WorldWideScience

Sample records for providing supplemental food

  1. Estimating the effect of plant-provided food supplements on pest consumption by omnivorous predators: lessons from two coccinellid beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuldiner-Harpaz, Tarryn; Coll, Moshe

    2017-05-01

    Plant-provided food supplements can influence biological pest control by omnivorous predators in two counteracting ways: they can (i) enhance predator populations, but (ii) reduce pest consumption by individual predators. Yet the majority of studies address only one of these aspects. Here, we first tested the influence of canola (Brassica napus L.) pollen supplements on the life history of two ladybeetle species: Hoppodamia variegata (Goeze) and Coccinella septempunctata (L.). We then developed a theoretical model to simulate total pest consumption in the presence and absence of pollen supplements. Supplementing a prey diet with canola pollen increased H. variegata larval survival from 50 to 82%, and C. septempunctata female oviposition by 1.6-fold. Model simulations revealed a greater benefit of pollen supplements when relying on C. septempunctata for pest suppression than on H. variegata. For these two predators, the tested pollen serves as an essential supplement to a diet of prey. However, the benefit of a mixed prey-pollen diet was not always sufficient to overcome individual decrease in pest consumption. Taken together, our study highlights the importance of addressing both positive and negative roles of plant-provided food supplements in considering the outcome for biological control efforts that rely on omnivorous predators. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Resveratrol food supplements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica; Grunert, Klaus G

    2015-01-01

    Background: Consumers increasingly choose food supplements in addition to their diet. Research on supplement users finds they are likely to be female, older and well-educated; Furthermore, supplement users are often characterised as being especially health-oriented, an observation which is termed...... the ‘inverse supplement hypothesis’. However, results are dependent on the substance in question. Little is known so far about botanicals in general, and more specifically, little is known about resveratrol. The psychographic variables of food supplement users are yet relatively underexplored. By comparing US...... and Danish respondents, we aimed to identify whether sociodemographic variables, health status, health beliefs and behaviour and interest in food aspects specifically relevant to resveratrol (e.g., naturalness, indulgence, and Mediterranean food) explain favourable attitudes and adoption intentions toward...

  3. Active components in food supplements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siemelink M; Jansen EHJM; Piersma AH; Opperhuizen A; LEO

    2000-01-01

    The growing food supplement market, where supplements are both more diverse and more easily available (e.g. through Internet) formed the backdrop to the inventory of the active components in food supplements. The safety of an increased intake of food components via supplements was also at issue

  4. MICROBIOLOGICAL QUALITY OF FOOD SUPPLEMENTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratajczak, Magdalena; Kubicka, Marcelina M; Kamińska, Dorota; Długaszewska, Jolanta

    2015-01-01

    Many specialists note that the food offered today - as a result of very complex technological processing - is devoid of many components that are important for the organism and the shortages have to be supplemented. The simplest for it is to consume diet supplements that provide the missing element in a concentrated form. In accordance with the applicable law, medicinal products include all substances or mixtures of substances that are attributed with properties of preventing or treating diseases with humans or animals. Permits to admit supplements to the market are issued by the Chief Sanitary Inspector and the related authorities; permits for medicines are issued by the Chief Pharmaceutical Inspector and the Office for Registration of Medicinal Products, Medical Devices and Biocidal Products. Therefore, admittance of a supplement to the market is less costly and time consuming_than admittance of a medicine. Supplements and medicines may contain the same component but medicines will have a larger concentration than supplements. Sale of supplements at drug stores and in the form of tablets, capsules, liquids or powders makes consumer often confusing supplements with medicines. Now there are no normative documents specifying limits of microbiological impurities in diet supplements. In Polish legislation, diet supplements are subject to legal acts concerning food. Medicines have to comply with microbiological purity requirements specified in the Polish Pharmacopeia. As evidenced with the completed tests, the proportion of diet supplement samples with microbiological impurities is 6.5%. Sales of diet supplements have been growing each year, they are consumed by healthy people but also people with immunology deficiencies and by children and therefore consumers must be certain that they buy safe products.

  5. Food Components and Supplements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parlesak, Alexandr

    2012-01-01

    the growth of these bacteria (prebiotics) are added to food to achieve health effects exceeding its pure nutritional function. Several of these effects are mediated by enzyme systems involved in xenobiotic and drug metabolism, and in some cases this might lead to undesired interactions with medication.......g., secondary plant metabolites such as flavonoids), or as contaminants that enter the food chain at different stages or during the food production process. For these components, a wide spectrum of biological effects was observed that ranges from health-threatening impacts (e.g., polycyclic aromatic amines...... cases, nutrients, food contaminants, and secondary plant metabolites can themselves become substrates for xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes, resulting in health-promoting or health-threatening products. This chapter focuses on how important components of our daily nutrition and supplements can interfere...

  6. Food Service Worker. Supplemental Individualized Student Modules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasty, Liswa E.; Bridwell, Terry B.

    Developed to supplement the food service worker modules published in 1977, this handbook provides fourteen additional individualized student modules. The topics included are as follow: (1) personal grooming; (2) safe handling of food and eating utensils; (3) setting up tables; (4) handling customers; (5) menus; (6) taking and placing the order;…

  7. Food Supplement Usage by Adolescent Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischer, Barbara; Read, Marsha

    1982-01-01

    Adolescent males (N=568) responded to a questionnaire examining their food supplement usage, types of food supplements consumed, reasons for use and non-use, relationship of use to concern for health, and demographic and external factors influencing supplement use. Presents factors related to food supplement usage. (RC)

  8. [Trade of food supplement: food or drug supplement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siracusa, Margherita; Petrelli, Fabio

    2016-09-01

    The aporia is obvious: food supplement, classified and regulated by food law, sometimes have the characteristics and the typical effects of medicines. In addition, these are produced by pharmaceutical companies and, through the scientific officer, are prescribed by doctors and dispensed by pharmacies. This study will attempt to retrace the winding, and sometimes overlapping, regulatory pathways of the legislation on food supplement, food and medicines. It will be important object the particular application of the precautionary principle behind the legislation on food supplement: application "in posterior", so the controls on the purity of the product and the possible effects resulting from the assumption is carried out ex post trade. So we try to disentangle the intricate legislation with the national (and European) Court contributions. In particular, after a brief analysis of the rulings of the Competition and Market Authority on misleading advertising and by the Supreme Court in relation to crimes against health damage, it will come to the analysis of interpretative problems of a purely criminal law nature, in light of the recent proposal for reform about agribusiness crimes. Finally, it will be inevitable to analyze briefly the recent implementation of the d.lgs. n. 17/2004 concerning the distance trade of non-prescription medicines. There is no doubt that now, internet represents the preferred distribution channel for pharmaceutical products (including food supplement) and the most tempting "place" (because of control difficulties) for the realization of criminal conduct. The conclusion will be that the need to achieve more targeted and homogeneous regulatory measures, while also having to protect - public and individual - health through the protection of the legal security in one with the protection of the right to information.

  9. Quality control of plant food supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanzini, Elisabetta; Badea, Mihaela; Santos, Ariana Dos; Restani, Patrizia; Sievers, Hartwig

    2011-12-01

    It is essential to guarantee the safety of unprocessed plants and food supplements if consumers' health is to be protected. Although botanicals and their preparations are regulated at EU level, at least in part, there is still considerable discretion at national level, and Member States may choose to classify a product either as a food supplement or as a drug. Accurate data concerning the finished products and the plant used as the starting point are of major importance if risks and safety are to be properly assessed, but in addition standardized criteria for herbal preparation must be laid down and respected by researchers and manufacturers. Physiologically active as well as potentially toxic constituents need to be identified, and suitable analytical methods for their measurement specified, particularly in view of the increasing incidence of economically motivated adulteration of herbal raw materials and extracts. It remains the duty of food operators to keep up with the scientific literature and to provide sufficient information to enable the adaptation of specifications, sampling schemes and analytical methods to a fast-changing environment.

  10. MICROBIOLOGICAL QUALITY OF FOOD SUPPLEMENTS

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ratajczak, Magdalena; Kubicka, Marcelina M; Kamińska, Dorota; Długaszewska, Jolanta

    2015-01-01

    Many specialists note that the food offered today - as a result of very complex technological processing - is devoid of many components that are important for the organism and the shortages have to be...

  11. Fish farming in ponds and lakes to provide an important protein supplement to the food basket, and connected public health problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shomrony, A

    1978-01-01

    Fish farming in ponds can be of great value in various ways: 1) By adding fat-free and relatively inexpensive animal protein to the food basket; 2) By removing waste water in a most hygienic as well as economic way; 3) By saving the cost of transport and storage of meat from warm-blooded animals by breeding fish near the consumer. Our task is to prevent the spread of disease in fish, to prevent transmission of health hazards to man, and to inspect the quality of fish all along the line from the ponds through marketing to the consumer.

  12. [Food supplements : Legal requirements, borderline issues and other aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, Pia

    2017-03-01

    Food supplements are classified as foods. They are concentrated sources of vitamins and minerals or other substances with a nutritional or physiological effect. Their purpose is to supplement the normal diet. Food supplements have to comply with the applicable legal provisions of the food law. In order to ensure the health protection of consumers, food supplements that will be put on the market must be safe. For food supplements, regulations exist at the EU level as well as at the national level. Specific requirements are regulated in the Ordinance on Food Supplements, with which the European Directive on Food Supplements was transposed into German law. The European and German legal provisions applicable to food supplements are outlined. Important aspects regarding the delimitation between food supplements and medicinal products are addressed. These borderline issues are of special importance to food supplements which are marketed in dose forms such as capsules, tablets etc., the typical forms of medicinal products. Problems resulting from the lack of harmonized rules are described. The European harmonization of the rules is still incomplete for substances with a nutritional or physiological effect other than vitamins and minerals for use in food supplements. The setting of maximum amounts of vitamins and minerals present in food supplements as envisaged in the Directive on Food Supplements has not yet been implemented.

  13. Safety assessment of plant food supplements (PFS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, van den S.J.P.L.; Serra-Majem, L.; Coppens, P.; Rietjens, I.

    2011-01-01

    Botanicals and botanical preparations, including plant food supplements (PFS), are widely used in Western diets. The growing use of PFS is accompanied by an increasing concern because the safety of these PFS is not generally assessed before they enter the market. Regulatory bodies have become more

  14. Heavy metals occurrence in Italian food supplements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brizio P.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent years a significant increase in food supplements consumption has been observed, maybe in the belief that they couldn’t be dangerous for consumers health, even if they don’t achieved medical effects. However, environmental pollution can cause heavy metals contamination that could exceed maximum levels established by European legislation. Aim of this work was to evaluate arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead and mercury content in 12 food supplements seized in a Piedmont shop by the Italian authority against food adulteration. All metals were analysed after mineralization and dilution steps by ICP-MS, with the exception of mercury, detected by the direct analyser TDA-AAS. Only one sample exceed the European maximum limits for lead (3,00 mg/kg but warning levels of chromium (over 3,00 mg/Kg has been detected in three of them.

  15. [Red yeast rice: An unsafe food supplement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffen, Christian

    2017-03-01

    Red yeast rice is the fermentation product of the mould Monascus ruber and is traditionally used in East Asia to dye and conserve food. Its main pharmacologically active compound, monakolin K, was isolated from red yeast rice and is used as an inhibitor of cholesterol synthesis under the INN lovastatin. Lovastatin and several other statins are marketed as drugs whereas red yeast rice is offered as a food supplement. As statins can cause severe side effects, such as muscle damage and kidney failure, the dosing and information about interactions with drugs and food is essential for the use of these products. Furthermore, red yeast rice can contain the mycotoxin citrinin and several other substances that are not yet toxicologically evaluated.

  16. Opinion paper food supplements: the European regulation and its application in France. Thoughts on safety of food supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maixent, J M

    2012-06-30

    The first definition of food supplements in France was established by decree 96-307 of April 10th 1996. In 2002, the European Community adopted a regulation for food supplements (European Directive 2002/46/CE June 10th). This was an important event in the regulation of food supplements. The European regulation was adopted in France, with some modifications, by decree 2006-352 of March 20th 2006. The European Regulation on food supplements is more defined than those for any other food types and is exemplary. The Regulation on addition of vitamins and minerals to food differs from the regulation on the addition of other substances such as amino acids, essential fatty acids, fibers, carbohydrates, various plant, and herbal extracts. While the Regulation includes vitamins and minerals to the positive list of supplements, other substances are included in the negative list of supplements. According to the Regulation, substances added to food supplements must have a nutritional or physiological effect. The increased use of food supplements led to the creation of a department specialized in the safety of food supplement. The safety of food supplements is a permanent concern for sanitary authorities. These authorities have recently combined scientific methodological approaches and a collective expertise to implement and monitor simple and useful rules that insure consumer's safety. Safety laws aim to protect the consumers of food supplements.

  17. Plants and parts of plants used in food supplements: an approach to their safety assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brunella Carratù

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In Italy most herbal products are sold as food supplements and are subject only to food law. A list of about 1200 plants authorised for use in food supplements has been compiled by the Italian ministry of Health. In order to review and possibly improve the ministry's list an ad hoc working group of Istituto Superiore di Sanità was requested to provide a technical and scientific opinion on plant safety. The listed plants were evaluated on the basis of their use in food, therapeutic activity, human toxicity and in no-alimentary fields. Toxicity was also assessed and plant limitations to use in food supplements were defined.

  18. Safety assessment of plant food supplements (PFS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg, Suzanne J P L; Serra-Majem, Lluis; Coppens, Patrick; Rietjens, Ivonne M C M

    2011-12-01

    Botanicals and botanical preparations, including plant food supplements (PFS), are widely used in Western diets. The growing use of PFS is accompanied by an increasing concern because the safety of these PFS is not generally assessed before they enter the market. Regulatory bodies have become more aware of this and are increasing their efforts to ensure the safety of PFS. The present review describes an overview of the general framework for the safety assessment of PFS, focusing on the different approaches currently in use to assess the safety of botanicals and/or botanical compounds, including their history of safe use, the tiered approach proposed by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), the Threshold of Toxicological Concern (TTC) and the Margin of Exposure (MOE) concept. Moreover, some examples of botanical compounds in PFS that may be of concern are discussed. Altogether, it is clear that "natural" does not equal "safe" and that PFS may contain compounds of concern at levels far above those found in the regular diet. In addition, the traditional use of a PFS compound as a herb or tea does not guarantee its safety when used as a supplement. This points at a need for stricter regulation and control of botanical containing products, especially given their expanding market volume.

  19. [Marketability of food supplements - criteria for the legal assessment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitweg-Lehmann, Evelyn

    2017-03-01

    To be placed on the market legally, food supplements have to meet national and European food law regulations. This is true for all substances used as well as for the labeling on the packaging of and the advertising for food supplements. The food business operator is responsible for its compliance with all regulations. Therefore, in this article, a concise step-by-step assessment is presented, covering all necessary legal requirements to market food supplements. Additionally, all steps are visualized in a flow chart. All vitamins, minerals and other substances used have to meet the legal conditions. Food business operators have to make sure that their products do not contain medicinal ingredients based on their pharmacologic effect. It is prohibited to place medicinal products as food supplements on the market. Furthermore, food business operators have to make sure that their products are not non-authorized novel foods according to the novel food regulation (EC) no. 258/97. Also, food supplements have to meet the requirements of article 14 of Regulation (EC) No. 178/2002 concerning the safety of foodstuff. Food shall not be placed on the market if it is unsafe. For food supplements that fail the German food-related legal standards but are legally manufactured in another EU member state or are legally put into circulation, the importer requires the so-called general disposition, which must be applied for at the BVL according to § 54 of the German Food and Feed Act. Another possibility for food which fails to meet German food law is to apply for a certificate of exemption according to § 68 of the Food and Feed Act. The food business operator has to meet the harmonized regulations concerning maximum and minimum levels of additives, flavors and enzymes. The packaging has to meet the compulsory labeling as well the voluntary labeling, like health claims. The BVL is also the relevant authority for other tasks concerning food supplements. A figure shows all

  20. Health Information Provided by Retail Health Food Outlets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaclyn Calder

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Alternative health practices have become increasingly popular in recent years. Many patients visit specific complementary practitioners, while others attempt to educate themselves, trusting advice from employees at local health food stores or the Internet. Thirty-two retail health food stores were surveyed on the nature of the information provided by their staff. A research assistant visited the stores and presented as the mother of a child in whom Crohn’s disease had been diagnosed. Seventy-two per cent (23 of 32 of store employees offered advice, such as to take nutritional and herbal supplements. Of the 23 stores where recommendations were made, 15 (65% based their recommendation on a source of information. Fourteen of the 15 stores using information sources used the same reference book. This had a significant impact on the recommendations; the use of nutritional supplements was favoured. In conclusion, retail health food stores are not as inconsistent as hypothesized, although there are many variances in the types of supplements recommended for the same chronic disease.

  1. Contaminants in food supplements and associated health risks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reeuwijk, N.M.

    2014-01-01

      Summary Through the increasing use and availability of food supplements on the market, safety Aconcerns relating to the safety of these food supplements are growing as well. The aim of the present PhD thesis was to investigate the presence and actual levels of contaminants of concern in

  2. Micronutrient intakes from food and supplements in Australian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Caroline M; Black, Lucinda J; Oddy, Wendy H

    2014-01-14

    Low micronutrient intakes in adolescents are frequently reported. We assessed micronutrient intakes in adolescents to determine whether supplement use optimises intakes. Dietary intake was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire in 17 year old participating in the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study (n=991). We calculated median daily micronutrient intakes in supplement users and non-users (from food sources only and from food and supplements), along with the percentage of adolescents meeting the Estimated Average Requirements (EAR) or Adequate Intake (AI) where appropriate. Intakes of calcium, magnesium, folate and vitamins D and E from food only were low. Although supplements significantly increased micronutrient intakes in supplement users, more than half of supplement users failed to meet the EAR or AI for some key micronutrients. Compared with non-users, supplement users had higher micronutrient intakes from food sources with the exception of vitamins D and B12 and were more likely to achieve the EAR or AI for many micronutrients from food only. Intakes of some key micronutrients were low in this population, even among supplement users. Those facing the greatest risk of micronutrient deficiencies were less likely to use supplements.

  3. Food Supplement Reduces Fat, Improves Flavor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Diversified Services Corporation, seeking to develop a new nutritional fat replacement and flavor enhancement product, took advantage of the NASA Glenn Garrett Morgan Commercialization Initiative (GMCI) for technology acquisition and development and introductions to potential customers and strategic partners. Having developed and commercialized the product, named Nurtigras, the company is now marketing it through its subsidiary, H.F. Food Technologies Inc. The Nutrigras fat substitute is available in liquid, gel, or dry form and can be easily customized to the specific needs of the food manufacturer. It is primarily intended for use as a partial replacement for animal fat in beef patties and other normally high-fat meat products, and can also be used in soups, sauces, bakery items, and desserts. In addition to the nutritional benefits, the fat replacement costs less than the food it replaces, and as such can help manufacturers reduce material costs. In precooked products, Nutrigras can increase moisture content and thereby increase product yield. The company has been able to repay the help provided by NASA by contributing to the Space Agency's astronaut diet-the Nutrigras fat substitute can be used as a flavor enhancer and shelf-life extender for food on the ISS.

  4. Recalls of Food and Dietary Supplements

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Food producers recall their products from the marketplace when the products are mislabeled or when the food may present a health hazard to consumers because the food...

  5. Effects of food supplementation on a tropical bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Class, Alexandra M; Moore, Ignacio T

    2013-10-01

    Tropical birds typically exhibit a 'slow pace of life' relative to higher latitude species. This is often manifested as slow development, low fecundity, and high survival. Following from this, it is predicted that tropical birds may be more likely to trade current reproductive effort to favor self-maintenance, thus supporting survival and future reproduction. To test this idea, we conducted two food supplementation experiments on tropical rufous-collared sparrows (Zonotrichia capensis) in the eastern Andes of Ecuador. In the first experiment, we food-supplemented pairs during the non-breeding life-history stage, and in the second experiment, we food-supplemented pairs that were provisioning fledglings. In both experiments, a larger proportion of food-supplemented birds exhibited pre-basic molt (replacement of feathers) than in a control group. To our knowledge, this is the first study to experimentally demonstrate that a food-supplemented bird invests extra resources into molt, a form of self-maintenance, and contrasts with the majority of food supplementation studies in high latitude birds that show they typically advance the initiation of, or extend the period of, reproduction. Our results are consistent with the syndrome of the slow pace of life in the tropics and support the concept of fundamental differences between temperate-zone and tropical birds.

  6. Providing Sustainable Food in Urban Thailand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kantamaturapoj, K.; Oosterveer, P.J.M.; Spaargaren, G.

    2013-01-01

    Increasing demand for sustainable foods can be a driver for environmental improvements along the food-supply chain as a whole. Research in Western Europe has confirmed the importance of distribution channel s in supplying sustainable food and particularly in how they are able to combine consumer

  7. Low-calorie sweeteners in food and food supplements on the Italian market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janvier, Steven; Goscinny, Séverine; Le Donne, Cinzia; Van Loco, Joris

    2015-01-01

    This study determines the occurrence and concentration levels of artificial low-calorie sweeteners (LCSs) in food and food supplements on the Italian market. The analysed sample set (290 samples) was representative of the Italian market and comprised of beverages, jams, ketchups, confectionery, dairy products, table-top sweeteners and food supplements. All samples were analysed via UPLC-MS/MS. The method was in-house validated for the analysis of seven LCSs (aspartame, acesulfame-K, saccharin, sucralose, cyclamate, neotame and neohesperidin dihydrochalcone) in food and for five LCSs (aspartame, acesulfame-K, saccharin, cyclamate and sucralose) in food supplements. Except for cyclamate in one beverage which exceeded the maximum level (ML) with 13%, all concentrations measured in food were around or below the ML. In food supplements, 40 of the 52 samples (77%) were found to be above the ML, with exceedances of up to 200% of the ML.

  8. Iodine in food and dietary supplement composition databases

    Science.gov (United States)

    For a number of years, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the Nutrient Data Laboratory (NDL) of the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s Agricultural Research Service have worked independently on determining the iodine content of foods and dietary supplements and are now harmonizing their e...

  9. Effects of supplemental food on the habitat selected by Mastomy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-04-07

    Apr 7, 2011 ... reduced cover on the food supplemented grids, the population on one of the these grids exhibited a higher number and ... select patches with greater vegetative cover but it will abandon cover in the presence of an abundant food source. ..... (see Study area) and hence experienced disturbance from cat-.

  10. Whole Food versus Supplement: Comparing the Clinical Evidence of Tomato Intake and Lycopene Supplementation on Cardiovascular Risk Factors12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton-Freeman, Britt M.; Sesso, Howard D.

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major contributor to morbidity and mortality in the United States and worldwide. A link between diet and CVD is well established, with dietary modification a foundational component of CVD prevention and management. With the discovery of bioactive components beyond the essential nutrients of foods, a new era of nutritional, medical, botanical, physiologic, and analytical sciences has unfolded. The ability to identify, isolate, purify, and deliver single components has expanded the dietary supplement business and health opportunity for consumers. Lycopene is an example of a food component that has attracted attention from scientists as well as food, agriculture, and dietary supplement industries. A major question, however, is whether delivering lycopene through a supplement source is as effective as or more effective than consuming lycopene through whole food sources, specifically the tomato, which is the richest source of lycopene in the Western diet. In this review, we examined clinical trials comparing the efficacy of lycopene supplements with tomato products on intermediate CVD risk factors including oxidative stress, inflammation, endothelial function, blood pressure, and lipid metabolism. Overall, the present review highlights the need for more targeted research; however, at present, the available clinical research supports consuming tomato-based foods as a first-line approach to cardiovascular health. With the exception of blood pressure management where lycopene supplementation was favored, tomato intake provided more favorable results on cardiovascular risk endpoints than did lycopene supplementation. Indeed, future research that is well designed, clinically focused, mechanistically revealing, and relevant to human intake will undoubtedly add to the growing body of knowledge unveiling the promise of tomatoes and/or lycopene supplementation as an integral component of a heart-healthy diet. PMID:25469376

  11. Food supplements increase adult tarsus length, but not growth rate, in an island population of house sparrows (Passer domesticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleasby Ian R

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Variation in food supply during early development can influence growth rate and body size in many species. However, whilst the detrimental effects of food restriction have often been studied in natural populations, how young individuals respond to an artificial increase in food supply is rarely investigated. Here, we investigated both the short-term and long-term effects of providing house sparrow chicks with food supplements during a key period of growth and development and assessed whether providing food supplements had any persistent effect upon adult size (measured here as tarsus length. Results Male nestlings tended to reach higher mass asymptotes than females. Furthermore, brood size was negatively associated with a chick's asymptotic mass. However, providing food supplements had no influence upon the growth rate or the asymptotic mass of chicks. Adults that received food supplements as chicks were larger, in terms of their tarsus length, than adults that did not receive extra food as chicks. In addition, the variation in tarsus length amongst adult males that were given food supplements as chicks was significantly less than the variance observed amongst males that did not receive food supplements. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that the food supply chicks experience during a critical developmental period can have a permanent effect upon their adult phenotype. Furthermore, providing extra food to chicks resulted in sex-biased variance in a size-related trait amongst adults, which shows that the degree of sexual size dimorphism can be affected by the environment experienced during growth.

  12. Probiotic Supplements and Food Products: Comparison for Different Targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neda Mollakhalili Meybodi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Currently, probiotics are mainly used in processed foods or nutritional supplements mainly due to their impact on health. The probiotic markets have a considerable share either in food or drug industry. In this article, drug supplements and food products containing probiotic microorganisms are considered in a comparative approach from different aspects including functional, efficacy, hedonistic and economical.Results and Conclusion: However, the impact of ingesting probiotics via food products or drug supplements is not actually the same from consumer’s point of view as well as from clinical efficacy. Consumer attitudes appear to be reflected in expectations on nutritional, functional and health effects side and also from the point of nutrition economics.Conflict of interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest.

  13. USDA food and nutrient databases provide the infrastructure for food and nutrition research, policy, and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahuja, Jaspreet K C; Moshfegh, Alanna J; Holden, Joanne M; Harris, Ellen

    2013-02-01

    The USDA food and nutrient databases provide the basic infrastructure for food and nutrition research, nutrition monitoring, policy, and dietary practice. They have had a long history that goes back to 1892 and are unique, as they are the only databases available in the public domain that perform these functions. There are 4 major food and nutrient databases released by the Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center (BHNRC), part of the USDA's Agricultural Research Service. These include the USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, the Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database, the Food and Nutrient Database for Dietary Studies, and the USDA Food Patterns Equivalents Database. The users of the databases are diverse and include federal agencies, the food industry, health professionals, restaurants, software application developers, academia and research organizations, international organizations, and foreign governments, among others. Many of these users have partnered with BHNRC to leverage funds and/or scientific expertise to work toward common goals. The use of the databases has increased tremendously in the past few years, especially the breadth of uses. These new uses of the data are bound to increase with the increased availability of technology and public health emphasis on diet-related measures such as sodium and energy reduction. Hence, continued improvement of the databases is important, so that they can better address these challenges and provide reliable and accurate data.

  14. DNA-based techniques for authentication of processed food and food supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Yat-Tung; Shaw, Pang-Chui

    2018-02-01

    Authentication of food or food supplements with medicinal values is important to avoid adverse toxic effects, provide consumer rights, as well as for certification purpose. Compared to morphological and spectrometric techniques, molecular authentication is found to be accurate, sensitive and reliable. However, DNA degradation and inclusion of inhibitors may lead to failure in PCR amplification. This paper reviews on the existing DNA extraction and PCR protocols, and the use of small size DNA markers with sufficient discriminative power for molecular authentication. Various emerging new molecular techniques such as isothermal amplification for on-site diagnosis, next-generation sequencing for high-throughput species identification, high resolution melting analysis for quick species differentiation, DNA array techniques for rapid detection and quantitative determination in food products are also discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Preliminary study: voluntary food intake in dogs during tryptophan supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragua, Víctor; González-Ortiz, Gemma; Villaverde, Cecilia; Hervera, Marta; Mariotti, Valentina Maria; Manteca, Xavier; Baucells, María Dolores

    2011-10-01

    Tryptophan, a precursor of important molecules such as serotonin, melatonin and niacin, is an essential amino acid for dogs. In pigs, tryptophan supplementation has been shown to induce a significant increase in food intake. The aim of the present study was to assess whether long-term tryptophan supplementation increases voluntary food intake in dogs and to observe whether this was accompanied by a change in serum ghrelin. In the present study, sixteen adult Beagle dogs were used, with four male and four female dogs fed diets supplemented with tryptophan (1 g/dog per d) during 81 d (Trp) and four male and four female dogs that were not supplemented (control). A voluntary food intake test was performed during 5 d following the supplementation period. The Trp group tended to show a higher food intake during the voluntary food intake test (58.0 (SE 5.37) v. 77.5 (SE 3.65) g/kg metabolic weight per d; P = 0.074). No significant differences were found for serum ghrelin concentrations.

  16. The European role on traditional herbal medicinal products and traditional plant food supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafini, Mauro; Stanzione, Alessandra; Foddai, Sebastiano; Anton, Robert; Delmulle, Luc

    2012-10-01

    Herbs are used in Europe as medicinal products, food, food supplements, and related products. This paper will discuss the concepts of Traditional Herbal Medicines and Traditional Plant Food Supplements, defined in European legislation under differing legal frameworks, regarding Traditional Plant Food Supplements (including Claims Regulation) and the role of the European Food Safety Authority in health claims.

  17. Supplement: Why Colour Foods? Colouring Food Products with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is no accident that saffron, extracts of berries, and other naturally occurring food colours have for centuries been used all over the world for preparing food. Today, the food industry is the kitchen of the world. It has revolutionised nutrition. Never before have standards of purity, stability, and physiological harmlessness been ...

  18. Estimating safe maximum levels of vitamins and minerals in fortified foods and food supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Albert; Kehoe, Laura; Hennessy, Áine; Walton, Janette

    2017-12-01

    To show how safe maximum levels (SML) of vitamins and minerals in fortified foods and supplements may be estimated in population subgroups. SML were estimated for adults and 7- to 10-year-old children for six nutrients (retinol, vitamins B6, D and E, folic acid, iron and calcium) using data on usual daily nutrient intakes from Irish national nutrition surveys. SML of nutrients in supplements were lower for children than for adults, except for calcium and iron. Daily energy intake from fortified foods in high consumers (95th percentile) varied by nutrient from 138 to 342 kcal in adults and 40-309 kcal in children. SML (/100 kcal) of nutrients in fortified food were lower for children than adults for vitamins B6 and D, higher for vitamin E, with little difference for other nutrients. Including 25 % 'overage' for nutrients in fortified foods and supplements had little effect on SML. Nutritionally significant amounts of these nutrients can be added safely to supplements and fortified foods for these population subgroups. The estimated SML of nutrients in fortified foods and supplements may be considered safe for these population subgroups over the long term given the food composition and dietary patterns prevailing in the respective dietary surveys. This risk assessment approach shows how nutrient intake data may be used to estimate, for population subgroups, the SML for vitamins and minerals in both fortified foods and supplements, separately, each taking into account the intake from other dietary sources.

  19. Novel Food Supplements Formulated With Spirulina To Meet Athletes’ Needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisiane Fernandes de Carvalho

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The food, training, and health are crucial for a good performance in sports. Intense physical activity takes the athlete to maintain a very unstable balance between energy demand and consumption of nutrients. Spirulina microalga has a nutritional profile that renders it an ideal food supplement, because has high protein content, also contains vitamins, minerals, and pigments. In this context, the study aimed to develop, characterize and evaluate the stability of foods enhanced with Spirulina, which are intended for athletes. In this study, six different supplements were developed (electrolyte replenisher, muscle enhancer, and recovery supplement, without and with Spirulina. The electrolyte replenisher with Spirulina compared to the product without the microalga, showed an increase of 0.35% (w/w in mineral content. The carbohydrates content of the developed recovery supplement with Spirulina was 2% (w/w higher than the muscle enhancer without Spirulina. It was not observed increased in the nutritional content of muscle recovery when added Spirulina. However, it is known that Spirulina presents active compounds with important functions for the body. Thus, the composition of the foods satisfied the nutritional needs of athletes. Regarding the stability of developed foods, the shelf life was estimated between 9 and 11 months.

  20. Developing food supplements for moderately malnourished children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Briend, André; Akomo, Peter; Bahwere, Paluku

    2015-01-01

    Ready-to-use therapeutic foods (RUTFs) are solid foods that were developed by changing the formulation of the existing liquid diet, F-100, recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) for the rapid catch-up phase of the treatment of children suffering from severe acute malnutrition (SAM......). The resulting products proved highly effective in promoting weight gain in both severely and moderately wasted children and adults, including those infected with HIV. The formulation of the existing RUTFs, however, has never been optimized to maximize linear growth, vitamin and mineral status, and functional...

  1. Food supplement-related risks in the light of internet and RASFF data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wróbel-Harmas, Monika; Krysińska, Magdalena; Postupolski, Jacek; Wysocki, Mirosław J

    2014-01-01

    Based on legal acts and RASFF information, this paper aimed at evaluating available facts on food supplements in comparison to the most popular data accessible via Internet for future and present consumers. Having analyzed legal acts and RASFF (Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed) database, the authors attempted to verify what kind of information on food supplements may be found by an Internet user, using the first webpage of Google.pl. This search engine was used in this study as it gained the highest popularity among Internet users. It was decided that exclusively search results displayed on the first webpage would be subject to analysis as 91.5% of Internet users limit their search to the first 9-10 results. Internet was searched using the following two terms: 'supplement' and 'supplements' as well as terms suggested by Google. pl. Subsequently, the results were subject to qualitative and quantitative analyses. On the Internet, the most frequently searched terms were: 'supplements' (243 000 000), 'supplement' (9 290 000), 'supplements shop' (8 200 000). Having analyzed the content of particular websites, information on certain products, given by their manufacturers may be found. Then, data on supplement itself were provided, i.e. what is a supplement and when it should be used. Expert articles (written by physicians, dieticians, pharmacists) on a risk resulting from these products, including therapeutic indications or the presence of unauthorized substances were identified considerably less frequently. No warnings regarding the necessity of purchasing the products in legal and verified places were found. There is a necessity of systemic education of consumers on reasonable use of food supplements. It is also advisable to consider the organization of alert system whose objective would be to monitor adverse reactions caused by an intake of food supplements or novel food launched into the country. To obtain reliable information on the composition and effects of

  2. An overview of consumer attitudes and beliefs about plant food supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egan, Bernadette; Hodgkins, Charo; Shepherd, Richard; Timotijevic, Lada; Raats, Monique

    2011-12-01

    The use of dietary supplements is increasing globally and this includes the use of plant food supplements (PFS). A variety of factors may be influencing this increased consumption including the increasing number of older people in society, mistrust in conventional medicine and the perception that natural is healthy. Consumer studies in this area are limited, with a focus on dietary supplements in general, and complicated by the use of certain plant food supplements as herbal medicines. Research indicates that higher use of dietary supplements has been associated with being female, being more educated, having a higher income, being white and being older, however the drivers for consumption of supplements are complex, being influenced by both demographic and health-related factors. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of current knowledge about the users and the determinants of usage of plant food supplements. With growing consumption of these products, the need for effective risk-benefit assessment becomes ever more important and an insight into who uses these types of products and why is an important starting point for any future science-based decisions made by policy makers, PFS manufacturers and ultimately by consumers themselves.

  3. HIV/AIDS, food supplementation and livelihood programs in Uganda: a way forward?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica E Yager

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Over the last decade, health, nutrition and policy experts have become increasingly aware of the many ways in which food insecurity and HIV infection negatively impact and reinforce one another. In response, many organizations providing HIV care began supplying food aid to clients in need. Food supplementation, however, was quickly recognized as an unsustainable and incomplete intervention. Many HIV care organizations therefore developed integrated HIV and livelihood programs (IHLPs to target the root causes of food insecurity. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a qualitative study using in-depth interviews with 21 key informants who worked at seven organizations providing HIV care, food aid, or IHLPs in Kampala, Uganda in 2007-2008 to better understand the impact of IHLPs on the well-being of people living with HIV and AIDS (PLWHAs and the challenges in transitioning clients from food aid to IHLPs. There was strong consensus among those interviewed that IHLPs are an important intervention in addressing food insecurity and its adverse health consequences among PLWHAs. Key informants identified three main challenges in transitioning PLWHAs from food supplementation programs to IHLPs: (1 lack of resources (2 timing of the transition and (3 logistical considerations including geography and weather. Factors seen as contributing to the success of programs included: (1 close involvement of community leaders (2 close ties with local and national government (3 diversification of IHLP activities and (4 close integration with food supplementation programs, all linked through a central program of HIV care. CONCLUSION: Health, policy and development experts should continue to strengthen IHLPs for participants in need. Further research is needed to determine when and how participants should be transitioned from food supplementation to IHLPs, and to determine how to better correlate measures of food insecurity with objective clinical outcomes so

  4. HIV/AIDS, food supplementation and livelihood programs in Uganda: a way forward?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yager, Jessica E; Kadiyala, Suneetha; Weiser, Sheri D

    2011-01-01

    Over the last decade, health, nutrition and policy experts have become increasingly aware of the many ways in which food insecurity and HIV infection negatively impact and reinforce one another. In response, many organizations providing HIV care began supplying food aid to clients in need. Food supplementation, however, was quickly recognized as an unsustainable and incomplete intervention. Many HIV care organizations therefore developed integrated HIV and livelihood programs (IHLPs) to target the root causes of food insecurity. We conducted a qualitative study using in-depth interviews with 21 key informants who worked at seven organizations providing HIV care, food aid, or IHLPs in Kampala, Uganda in 2007-2008 to better understand the impact of IHLPs on the well-being of people living with HIV and AIDS (PLWHAs) and the challenges in transitioning clients from food aid to IHLPs. There was strong consensus among those interviewed that IHLPs are an important intervention in addressing food insecurity and its adverse health consequences among PLWHAs. Key informants identified three main challenges in transitioning PLWHAs from food supplementation programs to IHLPs: (1) lack of resources (2) timing of the transition and (3) logistical considerations including geography and weather. Factors seen as contributing to the success of programs included: (1) close involvement of community leaders (2) close ties with local and national government (3) diversification of IHLP activities and (4) close integration with food supplementation programs, all linked through a central program of HIV care. Health, policy and development experts should continue to strengthen IHLPs for participants in need. Further research is needed to determine when and how participants should be transitioned from food supplementation to IHLPs, and to determine how to better correlate measures of food insecurity with objective clinical outcomes so as to better evaluate program results.

  5. Interaction of Carbamazepine with Herbs, Dietary Supplements, and Food: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Zhong

    2013-01-01

    Background. Carbamazepine (CBZ) is a first-line antiepileptic drug which may be prone to drug interactions. Systematic review of herb- and food-drug interactions on CBZ is warranted to provide guidance for medical professionals when prescribing CBZ. Method. A systematic review was conducted on six English databases and four Chinese databases. Results. 196 out of 3179 articles fulfilled inclusion criteria, of which 74 articles were reviewed and 33 herbal products/dietary supplement/food interacting with CBZ were identified. No fatal or severe interactions were documented. The majority of the interactions were pharmacokinetic-based (80%). Traditional Chinese medicine accounted for most of the interactions (n = 17), followed by food (n = 10), dietary supplements (n = 3), and other herbs/botanicals (n = 3). Coadministration of 11 and 12 of the studied herbal products/dietary supplement/food significantly decreased or increased the plasma concentrations of CBZ. Regarding pharmacodynamic interaction, Xiao-yao-san, melatonin, and alcohol increased the side effects of CBZ while caffeine lowered the antiepileptic efficacy of CBZ. Conclusion. This review provides a comprehensive summary of the documented interactions between CBZ and herbal products/food/dietary supplements which assists healthcare professionals to identify potential herb-drug and food-drug interactions, thereby preventing potential adverse events and improving patients' therapeutic outcomes when prescribing CBZ. PMID:24023584

  6. Zeolite food supplementation reduces abundance of enterobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasai, Tanka P; Walsh, Kerry B; Bhattarai, Surya P; Midmore, David J; Van, Thi T H; Moore, Robert J; Stanley, Dragana

    2017-01-01

    According to the World Health Organisation, antibiotics are rapidly losing potency in every country of the world. Poultry are currently perceived as a major source of pathogens and antimicrobial resistance. There is an urgent need for new and natural ways to control pathogens in poultry and humans alike. Porous, cation rich, aluminosilicate minerals, zeolites can be used as a feed additive in poultry rations, demonstrating multiple productivity benefits. Next generation sequencing of the 16S rRNA marker gene was used to phylogenetically characterize the fecal microbiota and thus investigate the ability and dose dependency of zeolite in terms of anti-pathogenic effects. A natural zeolite was used as a feed additive in laying hens at 1, 2, and 4% w/w for a 23 week period. At the end of this period cloacal swabs were collected to sample faecal microbial communities. A significant reduction in carriage of bacteria within the phylum Proteobacteria, especially in members of the pathogen-rich family Enterobacteriaceae, was noted across all three concentrations of zeolite. Zeolite supplementation of feed resulted in a reduction in the carriage of a number of poultry pathogens without disturbing beneficial bacteria. This effect was, in some phylotypes, correlated with the zeolite concentration. This result is relevant to zeolite feeding in other animal production systems, and for human pathogenesis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Habits and beliefs related to food supplements: Results of a survey among Italian students of different education fields and levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felice Sirico

    Full Text Available The increasing availability of food supplements, aggressive media advertising, and common beliefs that these substances have only positive effects on health and sport performance indicate a need for continuous monitoring of this phenomenon. The aim of this study was to investigate the habits and beliefs related to diet supplementation among medical, health professional, and other university/high school students by means of a cross-sectional anonymous survey online. Among the respondents aware of supplements, 37.4% were taking or had taken them in the past. Food supplement use was more common among university students (in particular, those in health professional graduate courses than high school students. Individual sport practice, rather than team sport, was associated with higher likelihood of food supplement use. Multivitamins were most commonly used, while weight-loss formulations were the least popular. Strikingly, filling nutrient gaps was statistically not considered the main reason for taking food supplements. Instead, they were used to enhance mental performance or enhance well-being. There was statistical evidence that students not enrolled in health or medical professional studies strongly agreed more often than medical students that taking food supplements prevents illness. These results indicate a striking difference between the evidence-based and personal reasons for food supplement use. Arguably, it calls for an improvement in education about diet supplementation and a change in attitude of health care providers to its implementation.

  8. Functional food supplements to ameliorate the secondary complications in high fructose fed diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gite, S S; Yadav, S A; Nilegaonkar, S S; Agte, V V

    2017-05-24

    Functional foods are the most natural and safest source of health ingredients, providing health benefits beyond basic nutrition, and hence can be used as supplements for the prevention of secondary complications in diabetes. Persistent diabetes may cause glycation of various tissue proteins such as of those in lens, kidney, blood, and brain, which may further lead to the development of pathological conditions such as cataract and cardiovascular diseases. This study on adult rats was designed to assess if the functional food supplements A and B (proprietary blends of antioxidant rich plant materials) can reduce secondary complications such as cataract, dyslipidemia, and oxidative stress under severe diabetic conditions. After nine weeks of intervention of the supplements, it was found that the % HbA1c levels in the formulation group B significantly (p foods in the effective management of secondary complications associated with severe diabetic conditions.

  9. Anticholinergic Accumulation: A Slumbering Interaction between Drugs and Food Supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrolijk, Misha F; Opperhuizen, Antoon; Jansen, Eugène H J M; Bast, Aalt; Haenen, Guido R M M

    2015-12-01

    Many compounds display anticholinergic effects which might give rise to cognitive impairment and even delirium. These side effects are caused by their ability to bind to muscarinic receptors in our brain. Especially with combination of compounds, these serious effects are seen. This phenomenon, known as anticholinergic accumulation, is especially seen in the elderly. A classification of drugs for anticholinergic side effects has been made based on clinical observations, the ACB score. Here, we aimed to substantiate this classification by comparing the affinity of numerous drugs for the muscarinic receptors to the ACB score. Additionally, a number of supplements were screened. The affinity of the compounds was determined by their ability to displace the radioligand [(3)H]pirenzepine of the muscarinic receptor induced by these compounds. Our results show that the affinity of a compound for the muscarinic receptors correlated with its ACB score. Also food supplements appeared to bind to these muscarinic receptors. Moreover, several drug-drug, supplement-supplement and supplement-drug combinations had an affinity that is higher than the affinity of single compounds. This explains the phenomenon of anticholinergic accumulation. In conclusion, care should be taken to drug-drug and supplement-drug combinations with respect to anticholinergic accumulation. © 2015 Nordic Association for the Publication of BCPT (former Nordic Pharmacological Society).

  10. Serum lithium as a compliance marker for food and supplement intake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roos, de N.; Vries, de J.H.M.; Katan, M.B.

    2001-01-01

    Analyzing 24-h urine for lithium after consumption of lithium-tagged foods or supplements provides a validated compliance marker but is laborious. Objective: Most studies involve blood sampling; therefore, we tested whether serum lithium concentration could be used as a compliance marker. Design: We

  11. The influence of nutritional supplement drinks on providing adequate calorie and protein intake in older adults with dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, V; Methven, L; Gosney, M

    2013-09-01

    Investigate the impact of the provision of ONS on protein and energy intake from food and ability to meet protein and calorie requirements in people with dementia. After consent by proxy was obtained, participants took part in a cross over study comparing oral intake on an intervention day to an adjacent control day. The study occurred in Nursing homes and hospitalised settings. Older adults with dementia over the age of 65 were recruited. 26 participants (aged 83.9+/-8.4years, MMSE 13.08+/-8.13) took part. Intervention (if any): On the intervention day nutritional supplement drinks were provided three times. Each drink provided 283.3+/-41.8 Kcal of energy and 13.8+/-4.7g of protein. Supplements were removed approximately 1 hour before meals were served and weighed waste (g) was obtained. Intake of food consumed was determined on intervention and control days using the quartile method (none, quarter, half, three quarters, all) for each meal component. More people achieved their energy and protein requirements with the supplement drink intervention with no sufficient impact on habitual food consumption. Findings from these 26 participants with dementia indicate that supplement drinks may be beneficial in reducing the prevalence of malnutrition within the group as more people meet their nutritional requirements. As the provision of supplement drinks is also demonstrated to have an additive effect to consumption of habitual foods these can be used alongside other measures to also improve oral intake.

  12. Anthranoid-containing medicines and food supplements on the Belgian market: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fierens, C; Corthout, J

    2014-06-01

    Medicines and food supplements containing anthranoid herbal drug preparations were verified on identity of the herbal substance, content of total hydroxyanthracene glycosides and microbiological quality. All examined medicines complied with the fixed requirements whereas all food supplements deviated from 1 or more of the criteria. The food supplements showed a large variability in quality and content.

  13. Food supplements: survey of the ASL TO3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valfrè, R; Bioletti, L; Spagna, S; Rolle, M; Zucaro, D; Vietti, F; Laurenti, P

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the increase of the consumption of supplements reveals problems concerning the safety of use. Current legislation states that supplements must be free of any therapeutic purpose and must have quality guarantees for the users' safety. The operators of the of Hygiene, Food and Nutrition Service (SIAN) of ASL TO 3 (province of Turin) conducted a surveillance in order to asses the situation on the territory, to know the use and consumption in local gyms. During the official control at the manufacturers / packers of supplements, located on the territory of the ASL TO 3, labels of supplement produced / packed were acquired, to analyze the components indicated, to carry out a deep evaluation of the individual product . Updating of the register of companies located in the territory of the ASL TO 3 was carried out; and during the period October 2011-March 2013 the labels of the products of these companies have been found and analyzed. The detailed content of the labels (ingredients, dose, method of recruitment, composition, etc. ..) was written in a database. It was also checked how many local gyms marketed supplements, and, in a small sample, a questionnaire was administered to visitors, in order to assess consumption. 355 labels were acquired and loaded on the database. 80% of them falls within the category of supplements based on ingredients derived from plants or similar. For these products was evaluated the presence on the label of not allowed plant extracts (according to the Ministerial Decree of 9 July 2012): only 2 products (of the same company) contained an ingredient not allowed. In all the examined labels was evaluated the presence of the substances for which there are specific warnings: 97% of the label is compliant and 3% are not in compliance. In the analyzed products the indications for use mainly found on the labels are related to increased demand and/or reduced intake, followed by antioxidant action. The study also evaluated the sale of

  14. Comparing food limitation among three stages of nesting: supplementation experiments with the burrowing owl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellicome, Troy I; Danielle Todd, L; Poulin, Ray G; Holroyd, Geoffrey L; Fisher, Ryan J

    2013-08-01

    Food availability is an important limiting factor for avian reproduction. In altricial birds, food limitation is assumed to be more severe during the nestling stage than during laying or incubation, but this has yet to be adequately tested. Using food-supplementation experiments over a 5-year period, we determined the degree and timing of food limitation for burrowing owls (Athene cunicularia) breeding in Canada. Burrowing owls are an endangered species and food limitation during the nestling stage could influence reproductive performance of this species at the northern extent of their range. Supplemented pairs fledged on average 47% more owlets than unfed pairs, except during a year when natural food was not limiting (i.e., a prey irruption year). The difference in fledgling production resulted from high nestling mortality in unfed broods, with 96% of all nestling deaths being attributed to food shortage. Supplemental feeding during the nestling period also increased fledgling structural size. Pairs fed from the start of laying produced the same number of hatchlings as pairs that received no supplemental food before hatch. Furthermore, pairs supplemented from egg laying to fledging and pairs supplemented during the nestling period alone had the same patterns of nestling survival, equal numbers of fledglings, and similar fledgling mass and structural size. Our results provide empirical support for the hypothesis that the nestling period is the most food-limited phase of the breeding cycle. The experimental design we introduce here could be used with other altricial species to examine how the timing of food limitation differs among birds with a variety of life-history strategies. For burrowing owls, and other species with similar life histories, long-term, large-scale, and appropriately timed habitat management increasing prey abundance or availability is critical for conservation. Our results provide empirical support for the hypothesis that the nestling period is

  15. Food Assistance: Research Provides Limited Information on the Effectiveness of Specific WIC Nutrition Services. Report to Congressional Committees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Robert E.

    The Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) is a federally funded program providing supplemental food and nutrition services to lower-income pregnant, breastfeeding, and postpartum women and also serves infants and children up to age 5 who are at nutritional risk. Included in these services are nutrition…

  16. A review of methods for the simultaneous detection of illegal ingredients in food supplements

    OpenAIRE

    Walker, Michael J; Naughton, Declan P; Deshmukh, Nawed; Burns, D Thorburn

    2016-01-01

    Food supplements are at risk from contamination with illegal ingredients on a global scale. To date, the official food control laboratory system in the UK does not appear to have been particularly active in the analytical control of illegal ingredients in food supplements. From a survey of notifications (2009 to 2016) to the European Union rapid alert system for food and feed (RASFF) food supplements are shown to be adulterated with a complex range of compounds and substances. These include p...

  17. The Role of Functional Foods, Nutraceuticals, and Food Supplements in Intestinal Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avrelija Cencic

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available New eating habits, actual trends in production and consumption have a health, environmental and social impact. The European Union is fighting diseases characteristic of a modern age, such as obesity, osteoporosis, cancer, diabetes, allergies and dental problems. Developed countries are also faced with problems relating to aging populations, high energy foods, and unbalanced diets. The potential of nutraceuticals/functional foods/food supplements in mitigating health problems, especially in the gastrointestinal (GI tract, is discussed. Certain members of gut microflora (e.g., probiotic/protective strains play a role in the host health due to its involvement in nutritional, immunologic and physiological functions. The potential mechanisms by which nutraceuticals/functional foods/food supplements may alter a host’s health are also highlighted in this paper. The establishment of novel functional cell models of the GI and analytical tools that allow tests in controlled experiments are highly desired for gut research.

  18. The role of functional foods, nutraceuticals, and food supplements in intestinal health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cencic, Avrelija; Chingwaru, Walter

    2010-06-01

    New eating habits, actual trends in production and consumption have a health, environmental and social impact. The European Union is fighting diseases characteristic of a modern age, such as obesity, osteoporosis, cancer, diabetes, allergies and dental problems. Developed countries are also faced with problems relating to aging populations, high energy foods, and unbalanced diets. The potential of nutraceuticals/functional foods/food supplements in mitigating health problems, especially in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, is discussed. Certain members of gut microflora (e.g., probiotic/protective strains) play a role in the host health due to its involvement in nutritional, immunologic and physiological functions. The potential mechanisms by which nutraceuticals/functional foods/food supplements may alter a host's health are also highlighted in this paper. The establishment of novel functional cell models of the GI and analytical tools that allow tests in controlled experiments are highly desired for gut research.

  19. 75 FR 71448 - Notice of Intent To Provide Supplemental Funding

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND...). The goal of this supplemental is a program expansion for one award to include direct Medicare fraud... fraud, error and abuse. The Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services data has revealed that Medicare...

  20. Preferences for food and nutritional supplements among adult people living with HIV in Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodas-Moya, Santiago; Kodish, Stephen; Manary, Mark; Grede, Nils; de Pee, Saskia

    2016-03-01

    To elucidate the factors influencing food intake and preferences for potential nutritional supplements to treat mild and moderate malnutrition among adult people living with HIV (PLHIV). Qualitative research using in-depth interviews with a triangulation of participants and an iterative approach to data collection. The study was conducted in a health clinic of rural Chilomoni, a southern town of Blantyre district, Malawi. Male and female participants, aged 18-49 years (n 24), affected by HIV; health surveillance assistants of Chilomoni clinic (n 8). Six themes emerged from the in-depth interviews: (i) PLHIV perceived having a poor-quality diet; (ii) health challenges determine the preferences of PLHIV for food; (iii) liquid-thick, soft textures and subtle natural colours and flavours are preferred; (iv) preferred organoleptic characteristics of nutritional supplements resemble those of local foods; (v) food insecurity may contribute to intra-household sharing of nutritional supplements; and (vi) health surveillance assistants and family members influence PLHIV's dietary behaviours. No differences by sex were found. The emergent themes were corroborated by health surveillance assistants through participant triangulation. In this setting, a thickened liquid supplement, slightly sweet and sour, may be well accepted. A combination of quantitative and qualitative methods for data collection should follow to further develop the nutritional supplement and to fine tune the organoleptic characteristics of the product to the taste and requirements of PLHIV. Results of the present study provide a first approach to elucidate the factors influencing food intake and preferences for potential nutritional supplements among adult PLHIV.

  1. Complex Dietary Supplements from Raw Plants Provide Nutrition for Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitriy M. Uvarov

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of mechanically activated complexes from plant substances to enhance athletes’ adaptability to intense physical activity. Methods: The object of the study was the dietary supplement Kladorod, which is based on the reindeer lichen Cladonia rangiferina and Rhodiola rosea in weight ratio of 10:1. To test the dietary supplement, we developed a special scheme for the experiment and selected 10 elite athletes (boxers and mixfighters. Athletes were divided into 2 groups and were under the same conditions (nutrition, medical monitoring, living conditions and training process. Athletes of the experimental group were given the dietary supplement Kladorod (capsule of 0.4 g by mouth between meals 4 times a day for 28 days. The control group was given placebo (Ringer-Locke powder capsules in the same terms in a similar way. During the experiment, the athletes were medically examined 3 times: at the beginning, in the middle, and after the course of intervention. We measured muscle performance, fat mass, muscle mass, and serum concentrations of cortisol and total testosterone. Results: It was established that during the intensive training of boxers and mixfighters for rating fights, administration of the dietary supplement Kladorod for 28 days stabilized the absolute and relative muscle mass, preventing its reduction, in comparison with the placebo group. At the same time, indicators of fat mass decreased significantly in the experimental group. After administering the course of Kladorod, we did not observe a significant decrease in testosterone/cortisol ratio, compared to the control group Thus, the use of biologically active supplements based on lichen raw materials and complexes of lichen raw materials with different plant substances enables the body to increase its adaptive potential and physical capacity.

  2. Effect of high-pressure homogenization on different matrices of food supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Sánchez, Ascensión; Tarazona-Díaz, Martha Patricia; García-González, Antonio; Gómez, Perla A; Aguayo, Encarna

    2016-12-01

    There is a growing demand for food supplements containing high amounts of vitamins, phenolic compounds and mineral content that provide health benefits. Those functional compounds have different solubility properties, and the maintenance of their compounds and the guarantee of their homogenic properties need the application of novel technologies. The quality of different drinkable functional foods after thermal processing (0.1 MPa) or high-pressure homogenization under two different conditions (80 MPa, 33 ℃ and 120 MPa, 43 ℃) was studied. Physicochemical characteristics and sensory qualities were evaluated throughout the six months of accelerated storage at 40 ℃ and 75% relative humidity (RH). Aroma and color were better maintained in high-pressure homogenization-treated samples than the thermally treated ones, which contributed significantly to extending their shelf life. The small particle size obtained after high-pressure homogenization treatments caused differences in turbidity and viscosity with respect to heat-treated samples. The use of high-pressure homogenization, more specifically, 120 MPa, provided active ingredient homogeneity to ensure uniform content in functional food supplements. Although the effect of high-pressure homogenization can be affected by the food matrix, high-pressure homogenization can be implemented as an alternative to conventional heat treatments in a commercial setting within the functional food supplement or pharmaceutical industry. © The Author(s) 2016.

  3. Supplemental nutrition assistance program participation and child food security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabli, James; Worthington, Julie

    2014-04-01

    This article investigates the association between Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) participation and child food security by using data from the largest national survey of the food security of SNAP participants to date. The analysis used a survey of nearly 3000 households with children and a quasi-experimental research design that consisted of 2 sets of comparisons. Using a cross-sectional sample, we compared information collected from SNAP households within days of program entry with information collected from a contemporaneous sample of SNAP households that had participated for ∼6 months. Next, by using a longitudinal sample, we compared baseline information collected from new-entrant SNAP households with information from those same households 6 months later. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to estimate associations between SNAP and child food security. SNAP participation was associated with an approximately one-third decrease in the odds of children being food insecure in both samples. In the cross-sectional analysis only, SNAP was also associated with a decrease in the odds of children experiencing severe food insecurity (designated very low food security). Findings were qualitatively robust to different empirical specifications. After controlling for other possible confounders, we found children in households that had participated in SNAP for 6 months experienced improvements in food security. On the basis of these findings, we conclude SNAP serves a vital role in improving the health and well-being of low-income children by increasing food security. Future research is needed to determine whether specific groups of children experience differential improvements in food security.

  4. Effects of food supplementation on depredation of duck nests in prairies by striped skunks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, R.J.; Pietruszewski, D.G.; Crawford, R.D.

    1998-01-01

    We examined provision of supplemental food as a method for reducing depredation of upland-duck nests, especially by striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis). Predators negatively influence duck recruitment in grassland ecosystems. Managers are in search of methods, particularly nonlethal methods, for reducing nest depredation. We conducted this study on 24 areas managed for wildlife production in the Prairie Pothole Region of central North Dakota during 1993-1994. We provided a mix of fish offal and sunflower seeds on 12 areas; no food was provided on the remaining 12 control areas. Although we observed a tendency during both years for higher nest success rates on provisioned areas ( = 46%, 1993; 36%, 1994) than on control areas ( = 27%, 1993; 31%, 1994), mean nest success rates (Mayfield 1961) overall did not differ significantly between food-provisioned areas ( = 41%) and control areas ( = 29%). Striped skunk depredation rate was lower on food-provisioned areas (11%) than on control areas (24%), suggesting that skunks reduced their consumption of eggs when provided with a food supplement. In 1994, habitat conditions were optimal, and ducks nested persistently into the summer when nest success rates of food-provisioned areas and control areas differed by only 5 percentage points. That year American badgers (Taxidea taxus) and Franklin's ground squirrels (Spermophilus franklinii) apparently compensated for reduced depredation by skunks. Thus, although skunks and other mammalian predators seem to have responded positively to food provisioning, nest depredations overall did not change. Provision of supplemental food apparently has limited value for managing depredation of upland duck nests in the Prairie Pothole Region where predator communities are complex.

  5. Comparison of calcium supplementation or low-fat dairy foods on epithelial cell proliferation and differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, P R; Wolper, C; Moss, S F; Yang, K; Lipkin, M

    2001-01-01

    Epidemiological evidence suggests that dietary calcium and vitamin D intake are inversely related to incidence of colon cancer. Previous studies have demonstrated that supplementation of the diet with calcium in the form of calcium tablets or low-fat dairy foods alters colonic epithelial cell proliferation from a higher- to a lower-risk pattern. The present study compared relative effects of administration of calcium carbonate at approximately 900 mg/day (calcium) with those of a low-fat dairy food diet providing about the same amount of calcium (dairy) in a cross-over "head-to-head" study of 40 subjects at risk for colonic neoplasia. Dietary intake of macronutrients was similar in the two study periods, except for a slight increase in protein intake during dairy calcium supplementation. Rectal epithelial cell proliferation was studied in flat endoscopically normal-appearing mucosa at baseline and at the end of each of the two study periods and showed a significant reduction in epithelial crypt cell labeling index from 12.5% to 9.1% (calcium) or 9.3% (dairy) as well as in proliferating cells in the upper 40% of the crypt from 0.09 to 0.03 in the calcium- and low-fat dairy-supplemented intervention groups. No significant changes in two epithelial cell differentiation markers, cytokeratin AE1 and acidic mucins, were found. Furthermore, there were no differences in epithelial cell apoptosis or expression of the proapoptotic gene product BAK. These data indicate that increased dietary calcium given as supplements or in the diet in low-fat dairy foods lowers epithelial cell proliferation indexes from a higher- to a lower-risk pattern. Because supplemental calcium has been shown to reduce the recurrence of colonic adenomatous polyps in patients at increased risk for colonic neoplasia, our data suggest that supplemental low-fat dairy foods may also be effective.

  6. Food Alone May Not Provide Sufficient Micronutrients for Preventing Deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misner Bill

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The American Dietetic Association (ADA has stated that the best nutritional strategy for promoting optimal health and reducing the risk of chronic disease is to wisely choose a wide variety of foods. Seventy diets were computer analyzed from the menu of athletes or sedentary subjects seeking to improve the quality of micronutrient intake from food choices. All of these dietary analyses fell short of the recommended 100% RDA micronutrient level from food alone. Therefore, based on diets analyzed for adequacy or inadequacy of macronutrients and micronutrients, a challenging question is proposed: "Does food selection alone provide 100% of the former RDA or newer RDI micronutrient recommended daily requirement?"

  7. Organically grown food provides health benefits to Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ria Chhabra

    Full Text Available The "organic food" market is the fastest growing food sector, yet it is unclear whether organically raised food is nutritionally superior to conventionally grown food and whether consuming organic food bestows health benefits. In order to evaluate potential health benefits of organic foods, we used the well-characterized fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster as a model system. Fruit flies were raised on a diets consisting of extracts of either conventionally or organically raised produce (bananas, potatoes, raisins, soy beans. Flies were then subjected to a variety of tests designed to assess overall fly health. Flies raised on diets made from organically grown produce had greater fertility and longevity. On certain food sources, greater activity and greater stress resistance was additionally observed, suggesting that organic food bestows positive effects on fly health. Our data show that Drosophila can be used as a convenient model system to experimentally test potential health effects of dietary components. Using this system, we provide evidence that organically raised food may provide animals with tangible benefits to overall health.

  8. Organically grown food provides health benefits to Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhabra, Ria; Kolli, Santharam; Bauer, Johannes H

    2013-01-01

    The "organic food" market is the fastest growing food sector, yet it is unclear whether organically raised food is nutritionally superior to conventionally grown food and whether consuming organic food bestows health benefits. In order to evaluate potential health benefits of organic foods, we used the well-characterized fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster as a model system. Fruit flies were raised on a diets consisting of extracts of either conventionally or organically raised produce (bananas, potatoes, raisins, soy beans). Flies were then subjected to a variety of tests designed to assess overall fly health. Flies raised on diets made from organically grown produce had greater fertility and longevity. On certain food sources, greater activity and greater stress resistance was additionally observed, suggesting that organic food bestows positive effects on fly health. Our data show that Drosophila can be used as a convenient model system to experimentally test potential health effects of dietary components. Using this system, we provide evidence that organically raised food may provide animals with tangible benefits to overall health.

  9. Middle-class household food providers' views and experiences of food marketing in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Quynh Th; Worsley, Anthony

    2016-12-01

    Food marketing has been identified as a target for intervention in the prevention of childhood overweight and obesity within countries and globally, and promotion of healthy diets has been classified as a key strategy to reduce the burden of non-communicable diseases and health inequalities. The present study aims to investigate how Vietnamese middle-class household food providers are impacted by food advertising communications, their views of food marketing and the ways they think the government can control food marketing to assist people to consume healthier diets. 810 household food providers participated in the online survey. Frequency counts were calculated using IBM SPSS version 21. Many respondents had been exposed to food marketing; 82.8% had seen food advertising in magazines at least once a month, 65.1% had received free food samples in public places, 68.0% had received food advertising information via email. Many household food providers appeared to support food marketing; 73.3% approved of nutrition education in schools or on television being provided by soft drink or fast food companies, 63.7% supported the marketing of infant formula milk. There were mixed views about what actions the government could implement to control food marketing; 88.2% supported clearer food content on food labels, 84.1% believed that children should learn how to purchase and cook foods at school. A substantial majority of Vietnamese middle-class household food providers appeared unaware of the adverse effects of food marketing. Education and policy leadership in food and nutrition are urgently required.

  10. Food supplementation does not increase demographic rates in a passerine species of conservation concern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Innes M.W. Sim

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have examined the effects of the provision of supplementary food on aspects of avian reproductive success, but far fewer have gone on to examine the potential positive effects of food supplementation on the demographic rates which are key for population growth rate. Testing for potential effects of food shortage on vital rates is likely to be particularly important in species of high conservation concern, where populations are particularly small, isolated or decreasing rapidly. Here we test the effects of the provision of supplementary food on reproductive success, body condition at fledging and post-fledging survival of ring ouzels (Turdus torquatus, a species of high conservation concern in the UK. However, food supplementation had no detectable effect on any of these parameters. There was no significant difference in return rates of fed and unfed fledglings in the year following hatching, and most post-fledging mortality was apparently caused by predation by raptors and mustelids. We conclude that the supply of invertebrate food sources for nestlings was not a major limiting factor in our study area, at least during this two-year study. Further studies are required to quantify the precise mix of habitats used by ring ouzels, at the appropriate scale, which provide concealment from predators and access to food supplies throughout the spring and summer months.

  11. The Order of Circulation of Dietary Supplements that Contain Food Additives on Ukrainian Pharmaceutical Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Malinina

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the main stages of circulation of dietary supplements that contain food additives on Ukraine pharmaceutical market. The classification of dietary supplements was studied and thirteen groups according to the ATC code, clinical and pharmacological group were found. The control regime of dietary supplements of the "Dietary supplements that affect the functions of the central nervous system" group was studied and it was established what food additives are included in dietary supplements of the "Dietary supplements that affect the functions of the central nervous system" group. It was proved that some food supplements with indices E171, E172 may cause side effects in the form of liver and kidney disease and food supplement E504 is generally prohibited for children under the age of 5 years.

  12. Food insecurity: could school food supplementation help break cycles of intergenerational transmission of social inequalities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roustit, Christelle; Hamelin, Anne-Marie; Grillo, Francesca; Martin, Judith; Chauvin, Pierre

    2010-12-01

    The aim of our study was to investigate the moderating effect of school food programs in schools in disadvantaged neighborhoods on the association between household food insecurity and scholastic difficulties among adolescents. We analyzed data from the Social and Health Survey of Children and Adolescents in Quebec, Canada, which was conducted in 1999 and included 2346 adolescent students 13 and 16 years of age (and 1983 of their parents). Sample-weighted regression analyses were performed to determine the association between household food insecurity and school difficulties and to explore the moderating role of food supplementation programs with respect to this association. Household food insecurity, which was linked to the indicators of family socioeconomic status, was strongly associated with the indicators of scholastic difficulties. This association disappeared for adolescents who benefited from food supplementation programs in schools in disadvantaged neighborhoods. The risk of school activity limitation decreased from OR = 2.76 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.41-5.41) to OR = 1.57 (95% CI: 1.35-3.40), the risk of below-average grades in the language of instruction decreased from OR = 2.19 (95% CI: 1.28-3.74) to OR = 0.59 (95% CI: 0.21-1.63), the risk of repeating a year decreased from OR = 2.14 (95% CI: 1.35-3.40) to OR = 0.87 (95% CI: 0.42-1.81), and the risk of self-rated poor academic performance decreased from OR = 1.74 (95% CI: 1.08-2.81) to OR = 0.81(95% CI: 0.37-1.78). School food supplementation is a moderating factor in the association between household food insecurity and scholastic difficulties for adolescents.

  13. Health aspects of Spirulina (Arthrospira microalga food supplement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sotiroudis Theodore G.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Spirulina, now named Arthrospira, is a microscopic and filamentous cyanobacterium that has a long history of use as a safe food lacking toxicity. It is commercially produced in large outdoor ponds under controlled conditions. The aim of this review article is to summarize available recent information concerning human clinical potential and applications of Spirulina, as well as clinical data related to the safety and side effects of Spirulina. Potential health benefits of Spirulina are mainly due to its chemical composition, which includes proteins (the highest protein content of any natural food, 55%-70%, carbohydrates, essential amino acids, minerals (especially iron, essential fatty acids, vitamins, and pigments. In this respect, three major bioactive components of Spirulina, the protein phycocyanin (a biliprotein pigment, sulfated polysaccharides and gamma linolenic acid seem to play significant role in imparting improved human body functions. Furthermore, new experimental evidence supports the immunomodulation and antiviral effects of Spirulina supplementation. According to the Dietary Supplements Information Expert Committee of United States Pharmacopeial Convention the available clinical evidence does not indicate a serious risk to health or other public health concerns for Spirulina. However, a few cases of severe side-effects have been reported.

  14. Organically Grown Food Provides Health Benefits to Drosophila melanogaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhabra, Ria; Kolli, Santharam; Bauer, Johannes H.

    2013-01-01

    The “organic food” market is the fastest growing food sector, yet it is unclear whether organically raised food is nutritionally superior to conventionally grown food and whether consuming organic food bestows health benefits. In order to evaluate potential health benefits of organic foods, we used the well-characterized fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster as a model system. Fruit flies were raised on a diets consisting of extracts of either conventionally or organically raised produce (bananas, potatoes, raisins, soy beans). Flies were then subjected to a variety of tests designed to assess overall fly health. Flies raised on diets made from organically grown produce had greater fertility and longevity. On certain food sources, greater activity and greater stress resistance was additionally observed, suggesting that organic food bestows positive effects on fly health. Our data show that Drosophila can be used as a convenient model system to experimentally test potential health effects of dietary components. Using this system, we provide evidence that organically raised food may provide animals with tangible benefits to overall health. PMID:23326371

  15. [Regulation of food supplements in the European Union and its member states. Part I].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrenko, A S; Ponomareva, M N; Sukhanov, B P

    2014-01-01

    The article discusses aspects of the regional (the European Union) and national (European countries) regulation of food supplements. The definition of the supplement category is given. The contemporary issues of nutrition in developed countries are discussed, and the essential role of food supplements in the diet is emphasized. In particular, the use of vitamins, minerals, botanicals and their chemical constituents in food supplements as well as the issue of setting maximum daily limits are discussed. The positive lists of vitamins, minerals and their chemical modifications are presented. The paper also outlines aspects of supplement safety, requirements for their labelling and pre-market notification procedure.

  16. Supplemental Educational Services: An Action Science Research Study of Achieving State Standards for Provider Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClintock, Cynthia Collette

    2012-01-01

    Supplemental educational services are designed to contribute tremendous support to local school districts and communities through state-approved provider programs. The state, however, prior to approving supplemental educational services provider programs, must utilize all available resources to assist in the process of screening and approving…

  17. Herbal and dietary supplement disclosure to health care providers by individuals with chronic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Darshan H; Gardiner, Paula M; Phillips, Russell S; McCarthy, Ellen P

    2008-12-01

    Very little is known about herbal and dietary supplement disclosure in adults with chronic medical conditions, especially on a national level. To examine herbal and dietary supplement disclosure to conventional health care providers by adults with chronic medical conditions. Data on herbal and dietary supplement use (N = 5456 users) in the previous year were used from the 2002 National Health Interview Survey. Bi-variable analyses compared characteristics between herbal and dietary supplement disclosers and nondisclosers. Multivariable logistic regression identified independent correlates of herbal and dietary supplement disclosure. Overall, only 33% of herbal and dietary supplement users reported disclosing use of herbal and dietary supplements to their conventional health care provider. Among herbal and dietary supplement users with chronic conditions, less than 51% disclosed use to their conventional health care provider. Hispanic (adjusted odds ratio and 95% confidence interval = 0.70 [0.52, 0.94]) and Asian American (adjusted odds ratio and 95% confidence interval = 0.54 [0.33, 0.89]) adults were much less likely than non-Hispanic white Americans to disclose herbal and dietary supplement use. Having less than a high school education (adjusted odds ratio and 95% confidence interval = 0.61 [0.45, 0.82]) and not having insurance (adjusted odds ratio and 95% confidence interval = 0.77 [0.59, 1.00]) were associated with being less likely to disclose herbal and dietary supplement use. Herbal and dietary supplement disclosure rates are low, even among adults with chronic conditions. These findings raise concerns about the safety of herbal and dietary supplements in combination with allopathic care. Future studies should focus on educating physicians about crosscultural care as well as eliciting information about herbal and dietary supplement use.

  18. Detection of microcystin synthetase genes in health food supplements containing the freshwater cyanobacterium Aphanizomenon flos-aquae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saker, M L; Jungblut, A-D; Neilan, B A; Rawn, D F K; Vasconcelos, V M

    2005-10-01

    In this study we investigated the presence of toxin-producing cyanobacterial contaminants in food supplements manufactured from blooms of the non-toxic freshwater cyanobacterium Aphanizomenon flos-aquae. Previous reports investigating the contamination of health food supplements with toxin-producing cyanobacteria have used chemical and or biochemical methods such as HPLC, ELISA and protein phosphatase assays. Whilst these studies have drawn attention to the presence of hepatotoxic microcystins in some commercially available food supplements, the methods used do not provide any information on the source of the contaminant. Such information would be useful for the quality control of food supplements produced for human consumption. In this study we applied a molecular technique, involving the amplification of the 16s rRNA gene, the phycocyanin operon, and two genes of the microcystin synthetase gene cluster to show that all 12 food supplement samples, sourced from various internet distributors and containing non-toxic A. flos-aquae, also contained toxigenic cyanobacteria. Sequencing of the microcystin synthetase genes detected in all of the food supplements showed that M. aeruginosa was the organism responsible for the production of microcystins in the samples. The presence of microcystins in the food supplements was confirmed by ELISA, with concentrations within the range of 0.1--4.72 microgg(-1) (microcystin-LR equivalents). Given that the molecular methods applied here are highly sensitive, and show good agreement with the results obtained from ELISA, we believe that they could potentially be used as a quality control technique for food products that contain cyanobacteria.

  19. Mineral Intake in Urban Pregnant Women from Base Diet, Fortified Foods, and Food Supplements: Focus on Calcium, Iron, and Zinc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Hai Xian; Han, Jun Hua; Li, Hu Zhong; Liang, Dong; Deng, Tao Tao; Chang, Su Ying

    2016-12-01

    In the Chinese national nutrition surveys, fortified foods were not investigated separately from the base diet, and the contribution of fortified foods to micronutrients intake is not very clear. This study investigated the diet, including fortified foods and food supplements, of urban pregnant women and analyzed the intake of calcium, iron, and zinc to assess the corresponding contributions of fortified foods, food supplements, and the base diet. The results demonstrated that the base diet was the major source of calcium, iron, and zinc, and was recommended to be the first choice for micronutrients intake. Furthermore, consumption of fortified foods and food supplements offered effective approaches to improve the dietary intake of calcium, iron, and zinc in Chinese urban pregnant women. Copyright © 2016 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  20. Providing nutrition supplements to institutionalized seniors with probable Alzheimer's disease is least beneficial to those with low body weight status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Karen W H; Greenwood, Carol E; van Reekum, Robert; Binns, Malcolm A

    2004-08-01

    To examine whether providing a midmorning nutrition supplement increases habitual energy intake in seniors with probable Alzheimer's disease (AD) and to investigate the effects of body weight status and cognitive and behavioral function on the response to the intervention. Randomized, crossover, nonblinded clinical trial. A fully accredited geriatric teaching facility affiliated with the University of Toronto's Medical School with a home for the aged. Thirty-four institutionalized seniors with probable AD who ate independently. Nutrition supplements were provided between breakfast and lunch for 21 consecutive days and compared with 21 consecutive days of habitual intake. Investigator-weighed food intake, body weight, cognitive function (Severe Impairment Battery and Global Deterioration Scale), behavioral disturbances (Neuropsychiatric Inventory-Nursing Home Version), and behavioral function (London Psychogeriatric Rating Scale). Relative to habitual intake, group mean analyses showed increased 24-hour energy, protein, and carbohydrate intake during the supplement phase, but five of 31 subjects who finished all study phases completely compensated for the energy provided by the supplement by reducing lunch intake, and 24-hour energy intake was enhanced in only 21 of 31 subjects. Compensation at lunch was more likely in subjects with lower body mass indices, increased aberrant motor behavior, poorer attention, and increased mental disorganization/confusion. Nutrition supplements were least likely to enhance habitual energy intake in subjects who would normally be targeted for nutrition intervention-those with low body weight status. Those likely to benefit include those with higher body mass indices, less aberrant motor problems, less mental disorganization, and increased attention.

  1. Maternal and Child Supplementation with Lipid-Based Nutrient Supplements, but Not Child Supplementation Alone, Decreases Self-Reported Household Food Insecurity in Some Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Katherine P; Ayifah, Emmanuel; Phiri, Thokozani E; Mridha, Malay K; Adu-Afarwuah, Seth; Arimond, Mary; Arnold, Charles D; Cummins, Joseph; Hussain, Sohrab; Kumwenda, Chiza; Matias, Susana L; Ashorn, Ulla; Lartey, Anna; Maleta, Kenneth M; Vosti, Stephen A; Dewey, Kathryn G

    2017-12-01

    Background: It is unknown whether self-reported measures of household food insecurity change in response to food-based nutrient supplementation.Objective: We assessed the impacts of providing lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNSs) to women during pregnancy and postpartum and/or to their children on self-reported household food insecurity in Malawi [DOSE and DYAD trial in Malawi (DYAD-M)], Ghana [DYAD trial in Ghana (DYAD-G)], and Bangladesh [Rang-Din Nutrition Study (RDNS) trial].Methods: Longitudinal household food-insecurity data were collected during 3 individually randomized trials and 1 cluster-randomized trial testing the efficacy or effectiveness of LNSs (generally 118 kcal/d). Seasonally adjusted Household Food Insecurity Access Scale (HFIAS) scores were constructed for 1127 DOSE households, 732 DYAD-M households, 1109 DYAD-G households, and 3671 RDNS households. The impact of providing LNSs to women during pregnancy and the first 6 mo postpartum and/or to their children from 6 to 18-24 mo on seasonally adjusted HFIAS scores was assessed by using negative binomial models (DOSE, DYAD-M, and DYAD-G trials) and mixed-effect negative binomial models (RDNS trial).Results: In the DOSE and DYAD-G trials, seasonally adjusted HFIAS scores were not different between the LNS and non-LNS groups. In the DYAD-M trial, the average household food-insecurity scores were 14% lower (P = 0.01) in LNS households than in non-LNS households. In the RDNS trial, compared with non-LNS households, food-insecurity scores were 17% lower (P = 0.02) during pregnancy and the first 6 mo postpartum and 15% lower (P = 0.02) at 6-24 mo postpartum in LNS households.Conclusions: The daily provision of LNSs to mothers and their children throughout much of the "first 1000 d" may improve household food security in some settings, which could be viewed as an additional benefit that may accrue in households should policy makers choose to invest in LNSs to promote child growth and development. These

  2. Providing Supplemental Counseling Experiences: Alternatives to Role-Playing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazler, Richard J.; Singer, Mark J.

    This paper offers a rationale and introduction to three innovative techniques which provide initial counseling experiences to trainees in the helping professions. The development of a cooperative program with the drama department to train and utilize drama students as coached clients is described as the first technique. The second technique is…

  3. Active pharmaceutical ingredients detected in herbal food supplements for weight loss samples on the Dutch market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reeuwijk, N.M.; Venhuis, B.J.; Kaste, de D.; Hoogenboom, L.A.P.; Rietjens, I.; Martena, M.J.

    2014-01-01

    Herbal food supplements claiming to reduce weight may contain active pharmacological ingredients (APIs) that can be used for the treatment of overweight and obesity. The aim of this study was to determine whether herbal food supplements for weight loss on the Dutch market contain APIs with weight

  4. [Food supplements on the domestic market in Hungary: nutritional assessment of the ingredients, risks and benefits, the role of food supplements in human nutrition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugasi, Andrea; Horacsek, Márta; Martos, Éva

    2010-11-28

    Food supplements are foods that are concentrated sources of nutrients such as vitamins and minerals and other substances with a physiological or nutritional effect. Since joining to the European Union, the distribution of food supplements in Hungary has not been bound to pre-market authorisation; products can be placed to the market after a formal notification at the National Institute for Food and Nutrition Science. Distribution, ingredients, and all information on the label are determined by numerous regulations but at the same time, the lack of harmonized legislation at Community level may cause a lot of problems. In the second part of the review authors introduce the evaluation process of components from the point of view of nutritional and physiological effects and the possible role of food supplements in human nutrition.

  5. Rosaceae products: Anthocyanin quality and comparisons between dietary supplements and foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jungmin Lee

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Rosaceae (strawberry, cherry, blackberry, red raspberry, and black raspberry dietary supplements and food products (total n = 74 were purchased and analyzed to determine their anthocyanin concentrations and profiles. Eight of the 33 dietary supplements had no detectable anthocyanins (five samples or were adulterated with anthocyanins from unlabeled sources (three samples. Five of 41 food products contained no detectable anthocyanins. In mg per serving, the dietary supplements tested contained 0.02–86.27 (average 10.00, and food products contained 0.48–39.66 (average 7.76. Anthocyanin levels between the dietary supplements and food products were not significantly different in mg per serving. Individual anthocyanin profiles can be used to evaluate quality of Rosaceae food products and dietary supplements. These findings show that increasing anthocyanin content and reducing adulteration could improve the quality of Rosaceae products available in the marketplace.

  6. Pollination services provided by bees in pumpkin fields supplemented with either Apis mellifera or Bombus impatiens or not supplemented.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Jessica D; Reiners, Stephen; Nault, Brian A

    2013-01-01

    Pollinators provide an important service in many crops. Managed honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) are used to supplement pollination services provided by wild bees with the assumption that they will enhance pollination, fruit set and crop yield beyond the levels provided by the wild bees. Recent declines in managed honey bee populations have stimulated interest in finding alternative managed pollinators to service crops. In the eastern U.S., managed hives of the native common eastern bumble bee (Bombus impatiens Cresson) may be an excellent choice. To examine this issue, a comprehensive 2-yr study was conducted to compare fruit yield and bee visits to flowers in pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.) fields that were either supplemented with A. mellifera hives, B. impatiens hives or were not supplemented. We compared pumpkin yield, A. mellifera flower visitation frequency and B. impatiens flower visitation frequency between treatments. Results indicated that supplementing pumpkin fields with either A. mellifera or B. impatiens hives did not increase their visitation to pumpkin flowers or fruit yield compared with those that were not supplemented. Next, the relationship between frequency of pumpkin flower visitation by the most prominent bee species (Peponapis pruinosa (Say), B. impatiens and A. mellifera) and fruit yield was determined across all pumpkin fields sampled. Fruit yield increased as the frequency of flower visits by A. mellifera and B. impatiens increased in 2011 and 2012, respectively. These results suggest that supplementation with managed bees may not improve pumpkin production and that A. mellifera and B. impatiens are important pollinators of pumpkin in our system.

  7. Fat-soluble vitamin intake from the consumption of food, fortified food and supplements: design and methods of the Belgian VITADEK study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyersoen, Isabelle; Demarest, Stefaan; De Ridder, Karin; Tafforeau, Jean; Lachat, Carl; Van Camp, John

    2017-01-01

    vitamin intake from all sources providing as such more accurate estimates of fat-soluble vitamin intake. The results will allow assessing inadequate micronutrient intake by comparison of vitamin intake with dietary reference values. The data will further allow describing the most contributing food groups as well as the contribution of fortified foods and supplements to total vitamin intake. The data will enable evaluating whether infants, toddlers, pregnant and/or lactating women are reached by the actual Belgian fortification and supplementation programmes. Finally the retrieved data will reveal the potential for voluntary fortification and the need for future fortification and supplementation programmes.

  8. [Regulation of food supplements in the European Union and its member states. Part 2].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrenko, A S; Ponomareva, M N; Sukhanov, B P

    2014-01-01

    The article discusses various aspects of the regional (the European Union) and national (European countries) regulation related to food supplements. The use of botanicals and minor bioactive substances in food supplements, and their labelling are studied. The EU principle of mutual recognition is described in the context of current challenges that exist in the regulatory harmonisation between the EU member states. The concept of novel foods and novel ingredients is also presented, and the procedure of their pre-market approval is described in detail. Basic principles of using claims for food supplements are also outlined.

  9. Study of antioxidant activity of natural food supplements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetyana Lozova

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available 96 Normal 0 false false false CS JA X-NONE This article describes the results of a study of antioxidant activity of natural food supplements suggested for use in flour confectionery production. Oxidation rate of the model substance - cumene - was measured using a volumetric unit. Diagram of absorbed oxygen amount as a function of time (∆HO2 over t was built by measuring time in minutes and absorbed oxygen volume in cm3. This diagram was subsequently used to graphically determine the oxidation rate as the slope ratio of the line in specified coordinates. Afterwards, the oxidation rate was measured at a different initiation rate (different azobisisobutyronitrile solution volume, while all other parameters of the experiment remained unaltered. On the basis of the resulting data, diagrams of oxidation rate as a function of initiation rate were built for all investigated substances (both extracts and powders. The study revealed that apian products, including pollen and propolis, as well as kidney bean powder and phytosupplements (leaves of leather bergenia, lime blossom, heartsease, wild chamomile, pepper mint, bog rosemary, and elderflowers, possessed high antioxidant activity. According to the research data, the highest activity was detected in propolis  0.482·20 pollen 0.802 and powdered forms of pepper mint 1.066 leather bergenia leaves 0.937 heartsease 0.385 lime blossom 0.331 and kidney beans 0.323. Relatively lower antioxidant activity was found in powdered bog rosemary 0.242 elderflowers 0.238 and wild chamomile 0.212. (Introduction of the investigated supplements will allow inhibiting oxidation processes in the lipide fraction of foodstuffs, including flour confectionery, to ensure stability of their qualitative characteristics over a longer period.

  10. Intake of Fat-Soluble Vitamins in the Belgian Population: Adequacy and Contribution of Foods, Fortified Foods and Supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyersoen, Isabelle; Devleesschauwer, Brecht; Dekkers, Arnold; de Ridder, Karin; Tafforeau, Jean; van Camp, John; van Oyen, Herman; Lachat, Carl

    2017-08-11

    A key challenge of public health nutrition is to provide the majority of the population with a sufficient level of micronutrients while preventing high-consumers from exceeding the tolerable upper intake level. Data of the 2014 Belgian food consumption survey ( n = 3200) were used to assess fat-soluble vitamin (vitamins A, D, E and K) intake from the consumption of foods, fortified foods and supplements. This study revealed inadequate intakes for vitamin A, from all sources, in the entire Belgian population and possible inadequacies for vitamin D. The prevalence of inadequate intake of vitamin A was lowest in children aged 3-6 (6-7%) and highest in adolescents (girls, 26%; boys, 34-37%). Except for women aged 60-64 years, more than 95% of the subjects had vitamin D intake from all sources below the adequate intake (AI) of 15 μg/day. The risk for inadequate intake of vitamins K and E was low (median > AI). Belgian fortification and supplementation practices are currently inadequate to eradicate suboptimal intakes of vitamins A and D, but increase median vitamin E intake close to the adequate intake. For vitamin A, a small proportion (1-4%) of young children were at risk of exceeding the upper intake level (UL), while for vitamin D, inclusion of supplements slightly increased the risk for excessive intakes (% > UL) in adult women and young children. The results may guide health authorities when developing population health interventions and regulations to ensure adequate intake of fat-soluble vitamins in Belgium.

  11. Intake of Fat-Soluble Vitamins in the Belgian Population: Adequacy and Contribution of Foods, Fortified Foods and Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devleesschauwer, Brecht; Dekkers, Arnold; de Ridder, Karin; Tafforeau, Jean; van Camp, John; van Oyen, Herman; Lachat, Carl

    2017-01-01

    A key challenge of public health nutrition is to provide the majority of the population with a sufficient level of micronutrients while preventing high-consumers from exceeding the tolerable upper intake level. Data of the 2014 Belgian food consumption survey (n = 3200) were used to assess fat-soluble vitamin (vitamins A, D, E and K) intake from the consumption of foods, fortified foods and supplements. This study revealed inadequate intakes for vitamin A, from all sources, in the entire Belgian population and possible inadequacies for vitamin D. The prevalence of inadequate intake of vitamin A was lowest in children aged 3–6 (6–7%) and highest in adolescents (girls, 26%; boys, 34–37%). Except for women aged 60–64 years, more than 95% of the subjects had vitamin D intake from all sources below the adequate intake (AI) of 15 μg/day. The risk for inadequate intake of vitamins K and E was low (median > AI). Belgian fortification and supplementation practices are currently inadequate to eradicate suboptimal intakes of vitamins A and D, but increase median vitamin E intake close to the adequate intake. For vitamin A, a small proportion (1–4%) of young children were at risk of exceeding the upper intake level (UL), while for vitamin D, inclusion of supplements slightly increased the risk for excessive intakes (% > UL) in adult women and young children. The results may guide health authorities when developing population health interventions and regulations to ensure adequate intake of fat-soluble vitamins in Belgium. PMID:28800115

  12. Prenatal food supplementation fortified with multiple micronutrients increases birth length: a randomized controlled trial in rural Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huybregts, Lieven; Roberfroid, Dominique; Lanou, Hermann; Menten, Joris; Meda, Nicolas; Van Camp, John; Kolsteren, Patrick

    2009-12-01

    Prenatal multiple micronutrient (MMN) or balanced energy and protein supplementation has a limited effect on birth size of the offspring. The objective was to determine whether a prenatal MMN-fortified food supplement (FFS) improves anthropometric measures at birth compared with supplementation with an MMN pill alone. We conducted a nonblinded, individually randomized controlled trial in 1296 pregnant women in 2 villages in rural Burkina Faso. Supplements were provided on a daily basis, and compliance was closely verified by using a community-based network of home visitors. Anthropometric measures at birth were available for analysis for 87% of the 1175 live singleton deliveries enrolled. After adjustment for gestational age at birth, the FFS group had a significantly higher birth length (+4.6 mm; P = 0.001). FFS supplementation resulted in a modestly higher birth weight (+31 g; P = 0.197). Subgroup analyses showed clinically important treatment effects on birth length (+12.0 mm; P = 0.005) and on birth weight (+111 g; P = 0.133) for underweight [body mass index (in kg/m(2)) birth to longer newborns (+7.3 mm; P = 0.002) than did those who received MMN supplementation. The provision of FFS to pregnant women resulted in higher birth length than did MMN supplementation. For women with a suboptimal prepregnancy nutritional status, MMN supplementation should be complemented with a balanced energy and protein supplement to produce a clinical effect on birth size. The trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00909974.

  13. Adequacy of energy and macronutrient intake of food supplements for athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Behrends RODRIGUES

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective To assess how much food supplements contribute to the nutritional adequacy of energy and macronutrients in relation those recommended for athletes. Methods This was a cross sectional study was composed of 182 athletes from 19 sports (150 men and 32 women with a mean age, weight, height and body mass index of 23.8±7.5 years, 73.7±15.6kg, 1.7±0.1m, 24.2±4.0kg/m², respectively. The 24 hours dietary recall was applied to assess intake and the Multiple Source Method to evaluate usual intake. We used the t-test, Mann-Whitney test, Analysis of Variance and Kruskal-Wallis for comparative analysis among the diets, gender and types of groups, and the comparison of two-proportion test to assess the diets Food and Food and Supplementation. Results Of the athletes studied, less than half used dietary supplements (39.0%. Energy intake was below the recommended (52.7% in Food diet, and 45.6% in Food and Supplementation diet. The mean total of carbohydrate inadequacy (g.kg-1.day-1 was high for athletes of both genders and between Food and Food and Supplementation diets. The protein intake was above the recommended levels in Food diet (23.1% and in Food and Supplementation diet (33.5%. The lipid intake was also above the recommended dietary levels in Food (47.3% and in Food and Supplementation diets (50.0%. Conclusion The use of supplements did not significantly reduce inadequacies of diet and the athletes’ intake of calories and carbohydrates was below the recommended for these groups. However, the protein intake was above the recommended levels for athletes.

  14. Use of food supplements and determinants of usage in a sample Italian adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giammarioli, Stefania; Boniglia, Concetta; Carratù, Brunella; Ciarrocchi, Marco; Chiarotti, Flavia; Mosca, Maurizio; Sanzini, Elisabetta

    2013-10-01

    The aims were to collect data on consumption of different food supplements in a sample of the adult Italian population and to characterize users by demographic, physical and health-related characteristics, lifestyle and behaviour. Cross-sectional survey. The study was conducted in 2008 in ten towns of Italy (two towns from each of the five macro-areas: Northwest, Northeast, Centre, South and Islands). Adults (n 10 000) aged ≥18 years were randomly selected and asked to fill in a self-administered questionnaire regarding their use of food supplements and the above variables. The effect of these variables on food supplement use was evaluated by univariate and multivariate logistic regression. Of the 1723 individuals who returned the questionnaire, 49% were users of food supplements. A large proportion (54%) of users used more than one category of food supplement: vitamin and/or mineral supplements were the most used (61%), followed by supplements with botanicals and botanical extracts (28%). The results obtained by logistic regression showed that gender, town size, education level, sports practice, regular use of wholemeal cereal-based foods and presence of a low stress level were determinants for the use of food supplements in the examined population. However, these determinants were not shared by all categories of supplements. The results of this preliminary study highlight that associations between demographic, dietary and lifestyle factors and use of different categories of food supplements differ according to products, and cannot be accounted for simply by dichotomizing individuals as users or non-users.

  15. Biotin determination in food supplements by an electrochemical magneto biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kergaravat, Silvina V; Gómez, Gabriel A; Fabiano, Silvia N; Laube Chávez, Tamara I; Pividori, María I; Hernández, Silvia R

    2012-08-15

    An electrochemical magneto biosensor for the rapid determination of biotin in food samples is reported. The affinity reaction was performed on streptavidin-modified magnetic microbeads as a solid support in a direct competitive format. The biotinylated horseradish peroxidase enzyme (biotin-HRP) competes with free biotin in the sample for the binding sites of streptavidin on the magnetic microbeads. The modified magnetic beads were then easily captured by a magneto graphite-epoxy composite electrode and the electrochemical signal was based on the enzymatic activity of the HRP enzyme under the addition of H(2)O(2) as the substrate and o-phenilendiamine as cosubstrate. The response was electrochemically detected by square wave voltammetry. The limit of detection was 8.4×10(-8) mol L(--1) of biotin (20 μg L(--1)) with a dynamic range from 0.94 to 2.4×10(-7) mol L(--1). Biotin-fortified commercial dietary supplement and infant formula samples were evaluated obtaining good performances in the results. Total time of analysis was 40 min per 20 assays. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Antioxidant and Cytotoxicological Effects of Aloe vera Food Supplements

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    Zaira López

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, food industries use supplements from Aloe vera as highly concentrated powders (starting products, which are added to the final product at a concentration of 1x, meaning 10 g/L for decolourized and spray-dried whole leaf powder (WLP or 5 g/L for decolourized and spray-dried inner leaf powder (ILG and also for nondecolourized and belt-dried inner leaf powder (ILF. Flavonoids, tannins, or saponins could not be detected for any starting product at this concentration and their total phenol concentration of 68–112 μM gallate-eq. was much lower than in fresh extract; however, their antioxidant capacity of 90–123 μM ascorbate-eq. for DPPH was similar to the fresh extract. Starting products, dissolved at 1x, had an aloin concentration of 0.04 to 0.07 ppm, a concentration much lower than the industry standard of 10 ppm for foodstuff. While decolourized starting products (i.e., treated with activated carbon exhibited low cytotoxicity on HeLa cells (CC50 = 15 g/L ILG or 50 g/L WLP, ILF at CC50 = 1–5 g/L exhibited cytotoxic effects, that is, at concentrations even below the recommended for human consumption. Probable causes for the cytotoxicity of ILF are the exposure to high temperatures (70–85°C combined with a high fibre content.

  17. Food supplementation for workers: flour enriched with omega -3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Nery de Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was preparing a product (omega-3 flour to increase the nutritional value of the food for workers concerning the content of omega-3 fatty acids (n-3 FA. The omega-3 flour was prepared using waste (head sardines and leaves of carrot, flaxseed flour, manioc flour and spices. The fatty acids (FA concentration was analyzed by gas chromatography. A total of 28 FA were identified in the omega-3 flour. The concentration of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA were 329.23mg EPA 100 g-1 omega-3 flour and 545.35 mg DHA 100 g-1 omega-3 flour. To meet the minimum requirements of omega -3, it is necessary the intake 2.5 to 3 tablespoons (soup of omega-3 flour day-1.There were analyzed two meals (A and B generally consumed by workers without and with the addition of the omega-3 flour (1 and 2 tablespoons to verify if there was an increase of n-3 FA. It was concluded that there was a significant increase of these FA in both meals. It was found that the omega-3 flour is constituted of a good nutritional value, especially the n-3 FA, so the product can be used as a supplement in the feeding of the workers as well as in other segments.

  18. Comparing food limitation among three stages of nesting: supplementation experiments with the burrowing owl

    OpenAIRE

    Wellicome, Troy I; L. Danielle. Todd; Poulin, Ray G; Holroyd, Geoffrey L; Ryan J. Fisher

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Food availability is an important limiting factor for avian reproduction. In altricial birds, food limitation is assumed to be more severe during the nestling stage than during laying or incubation, but this has yet to be adequately tested. Using food-supplementation experiments over a 5-year period, we determined the degree and timing of food limitation for burrowing owls (Athene cunicularia) breeding in Canada. Burrowing owls are an endangered species and food limitation during the...

  19. Risk assessment of «other substances» in energy drinks and food supplements

    OpenAIRE

    Norwegian Scientific Committee for Food Safety

    2015-01-01

    The Norwegian Scientific Committee for Food Safety (VKM) has at the request of the Norwegian Food Safety Authority assessed the Health risk of 12 so-called "other substances" in food supplements and energy drinks. «Other substances» are substances other than vitamins and minerals, with a nutritional and/or physiological effect on the body. “Other substances” are mainly added to food supplements, but may also be added to other foods and beverages, such as sports products and energy dr...

  20. Soy foods and supplementation: a review of commonly perceived health benefits and risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Adamo, Christopher R; Sahin, Azize

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the impact of soy foods and supplements upon human health has become increasingly controversial among the general public. No one has conducted a broad evaluation of the scientific evidence supporting or refuting popular perceptions of the health effects of soy consumption. In this article, the authors have conducted a comprehensive assessment of the literature surrounding the health effects of soy consumption that are of greatest interest. This review has focused on 5 health benefits- relief of menopausal symptoms and prevention of heart disease, breast cancer, prostate cancer, and osteoporosis, and 5 health risks-increased risk of breast cancer, male hormonal and fertility problems, hypothyroidism, antinutrient content, and harmful processing by-products. Systematic reviews of human trials, prospective human trials, observational human studies, animal models, in vitro studies, and laboratory analyses of soy components were included for review. This literature review revealed that soy foods and isoflavones may provide relief from menopausal symptoms and protect against breast cancer and heart disease. Soy does not appear to offer protection against osteoporosis. The evidence on male fertility and reproductive hormones was conflicting; some studies demonstrated a deleterious impact caused by soy consumption and others showed no effect. Soy supplementation also appears to affect thyroid function in an inconsistent manner, as studies have shown both increases and decreases in the same parameters of thyroid activity. Soaking, fermentation, and heating may reduce problematic antinutrients contained in soy. The authors found that consuming moderate amounts of traditionally prepared and minimally processed soy foods may offer modest health benefits while minimizing potential for adverse health effects. However, additional studies are necessary to elucidate the variable thyroid response to soy supplementation, and more rigorous studies are required to

  1. Suppression of cuelure attraction in male Queensland fruit flies provided raspberry ketone supplements as immature adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humayra Akter

    Full Text Available Tephritid fruit flies are amongst the most damaging insect pests of horticulture globally. Some of the key fruit fly species are managed using the sterile insect technique (SIT, whereby millions of sterile males are released to suppress reproduction of pest populations. Male annihilation technique (MAT, whereby sex specific lures are used to attract and kill males, is often used to reduce wild male numbers before SIT programs commence, providing released sterile males an increased numerical advantage. Overall program efficacy might be improved if MAT could be deployed simultaneously with SIT, continuously depleting fertile males from pest populations and replacing them with sterile males. However, such 'male replacement' requires a means of suppressing attraction of released sterile males to lures used in MAT. Previous studies have found that exposure of some fruit flies to lure compounds as mature adults can suppress subsequent response to those lures, raising the possibility of pre-release treatments. However, this approach requires holding flies until after maturation for treatment and then release. The present study takes a novel approach of exposing immature adult male Queensland fruit flies (Bactrocera tryoni, or 'Qfly' to raspberry ketone (RK mixed in food, forcing these flies to ingest RK at ages far younger than they would naturally. After feeding on RK-supplemented food for two days after emergence, male Qflies exhibited a reduction in attraction to cuelure traps that lasted more than 20 days. This approach to RK exposure is compatible with current practises, in which Qflies are released as immature adults, and also yields advantages of accelerated reproductive development and increased mating propensity at young ages.

  2. Suppression of cuelure attraction in male Queensland fruit flies provided raspberry ketone supplements as immature adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akter, Humayra; Adnan, Saleh; Morelli, Renata; Rempoulakis, Polychronis; Taylor, Phillip W

    2017-01-01

    Tephritid fruit flies are amongst the most damaging insect pests of horticulture globally. Some of the key fruit fly species are managed using the sterile insect technique (SIT), whereby millions of sterile males are released to suppress reproduction of pest populations. Male annihilation technique (MAT), whereby sex specific lures are used to attract and kill males, is often used to reduce wild male numbers before SIT programs commence, providing released sterile males an increased numerical advantage. Overall program efficacy might be improved if MAT could be deployed simultaneously with SIT, continuously depleting fertile males from pest populations and replacing them with sterile males. However, such 'male replacement' requires a means of suppressing attraction of released sterile males to lures used in MAT. Previous studies have found that exposure of some fruit flies to lure compounds as mature adults can suppress subsequent response to those lures, raising the possibility of pre-release treatments. However, this approach requires holding flies until after maturation for treatment and then release. The present study takes a novel approach of exposing immature adult male Queensland fruit flies (Bactrocera tryoni, or 'Qfly') to raspberry ketone (RK) mixed in food, forcing these flies to ingest RK at ages far younger than they would naturally. After feeding on RK-supplemented food for two days after emergence, male Qflies exhibited a reduction in attraction to cuelure traps that lasted more than 20 days. This approach to RK exposure is compatible with current practises, in which Qflies are released as immature adults, and also yields advantages of accelerated reproductive development and increased mating propensity at young ages.

  3. The role of fortified foods and nutritional supplements in increasing vitamin D intake in Irish preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessy, Áine; Browne, Fiona; Kiely, Mairead; Walton, Janette; Flynn, Albert

    2017-04-01

    There are limited data on the contribution of fortified foods and nutritional supplements to intakes of vitamin D in young children. Our objective was to examine the intake, adequacy, risk of excessive intake and sources of dietary vitamin D. The nationally representative cross-sectional dietary survey of young children (aged 1-4 years) (n 500) was used to evaluate vitamin D intake and quantify the contribution of the base diet, fortified foods and nutritional supplements to total intake. Median (IQR) intakes of vitamin D were generally low in this young population, ranging from 2.0 (1.9) to 2.5 (4.9) µg/day. Ninety-three and 78 % of children had intakes below 10 and 5 µg/day, respectively. While vitamin D supplement users (17 %) had the highest intakes [6.7 (6.4) µg/day] (P Vitamin D-fortified foods, consumed by 77 % of children [2.2 (2.0) µg/day], made nutritionally significant contributions to intake [0.8 (1.6) µg/day], particularly in younger children [1.5 (4.6) µg/day]. Children who did not use nutritional supplements or fortified foods had significantly (P vitamin D than the other groups [1.0 (0.8) µg/day]. Our analyses show the importance of milk and yoghurt, meat and fortified ready-to-eat cereals as sources of vitamin D in this age group. The use of nutritional supplements or fortified foods at current levels does not represent a risk of intakes exceeding the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) tolerable upper intake level (UL) (50 µg/day), as intakes did not exceed or even approach the UL (P95: 22 % of UL). Intakes of vitamin D in preschool children in Ireland are generally low. Nutritional supplements and fortified foods make significant contributions to intakes of vitamin D, without risk of unacceptably high intakes. Though supplements are effective in raising intakes of vitamin D in users, uptake is low (17 %). Food fortification may represent a suitable public health approach to increasing vitamin D intakes. The national food

  4. Delivering Summer Electronic Benefit Transfers for Children through the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program or the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children: Benefit Use and Impacts on Food Security and Foods Consumed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Anne R; Briefel, Ronette R; Collins, Ann M; Rowe, Gretchen M; Klerman, Jacob A

    2017-03-01

    The Summer Electronic Benefit Transfers for Children (SEBTC) demonstration piloted summer food assistance through electronic benefit transfers (EBTs), providing benefits either through the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) or the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) EBT. To inform food assistance policy and describe how demonstrations using WIC and SNAP models differed in benefit take-up and impacts on food security and children's food consumption. Sites chose to deliver SEBTC using the SNAP or WIC EBT system. Within each site, in 2012, households were randomly assigned to a benefit group or a no-benefit control group. Grantees (eight states and two Indian Tribal Organizations) selected school districts serving many low-income children. Schoolchildren were eligible in cases where they had been certified for free or reduced-price meals during the school year. Before the demonstration, households in the demonstration sample had lower incomes and lower food security, on average, than households with eligible children nationally. Grantees provided selected households with benefits worth $60 per child per summer month using SNAP or WIC EBT systems. SNAP-model benefits covered most foods. WIC-model benefits could only be used for a specific package of foods. Key outcomes were children's food security (assessed using the US Department of Agriculture food security scale) and food consumption (assessed using food frequency questions). Differences in mean outcomes between the benefit and control groups measured impact, after adjusting for household characteristics. In WIC sites, benefit-group households redeemed a lower percentage of SEBTC benefits than in SNAP sites. Nonetheless, the benefit groups in both sets of sites had similar large reductions in very low food security among children, relative to no-benefit controls. Children receiving benefits consumed more healthful foods, and these impacts were larger in WIC

  5. Impact of targeted food supplementation on pregnancy weight gain and birth weight in rural Bangladesh: an assessment of the Bangladesh Integrated Nutrition Program (BINP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahar, Shamsun; Mascie-Taylor, C G Nicholas; Begum, Housne Ara

    2009-08-01

    To assess whether the Bangladesh Integrated Nutrition Programme (BINP) correctly identified which pregnant women should be enrolled in the food supplementation programme, whether supplementation commenced on time and was taken on a regular basis. A second objective was to determine whether food supplementation led to enhanced pregnancy weight gain and reduction in the prevalence of low birth weight. A one-year community-based longitudinal study. A rural union of Bhaluka Upazila, Mymensingh, located 110 km north-west of Dhaka City, the capital of Bangladesh.ParticipantsA total of 1104 normotensive, non-smoking pregnant women who attended Community Nutrition Centres were studied from first presentation at the centre until child delivery. Pregnant women who had a BMI of supplementation; so the failure rate was 36.3 %. In addition, of those receiving supplementation, only 193 women (36.7 % of 526 women) commenced supplementation at the correct time, of whom thirty-two (9.6 % of 335 women) received supplementation for the correct number of days (100 % days). There were no significant differences in mean weight gain between BMI supplemented or non-supplemented groups or between the equivalent groups with BMI > or = 18.5 kg/m(2). Weight gain was inversely related to initial weight, so lighter women gained relatively more weight during their pregnancy than heavier women. The mean birth weight in the supplemented and non-supplemented groups was 2.63 kg and 2.72 kg, respectively. Mothers with BMI supplemented had almost equal percentages of low-birth-weight babies (21 % and 22 %, respectively). The study raises doubt about the efficiency of the BINP to correctly target food supplementation to pregnant women. It also shows that food supplementation does not lead to enhanced pregnancy weight gain nor does it provide any evidence of a reduction in prevalence of low birth weight.

  6. Lessons learned from the scaling-up of a weekly multimicronutrient supplementation program in the integrated food security program (PISA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechtig, Aarón; Gross, Rainer; Vivanco, Oscar Aquino; Gross, Ursula; López de Romaña, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    Weekly multimicronutrient supplementation was initiated as an appropriate intervention to protect poor urban populations from anemia. To identify the lessons learned from the Integrated Food Security Program (Programa Integrado de Seguridad Alimentaria [PISA]) weekly multimicronutrient supplementation program implemented in poor urban populations of Chiclayo, Peru. Data were collected from a 12-week program in which multimicronutrient supplements were provided weekly to women and adolescent girls 12 through 44 years of age and children under 5 years of age. A baseline survey was first conducted. Within the weekly multimicronutrient supplementation program, information was collected on supplement distribution, compliance, biological effectiveness, and cost. Supplementation, fortification, and dietary strategies can be integrated synergistically within a micronutrient intervention program. To ensure high cost-effectiveness of a weekly multimicronutrient supplementation program, the following conditions need to be met: the program should be implemented twice a year for 4 months; the program should be simultaneously implemented at the household (micro), community (meso), and national (macro) levels; there should be governmental participation from health and other sectors; and there should be community and private sector participation. Weekly multimicronutrient supplementation programs are cost effective options in urban areas with populations at low risk of energy deficiency and high risk of micronutrient deficiencies.

  7. [Food supplements on the Hungarian market: regulations of marketing and of the composition of the products].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugasi, Andrea; Horacsek, Márta; Martos, Eva

    2010-09-26

    According to recent legislation, food supplements are foodstuffs with the purpose of supplementing normal diet. Food supplements are concentrated sources of nutrients such as vitamins and minerals and other substances with a physiological or nutritional effect. In Hungary, marketing of food supplements has not been bound to pre-market authorization since joining to the European Union. The food business operator, who is responsible for production or distribution of the product, must notify it at National Institute for Food and Nutrition Science latest at the time when the product has been placed on the market and it can be distributed simultaneously. Distribution, ingredients, and all those information which appear on the label are determined by numerous regulations and prescriptions but at the same time the lack of harmonized legislation at certain places may cause a lot of problems on Community level. The first part of the study shows the laws and regulations influencing the distribution and ingredients of food supplements, while the main target of the second part is to introduce the evaluation process of components from nutritional and physiological point of view, and the role played by the food supplements in nutrition.

  8. Dietary Supplements and Young Teens: Misinformation and Access Provided by Retailers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herriman, Maguire; Fletcher, Laura; Tchaconas, Alexis; Adesman, Andrew; Milanaik, Ruth

    2017-02-01

    Despite the American Academy of Pediatrics' recommendations against pediatric use of creatine and testosterone boosters, research suggests that many young teenagers take these dietary supplements. Our objective was to determine to what extent health food stores would recommend and/or sell creatine and testosterone boosters to a 15-year-old boy customer. Research personnel posing as 15-year-old high school athletes seeking to increase muscle strength contacted 244 health food stores in the United States via telephone. Researchers asked the sales attendant what supplements he/she would recommend. If a sales attendant did not mention creatine or testosterone boosters initially, each of these supplements was then specifically asked about. Supplement recommendations were recorded. Sales attendants were also asked if a 15-year-old could purchase these products on his own in the store. A total of 67.2% (164/244) of sales attendants recommended creatine: 38.5% (94/244) recommended creatine without prompting, and an additional 28.7% (70/244) recommended creatine after being asked specifically about it. A total of 9.8% (24/244) of sales attendants recommended a testosterone booster. Regarding availability for sale, 74.2% (181/244) of sales attendants stated a 15-year-old was allowed to purchase creatine, whereas 41.4% (101/244) stated one could purchase a testosterone booster. Health food store employees frequently recommend creatine and testosterone boosters for boy high school athletes. In response to these findings, pediatricians should inform their teenage patients, especially athletes, about safe, healthy methods to improve athletic performance and discourage them from using creatine or testosterone boosters. Retailers and state legislatures should also consider banning the sale of these products to minors. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  9. Effects of magnesium, chromium, iron and zinc from food supplements on selected aquatic organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosnir, Jasna; Puntarić, Dinko; Cvetković, Zelimira; Pollak, Lea; Barusić, Lidija; Klarić, Ivana; Miskulin, Maja; Puntarić, Ida; Puntarić, Eda; Milosević, Milan

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of uncontrolled environmental disposal of food supplements containing magnesium (Mg), chromium (Cr), iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) on selected aquatic organisms including freshwater algae Scenedesmus subspicatus and Raphidocelis subcapitata, water flea Daphnia magna and duckweed Lemna minor. Thirty different food supplements containing Mg, Cr, Fe and Zn were analyzed. Results were expressed as effective concentration 50 (EC50), i.e. growth inhibiting Mg, Cr, Fe and Zn (mg/L) concentration immobilizing 50% of treated organisms. Particular metal EC50 differed significantly (p food supplements containing Mg, Cr, Fe and Zn exerts adverse effects on aquatic organisms. Therefore, legal provisions should regulate both the utilization and disposal of food supplements into the environment.

  10. Vitamin Intake from Food Supplements in a German Cohort - Is there a Risk of Excessive Intake?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willers, Janina; Heinemann, Michaela; Bitterlich, Norman; Hahn, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Food supplements, if not properly used, may lead to potentially harmful nutrient intake. The purpose of this survey was to examine vitamin intake from food supplements. Taking into account the intake from food, as obtained from the National Nutrition Survey, it was determined whether the tolerable upper intake levels (ULs) were exceeded via supplements alone, or in combination with food. Data from 1070 supplement users (18-93 years) was available. The dietary and supplemental vitamin intakes of three groups were analyzed: average intake (50th percentile food+50th percentile supplements), middle-high intake (50th+95th) and high intake (95th+95th). Vitamin C (53%), vitamin E (45%) and B vitamins (37-45%) were consumed most frequently. Few subjects (n=7) reached or exceeded the ULs through supplements alone. The UL for vitamin A and folate was reached by a few men in the middle-high group, and by a few men and women in the high intake group. Otherwise, even in the high intake group, the recommended vitamin D intake of 20 µg/day (in case of insufficient endogenous synthesis) could not be achieved. The use of food supplements was not associated with excessive vitamin intake in this survey, except in a small number of cases. Vitamin A intake above the UL was the result of high dietary intake which also included the intake of β-carotene, rather than the result of overconsumption of food supplements. Diets mainly included folate from natural sources, which has no associated risk.

  11. Short children with a low midupper arm circumference respond to food supplementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabiansen, Christian; Phelan, Kevin P Q; Cichon, Bernardette

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The management of children with moderate acute malnutrition (MAM) is based on food supplementation in outpatient programs. When midupper arm circumference (MUAC) is used as the sole admission criterion, it is common practice to exclude children with lengths ... rate between children supplements. Children aged 6-23 mo were included...

  12. Neurotransmitters as food supplements: the effects of GABA on brain and behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boonstra, E.; Kleijn, R.; Colzato, L.S.; Alkemade, A.; Forstmann, B.U.; Nieuwenhuis, S.

    2015-01-01

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the main inhibitory neurotransmitter in the human cortex. The food supplement version of GABA is widely available online. Although many consumers claim that they experience benefits from the use of these products, it is unclear whether these supplements confer

  13. Combining nutrient intake from food/beverages and vitamin/mineral supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garriguet, Didier

    2010-12-01

    To calculate total intake of a nutrient and estimate inadequate intake for a population, the amounts derived from food/beverages and from vitamin/mineral supplements must be combined. The two methods Statistics Canada has suggested present problems of interpretation. Data collected from 34,386 respondents to the 2004 Canadian Community Health Survey-Nutrition were used to compare four methods of combining nutrient intake from food/beverages and vitamin/mineral supplements: adding average intake from supplements to the 24-hour food/beverage recall and estimating the usual distribution in the population (Method 1); estimating usual individual intake from food? beverages and adding intake from supplements (Method 2); and dividing the population into supplement users and non-users and applying Method 1 or Method 2 and combining the estimates based on the percentages of users and non-users (Methods 3 and 4). Interpretation problems arise with Methods 1 and 2; for example, the percentage of the population with inadequate intake of vitamin C and folate equivalents falls outside the expected minimum-maximum range. These interpretation problems are not observed with Methods 3 and 4. Interpretation problems that may arise in combining food and supplement intake of a given nutrient are overcome if the population is divided into supplement users and non-users before Method 1 or Method 2 is applied.

  14. Spectroscopic and Spectrometric Methods Used for the Screening of Certain Herbal Food Supplements Suspected of Adulteration

    OpenAIRE

    Cristina Mateescu; Anca Mihaela Popescu; Gabriel Lucian Radu; Tatiana Onisei; Adina Elena Raducanu

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This study was carried out in order to find a reliable method for the fast detection of adulterated herbal food supplements with sexual enhancement claims. As some herbal products are advertised as "all natural", their "efficiency" is often increased by addition of active pharmaceutical ingredients such as PDE-5 inhibitors, which can be a real health threat for the consumer. Methodes: Adulterants, potentially present in 50 herbal food supplements with sexual imp...

  15. Cassia cinnamon as a source of coumarin in cinnamon-flavored food and food supplements in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan-Hong; Avula, Bharathi; Nanayakkara, N P Dhammika; Zhao, Jianping; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2013-05-08

    Coumarin as an additive or as a constituent of tonka beans or tonka extracts is banned from food in the United States due to its potentially adverse side effects. However, coumarin in food from other natural ingredients is not regulated. "True Cinnamon" refers to the dried inner bark of Cinnamomum verum. Other cinnamon species, C. cassia, C. loureiroi, and C. burmannii, commonly known as cassia, are also sold in the U.S. as cinnamon. In the present study, coumarin and other marker compounds were analyzed in authenticated cinnamon bark samples as well as locally bought cinnamon samples, cinnamon-flavored foods, and cinnamon-based food supplements using a validated UPLC-UV/MS method. The experimental results indicated that C. verum bark contained only traces of coumarin, whereas barks from all three cassia species, especially C. loureiroi and C. burmannii, contained substantial amounts of coumarin. These species could be potential sources of coumarin in cinnamon-flavored food in the U.S. Coumarin was detected in all locally bought cinnamon, cinnamon-flavored foods, and cinnamon food supplements. Their chemical profiles indicated that the cinnamon samples and the cinnamon in food supplements and flavored foods were probably Indonesian cassia, C. burmannii.

  16. Food availability is expressed through physiological stress indicators in nestling white ibis: A food supplementation experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herring, G.; Cook, Mark I.; Gawlik, D.E.; Call, Erynn M.

    2011-01-01

    Physiological responses to environmental stress such as adrenocortical hormones and cellular stress proteins have recently emerged as potentially powerful tools for investigating physiological effects of avian food limitation. However, little is known about the physiological stress responses of free-living nestling birds to environmental variation in food availability. We experimentally tested how hydrologically mediated changes in food availability affect the physiological stress responses of juvenile white ibises Eudocimus albus in a fluctuating wetland. We provided supplementary food to free-living nestlings during 2years with contrasting hydrologic and food availability conditions, and used plasma (PCORT) and faecal (FCORT) corticosterone and heat shock proteins (HSP60 and HSP70) from first-hatched (A-nestlings) and second-hatched (B-nestlings) to detect relatively short- to long-term responses to food limitation. Nestling physiological stress responses were relatively low in all treatments during the year with optimal food availability, but PCORT, FCORT and HSP60 levels increased during the poor food year. FCORT and HSP60 responses were clearly due to nutritional condition as elevated concentrations were evident primarily in control nestlings. Significant year by hatch order interactions for both FCORT and HSP60 revealed that these increases were largely incurred by B-nestlings. FCORT and HSP60 responses were also well developed early in neonatal development and remained elevated for the duration of the experiment suggesting a chronic stress response. PCORT and HSP70 were less informative stress responses. The nutritionally mediated increases in FCORT and HSP60 provide compelling evidence that white ibis nestlings can be physiologically affected by environmental food levels. FCORT and HSP60 are effective indicators of nutritional mediated stress for nestling white ibises and potentially for other species prone to capture or handling stress. ?? 2010 The Authors

  17. Whole or ground millet grain provided in two supplementation frequencies for grazing beef cattle: nutritional parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Marcos Beltrame Benatti

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the processing of millet grain provided at two supplementation frequencies for grazing beef cattle during the dry season on nutritional parameters. Five rumen-cannulated crossbred steers, with 24 to 26 months of age and average body weight of 428.6±26.06 kg, were assigned to a Latin square design (5 × 5 in a 2 × 2 + 1 factorial arrangement, as follows: two forms of millet grain (whole grains - or ground; WG - GG, two strategies of concentrate supplementation (daily distribution - 7X; or three times a week - 3X and a control treatment (mineral mixture - MM. Animals were kept in five paddocks of 0.24 ha each with Marandu grass pastures. Concentrate supplements were supplied at 2.00 and 4.66 kg/animal/day for treatments 7X and 3X, respectively. The concentrate supplementation enhanced the intake of total dry matter (DM and organic matter (OM and nutrients compared with mineral supplementation. No differences were found between dry matter intake and forage organic matter intake. The values of digestibility coefficients of DM, OM, ether extract, total carbohydrates and non-fiber carbohydrates were increased by concentrate supplementation. Regarding concentrations of rumen ammonia nitrogen, the interactions among time × treatment × day and day × treatment had effects on the measurements of ruminal pH. Plasma urea nitrogen, urinary urea excretion and urinary urea N excretion differed only between MM treatment and the others, with no interference of grain physical form and supplementation frequency on those variables. The millet grain processing does not alter forage intake, but improves digestibility. Daily supplementation increases digestibility of dry matter and neutral detergent fiber.

  18. Food supplementation fails to reveal a trade-off between incubation and self-maintenance in female house wrens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassie J Lothery

    Full Text Available Incubating birds must allocate their time and energy between maintaining egg temperature and obtaining enough food to meet their own metabolic demands. We tested the hypothesis that female house wrens (Troglodytes aedon face a trade-off between incubation and self-maintenance by providing females with supplemental food during incubation. We predicted that food supplementation would increase the amount of time females devoted to incubating their eggs, lower their baseline plasma corticosterone levels (a measure of chronic stress, and increase their body mass, haematocrit (a measure of anaemia, and reproductive success relative to control females. As predicted, food-supplemented females spent a greater proportion of time incubating their eggs than control females. Contrary to expectation, however, there was no evidence that food supplementation significantly influenced female baseline plasma corticosterone levels, body mass, haematocrit, or reproductive success. However, females with high levels of corticosterone at the beginning of incubation were more likely to abandon their nesting attempt after capture than females with low levels. Corticosterone significantly increased between the early incubation and early nestling stages of the breeding cycle in all females. These results suggest that although food supplementation results in a modest increase in incubation effort, it does not lead to significantly lower levels of chronic stress as reflected in lower baseline corticosterone levels. We conclude that female house wrens that begin the incubation period with low levels of plasma corticosterone can easily meet their own nutritional needs while incubating their eggs, and that any trade-off between incubation and self-feeding does not influence female reproductive success under the conditions at the time of our study.

  19. Dietary supplement use is associated with higher intakes of minerals from food sources1234

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulgoni, Victor L; Keast, Debra R; Dwyer, Johanna T

    2011-01-01

    Background: Dietary supplement use is extensive in US adults. Some reports suggested that supplement users had higher nutrient intakes from the diet than did nonusers, but to our knowledge this finding has not been examined in nationally representative survey data. Objective: In this analysis, we examined mineral intakes from the diet by supplement-use categories and how these supplements contributed to meeting or exceeding Dietary Reference Intakes for selected minerals. Design: Data from adults (≥19 y of age; n = 8860) who participated in NHANES 2003–2006, a nationally representative, cross-sectional survey, were examined. Supplement use was defined as the participant's self-reported use of a supplement that contained one or more selected minerals. Results: Dietary intakes of minerals from food sources were higher for magnesium, copper, potassium, and selenium in male supplement users than in nonusers. For women, dietary intakes of minerals from food sources were higher for users than for nonusers for each mineral examined except for selenium. In women, users of calcium-containing dietary supplements were much more likely to meet the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) than were nonusers. Even after consideration of supplement use, >14% of adults had inadequate intakes for calcium and magnesium on the basis of the percentage of adults with usual intakes less than the EAR. The prevalence of adults who exceeded the tolerable upper intake level (UL) for calcium, zinc, iron, and magnesium was higher in users than in nonusers. Conclusions: Individuals who used mineral-containing dietary supplements had higher mineral intakes from food sources in the diet than did nonusers. For all minerals examined, and particularly for calcium and magnesium in men and women and iron in women, supplement use decreased the prevalence of intake inadequacy for each respective mineral; however, supplements contributed to risk of potentially excessive intakes for calcium, iron, zinc

  20. Beyond the use of food supplements: An empirical analysis in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. LOMBARDI

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to profile Italian food supplements used by consumers based upon their psychometric patterns and demographic characteristics. The FTNS scale is used to assess empirically and evaluate the role of technophobic/technophilic consumer traits in determining the decision whether or not to consume supplements and vitamins and the frequency of their consumption.An ad-hoc survey was carried out in 2012 involving 400 residents of a metropolitan area in southern Italy. Our results show that women have a higher consumption frequency of dietary supplements, while age, BMI and education influence the propensity to consume. As regards food habits, the propensity to use dietary supplements is positively associated to the consumption of bread and pasta, red meat and pulses, and negatively with the consumption of fruit and cheese.Finally, the research supports the role of technophobic traits as consistent and significant determinants of the consumption frequency of dietary supplements.

  1. Supplemental food that supports both predator and pest: A risk for biological control?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leman, A.; Messelink, G.J.

    2015-01-01

    Supplemental food sources to support natural enemies in crops are increasingly being tested and used. This is particularly interesting for generalist predators that can reproduce on these food sources. However, a potential risk for pest control could occur when herbivores also benefit from

  2. Academic Integration Supplement to the Food Science and Nutrition Curriculum Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock. Home Economics Curriculum Center.

    This supplement to a food science and nutrition curriculum guide was developed for use in integrating academic principles with vocational home economics education in Texas. It contains learning and evaluation experiences specifically designed to integrate mathematics, science, language arts, and social studies principles within the food science…

  3. The Effect of Omega-3 Docosahexaenoic Acid Supplementation on Gestational Length: Randomized Trial of Supplementation Compared to Nutrition Education for Increasing n-3 Intake from Foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary A. Harris

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. DHA supplementation was compared to nutrition education to increase DHA consumption from fish and DHA fortified foods. Design. This two-part intervention included a randomized double-blind placebo controlled DHA supplementation arm and a nutrition education arm designed to increase intake of DHA from dietary sources by 300 mg per day. Setting. Denver Health Hospitals and Clinics, Denver, Colorado, USA. Population. 871 pregnant women aged 18–40 were recruited between16 and 20 weeks of gestation of whom 564 completed the study and complete delivery data was available in 505 women and infants. Methods. Subjects received either 300 or 600 mg DHA or olive oil placebo or nutrition education. Main Outcome Variable. Gestational length. Results. Gestational length was significantly increased by 4.0–4.5 days in women supplemented with 600 mg DHA per day or provided with nutrition education. Each 1% increase in RBC DHA at delivery was associated with a 1.6-day increase in gestational length. No significant effects on birth weight, birth length, or head circumference were demonstrated. The rate of early preterm birth (1.7% in those supplemented with DHA (combined 300 and 600 mg/day was significantly lower than in controls. Conclusion. Nutrition education or supplementation with DHA can be effective in increasing gestational length.

  4. Food coloring agents and plant food supplements derived from Vitis vinifera: a new source of human exposure to ochratoxin A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solfrizzo, Michele; Piemontese, Luca; Gambacorta, Lucia; Zivoli, Rosanna; Longobardi, Francesco

    2015-04-08

    Grape pomaces are increasingly being used as starting material in the industrial production of plant food supplements (PFS), food coloring, and tartrates, but they are at risk of ochratoxin A (OTA) contamination, a mycotoxin with nephrotoxic and carcinogenic effects. We analyzed 24 commercial PFS and 13 food coloring samples derived from Vitis vinifera, mainly pomaces, using a HPLC-FLD method for OTA determination. OTA was found in 75% of PFS samples and 69% of food coloring samples at levels of vinifera suggests that maximum permitted level(s) should be established for this mycotoxin in these products.

  5. 75 FR 52957 - Supplemental Funding Under the Food and Drug Administration's Food Emergency Response Laboratory...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-30

    ... will provide CVM with information needed to assess future testing needs. C. Eligibility Information... testing programs, preferably those involving animal feed testing; If it participates in FERN Food Safety... capabilities to handle human pathogenic bacteria in animal feed. DATES: Important dates are as follows: 1. The...

  6. Estrogenic Activities of Food Supplements and Beers as Assessed by a Yeast Bioreporter Assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omoruyi, Iyekhoetin Matthew; Pohjanvirta, Raimo

    2017-10-31

    Mounting evidence of the effects of endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in humans has led to assaying a vast array of food items (processed or packaged) as possible sources of human exposure to estrogens. In this study, we investigated the current situation in this respect of different food supplements and beer brands. Eleven food supplements and 24 beer brands were obtained from Helsinki, Finland. Sample preparation was carried out by established methods while estrogenic activities were assessed by a yeast bioluminescent assay, using two recombinant yeast strains (Saccharomyces cerevisiae BMAEREluc/ERα and S. cerevisiae BMA64/luc). All the food supplements as well as 81% of the beer samples tested were found to be estrogenic, with estradiol equivalent concentrations of food supplements and beer brands ranging from 7.5 to 11.5 µg/ml and from below detection limits to 43.6 ng/ml, respectively. The estrogenic activities detected in beer samples were not dependent on the beer's alcoholic content, the country of production, or the size of the production brewery. The results of our study imply that both food supplements and beers can be a significant source of human exposure to estrogens. Therefore, further studies and regular surveillance are warranted.

  7. Invasive Fungal Infections Acquired from Contaminated Food or Nutritional Supplements: A Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedict, Kaitlin; Chiller, Tom M; Mody, Rajal K

    2016-07-01

    Fungi are an integral part of the natural environment and, therefore, play many roles in relation to food: some fungi are used in food production, some are food sources themselves, and some are agents of food spoilage. Some fungi that contaminate food can also be harmful to human health. The harmful but noninfectious health consequences of mycotoxins have been well-characterized, but the extent to which fungi in food pose a risk for invasive infections is unknown. We conducted a literature review to identify cases of invasive fungal infections (IFIs) believed to have resulted from ingestion or inhalation of food, beverages, or dietary supplements (excluding Saccharomyces infections). We identified 11 publications describing cases or small outbreaks of IFIs related to foods or beverages and three describing IFIs related to dietary supplements. These food-associated IFIs were predominantly mold infections, and the few yeast infections were associated with dairy products. Suspected foodborne IFIs appear to be rare, but are increasingly described in the electronically searchable literature. They are associated with a variety of foods, are due to a variety of fungal pathogens, and primarily occur in persons with immunosuppressive conditions or other predisposing factors. Various guidelines for high-risk patients recommend avoidance of certain food products that may contain high levels of fungi, but further work is needed to evaluate the effectiveness of these restrictive diets in preventing fungal infections. The relationships between food spoilage, food insecurity, and IFI risk are another area that may warrant further exploration.

  8. Food Labeling: Revision of the Nutrition and Supplement Facts Labels. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-27

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or we) is amending its labeling regulations for conventional foods and dietary supplements to provide updated nutrition information on the label to assist consumers in maintaining healthy dietary practices. The updated information is consistent with current data on the associations between nutrients and chronic diseases, health-related conditions, physiological endpoints, and/or maintaining a healthy dietary pattern that reflects current public health conditions in the United States, and corresponds to new information on consumer understanding and consumption patterns. The final rule updates the list of nutrients that are required or permitted to be declared; provides updated Daily Reference Values and Reference Daily Intake values that are based on current dietary recommendations from consensus reports; amends requirements for foods represented or purported to be specifically for children under the age of 4 years and pregnant and lactating women and establishes nutrient reference values specifically for these population subgroups; and revises the format and appearance of the Nutrition Facts label.

  9. Food supplementation affects extrapair paternity in house sparrows (Passer domesticus)

    OpenAIRE

    Radovan Va´clav; Herbert Hoi; Donald Blomqvist

    2003-01-01

    Extrapair paternity (EPP) is common among birds, but the reasons why it varies within and among species are less clear. In particular, few studies have experimentally examined how food availability influences paternity and sexual behavior. We manipulated food supply in a nest-box population of house sparrows, Passer domesticus, a colonial passerine with extensive biparental care. During three successive breeding attempts, we changed food availability at nest sites and examined behavior and ge...

  10. Intake of selected nutrients from foods, from fortification and from supplements in various European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flynn, A; Hirvonen, T; Mensik, GBM

    2009-01-01

    Background: Recent European Union regulation requires setting of maximum amount of micronutrients in dietary supplements or foods taking into account the tolerable upper intake levels (ULs) established by scientific risk assessment and population reference intakes. Objective: To collect and evalu......Background: Recent European Union regulation requires setting of maximum amount of micronutrients in dietary supplements or foods taking into account the tolerable upper intake levels (ULs) established by scientific risk assessment and population reference intakes. Objective: To collect...... and evaluate recently available data on intakes of selected vitamins and minerals from conventional foods, food supplements and fortified foods in adults and children. Intake of calcium, copper, iodine, iron, magnesium, phosphorus, selenium, zinc, folic acid, niacin and total vitamin A/retinol, B6, D and E...... consume considerably less than the UL with exceptions being retinol, zinc, iodine, copper and magnesium. The major contributor to intakes for all nutrients and in all countries is from foods in the base diet. The patterns of food supplements and voluntary fortification vary widely among countries...

  11. Active pharmaceutical ingredients detected in herbal food supplements for weight loss sampled on the Dutch market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeuwijk, Noortje M; Venhuis, Bastiaan J; de Kaste, Dries; Hoogenboom, Ron L A P; Rietjens, Ivonne M C M; Martena, Martijn J

    2014-01-01

    Herbal food supplements claiming to reduce weight may contain active pharmacological ingredients (APIs) that can be used for the treatment of overweight and obesity. The aim of this study was to determine whether herbal food supplements for weight loss on the Dutch market contain APIs with weight loss properties. Herbal food supplements intended for weight loss (n = 50) were sampled from August 2004 to May 2013. An HPLC-DAD-MS/MS method was used to screen for the presence of the APIs in herbal supplements. In 24 samples the APIs sibutramine, desmethylsibutramine (DMS), didesmethylsibutramine (DDMS), rimonabant, sildenafil and/or the laxative phenolphthalein were identified 41 times. The presence of these APIs was, however, not stated on the label. The potential pharmacological effects of the detected APIs were estimated using data from reported effective doses of approved drugs. Use of 20 of the 24 herbal food supplements may result in potential pharmacological effects. Furthermore, risk assessment of phenolphthalein, a suspected carcinogen and found to be present in 10 supplements, based on the margin of exposure (MOE) approach, resulted in MOE values of 96-30,000. MOE values lower than 10,000 (96-220) were calculated for the daily intake levels of four out of these 10 supplements in which phenolphthalein was found. However, taking into account that weight loss preparations may be used for only a few weeks or months rather than during a lifetime, MOE values may be two to three orders of magnitude higher. The current study shows that the use of food supplements with sibutramine, DMS, DDMS and/or phenolphthalein could result in pharmacological effects.

  12. Fatty acid and metabolomic profiling approaches differentiate heterotrophic and mixotrophic culture conditions in a microalgal food supplement 'Euglena'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Min; Hao, Wenlong; Zou, Yongdong; Shi, Mengliang; Jiang, Yongguang; Xiao, Peng; Lei, Anping; Hu, Zhangli; Zhang, Weiwen; Zhao, Liqing; Wang, Jiangxin

    2016-06-02

    Microalgae have been recognized as a good food source of natural biologically active ingredients. Among them, the green microalga Euglena is a very promising food and nutritional supplements, providing high value-added poly-unsaturated fatty acids, paramylon and proteins. Different culture conditions could affect the chemical composition and food quality of microalgal cells. However, little information is available for distinguishing the different cellular changes especially the active ingredients including poly-saturated fatty acids and other metabolites under different culture conditions, such as light and dark. In this study, together with fatty acid profiling, we applied a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS)-based metabolomics to differentiate hetrotrophic and mixotrophic culture conditions. This study suggests metabolomics can shed light on understanding metabolomic changes under different culture conditions and provides a theoretical basis for industrial applications of microalgae, as food with better high-quality active ingredients.

  13. Spectroscopic and Spectrometric Methods Used for the Screening of Certain Herbal Food Supplements Suspected of Adulteration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateescu, Cristina; Popescu, Anca Mihaela; Radu, Gabriel Lucian; Onisei, Tatiana; Raducanu, Adina Elena

    2017-06-01

    Purpose: This study was carried out in order to find a reliable method for the fast detection of adulterated herbal food supplements with sexual enhancement claims. As some herbal products are advertised as "all natural", their "efficiency" is often increased by addition of active pharmaceutical ingredients such as PDE-5 inhibitors, which can be a real health threat for the consumer. Methodes: Adulterants, potentially present in 50 herbal food supplements with sexual improvement claims, were detected using 2 spectroscopic methods - Raman and Fourier Transform Infrared - known for reliability, reproductibility, and an easy sample preparation. GC-MS technique was used to confirm the potential adulterants spectra. Results: About 22% (11 out of 50 samples) of herbal food supplements with sexual enhancement claims analyzed by spectroscopic and spectrometric methods proved to be "enriched" with active pharmaceutical compounds such as: sildenafil and two of its analogues, tadalafil and phenolphthalein. The occurence of phenolphthalein could be the reason for the non-relevant results obtained by FTIR method in some samples. 91% of the adulterated herbal food supplements were originating from China. Conclusion: The results of this screening highlighted the necessity for an accurate analysis of all alleged herbal aphrodisiacs on the Romanian market. This is a first such a screening analysis carried out on herbal food supplements with sexual enhancement claims.

  14. Effect Of Food Supplementation On The White Blood Cells Count ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Trypanosomiasis is an important livestock disease in sub-Saharan Africa. Improvement on host\\'s nutrition is mportant in moderating the severity of pathophysiological efect of trypanosomiasis and it also influences the rate of recovery. Earlier researchers demonstrated that dietary supplement of selenium and vitamin E ...

  15. The structure of a food product assortment modulates the effect of providing choice on food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parizel, Odile; Sulmont-Rossé, Claire; Fromentin, Gilles; Delarue, Julien; Labouré, Hélène; Benamouzig, Robert; Marsset-Baglieri, Agnès

    2016-09-01

    Several authors showed that providing choice may increase food liking and food intake. However, the impact of choice may be modulated by assortment's characteristics, such as the number of alternatives or their dissimilarity. The present study compared the impact of choice on food liking and intake under the two following conditions: (1) when choosing a product to consume from among similar products versus dissimilar products; and (2) when choosing a product to consume from among pleasant products versus unpleasant products. Two experiments were carried out using the same design: the "apple puree" experiment (n = 80), where the volunteers choose from among similar products (apple purees varying in texture) and the "dessert" experiment (n = 80), where the volunteers choose from among dissimilar products (fruit dessert, dairy dessert, custard, pudding). During the first session, participants rated their liking for 12 products (apples purees or desserts). Then the participants were divided into a "pleasant" group (n = 40) in which volunteers were assigned three pleasant products, and an "unpleasant" group (n = 40) in which volunteers were assigned three unpleasant products. Finally, all of the volunteers participated in a choice session - volunteers were presented with their three assigned products and asked to choose one of the products, and a no-choice session - volunteers were served with one product that was randomly selected from among their three assigned products. Providing choice led to an increase in food liking in both experiments and an increase in food intake only for the desserts, namely only when the volunteers chose the product to consume from among "not too similar" alternatives. No effect of assortment's pleasantness was observed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Carry-over effects of food supplementation on recruitment and breeding performance of long-lived seabirds

    OpenAIRE

    Vincenzi, Simone; Hatch, Scott; Merkling, Thomas; Kitaysky, Alexander S.

    2015-01-01

    Supplementation of food to wild animals is extensively applied as a conservation tool to increase local production of young. However, in long-lived migratory animals, the carry-over effects of food supplementation early in life on the subsequent recruitment of individuals into natal populations and their lifetime reproductive success are largely unknown. We examine how experimental food supplementation early in life affects: (i) recruitment as breeders of kittiwakes Rissa tridactyla born in a...

  17. Comparing Food Provided and Wasted before and after Implementing Measures against Food Waste in Three Healthcare Food Service Facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Strotmann

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to reduce food waste in a hospital, a hospital cafeteria, and a residential home by applying a participatory approach in which the employees were integrated into the process of developing and implementing measures. Initially, a process analysis was undertaken to identify the processes and structures existing in each institution. This included a 2-week measurement of the quantities of food produced and wasted. After implementing the measures, a second measurement was conducted and the results of the two measurements were compared. The average waste rate in the residential home was significantly reduced from 21.4% to 13.4% and from 19.8% to 12.8% in the cafeteria. In the hospital, the average waste rate remained constant (25.6% and 26.3% during the reference and control measurements. However, quantities of average daily food provided and wasted per person in the hospital declined. Minimizing overproduction, i.e., aligning the quantity of meals produced to that required, is essential to reducing serving losses. Compliance of meal quality and quantity with customer expectations, needs, and preferences, i.e., the individualization of food supply, reduces plate waste. Moreover, establishing an efficient communication structure involving all actors along the food supply chain contributes to decreasing food waste.

  18. Preventive Effects of Long-Term Supplementation with 2 Nutritious Food Supplements in Young Children in Niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayyad-Neerkorn, Jessica; Langendorf, Céline; Roederer, Thomas; Doyon, Stéphane; Mamaty, Abdoul-Aziz; Woi-Messe, Lynda; Manzo, Mahamane L; Harouna, Souley; de Pee, Saskia; Grais, Rebecca F

    2015-11-01

    In nutritional crises, large-scale preventive distributions of specialized nutritious foods are recommended to prevent acute and chronic malnutrition in young children. Among the available specialized nutritious foods, the World Food Programme and UNICEF recommend lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNSs) and Super Cereal Plus (SC+). Although the effectiveness of short-term distributions for prevention of severe acute malnutrition (SAM) is well documented, evidence for long-term strategies and the role of distribution of specialized nutritious foods for prevention of stunting is weaker. The objective of this study was to compare long-term supplementation of LNSs and SC+ on the incidence of acute malnutrition and stunting in young children. We conducted two 15-mo-long supplementation interventions with the use of LNSs (500 kcal/d) and SC+ (810 kcal/d) and half rations during 5 mo of the nonlean season, for the prevention of acute malnutrition and stunting in children aged 6-23 mo. The study was designed as a prospective cohort in 11 villages in Madarounfa, Niger. We compared the incidence of acute malnutrition and stunting with the use of Cox proportional hazards models and report on sharing and use of these food supplements. Characteristics of children at baseline were similar across groups. A total of 1967 children were included in the analysis (845 in the SC+ group and 1122 in the LNS group). No significant differences in the incidence of moderate acute malnutrition (SC+ compared with LNS: adjusted HR: 0.79; 95% CI: 0.61, 1.02) or SAM (HR: 0.84; 95% CI: 0.52, 1.34) were found. No difference in the incidence of stunting (HR: 1.08; 95% CI: 0.95, 1.24) or severe stunting (HR: 0.94; 95% CI: 0.71, 1.22) over the follow-up period were found. These findings in young children in Niger suggest that both products should be considered when planning preventive distributions and choice of long-term supplementation should be guided by context-specific factors such as

  19. Risk assessment for pyrrolizidine alkaloids detected in (herbal) teas and plant food supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lu; Mulder, Patrick P J; Louisse, Jochem; Peijnenburg, Ad; Wesseling, Sebas; Rietjens, Ivonne M C M

    2017-06-01

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are plant metabolites present in some botanical preparations, with especially 1,2-unsaturated PAs being of concern because they are genotoxic carcinogens. This study presents an overview of tumour data on PAs and points of departure (PODs) derived from them, corroborating that the BMDL10 for lasiocarpine represents a conservative POD for risk assessment. A risk assessment using this BMDL10 and mean levels of PAs reported in literature for (herbal) teas, indicates that consumption of one cup of tea a day would result in MOE values lower than 10 000 for several types of (herbal) teas, indicating a priority for risk management for these products A refined risk assessment using interim relative potency (REP) factors showed that based on the mean PA levels, 7(54%) of 13 types of (herbal) teas and 1 (14%) of 7 types of plant food supplements (PFS) resulted in MOE values lower than 10 000, indicating a priority for risk management also for these products in particular. This includes both preparations containing PA-producing and non-PA-producing plants. Our study provides insight in the current state-of-the art and limitations in the risk assessment of PA-containing food products, especially (herbal) teas and PFS, indicating that PAs in food presents a field of interest for current and future risk management. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Using supplemental food and its influence on survival of northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, D.E.; Lochmiller, R.L.; DeMaso, S.J.; Leslie, David M.; Peoples, A.D.; Scott, A C.; Parry, E.S.

    2000-01-01

    Biologists have debated the effectiveness of supplemental feeders as a management tool for the northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus), but few extensive evaluations have been conducted. We examined 783 crops from harvested bobwhites during 1992-1996 to determine effects of climatic stress in winter on use of supplemental feeders and their impact on survival rate in winter. Crops of bobwhites harvested from areas with supplemental feeders contained 28.2% supplemental food compared with 5.5% (Psupplemental feeders. Winter climate was not a significant predictor of the proportional use of supplemental feeders. Rates of winter survival were greater on areas with supplemental feeders compared with non-supplemented areas in winters 1992-1993 (P=0.001) and 1993-1994 (P=0.002), but in 1994-1995, rates were greater on nonsupplemented areas (P=0.032). Cause-specific mortality rates indicated that supplemental feeders did not predispose bobwhites to hunter harvest or predators. Results suggested that bobwhites can gain nutritional benefits from supplemental feeders during times of severe winter stress.

  1. 78 FR 11654 - Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Providing Information About...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-19

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration... Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice... entitled ``Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff: Providing Information About...

  2. Neurotransmitters as food supplements: the effects of GABA on brain and behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evert eBoonstra

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The food supplement version of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA is widely available online. Although many consumers claim that they experience benefits from the use of these products, it is unclear whether these supplements confer benefits beyond a placebo effect. Currently, the mechanism of action behind these products is unknown. It has long been thought that GABA is unable to cross the blood brain barrier (BBB, but the studies that have assessed this issue are often contradictory and range widely in their employed methods. Accordingly, future research needs to establish the effects of oral GABA administration on GABA levels in the human brain, for example using magnetic resonance spectroscopy. There is some evidence in favor of a calming effect of GABA food supplements, but most of this evidence was reported by researchers with a potential conflict of interest. We suggest that any veridical effects of GABA food supplements on brain and cognition might be exerted through BBB passage or, more indirectly, via an effect on the enteric nervous system. We conclude that the mechanism of action of GABA food supplements is far from clear, and that further work is needed to establish the behavioral effects of GABA.

  3. Neurotransmitters as food supplements: the effects of GABA on brain and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonstra, Evert; de Kleijn, Roy; Colzato, Lorenza S; Alkemade, Anneke; Forstmann, Birte U; Nieuwenhuis, Sander

    2015-01-01

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the main inhibitory neurotransmitter in the human cortex. The food supplement version of GABA is widely available online. Although many consumers claim that they experience benefits from the use of these products, it is unclear whether these supplements confer benefits beyond a placebo effect. Currently, the mechanism of action behind these products is unknown. It has long been thought that GABA is unable to cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB), but the studies that have assessed this issue are often contradictory and range widely in their employed methods. Accordingly, future research needs to establish the effects of oral GABA administration on GABA levels in the human brain, for example using magnetic resonance spectroscopy. There is some evidence in favor of a calming effect of GABA food supplements, but most of this evidence was reported by researchers with a potential conflict of interest. We suggest that any veridical effects of GABA food supplements on brain and cognition might be exerted through BBB passage or, more indirectly, via an effect on the enteric nervous system. We conclude that the mechanism of action of GABA food supplements is far from clear, and that further work is needed to establish the behavioral effects of GABA.

  4. Direct spectrophotometric method for analysis of food supplements containing synthetic polyhydroquinones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilevsky, A. M.; Konoplev, G. A.; Stepanova, O. S.; Toropov, D. K.; Zagorsky, A. L.

    2016-04-01

    A novel direct spectrophotometric method for quantitative determination of Oxiphore® drug substance (synthetic polyhydroquinone complex) in food supplements is developed. Absorption spectra of Oxiphore® water solutions in the ultraviolet region are presented. Samples preparation procedures and mathematical methods of spectra post-analytical procession are discussed. Basic characteristics of the automatic CCD-based UV spectrophotometer and special software implementing the developed method are described. The results of the trials of the developed method and software are analyzed: the error of determination for Oxiphore® concentration in water solutions of the isolated substance and singlecomponent food supplements did not exceed 15% (average error was 7…10%).

  5. Comparison of three methods for detection of herbal food supplement irradiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth, Torben; Hansen, Hanne; Boisen, Flemming

    2006-01-01

    A survey for irradiation of 106 herbal food supplements was carried out in Denmark in 2003. The results from three methods, two screening methods and a specific method, were compared: Direct epifluorescent filter technique/aerobic plate count (DEFT/APC), photostimulated luminescence (PSL...... was lacking in sensitivity, as not enough minerals could be isolated to get a signal over the minimum detection level. For such clean herbal food supplements no suitable method exists at all among the CEN standardised methods for irradiation detection....

  6. Agriculture as Provider of Both Food and Fuel

    OpenAIRE

    Johansson, Kersti; Liljequist, Karin; Ohlander, Lars; Aleklett, Kjell

    2010-01-01

    A database of global agricultural primary production has been constructed and used to estimate its energy content. The portion of crops available for food and biofuel after postharvest losses was evaluated. The basic conditions for agriculture and plant growth were studied, to ensure sustainable scenarios regarding use of residues. The available energy contents for the world and EU27 was found to be 7,200–9,300 and 430 TWh, respectively, to be compared with food requirements of 7,100 and 530 ...

  7. Use of supplemental food by breeding Ross's Geese and Lesser Snow Geese: Evidence for variable anorexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gloutney, M.L.; Alisauskas, R.T.; Hobson, K.A.; Afton, A.D.

    1999-01-01

    Recent research suggests that foods eaten during laying and incubation play a greater role in supplying energy and nutrients to arctic-nesting geese than previously believed. We conducted food-supplementation experiments with Ross's Geese (Chen rossii) and Lesser Snow Geese (C. caerulescens) geese to evaluate: (1) if supplemental food was consumed by laying and incubating geese, (2) how food consumption influenced mass dynamics of somatic tissues of breeding geese, (3) if patterns of mass loss were consistent with fasting adaptations, and (4) whether energetic constraints would cause smaller Ross's Geese to consume more food relative to their body size than would larger Snow Geese. Quantity of supplemental food eaten by both species during laying and incubation was highly variable among individuals. Consumption of supplemental food during laying resulted in differences in overall body composition between control and treatment females. Treatment female Ross's Geese completed laying at a higher mass and with more abdominal fat than controls, whereas treatment female Snow Geese completed laying with heavier breast muscles and hearts. Overall body composition did not differ between control and treatment geese (both sexes and species) at the end of incubation, but treatment geese had heavier hearts than control geese. This suggests that treatment females did not rely to the same extent on metabolic adaptations associated with anorexia to meet energetic costs of incubation as did controls. Stable-nitrogen isotope analysis revealed patterns of protein maintenance during incubation consistent with metabolic adaptations to prolonged fasting. Our prediction that energetic constraints would cause smaller Ross's Geese to consume more food relative to their size than would Snow Geese was not supported. Mass-specific food consumption by Ross's Geese was 30% lower than that of Snow Geese during laying and 48% higher during incubation.

  8. Supplemental food that supports both predator and pest: a risk for biological control?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leman, Ada; Messelink, Gerben J

    2015-04-01

    Supplemental food sources to support natural enemies in crops are increasingly being tested and used. This is particularly interesting for generalist predators that can reproduce on these food sources. However, a potential risk for pest control could occur when herbivores also benefit from supplemental food sources. In order to optimize biological control, it may be important to select food sources that support predator populations more than herbivore populations. In this study we evaluated the nutritional quality of four types of supplemental food for the generalist predatory mites Amblyseius swirskii Athias-Henriot and Amblydromalus (Typhlodromalus) limonicus (Garman and McGregor), both important thrips predators, and for the herbivore western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis Pergande, by assessing oviposition rates. These tests showed that application of corn pollen, cattail pollen or sterilized eggs of Ephestia kuehniella Zeller to chrysanthemum leaves resulted in three times higher oviposition rates of thrips compared to leaves without additional food. None of the tested food sources promoted predatory mites or western flower thrips exclusively. Decapsulated cysts of Artemia franciscana Kellogg were not suitable, whereas cattail pollen was very suitable for both predatory mites and western flower thrips. In addition, we found that the rate of thrips predation by A. swirskii can be reduced by 50 %, when pollen is present. Nevertheless, application of pollen or Ephestia eggs to a chrysanthemum crop still strongly enhanced the biological control of thrips with A. swirskii, both at low and high release densities of predatory mites through the strong numerical response of the predators. Despite these positive results, application in a crop should be approached with caution, as the results may strongly depend on the initial predator-prey ratio, the nutritional quality of the supplemental food source, the species of predatory mites, the distribution of the

  9. Regulations applicable to plant food supplements and related products in the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silano, Vittorio; Coppens, Patrick; Larrañaga-Guetaria, Ainhoa; Minghetti, Paola; Roth-Ehrang, René

    2011-12-01

    This paper deals with the current regulatory and legal settings of traditional plant food supplements and herbal medicinal products in the European Union (EU). Marketing of botanicals in foods and food supplements in the EU is subject to several provisions of food law, which cover aspects of safety, production, labelling and product composition, including the use of additives and maximum levels of contaminants and residues. However, due to limited harmonization at the EU level, specific national regulations adopted at a Member State level also apply and mutual recognition is the mechanism through which such products can be marketed in EU countries other than those of origin. Unlike food supplements, marketing of traditional herbal medicinal products is regulated by an ad hoc Directive (i.e. Directive 2004/24/EC) covering in detail all the relevant aspects of these products, including a facilitated registration procedure at national level. However, by distinguishing traditional herbal medicinal products from plant food supplements and establishing selective marketing modalities for these two product categories, the EU has been confronted with implementation difficulties for traditional herbal medicinal products and a lack of homogeneity in the regulatory approaches adopted in different EU Member States. In fact, currently the nature of the commercial botanical products made available to consumers as traditional medicinal products or food supplements, depends largely on the EU Member State under consideration as a consequence of how competent National Authorities and manufacturing companies interpret and apply current regulations rather than on the intrinsic properties of the botanical products and their constituents. When the EU approach is compared with approaches adopted in some non-European countries to regulate these product categories, major differences become evident.

  10. A three-part, mixed-effects model to estimate the habitual total vitamin D intake distribution from food and dietary supplements in Dutch young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkaik-Kloosterman, Janneke; Dodd, Kevin W; Dekkers, Arnold L M; van 't Veer, Pieter; Ocké, Marga C

    2011-11-01

    Statistical modeling of habitual micronutrient intake from food and dietary supplements using short-term measurements is hampered by heterogeneous variances and multimodality. Summing short-term intakes from food and dietary supplements prior to simple correction for within-person variation (first add then shrink) may produce estimates of habitual total micronutrient intake so badly biased as to be smaller than estimates of habitual intake from food sources only. A 3-part model using a first shrink then add approach is proposed to estimate the habitual micronutrient intake from food among nonsupplement users, food among supplement users, and supplements. The population distribution of habitual total micronutrient intake is estimated by combining these 3 habitual intake distributions, accounting for possible interdependence between Eq. 2 and 3. The new model is an extension of a model developed by the USA National Cancer Institute. Habitual total vitamin D intake among young children was estimated using the proposed model and data from the Dutch food consumption survey (n = 1279). The model always produced habitual total intakes similar to or higher than habitual intakes from food sources only and also preserved the multimodal shape of the observed total vitamin D intake distribution. This proposed method incorporates several sources of covariate information that should provide more precise estimates of the habitual total intake distribution and the proportion of the population with intakes below/above cutpoint values. The proposed methodology could be useful for other complex situations, e.g. where high concentrations of micronutrients appear in episodically consumed foods.

  11. Availability of Foods and Beverages in Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program-Authorized Dollar Stores in a Region of North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racine, Elizabeth F; Batada, Ameena; Solomon, Corliss A; Story, Mary

    2016-10-01

    There are >25,000 Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP)-authorized dollar stores throughout the United States; many are located in lower-income neighborhoods and provide an accessible food and beverage source for area residents. The purpose of this research was to determine the percent of food deserts within 16 counties in North Carolina that include a SNAP dollar store; examine the types of foods and beverages at SNAP dollar stores in these counties; test whether the foods and beverages offered vary by SNAP dollar store chain; and test whether the foods and beverages available differ by rural and urban location. This cross-sectional study used a combination of publicly available data and primary data to investigate the research questions. Secondary data sources were obtained from the US Department of Agriculture's SNAP retailer locator, the US Census, and the US Department of Agriculture's Food Access Research Atlas. Availability of foods and beverages was assessed among a sample of 90 SNAP dollar stores in 16 counties in southern and western sections of North Carolina. Data were collected in June 2014. About half (52%) of the food deserts in the research area included a SNAP dollar store. Most of the sampled stores sold healthier food staples, such as frozen meats, brown rice, 100% whole-wheat bread, and dried beans. None of the stores sold fresh fruits or vegetables. Some of the foods and beverages offered (eg, frozen fruit, frozen unseasoned vegetables, nonfat or low-fat milk, frozen ground beef) varied by SNAP dollar store chain. The foods and beverages offered did not differ by rural or urban county location. SNAP dollar stores offer a number of healthy food staples; however, they do not sell fresh fruits or vegetables. Further food environment research should include dollar stores. Copyright © 2016 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Dietary Supplements are Not all Safe and Not all Food: How the Low Cost of Dietary Supplements Preys on the Consumer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sax, Joanna K

    2015-01-01

    Dietary supplements are regulated as food, even though the safety and efficacy of some supplements are unknown. These products are often promoted as 'natural.' This leads many consumers to fail to question the supplements' safety, and some consumers even equate 'natural' with safe. But, 'natural' does not mean safe. For example, many wild berries and mushrooms are dangerous although they are natural. Another example is tobacco--a key ingredient in cigarettes: it is natural, but overwhelming studies have established the harm of cigarette smoke. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) requires safety and efficacy testing prior to market entry for drugs. In contrast, the FDA only has limited ability to regulate the entry of new dietary supplements into the marketplace because supplements are treated as food. Two main arguments support the current regulatory structure of dietary supplements: (1) cost and (2) access. But lower cost and increased access to dietary supplements do not necessary have any relationship to safety and efficacy. Manufacturers' marketing techniques tout the health benefits of their supplements. Meanwhile, consumers are ingesting supplements without scientific studies indicating whether or not they are harmful. The FDA Food Safety and Modernization Act, signed into law on January 4, 2011, did not address the safety concerns regarding dietary supplements. This article discusses the regulatory deficiencies concerning dietary supplements and proposes novel solutions to address this specific sector of the food supply. This article advocates for the use of scientific data to support a multi-tiered classification system to ensure that dietary supplements on the market are safe.

  13. Dairy food supplementation may reduce malnutrition risk in institutionalised elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iuliano, Sandra; Poon, Shirley; Wang, Xiaofang; Bui, Minh; Seeman, Ego

    2017-01-01

    Malnutrition in institutionalised elderly increases morbidity and care costs. Meat and dairy foods are high-quality protein sources so adequate intakes may reduce malnutrition risk. We aimed to determine whether inadequate intakes of meat and dairy foods contribute to malnutrition in institutionalised elderly. This cross-sectional study involved 215 elderly residents (70·2 % females, mean age 85·8 years) from twenty-one aged-care facilities in Melbourne, Australia. Dietary intake was assessed using observed plate waste. Food groups and serving sizes were based on the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating. Nutrient content was analysed using a computerised nutrient analysis software (Xyris). Malnutrition risk was assessed using the Mini Nutrition Assessment (MNA) tool; a score between 24 and 30 indicates normal nutritional status. Data were analysed using robust regression. Mean MNA score was 21·6 (sd 2·7). In total, 68 % of residents were malnourished or at risk of malnutrition (MNA score≤23·5). Protein intake was 87 (sd 28) % of the Australian recommended dietary intake (RDI). Consumption averaged 1 serving each of dairy foods and meat daily. Number of dairy and meat servings related to proportion of protein RDI (both P24 points). Provision of meat and dairy foods did not meet recommended levels. On the basis of current dietary intakes in aged-care residents, increasing consumption of dairy foods to the recommended four servings daily ensures protein adequacy and may reduce malnutrition risk in institutionalised elderly, and so reduce risk of comorbidities and costs associated with malnutrition.

  14. 29 CFR 779.388 - Exemption provided for food or beverage service employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption provided for food or beverage service employees... Service Establishments Restaurants and Establishments Providing Food and Beverage Service § 779.388 Exemption provided for food or beverage service employees. (a) A special exemption is provided in section 13...

  15. Food Supplements Have a Positive Impact on Weight Gain and the Addition of Animal Source Foods Increases Lean Body Mass of Kenyan Schoolchildren

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grillenberger, M.; Neumann, C.G.; Murphy, S.P.; Bwibo, N.O.; Veer, van 't P.; Hautvast, J.G.A.J.; West, C.E.

    2003-01-01

    Observational studies of dietary patterns and growth and studies with milk supplementation have shown that children consuming diets containing animal source foods grow better. This study evaluates the growth of 544 Kenyan schoolchildren (median age 7.1 y) after 23 mo of food supplementation with a

  16. Oxidative stress and food supplementation with antioxidants in therapy dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sechi, Sara; Fiore, Filippo; Chiavolelli, Francesca; Dimauro, Corrado; Nudda, Anna; Cocco, Raffaella

    2017-07-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the ability of a long-term antioxidant-supplemented diet to regulate the oxidative stress and general health status of dogs involved in animal-assisted intervention (AAI) programs. Oxidative stress is a consequence of the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Exercise-induced oxidative stress can increase muscle fatigue and fiber damage and eventually leads to impairment of the immune system. A randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover clinical evaluation was conducted with 11 healthy therapy dogs: 6 females and 5 males of different breeds and with a mean age of 2.7 ± 0.8 y (mean ± SEM). The dogs were divided into 2 groups, 1 fed a high quality commercial diet without antioxidants (CD) and the other a high quality commercial diet supplemented with antioxidants (SD) for 18 wk. After the first 18 wk, metabolic parameters, reactive oxygen metabolite-derivatives (d-ROMs), and biological antioxidant potential (BAP) levels were monitored and showed a significant reduction of d-ROMs, triglycerides, and creatinine values in the SD group ( P dogs.

  17. Providing food to treat adolescents at risk for cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ferranti, Sarah D; Milliren, Carly E; Denhoff, Erica Rose; Quinn, Nicolle; Osganian, Stavroula K; Feldman, Henry A; Ebbeling, Cara B; Ludwig, David S

    2015-10-01

    Diet modification is recommended to treat childhood cardiovascular (CV) risk factors; however, the optimal dietary strategy is unknown. In a randomized trial, the effect of a low-fat (LF) and a low-glycemic-load (LGL) reduced-calorie diet were examined in youth with overweight/obesity with CV risk factors. Using a novel intervention, we delivered LF or LGL meals and nutrition education to the home for 8 weeks (Intensive Phase), followed by 4 months Maintenance without food provision. Between-group differences in the change in insulin area under the curve (InsAUC) by oral glucose tolerance test and other risk factors were analyzed. Overall, participants (n = 27) showed substantial improvement during the Intensive Phase, including InsAUC (-59 ± 18.2 µU/ml × 120 min, P = 0.004), total cholesterol (-9.9 ± 3.6 mg/dl, P = 0.01), weight (-2.7 ± 0.5 kg, P risk factors that diminished without food delivery and did not differ based on dietary intervention. If scalable, food provision may represent an alternative nutrition treatment strategy. © 2015 The Obesity Society.

  18. Sildenafil and analogous phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE-5) inhibitors in herbal food supplements sampled on the Dutch market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reeuwijk, N.M.; Venhuis, B.J.; Kaste, de D.; Hoogenboom, L.A.P.; Rietjens, I.; Martena, M.J.

    2013-01-01

    Herbal food supplements, claiming to enhance sexual potency, may contain deliberately added active pharmacological ingredients (APIs) that can be used for the treatment of erectile dysfunction (ED). The aim of this study was to determine whether herbal food supplements on the Dutch market indeed

  19. Health aspects of Spirulina (Arthrospira) microalga food supplement

    OpenAIRE

    Sotiroudis Theodore G.; Sotiroudis Georgios T.

    2013-01-01

    Spirulina, now named Arthrospira, is a microscopic and filamentous cyanobacterium that has a long history of use as a safe food lacking toxicity. It is commercially produced in large outdoor ponds under controlled conditions. The aim of this review article is to summarize available recent information concerning human clinical potential and applications of Spirulina, as well as clinical data related to the safety and side effects of Spirulina. Potential health benefits of Spirulina are m...

  20. Isoflavones in food supplements: chemical profile, label accordance and permeability study in Caco-2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, I M C; Rodrigues, F; Sarmento, B; Alves, R C; Oliveira, M B P P

    2015-03-01

    Consumers nowadays are playing an active role in their health-care. A special case is the increasing number of women, who are reluctant to use exogenous hormone therapy for the treatment of menopausal symptoms and are looking for complementary therapies. However, food supplements are not clearly regulated in Europe. The EFSA has only recently begun to address the issues of botanical safety and purity regulation, leading to a variability of content, standardization, dosage, and purity of available products. In this study, isoflavones (puerarin, daidzin, genistin, daidzein, glycitein, genistein, formononetin, prunetin, and biochanin A) from food supplements (n = 15) for menopausal symptoms relief are evaluated and compared with the labelled information. Only four supplements complied with the recommendations made by the EC on the tolerable thresholds. The intestinal bioavailability of these compounds was investigated using Caco-2 cells. The apparent permeability coefficients of the selected isoflavonoids across the Caco-2 cells were affected by the isoflavone concentration and product matrix.

  1. No Acute Effects of Choline Bitartrate Food Supplements on Memory in Healthy, Young, Human Adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lippelt, Dominique; van der Kint, Sander; van Herk, Kevin; Naber, M.

    2016-01-01

    Choline is a dietary component and precursor of acetylcholine, a crucial neurotransmitter for memory-related brain functions. In two double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over experiments, we investigated whether the food supplement choline bitartrate improved declarative memory and working memory

  2. EPlantLIBRA: A composition and biological activity database for bioactive compounds in plant food supplements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plumb, J.; Lyons, J.; Nørby, Karin Kristiane

    2015-01-01

    The newly developed ePlantLIBRA database is a comprehensive and searchable database, with up-to-date coherent and validated scientific information on plant food supplement (PFS) bioactive compounds, with putative health benefits as well as adverse effects, and contaminants and residues. It is the...

  3. Preferences for food and nutritional supplements among adult people living with HIV in Malawi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodas Moya, Carlos; Kodish, Stephen; Manary, Mark; Grede, Nils; Pee, de Saskia

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To elucidate the factors influencing food intake and preferences for potential nutritional supplements to treat mild and moderate malnutrition among adult people living with HIV (PLHIV). Design: Qualitative research using in-depth interviews with a triangulation of participants and an

  4. Randomised clinical trial: the synbiotic food supplement Probiotical vs. placebo for acute gastroenteritis in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vandenplas, Y.; de Hert, S. G.; Abrassart, D.; Adriaens, F.; Balduck, N.; Biart, G.; Carbonnelle, J.-M.; Dauge, C.; David, P.; Ehrentreich, U.; Feron, G.; Garbentz, F.; Gob, D.; Graindorge, R.; Hins, B.; Hutsebaut, A.; Jacquart, S.; Jacquemart, I.; Leblanc, C.; Lenoir, A.-L.; Lietaer, C.; Logghe, K.; Loicq, A.-S.; Nouri, S.; Poncelet, J.; van Damme, A.; van Damme, D.; van de Vyver, L.; Verbist, A.; Verboven, M.; Verheyden, I.; Ballard, S.

    2011-01-01

    Some probiotic strains reduce the duration of acute diarrhoea. As a result of strain and product specificity, each product needs support by clinical data. In children with acute diarrhoea, to test the efficacy of the synbiotic food supplement Probiotical (Streptoccoccus thermophilus, Lactobacillus

  5. A critical appraisal of probiotics (as drugs or food supplements) in gastrointestinal diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passariello, Annalisa; Agricole, Pascal; Malfertheiner, Peter

    2014-06-01

    Probiotics may be registered as food supplements or drugs. This article summarizes differences in European regulations of probiotics registered as food supplements and drugs, as well as issues related to the quality of probiotic products. For registration as a drug, the European Medicines Agency demands extensive and detailed quality, efficacy and safety evidence; whereas compulsory analyses requested for food supplements consist only in a nutritional analysis. As a result, the quality of those probiotics registered as drugs, compared to food supplements, is in general controlled with higher standards. Despite these differences and whatever the status of the probiotic product, its efficacy and safety has to be documented in well conducted randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Furthermore, this paper reviews recent evidence on the use of probiotics for gastrointestinal diseases, evaluating all the existing information up to January 2014. In all eligible published studies in which use of probiotics for gastrointestinal diseases were investigated and reported, no language limitations were applied. Special focus is placed on RCTs (or their meta-analyses) showing positive results, so that the findings may be applicable to everyday clinical practice. Currently, the best documented clinical areas appear to be probiotics efficacy for the treatment of acute gastroenteritis in children and for the prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea both in children and in adults. In other gastrointestinal conditions, some promising observations are emerging, but no definitive conclusions can be reached at present.

  6. [Determination of chondroitin sulfate in food supplements by capillary zone electrophoresis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arianova, E A; Bogachuk, M N; Perederiaev, O I

    2013-01-01

    Chondroitin sulfate is widely used as an ingredient in food supplements. A method of capillary zone electrophoresis for qualitative and quantitative analysis of chondroitin sulfate in food supplements has been developed. The system of capillary electrophoresis Agilent 3D CE (USA) with diode array detector (spectral range 190-400 nm, 192 nm was used to quantity), quartz capillary Agilent with effective length 56 cm (USA) (internal diameter 50 microm, temperature 25 degrees C, 30 kV, negative polarity) and 50 mM phosphate buffer (pH 3.5) has been used. Quantity limit of this method was 0.5 g/kg. It was used for determination of content of chondroitin sulfate in 14 food supplements. The chondroitin sulfate was detected in all test samples with deviation from the declared content (25-600 mg per capsule or tablet) at the level of 1 to 9%. The applicability of the elaborated method for assessing of food supplements quality has been shown.

  7. Academic Integration Supplement to the Advanced Food Science and Nutrition Curriculum Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock. Home Economics Curriculum Center.

    This supplement to an advanced food science and nutrition curriculum guide was developed for use in integrating academic principles with vocational home economics education in Texas. It contains learning and evaluation experiences specifically designed to integrate mathematics, science, language arts, and social studies principles within the…

  8. Monitoring of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in food supplements containing botanicals and other ingredients on the Dutch market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martena, M J; Grutters, M M P; De Groot, H N; Konings, E J M; Rietjens, I M C M

    2011-01-01

    Food supplements can contain polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) has defined 16 priority PAH that are both genotoxic and carcinogenic and identified eight priority PAH (PAH8) or four of these (PAH4) as good indicators of the toxicity and occurrence of PAH in food. The current study aimed to determine benzo[a]pyrene and other EFSA priority PAH in different categories of food supplements containing botanicals and other ingredients. From 2003 to 2008, benzo[a]pyrene exceeded the limit of quantification (LOQ) in 553 (44%) of 1258 supplements with a lower-bound mean of 3.37 µg kg(-1). In 2008 and 2009, benzo[a]pyrene and 12 other EFSA priority PAH were determined in 333 food supplements. Benzo[a]pyrene exceeded the LOQ in 210 (63%) food supplements with a lower-bound mean of 5.26 µg kg(-1). Lower-bound mean levels for PAH4 and PAH8(-indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene) were 33.5 and 40.5 µg kg(-1), respectively. Supplements containing resveratrol, Ginkgo biloba, St. John's wort and propolis showed relatively high PAH4 levels in 2008 and 2009. Before 2008, supplements with these ingredients and also dong quai, green tea or valerian contained relatively high benzo[a]pyrene levels. On average, PAH4 intake resulting from food supplement use will be at the lower end of the range of contributions of main food groups to PAH4 exposure, although individual food supplements can contribute significantly to PAH4 exposure. Regular control of EFSA indicator PAH levels in food supplements may prove a way forward to reduce further the intake of PAH from food.

  9. Prevalence of Food Supplements used in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis Referred to Government Hospitals in Yazd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Noshi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA is an autoimmune disease where immune system mistakenly assumes different elements of joints as exogenous and attacks it. Based on scientific findings, a wide range of complementary and alternative therapies (including herbal and food supplements are useful for RA. Methods: This Cross-sectional study was carried out on 120 patients suffered from RA whom were referred to public health centers of Yazd in 2014. Using a questionnaire, demographic characteristics and the type and rate of supplementation were evaluated in these patients. Results: out of 120 patients, 118 individuals used at least one of the questioned supplements. Patients ranged from 19 to 76 years that 71.6 percent ≥ 40 years, 85% female, 92% married, 55% earned between 1 and 2 million Tomans per month and 51.7% had high school diploma or higher education. The most prevalent consumed supplement was calcium-Vitamin D (90.7% and Folic acid (%80.5, vitamin D (%73.7, and omega-3 (%55.9 came afterward. Interestingly, majority of patients (96.5% were taking supplements under the supervision of rheumatologist. Conclusion: Based on present data obtained in patients suffering from RA, most frequently used supplement was calcium-vitamin D. Most patients were satisfied of positive effects of these supplements.

  10. Adverse Effects of Plant Food Supplements and Plants Consumed as Food: Results from the Poisons Centres-Based PlantLIBRA Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüde, Saskia; Vecchio, Sarah; Sinno-Tellier, Sandra; Dopter, Aymeric; Mustonen, Harriet; Vucinic, Slavica; Jonsson, Birgitta; Müller, Dieter; Veras Gimenez Fruchtengarten, Ligia; Hruby, Karl; De Souza Nascimento, Elizabeth; Di Lorenzo, Chiara; Restani, Patrizia; Kupferschmidt, Hugo; Ceschi, Alessandro

    2016-06-01

    Plant food supplements (PFS) are products of increasing popularity and wide-spread distribution. Nevertheless, information about their risks is limited. To fill this gap, a poisons centres-based study was performed as part of the EU project PlantLIBRA. Multicentre retrospective review of data from selected European and Brazilian poisons centres, involving human cases of adverse effects due to plants consumed as food or as ingredients of food supplements recorded between 2006 and 2010. Ten poisons centres provided a total of 75 cases. In 57 cases (76%) a PFS was involved; in 18 (24%) a plant was ingested as food. The 10 most frequently reported plants were Valeriana officinalis, Camellia sinensis, Paullinia cupana, Melissa officinalis, Passiflora incarnata, Mentha piperita, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Ilex paraguariensis, Panax ginseng, and Citrus aurantium. The most frequently observed clinical effects were neurotoxicity and gastro-intestinal symptoms. Most cases showed a benign clinical course; however, five cases were severe. PFS-related adverse effects seem to be relatively infrequent issues for poisons centres. Most cases showed mild symptoms. Nevertheless, the occurrence of some severe adverse effects and the increasing popularity of PFS require continuous active surveillance, and further research is warranted. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. The total antioxidant content of more than 3100 foods, beverages, spices, herbs and supplements used worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsen, Monica H; Halvorsen, Bente L; Holte, Kari; Bøhn, Siv K; Dragland, Steinar; Sampson, Laura; Willey, Carol; Senoo, Haruki; Umezono, Yuko; Sanada, Chiho; Barikmo, Ingrid; Berhe, Nega; Willett, Walter C; Phillips, Katherine M; Jacobs, David R; Blomhoff, Rune

    2010-01-22

    A plant-based diet protects against chronic oxidative stress-related diseases. Dietary plants contain variable chemical families and amounts of antioxidants. It has been hypothesized that plant antioxidants may contribute to the beneficial health effects of dietary plants. Our objective was to develop a comprehensive food database consisting of the total antioxidant content of typical foods as well as other dietary items such as traditional medicine plants, herbs and spices and dietary supplements. This database is intended for use in a wide range of nutritional research, from in vitro and cell and animal studies, to clinical trials and nutritional epidemiological studies. We procured samples from countries worldwide and assayed the samples for their total antioxidant content using a modified version of the FRAP assay. Results and sample information (such as country of origin, product and/or brand name) were registered for each individual food sample and constitute the Antioxidant Food Table. The results demonstrate that there are several thousand-fold differences in antioxidant content of foods. Spices, herbs and supplements include the most antioxidant rich products in our study, some exceptionally high. Berries, fruits, nuts, chocolate, vegetables and products thereof constitute common foods and beverages with high antioxidant values. This database is to our best knowledge the most comprehensive Antioxidant Food Database published and it shows that plant-based foods introduce significantly more antioxidants into human diet than non-plant foods. Because of the large variations observed between otherwise comparable food samples the study emphasizes the importance of using a comprehensive database combined with a detailed system for food registration in clinical and epidemiological studies. The present antioxidant database is therefore an essential research tool to further elucidate the potential health effects of phytochemical antioxidants in diet.

  12. The total antioxidant content of more than 3100 foods, beverages, spices, herbs and supplements used worldwide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barikmo Ingrid

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A plant-based diet protects against chronic oxidative stress-related diseases. Dietary plants contain variable chemical families and amounts of antioxidants. It has been hypothesized that plant antioxidants may contribute to the beneficial health effects of dietary plants. Our objective was to develop a comprehensive food database consisting of the total antioxidant content of typical foods as well as other dietary items such as traditional medicine plants, herbs and spices and dietary supplements. This database is intended for use in a wide range of nutritional research, from in vitro and cell and animal studies, to clinical trials and nutritional epidemiological studies. Methods We procured samples from countries worldwide and assayed the samples for their total antioxidant content using a modified version of the FRAP assay. Results and sample information (such as country of origin, product and/or brand name were registered for each individual food sample and constitute the Antioxidant Food Table. Results The results demonstrate that there are several thousand-fold differences in antioxidant content of foods. Spices, herbs and supplements include the most antioxidant rich products in our study, some exceptionally high. Berries, fruits, nuts, chocolate, vegetables and products thereof constitute common foods and beverages with high antioxidant values. Conclusions This database is to our best knowledge the most comprehensive Antioxidant Food Database published and it shows that plant-based foods introduce significantly more antioxidants into human diet than non-plant foods. Because of the large variations observed between otherwise comparable food samples the study emphasizes the importance of using a comprehensive database combined with a detailed system for food registration in clinical and epidemiological studies. The present antioxidant database is therefore an essential research tool to further elucidate the potential

  13. Cognitive aging, childhood intelligence, and the use of food supplements: possible involvement of n-3 fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whalley, Lawrence J; Fox, Helen C; Wahle, Klaus W; Starr, John M; Deary, Ian J

    2004-12-01

    Food supplement use is widely promoted, but little is known about the cognitive effects of food supplements. We examined the effects of food supplement use on cognitive aging. This was an observational study of subjects born in 1936 whose mental ability was tested in 1947 and who were followed up in 2000-2001, at which time cognition, diet, food supplement use, and risk factors for vascular disease were assessed. In a nested case-control study, fish-oil users were matched with nonusers, and cognitive function was related to erythrocyte n-3 fatty acid composition. Childhood intelligence quotient (IQ) did not differ significantly by category of food supplement use (ie, none, fish oil, vitamins, and other). At the age of 64 y, cognitive function was higher in food supplement users than in nonusers before adjustment for childhood IQ. After adjustment for childhood IQ, digit symbol (mental speed) test scores were higher in food supplement users. Fish-oil supplement users consumed more vitamin C and vegetable and cereal fiber than did non-supplement-users. In a nested case-control study, erythrocyte membrane n-3 content was higher in fish-oil supplement users than in nonusers, but cognitive function did not differ significantly between groups. Total erythrocyte n-3 fatty acids and the ratio of docosahexaenoic acid to arachidonic acid was associated with better cognitive function in late life before and after adjustment for childhood IQ. Food supplement use and erythrocyte n-3 content are associated with better cognitive aging. If associations with n-3 content are causal, optimization of n-3 and n-6 fatty acid intakes could improve retention of cognitive function in old age.

  14. Stable isotope aided evaluation of community nutrition program: effect of food supplementation schemes on maternal and infant nutritional status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cissé, Aïta Sarr; Dossou, Nicole; Ndiaye, Mamadou; Guèye, Amadou Lamine; Diop, El Hadji Issakha; Diaham, Babou; Guiro, Amadou Tidiane; Cissé, Djibril; Sarr, Cheikh Saad Bouh; Wade, Salimata

    2002-09-01

    The supplementation program of the community nutrition project (PNC) launched by the Senegalese Government in order to protect the most vulnerable groups (children and women) was evaluated. Using a stable isotope (deuterium), we assessed the effect of the PNC on breastmilk output, mother's body composition, and baby's growth at three months of lactation. Breastmilk triglycerides, lactose, protein, and zinc were also determined. Mothers who were supplemented more than 60 days during pregnancy showed a significant increase in fat-free mass as compared to those who were supplemented for less than 30 days (p = .03). Breastmilk output was not influenced by the supplementation, but breastmilk lactose, total protein, and zinc contents increased significantly (p supplemented mothers. Growth of the babies of the supplemented mothers was better than that of those whose mothers were not supplemented. It was concluded that the food supplementation had beneficial effects on both mothers' and babies' nutritional status depending on the onset of the supplementation.

  15. Could We Really Use Aloe vera Food Supplements to Treat Diabetes? Quality Control Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solomon Habtemariam

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes UK has recently listed a number of herbs and spices that have been clinically shown to improve blood glucose control in type-2 diabetes patients and the diabetes high-risk group. With Aloe vera being top in this list, its health benefit along with health and beauty/food retailers supplying it was illustrated in detail. Previous article from this laboratory scrutinised the merit of using A. vera as an alternative therapy to prescription antidiabetic drugs and the risk of using food supplements in the market which do not qualify as drug preparations. In continuation of this discussion, the present study assesses three Aloe Pura brands and one Holland and Barret brand of A. vera juice supplements in the UK market through chromatographic and spectroscopic analysis. While the polysaccharide active ingredient, acemannan, appears to be within the recommended limit, it was found that Aloe Pura (one of the best-selling brands for A. vera supplement products have benzoate additive that does not appear in the supplement levels. Moreover, two of the Aloe Pura brand juices contain methanol, suggesting that the International Aloe Science Council (IASC certification does not guarantee the medicinal quality of these products. The therapeutic fitness of such supplements is discussed.

  16. Keeping Kids Safe: A Guide for Safe Food Handling & Sanitation for Child Care Providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Food Safety and Inspection Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    Because children under age 5 are susceptible to food-borne illnesses and children in diapers present special sanitation and health problems, food safety and sanitation are emerging as important issues for child care providers. This booklet is designed to give providers and parents a quick and easy reference for food safety and sanitation. The…

  17. IMPACT OF FOOD AND FOLATE SUPPLEMENTATION DURING Salmonella TYPHI INFECTION IN Caenorhabditis elegans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhagavathi Sundaram Sivamaruthi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Caenorhabditis elegans is an instructive and suitable model for studying pathogenesis of almost all human pathogens. Salmonella Typhi is gram-negative facultative intracellular anaerobe that causes several pathetic infections. Necessary enriched nutrient ingestion during pathological conditions may reduce the harshness of the infection. We investigated the impact of folate and food supplementation during S. Typhi infection on the model system, C. elegans. Our data indicated that folate supplementation (10 µg increases the lifespan of S. Typhi infected C. elegans up to 20%. In combination with laboratory food source E. coli OP50, folate increases the infected the worm’s lifespan to 40%. The wild type C. elegans infected by S. Typhi died with the LT50 of 60 ± 12 h. The LT50 of S. Typhi infected folt-1 mutant strain VC959 was 96 ± 6 h. However, the folate supplemented mutant worms exhibited an extended life with LT50 of 120 ± 6 h. The short time exposure and pharyngeal pumping studies confirmed that folt-1 mutant worm exhibited increased survival rate during pathogenic course at significant level when compared to wild-type. Our data revealed that folt-1 plays a significant role in host defense system against S. Typhi infection and the folate supplementation in combination with food increases the host survival during S. Typhi infection.

  18. Natural radioactive traces in food supplements (ergogenic) consumed by the public of the academies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheibel, Viviane; Appoloni, Carlos R. [Universidade Estadual de Londrina (UEL), PR (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica], e-mail: scheibel@uel.br, e-mail: appoloni@uel.br; Pecequilo, Brigitte R.S. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: brigitte@ipen.br

    2009-07-01

    The radioactive traces in food supplements (ergogenic) consumed mainly by the public of the academies were analyzed from the high-resolution gamma spectrometry. After researching in academies of Londrina-PR and Sao Paulo-SP about the main supplements used to increase the performance and muscle hypertrophy, it was decided to examine the three higher consumption of supplements, which were: whey protein, albumin and BCAA (Branched-Chain Amino Acids), the last for branched-chain amino acids for athletes. For each of these supplements have been tested three brands that have the largest sales. The measurements were performed at the Laboratory of Environmental Radiometry, of the Radiation Metrology Center located on the Institute of Energy and Nuclear Research (IPEN-SP). The samples were measured by HPGe detector with beryllium window, model GX2520 Xtra, 25% relative efficiency and effective resolution of 1.85 keV for the energy of 1.33 MeV of {sup 60}Co. The {sup 40}K showed the highest levels of activity for all samples, ranging between 125 {+-} 5 and 270.1 {+-} 9.5 Bq/kg, with the exception of BCAA supplementation, which showed no such radionuclide. The radioactivity present in all analyzed supplement was within the international limits, allowing concluding that consumption of such goods pose no health risk derived from radiation. (author)

  19. The quality of commercially available nutraceutical supplements and food sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockwood, G Brian

    2011-01-01

    Nutraceuticals are components of dietary origin, with claimed beneficial therapeutic activities. The quality of nutraceuticals is paramount for efficacy and safety, and it includes quality of raw materials, different available chemical forms, complex products, lack of substitution of inappropriate materials, and the absence of contaminants. The aim of this review is to investigate the extent of substandard formulated and raw material nutraceuticals, and to highlight any consequent health concern. Reports of the quality of raw materials have revealed wide variations, often as a result of lack of clear regulatory definitions with respect to size of polymeric entities and also presence of glycosidic and salt forms. Published evaluations of over 70 formulations of 25 different nutraceuticals revealed variable quality; no nutraceutical showed consistent high quality, but a number revealed consistent low quality, thereby making the case for closer regulation of manufacturers. Whole food sources have also been shown to be widely variable in constituent levels. The effect of different formulations requires consideration, as the different types have been shown to have marked effects on bioavailability. The poor quality of commercially available nutraceuticals has been highlighted. In addition, incidences of side effects and drug interactions are increasing, as consumption of nutraceuticals rises. Pharmacists and health practitioners need to be aware of the scientific literature to advise accordingly. © 2010 The Author. JPP © 2010 Royal Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain.

  20. Health Food Supplements (“Health Food” Highly Nutritious From Chlorella And Oil Catfish (Pangasius hypopthalmus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syahrul Syahrul

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The utilization of microalgae as a food ingredient considered effective, because in addition to alternativefood sources also contains nutrients chlorella microalgae in particular is very good for health. This microalgaerich in protein (60.5%, fat (11%, carbohydrates (20.1%, water, dietary fiber, vitamins and minerals Besidesthese microalgae contain pigments (chlorophyll, tocopherol and the active component (antimicrobial andantioxidants. This is what underlies microalgae is very useful to be used as a source of raw materials ofhealth food supplements. Currently the health food supplements have become a necessity for people tomaintain their health in order to remain vibrant. This study aims to produce high nutritious health foodsupplements from raw material chlorella enriched with fish protein concentrate and oil catfish. The methodused in the manufacture of high nutritious health food supplement is a method of microencapsulation withdifferent formulations. The results showed that the best formulations based on the profile of amino acids,fatty acids and standards AAE per day especially essential fatty acids oleic and linoleic is formulation B(chlorella 2%, 1% fish oil and fish protein concentrate 1%.

  1. Social Media as a Supplement to Face-to-Face Education: The Perspectives of Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program Paraprofessionals and Graduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmer, Sarah R.; Harrison, Judy A.; da Silva, Vanessa R.

    2016-01-01

    Using social media is an inexpensive, innovative approach to supplementing direct education provided by the Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program (EFNEP). Focus group research was conducted with EFNEP paraprofessionals (n = 33) and participants (n = 39) to inform the development of a social media presence for the program. Although…

  2. Status of methodology for the determination of fat-soluble vitamins in foods, dietary supplements, and vitamin premixes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Christopher John

    2007-01-01

    Fat-soluble vitamins (FSVs) include vitamin A, carotenoids, vitamins D, E, and K. New legislation is being introduced in many countries to reinforce regulatory compliance of declared concentrations of vitamins and other micronutrients in food products and dietary supplements. The levels of FSVs are likely to be more closely scrutinized due to their potential health risks associated with overdosing, in particular of vitamin D. However, a proviso of stricter regulatory compliance is that analytical methods must be fit-for-purpose, providing adequate accuracy and precision. Official methods have been published by organizations such as AOAC INTERNATIONAL, European Committee for Standardization, International Dairy Federation, U.S. Pharmacopeia, and International Organization for Standardization. The methods available for foods, dietary supplements, and vitamin premixes are evaluated in this review. In general, these methods show adequate precision for regulatory compliance; however, the field of application has not often been evaluated for a sufficiently large range of food matrixes. Gaps have been noted in the range of published official procedures, particularly for carotenoids and vitamin premixes. The potential of some recent developments in sample preparation and chromatographic techniques were evaluated to provide improved procedures for FSV analysis the future.

  3. Ecdysteroid-containing food supplements from Cyanotis arachnoidea on the European market: evidence for spinach product counterfeiting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunyadi, Attila; Herke, Ibolya; Lengyel, Katalin; Báthori, Mária; Kele, Zoltán; Simon, András; Tóth, Gábor; Szendrei, Kálmán

    2016-12-08

    Phytoecdysteroids like 20-hydroxyecdysone ("ecdysterone") can exert a mild, non-hormonal anabolic/adaptogenic activity in mammals, and as such, are frequently used in food supplements. Spinach is well-known for its relatively low ecdysteroid content. Cyanotis arachnoidea, a plant native in China, is among the richest sources of phytoecdysteroids, and extracts of this plant are marketed in tons per year amounts via the internet at highly competitive prices. Here we report the investigation of a series of food supplements produced in Germany and claimed to contain spinach extracts. Twelve ecdysteroids including two new compounds were isolated and utilized as marker compounds. A comparative analysis of the products with Cyanotis and spinach extracts provides evidence that they were manufactured from Cyanotis extracts instead of spinach as stated. Based on the chromatographic fingerprints, 20-hydroxyecdysone 2- and 3-acetate are suggested as diagnostic markers for related quality control. This case appears to represent an unusual type of dietary supplement counterfeiting: undeclared extracts from alternative plants would supposedly 'guarantee' product efficacy.

  4. Ecdysteroid-containing food supplements from Cyanotis arachnoidea on the European market: evidence for spinach product counterfeiting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunyadi, Attila; Herke, Ibolya; Lengyel, Katalin; Báthori, Mária; Kele, Zoltán; Simon, András; Tóth, Gábor; Szendrei, Kálmán

    2016-12-01

    Phytoecdysteroids like 20-hydroxyecdysone (“ecdysterone”) can exert a mild, non-hormonal anabolic/adaptogenic activity in mammals, and as such, are frequently used in food supplements. Spinach is well-known for its relatively low ecdysteroid content. Cyanotis arachnoidea, a plant native in China, is among the richest sources of phytoecdysteroids, and extracts of this plant are marketed in tons per year amounts via the internet at highly competitive prices. Here we report the investigation of a series of food supplements produced in Germany and claimed to contain spinach extracts. Twelve ecdysteroids including two new compounds were isolated and utilized as marker compounds. A comparative analysis of the products with Cyanotis and spinach extracts provides evidence that they were manufactured from Cyanotis extracts instead of spinach as stated. Based on the chromatographic fingerprints, 20-hydroxyecdysone 2- and 3-acetate are suggested as diagnostic markers for related quality control. This case appears to represent an unusual type of dietary supplement counterfeiting: undeclared extracts from alternative plants would supposedly ‘guarantee’ product efficacy.

  5. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2015. Statement on the safety of lacto-N-neotetraose and 2'-O-fucosyllactose as novel food ingredients in food supplements for children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Morten

    2015-01-01

    Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked to provide a scientific opinion on the safety of lacto-N-neotetraose and 2'‑O-fucosyllactose as novel food ingredients in food supplements for children (excluding infants......). In July 2015, the Panel concluded that LNnT and 2’-FL are safe for infants and for young children when added to infant, follow-on and young-child formulae under specific conditions of use; and for adults when added to foods at the uses and use levels proposed by the applicant, which include food...

  6. Providing lipid-based nutrient supplements does not affect developmental milestones among Malawian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangani, Charles; Cheung, Yin Bun; Maleta, Kenneth; Phuka, John; Thakwalakwa, Chrissie; Dewey, Kathryn; Manary, Mark; Puumalainen, Taneli; Ashorn, Per

    2014-01-01

    To assess whether using lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS) to complement the diets of infants and young children affected when they achieved selected developmental milestones. In rural Malawi, 840 6-month-old healthy infants were enrolled to a randomised trial. Control participants received no supplements, others were provided with milk-containing LNS, soy-containing LNS or corn-soy blend (CSB) for 12 months. Outcomes were the age at which they achieved key milestone: motor (walking with assistance, standing and walking alone, running), social (drinking from a cup and eating by themselves) and language (saying single comprehensible words and waving goodbye). The mean age at which the subjects walked with assistance was 42.5, 42.3, 42.7 and 43.2 weeks in the control, milk-LNS, soy-LNS and CSB groups, respectively (p = 0.748). There were also no significant differences in the mean age at standing alone (45.0, 44.9, 45.1 and 46.3 weeks), walking alone (54.6, 55.1, 55.3, 56.5 weeks), running (64.6, 63.7, 64.8, 65.9 weeks) or any other social or language milestones (each p > 0.10). The findings do not support a hypothesis that providing tested formulations and doses of micronutrient-fortified LNS or CSB would have an impact on when young children in rural Malawi achieved selected developmental milestones. ©2013 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. European regulations on nutraceuticals, dietary supplements and functional foods: a framework based on safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppens, Patrick; da Silva, Miguel Fernandes; Pettman, Simon

    2006-04-03

    This article describes the legislation that is relevant in the marketing of functional foods in the European Union (EU), how this legislation was developed as well as some practical consequences for manufacturers, marketers and consumers. It also addresses some concrete examples of how the EU's safety requirements for food products have impacted a range of product categories. In the late nineties, research into functional ingredients was showing promising prospects for the use of such ingredients in foodstuffs. Due mainly to safety concerns, these new scientific developments were accompanied by an urgent call for legislation. The European Commission 2000 White Paper on Food Safety announced some 80 proposals for new and improved legislation in this field. Among others, it foresaw the establishment of a General Food Law Regulation, laying down the principles of food law and the creation of an independent Food Authority endowed with the task of giving scientific advice on issues based upon scientific risk assessment with clearly separated responsibilities for risk assessment, risk management and risk communication. Since then, more than 90% of the White Paper proposals have been implemented. However, there is not, as such, a regulatory framework for 'functional foods' or 'nutraceuticals' in EU Food Law. The rules to be applied are numerous and depend on the nature of the foodstuff. The rules of the general food law Regulation are applicable to all foods. In addition, legislation on dietetic foods, on food supplements or on novel foods may also be applicable to functional foods depending on the nature of the product and on their use. Finally, the two proposals on nutrition and health claims and on the addition of vitamins and minerals and other substances to foods, which are currently in the legislative process, will also be an important factor in the future marketing of 'nutraceuticals' in Europe. The cornerstone of EU legislation on food products, including

  8. Developing food supplements for moderately malnourished children: Lessons learned from ready-to-use therapeutic foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ready-to-use therapeutic foods (RUTFs) are solid foods that were developed by changing the formulation of the existing liquid diet, F-100, recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) for the rapid catch-up phase of the treatment of children suffering from severe acute malnutrition (SAM). The ...

  9. Functional Foods Programs Serve as a Vehicle to Provide Nutrition Education to Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirignano, Sherri M.

    2011-01-01

    An increase in consumer interest in functional foods provides an opportunity for FCS educators to use this topic in Extension programming to promote current nutrition recommendations. The Functional Foods for Life Educational Programs (FFL) are a curriculum of six evidence-based mini-seminars that highlight specific functional foods that have the…

  10. Could 1,3 dimethylamylamine (DMAA) in food supplements have a natural origin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Lorenzo, Chiara; Moro, Enzo; Dos Santos, Ariana; Uberti, Francesca; Restani, Patrizia

    2013-02-01

    1,3 dimethylamylamine or methylexaneamine (DMAA) is a synthetic pharmaceutical patented in the 1940s as a nasal decongestant which can be used as a recreational stimulant. Alleged to occur in nature, DMAA has become a widely used ingredient in sports food supplements, despite its status as a doping agent and concerns over its safety. There is now some doubt as to whether it can be sourced naturally or whether it actually occurs naturally at all. The presence of DMAA was investigated by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in extracts of the leaves and stems of four geranium species and of three well-known cultivars. The amounts of DMAA in commercial geranium (Pelargonium graveolens) oil and the leading sports supplement which uses the ingredient were also measured. DMAA was not found in any of the leaves or stems or in the commercial geranium oil included in this study. Approximately 30 mg per daily dose was found in the food supplement. Therefore, the amount of DMAA found in the supplement is most unlikely to have been sourced in nature, and it must be concluded that synthetic DMAA, known to be capable of causing severe adverse physiological effects, has been added. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Legislation should support optimal breastfeeding practices and access to low-cost, high-quality complementary foods: Indonesia provides a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soekarjo, Damayanti; Zehner, Elizabeth

    2011-10-01

    It is important to support women to exclusively breastfeed for 6 months and continue breastfeeding for 24 months and beyond. It is also necessary to provide the poor with access to affordable ways to improve the quality of complementary foods. Currently, many countries do not have the legal and policy environment necessary to support exclusive and continued breastfeeding. Legislative and policy changes are also necessary for introducing complementary food supplements, allowing them to be marketed to those who need them, and ensuring that marketing remains appropriate and in full compliance with the International Code of Marketing of Breastmilk Substitutes. This paper aims to illustrate the above with examples from Indonesia and to identify legislative requirements for supporting breastfeeding and enabling appropriate access to high-quality complementary food supplements for children 6-24 months of age. Requirements include improved information, training, monitoring and enforcement systems for the International Code of Marketing of Breastmilk Substitutes; implementation and monitoring of the Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative; establishment of a registration category for complementary food supplements to enhance availability of high-quality, low-cost fortified products to help improve young child feeding; clear identification and marketing of these products as complementary food supplements for 6-24-month-olds so as to promote proper use and not interfere with breastfeeding. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. Calcium supplementation commencing before or early in pregnancy, or food fortification with calcium, for preventing hypertensive disorders of pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmeyr, G Justus; Manyame, Sarah

    2017-09-26

    -quality evidence). However, the included study observed a reduction in the composite outcome pre-eclampsia and/or pregnancy loss at any gestational age (RR 0.13, 95% CI 0.03 to 0.50; moderate-quality evidence), and pregnancy loss/stillbirth at any gestational age (RR 0.06, 95% CI 0.00 to 0.92; moderate-quality evidence) in the calcium plus antioxidant/supplement group.Other outcomes reported (placental abruption, severe pre-eclampsia and preterm birth (less than 37 weeks' gestation)) were too infrequent for meaningful analysis. No data were reported for the outcomes caesarean section, birthweight food fortification for preventing hypertensive disorders of pregnancy.Further research is needed to determine whether pre- or early-pregnancy supplementation, or food fortification with calcium is associated with a reduction in adverse pregnancy outcomes such as pre-eclampsia and pregnancy loss. Such studies should be adequately powered, limited to calcium supplementation, placebo-controlled, and include relevant outcomes such as those chosen for this review.There is one ongoing study of calcium supplementation alone versus placebo and this may provide additional evidence in future updates.

  13. Effects of a food supplementation program on the nutritional status of pregnant women in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M Mahmud; Ahmed, Shakil; Protik, Ali Ehsan; Dhar, Badal Chandra; Roy, S K

    2005-12-01

    The Government of Bangladesh implemented a comprehensive nutrition intervention in 1997 to reduce the rates of malnutrition among women and children. The pilot program, the Bangladesh Integrated Nutrition Program (BINP), adopted a multisectoral approach targeting women and children through food supplementation, home gardening, and health and nutrition education. This paper estimates the effectiveness of BINP's food supplementation and nutrition education on the nutritional status of pregnant women. Methods. Three effectiveness measures were considered: target efficiency, improvements in the nutritional status of beneficiaries, and the persistence of nutritional effects. To isolate the effects of the intervention, the nutritional status of participants and nonparticipants was compared after controlling for various demographic and socioeconomic characteristics. Data were collected in 2000 from a random sample of 3262 households in a BINP intervention area. Thirty-nine percent of pregnant women were correctly targeted by the program's food supplementation activities. The nutrition program reduced the prevalence of thinness among participant pregnant women by about 3 percentage points per month of enrollment. The prevalence of thinness among program graduates was 62%, which was much higher than that of the matched (nonparticipant) group (35%). This finding is perplexing but it may simply imply that those who enrolled at the initial phase of the project were severely underweight and they fell back to their original status within a short period of time. The nutrition program was intended to improve the nutritional status of women in the longer run through the provision of nutrition education during the food supplementation phase. The prevalence of thinness or severe underweight in women who exited the program after completion of the enrollment period was found to be much higher than in women of similar age and socioeconomic status in the community. This apparent lack of

  14. Intake of selected bioactive compounds from plant food supplements containing fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) among Finnish consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uusitalo, Liisa; Salmenhaara, Maija; Isoniemi, Merja; Garcia-Alvarez, Alicia; Serra-Majem, Lluís; Ribas-Barba, Lourdes; Finglas, Paul; Plumb, Jenny; Tuominen, Pirkko; Savela, Kirsti

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate the intake of selected bioactive compounds from fennel-containing plant food supplements (PFS) among Finnish consumers. The estimated average intake of estragole was 0.20mg/d, of trans-anethole 1.15mg/d, of rosmarinic acid 0.09mg/d, of p-coumaric acid 0.0068mg/d, of kaempferol 0.0034mg/d, of luteolin 0.0525μg/d, of quercetin 0.0246mg/d, of matairesinol 0.0066μg/d and of lignans 0.0412μg/d. The intakes of kaempferol, quercetin, luteolin, matairesinol and lignans from PFS were low in comparison with their dietary supply. The intake of estragole was usually moderate, but a heavy consumption of PFS may lead to a high intake of estragole. The intake of trans-anethole did not exceed the acceptable daily intake, but PFS should be taken into account when assessing the total exposure. To our knowledge, this study provided the first intake estimates of trans-anethole, p-coumaric acid and rosmarinic acid in human populations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of diary food supplements on bone mineral density in teenage girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrilees, M J; Smart, E J; Gilchrist, N L; Frampton, C; Turner, J G; Hooke, E; March, R L; Maguire, P

    2000-12-01

    Bone mineral density (BMD) is largely genetically determined and this influence is most powerful in the period of rapid skeletal development in childhood and late adolescence but environmental factors such as exercise and dietary calcium intake may influence up to 20%. The aims of the study were to examine healthy late adolescent females for the effects and benefits of a high calcium intake from dairy product foods on bone mineral density, body composition, lipids and biochemistry. The secondary aim is determine whether a high intake of dairy product foods in the diet is acceptable for this age group long term. Ninety-one teenage girls who participated in a two-year randomised controlled study on the effect of dairy food supplementation on dietary patterns, body composition and bone density in post-pubertal teenage girls were approached one year after the cessation of the study to determine the effects of the cessation of dairy supplements on bone mineral density, dietary habits, biochemical markers, body composition and blood lipids. Bone mineral density and bone mineral content were assessed at the hip, spine and total body. Anthropometric data were collected, and exercise, Tanner, dietary assessment, preference and compliance questionnaires were administered. Lipid profiles, hydroxyproline excretion and urinary calcium and sodium excretion measurements were performed. There were no significant differences between the 2 groups for height, weight, lean and fat mass. The supplemented group had significantly higher calcium, phosphorus and protein intake during the supplementation period (p supplementation finished. There were no significant differences in exercise level, preference or acceptability of dairy products or in the lipids and bone markers between baseline the end of supplementation and 1 year follow-up. There was a significant increase in trochanter (4.6%), lumbar spine (1.5%) and femoral neck (4.8%) BMD (p supplementation. There was an increase in bone

  16. Chemometrics and chromatographic fingerprints to classify plant food supplements according to the content of regulated plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deconinck, E; Sokeng Djiogo, C A; Courselle, P

    2017-09-05

    Plant food supplements are gaining popularity, resulting in a broader spectrum of available products and an increased consumption. Next to the problem of adulteration of these products with synthetic drugs the presence of regulated or toxic plants is an important issue, especially when the products are purchased from irregular sources. This paper focusses on this problem by using specific chromatographic fingerprints for five targeted plants and chemometric classification techniques in order to extract the important information from the fingerprints and determine the presence of the targeted plants in plant food supplements in an objective way. Two approaches were followed: (1) a multiclass model, (2) 2-class model for each of the targeted plants separately. For both approaches good classification models were obtained, especially when using SIMCA and PLS-DA. For each model, misclassification rates for the external test set of maximum one sample could be obtained. The models were applied to five real samples resulting in the identification of the correct plants, confirmed by mass spectrometry. Therefore chromatographic fingerprinting combined with chemometric modelling can be considered interesting to make a more objective decision on whether a regulated plant is present in a plant food supplement or not, especially when no mass spectrometry equipment is available. The results suggest also that the use of a battery of 2-class models to screen for several plants is the approach to be preferred. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Research and Development for Botanical Products in Medicinals and Food Supplements Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Miroddi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Botanical products sold in the health area are generally intended as drugs, medicinal products, food supplements or substances for therapeutic use. Use of botanicals for improving or to care human health has evolved independently in different countries worldwide. Regulatory issues regarding botanical products designed for the food supplements or medicinal market and their influence on research and development are discussed. European Union (EU and United States (US policies regulating these products are focused with comments on the legislations delivered during the last ten years and differences existing in rules between these countries are emphasized. Research and development on botanical products nowdays strongly influenced by the product destination in the market. Addressed and differentiated research for either food supplements or medicinal markets is necessary to purchase data really useful for assessment of safe and effective use for both the categories. The main objective is to catalyze interest of academic and companies' researchers on crucial aspects to be taken into account in the research for the development of botanical products.

  18. The Nutritional Quality of Food Provided from Food Pantries: A Systematic Review of Existing Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmet, Anja; Depa, Julia; Tinnemann, Peter; Stroebele-Benschop, Nanette

    2017-04-01

    In many affluent countries, food-insecure households use food pantries to keep their family fed. The long-term dependence of many users on these programs calls for a systematic review of studies on the nutritional quality of food provided by food pantries. The purpose of this systematic review was to summarize the current scientific evidence about the nutritional quality of food bags distributed by food pantries. A systematic literature search was conducted in the electronic databases PubMed, PsycINFO, PsycARTICLES, and Psychology Behavioral Sciences Collection to identify cross-sectional, cohort, and intervention studies reporting baseline data conducted in high-income countries and published between 1980 and 2015, which reported the nutritional quality of food bags distributed by food pantries. Identified citations were screened in two stages and data were independently extracted by two authors using a predefined data sheet. The quality of included studies was evaluated using criteria of an adapted Ottawa Scale. The systematic review was reported in accordance to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement. Applying the two-stage screening, 9 of 1,546 articles were identified for inclusion. Nutritional quality of food bags varied widely between and within studies. Milk products, vitamins A and C, and calcium were provided in particularly low amounts. None of the studies were nationally representative and only a few studies controlled for the household composition of the recipients of food bags. Food pantries likely have a strong influence on users' diets, but the food pantries examined in the selected studies were largely unable to support healthy diets. The distribution of more perishable foods would increase users' diet quality and may have an immense potential to address malnutrition in vulnerable population groups. Copyright © 2017 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Carry-over effects of food supplementation on recruitment and breeding performance of long-lived seabirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincenzi, Simone; Hatch, Scott; Merkling, Thomas; Kitaysky, Alexander S

    2015-08-07

    Supplementation of food to wild animals is extensively applied as a conservation tool to increase local production of young. However, in long-lived migratory animals, the carry-over effects of food supplementation early in life on the subsequent recruitment of individuals into natal populations and their lifetime reproductive success are largely unknown. We examine how experimental food supplementation early in life affects: (i) recruitment as breeders of kittiwakes Rissa tridactyla born in a colony on Middleton Island (Alaska) between 1996 and 2006 (n = 1629) that bred in the same colony through 2013 (n = 235); and (ii) breeding success of individuals that have completed their life cycle at the colony (n = 56). Birds were raised in nests that were either supplemented with food (Fed) or unsupplemented (Unfed). Fledging success was higher in Fed compared with Unfed nests. After accounting for hatching rank, growth and oceanic conditions at fledging, Fed fledglings had a lower probability of recruiting as breeders in the Middleton colony than Unfed birds. The per-nest contribution of breeders was still significantly higher for Fed nests because of their higher productivity. Lifetime reproductive success of a subset of kittiwakes that thus far had completed their life cycle was not affected by the food supplementation during development. Our results cast light on the carry-over effects of early food conditions on the vital rates of long-lived animals and support food supplementation as an effective conservation strategy for long-lived seabirds. © 2015 The Author(s).

  20. A household-level sweet potato-based infant food to complement vitamin A supplementation initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amagloh, Francis K; Hardacre, Allan; Mutukumira, Anthony N; Weber, Janet L; Brough, Louise; Coad, Jane

    2012-10-01

    Vitamin A deficiency (VAD) prevalence in Sub-Saharan Africa is high in spite of vitamin A supplementation programmes among children in most countries. Plant-based complementary foods remain the key source of nutrients in addition to breast milk for infants in lower income countries. Cereal-legume blends are superior in protein and energy densities compared with maize, millet or sorghum-only porridge. However, unfortified cereal-legume and cereal-only porridges are low in vitamin A. A household-level sweet potato-based infant food, rich in vitamin A, has been developed to complement vitamin A supplementation initiatives in Sub-Saharan Africa. A composite flour containing sweet potato, soybean, soybean oil and fishmeal was processed as complementary food by oven toasting (denoted oven-toasted ComFa). The oven-toasted ComFa and enriched Weanimix (processed from dehulled maize, dehulled soybean, groundnut and fishmeal) were assessed for suitability as complementary food based on the nutrient composition using specifications in the Codex Standard (CS) as a reference. The sweet potato-based formulation and enriched Weanimix met the energy, protein, fructose and fat specifications but barely met the amino acid score as indicated in the CS. However, only the oven-toasted ComFa met the calcium and almost half the vitamin A levels as specified in the CS. Oven-toasted ComFa was slightly lower in energy, protein and fat by a difference not greater than 4.0% but was higher by more than 100% in fructose and vitamin A levels. Therefore, the sweet potato-based complementary food is likely to support vitamin A supplementation initiatives in low-income countries better than the cereal-based formulation. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program participation is associated with an increase in household food security in a national evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabli, James; Ohls, Jim

    2015-02-01

    The Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) provides nutrition assistance benefits to low-income families in an effort to reduce hunger and improve health and well-being. Because 1 in 7 Americans participate in the program each month, policymakers need to know whether the program is meeting these objectives effectively. The objective of this study was to estimate the association between SNAP participation and household food security using recent data from the largest national survey of the food security of SNAP participants to date. The analysis used a survey of nearly 6500 households and a quasi-experimental research design that consisted of 2 sets of comparisons. Using a cross-sectional sample, we compared information collected from SNAP households within days of program entry with information collected from a contemporaneous sample of SNAP households that had participated for ∼6 mo. Next, using a longitudinal sample, we compared baseline information collected from new-entrant SNAP households with information from those same households 6 mo later. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to estimate associations between SNAP and household food security. SNAP participation decreased the percentage of SNAP households that were food insecure in both samples by 6-17%. SNAP participation also decreased the percentage of households experiencing severe food insecurity--designated very low food security--by 12-19%. Findings were qualitatively robust to different empirical specifications. SNAP serves a vital role in improving the health and well-being of households by increasing food security. Given recent legislation to reduce program size and limit program eligibility, this study underscores SNAP's continued importance in affecting households' well-being. Future research is needed to determine whether specific groups of households experience differential improvements in food security. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  2. Implications of US Nutrition Facts Label Changes on Micronutrient Density of Fortified Foods and Supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBurney, Michael I; Hartunian-Sowa, Sonia; Matusheski, Nathan V

    2017-06-01

    The US FDA published new nutrition-labeling regulations in May 2016. For the first time since the implementation of the Nutrition Labeling and Education Act of 1990, the Daily Value (DV) for most vitamins will change, as will the units of measurement used in nutrition labeling for some vitamins. For some food categories, the Reference Amounts Customarily Consumed (RACCs) will increase to reflect portions commonly consumed on a single occasion. These regulatory changes are now effective, and product label changes will be mandatory beginning 26 July 2018. This commentary considers the potential impact of these regulatory changes on the vitamin and mineral contents of foods and dietary supplements. Case studies examined potential effects on food fortification and nutrient density. The updated DVs may lead to a reduction in the nutrient density of foods and dietary supplements with respect to 8 vitamins (vitamin A, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B-6, vitamin B-12, biotin, and pantothenic acid) and 6 minerals (zinc, selenium, copper, chromium, molybdenum, and chloride), and have mixed effects on 2 vitamins where the amount required per serving is affected by chemical structure (i.e., form) (natural vitamin E compared with synthetic vitamin E and folic acid compared with folate). Despite an increased DV for vitamin D, regulations limit food fortification. The adoption of Dietary Folate Equivalents for folate labeling may lead to reductions in the quantity of folic acid voluntarily added per RACC. Finally, because of increased RACCs in some food categories to reflect portions that people typically eat at one time, the vitamin and mineral density of these foods may be affected adversely. In totality, the United States is entering an era in which the need to monitor dietary intake patterns and nutritional status is unprecedented. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  3. Estimated folate intakes: data updated to reflect food fortification, increased bioavailability, and dietary supplement use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, C J; Crane, N T; Wilson, D B; Yetley, E A

    1999-08-01

    There is a critical need to estimate dietary folate intakes for nutrition monitoring and food safety evaluations, but available intake data are seriously limited by several factors. Our objective was to update 2 national food consumption surveys to reflect folate intakes as a result of the recently initiated food fortification program and to correct folate intakes for the apparently higher bioavailability of synthetic folic acid (SFA; ie, folate added to foods or from dietary supplements) than of naturally occurring folate so as to express intakes as dietary folate equivalents. It was not possible to chemically analyze foods, so adjustments were made to food-composition data by using information about food ingredients and characteristics. Total folate intakes were estimated for several sex and age groups by using the modified data coupled with dietary supplement use. Within the limitations of the data, our findings suggested that 67-95% of the population met or surpassed the new estimated average requirement, depending on the sex and age group and survey. Nonetheless, some subgroups had estimated intakes below these standards. Estimated SFA intakes suggested that approximately 15-25% of children aged 1-8 y, depending on the survey, had intakes above the newly established tolerable upper intake level. We estimated that 68-87% of females of childbearing age had SFA intakes below the recommended intake of 400 microgram/d, depending on the age group and survey. There is a need to explore ways to improve folate intakes in targeted subgroups, including females of childbearing age, while not putting other population groups at risk of excessive intakes.

  4. The Association Between Consumer Competency and Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program Participation on Food Insecurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yunhee; Kim, Jinhee; Chatterjee, Swarn

    2017-09-01

    To examine whether Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) participants exhibited lower food insecurity when they also demonstrated desirable behaviors in the areas of financial management, nutrition literacy, and conscientious food shopping. Using data from the US Department of Agriculture's newly launched National Household Food Acquisition and Purchase Survey, this study examined whether consumer competency is a factor that affects food insecurity. A total of 4,158 participants were included. Sampling weights were applied to represent the population better. Very low food insecurity was the dependent variable. Important independent variables were participants' financial management skills, nutrition literacy, and conscientious shopping. Logit and 2-staged least-squares models were used for empirical analyses. The significance of models was tested at .05, .01, and .001. Consumer competency-related factors such as financial management ability, not defaulting on bill payments within the previous 6 months, and using the nutrition panel frequently when shopping were negatively associated with food insecurity and very low food security after controlling for a number of other demographic, socioeconomic, and behavioral characteristics. Policies that focus solely on consumer competency programs such as SNAP-Education might marginally achieve program goals but the effect would be modest owing to the unique challenges that SNAP participants may face. Further investigations are needed to understand better why SNAP participants do not benefit successfully from competent consumer practices. Copyright © 2017 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Oral intake of added titanium dioxide and its nanofraction from food products, food supplements and toothpaste by the Dutch population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rompelberg, Cathy; Heringa, Minne B; van Donkersgoed, Gerda; Drijvers, José; Roos, Agnes; Westenbrink, Susanne; Peters, Ruud; van Bemmel, Greet; Brand, Walter; Oomen, Agnes G

    2016-12-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is commonly applied to enhance the white colour and brightness of food products. TiO2 is also used as white pigment in other products such as toothpaste. A small fraction of the pigment is known to be present as nanoparticles (NPs). Recent studies with TiO2 NPs indicate that these particles can have toxic effects. In this paper, we aimed to estimate the oral intake of TiO2 and its NPs from food, food supplements and toothpaste in the Dutch population aged 2 to over 70 years by combining data on food consumption and supplement intake with concentrations of Ti and TiO2 NPs in food products and supplements. For children aged 2-6 years, additional intake via ingestion of toothpaste was estimated. The mean long-term intake to TiO2 ranges from 0.06 mg/kg bw/day in elderly (70+), 0.17 mg/kg bw/day for 7-69-year-old people, to 0.67 mg/kg bw/day in children (2-6 year old). The estimated mean intake of TiO2 NPs ranges from 0.19 μg/kg bw/day in elderly, 0.55 μg/kg bw/day for 7-69-year-old people, to 2.16 μg/kg bw/day in young children. Ninety-fifth percentile (P95) values are 0.74, 1.61 and 4.16 μg/kg bw/day, respectively. The products contributing most to the TiO2 intake are toothpaste (in young children only), candy, coffee creamer, fine bakery wares and sauces. In a separate publication, the results are used to evaluate whether the presence of TiO2 NPs in these products can pose a human health risk.

  6. Impact of food supplementation and methionine on high densities of cotton rats: Support of the amino-acid-quality hypothesis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, R.E.; Leslie, David M.; Lochmiller, R.L.; Masters, R.E.

    2005-01-01

    Considerable research supports the tenet that quantity and quality of food limit vertebrate populations. We evaluated predictions that increased availabilities of food and the essential amino acid methionine were related to population limitation of the hispid cotton rat (Sigmodon hispidus). Effects of supplemental food and methionine on density, survival, and reproductive parameters of wild cotton rats were assessed in north-central Oklahoma in 1998-1999. Twelve enclosed groups of 16 adult cotton rats each (8 male, 8 female) were randomly assigned to either no supplementation (control), supplementation with a mixed ration that had methionine at slightly below maintenance levels (0.20%), or a methionine-enhanced mixed ration (1.20%). In general, densities of cotton rats were twice as high and were sustained longer with dietary supplementation, and methionine-supplemented populations maintained the highest densities. Treatment effects on survival depended on time of year, with higher survival in supplemented enclosures in October and November. Per capita recruitment was highest with methionine-enhanced food. Treatment effects on proportions of overall and female cotton rats in reproductive condition depended on sampling date, but males were most reproductively active with methionine supplementation. Methionine supplementation resulted in an earlier and longer reproductive season. Density-dependent and density-independent factors no doubt interplay to determine population dynamics of cotton rats, but our results suggest that methionine plays a role in the population dynamics of wild cotton rats, apparently by enhancing overall density, recruitment, and reproductive activity of males.

  7. Providing calorie information on fast-food restaurant menu boards: consumer views.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitch, Rebecca C; Harnack, Lisa J; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne R; Story, Mary T; French, Simone A; Oakes, J Michael; Rydell, Sarah A

    2009-01-01

    To gather consumer input about approaches to providing energy composition information for foods on fast-food restaurant menus. We asked a subset of individuals (n = 150) in an experimental study about the influence of nutrition labeling on fast-food meal choices to evaluate calorie information on mock fast-food menus in various formats. Three community sites in the Minneapolis-St. Paul, Minnesota, metropolitan area. Adolescents and adults who ate fast food at least once per week were recruited. Via a series of open- and close-ended questions, participants gave feedback about several formats for providing energy composition information for foods on fast-food restaurant menus. Means and frequencies were calculated, and chi2 tests were conducted. When asked to compare a menu that provided calorie information for each menu item with a menu that provided the number of minutes of running that would be required to burn the calories contained in each menu item, 71.0% of participants preferred the calorie information over the physical activity information. Participants also compared two approaches to providing caloric reference information on the menu (average daily calorie needs per day vs. per meal), and 61.3% preferred the calorie needs-per-meal format. Our results may be useful in designing approaches to providing energy composition information for foods on fast-food restaurant menus.

  8. Thrombocytopenia as an adverse effect of complementary and alternative medicines, herbal remedies, nutritional supplements, foods, and beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royer, Derek J; George, James N; Terrell, Deirdra R

    2010-05-01

    Thrombocytopenia is a well-recognized adverse effect of many drugs. However, the association of thrombocytopenia with complementary/alternative medicines, herbal remedies, nutritional supplements, foods, and beverages has been rarely described, except for reports of thrombocytopenia caused by quinine-containing beverages. To systematically identify all published reports of thrombocytopenia associated with these substances and to assess the evidence supporting their causal association with thrombocytopenia. Eleven databases were searched to identify relevant published reports. A priori criteria were defined for article selection and assessment. Each selected article was independently assessed by the three authors to document the presence of the criteria and determine the level of evidence for a causal association of the reported substance with thrombocytopenia. Twenty-seven articles were identified that reported the occurrence of thrombocytopenia with 25 substances (other than quinine). However, only six articles describing five substances (cow's milk, cranberry juice, Jui [Chinese herbal tea], Lupinus termis bean, and tahini [pulped sesame seeds]) reported clinical data supporting definite evidence of a causal association with thrombocytopenia. Four articles provided probable evidence for four additional substances, and five articles provided possible evidence for five additional substances. In the remaining articles, the association with thrombocytopenia was unlikely or the articles were excluded from review. Reports of thrombocytopenia describing definite or probable evidence for an association of a complementary/alternative medicines, herbal remedies, nutritional supplements, foods, and beverages are rare. Whether the occurrence of thrombocytopenia with these substances is uncommon or unrecognized is unknown.

  9. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, essentiality and requirements: why and how to provide supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nieto, Susana

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Lipids comprize from 50-60% of the structural matter of the brain and docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6, DHA is the most  important omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid in the brain phospholipids comprizing 25% of the total fatty acids of the grey matter. The majority of the DHA present in the human brain is incorporated during the brain growth spurt which starts at week 26 of gestation and imposes a high demand for the fatty acid until about 2 years of age. DHA is required during brain development when neuronal and glial differentiation and migration, and active myelination and synaptogenesis take place. The fatty acid must be incorporated into the brain lipids as preformed DHA because less than 5% of its precursor (alpha linolenic acid, LNA is converted to DHA. The human foetus has a limited ability to synthesize DHA from LNA, and therefore it must be largely supplied from maternal sources. Maternal DHA available for foetal nutrition can be provided from three main sources: adipose tissue, which is the main reservoir for the fatty acid; through biosynthesis from the precursor LNA, which occurs mainly in the liver; and as preformed DHA from dietary sources. In the postnatal period DHA is provided by the mother to the newborn through milk secretion. Western nutrition provides low LNA and DHA and Expert Nutrition Committees suggest that mothers should receive DHA supplementation during pregnancy and lactation. At present DHA supplementation can be provided from different sources: as purified free DHA, as an ethyl ester derivative, extracted from single-cell algae oils, from egg yolk phospholipids, or in the form of sn-2 DHA monoacylglycerol. In this review we revise and discuss the evidence of DHA requirements for the newborn, the need for maternal supplementation during pregnancy and nursing, and the alternatives at present for providing DHA supplementation.Los lípidos comprenden entre el 50-60% de la estructura del cerebro, y el

  10. Anti-inflammatory evaluation and acute toxicity of three food supplements that contain Moussonia deppeana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Rebolledo, Gabriel Alfonso; Pérez-González, Mariana Zuleima; Zamilpa, Alejandro; Jiménez-Arellanes, María Adelina

    2017-02-01

    To identify the anti-inflammatory activity through two murine models and in the median Lethal Dose (LD50) of three dietary supplements that contain Moussonia deppeana. The anti-inflammatory activity of three dietary supplements (Cicatrisan/Gastricus®, Gastinol®, and Gastrovita®) EtOH extracts was evaluated by TPA and by carrageenan murine models; also, median Lethal Dose (LD50) was determined. Verbascoside was quantified by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography. β-sitosterol, stigmasterol and the mixture of ursolic and oleanolic acids were identified in all supplements by TLC; however, none of these dietary supplements contain verbascoside. For the TPA model, Cicatrisan/Gastricus® generated a notable effect with 38.24% inhibition. While in the carrageenan model, it also exhibited noteworthy anti-inflammatory activity of ear edema with 66.39% of paw edema inhibition at 150 mg/kg, followed by Gastinol® and Gastrovita® with ≈50% at 300 mg/kg. Finally, LD50 was >2 g/kg for all supplements, when was administered intragastrically and Body Weight (BW) gain in mice was not altered after 14 days. Of the three food supplements containing M. deppeana, only the EtOH extract from Cicatrisan/Gastricus® formulation (tablets) showed significant anti-inflammatory activity in both experimental models and the LD50 was >2 g/kg. Copyright © 2017 Hainan Medical University. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. When conservation management becomes contraindicated: impact of food supplementation on health of endangered wildlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Guillermo; Lemus, Jesús A; García-Montijano, Marino

    2011-10-01

    Understanding the conditions that force the implementation of management actions and their efficiency is crucial for conservation of endangered species. Wildlife managers are widely and increasingly using food supplementation for such species because the potentially immediate benefits may translate into rapid conservation improvements. Supplementary feeding can also pose risks eventually promoting undesired, unexpected, subtle, or indirect, and often unnoticed, effects that are generally poorly understood. For two decades, intensive food supplementation has been used in attempting to improve the breeding productivity of the Spanish Imperial Eagle, Aquila adalberti, one of the most endangered birds of prey in the world. Here, we examined the impact of this intensive management action on nestling health, including contamination, immunodepression, and acquisition of disease agents derived from supplementation techniques and provisioned food. Contrary to management expectations, we found that fed individuals were often inadvertently "medicated" with pharmaceuticals (antibiotics and antiparasitics) contained in supplementary food (domestic rabbits). Individuals fed with medicated rabbits showed a depressed immune system and a high prevalence and richness of pathogens compared with those with no or safe supplementary feeding using non-medicated wild rabbits. A higher presence of antibiotics (fluoroquinolones) was found in sick as opposed to healthy individuals among eaglets with supplementary feeding, which points directly toward a causal effect of these drugs in disease and other health impairments. This study represents a telling example of well-meaning management strategies not based on sound scientific evidence becoming a "contraindicated" action with detrimental repercussions undermining possible beneficial effects by increasing the impact of stochastic factors on extinction risk of endangered wildlife.

  12. Analytical approaches to determination of carnitine in biological materials, foods and dietary supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dąbrowska, Monika; Starek, Małgorzata

    2014-01-01

    l-Carnitine is a vitamin-like amino acid derivative, which is an essential factor in fatty acid metabolism as acyltransferase cofactor and in energy production processes, such as interconversion in the mechanisms of regulation of cetogenesis and termogenesis, and it is also used in the therapy of primary and secondary deficiency, and in other diseases. The determination of carnitine and acyl-carnitines can provide important information about inherited or acquired metabolic disorders, and for monitoring the biochemical effect of carnitine therapy. The endogenous carnitine pool in humans is maintained by biosynthesis and absorption of carnitine from the diet. Carnitine has one asymmetric carbon giving two stereoisomers d and l, but only the l form has a biological positive effect, thus chiral recognition of l-carnitine enantiomers is extremely important in biological, chemical and pharmaceutical sciences. In order to get more insight into carnitine metabolism and synthesis, a sensitive analysis for the determination of the concentration of free carnitine, carnitine esters and the carnitine precursors is required. Carnitine has been investigated in many biochemical, pharmacokinetic, metabolic and toxicokinetic studies and thus many analytical methods have been developed and published for the determination of carnitine in foods, dietary supplements, pharmaceutical formulations, biological tissues and body fluid. The analytical procedures presented in this review have been validated in terms of basic parameters (linearity, limit of detection, limit of quantitation, sensitivity, accuracy, and precision). This article presented the impact of different analytical techniques, and provides an overview of applications that address a diverse array of pharmaceutical and biological questions and samples. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. EU marker polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in food supplements: analytical approach and occurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelinkova, Zuzana; Wenzl, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Several food supplements comprising botanical, oil and bee products collected from retail markets in different countries were tested for the occurrence of 4 EU marker Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs; benz[a]anthracene, chrysene, benzo[b]fluoranthene and benzo[a]pyrene). A robust GC/MS-based stable-isotope dilution method was used taking into account the differences in the type of matrices. The accuracy of the results was assessed by implementing several quality control tools. Sixty-eight samples of 94 analysed products exceeded the level of 0.5 μg/kg for the sum of the four EU marker PAHs (ΣPAH4). Benzo[a]pyrene exceeded the limit of quantification in 49 samples. The PAH with the highest abundance in all products was chrysene. On average, propolis extracts and other bee products showed relatively high levels of ΣPAH4 (mean 188.2 μg/kg), whereas the contamination levels of fish oil supplements were very low or mostly undetectable. Considerably high ΣPAH4 amounts found in some samples could remarkably increase the daily exposure of consumers to PAHs, demonstrating the need for continuous monitoring of ΣPAH4 in food supplements.

  14. NIH Study Provides Clarity on Supplements for Protection Against Blinding Eye Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... vision. Before the AREDS2 study finished, manufacturers began marketing supplements based on the study design. In AREDS2, ... Health, leads the federal government's research on the visual system and eye diseases. NEI supports basic and ...

  15. Positive effect of protein-supplemented hospital food on protein intake in patients at nutritional risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, T; Beck, A M; Holst, M

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: New evidence indicates that increased dietary protein ingestion promotes health and recovery from illness, and also maintains functionality in older adults. The present study aimed to investigate whether a novel food service concept with protein-supplementation would increase protein ...... of hospital stay did not differ between groups. CONCLUSIONS: The novel food service concept had a significant positive impact on overall protein intake and on weight-adjusted energy intake in hospitalised patients at nutritional risk....... and energy intake in hospitalised patients at nutritional risk. METHODS: A single-blinded randomised controlled trial was conducted. Eighty-four participants at nutritional risk, recruited from the departments of Oncology, Orthopaedics and Urology, were included. The intervention group (IG) received...... the protein-supplemented food service concept. The control group (CG) received the standard hospital menu. Primary outcome comprised the number of patients achieving ≥75% of energy and protein requirements. Secondary outcomes comprised mean energy and protein intake, body weight, handgrip strength and length...

  16. Nutritional Supplement of Hatchery Eggshell Membrane Improves Poultry Performance and Provides Resistance against Endotoxin Stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S K Makkar

    Full Text Available Eggshells are significant part of hatchery waste which consist of calcium carbonate crust, membranes, and proteins and peptides of embryonic origins along with other entrapped contaminants including microbes. We hypothesized that using this product as a nutritional additive in poultry diet may confer better immunity to the chickens in the paradigm of mammalian milk that enhances immunity. Therefore, we investigated the effect of hatchery eggshell membranes (HESM as a short term feed supplement on growth performance and immunity of chickens under bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS challenged condition. Three studies were conducted to find the effect of HESM supplement on post hatch chickens. In the first study, the chickens were fed either a control diet or diets containing 0.5% whey protein or HESM as supplement and evaluated at 5 weeks of age using growth, hematology, clinical chemistry, plasma immunoglobulins, and corticosterone as variables. The second and third studies were done to compare the effects of LPS on control and HESM fed birds at 5 weeks of age following at 4 and 24 h of treatment where the HESM was also sterilized with ethanol to deplete bacterial factors. HESM supplement caused weight gain in 2 experiments and decreased blood corticosterone concentrations. While LPS caused a significant loss in body weight at 24 h following its administration, the HESM supplemented birds showed significantly less body weight loss compared with the control fed birds. The WBC, heterophil/lymphocyte ratio, and the levels of IgG were low in chickens fed diets with HESM supplement compared with control diet group. LPS challenge increased the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokine gene IL-6 but the HESM fed birds showed its effect curtailed, also, which also, favored the up-regulation of anti-inflammatory genes compared with control diet fed chickens. Post hatch supplementation of HESM appears to improve performance, modulate immunity, and increase

  17. Nutritional Supplement of Hatchery Eggshell Membrane Improves Poultry Performance and Provides Resistance against Endotoxin Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makkar, S K; Rath, N C; Packialakshmi, B; Zhou, Z Y; Huff, G R; Donoghue, A M

    2016-01-01

    Eggshells are significant part of hatchery waste which consist of calcium carbonate crust, membranes, and proteins and peptides of embryonic origins along with other entrapped contaminants including microbes. We hypothesized that using this product as a nutritional additive in poultry diet may confer better immunity to the chickens in the paradigm of mammalian milk that enhances immunity. Therefore, we investigated the effect of hatchery eggshell membranes (HESM) as a short term feed supplement on growth performance and immunity of chickens under bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenged condition. Three studies were conducted to find the effect of HESM supplement on post hatch chickens. In the first study, the chickens were fed either a control diet or diets containing 0.5% whey protein or HESM as supplement and evaluated at 5 weeks of age using growth, hematology, clinical chemistry, plasma immunoglobulins, and corticosterone as variables. The second and third studies were done to compare the effects of LPS on control and HESM fed birds at 5 weeks of age following at 4 and 24 h of treatment where the HESM was also sterilized with ethanol to deplete bacterial factors. HESM supplement caused weight gain in 2 experiments and decreased blood corticosterone concentrations. While LPS caused a significant loss in body weight at 24 h following its administration, the HESM supplemented birds showed significantly less body weight loss compared with the control fed birds. The WBC, heterophil/lymphocyte ratio, and the levels of IgG were low in chickens fed diets with HESM supplement compared with control diet group. LPS challenge increased the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokine gene IL-6 but the HESM fed birds showed its effect curtailed, also, which also, favored the up-regulation of anti-inflammatory genes compared with control diet fed chickens. Post hatch supplementation of HESM appears to improve performance, modulate immunity, and increase resistance of

  18. Absorption Profile of (Poly)Phenolic Compounds after Consumption of Three Food Supplements Containing 36 Different Fruits, Vegetables, and Berries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bresciani, Letizia; Martini, Daniela; Mena, Pedro; Tassotti, Michele; Calani, Luca; Brigati, Giacomo; Brighenti, Furio; Holasek, Sandra; Malliga, Daniela-Eugenia; Lamprecht, Manfred; Del Rio, Daniele

    2017-01-01

    The market of plant-based nutraceuticals and food supplements is continuously growing due to the increased consumer demand. The introduction of new products with relevant nutritional characteristics represents a new way of providing bioactive compounds and (poly)phenols to consumers, becoming a strategy to ideally guarantee the health benefits attributed to plant foodstuffs and allowing the increase of daily bioactive compound intake. A paramount step in the study of nutraceuticals is the evaluation of the bioavailability and metabolism of their putatively active components. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the absorption profile of the (poly)phenolic compounds contained in three different plant-based food supplements, made of 36 different plant matrices, which were consumed by 20 subjects in an open one-arm study design. Blood samples were collected at baseline and 1, 2, 5, and 10 h after capsule intake. Twenty quantifiable metabolites deriving from different (poly)phenolic compounds were identified. Results showed that the consumption of the three capsules allowed the effective absorption of several (poly)phenolic compounds and metabolites appearing at different times in plasma, thereby indicating different absorption profiles. The capsules thus ensured potential health-promoting molecules to be potentially available to target tissues and organs. PMID:28245627

  19. Absorption Profile of (Poly)Phenolic Compounds after Consumption of Three Food Supplements Containing 36 Different Fruits, Vegetables, and Berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bresciani, Letizia; Martini, Daniela; Mena, Pedro; Tassotti, Michele; Calani, Luca; Brigati, Giacomo; Brighenti, Furio; Holasek, Sandra; Malliga, Daniela-Eugenia; Lamprecht, Manfred; Del Rio, Daniele

    2017-02-26

    The market of plant-based nutraceuticals and food supplements is continuously growing due to the increased consumer demand. The introduction of new products with relevant nutritional characteristics represents a new way of providing bioactive compounds and (poly)phenols to consumers, becoming a strategy to ideally guarantee the health benefits attributed to plant foodstuffs and allowing the increase of daily bioactive compound intake. A paramount step in the study of nutraceuticals is the evaluation of the bioavailability and metabolism of their putatively active components. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the absorption profile of the (poly)phenolic compounds contained in three different plant-based food supplements, made of 36 different plant matrices, which were consumed by 20 subjects in an open one-arm study design. Blood samples were collected at baseline and 1, 2, 5, and 10 h after capsule intake. Twenty quantifiable metabolites deriving from different (poly)phenolic compounds were identified. Results showed that the consumption of the three capsules allowed the effective absorption of several (poly)phenolic compounds and metabolites appearing at different times in plasma, thereby indicating different absorption profiles. The capsules thus ensured potential health-promoting molecules to be potentially available to target tissues and organs.

  20. The costs and cost-efficiency of providing food through schools in areas of high food insecurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelli, Aulo; Al-Shaiba, Najeeb; Espejo, Francisco

    2009-03-01

    The provision of food in and through schools has been used to support the education, health, and nutrition of school-aged children. The monitoring of financial inputs into school health and nutrition programs is critical for a number of reasons, including accountability, transparency, and equity. Furthermore, there is a gap in the evidence on the costs, cost-efficiency, and cost-effectiveness of providing food through schools, particularly in areas of high food insecurity. To estimate the programmatic costs and cost-efficiency associated with providing food through schools in food-insecure, developing-country contexts, by analyzing global project data from the World Food Programme (WFP). Project data, including expenditures and number of schoolchildren covered, were collected through project reports and validated through WFP Country Office records. Yearly project costs per schoolchild were standardized over a set number of feeding days and the amount of energy provided by the average ration. Output metrics, such as tonnage, calories, and micronutrient content, were used to assess the cost-efficiency of the different delivery mechanisms. The average yearly expenditure per child, standardized over a 200-day on-site feeding period and an average ration, excluding school-level costs, was US$21.59. The costs varied substantially according to choice of food modality, with fortified biscuits providing the least costly option of about US$11 per year and take-home rations providing the most expensive option at approximately US$52 per year. Comparisons across the different food modalities suggested that fortified biscuits provide the most cost-efficient option in terms of micronutrient delivery (particularly vitamin A and iodine), whereas on-site meals appear to be more efficient in terms of calories delivered. Transportation and logistics costs were the main drivers for the high costs. The choice of program objectives will to a large degree dictate the food modality

  1. Predicting intentions to consume functional foods and supplements to offset memory loss using an adaptation of protection motivation theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cox, D.N.; Koster, A.; Russell, C.G.

    2004-01-01

    The widespread use of dietary supplements and so-called `functional foods¿ is thought to be partially motivated by self-control of health. However, whilst consumers want foods associated with well-being or disease prevention, they are unlikely to be willing to compromise on taste or technology. This

  2. Monitoring of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in food supplements containing botanicals and other ingredients on the Dutch market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martena, M.J.; Grutters, M.; Groot, de H.N.; Konings, E.J.M.; Rietjens, I.

    2011-01-01

    Food supplements can contain polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) has defined 16 priority PAH that are both genotoxic and carcinogenic and identified eight priority PAH (PAH8) or four of these (PAH4) as good indicators of the toxicity and occurrence of

  3. Bioaccessibility of vitamin A, vitamin C and folic acid from dietary supplements fortified food and infant formula

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brandon, E.F.A.; Bakker, M.I.; Kramer, E.H.M.; Bouwmeester, H.; Zuidema, T.; Alewijn, M.

    2014-01-01

    In the Netherlands, vitamin intake occurs mainly via food and for some vitamins also via fortified food. In addition, some people take dietary supplements. Information on the bioavailability of vitamins is important for a good estimation of the actual exposure to vitamins. Furthermore, for a

  4. Consumption estimation of non alcoholic beverages, sodium, food supplements and oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Díaz-Ufano, María Luisa

    2015-02-26

    The interest in the type and quantity of non alcoholic beverage, sodium, food supplements and oil consumption is not new, and numerous approaches have been used to assess beverage intake, but the validity of these approaches has not been well established. The need to intake liquids varies depending on the diet, the physical activity carried out, the environmental temperature, the humidity, etc. The variety of beverages in the diet can contribute to increasing the micro nutrient intake: vitamins, antioxidants, minerals. Risks associated to high sodium consumption are: an increase in high blood pressure, vascular endothelial deterioration, bone demineralisation, kidney disease, stomach cancer. Progress in health, investigation, education, etc. are leading to an increase in food supplement consumption. Olive oil represents one of the basic pillars of the Mediterranean diet and its normal presence in nutrition guarantees an adequate content of some important nutrients; not only oleic acid and linoleic acid but also tocopherols, phytoesterols and phenolic compounds. Biomarkers of intake are able to objectively assess dietary intake/status without the bias of self-reported dietary intake errors and also overcome the problem of intra-individual diet variability. Furthermore, some methods of of measuring dietary intake used biomarkers to validate the data it collects. Biological markers may offer advantages and be able to improve the estimates of dietary intake assessment, which impact into the statistical power of the study. There is a surprising paucity of studies that systematically examine the correlation of beverages intake and hydration biomarker in different populations. There is no standardized questionnaire developed as a research tool for the evaluation of non alcoholic beverages, sodium, food supplements and oil intake in the general population. Sometimes, the information comes from different sources or from different methodological characteristics which raises

  5. Pick-and-Eat Salad-Crop Productivity, Nutritional Value, and Acceptability to Supplement the ISS Food System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massa, G. D.; Wheeler, R. M.; Hummerick, M. E.; Morrow, R. C.; Mitchell, C. A.; Whitmire, A. M.; Ploutz-Snyder, R. J.; Douglas, G. L.

    2016-01-01

    The capability to grow nutritious, palatable food for crew consumption during spaceflight has the potential to provide health-promoting, bioavailable nutrients, enhance the dietary experience, and reduce launch mass as we move toward longer-duration missions. However, studies of edible produce during spaceflight have been limited, leaving a significant knowledge gap in the methods required to grow safe, acceptable, nutritious crops for consumption in space. Researchers from Kennedy Space Center, Johnson Space Center, Purdue University and ORBITEC have teamed up to explore the potential for plant growth and food production on the International Space Station (ISS) and future exploration missions. KSC, Purdue, and ORBITEC bring a history of plant and plant-microbial interaction research for ISS and for future bioregenerative life support systems. JSC brings expertise in Advanced Food Technology (AFT), Behavioral Health and Performance (BHP), and statistics. The Veggie vegetable-production system on the ISS offers an opportunity to develop a pick-and-eat fresh vegetable component to the ISS food system as a first step to bioregenerative supplemental food production. We propose growing salad plants in the Veggie unit during spaceflight, focusing on the impact of light quality and fertilizer formulation on crop morphology, edible biomass yield, microbial food safety, organoleptic acceptability, nutritional value, and behavioral health benefits of the fresh produce. The first phase of the project will involve flight tests using leafy greens, with a small Chinese cabbage variety, Tokyo bekana, previously down selected through a series of research tests as a suitable candidate. The second phase will focus on dwarf tomato. Down selection of candidate varieties have been performed, and the dwarf cultivar Red Robin has been selected as the test crop. Four light treatments and three fertilizer treatments will be tested for each crop on the ground, to down select to two light

  6. School Lunch Consumption among 3 Food Service Providers in New Orleans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canterberry, Melanie; Francois, Samantha; van Hattum, Taslim; Rudov, Lindsey; Carton, Thomas W.

    2018-01-01

    Background: Louisiana has one of the highest rates of overweight and obese children in the United States. The Healthy School Food Collaborative (HSFC) was created to allow New Orleans's schools to select their own healthy school Food Service Provider (FSP) with requirements for higher nutritional standards than traditional options. The goal of…

  7. Analysis of Marketing Strategy for Food Supplements and Over-The-Counter Medicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzeparoski, Marjan; Trajkovic-Jolevska, Suzana

    2016-09-15

    Marketing strategy is correlated with the regulations for the corresponding product category. Accordingly, there is a big difference in the marketing strategy of food supplements and over-the-counter medicines. In this paper are presented 2 different marketing strategies of a new small pharmaceutical company in two studies. The findings of studies analysis can be used for developing marketing strategies in the wider sense and other products, for other small to medium sized companies in other countries of interest with similar regulations and help them understand how to position and promote themselves and their products.

  8. Effects of protein and omega-3 supplementation, provided during regular dialysis sessions, on nutritional and inflammatory indices in hemodialysis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mat Daud ZA

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Zulfitri A Mat Daud1, Boniface Tubie2, Judy Adams2, Tracey Quainton2, Robert Osia2, Sharon Tubie2, Deepinder Kaur1, Pramod Khosla1, Marina Sheyman21Department of Nutrition and Food Science, Wayne State University, 2Great Lake Dialysis, LLC, Detroit, MI, USAPurpose: Malnutrition and chronic inflammation in dialysis patients negatively impacts prognosis. However, intervening to correct this problem (through nutritional supplementation is often hampered by poor compliance due to both medical and socioeconomic barriers. We have therefore performed a pilot study to investigate the technical feasibility of “directly observed treatment” of nutritional supplementation (protein and omega-3 fatty acids, administered during regular dialysis sessions. Secondary end points included observation of nutritional and inflammatory status of hypoalbuminemic patients undergoing hemodialysis.Methods: Main inclusion criteria were serum albumin ≤ 3.9 g/dL (3 months prior to the study. Sixty-three eligible patients agreed to participate. Two intervention groups received 30 mL of a liquid protein supplement plus either 2.4 g omega-3 (1800 mg eicosapentaenoic acid + 600 mg docosahexaenoic acid or a placebo, three times per week after their routine dialysis session for 6 months. Serum albumin, plasma lipids, and other indicators of nutritional and inflammatory status were measured.Results: Directly observed nutritional supplementation resulted in a significant improvement in the low density lipoprotein cholesterol/high density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio in the omega-3 group as compared to the placebo group (P = 0.043. For the omega-3 group, serum albumin was also marginally higher after 6 months as compared to baseline (P = 0.07. The observed increase in C-reactive protein in the placebo group over 6 months was not apparent in the omega-3 group, although there was no significant difference between groups. Nuclear factor kappa B, malnutrition-inflammation score

  9. Developing food supplements for moderately malnourished children: lessons learned from ready-to-use therapeutic foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briend, André; Akomo, Peter; Bahwere, Paluku; De Pee, Saskia; Dibari, Filippo; Golden, Michael H; Manary, Mark; Ryan, Kelsey

    2015-03-01

    Ready-to-use therapeutic foods (RUTFs) are solid foods that were developed by changing the formulation of the existing liquid diet, F-100, recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) for the rapid catch-up phase of the treatment of children suffering from severe acute malnutrition (SAM). The resulting products proved highly effective in promoting weight gain in both severely and moderately wasted children and adults, including those infected with HIV. The formulation of the existing RUTFs, however, has never been optimized to maximize linear growth, vitamin and mineral status, and functional outcomes. The high milk content of RUTFs makes it an expensive product, and using lower quantities of milk seems desirable. However, the formulation of alternative, less expensive but more effective versions of RUTF faces difficult challenges, as there are uncertainties regarding the effect in terms of protein quality, antinutrient content, and flatulence factors that will result from the replacement of current dairy ingredients by less expensive protein-rich ingredients. The formulation of alternative RUTFs will require further research on these aspects, followed by efficacy studies comparing the future RUTFs to the existing formulations.

  10. Consumer fears and familiarity of processed food. The value of information provided by the FTNS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verneau, Fabio; Caracciolo, Francesco; Coppola, Adele; Lombardi, Pasquale

    2014-02-01

    Food choice and consumption behaviour are influenced by many interacting factors. In this paper we present an empirical effort to enhance understanding of the neophobia-neophilia forces affecting food choice. Starting from the analysis of consumer preferences for some of the most familiar highly processed foods, namely fat-reduced, functional (enriched drinks and yogurt) and ready-to-eat frozen food, our study investigates the role of traditional demographic variables vs attitudes to new food technologies in predicting the consumption behaviour of a sample of Italians buying such products. Consumer attitudes toward food technologies were collected by means of the Food Technology Neophobia Scale (FTNS). Moreover, this paper explicitly analyses the value of the information provided by the FTNS. Underlying the research is the hypothesis that the FTNS may contribute to provide a comprehensive picture of the driving forces behind consumers' behavioural responses towards processed foods which are the end-result of mature technologies. The four FTNS components, once measured and used independently, help clarify the influence on food choices of each neophobia-neophilia force (risk perception and novelty seeking, media influence, own health and environmental concerns) into a single, comprehensive framework. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Perilaku Masyarakat Dalam Mengonsumsi Food Supplement Di Kelurahan Galang Kota Kecamatan Galang Kabupaten Deli Serdang Tahun 2009

    OpenAIRE

    Nuriftitah

    2011-01-01

    A healthy and balanced food consumption pattern are able to support everyone’s healthy optimally that we can be prevented from all many diseases. Consuming food supplement is not only happened in developed countries but also in developing countries. The consumption is not only be done by high social class community but also by low social class community. This research used a qualitative method. This research aimed to explain behavior of a community in consuming food suppleme...

  12. 76 FR 51381 - Supplemental Awards to Seven Unaccompanied Alien Shelter Care Providers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-18

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Office of Refugee Resettlement Supplemental Awards to Seven Unaccompanied Alien Shelter...)(5)(C); 235(d); of the Trafficking Victims Protection Reauthorization Act of 2008, (8 U.S.C. 1232). Project Period: October 1, 2010--September 30, 2011. ] Summary: The Administration for Children and...

  13. Comparison of dietary food and nutrient intakes by supplement use in pregnant and lactating women in Seoul

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyesook; Jang, Won; Kim, Ki-Nam; Hwang, Ji-Yun; Chung, Hae-Kyung; Yang, Eun-Ju; Kim, Hye-Young; Lee, Jin-Hee; Moon, Gui-Im; Lee, Jin-Ha; Kang, Tae-Seok

    2013-01-01

    This study was performed to compare the dietary food and nutrient intakes according to supplement use in pregnant and lactating women in Seoul. The subjects were composed of 201 pregnant and 104 lactating women, and their dietary food intake was assessed using the 24-h recall method. General information on demographic and socioeconomic factors, as well as health-related behaviors, including the use of dietary supplements, were collected. About 88% and 60% of the pregnant and lactating women took dietary supplements, respectively. The proportion of dietary supplements used was higher in pregnant women with a higher level of education. After adjusting for potential confounders, among the pregnant women, supplement users were found to consume 45% more vegetables, and those among the lactating women were found to consume 96% more beans and 58% more vegetables. The intakes of dietary fiber and β-carotene among supplement users were higher than those of non-users, by 23% and 39%, respectively. Among pregnant women, the proportion of women with an intake of vitamin C (from diet alone) below the estimated average requirements (EAR) was lower among supplement users [users (44%) vs. non-users (68%)], and the proportion of lactating women with intakes of iron (from diet alone) below the EAR was lower among supplement users [usesr (17%) vs. non-users (38%)]. These results suggest that among pregnant and lactating women, those who do not use dietary supplements tend to have a lower intake of healthy foods, such as beans and vegetables, as well as a lower intake of dietary fiber and β-carotene, which are abundant in these foods, and non-users are more likely than users to have inadequate intake of micro-nutrient such as vitamin C and iron. PMID:23766881

  14. No Acute Effects of Choline Bitartrate Food Supplements on Memory in Healthy, Young, Human Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippelt, D P; van der Kint, S; van Herk, K; Naber, M

    2016-01-01

    Choline is a dietary component and precursor of acetylcholine, a crucial neurotransmitter for memory-related brain functions. In two double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over experiments, we investigated whether the food supplement choline bitartrate improved declarative memory and working memory in healthy, young students one to two hours after supplementation. In experiment 1, 28 participants performed a visuospatial working memory task. In experiment 2, 26 participants performed a declarative picture memorization task. In experiment 3, 40 participants performed a verbal working memory task in addition to the visuospatial working memory and declarative picture task. All tasks were conducted approximately 60 minutes after the ingestion of 2.0-2.5g of either choline bitartrate or placebo. We found that choline did not significantly enhance memory performance during any of the tasks. The null hypothesis that choline does not improve memory performance as compared to placebo was strongly supported by Bayesian statistics. These results are in contrast with animal studies suggesting that choline supplementation boosts memory performance and learning. We conclude that choline likely has no acute effects on cholinergic memory functions in healthy human participants.

  15. No Acute Effects of Choline Bitartrate Food Supplements on Memory in Healthy, Young, Human Adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D P Lippelt

    Full Text Available Choline is a dietary component and precursor of acetylcholine, a crucial neurotransmitter for memory-related brain functions. In two double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over experiments, we investigated whether the food supplement choline bitartrate improved declarative memory and working memory in healthy, young students one to two hours after supplementation. In experiment 1, 28 participants performed a visuospatial working memory task. In experiment 2, 26 participants performed a declarative picture memorization task. In experiment 3, 40 participants performed a verbal working memory task in addition to the visuospatial working memory and declarative picture task. All tasks were conducted approximately 60 minutes after the ingestion of 2.0-2.5g of either choline bitartrate or placebo. We found that choline did not significantly enhance memory performance during any of the tasks. The null hypothesis that choline does not improve memory performance as compared to placebo was strongly supported by Bayesian statistics. These results are in contrast with animal studies suggesting that choline supplementation boosts memory performance and learning. We conclude that choline likely has no acute effects on cholinergic memory functions in healthy human participants.

  16. Molecular diversity of bacteria in commercially available “Spirulina” food supplements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Vardaka

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The cyanobacterium Arthrospira is among the most well-known food supplements worldwide known as “Spirulina.” While it is a widely recognized health-promoting natural product, there are no reports on the molecular diversity of commercially available brands of “Spirulina” supplements and the occurrence of other cyanobacterial and heterotrophic bacterial microorganisms in these products. In this study, 454-pyrosequencing analysis of the total bacterial occurrence in 31 brands of “Spirulina” dietary supplements from the Greek market was applied for the first time. In all samples, operational taxonomic units (OTUs of Arthrospira platensis were the predominant cyanobacteria. Some products contained additional cyanobacterial OTUs including a few known potentially toxic taxa. Moreover, 469 OTUs were detected in all 31 products collectively, with most of them being related to the Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria and Verrucomicrobia. All samples included heterotrophic bacterial OTUs, ranging from 9–157 per product. Among the most common OTUs were ones closely related to taxa known for causing health issues (i.e., Pseudomonas, Flavobacterium, Vibrio, Aeromonas, Clostridium, Bacillus, Fusobacterium, Enterococcus. The observed high cyanobacterial and heterotrophic bacterial OTUs richness in the final product is a point for further research on the growth and processing of Arthrospira biomass for commercial purposes.

  17. Molecular diversity of bacteria in commercially available “Spirulina” food supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kormas, Konstantinos A.; Katsiapi, Matina; Genitsaris, Savvas; Moustaka-Gouni, Maria

    2016-01-01

    The cyanobacterium Arthrospira is among the most well-known food supplements worldwide known as “Spirulina.” While it is a widely recognized health-promoting natural product, there are no reports on the molecular diversity of commercially available brands of “Spirulina” supplements and the occurrence of other cyanobacterial and heterotrophic bacterial microorganisms in these products. In this study, 454-pyrosequencing analysis of the total bacterial occurrence in 31 brands of “Spirulina” dietary supplements from the Greek market was applied for the first time. In all samples, operational taxonomic units (OTUs) of Arthrospira platensis were the predominant cyanobacteria. Some products contained additional cyanobacterial OTUs including a few known potentially toxic taxa. Moreover, 469 OTUs were detected in all 31 products collectively, with most of them being related to the Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria and Verrucomicrobia. All samples included heterotrophic bacterial OTUs, ranging from 9–157 per product. Among the most common OTUs were ones closely related to taxa known for causing health issues (i.e., Pseudomonas, Flavobacterium, Vibrio, Aeromonas, Clostridium, Bacillus, Fusobacterium, Enterococcus). The observed high cyanobacterial and heterotrophic bacterial OTUs richness in the final product is a point for further research on the growth and processing of Arthrospira biomass for commercial purposes. PMID:26819852

  18. Identification of cis/trans isomers of menaquinone-7 in food as exemplified by dietary supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szterk, Arkadiusz; Zmysłowski, Adam; Bus, Katarzyna

    2018-03-15

    For the first time, the cis/trans isomer content of menaquinone-7 in food products has been identified and marked. A novel method of marking isomers of vitamin K2MK-7 in dietary supplements was developed and validated. Five different isomers of cis/trans vitamin K2MK-7 were identified. Identification of cis/trans isomers was performed by HRMS-QTOF, whereas their quantities were determined by using CAD and DAD detectors. In the majority of cases, the content of biologically active all trans vitamin K2MK-7 was below its declared content. The content of all trans K2MK-7 was in the range between 5.5 and 49 µg in pills. In one of the studied supplements, this vitamin was not found, regardless of the claim on the product label. The content of cis/trans isomers in certain dietary supplements exceeded the content of all trans K2MK-7 by up to 3.7 times. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Psychosocial factors influencing preferences for food and nutritional supplements among people living with HIV in Bangkok, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodas-Moya, Santiago; Pengnonyang, Supabhorn; Kodish, Stephen; de Pee, Saskia; Phanuphak, Praphan

    2017-01-01

    Malnutrition and HIV are often coincident and may lead to wasting, a strong predictor of mortality. However; ready to use therapeutic foods (RUTF) are showing promising results in restoring the nutritional status of adult people living with HIV (PLHIV) in resource constrained settings but, its acceptability seems low. This study aimed to identify the psychosocial factors influencing general preferences for food and responses to five potential nutritional supplements to guide the development of novel products to treat malnutrition among PLHIV. This is a qualitative research based on Grounded Theory. In-depth interviews (IDIs) with a triangulation of data from different participants (i.e. PLHIV and Peer Counselors (PCs) were used as methods for data collection. During February-March 2013, 27 IDIs were conducted in the Anonymous Clinic of the Thai Red Cross and AIDS Research Center in Bangkok, Thailand. Five themes emerged: 1) local food culture is an important motive underlying the nutritional supplements choice by PLHIV; 2) food and drinks should have self-perceptible positive impact on health status and should be perceived convenient; 3) a soft and easy to swallow texture, softer scents and flavors are the major sensory characteristics guiding food and beverages choice; 4) food packaging characteristics affect nutritional supplement preference; 5) PCs may support nutritional supplement consumption. Similar findings emerged among PLHIV and PCs. This study highlights the need to develop a nutritional supplement considering the Thai culture and PLHIV's sensory preferences. A slightly thick liquid supplement, packed in small containers may be well-accepted. A combination of sensory studies and formative research should accompany the development of an alternative nutritional supplement for PLHIV. Results of this study might be transferable to similar sociocultural contexts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Detection of regulated herbs and plants in plant food supplements and traditional medicines using infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deconinck, E; Djiogo, C A Sokeng; Bothy, J L; Courselle, P

    2017-08-05

    The identification of a specific toxic or regulated plant in herbal preparations or plant food supplements is a real challenge, since they are often powdered, mixed with other herbal or synthetic powders and compressed into tablets or capsules. The classical identification approaches based on micro- and macroscopy are therefore not possible anymore. In this paper infrared spectroscopy, combined with attenuated total reflectance was evaluated for the screening of plant based preparations for nine specific plants (five regulated and four common plants for herbal supplements). IR and NIR spectra were recorded for a series of self-made triturations of the targeted plants. After pretreatment of the spectral data chemometric classification techniques were applied to both data sets (IR and NIR) separately and the combination of both. The results show that the screening of herbal preparations or plant food supplements for specific plants, using infrared spectroscopy, is feasible. The best model was obtained with the Mid-IR data, using SIMCA as modelling technique. During validation of the model, using an external test set, 21 of 25 were correctly classified and six of the nine targeted plants showed no misclassifications for the selected test set. For the other three a success rate of 50% was obtained. Mid-IR combined with SIMCA can therefore be applied as a first step in the screening of unknown samples, before applying more sophisticated fingerprint approaches or identification tests described in several national and international pharmacopoeia. As a proof of concept five real suspicious samples were successfully screened for the targeted regulated plants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Marine microalgae used as food supplements and their implication in preventing cardiovascular diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mimouni Virginie

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Marine microalgae are photosynthetic microorganisms producing numerous bioactive molecules of interest for health and disease care such as lipids rich in omega-3 fatty acids -as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5 n-3 and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6 n-3- and carotenoids (e.g., β-carotene, fucoxanthin, astaxanthin. It has already been shown that these molecules, individually used, are benefic in the prevention of diseases such as those associated with the cardiovascular risks, but also in some carcinomas. When these molecules are combined, synergistic effects may be observed. Microalgae, as a dietary supplement, can be used to study these synergistic effects in animal models in which dyslipidemia can be induced by a nutrition treatment. Different marine microalgae of interest are studied in this context to determine their potential effect as an alternative source to marine omega-3 rich fish oils, actually widely used for human health. Actually, the pharmaceutical and nutrition industries are developing health research programs involving microalgae, trying to limit the dramatic reduction of fish stocks and the associated pollution in the marine environment. The aim of this review is threefold: (1 to present research on lipids, particularly long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, as components of marine microalgae used as food supplements; (2 to present the health benefits of some microalgae or their extracts, in particular in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases and (3 to highlight the role of Odontella aurita, a marine microalga rich in EPA used as food supplement with the aim of preventing cardiovascular diseases.

  2. Fingerprinting Food Supplements and Their Botanical Ingredients by Coupled UV/Vis/FTIR Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Baciu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants are used as ingredients for a large variety of herbal supplements. Their quality and safety versus efficacy, according to present legal requirements, need to meet the minimum quality criteria to support their use. Specific biomarkers to evaluate and screen their authenticity are phenolic derivatives, phtosterols, lipids or alkaloids. We report here the data obtained  for  two herbal food supplements (A and B obtained from  different mixtures of plants: Taraxacum officinalis, Cynara scolimus Silybum marianum as ingredients for product A  and Hypericum perforatum, Chelidonium majus and Lycopodium clavatum as ingredients for product B. The combination of UV-Vis and FTIR spectrometry allowed a specific fingerprint of biomarkers in individual plants and derived supplements ( A and B, by discriminating the specific areas and peaks of individual plants and  mixtures, the significant differences between the methanolic and water extracts. The data were compared using chemometry ( PCA and Cluster analysis. Using Vis spectrometry combined with FTIR  peak intensities at 1732 cm-1 and calibration with gallic acid,  the total phenolics concentrations ranged from 5.31 to 9.58 mg gallic acid eq/ml methanol, with a positive and significant correlation between the two methods (R2= 0.979. The phenolics’ concentration were 2.5 to 4 times lower in water extracts comparing with methanol extracts of  products A and B.  Finally, we assume that herbal supplements can be adequately characterized for their quality and safety by combined UV-Vis spectrometry/FTIR spectrometry, with good, fast and cheap informations about the main biomarkers of authenticity.

  3. Intake of Fat-Soluble Vitamins in the Belgian Population: Adequacy and Contribution of Foods, Fortified Foods and Supplements.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moyersoen, Isabelle; Devleesschauwer, Brecht; Dekkers, Arnold; de Ridder, Karin; Tafforeau, Jean; van Camp, John; van Oyen, Herman; Lachat, Carl

    2017-01-01

    A key challenge of public health nutrition is to provide the majority of the population with a sufficient level of micronutrients while preventing high-consumers from exceeding the tolerable upper intake level. Data of the 2014 Belgian food consumption survey (n = 3200) were used to assess

  4. Microalgal food supplements from the perspective of Polish consumers: patterns of use, adverse events, and beneficial effects

    OpenAIRE

    Rzymski, Piotr; Ja?kiewicz, Monika

    2017-01-01

    Microalgal food supplements are becoming increasingly popular due to their promising biological effects and high nutritional value, evidenced in in vitro, in vivo, and human studies. Some products of this kind have, however, raised controversies concerning their safety. At the same time, not much is known about the frequency of adverse events following the use of microalgal supplements, potential factors that may influence them, and general characteristics and behaviours of the consumer group...

  5. Raspberry ketone in food supplements – High intake, few toxicity data – A cause for safety concern?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bredsdorff, Lea; Wedebye, Eva Bay; Nikolov, Nikolai Georgiev

    2015-01-01

    Raspberry ketone (4-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-2-butanone) is marketed on the Internet as a food supplement. The recommended intake is between 100 and 1400 mg per day. The substance is naturally occurring in raspberries (up to 4.3 mg/kg) and is used as a flavouring substance. Toxicological studies...... on raspberry ketone are limited to acute and subchronic studies in rats. When the lowest recommended daily dose of raspberry ketone (100 mg) as a food supplement is consumed, it is 56 times the established threshold of toxicological concern (TTC) of 1800 μg/day for Class 1 substances. The margin of safety (MOS...... effects and potential effects on reproduction/development. Taking into account the high intake via supplements, the compound's toxic potential should be clarified with further experimental studies. In UK the pure compound is regarded as novel food requiring authorisation prior to marketing but raspberry...

  6. Lipid Class Specific Quantitative Analysis of n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Food Supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutzner, Laura; Ostermann, Annika I; Konrad, Thade; Riegel, Dieter; Hellhake, Stefan; Schuchardt, Jan Philipp; Schebb, Nils Helge

    2017-01-11

    Supplementation products containing n-3 PUFA from marine sources serve a large market. Although the amount of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid in the products is provided by the manufacturer, no or little information is available on their lipid pattern. Therefore, we quantitatively analyzed the fatty acid pattern in the lipid fractions triglycerides, phospholipids, ethyl esters, and free fatty acids in supplementation products by means of solid phase extraction and gas chromatography. Twelve products from the European and U.S. markets containing fish, krill, algal, or plant oil were analyzed. Total n-3 PUFA content ranged from 68 g/100 g fat (fish oil) to 42 g/100 g fat (algal oil) to 17 g/100 g fat (krill oil). On the basis of the n-3 PUFA containing lipid class, the supplements can be separated dominantly in ethyl ester, re-esterified triglyceride, triglyceride, and phospholipid containing products. Algae-based products contained natural triglycerides, krill oils a complex mixture of phospholipids, triglycerides, and free fatty acids, and fish oil products either ethyl esters, re-esterified triglycerides, or triglycerides. Even products of the same class and source showed distinct differences in their lipid pattern. A specification of the lipid composition of n-3 PUFA products would allow distinguishing the different (qualities of) supplements.

  7. Feasibility of UV-VIS-Fluorescence spectroscopy combined with pattern recognition techniques to authenticate a new category of plant food supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boggia, Raffaella; Turrini, Federica; Anselmo, Marco; Zunin, Paola; Donno, Dario; Beccaro, Gabriele L

    2017-07-01

    Bud extracts, named also "gemmoderivatives", are a new category of natural products, obtained macerating meristematic fresh tissues of trees and plants. In the European Community these botanical remedies are classified as plant food supplements. Nowadays these products are still poorly studied, even if they are widely used and commercialized. Several analytical tools for the quality control of these very expensive supplements are urgently needed in order to avoid mislabelling and frauds. In fact, besides the usual quality controls common to the other botanical dietary supplements, these extracts should be checked in order to quickly detect if the cheaper adult parts of the plants are deceptively used in place of the corresponding buds whose harvest-period and production are extremely limited. This study aims to provide a screening analytical method based on UV-VIS-Fluorescence spectroscopy coupled to multivariate analysis for a rapid, inexpensive and non-destructive quality control of these products.

  8. Providing supplemental milk to piglets preweaning improves the growth but not survival of gilt progeny compared with sow progeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Y J; Collins, A M; Smits, R J; Thomson, P C; Holyoake, P K

    2012-12-01

    Gilt progeny have lighter weaning weights and greater postweaning medication and mortality rates compared with the progeny of older parity sows. Because weaning weight has been positively correlated with postweaning survival, this study aimed to determine whether the provision of supplemental milk preweaning could improve weaning weight and subsequent weights as well as postweaning survival of gilt progeny. The study was replicated in summer and winter as the effects of supplemental milk were expected to vary with season. The progeny of 80 gilts (parity 0) and 80 sows (parity 2 to 5) were allocated to both treatments: with or without supplemental milk in these 2 seasons with 5 sheds/season. Litter size was standardized (10 to 11 piglets) and each piglet was weighed at birth, d 21, weaning (4 wk), and 10 wk of age. Medications and mortalities were recorded both preweaning and postweaning. Pigs were housed within treatment groups postweaning, and ADFI and G:F were measured. Gilt progeny were 200 g lighter at birth in both replicates (P gilt and sow progeny by 800 g in summer (P gilts or sows (P > 0.05). Supplemental milk disappearance (the daily difference between the volume of milk provided and the residue left in the drinker) was greater in summer than winter (by 130 mL/piglet d(-1); P gilt progeny reached or exceeded that of nonsupplemented sow progeny. Gilt progeny had greater postweaning mortality (2.6%) and medication rates (6.2%) than sow progeny (1 and 2.2%, respectively; both P Gilt progeny also had less postweaning ADFI than sow progeny in winter (528 and 636 g, respectively; P 0.05). The hypothesis that supplemental milk provision did increase gilt progeny weaning weight was supported (especially in summer) but the supplementation had no effect on postweaning weights and survival. Efforts to improve gilt progeny postweaning growth and survival need to be aimed at improving health and immunity, not just weaning weight.

  9. Immune function and hematology of male cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus) in response to food supplementation and methionine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, R.E.; Leslie, David M.; Lochmiller, R.L.; Masters, R.E.

    2003-01-01

    We examined effects of supplementation of food quantity and quality (=enhanced methionine) on hematologic and immunologic parameters of wild, but enclosed, adult male cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus) in north-central Oklahoma. Sheet metal enclosures were stocked with a high density of wild-caught cotton rats (160 animals/ha) and randomly assigned a treatment of no supplementation, mixed-ration supplementation or methionine-enhanced supplementation. Aside from small increases in counts of red blood cells and hematocrit levels, most indices of erythrocytic characteristics were not affected by supplementation with the mixed-ration or enhanced methionine. In contrast, platelet counts were highest in mixed-ration and methionine treatments and counts of total white blood cells were highest with methionine supplementation, albeit relative proportions of different leukocytes did not differ among treatments. Immunologically, neither delayed-type hypersensitivity response nor hemolytic-complement activity differed among treatments. Supplementation of food quantity and quality did not broadly affect hematologic parameters and immune function of male cotton rats, but enhanced platelet and leukocyte counts may confer advantages to overall health. Clarification of the role of such effects on population limitation or regulation requires additional research.

  10. Vitamin D concentrations in fortified foods and dietary supplements intended for infants: Implications for vitamin D intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkaik-Kloosterman, Janneke; Seves, S Marije; Ocké, Marga C

    2017-04-15

    Due to potential overages to cover losses during shelf life, the actual vitamin D concentration of fortified foods and dietary supplements may deviate from the label. In this pilot study the vitamin D concentrations of fortified foods (n=29; follow-on formula, baby porridge, curd cheese dessert) and dietary supplements (n=15), both specifically intended for infants, were analytically determined. Compared to the declared values, the vitamin D content ranged from 50% to 153% for fortified foods and from 8% to 177% for supplements. In general, both instant follow-on formula and oil-based supplements had a measured vitamin D content similar to or higher than the labelled value. Ready-to-eat baby porridge was the only category in which all measured vitamin D concentrations were below the declared value (74-81%). The use of label information for fortified foods and dietary supplements may result in invalid estimations of vitamin D intake distributions of infants; both under- and overestimation may occur. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Sildenafil and analogous phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE-5) inhibitors in herbal food supplements sampled on the Dutch market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeuwijk, N M; Venhuis, B J; de Kaste, D; Hoogenboom, L A P; Rietjens, I M C M; Martena, M J

    2013-01-01

    Herbal food supplements, claiming to enhance sexual potency, may contain deliberately added active pharmacological ingredients (APIs) that can be used for the treatment of erectile dysfunction (ED). The aim of this study was to determine whether herbal food supplements on the Dutch market indeed contain APIs that inhibit phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE-5) inhibitors, such as sildenafil and analogous PDE-5 inhibitors. Herbal food supplements intended to enhance sexual potency (n = 71), and two soft drinks, were sampled from 2003 up to and including 2012. In 23 herbal supplements, nine different PDE-5 inhibitors were identified; in a few cases (n = 3), more than one inhibitor was indentified. The presence of these APIs was however not stated on the label. The concentrations of PDE-5 inhibitors per dose unit were analysed. Furthermore, the potential pharmacologically active properties of the detected PDE-5 inhibitors were estimated by using data from the scientific and patent literature regarding (1) in vitro PDE-5 activity, (2) reported effective doses of registered drugs with PDE-5 inhibitor activity and (3) similarity to other structural analogues. It was concluded that 18 of the 23 herbal food supplements, when used as recommended, would have significant pharmacological effects due to added APIs. Adequate use of existing regulation and control measures seems necessary to protect consumers against the adverse effects of these products.

  12. Supplemental irrigation as an initiative to support water and food security: A global evaluation of the potential to support and increase precipitation-fed wheat production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smilovic, M.; Gleeson, T. P.; Adamowski, J. F.; Langhorn, C.; Kienzle, S. W.

    2016-12-01

    Supplemental irrigation is the practice of supporting precipitation-fed agriculture with limited irrigation. Precipitation-fed agriculture dominates the agricultural landscape, but is vulnerable to intraseasonal and interannual variability in precipitation and climate. The interplay between food security, water resources, ecosystem health, energy, and livelihoods necessitates evaluating and integrating initiatives that increase agricultural production while reducing demands on water resources. Supplemental irrigation is the practice of minimally irrigating in an effort to stabilize and increase agricultural production, as well as increase water productivity - the amount of crop produced per unit of water. The potential of supplemental irrigation to support both water and food security has yet to be evaluated at regional and global scales. We evaluate whether supplemental irrigation could stabilize and increase agricultural production of wheat by determining locally-calibrated water use-crop yield relationships, known as crop-water production functions. Crop-water production functions are functions of seasonal water use and crop yield, and previous efforts have largely ignored the effects of the temporal distribution of water use throughout the growing season. We significantly improve upon these efforts and provide an opportunity to evaluate supplemental irrigation that appropriately acknowledges the effects of irrigation scheduling. Integrating agroclimatic and crop data with the crop-water model Aquacrop, we determine the increases in wheat production achieved by maximizing water productivity, sharing limited water between different years, and other irrigation scenarios. The methodology presented and evaluation of supplemental irrigation provides water mangers, policy makers, governments, and non-governmental organizations the tools to appropriately understand and determine the potential of this initiative to support precipitation-fed agriculture.

  13. Prospective Study on the Effectiveness of Complementary Food Supplements on Improving Status of Elder Infants and Young Children in the Areas Affected by Wenchuan Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Caixia; Ge, Pengfei; Ren, Xiaolan; Wang, Jie; Fan, Haoqiang; Yan, Xiang; Yin, Shi-an

    2013-01-01

    Objective To prospectively evaluate the efficiency of daily providing complementary food supplements decreasing malnutrition and anemia prevalence in elder infants and young children living in areas affected by Wenchuan Earthquake. Design Using promotional probability sampling method, 250 to 300 children from six-randomized townships (30 to 50 children in each township) in Kang County affected by the Earthquake were randomly chosen for follow up to evaluate intervention effectiveness using anthropometric measurement and hemoglobin level at six, twelve and eighteen months after start of intervention. Setting and Subjects All children from 6 to 18 months of age in Kang County (in North Western China) were daily provided with complementary food supplements containing multiple vitamins and minerals for up to 24 months of age. The intervention period lasted for one and half year. Results At beginning of intervention, malnutrition prevalence, including underweight, stunting and wasting were respectively 4.5%, 8.9% and 3.5%; anemia prevalence was 74.3%. After one and half year intervention, the growth and anemia status were significantly improved; the percentages of wasting, stunting underweight prevalence were decreased from 3.5%, 8.9% and 4.5% to 1.7%, 5.0% and 3.3% respectively, and the anemia rates were significantly decreased. Conclusions Our results indicated that an intervention using complementary food supplements could improve nutritional status and elevate hemoglobin level in elder infants and young children, which would significantly decrease the prevalence of malnutrition and anemia. PMID:24039797

  14. Local food supplementation and psychosocial stimulation improve linear growth and cognitive development among Indonesian infants aged 6 to 9 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmizar, Helmizar; Jalal, Fasli; Lipoeto, Nur Indrawati; Achadi, Endang L

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of culturally-relevant food supplementation and psychosocial stimulation on infant growth and development. A community-based randomized controlled trial was conducted in 40 clusters from 5 selected villages in Tanah Datar District of West Sumatera, Indonesia. We assessed 355 infants aged 6 to 9 months at the beginning of the study. The infants were divided into 4 groups: 1) Food Supplementation (FS); 2) Psychosocial Stimulation (PS); 3) Food Supplementation and Psychosocial Stimulation (FS+PS); and 4) Control Group (CG). The formula food supplement was comprised of a variety of local food sources (local MP-ASI) and adjusted for the local habits. The quality of psychosocial stimulation was assessed with the Infant HOME inventory method. Progress at 6 months was assessed by anthropometry and the Bayley scores of cognition, language and motor function. There were improvements in linear growth, cognitive and motor development of children in the FS (pcognitive development increased to 21.4±12.2 points (effect size 0.56) (pdevelopment increased to 20.7±18.4 points (effect size 0.50) (pcognitive and motor development.

  15. Effect of traditional food supplements on nutritional status of lactating mothers and growth of their infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajale, Neha; Khadilkar, Anuradha; Chiponkar, Shashi; Unni, Jyothi; Mansukhani, Nina

    2014-01-01

    During lactation, traditional food supplements (TFS) are commonly consumed in India to increase lactation performance and health of mothers. TFS are rich in fats, nuts, dry fruits, and sugars and indulging in such supplements for 3 to 6 mo postpartum may put the mother at risk for obesity. The aim of this study was to assess the nutrient quality of TFS and its effect on nutritional status of lactating mothers and infant's weight gain in first 6 mo after delivery. A random sample of 125 Indian urban lactating mothers (28.9 ± 3.2 y) was assessed within 6 mo postpartum for anthropometry, diet by 24-h recall on 3 random days, along with socioeconomic factors, lactation history, and infant's birth weight and current weight. Among 18 different TFS, 50% TFS were rich in calcium, 33% rich in iron, 38% in zinc, and only 13% were good sources of vitamins. Mothers consuming TFS (n = 75) had significantly higher fat intakes than mothers consuming no TFS Supplements (NTS; n = 50). A higher weight gain was seen in TFS mothers (10.5%) than NTS mothers (8.8%) after adjusting for number of days after delivery, parity, mother's age, and breast-feeding practices (P < 0.05). Percent weight gain in infants of TFS mothers (120.7% ± 7.3%) was higher than in infants of NTS mothers (96.2% ± 7.8%; P = 0.024) after adjusting for infant's age and mother's breast-feeding practices. TFS may be modified to increase its micronutrient quality and to reduce fat contents with the goal of reducing the risk for obesity in mothers, while still benefiting infant growth. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Social models provide a norm of appropriate food intake for young women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenny R Vartanian

    Full Text Available It is often assumed that social models influence people's eating behavior by providing a norm of appropriate food intake, but this hypothesis has not been directly tested. In three experiments, female participants were exposed to a low-intake model, a high-intake model, or no model (control condition. Experiments 1 and 2 used a remote-confederate manipulation and were conducted in the context of a cookie taste test. Experiment 3 used a live confederate and was conducted in the context of a task during which participants were given incidental access to food. Participants also rated the extent to which their food intake was influenced by a variety of factors (e.g., hunger, taste, how much others ate. In all three experiments, participants in the low-intake conditions ate less than did participants in the high-intake conditions, and also reported a lower perceived norm of appropriate intake. Furthermore, perceived norms of appropriate intake mediated the effects of the social model on participants' food intake. Despite the observed effects of the social models, participants were much more likely to indicate that their food intake was influenced by taste and hunger than by the behavior of the social models. Thus, social models appear to influence food intake by providing a norm of appropriate eating behavior, but people may be unaware of the influence of a social model on their behavior.

  17. A Review of Dietary Ziziphus jujuba Fruit (Jujube): Developing Health Food Supplements for Brain Protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianping; Liu, Xiaoyan; Li, Zhonggui; Qi, Airong; Yao, Ping; Zhou, Zhongyu; Dong, Tina T X; Tsim, Karl W K

    2017-01-01

    The fruits of Ziziphus jujuba, known as jujube or Chinese date, are being consumed all around the world because of their health benefits, as both food and herbal medicine. Traditionally, one of the main functions of jujube, as described in herbal medicine, is to benefit our brain by calming down the mind and improving quality of sleep. Here, the activities of jujubes on nervous system are summarized and discussed. Jujube possesses neuroprotective activities, including protecting neuronal cells against neurotoxin stress, stimulating neuronal differentiation, increasing expression of neurotrophic factors, and promoting memory and learning. Flavonoid, cAMP, and jujuboside could be the potential bioactive ingredients to account for the aforesaid biological activities. These findings imply that jujube is a potential candidate for development of health supplements for prevention and/or treatment of neurological diseases.

  18. A Review of Dietary Ziziphus jujuba Fruit (Jujube): Developing Health Food Supplements for Brain Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoyan; Qi, Airong; Zhou, Zhongyu; Dong, Tina T. X.

    2017-01-01

    The fruits of Ziziphus jujuba, known as jujube or Chinese date, are being consumed all around the world because of their health benefits, as both food and herbal medicine. Traditionally, one of the main functions of jujube, as described in herbal medicine, is to benefit our brain by calming down the mind and improving quality of sleep. Here, the activities of jujubes on nervous system are summarized and discussed. Jujube possesses neuroprotective activities, including protecting neuronal cells against neurotoxin stress, stimulating neuronal differentiation, increasing expression of neurotrophic factors, and promoting memory and learning. Flavonoid, cAMP, and jujuboside could be the potential bioactive ingredients to account for the aforesaid biological activities. These findings imply that jujube is a potential candidate for development of health supplements for prevention and/or treatment of neurological diseases. PMID:28680447

  19. A Review of Dietary Ziziphus jujuba Fruit (Jujube: Developing Health Food Supplements for Brain Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianping Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The fruits of Ziziphus jujuba, known as jujube or Chinese date, are being consumed all around the world because of their health benefits, as both food and herbal medicine. Traditionally, one of the main functions of jujube, as described in herbal medicine, is to benefit our brain by calming down the mind and improving quality of sleep. Here, the activities of jujubes on nervous system are summarized and discussed. Jujube possesses neuroprotective activities, including protecting neuronal cells against neurotoxin stress, stimulating neuronal differentiation, increasing expression of neurotrophic factors, and promoting memory and learning. Flavonoid, cAMP, and jujuboside could be the potential bioactive ingredients to account for the aforesaid biological activities. These findings imply that jujube is a potential candidate for development of health supplements for prevention and/or treatment of neurological diseases.

  20. Kappaphycus alvarezii as a Food Supplement Prevents Diet-Induced Metabolic Syndrome in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Wanyonyi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The red seaweed, Kappaphycus alvarezii, was evaluated for its potential to prevent signs of metabolic syndrome through use as a whole food supplement. Major biochemical components of dried Kappaphycus are carrageenan (soluble fiber ~34.6% and salt (predominantly potassium (K 20% with a low overall energy content for whole seaweed. Eight to nine week old male Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups and fed for 8 weeks on a corn starch diet, a high-carbohydrate, high-fat (H diet, alone or supplemented with a 5% (w/w dried and milled Kappaphycus blended into the base diet. H-fed rats showed symptoms of metabolic syndrome including increased body weight, total fat mass, systolic blood pressure, left ventricular collagen deposition, plasma triglycerides, and plasma non-esterified fatty acids along with fatty liver. Relative to these obese rats, Kappaphycus-treated rats showed normalized body weight and adiposity, lower systolic blood pressure, improved heart and liver structure, and lower plasma lipids, even in presence of H diet. Kappaphycus modulated the balance between Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes in the gut, which could serve as the potential mechanism for improved metabolic variables; this was accompanied by no damage to the gut structure. Thus, whole Kappaphycus improved cardiovascular, liver, and metabolic parameters in obese rats.

  1. Beliefs about whole-grain foods by food and nutrition professionals, health club members, and special supplemental nutrition program for women, infants, and children participants/State fair attendees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquart, Len; Pham, Anh-Tram; Lautenschlager, Lauren; Croy, Michael; Sobal, Jeffery

    2006-11-01

    Whole-grain foods are important components of healthful diets that may help prevent chronic diseases. Consumer beliefs that influence consumption of whole grains are poorly understood. This analysis surveyed three groups regarding their beliefs about whole-grain foods. The groups were food and nutrition professionals (n=103), health club members (n=103), and individuals representing various consumer segments of the general population, including participants in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) and state fair attendees (n=68). Most respondents were aware of the term whole-grain foods, but less often reported that they use the term. Bread and cereal were most often named as examples of whole-grain foods. Lack of processing and use of the entire grain were the major reasons a food was perceived as being a whole-grain food. The major benefit of eating whole grains was reported to be fiber intake. Food and nutrition professionals provided more differentiated responses, whereas WIC/state fair participants had fewer and less elaborate responses. Assessing beliefs about whole grains offers insights to nutrition professionals for encouraging healthful food consumption.

  2. Market and product assessment of probiotic/prebiotic-containing functional foods and supplements manufactured in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brink, M; Senekal, M; Dicks, L M T

    2005-02-01

    Probiotic and prebiotic products manufactured in South Africa were identified and health and content claims stated on the labels were evaluated according to available scientific evidence, the proposed South African regulations in the Foodstuffs, Cosmetics and Disinfectants Act (Act No. 54 of 1972, www.doh.gov.za), and microbial assessment. The range of products identified included probiotic- and/or prebiotic-containing supplements (capsules), food items fortified with probiotics and/or prebiotics, and fermented food containing probiotics, e.g. dairy products. Most of the health-related claims on the labels of the identified products do not comply with proposed South African regulations. However, results also indicate that the proposed South African regulations should be reconsidered to include an additional 5 claims, for which scientifically sound evidence is available. The claims regarding probiotic strains, viable cell numbers, prebiotic type and concentration stated on the labels of the products are mostly in line with the proposed South African regulations. The actual viable cell content of 3 out of 5 probiotic supplements readily available on the South African market did not comply with the content claim stated on the label. However, this problem did not seem to affect the inhibitory activity of the probiotic strains against indicator strains isolated from faeces of patients diagnosed with AIDS. To validate this finding in vivo assessments should be implemented before considering the need to include a wider range of prescribed viable cell numbers in the proposed South African regulations. The proposed South African regulations regarding probiotic- and prebiotic-containing products should be revised based on the results of this research, and the manufacturers of these products should be held responsible for providing the consumer with scientifically sound and legally correct information.

  3. Applications and bioefficacy of the functional food supplement fermented papaya preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aruoma, Okezie I; Hayashi, Yuki; Marotta, Francesco; Mantello, Pierre; Rachmilewitz, Eliezer; Montagnier, Luc

    2010-11-28

    Fermented papaya preparation (FPP) (a product of yeast fermentation of Carica papaya Linn) is a food supplement. Studies in chronic and degenerative disease conditions (such as thalassemia, cirrhosis, diabetes and aging) and performance sports show that FPP favorably modulates immunological, hematological, inflammatory, vascular and oxidative stress damage parameters. Neuroprotective potential evaluated in an Alzheimer's disease cell model showed that the toxicity of the β-amyloid can be significantly modulated by FPP. Oxidative stress trigger apoptotic pathways such as the c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38-mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) are preferentially activated by pro-inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress resulting in cell differentiation and apoptosis. FPP modulated the H₂O₂-induced ERK, Akt and p38 activation with the reduction of p38 phosphorylation induced by H₂O₂. FPP reduces the extent of the H₂O₂-induced DNA damage, an outcome corroborated by similar effects obtained in the benzo[a]pyrene treated cells. No genotoxic effect was observed in experiments with FPP exposed to HepG2 cells nor was FPP toxic to the PC12 cells. Oxidative stress-induced cell damage and inflammation are implicated in a variety of cancers, diabetes, arthritis, cardiovascular dysfunctions, neurodegenerative disorders (such as stroke, Alzheimer's disease, and Parkinson's disease), exercise physiology (including performance sports) and aging. These conditions could potentially benefit from functional nutraceutical/food supplements (as illustrated here with fermented papaya preparation) exhibiting anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, immunostimulatory (at the level of the mucus membrane) and induction of antioxidant enzymes. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Impact of supplemental training programs on improving medical students' confidence in providing diabetes self-management education and support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazel, Maryam T; Fazel, Mohammad; Bedrossian, Nora L; Picazo, Fernando; Sobel, Julia D; Fazel, Mahdieh; Te, Charisse; Pendergrass, Merri L

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of supplemental diabetes-related training modalities and volunteer activities in increasing first-year medical students' knowledge/comfort in providing diabetes self-management education and support (DSMES) to patients. A group of medical students developed supplemental diabetes-related training/volunteer programs. The training modalities included an optional 7-session interprofessionally taught Diabetes Enrichment Elective and a 3-hour endocrinologist-led training session intended to prepare students for involvement in an inpatient DSMES volunteer program. The volunteer program provided the students with the opportunity to provide DSMES to patients with diabetes admitted to an academic medical center. Those participating in any of the stated programs were compared to those with no such training regarding confidence in providing DSMES using an optional online survey. The results were analyzed by using Mann-Whitney U test and descriptive analyses. A total of 18 first-year medical students responded to the optional survey with a response rate of ~30% (10 of 33) among participants in any training/volunteer program. First-year medical students who attended any of the offered optional programs had statistically significant higher comfort level in 4 of the 6 areas assessed regarding providing DSMES compared with those with no such training (ptraining modalities/volunteer programs can provide benefit in providing medical students with practical knowledge while improving their confidence in providing DSMES to patients with diabetes.

  5. A three-part, mixed-effects model to estimate the habitual total vitamin D intake distribution from food and dietary supplements in Dutch young children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkaik-Kloosterman, J.; Dodd, K.W.; Dekkers, A.L.M.; Veer, van 't P.; Ocke, M.C.

    2011-01-01

    Statistical modeling of habitual micronutrient intake from food and dietary supplements using short-term measurements is hampered by heterogeneous variances and multimodality. Summing short-term intakes from food and dietary supplements prior to simple correction for within-person variation (first

  6. Effects of a food supplement rich in arginine in patients with smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis--a randomised trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schön, T; Idh, J; Westman, A

    2011-01-01

    In tuberculosis (TB), the production of nitric oxide (NO) is confirmed but its importance in host defense is debated. Our aim was to investigate whether a food supplement rich in arginine could enhance clinical improvement in TB patients by increased NO production. Smear positive TB patients from...

  7. Food Deserts in Leon County, FL: Disparate Distribution of Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program-Accepting Stores by Neighborhood Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigby, Samantha; Leone, Angela F.; Kim, Hwahwan; Betterley, Connie; Johnson, Mary Ann; Kurtz, Hilda; Lee, Jung Sun

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Examine whether neighborhood characteristics of racial composition, income, and rurality were related to distribution of Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP)-accepting stores in Leon County, Florida. Design: Cross-sectional; neighborhood and food store data collected in 2008. Setting and Participants: Forty-eight census…

  8. The effects of predator exclusion and food supplementation on Burrowing Owl (Speotyto cunicularia) population change in Saskatchewan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troy I. Wellicome; Geoffrey L. Holroyd; Karyn Scalise; Earl R. Wiltse

    1997-01-01

    If low reproductive output plays an important role in the population decline of the Burrowing Owl (Speotyto cunicularia,) in Canada, we predicted the decline would slow or stop in our study population after consecutive years of productivity enhancement via food supplementation and predator exclusion. In the portion of our study site for which...

  9. Maca (Lepidium meyenii) and yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius) in combination with silymarin as food supplements: In vivo safety assessment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Valentová, K.; Stejskal, D.; Bartek, J.; Dvořáčková, S.; Křen, Vladimír; Ulrichová, J.; Šimánek, V.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 46, č. 3 (2008), s. 1003-1013 ISSN 0278-6915 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : food supplement * volunteers * blood pressure Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.321, year: 2008

  10. Matrix-derived combination effect and risk assessment for estragole from basil-containing plant food supplements (PFS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, van den S.J.P.L.; Klaus, V.; Alhusainy, W.; Rietjens, I.

    2013-01-01

    Basil-containing plant food supplements (PFS) can contain estragole which can be metabolised into a genotoxic and carcinogenic 1'-sulfoxymetabolite. This study describes the inhibition of sulfotransferase (SULT)-mediated bioactivation of estragole by compounds present in basil-containing PFS.

  11. Association between Travel Times and Food Procurement Practices among Female Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program Participants in Eastern North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jilcott, Stephanie B.; Moore, Justin B.; Wall-Bassett, Elizabeth D.; Liu, Haiyong; Saelens, Brian E.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine associations between self-reported vehicular travel behaviors, perceived stress, food procurement practices, and body mass index among female Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) participants. Analysis: The authors used correlation and regression analyses to examine cross-sectional associations between travel time…

  12. Identification and quantitative determination of the polar constituents in Helichrysum italicum flowers and derived food supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mari, Angela; Napolitano, Assunta; Masullo, Milena; Pizza, Cosimo; Piacente, Sonia

    2014-08-05

    Helichrysum italicum is widely used in traditional medicine, in cosmetic, in food and pharmaceutical field. In spite of this, very little is known about the chemical composition of its polar extracts. Therefore this study was addressed to the determination of the metabolite profile of the methanol extract of H. italicum flowers, by using LC-ESI(IT)MSMS. This approach oriented the isolation of 14 compounds, whose structures were unambiguously elucidated by NMR as belonging to flavonoid, phenylpropanoid and acylbenzofuran classes. In addition, one novel drimane sesquiterpene was identified. The quantitative determination of the main compounds occurring in the methanol extract of H. italicum flowers was carried out and their content was compared with that of three selected commercial food supplements based on H. italicum, by using LC-ESI(QqQ)MS. In conclusion the wide occurrence, in high amounts, of quinic acid derivatives in all the analyzed samples was highlighted, showing these compounds as chemical markers of the species for standardization procedures. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Plant food supplements with anti-inflammatory properties: a systematic review (I).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell'Agli, Mario; Di Lorenzo, Chiara; Badea, Mihaela; Sangiovanni, Enrico; Dima, Lorena; Bosisio, Enrica; Restani, Patrizia

    2013-01-01

    Plant food supplements (PFS) receive great acceptance by European consumers. However, quality and efficacy of these products remain a question of concern. The aim of this systematic review is to summarize and critically evaluate the evidence for or against the efficacy of PFS for coping inflammatory conditions by considering epidemiological and human intervention studies. The review, which consists of two parts, considers Olea europea L., Camellia sinensis L., Vitis vinifera L., and Matricaria recutita L., which are herbal material frequently used also as food. The search retrieved 1251 publications. By applying the inclusion/exclusion criteria, the final number of papers was 91. Vitis vinifera L. showed promising results, but other trials should be performed in order to assessing the efficacy. Surprisingly, it was impossible to draw conclusions for the anti-inflammatory effect of Camellia sinensis L. as green tea. No studies were found on the leaves of Olea europea L. whereas more human trials are needed to assess the anti-inflammatory effect of olive oil. Only one study for Matricaria recutita L. was selected. In conclusion, it is advisable to conduct further studies with more homogeneous population and larger number of subjects by avoiding the heterogeneity of the herbal preparations considered.

  14. Nurses and Dietitians Differ in Food Safety Information Provided to Highly Susceptible Clients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffer, Janet; Kendall, Patricia; Medeiros, Lydia; Schroeder, Mary; Sofos, John

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine content, education channels, and motivational factors that influence what health professionals teach about safe food handling to populations who are highly susceptible for foodborne illnesses. To assess the differences in information provided by health professionals to highly susceptible populations. Design: Descriptive,…

  15. Dietary supplementation of propionylated starch to domestic cats provides propionic acid as gluconeogenic substrate potentially sparing the amino acid valine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochus, Kristel; Cools, An; Janssens, Geert P J; Vanhaecke, Lynn; Wuyts, Birgitte; Lockett, Trevor; Clarke, Julie M; Fievez, Veerle; Hesta, Myriam

    2014-01-01

    In strict carnivorous domestic cats, a metabolic competition arises between the need to use amino acids for gluconeogenesis and for protein synthesis both in health and disease. The present study investigated the amino acid-sparing potential of propionic acid in cats using dietary propionylated starch (HAMSP) supplementation. A total of thirty cats were fed a homemade diet, supplemented with either HAMSP, acetylated starch (HAMSA) or celite (Control) for three adaptation weeks. Propionylated starch was hypothesised to provide propionic acid as an alternative gluconeogenic substrate to amino acids, whereas acetic acid from HAMSA would not provide any gluconeogenic benefit. Post-adaptation, a 5-d total faecal collection was carried out to calculate apparent protein digestibility coefficients. Fresh faecal and blood samples were collected to analyse fermentation endproducts and metabolites. The apparent protein digestibility coefficients did not differ between supplements (P = 0·372) and were not affected by the protein intake level (P = 0·808). Faecal propionic acid concentrations were higher in HAMSP than in HAMSA (P = 0·018) and Control (P = 0·003) groups, whereas concentrations of ammonia (P = 0·007) were higher in HAMSA than in HAMSP cats. Tendencies for or higher propionylcarnitine concentrations were observed in HAMSP compared with HAMSA (P = 0·090) and Control (P = 0·037) groups, and for tiglyl- + 3-methylcrotonylcarnitine concentrations in HAMSP as compared with Control (P = 0·028) cats. Methylmalonylcarnitine concentrations did not differ between groups (P = 0·740), but were negatively correlated with the protein intake level (r -0·459, P = 0·016). These results suggest that HAMSP cats showed more saccharolytic fermentation patterns than those supplemented with HAMSA, as well as signs of sparing of valine in cats with a sufficient protein intake.

  16. Positive influence of the revised Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children food packages on access to healthy foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreyeva, Tatiana; Luedicke, Joerg; Middleton, Ann E; Long, Michael W; Schwartz, Marlene B

    2012-06-01

    The Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) has important potential for preventing diet-related disease in low-income children. WIC food packages were recently revised to offer foods that better reflect dietary recommendations for Americans. This article reports on how implementation of the new healthier WIC food packages affected access of low-income populations to healthy foods (eg, whole grains, fruit and vegetables, and lower-fat milk). A pre-post store inventory was completed using a standardized instrument to assess availability, variety, quality and prices of WIC-approved foods (65 food items). Stores were assessed before (spring 2009) and shortly after the new WIC package implementation (spring 2010). All convenience stores and nonchain grocery stores located in five towns of Connecticut (N=252), including 33 WIC-authorized stores and 219 non-WIC stores. The healthy food supply score was constructed to summarize postrevision changes in availability, variety, prices of healthy foods, and produce quality. The effect of the WIC food package revisions was measured by differential changes in the scores for stores authorized to accept WIC benefits and stores not participating in WIC, including differences by neighborhood income. Multivariate multilevel regression models were estimated. The 2009 introduction of the revised WIC food packages has significantly improved availability and variety of healthy foods in WIC-authorized and (to a smaller degree) non-WIC convenience and grocery stores. The increase in the composite score of healthy food supply varied from 16% in WIC convenience and grocery stores in higher-income neighborhoods to 39% in lower-income areas. Improved availability and variety of whole-grain products were responsible for most of the increase in the composite score of healthy food supply. Designed as cost-neutral changes, the WIC food package revisions have improved access to healthy foods for WIC participants

  17. Supply and demand determine the market value of food providers in wild vervet monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruteau, Cécile; Voelkl, Bernhard; van Damme, Eric; Noë, Ronald

    2009-07-21

    Animals neither negotiate verbally nor conclude binding contracts, but nevertheless regularly exchange goods and services without overt coercion and manage to arrive at agreements over exchange rates. Biological market theory predicts that such exchange rates fluctuate according to the law of supply and demand. Previous studies showed that primates pay more when commodities become scarcer: subordinates groomed dominants longer before being tolerated at food sites in periods of shortage; females groomed mothers longer before obtaining permission to handle their infants when there were fewer newborns and males groomed fertile females longer before obtaining their compliance when fewer such females were present. We further substantiated these results by conducting a 2-step experiment in 2 groups of free-ranging vervet monkeys in the Loskop Dam Nature Reserve, South Africa. We first allowed a single low-ranking female to repeatedly provide food to her entire group by triggering the opening of a container and measured grooming bouts involving this female in the hour after she made the reward available. We then measured the shifts in grooming patterns after we added a second food container that could be opened by another low-ranking female, the second provider. All 4 providers received more grooming, relative to the amount of grooming they provided themselves. As biological market theory predicts, the initial gain of first providers was partially lost again after the introduction of a second provider in both groups. We conclude that grooming was fine-tuned to changes in the value of these females as social partners.

  18. Amino Acid Medical Foods Provide a High Dietary Acid Load and Increase Urinary Excretion of Renal Net Acid, Calcium, and Magnesium Compared with Glycomacropeptide Medical Foods in Phenylketonuria

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bridget M. Stroup; Emily A. Sawin; Sangita G. Murali; Neil Binkley; Karen E. Hansen; Denise M. Ney

    2017-01-01

    .... We tested the hypothesis that amino acid medical foods (AA-MF) provide a high dietary acid load, subsequently increasing urinary excretion of renal net acid, calcium, and magnesium, compared to glycomacropeptide medical foods (GMP-MF). Design...

  19. FOOD SECURITY PROVIDING OF THE SVERDLOVSKAYA OBLAST POPULATION AS THE AGRARIAN POLICY BASIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.V. Fedorov

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Food safety may be interpreted as production systems attribute providing during different technological processes the security and the quality of food products. The key role in this is played by control systems over these processes. Any control system is based on the information data concerning efficiency and state of the system. This information is necessary for operative quality management and the frequency of hypothetic deviations may serve as a universal numeric indicator of the technological processes breakages. The basic elements of food security provision in the region are seen as the following: orientation on our own resources; agro industrial complex restructuring wits a due account of disproportions in its spheres; innovation changes in the production processes in view of competitiveness increase; nutrition improvement and health of the population.

  20. Marketing complementary foods and supplements in Burkina Faso, Madagascar, and Vietnam: lessons learned from the Nutridev program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruyeron, Olivier; Denizeau, Mirrdyn; Berger, Jacques; Trèche, Serge

    2010-06-01

    Sustainable approaches to improving infant and young child feeding are needed. The Nutridev program worked in Vietnam, Madagascar, and Burkina Faso to test different strategies to improve complementary feeding using fortified products sold to families. To review the experiences of programs producing and marketing fortified complementary foods and to report on the feasibility of local production and marketing of fortified complementary foods to increase usage of high-quality foods among children of low-income families in a self-sustaining manner. Project documents, surveys of mothers, and production and sales reports were reviewed. Nutridev experience in Vietnam, Madagascar, and Burkina Faso demonstrates that it is possible to produce affordable, high-quality complementary foods and supplements locally in developing countries. Strategies to make products readily available to the targeted population and to convince this population to consume them yielded mixed results, varying greatly based on the strategy utilized and the context in which it was implemented. In several contexts, the optimal approach appears to be strengthening the existing food distribution network to sell complementary foods and supplements, with the implementation of a temporary promotion and nutrition education network in partnership with local authorities (e.g., health services) to increase awareness among families about the fortified complementary food product and optimal feeding practices. In urban areas, where the density of the population is high, design and implementation of specific networks very close to consumers seems to be a good way to combine economic sustainability and good consumption levels.

  1. Factors Influencing the Food Purchases of Early Care and Education Providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otten, Jennifer J; Hirsch, Tad; Lim, Catherine

    2017-05-01

    With the majority of US children enrolled in some form of early care and education, the settings for early care and education represent a valuable opportunity to positively impact young children's diets and their interactions with food. Little evidence exists on how early care and education providers make food purchasing and service decisions for this population of young children. Our aim was to explore the factors that influence early care and education providers' food purchasing and service decisions. A qualitative design consisting of individual, in-person, and semi-structured interviews with providers and on-site observations was used. Sixteen early care and education providers-selected across a variety of characteristics that might affect food selection (eg, size of site, participation in reimbursement programs, presence of staff assigned to foodservice) using maximum variation purposive sampling-based in the Puget Sound region, Washington, were interviewed from June to September 2014. Provider perspectives on food purchasing and service decisions. Inductive analysis of transcribed interviews using TAMS Analyzer software (GPL version 2, 2012) to identify themes. Ten main influencers emerged from the data. These were grouped into four categories based on an ecological framework: macro-level environments (ie, regulations; suppliers and vendors, including stores); physical environment and settings (ie, organizational mission, budget, and structure; the facility itself); social environments (ie, professional networks; peers; the site-specific parent and child community); and individual factors at both a provider and child-level (ie, providers' skills, behaviors, motivations, attitudes, knowledge, and values; child food preferences; and, child allergies). A model was then developed to identify potential pathways of intervention and underscore the need for a comprehensive approach to improve early care and education nutrition. This study suggests that a more

  2. Selenium bioaccessibility in stomach, small intestine and colon: Comparison between pure Se compounds, Se-enriched food crops and food supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavu, Rama V Srikanth; Van De Wiele, Tom; Pratti, Varalakshmi L; Tack, Filip; Du Laing, Gijs

    2016-04-15

    Selenium (Se) is an essential nutrient for humans as it plays an important role in glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity. Moreover, it may reduce cancer risks. The objective of this work was to examine in vitro the bioaccessibility of Se in three different Se-enriched food supplements and two different Se-enriched food crops, with reference to two pure Se standards, and changes in its speciation during intestinal digestion. Selenate was found to be stable throughout the entire digestion, whereas incubation of selenomethionine resulted in the chemical and microbial production of minor metabolites. The bioaccessibility of Se in Se-enriched food supplements and food crops was found to be highest in the small intestine. Compared to SelenoPrecise and Se-ACE tablets, a yoghurt-based supplement exhibited a much lower Se bioaccessibility, possibly due to the presence of nano- or microparticles of elemental Se. Colon microbiota were found to primarily affect Se bioaccessibility in the colon environment, with the presence of inactivated microbiota resulting in a higher bioaccessibility. A higher potential of Se to reach the colon and become accessible in this phase may result in beneficial effects on the colon health. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Adequacy of vitamin D intakes in children and teenagers from the base diet, fortified foods and supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Lucinda J; Walton, Janette; Flynn, Albert; Kiely, Mairead

    2014-04-01

    To describe vitamin D intakes in children and teenagers and the contribution from supplements and fortified foods in addition to the base diet. Analysis of 7 d weighed food records collected during the Children's and Teens' National Nutrition Surveys in Ireland. Food composition data for vitamin D were updated from international analytical sources. Nationally representative cross-sectional dietary surveys. Children (n 594; 5-12 years) and teenagers (n 441; 13-17 years). Median vitamin D intakes were 1.9, 2.1 and 2.4 μg/d in 5-8-, 9-12- and 13-17-year-olds, respectively. The prevalence of vitamin D-containing supplement use was 21, 16 and 15% in 5-8-, 9-12- and 13-17-year-olds and median intakes in users ranged from 6.0 to 6.7 μg/d. The prevalence of inadequate intakes, defined as the percentage with mean daily intakes below the Estimated Average Requirement of 10 μg/d, ranged from 88 to 96% in supplement users. Foods fortified with vitamin D, mainly breakfast cereals, fat spreads and milk, were consumed by 71, 70 and 63 % of 5-8-, 9-12- and 13-17-year-olds. Non-supplement users who consumed vitamin D-fortified foods had median intakes of 1.9-2.5 μg/d, compared with 1.2-1.4 μg/d in those who did not consume fortified foods. It is currently not possible for children consuming the habitual diet to meet the US Institute of Medicine dietary reference intake for vitamin D. In the absence of nationally representative 25-hydroxyvitamin D data in children, the implications of this observation for prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and health consequences are speculative.

  4. Trends in Provider Management of Patients with Food Protein-Induced Enterocolitis Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhawt, Matthew; Bird, J Andrew; Nowak-Węgrzyn, Anna H

    Food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome (FPIES) is a non-IgE-mediated food allergy. To better understand provider-level variation in FPIES knowledge and management. A 23-question online survey was administered to AAAAI members during the spring and summer of 2014. Among 470 respondents, 64% reported "full understanding" of FPIES diagnosis/management; 78.8% reported managing 1 or more patient with FPIES; and 80.4% correctly identified an FPIES case vignette. FPIES was correctly differentiated from infantile colic or food protein-induced allergic proctocolitis by 82.5% and 71.3%, respectively. Among providers currently managing patients with FPIES, 47.5% indicated soy formula, 73.8% breast milk, and 94.5% elemental formula as appropriate substitutes in cow milk (CM)-FPIES. Skin testing is performed by 73.4%; 62.2% obtain serum food-specific IgE testing, 12.7% patch testing, 36.8% oral challenge, and 28% perform no tests. Eighty-four percent provide patients with FPIES with allergy action plans, 72.8% provide a personalized action plan, and 21% prescribe epinephrine autoinjectors. Odds of prescribing epinephrine were lower among those reporting "full understanding" of FPIES (odds ratio [OR], 0.41; 95% CI, 0.21-0.79). Academic providers had higher odds of providing an action plan (OR, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.17-4.98) and performing diagnostic oral food challenge (OR, 1.99; 95% CI, 1.99-3.25), but not of correct vignette differentiation of FPIES from other conditions, correct identification of appropriate CM-FPIES substitutes, or timing for food reintroduction. More years in practice were associated with lower odds of reporting full understanding of FPIES diagnosis/management (OR, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.94-0.99). Nearly one-third of respondents reported poor familiarity with FPIES. Considerable variation exists in the use of diagnostic tests, management, and choice of "safe" nutrition, indicating a strong need for FPIES practice guidelines. Copyright © 2017. Published by

  5. Determination of non-opioid analgesics in adulterated food and dietary supplements by LC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyung Joo; Lee, Ji Hyun; Park, Hyoung Joon; Kim, Jung-Yeon; Cho, Sooyeul; Kim, Woo Seong

    2014-01-01

    Commercially available non-opioid analgesics such as acetaminophen and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have been used to adulterate some foods and dietary supplements. Considering the rapid growth of the dietary supplement market, it is essential to analyse various analgesics used for adulteration over a time period. Acetaminophen and 16 NSAIDs used to adulterate food and dietary supplements were simultaneously determined by LC-MS/MS. The method was validated by determining the coefficient of determinations, limit of quantification and recovery, and samples were analysed for the determination of analgesics. Consequently, acetaminophen, diclofenac, ibuprofen, indomethacin, naproxen and piroxicam were detected in 53 samples (n = 214). Ibuprofen was the most commonly used adulterant, which was detected in a wide concentration range (1.06-233.40 mg g(-1)) and was present in about one-third of the adulterated samples. Various types of samples, in particular pills and capsules (73.6% of the total positive samples), were found to be adulterated with non-opioid analgesics. Samples containing high concentrations of analgesics can have a deleterious effect on human health, and thus the continued monitoring of adulterated food and dietary supplements is essential to maintain a healthy life.

  6. Association between travel times and food procurement practices among female supplemental nutrition assistance program participants in eastern North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jilcott, Stephanie B; Moore, Justin B; Wall-Bassett, Elizabeth D; Liu, Haiyong; Saelens, Brian E

    2011-01-01

    To examine associations between self-reported vehicular travel behaviors, perceived stress, food procurement practices, and body mass index among female Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) participants. The authors used correlation and regression analyses to examine cross-sectional associations between travel time and distance, perceived stress, food procurement practices (grocery shopping frequency, fast-food consumption, home meal consumption), and body mass index among female SNAP participants aged 20-65 years (n = 215) in eastern North Carolina. There were positive associations (P travel patterns and stress (r = 0.18 for average miles traveled), grocery shopping frequency (r = 0.16 for average miles traveled), and fast-food consumption (r = 0.19 for average miles traveled, r = 0.29 for average minutes traveled). SNAP education materials should focus on healthful interactions with the food environment, even when participants must travel long distances. Copyright © 2011 Society for Nutrition Education. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Adverse effects of plant food supplements and botanical preparations: a systematic review with critical evaluation of causality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Lorenzo, Chiara; Ceschi, Alessandro; Kupferschmidt, Hugo; Lüde, Saskia; De Souza Nascimento, Elizabeth; Dos Santos, Ariana; Colombo, Francesca; Frigerio, Gianfranco; Nørby, Karin; Plumb, Jenny; Finglas, Paul; Restani, Patrizia

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this review was to collect available data on the following: (i) adverse effects observed in humans from the intake of plant food supplements or botanical preparations; (ii) the misidentification of poisonous plants; and (iii) interactions between plant food supplements/botanicals and conventional drugs or nutrients. PubMed/MEDLINE and Embase were searched from database inception to June 2014, using the terms 'adverse effect/s', 'poisoning/s', 'plant food supplement/s', 'misidentification/s' and 'interaction/s' in combination with the relevant plant name. All papers were critically evaluated according to the World Health Organization Guidelines for causality assessment. Data were obtained for 66 plants that are common ingredients of plant food supplements; of the 492 papers selected, 402 (81.7%) dealt with adverse effects directly associated with the botanical and 89 (18.1%) concerned interactions with conventional drugs. Only one case was associated with misidentification. Adverse effects were reported for 39 of the 66 botanical substances searched. Of the total references, 86.6% were associated with 14 plants, including Glycine max/soybean (19.3%), Glycyrrhiza glabra/liquorice (12.2%), Camellia sinensis/green tea ( 8.7%) and Ginkgo biloba/gingko (8.5%). Considering the length of time examined and the number of plants included in the review, it is remarkable that: (i) the adverse effects due to botanical ingredients were relatively infrequent, if assessed for causality; and (ii) the number of severe clinical reactions was very limited, but some fatal cases have been described. Data presented in this review were assessed for quality in order to make the results maximally useful for clinicians in identifying or excluding deleterious effects of botanicals. © 2014 The British Pharmacological Society.

  8. Assessing the impact of a food supplement on the nutritional status and body composition of HIV-infected Zambian women on ARVs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulu, Rodah M; Byrne, Nuala M; Munthali, Grace K; Chipeta, James; Handema, Ray; Musonda, Mofu; Hills, Andrew P

    2011-09-21

    Zambia is a sub-Saharan country with one of the highest prevalence rates of HIV, currently estimated at 14%. Poor nutritional status due to both protein-energy and micronutrient malnutrition has worsened this situation. In an attempt to address this combined problem, the government has instigated a number of strategies, including the provision of antiretroviral (ARV) treatment coupled with the promotion of good nutrition. High-energy protein supplement (HEPS) is particularly promoted; however, the impact of this food supplement on the nutritional status of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHA) beyond weight gain has not been assessed. Techniques for the assessment of nutritional status utilising objective measures of body composition are not commonly available in Zambia. The aim of this study is therefore to assess the impact of a food supplement on nutritional status using a comprehensive anthropometric protocol including measures of skinfold thickness and circumferences, plus the criterion deuterium dilution technique to assess total body water (TBW) and derive fat-free mass (FFM) and fat mass (FM). This community-based controlled and longitudinal study aims to recruit 200 HIV-infected females commencing ARV treatment at two clinics in Lusaka, Zambia. Data will be collected at four time points: baseline, 4-month, 8-month and 12-month follow-up visits. Outcome measures to be assessed include body height and weight, body mass index (BMI), body composition, CD4, viral load and micronutrient status. This protocol describes a study that will provide a longitudinal assessment of the impact of a food supplement on the nutritional status of HIV-infected females initiating ARVs using a range of anthropometric and body composition assessment techniques. Pan African Clinical Trial Registry PACTR201108000303396.

  9. Assessing the impact of a food supplement on the nutritional status and body composition of HIV-infected Zambian women on ARVs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musonda Mofu

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Zambia is a sub-Saharan country with one of the highest prevalence rates of HIV, currently estimated at 14%. Poor nutritional status due to both protein-energy and micronutrient malnutrition has worsened this situation. In an attempt to address this combined problem, the government has instigated a number of strategies, including the provision of antiretroviral (ARV treatment coupled with the promotion of good nutrition. High-energy protein supplement (HEPS is particularly promoted; however, the impact of this food supplement on the nutritional status of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHA beyond weight gain has not been assessed. Techniques for the assessment of nutritional status utilising objective measures of body composition are not commonly available in Zambia. The aim of this study is therefore to assess the impact of a food supplement on nutritional status using a comprehensive anthropometric protocol including measures of skinfold thickness and circumferences, plus the criterion deuterium dilution technique to assess total body water (TBW and derive fat-free mass (FFM and fat mass (FM. Methods/Design This community-based controlled and longitudinal study aims to recruit 200 HIV-infected females commencing ARV treatment at two clinics in Lusaka, Zambia. Data will be collected at four time points: baseline, 4-month, 8-month and 12-month follow-up visits. Outcome measures to be assessed include body height and weight, body mass index (BMI, body composition, CD4, viral load and micronutrient status. Discussion This protocol describes a study that will provide a longitudinal assessment of the impact of a food supplement on the nutritional status of HIV-infected females initiating ARVs using a range of anthropometric and body composition assessment techniques. Trial Registration Pan African Clinical Trial Registry PACTR201108000303396.

  10. Dietary supplements and their future in health care: commentary on draft guidelines proposed by the Food and Drug Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umhau, John C; Garg, Keva; Woodward, Albert M

    2012-03-01

    The Dietary Supplement and Health and Education Act of 1994 gives the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) responsibility for oversight of the dietary supplement industry. Recent draft guidelines proposed by the FDA to insure the safety of new dietary ingredients would significantly alter the ability of manufacturers to bring new dietary ingredients to market, and may cause many products introduced since 1994 to be discontinued. These changes will have an impact on health care, but with limited research on dietary supplements and how their use affects the health care system, there is no way to predict what their overall effect on health will be. Since the natural raw materials for dietary supplements are often inexpensive and generally cannot be patented, manufactures have little incentive to conduct the research which might otherwise be warranted. Appropriate clinical trials that evaluate the use and efficacy of various supplements may be critical for our health care system. If inexpensive dietary supplements are found to be safe and effective, such research could yield significant cost savings as well as health benefits.

  11. Effect of Food and Vitamin D Supplements on the Serum 25(OHD3 Concentration in Children during Winter Months

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen van der Gaag

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To determine the contribution of food and vitamin D supplements on the serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OHD3 concentration between October and April in a northern country (almost absent vitamin D synthesis by sunlight. Methods: Children aged 1–18 years were selected who visited the general pediatrician with a complaint whereby serum 25(OHD3 concentration was determined. The intake of vitamin D was calculated based on a dietary questionnaire. Results: 51.1% of the 174 children had a serum 25(OHD3 concentration below 50 nmol/L, 9.2% had a serum 25(OHD3 concentration below 30 nmol/L. Adolescents showed lower concentrations compared to younger children. There was a positive correlation between the total amount of vitamin D obtained from food and the serum 25(OHD3 concentration (r = 0.218, p = 0.004. The intake of milk contributed more to the serum 25(OHD3 concentration compared to the intake of artificial supplementation, butter or fish. Conclusions: In the absence of vitamin D synthesis by sunlight, vitamin D obtained from food has a significant influence on the serum 25(OHD3 concentration in children. Vitamin D supplements can be described as trivial. This means we should pay more attention to food as a natural source of vitamin D.

  12. Launching a new food product or dietary supplement in the United States: industrial, regulatory, and nutritional considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finley, John Weldon; Finley, John Wescott; Ellwood, Kathleen; Hoadley, James

    2014-01-01

    Launching a new food/dietary supplement into the US market can be a confusing process to those unfamiliar with the food industry. Industry capability and product specifications are initial determinants of whether a candidate product can be manufactured in a reproducible manner and whether pilot production can be brought up to the market scale. Regulatory issues determine how a product can be produced and marketed; the primary federal institutions involved in regulations are the US Department of Agriculture, the Food and Drug Administration, and the Federal Trade Commission. A primary distinction is made between food and drugs, and no product may enter the food market if it is in part or whole a drug. Product safety is a major concern, and myriad regulations govern the determination of safety. New foods/dietary supplements are often marketed by health claims or structure/function claims, and there are specific regulations pertaining to claims. Not understanding the regulatory issues involved in developing a new product or failing to comply with associated regulations can have legal and financial repercussions.

  13. Review of existing experimental approaches for the clinical evaluation of the benefits of plant food supplements on cardiovascular function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meoni, Paolo; Restani, Patrizia; Mancama, Dalu T

    2013-06-01

    We conducted a survey of the National Centre for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) PubMed database to identify methods most commonly used for the evaluation of the effect of plant food supplements on the cardiovascular system and their relevance to the regulatory status of these products. Particularly, our search strategy was aimed at the selection of studies concerning the clinical evaluation of the beneficial effects of the most commonly studied plant food supplements acting on the cardiovascular system. Following the screening of 3839 papers for inclusion criteria, 48 published reports were retained for this review. Most studies included in this review used a double blind controlled design, and evaluated the effect of plant food supplements on individuals affected by a disease of the cardiovascular system. The majority of the studies were found to be of low methodological quality on the Jadad scale, mainly because of inadequate reporting of adverse events and of patient withdrawals. In comparison, measures used for the evaluation of benefits included mostly cardiovascular risk factors as recommended in international guidelines and in accordance with principles laid down for the evaluation of health claims in food. The risk factors most frequently evaluated belonged to the category of "lipid function and levels", "heart function" and "blood pressure". For the absolute majority of the studies, the study period did not exceed one month. This review highlights critical factors to be considered in the design of studies evaluating the health effects of plant food supplements on the cardiovascular system. Between others, the inclusion of healthy individuals, better reporting and description of the characteristics of the product used could improve the quality and relevance of these studies.

  14. Medical Evaluation of the Special Supplemental Food Program for Women, Infants and Children. Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs, United States Senate, Ninety-Fourth Congress, 2d Session. Committee Print.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs.

    This paper reports a medical evaluation of a federal program providing funds for special nutritious food supplements to low income pregnant and lactating women, infants, and children up to four years of age who are nutritional risks. Growth, dietary intake, and biochemical measures were obtained for study infants at the time of enrollment in the…

  15. Descriptive and hedonic analyses of low-Phe food formulations containing corn (Zea mays) seedling roots: toward development of a dietary supplement for individuals with phenylketonuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cliff, Margaret A; Law, Jessica R; Lücker, Joost; Scaman, Christine H; Kermode, Allison R

    2016-01-15

    Seedling roots of anthocyanin-rich corn (Zea mays) cultivars contain high levels of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) activity. The development of a natural dietary supplement containing corn roots could provide the means to improve the restrictive diet of phenylketonuria (PKU) patients by increasing their tolerance to dietary phenylalanine (Phe). Therefore this research was undertaken to explore the sensory characteristics of roots of four corn cultivars as well as to develop and evaluate food products (cereal bar, beverage, jam-like spread) to which roots had been added. Sensory profiles of corn roots were investigated using ten trained judges. Roots of Japanese Striped corn seedlings were more bitter, pungent and astringent than those of white and yellow cultivars, while roots from the Blue Jade cultivar had a more pronounced earthy/mushroom aroma. Consumer research using 24 untrained panelists provided hedonic (degree-of-liking) assessments for products with and without roots (controls). The former had lower mean scores than the controls; however, the cereal bar had scores above 5 on the nine-point scale for all hedonic assessments compared with the other treated products. By evaluating low-Phe food products containing corn roots, this research ascertained that the root-containing low-Phe cereal bar was an acceptable 'natural' dietary supplement for PKU-affected individuals. © 2015 Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. DNA extraction from plant food supplements: Influence of different pharmaceutical excipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Joana; Amaral, Joana S; Fernandes, Telmo J R; Batista, Andreia; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P; Mafra, Isabel

    2015-12-01

    The consumption of plant food supplements (PFS) has been growing globally, with an increase of misleading labeling and fraudulent practices also being reported. Recently, the use of molecular biology techniques has been proposed to detect botanical adulterations, one of the possible frauds in PFS. However, difficulties in recovering DNA from some PFS samples have been described. Aiming at using DNA-based methods for the unequivocal identification of plant species in PFS, adequate DNA isolation is required. However, PFS often contain pharmaceutical excipients known to have adsorbent properties that might interfere with DNA extraction. Thus, the aim of this work was to assess the effect of different excipients (talc, silica, iron oxide and titanium dioxide) on the recovery/amplification of DNA. For that purpose, known amounts of template maize DNA were spiked either to PFS or to model mixtures of excipients and quantified by real-time PCR. The tested excipients evidenced clear adsorption phenomena that justify the hampering effect on DNA extraction from PFS. The use of either 10% talc or 0.5% dyes completely adsorbed DNA, resulting in negative PCR amplifications. For the first time, pharmaceutical excipients were shown to affect DNA extraction explaining the inability of recovering DNA from some PFS samples in previous studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Trametes versicolor ethanol extract, a promising candidate for health-promoting food supplement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janjušević, Ljiljana; Pejin, Boris; Kaišarević, Sonja; Gorjanović, Stanislava; Pastor, Ferenc; Tešanović, Kristina; Karaman, Maja

    2017-08-18

    This study aimed to estimate antiradical, antioxidant (AO) and cytotoxic activities of the fungus Trametes versicolor ethanol fruiting body extract. The extract was found to effectively scavenge both O2(•-) and NO(•) (29.62 and 52.48 μg/mL, respectively). It also showed a good AO activity in the polarographic HPMC assay (950%/mL). p-Hydroxybenzoic acid may be one of the responsible compounds for the afore-mentioned activities. The same extract also exhibited a concentration-dependent cytotoxicity against MCF-7 and HepG2 tumour cell lines reaching IC50 values of 123.51 and 134.29 μg/mL, respectively with no cytotoxic activity against normal MRC-5 cells. Gentisic, syringic and protocatechuic acids may be among the bioactive principles for the observed cytotoxicity. Taken all together, T. versicolor ethanol extract can be considered as a promising candidate for development of health promoting food supplement.

  18. Production of a high-nutritional-value functional food, the Update1 bread, with the supplementation of the wheat flour with high-protein-content raw food materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Csapó J.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available During our research, we added extracted soya bean meal, egg-white powder, gluten, wheat sourdough, and bamboo fibre to wheat flour in order to increase the quantity of the essential amino acid and the biological value of the wheat protein, producing such a functional, health-protecting, health-preservative food product which is suitable to satisfy the essential amino acid requirements of humans, assuming normal nutrition. Furthermore, we could produce such a food, which, on the one hand, was suitable to confine or prevent the essential amino acid’s malnutrition symptoms, while, on the other hand, when applied alone, to meet the consumers’ needs. During our work, we determined the protein content and amino acid composition of the wheat flour, of the additives used in bread baking, and in the bread both baked with supplementation (Update1 bread and without supplementation (normal bread, as well as the quantity of the Maillard reaction products (hydroxymethylfurfural. We calculated the biological value of the protein of different breads and evaluated the sensory characteristics of the produced functional food and the fortified bread, supplemented with high essential-amino-acid-containing additives.

  19. Conventional foods, followed by dietary supplements and fortified foods, are the key sources of vitamin D, vitamin B6, and selenium intake in Dutch participants of the NU-AGE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berendsen, Agnes A M; van Lieshout, Lilou E L M; van den Heuvel, Ellen G H M; Matthys, Christophe; Péter, Szabolcs; de Groot, Lisette C P G M

    2016-10-01

    With aging, energy needs decrease, necessitating a more nutrient-dense diet to meet nutritional needs. To bridge this gap, the use of nutrient-dense foods, fortified foods, and dietary supplements can be important. This observational study aims to describe current micronutrient intakes of Dutch elderly and to identify the contribution of nutrient-dense foods, fortified foods, and dietary supplements to the intake of micronutrients that are often inadequately consumed in Dutch elderly. Data of 245 Dutch volunteers from the NU-AGE study aged 65 to 80 years were used. Dietary intake was assessed by means of 7-day food records, and dietary supplement use was recorded with an additional questionnaire. Information on fortified foods was obtained from the Dutch Food Composition Table 2011. Nutrient density of foods was evaluated using the Nutrient Rich Food 9.3 score. The percentages of participants not meeting their average requirement were high for vitamin D (99%), selenium (41%), and vitamin B6 (54%) based on conventional foods and also when taking into account fortified foods (98%, 41%, and 27%, respectively) and vitamin and mineral supplements (87%, 36%, and 20%, respectively). Conventional foods were the main source of vitamin D, vitamin B6, and selenium intake (42%, 45%, and 82%, respectively), followed by vitamin and mineral supplements (41%, 44%, and 18%) and fortified foods (17%, 11%, and 1%). Foods with the highest nutrient density contributed most to total vitamin B6 intake only. To optimize nutrient intakes of elderly, combinations of natural food sources, fortified foods, and dietary supplements should be considered. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Sustainability of the effects of medicinal iron and iron rich food supplementation on haemoglobin, intelligence quotient and growth of school aged girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Jain

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Anaemia in school aged girls is an important but neglected issue. Since iron supplementation programmes have had little reported success in reducing anaemia, interest is turning to food based approaches that have higher potential for achieving far reaching benefits. The purpose of the study was to observe sustainability of the effect of iron and food supplementation on haemoglobin (Hb, intelligence quotient (IQ and growth of the subjects. At baseline, estimation of haemoglobin (Hb, red cell indices, serum iron, total iron binding capacity, serum transferrin saturation and serum ferritin was done. IQ, weight and height were measured using standard procedures. Anaemic subjectswere divided into three groups, viz., (i twice weekly supplementation of iron folic acid syrup (53 mg iron/week; (ii daily supplementation of 4 niger seed and defatted soyaflour biscuits plus 2 lemons (45 mg iron/week and (iii control. Non anaemic group(NAC was not intervened. Endline data was collected after 120 days. Follow up for Hb, IQ, weight and height was done 4 months after cessation of supplementation. The prevalence of anaemia was 77% in the study population; 46% subjects had mild anaemia and 32% had moderate anaemia. Iron status was lower in anaemic subjects (p<0.001.Iron supplementation was more effective in raising Hb and building iron stores than iron rich food supplementation. Iron supplementation improved IQ but did not bring about catch up of anaemics to non anaemics. Iron rich food supplementation was better than medicinal iron in promoting growth in anaemic girls. The impact of iron rich food supplementation on Hb, IQ and growth sustained for 4 months while that of medicinal iron did not. Effects of food supplementation are sustainable for 4 months, therefore, this strategy holds more potential to control anaemia, in school aged girls.

  1. Resveratrol food supplements: a survey on the role of individual consumer characteristics in predicting the attitudes and adoption intentions of US American and Danish respondents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica; Grunert, Klaus G

    2015-02-10

    Consumers increasingly choose food supplements in addition to their diet. Research on supplement users finds they are likely to be female, older and well-educated; Furthermore, supplement users are often characterised as being especially health-oriented, an observation which is termed the 'inverse supplement hypothesis'. However, results are dependent on the substance in question. Little is known so far about botanicals in general, and more specifically, little is known about resveratrol. The psychographic variables of food supplement users are yet relatively underexplored. By comparing US and Danish respondents, we aimed to identify whether sociodemographic variables, health status, health beliefs and behaviour and interest in food aspects specifically relevant to resveratrol (e.g., naturalness, indulgence, and Mediterranean food) explain favourable attitudes and adoption intentions toward resveratrol supplements. A survey sent to a representative online panel in the United States and Denmark was analysed using linear regression. We find that sociodemographic variables contribute little to explaining favourable attitudes toward and adoption intentions of resveratrol supplements, except for the negative association with higher education in the United States. The inverse supplement hypothesis was not confirmed. Belief in the favourable health effects of resveratrol and usage of complementary and alternative medicine positively affect attitudes and adoption intention. An interest in the indulgence dimension of food explains positive attitudes in the United States and adoption intentions in both countries. The results indicate that potential consumers of resveratrol supplements are identified by their usage of complementary and alternative medicine, rather than by sociodemographic variables. They are not characterised by especially healthy behaviours, which contradicts the inverse supplement hypothesis. Instead, potential consumers of resveratrol supplements may be

  2. Plant Food Supplements with Antioxidant Properties for the Treatment of Chronic and Neurodegenerative Diseases: Benefits or Risks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piemontese, Luca

    2017-07-04

    Wine by-products, in particular grape pomace, can be an important source of polyphenols and dietary fibers and are increasingly being used as a starting material in the industrial production of plant food supplements, such as other matrices containing biomolecules, with antioxidant properties. The risk associated with the consumption of these products was recently analyzed through a study of potential genotoxic and carcinogenic compounds that can be found in the marketed products. In particular, occurrence data about contamination with the mycotoxin ochratoxin A were also reported. This short review aims at giving an overview about the quality and benefits of these kinds of food supplements, and also about risks of incorrect use, focusing on the emerging need for stricter European regulations.

  3. Review of Food and Nutrition Services Provided by Community-based Organizations Serving People with HIV in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Joyce; Qadar, Zeeshan; Bewza, Jennifer

    2015-06-01

    To assess the status of food and nutrition programming in community-based HIV organizations in Canada. A telephone survey was administered to 80 community-based HIV organizations asking about characteristics of food and nutrition programs and the perceived program gaps. The majority of organizations had programs directed at improving food access through meals, food banks, community kitchens or cooking classes, food vouchers, gardens, and street vans. Almost half of the organizations (n = 39) provided nutrition counselling by a registered dietitian or nurse, and the majority also provided referrals to other food and nutrition services in the community. Most organizations would like to have more food-related programming, including: more frequent provision of nutritious and fresh food options, methods to make better use of available food, transportation and grocery vouchers, more staff dedicated to food programs, and improved food preparation and storage infrastructure. Although community-based HIV organizations provide a range of food and nutrition programs, they face challenges due to inadequate resources. Decision makers should provide more funding for these programs; however, they must be augmented with other supports such as adequate housing, income, and addiction counselling. Dietitians can help organizations maximize the impact of their limited resources and can advocate for systemic changes to enhance determinants of health for people living with HIV.

  4. 'Food for thought': Advertising health food, drinks and supplements - what you can, can't and must say

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luzak, J.

    2013-01-01

    This article focuses specifically on investigating whether the draft Food Regulation would bear any relevance for the currently binding rules on the labelling and advertising of three categories of products: infant formula and follow-on formula, low gluten content foods and food intended for use in

  5. Early prenatal food supplementation ameliorates the negative association of maternal stress with birth size in a randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frith, Amy L; Naved, Ruchira T; Persson, Lars Ake; Frongillo, Edward A

    2015-10-01

    Low birthweight increases the risk of infant mortality, morbidity and poor development. Maternal nutrition and stress influence birth size, but their combined effect is not known. We hypothesised that an early-invitation time to start a prenatal food supplementation programme could reduce the negative influence of prenatal maternal stress on birth size, and that effect would differ by infant sex. A cohort of 1041 pregnant women, who had delivered an infant, June 2003-March 2004, was sampled from among 3267 in the randomised controlled trial, Maternal Infant Nutritional Interventions Matlab, conducted in Matlab, Bangladesh. At 8 weeks gestation, women were randomly assigned an invitation to start food supplements (2.5 MJ d(-1) ; 6 days a week) either early (∼9 weeks gestation; early-invitation group) or at usual start time for the governmental programme (∼20 weeks gestation; usual-invitation group). Morning concentration of cortisol was measured from one saliva sample/woman at 28-32 weeks gestation to assess stress. Birth-size measurements for 90% of infants were collected within 4 days of birth. In a general linear model, there was an interaction between invitation time to start the food supplementation programme and cortisol with birthweight, length and head circumference of male infants, but not female infants. Among the usual-invitation group only, male infants whose mothers had higher prenatal cortisol weighed less than those whose mothers had lower prenatal cortisol. Prenatal food supplementation programmes that begin first trimester may support greater birth size of male infants despite high maternal stress where low birthweight is a public health concern. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Matrix-derived combination effect and risk assessment for estragole from basil-containing plant food supplements (PFS)

    OpenAIRE

    Berg, van den, S.J.P.L.; Klaus, V.; Alhusainy, W.; Rietjens, I.

    2013-01-01

    Basil-containing plant food supplements (PFS) can contain estragole which can be metabolised into a genotoxic and carcinogenic 1'-sulfoxymetabolite. This study describes the inhibition of sulfotransferase (SULT)-mediated bioactivation of estragole by compounds present in basil-containing PFS. Results reveal that PFS consisting of powdered basil material contain other compounds with considerable in vitro SULT-inhibiting activity, whereas the presence of such compounds in PFS consisting of basi...

  7. Anatoxin-a and its metabolites in blue-green algae food supplements from Canada and Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawn, Dorothea F K; Niedzwiadek, Barbara; Lau, Benjamin P Y; Saker, Martin

    2007-03-01

    Blue-green algae and spirulina are marketed in health food stores and over the Internet as food supplements in Canada, the United States, and Europe. The reported benefits of consuming these products include improved digestion, strengthening of the immune system, and relief from the symptoms of attention deficit disorder. Some of these products have been found to contain elevated concentrations of microcystins, which are known hepatotoxins. In addition to producing microcystins, Anabaena sp. and Aphanizomenon sp. also produce the potent neurotoxin anatoxin-a. Samples of food supplements containing blue-green algae and spirulina were collected in Portugal and from urban centers across Canada in 2005. Extracts of these supplements were analyzed to determine the presence and concentrations of anatoxin-a and its two main metabolites, dihydroanatoxin-a and epoxyanatoxin-a. Initial analyses were performed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detection, and confirmation required the use of LC with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS). The HPLC with fluorescence detection indicated no anatoxin-a, but four samples were suspected to contain either dihydroanatoxin-a or epoxyanatoxin-a at 0.1 to 0.2 microg/g. LC-MS-MS results, however, indicated no trace of either transformation product in any sample analyzed. The detection limits for anatoxin-a, dihydroanatoxin-a, and epoxyanatoxin-a were similar for both fluorescence detection (0.2 to 0.3, 0.4 to 1.4, and 0.2 to 1.5 pg on the column, respectively) and mass spectrometry (0.3 to 1.5, 0.3 to 0.8, and 0.5 to 0.8 pg on the column, respectively). Because of the higher specificity of the LC-MS-MS analysis, all tested food supplement samples were considered free of anatoxin-a and its transformation products.

  8. Effect of spirulina food supplement on blood morphological parameters, biochemical composition and on the immune function of sportsmen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Milasius

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Of highest biological value are natural concentrates of optimally combined substances produced by nature. One of food supplements of this kind is dietary Spirulina produced by the Tianshi firm (China. It is a most rationally balanced food supplement of a high biological value; it satisfies the needs of the whole body, including its immune system. The aim of the current work was to assess the effect of the multicomponent natural food supplement Spirulina on the physical development, blood morphological, biochemical picture and immune function of sportsmen. Materials and Methods: The study cohort comprised 12 high performance sportsmen (age 20-22 years. They were using tablets of Spirulina, a dietary product for 14 days. Physical development was determined with the aid of standard methods. The general blood picture was analyzed with the aid of a Micros-60 hematological analyzer (company ABX DIAGNOSTICS, France. Lymphocytes and their subsets were analysed by flow cytometery (FACSCalibur, Becton Dickinson Immunocytometry Systems (BDIS, USA and the absolute and percentage values were calculated. To evaluate immune function lymphocyte blasttransformation response to mitogens was studied. Results: Investigations carried out on endurance-training sportsmen showed that a 14-d administration of Spirulina exerted a positive effect on blood morphological composition indices and its biochemical changes. The results of our study confirm the positive effect of Spirulina food supplement on the quantitative parameters of immune system. Part of the study cohort after weeks showed a tendency of normalizing CD3 , CD3 CD4 lympocite count: positive changes were still present two weeks following the interruption of Spirulina intake

  9. Parallel experimental design and multivariate analysis provides efficient screening of cell culture media supplements to improve biosimilar product quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brühlmann, David; Sokolov, Michael; Butté, Alessandro; Sauer, Markus; Hemberger, Jürgen; Souquet, Jonathan; Broly, Hervé; Jordan, Martin

    2017-07-01

    Rational and high-throughput optimization of mammalian cell culture media has a great potential to modulate recombinant protein product quality. We present a process design method based on parallel design-of-experiment (DoE) of CHO fed-batch cultures in 96-deepwell plates to modulate monoclonal antibody (mAb) glycosylation using medium supplements. To reduce the risk of losing valuable information in an intricate joint screening, 17 compounds were separated into five different groups, considering their mode of biological action. The concentration ranges of the medium supplements were defined according to information encountered in the literature and in-house experience. The screening experiments produced wide glycosylation pattern ranges. Multivariate analysis including principal component analysis and decision trees was used to select the best performing glycosylation modulators. Subsequent D-optimal quadratic design with four factors (three promising compounds and temperature shift) in shake tubes confirmed the outcome of the selection process and provided a solid basis for sequential process development at a larger scale. The glycosylation profile with respect to the specifications for biosimilarity was greatly improved in shake tube experiments: 75% of the conditions were equally close or closer to the specifications for biosimilarity than the best 25% in 96-deepwell plates. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2017;114: 1448-1458. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Knowledge about food classification systems and value attributes provides insight for understanding complementary food choices in Mexican working mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Oliveros, Maria Guadalupe; Bisogni, Carole A; Frongillo, Edward A

    2014-12-01

    Knowledge about mothers' perceptions of food classification and values about complementary feeding is necessary for designing educational and food supply interventions targeted to young children. To determine classification, attributes, and consumption/preparation routines of key complementary foods, 44 mothers of children attributes exercises. Hierarchical clustering showed that mothers identified nine classes of key foods, including milk derivatives, complements, junk food, infant products, chicken parts, and other meats. From multidimensional scaling, mothers used three primary classification systems: food groups, food introduction stages, and food processing. Secondary classification systems were healthy-junk, heavy-light, hot-cold, good-bad fat, and main dish-complement. Child health and nutrition, particularly vitamin content, were salient attributes. Fruits and vegetables were preferred for initiating complementary feeding on the second month of age. Consumption of guava, mango, and legumes, however, was associated with digestive problems (empacho). Red meats were viewed as cold-type, heavy, and hard, not suitable for young children, but right for toddlers. Chicken liver was considered nutritious but dirty and bitter. Egg and fish were viewed as a vitamin source but potentially allergenic. Mothers valued vitamin content, flavor, and convenience of processed foods, but some were suspicious about expiration date, chemical and excessive sugar content and overall safety of these foods. Mothers' perceptions and values may differ from those of nutritionists and program designers, and should be addressed when promoting opportune introduction of complementary foods in social programs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Dissolution of xylitol from a food supplement administered with a novel slow-release pacifier: preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taipale, T; Pienihakkinen, K; Alanen, P; Jokela, J; Söderling, E

    2007-06-01

    The aim of the study was to monitor the pattern of release and salivary xylitol concentrations during sucking of a slow-release pacifier used to deliver a novel food supplement. The food supplement tablet contained 300 mg xylitol and 0.5 x 10(10) colony-forming units of Bifidobacterium lactis Bb-12 (Bb-12). The reference tablet contained 300 mg xylitol and was used by 10 adults (mean age 32 years) in the study. Whole saliva samples were collected with 2.5 min intervals during pacifier sucking. The salivary xylitol concentrations were determined using an enzyme assay kit. All subjects showed salivary xylitol concentrations exceeding 1% at least at one collection point. The xylitol and xylitol-Bb-12 tablets showed similar dissolving with no clear concentration peaks (comparison of saliva collection times; p = 0.139). Xylitol released from the food supplement, delivered with the novel pacifier, may result in salivary xylitol concentrations high enough to inhibit mutans streptococci in vivo.

  12. Protein-Pacing from Food or Supplementation Improves Physical Performance in Overweight Men and Women: The PRISE 2 Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul J. Arciero

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We recently reported that protein-pacing (P; six meals/day @ 1.4 g/kg body weight (BW, three of which included whey protein (WP supplementation combined with a multi-mode fitness program consisting of resistance, interval sprint, stretching, and endurance exercise training (RISE improves body composition in overweight individuals. The purpose of this study was to extend these findings and determine whether protein-pacing with only food protein (FP is comparable to WP supplementation during RISE training on physical performance outcomes in overweight/obese individuals. Thirty weight-matched volunteers were prescribed RISE training and a P diet derived from either whey protein supplementation (WP, n = 15 or food protein sources (FP, n = 15 for 16 weeks. Twenty-one participants completed the intervention (WP, n = 9; FP, n = 12. Measures of body composition and physical performance were significantly improved in both groups (p < 0.05, with no effect of protein source. Likewise, markers of cardiometabolic disease risk (e.g., LDL (low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, glucose, insulin, adiponectin, systolic blood pressure were significantly improved (p < 0.05 to a similar extent in both groups. These results demonstrate that both whey protein and food protein sources combined with multimodal RISE training are equally effective at improving physical performance and cardiometabolic health in obese individuals.

  13. Raspberry ketone in food supplements--High intake, few toxicity data--A cause for safety concern?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bredsdorff, Lea; Wedebye, Eva Bay; Nikolov, Nikolai Georgiev; Hallas-Møller, Torben; Pilegaard, Kirsten

    2015-10-01

    Raspberry ketone (4-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-2-butanone) is marketed on the Internet as a food supplement. The recommended intake is between 100 and 1400 mg per day. The substance is naturally occurring in raspberries (up to 4.3 mg/kg) and is used as a flavouring substance. Toxicological studies on raspberry ketone are limited to acute and subchronic studies in rats. When the lowest recommended daily dose of raspberry ketone (100 mg) as a food supplement is consumed, it is 56 times the established threshold of toxicological concern (TTC) of 1800 μg/day for Class 1 substances. The margin of safety (MOS) based on a NOAEL of 280 mg/kg bw/day for lower weight gain in rats is 165 at 100 mg and 12 at 1400 mg. The recommended doses are a concern taking into account the TTC and MOS. Investigations of raspberry ketone in quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models indicated potential cardiotoxic effects and potential effects on reproduction/development. Taking into account the high intake via supplements, the compound's toxic potential should be clarified with further experimental studies. In UK the pure compound is regarded as novel food requiring authorisation prior to marketing but raspberry ketone is not withdrawn from Internet sites from this country. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Stocking characteristics and perceived increases in sales among small food store managers/owners associated with the introduction of new food products approved by the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala, Guadalupe X; Laska, Melissa N; Zenk, Shannon N; Tester, June; Rose, Donald; Odoms-Young, Angela; McCoy, Tara; Gittelsohn, Joel; Foster, Gary D; Andreyeva, Tatiana

    2012-09-01

    The present study assessed the impact of the 2009 food packages mandated by the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) on perceived sales, product selection and stocking habits of small, WIC-authorized food stores. A cross-sectional study involving in-depth interviews with store managers/owners. Small, WIC-authorized food stores in eight major cities in the USA. Fifty-two store managers/owners who had at least 1 year of experience in the store prior to study participation. The WIC-approved food products (fresh, canned and frozen fruits; fresh, canned and frozen vegetables; wholegrain/whole-wheat bread; white corn/whole-wheat tortillas; brown rice; lower-fat milk (customer requests (87 %), refrigerator/freezer availability (65 %) and profitability (71 %) were rated as very important when making stocking decisions. Most managers/owners perceived increases in sales of new WIC-approved foods including those considered most profitable (wholegrain/whole-wheat bread (89 %), lower-fat milk (89 %), white corn/whole wheat tortillas (54 %)), but perceived no changes in sales of processed fruits and vegetables. Supply mechanisms and frequency of supply acquisition were only moderately associated with perceived sales increases. Regardless of type or frequency of supply acquisition, perceived increases in sales provided some evidence for the potential sustainability of these WIC policy efforts and translation of this policy-based strategy to other health promotion efforts aimed at improving healthy food access in underserved communities.

  15. [Factors influencing on the Silesian University students' decisions concerning purchasing of vitamin and mineral food supplements].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiołek, Katarzyna; Kościołek, Aneta; Kania, Justyna; Hartman, Magdalena; Pawłowska-Góral, Katarzyna

    2011-01-01

    Correctly composed diet covers the demands of a healthy adult for nutrients, vitamins and minerals. Nowadays constant increase of vitamin and mineral supplements of diet intake is observed. Customers have a great choice of diet supplements on Polish market. They are diversified under the quality and quantitative accounts. The main aim of this study was to evaluate main factors of Silesian University students' choice while they are purchasing particular diet supplements. The questionnaire survey was conducted in a group of 208 students at the age of 19 to 24. 99.5% of them admitted that they have supplemented their diets with vitamin and mineral preparations until the moment of the experiment. The results indicate that main factors that influence the students' decisions on purchasing these preparations are: composition of the supplement, price and convenient dosing regimen. Respondents indicate the internet as a main source of information on the supplements being discussed in the following study.

  16. Microalgal food supplements from the perspective of Polish consumers: patterns of use, adverse events, and beneficial effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rzymski, Piotr; Jaśkiewicz, Monika

    2017-01-01

    Microalgal food supplements are becoming increasingly popular due to their promising biological effects and high nutritional value, evidenced in in vitro, in vivo, and human studies. Some products of this kind have, however, raised controversies concerning their safety. At the same time, not much is known about the frequency of adverse events following the use of microalgal supplements, potential factors that may influence them, and general characteristics and behaviours of the consumer group. The present study aimed to fill this gap and surveyed a group of Polish consumers of microalgal products (n = 150) using an online questionnaire. As found, microalgal supplements (Spirulina, Chlorella, and Aphanizomenon) were popular in groups representing lacto-ovo-vegetarianism and veganism and were consumed predominantly for nutritional, immune-boosting, and detoxifying purposes. Their use was rarely discussed with specialists; the Internet constituted the most important source of information regarding these supplements. The most frequently self-reported health-beneficial effects of supplementation included the following: increased immunity, higher vitality, improved hair and skin quality, and better general well-being. Diarrhoea, nausea, abdominal pain, and skin rash were among the most often reported adverse events. Pre-existing medical conditions, namely renal failure and hypothyroidism, but not Hashimoto's thyroiditis, were associated with increased occurrence of side effects. Those individuals who had consulted specialists as to the use of supplements reported adverse events significantly less often. A strikingly high frequency of side effects and very low consumer satisfaction were reported by a group of consumers supplementing Aphanizomenon-based products. In summary, the present study highlights that microalgal consumers may benefit from additional warnings of potential side effects and from consulting a qualified health specialist prior to use.

  17. Beyond nutrients: food-derived microRNAs provide cross-kingdom regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Mengxi; Sang, Xiaolin; Hong, Zhi

    2012-04-01

    Food turns out to be not only the nutrient supplier for our body but also a carrier of regulatory information. Interestingly, a recent study made the discovery that some plant/food-derived microRNAs (miRNAs) accumulate in the serum of humans or plant-feeding animals, and regulate mammalian gene expression in a sequence-specific manner. The authors provided striking evidence that miRNAs could function as active signaling molecules to transport information across distinct species or even kingdoms. Although the mechanism of how miRNAs are shuttled between different organisms is still not well characterized, initial results point to the involvement of microvesicles and specific RNA-transporter-like proteins. These findings raise both speculation about the potential impact that plants may have on animal physiology at the molecular level, and an appealing possibility that food-derived miRNAs may offer us another means to deliver necessary nutrients or therapeutics to our bodies. Copyright © 2012 WILEY Periodicals, Inc.

  18. [Self-medication with vitamins, minerals and food supplements in Germany : Results of nationwide health surveys].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knopf, Hildtraud

    2017-03-01

    Vitamins, minerals and food supplements (FSs) are often used without medical prescription. Valid data on the magnitude of use are rare in Germany. The aim of the present analysis is to describe the prevalence and trends of self-medication and the associations between health-related factors and self-medication with these substances. The data base consisted of the results of nationwide health surveys (GNHIES98: 1997-1999 and DEGS1: 2008-2001) in which adults aged 18-79 years were interviewed on health-related themes and were examined. The use of drugs and FSs was recorded in standardized personal interviews. Data of 7099 (GNHIES98) and 7091 (DEGS1) individuals were available for analysis. The dependent variable was self-medication with vitamins, minerals and FS. Analysis was conducted in SPSS Version 20 with the complex sample method. Statistical significance was tested with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) and verified via p-values. Of all DEGS1 participants, 18.1% (95% CI: 17.0-19.2%) consumed vitamins, minerals and FSs in self-medication. Significantly higher prevalence was found among women, older people (60-79 years), those with a higher social status, people living alone, ex- and non-smokers, and those doing more sports. In comparison to the GNHIES98 study the prevalence in DEGS1 has increased by about 6 percentage points (5.8 percentage points, 95% CI 4.1-7.5%, p vitamins, minerals or FSs shows a high user prevalence which has increased significantly over time. In light of potential interactions with prescribed medicines the results show the importance of ascertaining self-medication with vitamins, minerals and FSs in medical practice.

  19. Analysis of pharmaceutical adulterants in plant food supplements by UHPLC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paíga, Paula; Rodrigues, Manuela J E; Correia, Manuela; Amaral, Joana S; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P; Delerue-Matos, Cristina

    2017-03-01

    A method based on the Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, and Safe (QuEChERS) extraction and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) was successfully developed and validated for the analysis of 26 pharmaceutical compounds belonging to different therapeutic classes (anorexics, stimulants, anxiolytics, antidepressants and laxatives), which are all prone to be illegally added into weight-loss plant food supplements (PFS) for their pharmacological activity. Internal standard calibration with six isotopically labelled compounds rendered good linearity in the range of 5 to 1000μg/l, depending on the compound, and good sensitivity with limits of quantification in the range of 0.02-9.80μg/l. Recoveries were assessed for all the 16 samples analysed and were found between 70% and 120% for over 90% of the analytes. The average recovery value was 90.8%, for the different studied matrices (liquids, liquid ampoules, tablets and capsules), with RSD values lower than 10% for all forms. The changes introduced to the QuEChERS procedure maintained the good performance characteristics of the extraction method while preserving the chromatographic system for the introduction of unwanted matrix compounds. Synephrine was the only compound detected and quantified in one sample, but at a very low concentration (768μg/l) and its presence may be due to the plant extracts used in the formulation, as synephrine is known to be a natural constituent of Citrus aurantium amara. Despite none of the 16 evaluated samples were found to be adulterated by the illegal addition of the drugs included in this work, the developed methodology can be very useful for monitoring the adulteration of weight-loss PFS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. The impact of child care providers' feeding on children's food consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Sheryl O; Patrick, Heather; Power, Thomas G; Fisher, Jennifer O; Anderson, Cheryl B; Nicklas, Theresa A

    2007-04-01

    In young children, the eating environment is an important social context within which eating behaviors develop. Among many low-income young children, the responsibility for feeding may have shifted from family members to child care providers because these children spend the majority of their day in child care settings. To examine the influence of feeding among low-income children in child care settings, feeding behaviors of child care providers in Head Start were observed and food consumption was assessed. Head Start, a comprehensive child development program that serves children from ages 3 to 5, was chosen because of the large percentage of minorities, the low-income status of the families, and the age of the children. Fifty child care providers (25 African-American; 25 Hispanic) randomly selected from Head Start centers in a large, urban southwestern city were observed on three mealtime occasions and self-reported feeding styles were assessed. Observed feeding behaviors were categorized into four feeding patterns based on their conceptual similarity to a general parenting typology (i.e., authoritarian, authoritative, indulgent, and uninvolved). Measures of food consumption were assessed on 549 children sitting with the child care providers during lunch at the Head Start centers. Indulgent feeding behaviors were positively related to children's consumption of vegetables, dairy, entrée, and starch; authoritative feeding behaviors were positively related to dairy consumption. This research highlights the important influence that child care providers have in the development of healthy and unhealthy eating behaviors in minority children. Implications for intervention training for child care providers to promote healthy eating among Head Start children are discussed.

  1. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2014. Statement on the safety of ‘Cetyl Myristoleate Complex’ as an ingredient in food supplements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge; Poulsen, Morten

    , the provided toxicological data were insufficient. In 2012, the Commission requested EFSA to review and update its opinion by taking into account a new subchronic 90-day oral toxicity study conducted with “Cetylated Fatty Acid Esters Powder 50 %” in mice. In its opinion of 2013, the Panel considered that a new......Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to update its opinion on the safety of ‘Cetyl Myristoleate Complex’ (CMC) as a novel food ingredient in the light of additional information submitted by the applicant. In its previous...... opinion of 2010, the Panel concluded that the safety of CMC as an ingredient in food supplements at an intake of 3.3 g per day has not been established. This conclusion was based on the considerations that in the absence of appropriate data on absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion...

  2. Plant food supplement (PFS) market structure in EC Member States, methods and techniques for the assessment of individual PFS intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Murga, Liliana; Garcia-Alvarez, Alicia; Roman-Viñas, Blanca; Ngo, Joy; Ribas-Barba, Lourdes; van den Berg, Suzanne J P L; Williamson, Gary; Serra-Majem, Lluis

    2011-12-01

    The popularity of herbal products, especially plant food supplements (PFS) and herbal medicine is on the rise in Europe and other parts of the world, with increased use in the general population as well as among specific subgroups encompassing children, women or those suffering from diseases such as cancer. The aim of this paper is to examine the PFS market structures in European Community (EC) Member States as well as to examine issues addressing methodologies and consumption data relating to PFS use in Europe. A revision of recent reports on market data, trends and main distribution channels, in addition an example of the consumption of PFS in Spain, is presented. An overview of the methods and administration techniques used to assess individual food consumption as a starting point, including their uses and limitations, as well as some examples of studies that collect Food Supplement (FS) information, including herbal/botanical/plant-derived products are also discussed. Additionally, the intake estimation process of food nutrients is described and used to propose the PFS ingredients intake estimation process. Nationally representative PFS consumption data is scarce in Europe. The majority of studies have been conducted in Scandinavia and the UK. However the heterogeneity of definitions, study design and objectives make it difficult to compare results and extrapolate conclusions.

  3. A Multi-Center Assessment of Nutrient Levels and Foods Provided by Hospital Patient Menus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trang, Susan; Fraser, Jackie; Wilkinson, Lori; Steckham, Katherine; Oliphant, Heather; Fletcher, Heather; Tzianetas, Roula; Arcand, JoAnne

    2015-11-11

    Diets of high nutritional quality can aid in the prevention and management of malnutrition in hospitalized patients. This study evaluated the nutritional quality of hospital patient menus. At three large acute care hospitals in Ontario, Canada, 84 standard menus were evaluated, which included regular and carbohydrate-controlled diets and 3000 mg and 2000 mg sodium diets. Mean levels of calories, macronutrients and vitamins and minerals provided were calculated. Comparisons were made with the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI) and Canada's Food Guide (CFG) recommendations. Calorie levels ranged from 1281 to 3007 kcal, with 45% of menus below 1600 kcal. Protein ranged from 49 to 159 g (0.9-1.1 g/kg/day). Energy and protein levels were highest in carbohydrate-controlled menus. All regular and carbohydrate-controlled menus provided macronutrients within the Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges. The proportion of regular diet menus meeting the DRIs: 0% for fiber; 7% for calcium; 57% for vitamin C; and 100% for iron. Compared to CFG recommended servings, 35% met vegetables and fruit and milk and alternatives, 11% met grain products and 8% met meat and alternatives. These data support the need for frequent monitoring and evaluation of menus, food procurement and menu planning policies and for sufficient resources to ensure menu quality.

  4. A Multi-Center Assessment of Nutrient Levels and Foods Provided by Hospital Patient Menus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Trang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Diets of high nutritional quality can aid in the prevention and management of malnutrition in hospitalized patients. This study evaluated the nutritional quality of hospital patient menus. At three large acute care hospitals in Ontario, Canada, 84 standard menus were evaluated, which included regular and carbohydrate-controlled diets and 3000 mg and 2000 mg sodium diets. Mean levels of calories, macronutrients and vitamins and minerals provided were calculated. Comparisons were made with the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI and Canada’s Food Guide (CFG recommendations. Calorie levels ranged from 1281 to 3007 kcal, with 45% of menus below 1600 kcal. Protein ranged from 49 to 159 g (0.9–1.1 g/kg/day. Energy and protein levels were highest in carbohydrate-controlled menus. All regular and carbohydrate-controlled menus provided macronutrients within the Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges. The proportion of regular diet menus meeting the DRIs: 0% for fiber; 7% for calcium; 57% for vitamin C; and 100% for iron. Compared to CFG recommended servings, 35% met vegetables and fruit and milk and alternatives, 11% met grain products and 8% met meat and alternatives. These data support the need for frequent monitoring and evaluation of menus, food procurement and menu planning policies and for sufficient resources to ensure menu quality.

  5. Resolution of Allergic Rhinitis and Reactive Bronchospasm With Supplements and Food-specific Immunoglobulin G Elimination: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwiatkowski, Laura; Mitchell, Jessica; Langland, Jeffrey

    2016-10-01

    Context • Allergies are a common affliction, whether they are respiratory, food related, or dermatological. People often resort to continuous use of over-the-counter medications, such as antihistamines, to manage their symptoms. Controversy still remains over testing serum immunoglobulin (Ig) G to diagnose food allergies. Objective • This study intended to examine the benefits of treatment of a pediatric patient with natural supplements and an elimination diet for IgG food allergies. Design • The research team reported a case study. Setting • The study was conducted at Southwest Naturopathic Medical Center (Tempe, AZ, USA). Participant • The participant was a 10-y-old Caucasian female who had diagnoses of allergic rhinitis and reactive bronchospasm, the second of which was exacerbated by allergens such as wheat, perfumes, and seasonal flora. Intervention • Following testing for IgE- and IgG-reactive foods, the patient was treated with natural supplements to reduce her allergic responses and was instructed to make dietary changes to eliminate the IgG-reactive foods. Outcome Measures • The patient's symptom severity was tracked starting 1 mo after her initial visit to Southwest Naturopathic Medical Center. The severity was based on the patient's subjective reports about her congestion to her mother and on her mother's observations of the effect of symptoms on her attention and school performance. The bronchospasm severity was based on the frequency of a sensation of wheezing and chest tightness, the frequency of inhaler use, and the occurrence of any exacerbation of symptoms with acute respiratory illness Results • After 1 mo, in which the patient used the natural supplements, she experienced a 90% improvement in coughing; a 70% improvement in nasal congestion; less chest tightness; and no need for use of loratadine, diphenhydramine, or albuterol. At the 8-mo follow-up visit, her nasal congestion was reported to be entirely gone. Conclusions • The

  6. Characteristics of Clinical Studies Used for US Food and Drug Administration Approval of High-Risk Medical Device Supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Sarah Y; Dhruva, Sanket S; Redberg, Rita F

    2017-08-15

    High-risk medical devices often undergo modifications, which are approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) through various kinds of premarket approval (PMA) supplements. There have been multiple high-profile recalls of devices approved as PMA supplements. To characterize the quality of the clinical studies and data (strength of evidence) used to support FDA approval of panel-track supplements (a type of PMA supplement pathway that is used for significant changes in a device or indication for use and always requires clinical data). Descriptive study of clinical studies supporting panel-track supplements approved by the FDA between April 19, 2006, and October 9, 2015. Panel-track supplement approval. Methodological quality of studies including randomization, blinding, type of controls, clinical vs surrogate primary end points, use of post hoc analyses, and reporting of age and sex. Eighty-three clinical studies supported the approval of 78 panel-track supplements, with 71 panel-track supplements (91%) supported by a single study. Of the 83 studies, 37 (45%) were randomized clinical trials and 25 (30%) were blinded. The median number of patients per study was 185 (interquartile range, 75-305), and the median follow-up duration was 180 days (interquartile range, 84-270 days). There were a total of 150 primary end points (mean [SD], 1.8 [1.2] per study), and 57 primary end points (38%) were compared with controls. Of primary end points with controls, 6 (11%) were retrospective controls and 51 (89%) were active controls. One hundred twenty-one primary end points (81%) were surrogate end points. Thirty-three studies (40%) did not report age and 25 (30%) did not report sex for all enrolled patients. The FDA required postapproval studies for 29 of 78 (37%) panel-track supplements. Among clinical studies used to support FDA approval of high-risk medical device modifications, fewer than half were randomized, blinded, or controlled, and most primary outcomes were

  7. [Reduction of 137caesium contamination in wild boars by supplementing offered food with ammonium-iron-hexa-cyanoferrate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morfeld, P; Reddemann, J; Schungel, P; Kienzle, E

    2014-01-01

    This replication study investigated whether the 137caesium (137Cs) contamination of wild boars could be relevantly reduced under field conditions by adding ammonium-iron-hexa-cyanoferrate (AFCF; Prussian blue) to the food. In 285 wild boars that had been shot in six Bavarian hunting territories during the season (November until May) between 01 November 2010 and 10 December 2011 137Cs contamination was analysed. Thirty-five animals originated from two hunting territories in which offered food had been supplemented with 1250 mg AFCF per kilogram food. The control animals showed a mean 137Cs contamination of 522 Bq/kg lean skeletal muscle meat. Direct (univariable) comparisons of the two experimental territories with the four control territories yielded a mean reduction in 137Cs contamination due to Prussian bluefeeding by -211 Bq/kg (p contamination by -380 Bq/kg due to the feeding of Prussian blue in other territories.

  8. The 18 Household Food Security Survey items provide valid food security classifications for adults and children in the Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nunes Cheryl

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We tested the properties of the 18 Household Food Security Survey (HFSS items, and the validity of the resulting food security classifications, in an English-speaking middle-income country. Methods Survey of primary school children in Trinidad and Tobago. Parents completed the HFSS. Responses were analysed for the 10 adult-referenced items and the eight child-referenced items. Item response theory models were fitted. Item calibrations and subject scores from a one-parameter logistic (1PL model were compared with those from either two-parameter logistic model (2PL or a model for differential item functioning (DIF by ethnicity. Results There were 5219 eligible with 3858 (74% completing at least one food security item. Adult item calibrations (standard error in the 1PL model ranged from -4.082 (0.019 for the 'worried food would run out' item to 3.023 (0.042 for 'adults often do not eat for a whole day'. Child item calibrations ranged from -3.715 (0.025 for 'relied on a few kinds of low cost food' to 3.088 (0.039 for 'child didn't eat for a whole day'. Fitting either a 2PL model, which allowed discrimination parameters to vary between items, or a differential item functioning model, which allowed item calibrations to vary between ethnic groups, had little influence on interpretation. The classification based on the adult-referenced items showed that there were 19% of respondents who were food insecure without hunger, 10% food insecure with moderate hunger and 6% food insecure with severe hunger. The classification based on the child-referenced items showed that there were 23% of children who were food insecure without hunger and 9% food insecure with hunger. In both children and adults food insecurity showed a strong, graded association with lower monthly household income (P Conclusion These results support the use of 18 HFSS items to classify food security status of adults or children in an English-speaking country where food

  9. Effect of 12 weeks aerobic exercise for along with folic acid supplementation on the levels of the ghrelin hormone amount of food intake and weight changes of female Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Parvizi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Results of numerous studies have shown that approximately 1 to 78 percent of female athletes suffer from eating disorders. On the other hand, it has been mentioned that folic acid could increase appetite. The ghrelin hormone is known as a strong stimulant for appetite. Therefore, to clarify the role of exercise and food intake of folic acid on plasma acylated ghrelin the study aim was to evaluate the effect of 12 weeks of aerobic training on ghrelin supplementation of folic acid and quantity of food intake and weight change in female rats. Methods: In the present experimental study, 24 rats were randomly divided into three groups of 8 including: control, training and training along with folic acid supplementation. The training protocol consisted of aerobic exercise running on a treadmill for 12 weeks (5 days a week. Standard meal and water were freely provided for the subjects and in the supplement group 10 mg dissolved folic acid per liter of water were used and then the food intake and body weight was measured every week. 24 hours after the last session of training and 8 hours of overnight fasting, blood and tissue samples were collected and hormones levels were measured using Eliza method. To data analyzing, one way ANOVA and Tukey post hoc test was used. Results: The results showed that 12 weeks of  aerobic training with folic acid supplementation had significantly reduced serum acylated ghrelin levels (P0.05. The 12-week aerobic training with folic acid intake in comparison with other groups significantly increased food intake and body weight gain (p < 0.05. Conclusion: According to the acylated ghrelin reduction and lack of change in the stomach acylated ghrelin with increased food intake and body weight in rats, it seems that taking folic acid supplements inactive athletes with another strong mechanism, increasing consumption of food and influence on appetite center.

  10. Usage of plant food supplements across six European countries: findings from the PlantLIBRA consumer survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Garcia-Alvarez

    Full Text Available The popularity of botanical products is on the rise in Europe, with consumers using them to complement their diets or to maintain health, and products are taken in many different forms (e.g. teas, juices, herbal medicinal products, plant food supplements (PFS. However there is a scarcity of data on the usage of such products at European level.To provide an overview of the characteristics and usage patterns of PFS consumers in six European countries.Data on PFS usage were collected in a cross-sectional, retrospective survey of PFS consumers using a bespoke frequency of PFS usage questionnaire.A total sample of 2359 adult PFS consumers from Finland, Germany, Italy, Romania, Spain and the United Kingdom.Descriptive analyses were conducted, with all data stratified by gender, age, and country. Absolute frequencies, percentages and 95% confidence intervals are reported.Overall, an estimated 18.8% of screened survey respondents used at least one PFS. Characteristics of PFS consumers included being older, well-educated, never having smoked and self-reporting health status as "good or very good". Across countries, 491 different botanicals were identified in the PFS products used, with Ginkgo biloba (Ginkgo, Oenothera biennis (Evening primrose and Cynara scolymus (Artichoke being most frequently reported; the most popular dose forms were capsules and pills/tablets. Most consumers used one product and half of all users took single-botanical products. Some results varied across countries.The PlantLIBRA consumer survey is unique in reporting on usage patterns of PFS consumers in six European countries. The survey highlights the complexity of measuring the intake of such products, particularly at pan-European level. Incorporating measures of the intake of botanicals in national dietary surveys would provide much-needed data for comprehensive risk and benefit assessments at the European level.

  11. Usage of Plant Food Supplements across Six European Countries: Findings from the PlantLIBRA Consumer Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Alvarez, Alicia; Egan, Bernadette; de Klein, Simone; Dima, Lorena; Maggi, Franco M.; Isoniemi, Merja; Ribas-Barba, Lourdes; Raats, Monique M.; Meissner, Eva Melanie; Badea, Mihaela; Bruno, Flavia; Salmenhaara, Maija; Milà-Villarroel, Raimon; Knaze, Viktoria; Hodgkins, Charo; Marculescu, Angela; Uusitalo, Liisa; Restani, Patrizia; Serra-Majem, Lluís

    2014-01-01

    Background The popularity of botanical products is on the rise in Europe, with consumers using them to complement their diets or to maintain health, and products are taken in many different forms (e.g. teas, juices, herbal medicinal products, plant food supplements (PFS)). However there is a scarcity of data on the usage of such products at European level. Objective To provide an overview of the characteristics and usage patterns of PFS consumers in six European countries. Design Data on PFS usage were collected in a cross-sectional, retrospective survey of PFS consumers using a bespoke frequency of PFS usage questionnaire. Subjects/setting A total sample of 2359 adult PFS consumers from Finland, Germany, Italy, Romania, Spain and the United Kingdom. Data analyses Descriptive analyses were conducted, with all data stratified by gender, age, and country. Absolute frequencies, percentages and 95% confidence intervals are reported. Results Overall, an estimated 18.8% of screened survey respondents used at least one PFS. Characteristics of PFS consumers included being older, well-educated, never having smoked and self-reporting health status as “good or very good”. Across countries, 491 different botanicals were identified in the PFS products used, with Ginkgo biloba (Ginkgo), Oenothera biennis (Evening primrose) and Cynara scolymus (Artichoke) being most frequently reported; the most popular dose forms were capsules and pills/tablets. Most consumers used one product and half of all users took single-botanical products. Some results varied across countries. Conclusions The PlantLIBRA consumer survey is unique in reporting on usage patterns of PFS consumers in six European countries. The survey highlights the complexity of measuring the intake of such products, particularly at pan-European level. Incorporating measures of the intake of botanicals in national dietary surveys would provide much-needed data for comprehensive risk and benefit assessments at the European

  12. Herbal medicinal products versus botanical-food supplements in the European market: state of art and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilia, Anna Rita

    2015-01-01

    Botanical products marketed in Europe are diverse, classified as herbal medicinal products, dietary supplements, cosmetics, foods and beverages depending on the relevant applicable legislation. Many factors are taken into account in the classification of a botanical product (e.g. intended use, labeling, preparations and dosages) according to how it is placed on the market. Herbal medicinal products (HMPs) can only be sold in pharmacies, under the supervision of a pharmacist, and are marketed after full or simplified registration procedures according to their classification, i.e. as over-the-counter drugs (OTC) available without special restrictions and prescription only medicine (POM), which must be prescribed by a licensed medical practitioner. The dietary supplement segment is also sold in the market in dose form (such as capsules, tablets, ampoules of liquids, drops etc) and represents 15-20% of the botanical market at the European level with high variability among each country (i.e. in Italy it reaches up to 80%). In many cases the distinction between medicinal products and food supplements has generated borderline botanical-sourced products, which generally produce confusion and mislead the consumers. As a consequence, there is an urgent need of consumer education and in addition to collect comprehensive data and make this database systematically available to herbalists, nutritionists and medical specialists for a proper classification and harmonization of the use of botanical ingredients, and, as consequence, a correct use of these products.

  13. Composition, labelling, and safety of food supplements based on bee products in the legislative framework of the European Union - Croatian experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vujić, Mario; Pollak, Lea

    2015-12-01

    The European Union market is overflown by food supplements and an increasing number of consumers prefer those where bee products play an important part in their composition. This paper deals with complex European Union legislation concerning food supplements based on bee products, placing a special emphasis on their composition, labelling, and safety. Correct labelling of food supplements also represents a great challenge since, in spite of legal regulations in force, there are still open issues regarding the statements on the amount of propolis, which is not clearly defined by the legal framework. One of the key issues are the labels containing health claims from the EU positive list approved by the European Food Safety Authority. Emphasis will also be placed on informing consumers about food, as statements which imply the healing properties of food supplements and their capacity to cure diseases are forbidden. One of the key elements of product safety is HACCP based on the EU Regulations EC 178/02 and 852/2004. Health safety analyses of food supplements with bee products used as raw materials, which are standardised by legal regulations will also be discussed. In the future, attention should also be paid to establishing the European Union "nutrivigilance" system. Croatian experiences in addressing challenges faced by producers, supervisory entities, and regulatory and inspection bodies may serve as an example to countries aspiring to become part of the large European family.

  14. Internal validity of a household food security scale is consistent among diverse populations participating in a food supplement program in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melgar-Quinonez Hugo

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective We assessed the validity of a locally adapted Colombian Household Food Security Scale (CHFSS used as a part of the 2006 evaluation of the food supplement component of the Plan for Improving Food and Nutrition in Antioquia, Colombia (MANA – Plan Departamental de Seguridad Alimentaria y Nutricional de Antioquia. Methods Subjects included low-income families with pre-school age children in MANA that responded affirmatively to at least one CHFSS item (n = 1,319. Rasch Modeling was used to evaluate the psychometric characteristics of the items through measure and INFIT values. Differences in CHFSS performance were assessed by area of residency, socioeconomic status and number of children enrolled in MANA. Unidimensionality of a scale by group was further assessed using Differential Item Functioning (DIF. Results Most CHFSS items presented good fitness with most INFIT values within the adequate range of 0.8 to 1.2. Consistency in item measure values between groups was found for all but two items in the comparison by area of residency. Only two adult items exhibited DIF between urban and rural households. Conclusion The results indicate that the adapted CHFSS is a valid tool to assess the household food security of participants in food assistance programs like MANA.

  15. Internal validity of a household food security scale is consistent among diverse populations participating in a food supplement program in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackett, Michelle; Melgar-Quinonez, Hugo; Uribe, Martha C Alvarez

    2008-05-23

    We assessed the validity of a locally adapted Colombian Household Food Security Scale (CHFSS) used as a part of the 2006 evaluation of the food supplement component of the Plan for Improving Food and Nutrition in Antioquia, Colombia (MANA - Plan Departamental de Seguridad Alimentaria y Nutricional de Antioquia). Subjects included low-income families with pre-school age children in MANA that responded affirmatively to at least one CHFSS item (n = 1,319). Rasch Modeling was used to evaluate the psychometric characteristics of the items through measure and INFIT values. Differences in CHFSS performance were assessed by area of residency, socioeconomic status and number of children enrolled in MANA. Unidimensionality of a scale by group was further assessed using Differential Item Functioning (DIF). Most CHFSS items presented good fitness with most INFIT values within the adequate range of 0.8 to 1.2. Consistency in item measure values between groups was found for all but two items in the comparison by area of residency. Only two adult items exhibited DIF between urban and rural households. The results indicate that the adapted CHFSS is a valid tool to assess the household food security of participants in food assistance programs like MANA.

  16. Food industry firms' economic incentives to provide nutritional information to the market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård; Ronit, Karsten

    2013-01-01

    Information asymmetries between producers and consumers exist with respect to nutritional characteristics of foods and beverages. This paper aims to analyze firms’ methods to supply nutritional information, focusing on three specific food industries: breakfast cereals, snacks and soft drinks...

  17. [Dietary training for school food service providers in support of the Acuerdo Nacional para la Salud Alimentaria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Dávila, Carolina; Rangel-Peniche, Diana Beatriz

    2015-01-01

    To address the problem of overweight and obesity in Mexico, in 2010 the Acuerdo Nacional para la Salud Alimentaria was published. At school level, food service providers were considered essential to comply with certain commitments. The goal of this intervention was to train school food service providers in school eating establishments (SEE) as to the criteria in the general guidelines for the sale and distribution of food in schools of basic education. 13 SEE in San Luis Potosi participated. Based on an initial diagnosis, a class-workshop of 5 sessions was designed. Knowledge regarding food was evaluated at the beginning and end of the sessions. The percentage of adherence regarding general hygiene and food preparation and distribution was obtained at the beginning, one month, and two months post-intervention. School food service providers had little knowledge on the objectives of the Acuerdo in food groups and combination, as well as reading labels; there were significant changes in the last two after intervention. The initial percentage of overall hygiene compliance was 60 %, with an increase of almost 20 % post-training. The preparation and distribution of food did not show significant changes. School food service providers acquired knowledge about the guidelines that a SEE comply with, without putting them into practice, given the economic impact that it implies.

  18. The Regulatory Framework Across International Jurisdictions for Risks Associated with Consumption of Botanical Food Supplements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Low, Teng Yong; Wong, Kwok Onn; Yap, Adelene L.L.; Haan, De Laura H.J.; Rietjens, Ivonne M.C.M.

    2017-01-01

    Dietary supplements, including those containing botanical ingredients and botanical-derived compounds, have been marketed to consumers globally for many decades. However, the legislative framework for such products remains inconsistent across jurisdictions internationally. This study aims to

  19. 78 FR 52899 - Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) Enhancing Retail Food Store Eligibility...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-27

    ... by marketing, inventory or sales) is not the sale of food, be eligible to participate in SNAP? 10. Restaurants are generally prohibited from being SNAP retailers, and hot foods cannot be purchased with SNAP...

  20. Fast derivatization of the non-protein amino acid ornithine with FITC using an ultrasound probe prior to enantiomeric determination in food supplements by EKC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez-Vega, Elena; Martínez-Girón, Ana Belén; García-Ruiz, Carmen; Crego, Antonio L; Marina, María Luisa

    2009-03-01

    An EKC method for the determination of ornithine (Orn) enantiomers has been developed after a fast pre-capillary derivatization with FITC. The derivatization step was needed to provide a chemical moiety to the Orn molecule, enabling a sensitive UV detection and the interaction with the CDs used as chiral selectors. To accelerate the derivatization reaction, an ultrasound probe was used. For the development of the chiral method, the influence of different experimental conditions (type and concentration of the chiral selector, temperature, and separation voltage) was investigated. Due to the anionic nature of the analyte (FITC-Orn), five neutral CDs were employed as chiral selectors. The native gamma-CD showed the highest chiral separation power, observing that a low concentration of this CD (1 mM), using a working temperature of 25 degrees C and a separation voltage of 20 kV, enabled to obtain the highest enantioresolution for Orn and its separation from other amino acids usually present in food supplements. After optimizing the method for the preconditioning of the capillary, the analytical characteristics of the chiral method were established. Linearity, LOD and LOQ, precision, and accuracy were evaluated previously to the determination of Orn enantiomers contained in ten commercial food supplements. No interferences from other amino acids present in these samples were observed.

  1. The safety assessment of Pythium irregulare as a producer of biomass and eicosapentaenoic acid for use in dietary supplements and food ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lei; Roe, Charles L; Wen, Zhiyou

    2013-09-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6, n-3), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5, n-3), and arachidonic acid (ARA, 20:4 n-6), have multiple beneficial effects on human health and can be used as an important ingredient in dietary supplements, food, feed and pharmaceuticals. A variety of microorganisms has been used for commercial production of these fatty acids. The microorganisms in the Pythium family, particularly Pythium irregulare, are potential EPA producers. The aim of this work is to provide a safety assessment of P. irregulare so that the EPA derived from this species can be potentially used in various commercial applications. The genus Pythium has been widely recognized as a plant pathogen by infecting roots and colonizing the vascular tissues of various plants such as soybeans, corn and various vegetables. However, the majority of the Pythium species (including P. irregulare) have not been reported to infect mammals including humans. The only species among the Pythium family that infects mammals is P. insidiosum. There also have been no reports showing P. irregulare to contain mycotoxins or cause potentially allergenic responses in humans. Based on the safety assessment, we conclude that P. irregulare can be considered a safe source of biomass and EPA-containing oil for use as ingredients in dietary supplements, food, feed and pharmaceuticals.

  2. Evaluation of various types of supplemental food for two species of predatory mites, Amblyseius swirskii and Neoseiulus cucumeris (Acari: Phytoseiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delisle, J F; Brodeur, J; Shipp, L

    2015-04-01

    Although phytoseiids are best known as predators of phytophagous mites and other small arthropods, several species can also feed and reproduce on pollen. In laboratory assays, we assessed the profitability of two types of dietary supplements (three pollen species-cattail, maize and apple-and eggs of the Mediterranean flour moth, Ephestia kuehniella) for the two species of predatory mites most commonly used as biocontrol agents in horticulture in Canada, Neoseiulus cucumeris and Amblyseius swirskii. We measured the effects of each diet on phytoseiid fitness parameters (survival, development, sex ratio, fecundity) and, as a means of comparison, when fed larvae of the common targeted pest species, western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis. A soluble protein assay was also performed on the alternative food sources as protein content is often linked to high nutritive value according to the literature. All food sources tested were suitable for N. cucumeris and A. swirskii, both species being able to develop from egg to adult. The dietary supplements had a beneficial impact on biological parameters, mostly resulting in shorter development times and higher survival rates when compared to thrips larvae. Amblyseius swirskii exhibited a wider dietary range than N. cucumeris. Overall, flour moth eggs, cattail pollen and apple pollen are food sources of equal quality for A. swirskii, whereas apple and cattail pollen are better when it comes to N. cucumeris. In contrast, maize pollen is a less suitable food source for N. cucumeris and A. swirskii. Soluble protein content results did not match the prediction under which the most beneficial food source would contain the highest concentration in protein.

  3. [Whether the advertisement of dietary supplements is objective source of data about their impact on health? Analysis of broadcasting advertisements in the terms of the food law].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierzejska, Regina

    2016-01-01

    Dietary supplements are intensively advertised in the media. Due to their form analogous to drugs many people don't notice differences between them, although it is fundamental. The dietary supplement, as the category of food don't have medicinal properties and suggesting such properties by producers is forbidden. The aim of this study was analysis of advertisements of dietary supplements, transmitted in the media in accordance with the law requirements, especially with the conditions of nutrition and health claims established in 2012. Advertisements of dietary supplements, transmitted in the period of one week (17-23 of September 2014 r.) into 5 radio and television channels. In the analysed period commercials of 27 assortments of the dietary supplement were being transmitted. Advertisements of 23 of them declared improvement the action of organs or concentration of biochemical indicators in the body. The strength of declarations about the benefits of action of dietary supplements was diversified, from expressions such as "support" to "treat" and "prevent". In some advertisements the authority of medical profession was being used. Moreover many advertisements emphasized the unique and comprehensive active ingredients of dietary supplement on the market. Advertisements of dietary supplements promise beneficial effect to the human body. In spite of more and more detailed legal requirements many of them are going beyond conditions established for food. It can cause incorrect opinion about the role of dietary supplements in curing medical disorders.

  4. Labeled extra virgin olive oil as food supplement; phenolic compounds in oils from some autochthonous Croatian olives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakobušić Brala, C.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Within the framework of an incentive to provide labeled extra virgin olive oils as a food supplement in pharmacies, the phenolic profile analysis of extra virgin olive oils obtained from Croatian olive cultivars has been reported. With the aim of increasing the consumption of EVOO-s in northern Croatia, the varieties Bjelica, Buža and Italian Leccino have been studied involving two different agroclimatic locations, over two harvest years differing significantly in the amount of rainfall. The Croatian cultivars Plominka, Žižolera, Oblica and Lastovka, were also examined. Correlation tests and the insight from PCA reveal that the cultivars are highly individualized in character with regard to relationships among phenolic compounds. Some elements of an innovative labeling aimed to better present the authenticity, quality, excellence and uniqueness of the EVOO-s were suggested.En el marco de los incentivos que se han considerado para proporcionar el etiquetado de aceites de oliva virgen extra como suplemento alimenticio en farmacias, se reporta el análisis del perfil fenólico de aceites de oliva vírgenes extra obtenidos a partir de variedades croatas. Para ampliar el consumo de AOVE-s en el norte de Croacia, se han estudiado las variedades Bjelica, Buža y Leccino italiana procedentes de dos lugares agroclimáticos diferentes que difieren significativamente en la cantidad de lluvia y obtenidos en dos cosechas. Tambien fueron examinados los cultivares croatas Plominka, Žižolera, Oblica y Lastovka. Los test de correlación y los resultados de PCA revelan que las variedades están altamente individualizados en su carácter en lo que respecta a las relaciones entre los compuestos fenólicos. Se sugirieron algunos elementos innovadores para un etiquetado dirigido a presentar mejor la autenticidad, la calidad, la excelencia y la singularidad de los AOVE-s.

  5. ENHANCED ANAEROBIC DIGESTION OF FOOD WASTE BY SUPPLEMENTING TRACE ELEMENTS: ROLE OF SELENIUM (VI AND IRON (II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javkhlan eAriunbaatar

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the potential to enhance the anaerobic digestion of food waste FW by supplementing trace elements (Fe, Co, Ni, Zn, Mn, Cu, Se, and Mo individually as well as in cocktails. A series of batch experiments on the biomethane potential of synthetic food waste were performed with low (FW-A and high (FW-B trace element background concentrations prepared in, respectively, Delft (The Netherlands and Tampa (Florida, USA. The most effective trace elements for FW-A were Fe with an increase of 39.2 (± 0.6 % of biomethane production, followed by Se (34.1 ± 5.6 % increase, Ni (26.4 ± 0.2 % increase and Co (23.8 ± 0.2 % increase. For FW-B supplementing these trace elements did not result in enhancement of the biomethane production, except for Se. FW-B had a Se concentration of 1.3 (± 0. 5 µg/gTS, while it was below the detection limit for FW-A. Regardless of the FW source, Se resulted in 30 – 35% increase of biomethane production at a concentration range of 25-50 µg/L (0.32 – 0.63 µM. Volatile fatty acids analysis revealed that TE supplementation enhances their consumption, thus yielding a higher biomethane production. Moreover, additional experiments on sulfide inhibition showed the enhancing effects of trace elements on the anaerobic digestion of food waste were not related with sulfide toxicity, but with the enzymatic reactions and/or microbial biomass aggregation.

  6. Higher Absorption of Vitamin C from Food than from Supplements by Breastfeeding Mothers at Early Stages of Lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martysiak-Żurowska, Dorota; Zagierski, Maciej; Woś-Wasilewska, Ewa; Szlagatys-Sidorkiewicz, Agnieszka

    2017-12-08

    The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of vitamin C supply in the diet of lactating women on vitamin C concentrations in human milk (n = 97) sampled at different stages of lactation. Vitamin C levels were measured by liquid chromatography. Dietary intake of vitamin C was determined based on 3-day food dairies kept by breastfeeding mothers. Maternal dietary intakes of vitamin C from natural sources on lactation day 90 (n = 18) were significantly higher than on lactation days 15 (n = 42) and 30 (n = 37). The number of women taking vitamin C supplements decreased in successive stages of lactation. The average daily intake of vitamin C was estimated at 119 mg, but nearly 20% of mothers consumed less than 50 mg of vitamin C per day. No significant correlations were observed between lactation stage and vitamin C levels in breast milk (r = 0.110, p = 0.064). The average vitamin C concentrations in human breast milk were determined at 50.9 mg / L, and were not higher than 80.6 mg / L regardless of lactation stage and maternal intake of vitamin C. Vitamin C excretion into breast milk is regulated to prevent exceeding saturation level. The vitamin C concentration in milk was positive correlated with maternal intake of vitamin C from food, in the case of non-supplemented diet (r = 0.402, p = 0.041). Our results suggest that vitamin C occurring in food is much better absorbed and passes into breast milk than vitamin C from supplements.

  7. ABSORPTION AND BIOAVAILABILITY OF THE MINERALS IN THE MULTI-MIXTURE FOOD SUPPLEMENT: BIOLOGICAL ASSAY IN RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. HELBIG

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available

    The absorption and bioavailability of the minerals Ca, Fe and Zn in balanced and mineral restricted diets with the addition of the food supplement multi-mixture (MM, was evaluated. A biological assay was carried out for 28 days with recently weaned Wistar rats, using 3 treatments and 8 animals in each group. The diets offered to each group were distributed as follows: CD – Control Diet (AIN-93G; CcD/MM – Control Diet + Supplement 5% MM; DRMIXc/MM – Control Diet with Mineral Restricted + Supplement 5% MM. The animals were monitored for weight; amount of diet consumed and amount of faeces excreted. They were sacrifi ced at the end of the experimental period and the pair of femurs, pancreas and liver removed for the determination of Ca, Fe and Zn. The CcD/MM diet presented absorption of Ca and Fe and bioavailability of Ca, Fe and Zn equal to that of CD, showing no statistical difference between the treatments. However the DRMIXcD/MM diet presented an increase in Ca absorption, equal absorption of Fe and an increase in the bioavailability of Ca, Fe and Zn when compared to CD. It was concluded that when fed on a balanced diet supplemented with 5% MM, there was no increase in the bioavailability of Ca, Fe or Zn, whereas when fed on a mineral defi cient diet, the group of animals that received supplementation with 5% MM, presented greater absorption and bioavailability of these minerals.

  8. ePlantLIBRA: A composition and biological activity database for bioactive compounds in plant food supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plumb, J; Lyons, J; Nørby, K; Thomas, M; Nørby, E; Poms, R; Bucchini, L; Restani, P; Kiely, M; Finglas, P

    2016-02-15

    The newly developed ePlantLIBRA database is a comprehensive and searchable database, with up-to-date coherent and validated scientific information on plant food supplement (PFS) bioactive compounds, with putative health benefits as well as adverse effects, and contaminants and residues. It is the only web-based database available compiling peer reviewed publications and case studies on PFS. A user-friendly, efficient and flexible interface has been developed for searching, extracting, and exporting the data, including links to the original references. Data from over 570 publications have been quality evaluated and entered covering 70 PFS or their botanical ingredients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A rapid HPLC column switching method for sample preparation and determination of β-carotene in food supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brabcová, Ivana; Hlaváčková, Markéta; Satínský, Dalibor; Solich, Petr

    2013-11-15

    A simple and automated HPLC column-switching method with rapid sample pretreatment has been developed for quantitative determination of β-carotene in food supplements. Commercially samples of food supplements were dissolved in chloroform with help of saponification with 1M solution of sodium hydroxide in ultrasound bath. A 20-min sample dissolution/extraction step was necessary before chromatography analysis to transfer β-carotene from solid state of food supplements preparations (capsules,tablets) to chloroform solution. Sample volume - 3μL of chloroform phase was directly injected into the HPLC system. Next on-line sample clean-up was achieved on the pretreatment precolumn Chromolith Guard Cartridge RP-18e (Merck), 10×4.6mm, with a washing mobile phase (methanol:water, 92:8, (v/v)) at a flow rate of 1.5mL/min. Valve switch to analytical column was set at 2.5min in a back-flush mode. After column switching to the analytical column Ascentis Express C-18, 30×4.6mm, particle size 2.7μm (Sigma Aldrich), the separation and determination of β-carotene in food supplements was performed using a mobile phase consisting of 100% methanol, column temperature at 60°C and flow rate 1.5mL/min. The detector was set at 450nm. Under the optimum chromatographic conditions standard calibration curve was measured with good linearity - correlation coefficient for β-carotene (r(2)=0.999014; n=6) between the peak areas and concentration of β-carotene 20-200μg/mL. Accuracy of the method defined as a mean recovery was in the range 96.66-102.40%. The intraday method precision was satisfactory at three concentration levels 20, 125 and 200μg/mL and relative standard deviations were in the range 0.90-1.02%. The chromatography method has shown high sample throughput during column-switching pretreatment process and analysis in one step in short time (6min) of the whole chromatographic analysis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of supplemental protein provided to postpartum beef cows in liquid or cube form on metabolic, endocrine and reproductive functions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kane, K.K; Schafer, T.P; Harris, J.M; Hallford, D.M; Remmenga, M.D; Hawkins, D.E

    2001-01-01

    Metabolic, endocrine and reproductive functions in postpartum beef cows, supplemented with protein supplied as range cubes or liquid, were evaluated. Angus cows (n = 60; 2 to 8 yr; mean BCS 4.6 [+ or -] 0.1...

  11. Statement on the risks for human health related to the presence of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in honey, tea, herbal infusions and food supplements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Annette

    day to assess the carcinogenic risks of PAs, and concluded that there is a possible concern for human health related to the exposure to PAs, in particular for frequent and high consumers of tea and herbal infusions. The Panel noted that consumption of food supplements based on PA-producing plants......EFSA was asked by the European Commission to deliver a scientific opinion on the risks for human health related to the presence of pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) in honey, tea, herbal infusions and food supplements and to identify the PAs of relevance in the aforementioned food commodities...... and in other feed and food. PAs are a large group of toxins produced by different plant species. In 2011, the EFSA Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM Panel) assessed the risks related to the presence of PAs in food and feed. Based on occurrence data limited to honey, the CONTAM Panel concluded...

  12. Economic and environmental analysis of four different configurations of anaerobic digestion for food waste to energy conversion using LCA for: a food service provider case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franchetti, Matthew

    2013-07-15

    The US disposes of more than 34 million tons of food waste in landfills per year. As this food waste decomposes it generates methane gas and negatively contributes to global warming. Diverting theses organic food wastes from landfills and to emerging technologies will prevent these wastes and greenhouse gas emissions while at the same time generating a source renewable energy by collecting the emitted gases. From a waste prevention standpoint, instead of the food waste decomposing at local landfills, it is being converted into an energy source and the by-product may be used as a fertilizer (Fine and Hadas, 2012). The purpose of this study was to compare four different configurations of anaerobic digestion of organic waste to energy technologies from an economic, energy, and emissions standpoint using LCA via a case study at a large food services provider in Northwest Ohio, USA. The technologies studied included two-stage anaerobic digestion system using ultrasound pre-treating, two stage continuous combined thermophilic acidogenic hydrogenesis and mesophilic with recirculation of the digested sludge, long-term anaerobic digestion of food waste stabilized by trace elements, and single stage anaerobic digestion. Using LCA, these scenarios were compared to landfill disposal of the food waste. The findings from the case study indicated that implementing on-site waste to energy systems will result in lower operation costs and lower environmental impacts. In addition, a standardized environmental and economic comparison of competing food waste to energy technologies is provided. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Responsive feeding and child interest in food vary when rural Malawian children are fed lipid-based nutrient supplements or local complementary food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flax, Valerie L; Mäkinen, Samppa; Ashorn, Ulla; Cheung, Yin Bun; Maleta, Kenneth; Ashorn, Per; Bentley, Margaret E

    2013-07-01

    Caregiver and child behaviours during feeding have been used to measure responsiveness, which has been recognised as important for child growth and development. The aims of this study were to understand how caregiver and child behaviours differ when feeding lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS) vs. local complementary food and to detect associations between behaviours and child interest in food. Sixteen moderately underweight 6-17-month-old Malawian children receiving 50 g/day of supplementary LNS for 12 weeks were videotaped during LNS (n = 32) and local complementary feeding (n = 28) episodes. Behaviours were coded at the level of the intended bite (1674 total bites). The analysis used regression models adjusted for within-subject correlation. Caregivers were less likely to allow children to self-feed and more likely to use physical pressure during LNS vs. complementary food bites. Positive caregiver verbalization was infrequent and did not differ by type of food. Higher odds of accepting a bite were associated with the bite containing LNS, odds ratio (OR) 3.05; 90% confidence interval (CI) (1.98, 4.71), the child self-feeding, OR 5.70; 90% CI (2.77, 11.69), and positive caregiver verbalization, OR 2.46; 90% CI (1.26, 4.80), while lower odds of acceptance were associated with negative child verbalization during feeding, OR 0.27; 90% CI (0.17, 0.42). In this sample, caregivers used more responsive feeding practices during bites of local complementary food and were more controlling when feeding LNS. Responsive caregiver behaviours predicted child acceptance of food. These results could be used to design interventions in Malawi to improve responsive feeding practices in general and during LNS use. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Bioaccessibility of vitamin A, vitamin C and folic acid from dietary supplements, fortified food and infant formula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandon, E F A; Bakker, M I; Kramer, E; Bouwmeester, H; Zuidema, T; Alewijn, M

    2014-06-01

    In the Netherlands, vitamin intake occurs mainly via food and for some vitamins also via fortified food. In addition, some people take dietary supplements. Information on the bioavailability of vitamins is important for a good estimation of the actual exposure to vitamins. Furthermore, for a reliable intake estimation, it is important to know the accurateness of the claimed vitamin concentration on the product label. In the current study, the amount of vitamin A, vitamin C, and folic acid in different products and their maximum bioavailability (bioaccessibility) were investigated. In about half of the products, the amount of vitamins significantly deviated from the declared amounts. The vitamin bioaccessibility ranged from vitamins, it is important to take into account both the possible deviation from the declared level and (the variability of) the bioaccessibility of the vitamin in the products.

  15. Oral intake of added titanium dioxide and its nanofraction from food products, food supplements and toothpaste by the Dutch population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rompelberg, Cathy; Heringa, Minne B.; Donkersgoed, van Gerda; Drijvers, José; Roos, Agnes; Westenbrink, Susanne; Peters, R.J.B.; Bemmel, van M.E.M.; Brand, Walter; Oomen, Agnes G.

    2016-01-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is commonly applied to enhance the white colour and brightness of food products. TiO2 is also used as white pigment in other products such as toothpaste. A small fraction of the pigment is known to be present as nanoparticles (NPs). Recent studies with TiO2 NPs indicate that

  16. Oral intake of added titanium dioxide and its nanofraction from food products, food supplements and toothpaste by the Dutch population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rompelberg, Cathy; Heringa, Minne B.; Donkersgoed, van Gerda; Drijvers, José; Roos, Agnes; Westenbrink, Susanne; Peters, Ruud; Bemmel, van Greet; Brand, Walter; Oomen, Agnes G.

    2016-01-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is commonly applied to enhance the white colour and brightness of food products. TiO2 is also used as white pigment in other products such as toothpaste. A small fraction of the pigment is known to be present as nanoparticles (NPs). Recent studies

  17. Anthocyanidin pigments in clinical ophthalmology. Analysis of their profile in eye supplements and food additives containing bilberry extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. B. Gottikh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, several eye nutritional supplements and food additives with bilberry extract are approved in Russia. Bilberry effects directly depend on anthocyanidin content. Hence, the expertise of nutritional supplements and food additives with bilberry extract is required to determine their qualitative and quantitative composition. Aim. To determine qualitative and quantitative content of bilberry anthocyanidin pigments in food additives. Materials and methods. Anthocyanidins from five samples were extracted with distilled water per anthocyanidin content. The samples were obtained by the dilution of a pill or capsule in 50 mL of water. Extraction was performed under continuous mixing on hot shaker. 1 mL aliquots were taken from the solutions, centrifuged for 10 min at 14,000 rpm, and filtered through syringe filters. Total level (i.e., quantitative and qualitative content of bilberry anthocyanidin pigments in five samples was evaluated using UV spectroscopy. Experiment was performed twice for each sample. Qualitative content of anthocyanidin pigments was evaluated using reversed-phase HPLC. Results. All examined samples contain anthocyanidin pigments from bilberry extracts but no other natural sources. Their quantity which was measured by pH differential spectrophotometry varies greatly (from 0.168% to 8.30% and may significantly differ from that of declared by manufacturer. This is due to phytogenic raw material and difficulties in standardization of active component content. Conclusions. The data obtained optimize dosing of food additives with bilberry extract by clinicians and patients considering individual tolerance, needs, and disease severity. 

  18. Conventional foods, followed by dietary supplements and fortified foods, are the key sources of vitamin D, vitamin B6, and selenium intake in Dutch participants of the NU-AGE study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berendsen, Agnes A.M.; Lieshout, van Lilou E.L.M.; Heuvel, van den Ellen G.H.M.; Matthys, Christophe; Péter, Szabolcs; Groot, de Lisette C.P.G.M.

    2016-01-01

    With aging, energy needs decrease, necessitating a more nutrient-dense diet to meet nutritional needs. To bridge this gap, the use of nutrient-dense foods, fortified foods, and dietary supplements can be important. This observational study aims to describe current micronutrient intakes of Dutch

  19. Effects of protein and omega-3 supplementation, provided during regular dialysis sessions, on nutritional and inflammatory indices in hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daud, Zulfitri A Mat; Tubie, Boniface; Adams, Judy; Quainton, Tracey; Osia, Robert; Tubie, Sharon; Kaur, Deepinder; Khosla, Pramod; Sheyman, Marina

    2012-01-01

    Malnutrition and chronic inflammation in dialysis patients negatively impacts prognosis. However, intervening to correct this problem (through nutritional supplementation) is often hampered by poor compliance due to both medical and socioeconomic barriers. We have therefore performed a pilot study to investigate the technical feasibility of "directly observed treatment" of nutritional supplementation (protein and omega-3 fatty acids), administered during regular dialysis sessions. Secondary end points included observation of nutritional and inflammatory status of hypoalbuminemic patients undergoing hemodialysis. Main inclusion criteria were serum albumin ≤ 3.9 g/dL (3 months prior to the study). Sixty-three eligible patients agreed to participate. Two intervention groups received 30 mL of a liquid protein supplement plus either 2.4 g omega-3 (1800 mg eicosapentaenoic acid + 600 mg docosahexaenoic acid) or a placebo, three times per week after their routine dialysis session for 6 months. Serum albumin, plasma lipids, and other indicators of nutritional and inflammatory status were measured. Directly observed nutritional supplementation resulted in a significant improvement in the low density lipoprotein cholesterol/high density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio in the omega-3 group as compared to the placebo group (P = 0.043). For the omega-3 group, serum albumin was also marginally higher after 6 months as compared to baseline (P = 0.07). The observed increase in C-reactive protein in the placebo group over 6 months was not apparent in the omega-3 group, although there was no significant difference between groups. Nuclear factor kappa B, malnutrition-inflammation score, normalized protein nitrogen appearance, body mass index, and hemoglobin were unaffected by the intervention. "Directly observed treatment" with an omega-3 based supplement (as opposed to a pure protein supplement) showed beneficial effects on the lipid profile, and C-reactive protein levels. Further

  20. A Review of Dietary Supplement Adverse Event Report Data From the FDA Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition Adverse Event Reporting System (CAERS), 2004-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timbo, Babgaleh B; Chirtel, Stuart J; Ihrie, John; Oladipo, Taiye; Velez-Suarez, Loy; Brewer, Vickery; Mozersky, Robert

    2017-11-01

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA)'s Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN) oversees the safety of the nation's foods, dietary supplements, and cosmetic products. To present a descriptive analysis of the 2004-2013 dietary supplement adverse event report (AER) data from CAERS and evaluate the 2006 Dietary Supplements and Nonprescription Drug Consumer Protection Act as pertaining to dietary supplements adverse events reporting. We queried CAERS for data from the 2004-2013 AERs specifying at least 1 suspected dietary supplement product. We extracted the product name(s), the symptom(s) reported, age, sex, and serious adverse event outcomes. We examined time trends for mandatory and voluntary reporting and performed analysis using SAS v9.4 and R v3.3.0 software. Of the total AERs (n = 15 430) received from January 1, 2004, through December 31, 2013, indicating at least 1 suspected dietary supplement product, 66.9% were mandatory, 32.2% were voluntary, and 0.9% were both mandatory and voluntary. Reported serious outcomes included death, life-threatening conditions, hospitalizations, congenital anomalies/birth defects and events requiring interventions to prevent permanent impairments (5.1%). The dietary supplement adverse event reporting rate in the United States was estimated at ~2% based on CAERS data. This study characterizes CAERS dietary supplement adverse event data for the 2004-2013 eriod and estimates a reporting rate of 2% for dietary supplement adverse events based on CAERS data. The findings show that the 2006 Dietary Supplements and Nonprescription Drug Consumer Protection Act had a substantial impact on the reporting of adverse events.

  1. A Clinical Trial about a Food Supplement Containing α-Lipoic Acid on Oxidative Stress Markers in Type 2 Diabetic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Derosa

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a food supplement containing α-lipoic acid and of a placebo on glyco-metabolic control and on oxidative stress markers in type 2 diabetics. We randomized 105 diabetics to either a supplementation containing 600 mg of α-lipoic acid, 165 mg of L-carnosin, 7.5 mg of zinc, and vitamins of group B, or a placebo, for three months. We evaluated body mass index, fasting plasma glucose (FPG, post-prandial-glucose (PPG, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c, fasting plasma insulin (FPI, HOMA-index (HOMA-IR, lipid profile, high sensitivity C-reactive protein (Hs-CRP, superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px, malondialdehyde (MDA. There was a reduction of FPG, PPG, and HbA1c with the food supplement containing α-lipoic acid compared with a baseline, and with the placebo. Concerning lipid profile, we observed a reduction of LDL-C, and Tg with the food supplement, compared with both the baseline, and the placebo. There was a reduction of Hs-CRP with the food supplement containing α-lipoic acid, both compared with the baseline and the placebo. An increase of SOD, and GSH-Px, and a decrease of MDA were reached by the food supplement containing α-lipoic acid, both compared with the baseline and the placebo. We can conclude that the food supplement containing α-lipoic acid, L-carnosin, zinc, and vitamins of group B improved glycemic control, lipid profile, and anti-oxidative stress markers.

  2. A Clinical Trial about a Food Supplement Containing α-Lipoic Acid on Oxidative Stress Markers in Type 2 Diabetic Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derosa, Giuseppe; D'Angelo, Angela; Romano, Davide; Maffioli, Pamela

    2016-10-28

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a food supplement containing α-lipoic acid and of a placebo on glyco-metabolic control and on oxidative stress markers in type 2 diabetics. We randomized 105 diabetics to either a supplementation containing 600 mg of α-lipoic acid, 165 mg of L-carnosin, 7.5 mg of zinc, and vitamins of group B, or a placebo, for three months. We evaluated body mass index, fasting plasma glucose (FPG), post-prandial-glucose (PPG), glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), fasting plasma insulin (FPI), HOMA-index (HOMA-IR), lipid profile, high sensitivity C-reactive protein (Hs-CRP), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), malondialdehyde (MDA). There was a reduction of FPG, PPG, and HbA1c with the food supplement containing α-lipoic acid compared with a baseline, and with the placebo. Concerning lipid profile, we observed a reduction of LDL-C, and Tg with the food supplement, compared with both the baseline, and the placebo. There was a reduction of Hs-CRP with the food supplement containing α-lipoic acid, both compared with the baseline and the placebo. An increase of SOD, and GSH-Px, and a decrease of MDA were reached by the food supplement containing α-lipoic acid, both compared with the baseline and the placebo. We can conclude that the food supplement containing α-lipoic acid, L-carnosin, zinc, and vitamins of group B improved glycemic control, lipid profile, and anti-oxidative stress markers.

  3. Does organic school food service provide more healthy eating environments than their non organic counterparts?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Chen; Mikkelsen, Bent Egberg

    Organic food strategies are increasingly developing within European school food services at the same time as these services are being involved in measures aiming at promoting healthy eating at school and counter acting obesity. Schools have an important role to play in teaching children fundamental...... life skills, including good food habits according to a number of authoritative policy papers from Council of Europe, the WHO and the EU platform. Although there are great national differences, European school food culture seems to be in a transitional state in which both healthy eating as well...... as sustainable consumption strategies are contributing to shaping the future school food culture. It is therefore imperative to study how these changes in agendas influences each other and to study the associations between healthy eating and organic supply strategies at school....

  4. Effects of Trang Phuc Linh Plus-Food Supplement on Irritable Bowel Syndrome Induced by Mustard Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thong T; Dau, Duong T; Nguyen, Dung C; Nguyen, Huong T T G; Ngo, Phuong T B; Nguyen, Thai Q; Han, Bo; Hoang, Ba X

    2017-04-01

    Trang phuc linh plus (TPLP) is a food supplement product derived from dried extracts of herbal agents Atractylodes macrocephala, Poria cocos, Paeonia lactiflora, Phellodendron amurense, and added lactobacillus fermentum lysate (ImmuneGamma®) and 5-hydroxytryptophan. TPLP is a functional food used as adjunctive treatment for treating irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). However the biological effect and its mechanism of action in IBS have not been elucidated. In this study, we aimed to determine the pharmacological activities and mode of action of TPLP on IBS animal models. Mice were given a single administration of 5% mustard oil (MO) intracollonically. Acute colitis induction by MO resulted in later development of an IBS-like accelerated upper gastrointestinal transit in mice. Mice were treated with different does of TPLP and controls. Results showed that TPLP at the dose of 654 mg/kg/day given orally significantly decreased intestinal motility (IM) compared with the control animals. The effect was similar to Duspatalin (80 mg/kg/day) (Mebeverine Hydrochloride, an antispasmodic that helps to relieve the pain and discomfort associated with gastrointestinal spasms). Increased TPLP dose (1962 mg/kg/day) had a better effect on relief of IM than Duspatalin (80 mg/kg/day). TPLP also reduced peristalsis frequency and decreased fluid volume and electrolytes excretion in intestine tested in ex vivo models. Overall, TPLP may be an effective nutraceutical supplement for IBS.

  5. Food-grade argan oil supplementation in molasses enhances fermentative performance and antioxidant defenses of active dry wine yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamero-Sandemetrio, Esther; Torrellas, Max; Rábena, María Teresa; Gómez-Pastor, Rocío; Aranda, Agustín; Matallana, Emilia

    2015-12-01

    The tolerance of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to desiccation is important for the use of this microorganism in the wine industry, since active dry yeast (ADY) is routinely used as starter for must fermentations. Both biomass propagation and dehydration cause cellular oxidative stress, therefore negatively affecting yeast performance. Protective treatments against oxidative damage, such as natural antioxidants, may have important biotechnological implications. In this study we analysed the antioxidant capacity of pure chemical compounds (quercetin, ascorbic acid, caffeic acid, oleic acid, and glutathione) added to molasses during biomass propagation, and we determine several oxidative damage/response parameters (lipid peroxidation, protein carbonylation, protective metabolites and enzymatic activities) to assess their molecular effects. Supplementation with ascorbic, caffeic or oleic acids diminished the oxidative damage associated to ADY production. Based on these results, we tested supplementation of molasses with argan oil, a natural food-grade ingredient rich in these three antioxidants, and we showed that it improved both biomass yield and fermentative performance of ADY. Therefore, we propose the use of natural, food-grade antioxidant ingredients, such as argan oil, in industrial processes involving high cellular oxidative stress, such as the biotechnological production of the dry starter.

  6. Nutritional parameters and production of calves on pasture supplemented with different sources of protein foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Contreras Marquez

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of multiple supplements with different protein sources on the performance, intake, nutrient digestibility, and microbial protein production efficiency of lactating beef heifers under grazing. The experiment was carried out during the period of transition from water-dry (February to July, 2012 using four paddocks with average of 4.5 ha. Twenty four lactating beef heifers with initial body weight of 113 kg and 3 month old, were used. The treatments were: mineral mixed (MM ad libitum, soybean meal (SM, cottonseed meal 38% crude protein (CM, and combination of SM and CM (SMCM. There was not observed effect (P>0.10 of different protein sources on average daily gain (ADG between the animals that received multiple supplement as well as difference was not verified for ADG between the multiple supplements and MM. Therefore, cottonseed meal can replace soybean meal or can be used in association to the soybean meal on multiple supplements for lactating beef heifers

  7. Fish oil versus arachis oil food supplementation in relation to pregnancy duration in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, S.F.; Hansen, Harald S.; Jensen, B.

    1990-01-01

    Throughout pregnancy, Lewis rats were fed standard rat chow supplemented with 15% (w/w) of either MaxEPA fish oil (FO) or arachis oil (AO); a third group was fed standard rat chow only (St) (n = 15, 15, and 16 rats, respectively). Compared to AO-rats, FO-rats had substantially higher levels of n-3...

  8. Foods, Fortificants, and Supplements: Where Do Americans Get Their Nutrients?123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulgoni, Victor L.; Keast, Debra R.; Bailey, Regan L.; Dwyer, Johanna

    2011-01-01

    Limited data are available on the source of usual nutrient intakes in the United States. This analysis aimed to assess contributions of micronutrients to usual intakes derived from all sources (naturally occurring, fortified and enriched, and dietary supplements) and to compare usual intakes to the Dietary Reference Intake for U.S. residents aged ≥2 y according to NHANES 2003–2006 (n = 16,110). We used the National Cancer Institute method to assess usual intakes of 19 micronutrients by source. Only a small percentage of the population had total usual intakes (from dietary intakes and supplements) below the estimated average requirement (EAR) for the following: vitamin B-6 (8%), folate (8%), zinc (8%), thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B-12, phosphorus, iron, copper, and selenium (supplements further reduced the percentage of the population consuming less than the EAR for all nutrients. The percentage of the population with total intakes greater than the tolerable upper intake level (UL) was very low for most nutrients, whereas 10.3 and 8.4% of the population had intakes greater than the UL for niacin and zinc, respectively. Without enrichment and/or fortification and supplementation, many Americans did not achieve the recommended micronutrient intake levels set forth in the Dietary Reference Intake. PMID:21865568

  9. Apple pollen as a supplemental food source for the control of western flower thrips by two predatory mites, Amblyseius swirskii and Neoseiulus cucumeris (Acari: Phytoseiidae), on potted chrysanthemum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delisle, J F; Shipp, L; Brodeur, J

    2015-04-01

    It has been shown that pollen as a dietary supplement may increase the establishment (development and reproduction) and survival of phytoseiid predatory mites, and therefore the pest control these mites can provide. In this study, the role of apple pollen as a supplemental food source was assessed as a means to increase the efficiency of two predatory mite species, Neoseiulus cucumeris and Amblyseius swirskii, for control of western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis, under greenhouse conditions. The impact of apple pollen on thrips populations and predator establishment on a greenhouse chrysanthemum crop was determined over a 4-week period. The two mite species were released separately and in combination with and without pollen with two control treatments (thrips only and thrips + pollen). The introduction of A. swirskii together with pollen application provided the best control of thrips (adults and immatures). The establishment of N. cucumeris was very low in the crop during the greenhouse trial. This could be attributable, in part, to their response to extreme temperature ranges that were encountered during the greenhouse cage trials. The use of A. swirskii alone and the mixed population of the two predatory mite species without pollen resulted in the lowest frequencies of plants with heavy damage, followed by the same treatments with the addition of apple pollen.

  10. If hospital nurses are to lose weight, the NHS needs to provide more food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Bridget

    2014-08-26

    The focus on food in hospitals is invariably on the patients. So it is good to read that NHS England chief executive Simon Stevens is concerned by rising obesity rates and the health of his employees (Analysis August 13).

  11. Does Adaptation to Climate Change Provide Food Security? A Micro-Perspective from Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Salvatore Di Falco; Marcella Veronesi; Mahmud Yesuf

    2011-01-01

    We examine the driving forces behind farm households' decisions to adapt to climate change, and the impact of adaptation on farm households' food productivity. We estimate a simultaneous equations model with endogenous switching to account for the heterogeneity in the decision to adapt or not, and for unobservable characteristics of farmers and their farm. Access to credit, extension and information are found to be the main drivers behind adaptation. We find that adaptation increases food pro...

  12. Positive effect of protein-supplemented hospital food on protein intake in patients at nutritional risk: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munk, T; Beck, A M; Holst, M; Rosenbom, E; Rasmussen, H H; Nielsen, M A; Thomsen, T

    2014-04-01

    New evidence indicates that increased dietary protein ingestion promotes health and recovery from illness, and also maintains functionality in older adults. The present study aimed to investigate whether a novel food service concept with protein-supplementation would increase protein and energy intake in hospitalised patients at nutritional risk. A single-blinded randomised controlled trial was conducted. Eighty-four participants at nutritional risk, recruited from the departments of Oncology, Orthopaedics and Urology, were included. The intervention group (IG) received the protein-supplemented food service concept. The control group (CG) received the standard hospital menu. Primary outcome comprised the number of patients achieving ≥75% of energy and protein requirements. Secondary outcomes comprised mean energy and protein intake, body weight, handgrip strength and length of hospital stay. In IG, 76% versus 70% CG patients reached ≥75% of their energy requirements (P = 0.57); 66% IG versus 30% CG patients reached ≥75% of their protein requirements (P = 0.001). The risk ratio for achieving ≥75% of protein requirements: 2.2 (95% confidence interval = 1.3-3.7); number needed to treat = 3 (95% confidence interval = 2-6). IG had a higher mean intake of energy and protein when adjusted for body weight (CG: 82 kJ kg(-1) versus IG: 103 kJ kg(-1) , P = 0.013; CG: 0.7 g protein kg(-1) versus 0.9 g protein kg(-1) , P = 0.003). Body weight, handgrip strength and length of hospital stay did not differ between groups. The novel food service concept had a significant positive impact on overall protein intake and on weight-adjusted energy intake in hospitalised patients at nutritional risk. © 2014 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  13. Stress-adapted extremophiles provide energy without interference with food production

    KAUST Repository

    Bressan, Ray Anthony

    2011-02-19

    How to wean humanity off the use of fossil fuels continues to receive much attention but how to replace these fuels with renewable sources of energy has become a contentious field of debate as well as research, which often reflects economic and political factors rather than scientific good sense. It is clear that not every advertized energy source can lead to a sustainable, humane and environment-friendly path out of a future energy crisis. Our proposal is based on two assertions: that the use of food crops for biofuels is immoral, and that for this purpose using land suitable for growing crops productively is to be avoided. We advocate a focus on new "extremophile" crops. These would either be wild species adapted to extreme environments which express genes, developmental processes and metabolic pathways that distinguish them from traditional crops or existing crops genetically modified to withstand extreme environments. Such extremophile energy crops (EECs), will be less susceptible to stresses in a changing global environment and provide higher yields than existing crops. Moreover, they will grow on land that has never been valuable for agriculture or is no longer so, owing to centuries or millennia of imprudent exploitation. Such a policy will contribute to striking a balance between ecosystem protection and human resource management. Beyond that, rather than bulk liquid fuel generation, combustion of various biomass sources including extremophiles for generating electrical energy, and photovoltaics-based capture of solar energy, are superbly suitable candidates for powering the world in the future. Generating electricity and efficient storage capacity is quite possibly the only way for a sustainable post-fossil and, indeed, post-biofuel fuel economy. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. & International Society for Plant Pathology.

  14. Tobacco and alcohol sponsorship of sporting events provide insights about how food and beverage sponsorship may affect children's health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Bridget; Baur, Louise A; Bauman, Adrian E; King, Lesley

    2011-08-01

    Determining children's exposure to food and beverage company sponsorship, and the effect of this exposure, is important in establishing the extent to which there may be health and societal consequences. This paper aimed to provide preliminary evidence on the scope and potential effects on children of unhealthy food and beverage sponsorship. A review of published literature and media and marketing reports was conducted to determine the types of food and beverage sponsorship campaigns that children are exposed to, and the effect of corporate sponsorship (including tobacco and alcohol) on children and adolescents. A large range of food and beverage sponsorship activities, in Australia and internationally, were identified for both school and sport settings. In particular, food and beverage companies have attempted to develop a marketing presence at all levels of professional and community sport. No information was identified measuring the effect of food and beverage company sponsorship on children and adolescents. However, empirical evidence from consumer studies relating to tobacco and alcohol sponsorship has repeatedly demonstrated that sponsorship has an impact on children's product recall and product-related attitudes and behavioural intentions. While there is no available research on the direct effect of food and beverage sponsorship, the demonstrated effects of tobacco and alcohol sponsorship on children's product awareness, preferences and consumption are likely to be applicable to food companies.

  15. 78 FR 64468 - Request for Information: Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) Enhancing Retail Food...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-29

    ... sugar, sodium or solid fats? 9. Should stores whose primary business (as evidenced by marketing, inventory or sales) is not the sale of food, be eligible to participate in SNAP? 10. Restaurants are...

  16. 78 FR 51136 - Request for Information: Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) Enhancing Retail Food...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-20

    .... Should stores whose primary business (as evidenced by marketing, inventory or sales) is not the sale of food, be eligible to participate in SNAP? 10. Restaurants are generally prohibited from being SNAP...

  17. Nutritional supplements use in high-performance athletes is related with lower nutritional inadequacy from food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Sousa

    2016-09-01

    Conclusion: Athletes using NS reported a higher nutritional intake from food, and a lower PMI for several nutrients. Perhaps, those who were taking NS were probably the ones who would least benefit from it.

  18. Effects of Flavonoids from Food and Dietary Supplements on Glial and Glioblastoma Multiforme Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidak, Marko; Rozman, Damjana; Komel, Radovan

    2015-10-23

    Quercetin, catechins and proanthocyanidins are flavonoids that are prominently featured in foodstuffs and dietary supplements, and may possess anti-carcinogenic activity. Glioblastoma multiforme is the most dangerous form of glioma, a malignancy of the brain connective tissue. This review assesses molecular structures of these flavonoids, their importance as components of diet and dietary supplements, their bioavailability and ability to cross the blood-brain barrier, their reported beneficial health effects, and their effects on non-malignant glial as well as glioblastoma tumor cells. The reviewed flavonoids appear to protect glial cells via reduction of oxidative stress, while some also attenuate glutamate-induced excitotoxicity and reduce neuroinflammation. Most of the reviewed flavonoids inhibit proliferation of glioblastoma cells and induce their death. Moreover, some of them inhibit pro-oncogene signaling pathways and intensify the effect of conventional anti-cancer therapies. However, most of these anti-glioblastoma effects have only been observed in vitro or in animal models. Due to limited ability of the reviewed flavonoids to access the brain, their normal dietary intake is likely insufficient to produce significant anti-cancer effects in this organ, and supplementation is needed.

  19. Current food chain information provides insufficient information for modern meat inspection of pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felin, Elina; Jukola, Elias; Raulo, Saara; Heinonen, Jaakko; Fredriksson-Ahomaa, Maria

    2016-05-01

    Meat inspection now incorporates a more risk-based approach for protecting human health against meat-borne biological hazards. Official post-mortem meat inspection of pigs has shifted to visual meat inspection. The official veterinarian decides on additional post-mortem inspection procedures, such as incisions and palpations. The decision is based on declarations in the food chain information (FCI), ante-mortem inspection and post-mortem inspection. However, a smooth slaughter and inspection process is essential. Therefore, one should be able to assess prior to slaughter which pigs are suitable for visual meat inspection only, and which need more profound inspection procedures. This study evaluates the usability of the FCI provided by pig producers and considered the possibility for risk ranking of incoming slaughter batches according to the previous meat inspection data and the current FCI. Eighty-five slaughter batches comprising 8954 fattening pigs were randomly selected at a slaughterhouse that receives animals from across Finland. The mortality rate, the FCI and the meat inspection results for each batch were obtained. The current FCI alone provided insufficient and inaccurate information for risk ranking purposes for meat inspection. The partial condemnation rate for a batch was best predicted by the partial condemnation rate calculated for all the pigs sent for slaughter from the same holding in the previous year (p<0.001) and by prior information on cough declared in the current FCI (p=0.02) statement. Training and information to producers are needed to make the FCI reporting procedures more accurate. Historical meat inspection data on pigs slaughtered from the same holdings and well-chosen symptoms/signs for reporting, should be included in the FCI to facilitate the allocation of pigs for visual inspection. The introduced simple scoring system can be easily used for additional information for directing batches to appropriate meat inspection procedures. To

  20. Nutritional status of children after a food-supplementation program integrated with routine health care through mobile clinics in migrant communities in the Dominican Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikh, Kavita; Marein-Efron, Gabriela; Huang, Shirley; O'Hare, Geraldine; Finalle, Rodney; Shah, Samir S

    2010-09-01

    The objective of this study was to compare acute and chronic undernutrition rates before and after the introduction of a food-supplementation program as an adjunct to routine health care for children of migrant workers in the Dominican Republic. The cross-sectional study was conducted in five rural communities in the Dominican Republic. Children 18 years and younger were eligible if they received routine health care from local mobile clinics. Data were obtained before (2005) and after (2006) initiation of a food-supplementation program. chi(2) or Fisher exact tests were used for analysis. Among 175 children in 2005, 52% were female, and 59% were supplementation program. Rates of chronic undernutrition decreased from 33% to 18% after the initiation of the food-supplementation program (P = 0.003). Food supplementation in the context of routine health-care visits improved the nutritional status of children, and it warrants further exploration as a way to reduce childhood undernutrition in resource-scarce areas.

  1. The use of Stationary Phase Optimized Selectivity Liquid Chromatography for the development of herbal fingerprints to detect targeted plants in plant food supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deconinck, E; Djiogo, C A Sokeng; Kamugisha, A; Courselle, P

    2017-08-01

    The consumption of plant food supplements is increasing steadily and more and more, these products are bought through internet. Often the products sold through internet are not registered or declared with a national authority, meaning that no or minimal quality control is performed and that they could contain herbs or plants that are regulated. Stationary Phase Optimized Selectivity Liquid Chromatography (SOS-LC) was evaluated for the development of specific fingerprints, to be used for the detection of targeted plants in plant food supplements. Three commonly used plants in plant food supplements and two regulated plants were used to develop fingerprints with SOS-LC. It was shown that for all plants specific fingerprints could be obtained, allowing the detection of these targeted plants in triturations with different herbal matrices as well as in real samples of suspicious supplements seized by the authorities. For three of the five plants a more specific fingerprint was obtained, compared to the ones developed on traditional columns described in literature. It could therefore be concluded that the combination of segments of different types of stationary phases, as used in SOS-LC, has the potential of becoming a valuable tool in the quality control and the identification of crude herbal or plant material and in the detection of regulated plants in plant food supplements or other herbal preparations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Pasta supplemented with isolated lupin protein fractions reduces body weight gain and food intake of rats and decreases plasma glucose concentration upon glucose overload trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capraro, Jessica; Magni, Chiara; Scarafoni, Alessio; Caramanico, Rosita; Rossi, Filippo; Morlacchini, Mauro; Duranti, Marcello

    2014-02-01

    The supplementation of foods with biologically active compounds can be a powerful approach for improving diet and well being. In this study we separately included in pasta matrices a concentrate of γ-conglutin, a glucose-lowering protein from Lupinus albus seeds, an isolate of the other main lupin storage proteins and ovalbumin, at a ratio corresponding to 125 mg of pure protein in 100 g of pasta. With these products we fed rats made hyperglycaemic, for 3 weeks. Among the most relevant changes measured in body and blood parameters were: (i) a significant reduction in food intake of rats fed γ-conglutin concentrate supplemented pasta and a significant limitation in the body weight increase in rats fed α, β and δ-conglutin isolate supplemented pasta, while the food conversion indices were unchanged; (ii) a reduction in glycaemia upon glucose overload trial, especially in the γ-conglutin concentrate supplemented pasta fed animals, at a dose of 45 mg per kg body weight. The correlations among the measured parameters are discussed. Overall, the results evidence the potentiality of supplementing traditional foods with exogenous nutraceutical seed proteins to control body weight gain and glycaemia.

  3. Further limiting bisphenol a in food uses could provide health and economic benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trasande, Leonardo

    2014-02-01

    There is mounting evidence that bisphenol A (BPA), a chemical used in the production of polycarbonate plastics and the linings of aluminum cans, may have adverse health consequences. The Food and Drug Administration has banned BPA from baby bottles and sippy cups but has deferred further action on other food uses-that is, uses in metal-based food and beverage containers. This article quantifies the potential social costs of childhood obesity and adult coronary heart disease attributable to BPA exposure in the United States in 2008 and models the potential health and economic benefits associated with replacing BPA in all food uses. BPA exposure was estimated to be associated with 12,404 cases of childhood obesity and 33,863 cases of newly incident coronary heart disease, with estimated social costs of $2.98 billion in 2008. Removing BPA from food uses might prevent 6,236 cases of childhood obesity and 22,350 cases of newly incident coronary heart disease per year, with potential annual economic benefits of $1.74 billion (sensitivity analysis: $889 million-$13.8 billion per year). Although more data are needed, these potentially large health and economic benefits could outweigh the costs of using a safer substitute for BPA.

  4. The effect of providing nutritional information about fast-food restaurant menus on parents' meal choices for their children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Jae-Young; Park, Hae-Ryun; Lee, Kiwon; Kwon, Sooyoun; Kim, Soyeong; Yang, Jihye; Song, Kyung-Hee; Lee, Youngmi

    2015-12-01

    To encourage healthier food choices for children in fast-food restaurants, many initiatives have been proposed. This study aimed to examine the effect of disclosing nutritional information on parents' meal choices for their children at fast-food restaurants in South Korea. An online experimental survey using a menu board was conducted with 242 parents of children aged 2-12 years who dined with them at fast-food restaurants at least once a month. Participants were classified into two groups: the low-calorie group (n = 41) who chose at least one of the lowest calorie meals in each menu category, and the high-calorie group (n = 201) who did not. The attributes including perceived empowerment, use of provided nutritional information, and perceived difficulties were compared between the two groups. The low-calorie group perceived significantly higher empowerment with the nutritional information provided than did the high-calorie group (P = 0.020). Additionally, the low-calorie group was more interested in nutrition labeling (P children more than did the high-calorie group (P = 0.017). The low-calorie group used the nutritional information provided when choosing meals for their children significantly more than did the high-calorie group (P food choices for their children at fast-food restaurants.

  5. Current and potential role of specially formulated foods and food supplements for preventing malnutrition among 6- to 23-month-old children and for treating moderate malnutrition among 6- to 59-month-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Pee, Saskia; Bloem, Martin W

    2009-09-01

    Reducing child malnutrition requires nutritious food, breastfeeding, improved hygiene, health services, and (prenatal) care. Poverty and food insecurity seriously constrain the accessibility of nutritious diets that have high protein quality, adequate micronutrient content and bioavailability, macrominerals and essential fatty acids, low antinutrient content, and high nutrient density. Diets based largely on plant sources with few animal-source and fortified foods do not meet these requirements and need to be improved by processing (dehulling, germinating, fermenting), fortification, and adding animal-source foods, e.g., milk, or other specific nutrients. Options include using specially formulated foods (fortified blended foods, commercial infant cereals, or ready-to-use foods [RUFs; pastes, compressed bars, or biscuits]) or complementary food supplements (micronutrient powders or powdered complementary food supplements containing micronutrients, protein, amino acids, and/or enzymes or lipid-based nutrient supplements (120 to 250 kcal/day), typically containing milk powder, high-quality vegetable oil, peanut paste, sugar, and micronutrients. Most supplementary feeding programs for moderately malnourished children supply fortified blended foods, such as corn-soy blend, with oil and sugar, which have shortcomings, including too many antinutrients, no milk (important for growth), suboptimal micronutrient content, high bulk, and high viscosity. Thus, for feeding young or malnourished children, fortified blended foods need to be improved or replaced. Based on success with ready-to-use therapeutic foods (RUTFs) for treating severe acute malnutrition, modifying these recipes is also considered. Commodities for reducing child malnutrition should be chosen on the basis of nutritional needs, program circumstances, availability of commodities, and likelihood of impact. Data are urgently required to compare the impact of new or modified commodities with that of current

  6. Distinct difference in absorption pattern in pigs of betaine provided as a supplement or present naturally in cereal dietary fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedemann, Mette Skou; Theil, Peter Kappel; Lærke, Helle Nygaard; Bach Knudsen, Knud Erik

    2015-03-18

    The net absorption of betaine and choline was determined for 4 h after the first meal of the day in three experiments with porto-arterial catheterized pigs in which betaine was added as a supplement to a low-betaine diet (n=4 pigs) and compared to the net absorption of betaine and choline from high-fiber breads differing in amount and source of dietary fiber (two experiments, n=6 pigs each). Plasma betaine peaked after 30 min when betaine was fed as a supplement, whereas it peaked after 120-180 min when high-fiber breads were fed. Plasma betaine showed no diet×time interaction after feeding with high-fiber breads, indicating that the absorption kinetic did not differ between fiber sources. The net absorption of choline was not affected by the experimental diets. In conclusion, betaine in cereal sources has to be liberated from the matrix prior to absorption, causing delayed absorption.

  7. Estuarine consumers utilize marine, estuarine and terrestrial organic matter and provide connectivity among these food webs

    Science.gov (United States)

    The flux of organic matter (OM) across ecosystem boundaries can influence estuarine food web dynamics and productivity. However, this process is seldom investigated taking into account all the adjacent ecosystems (e.g. ocean, river, land) and different hydrological settings (i.e....

  8. Is Intake of Flavonoid-Based Food Supplements During Pregnancy Safe for the Developing Child? A Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barenys, Marta; Masjosthusmann, Stefan; Fritsche, Ellen

    2017-01-01

    Due to potential health benefits and the general assumption that natural products are safe, there is an increasing trend in the general population - including pregnant women - to supplement their diet with flavonoid-based food supplements. In addition, preclinical studies aim to prevent developmental adverse effects induced by toxic substances, infections, maternal or genetic diseases of the unborn child by administration of flavonoids at doses far above those reached by normal diets. Because these substances do not undergo classical risk assessment processes, our aim was to review the available literature on the potential adverse effects of maternal diet supplementation with flavonoid-based products for the developing child. A systematic literature search was performed in three databases and screened following four exclusion criteria. Selected studies were classified into two groups: 1. Studies on the developmental toxicity of single flavonoids in vitro or in animals in vivo, and 2. Studies on the developmental toxicity of single flavonoids or on flavonoid-mixtures in humans. The data collected indicate that there is a concern for the safety of some flavonoids within realistic human exposure scenarios. This concern is accompanied by a tremendous lack of studies on safety of these compounds during development making definite safety decisions impossible. Besides studies of survival, especially the more specific developmental processes like nervous system development need to be addressed experimentally. Before new high-dose, flavonoid-based therapeutic strategies are developed for pregnant women further research on the safety of these compounds is clearly needed. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  9. Organic foods contain higher levels of certain nutrients, lower levels of pesticides, and may provide health benefits for the consumer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crinnion, Walter J

    2010-04-01

    The multi-billion dollar organic food industry is fueled by consumer perception that organic food is healthier (greater nutritional value and fewer toxic chemicals). Studies of the nutrient content in organic foods vary in results due to differences in the ground cover and maturity of the organic farming operation. Nutrient content also varies from farmer to farmer and year to year. However, reviews of multiple studies show that organic varieties do provide significantly greater levels of vitamin C, iron, magnesium, and phosphorus than non-organic varieties of the same foods. While being higher in these nutrients, they are also significantly lower in nitrates and pesticide residues. In addition, with the exception of wheat, oats, and wine, organic foods typically provide greater levels of a number of important antioxidant phytochemicals (anthocyanins, flavonoids, and carotenoids). Although in vitro studies of organic fruits and vegetables consistently demonstrate that organic foods have greater antioxidant activity, are more potent suppressors of the mutagenic action of toxic compounds, and inhibit the proliferation of certain cancer cell lines, in vivo studies of antioxidant activity in humans have failed to demonstrate additional benefit. Clear health benefits from consuming organic dairy products have been demonstrated in regard to allergic dermatitis.

  10. The effect of providing nutritional information about fast-food restaurant menus on parents' meal choices for their children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Jae-Young; Park, Hae-Ryun; Lee, Kiwon; Kwon, Sooyoun; Kim, Soyeong; Yang, Jihye; Song, Kyung-Hee

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES To encourage healthier food choices for children in fast-food restaurants, many initiatives have been proposed. This study aimed to examine the effect of disclosing nutritional information on parents' meal choices for their children at fast-food restaurants in South Korea. SUBJECTS/METHODS An online experimental survey using a menu board was conducted with 242 parents of children aged 2-12 years who dined with them at fast-food restaurants at least once a month. Participants were classified into two groups: the low-calorie group (n = 41) who chose at least one of the lowest calorie meals in each menu category, and the high-calorie group (n = 201) who did not. The attributes including perceived empowerment, use of provided nutritional information, and perceived difficulties were compared between the two groups. RESULTS The low-calorie group perceived significantly higher empowerment with the nutritional information provided than did the high-calorie group (P = 0.020). Additionally, the low-calorie group was more interested in nutrition labeling (P promoting healthier parental food choices for their children at fast-food restaurants. PMID:26634057

  11. Prospects of innovative functional foods based on biologically active dietary supplement (BADS "VITAZAR"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. E. Glagoleva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of syn- and metabiotics is one of the most important technological lines of reserch in the production of functional foods. The positive effect of these products is achieved by the addition of enrichment components into the formulations that provide selective stimulation of the of intestinal normal flora's growth or activates it’s metabolic activity. In this regard, scientific and practical interest seem to study the possibility of expanding the range of synbiotic products containing not less than107 CFU / ml of the probiotic microorganisms on the dairy, vegetable-dairy (protein-free milk, or only on the plant-based medium without dairy ingredients. In the research work we have studied the conditions for the accumulation of biomass of probiotic microorganisms consortium, consisting of L. casei subsp. Rhamnosus, L. acidophilus, L. plantarum, L. fermentum, Bifidobacterium bifidum, Bifidobacterium longum, Bifidobacterium adolescentis on nutrient mediums containing 1-20 % wheat germ flour "Vitazar". The quantitative assessment of the accumulation of probiotic microflora biomass and its metabolites in milk-vitazar based, whey- vitazar based, water-vitazar based nutrient mediums has been carried out . The concentration of Lactobacterium and Bifidobacterium in active form in quantity of 109 CFU / ml has been reached. It was found out that "Vitazar", being a source of dietary fibers and a wide range of carbohydrates, is capable to support the growth of Lactobacterium and Bifidobacterium, forming the favorable environment. The accumulation of probiotic microflora has been observed by the increasing of titratable acidity due to lactose fermentation by β-galactosidase, produced by microorganisms of the consortium. The main stages of the process of the accumulation microbiomass have been identified in the study of the kinetics of the fermentation process. The derived fermented pastes, containing 20 % and 30 % "Vitazar" are

  12. Maca (Lepidium meyenii) and yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius) in combination with silymarin as food supplements: in vivo safety assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentová, Katerina; Stejskal, David; Bartek, Josef; Dvorácková, Svatava; Kren, Vladimír; Ulrichová, Jitka; Simánek, Vilím

    2008-03-01

    Yacon and maca are native Andean crops with growing popularity as food supplements often in combination with other components, e.g. silymarin. There are however no published data on their toxicity and safety in humans. The aim of our randomized placebo-controlled 90-day study was to evaluate the effects of yacon and maca in combination with silymarin on plasma and lipoprotein lipids, serum glucose and safety parameters in patients suffering from the metabolic syndrome. No adverse effects were found in volunteers using silymarin (0.8 g/day), silymarin+yacon (0.8+2.4 g/day) and silymarin+maca (0.6+0.2 g/day). A moderate AST level and diastolic blood pressure increase was found in volunteers using maca (0.6 g/day). In conclusion, the combination silymarin+yacon appears to be promising as a nutraceutical in the prevention of diseases with a proatherogenic lipoprotein profile and liver steatosis. The effect of maca on AST level and blood pressure must be considered when using high doses of maca powder. This effect could be reversed by supplementation with silymarin.

  13. Masquelier's grape seed extract: from basic flavonoid research to a well-characterized food supplement with health benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weseler, Antje R; Bast, Aalt

    2017-01-19

    Careful characterization and standardization of the composition of plant-derived food supplements is essential to establish a cause-effect relationship between the intake of that product and its health effect. In this review we follow a specific grape seed extract containing monomeric and oligomeric flavan-3-ols from its creation by Jack Masquelier in 1947 towards a botanical remedy and nutraceutical with proven health benefits. The preparation's research history parallels the advancing insights in the fields of molecular biology, medicine, plant and nutritional sciences during the last 70 years. Analysis of the extract's flavanol composition emerged from unspecific colorimetric assays to precise high performance liquid chromatography - mass spectrometry and proton nuclear magnetic resonance fingerprinting techniques. The early recognition of the preparation's auspicious effects on the permeability of vascular capillaries directed research to unravel the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms. Recent clinical data revealed a multitude of favorable alterations in the vasculature upon an 8 weeks supplementation which summed up in a health benefit of the extract in healthy humans. Changes in gene expression of inflammatory pathways in the volunteers' leukocytes were suggested to be involved in this benefit. The historically grown scientific evidence for the preparation's health effects paves the way to further elucidate its metabolic fate and molecular action in humans.

  14. Effect of magnesium ion supplementation on obesity and diabetes mellitus in Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats under excessive food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Noriaki; Ito, Yoshimasa

    2013-01-01

    Several epidemiologic studies have found that magnesium ion (Mg²⁺) is related to obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, there have been almost no reports on the effects of a combination of excessive food intake and Mg²⁺ supplementation on metabolic syndrome and various blood tests values for diabetes mellitus. In this study, we investigated changes in body weight and blood test values for diabetes mellitus of Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats, a model for human type 2 diabetes mellitus via metabolic syndrome, under conditions of combined excessive food intake and Mg²⁺ supplementation. The rats received Mg²⁺ supplementation by drinking magnesium water (Mg²⁺; 200 mg/l). No significant differences were observed in the levels of food or water intake between OLETF rats drinking purified water (PW) or magnesium water (MW). Type 2 diabetes mellitus with metabolic syndrome developed at 30 weeks of age, and the body weights and plasma insulin levels of OLETF rats at 60 weeks of age were lower than those of normal rats. The plasma glucose (PG) levels in 38-week-old OLETF rats drinking MW were significantly lower than in those of rats drinking PW, while the body weights and the levels of triglycerides (TG) and insulin of 38-week-old MW-drinking OLETF rats were significantly higher than those of their PW-drinking counterparts. On the other hand, the decreases in body weight and insulin levels in 60-week-old OLETF rats were suppressed by MW supplementation. The present study demonstrates that Mg²⁺ supplementation delays the development of diabetes mellitus in OLETF rats under conditions of excessive food intake. In addition, obesity and high blood TG levels were observed in OLETF rats receiving Mg²⁺ supplementation in conjunction with excessive food intake.

  15. Oral leucine supplementation is sensed by the brain but neither reduces food intake nor induces an anorectic pattern of gene expression in the hypothalamus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thais T Zampieri

    Full Text Available Leucine activates the intracellular mammalian target of the rapamycin (mTOR pathway, and hypothalamic mTOR signaling regulates food intake. Although central infusion of leucine reduces food intake, it is still uncertain whether oral leucine supplementation is able to affect the hypothalamic circuits that control energy balance. We observed increased phosphorylation of p70s6k in the mouse hypothalamus after an acute oral gavage of leucine. We then assessed whether acute oral gavage of leucine induces the activation of neurons in several hypothalamic nuclei and in the brainstem. Leucine did not induce the expression of Fos in hypothalamic nuclei, but it increased the number of Fos-immunoreactive neurons in the area postrema. In addition, oral gavage of leucine acutely increased the 24 h food intake of mice. Nonetheless, chronic leucine supplementation in the drinking water did not change the food intake and the weight gain of ob/ob mice and of wild-type mice consuming a low- or a high-fat diet. We assessed the hypothalamic gene expression and observed that leucine supplementation increased the expression of enzymes (BCAT1, BCAT2 and BCKDK that metabolize branched-chain amino acids. Despite these effects, leucine supplementation did not induce an anorectic pattern of gene expression in the hypothalamus. In conclusion, our data show that the brain is able to sense oral leucine intake. However, the food intake is not modified by chronic oral leucine supplementation. These results question the possible efficacy of leucine supplementation as an appetite suppressant to treat obesity.

  16. Soft cheese supplemented with black cumin oil: Impact on food borne pathogens and quality during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanien, Mohamed Fawzy Ramadan; Mahgoub, Samir A; El-Zahar, Kahled M

    2014-07-01

    Black cumin seed oil (BCSO) was tested for its inhibitory effect against some pathogenic bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538, Escherichia coli ATCC 8739, Listeria monocytogenes Scott A and Salmonella enteritidis PT4) in Domiati cheese during cold storage. Physical, chemical and sensorial changes in cheese during storage were recorded. Pasteurized milk was inoculated before renneting with a mixed culture of bacteria at ca. 4 log CFU mL(-1). In vitro and in situ supplementation with BCSO showed antimicrobial impact on the growth of S. aureus, E. coli, L. monocytogenes and S. enteritidis inoculated into media and cheese samples. Supplementing of cheese with BCSO (0.1% or 0.2%, w/w) significantly reduced the counts of the inoculated pathogens by ca. 1.3 log and 1.5 log CFU g(-1) after 21 days of storage. In addition, BCSO controlled the development of titratable acidity, limited the changes in ripening indices, flavor components and kept considerable physicochemical and sensorial properties of cheese.

  17. Data on screening and identification of genetically modified papaya in food supplements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, Theo W.; Scholtens-Toma, Ingrid; Bak, Arno W.; Dijk, Van Jeroen P.; Voorhuijzen, Marleen M.; Laurensse, Emile J.; Kok, Esther J.

    2016-01-01

    This article contains data related to the research article entitled “A case study to determine the geographical origin of unknown GM papaya in routine food sample analysis, followed by identification of papaya events 16-0-1 and 18-2-4” (Prins et al., 2016) [1]. Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) with

  18. Glycaemic responses to liquid food supplements among three Asian ethnic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tey, Siew Ling; Van Helvoort, Ardy; Henry, Christiani Jeyakumar

    2016-12-01

    A limited number of studies have compared the glycaemic index (GI) and glycaemic responses (GR) to solid foods between Caucasians and Asians. These studies have demonstrated that Asians have greater GI and GR values for solid foods than Caucasians. However, no study has compared the GI and GR to liquids among various Asian ethnic groups. A total of forty-eight males and females (16 Chinese, 16 Indians, and 16 Malay) took part in this randomised, crossover study. Glycaemic response to the reference food (glucose beverage) was measured on three occasions, and GR to three liquids were measured on one occasion each. Liquids with different macronutrient ratio's and carbohydrate types were chosen to be able to evaluate the response to products with different GIs. Blood glucose concentrations were measured in duplicate at baseline (-5 and 0 min) and once at 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 min after the commencement of beverage consumption. There were statistically significant differences in GI and GR between the three liquids (P Asia. It appears that the GI of liquid food derived from one Asian ethnicity can be applicable to other Asian populations.

  19. Life history characteristics of Frankliniella occidentalis on cucumber leaves with and without supplemental food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulshof, J.; Ketoja, E.; Vänninen, I.

    2003-01-01

    The development time, fecundity, longevity, and resultant intrinsic growth rate of the western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) [Thysanoptera: Thripidae] encaged on a cucumber leaf were compared among seven types of food supplied: six pollen species and a mixture of milk powder

  20. A point-of-sale communications campaign to provide consumers safety information on drug-dietary supplement interactions: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlman, Adam I; Lebow, David G; Raphael, Karen; Ali, Ather; Simmons, Leigh Ann

    2013-01-01

    Concurrent use of dietary supplements with over-the-counter and prescription pharmaceuticals has become increasingly common, and with this trend, so has the incidence of adverse drug-supplement interactions. In the current market, consumers have no way to distinguish between safe and potentially harmful supplements. Thus, the primary objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that messages designed to increase consumers' awareness of potential health risks of concurrent use of dietary supplements with over-the-counter and prescription pharmaceuticals would promote further consideration and action, as evidenced by (a) seeking additional information from an authoritative source or qualified health care professional and (b) changing dietary supplement usage patterns. To test this hypothesis, an innovative consumer information delivery system, referred to as the Buyer Information Network (BuyIN), was utilized. BuyIN uses currently available, Web-enabled point-of-sale (POS) technology to provide up-to-date, evidence-based, health- and safety-related messages to consumers at the retail checkout counter. Results showed that more than one-fourth (27.1%) of consumers (n = 199) who purchased targeted items reported they were aware of the messages. Of this subgroup of aware consumers, 11.2% reported that they sought additional information from a physician or pharmacist, 11.5% reported that they visited the website listed on the coupon, and 10.5% indicated that they changed their dietary supplement usage patterns as a result of the messages. Future research should include a large-scale study of a fully implemented and capable system at multiple test sites around the country, including investigating the utility of BuyIN in different retail settings.

  1. Effects of prenatal food and micronutrient supplementation on child growth from birth to 54 months of age: a randomized trial in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Ashraful

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a lack of information on the optimal timing of food supplementation to malnourished pregnant women and possible combined effects of food and multiple micronutrient supplementations (MMS on their offspring's growth. We evaluated the effects of prenatal food and micronutrient interventions on postnatal child growth. The hypothesis was that prenatal MMS and early invitation to food supplementation would increase physical growth in the offspring during 0-54 months and a combination of these interventions would further improve these outcomes. Methods In the large, randomized MINIMat trial (Maternal and Infant Nutrition Interventions in Matlab, Bangladesh, 4436 pregnant women were enrolled between November 2001 and October 2003 and their children were followed until March 2009. Participants were randomized into six groups comprising 30 mg Fe and 400 μg folic acid (Fe30F, 60 mg Fe and 400 μg folic acid (Fe60F or MMS combined with either an early (immediately after identification of pregnancy or a later usual (at the time of their choosing, i.e., usual care in this community program invitation to food supplementation. The anthropometry of 3267 children was followed from birth to 54 months, and 2735 children were available for analysis at 54 months. Results There were no differences in characteristics of mothers and households among the different intervention groups. The average birth weight was 2694 g and birth length was 47.7 cm, with no difference among intervention groups. Early invitation to food supplementation (in comparison with usual invitation reduced the proportion of stunting from early infancy up to 54 months for boys (p = 0.01, but not for girls (p = 0.31. MMS resulted in more stunting than standard Fe60F (p = 0.02. There was no interaction between the food and micronutrient supplementation on the growth outcome. Conclusions Early food supplementation in pregnancy reduced the occurrence of stunting during 0

  2. Do childcare menus meet nutrition guidelines? Quantity, variety and quality of food provided in New Zealand Early Childhood Education services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerritsen, Sarah; Dean, Brianna; Morton, Susan M B; Wall, Clare R

    2017-08-01

    To describe food provision and evaluate menus in New Zealand childcare services, determining associations with service characteristics and/or cost of menu. Licensed services in three regions of New Zealand participated in an online survey, uploading a weekly menu where applicable. Menus were scored for compliance with guidelines on quantity, variety and quality of foods served. Bivariate and multivariate associations between menu score and service characteristics were analysed. A total of 257 services participated (30% of 847 services invited). Food was provided daily in 56%, with 34% providing lunch and snacks daily. Of the 57 full menus analysed, only three (5%) met all 10 scoring criteria (mean score of 6.8/10). Higher menu scores were statistically associated with employing a cook, high and low (not medium) neighbourhood deprivation, the Heart Foundation's Healthy Heart Award program; there was no association with food costs. The Healthy Heart Award remained statistically associated with higher menu score after adjustment for other service characteristics. Most menus did not meet current nutrition guidelines for quantity, variety, and limiting 'sometimes' and 'occasional' foods. Implications for public health: This study provides a baseline for monitoring menu compliance in New Zealand and evidence for nutrition promotion and menu improvement programmes in early education. © 2017 The Authors.

  3. Impact of Food Rations and Supplements on Micronutrient Status by Trimester of Pregnancy: Cross-Sectional Studies in the Maela Refugee Camp in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Stuetz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Micronutrient fortified flour (MFF, supplementary food rations and micronutrient (MN supplements may prevent deficiencies among pregnant women. Objectives of cross-sectional surveys in 2004 (n = 533 and 2006 (n = 515 were to assess the impact of new food rations (flour, oil and supplements on MN status by trimester of pregnancy in the Maela refugee camp. Hemoglobin, iron status, zinc, retinol, β-carotene and tryptophan decreased, while α-/γ-tocopherol and 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (5-MTHF increased from first to third trimester. In 2006, mean zinc and α-tocopherol for each trimester was significantly higher than in 2004. The weeks of supplemented thiamine and folic acid were positively correlated with thiamine diphosphate (TDP and 5-MTHF, but not for ferrous sulfate as iron deficiency was observed in 38.5% of third-trimester women. Frequent consumption of fish paste and owning a garden or animal were associated with significantly higher iron status, retinol, β-carotene, and 5-MTHF. In conclusion, MFF and supplementary oil were most likely to explain improved zinc and α-tocopherol status, while thiamine and folate supplements ensured high TDP and 5-MTHF in late pregnancy. MN supplements, MN-rich staple food, small gardens, and programs to improve iron compliance are promising strategies to prevent MN deficiencies during pregnancy in vulnerable populations.

  4. Impact of Food Rations and Supplements on Micronutrient Status by Trimester of Pregnancy: Cross-Sectional Studies in the Maela Refugee Camp in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuetz, Wolfgang; Carrara, Verena I; Mc Gready, Rose; Lee, Sue J; Sriprawat, Kanlaya; Po, Basi; Hanboonkunupakarn, Borimas; Grune, Tilman; Biesalski, Hans K; Nosten, François H

    2016-01-26

    Micronutrient fortified flour (MFF), supplementary food rations and micronutrient (MN) supplements may prevent deficiencies among pregnant women. Objectives of cross-sectional surveys in 2004 (n = 533) and 2006 (n = 515) were to assess the impact of new food rations (flour, oil) and supplements on MN status by trimester of pregnancy in the Maela refugee camp. Hemoglobin, iron status, zinc, retinol, β-carotene and tryptophan decreased, while α-/γ-tocopherol and 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (5-MTHF) increased from first to third trimester. In 2006, mean zinc and α-tocopherol for each trimester was significantly higher than in 2004. The weeks of supplemented thiamine and folic acid were positively correlated with thiamine diphosphate (TDP) and 5-MTHF, but not for ferrous sulfate as iron deficiency was observed in 38.5% of third-trimester women. Frequent consumption of fish paste and owning a garden or animal were associated with significantly higher iron status, retinol, β-carotene, and 5-MTHF. In conclusion, MFF and supplementary oil were most likely to explain improved zinc and α-tocopherol status, while thiamine and folate supplements ensured high TDP and 5-MTHF in late pregnancy. MN supplements, MN-rich staple food, small gardens, and programs to improve iron compliance are promising strategies to prevent MN deficiencies during pregnancy in vulnerable populations.

  5. Nursery nutrition in Liverpool: an exploration of practice and nutritional analysis of food provided.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Mike; Lloyd-Williams, Ffion; Weston, Gemma; Macklin, Julie; McFadden, Kate

    2011-10-01

    To explore nutrition and food provision in pre-school nurseries in order to develop interventions to promote healthy eating in pre-school settings. Quantitative data were gathered using questionnaires and professional menu analysis. In the community, at pre-school nurseries. All 130 nurseries across Liverpool were a sent questionnaire (38 % response rate); thirty-four menus were returned for analysis (26 % response rate). Only 21 % of respondents stated they had adequate knowledge on nutrition for pre-school children. Sixty-one per cent of cooks reported having received only a 'little' advice on healthy eating and this was often not specific to under-5 s nutrition. Fifty-seven per cent of nurseries did not regularly assess their menus for nutritional quality. The menu analysis revealed that all menus were deficient in energy, carbohydrate, Fe and Zn. Eighty-five per cent of nurseries had Na/salt levels which exceed guidelines. Nurseries require support on healthy eating at policy, knowledge and training levels. This support should address concerns relating to both menu planning and ingredients used in food provision and meet current guidelines on food provision for the under-5 s.

  6. Distinct Difference in Absorption Pattern in Pigs of Betaine Provided as a Supplement or Present Naturally in Cereal Dietary Fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedemann, Mette Skou; Theil, Peter Kappel; Lærke, Helle Nygaard

    2015-01-01

    high-fiber breads differing in amount and source of dietary fiber (two experiments, n = 6 pigs each). Plasma betaine peaked after 30 min when betaine was fed as a supplement, whereas it peaked after 120–180 min when high-fiber breads were fed. Plasma betaine showed no diet × time interaction after...... feeding with high-fiber breads, indicating that the absorption kinetic did not differ between fiber sources. The net absorption of choline was not affected by the experimental diets. In conclusion, betaine in cereal sources has to be liberated from the matrix prior to absorption, causing delayed...

  7. Milk basic protein supplementation exerts an anti-inflammatory effect in a food-allergic enteropathy model mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono-Ohmachi, Aiko; Nakajima-Adachi, Haruyo; Morita, Yoshikazu; Kato, Ken; Hachimura, Satoshi

    2017-12-20

    To examine novel functions of milk basic protein (MBP) in T-cell-related inflammatory diseases, such as autoimmune diseases and allergies, we evaluated the effects of MBP on the causative responses of ovalbumin (OVA)-specific T cells in a food-allergic enteropathy model, OVA23-3 mice, which express an OVA-specific T-cell receptor gene. The OVA-specific CD4+ T cells of the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) from OVA23-3 mice were cultured with CD11c+ dendritic cells of MLN from BALB/cA mice in the absence or presence of MBP following stimulation with OVA; then the levels of CD69 expression and the levels of cytokine production by CD4+ T cells were measured to evaluate activation. The effects of MBP supplementation of OVA 23-3 mice were assessed by feeding a diet containing OVA (OVA diet) with or without MBP for 28 d. Intestinal inflammation, together with activation and cytokine production of CD4+ T cells by MLN, as well as femoral bone mineral density, were measured. In in vitro culture, MBP inhibited excess activation and IL-4 production by CD4+ T cells. The supplementation of MBP to the OVA diet attenuated OVA-specific IgE production in OVA-diet-fed OVA23-3 mice and slightly resolved developing enteropathy caused by excess IL-4 production by CD4+ T cells. Feeding OVA diet to OVA23-3 mice exhibited bone loss accompanied with enteropathy, whereas MBP supplementation prevented bone loss and increased osteoprotegerin, an osteoclastogenesis inhibitory factor, in the mice. The inhibition of T-cell-activation in both MLN and bone marrow by MBP supplementation may help prevent increased IgE levels caused by excessive IL-4 production and bone loss accompanied by enteropathy. Our findings show that MBP may help attenuate both T-cell-related inflammation and bone loss. Copyright © 2018 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Antioxidant and Anti-Hepatitis C Viral Activities of Commercial Milk Thistle Food Supplements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Anthony

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Milk thistle dietary supplements that contain silymarin are widely marketed and used in the USA and other countries for liver enhancement and recovery. More recently, silymarin has also been identified as a possible antiviral for the treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV infection. To assess different brands of commercially sold silymarin, 45 products were collected from local stores and analyzed for their silymarin content, antioxidant activities, and antiviral activity against HCV. Antioxidant activity was measured as radical scavenging activity using DPPH and by estimating their antioxidant capacity as trolox equivalent. Anti-HCV activity was measured in an HCV genotype 1b replication inhibition assay. Samples were found to vary widely in their silymarin content, with some samples having none or very low concentrations while silymarin represented higher than 80% of other samples. Both antioxidant and anti-HCV activity correlated with the overall level of silymarin.

  9. A short food frequency questionnaire to assess intake of seafood and n-3 supplements: validation with biomarkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dahl Lisbeth

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Seafood intake is associated with beneficial effects for human health. Seafood provides a number of nutrients beyond the traditionally known long chain marine n-3 fatty acids EPA, DPA and DHA, such as protein, vitamin D, iodine, selenium and vitamin B12. Valid assessment of dietary seafood and n-3 supplement intakes are becoming increasingly crucial when giving recommendations to populations as seafood consumption is regarded as an important part of a healthy and balanced diet. Methods The aim was to validate a short FFQ developed for assessment of dietary intake of seafood and n-3 supplements using the biomarkers marine n-3 fatty acids in erythrocytes and 25(OHD in serum. Results Fifty-three healthy Norwegians aged 30-64 years with a mean BMI of 25 kg/m2 were compliant with the study protocol. 70% reported eating seafood for dinner one to two times per week, and 45% reported to eat seafood as spread, in salads or as snack meal three to five times or more per week. The FFQ correlated significantly with both the levels of marine n-3 fatty acids (r = 0.73, p Conclusion The present short FFQ predicted strongly the levels of marine n-3 fatty acids in erythrocytes, and predicted fairly good the level of serum 25(OHD and may therefore be a valid method for assessment of seafood and n-3 supplements intake among adults.

  10. Does food availability affect energy expenditure rates of nesting seabirds? A supplemental-feeding experiment with Black-legged Kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jodice, PGR; Roby, DD; Hatch, SA; Gill, VA; Lanctot, RB; Visser, GH

    We used a supplemental-feeding experiment, the doubly labeled water technique, and a model-selection approach based upon the Akaike Information Criterion to examine effects of food availability on energy expenditure rates of Black-legged Kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla) raising young. Energy

  11. Iron status in 358 apparently healthy 80-year-old Danish men and women: relation to food composition and dietary and supplemental iron intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milman, Nils; Pedersen, Agnes Nadelmann; Ovesen, Lars

    2004-01-01

    status in the elderly population. The objective was to evaluate iron status and the relationship with food composition and dietary and supplemental iron intake in an elderly population in Copenhagen County. Participants in this health examination survey were 358 subjects (171 men, 187 women) 80 years...

  12. Health risks related to illegal and on-line sale of drugs and food supplements: results of a survey on marketed products in Italy from 2011 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudiano, Maria Cristina; Manna, Livia; Bartolomei, Monica; Rodomonte, Andrea Luca; Bertocchi, Paola; Antoniella, Eleonora; Romanini, Laura; Alimonti, Stefano; Rufini, Leandro; Valvo, Luisa

    2016-01-01

    The increasing illegal and on-line market of medicines and food supplements is helping the widespread diffusion of harmful counterfeit and forbidden products among consumers of developed countries. The objectives of this survey were the description of the main frauds recognized by public officers and the detection of illegal or counterfeit drugs and food supplements. Medicines and food supplements found by Police forces on the illegal market or resulting from seizures made by Italian Customs authorities were visually inspected and analysed to evaluate their quality and the presence of other undeclared substances. The visual inspection and the chemical analysis revealed unsuitable packaging (mostly lacking of adequate information for consumers), absence of the declared active substances and presence of undeclared active substances. Products containing doping agents, illegal substances and active ingredients requiring medical supervision were found. The present work confirmed the health risk associated with assumption of medicines purchased on the Internet and from the illegal supply chain and evidenced a new threat to consumer safety related to the presence of pharmaceutical active ingredients in food supplements claiming to contain only "natural ingredients".

  13. Influence of 'soft' versus 'scientific' health information framing and contradictory information on consumers' health inferences and attitudes towards a food supplement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica; Grunert, Klaus G

    2015-01-01

    to explore to what extent health claims presented in the context of (thus framed) scientific phrasing of health information impacts health inferences and attitudes towards a product when compared to ‘soft’ health-related information framing. Different versions of mock resveratrol food supplement descriptions...

  14. Impact of long-term use of oral nutritional supplement on nutritional adequacy, dietary diversity, food intake and growth of Filipino preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Dieu T T; Estorninos, Elvira; Capeding, Maria Rosario; Oliver, Jeffery S; Low, Yen Ling; Rosales, Francisco J

    2016-01-01

    Nutrient deficiencies during childhood have adverse effects on child growth and health. In a single-arm 48-week long-term intervention, we previously reported the efficacy of oral nutritional supplementation (ONS) and dietary counselling on catch-up growth and growth maintenance in nutritionally at-risk Filipino children. The present analysis was done to assess the contributing effects of ONS to nutritional adequacy, dietary diversity, food intake and longitudinal growth. ONS (450 ml) was consumed daily providing 450 kcal (1880 kJ) and at least 50 % of micronutrient requirements among 200 children aged 3-4 years with weight-for-height percentiles between 5th and 25th (WHO Growth Standards). Weight, height and dietary intakes using 24-h food recalls were measured at baseline, and at weeks 4, 8, 16, 24, 32, 40 and 48. Nutrient adequacy and dietary diversity score (DDS) were calculated. Generalised estimating equations were used to assess the effects of total nutrient intakes, DDS, ONS compliance and sociodemographic factors on longitudinal growth. The percentages of children with adequate intake of energy, protein, Fe, Ca and some vitamins at each post-baseline visit were improved from baseline, reaching 100 % for most nutrients. DDS was also increased from baseline and reached significance from week 16 onwards (P growth of Filipino children.

  15. New approach to quantitative analysis of benzo[a]pyrene in food supplements by an immunochemical column test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beloglazova, Natalia V; Goryacheva, Irina Yu; de Saeger, Sarah; Scippo, Marie Louise; Niessner, Reinhard; Knopp, Dietmar

    2011-07-15

    A quantitative immunochemical rapid test for sensitive determination of benzo[a]pyrene (BAP) as a model analyte was developed making use of a handheld reader for results evaluation. The covalent immobilization of antibodies to different Sepharose gels, i.e., CNBr-activated Sepharose 4B and CNBr-activated Sepharose 4 Fast Flow was compared with adsorption to a polyethylene support. The lowest limits of detection (LOD) were 4 ng L(-1) and 40 ng L(-1), respectively, using optimized assay conditions. The developed test was applied to food supplements (garlic, black radish and maca), including a pretreatment procedure. LOD of 9 ng kg(-1) and linear range of 13-80 ng kg(-1) were obtained. Results of BAP determination in naturally contaminated samples were confirmed by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to fluorescence detection and a good correlation was achieved. We suggest that the developed test format can be used to quantitative detection of the low molecular weight analytes, such as mycotoxins, pesticides, other pollutants in food and environmental samples. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The winter pack-ice zone provides a sheltered but food-poor habitat for larval Antarctic krill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Bettina; Freier, Ulrich; Grimm, Volker; Groeneveld, Jürgen; Hunt, Brian P V; Kerwath, Sven; King, Rob; Klaas, Christine; Pakhomov, Evgeny; Meiners, Klaus M; Melbourne-Thomas, Jessica; Murphy, Eugene J; Thorpe, Sally E; Stammerjohn, Sharon; Wolf-Gladrow, Dieter; Auerswald, Lutz; Götz, Albrecht; Halbach, Laura; Jarman, Simon; Kawaguchi, So; Krumpen, Thomas; Nehrke, Gernot; Ricker, Robert; Sumner, Michael; Teschke, Mathias; Trebilco, Rowan; Yilmaz, Noyan I

    2017-12-01

    A dominant Antarctic ecological paradigm suggests that winter sea ice is generally the main feeding ground for krill larvae. Observations from our winter cruise to the southwest Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean contradict this view and present the first evidence that the pack-ice zone is a food-poor habitat for larval development. In contrast, the more open marginal ice zone provides a more favourable food environment for high larval krill growth rates. We found that complex under-ice habitats are, however, vital for larval krill when water column productivity is limited by light, by providing structures that offer protection from predators and to collect organic material released from the ice. The larvae feed on this sparse ice-associated food during the day. After sunset, they migrate into the water below the ice (upper 20 m) and drift away from the ice areas where they have previously fed. Model analyses indicate that this behaviour increases both food uptake in a patchy food environment and the likelihood of overwinter transport to areas where feeding conditions are more favourable in spring.

  17. Usefulness of food chain information provided by Dutch finishing pig producers to control antibiotic residues in pork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wagenberg, Coen P A; Backus, Gé B C; van der Vorst, Jack G A J; Urlings, Bert A P

    2012-11-01

    The EU prescribes that food business operators must use food chain information to assist in food safety control. This study analyses usefulness of food chain information about antibiotic usage covering the 60-day period prior to delivery of pigs to slaughter in the control of antibiotic residues in pork. A dataset with 479 test results for antibiotic residues in tissue samples of finishing pigs delivered to a Dutch slaughter company was linked to information provided by pig producers about antibiotic usage in these finishing pigs. Results show that twice as many producers reported using antibiotics in the group of 82 producers with antibiotic residues (11.0%) compared to the group without antibiotic residues (5.5%) (p=0.0686). For 89% of consignments with a finishing pig with antibiotic residues, the producer reported 'did not use antibiotics'. Food chain information about antibiotic usage provided by Dutch pig producers was no guarantee for absence of antibiotic residues in delivered finishing pigs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. A randomized trial of protein supplementation compared with extra fast food on the effects of resistance training to increase metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hambre, David; Vergara, Marta; Lood, Yvonne; Bachrach-Lindström, Margareta; Lindström, Torbjörn; Nystrom, Fredrik H

    2012-10-01

    To prospectively evaluate the effects of resistance training combined with increased energy intake or protein-supplementation on lean body-mass, resting metabolic-rate (RMR) and cardiovascular risk factors. Twenty-four healthy males (aged 19-32 years) performed resistance exercise for 12 weeks aiming for at least 1 hour training-sessions 3 times a week. The participants were randomized to consume extra protein (33 g whey protein/day) or a meal of fast-food/day (1350 kcal, 41 g protein). Body-composition was measured with Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DEXA) and RMR by indirect calorimetry. Fasting blood samples were drawn before and after the 3-month training period and after 12 months. The body weight increased from 75.1 ± 6.9 kg to 78.7 ± 7.2 kg (p < 0.0001), without differences between the groups. RMR increased from 1787 ± 143 kcal/24 h to 1954 ± 187 kcal/24 h (p < 0.0001, N = 24), which was more than expected from the increase in lean body-mass (increase from 59.7 ± 4.3 kg to 61.8 ± 4.1 kg p = 0.004). Fasting serum-insulin levels increased in the fast-food group compared with the extra-protein group (p = 0.03). ApoB increased from 0.691 ± 0.14 g/L to 0.768 ± 0.17 g/L, p = 0.004, in the fast-food group only. Long-term follow up after 12 months showed that RMR, body weight, total fat and lean body-masses did not differ from baseline (n = 19). Resistance training for 12 weeks increased RMR and lean body-mass similarly when based on either an increased energy-intake or protein supplement. However, the increase in RMR was higher than expected from the increase in lean body-mass. Thus resistance training could potentially decrease the risk of obesity by induction of increased RMR.

  19. Providing Choice in Exercise Influences Food Intake at the Subsequent Meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, Natalya J; Dimmock, James A; Jackson, Ben; Guelfi, Kym J

    2017-10-01

    The benefits of regular exercise for health are well established; however, certain behaviors after exercise, such as unhealthy or excessive food consumption, can counteract some of these benefits. To investigate the effect of autonomy support (through the provision of choice) in exercise-relative to a no-choice condition with matched energy expenditure-on appetite and subsequent energy intake. Fifty-eight men and women (body mass index, 22.9 ± 2.3 kg·m; peak oxygen consumption, 52.7 ± 6.4 mL·kg·min) completed one familiarization session and one experimental trial, in which they were randomized to either a choice or no-choice exercise condition using a between-subjects yoked design. Ad libitum energy intake from a laboratory test meal was assessed after exercise, together with perceptions of mood, perceived choice, enjoyment, and value. Despite similar ratings of perceived appetite across conditions (P > 0.05), energy intake was significantly higher after exercise performed under the no-choice condition (2456 ± 1410 kJ) compared with the choice condition (1668 ± 1215 kJ; P = 0.026; d = 0.60). In particular, the proportion of energy intake from unhealthy foods was significantly greater after exercise in the no-choice condition (1412 ± 1304 kJ) compared with the choice condition (790 ± 861 kJ; P = 0.037, d = 0.56). Participants in the choice condition also reported higher perceptions of choice (P 0.05). A lack of choice in exercise is associated with greater energy intake from "unhealthy" foods in recovery. This finding highlights the importance of facilitating an autonomy supportive environment during exercise prescription and instruction.

  20. The Impact of Nutrition Education on Dietary Behavior and Iron Status in Participants of the Supplemental Food Program for Women, Infants and Children, and the Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program

    OpenAIRE

    Christensen, Nedra K.

    1993-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the impact of nutrition edu cation on participants of the Supplemental Food Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC) and the Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program (EFNEP). The specific objectives were to: 1) determine the impact of participation in EFNEP on iron status as assessed by hematocrit (hct) and ferritin levels; 2) determine the effect of nutrition knowledge on hct and ferritin values; and 3) determine the effect dietary behavior has...

  1. Early short-term infant food supplementation, maternal weight loss and duration of breast-feeding: a randomised controlled trial in rural Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ly, C T; Diallo, A; Simondon, F; Simondon, K B

    2006-02-01

    Early supplementation of breastfed infants may have consequences both for the mother and the child. We hypothesised that it would result in decreased maternal weight loss and in shorter durations of breastfeeding and birth intervals. Controlled randomised population-based trial. Six villages in the Sine area of Senegal, West Africa. Healthy breastfed infants and their mothers, 68 controls and 66 supplemented infants at randomization. Supplementation with high-energy, nutrient dense food from 4 to 7 months of age, twice daily under supervision of field workers. Both controls and supplemented infants were free to eat other complementary foods. Maternal weight was measured monthly. Dates of breastfeeding cessation and of subsequent births were collected prospectively through weekly demographic surveillance, and were analysed using Cox's regression models and 'intent-to-supplement' approach. Mean maternal weight gain from 4 to 7 months postpartum tended to be greater in the supplemented group (+0.25 kg/months, 95% confidence interval (CI): -0.07, +0.57). Supplemented infants were breastfed for significantly longer durations than controls (medians: 24.9 and 23.7 months, respectively, P: 0.034). Their adjusted hazard ratio (HR) for breastfeeding cessation was 0.59 (95% CI: 0.40, 0.89). Their mothers had a lower risk of a new birth than mothers of controls (adjusted HR: 0.57, 95% CI: 0.36, 0.92). Early short-term infant supplementation tended to decrease maternal postpartum weight loss, but it increased, rather than shortened, the duration of breastfeeding and birth interval. This study was supported by a grant from the French Ministry of Research (Grant 92L0623).

  2. Freshwater arsenic detoxification through selenium-enriched food supplements. A proteomic approach

    OpenAIRE

    Vale, Gonçalo Jorge Dias do

    2010-01-01

    Dissertação apresentada para a obtenção do grau de doutor em Bioquímica pela Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia Arsenic is a metalloid that occurs naturally in soils and is toxic to living organisms at high concentrations. The arsenic poisoning can occur indirectly (food chain) or directly through drinking water. In humans the chronic exposure to arsenic is linked to cancer, vascular diseases and skin lesions. In countries like Bangladesh the problems related t...

  3. The winter pack-ice zone provides a sheltered but food-poor habitat for larval Antarctic krill

    OpenAIRE

    Meyer, Bettina; Freier, Ulrich; Grimm, Volker; Groeneveld, Jürgen; Hunt, Brian P. V.; Kerwath, Sven; King, Rob; Klaas, Christine; Pakhomov, Evgeny A.; Meiners, Klaus M.; Melbourne-Thomas, Jessica; Murphy, Eugene J.; Thorpe, Sally E.; Stammerjohn, Sharon; Wolf-Gladrow, Dieter

    2017-01-01

    A dominant Antarctic ecological paradigm suggests that winter sea ice is generally the main feeding ground for krill larvae. Observations from our winter cruise to the southwest Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean contradict this view and present the first evidence that the pack-ice zone is a food-poor habitat for larval development. In contrast, the more open marginal ice zone provides a more favourable food environment for high larval krill growth rates. We found that complex under-ice ha...

  4. 78 FR 49990 - Dean Foods Company and WhiteWave Foods Company; Filing of Food Additive Petition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-16

    ... regulations be amended to provide for the expanded safe uses of vitamin D 2 and vitamin D 3 as nutrient supplements in food. DATES: The food additive petition was filed on June 27, 2013. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Judith Kidwell, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (HFS-265), Food and Drug...

  5. Data on screening and identification of genetically modified papaya in food supplements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theo W. Prins

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article contains data related to the research article entitled “A case study to determine the geographical origin of unknown GM papaya in routine food sample analysis, followed by identification of papaya events 16-0-1 and 18-2-4” (Prins et al., 2016 [1]. Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR with targets that are putatively present in genetically modified (GM papaya was used as a first screening to narrow down the vast array of candidates. The combination of elements P-nos and nptII was further confirmed by amplification and subsequent sequencing of the P-nos/nptII construct. Next, presence of the candidate GM papayas 16-0-1 and 18-2-4 were investigated by amplification and sequencing of event-spanning regions on the left and right border. This data article reports the Cq values for GM elements, the nucleotide sequence of the P-nos/nptII construct and the presence of GM papaya events 18-2-4 and/or 16-0-1 in five samples that were randomly sampled to be analysed in the framework of the official Dutch GMO monitoring program for food.

  6. Data on screening and identification of genetically modified papaya in food supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prins, Theo W; Scholtens, Ingrid M J; Bak, Arno W; van Dijk, Jeroen P; Voorhuijzen, Marleen M; Laurensse, Emile J; Kok, Esther J

    2016-12-01

    This article contains data related to the research article entitled "A case study to determine the geographical origin of unknown GM papaya in routine food sample analysis, followed by identification of papaya events 16-0-1 and 18-2-4" (Prins et al., 2016) [1]. Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) with targets that are putatively present in genetically modified (GM) papaya was used as a first screening to narrow down the vast array of candidates. The combination of elements P-nos and nptII was further confirmed by amplification and subsequent sequencing of the P-nos/nptII construct. Next, presence of the candidate GM papayas 16-0-1 and 18-2-4 were investigated by amplification and sequencing of event-spanning regions on the left and right border. This data article reports the Cq values for GM elements, the nucleotide sequence of the P-nos/nptII construct and the presence of GM papaya events 18-2-4 and/or 16-0-1 in five samples that were randomly sampled to be analysed in the framework of the official Dutch GMO monitoring program for food.

  7. Time optimal control of an additional food provided predator-prey system with applications to pest management and biological conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasu, P D N; Prasad, B S R V

    2010-04-01

    Use of additional food has been widely recognized by experimental scientists as one of the important tools for biological control such as species conservation and pest management. The quality and quantity of additional food supplied to the predators is known to play a vital role in the controllability of the system. The present study is continuation of a previous work that highlights the importance of quality and quantity of the additional food in the dynamics of a predator-prey system in the context of biological control. In this article the controllability of the predator-prey system is analyzed by considering inverse of quality of the additional food as the control variable. Control strategies are offered to steer the system from a given initial state to a required terminal state in a minimum time by formulating Mayer problem of optimal control. It is observed that an optimal strategy is a combination of bang-bang controls and could involve multiple switches. Properties of optimal paths are derived using necessary conditions for Mayer problem. In the light of the results evolved in this work it is possible to eradicate the prey from the eco-system in the minimum time by providing the predator with high quality additional food, which is relevant in the pest management. In the perspective of biological conservation this study highlights the possibilities to drive the state to an admissible interior equilibrium (irrespective of its stability nature) of the system in a minimum time.

  8. Determination of key flavonoid aglycones by means of nano-LC for the analysis of dietary supplements and food matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanali, Chiara; Rocco, Anna; D'Orazio, Giovanni; Dugo, Laura; Mondello, Luigi; Aturki, Zeineb

    2015-04-01

    A method for the analysis of flavonoids (myricetin, quercetin, naringenin, hesperitin, and kaempferol), with interesting bioactivity, has been developed and validated utilizing nano-LC technique. In order to find optimal conditions, capillary columns (75 μm id × 10 cm) packed with different types of stationary phases, Kinetex® C18 core-shell (2.6 μm particle size), Hydride-based RP-C18 (sub-2 μm particle size), and LiChrospher® 100 RP-18 endcapped (5 μm particle size) were evaluated. The method was validated using Hydride-based RP-C18 stationary phase, with sub-2 μm particle size. A good chromatographic performance, expressed in terms of repeatability (RSD, in the range 1.63-4.68% for peak area), column-to-column reproducibility (RSD not higher than 8.01% for peak area), good linearity and sensitivity was obtained. In particular limit of detection values between 0.07 and 0.31 μg/mL were achieved with on column focusing technique. The method was applied to the determination of studied flavonoids in dietary supplements as well as in food matrices. The amount of quercetin found in the first analyzed dietary supplement, was in agreement to the labeled content. In the other samples, where the content of flavonoids was not labeled, most of the studied flavonoids were determined in amounts somewhere comparable to those reported in literature. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Temperature impacts differentially on the methanogenic food web of cellulose-supplemented peatland soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Oliver; Horn, Marcus A; Kolb, Steffen; Drake, Harold L

    2015-03-01

    The impact of temperature on the largely unresolved intermediary ecosystem metabolism and associated unknown microbiota that link cellulose degradation and methane production in soils of a moderately acidic (pH 4.5) fen was investigated. Supplemental [(13) C]cellulose stimulated the accumulation of propionate, acetate and carbon dioxide as well as initial methane production in anoxic peat soil slurries at 15°C and 5°C. Accumulation of organic acids at 15°C was twice as fast as that at 5°C. 16S rRNA [(13) C]cellulose stable isotope probing identified novel unclassified Bacteria (79% identity to the next cultured relative Fibrobacter succinogenes), unclassified Bacteroidetes (89% identity to Prolixibacter bellariivorans), Porphyromonadaceae, Acidobacteriaceae and Ruminococcaceae as main anaerobic degraders of cellulose-derived carbon at both 15°C and 5°C. Holophagaceae and Spirochaetaceae were more abundant at 15°C. Clostridiaceae dominated the degradation of cellulose-derived carbon only at 5°C. Methanosarcina was the dominant methanogenic taxa at both 15°C and 5°C. Relative abundance of Methanocella increased at 15°C whereas that of Methanoregula and Methanosaeta increased at 5°C. Thaumarchaeota closely related to Nitrosotalea (presently not known to grow anaerobically) were abundant at 5°C but absent at 15°C indicating that Nitrosotalea sp. might be capable of anaerobic growth at low temperatures in peat. © 2014 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. [Vitamin A and D status among child participants in a food supplementation program].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurihayashi, Aline Yukari; Augusto, Rosangela Aparecida; Escaldelai, Fernanda Martins Dias; Martini, Lígia Araújo

    2015-03-01

    Vitamin A and D serum concentrations and risk factors for their deficiencies were investigated in children participating in a government-sponsored fortified milk program. The study used multivariate linear regression analysis with hierarchical selection of independent variables: socio-demographic conditions, children's health, food consumption, breastfeeding, fortified milk, exposure to sunlight, anthropometric measurements, and serum concentration of retinol and 25(OH)D. Vitamin A and vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency values were defined as Vitamin A and D intake was inadequate. Prevalence rates for vitamin A and vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency were 19%, 6%, 82%, and 58%, respectively. Factors associated with low serum vitamin A were exclusive breastfeeding for less than 120 days, low maternal schooling, maternal unemployment, more consumers of fortified milk in the family, and low serum vitamin D. Factors associated with vitamin D deficiency were low exposure to sunlight and low serum vitamin A. Nutritional education is needed to improve children's nutritional status.

  11. Calcium and Vitamin D Supplement Prescribing Practices among Providers Caring for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Are We Addressing Bone Health?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shylaja Srinivasan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD have several risk factors for low bone mineral density. The gluten-free, casein-free (GFCF diet is a complementary therapy sometimes used in ASD that raises concerns for the adequacy of calcium and vitamin D intake. This study evaluated the prescribing practices of calcium and vitamin D supplements and the practice of checking 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OHD levels by providers in 100 children with ASD, 50 of whom were on the GFCF diet. Fifty-two percent and 46% of children on the GFCF diet were on some form of vitamin D and calcium supplements, respectively, compared to 18% and 14% of those not on this diet. Twenty-four percent of children in the GFCF group had a documented 25(OHD level compared to none in the non-GFCF group. The data highlight a gap in calcium and vitamin D supplement prescribing practices among providers caring for children with ASD as well as a gap in the practice of checking 25(OHD levels.

  12. Effect of animal-source food supplement prior to and during pregnancy on birthweight and prematurity in rural Vietnam: a brief study description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Ngu; King, Janet C; Dirren, Henri; Thu, Hoang Nga; Ngoc, Quyen Phi; Diep, Anh Nguyen Thi

    2014-12-01

    Maternal nutritional status is an important predictor of infant birthweight. Most previous attempts to improve birthweight through multiple micronutrient supplementation have been initiated after women are pregnant. Interventions to improve maternal nutritional status prior to conception may be more effective in preventing low birthweight and improving other infant health outcomes. To compare the effects of maternal supplementation with animal-source food from preconception to term or from mid-gestation to term with routine prenatal care on birthweight, the prevalence of preterm births, intrauterine growth restriction, and infant growth during the first 12 months of life and on maternal nutrient status and the incidence of maternal and infant infections. Young women from 29 rural communes in northwestern Vietnam were recruited when they registered to marry and were randomized to one of three interventions: animal-source food supplement 5 days per week from marriage to term (approximately 13 months), animal-source food supplement 5 days per week from 16 weeks of gestation to term (approximately 5 months), or routine prenatal care without supplementalfeeding. Data on infant birthweight and gestational age, maternal and infant anthropometry, micronutrient status, and infections in the infant and mother were collected at various time points. In a preliminary study of women of reproductive age in this area of Vietnam, 40% of the women were underweight (body mass index nutritional interventions to improve maternal and infant health.

  13. Effects of Maharishi Amrit Kalash 5 as an Ayurvedic herbal food supplement on immune functions in aged mice

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    Sugiura Haruo

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maharishi Amrit Kalash (MAK 5, one of the Ayurvedic food supplements, belongs to a group of substances known as Rasayana. MAK5 and other Rasayanas are believed to enhance the body's resistance to infections and disease, and enhance longevity. In this study, we determined the effects of administration of MAK5, one of the Ayurvedic food supplements on immune functions in young and old mice. Methods Male C3H/He N mice were divided into five groups: two no treatment groups (old control: 22-month-old and young control: 2-month-old and three MAK5 treated groups with differing dose of MAK5. MAK5 was given p.o. at 50 mg/kg, 100 mg/kg or 200 mg/kg per day (3 days/week for 2 months. Results We found that glucose consumption of peritoneal macrophages from old mice treated with MAK5 at all doses and incubated for 48 and 72 h were significantly greater than that in the control group. Nitric oxide production of peritoneal macrophages stimulated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS in old mice treated with MAK5 at all doses was significantly greater than that in the old control group, but not compared to the young control group. Stimulation index (S.I. in old mice gavaged with MAK5 at all doses was significantly higher than that in the old control group. IL-2 production stimulated by Con A in old mice given MAK5 at all doses was significantly higher than that in the old control group. Production of IFN-γ stimulated by Con A in old mice given MAK5 at doses of 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg were significantly higher than that in the old control group. IL-4 production of splenic lymphocyte stimulated by Con A in old mice given MAK5 at dose levels of 100 and 200 mg/kg were significantly higher than that in the old control group. Conclusion The results suggest that MAK5 suppressed the age associated glucose consumption of peritoneal macrophages and cellular immune function reduction, and that it contributes to the prevention of the immunosenescence.

  14. Adequacy of nutritional intake from food and supplements in a cohort of pregnant women in Québec, Canada: the 3D Cohort Study (Design, Develop, Discover).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, Lise; Diasparra, Maikol; Bédard, Brigitte; Colapinto, Cynthia K; Fontaine-Bisson, Bénédicte; Morisset, Anne-Sophie; Tremblay, Richard E; Fraser, William D

    2017-08-01

    Background: Assessments of the dietary intakes in various populations suggest that pregnant women have difficulty meeting all their nutritional requirements through diet alone. Few large-scale studies have considered both food sources and supplements in assessing the adequacy of nutritional intakes during pregnancy.Objective: Our study aimed to assess nutritional intakes during pregnancy by examining dietary sources and supplements. It then compared these findings with Dietary Reference Intakes.Design: We conducted a nutrition study in a large pregnancy cohort using a 3-d food record during the second trimester of pregnancy. Detailed information about supplement consumption was obtained by interview at each prenatal visit. We estimated the distribution of total usual intakes for energy, macronutrients, and micronutrients for 1533 pregnant women.Results: A third of the participants had total fat intakes that exceeded the Acceptable Micronutrient Distribution Range. A majority of women (85%) had sodium intakes above the Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL). Median intakes for fiber and potassium were lower than Adequate Intakes. Dietary intakes of vitamin B-6, magnesium, and zinc were below the Estimated Average Requirements (EARs) for 10-15% of the women. A majority of the women had dietary intakes below the EARs for iron (97%), vitamin D (96%), and folate (70%). When we considered micronutrient intakes from both food and supplements, we found that the prevalence of inadequate intake was food alone remains low in the diets of pregnant women. Supplement use reduces the risk of inadequate intake for many micronutrients, but diet-related issues during pregnancy remain and deserve to be addressed in public health interventions. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT03113331. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  15. Potential for Bacteriophage Endolysins to Supplement or Replace Antibiotics in Food Production and Clinical Care

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    Michael J. Love

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available There is growing concern about the emergence of bacterial strains showing resistance to all classes of antibiotics commonly used in human medicine. Despite the broad range of available antibiotics, bacterial resistance has been identified for every antimicrobial drug developed to date. Alarmingly, there is also an increasing prevalence of multidrug-resistant bacterial strains, rendering some patients effectively untreatable. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop alternatives to conventional antibiotics for use in the treatment of both humans and food-producing animals. Bacteriophage-encoded lytic enzymes (endolysins, which degrade the cell wall of the bacterial host to release progeny virions, are potential alternatives to antibiotics. Preliminary studies show that endolysins can disrupt the cell wall when applied exogenously, though this has so far proven more effective in Gram-positive bacteria compared with Gram-negative bacteria. Their potential for development is furthered by the prospect of bioengineering, and aided by the modular domain structure of many endolysins, which separates the binding and catalytic activities into distinct subunits. These subunits can be rearranged to create novel, chimeric enzymes with optimized functionality. Furthermore, there is evidence that the development of resistance to these enzymes may be more difficult compared with conventional antibiotics due to their targeting of highly conserved bonds.

  16. Interactions of food and dietary supplements with drug metabolising cytochrome P450 enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nekvindová, J; Anzenbacher, P

    2007-07-01

    Drug side effects and toxicity and often the drug efficacy are highly dependent on drug metabolism determining the activation and/or elimination of the respective compound. In humans, cytochromes P450 are the most important drug metabolizing enzymes of the first phase of drug biotransformation. Their activity can vary due to interindividual genetic differences, but it can be changed also by inhibition or induction of the enzymes by their substrates or other compounds that are not only drugs themselves and/or drugs taken concomitantly. Often, influence on drug metabolism by compounds that occur in the environment, most remarkably in the food, is forgotten. Some commonly used herbs, fruits as well as e.g. alcohol may cause failure of the therapy up to serious alterations of the patient's health. This review presents a brief overview of potentially dangerous nutrition factors including herbs (incl. teas, infusions) that should be considered when indicating individual drug therapy. Examples include primarily grapefruits, pomelo, star fruit, pomegranates and some other fruits, St John's Wort (Hypericum perforatum), caffeine, as well as alcohol and cigarette smoking.

  17. Risk assessment of plant food supplements and other herbal products containing aristolochic acids using the margin of exposure (MOE) approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Rozaini; Diaz, Leolean Nyle; Wesseling, Sebastiaan; Rietjens, Ivonne M C M

    2017-02-01

    After the incidences of induction of aristolochic acid nephropathy after consumption of herbal weight loss preparations that accidentally contained aristolochic acids (AAs), several countries defined national restrictions on the presence of AAs in food, including plant food supplements (PFS) and herbal products. This study investigates whether the risks associated with exposure to AAs via PFS and herbal products are at present indeed negligible. Data reported in literature on AA levels in PFS and other herbal products and also obtained from a new series of PFS in the present study were used to calculate the estimated daily intakes (EDIs) and corresponding margins of exposure (MOEs). Available literature data revealed that 206 out of 573 samples were found to contain aristolochic acid I (AAI) and/or aristolochic acid II (AAII). The results obtained from recently collected PFS revealed that both AAI and AAII were detected in three out of 18 analysed PFS at levels up to 594.8 and 235.3 µg g-1, respectively, being in line with the levels reported in literature. The EDIs resulting from intake of these PFS resulted in MOEs that were generally below 10,000, corroborating the priority for risk management. Although these results refer to PFS collected by targeted sampling strategies, the data reveal that AA-containing PFS are still freely available. When considering that the use of these samples may be limited to shorter periods of time, the EDIs might be lower, but MOE values would still be lower than 10,000 for more than 50% of the AA-containing PFS and herbal products. In conclusion, the presence of AAs in PFS and herbal products even several years after instalment of the legal restrictions still raises concern, especially for people who frequently use the respective PFS and herbal products.

  18. Bioactive foods in promoting health: probiotics and prebiotics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Watson, Ronald R; Preedy, Victor R

    2010-01-01

    "Bioactive Foods in Health Promotion: Probiotics and Prebiotics brings together experts working on the different aspects of supplementation, foods, and bacterial preparations, in health promotion and disease prevention, to provide...

  19. Potential Effects of Nichi Glucan as a Food Supplement for Diabetes Mellitus and Hyperlipidemia: Preliminary Findings from the Study on Three Patients from India

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    Vidyasagar Devaprasad Dedeepiya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Beta Glucan food supplements have been reported to be of benefit in diabetes and hyperlipidemia. We report a pilot study of the effects of Nichi Glucan, 1, 3-1, 6 Beta Glucan food supplement, in lowering the blood glucose and lipid levels in three patients with noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM from India. These patients had increased blood glucose and lipid levels inspite of routine antidiabetic and lipid level lowering medications. Each of the participants took 1.5 g of Nichi Glucan per day with food for two months along with their routine medications. The relevant parameters to assess glycemic status and lipid levels were calculated at the baseline and at the end of two months. After two months of continuous consumption, in one patient, the HbA1c decreased from 9.1% to 7.8%, and the glycemic target of HbA1c <6.5% laid down by the International Diabetes Federation was reached in two patients. Lipid levels also decreased significantly. Based on our findings, Nichi Glucan food supplement can be considered along with routine medications in patients with Type II diabetes with hyperlipidemia. Further studies are needed to validate the results.

  20. Formulation and nutritional evaluation of weaning food processed from cooking banana, supplemented with cowpea and peanut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassey, Francisca I; McWatters, Kay H; Edem, Christopher A; Iwegbue, Chukwujindu M A

    2013-09-01

    The possibility of processing a ready-to-eat nutrient-rich weaning food (WF) for infants within the age group of 0.5-0.9 years from cooking banana fortified with popular and affordable legumes (cowpea and peanut) was investigated with the aid of computer software and available technology in Nigeria. A composite of 47% cowpea, 40% ripe banana, and 13% peanut was processed, analyzed to compare the actual nutrient composition to that predicted by the software and that of two popular commercial WFs produced by Gerber Products Company: rice with banana (RB) and oats with banana (OB). Proximate composition was determined by Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC) methods, in vitro digestibility by the pH drop method, and amino acid was determined using high performance liquid chromatography. Essential amino acid values were comparable to the predicted values. Protein and oil contents had values of 16.89% and 8.38%, 6.9% and 1.10%, and 12.03% and 3.16% for WF, RB, and OB, respectively. Octadecenoic (oleic) acid had the highest value of 3.65% followed by octadecadienoic (linoleic) acid with a value of 2.64% amounting to 76.69% of the total fatty acid. Total sugar content of WF was recorded as 15.96 g/100 g, with fructose having the highest value of 8.07 g/100 g, followed by dextrose with a value of 7.66 g/100 g. In vitro-digestibility was in the order OB>WF>RB. The results show that it is feasible to produce precooked WF which has the potential to meet the nutritional needs of an infant, from local staples using computer-assisted technique and inexpensive technology available in Nigeria.

  1. Transgenic zebrafish eggs containing bactericidal peptide is a novel food supplement enhancing resistance to pathogenic infection of fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Cheng-Yung; Yang, Ping-Hsi; Kao, Chia-Ling; Huang, Han-I; Tsai, Huai-Jen

    2010-03-01

    Zebrafish (Danio rerio) was used as a bioreactor to produce bovine lactoferricin (LFB), which has wide-ranging antimicrobial activity. We constructed an expression plasmid in which LFB was fused with green fluorescent protein (GFP) and driven by zebrafish beta-actin promoter. After microinjection, six transgenic founders were screened on the basis of GFP appearance. Among them, a stable ZBL-5 line was selected by the ubiquitous and strong expression of GFP. Using PCR and Western blot analysis, we confirmed that the recombinant LFB-GFP protein was produced by the F2 progeny derived from the ZBL-5 line. The bactericidal agar plate assay proved that the functional domain of LFB was released from the LFB-GFP fusion protein, resulting in strong bactericidal activity against Escherichia coli, Edwardsiella tarda and Aeromonas hydrophila. Furthermore, adult zebrafish were given one feeding of fifty 72-hpf transgenic embryos. The treated fish were then immersed in freshwater containing 1 x 10(5) CFU ml(-1)E. tarda for 7 days. The survival rate of the treated zebrafish was significantly higher than that of fish fed with fifty wild-type embryos (75 +/- 12.5% versus 4 +/- 7.2%). This line of evidence suggested that pathogen resistance can be enhanced by using transgenic embryos containing LFB-GFP as a food supplement for fish, while, at the same time, reducing the demand of chemical antibiotics. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Risk assessment of combined exposure to alkenylbenzenes through consumption of plant food supplements containing parsley and dill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alajlouni, Abdalmajeed M; Al-Malahmeh, Amer J; Wesseling, Sebastiaan; Kalli, Marina; Vervoort, Jacques; Rietjens, Ivonne M C M

    2017-12-01

    A risk assessment was performed of parsley- and dill-based plant food supplements (PFS) containing apiol and related alkenylbenzenes. First, the levels of the alkenylbenzenes in the PFS and the resulting estimated daily intake (EDI) resulting from use of the PFS were quantified. Since most PFS appeared to contain more than one alkenylbenzene, a combined risk assessment was performed based on equal potency or using a so-called toxic equivalency (TEQ) approach based on toxic equivalency factors (TEFs) for the different alkenylbenzenes. The EDIs resulting from daily PFS consumption amount to 0.74-125 µg kg-1 bw for the individual alkenylbenzenes, 0.74-160 µg kg-1 bw for the sum of the alkenylbenzenes, and 0.47-64 µg kg-1 bw for the sum of alkenylbenzenes when expressed in safrole equivalents. The margins of exposure (MOEs) obtained were generally below 10,000, indicating a priority for risk management if the PFS were to be consumed on a daily basis. Considering short-term use of the PFS, MOEs would increase above 10,000, indicating low priority for risk management. It is concluded that alkenylbenzene intake through consumption of parsley- and dill-based PFS is only of concern when these PFS are used for long periods of time.

  3. Matrix-derived combination effect and risk assessment for estragole from basil-containing plant food supplements (PFS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg, Suzanne J P L; Klaus, Verena; Alhusainy, Wasma; Rietjens, Ivonne M C M

    2013-12-01

    Basil-containing plant food supplements (PFS) can contain estragole which can be metabolised into a genotoxic and carcinogenic 1'-sulfoxymetabolite. This study describes the inhibition of sulfotransferase (SULT)-mediated bioactivation of estragole by compounds present in basil-containing PFS. Results reveal that PFS consisting of powdered basil material contain other compounds with considerable in vitro SULT-inhibiting activity, whereas the presence of such compounds in PFS consisting of basil essential oil was limited. The inhibitor in powdered basil PFS was identified as nevadensin. Physiologically based kinetic (PBK) modeling was performed to elucidate if the observed inhibitory effects can occur in vivo. Subsequently, risk assessment was performed using the Margin of Exposure (MOE) approach. Results suggest that the consequences of the in vivo matrix-derived combination effect are significant when estragole would be tested in rodent bioassays with nevadensin at ratios detected in PFS, thereby increasing MOE values. However, matrix-derived combination effects may be limited at lower dose levels, indicating that the importance of matrix-derived combination effects for risk assessment of individual compounds should be done on a case-by-case basis considering dose-dependent effects. Furthermore, this study illustrates how PBK modeling can be used in risk assessment of PFS, contributing to further reduction in the use of experimental animals. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Calcium and cholecalciferol supplementation provides no added benefit to nutritional counseling to improve bone mineral density in survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaste, S C; Qi, A; Smith, K; Surprise, H; Lovorn, E; Boyett, J; Ferry, R J; Relling, M V; Shurtleff, S A; Pui, C H; Carbone, L; Hudson, M M; Ness, K K

    2014-05-01

    We sought to improve lumbar spine bone mineral density (LS-BMD) in long-term survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) using calcium and cholecalciferol supplementation. This double-blind, placebo-controlled trial randomized 275 participants (median age, 17 [9-36.1] years) with age- and gender-specific LS-BMD Z-scores <0 to receive nutritional counseling with supplementation of 1,000 mg/day calcium and 800 International Unit cholecalciferol or placebo for 2 years. The primary outcome was change in LS-BMD assessed by quantitative computerized tomography (QCT) at 24 months. Linear regression models were employed to identify the baseline risk factors for low LS-BMD and to compare LS-BMD outcomes. Pre-randomization LS-BMD below the mean was associated with male gender (P = 0.0024), White race (P = 0.0003), lower body mass index (P < 0.0001), and cumulative glucocorticoid doses of ≥ 5,000 mg (P = 0.0012). One hundred eighty-eight (68%) participants completed the study; 77% adhered to the intervention. Mean LS-BMD change did not differ between survivors randomized to supplements (0.33 ± 0.57) or placebo (0.28 ± 0.56). Participants aged 9-13 years and those 22-35 years had the greatest mean increases in LS-BMD (0.50 ± 0.66 and 0.37 ± 0.23, respectively). Vitamin D insufficiency (serum 25[OH]D <30 ng/ml) found in 296 (75%), was not associated with LS-BMD outcomes (P = 0.78). Cholecalciferol and calcium supplementation provides no added benefit to nutritional counseling for improving LS-BMD among adolescent and young adult survivors of ALL (93% of whom had LS-BMD Z-scores above the mean at study entry). © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Need for accurate and standardized determination of amino acids and bioactive peptides for evaluating protein quality and potential health effects of foods and dietary supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilani, G Sarwar; Xiao, Chaowu; Lee, Nora

    2008-01-01

    Accurate standardized methods for the determination of amino acid in foods are required to assess the nutritional safety and compositional adequacy of sole source foods such as infant formulas and enteral nutritionals, and protein and amino acid supplements and their hydrolysates, and to assess protein claims of foods. Protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score (PDCAAS), which requires information on amino acid composition, is the official method for assessing protein claims of foods and supplements sold in the United States. PDCAAS has also been adopted internationally as the most suitable method for routine evaluation of protein quality of foods by the Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization. Standardized methods for analysis of amino acids by ion-exchange chromatography have been developed. However, there is a need to develop validated methods of amino acid analysis in foods using liquid chromatographic techniques, which have replaced ion-exchange methods for quantifying amino acids in most laboratories. Bioactive peptides from animal and plant proteins have been found to potentially impact human health. A wide range of physiological effects, including blood pressure-lowering effects, cholesterol-lowering ability, antithrombotic effects, enhancement of mineral absorption, and immunomodulatory effects have been described for bioactive peptides. There is considerable commercial interest in developing functional foods containing bioactive peptides. There is also a need to develop accurate standardized methods for the characterization (amino acid sequencing) and quantification of bioactive peptides and to carry out dose-response studies in animal models and clinical trials to assess safety, potential allergenicity, potential intolerance, and efficacy of bioactive peptides. Information from these studies is needed for determining the upper safe levels of bioactive peptides and as the basis for developing potential health claims for bioactive

  6. 75 FR 26747 - U.S. Gas & Electric, Inc., Energy Services Providers, Inc., ESPI New England, Inc; Supplemental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-12

    ... No: 2010-11240] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Docket Nos. ER10-1129-000; ER10-1130-000; ER10-1131-000] U.S. Gas & Electric, Inc., Energy Services Providers, Inc., ESPI New... U.S. Gas & Electric, Inc., Energy Services Providers, Inc., and ESPI New England, Inc.'s application...

  7. Evaluation of the Zootechnical Parameters of Broiler Chickens Providing Different Percentages of Saccharomyces cerevisiae In the Food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Cárdenas Neita

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae (PcSc belongs to the family of probiotics and is considered to be one of the most promising alternatives to replace the use of antibiotic growth promoters (APC in animal feed, as these have not been used properly in causing microbial resistance to antibiotic therapies in animals and in humans. The new systems of broiler production must adapt to the growing demands of a population increasingly critical of products of animal origin. For this reason, the implementation of different alternatives to the APC can be used in feeding chickens, and doesn’t create a risk to animal or human health. In this study the zootechnical parameters were evaluated: weight gain, and feed conversion efficiency in broilers, providing a dose of 1 % and 2 % commercial yeast product in total daily food; 90 mixed breed Cobb chickens day old to 42 days old were used. They were randomized into three groups: control: food without adding yeast; Treatment 1: 1 % yeast PcSc in food; Treatment 2: 2 % yeast PcSc on food, diet of the three groups was based on a commercial concentrate that met the nutritional requirements for the breed, the birds were subjected to the same management conditions and sanitation. Using simple random sampling; each group of 30 individuals and 3 replicates of 10 individuals per treatment were administered. The experimental group with 1 % PcSc finished with more weight relative to the other groups, while feed conversion was better for the animals of treatment 1, and increased the feed efficiency obtained in the group with 2 % yeast (P <0.05. These results demonstrate that the inclusion of yeast PcSc in food, increase the production parameters of broilers and thereby the gains poultry farmers.

  8. Helping consumers make more healthful food choices: consumer views on modifying food labels and providing point-of-purchase nutrition information at quick-service restaurants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lando, Amy M; Labiner-Wolfe, Judith

    2007-01-01

    To understand consumer (1) interest in nutrition information on food labels and quick-service restaurant menu boards and (2) reactions to modifying this information to help highlight calories and more healthful choices. Eight consumer focus groups, using a guide and stimuli. Focus group discussions in 4 US cities. A total of 68 consumers, with 7 to 10 per focus group. Authors prepared detailed summaries of discussions based on observation. Video recordings and transcripts were used to cross-check summaries. Data were systematically reviewed, synthesized, and analyzed. Consumer views on alternative presentations of nutrition information on packaged food items and quick-service restaurant menu boards. Participants (1) were interested in having nutrition information available, but would not use it at every eating occasion; (2) thought that food products typically consumed at 1 eating occasion should be labeled as a single serving; and (3) indicated that an icon on labels and menu boards that signaled more healthful options could be helpful. Findings provide a basis for the development of more systematic studies to better understand whether alternative presentations of nutrition information would help consumers.

  9. Probiotic-enriched foods and dietary supplement containing SYNBIO positively affects bowel habits in healthy adults: an assessment using standard statistical analysis and Support Vector Machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvi, Stefania; Verdenelli, M Cristina; Cecchini, Cinzia; Coman, M Magdalena; Bernabei, M Simonetta; Rosati, Jessica; De Leone, Renato; Orpianesi, Carla; Cresci, Alberto

    2014-12-01

    A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group study assessed in healthy adults how daily consumption of the probiotic combination SYNBIO®, administered in probiotic-enriched foods or in a dietary supplement, affected bowel habits. Primary and secondary outcomes gave the overall assessment of bowel well-being, while a Psychological General Well-Being Index compiled by participants estimated the health-related quality of life as well as the gastrointestinal tolerance determined with the Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale. Support Vector Machine models for classification problems were used to validate the total outcomes on bowel well-being. SYNBIO® consumption improved bowel habits of volunteers consuming the probiotic foods or capsules, while the same effects were not registered in the control groups. The recovery of probiotic bacteria from the faeces of a cohort of 100 subjects for each supplemented group showed the persistence of strains in the gastrointestinal tract.

  10. Effect of magnesium, probiotic, and vitamin food supplementation in healthy subjects with psychological stress and evaluation of a persistent effect after discontinuing intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allaert, Francois A; Courau, Stephanie; Forestier, Anne

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this paper was to describe the changes in subjects' psychological stress intensity under the effect of dietary supplements of magnesium, probiotics, and vitamins after one month of intake. Observational cohort study of subject complaining of psychological stress defined by a Perceived Stress Scale (PSS 10) score of more than 21. The study covered 242 healthy volunteers, 38.6±13.6-year-old, among whom 79.8% were women. Under the effect of the supplementation of magnesium, probiotics, and vitamins, the psychological stress of the subjects decreased significantly from 34.1±4.5 to 26.2±6.1 (Ppsychological stress level was strictly similar one month after the treatment was discontinued and therefore clearly demonstrated that the psychological benefit was maintained over time. Stress and fatigue are significantly reduced by the intake of a food supplement with probiotics, magnesium, vitamins, and minerals and this effect is fully maintained one month after discontinuing the food supplement intake.

  11. Lipid-Based Nutrient Supplements Providing Approximately the Recommended Daily Intake of Vitamin A Do Not Increase Breast Milk Retinol Concentrations among Ghanaian Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klevor, Moses K; Haskell, Marjorie J; Lartey, Anna; Adu-Afarwuah, Seth; Zeilani, Mamane; Dewey, Kathryn G

    2016-02-01

    Vitamin A deficiency remains a global public health problem. Daily supplementation with a lipid-based nutrient supplement (LNS) has potential for increasing milk vitamin A concentrations. The objective of this study was to determine whether daily supplementation with approximately the recommended daily intake of vitamin A in an LNS or a multiple-micronutrient supplement (MMN) during pregnancy and the first 6 mo postpartum has an effect on breast milk retinol concentration at 6 mo postpartum. Women ≤20 wk pregnant (n = 1320) were randomly assigned to receive either the MMN providing 18 micronutrients, including 800 μg retinol equivalents of vitamin A, or the LNS with the same nutrients as the MMN group, plus 4 minerals and macronutrients, until 6 mo postpartum; a control group received iron and folic acid during pregnancy and a placebo (calcium tablet) during the first 6 mo postpartum. Breast milk samples collected at 6 mo postpartum were analyzed for retinol and fat concentrations by HPLC and creamatocrit, respectively, in a subsample of 756 women. The breast milk retinol concentration was (mean ± SD) 56.3 ± 2.1 nmol/g fat, with no significant differences between groups [iron and folic acid (n = 243): 59.1 ± 2.8; MMN (n = 260): 55.4 ± 2.5; LNS (n = 253): 54.7 ± 2.5 nmol/g fat; P = 0.45], regardless of whether the woman had or had not received a high-dose vitamin A supplement (200,000 IU) soon after childbirth. Around 17% of participants had low milk retinol (≤28 nmol/g fat). We estimated that 41% of infants were potentially receiving vitamin A at amounts above the Tolerable Upper Intake Level (600 μg retinol activity equivalents/d), with no group differences in percentages with low or high milk retinol concentration. Daily consumption of approximately the recommended intake of vitamin A did not increase breast milk retinol concentrations in this sample of Ghanaian women. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00970866. © 2016 American

  12. Bioactive peptides: production, health effects and application as natural supplements for functional foods production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mirdamadi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Bioactive peptides, are inactive components within the structure of the protein and when they are released by enzymatic hydrolysis, show different physiological functions. Recently, the identification and characterization of bioactive peptides derived from plant and animal sources and different microorganisms is highly regarded. They are produced during enzymatic hydrolysis by gastrointestinal enzymes or enzymes extracted from microorganisms and plants or by proteolytic starter cultures during fermentation process and exhibit different activities including: opioid, mineral binding, immunomodulatory, antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, chlosterol lowering and so on. Take advantage of bioactive peptides as components of health is related to bio stability assurance, bioavailability and safety of them. The use of computer-based techniques and the use of various databases completed in laboratory studies,  have provided the possibility of studying the mechanisms of action of different peptides.

  13. Future for probiotic science in functional food and dietary supplement development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neef, Alexander; Sanz, Yolanda

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to provide an update of probiotic science evolving from classical approaches to the development of next-generation probiotics, parallel to advances in the understanding of the complexity of the gut microbiome and its role in human health. The probiotic concept is based on the notion that the gut ecosystem contributes to human physiology and, consequently, its modulation may help to maintain health and reduce disease risk. The understanding of the complexity of the gut microbiota and the specific components associated with progression from health to disease is rapidly increasing, thanks to the use of high-throughput and next-generation sequencing techniques in progressively better controlled epidemiological studies. Evidence on microbiome-mediated effects by intervention with classical probiotics on humans is, however, limited. The new information is helping to set a rationale for selection of a next generation of probiotics. Candidates include Clostridia clusters IV, XIVa and XVIII, Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, Akkermansia muciniphila and Bacteroides uniformis, the effects of which have been evaluated in preclinical trials with promising results for inflammatory and diet-related disorders. Yet, the extent to which new probiotic formulations consisting of nonconventional indigenous gut bacteria will be effective on humans at a population level or in personalized nutrition strategies remains to be explored. Understanding the role that indigenous intestinal bacteria and their ecological interactions play in human health and disease based on epidemiological, intervention and mechanistic studies will provide a robust rationale for selection of probiotic strains and facilitate the optimization of integrated dietary strategies to efficiently modulate the human gut microbiome, leading to improvements in nutrition and clinical practice.

  14. Analytical fingerprint and chemometrics as phytochemical composition control tools in food supplement analysis: characterization of raspberry bud preparations of different cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donno, Dario; Beccaro, Gabriele L; Carlen, Christoph; Ançay, André; Cerutti, Alessandro K; Mellano, Maria Gabriella; Bounous, Giancarlo

    2016-07-01

    The raspberry, Rubus idaeus L., provides several plant parts (as buds) used for food supplements. The aim of this research was to establish a technique for chemical composition control of R. idaeus herbal preparations, using chromatographic methods. These methods allowed us to identify and quantify the main phytochemicals, obtaining a specific phytochemical fingerprint (phytocomplex). Combined with two different chemometric methods - clustering analysis and principal component analysis - the raspberry bud extracts of the different cultivars were efficiently characterized. Rubus idaeus buds were identified as a rich source of anti-inflammatory and antioxidant compounds: organic acids, vitamins and catechins were found to be the most discriminating variables by chemometric techniques to differentiate raspberry cultivars. In particular, catechins (13.25%) and flavonols (8.71%) were the most important polyphenolic classes, followed by cinnamic and benzoic acids. This study developed a useful tool for R. idaeus extract phytochemical characterization that could be applied also for differentiation and composition control of other herbal preparations. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Analytical determination of selenium in medical samples, staple food and dietary supplements by means of total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stosnach, Hagen

    2010-09-01

    Selenium is essential for many aspects of human health and, thus, the object of intensive medical research. This demands the use of analytical techniques capable of analysing selenium at low concentrations with high accuracy in widespread matrices and sometimes smallest sample amounts. In connection with the increasing importance of selenium, there is a need for rapid and simple on-site (or near-to-site) selenium analysis in food basics like wheat at processing and production sites, as well as for the analysis of this element in dietary supplements. Common analytical techniques like electrothermal atomic absorption spectroscopy (ETAAS) and inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) are capable of analysing selenium in medical samples with detection limits in the range from 0.02 to 0.7 μg/l. Since in many cases less complicated and expensive analytical techniques are required, TXRF has been tested regarding its suitability for selenium analysis in different medical, food basics and dietary supplement samples applying most simple sample preparation techniques. The reported results indicate that the accurate analysis of selenium in all sample types is possible. The detection limits of TXRF are in the range from 7 to 12 μg/l for medical samples and 0.1 to 0.2 mg/kg for food basics and dietary supplements. Although this sensitivity is low compared to established techniques, it is sufficient for the physiological concentrations of selenium in the investigated samples.

  16. The impact of integrating food supplementation, nutritional education and HAART (Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy) on the nutritional status of patients living with HIV/AIDS in Mozambique: results from the DREAM Programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarcella, P; Buonomo, E; Zimba, I; Doro Altan, A M; Germano, P; Palombi, L; Marazzi, M C

    2011-01-01

    DREAM (Drug Resources Enhancement against AIDS and Malnutrition) is a multiregional health program active in Mozambique since 2002 and provides free of charge an integrating package of care consisting of peer to peer nutritional and health education, food supplementation, voluntary counseling and testing, immunological, virological, clinical assessment and HAART (Highly Active AntiRetroviral Treatment). The main goals of this paper are to describe the state of health and nutrition and the adequacy of the diet of a sample of HIV/AIDS patients in Mozambique on HAART and not. A single-arm retrospective cohort study was conducted. 106 HIV/AIDS adult patients (84 in HAART), all receiving food supplementation and peer-to-peer nutritional education, were randomly recruited in Mozambique in two public health centres where DREAM is running. The programme is characterized by: provision of HAART, clinical and laboratory monitoring, peer to peer health and nutritional education and food supplementation. We measured BMI, haemoglobin, viral load, CD4 count at baseline (T0) and after at least 1 year (T1). Dietary intake was estimated using 24h food recall and dietary diversity was assessed by using the Dietary Diversity Score (DDS) at T1. Overall, the patients'diet appeared to be quite balanced in nutrients. In the cohort not in HAART the mean BMI values showed an increases but not significant (initial value: 21.9 ± 2.9; final value: 22.5 ± 3.3 ) and the mean haemoglobin values (g/dl) showed a significant increases (initial value: 10.5+ 2.1; final value: 11.5 ± 1.7 pnutritional status improvement was observed in both cohorts. The improvement in BMI was significant and substantially higher in HAART patients because of the impact of HAART on nutritional status of AIDS patients. Subjects on HAART and with a DDS > 5, showed a substantial BMI gain. This association showed an additional expression of the synergic effect of integrating food supplementation, nutritional education and

  17. Surgical education at Weill Bugando Medical Centre: supplementing surgical training and investing in local health care providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Katrina B; Giiti, Geofrey; Kotecha, Vihar; Chandika, Alphonce; Pryor, Kane O; Härtl, Roger; Gilyoma, Japhet

    2013-06-01

    Global surgery initiatives increasingly are focused on strengthening education and local health care systems to build surgical capacity. The goal of this education project was to support local health care providers in augmenting the surgical curriculum at a new medical school, thus promoting long-term local goals and involvement. Working with local surgeons, residents, and medical and assistant medical officer students, we identified the most common surgical conditions presenting to Weill Bugando Medical Centre in Mwanza, Tanzania, and the areas of greatest need in surgical education. We developed an 8-week teaching schedule for undergraduate students and an electronic database of clinical surgery topics. In addition, we started teaching basic surgical skills in the operating theatre, bridging to an official and recurring workshop through a supporting international surgery organization. The medical and assistant medical officer students reported increased satisfaction with their clinical surgery rotations and mastery of key educational subjects. The initiation of an Essential Surgical Skills workshop through the Canadian Network for International Surgery showed students had improved comfort with basic surgical techniques. Short-term surgical missions may appear to fill a void in the shortage of health care in the developing world. However, we conclude that global health resources are more appropriately used through projects giving ownership to local providers and promoting education as a foundation of development. This results in better coordination among local and visiting providers and greater impact on education and long-term growth of health care capacity.

  18. SNAP-Ed (Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program-Education) Increases Long-Term Food Security among Indiana Households with Children in a Randomized Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Rebecca L; Maulding, Melissa K; Abbott, Angela R; Craig, Bruce A; Eicher-Miller, Heather A

    2016-11-01

    Food insecurity is negatively associated with US children's dietary intake and health. The Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program-Education (SNAP-Ed) aims to alleviate food insecurity by offering nutrition, budgeting, and healthy lifestyle education to low-income individuals and families. The objective of this study was to evaluate the long-term impact of the Indiana SNAP-Ed on food security among households with children. A randomized, controlled, parallel study design with SNAP-Ed as an intervention was carried out during a 4- to 10-wk intervention period. Intervention group participants received the first 4 Indiana SNAP-Ed curriculum lessons. Study participants (n = 575) were adults aged ≥18 y from low-income Indiana households with ≥1 child living in the household. Both treatment groups completed an assessment before and after the intervention period and 1 y after recruitment. The 18-item US Household Food Security Survey Module was used to classify the primary outcomes of food security for the household and adults and children in the household. A linear mixed model was used to compare intervention with control group effects over time on food security. Mean ± SEM changes in household food security score and food security score among household adults from baseline to 1-y follow-up were 1.2 ± 0.4 and 0.9 ± 0.3 units lower, respectively, in the intervention group than in the control group (P food security score from baseline to 1-y follow-up among household children was not significantly different in the intervention group compared with the control group. SNAP-Ed improved food security over a longitudinal time frame among low-income Indiana households with children in this study. SNAP-Ed may be a successful intervention to improve food security. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  19. EVALUATION OF THE AMERICAN WATERWEED (ELODEA CANADENSIS MICHX. AS SUPPLEMENTAL FOOD FOR THE NOBLE CRAYFISH, ASTACUS ASTACUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D’AGARO E.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available We conducted a preliminary study to evaluate the capacity of summerling Astacus astacus to consume the American waterweed (Elodea canadensis Michx..under artificial rearing conditions. Summerling A. astacus (initial b.w.: 0.32 ± 0.02 g were cultured (50 crayfish/m2 in 600l tanks for 89 days. The experimental design was composed of three treatments as follows: control diet (D (crude protein: 40.9% DM; ether extract: 7.4% DM, elodea (E (crude protein: 25.8% DM; ether extract: 1.4% DM and control diet + elodea (D + E with three replicates per treatment. Temperature, dissolved oxygen, and other water parameters were measured weekly (T: 20.1°C; O2: 7.2 mg/l; pH: 7.5; N-NH4: 0.05 mg/l; N-NO2: 0.01 mg/l; N-NO3: 29.9 mg/l. The relative growth rate was significantly (P < 0.01 higher in treatment D + E (195% and D (143% than in E (65%. The reduced growth observed in crayfish fed elodea only can probably be due to the lower dietary lipid level of the plant respect to the standard crayfish requirements. At the end of the experiment, the survival rate of A. astacus was higher (P < 0.05 for the treatment D + E (87% and D (81%, compared to E (56%. Our results suggest that E. canadensis can be used as a non-expensive supplemental food in order to increase growth and survival in summerling noble crayfish. They also showed that A. astacus has the potential to consume this macrophyte in nature.

  20. Proton NMR for detection, identification and quantification of adulterants in 160 herbal food supplements marketed for weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hachem, Rabab; Assemat, Gaëtan; Martins, Nathalie; Balayssac, Stéphane; Gilard, Véronique; Martino, Robert; Malet-Martino, Myriam

    2016-05-30

    One hundred and sixty food supplements (FS) marketed for weight loss and mainly purchased on the Internet were analyzed. All the FS were claimed as 100% natural containing only natural compounds, plant extracts and/or vitamins and the presence of an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) was never mentioned. (1)H NMR spectroscopy was used for detecting the presence of adulterants and for their identification and quantification. Mass spectrometry was used as a complementary method for supporting their identification. Among the 164 samples considered because capsules from 5 different blisters of the same FS were analyzed, 56% were tainted with six API. Forty three contained sibutramine as single adulterant (26%), 9 phenolphthalein (6%) and 23 a mixture of these API (14%) that were both withdrawn from the market several years ago because of toxicity concerns. Sildenafil was found in 12 samples, either as a single adulterant (n=5) or in combination with sibutramine (n=3), phenolphthalein (n=3) and both sibutramine and phenolphthalein (n=1). Fluoxetine was present in 4 formulations, alone (n=3) or in combination with sibutramine and orlistat (n=1). At last, lorcaserine was detected in one FS. The content of sibutramine per dosage unit was comprised between 0.1 and 22 mg and that of phenolphthalein between 0.05 and 56 mg. The study also highlights poor manufacturing practices as evidenced for instance by the variability of API in capsules from different blisters of the same box. This paper demonstrates the need for more effective quality control of weight loss FS and the efficiency of (1)H NMR spectroscopy for the detection of tainted FS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Dietary Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... keeping bones strong. Pregnant women can take the vitamin folic acid to prevent certain birth defects in their babies. To take a supplement as safely as possible Tell your health care provider about any dietary supplements you use Do not take a bigger dose ...

  2. Few changes in food security and dietary intake from short-term participation in the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program among low-income Massachusetts adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Cindy W.; Cluggish, Sarah; Villamor, Eduardo; Catalano, Paul J.; Willett, Walter C.; Rimm, Eric B.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine if short-term participation in the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) affects food security and dietary quality among low-income adults recruited from a Massachusetts-wide emergency food hotline. Methods A three-month, longitudinal study was conducted among 107 adults recruited at the time of SNAP application assistance. Outcomes included household food security (10-item USDA Food Security Survey Module), dietary intake (e.g. grains, fruits) and diet quality (modified Alternate Healthy Eating Index). Data were analyzed using paired t-tests and multivariable linear regression. Results SNAP participation was not associated with improved household food security over three months (P=0.25). Compared to nonparticipants, SNAP participants increased refined grain intake by 1.1 serving/day (P=0.02), from baseline to follow-up. No associations were observed with other foods, nutrients, or dietary quality. Conclusion and Implications Policies that simultaneously improve household food security and dietary quality should be implemented to support the health of low-income Americans participating in this crucial program. PMID:24238909

  3. Usefulness of food chain information provided by Dutch finishing pig producers to control antibiotic residues in pork

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagenberg, van C.P.A.; Backus, G.B.C.; Vorst, van der J.G.A.J.; Urlings, H.A.P.

    2012-01-01

    The EU prescribes that food business operators must use food chain information to assist in food safety control. This study analyses usefulness of food chain information about antibiotic usage covering the 60-day period prior to delivery of pigs to slaughter in the control of antibiotic residues in

  4. Liquid chromatographic determination of caffeine and adrenergic stimulants in food supplements sold in Brazilian e-commerce for weight loss and physical fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viana, Carine; Zemolin, Gabriela M; Müller, Larissa S; Dal Molin, Thaís R; Seiffert, Helena; de Carvalho, Leandro M

    2016-01-01

    Methyl-xanthines and adrenergic stimulants, such as caffeine and synephrine, are commonly added to food supplements due to their stimulating and thermogenic effects. In addition, the abusive consumption of food supplements with ergogenic and aesthetic purposes has been observed worldwide. This work describes the study of caffeine, p-synephrine, hordenine, octopamine, tyramine, ephedrine and salicin as stimulants in dietary supplements marketed in Brazil for weight loss and physical fitness claims. A total of 94 different products were acquired from 30 Brazilian websites. Thus, the sampling of marketed supplements was performed in virtual commerce (e-commerce) with claims of weight loss, appetite reduction, fat burning and metabolism acceleration. The developed analytical method involved the separation of the stimulants by HPLC with diode array detection (HPLC-DAD) by using a gradient elution of flow rate (0.7-2.5 ml min(-1)) and mobile phase composition (0.1% H3PO4/methanol). The validated method was applied to the study of 46 dietary supplements. Caffeine, p-synephrine and ephedrine were found to be present as stimulants in 52% of the studied samples marketed as encapsulated or bulk forms. Caffeine was found to be present in concentrations that represent doses from 25.0 to 1476.7 mg day(-1). Synephrine was found in concentrations that represent doses from 59.1 to 127.0 mg day(-1). Ephedrine was found to be associated with caffeine in one formulation at a concentration representing a 26.1 mg day(-1) dosage.

  5. Effect of Short-Term Supplementation with Ready-to-Use Therapeutic Food or Micronutrients for Children after Illness for Prevention of Malnutrition: A Randomised Controlled Trial in Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Kam, Saskia; Roll, Stephanie; Swarthout, Todd; Edyegu-Otelu, Grace; Matsumoto, Akiko; Kasujja, Francis Xavier; Casademont, Cristian; Shanks, Leslie; Salse-Ubach, Nuria

    2016-01-01

    Background Globally, Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) treats more than 300,000 severely malnourished children annually. Malnutrition is not only caused by lack of food but also by illnesses and by poor infant and child feeding practices. Breaking the vicious cycle of illness and malnutrition by providing ill children with nutritional supplementation is a potentially powerful strategy for preventing malnutrition that has not been adequately investigated. Therefore, MSF investigated whether incidence of malnutrition among ill children malnutrition rate between 8.4% and 11.5% of which 2% to 3% severe malnutrition, more than half (58%) of the population in the district of Kaabong is considered food insecure. Methods and Findings We investigated the effect of two types of nutritional supplementation on the incidence of malnutrition in ill children presenting at outpatient clinics during March 2011 to April 2012 in Kaabong, Karamoja region, Uganda, a resource-poor region where malnutrition is a chronic problem for its seminomadic population. A three-armed, partially-blinded, randomised controlled trial was conducted in children diagnosed with malaria, diarrhoea, or lower respiratory tract infection. Non-malnourished children aged 6 to 59 mo were randomised to one of three arms: one sachet/d of ready-to-use therapeutic food (RUTF), two sachets/d of micronutrient powder (MNP), or no supplement (control) for 14 d for each illness over 6 mo. The primary outcome was the incidence of first negative nutritional outcome (NNO) during the 6 mo follow-up. NNO was a study-specific measure used to indicate progression to moderate or severe acute malnutrition; it was defined as weight-for-height z-score malnutrition in eastern Uganda. The low incidence of malnutrition in this population may warrant a more targeted intervention to improve cost effectiveness. Trial Registration clinicaltrials.gov NCT01497236 PMID:26859481

  6. Effect of Short-Term Supplementation with Ready-to-Use Therapeutic Food or Micronutrients for Children after Illness for Prevention of Malnutrition: A Randomised Controlled Trial in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Kam, Saskia; Roll, Stephanie; Swarthout, Todd; Edyegu-Otelu, Grace; Matsumoto, Akiko; Kasujja, Francis Xavier; Casademont, Cristian; Shanks, Leslie; Salse-Ubach, Nuria

    2016-02-01

    Globally, Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) treats more than 300,000 severely malnourished children annually. Malnutrition is not only caused by lack of food but al