decreases in HIV mortality have been observed and substantial decrease in the incidence of ADCs. Coincidentally, the burden of NADCs has increased as people with HIV age with chronic HIV infection. The impact of HIV infection on cancer in sub-Saharan Africa, where two thirds of the epidemic is concentrated, remains poorly understood. The few studies conducted indicate that risks for ADCs are also increased, but quantitatively less so than in the West. The risks for many cancers with established viral associations, including liver and nasopharynx, which are found in Africa, do not appear to be increased. These data are limited because of competing mortality, and cancer is under diagnosed, pathological confirmation is rare, and cancer registration not widely practiced. The expansion of access to life-extending cART in sub-Saharan Africa, through programs such as the Global Fund for AIDS, Malaria, and Tuberculosis and the US President's Emergency Program for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR, is leading to dramatic lengthening of life of HIV patients, which will likely influence the spectrum and burden of cancer in patients with HIV. In this paper, we review current literature and explore

  1. A System to Provide Real-Time Collaborative Situational Awareness by Web Enabling a Distributed Sensor Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panangadan, Anand; Monacos, Steve; Burleigh, Scott; Joswig, Joseph; James, Mark; Chow, Edward

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we describe the architecture of both the PATS and SAP systems and how these two systems interoperate with each other forming a unified capability for deploying intelligence in hostile environments with the objective of providing actionable situational awareness of individuals. The SAP system works in concert with the UICDS information sharing middleware to provide data fusion from multiple sources. UICDS can then publish the sensor data using the OGC's Web Mapping Service, Web Feature Service, and Sensor Observation Service standards. The system described in the paper is able to integrate a spatially distributed sensor system, operating without the benefit of the Web infrastructure, with a remote monitoring and control system that is equipped to take advantage of SWE.

  2. Stress, social support and problem drinking among women in poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulia, Nina; Schmidt, Laura; Bond, Jason; Jacobs, Laurie; Korcha, Rachael

    2008-08-01

    Previous studies have found that stress contributes to problem drinking, while social support can buffer its effects. However, these studies are confined largely to middle-class and general populations. We extend what is known by examining how the unique stressors and forms of social support experienced by women in poverty impact alcohol problems over a 4-year time-period. This prospective study used generalized estimating equations (GEE) transition modeling and four annual waves of survey data from 392 American mothers receiving Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) in a large Northern California county. We examined the effects of neighborhood disorder, stressful life events and economic hardship on psychological distress and problem drinking over time, and whether social support moderated these relationships for women in poverty. Neighborhood disorder and stressful life events increased significantly the risk for problem drinking, largely through their effect on psychological distress. We found little evidence, however, that social support buffers poor women from the effects of these stressors. Women in poverty are exposed to severe, chronic stressors within their communities and immediate social networks which increase vulnerability to psychological distress and problem drinking. The finding that social support does not buffer stress among these women may reflect their high level of exposure to stressors, as well as the hardships and scarce resources within their networks. If the 'private safety net' of the social network fails to provide a strong buffer, more effective environmental interventions that reduce exposure to stressors may be needed to prevent alcohol problems in poor women's lives.

  3. Landsat ETM+ and SRTM Data Provide Near Real-Time Monitoring of Chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes Habitats in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel M. Jantz

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available All four chimpanzee sub-species populations are declining due to multiple factors including human-caused habitat loss. Effective conservation efforts are therefore needed to ensure their long-term survival. Habitat suitability models serve as useful tools for conservation planning by depicting relative environmental suitability in geographic space over time. Previous studies mapping chimpanzee habitat suitability have been limited to small regions or coarse spatial and temporal resolutions. Here, we used Random Forests regression to downscale a coarse resolution habitat suitability calibration dataset to estimate habitat suitability over the entire chimpanzee range at 30-m resolution. Our model predicted habitat suitability well with an r2 of 0.82 (±0.002 based on 50-fold cross validation where 75% of the data was used for model calibration and 25% for model testing; however, there was considerable variation in the predictive capability among the four sub-species modeled individually. We tested the influence of several variables derived from Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+ that included metrics of forest canopy and structure for four three-year time periods between 2000 and 2012. Elevation, Landsat ETM+ band 5 and Landsat derived canopy cover were the strongest predictors; highly suitable areas were associated with dense tree canopy cover for all but the Nigeria-Cameroon and Central Chimpanzee sub-species. Because the models were sensitive to such temporally based predictors, our results are the first to highlight the value of integrating continuously updated variables derived from satellite remote sensing into temporally dynamic habitat suitability models to support  near real-time monitoring of habitat status and decision support systems.

  4. A race against time: can CO-OPs and provider start-ups survive in the health insurance marketplaces?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggbeer, Bill

    2015-12-01

    > The Affordable Care Act's state and federal health insurance marketplaces, designed to provide affordable insurance coverage to individuals and small groups, are proving hostile territory to new market entrants. Efforts to inject competition into the marketplaces are being challenged by the wide-scale withdrawal o consumer-operated and oriented plans (CO-OPs). Meanwhile, premiums appear likely to increase for consumers as plans seek to balance medical losses. Flaws in the "Three R's" (reinsurance, risk corridors, and risk-adjustment) program are viewed as a threat to the survival of CO-OPs and start-ups.

  5. Radiation-Resistant Photon-Counting Detector Package Providing Sub-ps Stability for Laser Time Transfer in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prochzaka, Ivan; Kodat, Jan; Blazej, Josef; Sun, Xiaoli (Editor)

    2015-01-01

    We are reporting on a design, construction and performance of photon-counting detector packages based on silicon avalanche photodiodes. These photon-counting devices have been optimized for extremely high stability of their detection delay. The detectors have been designed for future applications in fundamental metrology and optical time transfer in space. The detectors have been qualified for operation in space missions. The exceptional radiation tolerance of the detection chip itself and of all critical components of a detector package has been verified in a series of experiments.

  6. Assessing barriers to change in drinking behavior: results of an online employee screening program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aseltine, Robert H; Demarco, Frank J; Wallenstein, Gene V; Jacobs, Douglas G

    2009-01-01

    The impact of alcohol abuse on worker productivity is considerable and appears to be increasing over time. Although early screening and intervention may help prevent or reduce the damaging health and productivity effects of problem drinking, barriers to behavioral change may render broad-based prevention efforts ineffectual. This study examined the correlates of two potential barriers to changes in drinking behavior--underestimation of drinking and lack of knowledge of helping resources--using data from web-based employee alcohol screenings. Anonymous screening data from 1185 employees of ten companies participating in the 2003 National Alcohol Screening Day were analyzed. The AUDIT, a 10-item screening instrument developed by the World Health Organization, was used to measure drinking behavior; employees' subjective assessments of their drinking were also obtained. Over 53% of participants subjectively underestimated their drinking relative to their AUDIT results, and 58% of respondents did not know whether their medical insurance included benefits for alcohol treatment. Logistic regression analysis revealed that younger and male respondents tended to have the highest AUDIT scores and also (along with married respondents) were most likely to underestimate their drinking. Younger, unmarried respondents were least likely to be aware of their alcohol treatment insurance benefits. Current corporate efforts to curtail problem drinking among employees may not adequately address barriers to change. Targeting at-risk employee groups for alcohol screening and dissemination of information about health insurance benefits and treatment options is recommended, as is providing personalized feedback based on screening results to raise awareness of at-risk drinking and available helping resources.

  7. Negative Affect and Excessive Alcohol Intake Incubate during Protracted Withdrawal from Binge-Drinking in Adolescent, But Not Adult, Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaziya M. Lee

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Binge-drinking is common in underage alcohol users, yet we know little regarding the biopsychological impact of binge-drinking during early periods of development. Prior work indicated that adolescent male C57BL6/J mice with a 2-week history of binge-drinking (PND28-41 are resilient to the anxiogenic effects of early alcohol withdrawal. Herein, we employed a comparable Drinking-in-the-Dark model to determine how a prior history of binge-drinking during adolescence (EtOHadolescents influences emotionality (assayed with the light-dark box, marble burying test, and the forced swim test and the propensity to consume alcohol in later life, compared to animals without prior drinking experience. For additional comparison, adult mice (EtOHadults with comparable drinking history (PND56-69 were subdivided into groups tested for anxiety/drinking either on PND70 (24 h withdrawal or PND98 (28 days withdrawal. Tissue from the nucleus accumbens shell (AcbSh and central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA was examined by immunoblotting for changes in the expression of glutamate-related proteins. EtOHadults exhibited some signs of hyperanxiety during early withdrawal (PND70, but not during protracted withdrawal (PND98. In contrast, EtOHadolescents exhibited robust signs of anxiety-l and depressive-like behaviors when tested as adults on PND70. While all alcohol-experienced animals subsequently consumed more alcohol than mice drinking for the first time, alcohol intake was greatest in EtOHadolescents. Independent of drinking age, the manifestation of withdrawal-induced hyperanxiety was accompanied by reduced Homer2b expression within the CeA and increased Group1 mGlu receptor expression within the AcbSh. The present data provide novel evidence that binge-drinking during adolescence produces a state characterized by profound negative affect and excessive alcohol consumption that incubates with the passage of time in withdrawal. These data extend our prior studies on the

  8. Resources and Capabilities of the Department of Veterans Affairs to Provide Timely and Accessible Care to Veterans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussey, Peter S.; Ringel, Jeanne S.; Ahluwalia, Sangeeta; Price, Rebecca Anhang; Buttorff, Christine; Concannon, Thomas W.; Lovejoy, Susan L.; Martsolf, Grant R.; Rudin, Robert S.; Schultz, Dana; Sloss, Elizabeth M.; Watkins, Katherine E.; Waxman, Daniel; Bauman, Melissa; Briscombe, Brian; Broyles, James R.; Burns, Rachel M.; Chen, Emily K.; DeSantis, Amy Soo Jin; Ecola, Liisa; Fischer, Shira H.; Friedberg, Mark W.; Gidengil, Courtney A.; Ginsburg, Paul B.; Gulden, Timothy; Gutierrez, Carlos Ignacio; Hirshman, Samuel; Huang, Christina Y.; Kandrack, Ryan; Kress, Amii; Leuschner, Kristin J.; MacCarthy, Sarah; Maksabedian, Ervant J.; Mann, Sean; Matthews, Luke Joseph; May, Linnea Warren; Mishra, Nishtha; Miyashiro, Lisa; Muchow, Ashley N.; Nelson, Jason; Naranjo, Diana; O'Hanlon, Claire E.; Pillemer, Francesca; Predmore, Zachary; Ross, Rachel; Ruder, Teague; Rutter, Carolyn M.; Uscher-Pines, Lori; Vaiana, Mary E.; Vesely, Joseph V.; Hosek, Susan D.; Farmer, Carrie M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The Veterans Access, Choice, and Accountability Act of 2014 addressed the need for access to timely, high-quality health care for veterans. Section 201 of the legislation called for an independent assessment of various aspects of veterans' health care. The RAND Corporation was tasked with an assessment of the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) current and projected health care capabilities and resources. An examination of data from a variety of sources, along with a survey of VA medical facility leaders, revealed the breadth and depth of VA resources and capabilities: fiscal resources, workforce and human resources, physical infrastructure, interorganizational relationships, and information resources. The assessment identified barriers to the effective use of these resources and capabilities. Analysis of data on access to VA care and the quality of that care showed that almost all veterans live within 40 miles of a VA health facility, but fewer have access to VA specialty care. Veterans usually receive care within 14 days of their desired appointment date, but wait times vary considerably across VA facilities. VA has long played a national leadership role in measuring the quality of health care. The assessment showed that VA health care quality was as good or better on most measures compared with other health systems, but quality performance lagged at some VA facilities. VA will require more resources and capabilities to meet a projected increase in veterans' demand for VA care over the next five years. Options for increasing capacity include accelerated hiring, full nurse practice authority, and expanded use of telehealth. PMID:28083424

  9. The Quality and Accuracy of Mobile Apps to Prevent Driving After Drinking Alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Hollie; Stoyanov, Stoyan R; Gandabhai, Shailen; Baldwin, Alexander

    2016-08-08

    Driving after the consumption of alcohol represents a significant problem globally. Individual prevention countermeasures such as personalized mobile app aimed at preventing such behavior are widespread, but there is little research on their accuracy and evidence base. There has been no known assessment investigating the quality of such apps. This study aimed to determine the quality and accuracy of apps for drink driving prevention by conducting a review and evaluation of relevant mobile apps. A systematic app search was conducted following PRISMA guidelines. App quality was assessed using the Mobile App Rating Scale (MARS). Apps providing blood alcohol calculators (hereafter "calculators") were reviewed against current alcohol advice for accuracy. A total of 58 apps (30 iOS and 28 Android) met inclusion criteria and were included in the final analysis. Drink driving prevention apps had significantly lower engagement and overall quality scores than alcohol management apps. Most calculators provided conservative blood alcohol content (BAC) time until sober calculations. None of the apps had been evaluated to determine their efficacy in changing either drinking or driving behaviors. This novel study demonstrates that most drink driving prevention apps are not engaging and lack accuracy. They could be improved by increasing engagement features, such as gamification. Further research should examine the context and motivations for using apps to prevent driving after drinking in at-risk populations. Development of drink driving prevention apps should incorporate evidence-based information and guidance, lacking in current apps.

  10. ANALYSIS OF DRINKING WATER QUALITY IN THE KIZILYURT DISTRICT OF THE REPUBLIC OF DAGESTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Kadieva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The problem of accessibility to the population with quality drinking water is a major and urgent problems in Russia. At the same time, providing the population with clean drinking water is essential for socio-economic development of the Republic of Dagestan. The paper presents the results of studies of the quality of drinking water in settlements of the Kizilyurt district of Dagestan. Methods. During the monitoring works conducted a questionnaire survey on the quality of life of the population, conducted research to assess the extent of soil contamination, as well as analysis of drinking water quality at 16 inhabited locality in 13 rural settlements Kizilyurt district (Sultan-Yangi-Yurt, Chontaul, Komsomol'skoe, Novyi Chirkei, Stal'skoe, Nechaevka, Zubutli-Miatli, Miatli, Aknada, Kul'zeb, Kirovaul, Shushanovka, Nizhnii Chiryurt, Gel'bakh, Novye Gadari, Matseevka. Studies performed with modern physico-chemical methods of quantitative chemical analysis, regulated by normative documentation approved in the established procedure for monitoring and environmental control. Results. In studies of water sources, it was identified that the main elements of pollution in drinking waters of the study area are compounds of arsenic and iron. Main conclusions. The studies show that, in spite of the undertaken measures aimed at providing the population with quality drinking water, the problems of access of the population Kizilyurt district to clean water are acute today and need a speedy solution.

  11. Consideration of rainwater quality parameters for drinking purposes: A case study in rural Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Minju; Kim, Mikyeong; Kim, Yonghwan; Han, Mooyoung

    2017-09-15

    Rainwater, which is used for drinking purposes near Hanoi, Vietnam, was analysed for water quality based on 1.5 years of monitoring data. In total, 23 samples were collected from different points within two rainwater harvesting systems (RWHSs). Most parameters met the standard except micro-organisms. Coliform and Escherichia coli (E. coli) were detected when the rainwater was not treated with ultraviolet (UV) light; however, analysis of rainwater after UV sterilisation showed no trace of micro-organisms. The RWHSs appear to provide drinking water of relatively good quality compared with surface water and groundwater. The superior quality of the rainwater suggests the necessity for new drinking rainwater standards because applying all of the drinking water quality standards to rainwater is highly inefficient. The traditionally implemented standards could cause more difficulties for developing countries using RWHSs installed decentralized as a source of drinking water, particularly in areas not well supplied with testing equipment, because such countries must bear the expense and time for these measures. This paper proposes the necessity of rainwater quality guideline, which could serve as a safe and cost-effective alternative to provide an access to safe drinking water. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Do changes in per capita consumption mirror changes in drinking patterns?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, R G; Suurvali, H M; Mann, R E

    2000-07-01

    The goal of this study was to examine how well per capita alcohol consumption figures derived from beverage sales data relate to changes over time in survey-based measures of drinking patterns. It was expected that strong associations would be found among these various measures of consumption. Data from 12 household surveys conducted in Ontario between 1977 and 1997 provided information on: percentages of drinkers; daily drinkers; those drinking five or more drinks at a sitting weekly; those reporting two or more alcohol-related harms; and average number of drinks per week. These variables were then correlated with per capita consumption. Significant correlations were found only between per capita consumption and percentage of daily drinkers, and between percentage of drinkers and average number of drinks per week. The relationship of per capita consumption to survey measures of drinking is weak. The absence of consistent associations over time between per capita consumption and survey measures may be attributable to the small number of available data points or to increases in unrecorded consumption. Further research is needed to verify and explain these results.

  13. The Healthcare Improvement Scotland evidence note rapid review process: providing timely, reliable evidence to inform imperative decisions on healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Heather M; Calvert, Julie; Macpherson, Karen J; Thompson, Lorna

    2016-06-01

    Rapid review has become widely adopted by health technology assessment agencies in response to demand for evidence-based information to support imperative decisions. Concern about the credibility of rapid reviews and the reliability of their findings has prompted a call for wider publication of their methods. In publishing this overview of the accredited rapid review process developed by Healthcare Improvement Scotland, we aim to raise awareness of our methods and advance the discourse on best practice. Healthcare Improvement Scotland produces rapid reviews called evidence notes using a process that has achieved external accreditation through the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Key components include a structured approach to topic selection, initial scoping, considered stakeholder involvement, streamlined systematic review, internal quality assurance, external peer review and updating. The process was introduced in 2010 and continues to be refined over time in response to user feedback and operational experience. Decision-makers value the responsiveness of the process and perceive it as being a credible source of unbiased evidence-based information supporting advice for NHSScotland. Many agencies undertaking rapid reviews are striving to balance efficiency with methodological rigour. We agree that there is a need for methodological guidance and that it should be informed by better understanding of current approaches and the consequences of different approaches to streamlining systematic review methods. Greater transparency in the reporting of rapid review methods is essential to enable that to happen.

  14. Time Delay Mechanical-noise Cancellation (TDMC) to Provide Order of Magnitude Improvements in Radio Science Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, D. H.; Babuscia, A.; Lazio, J.; Asmar, S.

    2017-12-01

    Many Radio Science investigations, including the determinations of planetary masses, measurements of planetary atmospheres, studies of the solar wind, and solar system tests of relativistic gravity, rely heavily on precision Doppler tracking. Recent and currently proposed missions such as VERITAS, Bepi Colombo, Juno have shown that the largest error source in the precision Doppler tracking data is noise in the Doppler system. This noise is attributed to un-modeled motions of the ground antenna's phase center and is commonly referred to as "antenna mechanical noise." Attempting to reduce this mechanical noise has proven difficult since the deep space communications antennas utilize large steel structures that are already optimized for mechanical stability. Armstrong et al. (2008) have demonstrated the Time Delay Mechanical-noise Cancellation (TDMC) concept using Goldstone DSN antennas (70 m & 34 m) and the Cassinispacecraft to show that the mechanical noise of the 70 m antenna could be suppressed when two-way Doppler tracking from the 70 m antenna and the receive-only Doppler data from the smaller, stiffer 34 m antenna were combined with suitable delays. The proof-of-concept confirmed that the mechanical noise in the final Doppler observable was reduced to that of the stiffer, more stable antenna. Caltech's Owens Valley Radio Observatory (OVRO) near Bishop, CA now has six 10.4 m diameter antennas, a consequence of the closure of Combined Array for Research in Millimeter Astronomy (CARMA). In principle, a 10 m antenna can lead to an order-of-magnitude improvement for the mechanical noise correction, as the smaller dish offers better mechanical stability compared to a DSN 34-m antenna. These antennas also have existing Ka-band receiving systems, and preliminary discussions with the OVRO staff suggest that much of the existing signal path could be used for Radio Science observations.

  15. A clip-based protocol for breast boost radiotherapy provides clear target visualisation and demonstrates significant volume reduction over time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, Lorraine [Department of Radiation Oncology, Northern Sydney Cancer Centre, Royal North Shore Hospital, Sydney, New South Wales (Australia); Cox, Jennifer [Department of Radiation Oncology, Northern Sydney Cancer Centre, Royal North Shore Hospital, Sydney, New South Wales (Australia); Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales (Australia); Morgia, Marita [Department of Radiation Oncology, Northern Sydney Cancer Centre, Royal North Shore Hospital, Sydney, New South Wales (Australia); Atyeo, John [Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales (Australia); Lamoury, Gillian [Department of Radiation Oncology, Northern Sydney Cancer Centre, Royal North Shore Hospital, Sydney, New South Wales (Australia)

    2015-09-15

    The clinical target volume (CTV) for early stage breast cancer is difficult to clearly identify on planning computed tomography (CT) scans. Surgical clips inserted around the tumour bed should help to identify the CTV, particularly if the seroma has been reabsorbed, and enable tracking of CTV changes over time. A surgical clip-based CTV delineation protocol was introduced. CTV visibility and its post-operative shrinkage pattern were assessed. The subjects were 27 early stage breast cancer patients receiving post-operative radiotherapy alone and 15 receiving post-operative chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy. The radiotherapy alone (RT/alone) group received a CT scan at median 25 days post-operatively (CT1rt) and another at 40 Gy, median 68 days (CT2rt). The chemotherapy/RT group (chemo/RT) received a CT scan at median 18 days post-operatively (CT1ch), a planning CT scan at median 126 days (CT2ch), and another at 40 Gy (CT3ch). There was no significant difference (P = 0.08) between the initial mean CTV for each cohort. The RT/alone cohort showed significant CTV volume reduction of 38.4% (P = 0.01) at 40 Gy. The Chemo/RT cohort had significantly reduced volumes between CT1ch: median 54 cm{sup 3} (4–118) and CT2ch: median 16 cm{sup 3}, (2–99), (P = 0.01), but no significant volume reduction thereafter. Surgical clips enable localisation of the post-surgical seroma for radiotherapy targeting. Most seroma shrinkage occurs early, enabling CT treatment planning to take place at 7 weeks, which is within the 9 weeks recommended to limit disease recurrence.

  16. A clip-based protocol for breast boost radiotherapy provides clear target visualisation and demonstrates significant volume reduction over time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, Lorraine; Cox, Jennifer; Morgia, Marita; Atyeo, John; Lamoury, Gillian

    2015-01-01

    The clinical target volume (CTV) for early stage breast cancer is difficult to clearly identify on planning computed tomography (CT) scans. Surgical clips inserted around the tumour bed should help to identify the CTV, particularly if the seroma has been reabsorbed, and enable tracking of CTV changes over time. A surgical clip-based CTV delineation protocol was introduced. CTV visibility and its post-operative shrinkage pattern were assessed. The subjects were 27 early stage breast cancer patients receiving post-operative radiotherapy alone and 15 receiving post-operative chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy. The radiotherapy alone (RT/alone) group received a CT scan at median 25 days post-operatively (CT1rt) and another at 40 Gy, median 68 days (CT2rt). The chemotherapy/RT group (chemo/RT) received a CT scan at median 18 days post-operatively (CT1ch), a planning CT scan at median 126 days (CT2ch), and another at 40 Gy (CT3ch). There was no significant difference (P = 0.08) between the initial mean CTV for each cohort. The RT/alone cohort showed significant CTV volume reduction of 38.4% (P = 0.01) at 40 Gy. The Chemo/RT cohort had significantly reduced volumes between CT1ch: median 54 cm 3 (4–118) and CT2ch: median 16 cm 3 , (2–99), (P = 0.01), but no significant volume reduction thereafter. Surgical clips enable localisation of the post-surgical seroma for radiotherapy targeting. Most seroma shrinkage occurs early, enabling CT treatment planning to take place at 7 weeks, which is within the 9 weeks recommended to limit disease recurrence

  17. The influence of drinking-water pollution with heavy metal on the expression of IL-4 and IFN-γ in mice by real-time polymerase chain reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radbin, Rayhaneh; Vahedi, Fatemeh; Chamani, JamshidKhan

    2014-10-01

    In recent years, water pollution has been converted to a challenging discussion in health area of human being. Heavy elements are one of the most important water pollutants and their negative adverse effects on body systems have been confirmed. In this study, investigation of effects of two heavy elements including lead (Pb) and copper (Cu) on expression of interlukin-4 (IL-4) and interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) as humoral and cellular immunity biomarkers, respectively, was aimed and PCR, real-time PCR and electrophoresis techniques were used. In this study, BALB/c mice were studied that had free access to drinking water which contained Cu or Pb salts. After 2 weeks, spleens of mice were removed, RNA extracted, and cDNA was prepared for RT-PCR. Then the expression of IL-4 and IFN-γ genes were assessed by real-time PCR. The expression of IFN-γ was up-regulated in both treated groups and the expression of IL-4 was only up-regulated in the group treated with Cu and down-regulated in the group treated with Pb. This study shows that the presence of heavy elements as drinking-water pollutants results in a disproportion of natural cytokines balances, and thus may result in a negative effect on immune system.

  18. Binge drinking among adolescents: prevalence, risk practices and related variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golpe, Sandra; Isorna, Manuel; Barreiro, Carmen; Braña, Teresa; Rial, Antonio

    2017-09-29

    According to the last Survey on Drug Use among Secondary School Students (ESTUDES 2014-2015), consumption levels of alcohol and other substances have decreased in the last years in Spain. However, available data on binge drinking remain worrying, given the negative consequences related with this pattern. The aim of this paper is to analyse binge drinking among adolescents, providing updated data on prevalence in addition to information about the consequences and some predictive factors of binge drinking. A correlational method was used for this purpose, comprised of administering a survey to Compulsory Secondary School, High School and Vocational Training students. Based on a sample of 3,419 Galician adolescents aged between 12 and 18 years (M = 14.57; SD = 1.76), the results show that binge drinking is a common and global practice, with few socio-demographic differences but related with a wide range of risk practices. Furthermore, variables such as consumption expectancies, consumption by family and friends, as well as curfew time and allowance money have been identified as interesting predictive factors that should be taken into account at the preventive level.

  19. A portrait of food and drink in commercial TV series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Bradley S; Rosaen, Sarah F; Worrell, Tracy R; Salmon, Charles T; Volkman, Julie E

    2009-06-01

    This study examines the content and presentation of food and drink on fictional, commercial television. It provides the first comparison of food and drink consumption across different television program genres designated for different age groups. Data originated with a random sample of 50 taped episodes of children's shows, 50 episodes of "tween" programs (shows targeted for 9- to 14-year-olds), 40 episodes of afternoon soaps, and 50 episodes of prime time shows. The choice of TV series was based solely on the strength of Nielsen audience ratings. The study coded the foods for nutritional content and the drinks for alcoholic/nonalcoholic content, how they were used, and in what context. Findings indicate that foods were more commonly offered and consumed on children's shows, and that problematic foods (defined as oils, solid fats, and foods with added sugars) were significantly more prevalent in youth-oriented shows than in adult-oriented shows. Although there was only a negligible presence of alcohol on children's shows, the average hourly use of alcohol on the tween shows matched that of the adult programs; therefore, alcohol was as common in the shows directed at young audiences as in shows for adults. Negative outcomes were largely absent from food and drink behaviors on these TV series.

  20. A sub-tank water-saving drinking water station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ting

    2017-05-01

    "Thousands of boiling water" problem has been affecting people's quality of life and good health, and now most of the drinking fountains cannot effectively solve this problem, at the same time, ordinary drinking water also has high energy consumption, there are problems such as yin and yang water. Our newly designed dispenser uses a two-tank heating system. Hot water after heating, into the insulation tank for insulation, when the water tank in the water tank below a certain water level, the cold water and then enter the heating tank heating. Through the water flow, tank volume and other data to calculate the time required for each out of water, so as to determine the best position of the water level control, summed up the optimal program, so that water can be continuously uninterrupted supply. Two cans are placed up and down the way, in the same capacity on the basis of the capacity of the container, the appropriate to reduce its size, and increase the bottom radius, reduce the height of its single tank to ensure that the overall height of two cans compared with the traditional single change. Double anti-dry design, to ensure the safety of the use of drinking water. Heating tank heating circuit on and off by the tank of the float switch control, so that the water heating time from the tank water level control, to avoid the "thousands of boiling water" generation. The entry of cold water is controlled by two solenoid valves in the inlet pipe, and the opening and closing of the solenoid valve is controlled by the float switch in the two tanks. That is, the entry of cold water is determined by the water level of the two tanks. By designing the control scheme cleverly, Yin and yang water generation. Our design completely put an end to the "thousands of boiling water", yin and yang water, greatly improving the drinking water quality, for people's drinking water safety provides a guarantee, in line with the concept of green and healthy development. And in the small

  1. Drinking Water Treatability Database (TDB)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Drinking Water Treatability Database (TDB) presents referenced information on the control of contaminants in drinking water. It allows drinking water utilities,...

  2. 'Drinking with respect': Drinking constructions of men who live in a Cape Winelands farm community in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesch, Elmien; Casper, Rozanne

    2017-03-01

    This article aims to provide a community-specific understanding of a subgroup of South African men who exhibit particularly high rates of hazardous alcohol consumption. Adopting a social constructionist framework, we interviewed 13 Cape Winelands men who lived on farms to explore their drinking constructions. We present three themes that shed light on problematic drinking in this group: (1) the notion of weekend binge-drinking as 'respectable' drinking, (2) drinking as shared activity that fulfils various psycho-social needs and (3) a sense of powerlessness to affect their own or their children's alcohol consumption. These findings are viewed against a specific socio-historical backdrop.

  3. Drinking-to-cope motivation and negative mood-drinking contingencies in a daily diary study of college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hara, Ross E; Armeli, Stephen; Tennen, Howard

    2014-07-01

    This study examined whether global drinking-to-cope (DTC) motivation moderates negative mood-drinking contingencies and negative mood-motivation contingencies at the daily level of analysis. Data came from a daily diary study of college student drinking (N = 1,636; 53% female; Mage = 19.2 years). Fixed-interval models tested whether global DTC motivation moderated relations between daily negative mood and that evening's drinking and episodic DTC. Time-to-drink models examined whether global DTC motivation moderated the effects of weekly negative mood on the immediacy of drinking and DTC in the weekly cycle. More evening drinking occurred on days characterized by relatively higher anxiety or anger, and students were more likely to report DTC on days when they experienced greater sadness. However, only the daily Anxiety × Global DTC Motivation interaction for number of drinks consumed was consistent with hypotheses. Moreover, students reported drinking, heavy drinking, and DTC earlier in weeks characterized by relatively higher anxiety or anger, but no hypothesized interactions with global DTC motivation were found. RESULTS indicate that negative mood is associated with increased levels of drinking and drinking for coping reasons among college students but that the strength of these relations does not differ by global levels of DTC motivation. These findings raise the possibility that global DTC measures are insufficient for examining within-person DTC processes. Further implications of these results are discussed, including future directions that may determine the circumstances under which, and for whom, DTC occurs.

  4. Energy Drinks. Prevention Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2010

    2010-01-01

    High-caffeine soft drinks have existed in the United States since at least the 1980s beginning with Jolt Cola. Energy drinks, which have caffeine as their primary "energy" component, began being marketed as a separate beverage category in the United States in 1997 with the introduction of the Austrian import Red Bull. Energy drink…

  5. Quality of Drinking Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2009-01-01

    The quality of drinking water has been gaining a great deal of attention lately, especially as water delivery infrastructure continues to age. Particles of various metals such as lead and copper, and other substances like radon and arsenic could be entering drinking water supplies. Spilled-on-the-ground hydrocarbon-based substances are also…

  6. Binge Drinking PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This PSA is based on the October, 2010 CDC Vital Signs report which indicates that drinking too much, including binge drinking, causes more than 79,000 deaths in the U.S. each year and is the third leading preventable cause of death.

  7. Binge drinking in pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kesmodel, Ulrik Schiøler

    2001-01-01

    Independent of average alcohol intake, the effect of binge drinking on adverse pregnancy outcomes in humans is only sporadically reported, but most studies in humans have found little or no effect of binge drinking on several adverse pregnancy outcomes. In a representative sample of 371 pregnant...... Danish women, the agreement between two different measures of binge drinking during the first half of pregnancy obtained from interviews and questionnaires was assessed, and the frequency and pattern of binge drinking were described. The percentage of agreement between the methods ranged between 81......% and 86%. The proportion of women who reported binge drinking depended on the definition of pregnancy, but the proportion peaked in week 3 measured from the last menstrual period and thereafter declined to approximately 1 percent in week 7. On the basis of this 1998 study, it is suggested that most human...

  8. Identification of N-nitrosamines in treated drinking water using nanoelectrospray ionization high-field asymmetric waveform ion mobility spectrometry with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yuan Yuan; Liu, Xin; Boyd, Jessica M; Qin, Feng; Li, Jianjun; Li, Xing-Fang

    2009-01-01

    We report a nanoelectrospray ionization (nESI) with high-field asymmetric waveform ion mobility spectrometry (FAIMS) and tandem mass spectrometry (MS-MS) method for determination of small molecules of m/z 50 to 200 and its potential application in environmental analysis. Integration of nESI with FAIMS and MS-MS combines the advantages of these three techniques into one method. The nESI provides efficient sample introduction and ionization and allows for collection of multiple data from only microliters of samples. The FAIMS provides rapid separation, reduces or eliminates background interference, and improves the signal-to-noise ratio as much as 10-fold over nESI-MS-MS. The tandem quadrupole time-of-flight MS detection provides accurate mass and mass spectral measurements for structural identification. Characteristics of FAIMS compensation voltage (CV) spectra of seven nitrosamines, N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), N-nitrosomethylethylamine (NMEA), N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA), N-nitrosodi-n-propylamine (NDPA), N-nitrosodi-n-butylamine (NDBA), N-nitrosopiperidine (NPip), and N-nitrosopyrrolidine (NPyr), were analyzed. The optimal CV of the nitrosamines (at DV -4000 V) were: -1.6 V, NDBA; 2.6 V, NDPA; 6.6 V, NPip; 8.8 V, NDEA; 13.2 V, NPyr; 14.4 V, NMEA; and 19.4 V, NDMA. Fragmentation patterns of the seven nitrosamines in the nESI-FAIMS-MS-MS were also obtained. The specific CV and MS-MS spectra resulted in positive identification of NPyr and NPip in a treated water sample, demonstrating the potential application of this technique in environmental analysis.

  9. Monitoring for the Presence of Parasitic Protozoa and Free-living Amoebae in Drinking Water Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amany Saad Amer.

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Contamination of drinking water by microorganisms represents a major human health hazard in many parts of the world. The main objective of drinking water treatment is to provide microbiologically safe drinking water. The conventional drinking water treatment and disinfection has proved to be one of the major public health advances in modern times. A number of processes; namely water treatment, disinfection and changes influence the quality of drinking water delivered to the customer’s tap during transport of treated water via the distribution system. At least 325 water-associated outbreaks of parasitic protozoan disease have reported. In this study, drinking water from treatment plants evaluated for the presence of parasitic protozoa. Water samples collected from two main points: (a outlet of the water treatment plants (b distribution system at different distances from the water treatment plants. Protozoa were concentrated from each water sample by adsorption and accumulation on the nitrocellulose membrane filters (0.45 μm pore size and detected by conventional staining methods.

  10. [100 years of drinking water regulation. Retrospective review, current situation and prospects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakhmanin, Yu A; Krasovsky, G N; Egorova, N A; Mikhailova, R I

    2014-01-01

    There is considered the history of the development of legislative requirements to the regulation of the quality of drinking water in different countries and international organizations during the period from 1912 to the present time. In terms of comparative analysis there is analyzed the current state of regulatory frameworks of the Russian Federation, WHO, EU, Finland, the UK, Singapore, Australia, Japan, China, Nigeria, the United States and Canada in the field of providing favorable conditions of population drinking water use. There has been noted the significant progress in standardization of the content of the biogenic elements and chemical pollution of drinking water in the absence of uniform requirements to the composition and properties of drinking water globally, that is bound to the need to take into account the national peculiarities of drinking water supply within the separate countries. As promising directions for improving regulation of drinking water quality there are noted: the development of new standards for prioritized water pollution, periodic review ofstandards after appearance of the new scientific data on the biological action of substances, the use of the concept of risk, the harmonization of the normative values and the assessment of the possibility of introduction into the practice the one more criterion of profitableness of population water use--the bioenergetic state of the water.

  11. Moving Beyond Drinking to Have a Good Time: a Person-Centered Approach to Identifying Reason Typologies in Legal-Aged College Student Drinkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weybright, Elizabeth H; Cooper, Brittany R; Beckmeyer, Jonathon; Bumpus, Matthew F; Hill, Laura G; Agley, Jon

    2016-08-01

    Alcohol use, reasons for use, and consequences of use continue to be a major concern in college student populations. This is especially true for students of legal drinking age who may experience different reasons for and greater negative consequences of alcohol use than students under 21 years old. Although multiple studies have used person-centered approaches to understand motivations for and ultimately prevent alcohol use, few have identified multiple typologies of reasons for alcohol use. The current study used latent class analysis to identify homogeneous subtypes of reasons for alcohol use and how classification was associated with alcohol-related consequences in college students aged 21 years old and older (N = 2300) from the 2013 Indiana College Substance Use Survey. Four profiles of reasons for alcohol use emerged across males and females: social drinkers, feel good drinkers, relaxed escaping drinkers, and emotion coping drinkers. Although the likelihood of consequences differed across gender, the emotion coping drinkers were more likely to experience all negative consequences, suggesting that it was a high-risk class. In general, this pattern of risk continued with the feel good drinkers and female relaxed escaping drinkers. These results can help optimize college substance use prevention and intervention efforts to (1) identify and understand characteristics of high- and low-risk student drinkers and (2) tailor the content of interventions to those specific profiles resulting in more effective approaches to reducing alcohol use.

  12. A survey of energy drink and alcohol mixed with energy drink consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnezi, Racheli; Bergman, Lisa Carroll; Grinvald-Fogel, Haya; Cohen, Herman Avner

    2015-01-01

    Energy drink consumption among youth is increasing despite recommendations by the American Academy of Pediatrics to eliminate consumption by youth. This study provides information on consumption of energy drinks and alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmED) in a sample of Israeli youth and how consumer knowledge about the risks affects consumption rates. The study was conducted in three Tel Aviv public schools, with a total enrollment of 1,253 students in grades 8 through 12. Among them, 802 students completed a 49-item questionnaire about energy drink and AmED consumption, for a 64 % response rate Non-responders included 451 students who were absent or refused to participate. All students in the same school were administered the questionnaire on the same day. Energy drinks are popular among youth (84.2 % have ever drunk). More tenth through twelfth grade students consumed energy drinks than eighth and ninth grade students. Students who began drinking in elementary school (36.8 %) are at elevated risk for current energy drink (P consumption (OR 1.925; 95 %CI 1.18-3.14). The association between current AmED consumption and drinking ED at a young age is important. Boys and those who start drinking early have a greater risk of both ED and AmED consumption. The characteristics of early drinkers can help increase awareness of potential at-risk youth, such as junior and senior high school students with less educated or single parents. Risks posed by early use on later energy drink and AmED consumption are concerning. We suggest that parents should limit accessibility. Increased knowledge about acceptable and actual amounts of caffeine in a single product might decrease consumption.

  13. High school drinking mediates the relationship between parental monitoring and college drinking: A longitudinal analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Kathryn B

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background College drinking is a significant public health problem. Although parental monitoring and supervision reduces the risk for alcohol consumption among younger adolescents, few studies have investigated the impact of earlier parental monitoring on later college drinking. This study examined whether parental monitoring indirectly exerts a protective effect on college drinking by reducing high school alcohol consumption. Methods A longitudinal cohort of 1,253 male and female students, ages 17 to 19, attending a large, public, mid-Atlantic university was studied at two time points. First, data on high school parental monitoring and alcohol consumption were gathered via questionnaire during the summer prior to college entry. Second, during the first year of college, past-year alcohol consumption was measured via a personal interview. Multiple regression models tested the relationship between parental monitoring and past year alcohol use (i.e., number of drinks per drinking day. Results Holding constant demographics, SAT score, and religiosity, parental monitoring had a significant protective effect on both high school and college drinking level. However, the association between parental monitoring and college drinking level became non-significant once high school drinking level was held constant. Conclusion While parental monitoring did not directly influence college alcohol consumption, evidence for mediation was observed, whereby parental monitoring had an indirect influence on college drinking through reductions in high school drinking. Initiatives that promote effective parenting might be an important strategy to curb high-risk drinking among older adolescents. More research is needed to understand the nature and degree of parent-child communication that is necessary to extend the protective influence of parents into the college years.

  14. Drinking-water monitoring systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    A new measuring system was developed by the Austrian Research Centre Seibersdorf for monitoring the quality of drinking-water. It is based on the experience made with the installation of UWEDAT (registered trademark) environmental monitoring networks in several Austrian provinces and regions. The standard version of the drinking-water monitoring system comprises sensors for measuring chemical parameters in water, radioactivity in water and air, and meteorological values of the environment. Further measuring gauges, e.g. for air pollutants, can be connected at any time, according to customers' requirements. For integration into regional and supraregional networks, station computers take over the following tasks: Collection of data and status signals transmitted by the subsystem, object protection, intermediate storage and communication of data to the host or several subcentres via Datex-P postal service, permanent lines or radiotransmission

  15. Ritual Black Drink consumption at Cahokia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crown, Patricia L.; Emerson, Thomas E.; Gu, Jiyan; Hurst, W. Jeffrey; Pauketat, Timothy R.; Ward, Timothy

    2012-01-01

    Chemical analyses of organic residues in fragments of pottery from the large site of Cahokia and surrounding smaller sites in Illinois reveal theobromine, caffeine, and ursolic acid, biomarkers for species of Ilex (holly) used to prepare the ritually important Black Drink. As recorded during the historic period, men consumed Black Drink in portions of the American Southeast for ritual purification. This first demonstrated discovery of biomarkers for Ilex occurs in beaker vessels dating between A.D. 1050 and 1250 from Cahokia, located far north of the known range of the holly species used to prepare Black Drink during historic times. The association of Ilex and beaker vessels indicates a sustained ritual consumption of a caffeine-laced drink made from the leaves of plants grown in the southern United States. PMID:22869743

  16. Automatic updating of times remaining in surgical cases using bayesian analysis of historical case duration data and "instant messaging" updates from anesthesia providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dexter, Franklin; Epstein, Richard H; Lee, John D; Ledolter, Johannes

    2009-03-01

    Operating room (OR) whiteboards (status displays) communicate times remaining for ongoing cases to perioperative stakeholders (e.g., postanesthesia care unit, anesthesiologists, holding area, and control desks). Usually, scheduled end times are shown for each OR. However, these displays are inaccurate for predicting the time that remains in a case. Once a case scheduled for 2 h has been on-going for 1.5 h, the median time remaining is not 0.5 h but longer, and the amount longer differs among procedures. We derived the conditional Bayesian lower prediction bound of a case's duration, conditional on the minutes of elapsed OR time. Our derivations make use of the posterior predictive distribution of OR times following an exponential of a scaled Student t distribution that depends on the scheduled OR time and several parameters calculated from historical case duration data. The statistical method was implemented using Structured Query Language (SQL) running on the anesthesia information management system (AIMS) database server. In addition, AIMS workstations were sent instant messages displaying a pop-up dialog box asking for anesthesia providers' estimates for remaining times. The dialogs caused negotiated interruptions (i.e., the anesthesia provider could reply immediately, keep the dialog displayed, or defer response). There were no announcements, education, or efforts to promote buy-in. After a case had been in the OR longer than scheduled, the median remaining OR time for the case changes little over time (e.g., 35 min left at 2:30 pm and also at 3:00 pm while the case was still on-going). However, the remaining time differs substantially among surgeons and scheduled procedure(s) (16 min longer [10th percentile], 35 min [50th], and 86 min [90th]). We therefore implemented an automatic method to estimate the times remaining in cases. The system was operational for >119 of each day's 120 5-min intervals. When instant message dialogs appearing on AIMS workstations

  17. Risk management for assuring safe drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrudey, Steve E; Hrudey, Elizabeth J; Pollard, Simon J T

    2006-12-01

    Millions of people die every year around the world from diarrheal diseases much of which is caused by contaminated drinking water. By contrast, drinking water safety is largely taken for granted by many citizens of affluent nations. The ability to drink water that is delivered into households without fear of becoming ill may be one of the key defining characteristics of developed nations in relation to the majority of the world. Yet there is well-documented evidence that disease outbreaks remain a risk that could be better managed and prevented even in affluent nations. A detailed retrospective analysis of more than 70 case studies of disease outbreaks in 15 affluent nations over the past 30 years provides the basis for much of our discussion [Hrudey, S.E. and Hrudey, E.J. Safe Drinking Water--Lessons from Recent Outbreaks in Affluent Nations. London, UK: IWA Publishing; 2004.]. The insights provided can assist in developing a better understanding within the water industry of the causes of drinking water disease outbreaks, so that more effective preventive measures can be adopted by water systems that are vulnerable. This preventive feature lies at the core of risk management for the provision of safe drinking water.

  18. Validation of radioactivity measurements under the Safe Drinking Water Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldin, Abraham S.

    1978-01-01

    Radioactivity measurements are made under the Safe Drinking Water Act to obtain information on the potential radiological hazard of water and to institute regulatory action when water quality does not meet requirements. Measurements must be both precise and accurate if these goals are to be met. Regulations issued under the act require that analyses be performed by approved (certified) laboratories, which must carry out quality assurance programs. This paper briefly describes the certification requirements and discusses the components of an effective quality assurance program. The Environmental Protection Agency has established procedures for the certification of laboratories making radioactivity measurements of drinking water. These procedures recommend minimum laboratory qualifications for personnel, facilities, equipment, and procedures; proficiency testing by analysis of samples provided by the Agency; and operation of a quality assurance program. A major function of a quality assurance program is to provide the Laboratory Director an ongoing flow of information on laboratory analytical performance. A properly designed and conducted program provides this information in a timely manner, indicates areas where discrepancies exist, and often suggests ways of correcting the discrepancies. Pertinent aspects of radioactivity measurements for drinking water are discussed, including how analyses of blanks, blind duplicates, and reference samples contribute needed information, and evaluations by control charts and statistical analyses. Examples of the usefulness of quality control in correcting both procedural and background problems are given. (author)

  19. Evaluation of drinks contribution to energy intake in summer and winter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malisova, Olga; Bountziouka, Vassiliki; Zampelas, Antonis; Kapsokefalou, Maria

    2015-05-15

    All drinks hydrate and most also provide nutrients and energy. Our objective was to evaluate the contribution of drinks to total energy intake in summer and winter. Data were obtained using the Water Balance Questionnaire (WBQ) from a sample of the general population in Athens, Greece (n = 984), 473 individuals (42 ± 18 years) in summer and 511 individuals (38 ± 20 years) in winter stratified by sex and age. The WBQ embeds a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire of 58 foods and the Short International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Data were analyzed for the contribution of drinks to total energy intake. In winter, total energy intake was 2082 ± 892 kcal/day; energy intake from drinks was 479 ± 286 kcal/day and energy expenditure 1860 ± 390 kcal/day. In summer, total energy intake was 1890 ± 894 kcal/day, energy intake from drinks 492 ± 499 kcal/day and energy expenditure 1830 ± 491 kcal/day. Energy intake from drinks in summer was higher than in winter (p drinks, milk, chocolate milk and alcoholic drinks contributed approximately 75% of energy from drinks. Fruit juice and sugar-sweetened drinks, including soft drinks and fruit juice based drinks, were consumed less frequently contributing up to 25% of drink energy intake. Drinks contribute approximately 1/4 of total energy intake depending on the energy content of the drink and frequency of consumption. Coffee, dairy and alcoholic drinks were the main energy contributors.

  20. Drinking Water FAQ

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 90 different contaminants in public drinking water, including E.coli , Salmonella , and Cryptosporidium species. More information regarding the ... page. Water Quality Indicators: Total Coliforms Fecal Coliforms / Escherichia coli (E. coli) pH Contaminants: Nitrate Volatile Organic Compounds ( ...

  1. Disinfection of drinking water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ensenauer, P.

    1977-01-01

    Some methods for disinfecting drinking water are described, e.g. UV irradiation (optimal wavelength 210-250mm) with the advantage of constant water composition and the resulting danger of re-infection. (AJ) [de

  2. Disinfection of drinking water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ensenauer, P

    1977-01-01

    Some methods for disinfecting drinking water are described, e.g. UV irradiation (optimal wavelength 210-250mm) with the advantage of constant water composition and the resulting danger of re-infection.

  3. Drinking Water Distribution Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about an overview of drinking water distribution systems, the factors that degrade water quality in the distribution system, assessments of risk, future research about these risks, and how to reduce cross-connection control risk.

  4. Risks of underage drinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a higher risk of depression, anxiety, and low self-esteem. Drinking during puberty can also change hormones in ... the first to achieve this important distinction for online health information and services. Learn more about A. ...

  5. SDWISFED Drinking Water Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — SDWIS/FED is EPA's national regulatory compliance database for the drinking water program. It includes information on the nation's 160,000 public water systems and...

  6. The relationship between hours of sleep, screen time and frequency of food and drink consumption in Spain in the 2011 and 2013 ALADINO: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Napoleón Pérez-Farinós

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The frequency of intake of food and beverages depends on a number of ill-defined behaviour patterns. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of screen time and sleep duration on food consumption frequency, and to describe frequencies and types of food consumption according to BMI category and parents’ level of education. Methods We studied 6287 and 2806 children drawn from the 2011 and 2013 cross-sectional ALADINO studies respectively. Data were collected on number of hours of sleep, screen time, and weekly frequency of consumption of 17 food groups. Weight status was measured, and information was also collected on parents’ educational level. Average food consumption frequencies were calculated by reference to hours of sleep and hours of screen time, and were defined as ≥4 times or <4 times per week (once per week for soft drinks and diet soft drinks. Differences in frequency were evaluated for screen times of more and less than 2 h per day, and for sleep durations longer or shorter than the daily average. We fitted logistic regression models to evaluate the independent association between screen exposure and hours of sleep on the one hand, and food consumption frequency on the other. Results Consumption of fruit and vegetables was lower among children who had parents with no formal or only primary school education. High levels of screen time were associated with a greater frequency of consumption of energy-dense, micronutrient-poor products and a lower frequency of consumption of fruit and vegetables. Sleeping a sufficient number of hours was associated with a higher consumption of fruit and vegetables. The results for 2011 were concordant with those for 2013. Conclusions If efforts to ensure healthier eating habits among children are to be at all successful, they should focus on promoting a sufficient amount of sleep for children, limiting the time they spend watching television and/or playing with

  7. Changes in alcohol drinking and subsequent sickness absence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salonsalmi, Aino; Rahkonen, Ossi; Lahelma, Eero; Laaksonen, Mikko

    2015-06-01

    The aim was to examine whether changes in alcohol drinking are associated with sickness absence. Repeated postal questionnaires on alcohol drinking were conducted among employees of the City of Helsinki in 2000-2 and 2007 to assess changes in drinking habits between these two time points. Data on the number of self-certified and medically confirmed sickness absences were derived from the employer's register. Sickness absences were followed from 2007 until the end of 2010 among employees participating in both questionnaire surveys. The study includes 3252 female and 682 male employees 40-60 years old at baseline. Poisson regression was used in the data analysis and population attributable fractions (PAFs) were calculated. Alcohol drinking was associated especially with self-certified sickness absence. Rate ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for increasing weekly average drinking were 1.38, 1.18-1.62 among women and 1.58, 1.18-2.12 among men. Also stable problem drinking (for women 1.39, 1.26-1.54, for men 1.44, 1.10-1.87) and among women stable heavy drinking (1.53, 1.20-1.94) increased self-certified sickness absence. There were associations between alcohol drinking and medically confirmed sickness absence but these were mainly explained by health and health behaviours. Also, a decrease in weekly average drinking was associated with sickness absence among women whereas among men former problem drinking increased sickness absence. According to the PAF values, problem drinking had a stronger contribution to sickness absence than weekly average drinking. Alcohol drinking is particularly associated with self-certified sickness absence. Reducing adverse drinking habits is likely to prevent sickness absence. © 2015 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  8. Binge Drinking PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-10-05

    This PSA is based on the October, 2010 CDC Vital Signs report which indicates that drinking too much, including binge drinking, causes more than 79,000 deaths in the U.S. each year and is the third leading preventable cause of death.  Created: 10/5/2010 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 10/5/2010.

  9. Drinking Level Versus Drinking Pattern and Cigarette Smoking Among Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holahan, Charles J; Brennan, Penny L; Schutte, Kathleen K; Holahan, Carole K; Hixon, J Gregory; Moos, Rudolf H

    2018-04-01

    There is a lack of research on the role of alcohol consumption in cigarette smoking among older adults, and the few studies on alcohol use and smoking with older adults have failed to distinguish between average level and pattern of drinking as predictors of smoking. The main purpose of this study was to examine the independent contributions of average level versus pattern of drinking as predictors of cigarette smoking among older adults. A subsidiary purpose was to examine the link between continued smoking and mortality among older smokers. We investigated average level and pattern of drinking as predictors of current smoking among 1,151 older adults at baseline and of continued smoking and mortality among the subset of 276 baseline smokers tracked across 20 years. We used multiple linear and logistic regression analyses and, to test mediation, bias-corrected bootstrap confidence intervals. A high level of average drinking and a pattern of episodic heavy drinking were concurrently associated with smoking at baseline. However, only episodic heavy drinking was prospectively linked to continued smoking among baseline smokers. Continued smoking among baseline smokers increased the odds of 20-year mortality and provided an indirect pathway through which heavy episodic drinking related to mortality. Smokers who misuse alcohol are a challenging population for smoking cessation efforts. Older adults who concurrently misuse alcohol and smoke cigarettes provide a unique target for public health interventions. Copyright © 2018 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  10. Comammox in drinking water systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yulin; Ma, Liping; Mao, Yanping; Jiang, Xiaotao; Xia, Yu; Yu, Ke; Li, Bing; Zhang, Tong

    2017-06-01

    The discovery of complete ammonia oxidizer (comammox) has fundamentally upended our perception of the global nitrogen cycle. Here, we reported four metagenome assembled genomes (MAGs) of comammox Nitrospira that were retrieved from metagenome datasets of tap water in Singapore (SG-bin1 and SG-bin2), Hainan province, China (HN-bin3) and Stanford, CA, USA (ST-bin4). Genes of phylogenetically distinct ammonia monooxygenase subunit A (amoA) and hydroxylamine dehydrogenase (hao) were identified in these four MAGs. Phylogenetic analysis based on ribosomal proteins, AmoA, hao and nitrite oxidoreductase (subunits nxrA and nxrB) sequences indicated their close relationships with published comammox Nitrospira. Canonical ammonia-oxidizing microbes (AOM) were also identified in the three tap water samples, ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) in Singapore's and Stanford's samples and ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) in Hainan's sample. The comammox amoA-like sequences were also detected from some other drinking water systems, and even outnumbered the AOA and AOB amoA-like sequences. The findings of MAGs and the occurrences of AOM in different drinking water systems provided a significant clue that comammox are widely distributed in drinking water systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Can providing a morning healthy snack help to reduce hunger during school time? Experimental evidence from an elementary school in Connecticut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellari, Elena; Berning, Joshua P

    2016-11-01

    While children may be naturally inclined to regulate their hunger, they are also guided by adults and influenced by environmental constraints regarding when and how much to eat. As such, the timing and availability of meals could alter a child's natural eating habits. This could impact the nutritional quality of what they eat as well. We conducted a field experiment with three fourth grade classes at a public elementary school in Eastern Connecticut to analyze if providing a nutritious snack one hour prior to lunch effects a child's level of hunger and consequently their lunch-time consumption. We found students shift their caloric and nutrient intake from lunch to snack time. In addition, we found a significant reduction in student hunger. Our results highlight the importance in considering the timing and quality of meals provided during school time. In our sample, current snack and lunch schedule may not be optimal and changing it can have an impact on the wellbeing of students. Providing healthful options for snack could be an effective way to improve student diets while preserving their ability to make their own choices. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Physico-chemical quality of drinking water in villages of Primary Health Centre, Waghodia, Gujarat (India).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Gaurav; Vasisth, Smriti; Patel, Maharshi; Mehta, Vaibhav; Bhavsar, Bharat

    2012-07-01

    16 water samples were collected to study the physical and chemical quality of water of main source of drinking water in the villages of Primary Health Centre, Waghodia of Vadodara district of Gujarat. The values recommended by Indian Standard for Drinking Water (IS 10500:1991) were used for comparison of observed values. The study indicates that the contamination problem in these villages is not alarming at present, but Waghodia being industrial town, ground water quality may deteriorate with passage of time, which needs periodical monitoring. The study provides the local area baseline data which may be useful for the comparison of future study.

  13. Monitoring for contaminants of emerging concern in drinking water using POCIS passive samplers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalfe, Chris; Hoque, M Ehsanul; Sultana, Tamanna; Murray, Craig; Helm, Paul; Kleywegt, Sonya

    2014-03-01

    Contaminants of emerging concern (CEC) have been detected in drinking water world-wide. The source of most of these compounds is generally attributed to contamination from municipal wastewater. Traditional water sampling methods (grab or composite) often require the concentration of large amounts of water in order to detect trace levels of these contaminants. The Polar Organic Compounds Integrative Sampler (POCIS) is a passive sampling technology that has been developed to concentrate trace levels of CEC to provide time-weighted average concentrations for individual compounds in water. However, few studies to date have evaluated whether POCIS is suitable for monitoring contaminants in drinking water. In this study, the POCIS was evaluated as a monitoring tool for CEC in drinking water over a period of 2 and 4 weeks with comparisons to typical grab samples. Seven "indicator compounds" which included carbamazepine, trimethoprim, sulfamethoxazole, ibuprofen, gemfibrozil, estrone and sucralose, were monitored in five drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs) in Ontario. All indicator compounds were detected in raw water samples from the POCIS in comparison to six from grab samples. Similarly, four compounds were detected in grab samples of treated drinking water, whereas six were detected in the POCIS. Sucralose was the only compound that was detected consistently at all five plants. The POCIS technique provided integrative exposures of CECs in drinking water at lower detection limits, while episodic events were captured via traditional sampling methods. There was evidence that the accumulation of target compounds by POCIS is a dynamic process, with adsorption and desorption on the sorbent occurring in response to ambient levels of the target compounds in water. CECs in treated drinking water were present at low ng L(-1) concentrations, which are not considered to be a threat to human health.

  14. Drinking Water Quality of Water Vending Machines in Parit Raja, Batu Pahat, Johor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, N. H.; Yusop, H. M.

    2016-07-01

    An increased in demand from the consumer due to their perceptions on tap water quality is identified as one of the major factor on why they are mentally prepared to pay for the price of the better quality drinking water. The thought that filtered water quality including that are commercially available in the market such as mineral and bottled drinking water and from the drinking water vending machine makes they highly confident on the level of hygiene, safety and the mineral content of this type of drinking water. This study was investigated the vended water quality from the drinking water vending machine in eight locations in Parit Raja are in terms of pH, total dissolve solids (TDS), turbidity, mineral content (chromium, arsenic, cadmium, lead and nickel), total organic carbon (TOC), pH, total colony-forming units (CFU) and total coliform. All experiments were conducted in one month duration in triplicate samples for each sampling event. The results indicated the TDS and all heavy metals in eight vended water machines in Parit Raja area were found to be below the Food Act 1983, Regulation 360C (Standard for Packaged Drinking Water and Vended water, 2012) and Malaysian Drinking Water Quality, Ministry of Health 1983. No coliform was presence in any of the vended water samples. pH was found to be slightly excess the limit provided while turbidity was found to be 45 to 95 times more higher than 0.1 NTU as required by the Malaysian Food Act Regulation. The data obtained in this study would suggest the important of routine maintenance and inspection of vended water provider in order to maintain a good quality, hygienic and safety level of vended water.

  15. Age-Related Changes in Associations Between Reasons for Alcohol Use and High-Intensity Drinking Across Young Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Megan E; Evans-Polce, Rebecca; Kloska, Deborah D; Maggs, Jennifer L; Lanza, Stephanie T

    2017-07-01

    Analyses focus on whether self-reported reasons for drinking alcohol change in their associations with high-intensity drinking across the transition to adulthood. Self-report data on high-intensity drinking (10+ drinks) collected from the national Monitoring the Future study in 2005 to 2014 from those ages 18-26 were used (N = 2,664 [60% women] for all drinkers and 1,377 for heavy episodic [5+] drinkers; up to 6,541 person-waves). Time-varying effect modeling examined changes in the direction and magnitude of associations between eight reasons for drinking and high-intensity alcohol use across continuous age. Four reasons to drink showed quite stable associations with high-intensity drinking across age: drinking to get away from problems, to get high, to relax, and to sleep. Associations between two reasons and high-intensity drinking decreased with age: anger/frustration and to have a good time. The association between drinking because of boredom and high-intensity drinking increased with age. Drinking because it tastes good had a weak association with high-intensity drinking. Among heavy episodic drinkers, reasons for use also differentiated high-intensity drinking, with two exceptions: drinking to have a good time and to relax did not distinguish drinking 10+ drinks from drinking 5-9 drinks. Reasons for drinking are differentially associated with high-intensity drinking, compared with any other drinking and compared with lower intensity heavy drinking, across age during the transition to adulthood. Intervention programs seeking to mitigate alcohol-related harms should focus on reasons for use when they are the most developmentally salient.

  16. Energy Drinks: Implications for the Breastfeeding Mother.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorlton, Janet; Ahmed, Azza; Colby, David A

    2016-01-01

    Breastfeeding women may experience disrupted sleep schedules and be tempted to turn to popular energy drinks to reduce fatigue and enhance alertness, prompting the question: What are the maternal and child health implications for breastfeeding mothers consuming energy drinks? Caffeine and vitamin-rich energy drinks contain a variety of herbal ingredients and vitamins; however, ingredient amounts may not be clearly disclosed on product labels. Interactions between herbal ingredients and caffeine are understudied and not well defined in the literature. Some infants can be sensitive to caffeine and display increased irritability and sleep disturbances when exposed to caffeine from breastmilk. Breastfeeding women who consume energy drinks may be ingesting herbal ingredients that have not undergone scientific evaluation, and if taking prenatal vitamins, may unknowingly exceed the recommended daily intake. Caffeinated products are marketed in newer ways, fueling concerns about health consequences of caffeine exposure. We present implications associated with consumption of caffeine and vitamin-rich energy drinks among breastfeeding women. Product safety, labeling, common ingredients, potential interactions, and clinical implications are discussed. Healthcare providers should encourage breastfeeding women to read product labels for ingredients, carbohydrate content, serving size, and to discourage consumption of energy drinks when breastfeeding and/or taking prenatal vitamins, to avoid potential vitamin toxicity.

  17. European Food and Drink Wholesalers and Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Jones

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose- The aim of this paper is to review and reflect on the sustainability agendas and achievements reported by Europe's leading food and drinks wholesalers. Design/Methodology/Approach- The paper begins with a short introduction to corporate sustainability, sustainability reporting and food and drinks wholesaling within Europe and the empirical material for the paper is drawn from reports and information posted on the leading food and drinks wholesalers' corporate websites. Findings- There are marked variations in the extent to which Europe's leading food and drinks wholesalers reported and provided information on their sustainability agendas and achievements. These agendas and achievements embraced a wide range of environmental, social and economic issues but the reporting process had a number of weaknesses that undermine its transparency and credibility. The authors also argue that the leading food and drinks wholesalers' definitions of, and commitments to, sustainability are principally driven by business imperatives as by any fundamental concern to maintain the viability and integrity of natural and social capital. More critically the authors argue that this approach is couched within existing business models centred on continuing growth and consumption Limitations- The paper is a preliminary review of the sustainability agendas and achievements publicly reported by Europe's leading food and drinks wholesalers. Originality- The role of Europe's wholesale sector in addressing sustainability has received scant attention in the academic literature and this paper will interest academics and students in business management and marketing and employees and executives working in the distribution sector of the economy.

  18. Temporal behavior of {sup 222}Radon, {sup 226}Radium and {sup 238}Uranium in deep water wells which provide Valle de Toluca with drinking water; Comportamiento temporal de {sup 222}Radon, {sup 226}Radio y {sup 238}Uranio en pozos profundos que abastecen de agua potable al Valle de Toluca

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pena, P; Tamez, E; Iturbe, J L; Acosta, A; Segovia, N [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Mexico City (Mexico); Carrillo, J; Armienta, M [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico City (Mexico). Inst. de Geofisica

    1994-12-31

    The presence of radionuclides in underground waters may be an indication of its origin and also the sign of the hydraulic properties of the aquifers layers where circulate. Additionally, the ingestion by human beings of water with radioactive elements (Radon 222, Radium 226, Uranium 238) can give as a result the accumulation of such elements in several organs of the body producing then health damages. In this work, the concentrations of Radon 222, Radium 226 and Uranium 238, in waters coming from deep wells which provide with drinking water the Toluca Valley, were determined. For this purpose, during a year (june 1991 to August 1992) ten wells were sampled with a tracking of the radionuclides concentration as well as the physical-chemical components of water; it was established the relationship presented by the analyzed waters with the local geology and the local and regional systems. (Author).

  19. Using a Time-Driven Activity-Based Costing Model To Determine the Actual Cost of Services Provided by a Transgenic Core.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerwin, Philip M; Norinsky, Rada M; Tolwani, Ravi J

    2018-03-01

    Laboratory animal programs and core laboratories often set service rates based on cost estimates. However, actual costs may be unknown, and service rates may not reflect the actual cost of services. Accurately evaluating the actual costs of services can be challenging and time-consuming. We used a time-driven activity-based costing (ABC) model to determine the cost of services provided by a resource laboratory at our institution. The time-driven approach is a more efficient approach to calculating costs than using a traditional ABC model. We calculated only 2 parameters: the time required to perform an activity and the unit cost of the activity based on employee cost. This method allowed us to rapidly and accurately calculate the actual cost of services provided, including microinjection of a DNA construct, microinjection of embryonic stem cells, embryo transfer, and in vitro fertilization. We successfully implemented a time-driven ABC model to evaluate the cost of these services and the capacity of labor used to deliver them. We determined how actual costs compared with current service rates. In addition, we determined that the labor supplied to conduct all services (10,645 min/wk) exceeded the practical labor capacity (8400 min/wk), indicating that the laboratory team was highly efficient and that additional labor capacity was needed to prevent overloading of the current team. Importantly, this time-driven ABC approach allowed us to establish a baseline model that can easily be updated to reflect operational changes or changes in labor costs. We demonstrated that a time-driven ABC model is a powerful management tool that can be applied to other core facilities as well as to entire animal programs, providing valuable information that can be used to set rates based on the actual cost of services and to improve operating efficiency.

  20. Ichthyoplankton Time Series: A Potential Ocean Observing Network to Provide Indicators of Climate Impacts on Fish Communities along the West Coast of North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koslow, J. A.; Brodeur, R.; Duffy-Anderson, J. T.; Perry, I.; jimenez Rosenberg, S.; Aceves, G.

    2016-02-01

    Ichthyoplankton time series available from the Bering Sea, Gulf of Alaska and California Current (Oregon to Baja California) provide a potential ocean observing network to assess climate impacts on fish communities along the west coast of North America. Larval fish abundance reflects spawning stock biomass, so these data sets provide indicators of the status of a broad range of exploited and unexploited fish populations. Analyses to date have focused on individual time series, which generally exhibit significant change in relation to climate. Off California, a suite of 24 midwater fish taxa have declined > 60%, correlated with declining midwater oxygen concentrations, and overall larval fish abundance has declined 72% since 1969, a trend based on the decline of predominantly cool-water affinity taxa in response to warming ocean temperatures. Off Oregon, there were dramatic differences in community structure and abundance of larval fishes between warm and cool ocean conditions. Midwater deoxygenation and warming sea surface temperature trends are predicted to continue as a result of global climate change. US, Canadian, and Mexican fishery scientists are now collaborating in a virtual ocean observing network to synthesize available ichthyoplankton time series and compare patterns of change in relation to climate. This will provide regional indicators of populations and groups of taxa sensitive to warming, deoxygenation and potentially other stressors, establish the relevant scales of coherence among sub-regions and across Large Marine Ecosystems, and provide the basis for predicting future climate change impacts on these ecosystems.

  1. Reverse engineering a 'responsible drinking' campaign to assess strategic intent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettigrew, Simone; Biagioni, Nicole; Daube, Mike; Stafford, Julia; Jones, Sandra C; Chikritzhs, Tanya

    2016-06-01

    The alcohol industry produces 'responsible drinking' advertising campaigns. There is concern that these may promote drinking while persuading governments and the general public that the industry is acting responsibly. This paper examined young people's thoughts and feelings in response to one of these campaigns in Australia. A qualitative analysis of introspection data provided by young drinkers after exposure to a responsible drinking advertisement produced by DrinkWise called 'How to Drink Properly'. Perth, Western Australia. Forty-eight 18-21-year-old drinkers. The qualitative data were imported into NVivo10 and coded according to the various stages of advertising effects frameworks. A thematic analysis approach was used to identify patterns in the data relating to (i) perceptions of the source and purpose of the advertisement and (ii) any resulting attitudinal or behavioural outcomes. Despite the sample comprising mainly high-risk drinkers, participants were generally unable to relate to the heavy drinkers depicted in the DrinkWise advertisement. This disassociation resulted in a perceived lack of need to modify their own drinking behaviours. Instead, the study participants found the advertisement to be entertaining and supportive of existing social norms relating to heavy drinking among members of this age group. The 'How to Drink Properly' advertisement by Drinkwise in Australia may reinforce existing drinking attitudes and behaviours among young drinkers. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  2. Implications of sleep and energy drink use for health disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandner, Michael A; Knutson, Kristen L; Troxel, Wendy; Hale, Lauren; Jean-Louis, Girardin; Miller, Kathleen E

    2014-01-01

    The popularity of energy drinks has increased rapidly in the past decade. One of the main reasons people use energy drinks is to counteract effects of insufficient sleep or sleepiness. Risks associated with energy drink use, including those related to sleep loss, may be disproportionately borne by racial minorities and those of lower socioeconomic status. In this review, a brief introduction to the issue of health disparities is provided, population-level disparities and inequalities in sleep are described, and the social-ecological model of sleep and health is presented. Social and demographic patterns of energy drink use are then presented, followed by discussion of the potential ways in which energy drink use may contribute to health disparities, including the following: 1) effects of excessive caffeine in energy drinks, 2) effects of energy drinks as sugar-sweetened beverages, 3) association between energy drinks and risk-taking behaviors when mixed with alcohol, 4) association between energy drink use and short sleep duration, and 5) role of energy drinks in cardiometabolic disease. The review concludes with a research agenda of critical unanswered questions. PMID:25293540

  3. Alcohol binge drinking during pregnancy and cryptorchidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strandberg-Larsen, Katrine; Jensen, Morten Søndergaard; Ramlau-Hansen, Cecilia Høst

    2009-01-01

    estimated by Cox regression. RESULTS: Average weekly alcohol consumption as well as frequency of binge drinking at any time during pregnancy was not associated with risk of cryptorchidism. Binge drinking in gestational weeks 7-15 was associated with a slightly increased risk of cryptorchidism with adjusted......BACKGROUND: Recent studies have suggested gestational weeks 8-14 as a time window of particular importance to the intrauterine development of the male genitalia, and prenatal exposure to alcohol is under suspicion as a risk factor for cryptorchidism. We examined if prenatal exposure to alcohol...... of cryptorchidism were identified and 398 of these were orchiopexy verified. Maternal alcohol consumption including number and timing of binge drinking episodes was assessed in two computer-assisted telephone interviews around gestational weeks 17 and 32. Adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) of cryptorchidism were...

  4. Developing a Tool to Assess the Capacity of Out-of-School Time Program Providers to Implement Policy, Systems, and Environmental Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeman, Jennifer; Blitstein, Jonathan L; Goetz, Joshua; Moore, Alexis; Tessman, Nell; Wiecha, Jean L

    2016-08-11

    Little is known about public health practitioners' capacity to change policies, systems, or environments (PSEs), in part due to the absence of measures. To address this need, we partnered with the Alliance for a Healthier Generation (Alliance) to develop and test a theory-derived measure of the capacity of out-of-school time program providers to improve students' level of nutrition and physical activity through changes in PSEs. The measure was developed and tested through an engaged partnership with staff working on the Alliance's Healthy Out-of-School Time (HOST) Initiative. In total, approximately 2,000 sites nationwide are engaged in the HOST Initiative, which serves predominantly high-need children and youths. We partnered with the Alliance to conduct formative work that would help develop a survey that assessed attitudes/beliefs, social norms, external resources/supports, and self-efficacy. The survey was administered to providers of out-of-school time programs who were implementing the Alliance's HOST Initiative. Survey respondents were 185 out-of-school time program providers (53% response rate). Exploratory factor analysis yielded a 4-factor model that explained 44.7% of the variance. Factors pertained to perceptions of social norms (6 items) and self-efficacy to build support and engage a team (4 items) and create (5 items) and implement (3 items) an action plan. We report initial development and factor analysis of a tool that the Alliance can use to assess the capacity of after-school time program providers, which is critical to targeting capacity-building interventions and assessing their effectiveness. Study findings also will inform the development of measures to assess individual capacity to plan and implement other PSE interventions.

  5. Subsurface iron and arsenic removal for drinking water treatment in Bangladesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Halem, D.

    2011-01-01

    Arsenic contamination of shallow tube well drinking water is an urgent health problem in Bangladesh. Current arsenic mitigation solutions, including (household) arsenic removal options, do not always provide a sustainable alternative for safe drinking water. A novel technology, Subsurface Arsenic

  6. The need for congressional action to finance arsenic reductions in drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Rebecca Leah

    2012-11-01

    Many public water systems in the U.S. are unsafe because the communities cannot afford to comply with the current 10 parts per billion (ppb) federal arsenic standard for drinking water. Communities unable to afford improvements remain vulnerable to adverse health effects associated with higher levels of arsenic exposure. Scientific and bipartisan political consensus exists that the arsenic standard should not be less stringent than 10 ppb, and new data suggest additional adverse health effects related to arsenic exposure through drinking water. Congress has failed to reauthorize the Drinking Water State Revolving Fund program to provide reliable funding to promote compliance and reduce the risk of adverse health effects. Congress's recent ad hoc appropriations do not allow long-term planning and ongoing monitoring and maintenance. Investing in water infrastructure will lower health care costs and create American jobs. Delaying necessary upgrades will only increase the costs of improvements over time.

  7. Integrated real-time information to use in commercial, logistics and operational activities provide by the national control center operation of Transpetro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aniceto, Hello A. R. [National Control Center Operation Transpetro, Rio de Janeiro, (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    TRANSPETRO needed real time computational tools to manage its commercial, logistics and operational activities more efficiently. TRANSPETRO's National Control Center Operation developed an information site that provides information in real time on the process plans involved in each operation, using a Plant Information Management System (PIMS). SCADA systems were introduced during 2009 and 2010. This paper reports on the global introduction of the site and its basic architecture. Every screen displays the overall data in real time on movement in volume in pipeline operated by TRANSPETRO. The products transported are tracked for each infrastructure and are shown on dynamic geographic maps. Applications have been developed to improve the quality of information available to customers. It was found that the development of this site using PIMS technology brought gains in support to decision-making at the strategic and tactical levels for TRANSPETRO.

  8. Personality, negative affect coping, and drinking alone: a structural equation modeling approach to examine correlates of adolescent solitary drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creswell, Kasey G; Chung, Tammy; Wright, Aidan G C; Clark, Duncan B; Black, Jessica J; Martin, Christopher S

    2015-05-01

    This study examined the personality traits of negative emotionality and constraint and the ability to resist drinking during negative affective states as correlates of solitary drinking in adolescence. We hypothesized that higher levels of negative emotionality and lower levels of constraint would predict solitary drinking and that these relationships would be mediated by the ability to resist drinking in response to negative emotions. Structural equation modeling was used to fit a path model from the personality traits of negative emotionality and constraint to solitary drinking status through intermediate effects on the ability to resist drinking during negative emotions using cross-sectional data. Clinical and community settings in Pennsylvania, USA. The sample included 761 adolescent drinkers (mean age = 17.1). Adolescents completed the Lifetime Drinking History, the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire, the Constructive Thinking Inventory and the Situational Confidence Questionnaire. The path model provided a good fit to the data. The association between trait negative emotionality and solitary drinking was fully mediated by adolescents' ability to resist drinking during negative affective states (b = 0.05, P = 0.01). In contrast, constraint had a direct effect on solitary drinking (odds ratio (OR) = 0.79, b = -0.23, P<0.01), as well as an indirect effect through the ability to resist drinking during negative affective states (b = -0.03, P = 0.02). The ability to resist drinking while experiencing negative feelings or emotions may be an important underlying mechanism linking trait negative emotionality (a tendency toward depression, anxiety and poor reaction to stress) and constraint (lack of impulsiveness) to adolescent solitary drinking. © 2015 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  9. Drinking to the Limit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Järvinen, Margaretha; Ellersgaard, Christoph Houman; Larsen, Anton Grau

    2014-01-01

    of economic, cultural and inherited capital are more responsive to alcohol-related health messages than respondents (and especially males) occupying positions low in the social space. This, however, does not mean that respondents from dominant groups have ‘safe’ drinking habits, as these are defined......The aim of this article is to analyse social status differences in alcohol norms and practices seen from the perspective of ‘health governance’. Survey data on 1442 employees in a middle-sized, Danish firm are used to construct a Bourdieu-inspired social space, tied to four forms of capital......: economic, cultural, inherited and organisational. A range of variables measuring alcohol norms, drinking practices and alcohol-related problems are then inserted into the space. This article identifies status differences in the employees’ drinking patterns indicating that respondents with large amounts...

  10. SU-D-BRF-05: A Novel System to Provide Real-Time Image-Guidance for Intrauterine Tandem Insertion and Placement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, M; Fontenot, J [pF Biomedical Solutions LLC, Baton Rouge, LA (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To develop a system that provides real-time image-guidance for intrauterine tandem insertion and placement for brachytherapy. Methods: The conceptualized system consists of an intrauterine tandem with a transparent, lensed tip, a flexible miniature fiber optic scope, light source and interface for CCD coupling. The tandem tip was designed to act as a lens providing a wide field-of-view (FOV) with minimal image distortion and focus length appropriate for the application. The system is designed so that once inserted, the image-guidance component of the system can be removed and brachytherapy can be administered without interfering with source transport or disturbing tandem placement. Proof-of-principle studies were conducted to assess the conceptualized system's (1) lens functionality (clarity, focus and FOV) (2) and ability to visualize the cervical os of a female placed in the lithotomy position. Results: A prototype of this device was constructed using a commercial tandem modified to incorporate a transparent tip that internally coupled with a 1.9mm diameter fiber optic cable. The 900mm-long cable terminated at an interface that provided illumination as well as facilitated visualization of patient anatomy on a computer. The system provided a 23mm FOV with a focal length of 1cm and provided clear visualization of the cervix, cervical fornix and cervical os. The optical components of the system are easily removed without perturbing the position of a tandem placed in a common fixation clamp. Conclusion: Clinicians frequently encounter difficulty inserting an intrauterine tandem through the cervical os, circumventing fibrotic tissue or masses within the uterus, and positioning the tandem without perforating the uterus. To mitigate these challenges, we have designed and conducted proof-of- principle studies to discern the utility of a prototype device that provides real-time image-guidance for intrauterine tandem placement using fiber optic components.

  11. New evidence about the "dark side" of social cohesion in promoting binge drinking among adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Gabrielle Martins

    Full Text Available Adolescence is characterized by heightened susceptibility to peer influence, which makes adolescents vulnerable to initiating or maintaining risky habits such as heavy drinking. The aim of the study was to investigate the association of social capital with longitudinal changes in the frequency of binge drinking among adolescents at public and private high schools in the city of Diamantina, Brazil. This longitudinal study used two waves of data collected when the adolescents were 12 and 13 years old. At the baseline assessment in 2013 a classroom survey was carried out with a representative sample of 588 students. In 2014, a follow-up survey was carried out with the same adolescents when they were aged 13 years. The Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test-C (AUDIT C was employed for the evaluation of alcohol intake. Our predictor variables included sociodemographic and economic characteristics (gender, type of school, mother's education, family income and Social Capital. For evaluation of social capital, we used the Social Capital Questionnaire for Adolescent Students (SCQ-AS. Descriptive and bivariate analyzes were performed (p <0.05. The log-binomial model was used to calculate prevalence ratios (PR and 95% confidence intervals. The two-tailed p value was set at <0.05. The prevalence of binge drinking in 2013 was 23.1% and in 2014 the prevalence had risen to 30.1%. Gender (PR 1.48; 95% CI 0.87-2.52 and socioeconomic status (type of school and mother's education were not associated with the increase in the frequency of binge drinking. However, higher social capital was significantly associated with an increase in binge drinking by students. Adolescents who reported that they had an increase in social cohesion in the community/neighborhood subscale were 3.4 times more likely (95%CI 1.96-6.10 to binge drink themselves. Our results provide new evidence about the "dark side" of social cohesion in promoting binge drinking among adolescents.

  12. Faster self-paced rate of drinking for alcohol mixed with energy drinks versus alcohol alone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marczinski, Cecile A; Fillmore, Mark T; Maloney, Sarah F; Stamates, Amy L

    2017-03-01

    The consumption of alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmED) has been associated with higher rates of binge drinking and impaired driving when compared with alcohol alone. However, it remains unclear why the risks of use of AmED are heightened compared with alcohol alone even when the doses of alcohol consumed are similar. Therefore, the purpose of this laboratory study was to investigate if the rate of self-paced beverage consumption was faster for a dose of AmED versus alcohol alone using a double-blind, within-subjects, placebo-controlled study design. Participants (n = 16) of equal gender who were social drinkers attended 4 separate test sessions that involved consumption of alcohol (1.97 ml/kg vodka) and energy drinks, alone and in combination. On each test day, the dose assigned was divided into 10 cups. Participants were informed that they would have a 2-h period to consume the 10 drinks. After the self-paced drinking period, participants completed a cued go/no-go reaction time (RT) task and subjective ratings of stimulation and sedation. The results indicated that participants consumed the AmED dose significantly faster (by ∼16 min) than the alcohol dose. For the performance task, participants' mean RTs were slower in the alcohol conditions and faster in the energy-drink conditions. In conclusion, alcohol consumers should be made aware that rapid drinking might occur for AmED beverages, thus heightening alcohol-related safety risks. The fast rate of drinking may be related to the generalized speeding of responses after energy-drink consumption. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Evaluating the Effect of Holding Time and Storage Temperature on the Chemical Stability of Drinking Water Samples Collected from Military Forward Deployed Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-30

    thank you for the analysis and data mining support you provided during the course of my research. I would also like to thank Dr. Cara Olsen, Dr...refrigerator (General Electric ) temperature was at 4°C. The temperature varied from 2-5 °C, as noted from observed temperature readings taken two to three

  14. Erosion of enamel by non-carbonated soft drinks with and without toothbrushing abrasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemingway, C A; Parker, D M; Addy, M; Barbour, M E

    2006-10-07

    To investigate how enamel loss due to erosion, and due to cycling of erosion and abrasion, depends on compositional parameters of soft drinks, and particularly whether the thickness of the erosive softened layer is a function of drink composition. University dental hospital research laboratory in the UK, 2004. Six drinks were chosen based on their popularity and composition: apple juice, orange juice, apple drink, orange drink, cranberry drink and 'ToothKind' blackcurrant drink. Group A samples (n = 36) were exposed to soft drinks at 36 degrees C for six consecutive 10 minute periods. Group B samples (n = 36) were subjected to alternating erosion and toothbrushing, repeated six times. Enamel loss was measured using optical profilometry. Group A: significant enamel loss was seen for all drinks (p composition of the erosive medium.

  15. The effects of a priming dose of alcohol and drinking environment on snack food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, A K; Hardman, C A; Christiansen, P

    2015-12-01

    Alcohol consumption is a potential risk factor for being overweight. We aimed to investigate the effects of an alcohol priming dose and an alcohol-related environment on snacking behaviour. One hundred and fourteen social drinkers completed one of four experimental sessions either receiving a priming dose of alcohol (.6 g/kg) or soft drink in a bar-lab or a sterile lab. Participants provided ratings of appetite, snack urge, and alcohol urge before and after consuming their drinks. Participants completed an ad libitum snack taste test of savoury and sweet, healthy and unhealthy foods before completing the self-reports a final time. Appetite and snack urge increased more following alcohol consumption, and decreased to a lesser extent following the taste test relative to the soft drink. Total calories (including drink calories) consumed were significantly higher in the alcohol groups. There was a marginal effect of environment; those in the bar-lab consumed a higher proportion of unhealthy foods. These effects were more pronounced in those who were disinhibited. While alcohol may not increase food consumption per se, alcohol may acutely disrupt appetite signals, perhaps via processes of reward and inhibitory control, resulting in overall greater calorie intake. Individuals who are generally disinhibited may be more vulnerable to the effects of alcohol and drinking environments on eating behaviour. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A daily process examination of episode-specific drinking to cope motivation among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrenberg, Ethan; Armeli, Stephen; Howland, Maryhope; Tennen, Howard

    2016-06-01

    Theory suggests that state- and trait-like factors should interact in predicting drinking to cope (DTC) motivation, yet no research to date has demonstrated this at the drinking episode level of analysis. Thus, we examined whether daily variation in positive and negative affect and avoidance and active coping were associated with DTC motivation during discrete drinking episodes and whether these associations were moderated by tension-reduction expectancies and other person-level risk factors. Using a secure website, 722 college student drinkers completed a one-time survey regarding their tension reduction expectancies and then reported daily for 30 days on their affect, coping strategies, drinking behaviors and motives for drinking. Individuals reported higher levels of DTC motivation on days when negative affect and avoidance coping were high and positive affect was low. We found only little support for the predicted interactive effects among the day- and person-level predictors. Our results support the state and trait conceptualizations of DTC motivation and provide evidence for the antecedent roles of proximal levels of daily affect and avoidance coping. Our inconsistent results for interaction effects including day-level antecedents raise the possibility that some of these synergistic processes might not generalize across level of analysis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. More than Food and Drink: Careers in Restaurants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liming, Drew

    2009-01-01

    In restaurants, the food's the thing. But the drinks, presentation, service, and ambiance are important, too. And it's up to restaurant workers to provide diners with a square meal that's well rounded. The hard work of the kitchen, bar, and dining-room staff gets food and drink from menu to mouth. Some of the more visible workers may include…

  18. Biological stability of drinking water : Controlling factors, methods, and challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prest, E.I.E.D.; Hammes, F.; Van Loosdrecht, M.C.M.; Vrouwenvelder, J.S.

    2016-01-01

    Biological stability of drinking water refers to the concept of providing consumers with drinking water of same microbial quality at the tap as produced at the water treatment facility. However, uncontrolled growth of bacteria can occur during distribution in water mains and premise plumbing, and

  19. 30 CFR 71.600 - Drinking water; general.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drinking water; general. 71.600 Section 71.600 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH... Water § 71.600 Drinking water; general. An adequate supply of potable water shall be provided for...

  20. 30 CFR 75.1718-1 - Drinking water; quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drinking water; quality. 75.1718-1 Section 75... AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1718-1 Drinking water; quality. (a) Potable water provided in accordance with the provisions of § 75.1718 shall meet the...

  1. Occurrence of neonicotinoid insecticides in finished drinking water and fate during drinking water treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klarich, Kathryn L.; Pflug, Nicholas C.; DeWald, Eden M.; Hladik, Michelle L.; Kolpin, Dana W.; Cwiertny, David M.; LeFevre, Gergory H.

    2017-01-01

    Neonicotinoid insecticides are widespread in surface waters across the agriculturally-intensive Midwestern US. We report for the first time the presence of three neonicotinoids in finished drinking water and demonstrate their general persistence during conventional water treatment. Periodic tap water grab samples were collected at the University of Iowa over seven weeks in 2016 (May-July) after maize/soy planting. Clothianidin, imidacloprid, and thiamethoxam were ubiquitously detected in finished water samples and ranged from 0.24-57.3 ng/L. Samples collected along the University of Iowa treatment train indicate no apparent removal of clothianidin and imidacloprid, with modest thiamethoxam removal (~50%). In contrast, the concentrations of all neonicotinoids were substantially lower in the Iowa City treatment facility finished water using granular activated carbon (GAC) filtration. Batch experiments investigated potential losses. Thiamethoxam losses are due to base-catalyzed hydrolysis at high pH conditions during lime softening. GAC rapidly and nearly completely removed all three neonicotinoids. Clothianidin is susceptible to reaction with free chlorine and may undergo at least partial transformation during chlorination. Our work provides new insights into the persistence of neonicotinoids and their potential for transformation during water treatment and distribution, while also identifying GAC as an effective management tool to lower neonicotinoid concentrations in finished drinking water.

  2. Tracking drinking behaviour from age 15-19 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anette; Due, Pernille; Holstein, Bjørn E

    2003-01-01

    AIMS: The aim of this paper was to assess (1) changes in drinking behaviour over time among Danish adolescents and (2) use of which alcoholic beverages and what drinking patterns would have the strongest predictive effect on later alcohol consumption. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS: The population...

  3. Binge Drinking – Nationwide Problem, Local Solutions

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast is based on the January 2012 CDC Vital Signs report. One in six adults binge drinks about four times a month. It's a problem nationwide but community-based strategies, such as reducing access to alcohol and increasing the price, can prevent binge drinking.

  4. Predictors of awareness of standard drink labelling and drinking guidelines to reduce negative health effects among Australian drinkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coomber, Kerri; Jones, Sandra C; Martino, Florentine; Miller, Peter G

    2017-03-01

    This study examined rates of awareness of standard drink labelling and drinking guidelines among Australian adult drinkers. Demographic predictors of these two outcomes were also explored. Online survey panel participants aged 18-45 years(n = 1061; mean age = 33.2 years) completed an online survey assessing demographics, alcohol consumption patterns, awareness of standard drink labels and the National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) guidelines, and support for more detailed labels. The majority (80%) of participants had seen standard drink labels on alcohol products; with younger drinkers, those from a regional/rural location and high-risk drinkers significantly more likely to have seen such labelling. Most respondents estimated at or below the maximum number of drinks stipulated in the NHMRC guidelines. However, their estimates of the levels for male drinkers were significantly higher than for female drinkers. High-risk drinkers were significantly less likely to provide accurate estimates, while those who had seen the standard drink logo were significantly more likely to provide accurate estimates of drinking levels to reduce the risk of long-term harms only. Just under three-quarters of respondents supported the inclusion of more information on labels regarding guidelines to reduce negative health effects. The current standard drink labelling approach fails to address high-risk drinkers. The inclusion of information about NHMRC guidelines on alcohol labels, and placing standard drink labelling on the front of products could improve awareness of what constitutes a standard drink and safe levels of consumption among Australian drinkers.[Kerri Coomber, Sandra C. Jones, Florentine Martino, Peter G. Miller. Predictors of awareness of standard drink labelling and drinking guidelines to reduce negative health effects among Australian drinkers. Drug Alcohol Rev 2017;36:200-209]. © 2016 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  5. Medicare Provider Data - Hospice Providers

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Hospice Utilization and Payment Public Use File provides information on services provided to Medicare beneficiaries by hospice providers. The Hospice PUF...

  6. Alcohol use and safe drinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001944.htm Alcohol use and safe drinking To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Alcohol use involves drinking beer, wine, or hard liquor. ...

  7. College Drinking - Changing the Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... about college alcohol policies College Drinking - Changing the Culture This is your one-stop resource for comprehensive ... More about special features College Drinking - Changing the Culture This is your one-stop resource for comprehensive ...

  8. Drinking Water in your Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many people choose to filter or test the drinking water that comes out of their tap or from their private well for a variety of reasons. And whether at home, at work or while traveling, many Americans drink bottled water.

  9. Rethinking Drinking: Questions and Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... standard drinks you're being served in a restaurant or bar that uses large glasses and generous ... drinking habits. For more information, see A Family History of Alcoholism: Are You at Risk? Pace yourself: ...

  10. Rethink Your Drink!

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-08-11

    In this podcast for kids, the Kidtastics talk about the importance of drinking a lot of water.  Created: 8/11/2016 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 8/11/2016.

  11. Performance outcomes and unwanted side effects associated with energy drinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora-Rodriguez, Ricardo; Pallarés, Jesús G

    2014-10-01

    Energy drinks are increasingly popular among athletes and others. Advertising for these products typically features images conjuring great muscle power and endurance; however, the scientific literature provides sparse evidence for an ergogenic role of energy drinks. Although the composition of energy drinks varies, most contain caffeine; carbohydrates, amino acids, herbs, and vitamins are other typical ingredients. This report analyzes the effects of energy drink ingredients on prolonged submaximal (endurance) exercise as well as on short-term strength and power (neuromuscular performance). It also analyzes the effects of energy drink ingredients on the fluid and electrolyte deficit during prolonged exercise. In several studies, energy drinks have been found to improve endurance performance, although the effects could be attributable to the caffeine and/or carbohydrate content. In contrast, fewer studies find an ergogenic effect of energy drinks on muscle strength and power. The existing data suggest that the caffeine dose given in studies of energy drinks is insufficient to enhance neuromuscular performance. Finally, it is unclear if energy drinks are the optimal vehicle to deliver caffeine when high doses are needed to improve neuromuscular performance. © 2014 International Life Sciences Institute.

  12. Factors associated with high consumption of soft drinks among Australian secondary-school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scully, Maree; Morley, Belinda; Niven, Philippa; Crawford, David; Pratt, Iain S; Wakefield, Melanie

    2017-09-01

    To examine demographic and behavioural correlates of high consumption of soft drinks (non-alcoholic sugar-sweetened carbonated drinks excluding energy drinks) among Australian adolescents and to explore the associations between high consumption and soft drink perceptions and accessibility. Cross-sectional self-completion survey and height and weight measurements. Australian secondary schools. Students aged 12-17 years participating in the 2012-13 National Secondary Students' Diet and Activity (NaSSDA) survey (n 7835). Overall, 14 % of students reported consuming four or more cups (≥1 litres) of soft drinks each week ('high soft drink consumers'). Demographic factors associated with high soft drink consumption were being male and having at least $AU 40 in weekly spending money. Behavioural factors associated with high soft drink consumption were low fruit intake, consuming energy drinks on a weekly basis, eating fast foods at least once weekly, eating snack foods ≥14 times/week, watching television for >2 h/d and sleeping for good value for money were more likely to be high soft drink consumers, as were students who reported usually buying these drinks when making a beverage purchase from the school canteen/vending machine. High soft drink consumption clusters with other unhealthy lifestyle behaviours among Australian secondary-school students. Interventions focused on reducing the availability of soft drinks (e.g. increased taxes, restricting their sale in schools) as well as improved education on their harms are needed to lower adolescents' soft drink intake.

  13. Drugs in Your Drinking Water: Removing Pharmaceutical Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, K.

    2017-12-01

    Pharmaceuticals, mostly estrogen-based hormones and antibiotics, are increasingly polluting waterways and contaminating municipal drinking water sources. A 2008 study funded by the American Water Works Association Research Foundation and the WateReuse Foundation tested 19 drinking water treatment plants across the United States. The study found pharmaceuticals and metabolites at all of the locations tested. These plants provide drinking water for over 28 million Americans - yet only five states test for pharmaceuticals. A 2007 US Government Accountability Office study of male smallmouth bass showed ovarian tissue in their gonads and concluded the combination of EDCs (Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals) likely caused the feminization of the male fish. The purpose of this project is to determine whether bivalves can effectively remove pharmaceuticals as well as other CECs (Contaminants of Emerging Concern).Pharmaceuticals, specifically ibuprofen, were found to be resistant to chemical and mechanical filtration methods, such as coffee grounds and activated carbon, so biological filtration methods are used. Three types of common mollusks (Sphaeriidae `fingernail clams', freshwater mussels, scallops) will be used to assess the potential for biological remediation of the chemical pollutants. Fifteen specimens of each species will be used - a total of 45 individuals. Each group of five will be introduced to either an NSAID (ibuprofen), oil (vegetable) or hormone (estrogen, pending approval). This creates an array of 3 species and 3 contaminants, for a 3x3 grid of nine sample groups. Water is contaminated with pollutant levels similar to EPA measurements. The concentration will be measured before and after the introduction of the specimens using a UV spectrophotometer, at regular time intervals. As mollusks are capable of filtering up to two liters of water a day, the 37.8 liter tanks are filtered at a rate of 10 liters a day. A successful trial of bivalves reducing and

  14. Dynamics of Biofilm Regrowth in Drinking Water Distribution Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douterelo, I; Husband, S; Loza, V; Boxall, J

    2016-07-15

    The majority of biomass within water distribution systems is in the form of attached biofilm. This is known to be central to drinking water quality degradation following treatment, yet little understanding of the dynamics of these highly heterogeneous communities exists. This paper presents original information on such dynamics, with findings demonstrating patterns of material accumulation, seasonality, and influential factors. Rigorous flushing operations repeated over a 1-year period on an operational chlorinated system in the United Kingdom are presented here. Intensive monitoring and sampling were undertaken, including time-series turbidity and detailed microbial analysis using 16S rRNA Illumina MiSeq sequencing. The results show that bacterial dynamics were influenced by differences in the supplied water and by the material remaining attached to the pipe wall following flushing. Turbidity, metals, and phosphate were the main factors correlated with the distribution of bacteria in the samples. Coupled with the lack of inhibition of biofilm development due to residual chlorine, this suggests that limiting inorganic nutrients, rather than organic carbon, might be a viable component in treatment strategies to manage biofilms. The research also showed that repeat flushing exerted beneficial selective pressure, giving another reason for flushing being a viable advantageous biofilm management option. This work advances our understanding of microbiological processes in drinking water distribution systems and helps inform strategies to optimize asset performance. This research provides novel information regarding the dynamics of biofilm formation in real drinking water distribution systems made of different materials. This new knowledge on microbiological process in water supply systems can be used to optimize the performance of the distribution network and to guarantee safe and good-quality drinking water to consumers. Copyright © 2016 Douterelo et al.

  15. Drinking games and contextual factors of 21st birthday drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neighbors, Clayton; Rodriguez, Lindsey M; Rinker, Dipali V; DiBello, Angelo M; Young, Chelsie M; Chen, Chun-Han

    2014-09-01

    21st birthday celebrations are among the highest risks for alcohol use throughout emerging adulthood and celebrants often experience a range of alcohol-related consequences. The present research considered what happens when drinking games are paired with an already high-risk event (i.e., 21st birthday celebrations) and how drinking games compare with other contextual factors on 21st birthdays. Approximately four days after turning 21, 1124 college students (55% women) completed an online survey assessing alcohol use and related consequences experienced during their birthday celebrations. Participants were also asked whether drinking games and other contextual factors were associated with their celebrations. Overall, 18% of participants reported playing drinking games during their 21st birthday celebrations. These individuals reported consuming more alcohol, had higher estimated BACs, and experienced more negative consequences than those who did not play drinking games. The association between playing drinking games and alcohol use and negative consequences was stronger for men. The effect of drinking games on negative consequences was mediated through elevated BAC levels. Receiving bar specials, having drinks purchased, playing drinking games, and loud music were uniquely and significantly associated with all alcohol outcomes. Together, these results suggest that drinking games are part of a larger context of risk contributing to extreme drinking on 21st birthdays. Furthermore, these results will help to facilitate interventions that are more individually tailored to target specific contextual risks, behaviors, and events.

  16. Patient perceptions of risky drinking: Knowledge of daily and weekly low-risk guidelines and standard drink sizes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprague, Debra J; Vinson, Daniel C

    2017-01-01

    Effective intervention for risky drinking requires that clinicians and patients know low-risk daily and weekly guidelines and what constitutes a "standard drink." The authors hypothesized that most patients lack this knowledge, and that education is required. Following primary care visits, patients completed anonymous exit questionnaires that included the 3 Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test-Consumption (AUDIT-C) questions, "How many drinks (containing alcohol) can you safely have in one day?" and questions about size, in ounces, of a standard drink of wine, beer, and liquor. Descriptive analyses were done in Stata. Of 1,331 respondents (60% female, mean age: 49.6, SD = 17.5), 21% screened positive on the AUDIT-C for risky drinking. Only 10% of those accurately estimated daily low-risk limits, with 9% accurate on weekly limits, and half estimated low-risk limits at or below guidelines. Fewer than half who checked "Yes" to "Do you know what a 'standard drink' is?" provided accurate answers for beer, wine, or liquor. Patients with a positive screen were twice as likely to say they knew what a standard drink is, but only a third gave accurate estimates. When asked about plans in the next month regarding change in drinking behavior, 23% with a positive AUDIT-C indicated they were at least considering a change. Most patients in primary care don't know specifics of the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) guidelines for low-risk drinking. Exploring patient perceptions of low-risk guidelines and current drinking behavior may reveal discrepancies worth discussing. For risky drinkers, most of whom don't know daily and weekly low-risk guidelines or standard drink sizes, education can be vital in intervening. Findings suggest the need for detailed and explicit social marketing and communication on exactly what low-risk drinking entails.

  17. Validation of the Drinking Motives Questionnaire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandes-Jesus, Maria; Beccaria, Franca; Demant, Jakob Johan

    2016-01-01

    • This paper assesses the validity of the DMQ-R (Cooper, 1994) among university students in six different European countries. • Results provide support for similar DMQ-R factor structures across countries. • Drinking motives have similar meanings among European university students....

  18. Microfiltration and Ultrafiltration Membranes for Drinking Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    This article provides a concise and abbreviated summary of AWWA Manual of Practice M53, Microfiltration and Ultrafiltration Membranes for Drinking Water, to serve as a quick point of reference. For convenience, the article’s organization matches that of M53, as follows: • wate...

  19. Statement on ‘toothkind’ juice drinks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    2011-01-01

    or sugar-containing non-alcoholic beverages with an equivalent number of servings of „toothkind‟ juice drink. In the context of the claim, „reduction of tooth demineralisation‟ has a similar meaning to „maintenance of tooth mineralisation‟. © European Food Safety Authority, 2011....... consumption of a beverage is an appropriate measure of the potential of beverages for demineralisation of dental enamel. „Toothkind‟ drinks have little or no potential for enamel demineralisation by this process, while typical sugar-containing non-alcoholic beverages do have the potential for demineralisation...... of dental enamel. However, the beneficial effect (reducing net tooth demineralisation) of replacing typical sugar-containing non-alcoholic beverages with „toothkind‟ juice drinks was only shown to occur at a frequency of consumption of typical sugar-containing non-alcoholic beverages of 7 times daily...

  20. Decomposing associations between acculturation and drinking in Mexican Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Britain A.; Caetano, Raul

    2011-01-01

    appears to at least partially account for this effect. Consistent with recent reports, these results challenge stress models of linear acculturation effects on drinking outcomes and provide (partial) support for sociocultural models. Inconsistent mediation patterns – rather than nonlinearities – represented a more plausible statistical description of why acculturation-drinking associations are weakened among males. PMID:22316139

  1. Decomposing associations between acculturation and drinking in Mexican Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Britain A; Caetano, Raul

    2012-07-01

    . Consistent with recent reports, these results challenge stress models of linear acculturation effects on drinking outcomes and provide (partial) support for sociocultural models. Inconsistent mediation patterns-rather than nonlinearities-represented a more plausible statistical description of why acculturation-drinking associations are weakened among men. Copyright © 2012 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  2. A comparison of sports and energy drinks--Physiochemical properties and enamel dissolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Poonam; Hall-May, Emily; Golabek, Kristi; Agustin, Ma Zenia

    2012-01-01

    The consumption of sports and energy drinks by children and adolescents has increased at an alarming rate in recent years. It is essential for dental professionals to be informed about the physiochemical properties of these drinks and their effects on enamel. The present study measured the fluoride levels, pH, and titratable acidity of multiple popular, commercially available brands of sports and energy drinks. Enamel dissolution was measured as weight loss using an in vitro multiple exposure model consisting of repeated short exposures to these drinks, alternating with exposure to artificial saliva. The relationship between enamel dissolution and fluoride levels, pH, and titratable acidity was also examined. There was a statistically significant difference between the fluoride levels (p = 0.034) and pH (p = 0.04) of the sports and energy drinks studied. The titratable acidity of energy drinks (11.78) was found to be significantly higher than that of sports drinks (3.58) (p energy drinks (Red Bull Sugar Free, Monster Assault, Von Dutch, Rockstar, and 5-Hour Energy) were found to have the highest titratable acidity values among the brands studied. Enamel weight loss after exposure to energy drinks was significantly higher than it was after exposure to sports drinks. The effect of titratable acidity on enamel weight loss was found to vary inversely with the pH of the drinks. The findings indicated that energy drinks have significantly higher titratable acidity and enamel dissolution associated with them than sports drinks. Enamel weight loss after exposure to energy drinks was more than two times higher than it was after exposure to sports drinks. Titratable acidity is a significant predictor of enamel dissolution, and its effect on enamel weight loss varies inversely with the pH of the drink. The data from the current study can be used to educate patients about the differences between sports and energy drinks and the effects of these drinks on tooth enamel.

  3. Energy drinks: potions of illusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedi, Nidhi; Dewan, Pooja; Gupta, Piyush

    2014-07-01

    Energy drinks are widely consumed by adolescents as these claim to improve performance, endurance and alertness. Recent reports have shown that there are no real health benefits of these drinks. On the contrary, certain adverse effects due to energy drinks have come to the forefront, casting a big question-mark on their safety and utility. This review discusses the present status of energy drinks, their active ingredients and their safety. We conclude that energy drinks, despite having some short pleasant effects, can be harmful for the body and are best avoided.

  4. Predictors of hangover during a week of heavy drinking on a holiday

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hesse, Morten; Tutenges, Sébastien

    2010-01-01

    units in the whole sample. The severity of hangover increased significantly during a week of heavy drinking and there was a time * number of drinks interaction, indicating that the impact of alcohol consumed on hangover became more pronounced later in the week. Levels of drinking before the holiday did...

  5. The Relation between Binge Drinking and Academic Performance: Considering the Mediating Effects of Academic Involvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Brian P.; Loes, Chad N.; Trolian, Teniell L.

    2017-01-01

    Using longitudinal data from multiple institutions, we focused on the relation between binge drinking and academic performance. Binge drinking exerts a negative influence on grade point average, even after accounting for a host of precollege confounding variables. Furthermore, the number of times a student binge drinks in college is less…

  6. Vital Signs – Binge Drinking Among Women and Girls

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast is based on the January 2013 CDC Vital Signs report, which presents information about binge drinking among women and girls. Binge drinking is defined for women as four or more drinks in a short period of time. It puts women and girls at greater risk for breast cancer, sexual assault, heart disease, and unintended pregnancy.

  7. The social image of drinking - mass media campaigns may inadvertently increase binge drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Friederike; Kohlmann, Karoline; Monter, Anne; Ameis, Nina

    2017-10-01

    Mass media campaigns that promote responsible drinking are rarely tested for their usefulness in reducing heavy alcohol consumption. Existing campaigns that appeal to responsible drinking while simultaneously displaying young people in social drinking situations may even have paradoxical effects. To examine such possible effects, we drew on a real-world media campaign, which we systematically modified on the basis of recent prototype research. We pilot tested questionnaires (using n = 41 participants), developed two different sets of posters in the style of an existing campaign (n = 39) and investigated their effectiveness (n = 102). In the main study, young men were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: sociable or unsociable binge drinker prototype condition or a control group. Outcome variables were intention, behavioural willingness, attitude, subjective norm, self-efficacy, prototype evaluation and prototype similarity with respect to binge drinking. Binge drinking as a habit was included to control for the fact that habitual drinking in social situations is hard to overcome and poses a particular challenge to interventions. The manipulation check showed that the experimental variation (sociable vs. unsociable drinker prototype condition) was successful. Results of the main study showed that the sociable drinker prototype condition resulted in a higher willingness and - for those with less of a habit - a higher intention to binge drink the next weekend. The unsociable drinker prototype condition had no effects. The results imply that the social components of mass media campaigns might inadvertently exacerbate binge drinking in young men. We therefore advocate against campaigns including aspects of alcohol consumption that might be positively associated with drinker prototype perception. Finally, we provide suggestions for future research.

  8. Commentary: if you drink alcohol, drink sensibly: is this guideline still appropriate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Liezille; Steyn, Nelia

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol abuse remains one of the most serious substance abuse disorders in South African society, resulting in inordinately large social, economic and health problems at all levels of society. Alcohol consumers in South Africa are estimated to drink 16.6L per annum with a per capita consumption of 7.1L. South Africa has one of the highest rates of death attributable to crime, violence, traffic accidents, and HIV/AIDS in the world. These rates have been directly related to the high prevalence of alcohol abuse and risky drinking patterns. A food-based dietary guideline that encourages alcohol consumption would appear to be not in the nation's best interest. We conducted a search of websites supported by the World Health Organization to find published literature on substance abuse in South Africa and also reviewed the website of the Medical Research Council of South Africa for studies on the social impact of alcohol abuse in humans. We used the search terms alcohol guidelines, alcohol abuse, non-communicable diseases, health benefits of alcohol, moderate drinking, alcohol, and intake patterns and reviewed studies that hade been published between 2002 and the current time. Based on evidence over the past two decades, messages that convey the positive health benefits of moderate alcohol consumption (eg, the increased levels of HDL cholesterol) should be raised and even encouraged for those who are very moderate drinkers (ie, one alcoholic drink/ day for women and a maximum of 2 drinks/day for men). For those who do not consume alcohol at all, even moderate drinking is not encouraged. Nutrition educators should emphasize the negative consequences of alcohol abuse. The current food-based dietary guideline, "If you drink alcohol, drink sensibly," from the South African Department of Health should not remain as is.

  9. CERN’s Drinking Water

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    CERN’s drinking water is monitored on a regular basis. A certified independent laboratory takes and analyses samples to verify that the water complies with national and European regulations for safe drinking water. Nevertheless, the system that supplies our drinking water is very old and occasionally, especially after work has been carried out on the system, the water may become cloudy or discoloured, due to traces of corrosion. For this reason, we recommend: Never use hot water from the tap for drinking or cooking. If you need hot water, then draw water from the cold water tap and heat it. Only drink or cook with cold water. Let the cold water run until it is clear before drinking or making your tea or coffee. If you have any questions about the quality of CERN’s drinking water, please contact: Jerome Espuche (GS/SEM), Serge Deleval (EN/CV) or Jonathan Gulley (DG/SCG).

  10. Alcohol drinking during adolescence increases consumptive responses to alcohol in adulthood in Wistar rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amodeo, Leslie R.; Kneiber, Diana; Wills, Derek N.; Ehlers, Cindy L.

    2017-01-01

    Binge drinking and the onset of alcohol use disorders usually peak during the transition between late adolescence and early adulthood, and early adolescent onset of alcohol consumption has been demonstrated to increase the risk for alcohol dependence in adulthood. In the present study we describe an animal model of early adolescent alcohol consumption where animals drink unsweetened and unflavored ethanol in high concentrations (20%). Using this model we investigated the influence of drinking on alcohol-related appetitive behavior and alcohol consumption levels in early adulthood. Further, we also sought to investigate whether differences in alcohol-related drinking behaviors were specific to exposure in adolescence versus exposure in adulthood. Male Wistar rats were given a 2-bottle choice between 20% ethanol and water in one group and between two water bottles in another group during their adolescence (Postnatal Day (PD) PD26-59) to model voluntary drinking in adolescent humans. As young adults (PD85), rats were trained in a paradigm that provided free access to 20% alcohol for 25 min after completing up to a fixed ratio (FR) 16-lever press response. A set of young adult male Wistar rats was exposed to the same paradigm using the same time course beginning at PD92. The results indicate that adolescent exposure to alcohol increased consumption of alcohol in adulthood. Furthermore, when investigating differences between adolescent high and low adolescent drinkers in adulthood, high consumers continued to drink more alcohol, had fewer FR failures, and had faster completion of FR schedules in adulthood whereas the low consumers were no different than controls. Rats exposed to ethanol in young adulthood also increased future intake but there were no differences in any other components of drinking behavior. Both adolescent- and adult-exposed rats did not exhibit an increase in lever pressing during the appetitive challenge session. These data indicate that adolescent

  11. Effects of Workplace Generalized and Sexual Harassment on Abusive Drinking Among First Year Male and Female College Students: Does Prior Drinking Experience Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rospenda, Kathleen M; Fujishiro, Kaori; McGinley, Meredith; Wolff, Jennifer M; Richman, Judith A

    2017-06-07

    Workplace harassment, a known risk factor for adult drinking, is understudied in college samples, but may help explain observed gender differences in drinking patterns. We examine effects of sexual and generalized workplace harassment on changes in drinking behavior over the first semesters of college, and the extent to which these effects differ based on prematriculation drinking for men and women students. Data derive from two waves of a longitudinal study of eight Midwestern colleges and universities. Data were collected from 2080 employed students via a Web-based survey assessing sexual and generalized workplace harassment, stressful life events, drinking to intoxication, and binge drinking prior to freshman year (fall 2011) and approximately one year later (summer to fall 2012). At baseline, lifetime drinking status, frequency of alcohol consumption, and demographics were also assessed. Linear-mixed modeling indicated that employed women students who were frequent drinkers prematriculation were at risk for high levels of drinking associated with workplace harassment, while men who were nondrinkers were most at risk of increasing problem drinking over time when exposed to workplace harassment. Alcohol use prevention efforts directed towards employed students are needed both prior to and during college, to instruct students how to identify workplace harassment and cope in healthier ways with stressful workplace experiences. These efforts might be particularly useful in stemming problematic drinking among women who drink frequently prior to college, and preventing men who are nondrinkers upon college entry from initiating problematic drinking during subsequent enrollment years.

  12. How dogs drink water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gart, Sean; Socha, Jake; Vlachos, Pavlos; Jung, Sunghwan

    2014-11-01

    Animals with incomplete cheeks (i.e. dogs and cats) need to move fluid against gravity into the body by means other than suction. They do this by lapping fluid with their tongue. When a dog drinks, it curls its tongue posteriorly while plunging it into the fluid and then quickly withdraws its tongue back into the mouth. During this fast retraction fluid sticks to the ventral part of the curled tongue and is drawn into the mouth due to inertia. We show several variations of this drinking behavior among many dog breeds, specifically, the relationship between tongue dynamics and geometry, lapping frequency, and dog weight. We also compare the results with the physical experiment of a rounded rod impact onto a fluid surface. Supported by NSF PoLS #1205642.

  13. Connecting the snowpack to the internet of things: an IPv6 architecture for providing real-time measurements of hydrologic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerkez, B.; Zhang, Z.; Oroza, C.; Glaser, S. D.; Bales, R. C.

    2012-12-01

    We describe our improved, robust, and scalable architecture by which to rapidly instrument large-scale watersheds, while providing the resulting data in real-time. Our system consists of more than twenty wireless sensor networks and thousands of sensors, which will be deployed in the American River basin (5000 sq. km) of California. The core component of our system is known as a mote, a tiny, ultra-low-power, embedded wireless computer that can be used for any number of sensing applications. Our new generation of motes is equipped with IPv6 functionality, effectively giving each sensor in the field its own unique IP address, thus permitting users to remotely interact with the devices without going through intermediary services. Thirty to fifty motes will be deployed across 1-2 square kilometer regions to form a mesh-based wireless sensor network. Redundancy of local wireless links will ensure that data will always be able to traverse the network, even if hash wintertime conditions adversely affect some network nodes. These networks will be used to develop spatial estimates of a number of hydrologic parameters, focusing especially on snowpack. Each wireless sensor network has one main network controller, which is responsible with interacting with an embedded Linux computer to relay information across higher-powered, long-range wireless links (cell modems, satellite, WiFi) to neighboring networks and remote, offsite servers. The network manager is also responsible for providing an Internet connection to each mote. Data collected by the sensors can either be read directly by remote hosts, or stored on centralized servers for future access. With 20 such networks deployed in the American River, our system will comprise an unprecedented cyber-physical architecture for measuring hydrologic parameters in large-scale basins. The spatiotemporal density and real-time nature of the data is also expected to significantly improve operational hydrology and water resource

  14. Drinking water quality assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryal, J; Gautam, B; Sapkota, N

    2012-09-01

    Drinking water quality is the great public health concern because it is a major risk factor for high incidence of diarrheal diseases in Nepal. In the recent years, the prevalence rate of diarrhoea has been found the highest in Myagdi district. This study was carried out to assess the quality of drinking water from different natural sources, reservoirs and collection taps at Arthunge VDC of Myagdi district. A cross-sectional study was carried out using random sampling method in Arthunge VDC of Myagdi district from January to June,2010. 84 water samples representing natural sources, reservoirs and collection taps from the study area were collected. The physico-chemical and microbiological analysis was performed following standards technique set by APHA 1998 and statistical analysis was carried out using SPSS 11.5. The result was also compared with national and WHO guidelines. Out of 84 water samples (from natural source, reservoirs and tap water) analyzed, drinking water quality parameters (except arsenic and total coliform) of all water samples was found to be within the WHO standards and national standards.15.48% of water samples showed pH (13) higher than the WHO permissible guideline values. Similarly, 85.71% of water samples showed higher Arsenic value (72) than WHO value. Further, the statistical analysis showed no significant difference (Pwater for collection taps water samples of winter (January, 2010) and summer (June, 2010). The microbiological examination of water samples revealed the presence of total coliform in 86.90% of water samples. The results obtained from physico-chemical analysis of water samples were within national standard and WHO standards except arsenic. The study also found the coliform contamination to be the key problem with drinking water.

  15. DETERMINACIÓN DEL TIEMPO DE MEZCLA EN UN TANQUE DE ALMACENAMIENTO PARA AGUA POTABLE MEDIANTE DINÁMICA DE FLUIDOS COMPUTACIONAL -CFD- Determining the Blend Time in a Drinking Water Storage Tank through Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Laín

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Para estimar el comportamiento hidráulico de un tanque de almacenamiento de agua potable se usó un programa para la simulación de dinámica computacional de fluidos, evaluando numéricamente los perfiles de velocidad y el tiempo de mezcla. Los perfiles de velocidad mostraron un valor máximo a la salida de 0,76 m.s-1 y velocidades de 0,2 m.s-1 cerca de las paredes, propiciando zonas de recirculación cerca del chorro de entrada. La inyección del trazador y el coeficiente de variación para 17 puntos de monitoreo en el tanque resultaron en un tiempo de mezcla de 19,06 horas y se verificó que cerca de las paredes la mezcla es menos eficiente que en la trayectoria del chorro de entrada. El volumen necesario que debe entrar al tanque para que haya buena mezcla resultó inversamente proporcional a la masa de agua almacenada.In order to estimate the hydraulic behavior of a drinking water storage tank, Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD simulation program was used to numerically evaluate blend speed and time profiles. Speed profiles showed a maximum value when leaving at 0.76 m.s-1 and 0.2 m.s-1 speeds near walls, creating recirculation areas near the inlet stream. Injection of tracer and the variation coefficient for 17 monitoring points in the tank resulted in a blend time of 19.06 hours and it was found that the blend near walls is less efficient than in the inlet stream trajectory. Necessary volume to enter the tank in order to achieve a good blend was inversely proportional to the water mass stored.

  16. Integrating GPS, GYRO, vehicle speed sensor, and digital map to provide accurate and real-time position in an intelligent navigation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qingquan; Fang, Zhixiang; Li, Hanwu; Xiao, Hui

    2005-10-01

    The global positioning system (GPS) has become the most extensively used positioning and navigation tool in the world. Applications of GPS abound in surveying, mapping, transportation, agriculture, military planning, GIS, and the geosciences. However, the positional and elevation accuracy of any given GPS location is prone to error, due to a number of factors. The applications of Global Positioning System (GPS) positioning is more and more popular, especially the intelligent navigation system which relies on GPS and Dead Reckoning technology is developing quickly for future huge market in China. In this paper a practical combined positioning model of GPS/DR/MM is put forward, which integrates GPS, Gyro, Vehicle Speed Sensor (VSS) and digital navigation maps to provide accurate and real-time position for intelligent navigation system. This model is designed for automotive navigation system making use of Kalman filter to improve position and map matching veracity by means of filtering raw GPS and DR signals, and then map-matching technology is used to provide map coordinates for map displaying. In practical examples, for illustrating the validity of the model, several experiments and their results of integrated GPS/DR positioning in intelligent navigation system will be shown for the conclusion that Kalman Filter based GPS/DR integrating position approach is necessary, feasible and efficient for intelligent navigation application. Certainly, this combined positioning model, similar to other model, can not resolve all situation issues. Finally, some suggestions are given for further improving integrated GPS/DR/MM application.

  17. Home visits by neighborhood Mentor Mothers provide timely recovery from childhood malnutrition in South Africa: results from a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mbewu Nokwanele

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Child and infant malnourishment is a significant and growing problem in the developing world. Malnourished children are at high risk for negative health outcomes over their lifespans. Philani, a paraprofessional home visiting program, was developed to improve childhood nourishment. The objective of this study is to evaluate whether the Philani program can rehabilitate malnourished children in a timely manner. Methods Mentor Mothers were trained to conduct home visits. Mentor Mothers went from house to house in assigned neighborhoods, weighed children age 5 and younger, and recruited mother-child dyads where there was an underweight child. Participating dyads were assigned in a 2:1 random sequence to the Philani intervention condition (n = 536 or a control condition (n = 252. Mentor Mothers visited dyads in the intervention condition for one year, supporting mothers' problem-solving around nutrition. All children were weighed by Mentor Mothers at baseline and three, six, nine and twelve month follow-ups. Results By three months, children in the intervention condition were five times more likely to rehabilitate (reach a healthy weight for their ages than children in the control condition. Throughout the course of the study, 43% (n = 233 of 536 of children in the intervention condition were rehabilitated while 31% (n = 78 of 252 of children in the control condition were rehabilitated. Conclusions Paraprofessional Mentor Mothers are an effective strategy for delivering home visiting programs by providing the knowledge and support necessary to change the behavior of families at risk.

  18. An experimental study on providing a scientific evidence for seven-time alcohol-steaming of Rhei Rhizoma when clinically used.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Yeomoon; Oh, Hyein; Oh, Dal-Seok; Kim, Namkwon; Gu, Pil Sung; Choi, Jin Gyu; Kim, Hyo Geun; Kang, Tong Ho; Oh, Myung Sook

    2015-10-27

    Rhei Rhizoma (RR) has been widely used as laxative and processed to alter its therapeutic actions or reduce its side effects. In this study, we evaluated experimentally the clinical application guideline that RR should be alcohol-steamed seven times before being used in elderly patients, as described in Dongeuibogam, the most famous book on Korean traditional medicine. Unprocessed RR (RR-U) was soaked in rice wine, steamed and then fully dried (RR-P1). The process was repeated four (RR-P4) or seven times (RR-P7). Reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography was used to determine the RR-U, RR-P1, RR-P4 and RR-P7 (RRs) constituents. To evaluate the effect of RRs on liver toxicity, human hepatoma cells (HepG2) were treated with RRs at 100 μg/mL for 4 h and then cell viabilities were measured using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide method. To confirm the effects in vivo, 5-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with RRs at 3 g/kg/day for 21 days. Body weight and serum biochemical parameters were measured and liver histology was assessed. The levels of sennosides decreased in processed RRs in an iteration-dependent manner, while the emodin level was unaffected. In HepG2 cells, cell viability was reduced with RR-U, while the toxicity decreased according to the number of processing cycles. The changes in body weight, relative liver weight and liver enzymes of RR-U-treated rats were reduced in processed RRs-treated rats. Histopathological analysis indicated swelling and cholestasis improved following seven times alcohol-steaming cycles. These results provide experimental evidence that RR-P7 almost completely reduces RR hepatotoxicity.

  19. Management of source and drinking-water quality in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, J A

    2005-01-01

    Drinking-water quality in both urban and rural areas of Pakistan is not being managed properly. Results of various investigations provide evidence that most of the drinking-water supplies are faecally contaminated. At places groundwater quality is deteriorating due to the naturally occurring subsoil contaminants or to anthropogenic activities. The poor bacteriological quality of drinking-water has frequently resulted in high incidence of waterborne diseases while subsoil contaminants have caused other ailments to consumers. This paper presents a detailed review of drinking-water quality in the country and the consequent health impacts. It identifies various factors contributing to poor water quality and proposes key actions required to ensure safe drinking-water supplies to consumers.

  20. Determinants for binge drinking among adolescents in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Maria; Kragh Andersen, Per; Sabroe, Svend

    2014-01-01

    of pocket money) predict binge drinking among adolescents in Denmark. Methods: This study is based on the Danish data from the European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs, which took place in 2011. This cross-sectional survey obtained data from 2765 adolescents who were in grade 9 in Denmark...... at that time. Logistic regression was used to assess the association between the outcome variable of binge drinking and the exposure variables of alcohol-drinking peers, pocket money, and mother’s/father’s approval of intoxication. Results: The risk of binge drinking increased with the number of alcohol......-drinking peers (trend test, p pocket money spent (trend test, p

  1. Late-Life Drinking Problems: The Predictive Roles of Drinking Level vs. Drinking Pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holahan, Charles J; Brennan, Penny L; Schutte, Kathleen K; Holahan, Carole K; Hixon, J Gregory; Moos, Rudolf H

    2017-05-01

    Research on late-middle-aged and older adults has focused primarily on average level of alcohol consumption, overlooking variability in underlying drinking patterns. The purpose of the present study was to examine the independent contributions of an episodic heavy pattern of drinking versus a high average level of drinking as prospective predictors of drinking problems. The sample comprised 1,107 adults ages 55-65 years at baseline. Alcohol consumption was assessed at baseline, and drinking problems were indexed across 20 years. We used prospective negative binomial regression analyses controlling for baseline drinking problems, as well as for demographic and health factors, to predict the number of drinking problems at each of four follow-up waves (1, 4, 10, and 20 years). Across waves where the effects were significant, a high average level of drinking (coefficients of 1.56, 95% CI [1.24, 1.95]; 1.48, 95% CI [1.11, 1.98]; and 1.85, 95% CI [1.23, 2.79] at 1, 10, and 20 years) and an episodic heavy pattern of drinking (coefficients of 1.61, 95% CI [1.30, 1.99]; 1.61, 95% CI [1.28, 2.03]; and 1.43, 95% CI [1.08, 1.90] at 1, 4, and 10 years) each independently increased the number of drinking problems by more than 50%. Information based only on average consumption underestimates the risk of drinking problems among older adults. Both a high average level of drinking and an episodic heavy pattern of drinking pose prospective risks of later drinking problems among older adults.

  2. Energy drink use, problem drinking and drinking motives in a diverse sample of Alaskan college students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica C. Skewes

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. Recent research has identified the use of caffeinated energy drinks as a common, potentially risky behaviour among college students that is linked to alcohol misuse and consequences. Research also suggests that energy drink consumption is related to other risky behaviours such as tobacco use, marijuana use and risky sexual activity. Objective. This research sought to examine the associations between frequency of energy drink consumption and problematic alcohol use, alcohol-related consequences, symptoms of alcohol dependence and drinking motives in an ethnically diverse sample of college students in Alaska. We also sought to examine whether ethnic group moderated these associations in the present sample of White, Alaska Native/American Indian and other ethnic minority college students. Design. A paper-and-pencil self-report questionnaire was completed by a sample of 298 college students. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA was used to examine the effects of energy drink use, ethnic group and energy drink by ethnic group interactions on alcohol outcomes after controlling for variance attributed to gender, age and frequency of binge drinking. Results. Greater energy drink consumption was significantly associated with greater hazardous drinking, alcohol consequences, alcohol dependence symptoms, drinking for enhancement motives and drinking to cope. There were no main effects of ethnic group, and there were no significant energy drink by ethnic group interactions. Conclusion. These findings replicate those of other studies examining the associations between energy drink use and alcohol problems, but contrary to previous research we did not find ethnic minority status to be protective. It is possible that energy drink consumption may serve as a marker for other health risk behaviours among students of various ethnic groups.

  3. Drinking water protection plan; a discussion document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This draft document outlines the plan of action devised by the Government of British Columbia in an effort to safeguard the purity of the drinking water supply in the province, and invites British Columbians to participate in the elaboration of such a plan. This document concentrates on the assessment of the sources of the water supply (watersheds and aquifers) and on measures to ensure the integrity of the system of water treatment and distribution as the principal components of a comprehensive plan to protect drinking water. The proposed plan involves a multi-barrier approach that will use a combination of measures to ensure that water sources are properly managed and waterworks systems provide safe drinking water. New drinking water planning procedures, more effective local influence and authority, enforceable standards, better access to information and public education programs form the essence of the plan. A series of public meetings are scheduled to provide the public at large with opportunities to comment on the government's plan of action and to offer suggestions for additional measures

  4. Reported care giver strategies for improving drinking water for young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLennan, John D; Farrelly, Ashley

    2010-11-01

    Care givers may engage in a variety of strategies to try and improve drinking water for children. However, the pattern of these efforts is not well known, particularly for young children in high-risk situations. The objective of this study was to determine care giver-reported strategies for young children with (1) undernutrition and (2) living in an unplanned poor peri-urban community in the Dominican Republic. Practices reported by care givers of young children from a community and clinic group were extracted from interviews conducted between 2004 and 2008 (n = 563). These results were compared to two previous similar samples interviewed in 1997 (n = 341). Bottled water is currently the most prevalent reported strategy for improving drinking water for young children. Its use increased from 6% to 69% in the community samples over the last decade and from 13% to 79% in the clinic samples. Boiling water continues to be a common strategy, particularly for the youngest children, though its overall use has decreased over time. Household-level chlorination is infrequently used and has dropped over time. Care givers are increasingly turning to bottled water in an attempt to provide safe drinking water for their children. While this may represent a positive trend for protecting children from water-transmitted diseases, it may represent an inefficient approach to safe drinking water provision that may place a financial burden on low-income families.

  5. REDUCING ARSENIC LEVELS IN DRINKING WATER DURING IRON REMOVAL PROCESSES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The presentation provides an overview of iron removal technology for the removal of arsenic from drinking water. The presentation is divided into several topic topics: Arsenic Chemistry, Treatment Selection, Treatment Options, Case Studies and Iron Removal Processes. Each topic i...

  6. Mixed drink increased carbohydrate oxidation but not performance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kathryn van Boom

    ... carbohydrate intake is hypothesised to provide additional substrate for oxidation[3] ... performance is attained when a multiple carbohydrate drink is ingested. ..... and often intense exercise, such as can be seen in events such as the Tour de ...

  7. Drinking Water State Revolving Fund National Information Management System Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Drinking Water State Revolving Fund (DWSRF) National Information Management System collects information that provide a record of progress and accountability for the program at both the State and National level.

  8. FACTORS AFFECTING BRAND CHOICE OF THE CONSUMERS ON SPORTS DRINKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galih Andihka

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The growth of fitness centers in Indonesia has given a very good opportunity to the sports drink industry to grow. In general, a fitness center does not only provide services of sports facilities but also sell supplements and drinks to consumers for their exercises. The type of drinks highly in demand by consumers in the fitness center is sports drinks. The objective of this study was to identify the influences of brand positioning, brand image and perceived value on brand choices of sports drink products on the consumer fitness center. This study used a quantitative approach using a survey method to the customers of the fitness centers, and the data analysis method used was PLS (Partial Least Square. The results of the PLS analysis show that the perceived value, brand image and brand positioning have positive and significant influences on brand choice of drink sports drinks of the consumers of the fitness centers in Bogor. Keywords: perceived value, brand image, brand positioning, brand choice, PLS, sport drink

  9. Why Drinking Water Is the Way to Go

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of excess water. When your pee is very dark yellow, it's holding on to water, so it's probably time to drink up. You can help ... Visit the Nemours Web site. Note: All information on KidsHealth® is for ...

  10. Presentations provided

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashemian, H; Beverly, D [Analysis and Measurement Services Corp., Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1999-12-31

    The following topics covered in detail at the workshop included: temperature instrumentation; pressure instrumentation; in-situ calibration and response time testing of RTDs and pressure transmitters; on-line performance monitoring and preventive maintenance of critical equipment; automated measurement of critical parameters; nuclear power plant infrastructure, management and Quality Assurance issues and recent developments for WWER and RBMK reactors. Conclusions drawn were: aging can adversely affect the performance of nuclear plant pressure transmitters; current testing interval of once in every fuel cycle is adequate for aging management; in-situ response time measurements and on-line calibration testing methods have been developed and validated for nuclear plant pressure transmitters; NUREG/CR-5851 should be taken into account for details of aging research on pressure transmitters

  11. Presentations provided

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashemian, H.; Beverly, D.

    1998-01-01

    The following topics covered in detail at the workshop included: temperature instrumentation; pressure instrumentation; in-situ calibration and response time testing of RTDs and pressure transmitters; on-line performance monitoring and preventive maintenance of critical equipment; automated measurement of critical parameters; nuclear power plant infrastructure, management and Quality Assurance issues and recent developments for WWER and RBMK reactors. Conclusions drawn were: aging can adversely affect the performance of nuclear plant pressure transmitters; current testing interval of once in every fuel cycle is adequate for aging management; in-situ response time measurements and on-line calibration testing methods have been developed and validated for nuclear plant pressure transmitters; NUREG/CR-5851 should be taken into account for details of aging research on pressure transmitters

  12. CERN’s Drinking Water

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2009-01-01

      CERN’s drinking water is monitored, with regular samples being taken and analysed by a certified independent laboratory, which checks on compliance with national and European regulations for safe drinking water. Nevertheless, the drinking water network is very old and occasionally, especially after work has been carried out on the network, the clarity and colour of the water can be adversely affected due to high levels of corrosion in suspension. Some basic recommendations should always be followed:   Never use hot water from the tap for drinking or cooking. If you need hot water, then draw water from the cold water tap before heating it. Only drink or cook with cold water. Let the cold water run until you notice that the water has become clear.   If you have questions about the quality of CERN’s drinking water, then please contact: Jerome Espuche (GS/SEM), Serge Deleval (EN/CV) or Jonathan Gulley (DG/SCG).

  13. CERN’s Drinking Water

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

      CERN’s drinking water is monitored, with regular samples being taken and analysed by a certified independent laboratory, which checks on compliance with national and European regulations for safe drinking water. Nevertheless, the drinking water network is very old and occasionally, especially after work has been carried out on the network, the clarity and colour of the water can be adversely affected due to high levels of corrosion in suspension. Some basic recommendations should always be followed: Never use hot water from the tap for drinking or cooking. If you need hot water, then draw water from the cold water tap before heating it. Only drink or cook with cold water. Let the cold water run until you notice that the water has become clear. If you have questions about the quality of CERN’s drinking water, then please contact: Jerome Espuche (GS/SEM), Serge Deleval (EN/CV) or Jonathan Gulley (DG/SCG).

  14. A drink is a drink? Variation in the amount of alcohol contained in beer, wine and spirits drinks in a US methodological sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, William C; Greenfield, Thomas K; Tujague, Jennifer; Brown, Stephan E

    2005-11-01

    Empirically based estimates of the mean alcohol content of beer, wine and spirits drinks from a national sample of US drinkers are not currently available. A sample of 310 drinkers from the 2000 National Alcohol Survey were re-contacted to participate in a telephone survey with specific questions about the drinks they consume. Subjects were instructed to prepare their usual drink of each beverage at home and to measure each alcoholic beverage and other ingredients with a provided beaker. Information on the brand or type of each beverage was used to specify the percentage of alcohol. The weighted mean alcohol content of respondents' drinks was 0.67 ounces overall, 0.56 ounces for beer, 0.66 ounces for wine and 0.89 ounces for spirits. Spirits and wine drink contents were particularly variable with many high-alcohol drinks observed. While the 0.6-ounce of alcohol drink standard appears to be a reasonable single standard, it cannot capture the substantial variation evident in this sample and it underestimates average wine and spirits ethanol content. Direct measurement or beverage-specific mean ethanol content estimates would improve the precision of survey alcohol assessment.

  15. Nephrotoxicity of uranium in drinking water from private drilled wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selden, Anders I.; Lundholm, Cecilia; Edlund, Bror; Hoegdahl, Camilla; Ek, Britt-Marie; Bergstroem, Bernt E.; Ohlson, Carl-Goeran

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the association between uranium in drinking water from drilled wells and aspects of kidney function measured by sensitive urine tests. Methods: Three hundred and one of 398 eligible subjects (75.6%) aged 18-74 years with daily drinking water supplies from private drilled wells located in uranium-rich bedrock (exposed group) volunteered to participate along with 153 of 271 local controls (56.4%) who used municipal water. Participants responded to a questionnaire on their water consumption and general health, and provided a morning urine sample and drinking water for analysis. Results: The uranium content of well water samples (n=153) varied considerably (range 100 μg/l), while uranium levels in all samples of municipal water (n=14) were below the limit of quantification (0.2 μg/l). Urinary levels of uranium were more than eight times higher in exposed subjects than in controls (geometric means 38 and 4.3 ng/l, respectively; p 2 =0.66). Levels of albumin, β 2 -microglobulin, protein HC as well as kappa and lambda immunoglobulin chains in urine from exposed and controls were similar. The N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAG) activity was significantly lower in the exposed group vs. controls, possibly secondary to differential storage duration of samples from the two groups. Even in regression models adjusting for gender, age and smoking no association of uranium in water and the kidney function parameters was observed. Using uranium in urine in the entire study group as a marker of exposure, however, a tendency of exposure-related increases of β 2 -microglobulin, protein HC and kappa chains were noted. This tendency was enhanced after exclusion of subjects with diabetes mellitus from the analysis. Conclusions: Uranium levels in urine were strongly correlated to levels in drinking water from drilled wells. There were no clear signs of nephrotoxicity from uranium in drinking water at levels recorded in this study, but some indications of an

  16. Finding the breech: Influence of breech presentation on mode of delivery based on timing of diagnosis, attempt at external cephalic version, and provider success with version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Suzanne; Leeman, Lawrence; Yonke, Nicole

    2017-09-01

    Breech presentation affects 3-4% of pregnancies at term and malpresentation is the primary indication for 10-15% of cesarean deliveries. External cephalic version is an effective intervention that can decrease the need for cesarean delivery; however, timely identification of breech presentation is required. We hypothesized that women with a fetus in a breech presentation that is diagnosed after 38 weeks' estimated gestational age have a decreased likelihood of external cephalic version attempted and an increased likelihood of cesarean delivery. This was a retrospective cohort study. A chart review was performed for 251 women with breech presentation at term presenting to our tertiary referral university hospital for external cephalic version, cesarean for breech presentation, or vaginal breech delivery. Vaginal delivery was significantly more likely (31.1% vs 12.5%; Pexternal cephalic version was offered, and subsequently attempted in a greater proportion of women diagnosed before 38 weeks. External cephalic version was more successful when performed by physicians with greater procedural volume during the 3.5 year period of the study (59.1% for providers performing at least 10 procedures vs 31.3% if performing fewer than 10 procedures, Pexternal cephalic version. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Talking to your teen about drinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... has been drinking. How Problems at Home Might Influence Children to Drink Risky drinking or alcohol use in the home can lead to the same habits in children. At an early age, children become aware of the drinking patterns of their parents. Children are more likely to drink if: Conflict ...

  18. ATP measurements for monitoring microbial drinking water quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vang, Óluva Karin

    Current standard methods for surveillance of microbial drinking water quality are culture based, which are laborious and time-consuming, where results not are available before one to three days after sampling. This means that the water may have been consumed before results on deteriorated water....... The overall aim of this PhD study was to investigate various methodological features of the ATP assay for a potential implementation on a sensor platform as a real-time parameter for continuous on-line monitoring of microbial drinking water quality. Commercial reagents are commonly used to determine ATP......, microbial quality in distributed water, detection of aftergrowth, biofilm formation etc. This PhD project demonstrated that ATP levels are relatively low and fairly stable in drinking water without chlorine residual despite different sampling locations, different drinking water systems and time of year...

  19. Vulnerability of drinking water supplies to engineered nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troester, Martin; Brauch, Heinz-Juergen; Hofmann, Thilo

    2016-06-01

    The production and use of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) inevitably leads to their release into aquatic environments, with the quantities involved expected to increase significantly in the future. Concerns therefore arise over the possibility that ENPs might pose a threat to drinking water supplies. Investigations into the vulnerability of drinking water supplies to ENPs are hampered by the absence of suitable analytical methods that are capable of detecting and quantifiying ENPs in complex aqueous matrices. Analytical data concerning the presence of ENPs in drinking water supplies is therefore scarce. The eventual fate of ENPs in the natural environment and in processes that are important for drinking water production are currently being investigated through laboratory based-experiments and modelling. Although the information obtained from these studies may not, as yet, be sufficient to allow comprehensive assessment of the complete life-cycle of ENPs, it does provide a valuable starting point for predicting the significance of ENPs to drinking water supplies. This review therefore addresses the vulnerability of drinking water supplies to ENPs. The risk of ENPs entering drinking water is discussed and predicted for drinking water produced from groundwater and from surface water. Our evaluation is based on reviewing published data concerning ENP production amounts and release patterns, the occurrence and behavior of ENPs in aquatic systems relevant for drinking water supply and ENP removability in drinking water purification processes. Quantitative predictions are made based on realistic high-input case scenarios. The results of our synthesis of current knowledge suggest that the risk probability of ENPs being present in surface water resources is generally limited, but that particular local conditions may increase the probability of raw water contamination by ENPs. Drinking water extracted from porous media aquifers are not generally considered to be prone to ENP

  20. Perceived agricultural runoff impact on drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crampton, Andrea; Ragusa, Angela T

    2014-09-01

    Agricultural runoff into surface water is a problem in Australia, as it is in arguably all agriculturally active countries. While farm practices and resource management measures are employed to reduce downstream effects, they are often either technically insufficient or practically unsustainable. Therefore, consumers may still be exposed to agrichemicals whenever they turn on the tap. For rural residents surrounded by agriculture, the link between agriculture and water quality is easy to make and thus informed decisions about water consumption are possible. Urban residents, however, are removed from agricultural activity and indeed drinking water sources. Urban and rural residents were interviewed to identify perceptions of agriculture's impact on drinking water. Rural residents thought agriculture could impact their water quality and, in many cases, actively avoided it, often preferring tank to surface water sources. Urban residents generally did not perceive agriculture to pose health risks to their drinking water. Although there are more agricultural contaminants recognised in the latest Australian Drinking Water Guidelines than previously, we argue this is insufficient to enhance consumer protection. Health authorities may better serve the public by improving their proactivity and providing communities and water utilities with the capacity to effectively monitor and address agricultural runoff.

  1. Drinking water in Cuba and seawater desalination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meneses-Ruiz, E.; Turtos-Carbonell, L.M.; Oviedo-Rivero, I.

    2004-01-01

    The lack of drinking water has become a problem at world level because, in many places, supplies are very limited and, in other places, their reserves have been drained. At the present time there are estimated to be around two thousand million people that don't have drinking water for several reasons, such as drought, contamination and the presence of saline waters not suitable for human consumption. Because of the human need for water, they have always taken residence in areas where the supply was guaranteed, sometimes impeding the exploitation of other areas that can be economically very interesting. However, this resource is usually very close and in abundance in the form of seawater but its salinity makes it unusable for many basic requirements. Humanity has been forced, therefore, to take into consideration the possibilities of the economic treatment of seawater. Cuba has regions where the supplies of drinking water are scarce and others where the lack of this resource limits economic exploitation. The present work is approached with regard to the situation of hydro resources in Cuba, it includes: a description of the main hydrographic basins of the country; the contamination levels of the waters and the measures for mitigation; analysis of the supplies and demand for drinking water and its quality; regulatory aspects. The state of seawater desalination in Cuba is also included and the possibility of its realisation using nuclear energy and the advantages that this would bring is evaluated. (author)

  2. National trends in drinking water quality violations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allaire, Maura; Wu, Haowei; Lall, Upmanu

    2018-02-27

    Ensuring safe water supply for communities across the United States is a growing challenge in the face of aging infrastructure, impaired source water, and strained community finances. In the aftermath of the Flint lead crisis, there is an urgent need to assess the current state of US drinking water. However, no nationwide assessment has yet been conducted on trends in drinking water quality violations across several decades. Efforts to reduce violations are of national concern given that, in 2015, nearly 21 million people relied on community water systems that violated health-based quality standards. In this paper, we evaluate spatial and temporal patterns in health-related violations of the Safe Drinking Water Act using a panel dataset of 17,900 community water systems over the period 1982-2015. We also identify vulnerability factors of communities and water systems through probit regression. Increasing time trends and violation hot spots are detected in several states, particularly in the Southwest region. Repeat violations are prevalent in locations of violation hot spots, indicating that water systems in these regions struggle with recurring issues. In terms of vulnerability factors, we find that violation incidence in rural areas is substantially higher than in urbanized areas. Meanwhile, private ownership and purchased water source are associated with compliance. These findings indicate the types of underperforming systems that might benefit from assistance in achieving consistent compliance. We discuss why certain violations might be clustered in some regions and strategies for improving national drinking water quality.

  3. Mineral Composition and Nutritive Value of Isotonic and Energy Drinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leśniewicz, Anna; Grzesiak, Magdalena; Żyrnicki, Wiesław; Borkowska-Burnecka, Jolanta

    2016-04-01

    Several very popular brands of isotonic and energy drinks consumed for fluid and electrolyte supplementation and stimulation of mental or physical alertness were chosen for investigation. Liquid beverages available in polyethylene bottles and aluminum cans as well as products in the form of tablets and powder in sachets were studied. The total concentrations of 21 elements (Ag, Al, B, Ba, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, P, Pb, Sr, Ti, V, and Zn), both essential and toxic, were simultaneously determined in preconcentrated drink samples by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) equipped with pneumatic and ultrasonic nebulizers. Differences between the mineral compositions of isotonic and energy drinks were evaluated and discussed. The highest content of Na was found in both isotonic and energy drinks, whereas quite high concentrations of Mg were found in isotonic drinks, and the highest amount of calcium was quantified in energy drinks. The concentrations of B, Co, Cu, Ni, and P were higher in isotonic drinks, but energy drinks contained greater quantities of Ag, Cr, Zn, Mn, and Mo and toxic elements, as Cd and Pb. A comparison of element contents with micronutrient intake and tolerable levels was performed to evaluate contribution of the investigated beverages to the daily diet. The consumption of 250 cm(3) of an isotonic drink provides from 0.32% (for Mn) up to 14.8% (for Na) of the recommended daily intake. For the energy drinks, the maximum recommended daily intake fulfillment ranged from 0.02% (for V) to 19.4 or 19.8% (for Mg and Na).

  4. Health Safety of Soft Drinks: Contents, Containers, and Microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Kregiel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Soft drinks consumption is still a controversial issue for public health and public policy. Over the years, numerous studies have been conducted into the possible links between soft drink intake and medical problems, the results of which, however, remain highly contested. Nevertheless, as a result, increasing emphasis is being placed on the health properties of soft drinks, by both the industry and the consumers, for example, in the expanding area of functional drinks. Extensive legislation has been put in place to ensure that soft drinks manufacturers conform to established national and international standards. Consumers trust that the soft drinks they buy are safe and their quality is guaranteed. They also expect to be provided with information that can help them to make informed decisions about the purchase of products and that the information on product labels is not false or misleading. This paper provides a broad overview of available scientific knowledge and cites numerous studies on various aspects of soft drinks and their implications for health safety. Particular attention is given to ingredients, including artificial flavorings, colorings, and preservatives and to the lesser known risks of microbiological and chemical contamination during processing and storage.

  5. Energy Drink Consumption Practices of Young People in Bahrain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassaif, Maryam M; Alobed, Ghufran J J; Alaam, Noor A A; Alderrazi, Abdulla N; Awdhalla, Muyssar S; Vaithinathan, Asokan G

    2015-01-01

    Energy drink (ED) consumption is becoming increasingly popular among young Bahrainis, who may be unaware of the health risks associated with ED consumption. To date, there have been few publications on the consumption of ED in Bahrain, particularly among adolescents. This study seeks to fill a gap in the literature on energy drink consumption practices of Bahraini adolescents. Data were collected using a previously established European Food Safety Authority questionnaire. Cross-sectional analyses were conducted on a convenience sample of 262 Bahraini students aged 10 to 18 years. Most participants consumed energy drinks 2 to 3 times per week and consumed two or more cans at a time. Eighty percent of partcipants preferred energy drinks with sugar. Participants in the older age group and higher educational level consumed more ED. The majority (57%) consumed ED at home with friends as part of socialization. Notably, 60% of the parents of the respondents have not consumed energy drinks. Prominent reasons for consumption of energy drinks included: taste (40%), energy (30%), stay awake (13%), augment concentration (4%), and enhance sports performance (6%). Energy drink consumption is a popular socialization activity among adolescents of Bahrain. The potential health risks necessitates the need for novel health promotion strategies and advocacy efforts for healthy hydration practices.

  6. Rethink Your Drink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartigan, Phyllis; Patton-Ku, Dana; Fidler, Cheri; Boutelle, Kerri N

    2017-03-01

    Sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) are linked to obesity; hospitals are a priority setting to reduce intake. This article describes the development, implementation, and results of a focused intervention to reduce SSB sales within a hospital setting. After a formative research process, Rethink Your Drink was launched at a children's hospital in San Diego. The initiative consisted of an educational intervention using the stoplight system to categorize beverages as red, yellow, or green based on sugar content. Beverage sales data were collected for 3 months prior, during the 12-month intervention, and for 4 months after the intervention ended. Monthly red beverage sales decreased from an average of 56% during baseline to 32% at the end of the data collection period (p sales increased from an average of 12.2% during baseline to 38% at the end of the data collection period (p Sales revenue for all drinks remained constant. The intervention resulted in a decrease in SSB sales and an increase in sales of healthier beverage choices. Such interventions can play an important role in obesity prevention and may be more feasible for smaller hospitals with limited resources.

  7. [The EU drinking water recommendations: objectives and perspectives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blöch, H

    2011-12-01

    Protection of our drinking water resources and provision of safe drinking water are key requirements of modern water management and health policy. Microbiological and chemical quality standards have been established in the EU water policy since 1980, and are now complemented by a comprehensive protection of water as a resource. This contribution reflects a presentation at the scientific conference of the Federal Associations of Physicians and Dentists within the Public Health Service in May 2011 and provides an overview on objectives and challenges for drinking water protection at the European level. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  8. Binge Drinking Among Women and Girls PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-01-08

    This 60 second public service announcement is based on the January 2013 CDC Vital Signs report, which presents information about binge drinking among women and girls. Binge drinking is defined for women as four or more drinks in a short period of time. It puts women and girls at greater risk for breast cancer, sexual assault, heart disease, and unintended pregnancy.  Created: 1/8/2013 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 1/8/2013.

  9. Ups and downs of alcohol use among first-year college students: Number of drinks, heavy drinking, and stumble and pass out drinking days.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggs, Jennifer L; Williams, Lela Rankin; Lee, Christine M

    2011-03-01

    Given the dynamic fluctuating nature of alcohol use among emerging adults (Del Boca, Darkes, Greenbaum, & Goldman, 2004), patterns of alcohol use were modeled across 70 days in an intensive repeated-measures diary design. Two hundred first-year college students provided 10 weekly reports of their daily alcohol consumption via computer-assisted telephone interviews. Multi-level models demonstrated large within-person variability across days in drinks consumed, binge drinking, and days exceeding self-reported limits for stumbling around and passing out; these outcome variables were predicted by weekdays vs. weekend days (within-person) and gender, age of drinking initiation, fraternity/sorority membership, and alcohol motivations (between-persons). Repeated measurement of alternate indicators of alcohol use permits the examination of novel and important questions about alcohol use and abuse particularly in young adult and other erratically drinking populations. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Longitudinal patterns of alcohol mixed with energy drink use among college students and their associations with risky drinking and problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallett, Kimberly A; Scaglione, Nichole; Reavy, Racheal; Turrisi, Rob

    2015-05-01

    The consumption of alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmEDs) is a form of risky drinking among college students, a population already in danger of heavy drinking and associated consequences. The goals of the current longitudinal study were to (a) identify types of AmED users between the first and second year of college and (b) examine differences among these groups in rates of highrisk drinking and consequences over time. A random sample of college student drinkers (n = 1,710; 57.7% female) completed baseline and 6-month follow-up measures assessing alcohol-related behaviors. AmED use was endorsed by 40% of participants during the course of the study. As anticipated, four distinct groups of AmED users were identified (nonusers, initiators, discontinuers, and continuous users) and were significantly different from one another on drinking and consequence outcomes. Further, significant Time × Group interaction effects were observed for drinking and overall consequences. Generally, across all outcomes and time points, nonusers reported the lowest rates of drinking and consequences, whereas continuous users consistently reported the highest rates of drinking and consequences. Students who initiated AmED use during the course of the study also reported anabrupt increase in alcohol use and reported consequences. Findings suggest students who consistently engage in and initiate AmED use also engage in riskier drinking behaviors and experience higher rates of consequences. Interventions that specifically target AmED use may be warranted and have the potential to reduce alcohol-related consequences.

  11. Reducing Binge Drinking in Adolescents through Implementation of the Strategic Prevention Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson-Carpenter, Kaston D.; Watson-Thompson, Jomella; Chaney, Lisa; Jones, Marvia

    2016-01-01

    The Strategic Prevention Framework (SPF) is a conceptual model that supports coalition-driven efforts to address underage drinking and related consequences. Although the SPF has been promoted by the U.S. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration’s Center for Substance Abuse Prevention and implemented in multiple U.S. states and territories, there is limited research on the SPF’s effectiveness on improving targeted outcomes and associated influencing factors. The present quasi-experimental study examines the effects of SPF implementation on binge drinking and enforcement of existing underage drinking laws as an influencing factor. The intervention group encompassed 11 school districts that were implementing the SPF with local prevention coalitions across eight Kansas communities. The comparison group consisted of 14 school districts that were matched based on demographic variables. The intervention districts collectively facilitated 137 community-level changes, including new or modified programs, policies, and practices. SPF implementation supported significant improvements in binge drinking and enforcement outcomes over time (p .05). Overall, the findings provide a basis for guiding future research and community-based prevention practice in implementing and evaluating the SPF. PMID:27217310

  12. Heavy Drinking in University Students With and Without Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Contributions of Drinking Motives and Protective Behavioral Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea L Howard

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This study examined rates of heavy drinking and alcohol problems in relation to drinking motives and protective behavioral strategies in university students with a documented current diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD; n = 31 compared with students with no history of ADHD (n = 146. Participants completed a Web-based questionnaire, and logistic regression models tested interactions between ADHD/comparison group membership and motives and protective strategies. Group differences in rates of heavy drinking and alcohol problems were not statistically significant, but medium-sized risk ratios showed that students without ADHD reported heavy drinking at a rate 1.44 times higher than students with ADHD and met screening criteria for problematic alcohol use at a rate of 1.54 times higher than students with ADHD. Other key findings were, first, that drinking to enhance positive affect (e.g., drinking because it is exciting, but not to cope with negative affect (e.g., drinking to forget your worries, predicted both heavy drinking and alcohol problems. Second, only protective behavioral strategies that emphasize alcohol avoidance predicted both heavy drinking and alcohol problems. Contrary to expectations, we found no ADHD-related moderation of effects of motives or protective strategies on our alcohol outcomes. Results of this study are limited by the small sample of students with ADHD but highlight tentative similarities and differences in effects of motives and strategies on drinking behaviors and alcohol problems reported by students with and without ADHD.

  13. Drinking-water hydropower station in Sachseln, Switzerland; Trinkwasserkraftwerk Mettental Sachseln. Programm Kleinwasserkraftwerke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cappelletti, R.; Siegrist, W.; Schwab, B.

    2007-06-15

    This illustrated final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) describes a small hydropower project realised in the Mettental valley in Sachseln, Switzerland. The system installed is described. This provides the necessary pressure reduction in the drinking-water supply system between the springs in the mountains and the reservoir in the valley whilst generating electrical power at the same time. A Pelton turbine that meets all drinking-water quality requirements is used to generate 300 kW of electrical power using the pressure obtained from the height-difference of around 880 metres. The first two years of operation have proved that the system provides over 30% more power than expected. The report includes technical details on the installation and reports on initial experience gained with the system.

  14. Hostility, drinking pattern and mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyle, Stephen H; Mortensen, Laust Hvas; Grønbaek, Morten

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the association of hostility to drinking pattern and whether this association mediated the relation of hostility to mortality.......This study examined the association of hostility to drinking pattern and whether this association mediated the relation of hostility to mortality....

  15. Biofilm in drinking water networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cristiani, Pietrangela

    2005-01-01

    Bacterial growth in drinking waters is today controlled adding small and non toxic quantities of sanitising products. An innovative electrochemical biofilm monitoring system, already successfully applied in industrial waters, could be confirmed as an effective diagnostic tool of water quality also for drinking distributions systems [it

  16. Determination of mercury in drinking water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anand, S.J.S.

    1976-01-01

    Determination of mercury in drinking water samples have been carried out by neutron activation followed by chemical separation. The chemical analysis is necessary as the levels of mercury in these samples are quite low and activities of sodium, copper etc. interfere in its determination by direct spectroscopy. Solvent extraction separation offers speed and complete separation from interfering activities. Some of drinking water samples collected at Trombay have been analysed and their result are given in this paper. The procedure was checked with 197 Hg tracer and the reproducibility of the procedure is within 5%. It was free from contamination due to the activities of Cu, Na etc. The time of analysis was 15 minutes, and upto 5 samples could be analysed conveniently at a time. The average chemical yield was 72%. (T.I.)

  17. The drink driving situation in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngoc, Luu Bich; Thieng, Nguyen Thi; Huong, Nguyen Lan

    2012-01-01

    a comprehensive situational assessment that examined the problem of drinking and driving and identified some of the weaknesses in the current prevention system. Vietnam currently has 2 international projects on road safety and it is hoped that these together with support from the International Center for Alcohol Policies (ICAP) Global Actions program will provide opportunities for strengthening drinking and drive prevention initiatives by improving the road crash and injury database, building the capacity of the key organizations, strengthening the coordination mechanisms, and implementing and evaluating trial drink-drive interventions. Copyright © 2012 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

  18. Evaluation of the role of access providers. Discussion of Dutch Pirate Bay case law and introducing principles on directness, effectiveness, costs, relevance, and time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lodder, A.R.; van der Meulen, N.S.

    2013-01-01

    Internet service providers (ISPs) play a pivotal role in contemporary society because they provide access to the Internet. The primary task of ISPs – to blindly transfer information across the network – has recently come under pressure, as has their status as neutral third parties. Both the public

  19. Parents' beliefs about the healthfulness of sugary drink options: opportunities to address misperceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munsell, Christina R; Harris, Jennifer L; Sarda, Vishnudas; Schwartz, Marlene B

    2016-01-01

    To assess potential misperceptions among parents regarding the healthfulness of sugary drinks for their children. Online survey of parents. Participants identified the categories and specific brands of sugary drinks they provided for their children. They also indicated their perceptions of sugary drink categories and brands as healthy options for children, perceived importance of on-package claims in purchase decisions and their concerns about common sugary drink ingredients. Online market research panel. Parents (n 982) of 2- to 17-year-olds, 46 % non-white or Hispanic. Ninety-six per cent of parents provided on average 2·9 different categories of sugary drinks for their children in the past month. Flavoured waters, fruit drinks and sports drinks were rated as the healthiest sugary drink categories. Across all categories and brands, parents who purchased specific products rated them as significantly healthier than those who did not (P<0·05). Over half of parents reported concern about caffeine, sugar and artificial sweeteners in sugary drinks that their children consume and approximately one-third reported that on-package ingredient claims were important in their purchase decisions. Nearly all parents provide sugary drinks for their children and many believe that some sugary drinks are healthy options for children, particularly flavoured waters, fruit drinks and sports drinks. Furthermore, many parents rely upon on-package claims in their purchase decisions. Given excessive consumption of added sugar by children in the home, there is a continuing need to address parents' misperceptions about the healthfulness of many sugary drink products.

  20. Race, Employment Disadvantages, and Heavy Drinking: A Multilevel Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Celia C; Cheng, Tyrone C

    2015-01-01

    We intended to determine (1) whether stress from employment disadvantages led to increased frequency of heavy drinking and (2) whether race had a role in the relationship between such disadvantages and heavy drinking. Study data came from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, a prospective study that has followed a representative sample of youth since 1979. Our study employed data from 11 particular years, during which the survey included items measuring respondents' heavy drinking. Our final sample numbered 10,171 respondents, which generated 75,394 person-waves for data analysis. Both of our hypotheses were supported by results from multilevel mixed-effects linear regression capturing the time-varying nature of three employment disadvantages and of the heavy-drinking outcome. Results show that more-frequent heavy drinking was associated with employment disadvantages, and that disadvantages' effects on drinking were stronger for Blacks and Hispanics than for Whites. That worsening employment disadvantages have worse effects on minority groups' heavy drinking (compared to Whites) probably contributes to the racial health disparities in our nation. Policies and programs addressing such disparities are especially important during economic downturns.

  1. Binge Drinking – Nationwide Problem, Local Solutions

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-01-03

    This podcast is based on the January 2012 CDC Vital Signs report. One in six adults binge drinks about four times a month. It's a problem nationwide but community-based strategies, such as reducing access to alcohol and increasing the price, can prevent binge drinking.  Created: 1/3/2012 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 1/3/2012.

  2. Drinking Patterns Among Older Couples: Longitudinal Associations With Negative Marital Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birditt, Kira S; Cranford, James A; Manalel, Jasmine A; Antonucci, Toni C

    2018-04-16

    Research with younger couples indicates that alcohol use has powerful effects on marital quality, but less work has examined the effects of drinking among older couples. This study examined whether dyadic patterns of drinking status among older couples are associated with negative marital quality over time. Married participants (N = 4864) from the Health and Retirement Study reported on alcohol consumption (whether they drink alcohol and average amount consumed per week) and negative marital quality (e.g., criticism and demands) across two waves (Wave 1 2006/2008 and Wave 2 2010/2012). Concordant drinking couples reported decreased negative marital quality over time, and these links were significantly greater among wives. Wives who reported drinking alcohol reported decreased negative marital quality over time when husbands also reported drinking and increased negative marital quality over time when husbands reported not drinking. The present findings stress the importance of considering the drinking status rather than the amount of alcohol consumed of both members of the couple when attempting to understand drinking and marital quality among older couples. These findings are particularly salient given the increased drinking among baby boomers and the importance of marital quality for health among older couples.

  3. Do adolescent delinquency and problem drinking share psychosocial risk factors? A literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curcio, Angela L; Mak, Anita S; George, Amanda M

    2013-04-01

    Despite the prevalence and damaging effects of adolescent problem drinking, relative to delinquency, far less research has focused on drinking using an integrated theoretical approach. The aim of the current research was to review existing literature on psychosocial risk factors for delinquency and problem drinking, and explore whether integrating elements of social learning theory with an established psychosocial control theory of delinquency could explain adolescent problem drinking. We reviewed 71 studies published post-1990 with particular focus on articles that empirically researched risk factors for adolescent problem drinking and delinquency in separate and concurrent studies and meta-analytic reviews. We found shared risk factors for adolescent delinquency and problem drinking that are encompassed by an extension of psychosocial control theory. The potential of an extended psychosocial control theory providing a parsimonious theoretical approach to explaining delinquency, problem drinking and other adolescent problem behaviours, along with suggestions for future investigations, is discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. "The care is the best you can give at the time": Health care professionals' experiences in providing gender affirming care in South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Spencer

    Full Text Available While the provision of gender affirming care for transgender people in South Africa is considered legal, ethical, and medically sound, and is-theoretically-available in both the South African private and public health sectors, access remains severely limited and unequal within the country. As there are no national policies or guidelines, little is known about how individual health care professionals providing gender affirming care make clinical decisions about eligibility and treatment options.Based on an initial policy review and service mapping, this study employed semi-structured interviews with a snowball sample of twelve health care providers, representing most providers currently providing gender affirming care in South Africa. Data were analysed thematically using NVivo, and are reported following COREQ guidelines.Our findings suggest that, whilst a small minority of health care providers offer gender affirming care, this is almost exclusively on their own initiative and is usually unsupported by wider structures and institutions. The ad hoc, discretionary nature of services means that access to care is dependent on whether a transgender person is fortunate enough to access a sympathetic and knowledgeable health care provider.Accordingly, national, state-sanctioned guidelines for gender affirming care are necessary to increase access, homogenise quality of care, and contribute to equitable provision of gender affirming care in the public and private health systems.

  5. Do Native American Culture, Life Experiences, Physics and the Bible Provide Supportive Evidence For Julian Barbour's Thesis About Anachronisms Relating to The End of Time?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mears, Paul C.; Mc Leod, Roger D.

    2002-10-01

    Historic, and current Native American attitude considers that time can be considered in a cyclic sense that contrasts against a majority view of physicists that time varies in a linear algebraic sense. Precognition experiences offer evidence that time has a more subtle substance. The Bible clearly delineates "prophetic awareness of the future." Embedded "Bible codes" are touted as mathematical evidence for the existence of God. His existence is better served if "past-tense" information of events can propagate backward relative to our "present-tense" time. Barbour, p39: [some] " physicists entertain the idea time truly does not exist applies to motion .suggestion; it too is pure illusion." The concept of prophecy has been interpreted as evidence or "proof" of the existence of "Manitou" or God. Our interpretation is that, according to Native American legends, or the Bible, for as yet unspecified reasons, time behaves as though it can convey information in a backward, or forward, sense. It is like an f (t ± ti).

  6. Drinking typography established by scheduled induction predicts chronic heavy drinking in a monkey model of ethanol self-administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Kathleen A; Leng, Xiaoyan; Green, Heather L; Szeliga, Kendall T; Rogers, Laura S M; Gonzales, Steven W

    2008-10-01

    We have developed an animal model of alcohol self-administration that initially employs schedule-induced polydipsia (SIP) to establish reliable ethanol consumption under open access (22 h/d) conditions with food and water concurrently available. SIP is an adjunctive behavior that is generated by constraining access to an important commodity (e.g., flavored food). The induction schedule and ethanol polydipsia generated under these conditions affords the opportunity to investigate the development of drinking typologies that lead to chronic, excessive alcohol consumption. Adult male cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) were induced to drink water and 4% (w/v in water) ethanol by a Fixed-Time 300 seconds (FT-300 seconds) schedule of banana-flavored pellet delivery. The FT-300 seconds schedule was in effect for 120 consecutive sessions, with daily induction doses increasing from 0.0 to 0.5 g/kg to 1.0 g/kg to 1.5 g/kg every 30 days. Following induction, the monkeys were allowed concurrent access to 4% (w/v) ethanol and water for 22 h/day for 12 months. Drinking typographies during the induction of drinking 1.5 g/kg ethanol emerged that were highly predictive of the daily ethanol intake over the next 12 months. Specifically, the frequency in which monkeys ingested 1.5 g/kg ethanol without a 5-minute lapse in drinking (defined as a bout of drinking) during induction strongly predicted (correlation 0.91) subsequent ethanol intake over the next 12 months of open access to ethanol. Blood ethanol during induction were highly correlated with intake and with drinking typography and ranged from 100 to 160 mg% when the monkeys drank their 1.5 g/kg dose in a single bout. Forty percent of the population became heavy drinkers (mean daily intakes >3.0 g/kg for 12 months) characterized by frequent "spree" drinking (intakes >4.0 g/kg/d). This model of ethanol self-administration identifies early alcohol drinking typographies (gulping the equivalent of 6 drinks) that evolve into

  7. Social Media Use and Episodic Heavy Drinking Among Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunborg, Geir Scott; Andreas, Jasmina Burdzovic; Kvaavik, Elisabeth

    2017-06-01

    Objectives Little is known about the consequences of adolescent social media use. The current study estimated the association between the amount of time adolescents spend on social media and the risk of episodic heavy drinking. Methods A school-based self-report cross-sectional study including 851 Norwegian middle and high school students (46.1% boys). frequency and quantity of social media use. Frequency of drinking four or six (girls and boys, respectively) alcoholic drinks during a single day (episodic heavy drinking). The MacArthur Scale of Subjective Social Status, the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale - Brief, the Brief Sensation Seeking Scale, the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 items for Adolescents, the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire Peer Relationship problems scale, gender, and school grade. Results Greater amount of time spent on social media was associated with greater likelihood of episodic heavy drinking among adolescents ( OR = 1.12, 95% CI (1.05, 1.19), p = 0.001), even after adjusting for school grade, impulsivity, sensation seeking, symptoms of depression, and peer relationship problems. Conclusion The results from the current study indicate that more time spent on social media is related to greater likelihood of episodic heavy drinking among adolescents.

  8. Demographics, Health, and Risk Behaviors of Young Adults Who Drink Energy Drinks and Coffee Beverages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Caitlin K.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The present study investigates risk behaviors, sleep habits, and mental health factors associated with caffeinated beverage use in young adults. Materials and Methods: Students from a midsize private university (n = 159) completed a 15-minute anonymous questionnaire, including questions on risk behaviors, sleep habits, alcohol, and caffeine consumption. We compared behaviors between the top ∼15% (“high end”) of energy drink users (≥3/month) and coffee users (≥16/month) to those with less frequent or no caffeine consumption. Results: Caffeine consumption was frequent among young adults. In the last month, 36% of students had an energy drink, 69% had coffee or espresso, and 86% reported having any caffeine; however, the majority of students were unaware of the caffeine content in these beverages. High-end energy drink consumers reported more risk-taking behaviors (increased drug and alcohol use and less frequent seat belt use), sleep disturbances (later bedtimes, harder time falling asleep, and more all-nighters), and higher frequency of mental illness diagnoses than those who consumed fewer energy drinks. In contrast, the frequency of most risk behaviors, sleep disturbances, and mental illness diagnoses was not significantly different between the high-end and general population of coffee drinkers. Conclusion: Students with delayed sleep patterns, mental illness, and higher frequency of substance use and risk behaviors were more likely to be regular energy drink users but not regular coffee drinkers. It is unclear whether the psychoactive content in energy drinks results in different behavioral effects than just caffeine in coffee, and/or different personality/health populations are drawn to the two types of beverages. PMID:27274417

  9. Gender equality in university sportspeople's drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Kerry S; Hunter, Jackie; Kypri, Kypros; Ali, Ajmol

    2008-11-01

    In large population-based alcohol studies males are shown consistently to drink more, and more hazardously, than females. However, research from some countries suggests that gender differences in drinking are converging, with females drinking more than in the past. Large population-based research may miss gender-based changes in drinking behaviours that occur in sub-populations most at risk of hazardous drinking. We examine gender differences in a sub-population where hazardous drinking is common and endorsed, namely university sportspeople. The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) and a drinking motives measure were used to assess hazardous drinking behaviours and drinking motives in 631 university sportspeople (females = 331, 52%). There were no gender differences in AUDIT scores. However, drinking motives differed between genders, with coping motives being a significant predictor of hazardous drinking in females but not males. Hazardous drinking, including binge drinking (46.3%) and frequent binge drinking (35%), in New Zealand university sportspeople is high for both males and females. New Zealand university sportspeople are one population where gender differences in drinking are not apparent and run counter to European population based research and research in US sporting populations. Gender role equality in the university systems, and endorsement of drinking in sporting culture, may account for the lack of gender differences in this New Zealand sporting population. Future research on gender differences in drinking should examine sub-populations where gender role differentiation is low, and socio-cultural/structural factors supporting gender equality are high.

  10. Sex-Specific Arrival Times on the Breeding Grounds: Hybridizing Migratory Skuas Provide Empirical Support for the Role of Sex Ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisovski, Simeon; Fröhlich, Anne; von Tersch, Matthew; Klaassen, Marcel; Peter, Hans-Ulrich; Ritz, Markus S

    2016-04-01

    In migratory animals, protandry (earlier arrival of males on the breeding grounds) prevails over protogyny (females preceding males). In theory, sex differences in timing of arrival should be driven by the operational sex ratio, shifting toward protogyny in female-biased populations. However, empirical support for this hypothesis is, to date, lacking. To test this hypothesis, we analyzed arrival data from three populations of the long-distance migratory south polar skua (Catharacta maccormicki). These populations differed in their operational sex ratio caused by the unidirectional hybridization of male south polar skuas with female brown skuas (Catharacta antarctica lonnbergi). We found that arrival times were protandrous in allopatry, shifting toward protogyny in female-biased populations when breeding in sympatry. This unique observation is consistent with theoretical predictions that sex-specific arrival times should be influenced by sex ratio and that protogyny should be observed in populations with female-biased operational sex ratio.

  11. The Mutual Relationship Between Men's Drinking and Depression: A 4-Year Longitudinal Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soo Bi; Chung, Sulki; Lee, HaeKook; Seo, Jeong Seok

    2018-03-17

    The purpose of the current study was to examine the longitudinal reciprocal relationship between depression and drinking among male adults from the general population. This study used a panel dataset from the Korean Welfare Panel (from 2011 to 2014). The subjects were 2511 male adults aged between 20 and 65 years. Based on the Korean Version of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT-K) scores, 2191 subjects were categorized as the control group (AUDIT-K AUDIT-K ≥ 12). An autoregressive cross-lagged modelling analysis was performed to investigate the mutual relationship between problem drinking and depression measured consecutively over time. The results indicated that alcohol drinking and depression were stable over time. In the control group, there was no significant causal relationship between problem drinking and depression while in the problem drinking group, drinking in the previous year significantly influenced depression in the following second, third and fourth years. This study compared normal versus problem drinkers and showed a 4-year mutual causal relationship between depression and drinking. No longitudinal interaction between drinking and depression occurred in normal drinkers, while drinking intensified depression over time in problem drinkers. This study found that problem drinking was a risk factor for development of depression. Therefore, more attention should be given to problem alcohol use in the general population and evaluation of past alcohol use history in patients with depressive disorders.

  12. [Energy drinks: an unknown risk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, Aymeric; Levy, Fanny; Lejoyeux, Michel; Reynaud, Michel; Karila, Laurent

    2012-05-01

    The term "energy drink" designates "any product in the form of a drink or concentrated liquid, which claims to contain a mixture of ingredients having the property to raise the level of energy and vivacity". The main brands, Red Bull, Dark Dog, Rockstar, Burn, and Monster, are present in food stores, sports venues, and bars among other soft drinks and fruit juices. Their introduction into the French market raised many reluctances, because of the presence of taurine, caffeine and glucuronolactone. These components present in high concentrations, could be responsible for adverse effects on health. The association of energy drinks and spirits is widely found among adolescents and adults who justify drinking these mixed drinks by their desire to drink more alcohol while delaying drunkenness. Given the importance of the number of incidents reported among the energy drinks consumers, it seemed appropriate to make a synthesis of available data and to establish causal links between the use of these products and the development of health complications. For a literature review, we selected scientific articles both in English and French published between 2001 and 2011 by consulting the databases Medline, Embase, PsycINFO and Google Scholar. The words used alone or in combination are "energy dinks", "caffeine", "taurine", "toxicity", "dependence". An occasional to a moderate consumption of these drinks seems to present little risk for healthy adults. However, excessive consumption associated with the use of alcohol or drugs in amounts that far exceed the manufacturers recommended amount, could be responsible for negative consequences on health, particularly among subjects with cardiovascular disease.

  13. Moderated mediation of the relationships between masculinity ideology, outcome expectations, and energy drink use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levant, Ronald F; Parent, Mike C; McCurdy, Eric R; Bradstreet, Tyler C

    2015-11-01

    The consumption of energy drinks is a growing health-risk behavior for young men in the United States. The present study investigated the relationship between masculinity ideology, outcome expectations, energy drink use, and sleep disturbances. The authors recruited 467 adult males from universities and the Internet who provided data on their endorsement of traditional masculinity ideology, outcome expectations for use of energy drinks, use of energy drinks, and sleep disturbances. A theoretical model positing moderated mediation was tested using structural equation modeling and conditional process modeling. The results supported the hypothesized model in which endorsement of traditional masculinity ideology was linked with increased outcome expectations for benefits of energy drinks, which in turn was linked with increased energy drink consumption, and which finally was linked with greater sleep disturbance symptoms. The relationship between masculinity ideology and energy drink outcome expectations was moderated by age (significant for younger men but not for older men), and the relationship between energy drink outcome expectations and energy drink use was moderated by race (significant for White men but not for racial minority men). The present study adds to the literature on potential negative health implications of the endorsement of traditional masculinity ideology by offering a link between predictors of energy drink use (masculinity ideology, outcome expectations) and health outcomes of energy drink use (e.g., sleep disturbance). (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Binge Drinking Episodes in Young Adults: How Should We Measure Them in a Research Setting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piano, Mariann R; Mazzuco, Adriana; Kang, Minkyung; Phillips, Shane A

    2017-07-01

    Worldwide, consequences of binge drinking are a major health and policy concern. This article reviews contemporary binge drinking definitions as well as different questionnaires and biomarkers that have been used in research settings to examine binge drinking behavior among young adults. A review of electronic databases was conducted for binge drinking definitions, questionnaires, and biomarkers for the measurement of binge drinking in young adults (18-30 years). Binge drinking is often defined as four or more drinks for females and five or more drinks for males on an occasion or in one sitting within a designated time frame (2 weeks vs. past 30 days). Several tools and questionnaires are available to identify young adult repeated binge drinkers. Biomarkers have been used to corroborate self-reported alcohol consumption, of which direct biomarkers such as phosphatidylethanol may be useful in confirming recent heavy drinking. It is important to measure binge drinking along a continuum and to use questions that allow for assessment of intensity, frequency, duration, and daily versus weekend consumption patterns. Open-ended questions that allow for intensity (number of drinks) and frequency can be used to determine dose-response relationships with respect to specific outcome measures. Direct alcohol biomarkers reflecting alcohol consumption over a period of several days are useful in conjunction with questionnaire data for identifying young adult binge drinkers.

  15. Depressed Mood and Drinking Occasions across High School: Comparing the Reciprocal Causal Structures of a Panel of Boys and Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Timothy J.; Shippee, Nathan D.

    2009-01-01

    Does adolescent depressed mood portend increased or decreased drinking? Is frequent drinking positively or negatively associated with emotional well-being? Do the dynamic relations between depression and drinking differ by gender? Using block-recursive structural equation models, we explore the reciprocal short-term effects (within time, "t") and…

  16. Sports and Energy Drinks: Should Your Child Drink Them?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and biking, or high-intensity exercise such as soccer, basketball, or hockey). These drinks contain carbohydrates (sugar), ... look like a quick way to fill any nutrition gaps in your child's diet, but these nutrients ...

  17. Private drinking water quality in rural Wisconsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knobeloch, Lynda; Gorski, Patrick; Christenson, Megan; Anderson, Henry

    2013-03-01

    Between July 1, 2007, and December 31, 2010, Wisconsin health departments tested nearly 4,000 rural drinking water supplies for coliform bacteria, nitrate, fluoride, and 13 metals as part of a state-funded program that provides assistance to low-income families. The authors' review of laboratory findings found that 47% of these wells had an exceedance of one or more health-based water quality standards. Test results for iron and coliform bacteria exceeded safe limits in 21% and 18% of these wells, respectively. In addition, 10% of the water samples from these wells were high in nitrate and 11% had an elevated result for aluminum, arsenic, lead, manganese, or strontium. The high percentage of unsafe test results emphasizes the importance of water quality monitoring to the health of nearly one million families including 300,000 Wisconsin children whose drinking water comes from a privately owned well.

  18. Drinking water-a pipe dream

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-09-01

    Every third person deprived of clean drinking water in the world is an Indian, according to a report based on studies conducted by the National Environmental Engineering Research Institute (NEERI), Nagpur. The study further states that almost 70 per cent of our available water is polluted. This causes deaths of about 15 Iakh Indian children every year. A WHO report says that 80 per cent of the illnesses in India could be prevented if safe potable water was available to our entire population. The Union Ministry of Rural Development aims at providing at least one source of safe drinking water supply to each of 5.75 Iakh villages. Each source is expected to be about 0.5 km away from the village and will supply 70 liters of water per person everyday.

  19. ListeningTime; participatory development of a web-based preparatory communication tool for elderly cancer patients and their healthcare providers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordman, J.; Driesenaar, J.A.; Bruinessen, I.R. van; Dulmen, S. van

    2017-01-01

    Objective: This paper outlines the participatory development process of a web-based preparatory communication tool for elderly cancer patients and their oncological healthcare providers (HCPs). This tool aims to support them to (better) prepare their encounters. An overarching aim of the project is

  20. Optimisation of ATP determination in drinking water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corfitzen, Charlotte B.; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen

    Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) can be used as a relative measure of cell activity, and is measured by the light output from the reaction between luciferin and ATP catalyzed by firefly luciferase. The measurement has potential as a monitoring and surveillance tool within drinking water distribution,...... be separated from the water phase by filtration.......Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) can be used as a relative measure of cell activity, and is measured by the light output from the reaction between luciferin and ATP catalyzed by firefly luciferase. The measurement has potential as a monitoring and surveillance tool within drinking water distribution...... and an Advance Coupe luminometer. The investigations showed a 60 times higher response of the PCP-kit, making it more suitable for measurement of samples with low ATP content. ATP-standard dilutions prepared in tap water were stable for at least 15 months when stored frozen at -80ºC, and storage of large...

  1. Evaluating Teachers' Support Requests When Just-in-Time Instructional Support is Provided to Introduce a Primary Level Web-Based Reading Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Eileen; Anderson, Alissa; Piquette-Tomei, Noella; Savage, Robert; Mueller, Julie

    2011-01-01

    Support requests were documented for 10 teachers (4 kindergarten, 4 grade one, and 2 grade one/two teachers) who received just-in-time instructional support over a 2 1/2 month period while implementing a novel reading software program as part of their literacy instruction. In-class observations were made of each instructional session. Analysis of…

  2. 3D Vision Provides Shorter Operative Time and More Accurate Intraoperative Surgical Performance in Laparoscopic Hiatal Hernia Repair Compared With 2D Vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon, Piera; Rivellini, Roberta; Giudici, Fabiola; Sciuto, Antonio; Pirozzi, Felice; Corcione, Francesco

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate if 3-dimensional high-definition (3D) vision in laparoscopy can prompt advantages over conventional 2D high-definition vision in hiatal hernia (HH) repair. Between September 2012 and September 2015, we randomized 36 patients affected by symptomatic HH to undergo surgery; 17 patients underwent 2D laparoscopic HH repair, whereas 19 patients underwent the same operation in 3D vision. No conversion to open surgery occurred. Overall operative time was significantly reduced in the 3D laparoscopic group compared with the 2D one (69.9 vs 90.1 minutes, P = .006). Operative time to perform laparoscopic crura closure did not differ significantly between the 2 groups. We observed a tendency to a faster crura closure in the 3D group in the subgroup of patients with mesh positioning (7.5 vs 8.9 minutes, P = .09). Nissen fundoplication was faster in the 3D group without mesh positioning ( P = .07). 3D vision in laparoscopic HH repair helps surgeon's visualization and seems to lead to operative time reduction. Advantages can result from the enhanced spatial perception of narrow spaces. Less operative time and more accurate surgery translate to benefit for patients and cost savings, compensating the high costs of the 3D technology. However, more data from larger series are needed to firmly assess the advantages of 3D over 2D vision in laparoscopic HH repair.

  3. The Effect of the Transition to Home Monitoring for the Diagnosis of OSAS on Test Availability, Waiting Time, Patients’ Satisfaction, and Outcome in a Large Health Provider System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Safadi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available During 2009, the Haifa district of Clalit Health Services (CHS has switched from in-lab polysomnography (PSG to home studies for the diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA. We assessed the effects of this change on accessibility, waiting time, satisfaction, costs, and CPAP purchase by the patients. Data regarding sleep studies, CPAP purchase, and waiting times were collected retrospectively from the computerized database of CHS. Patients’ satisfaction was assessed utilizing a telephone questionnaire introduced to a randomized small sample of 70 patients. Comparisons were made between 2007 and 2008 (in-lab PSGs and 2010 and 2011 (when most studies were ambulatory. Of about 650000 insured individuals in the Haifa district of CHS, 1471 sleep studies were performed during 2007-2008 compared to 2794 tests during 2010-2011. The average waiting time was 9.9 weeks in 2007-2008 compared to 1.1 weeks in 2010-2011 (P<0.05. 597 CPAPs were purchased in 2007-2008 compared to 831 in 2010-2011. The overall patients’ satisfaction was similar, but discomfort tended to be higher in the in-laboratory group (4.1 vs 2.7 in a scale of 0–10; P=0.11. Switching to ambulatory diagnosis improved the test accessibility and reduced the waiting times. Patients’ satisfaction remained similarly high. The total direct cost of OSA management was reduced.

  4. Spatial and temporal variations of manganese concentrations in drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbeau, Benoit; Carrière, Annie; Bouchard, Maryse F

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the variability of manganese concentrations in drinking water (daily, seasonal, spatial) for eight communities who participated in an epidemiological study on neurotoxic effects associated with exposure to manganese in drinking water. We also assessed the performance of residential point-of-use and point-of-entry devices (POE) for reducing manganese concentrations in water. While the total Mn concentrations measured during this study were highly variable depending on the location (manganese concentration for 4 out of 5 sampling locations. The efficiency of reverse osmosis and ion exchange for total Mn removal was consistently high while activated carbon provided variable results. The four POE greensand filters investigated all increased (29 to 199%) manganese concentration, indicating deficient operation and/or maintenance practices. Manganese concentrations in the distribution system were equal or lower than at the inlet, indicating that sampling at the inlet of the distribution system is conservative. The decline in total Mn concentration was linked to higher water residence time in the distribution system.

  5. Effects of slightly acidic electrolysed drinking water on mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inagaki, Hideaki; Shibata, Yoshiko; Obata, Takahiro; Kawagoe, Masami; Ikeda, Katsuhisa; Sato, Masayoshi; Toida, Kazumi; Kushima, Hidemi; Matsuda, Yukihisa

    2011-10-01

    Slightly acidic electrolysed (SAE) water is a sanitizer with strong bactericidal activity due to hypochlorous acid. We assessed the safety of SAE water as drinking water for mice at a 5 ppm total residual chlorine (TRC) concentration to examine the possibility of SAE water as a labour- and energy-saving alternative to sterile water. We provided SAE water or sterile water to mice for 12 weeks, during which time we recorded changes in body weight and weekly water and food intakes. At the end of the experiment, all of the subject animals were sacrificed to assess serum aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and creatinine levels and to examine the main organs histopathologically under a light microscope. In addition, we investigated the bacteria levels of both types of water. We found no difference in functional and morphological health condition indices between the groups. Compared with sterile water, SAE water had a relatively higher ability to suppress bacterial growth. We suggest that SAE water at 5 ppm TRC is a safe and useful alternative to sterile water for use as drinking water in laboratory animal facilities.

  6. Nitrate in drinking water and colorectal cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schullehner, Jörg; Hansen, Birgitte; Thygesen, Malene

    2018-01-01

    based on drinking water quality analyses at public waterworks and private wells between 1978 and 2011. For the main analyses, 1.7 million individuals with highest exposure assessment quality were included. Follow-up started at age 35. We identified 5,944 incident CRC cases during 23 million person......Nitrate in drinking water may increase risk of colorectal cancer due to endogenous transformation into carcinogenic N-nitroso compounds. Epidemiological studies are few and often challenged by their limited ability of estimating long-term exposure on a detailed individual level. We exploited...... population-based health register data, linked in time and space with longitudinal drinking water quality data, on an individual level to study the association between long-term drinking water nitrate exposure and colorectal cancer (CRC) risk. Individual nitrate exposure was calculated for 2.7 million adults...

  7. Retirement and drinking outcomes: lingering effects of workplace stress?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richman, Judith A; Zlatoper, Kenneth W; Zackula Ehmke, Jennifer L; Rospenda, Kathleen M

    2006-05-01

    This study assesses the degree to which sexual harassment (SH), generalized workplace abuse (GWA), and psychological workload (PWL) impact drinking behaviors in retirement. A mail survey was completed at four points in time by a cohort of 1654 employees initially drawn from a university workplace. Questionnaires assessed experiences of SH, GWA, PWL and drinking behaviors. Hypotheses were tested involving (1) the extent to which SH, GWA, and PWL experienced while working were associated with frequency and quantity of drinking in retirement, (2) the extent to which drinking levels of retirees differed from those of current employees experiencing similar stress levels, and (3) the extent to which gender moderated these relationships. Retirees reporting earlier stressful work environments report higher levels of alcohol consumption during retirement compared to those retirees reporting less stressful earlier work environments. Gender moderated these relationships. The findings of this study suggest that there may be a residual effect of workplace stress during retirement.

  8. Quantitative estimation of cholinesterase-specific drug metabolism of carbamate inhibitors provided by the analysis of the area under the inhibition-time curve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Huimin; Xiao, Qiaoling; Tan, Wen; Zhan, Yiyi; Pistolozzi, Marco

    2017-09-10

    Several molecules containing carbamate groups are metabolized by cholinesterases. This metabolism includes a time-dependent catalytic step which temporary inhibits the enzymes. In this paper we demonstrate that the analysis of the area under the inhibition versus time curve (AUIC) can be used to obtain a quantitative estimation of the amount of carbamate metabolized by the enzyme. (R)-bambuterol monocarbamate and plasma butyrylcholinesterase were used as model carbamate-cholinesterase system. The inhibition of different concentrations of the enzyme was monitored for 5h upon incubation with different concentrations of carbamate and the resulting AUICs were analyzed. The amount of carbamate metabolized could be estimated with cholinesterases in a selected compartment in which the cholinesterase is confined (e.g. in vitro solutions, tissues or body fluids), either in vitro or in vivo. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Mixed drink increased carbohydrate oxidation but not performance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... improvement in 40 km time trial time between an isocaloric GP-only or a GP and fructose drink, and no differences in any of the measured variables other than exogenous carbohydrate oxidation at 90 minutes during the pre-time trial steady state ride. Keywords: multiple carbohydrate, cycling, endurance, glucose, fructose ...

  10. Selection of population controls for a Salmonella case-control study in the UK using a market research panel and web-survey provides time and resource savings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mook, P; Kanagarajah, S; Maguire, H; Adak, G K; Dabrera, G; Waldram, A; Freeman, R; Charlett, A; Oliver, I

    2016-04-01

    Timely recruitment of population controls in infectious disease outbreak investigations is challenging. We evaluated the timeliness and cost of using a market research panel as a sampling frame for recruiting controls in a case-control study during an outbreak of Salmonella Mikawasima in the UK in 2013. We deployed a web-survey by email to targeted members of a market research panel (panel controls) in parallel to the outbreak control team interviewing randomly selected public health staff by telephone and completing paper-based questionnaires (staff controls). Recruitment and completion of exposure history web-surveys for panel controls (n = 123) took 14 h compared to 15 days for staff controls (n = 82). The average staff-time cost per questionnaire for staff controls was £13·13 compared to an invoiced cost of £3·60 per panel control. Differences in the distribution of some exposures existed between these control groups but case-control studies using each group found that illness was associated with consumption of chicken outside of the home and chicken from local butchers. Recruiting market research panel controls offers time and resource savings. More rapid investigations would enable more prompt implementation of control measures. We recommend that this method of recruiting controls is considered in future investigations and assessed further to better understand strengths and limitations.

  11. Field and laboratory studies provide insights into the meaning of day-time activity in a subterranean rodent (Ctenomys aff. knighti, the tuco-tuco.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara M Tomotani

    Full Text Available South American subterranean rodents (Ctenomys aff. knighti, commonly known as tuco-tucos, display nocturnal, wheel-running behavior under light-dark (LD conditions, and free-running periods >24 h in constant darkness (DD. However, several reports in the field suggested that a substantial amount of activity occurs during daylight hours, leading us to question whether circadian entrainment in the laboratory accurately reflects behavior in natural conditions. We compared circadian patterns of locomotor activity in DD of animals previously entrained to full laboratory LD cycles (LD12:12 with those of animals that were trapped directly from the field. In both cases, activity onsets in DD immediately reflected the previous dark onset or sundown. Furthermore, freerunning periods upon release into DD were close to 24 h indicating aftereffects of prior entrainment, similarly in both conditions. No difference was detected in the phase of activity measured with and without access to a running wheel. However, when individuals were observed continuously during daylight hours in a semi-natural enclosure, they emerged above-ground on a daily basis. These day-time activities consisted of foraging and burrow maintenance, suggesting that the designation of this species as nocturnal might be inaccurate in the field. Our study of a solitary subterranean species suggests that the circadian clock is entrained similarly under field and laboratory conditions and that day-time activity expressed only in the field is required for foraging and may not be time-dictated by the circadian pacemaker.

  12. Responsibility for drinking water; Verantwortung fuer Trinkwasser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lein, Peter [Ingenieurbuero Dipl.-Ing. Peter Lein, Berlin (Germany)

    2008-03-15

    Planners of drinking water supply systems, implementing sanitary companies as well as building owners probably can be made liable, if the user of drinking water supply systems suffer health damages by drinking water hygienic problems. The germinating of the drinking water with legionella often is the consequence of a not professional start-up of a plant immediately after completion.

  13. Do alcohol use reasons and contexts differentiate adolescent high-intensity drinking? Data from U.S. high school seniors, 2005-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry-McElrath, Yvonne M; Stern, Stephanie A; Patrick, Megan E

    2017-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine associations between (a) self-reported reasons for and contexts of alcohol use and (b) high-intensity drinking (i.e., having 10+ drinks in a row in the past 2 weeks) among national samples of U.S. 12th grade students. Data were obtained from 16,902 students who reported any past 12-month alcohol use from nationally representative annual 12th grade student samples from 2005-2016. When asked about drinking behavior during the past 2 weeks, 72% reported consuming less than 5 drinks at most during 1 drinking occasion; 14% reported 5-9 drinks, 7% reported 10-14 drinks, and 7% reported 15+ drinks. Adolescent drinkers in all categories (good time" as the most prevalent reason for alcohol use, and "at a party" as the most prevalent context of alcohol use. However, high-intensity drinking was particularly likely among adolescents drinking for coping, compulsive use, and drug effect reasons, as well as those who enjoyed the taste. Having 15+ drinks (vs. 10-14 drinks) was particularly associated with compulsive use and enjoying the taste. The relative risk of any high-intensity drinking, and of higher levels of high-intensity drinking involvement, increased with the total number of reasons and contexts endorsed. Alcohol appears to serve a larger number of functions for high-intensity drinking adolescents than non-high-intensity drinking youth. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Safe drinking during cancer treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ency/patientinstructions/000060.htm Drinking water safely during cancer treatment To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. During and right after your cancer treatment, your body may not be able to protect ...

  15. Radiological investigation of drinking water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunz, E.

    1981-01-01

    An analysis is made of the report ''Radiological investigation of drinking water'' submitted by a working group of WHO to the Brussels meeting held between Nov 7 and 10, 1978. Annex II is emphasized of the WHO publication bearing the title ''The revision of WHO standards for drinking water''. It is shown that the draft of the revision does not basically differ from the revision introduced in Czechoslovakia and published in a revised standard CSN 83 0611 Drinking Water from 1978, including its harmonization with the Decree 59/72 Collect. of Laws on the protection of health from ionizing radiation, and from the standard CSN 83 0523 Radiometric analysis of drinking water. It is also shown that the text of the working group report contains some incorrect or unclear statements and views, which is explained by the misunderstanding of some ICRP recommendations. (H.S.)

  16. CDC Vital Signs: Binge Drinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... costs include health care expenses, crime, and lost productivity. Binge drinking cost federal, state, and local governments ... National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion , Division of Population Health , Alcohol and Public Health , ...

  17. Why is social network drinking associated with college students' alcohol use? Focus on psychological mediators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Allecia E; Carey, Kate B

    2018-06-04

    Level of drinking in the social network is strongly associated with college students' alcohol use. However, mechanisms through which networks are associated with personal drinking have been underexplored thus far. The present study examined theoretically derived constructs-sociability outcome expectancies, attitudes toward heavy drinking, self-efficacy for use of protective strategies, and descriptive norms-as potential mediators of the association between egocentric social network drinking and personal consumption. College students (N = 274) self-reported their social network's level of alcohol consumption, all mediators, drinks per week, and consequences at both baseline (Time 1) and a 1-month follow-up (Time 2). Autoregressive mediation models focused on the longitudinal associations between Time 1 network drinking and the Time 2 mediators and between the Time 1 mediators and the Time 2 outcomes. Consistent with hypotheses, Time 1 social network drinking was significantly associated with Time 2 drinks per week and consequences. Only attitudes significantly mediated social network associations with drinks per week and consequences, though the proportion of the total effects accounted for by attitudes was small. After accounting for the stability of constructs over time, social network drinking was generally un- or weakly related to sociability expectancies, self-efficacy, and descriptive norms. Results support reducing attitudes toward heavy drinking as a potential avenue for mitigating network effects, but also highlight the need to evaluate additional potential mechanisms of network effects. Intervention efforts that aim to address the social network have the potential to substantially reduce alcohol consumption, thereby enhancing the overall efficacy of alcohol risk-reduction interventions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Assessing the extent of altruism in the valuation of community drinking water quality improvements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Adamowicz, Wiktor; Dupont, Diane P.; Krupnick, Alan

    2013-10-01

    Improvements in publically provided goods and services, like community drinking water treatment, have values to people arising from their self-interest, but may as well have value from their altruistic concerns. The extent to which the value is altruistic versus self-interested is an important empirical issue for policy analysis because the benefits to improving drinking water quality may be larger than previously thought. We conducted an internet survey across Canada to identify both self-interested willingness-to-pay and altruistic willingness-to-pay obtained through hypothetical responses to a series of stated choice tasks and actual self-protection data against health risks from tap water. We use the information on self-protection to identify altruistic WTP. We find significant differences between self-interested and altruistic WTP: the latter can be three times greater than the former. Whether benefits of water protection are actually larger, however, depends on whether the altruism is paternalistic or nonpaternalistic.

  19. High Availability Applications for NOMADS at the NOAA Web Operations Center Aimed at Providing Reliable Real Time Access to Operational Model Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpert, J. C.; Rutledge, G.; Wang, J.; Freeman, P.; Kang, C. Y.

    2009-05-01

    The NOAA Operational Modeling Archive Distribution System (NOMADS) is now delivering high availability services as part of NOAA's official real time data dissemination at its Web Operations Center (WOC). The WOC is a web service used by all organizational units in NOAA and acts as a data repository where public information can be posted to a secure and scalable content server. A goal is to foster collaborations among the research and education communities, value added retailers, and public access for science and development efforts aimed at advancing modeling and GEO-related tasks. The services used to access the operational model data output are the Open-source Project for a Network Data Access Protocol (OPeNDAP), implemented with the Grid Analysis and Display System (GrADS) Data Server (GDS), and applications for slicing, dicing and area sub-setting the large matrix of real time model data holdings. This approach insures an efficient use of computer resources because users transmit/receive only the data necessary for their tasks including metadata. Data sets served in this way with a high availability server offer vast possibilities for the creation of new products for value added retailers and the scientific community. New applications to access data and observations for verification of gridded model output, and progress toward integration with access to conventional and non-conventional observations will be discussed. We will demonstrate how users can use NOMADS services to repackage area subsets either using repackaging of GRIB2 files, or values selected by ensemble component, (forecast) time, vertical levels, global horizontal location, and by variable, virtually a 6- Dimensional analysis services across the internet.

  20. A behavioral economic analysis of the effect of next-day responsibilities on drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Lindsey J; Murphy, James G; Dennhardt, Ashley A

    2014-12-01

    Approximately 37% of college students report heavy episodic drinking (5 or more drinks in an occasion for men and 4 or more for women) in the past month. This pattern of drinking is often associated with high blood alcohol levels, accidents, injuries, and negative social and academic outcomes. There is a need for novel theoretical approaches to guide prevention efforts. Behavioral economics emphasizes the role of contextual determinants, such as drink price and the presence and amount of alternative reinforcement as determinants of drinking levels and has received strong empirical support in basic laboratory research. This translational research study used a hypothetical behavioral economic measure to investigate the impact of a variety of next-day responsibilities on night-before drinking intentions in a sample of first-year college students (N = 80; 50% female) who reported recent heavy episodic drinking. Drinking estimates were significantly lower in all of the responsibility conditions relative to the no-responsibility condition; internships were associated with the greatest reduction (d(rm) = 1.72), and earlier class times were associated with greater reductions in drinking intentions (d(rm) range = 1.22-1.35) than later class times (d(rm) range = 0.83-1.00). These results suggest that increasing morning responsibilities should be further investigated as a potential strategy to reduce drinking in college students.

  1. Sports drink consumption and diet of children involved in organized sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlin, Dona L; Clarke, Shannon K; Day, Meghan; McKay, Heather A; Naylor, Patti-Jean

    2013-08-19

    Organized sport provides one option for children to be physically active. However, there is a paucity of information about the relationship between children's participation in organized sport and their diet, and specifically their sports drink consumption. Therefore, the relationship between sports participation in children and the consumption of sports drinks, sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) and other components of diet was examined. A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted using baseline data from the Action Schools! BC Dissemination study cohort (n = 1421; 9.90 (0.58) y; 736 girls, 685 boys). The differences between the dietary behaviours of children participating in organized sport (sport) versus those that did not participate (non-sport) was examined. A modified Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children (PAQ-C) was used to measure physical activity levels and participation in organized sport. A Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) and 24-hour dietary recall were used to assess eating behaviour and macronutrient intake (including protein, fat, and carbohydrate as well as sugar, fibre and total calories). Fruit, vegetable and beverage quantities were hand-tallied from the dietary recall. Fruit, vegetable and beverage frequency was assessed using the FFQ. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to analyse differences between groups and a chi-square test of association was use to determine if participation in sport was significantly associated with the proportion of children consuming sports drinks and SSBs, and with gender. Children involved in sport had a lower body mass index (BMI) and were more physically active than children in the non-sport group (p sports drinks and no difference in consumption of sports drink between sport and non-sport participants (p > .05) was observed. However, children involved in organized sport consumed more total calories, fat, fibre, fruit, vegetables and non-flavoured milk (p sport children. Children

  2. The Influence of Parental and Peer Drinking Behaviors on Underage Drinking and Driving by Young Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lening; Wieczorek, William F.; Welte, John W.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Studies have consistently found that parental and peer drinking behaviors significantly influence adolescent drinking behavior and that adolescent drinking has a significant effect on their drinking-and-driving behavior. Building upon these studies, the present article assesses whether parental and peer drinking behaviors have direct…

  3. An event- and network-level analysis of college students' maximum drinking day.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisel, Matthew K; DiBello, Angelo M; Balestrieri, Sara G; Ott, Miles Q; DiGuiseppi, Graham T; Clark, Melissa A; Barnett, Nancy P

    2018-04-01

    Heavy episodic drinking is common among college students and remains a serious public health issue. Previous event-level research among college students has examined behaviors and individual-level characteristics that drive consumption and related consequences but often ignores the social network of people with whom these heavy drinking episodes occur. The main aim of the current study was to investigate the network of social connections between drinkers on their heaviest drinking occasions. Sociocentric network methods were used to collect information from individuals in the first-year class (N=1342) at one university. Past-month drinkers (N=972) reported on the characteristics of their heaviest drinking occasion in the past month and indicated who else among their network connections was present during this occasion. Average max drinking day indegree, or the total number of times a participant was nominated as being present on another students' heaviest drinking occasion, was 2.50 (SD=2.05). Network autocorrelation models indicated that max drinking day indegree (e.g., popularity on heaviest drinking occassions) and peers' number of drinks on their own maximum drinking occasions were significantly associated with participant maximum number of drinks, after controlling for demographic variables, pregaming, and global network indegree (e.g., popularity in the entire first-year class). Being present at other peers' heaviest drinking occasions is associated with greater drinking quantities on one's own heaviest drinking occasion. These findings suggest the potential for interventions that target peer influences within close social networks of drinkers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. "One for the Road Then?" Communicative and Sociolinguistic Parameters of Social and Problem Drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, Howard; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Provides an initial review of social scientific research on the causes and effects of alcohol use and abuse. A framework is provided for exploring some of fundamental and everyday sociolinguistic and communicative dimensions of drinking, with attention to their implications for drinking and driving practice and anti-drunk-driving campaigns. (118…

  5. Pharmaceutical compounds in drinking water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikas Chander

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Pharmaceutical products and their wastes play a major role in the degradation of environment. These drugs have positive as well as negative consequences on different environmental components including biota in different ways. Many types of pharmaceutical substances have been detected with significant concentrations through various advanced instrumental techniques in surface water, subsurface water, ground water, domestic waste water, municipal waste water and industrial effluents. The central as well as state governments in India are providing supports by creating excise duty free zones to promote the pharmaceutical manufacturers for their production. As a result, pharmaceutical companies are producing different types of pharmaceutical products at large scale and also producing complex non-biodegradable toxic wastes byproducts and releasing untreated or partially treated wastes in the environment in absence of strong regulations. These waste pollutants are contaminating all types of drinking water sources. The present paper focuses on water quality pollution by pharmaceutical pollutants, their occurrences, nature, metabolites and their fate in the environment.

  6. Drink driving - Why risk the consequences?

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    In the second of the series of articles about alcohol, CERN is highlighting the dangers of drinking and driving. Have you ever driven after drinking alcohol? If you did, then you were more likely to be involved in an accident that could kill or injure yourself or other people. Why risk it? Any alcohol can impair driving ability. The risk of being in an accident rises significantly after alcohol is consumed: at the French legal limit of 0.5 grams of alcohol per litre of blood, a driver is twice as likely to have an accident as someone who has had no alcohol. At the Swiss legal limit of 0.8 g/l, a driver is five times more likely to be involved in an accident. Many EU countries share the French limit. Penalties for breaking the law vary depending on the severity of the offence, but they include disqualification, fines and imprisonment. Drink Drive Limits and Penalties in the European Union Country Limit g/l Prison Sentence (maximum) Austria 0,5 up to 3 months / 3 years (if fatal) Belgiu...

  7. The trouble with drink: why ideas matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Griffith

    2010-05-01

    This paper builds upon the work of previous authors who have explored the evolution of ideas in the alcohol arena. With revisions in the relevant sections of ICD and DSM forthcoming, such matters are of considerable contemporary importance. The focus here will be upon the history of the last 200 years. The main themes to be explored include the flux of ideas on what, over time, has counted as the trouble with drink, ideas on the cause of the problem and the impact of this thinking on public action. Medical authorities of the late Enlightenment period made the revolutionary suggestion that habitual drunkenness constituted a disease, rather than a vice. The thread of that idea can be traced to the present day, but with an alternative perception of drink itself or alcohol-related problems generally, as cause for concern, also having a lineage. There are several inferences to be drawn from this history: the need for vigilance lest disease formulations become stalking-horses for moralism and social control, the need to integrate awareness of alcohol dependence as a dimensional individual-level problem, with a public health understanding of the vastly amorphous and at least equally important universe of alcohol-related problems; the dangers lurking in scientific reductionism when the problems at issue truly require a multi-disciplinary analysis; and the need for global consensus rather than cultural imposition of ideas on what counts as the problem with drink.

  8. Uptake of uranium from drinking water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, N.P.; Wrenn, M.E.

    1987-01-01

    The gastrointestinal absorption (G.I.) of uranium in man from drinking water was determined by measuring urinary and fecal excretion of 234 U and 238 U in eight subjects. In order to establish their normal backgrounds of uranium intake and excretion the subjects collected 24 hour total output of both urine and feces for seven days prior to drinking water. During the next day they drank, at their normal rate of drinking water intake, 900 ml of water containing approximately 90 pCi 238 U and 90 pCi 234 U (274 μg U) and continued to collect their urine and feces for seven additional days. Utilizing one technique for analyzing data, the G.I. absorption of 234 U ranged from -0.07% to 1.88% with an average of 0.51% and G.I. absorption of 238 U ranged from -0.07% to 1.79% with an average of 0.50%. Employing another technique for analyzing the data, the G.I. absorption ranged from -0.04 to 1.46% with a mean of 0.53% for 234 U and from 0.03% to 1.43% with a mean of 0.52 for 238 U. The dietary intake of U was also estimated from measurements of urinary and fecal excretion of U in eight subjects prior to drinking water containing U. The estimated average dietary intake of U for these subjects is 3.30 +/- 0.65 or 4.22 +/- 0.65 μg/day. These averages are two to four times higher than the values reported in the literature for dietary intake

  9. Getting It Right the First Time: Defining Regionally Relevant Training Curricula and Provider Core Competencies for Point-of-Care Ultrasound Education on the African Continent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, Margaret; Landes, Megan; Hunchak, Cheryl; Paluku, Justin; Malemo Kalisya, Luc; Salmon, Christian; Muller, Mundenga Mutendi; Wachira, Benjamin; Mangan, James; Chhaganlal, Kajal; Kalanzi, Joseph; Azazh, Aklilu; Berman, Sara; Zied, El-Sayed; Lamprecht, Hein

    2017-02-01

    Significant evidence identifies point-of-care ultrasound (PoCUS) as an important diagnostic and therapeutic tool in resource-limited settings. Despite this evidence, local health care providers on the African continent continue to have limited access to and use of ultrasound, even in potentially high-impact fields such as obstetrics and trauma. Dedicated postgraduate emergency medicine residency training programs now exist in 8 countries, yet no current consensus exists in regard to core PoCUS competencies. The current practice of transferring resource-rich PoCUS curricula and delivery methods to resource-limited health systems fails to acknowledge the unique challenges, needs, and disease burdens of recipient systems. As emergency medicine leaders from 8 African countries, we introduce a practical algorithmic approach, based on the local epidemiology and resource constraints, to curriculum development and implementation. We describe an organizational structure composed of nexus learning centers for PoCUS learners and champions on the continent to keep credentialing rigorous and standardized. Finally, we put forth 5 key strategic considerations: to link training programs to hospital systems, to prioritize longitudinal learning models, to share resources to promote health equity, to maximize access, and to develop a regional consensus on training standards and credentialing. Copyright © 2016 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Vital Signs – Binge Drinking Among Women and Girls

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-01-08

    This podcast is based on the January 2013 CDC Vital Signs report, which presents information about binge drinking among women and girls. Binge drinking is defined for women as four or more drinks in a short period of time. It puts women and girls at greater risk for breast cancer, sexual assault, heart disease, and unintended pregnancy.  Created: 1/8/2013 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 1/8/2013.

  11. Availability of drinking water in US public school cafeterias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, Nancy E; Turner, Lindsey; Colabianchi, Natalie; Chaloupka, Frank J; Johnston, Lloyd D

    2014-09-01

    This study examined the availability of free drinking water during lunchtime in US public schools, as required by federal legislation beginning in the 2011-2012 school year. Data were collected by mail-back surveys in nationally representative samples of US public elementary, middle, and high schools from 2009-2010 to 2011-2012. Overall, 86.4%, 87.4%, and 89.4% of students attended elementary, middle, and high schools, respectively, that met the drinking water requirement. Most students attended schools with existing cafeteria drinking fountains and about one fourth attended schools with water dispensers. In middle and high schools, respondents were asked to indicate whether drinking fountains were clean, and whether they were aware of any water-quality problems at the school. The vast majority of middle and high school students (92.6% and 90.4%, respectively) attended schools where the respondent perceived drinking fountains to be clean or very clean. Approximately one in four middle and high school students attended a school where the survey respondent indicated that there were water-quality issues affecting drinking fountains. Although most schools have implemented the requirement to provide free drinking water at lunchtime, additional work is needed to promote implementation at all schools. School nutrition staff at the district and school levels can play an important role in ensuring that schools implement the drinking water requirement, as well as promote education and behavior-change strategies to increase student consumption of water at school. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Social anxiety and drinking game participation among university students: the moderating role of drinking to cope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Ellen J; George, Amanda M; Brown, Patricia M

    2016-11-01

    Few studies have examined the relationship of social anxiety with drinking game participation. Drinking games represent a popular form of drinking in university settings. Due to their structure, games may appeal to socially anxious drinkers, particularly among those seeking to fit in or cope with the social setting. To examine the relationship of social anxiety with frequency of drinking game participation among a university undergraduate sample and to investigate if drinking motives moderate this association. A total of 227 undergraduate students aged 18-24 years (73% female) who had consumed alcohol in the prior year were included in the current investigation. Hierarchical regression examined the influences of social anxiety and drinking motives on frequency of drinking game participation, as well the interactions of social anxiety with drinking for coping motives and conformity motives. Social anxiety failed to emerge as a significant predictor of frequency of drinking game participation. However, drinking to cope moderated the relationship of social anxiety with frequency of drinking game participation. Socially anxious students who drank to cope were more likely to participate in drinking games on occasions when they consumed alcohol than those who did not endorse this drinking motive. Results demonstrated the influence of drinking to cope in the relationship of social anxiety with frequency of drinking game participation. Future work should examine the relationship with other indicators of drinking game activity. Intervention efforts addressing social anxiety and drinking should consider motives for drinking, as well as drinking patterns.

  13. Caffeinated energy drinks improve volleyball performance in elite female players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-López, Alberto; Salinero, Juan José; Abian-Vicen, Javier; Valadés, David; Lara, Beatriz; Hernandez, Cesar; Areces, Francisco; González, Cristina; Del Coso, Juan

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this study is to determine the effects of a caffeine-containing energy drink on female volleyball players' performance. Thirteen elite female volleyball players ingested 3 mg·kg of caffeine with an energy drink or the same drink without caffeine (placebo drink) in a double-blind and randomized study. Then, participants performed the following: standing spike, jumping spike, spike jump, blocking jump, squat jump, countermovement jump, manual dynamometry, and the agility t-test. A simulated volleyball game was played, videotaped, and notated afterward. In comparison to the placebo drink, the ingestion of the caffeinated energy drink increased the ball velocity in the standing spike (19.2 ± 2.1 vs 19.7 ± 1.9 m·s, P = 0.023) and in the jumping spike (17.9 ± 2.2 vs 18.8 ± 2.2 m·s, P = 0.038) and the jump height in the squat jump (28.1 ± 3.2 vs 29.4 ± 3.6 cm, P = 0.028), countermovement jump (32.0 ± 4.6 vs 33.1 ± 4.5 cm, P = 0.018), spike jump (43.3 ± 4.7 vs 44.4 ± 5.0 cm, P = 0.025), and block jump (35.2 ± 5.1 vs 36.1 ± 5.1 cm, P = 0.044). Furthermore, the caffeinated energy drink decreased the time needed to complete the agility t-test (11.1 ± 0.5 vs 10.9 ± 0.3 s, P = 0.036). During the game, the volleyball actions categorized as successful were more frequent with the caffeinated energy drink (34% ± 9% vs 45% ± 9%, P volleyball players. Increased physical performance led to improved accuracy during an actual volleyball match.

  14. The effect of drinking water contaminated with perfluoroalkyl substances on a 10-year longitudinal trend of plasma levels in an elderly Uppsala cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubleski, Jordan; Salihovic, Samira; Lind, P Monica; Lind, Lars; Dunder, Linda; McCleaf, Philip; Eurén, Karin; Ahrens, Lutz; Svartengren, Magnus; van Bavel, Bert; Kärrman, Anna

    2017-11-01

    In 2012, drinking water contaminated with per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), foremost perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) and perfluorohexanesulfonic acid (PFHxS) at levels over 20ng/L and 40ng/L, respectively, was confirmed in Uppsala, Sweden. We assessed how a longitudinally sampled cohort's temporal trend in PFAS plasma concentration was influenced by their residential location and determined the plausible association or disparity between the PFASs detected in the drinking water and the trend in the study cohort. The Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS) cohort provided plasma samples three times from 2001 to 2014. Individuals maintaining the same zip code throughout the study (n = 399) were divided into a reference (no known PFAS exposure), low, intermediate and high exposure area depending on the proportion of contaminated drinking water received. Eight PFASs detected in the majority (75%) of the cohort's plasma samples were evaluated for significant changes in temporal PFAS concentrations using a random effects (mixed) model. PFHxS plasma concentrations continued to significantly increase in individuals living in areas receiving the largest percentage of contaminated drinking water (p water received. The distribution of contaminated drinking water had a direct effect on the trend in PFHxS plasma levels among the different exposure groups, resulting in increased concentrations over time, especially in the intermediate and high exposure areas. PFOS and the remaining PFASs did not show the same relationship, suggesting other sources of exposure influenced these PFAS plasma trends. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of workplace generalized and sexual harassment on abusive drinking among first year male and female college students: Does prior drinking experience matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rospenda, Kathleen M.; Fujishiro, Kaori; McGinley, Meredith; Wolff, Jennifer M.; Richman, Judith A.

    2017-01-01

    Background Workplace harassment, a known risk factor for adult drinking, is understudied in college samples, but may help explain observed gender differences in drinking patterns. Objective We examine effects of sexual and generalized workplace harassment on changes in drinking behavior over the first semesters of college, and the extent to which these effects differ based on prematriculation drinking for men and women students. Method Data derive from two waves of a longitudinal study of eight Midwestern colleges and universities. Data were collected from 2080 employed students via a Web-based survey assessing sexual and generalized workplace harassment, stressful life events, drinking to intoxication, and binge drinking prior to freshman year (fall 2011) and approximately one year later (summer to fall 2012). At baseline, lifetime drinking status, frequency of alcohol consumption, and demographics were also assessed. Results Linear mixed modeling indicated that employed women students who were frequent drinkers prematriculation were at risk for high levels of drinking associated with workplace harassment, while men who were non-drinkers were most at risk of increasing problem drinking over time when exposed to workplace harassment. Conclusions Alcohol use prevention efforts directed towards employed students are needed both prior to and during college, to instruct students how to identify workplace harassment and cope in healthier ways with stressful workplace experiences. These efforts might be particularly useful in stemming problematic drinking among women who drink frequently prior to college, and preventing men who are non-drinkers upon college entry from initiating problematic drinking during subsequent enrollment years. PMID:28426358

  16. Impact of new healthcare legislation and price policy on healthcare services provider at the time of financial crisis. A 10 years study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivona Malovecka

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring, calculation and assessment of healthcare services prosperity in the community pharmacy with the help of financial analysis indicators for the years 2003-2012, using financial statements was conducted, with respect to profitability, debt, liquidity, working capital, and efficiency parameters. These ratios reflect various changes that hold between years 2003 and 2012. Under the time of financial crisis, recession and serious socio-economic changes the profitability parameter Gross Profit ranged from 2003-2011 = 16.12-22.79% (average = 19.20%; mean = 19.78%; σ = 2.41, but in 2012 decreased on 14.35%. Net Profit ranged 2003-2011 = 10.96-18.3% (average = 14.62%; mean = 16.62%; σ = 4.92, while in 2012 reached only 2.29%. Debt ratio ranged from 2003-2012= 2.33-4.81 (average = 3.44; mean = 3.07; σ = 0.82. Liquidity parameters Current Ratio spread between 2003-2012 = 1.13-1.71 (average = 1.43; mean = 1.46; σ = 0.15 and Quick Ratio spread between 2003-2012 = 0.72-1.27 (average = 1.07; mean = 1.09; σ = 0.15. Working Capital Ratio ranged from 2003-2012 = 2.66-12.94 (average = 9.58; mean = 10.06; σ = 3.1 and efficiency ratios were measured either. All changes that have taken place in the society had an impact on community pharmacy finance by worsening its profitability, liquidity, working capital and some of efficiency parameters. Therefore the stability of community pharmacy may be threatened and may affect its future performance.http://dx.doi.org/10.7175/fe.v16i1.1040

  17. Electric Substations, Electric substation locations provided to us from Kansas City Power and Light and City of Gardner only at this time. AIMS is working on getting other providers in area. Data is limited to CUE (Collaborative Utility Exchange) Participants and subcontracto, Published in 2004, Johnson County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Electric Substations dataset current as of 2004. Electric substation locations provided to us from Kansas City Power and Light and City of Gardner only at this time....

  18. Changing Drinking Styles in Denmark and Finland. Fragmentation of Male and Female Drinking Among Young Adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demant, Jakob Johan; Torronen, Jukka

    2011-01-01

    A traditional heavy intoxication-oriented drinking style, “heroic drinking,” is a central drinking practice in Denmark and Finland, especially among men. However, it seems that another drinking style leading to intoxication, “playful drinking,” has become more prevalent in Denmark as well......, especially among men. However, it seems that another drinking style leading to intoxication, "playful drinking", has become more prevalent in Denmark as well as in Finland. Playful drinking is characterized by self-presentations in diverse forms of game situations where you need to play with different...... and Finland by analyzing how they discuss these two drinking styles in focus groups (N = 16).Read More: http://informahealthcare.com/doi/abs/10.3109/10826084.2011.569965 A traditional heavy intoxication-oriented drinking style, "heroic drinking", is a central drinking practice in Denmark and Finland...

  19. Perceived peer drinking norms and responsible drinking in UK university settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Eric; Jones, Andrew; Christiansen, Paul; Field, Matt

    2014-09-01

    Heavy drinking is common among students at UK universities. US students overestimate how much their peers drink and correcting this through the use of social norm messages may promote responsible drinking. We tested whether there is an association between perceived campus drinking norms and usual drinking behavior in UK university students and whether norm messages about responsible drinking correct normative misperceptions and increase students' intentions to drink responsibly. 1,020 UK university students took part in an online study. Participants were exposed to one of five message types: a descriptive norm, an injunctive norm, a descriptive and injunctive norm, or one of two control messages. Message credibility was assessed. Afterwards participants completed measures of intentions to drink responsibly and we measured usual drinking habits and perceptions of peer drinking. Perceptions of peer drinking were associated modestly with usual drinking behavior, whereby participants who believed other students drank responsibly also drank responsibly. Norm messages changed normative perceptions, but not in the target population of participants who underestimated responsible drinking in their peers at baseline. Norm messages did not increase intentions to drink responsibly and although based on accurate data, norm messages were not seen as credible. In this UK based study, although perceived social norms about peer drinking were associated with individual differences in drinking habits, campus wide norm messages about responsible drinking did not affect students' intentions to drink more responsibly. More research is required to determine if this approach can be applied to UK settings.

  20. The relationship between group size, intoxication and continuing to drink after bar attendance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Mark B; Clapp, John D; Martell, Brandi; Hidalgo-Sotelo, Alexandra

    2013-11-01

    The present study was undertaken to explore multilevel determinants of planning to continue to drink alcohol after leaving public drinking events. We assessed whether individual-level factors, group-related factors, or event-level bar characteristics were associated with post-bar drinking. We recruited a total of 642 participants from 30 participating bars in urban Southern California. Groups who arrived to patron a bar were interviewed upon their entrance and exit. Given data nesting, we employed a multilevel modeling approach to data analysis. More than one-third (40%) of our sample reported the intention to continue drinking as they exited the bar. Results of our multilevel model indicated eight individual-level variables significantly associated with intending to continue to drink. Time of night moderated the relationship between BrAC change and intentions to continue to drink. Although none of the group factors were significant in our model, a significant cross-level interaction between BrAC change and number of group members indicated the effect of intoxication on planning to continue to drink increases as group members increase. At the bar level, the presence of temporary bars and server offers of non-alcoholic drinks significantly decreased intentions to continue to drink. Given the large percentage of participants who reported the intention to continue drinking after exiting a bar, this study draws attention to the fact that field studies of drinking behavior may assess drinking mid-event rather than at the end of a drinking event. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Current drinking and health-risk behaviors among male high school students in central Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pichainarong Natchaporn

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alcohol drinking is frequently related to behavioral problems, which lead to a number of negative consequences. This study was to evaluate the characteristics of male high school students who drink, the drinking patterns among them, and the associations between current drinking and other health risk behaviors which focused on personal safety, violence-related behaviors, suicide and sexual behaviors. Method A cross-sectional study was conducted to explore current alcohol drinking and health-risk behaviors among male high school students in central Thailand. Five thousand one hundred and eighty four male students were classified into 2 groups according to drinking in the previous 30 days (yes = 631, no = 4,553. Data were collected by self-administered, anonymous questionnaire which consisted of 3 parts: socio-demographic factors, health-risk behaviors and alcohol drinking behavior during the past year from December 2007 to February 2008. Results The results showed that the percent of current drinking was 12.17. Most of them were 15-17 years (50.21%. Socio-demographic factors such as age, educational level, residence, cohabitants, grade point average (GPA, having a part time job and having family members with alcohol/drug problems were significantly associated with alcohol drinking (p Conclusions An increased risk of health-risk behaviors, including driving vehicles after drinking, violence-related behaviors, sad feelings and attempted suicide, and sexual behaviors was higher among drinking students that led to significant health problems. Effective intervention strategies (such as a campaign mentioning the adverse health effects and social consequences to the risk groups, and encouraging parental and community efforts to prevent drinking among adolescents should be implemented to prevent underage drinking and adverse consequences.

  2. Sexual identity differences in high-intensity binge drinking: findings from a US national sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish, Jessica N; Hughes, Tonda L; Russell, Stephen T

    2018-04-01

    To estimate sexual identity differences in high-intensity binge drinking. Cross-sectional US adult health survey from 2014 and 2015. US adults aged 18 and older (n = 215 684; n = 203 562 heterosexual, n = 2784 lesbian/gay, n = 2892 bisexual, n = 686 'other' and n = 1947 don't know/unsure). Self-reported past 30-day standard binge and high-intensity binge drinking. Standard binge drinking cut-off values were 4+/5+ drinks for women and men, respectively. High-intensity binge drinking was measured as two and three times the standard level (8+ and 12+ drinks for women and 10+ and 15+ drinks for men). Lesbian and bisexual women were more likely than heterosexual women to report consuming 4+ drinks (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] =1.57, confidence interval [CI] = 1.18, 2.09 and aOR = 1.83, CI = 1.45, 2.30 for lesbian and bisexual women, respectively); 8+ drinks (aOR = 3.86, CI = 2.39, 6.24, aOR = 2.07, CI = 1.39, 3.07); and 12+ drinks (aOR = 3.81, CI = 1.77, 8.19, aOR = 2.54, CI = 1.25, 5.14) on a single occasion in the past 30 days. Generally, gay and bisexual men were no more likely than heterosexual men to report standard or high-intensity binge drinking. However, bisexual men were more likely than heterosexual men to consume 15+ drinks (aOR = 1.76, 95% CI = 1.01, 3.06). Rates of standard and high-intensity binge drinking were similar between heterosexual and unsure men and women. Men and women who indicated 'other' sexual identities were generally less likely than heterosexuals to report standard and high-intensity binge drinking, with the exception of 4+ drinks for women and 10+ drinks for men. In the United States, sexual minority women are more likely, and sexual minority men are equally likely, to drink at standard and high-intensity binge drinking levels as their heterosexual counterparts. © 2017 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  3. Hot Topics/New Initiatives | Drinking Water in New England ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-06

    Information on Drinking Water in New England. Major Topics covered include: Conservation, Private Wells, Preventing Contamination, Drinking Water Sources, Consumer Confidence Reports, and Drinking Water Awards.

  4. Adolescent drinking, social identity, and parenting for safety: Perspectives from Australian adolescents and parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berends, Lynda; Jones, Sandra C; Andrews, Kelly

    2016-03-01

    We explored young people and parents' views on adolescent drinking and safety in the locations where drinking may occur. Focus groups with adolescents and parents showed that many believed adolescent drinking and drunkenness is normative. Younger adolescents had more negative views of adolescent drinkers than their older peers. Adolescent drinking occurred in private settings and parents made decisions about allowing their adolescent children to attend social events based on the level of safety attributed to the location. If adolescent drinking was likely then home was the preferred location as it provided scope for risk minimisation. Positive portrayals of non-drinking adolescents and information to assist parents' decision-making are needed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Self-governance, control and loss of control amongst drink-drivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Järvinen, Margaretha; Fynbo, Lars

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyses driving under the influence of alcohol and drugs (DUI) from a governmentality perspective. The paper is based on qualitative interviews with 25 persons, convicted of drink-driving and at the time of the interviews participating in Alcohol/Traffic courses in Denmark (mandatory...... feelings of control loss; and occasional drinkers or drug users with limited experience of drink-driving. The paper analyses drink-driving as a form of “failed self-governance” and shows how some of the convicted drink-drivers negotiate quilt and blame by either justifying their DUI (they were “in full...... courses for DUI-convicted people). Four drink-driver profiles are identified: regular heavy drinkers who regard themselves as addicted; regular drinkers who claim they are in control of both their alcohol use and their drink-driving; occasional multi-substance users who associate their DUI with strong...

  6. Do women give the same information on binge drinking during pregnancy when asked repeatedly?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strandberg-Larsen, Katrine; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Olsen, Jørn

    2006-01-01

    in question. As the report of binge drinking was highest in the first of two interviews referring to the same period, as well as women who participated in the first interview in pregnancy week 12 or earlier reported more binge drinking compared to women who participated in the interview later in pregnancy......OBJECTIVE: To study if pregnant women give the same answers to questions on frequency and timing of binge drinking when asked more than once during and after pregnancy. DESIGN: Cohort study.Setting:The Danish National Birth Cohort. SUBJECTS: The study is based on 76 307 pregnant women with repeated...... information on binge drinking during the early part of pregnancy and 8933 pregnant women with information on binge drinking during pregnancy weeks 30-36, obtained while pregnant and 6 months after delivery. RESULTS: More women reported binge drinking, if the interview took place close to the period...

  7. Surveillance for waterborne disease outbreaks associated with drinking water---United States, 2007--2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunkard, Joan M; Ailes, Elizabeth; Roberts, Virginia A; Hill, Vincent; Hilborn, Elizabeth D; Craun, Gunther F; Rajasingham, Anu; Kahler, Amy; Garrison, Laurel; Hicks, Lauri; Carpenter, Joe; Wade, Timothy J; Beach, Michael J; Yoder Msw, Jonathan S

    2011-09-23

    or inadequately treated ground water, indicating that contamination of ground water remains a public health problem. The majority of these outbreaks occurred in public water systems that are subject to EPA's new Ground Water Rule (GWR), which requires the majority of community water systems to complete initial sanitary surveys by 2012. The GWR focuses on identification of deficiencies, protection of wells and springs from contamination, and providing disinfection when necessary to protect against bacterial and viral agents. In addition, several drinking water--associated outbreaks that were related to contaminated ground water appeared to occur in systems that were potentially under the influence of surface water. Future efforts to collect data systematically on contributing factors associated with drinking water outbreaks and deficiencies, including identification of ground water under the direct influence of surface water and the criteria used for their classification, would be useful to better assess risks associated with ground water. During 2007--2008, Legionella was the most frequently reported etiology among drinking water--associated outbreaks, following the pattern observed since it was first included in WBDOSS in 2001. However, six (50%) of the 12 drinking water--associated Legionella outbreaks were reported from one state, highlighting the substantial variance in outbreak detection and reporting across states and territories. The addition of published and CDC-investigated legionellosis outbreaks to the WBDOSS database clarifies that Legionella is not a new public health issue. During 2009, Legionella was added to EPA's Contaminant Candidate List for the first time. CDC and EPA use WBDOSS surveillance data to identify the types of etiologic agents, deficiencies, water systems, and sources associated with waterborne disease outbreaks and to evaluate the adequacy of current technologies and practices for providing safe drinking water. Surveillance data also

  8. Interaction Of Brand And Taste In The Liking Of Cola Drinks By School Children

    OpenAIRE

    Bartneck, Christoph; Bartneck, Hanna

    2017-01-01

    Sugar sweetened soft drinks play an important role in obesity and world wide brands, such as Coca Cola, spend considerable resources on branding and advertising. As a result, their soft drinks tend to be up to 2.5 times more expensive than store brand cola drinks. We investigated the effect that the taste and the label has on the liking of cola drinks by school children. Taste did not have any significant effect and there was a significant interaction effect between the label and the taste. T...

  9. Erosive potential of soft drinks on human enamel: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin-Lin Wang

    2014-11-01

    Conclusion: All tested soft drinks were found to be erosive. Soft drinks with high calcium contents have significantly lower erosive potential. Low pH value and high citrate content may cause more surface enamel loss. As the erosive time increased, the titratable acidity to pH 7 may be a predictor of the erosive potential for acidic soft drinks. The erosive potential of the soft drinks may be predicted based on the types of acid content, pH value, titratable acidity, and ion concentration.

  10. Developing a social practice‐based typology of British drinking culture in 2009–2011: implications for alcohol policy analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ally, Abdallah K.; Lovatt, Melanie; Meier, Petra S.; Brennan, Alan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background and aims The concept of national drinking culture is well established in research and policy debate, but rarely features in contemporary alcohol policy analysis. We aim to demonstrate the value of the alternative concept of social practices for quantitatively operationalizing drinking culture. We discuss how a practice perspective addresses limitations in existing analytical approaches to health‐related behaviour before demonstrating its empirical application by constructing a statistical typology of British drinking occasions. Design Cross‐sectional latent class analysis of drinking occasions derived from retrospective 1‐week drinking diaries obtained from quota samples of a market research panel. Occasions are periods of drinking with no more than 2 hours between drinks. Setting Great Britain, 2009–11. Cases A total of 187 878 occasions nested within 60 215 nationally representative adults (aged 18 + years). Measurements Beverage type and quantity per occasion; location, company and gender composition of company; motivation and reason for occasion; day, start‐time and duration of occasion; and age, sex and social grade. Findings Eight occasion types are derived based primarily on parsimony considerations rather than model fit statistics. These are mixed location heavy drinking (10.4% of occasions), heavy drinking at home with a partner (9.4%), going out with friends (11.1%), get‐together at someone's house (14.4%), going out for a meal (8.6%), drinking at home alone (13.6%), light drinking at home with family (12.8%) and light drinking at home with a partner (19.6%). Conclusions An empirical model of drinking culture, comprising a typology of drinking practices, reveals the dominance of moderate drinking practices in Great Britain. The model demonstrates the potential for a practice perspective to be used in evaluation of how and why drinking cultures change in response to public health interventions. PMID:27095617

  11. Developing a social practice-based typology of British drinking culture in 2009-2011: implications for alcohol policy analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ally, Abdallah K; Lovatt, Melanie; Meier, Petra S; Brennan, Alan; Holmes, John

    2016-09-01

    The concept of national drinking culture is well established in research and policy debate, but rarely features in contemporary alcohol policy analysis. We aim to demonstrate the value of the alternative concept of social practices for quantitatively operationalizing drinking culture. We discuss how a practice perspective addresses limitations in existing analytical approaches to health-related behaviour before demonstrating its empirical application by constructing a statistical typology of British drinking occasions. Cross-sectional latent class analysis of drinking occasions derived from retrospective 1-week drinking diaries obtained from quota samples of a market research panel. Occasions are periods of drinking with no more than 2 hours between drinks. Great Britain, 2009-11. A total of 187 878 occasions nested within 60 215 nationally representative adults (aged 18 + years). Beverage type and quantity per occasion; location, company and gender composition of company; motivation and reason for occasion; day, start-time and duration of occasion; and age, sex and social grade. Eight occasion types are derived based primarily on parsimony considerations rather than model fit statistics. These are mixed location heavy drinking (10.4% of occasions), heavy drinking at home with a partner (9.4%), going out with friends (11.1%), get-together at someone's house (14.4%), going out for a meal (8.6%), drinking at home alone (13.6%), light drinking at home with family (12.8%) and light drinking at home with a partner (19.6%). An empirical model of drinking culture, comprising a typology of drinking practices, reveals the dominance of moderate drinking practices in Great Britain. The model demonstrates the potential for a practice perspective to be used in evaluation of how and why drinking cultures change in response to public health interventions. © 2016 The Authors. Addiction published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society for the Study of Addiction.

  12. Disinfection of drinking water by ultraviolet light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    It is no longer mandatory that a given residue of chlorine is present in drinking water and this has led to interest in the use of ultraviolet radiation for disinfection of water in large public waterworks. After a brief discussion of the effect of ultraviolet radiation related to wavelength, the most usual type of irradiation equipment is briefly described. Practioal considerations regarding the installation, such as attenuation of the radiation due to water quality and deposits are presented. The requirements as to dose and residence time are also discussed and finally it is pointed out that hydraulic imperfections can reduce the effectiveness drastically. (JIW)Ψ

  13. Dose from drinking water Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maekelaeinen, Ilona; Salonen, Laina; Huikuri, Pia; Arvela, Hannu

    1999-01-01

    The dose from drinking water originates almost totally from naturally occurring radionuclides in the uranium-238 series, the most important nuclide being radon-222. Second comes lead-210, and third polonium-210. The mean age-group-weighted dose received by ingestion of drinking water is 0.14 mSv per year. More than half of the total cumulative dose of 750 manSv is received by the users of private wells, forming 13% of the population. The most exposed group comprises the users of wells drilled in bedrock, who receive 320 manSv while comprising only 4% of the population. The calculated number of annual cancer incidences due to drinking water is very sensitive to the dose-conversion factors of ingested radon used, as well as to the estimated lung cancer incidences caused by radon released from water into indoor air. (au)

  14. Gardening Provides Valuable Time to Talk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Margaret

    2016-01-01

    Like many schools, Hornsea Community Primary School, which is situated in a rural coastal town in East Yorkshire, has a long wish list of both curriculum and pastoral ideals. A gardening club was started at the school with the intention of transforming two small areas of the school grounds that were very visible to the school community and to…

  15. Energy Drinks and Binge Drinking Predict College Students' Sleep Quantity, Quality, and Tiredness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Megan E; Griffin, Jamie; Huntley, Edward D; Maggs, Jennifer L

    2018-01-01

    This study examines whether energy drink use and binge drinking predict sleep quantity, sleep quality, and next-day tiredness among college students. Web-based daily data on substance use and sleep were collected across four semesters in 2009 and 2010 from 667 individuals for up to 56 days each, yielding information on 25,616 person-days. Controlling for average levels of energy drink use and binge drinking (i.e., 4+ drinks for women, 5+ drinks for men), on days when students consumed energy drinks, they reported lower sleep quantity and quality that night, and greater next-day tiredness, compared to days they did not use energy drinks. Similarly, on days when students binge drank, they reported lower sleep quantity and quality that night, and greater next-day tiredness, compared to days they did not binge drink. There was no significant interaction effect between binge drinking and energy drink use on the outcomes.

  16. Alcohol marketing receptivity, marketing-specific cognitions, and underage binge drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Auden C; Stoolmiller, Mike; Tanski, Susanne E; Engels, Rutger C M E; Sargent, James D

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to alcohol marketing is prevalent and is associated with both initiation and progression of alcohol use in underage youth. The mechanism of influence is not well understood, however. This study tests a model that proposes alcohol-specific cognitions as mediators of the relation between alcohol marketing and problematic drinking among experimental underage drinkers. This study describes a cross-sectional analysis of 1,734 U.S. 15- to 20-year-old underage drinkers, recruited for a national study of media and substance use. Subjects were queried about a number of alcohol marketing variables including TV time, Internet time, favorite alcohol ad, ownership of alcohol-branded merchandise (ABM), and exposure to alcohol brands in movies. The relation between these exposures and current (30-day) binge drinking was assessed, as were proposed mediators of this relation, including marketing-specific cognitions (drinker identity and favorite brand to drink), favorable alcohol expectancies, and alcohol norms. Paths were tested in a structural equation model that controlled for sociodemographics, personality, and peer drinking. Almost one-third of this sample of ever drinkers had engaged in 30-day binge drinking. Correlations between mediators were all statistically significant (range 0.16 to 0.47), and all were significantly associated with binge drinking. Statistically significant mediation was found for the association between ABM ownership and binge drinking through both drinker identity and having a favorite brand to drink, which also mediated the path between movie brand exposure and binge drinking. Peer drinking and sensation seeking were associated with binge drinking in paths through all mediators. Associations between alcohol marketing and binge drinking were mediated through marketing-specific cognitions that assess drinker identity and brand allegiance, cognitions that marketers aim to cultivate in the consumer. Copyright © 2012 by the Research Society on

  17. Types of drinkers and drinking settings: an application of a mathematical model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mubayi, Anuj; Greenwood, Priscilla; Wang, Xiaohong; Castillo-Chávez, Carlos; Gorman, Dennis M; Gruenewald, Paul; Saltz, Robert F

    2011-04-01

    US college drinking data and a simple population model of alcohol consumption are used to explore the impact of social and contextual parameters on the distribution of light, moderate and heavy drinkers. Light drinkers become moderate drinkers under social influence, moderate drinkers may change environments and become heavy drinkers. We estimate the drinking reproduction number, R(d) , the average number of individual transitions from light to moderate drinking that result from the introduction of a moderate drinker in a population of light drinkers. Ways of assessing and ranking progression of drinking risks and data-driven definitions of high- and low-risk drinking environments are introduced. Uncertainty and sensitivity analyses, via a novel statistical approach, are conducted to assess R(d) variability and to analyze the role of context on drinking dynamics. Our estimates show R(d) well above the critical value of 1. R(d) estimates correlate positively with the proportion of time spent by moderate drinkers in high-risk drinking environments. R(d) is most sensitive to variations in local social mixing contact rates within low-risk environments. The parameterized model with college data suggests that high residence times of moderate drinkers in low-risk environments maintain heavy drinking. With regard to alcohol consumption in US college students, drinking places, the connectivity (traffic) between drinking venues and the strength of socialization in local environments are important determinants in transitions between light, moderate and heavy drinking as well as in long-term prediction of the drinking dynamics. © 2010 The Authors, Addiction © 2010 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  18. The associations among prior drinking consequences, subjective evaluations, and subsequent alcohol outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaso, Michelle J; Park, Aesoon; Kim, Jueun; Gellis, Les A; Kwon, Hoin; Maisto, Stephen A

    2016-05-01

    Although the many positive and negative psychosocial consequences of alcohol use are well documented, evidence of the association between prior drinking consequences and subsequent alcohol-related outcomes is mixed. Social learning theory highlights that cognitive appraisals of prior drinking consequences play a crucial intermediate role in the relation of prior drinking consequences with subsequent alcohol-related outcomes. This prospective study was designed to test the mediating effects of subjective evaluations (i.e., perceived valence and controllability) in the association of prior drinking consequences with change in binge drinking and drinking consequences over time. Participants were 171 college students (69% female, 74% White, M age = 18.95 years, SD = 1.35) who completed 2 online surveys, with an average interval of 68 days (SD = 10.22) between assessments. Path analyses of the data did not support mediational effects of perceived valence or controllability of prior drinking consequences on subsequent alcohol-related outcomes. Specifically, greater frequency of negative consequences was associated with lower perceived valence and controllability, and greater frequency of positive consequences was associated with lower perceived controllability of the experienced consequences. However, perceptions of valence and controllability were not in turn associated with subsequent binge drinking and drinking consequences. Instead, greater frequency of positive consequences was directly associated with greater subsequent frequency of binge drinking. Findings highlight the importance of prior positive consequences in the escalation of binge drinking over a short period of time, although this relation may not be accounted for by perceptions of valence and controllability of the prior drinking consequences. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. [Drinking water quality and safety].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Gutiérrez, Anna; Miralles, Maria Josepa; Corbella, Irene; García, Soledad; Navarro, Sonia; Llebaria, Xavier

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of drinking water legislation is to guarantee the quality and safety of water intended for human consumption. In the European Union, Directive 98/83/EC updated the essential and binding quality criteria and standards, incorporated into Spanish national legislation by Royal Decree 140/2003. This article reviews the main characteristics of the aforementioned drinking water legislation and its impact on the improvement of water quality against empirical data from Catalonia. Analytical data reported in the Spanish national information system (SINAC) indicate that water quality in Catalonia has improved in recent years (from 88% of analytical reports in 2004 finding drinking water to be suitable for human consumption, compared to 95% in 2014). The improvement is fundamentally attributed to parameters concerning the organoleptic characteristics of water and parameters related to the monitoring of the drinking water treatment process. Two management experiences concerning compliance with quality standards for trihalomethanes and lead in Barcelona's water supply are also discussed. Finally, this paper presents some challenges that, in the opinion of the authors, still need to be incorporated into drinking water legislation. It is necessary to update Annex I of Directive 98/83/EC to integrate current scientific knowledge, as well as to improve consumer access to water quality data. Furthermore, a need to define common criteria for some non-resolved topics, such as products and materials in contact with drinking water and domestic conditioning equipment, has also been identified. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Detection of microbial contaminations in drinking water using ATP measurements – evaluating potential for online monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vang, Óluva Karin; Corfitzen, Charlotte B.; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen

    2011-01-01

    There is an increasing call for fast and reliable methods for continuous monitoring of microbial drinking water quality in order to protect public health. The potential for Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) measurements as a real-time analysis for continuous monitoring of microbial drinking water...... quality was investigated through simulation of two contamination scenarios, i.e. drinking water contaminated with waste water and surface water at various concentrations. With ATP measurements it was possible to detect waste water diluted 1000-10,000 times in drinking water depending on sensitivity...... of reagent kit. Surface water diluted 100-1000 times was detected in drinking water with ATP measurements. ATP has the potential as an early warning tool, especially in the period when the contamination concentration is high. 2011 © American Water Works Association AWWA WQTC Conference Proceedings All Rights...

  1. 21 CFR 1240.80 - General requirements for water for drinking and culinary purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... culinary purposes. 1240.80 Section 1240.80 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... requirements for water for drinking and culinary purposes. Only potable water shall be provided for drinking and culinary purposes by any operator of a conveyance engaged in interstate traffic, except as...

  2. Impact of Harmful Algal Blooms on Several Lake Erie Drinking Water Treatment Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent events in Ohio have demonstrated the challenge treatment facilities face in providing safe drinking water when encountering extreme harmful algal bloom (HAB) events. Over the last two years the impact of HAB-related microcystins on several drinking water treatment facilit...

  3. Household's willingness to pay for arsenic safe drinking water in Bangladesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khan, N.A.; Brouwer, R.; Yang, H.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines willingness to pay (WTP) in Bangladesh for arsenic (As) safe drinking water across different As-risk zones, applying a double bound discrete choice value elicitation approach. The study aims to provide a robust estimate of the benefits of As safe drinking water supply, which is

  4. Fluoride Removal From Drinking Water by Electrocoagulation Using Iron and Aluminum Electrodes

    OpenAIRE

    Takdastan; Emami Tabar; Neisi; Eslami

    2014-01-01

    Background Existence of fluoride in drinking water above the permissible level causes human skeletal fluorosis. Objectives Electrocoagulation by iron and aluminum electrodes was proposed for removing fluoride from drinking water. Materials and Methods Effects of different operating conditions such as treatment time, initial pH, applied voltage, type and number of electrodes, the sp...

  5. Predicting Binge Drinking in College Students: Rational Beliefs, Stress, or Loneliness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yixin; Feeley, Thomas Hugh

    2015-01-01

    We proposed a conceptual model to predict binge-drinking behavior among college students, based on the theory of planned behavior and the stress-coping hypothesis. A two-wave online survey was conducted with predictors and drinking behavior measured separately over 2 weeks' time. In the Wave 1 survey, 279 students at a public university in the…

  6. Binge Drinking – Nationwide Problem, Local Solutions PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This 60 second PSA is based on the January 2012 CDC Vital Signs report. One in six adults binge drinks about four times a month. It's a problem nationwide but community-based strategies, such as reducing access to alcohol and increasing the price, can prevent binge drinking.

  7. Alcohol and Sex Offending: What Do Child Sex Offenders Think about Drinking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monson, Candice M.; Jones, Lisa M.; Rivers, P. Clayton; Blum, Steven B.

    1998-01-01

    Examines relationships between general and sex-specific alcohol expectancies and drinking before offending with child sex offenders. Results show that sex-specific expectancies were the best predictor of the proportion of times the offenders reported drinking before offending. Highlights the importance of assessing expectancies related to…

  8. Teen Drinking and Driving: A Dangerous Mix. CDC Vitalsigns[TM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The percentage of teens in high school who drink and drive has decreased by more than half since 1991, but more can be done. Nearly one million high school teens drank alcohol and got behind the wheel in 2011. Teen drivers are 3 times more likely than more experienced drivers to be in a fatal crash. Drinking any alcohol greatly increases this risk…

  9. An exploration of multilevel modeling for estimating access to drinking-water and sanitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Jennyfer; Bonjour, Sophie; Prüss-Ustün, Annette

    2013-03-01

    Monitoring progress towards the targets for access to safe drinking-water and sanitation under the Millennium Development Goals (MDG) requires reliable estimates and indicators. We analyzed trends and reviewed current indicators used for those targets. We developed continuous time series for 1990 to 2015 for access to improved drinking-water sources and improved sanitation facilities by country using multilevel modeling (MLM). We show that MLM is a reliable and transparent tool with many advantages over alternative approaches to estimate access to facilities. Using current indicators, the MDG target for water would be met, but the target for sanitation missed considerably. The number of people without access to such services is still increasing in certain regions. Striking differences persist between urban and rural areas. Consideration of water quality and different classification of shared sanitation facilities would, however, alter estimates considerably. To achieve improved monitoring we propose: (1) considering the use of MLM as an alternative for estimating access to safe drinking-water and sanitation; (2) completing regular assessments of water quality and supporting the development of national regulatory frameworks as part of capacity development; (3) evaluating health impacts of shared sanitation; (4) using a more equitable presentation of countries' performances in providing improved services.

  10. Effectiveness of social norms media marketing in reducing drinking and driving: A statewide campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, H Wesley; Linkenbach, Jeffrey W; Lewis, Melissa A; Neighbors, Clayton

    2010-10-01

    This research evaluated the efficacy of a high-intensity social norms media marketing campaign aimed at correcting normative misperceptions and reducing the prevalence of drinking and driving among 21-to-34-year-olds in Montana. A quasi-experimental design was used, such that regions of Montana were assigned to one of three experimental groups: social norms media marketing campaign, buffer, and control. Four random samples of Montanans between the ages of 21 and 34 were assessed at four time points over 18 months via phone surveys. Findings suggest that the social norms media campaign was successful at exposing the targeted population to social norms messages in the counties within the intervention region. Moreover, results demonstrate the campaign reduced normative misperceptions, increased use of designated drivers, and decreased drinking and driving among those young adults in counties within the intervention region. Social norms media marketing can be effective at changing drinking-related behaviors at the population level. This research provides a model for utilizing social norms media marketing to address other behaviors related to public health. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Effectiveness of social norms media marketing in reducing drinking and driving: A statewide campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linkenbach, Jeffrey W.; Lewis, Melissa A.; Neighbors, Clayton

    2016-01-01

    This research evaluated the efficacy of a high-intensity social norms media marketing campaign aimed at correcting normative misperceptions and reducing the prevalence of drinking and driving among 21-to-34-year-olds in Montana. A quasi-experimental design was used, such that regions of Montana were assigned to one of three experimental groups: social norms media marketing campaign, buffer, and control. Four random samples of Montanans between the ages of 21 and 34 were assessed at four time points over 18 months via phone surveys. Findings suggest that the social norms media campaign was successful at exposing the targeted population to social norms messages in the counties within the intervention region. Moreover, results demonstrate the campaign reduced normative misperceptions, increased use of designated drivers, and decreased drinking and driving among those young adults in counties within the intervention region. Social norms media marketing can be effective at changing drinking-related behaviors at the population level. This research provides a model for utilizing social norms media marketing to address other behaviors related to public health. PMID:20619177

  12. Drinking Water Contaminants -- Standards and Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Research Centers Contact Us Share Drinking Water Contaminants – Standards and Regulations EPA identifies contaminants to regulate ... other partners to implement these SDWA provisions. Regulated Contaminants National Primary Drinking Water Regulations (NPDWRs) - table of ...

  13. Regulation Development for Drinking Water Contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    To explain what process and information underlies regulations including how the Safe Drinking Water Act applies to regulation development i.e. how does the drinking water law translate into regulations.

  14. Rethinking Drinking: Alcohol and Your Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... standard drinks you're being served in a restaurant or bar that uses large glasses and generous ... drinking habits. For more information, see A Family History of Alcoholism: Are You at Risk? Pace yourself: ...

  15. College Drinking: Get the Real Picture

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... environments. The walls of college sports arenas carry advertisements from alcohol industry sponsors. Alumni carry on the ... Environmental and peer influences combine to create a culture of drinking. This culture actively promotes drinking, or ...

  16. Lead and Drinking Water from Private Wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... type=”submit” value=”Submit” /> Healthy Water Home Lead and Drinking Water from Private Wells Recommend on ... remove lead from my drinking water? What is lead? Lead is a naturally occurring bluish-gray metal ...

  17. Basic Information about Your Drinking Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Offices Regional Offices Labs and Research Centers Ground Water and Drinking Water Contact Us Share Basic Information about Your Drinking Water Infographic: How does your water system work? The ...

  18. Biological stability of drinking water: controlling factors, methods and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuelle ePrest

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Biological stability of drinking water refers to the concept of providing consumers with drinking water of same microbial quality at the tap as produced at the water treatment facility. However, uncontrolled growth of bacteria can occur during distribution in water mains and premise plumbing, and can lead to hygienic (e.g. development of opportunistic pathogens, aesthetic (e.g. deterioration of taste, odour, colour or operational (e.g. fouling or biocorrosion of pipes problems. Drinking water contains diverse microorganisms competing for limited available nutrients for growth. Bacterial growth and interactions are regulated by factors such as (i type and concentration of available organic and inorganic nutrients, (ii type and concentration of residual disinfectant, (iii presence of predators such as protozoa and invertebrates, (iv environmental conditions such as water temperature, and (v spatial location of microorganisms (bulk water, sediment or biofilm. Water treatment and distribution conditions in water mains and premise plumbing affect each of these factors and shape bacterial community characteristics (abundance, composition, viability in distribution systems. Improved understanding of bacterial interactions in distribution systems and of environmental conditions impact is needed for better control of bacterial communities during drinking water production and distribution. This article reviews (i existing knowledge on biological stability controlling factors and (ii how these factors are affected by drinking water production and distribution conditions. In addition, (iii the concept of biological stability is discussed in light of experience with well-established and new analytical methods, enabling high throughput analysis and in-depth characterization of bacterial communities in drinking water. We discuss how knowledge gained from novel techniques will improve design and monitoring of water treatment and distribution systems in order to

  19. Biological Stability of Drinking Water: Controlling Factors, Methods, and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prest, Emmanuelle I.; Hammes, Frederik; van Loosdrecht, Mark C. M.; Vrouwenvelder, Johannes S.

    2016-01-01

    Biological stability of drinking water refers to the concept of providing consumers with drinking water of same microbial quality at the tap as produced at the water treatment facility. However, uncontrolled growth of bacteria can occur during distribution in water mains and premise plumbing, and can lead to hygienic (e.g., development of opportunistic pathogens), aesthetic (e.g., deterioration of taste, odor, color) or operational (e.g., fouling or biocorrosion of pipes) problems. Drinking water contains diverse microorganisms competing for limited available nutrients for growth. Bacterial growth and interactions are regulated by factors, such as (i) type and concentration of available organic and inorganic nutrients, (ii) type and concentration of residual disinfectant, (iii) presence of predators, such as protozoa and invertebrates, (iv) environmental conditions, such as water temperature, and (v) spatial location of microorganisms (bulk water, sediment, or biofilm). Water treatment and distribution conditions in water mains and premise plumbing affect each of these factors and shape bacterial community characteristics (abundance, composition, viability) in distribution systems. Improved understanding of bacterial interactions in distribution systems and of environmental conditions impact is needed for better control of bacterial communities during drinking water production and distribution. This article reviews (i) existing knowledge on biological stability controlling factors and (ii) how these factors are affected by drinking water production and distribution conditions. In addition, (iii) the concept of biological stability is discussed in light of experience with well-established and new analytical methods, enabling high throughput analysis and in-depth characterization of bacterial communities in drinking water. We discussed, how knowledge gained from novel techniques will improve design and monitoring of water treatment and distribution systems in order

  20. Biological Stability of Drinking Water: Controlling Factors, Methods, and Challenges

    KAUST Repository

    Prest, Emmanuelle I.

    2016-02-01

    Biological stability of drinking water refers to the concept of providing consumers with drinking water of same microbial quality at the tap as produced at the water treatment facility. However, uncontrolled growth of bacteria can occur during distribution in water mains and premise plumbing, and can lead to hygienic (e.g., development of opportunistic pathogens), aesthetic (e.g., deterioration of taste, odor, color) or operational (e.g., fouling or biocorrosion of pipes) problems. Drinking water contains diverse microorganisms competing for limited available nutrients for growth. Bacterial growth and interactions are regulated by factors, such as (i) type and concentration of available organic and inorganic nutrients, (ii) type and concentration of residual disinfectant, (iii) presence of predators, such as protozoa and invertebrates, (iv) environmental conditions, such as water temperature, and (v) spatial location of microorganisms (bulk water, sediment, or biofilm). Water treatment and distribution conditions in water mains and premise plumbing affect each of these factors and shape bacterial community characteristics (abundance, composition, viability) in distribution systems. Improved understanding of bacterial interactions in distribution systems and of environmental conditions impact is needed for better control of bacterial communities during drinking water production and distribution. This article reviews (i) existing knowledge on biological stability controlling factors and (ii) how these factors are affected by drinking water production and distribution conditions. In addition, (iii) the concept of biological stability is discussed in light of experience with well-established and new analytical methods, enabling high throughput analysis and in-depth characterization of bacterial communities in drinking water. We discussed, how knowledge gained from novel techniques will improve design and monitoring of water treatment and distribution systems in order

  1. Women, Girls, and Binge Drinking

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-08-01

    Bob Brewer, CDC's Alcohol Program Director, goes on the air to discuss the problem of binge drinking among women and girls.  Created: 8/1/2013 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 8/1/2013.

  2. 144__Olukosi_drinking wate

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    and Giardia lamblia; nutrients (fertilizers), dissolved metals and metalloids (lead, mercury, arsenic and so on) and dissolved organics (WHO, 2011). The demand for drinking water in Kaduna state is supplied by ground water sources such as wells and boreholes, tap water in areas where it is available, packaged water and ...

  3. CFD in drinking water treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wols, B.A.

    2010-01-01

    Hydrodynamic processes largely determine the efficacy of drinking water treatment systems, in particular disinfection systems. A lack of understanding of the hydrodynamics has resulted in suboptimal designs of these systems. The formation of unwanted disinfection-by-products and the energy

  4. Uranium in Kosovo's drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berisha, Fatlume; Goessler, Walter

    2013-11-01

    The results of this paper are an initiation to capture the drinking water and/or groundwater elemental situation in the youngest European country, Kosovo. We aim to present a clear picture of the natural uranium concentration in drinking water and/or groundwater as it is distributed to the population of Kosovo. Nine hundred and fifty-one (951) drinking water samples were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS). The results are the first countrywide interpretation of the uranium concentration in drinking water and/or groundwater, directly following the Kosovo war of 1999. More than 98% of the samples had uranium concentrations above 0.01 μg L(-1), which was also our limit of quantification. Concentrations up to 166 μg L(-1) were found with a mean of 5 μg L(-1) and median 1.6 μg L(-1) were found. Two point six percent (2.6%) of the analyzed samples exceeded the World Health Organization maximum acceptable concentration of 30 μg L(-1), and 44.2% of the samples exceeded the 2 μg L(-1) German maximum acceptable concentrations recommended for infant food preparations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. [Knowledge, attitude and practice on drinking water of primary and secondary students in Shenzhen].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiaxin; Hu, Xiaoqi; Zhang, Qian; Du, Songming; Pan, Hui; Dai, Xingbi; Ma, Guansheng

    2014-05-01

    To investigate the status on drinking water related knowledge, attitude and practice of primary and secondary students in Shenzhen. All 832 primary and secondary students from three schools in Shenzhen were selected by using multi-stage random sampling method. The information of drinking water related knowledge, time of drinking water and the type of drink chose in different situations were collected by questionnaires. 87.3% of students considered plain water being the healthiest drink in daily life, and the percent in girls (90.6%) was significantly higher than that in boys (84.4% ) (chi2 = 7.13, P = 0.0089). The awareness percent of the harm of dehydration was 84.5%. The percent in high school students (96.4%) was significantly higher than that in primary (73.9%) and middle school students (94.2%) (chi2 = 73.77, P water was in the morning with an empty stomach, and 46.3% chose when they felt thirsty. However, 63.7% drank water when they felt thirsty, and 50.6% drank water in the morning with an empty stomach. The percent of drinking plain water at school was the highest (83.4%), followed by at home (64.1%) and in public (26.2%). There were 45.2% and 53.3% of students, respectively, choosing sugary drinks as their favorite drink and most frequently drinking in public places. Primary and secondary students in Shenzhen have a good awareness of drinking water, which is inconsistent with their practice. Meanwhile, a considerable proportion of students towards choosing drinks have many misconceptions. The education of healthy drinking water should be strengthened.

  6. Self-efficacy mediates the effects of topiramate and GRIK1 genotype on drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranzler, Henry R; Armeli, Stephen; Wetherill, Reagan; Feinn, Richard; Tennen, Howard; Gelernter, Joel; Covault, Jonathan; Pond, Timothy

    2016-03-01

    Previous studies indicate that topiramate reduces alcohol use among problem drinkers, with one study showing that the effect was moderated by a polymorphism (rs2832407) in GRIK1, the gene encoding the GluK1 kainate subunit. We examined whether the interactive effect of medication and genotype (1) altered the association between daily self-efficacy and later-day drinking; and (2) had an indirect effect on drinking via self-efficacy. In a 12-week, placebo-controlled trial of topiramate, we used daily interactive voice response technology to measure self-efficacy (i.e. confidence in avoiding heavy drinking later in the day) and drinking behavior in 122 European-American heavy drinkers. Topiramate's effects on both self-efficacy and drinking level were moderated by rs2832407. C-allele homozygotes treated with topiramate showed higher levels of self-efficacy and lower levels of nighttime drinking across the 12-week trial. Further, the interactive effect of topiramate and genotype on mean nighttime drinking levels was mediated by mean levels of self-efficacy. By modeling topiramate's effects on nighttime drinking across multiple levels of analysis, we found that self-efficacy, a key psychologic construct, mediated the effect of topiramate, which was moderated by rs2832407 genotype. Thus, it may be possible to use an individualized assessment (i.e. genotype) to select treatment to optimize the reduction in heavy drinking and thereby provide a personalized treatment approach. © 2014 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  7. Micro-drinking behaviours and consumption of wine in different wine glass sizes: a laboratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zupan, Z; Pechey, R; Couturier, D L; Hollands, G J; Marteau, T M

    2017-06-12

    Tableware size may influence how much food and non-alcoholic drink is consumed. Preliminary evidence of the impact of glass size on purchasing of alcoholic drinks shows an increase in wine sales of almost 10% when the same portion of wine is served in a larger glass. The primary aim of the current study is to test if micro-drinking behaviours act as a mechanism that could underlie this effect, through an increase in drinking rate, sip duration and/or number of sips from a larger glass. In a between-subjects experimental design, 166 young women were randomised to drink a 175 ml portion of wine from either a smaller (250 ml) or larger (370 ml) wine glass. Primary outcomes were three micro-drinking behaviours, assessed observationally using video recordings: drinking rate, sip number and sip duration. Other possible mechanisms examined were satisfaction with the perceived amount of wine served and pleasure of the drinking experience, assessed using self-report measures. Wine drunk from the larger, compared with the smaller glass, was consumed more slowly and with shorter sip duration, counter to the hypothesised direction of effect. No differences were observed in any of the other outcome measures. These findings provide no support for the hypothesised mechanisms by which serving wine in larger wine glasses increases consumption. While micro-drinking behaviours may still prove to be a mechanism explaining consumption from different glass sizes, cross-validation of these results in a more naturalistic setting is needed.

  8. Drinking beer reduces radiation-induced chromosome aberrations in human lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monobe, Manami

    2002-01-01

    We here investigated and reported the effects of beer drinking on radiation-induced chromosome aberrations in blood lymphocytes. Human blood that was collected either before or after drinking a 700 ml beer was in vitro irradiated with 200 kVp X rays or 50 keV/μm carbon ions. The relation between the radiation dose and the aberration frequencies (fragments and dicentrics) was significantly (P<0.05) lower for lymphocytes collected 3 h after beer drinking than those before drinking. Fitting the dose response to a linear quadratic model showed that the alpha term of carbon ions was significantly (P<0.05) decreased by beer drinking. A decrease of dicentric formation was detected as early as 0.5 h after beer drinking, and lasted not shorter than 4.5 h. The mitotic index of lymphocytes was higher after beer drinking than before, indicating that a division delay would not be responsible for the low aberrations induced by beer drinking. An in vitro treatment of normal lymphocytes with 0.1 M ethanol, which corresponded to a concentration of 6-times higher than the maximum ethanol concentration in the blood after beer drinking, reduced the dicentric formation caused by X-ray irradiation, but not by carbon-ion irradiation. The beer-induced reduction of dicentric formation was not affected by serum. It is concluded that beer could contain non-ethanol elements that reduce the chromosome damage of lymphocytes induced by high-LET radiation. (author)

  9. Early Adolescent Exposure to Alcohol Advertising and Its Relationship to Underage Drinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Rebecca L.; Ellickson, Phyllis L.; McCaffrey, Daniel; Hambarsoomians, Katrin

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To determine whether early adolescents who are exposed to alcohol marketing are subsequently more likely to drink. Recent studies suggest that exposure to alcohol ads has a limited influence on drinking in mid-adolescence. Early adolescents may be more vulnerable to alcohol advertising effects. Methods Two in-school surveys of 1,786 South Dakota youth measured exposure to television beer advertisements, alcohol ads in magazines, in-store beer displays and beer concessions, radio-listening time, and ownership of beer promotional items during sixth grade, and drinking intentions and behavior at seventh grade. Multivariate regression equations predicted the two drinking outcomes using the advertising exposure variables and controlling for psychosocial factors and prior drinking. Results After adjusting for covariates, the joint effect of exposure to advertising from all six sources at Grade 6 was strongly predictive of Grade 7 drinking and Grade 7 intentions to drink. Youth in the 75th percentile of alcohol marketing exposure had a predicted probability of drinking that was 50% greater than that of youth in the 25th percentile. Conclusions Although causal effects are uncertain, policy makers should consider limiting a variety of marketing practices that could contribute to drinking in early adolescence. PMID:17531759

  10. Consumer protection on the drinking water market

    OpenAIRE

    Kosová, Martina

    2009-01-01

    The goal of Bachelor thesis is marketing research on consumer preferences and knowledge in the field of drinking water and also analyze and compare the price of tap water and bottled water. The theoretical part describes how the consumer market with drinking water is protected in the Czech Republic. They compared the advantages and disadvantages of both types of drinking water.

  11. Small Drinking Water Systems Communication and Outreach ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    As part of our small drinking water systems efforts, this poster highlights several communications and outreach highlights that EPA's Office of Research and Development and Office of Water have been undertaking in collaboration with states and the Association of State Drinking Water Administrators. To share information at EPA's annual small drinking water systems workshop

  12. Energy Drink Use Among Ohio Appalachian Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davison, Genevieve; Shoben, Abigail; Pasch, Keryn E; Klein, Elizabeth G

    2016-10-01

    Caffeine-containing energy drinks have emerged as a public health concern due to their association with caffeine toxicity and alcohol use. Despite the fact that previous research has linked caffeine use in the form of coffee drinking to smoking, there is little research examining the association between energy drinks and smoking. The present study examines demographic and behavioral factors associated with energy drink use among a sample of rural Ohio Appalachian smokers. It was hypothesized that male gender, young age (21-30 years.) and alcohol use would be associated with energy drink use. A sample of adult smokers (n = 298) from Ohio Appalachian counties were interviewed regarding demographic and behavioral factors. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess the association between these factors and energy drink use. Seventy percent of Ohio Appalachian smokers studied had ever used an energy drink and 40 % had used an energy drink in the past month. Young age, male gender, and single marital status were associated with higher odds of ever having used an energy drink. Young age, and binge drinking were associated with higher odds of past 30-day use while abstinence from drinking was associated with lower odds of past 30-day use. Ohio Appalachian adult smokers had higher rates of energy drink use compared to previous estimates of ever or past month use found in other studies. The combined use of caffeine, nicotine, and alcohol warrants attention due to potential for health risk.

  13. New techniques in television to provide research in three-dimensional real-time or near real-time imagery and reduced cost systems for teleconferencing and educational uses, part 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pao, Y. H.; Claspy, P.; Allen, J. E.; Merat, F.

    1979-01-01

    The results are presented of a continuing research and development program the objective of which is to develop a reduced bandwidth television system and a technique for television transmission of holograms. The result of the former is a variable frame rate television system, the operation of which was demonstrated for both black-and-white and color signals. This system employs a novel combination of the inexpensive mass storage capacity of a magnetic disc with the reliability of a digital system for time expansion and compression. Also reported are the results of a theoretical analysis and preliminary feasibility experiment of an innovative system for television transmission of holograms using relatively conventional TV equipment along with a phase modulated reference wave for production of the original interference pattern.

  14. Drinking motives moderate the impact of pre-drinking on heavy drinking on a given evening and related adverse consequences-an event-level study

    OpenAIRE

    Kuntsche Emmanuel; Labhart Florian

    2013-01-01

    Aims: To test whether (i) drinking motives predict the frequency of pre drinking (i.e. alcohol consumption before going out); (ii) drinking motives predict HDGE (heavy drinking on a given evening: 4+ for women 5+ for men) and related adverse consequences (hangover injuries blackouts etc.) even when pre drinking is accounted for and (iii) drinking motives moderate the impact of pre drinking on HDGE and consequences. Design: Using the internet based cellphone optimized assessment technique (ICA...

  15. Alcohol expectancies, perceived norms, and drinking behavior among college students: examining the reciprocal determinism hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardell, Jeffrey D; Read, Jennifer P

    2013-03-01

    Social learning mechanisms, such as descriptive norms for drinking behavior (norms) and positive alcohol expectancies (PAEs), play a major role in college student alcohol use. According to the principle of reciprocal determinism (Bandura, 1977), norms and PAEs should be reciprocally associated with alcohol use, each influencing one another over time. However, the nature of these prospective relationships for college students is in need of further investigation. This study provided the first examination of the unique reciprocal associations among norms, PAEs, and drinking together in a single model. PAEs become more stable with age, whereas norms are likely to be more dynamic upon college entry. Thus, we hypothesized that alcohol use would show stronger reciprocal associations with norms than with PAEs for college students. Students (N = 557; 67% women) completed online measures of PAEs, norms, and quantity and frequency of alcohol use in September of their first (T1), second (T2), and third (T3) years of college. Reciprocal associations were analyzed using a cross-lagged panel design. PAEs had unidirectional influences on frequency and quantity of alcohol use, with no prospective effects from alcohol use to PAEs. Reciprocal associations were observed between norms and alcohol use, but only for quantity and not for frequency. Specifically, drinking quantity prospectively predicted quantity norms and quantity norms prospectively predicted drinking quantity. This effect was observed across both years in the model. These findings support the reciprocal determinism hypothesis for norms but not for PAEs in college students and may help to inform norm-based interventions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Chlorine stress mediates microbial surface attachment in drinking water systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li; Le, Yang; Jin, Juliang; Zhou, Yuliang; Chen, Guowei

    2015-03-01

    Microbial attachment to drinking water pipe surfaces facilitates pathogen survival and deteriorates disinfection performance, directly threatening the safety of drinking water. Notwithstanding that the formation of biofilm has been studied for decades, the underlying mechanisms for the origins of microbial surface attachment in biofilm development in drinking water pipelines remain largely elusive. We combined experimental and mathematical methods to investigate the role of environmental stress-mediated cell motility on microbial surface attachment in chlorination-stressed drinking water distribution systems. Results show that at low levels of disinfectant (0.0-1.0 mg/L), the presence of chlorine promotes initiation of microbial surface attachment, while higher amounts of disinfectant (>1.0 mg/L) inhibit microbial attachment. The proposed mathematical model further demonstrates that chlorination stress (0.0-5.0 mg/L)-mediated microbial cell motility regulates the frequency of cell-wall collision and thereby controls initial microbial surface attachment. The results reveal that transport processes and decay patterns of chlorine in drinking water pipelines regulate microbial cell motility and, thus, control initial surface cell attachment. It provides a mechanistic understanding of microbial attachment shaped by environmental disinfection stress and leads to new insights into microbial safety protocols in water distribution systems.

  17. Low organisational justice and heavy drinking: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouvonen, Anne; Kivimäki, Mika; Elovainio, Marko; Väänänen, Ari; De Vogli, Roberto; Heponiemi, Tarja; Linna, Anne; Pentti, Jaana; Vahtera, Jussi

    2008-01-01

    To investigate whether low perceived organisational injustice predicts heavy drinking among employees. Data from a prospective occupational cohort study, the 10-Town Study, on 15 290 Finnish public sector local government employees nested in 2432 work units, were used. Non-drinkers were excluded. Procedural, interactional and total organisational justice, heavy drinking (>/=210 g of absolute alcohol per week) and other psychosocial factors were determined by means of questionnaire in 2000-2001 (phase 1) and 2004 (phase 2). Multilevel logistic regression analyses taking into account the hierarchical structure of the data were conducted and adjustments were made for sex, age, socio-economic status, marital status, baseline heavy drinking, psychological distress and other psychosocial risk factors such as job strain and effort/reward imbalance. After adjustments, participants who reported low procedural justice at phase 1 were approximately 1.2 times more likely to be heavy drinkers at phase 2 compared with their counterparts reporting high justice. Low perceived justice in interpersonal treatment and low perceived total organisational justice were associated with increased prevalence of heavy drinking only in the model adjusted for sociodemographics. This is the first longitudinal study to show that low procedural justice is weakly associated with an increased likelihood of heavy drinking.

  18. High prevalence of sarcopenia among binge drinking elderly women: a nationwide population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Jun-Il; Ha, Yong-Chan; Lee, Young-Kyun; Hana-Choi; Yoo, Moon-Jib; Koo, Kyung-Hoi

    2017-05-30

    Alcohol consumption is considered a risk factor for sarcopenia, but the association between alcohol consumption and the prevalence of sarcopenia has not been evaluated in detail. This study was to identify the relationship between alcohol drinking patterns and the prevalence of sarcopenia in the elderly Korean population. The cross-sectional study was performed using data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Participants were excluded if they were under the age of 65, or if data was not available regarding skeletal muscle mass or dietary intake. After these exclusions, a total of 4020 participants (men: 1698; women: 2322) were analyzed in the present study. Sarcopenia is defined according to the criteria for the Asia Working Group for Sarcopenia (AWGS). Binge drinking was defined as consuming ≥5 standard alcoholic drinks (≥4 drinks for women) consecutively on one occasion. This data was subcategorized into two groups based on presence of binge drinking: Social drinking (≤1 time/month) and binge drinking (>1 time/month). Women binge drinkers with weekly or daily consumption had 2.8 times higher prevalence of sarcopenia than social drinkers (Odds Ratio [OR] = 2.84; 95% Confidence Interval [CI] = 1.12-7.29). However, there were no associations between binge drinkers and sarcopenia in men. After adjusting for age, body mass index (BMI), energy intake, moderate physical activity, and energy intake, women binge drinkers with weekly or daily alcohol consumption had 3.9 times higher prevalence of sarcopenia than social drinkers (OR = 3.88; 95% CI = 1.33-11.36). The prevalence of sarcopenia in elderly women was related to binge drinking frequency and amounts of drinking after adjusting for covariates. Elderly Korean women who binge drink once or more per week may be associated with sarcopenia, as seen with the observed 3.9 times higher prevalence compared to social drinkers.

  19. Drinking water quality concerns and water vending machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McSwane, D.Z.; Oleckno, W.A.; Eils, L.M.

    1994-01-01

    Drinking water quality is a vital public health concern to consumers and regulators alike. This article describes some of the current microbiological, chemical, and radiological concerns about drinking water and the evolution of water vending machines. Also addressed are the typical treatment processes used in water vending machines and their effectiveness, as well as a brief examination of a certification program sponsored by the National Automatic Merchandising Association (NAMA), which provides a uniform standard for the design and construction of food and beverage vending machines. For some consumers, the water dispensed from vending machines is an attractive alternative to residential tap water which may be objectionable for aesthetic or other reasons

  20. Neural correlates of cerebellar-mediated timing during finger tapping in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindie du Plessis

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: The four cerebellar areas activated by the controls more during rhythmic than non-rhythmic tapping have been implicated in the production of timed responses in several previous studies. These data provide evidence linking binge-like drinking during pregnancy to poorer function in cerebellar regions involved in timing and somatosensory processing needed for complex tasks requiring precise timing.