WorldWideScience

Sample records for providing substantial attention

  1. Figure-ground mechanisms provide structure for selective attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Fangtu T; Sugihara, Tadashi; von der Heydt, Rüdiger

    2007-11-01

    Attention depends on figure-ground organization: figures draw attention, whereas shapes of the ground tend to be ignored. Recent research has revealed mechanisms for figure-ground organization in the visual cortex, but how these mechanisms relate to the attention process remains unclear. Here we show that the influences of figure-ground organization and volitional (top-down) attention converge in single neurons of area V2 in Macaca mulatta. Although we found assignment of border ownership for attended and for ignored figures, attentional modulation was stronger when the attended figure was located on the neuron's preferred side of border ownership. When the border between two overlapping figures was placed in the receptive field, responses depended on the side of attention, and enhancement was generally found on the neuron's preferred side of border ownership. This correlation suggests that the neural network that creates figure-ground organization also provides the interface for the top-down selection process.

  2. Negative emotion provides cues for orienting auditory spatial attention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erkin eAsutay

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The auditory stimuli provide information about the objects and events around us. They can also carry biologically significant emotional information (such as unseen dangers and conspecific vocalizations, which provides cues for allocation of attention and mental resources. Here, we investigated whether task-irrelevant auditory emotional information can provide cues for orientation of auditory spatial attention. We employed a covert spatial orienting task: the dot-probe task. In each trial, two task irrelevant auditory cues were simultaneously presented at two separate locations (left-right or front-back. Environmental sounds were selected to form emotional vs. neutral, emotional vs. emotional, and neutral vs. neutral cue pairs. The participants’ task was to detect the location of an acoustic target that was presented immediately after the task-irrelevant auditory cues. The target was presented at the same location as one of the auditory cues. The results indicated that participants were significantly faster to locate the target when it replaced the negative cue compared to when it replaced the neutral cue. The positive cues did not produce a clear attentional bias. Further, same valence pairs (emotional-emotional or neutral-neutral did not modulate reaction times due to a lack of spatial attention capture by one cue in the pair. Taken together, the results indicate that negative affect can provide cues for the orientation of spatial attention in the auditory domain.

  3. The Attentional Blink Provides Episodic Distinctiveness : Sparing at a Cost

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wyble, Brad; Bowman, Howard; Nieuwenstein, Mark

    The attentional blink (J. E. Raymond. K. L. Shapiro, & K. M. Arnett. 1992) refers to an apparent gap in perception observed when a second target follows a first within several hundred milliseconds. Theoretical and computational work have provided explanations for early sets of blink data, but more

  4. Figure-ground mechanisms provide structure for selective attention

    OpenAIRE

    Qiu, Fangtu T.; Sugihara, Tadashi; von der Heydt, Rüdiger

    2007-01-01

    Attention depends on figure-ground organization: figures draw attention, while shapes of the ground tend to be ignored. Recent research has demonstrated mechanisms of figure-ground organization in the visual cortex, but how they relate to the attention process remains unclear. Here we show that the influences of figure-ground organization and volitional (top-down) attention converge in single neurons of area V2. While assignment of border ownership was found for attended as well as for ignore...

  5. Attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, Patrick M; Terry, Alvin V

    2015-01-01

    The ability to focus one's attention on important environmental stimuli while ignoring irrelevant stimuli is fundamental to human cognition and intellectual function. Attention is inextricably linked to perception, learning and memory, and executive function; however, it is often impaired in a variety of neuropsychiatric disorders, including Alzheimer's disease, schizophrenia, depression, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Accordingly, attention is considered as an important therapeutic target in these disorders. The purpose of this chapter is to provide an overview of the most common behavioral paradigms of attention that have been used in animals (particularly rodents) and to review the literature where these tasks have been employed to elucidate neurobiological substrates of attention as well as to evaluate novel pharmacological agents for their potential as treatments for disorders of attention. These paradigms include two tasks of sustained attention that were developed as rodent analogues of the human Continuous Performance Task (CPT), the Five-Choice Serial Reaction Time Task (5-CSRTT) and the more recently introduced Five-Choice Continuous Performance Task (5C-CPT), and the Signal Detection Task (SDT) which was designed to emphasize temporal components of attention.

  6. Video Modeling Training Effects on Types of Attention Delivered by Educational Care-Providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taber, Traci A; Lambright, Nathan; Luiselli, James K

    2017-06-01

    We evaluated the effects of abbreviated (i.e., one-session) video modeling on delivery of student-preferred attention by educational care-providers. The video depicted a novel care-provider interacting with and delivering attention to the student. Within a concurrent multiple baseline design, video modeling increased delivery of the targeted attention for all participants as well as their delivery of another type of attention that was not trained although these effects were variable within and between care-providers. We discuss the clinical and training implications from these findings.

  7. Mesh fixation in laparoscopic incisional hernia repair: glue fixation provides attachment strength similar to absorbable tacks but differs substantially in different meshes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieder, Erwin; Stoiber, Martin; Scheikl, Verena; Poglitsch, Marcus; Dal Borgo, Andrea; Prager, Gerhard; Schima, Heinrich

    2011-01-01

    Laparoscopic ventral hernia repair has gained popularity among minimally invasive surgeons. However, mesh fixation remains a matter of discussion. This study was designed to compare noninvasive fibrin-glue attachment with tack fixation of meshes developed primarily for intra-abdominal use. It was hypothesized that particular mesh structures would substantially influence detachment force. For initial evaluation, specimens of laminated polypropylene/polydioxanone meshes were anchored to porcine abdominal walls by either helical titanium tacks or absorbable tacks in vitro. A universal tensile-testing machine was used to measure tangential detachment forces (TF). For subsequent experiments of glue fixation, polypropylene/polydioxanone mesh and 4 additional meshes with diverse particular mesh structure, ie, polyvinylidene fluoride/polypropylene mesh, a titanium-coated polypropylene mesh, a polyester mesh bonded with a resorbable collagen, and a macroporous condensed PTFE mesh were evaluated. TF tests revealed that fibrin-glue attachment was not substantially different from that achieved with absorbable tacks (median TF 7.8 Newton [N], range 1.3 to 15.8 N), but only when certain open porous meshes (polyvinylidene fluoride/polypropylene mesh: median 6.2 N, range 3.4 to 10.3 N; titanium-coated polypropylene mesh: median 5.2 N, range 2.1 to 11.7 N) were used. Meshes coated by an anti-adhesive barrier (polypropylene/polydioxanone mesh: median 3.1 N, range 1.7 to 5.8 N; polyester mesh bonded with a resorbable collagen: median 1.3 N, range 0.5 to 1.9 N), or the condensed PTFE mesh (median 3.1 N, range 2.1 to 7.0 N) provided a significantly lower TF (p < 0.01). Fibrin glue appears to be an appealing noninvasive option for mesh fixation in laparoscopic ventral hernia repair, but only if appropriate meshes are used. Glue can also serve as an adjunct to mechanical fixation to reduce the number of invasive tacks. Copyright © 2010 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier

  8. Enhanced jump performance when providing augmented feedback compared to an external or internal focus of attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Martin; Lauber, Benedikt; Gottschalk, Marius; Taube, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Factors such as an external focus of attention (EF) and augmented feedback (AF) have been shown to improve performance. However, the efficacy of providing AF to enhance motor performance has never been compared with the effects of an EF or an internal focus of attention (IF). Therefore, the aim of the present study was to identify which of the three conditions (AF, EF or IF) leads to the highest performance in a countermovement jump (CMJ). Nineteen volunteers performed 12 series of 8 maximum CMJs. Changes in jump height between conditions and within the series were analysed. Jump heights differed between conditions (P jump heights at the end of the series in AF (+1.60%) and lower jump heights at the end of the series in EF (-1.79%) and IF (-1.68%) were observed. Muscle activity did not differ between conditions. The differences between conditions and within the series provide evidence that AF leads to higher performance and better progression within one series than EF and IF. Consequently, AF seems to outperform EF and IF when maximising jump height.

  9. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies; Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to creatine and increased attention (ID 1524) and improvement of memory (ID 1528) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    claims in relation to creatine and increased attention and improvement of memory. The scientific substantiation is based on the information provided by the Member States in the consolidated list of Article 13 health claims and references that EFSA has received from Member States or directly from...... stakeholders. The food constituent that is the subject of the health claims is creatine. The Panel considers that creatine is sufficiently characterised....

  10. The Joint Commission has provided a tool to change your work force: are you paying attention?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, P J; Strader, M K

    1998-03-01

    Most health care managers wonder how to change employee "attitudes" so that their staff will be more accountable for patient satisfaction, cost reduction, and quality of care. Employees were trained to function in an industry where the power players were the physician and the administrator and now it is exceedingly difficult to get them to switch their attention to the patient and the payer in a market-driven economy. For hospital managers, the answer may be right at their fingertips: The Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations' standards demanding that employee competence be objectively measured, proven, tracked & trended, improved, and age specific. A comprehensive competence assessment system can save the health care manager enormous work in measuring fewer things, focusing performance assessment on the 20 percent of things that are true problems, and helping to specifically define certain competencies such as customer focus and cost consciousness so that coaching, training, and giving performance feedback is easier. Developing a comprehensive competence assessment system is a powerful tool to change the culture of organizations. Consequently, it is important that managers be aware of those possibilities before they embark on developing "competencies" or before their organizations get too carried away on redesigning systems to satisfy standards.

  11. Establishing Substantial Equivalence: Transcriptomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudo, María Marcela; Powers, Stephen J.; Mitchell, Rowan A. C.; Shewry, Peter R.

    Regulatory authorities in Western Europe require transgenic crops to be substantially equivalent to conventionally bred forms if they are to be approved for commercial production. One way to establish substantial equivalence is to compare the transcript profiles of developing grain and other tissues of transgenic and conventionally bred lines, in order to identify any unintended effects of the transformation process. We present detailed protocols for transcriptomic comparisons of developing wheat grain and leaf material, and illustrate their use by reference to our own studies of lines transformed to express additional gluten protein genes controlled by their own endosperm-specific promoters. The results show that the transgenes present in these lines (which included those encoding marker genes) did not have any significant unpredicted effects on the expression of endogenous genes and that the transgenic plants were therefore substantially equivalent to the corresponding parental lines.

  12. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies) , 2014 . Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to Rosbacher drive® and increased attention pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    an opinion on the scientific substantiation of a health claim related to Rosbacher drive® and increased attention. The Panel considers that Rosbacher drive®, which contains natural mineral water plus grape juice, lemon juice, pomegranate juice, elderberry juice, isomaltulose, sucrose, fructose syrup...

  13. Establishing Substantial Equivalence: Proteomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovegrove, Alison; Salt, Louise; Shewry, Peter R.

    Wheat is a major crop in world agriculture and is consumed after processing into a range of food products. It is therefore of great importance to determine the consequences (intended and unintended) of transgenesis in wheat and whether genetically modified lines are substantially equivalent to those produced by conventional plant breeding. Proteomic analysis is one of several approaches which can be used to address these questions. Two-dimensional PAGE (2D PAGE) remains the most widely available method for proteomic analysis, but is notoriously difficult to reproduce between laboratories. We therefore describe methods which have been developed as standard operating procedures in our laboratory to ensure the reproducibility of proteomic analyses of wheat using 2D PAGE analysis of grain proteins.

  14. Substance Use Among Adolescents with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Reasons for Use, Knowledge of Risks, and Provider Messaging/Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harstad, Elizabeth; Wisk, Lauren E; Ziemnik, Rosemary; Huang, Qian; Salimian, Parissa; Weitzman, Elissa R; Levy, Sharon

    Adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at increased risk for alcohol and marijuana use. This study's objective is to describe adolescents' ADHD-specific reasons for marijuana use, knowledge of ADHD-specific alcohol risks, and reported subspecialty provider messaging/education regarding alcohol use among adolescents with ADHD. Youths with ADHD aged 12 to 18 years completed a survey about alcohol and marijuana use, ADHD-specific reasons for marijuana use, knowledge of ADHD-specific alcohol risks, and reported provider messaging/education regarding alcohol use. We assessed knowledge toward substance use using descriptive statistics. We used χ and t tests to determine whether knowledge or provider messaging/education differed by sociodemographic characteristics. Of the 96 participants, 61.5% were male, average age was 15.7 years; 31.3% reported past-year alcohol use and 20.8% reported past-year marijuana use. The majority (65.2%) said "no/don't know" to both "Can alcohol make ADHD symptoms worse?" and "Can alcohol interfere or get in the way of the medications you take?" Older participants were more likely to correctly answer the medication question "yes." Despite most (74%) participants reporting that their provider asked about alcohol use, few youth reported that their providers gave specific messages/education that alcohol could make ADHD symptoms worse (9.4%) or interfere with ADHD medications (14.6%); older participants and past-year alcohol users were more likely to have received these alcohol-specific messages. Many youth with ADHD are unaware of the risks of alcohol use in relation to ADHD and providers are not consistently discussing these risks in the context of clinical ADHD care.

  15. EFSA ND A Panel ( EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2013. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to eicosapentanoic acid (EPA) and “ reduces the AA/EPA ratio in blood. A high AA/EPA level is a risk factor in the d evelopment of attention, difficulties in children with ADHD - like symptoms ” pursuant to Article 14 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    Following an application from Minami Nutrition Health BVBA, submitted pursuant to Article 14 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of Belgium, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked to deliver an opinion on the scientific substantiation...... of a health claim related to eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and “reduces the AA/EPA ratio in blood. A high AA/EPA level is a risk factor in the development of attention difficulties in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)-like symptoms”. The food constituent, EPA, which is the subject...... of the health claim, is sufficiently characterised. The claimed effect proposed by the applicant is “reduces the AA/EPA ratio in blood. A high AA/EPA level is a risk factor in the development of attention difficulties in children with ADHD-like symptoms. These children are also characterised by less...

  16. Deep Visual Attention Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenguan; Shen, Jianbing

    2018-05-01

    In this work, we aim to predict human eye fixation with view-free scenes based on an end-to-end deep learning architecture. Although Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) have made substantial improvement on human attention prediction, it is still needed to improve CNN based attention models by efficiently leveraging multi-scale features. Our visual attention network is proposed to capture hierarchical saliency information from deep, coarse layers with global saliency information to shallow, fine layers with local saliency response. Our model is based on a skip-layer network structure, which predicts human attention from multiple convolutional layers with various reception fields. Final saliency prediction is achieved via the cooperation of those global and local predictions. Our model is learned in a deep supervision manner, where supervision is directly fed into multi-level layers, instead of previous approaches of providing supervision only at the output layer and propagating this supervision back to earlier layers. Our model thus incorporates multi-level saliency predictions within a single network, which significantly decreases the redundancy of previous approaches of learning multiple network streams with different input scales. Extensive experimental analysis on various challenging benchmark datasets demonstrate our method yields state-of-the-art performance with competitive inference time.

  17. Attention to Attention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tække, Jesper; Paulsen, Michael Eric

    In these years digital media and wireless networks are introduced in upper secondary schools in Denmark. This implies new “attentional objects” like updates on Facebook or tweets on Twitter within instant reach of the pupils and teachers. Also it implies new kinds of attention (awareness) like when...... pupils try to listen to the teacher and simultaneously participate in online games. To this new social setting the teachers has reacted with either prohibition or unconcern. What has not been realised is that the introduction of new media profoundly challenges the way attention hitherto has functioned...... as a psychic prerequisite for the social interaction between pupils and teachers. New kinds of “split attention” arise and new kinds of social mediation (regulation and “use”) of psychic attention become necessary if teaching in the new digital medium milieu shall be beneficial. In this paper we qualify...

  18. A Software Environment for an Adaptive Human-Aware Software Agent Supporting Attention-Demanding Tasks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosse, T.; Memon, Z.A.; Oorburg, R.; Umair, M.; Treur, J.; de Vos, M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a software environment providing human-aware ambient support for a human performing a task that demands substantial amounts of attention. The agent obtains human attention-awareness in an adaptive manner by use of a dynamical model of human attention, gaze sensoring by an

  19. 24 CFR 902.79 - Substantial default.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Substantial default. 902.79 Section... PUBLIC HOUSING ASSESSMENT SYSTEM PHAS Incentives and Remedies § 902.79 Substantial default. (a) Events or conditions that constitute substantial default. The following events or conditions shall constitute...

  20. Adolescence, attention allocation, and driving safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romer, Daniel; Lee, Yi-Ching; McDonald, Catherine C; Winston, Flaura K

    2014-05-01

    Motor vehicle crashes are the leading source of morbidity and mortality in adolescents in the United States and the developed world. Inadequate allocation of attention to the driving task and to driving hazards are important sources of adolescent crashes. We review major explanations for these attention failures with particular focus on the roles that brain immaturity and lack of driving experience play in causing attention problems. The review suggests that the potential for overcoming inexperience and immaturity with training to improve attention to both the driving task and hazards is substantial. Nevertheless, there are large individual differences in both attentional abilities and risky driving tendencies that pose challenges to novice driver policies. Research that can provide evidence-based direction for such policies is urgently needed. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Adolescence, Attention Allocation, and Driving Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romer, Daniel; Lee, Yi-Ching; McDonald, Catherine C.; Winston, Flaura K.

    2014-01-01

    Motor vehicle crashes are the leading source of morbidity and mortality in adolescents in the United States and the developed world. Inadequate allocation of attention to the driving task and to driving hazards are important sources of adolescent crashes. We review major explanations for these attention failures with particular focus on the roles that brain immaturity and lack of driving experience play in causing attention problems. The review suggests that the potential for overcoming inexperience and immaturity with training to improve attention to both the driving task and hazards is substantial. Nevertheless, there are large individual differences in both attentional abilities and risky driving tendencies that pose challenges to novice driver policies. Research that can provide evidence-based direction for such policies is urgently needed. PMID:24759442

  2. What kind of evidence is it that Evidence-Based Medicine advocates want health care providers and consumers to pay attention to?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haynes R Brian

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 1992, Evidence-Based Medicine advocates proclaimed a "new paradigm", in which evidence from health care research is the best basis for decisions for individual patients and health systems. Hailed in New York Times Magazine in 2001 as one of the most influential ideas of the year, this approach was initially and provocatively pitted against the traditional teaching of medicine, in which the key elements of knowing for clinical purposes are understanding of basic pathophysiologic mechanisms of disease coupled with clinical experience. This paper reviews the origins, aspirations, philosophical limitations, and practical challenges of evidence-based medicine. Discussion EBM has long since evolved beyond its initial (misconception, that EBM might replace traditional medicine. EBM is now attempting to augment rather than replace individual clinical experience and understanding of basic disease mechanisms. EBM must continue to evolve, however, to address a number of issues including scientific underpinnings, moral stance and consequences, and practical matters of dissemination and application. For example, accelerating the transfer of research findings into clinical practice is often based on incomplete evidence from selected groups of people, who experience a marginal benefit from an expensive technology, raising issues of the generalizability of the findings, and increasing problems with how many and who can afford the new innovations in care. Summary Advocates of evidence-based medicine want clinicians and consumers to pay attention to the best findings from health care research that are both valid and ready for clinical application. Much remains to be done to reach this goal.

  3. Smoking improves divided attention in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlers, Eike; Hahn, Eric; Ta, Thi Minh Tam; Goudarzi, Elnaz; Dettling, Michael; Neuhaus, Andres H

    2014-10-01

    Smoking is highly prevalent in schizophrenia, and there is evidence for beneficial effects on neurocognition. Smoking is therefore hypothesized a self-medication in schizophrenia. Although much effort is devoted to characterize those cognitive domains that potentially benefit from smoking, divided attention has not yet been investigated. The aim of this study was to analyze the interactional effects of diagnosis of schizophrenia and smoking history on divided attention. We investigated behavioral measures of divided attention in a sample of 48 schizophrenic patients and 48 controls (24 current smokers and non-smokers each) carefully matched for age, sex, education, verbal IQ, and smoking status with general linear models. Most important within the scope of this study, significant interactions were found for valid reactions and errors of omission: Performance substantially increased in smoking schizophrenic patients, but not in controls. Further, these interactions were modified by sex, driven by female schizophrenic patients who showed a significant behavioral advantage of smokers over non-smokers, other than male schizophrenic patients or healthy controls who did not express this sex-specific pattern. Results suggest a positive effect of smoking history on divided attention in schizophrenic patients. This study provides first evidence that the complex attention domain of divided attention is improved by smoking, which further substantiates the self-medication hypothesis of smoking in schizophrenia, although this has been shown mainly for sustained and selective attention. Gender-specific effects on cognition need to be further investigated.

  4. The contributions of visual and central attention to visual working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Alessandra S; Oberauer, Klaus

    2017-10-01

    We investigated the role of two kinds of attention-visual and central attention-for the maintenance of visual representations in working memory (WM). In Experiment 1 we directed attention to individual items in WM by presenting cues during the retention interval of a continuous delayed-estimation task, and instructing participants to think of the cued items. Attending to items improved recall commensurate with the frequency with which items were attended (0, 1, or 2 times). Experiments 1 and 3 further tested which kind of attention-visual or central-was involved in WM maintenance. We assessed the dual-task costs of two types of distractor tasks, one tapping sustained visual attention and one tapping central attention. Only the central attention task yielded substantial dual-task costs, implying that central attention substantially contributes to maintenance of visual information in WM. Experiment 2 confirmed that the visual-attention distractor task was demanding enough to disrupt performance in a task relying on visual attention. We combined the visual-attention and the central-attention distractor tasks with a multiple object tracking (MOT) task. Distracting visual attention, but not central attention, impaired MOT performance. Jointly, the three experiments provide a double dissociation between visual and central attention, and between visual WM and visual object tracking: Whereas tracking multiple targets across the visual filed depends on visual attention, visual WM depends mostly on central attention.

  5. Substantial global carbon uptake by cement carbonation

    OpenAIRE

    Xi, Fengming; Davis, Steven J.; Ciais, Philippe; Crawford-Brown, Douglas; Guan, Dabo; Pade, Claus; Shi, Tiemao; Syddall, Mark; Lv, Jie; Ji, Lanzhu; Bing, Longfei; Wang, Jiaoyue; Wei, Wei; Yang, Keun-Hyeok; Lagerblad, Björn

    2016-01-01

    Calcination of carbonate rocks during the manufacture of cement produced 5% of global CO2 emissions from all industrial process and fossil-fuel combustion in 20131, 2. Considerable attention has been paid to quantifying these industrial process emissions from cement production2, 3, but the natural reversal of the process—carbonation—has received little attention in carbon cycle studies. Here, we use new and existing data on cement materials during cement service life, demolition, and secondar...

  6. Timing divided attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogendoorn, Hinze; Carlson, Thomas A; VanRullen, Rufin; Verstraten, Frans A J

    2010-11-01

    Visual attention can be divided over multiple objects or locations. However, there is no single theoretical framework within which the effects of dividing attention can be interpreted. In order to develop such a model, here we manipulated the stage of visual processing at which attention was divided, while simultaneously probing the costs of dividing attention on two dimensions. We show that dividing attention incurs dissociable time and precision costs, which depend on whether attention is divided during monitoring or during access. Dividing attention during monitoring resulted in progressively delayed access to attended locations as additional locations were monitored, as well as a one-off precision cost. When dividing attention during access, time costs were systematically lower at one of the accessed locations than at the other, indicating that divided attention during access, in fact, involves rapid sequential allocation of undivided attention. We propose a model in which divided attention is understood as the simultaneous parallel preparation and subsequent sequential execution of multiple shifts of undivided attention. This interpretation has the potential to bring together diverse findings from both the divided-attention and saccade preparation literature and provides a framework within which to integrate the broad spectrum of divided-attention methodologies.

  7. Increased greenhouse effect substantiated through measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skartveit, Arvid

    2001-01-01

    The article presents studies on the greenhouse effect which substantiates the results from satellite measurements during the period 1970 - 1997. These show an increased effect due to increase in the concentration of the climatic gases CO 2 , methane, CFC-11 and CFC-12 in the atmosphere

  8. 21 CFR 514.4 - Substantial evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... adequate and well-controlled studies, such as a study in a target species, study in laboratory animals... and conditions of use. Substantial evidence of effectiveness of a new animal drug shall demonstrate that the new animal drug is effective for each intended use and associated conditions of use for and...

  9. Toward More Substantial Theories of Language Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenson, Cinnamon Ann

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive linguists argue that certain sets of knowledge of language are innate. However, critics have argued that the theoretical concept of "innateness" should be eliminated since it is ambiguous and insubstantial. In response, I aim to strengthen theories of language acquisition and identify ways to make them more substantial. I…

  10. Shifting Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, Jenni

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the shifts in attention and focus as one teacher introduces and explains an image that represents the processes involved in a numeric problem that his students have been working on. This paper takes a micro-analytic approach to examine how the focus of attention shifts through what the teacher and students do and say in the…

  11. Announcements to Attentive Agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolander, Thomas; van Ditmarsch, Hans; Herzig, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    -based announcement can also be described as an action model. We extend our logic by integrating attention change. Finally, we add the notion of common belief to the language, we exploit this to formalize the concept of joint attention, that has been widely discussed in the philosophical and cognitive science...... literature, and we provide a corresponding axiomatization. This axiomatization also employs the auxiliary notion of attention-based relativized common belief....

  12. Visual attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Karla K; Horowitz, Todd S; Howe, Piers; Pedersini, Roccardo; Reijnen, Ester; Pinto, Yair; Kuzmova, Yoana; Wolfe, Jeremy M

    2011-09-01

    A typical visual scene we encounter in everyday life is complex and filled with a huge amount of perceptual information. The term, 'visual attention' describes a set of mechanisms that limit some processing to a subset of incoming stimuli. Attentional mechanisms shape what we see and what we can act upon. They allow for concurrent selection of some (preferably, relevant) information and inhibition of other information. This selection permits the reduction of complexity and informational overload. Selection can be determined both by the 'bottom-up' saliency of information from the environment and by the 'top-down' state and goals of the perceiver. Attentional effects can take the form of modulating or enhancing the selected information. A central role for selective attention is to enable the 'binding' of selected information into unified and coherent representations of objects in the outside world. In the overview on visual attention presented here we review the mechanisms and consequences of selection and inhibition over space and time. We examine theoretical, behavioral and neurophysiologic work done on visual attention. We also discuss the relations between attention and other cognitive processes such as automaticity and awareness. WIREs Cogni Sci 2011 2 503-514 DOI: 10.1002/wcs.127 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Capturing Attention When Attention "Blinks"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wee, Serena; Chua, Fook K.

    2004-01-01

    Four experiments addressed the question of whether attention may be captured when the visual system is in the midst of an attentional blink (AB). Participants identified 2 target letters embedded among distractor letters in a rapid serial visual presentation sequence. In some trials, a square frame was inserted between the targets; as the only…

  14. Substantiating the Incurred but not Reported Reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgeta Vintilã

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to handle past and future liability taken by insurance contracts concluded, any insurance company must constitute and maintain technical reserves. Substantiating technical reserves is done through actuarial methods and its over-evaluation or under-evaluation influence solvency and financial performance of the insurance companies, in the sense of reducing solvency through over-evaluating reserves and, respectively, influencing profit (hence of outstanding tax through under-evaluating reserves. An important reserve for insurance companies is represented by the incurred but not reported reserve, as it allows the estimation of the liability the company may confront in the future, generated by events occurred in the past, which are not currently known in the present but will be reported in the future.

  15. Considerations of strategies to provide influenza vaccine year round

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lambach, Philipp; Alvarez, Alba Maria Ropero; Hirve, Siddhivinayak; Ortiz, Justin R.; Hombach, Joachim; Verweij, Marcel; Hendriks, Jan; Palkonyay, Laszlo; Pfleiderer, Michael

    2015-01-01

    There is potential for influenza vaccine programmes to make a substantial impact on severe disease in low-resource settings, however questions around vaccine composition and programmatic issues will require special attention. Some countries may benefit from immunization programmes that provide

  16. Substantial nitrogen pollution embedded in international trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oita, Azusa; Malik, Arunima; Kanemoto, Keiichiro; Geschke, Arne; Nishijima, Shota; Lenzen, Manfred

    2016-02-01

    Anthropogenic emissions of reactive nitrogen to the atmosphere and water bodies can damage human health and ecosystems. As a measure of a nation’s contribution to this potential damage, a country’s nitrogen footprint has been defined as the quantity of reactive nitrogen emitted during the production, consumption and transportation of commodities consumed within that country, whether those commodities are produced domestically or internationally. Here we use global emissions databases, a global nitrogen cycle model, and a global input-output database of domestic and international trade to calculate the nitrogen footprints for 188 countries as the sum of emissions of ammonia, nitrogen oxides and nitrous oxide to the atmosphere, and of nitrogen potentially exportable to water bodies. Per-capita footprints range from under 7 kg N yr-1 in some developing countries to over 100 kg N yr-1 in some wealthy nations. Consumption in China, India, the United States and Brazil is responsible for 46% of global emissions. Roughly a quarter of the global nitrogen footprint is from commodities that were traded across country borders. The main net exporters have significant agricultural, food and textile exports, and are often developing countries, whereas important net importers are almost exclusively developed economies. We conclude that substantial local nitrogen pollution is driven by demand from consumers in other countries.

  17. What does Attention in Neural Machine Translation Pay Attention to?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghader, H.; Monz, C.; Kondrak, G.; Watanabe, T.

    2017-01-01

    Attention in neural machine translation provides the possibility to encode relevant parts of the source sentence at each translation step. As a result, attention is considered to be an alignment model as well. However, there is no work that specifically studies attention and provides analysis of

  18. Visual attention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evans, K.K.; Horowitz, T.S.; Howe, P.; Pedersini, R.; Reijnen, E.; Pinto, Y.; Wolfe, J.M.

    2011-01-01

    A typical visual scene we encounter in everyday life is complex and filled with a huge amount of perceptual information. The term, ‘visual attention’ describes a set of mechanisms that limit some processing to a subset of incoming stimuli. Attentional mechanisms shape what we see and what we can act

  19. Attention Sensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Börner, Dirk; Kalz, Marco; Specht, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    This software sketch was used in the context of an experiment for the PhD project “Ambient Learning Displays”. The sketch comprises a custom-built attention sensor. The sensor measured (during the experiment) whether a participant looked at and thus attended a public display. The sensor was built

  20. Substantial Union or Substantial Distinction of Mind and Body in Descartes' Metaphysics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahime Jamei

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available According to Descartes’ metaphysics there are two different kinds of substances in the world of creatures: “thinking substance” and “extended substance” or soul and matter. In Descartes’ philosophy the soul is equal to the mind and considered as a “thinking substance”. This immaterial substance is the essence of the human being. Body, being considered as a “matter“, is an “extended substance” and entirely distinct from the soul. The soul, therefore, exists and may be known prior to body and, not being corporeal, can exist after human death. Hence, Descartes can prove the immortality of human soul in the framework of the principle of substantial distinction. On the other hand, as a physiologist and psychologist, Descartes indeed believes in mind-body union, so that some causal interactions between mind and body show their substantial union. In this essay, the authors show that Descartes faces a serious problem in combining substantial union of mind and body with their substantial distinction; despite of his efforts in introducing the idea of pineal gland, the problem remains unsolved. Therefore it seems that as he cannot dispense with his only reason for proving the immortality of human soul, he has to hold the mind-body distinction theory in his metaphysics. Indeed, Descartes prefers to support the distinction theory rather than union theory in confronting a thesis and an antithesis stating one of two theories

  1. Substantial :union: or Substantial Distinction of Mind and Body in Descartes\\' Metaphysics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    f Jamei

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available According to Descartes’ metaphysics there are two different kinds of substances in the world of creatures: “thinking substance” and “extended substance” or soul and matter. In Descartes’ philosophy the soul is equal to the mind and considered as a “thinking substance”. This immaterial substance is the essence of the human being. Body, being considered as a “matter“, is an “extended substance” and entirely distinct from the soul. The soul, therefore, exists and may be known prior to body and, not being corporeal, can exist after human death. Hence, Descartes can prove the immortality of human soul in the framework of the principle of substantial distinction. On the other hand, as a physiologist and psychologist, Descartes indeed believes in mind-body :union:, so that some causal interactions between mind and body show their substantial :union:. In this essay, the authors show that Descartes faces a serious problem in combining substantial :union: of mind and body with their substantial distinction despite of his efforts in introducing the idea of pineal gland, the problem remains unsolved. Therefore it seems that as he cannot dispense with his only reason for proving the immortality of human soul, he has to hold the mind-body distinction theory in his metaphysics. Indeed, Descartes prefers to support the distinction theory rather than :union: theory in confronting a thesis and an antithesis stating one of two theories.

  2. EXPERIMENTAL SUBSTANTIATION OF ATTRIBUTIONAL STYLE IN TRAFFIC POLICE OFFICERS’ BEHAVIOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Vladimirovna Merkusheva

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The article prepared for the ‘Psychological and Methodological Aspects of Professional Personnel Training at Internal Affairs Bodies of the Russian Federation’ scholar tradition looks at the applied aspect of handling security issues by traffic police officers. It presents the results of empirical study of the employees’ psychological characteristics conducted to substantiate their attributional style, which determines the specific character as well as the qua-lity and reliability of traffic police officers’ performance. Traffic police officers’ attributional style of behavior is researched with the help of attributional cognitive techniques for hazard phenomena detection as well as social perception and attribution technique and is viewed as the most stable entity, which reflects the employee’s personal and professional focus.Goal: to provide empirical substantiation of attributional style in traffic police officers’ behavior as an integral personality characteristic that ensures timely detection of hazard phenomena.

  3. A translational bioengineering course provides substantial gains in civic scientific literacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards-Kortum, Rebecca; Buckley, Deanna; Schwarz, Richard A; Atkinson, E Neely; Follen, Michele

    2007-08-01

    A growing number of essential consumer choices and public policy issues require a basic level of scientific literacy. Recent studies suggest as many as three-quarters of adults are unable to read and understand news accounts of scientific advances and controversies. In response to this challenge, a new course for non-science majors, Bioengineering and World Health, was designed to improve biomedical literacy. The goal of this study was to compare scientific literacy of students enrolled in the course to that of two groups of students who had not taken the course; the first control group included students majoring in Biomedical Engineering (BME), the second included those majoring in Liberal Arts or Natural Sciences. Small group interviews in which students discussed science news accounts from the popular press were used to assess scientific literacy. Students in Bioengineering and World Health showed increasing scientific literacy throughout the course. At the conclusion of Bioengineering and World Health, the mean scientific literacy of students in the course was significantly higher than that in both control groups. Students were stratified by the number of semester credit hours completed in science, math, engineering and technology (SME&T) courses. Regardless of number of SME&T hours completed, the mean scientific literacy of students completing Bioengineering and World Health was equivalent to that of BME majors who had completed more than 60 semester credit hours of SME&T coursework, suggesting that a single introductory course can significantly influence scientific literacy as measured by participant's ability to discuss medical innovations from a common news source.

  4. Patients' substantialization of disease, the hybrid symptom and metaphysical care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pârvan, Alexandra

    2015-06-01

    In the context of current scholarship concerned with facilitating integration between the biomedical and the patient-centred models of care, the article suggests that disease brings about an ontological disruption in patients, which is not directly addressed in either model, and may interfere with treatment and therapy outcomes if not met with a type of care termed here as 'metaphysical'. The receipt of diagnosis and medical care can give patients the sense that they are ontologically diminished, or less of a human, and along with physicians' approaches to and discourses about disease, may prompt them to seek ontological restoration or security in the same way as psychologically traumatized patients sometimes do: by treating the disease and/or the experience of harm associated with it as a thing that exists per se. I call this 'substantialization' of disease (or harm) and draw on Augustine's theory of non-substantial deficiencies (physiological and moral) and on Plato's and Plotinus's different takes on such defects in order to discuss what substantialization can do for patients. Based on literature that examines patients' ways of talking about and living with their disease, I speculate that substantialization can generate a 'hybrid symptom', consisting in patterns of exercising agency which may predispose to non-adherence. Ways in which physicians could provide metaphysical care are proposed, along with an understanding of chronic patients as hybrid ontological and agentic units, which draws on theories of enactive cognition. I opine that metaphysical care may facilitate integration between the depersonalized and personalized models of care. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. 20 CFR 416.1075 - Finding of substantial failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Finding of substantial failure. 416.1075... AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Determinations of Disability Substantial Failure § 416.1075 Finding of substantial failure. A finding of substantial failure with respect to a State may not be made unless and until...

  6. 20 CFR 404.1675 - Finding of substantial failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Finding of substantial failure. 404.1675... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determinations of Disability Substantial Failure § 404.1675 Finding of substantial failure. A finding of substantial failure with respect to a State may not be made unless and until...

  7. [Thalamus and Attention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokoro, Kazuhiko; Sato, Hironobu; Yamamoto, Mayumi; Nagai, Yoshiko

    2015-12-01

    Attention is the process by which information and selection occurs, the thalamus plays an important role in the selective attention of visual and auditory information. Selective attention is a conscious effort; however, it occurs subconsciously, as well. The lateral geniculate body (LGB) filters visual information before it reaches the cortex (bottom-up attention). The thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN) provides a strong inhibitory input to both the LGB and pulvinar. This regulation involves focusing a spotlight on important information, as well as inhibiting unnecessary background information. Behavioral contexts more strongly modulate activity of the TRN and pulvinar influencing feedforward and feedback information transmission between the frontal, temporal, parietal and occipital cortical areas (top-down attention). The medial geniculate body (MGB) filters auditory information the TRN inhibits the MGB. Attentional modulation occurring in the auditory pathway among the cochlea, cochlear nucleus, superior olivary complex, and inferior colliculus is more important than that of the MGB and TRN. We also discuss the attentional consequence of thalamic hemorrhage.

  8. Practicing the Attentional Dwell Away?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Anders; Kyllingsbæk, Søren; Bundesen, Claus

    2007-01-01

    Studies of the time course of visual attention have identified a temporary functional blindness to the second of two spatially separated targets: attending to one visual stimulus may lead to impairments in identifying a second stimulus presented about 200-500 ms later than the first. The phenomenon...... is known as the attentional dwell time (e.g. Duncan, Ward, Shapiro, 1994). Previous studies of attentional dwell time have all used naive subjects running few (.... The results suggest that the majority of subjects may learn to optimize their performance reducing the attentional dwell time effect substantially. Further, the reduction in the attentional dwell time effect seems to be closely linked to the ability of the subject to inhibit eye movements while performing...

  9. Degraded attentional modulation of cortical neural populations in strabismic amblyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Chuan; Kim, Yee-Joon; Lai, Xin Jie; Verghese, Preeti

    2016-01-01

    Behavioral studies have reported reduced spatial attention in amblyopia, a developmental disorder of spatial vision. However, the neural populations in the visual cortex linked with these behavioral spatial attention deficits have not been identified. Here, we use functional MRI-informed electroencephalography source imaging to measure the effect of attention on neural population activity in the visual cortex of human adult strabismic amblyopes who were stereoblind. We show that compared with controls, the modulatory effects of selective visual attention on the input from the amblyopic eye are substantially reduced in the primary visual cortex (V1) as well as in extrastriate visual areas hV4 and hMT+. Degraded attentional modulation is also found in the normal-acuity fellow eye in areas hV4 and hMT+ but not in V1. These results provide electrophysiological evidence that abnormal binocular input during a developmental critical period may impact cortical connections between the visual cortex and higher level cortices beyond the known amblyopic losses in V1 and V2, suggesting that a deficit of attentional modulation in the visual cortex is an important component of the functional impairment in amblyopia. Furthermore, we find that degraded attentional modulation in V1 is correlated with the magnitude of interocular suppression and the depth of amblyopia. These results support the view that the visual suppression often seen in strabismic amblyopia might be a form of attentional neglect of the visual input to the amblyopic eye.

  10. Information processing speed and attention in multiple sclerosis: Reconsidering the Attention Network Test (ANT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Alexandra K; Denney, Douglas R; Lynch, Sharon G

    2015-01-01

    The Attention Network Test (ANT) assesses attention in terms of discrepancies between response times to items that differ in the burden they place on some facet of attention. However, simple arithmetic difference scores commonly used to capture these discrepancies fail to provide adequate control for information processing speed, leading to distorted findings when patient and control groups differ markedly in the speed with which they process and respond to stimulus information. This study examined attention networks in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) using simple difference scores, proportional scores, and residualized scores that control for processing speed through statistical regression. Patients with relapsing-remitting (N = 20) or secondary progressive (N = 20) MS and healthy controls (N = 40) of similar age, education, and gender completed the ANT. Substantial differences between patients and controls were found on all measures of processing speed. Patients exhibited difficulties in the executive control network, but only when difference scores were considered. When deficits in information processing speed were adequately controlled using proportional or residualized score, deficits in the alerting network emerged. The effect sizes for these deficits were notably smaller than those for overall information processing speed and were also limited to patients with secondary progressive MS. Deficits in processing speed are more prominent in MS than those involving attention, and when the former are properly accounted for, differences in the latter are confined to the alerting network.

  11. Cognition, emotion, and attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller-Oehring, Eva M; Schulte, Tilman

    2014-01-01

    Deficits of attention, emotion, and cognition occur in individuals with alcohol abuse and addiction. This review elucidates the concepts of attention, emotion, and cognition and references research on the underlying neural networks and their compromise in alcohol use disorder. Neuroimaging research on adolescents with family history of alcoholism contributes to the understanding of pre-existing brain structural conditions and characterization of cognition and attention processes in high-risk individuals. Attention and cognition interact with other brain functions, including perceptual selection, salience, emotion, reward, and memory, through interconnected neural networks. Recent research reports compromised microstructural and functional network connectivity in alcoholism, which can have an effect on the dynamic tuning between brain systems, e.g., the frontally based executive control system, the limbic emotion system, and the midbrain-striatal reward system, thereby impeding cognitive flexibility and behavioral adaptation to changing environments. Finally, we introduce concepts of functional compensation, the capacity to generate attentional resources for performance enhancement, and brain structure recovery with abstinence. An understanding of the neural mechanisms of attention, emotion, and cognition will likely provide the basis for better treatment strategies for developing skills that enhance alcoholism therapy adherence and quality of life, and reduce the propensity for relapse. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. 19 CFR 10.7 - Substantial containers or holders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Substantial containers or holders. 10.7 Section 10... Exported and Returned § 10.7 Substantial containers or holders. (a) Substantial containers or holders... domestic products exported and returned. When such containers or holders are imported not containing or...

  13. 20 CFR 604.6 - Conformity and substantial compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Conformity and substantial compliance. 604.6... FOR ELIGIBILITY FOR UNEMPLOYMENT COMPENSATION § 604.6 Conformity and substantial compliance. (a) In... for the administration of its UC program. (b) Resolving Issues of Conformity and Substantial...

  14. Monte Carlo reactor calculation with substantially reduced number of cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, M. J.; Joo, H. G.; Lee, D.; Smith, K.

    2012-01-01

    A new Monte Carlo (MC) eigenvalue calculation scheme that substantially reduces the number of cycles is introduced with the aid of coarse mesh finite difference (CMFD) formulation. First, it is confirmed in terms of pin power errors that using extremely many particles resulting in short active cycles is beneficial even in the conventional MC scheme although wasted operations in inactive cycles cannot be reduced with more particles. A CMFD-assisted MC scheme is introduced as an effort to reduce the number of inactive cycles and the fast convergence behavior and reduced inter-cycle effect of the CMFD assisted MC calculation is investigated in detail. As a practical means of providing a good initial fission source distribution, an assembly based few-group condensation and homogenization scheme is introduced and it is shown that efficient MC eigenvalue calculations with fewer than 20 total cycles (including inactive cycles) are possible for large power reactor problems. (authors)

  15. Modality-specificity of Selective Attention Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Stewart, Hannah J.; Amitay, Sygal

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To establish the modality specificity and generality of selective attention networks. Method: Forty-eight young adults completed a battery of four auditory and visual selective attention tests based upon the Attention Network framework: the visual and auditory Attention Network Tests (vANT, aANT), the Test of Everyday Attention (TEA), and the Test of Attention in Listening (TAiL). These provided independent measures for auditory and visual alerting, orienting, and conflict resoluti...

  16. Selective attention without a neocortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauzlis, Richard J; Bogadhi, Amarender R; Herman, James P; Bollimunta, Anil

    2018-05-01

    Selective attention refers to the ability to restrict neural processing and behavioral responses to a relevant subset of available stimuli, while simultaneously excluding other valid stimuli from consideration. In primates and other mammals, descriptions of this ability typically emphasize the neural processing that takes place in the cerebral neocortex. However, non-mammals such as birds, reptiles, amphibians and fish, which completely lack a neocortex, also have the ability to selectively attend. In this article, we survey the behavioral evidence for selective attention in non-mammals, and review the midbrain and forebrain structures that are responsible. The ancestral forms of selective attention are presumably selective orienting behaviors, such as prey-catching and predator avoidance. These behaviors depend critically on a set of subcortical structures, including the optic tectum (OT), thalamus and striatum, that are highly conserved across vertebrate evolution. In contrast, the contributions of different pallial regions in the forebrain to selective attention have been subject to more substantial changes and reorganization. This evolutionary perspective makes plain that selective attention is not a function achieved de novo with the emergence of the neocortex, but instead is implemented by circuits accrued and modified over hundreds of millions of years, beginning well before the forebrain contained a neocortex. Determining how older subcortical circuits interact with the more recently evolved components in the neocortex will likely be crucial for understanding the complex properties of selective attention in primates and other mammals, and for identifying the etiology of attention disorders. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Substantial Physician Turnover And Beneficiary 'Churn' In A Large Medicare Pioneer ACO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, John; Vogeli, Christine; Price, Mary; Brand, Richard; Chernew, Michael E; Mohta, Namita; Chaguturu, Sreekanth K; Weil, Eric; Ferris, Timothy G

    2017-04-01

    Alternative payment models, such as accountable care organizations (ACOs), attempt to stimulate improvements in care delivery by better alignment of payer and provider incentives. However, limited attention has been paid to the physicians who actually deliver the care. In a large Medicare Pioneer ACO, we found that the number of beneficiaries per physician was low (median of seventy beneficiaries per physician, or less than 5 percent of a typical panel). We also found substantial physician turnover: More than half of physicians either joined (41 percent) or left (18 percent) the ACO during the 2012-14 contract period studied. When physicians left the ACO, most of their attributed beneficiaries also left the ACO. Conversely, about half of the growth in the beneficiary population was because of new physicians affiliating with the ACO; the remainder joined after switching physicians. These findings may help explain the muted financial impact ACOs have had overall, and they raise the possibility of future gaming on the part of ACOs to artificially control spending. Policy refinements include coordinated and standardized risk-sharing parameters across payers to prevent any dilution of the payment incentives or confusion from a cacophony of incentives across payers. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  18. Attention, Joint Attention, and Social Cognition

    OpenAIRE

    Mundy, Peter; Newell, Lisa

    2007-01-01

    Before social cognition there is joint processing of information about the attention of self and others. This joint attention requires the integrated activation of a distributed cortical network involving the anterior and posterior attention systems. In infancy, practice with the integrated activation of this distributed attention network is a major contributor to the development of social cognition. Thus, the functional neuroanatomies of social cognition and the anterior–posterior attention ...

  19. Net-Zero Building Technologies Create Substantial Energy Savings -

    Science.gov (United States)

    only an estimated 1% of commercial buildings are built to net-zero energy criteria. One reason for this Continuum Magazine | NREL Net-Zero Building Technologies Create Substantial Energy Savings Net -Zero Building Technologies Create Substantial Energy Savings Researchers work to package and share step

  20. 19 CFR 134.35 - Articles substantially changed by manufacture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Articles substantially changed by manufacture. 134... substantially changed by manufacture. (a) Articles other than goods of a NAFTA country. An article used in the United States in manufacture which results in an article having a name, character, or use differing from...

  1. Attention in a bayesian framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whiteley, Louise Emma; Sahani, Maneesh

    2012-01-01

    , and include both selective phenomena, where attention is invoked by cues that point to particular stimuli, and integrative phenomena, where attention is invoked dynamically by endogenous processing. However, most previous Bayesian accounts of attention have focused on describing relatively simple experimental...... selective and integrative roles, and thus cannot be easily extended to complex environments. We suggest that the resource bottleneck stems from the computational intractability of exact perceptual inference in complex settings, and that attention reflects an evolved mechanism for approximate inference which...... can be shaped to refine the local accuracy of perception. We show that this approach extends the simple picture of attention as prior, so as to provide a unified and computationally driven account of both selective and integrative attentional phenomena....

  2. The Attention Cascade Model and Attentional Blink

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Shui-I

    2008-01-01

    An attention cascade model is proposed to account for attentional blinks in rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) of stimuli. Data were collected using single characters in a single RSVP stream at 10 Hz [Shih, S., & Reeves, A. (2007). "Attentional capture in rapid serial visual presentation." "Spatial Vision", 20(4), 301-315], and single words,…

  3. Methodology for substantiation of the fast reactor fuel element serviceability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsykanov, V.A.; Maershin, A.A.

    1988-01-01

    Methodological aspects of fast reactor fuel element serviceability substantiation are presented. The choice of the experimental program and strategies of its realization to solve the problem set in short time, taking into account available experimental means, are substantiated. Factors determining fuel element serviceability depending on parameters and operational conditions are considered. The methodological approach recommending separate studing of the factors, which points to the possibility of data acquisition, required for the development of calculational models and substantiation of fuel element serviceability in pilot and experimental reactors, is described. It is shown that the special-purpose data are more useful for the substantiation of fuel element serviceability and analytical method development than unsubstantial and expensive complex tests of fuel elements and fuel assemblies, which should be conducted only at final stages for the improvement of the structure on the whole

  4. Nuclear industry in a country with a substantial oil reserve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, R.; Castillo, H.; Costa, D.; Galan, I.; Martinez, M.

    1981-01-01

    The importance of the development of a nuclear industry in a country like Mexico, with a substantial oil reserve is analyzed, taking into account the technical, economical, political, ecological and social aspects of the problem. (author)

  5. Preparatory attention in visual cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battistoni, Elisa; Stein, Timo; Peelen, Marius V

    2017-05-01

    Top-down attention is the mechanism that allows us to selectively process goal-relevant aspects of a scene while ignoring irrelevant aspects. A large body of research has characterized the effects of attention on neural activity evoked by a visual stimulus. However, attention also includes a preparatory phase before stimulus onset in which the attended dimension is internally represented. Here, we review neurophysiological, functional magnetic resonance imaging, magnetoencephalography, electroencephalography, and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) studies investigating the neural basis of preparatory attention, both when attention is directed to a location in space and when it is directed to nonspatial stimulus attributes (content-based attention) ranging from low-level features to object categories. Results show that both spatial and content-based attention lead to increased baseline activity in neural populations that selectively code for the attended attribute. TMS studies provide evidence that this preparatory activity is causally related to subsequent attentional selection and behavioral performance. Attention thus acts by preactivating selective neurons in the visual cortex before stimulus onset. This appears to be a general mechanism that can operate on multiple levels of representation. We discuss the functional relevance of this mechanism, its limitations, and its relation to working memory, imagery, and expectation. We conclude by outlining open questions and future directions. © 2017 New York Academy of Sciences.

  6. Attentional networks in developmental dyscalculia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henik Avishai

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Very little is known about attention deficits in developmental dyscalculia, hence, this study was designed to provide the missing information. We examined attention abilities of participants suffering from developmental dyscalculia using the attention networks test - interactions. This test was designed to examine three different attention networks--executive function, orienting and alerting--and the interactions between them. Methods Fourteen university students that were diagnosed as suffering from developmental dyscalculia--intelligence and reading abilities in the normal range and no indication of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder--and 14 matched controls were tested using the attention networks test - interactions. All participants were given preliminary tests to measure mathematical abilities, reading, attention and intelligence. Results The results revealed deficits in the alerting network--a larger alerting effect--and in the executive function networks--a larger congruity effect in developmental dyscalculia participants. The interaction between the alerting and executive function networks was also modulated by group. In addition, developmental dyscalculia participants were slower to respond in the non-cued conditions. Conclusions These results imply specific attentional deficits in pure developmental dyscalculia. Namely, those with developmental dyscalculia seem to be deficient in the executive function and alertness networks. They suffer from difficulty in recruiting attention, in addition to the deficits in numerical processing.

  7. Attentional networks in developmental dyscalculia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askenazi, Sarit; Henik, Avishai

    2010-01-07

    Very little is known about attention deficits in developmental dyscalculia, hence, this study was designed to provide the missing information. We examined attention abilities of participants suffering from developmental dyscalculia using the attention networks test - interactions. This test was designed to examine three different attention networks--executive function, orienting and alerting--and the interactions between them. Fourteen university students that were diagnosed as suffering from developmental dyscalculia--intelligence and reading abilities in the normal range and no indication of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder--and 14 matched controls were tested using the attention networks test-interactions. All participants were given preliminary tests to measure mathematical abilities, reading, attention and intelligence. The results revealed deficits in the alerting network--a larger alerting effect--and in the executive function networks--a larger congruity effect in developmental dyscalculia participants. The interaction between the alerting and executive function networks was also modulated by group. In addition, developmental dyscalculia participants were slower to respond in the non-cued conditions. These results imply specific attentional deficits in pure developmental dyscalculia. Namely, those with developmental dyscalculia seem to be deficient in the executive function and alertness networks. They suffer from difficulty in recruiting attention, in addition to the deficits in numerical processing.

  8. Scene incongruity and attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, Arien; Clarke, Jason; Erol, Muge; Bert, John

    2017-02-01

    Does scene incongruity, (a mismatch between scene gist and a semantically incongruent object), capture attention and lead to conscious perception? We explored this question using 4 different procedures: Inattention (Experiment 1), Scene description (Experiment 2), Change detection (Experiment 3), and Iconic Memory (Experiment 4). We found no differences between scene incongruity and scene congruity in Experiments 1, 2, and 4, although in Experiment 3 change detection was faster for scenes containing an incongruent object. We offer an explanation for why the change detection results differ from the results of the other three experiments. In all four experiments, participants invariably failed to report the incongruity and routinely mis-described it by normalizing the incongruent object. None of the results supports the claim that semantic incongruity within a scene invariably captures attention and provide strong evidence of the dominant role of scene gist in determining what is perceived. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Medicare Provider Data - Hospice Providers

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Hospice Utilization and Payment Public Use File provides information on services provided to Medicare beneficiaries by hospice providers. The Hospice PUF...

  10. Atención en salud a mujeres en situación de desplazamiento: Una mirada desde los prestadores de servicios sociales y de salud Attention in health to women in displacement situation: A glance from the social and health services providers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Margarita Alcaraz López

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo principal: Conocer, desde la mirada de los prestadores de servicios sociales y de salud, la atención en salud a las mujeres en situación de desplazamiento. Metodología: Estudio cualitativo entre abril y agosto de 2008. Se realizaron 12 entrevistas semiestructuradas a prestadores de servicios sociales y de salud, que atienden a la población desplazada en el ámbito local, regional, nacional. Resultados principales: Las mujeres son percibidas por los prestadores de servicios con su salud alterada y con gran sufrimiento. Este deterioro en salud, se inicia desde el momento mismo del acto violento y continúa en la ciudad de asentamiento. Hay un vacío en la atención en salud, siendo la remisión a otras instituciones, el acto por excelencia que caracteriza la atención. No hay coordinación entre las instituciones para prestar una atención en salud, y no se dispone de estadísticas locales de la atención en salud en esta población, que les permita orientar su manejo integral. Conclusión principal: Estas mujeres son vulneradas en su salud por parte de actores armados y son vulneradas en su derecho a la atención en salud, debido a la brecha entre la ley sobre la atención en salud y su real implementación.Objective: To know, from the glance of the social and health services providers, the attention in health to the women in displacement situation. Methods: Qualitative study between April and August of 2008. 12 semistructured interviews to social and health services providers that take care of the displaced population in the local scope, regional, national were realized. Results: The women are perceived by the social and health services providers with their altered health and great suffering. This deterioration in health begins from the same moment of the violent act and continues in the city of establishment. There is an emptiness in the attention in health, being the remission to other institutions, the act par excellence that

  11. Attention and Olfactory Consciousness

    OpenAIRE

    Keller, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the relation between attention and consciousness is an important part of our understanding of consciousness. Attention, unlike consciousness, can be systematically manipulated in psychophysical experiments and a law-like relation between attention and consciousness is waiting to be discovered. Most attempts to discover the nature of this relation are focused on a special type of attention: spatial visual attention. In this review I want to introduce another type of attention to ...

  12. The attention habit: how reward learning shapes attentional selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Brian A

    2016-04-01

    There is growing consensus that reward plays an important role in the control of attention. Until recently, reward was thought to influence attention indirectly by modulating task-specific motivation and its effects on voluntary control over selection. Such an account was consistent with the goal-directed (endogenous) versus stimulus-driven (exogenous) framework that had long dominated the field of attention research. Now, a different perspective is emerging. Demonstrations that previously reward-associated stimuli can automatically capture attention even when physically inconspicuous and task-irrelevant challenge previously held assumptions about attentional control. The idea that attentional selection can be value driven, reflecting a distinct and previously unrecognized control mechanism, has gained traction. Since these early demonstrations, the influence of reward learning on attention has rapidly become an area of intense investigation, sparking many new insights. The result is an emerging picture of how the reward system of the brain automatically biases information processing. Here, I review the progress that has been made in this area, synthesizing a wealth of recent evidence to provide an integrated, up-to-date account of value-driven attention and some of its broader implications. © 2015 New York Academy of Sciences.

  13. Does imminent threat capture and hold attention?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koster, Ernst H W; Crombez, Geert; Van Damme, Stefaan; Verschuere, Bruno; De Houwer, Jan

    2004-09-01

    According to models of attention and emotion, threat captures and holds attention. In behavioral tasks, robust evidence has been found for attentional holding but not for attentional capture by threat. An important explanation for the absence of attentional capture effects is that the visual stimuli used posed no genuine threat. The present study investigated whether visual cues that signal an aversive white noise can elicit attentional capture and holding effects. Cues presented in an attentional task were simultaneously provided with a threat value through an aversive conditioning procedure. Response latencies showed that threatening cues captured and held attention. These results support recent views on attention to threat, proposing that imminent threat captures attention in everyone. (c) 2004 APA, all rights reserved

  14. Latitudinal variation in avian incubation attentiveness and a test of the food limitation hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalfoun, A.D.; Martin, T.E.

    2007-01-01

    Avian incubation attentiveness has important fitness consequences through its influence on the number and quality of hatched young and energetic costs imposed on parents. Nest attentiveness is highly variable across species and geographical regions. We reviewed the literature and found a worldwide pattern that nest attentiveness of passerines is generally lower in south temperate and tropical regions than in north temperate regions. We also conducted a food manipulation experiment to assess the extent to which nest attentiveness may reflect proximate responses versus an evolved behaviour. We used the karoo prinia, Prinia maculosa, in South Africa, which has very low nest attentiveness (???49%) compared with that of many passerine birds. We provided supplemental food during early incubation to experimental females and compared nest attentiveness and on- and off-bout lengths of experimental and paired control females.??Nest attentiveness of females at food-provisioned nests was significantly higher than that of control females (57% versus 49%). Food-supplemented females also spent significantly less time off the nest than did control females, whereas mean on-bout lengths did not differ. However, mean nest attentiveness of food-provisioned females was still substantially below that of other similar bird species worldwide. Food can be an important proximate influence on parental care behaviour, but proximate influences of food do not explain broad latitudinal patterns of attentiveness. ?? 2007 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour.

  15. 75 FR 69454 - Emergency Homeowners' Loan Program: Notice of Allocation of Funding for Substantially Similar...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-12

    ... assistance and provide security for such repayment by recordation of a HUD mortgage as a junior lien on the... current first lien mortgage loan payments for which the homeowner remains responsible. IV. Submission of.... Nondiscrimination and Civil Rights Requirements States operating existing programs that provide substantially...

  16. Attentional Lapses of Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Tasks of Sustained Attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gmehlin, Dennis; Fuermaier, Anselm B M; Walther, Stephan; Tucha, Lara; Koerts, Janneke; Lange, Klaus W; Tucha, Oliver; Weisbrod, Matthias; Aschenbrenner, Steffen

    2016-06-01

    Adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) show attentional dysfunction such as distractibility and mind-wandering, especially in lengthy tasks. However, fundamentals of dysfunction are ambiguous and relationships of neuropsychological test parameters with self-report measures of ADHD symptoms are marginal. We hypothesize that basic deficits in sustaining attention explain more complex attentional dysfunction in persons with ADHD and relate to ADHD symptoms. Attentional function was analyzed by computing ex-Gaussian parameters for 3 time Blocks in a 20 min test of sustained alertness. Changes in performance across these blocks were analyzed by comparing adult persons with ADHD (n = 24) with healthy matched controls (n = 24) and correlated with neuropsychological measures of selective and divided attention as well as self-report measures of ADHD symptoms. We found a significantly steeper increase in the number of slow responses (ex-Gaussian parameter τ) in persons with ADHD with time on task in basic sustained alertness. They also performed significantly worse in tasks of sustained selective and divided attention. However, after controlling for an increase in τ during the alertness task, significant differences between groups disappeared for divided and partly selective attention. Increases in τ in the sustained alertness task correlated significantly with self-report measures of ADHD symptoms. Our results provide evidence that very basic deficits in sustaining attention in adults with ADHD are related to infrequent slow responses (=attentional lapses), with changes over time being relevant for more complex attentional function and experienced ADHD symptoms in everyday life. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. SUBSTANTIATION OF SOLUTIONS PERTAINING TO COMPLEX PRODUCTION RECONSTRUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Y. Gurinovich

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available While taking an example of reconstruction and modernization of OJSC «Construction and Mounting Trust No.16, Novopolotsk» the paper substantiates solutions for complex production reconstruction. The production reconstruction is divided in three start-up facilities ensuring continuous finished-product output.

  18. 26 CFR 1.528-4 - Substantiality test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Substantiality test. 1.528-4 Section 1.528-4 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED... residence. Units which are used for purposes auxiliary to residential use (such as laundry areas, swimming...

  19. Engineering Substantially Prolonged Human Lifespans: Biotechnological Enhancement and Ethics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derkx, P.H.J.M.

    2006-01-01

    Substantial extension of the human lifespan has recently become a subject of lively debate. One reason for this is the completion in 2001 of the Human Genome Project and the experimental avenues for biogerontological research it has opened. Another is recent theoretical progress in biogerontology.

  20. 40 CFR Appendix C to Part 112 - Substantial Harm Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... to Part 112 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS OIL POLLUTION PREVENTION Pt. 112, App. C Appendix C to Part 112—Substantial Harm Criteria 1.0Introduction The..., except in the Gulf of Mexico. In the Gulf of Mexico, it means the area shoreward of the lines of...

  1. 76 FR 63846 - Substantially Underserved Trust Areas (SUTA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-14

    ... Cost Rural Communities; 10.861, Public Television Station Digital Transition Grant Program; 10.862... rule do not impose substantial unreimbursed direct compliance costs on Indian tribal, Alaska native, or native Hawaiian governments and sovereign institutions or have tribal implications that preempt tribal...

  2. Healthcare providers' views on the delivery of preconception care in a local community setting in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poels, M; Koster, MPH; Franx, A; van Stel, H F

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The attention for preconception care (PCC) has grown substantially in recent years, yet PCC is far from routine in daily practice. One of the major challenges for the implementation of PCC is to identify how it can best be organized and provided within the primary care setting. The aim

  3. Combining segmentation and attention: a new foveal attention model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebeca eMarfil

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Artificial vision systems cannot process all the information that they receive from the world in real time because it is highly expensive and inefficient in terms of computational cost. Inspired by biological perception systems, articial attention models pursuit to select only the relevant part of the scene. Besides, it is well established that the units of attention on human vision are not merely spatial but closely related to perceptual objects (proto-objects. This implies a strong bidirectional relationship between segmentation and attention processes. Therefore, while the segmentation process is the responsible to extract the proto-objects from the scene, attention can guide segmentation, arising the concept of foveal attention. When the focus of attention is deployed from one visual unit to another, the rest of the scene is perceived but at a lower resolution that the focused object. The result is a multi-resolution visual perception in which the fovea, a dimple on the central retina, provides the highest resolution vision. In this paper, a bottom-up foveal attention model is presented. In this model the input image is a foveal image represented using a Cartesian Foveal Geometry (CFG, which encodes the field of view of the sensor as a fovea (placed in the focus of attention surrounded by a set of concentric rings with decreasing resolution. Then multirresolution perceptual segmentation is performed by building a foveal polygon using the Bounded Irregular Pyramid (BIP. Bottom-up attention is enclosed in the same structure, allowing to set the fovea over the most salient image proto-object. Saliency is computed as a linear combination of multiple low level features such us colour and intensity contrast, symmetry, orientation and roundness. Obtained results from natural images show that the performance of the combination of hierarchical foveal segmentation and saliency estimation is good in terms of accuracy and speed.

  4. Culture, attention, and emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossmann, Igor; Ellsworth, Phoebe C; Hong, Ying-yi

    2012-02-01

    This research provides experimental evidence for cultural influence on one of the most basic elements of emotional processing: attention to positive versus negative stimuli. To this end, we focused on Russian culture, which is characterized by brooding and melancholy. In Study 1, Russians spent significantly more time looking at negative than positive pictures, whereas Americans did not show this tendency. In Study 2, Russian Latvians were randomly primed with symbols of each culture, after which we measured the speed of recognition for positive versus negative trait words. Biculturals were significantly faster in recognizing negative words (as compared with baseline) when primed with Russian versus Latvian cultural symbols. Greater identification with Russian culture facilitated this effect. We provide a theoretical discussion of mental processes underlying cultural differences in emotion research.

  5. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Marguerite; Nigg, Joel T.

    2014-01-01

    Over the last two decades, there have been numerous technical and methodological advances available to clinicians and researchers to better understand attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and its etiology. Despite the growing body of literature investigating the disorder’s pathophysiology, ADHD remains a complex psychiatric disorder to characterize. This chapter will briefly review the literature on ADHD, with a focus on its history, the current genetic insights, neurophysiologic theories, and the use of neuroimaging to further understand the etiology. We address some of the major concerns that remain unclear about ADHD, including subtype instability, heterogeneity, and the underlying neural correlates that define the disorder. We highlight that the field of ADHD is rapidly evolving; the descriptions provided here will hopefully provide a sturdy foundation for which to build and improve our understanding of the disorder. PMID:24214656

  6. Substantiation of the road toll for heavy transport vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Burmaka, N.; Chernykh, A.

    2010-01-01

    The existing and possible additional sources of developing state and local road funds of Ukraine have been considered. The formula for calculating monthly road toll for heavy transport vehicles has been proposed. This formula includes the payment rate per every kilometer of distance, the vehicle capacity utilization factor and the run with the load. The payment rate per every kilometer of distance for transport vehicles depending on the allowed total weight has been substantiated. The given r...

  7. Mechanism of Perceptual Attention

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lu, Zhong-Lin

    2000-01-01

    .... Attention may affect the perceived clarity of visual displays and improve performance. In this project, a powerful external noise method was developed to identify and characterize the effect of attention on perceptual performance in visual tasks...

  8. Mechanisms of Perceptual Attention

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dosher, Barbara

    2000-01-01

    .... Attention may affect the perceived clarity of visual displays and improve performance. In this project, a powerful external noise method was developed to identify and characterize the effect of attention on perceptual performance in visual tasks...

  9. Substantial secondary organic aerosol formation in a coniferous forest: observations of both day- and nighttime chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    A. K. Y. Lee; J. P. D. Abbatt; W. R. Leaitch; S.-M. Li; S. J. Sjostedt; S. J. Sjostedt; J. J. B. Wentzell; J. Liggio; A. M. Macdonald

    2016-01-01

    Substantial biogenic secondary organic aerosol (BSOA) formation was investigated in a coniferous forest mountain region at Whistler, British Columbia. A largely biogenic aerosol growth episode was observed, providing a unique opportunity to investigate BSOA formation chemistry in a forested environment with limited influence from anthropogenic emissions. Positive matrix factorization of aerosol mass spectrometry (AMS) measurement identifie...

  10. Dynamics of Media Attention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Traag, V.A.; Reinanda, R.; Hicks, J.; van Klinken, G.; Aziz-Alaoui, M.A.; Bertelle, C.; Liu, X.; Olivier, D.

    2014-01-01

    Studies of human attention dynamics analyses how attention is focused on specific topics, issues or people. In online social media, there are clear signs of exogenous shocks, bursty dynamics, and an exponential or powerlaw lifetime distribution. We here analyse the attention dynamics of traditional

  11. Attention and Representational Momentum

    OpenAIRE

    Hayes, Amy; Freyd, Jennifer J

    1995-01-01

    Representational momentum, the tendency for memory to be distorted in the direction of an implied transformation, suggests that dynamics are an intrinsic part of perceptual representations. We examined the effect of attention on dynamic representation by testing for representational momentum under conditions of distraction. Forward memory shifts increase when attention is divided. Attention may be involved in halting but not in maintaining dynamic representations.

  12. Effects of Psychological Attention on Pronoun Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Jennifer E.; Lao, Shin-Yi C.

    2015-01-01

    Pronoun comprehension is facilitated for referents that are focused in the discourse context. Discourse focus has been described as a function of attention, especially shared attention, but few studies have explicitly tested this idea. Two experiments used an exogenous capture cue paradigm to demonstrate that listeners’ visual attention at the onset of a story influences their preferences during pronoun resolution later in the story. In both experiments trial-initial attention modulated listeners’ transitory biases while considering referents for the pronoun, whether it was in response to the capture cue or not. These biases even had a small influence on listeners’ final interpretation of the pronoun. These results provide independently-motivated evidence that the listener’s attention influences the on-line processes of pronoun comprehension. Trial-initial attentional shifts were made on the basis of non-shared, private information, demonstrating that attentional effects on pronoun comprehension are not restricted to shared attention among interlocutors. PMID:26191533

  13. Substantial increase in acceleration potential of pyroelectric crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tornow, W.; Lynam, S. M.; Shafroth, S. M.

    2010-01-01

    We report on a substantial increase in the acceleration potential achieved with a LiTaO 3 pyroelectric crystal. With a single 2.5 cm diameter and 2.5 cm long z-cut crystal without electric field-enhancing nanotip we produced positive ion beams with maximal energies between 300 and 310 keV during the cooling phase when the crystal was exposed to 5 mTorr of deuterium gas. These values are about a factor of 2 larger than previously obtained with single pyroelectric crystals.

  14. Attention competition with advertisement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetin, Uzay; Bingol, Haluk O.

    2014-09-01

    In the new digital age, information is available in large quantities. Since information consumes primarily the attention of its recipients, the scarcity of attention is becoming the main limiting factor. In this study, we investigate the impact of advertisement pressure on a cultural market where consumers have a limited attention capacity. A model of competition for attention is developed and investigated analytically and by simulation. Advertisement is found to be much more effective when the attention capacity of agents is extremely scarce. We have observed that the market share of the advertised item improves if dummy items are introduced to the market while the strength of the advertisement is kept constant.

  15. Timing attention : Cuing target onset interval attenuates the attentional blink

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martens, S; Johnson, A

    Three experiments tested whether the attentional blink (AB; a deficit in reporting the second of two targets when it occurs 200-500 msec after the first) can be attenuated by providing information about the target onset asynchrony (TOA) of the second target relative to the first. Blocking the TOA

  16. Principles of visual attention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundesen, Claus; Habekost, Thomas

    research as a field that is fundamentally fragmented. This book takes a different perspective and presents a unified theory of visual attention: the TVA model. The TVA model explains the many aspects of visual attention by just two mechanisms for selection of information: filtering and pigeonholing......The nature of attention is one of the oldest and most central problems in psychology. A huge amount of research has been produced on this subject in the last half century, especially on attention in the visual modality, but a general explanation has remained elusive. Many still view attention....... These mechanisms are described in a set of simple equations, which allow TVA to mathematically model a large number of classical results in the attention literature. The theory explains psychological and neuroscientific findings by the same equations; TVA is a complete theory of visual attention, linking mind...

  17. COMPOSITIONAL AND SUBSTANTIAL STRUCTURE OF THE MEDICAL DOCUMENT: FORMATION STAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romashova Olga Vladimirovna

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the compositional and substantial structure of the ambulatory medical record, or "case history", which has being formed for a long time. The author allocates the three main periods in the formation of this medical document: the first period (the beginning of the 19th century – 1920s is connected with the origin and formation; the second period (1920-1980s is marked by emergence of the normative legal acts regulating registration and maintaining; the third period (1980s – up to the present is associated with the cancellation of regulations and the introduction of the new order of the Ministry of Health of the USSR that changed the document's form and name. It is determined that the composition of the case history consists of the title page and the main part. The following processes take place in the course of ambulatory medical record's formation: strengthening formalization, increase in the number of pattern text fragments, increase in the text's volume, and the implementation of bigger number of functions. The author reveals the main (informative and cumulative, accounting and additional (scientific, controlling, legal, financial functions of the document. The implementation of these functions is reflected in the compositional and substantial structure of the document text and is conditioned by a number of extralinguistic factors.

  18. 75 FR 64683 - Liability for Termination of Single-Employer Plans; Treatment of Substantial Cessation of Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-20

    ... Termination of Single-Employer Plans; Treatment of Substantial Cessation of Operations AGENCY: Pension Benefit... cessations of operations by employers that maintain single-employer plans. DATES: Comments must be submitted... 4062(e), which provides for reporting of and liability for certain substantial cessations of operations...

  19. The evolution of a media image: newspaper attention to the Flemish far right 1987-2004

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schafraad, P.; d'Haenens, L.; Scheepers, P.; Wester, F.

    2012-01-01

    This article investigates changes in attention to the far right in Flemish newspapers. Not only the volume of attention will be analysed but especially how newspapers pay attention to the far right, focusing on the portrayal of far-right actors (substantial attention), and on favourable and

  20. Clozapine-induced dysphagia with secondary substantial weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Mugtaba; Devadas, Vekneswaran

    2016-08-19

    Dysphagia is listed as a 'rare' side effect following clozapine treatment. In this case report, we describe how significant clozapine-induced dysphagia has led to significant reduction of nutritional intake with subsequent substantial weight loss. An 18-year-old single man with an established diagnosis of treatment-resistant paranoid schizophrenia recovered well on a therapeutic dose of clozapine. However, he was noted to lose weight significantly (up to 20% of his original weight) as the dose was uptitrated. This was brought about by development of dysphagia, likely to be due to clozapine. Addition of nutritional supplementary liquids and initiation of a modified behavioural dietary/swallowing programme, while repeatedly mastering the Mendelsohn manoeuvre technique, alleviated the swallowing difficulties and restored his weight. 2016 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  1. Attention Mosaics: Studies of Organizational Attention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Carvalho de Mesquita Ferreira (Luciana)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractOrganizational studies emphasizing the role of attention in organizational behavior depart from the idea that organizations, like individuals, have limited capacity to attend to environmental stimuli. The bounded capacity of the organizations to respond to stimuli is conditioned by the

  2. Providing x-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallozzi, P.J.; Epstein, H.M.

    1985-01-01

    This invention provides an apparatus for providing x-rays to an object that may be in an ordinary environment such as air at approximately atmospheric pressure. The apparatus comprises: means (typically a laser beam) for directing energy onto a target to produce x-rays of a selected spectrum and intensity at the target; a fluid-tight enclosure around the target; means for maintaining the pressure in the first enclosure substantially below atmospheric pressure; a fluid-tight second enclosure adjoining the first enclosure, the common wall portion having an opening large enough to permit x-rays to pass through but small enough to allow the pressure reducing means to evacuate gas from the first enclosure at least as fast as it enters through the opening; the second enclosure filled with a gas that is highly transparent to x-rays; the wall of the second enclosure to which the x-rays travel having a portion that is highly transparent to x-rays (usually a beryllium or plastic foil), so that the object to which the x-rays are to be provided may be located outside the second enclosure and adjacent thereto and thus receive the x-rays substantially unimpeded by air or other intervening matter. The apparatus is particularly suited to obtaining EXAFS (extended x-ray fine structure spectroscopy) data on a material

  3. Modality-specificity of Selective Attention Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Hannah J; Amitay, Sygal

    2015-01-01

    To establish the modality specificity and generality of selective attention networks. Forty-eight young adults completed a battery of four auditory and visual selective attention tests based upon the Attention Network framework: the visual and auditory Attention Network Tests (vANT, aANT), the Test of Everyday Attention (TEA), and the Test of Attention in Listening (TAiL). These provided independent measures for auditory and visual alerting, orienting, and conflict resolution networks. The measures were subjected to an exploratory factor analysis to assess underlying attention constructs. The analysis yielded a four-component solution. The first component comprised of a range of measures from the TEA and was labeled "general attention." The third component was labeled "auditory attention," as it only contained measures from the TAiL using pitch as the attended stimulus feature. The second and fourth components were labeled as "spatial orienting" and "spatial conflict," respectively-they were comprised of orienting and conflict resolution measures from the vANT, aANT, and TAiL attend-location task-all tasks based upon spatial judgments (e.g., the direction of a target arrow or sound location). These results do not support our a-priori hypothesis that attention networks are either modality specific or supramodal. Auditory attention separated into selectively attending to spatial and non-spatial features, with the auditory spatial attention loading onto the same factor as visual spatial attention, suggesting spatial attention is supramodal. However, since our study did not include a non-spatial measure of visual attention, further research will be required to ascertain whether non-spatial attention is modality-specific.

  4. Selective Attention, Diffused Attention, and the Development of Categorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Wei (Sophia); Sloutsky, Vladimir M.

    2016-01-01

    How do people learn categories and what changes with development? The current study attempts to address these questions by focusing on the role of attention in the development of categorization. In Experiment 1, participants (adults, 7-year-olds, and 4-year-olds) were trained with novel categories consisting of deterministic and probabilistic features, and their categorization and memory for features were tested. In Experiment 2, participants’ attention was directed to the deterministic feature, and in Experiment 3 it was directed to the probabilistic features. Attentional cuing affected categorization and memory in adults and 7-year-olds: these participants relied on the cued features in their categorization and exhibited better memory of cued than of non-cued features. In contrast, in 4-year-olds attentional cueing affected only categorization, but not memory: these participants exhibited equally good memory for both cued and non-cued features. Furthermore, across the experiments, 4-year-olds remembered non-cued features better than adults. These results coupled with computational simulations provide novel evidence (1) pointing to differences in category representation and mechanisms of categorization across development, (2) elucidating the role of attention in the development of categorization, and (3) suggesting an important distinction between representation and decision factors in categorization early in development. These issues are discussed with respect to theories of categorization and its development. PMID:27721103

  5. Selective attention, diffused attention, and the development of categorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Wei Sophia; Sloutsky, Vladimir M

    2016-12-01

    How do people learn categories and what changes with development? The current study attempts to address these questions by focusing on the role of attention in the development of categorization. In Experiment 1, participants (adults, 7-year-olds, and 4-year-olds) were trained with novel categories consisting of deterministic and probabilistic features, and their categorization and memory for features were tested. In Experiment 2, participants' attention was directed to the deterministic feature, and in Experiment 3 it was directed to the probabilistic features. Attentional cueing affected categorization and memory in adults and 7-year-olds: these participants relied on the cued features in their categorization and exhibited better memory of cued than of non-cued features. In contrast, in 4-year-olds attentional cueing affected only categorization, but not memory: these participants exhibited equally good memory for both cued and non-cued features. Furthermore, across the experiments, 4-year-olds remembered non-cued features better than adults. These results coupled with computational simulations provide novel evidence (1) pointing to differences in category representation and mechanisms of categorization across development, (2) elucidating the role of attention in the development of categorization, and (3) suggesting an important distinction between representation and decision factors in categorization early in development. These issues are discussed with respect to theories of categorization and its development. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Substantial energy conservation in air conditioners; Substantiele energiebesparing bij luchtbehandelingsinstallaties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-03-01

    An air conditioner has been retrofitted by application of an optimized fan in combination with an EC motor (brushless dc-motor). Attention is paid to the difference between an AC- and and EC motor, between free-running and spiral housing fans, between direct or indirect-driven, and between forward-bended and backward-bended blades. By means of equations and diagrams the realized energy conservation is visualized. [Dutch] De renovatie van een luchtbehandelingskast wordt besproken. Door de toepassing van ventilatoren met een geoptimaliseerde waaier in combinatie met een EC-motor (borstelloze gelijkstroommotor) wordt een substantiele energiebesparing gerealiseerd. Er wordt op verschillende aspecten ingegaan. Onder meer het verschil tussen een AC- en EC-motor, tussen vrijlopende en slakkenhuisventilatoren, tussen direct- of indirect-gedreven schoepen en tussen voorwaarts- of achterwaartsgebogen schoepen. Aan de hand van vergelijkingen en diagrammen wordt de energiewinst zichtbaar gemaakt.

  7. Substantial Research Secures the Blue Future for our Blue Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moustafa Abdel Maksoud

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Earth, the blue planet, is our home, and seas and oceans cover more than 70% of its surface. As the earth’s population rapidly increases and available resources decrease, seas and oceans can play a key role in assuring the long-term survival of humankind. Renewable maritime energy has huge potential to provide a considerable part of the earth’s population with decarbonised electricity generation systems. Renewable maritime energy is very flexible and can be harvested above the water’s free surface by using offshore wind turbines, on the water’s surface by using wave energy converters or below the water’s surface by using current or tidal turbines. The supposed conflict between environmental protection measures and economic interests is neither viable nor reasonable. Renewable maritime energy can be the motor for considerable substantial economic growth for many maritime regions and therefore for society at large. The fastest growing sector of renewable maritime energy is offshore wind. The annual report of the European Wind Energy Association from the year 2015 confirms the growing relevance of the offshore wind industry. In 2015, the total installed and grid-connected capacity of wind power was 12,800 MW in the EU and 6,013.4 MW in Germany. 38% of the 2015 annual installation in Germany was offshore, accounting for a capacity of 2,282.4 MW. However, there are a limited number of available installation sites in shallow water, meaning that there is an urgent need to develop new offshore structures for water depths greater than 50m. The persistent trend towards deeper waters has encouraged the offshore wind industry to look for floating wind turbine structures and larger turbines. Floating wind turbine technologies are at an early stage of development and many technical and economic challenges will still need to be faced. Nonetheless, intensive research activities and the employment of advanced technologies are the key factors in

  8. Complementary sex determination substantially increases extinction proneness of haplodiploid populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zayed, Amro; Packer, Laurence

    2005-07-26

    The role of genetic factors in extinction is firmly established for diploid organisms, but haplodiploids have been considered immune to genetic load impacts because deleterious alleles are readily purged in haploid males. However, we show that single-locus complementary sex determination ancestral to the haplodiploid Hymenoptera (ants, bees, and wasps) imposes a substantial genetic load through homozygosity at the sex locus that results in the production of inviable or sterile diploid males. Using stochastic modeling, we have discovered that diploid male production (DMP) can initiate a rapid and previously uncharacterized extinction vortex. The extinction rate in haplodiploid populations with DMP is an order of magnitude greater than in its absence under realistic but conservative demographic parameter values. Furthermore, DMP alone can elevate the base extinction risk in haplodiploids by over an order of magnitude higher than that caused by inbreeding depression in threatened diploids. Thus, contrary to previous expectations, haplodiploids are more, rather than less, prone to extinction for genetic reasons. Our findings necessitate a fundamental shift in approaches to the conservation and population biology of these ecologically and economically crucial insects.

  9. Substantial soil organic carbon retention along floodplains of mountain streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutfin, Nicholas A.; Wohl, Ellen

    2017-07-01

    Small, snowmelt-dominated mountain streams have the potential to store substantial organic carbon in floodplain sediment because of high inputs of particulate organic matter, relatively lower temperatures compared with lowland regions, and potential for increased moisture conditions. This work (i) quantifies mean soil organic carbon (OC) content along 24 study reaches in the Colorado Rocky Mountains using 660 soil samples, (ii) identifies potential controls of OC content based on soil properties and spatial position with respect to the channel, and (iii) and examines soil properties and OC across various floodplain geomorphic features in the study area. Stepwise multiple linear regression (adjusted r2 = 0.48, p sample depth, percent sand, distance from the channel, and relative elevation from the channel are significant predictors of OC content in the study area. Principle component analysis indicates limited separation between geomorphic floodplain features based on predictors of OC content. A lack of significant differences among floodplain features suggests that the systematic random sampling employed in this study can capture the variability of OC across floodplains in the study area. Mean floodplain OC (6.3 ± 0.3%) is more variable but on average greater than values in uplands (1.5 ± 0.08% to 2.2 ± 0.14%) of the Colorado Front Range and higher than published values from floodplains in other regions, particularly those of larger rivers.

  10. Substantial proportion of global streamflow less than three months old

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasechko, Scott; Kirchner, James W.; Welker, Jeffrey M.; McDonnell, Jeffrey J.

    2016-02-01

    Biogeochemical cycles, contaminant transport and chemical weathering are regulated by the speed at which precipitation travels through landscapes and reaches streams. Streamflow is a mixture of young and old precipitation, but the global proportions of these young and old components are not known. Here we analyse seasonal cycles of oxygen isotope ratios in rain, snow and streamflow compiled from 254 watersheds around the world, and calculate the fraction of streamflow that is derived from precipitation that fell within the past two or three months. This young streamflow accounts for about a third of global river discharge, and comprises at least 5% of discharge in about 90% of the catchments we investigated. We conclude that, although typical catchments have mean transit times of years or even decades, they nonetheless can rapidly transmit substantial fractions of soluble contaminant inputs to streams. Young streamflow is less prevalent in steeper landscapes, which suggests they are characterized by deeper vertical infiltration. Because young streamflow is derived from less than 0.1% of global groundwater storage, we conclude that this thin veneer of aquifer storage will have a disproportionate influence on stream water quality.

  11. Substantially Evolutionary Theorizing in Designing Software-Intensive Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Sosnin

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Useful inheritances from scientific experience open perspective ways for increasing the degree of success in designing of systems with software. One such way is a search and build applied theory that takes into account the nature of design and the specificity of software engineering. This paper presents a substantially evolutionary approach to creating the project theories, the application of which leads to positive effects that are traditionally expected from theorizing. Any implementation of the approach is based on a reflection by designers of an operational space of designing onto a semantic memory of a question-answer type. One of the results of such reflection is a system of question-answer nets, the nodes of which register facts of interactions of designers with accessible experience. A set of such facts is used by designers for creating and using the theory that belongs to the new subclass of Grounded Theories. This sub-class is oriented on organizationally behavioral features of a project’s work based on design thinking, automated mental imagination, and thought experimenting that facilitate increasing the degree of controlled intellectualization in the design process and, correspondingly, increasing the degree of success in the development of software-intensive systems.

  12. Attention and choice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orquin, Jacob Lund; Mueller Loose, Simone

    2013-01-01

    satisfaction models. Although most theories were confirmed with regard to certain predictions, none of the theories adequately accounted for the role of attention during decision making. Several observations emerged concerning the drivers and down-stream effects of attention on choice, suggesting......This paper reviews studies on eye movements in decision making, and compares their observations to theoretical predictions concerning the role of attention in decision making. Four decision theories are examined: rational models, bounded rationality, evidence accumulation, and parallel constraint...... that attention processes plays an active role in constructing decisions. So far, decision theories have largely ignored the constructive role of attention by assuming that it is entirely determined by heuristics, or that it consists of stochastic information sampling. The empirical observations reveal...

  13. Do substantial BMI reduction episodes among Swedish schoolchildren have any impact on their final height?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsen, Bente B; Yngve, Agneta; Werner, Bo

    2018-02-06

    This study investigated whether substantial body mass index (BMI) reductions in Swedish schoolchildren aged seven years to 19 years, caused by disease, healthy or unhealthy behaviour, had any impact on their final height. We used height and weight data on 6572 subjects from two nationally representative longitudinal samples of Swedish children born in 1973 and 1981. These provided information on their final height and any BMI reduction episodes. Of the 6572 subjects (50.9% boys), among individuals with information on final height, 1118 had a BMI reduction of 5% and BMI reduction of 10% or more. On a group level, there was no statistically significant difference in the final height of individuals with BMI reductions of 10% or more and those without. The findings were independent of age and the subject's BMI at the start of the reduction episode. However, there were a number of cases where a substantial BMI reduction probably had an impact on the subject's final height. Our study found no evidence that a substantial BMI reduction had any impact on final height on a group level, but further analyses of specific case studies are necessary to determine whether substantial BMI reduction might have an impact on final height. ©2018 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. New theory of arrhythmia. Conceptual substantiation of arrhythmia mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir I. Ermoshkin

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Aims A new attempt is made to substantiate the concept of the mechanism of arrhythmia and sudden cardiac death. Methods The paper is based on a theoretical analysis of special literature, personal experience of participation in conferences and discussions with leading Russian cardiologists. Results We have succeeded in demonstrating the fact that researchers ignore the fact that cardiomyocytes can be excited by mechanical pulses, when considering the arrhythmia mechanisms. We have conducted trials using the Cardiocode device. Under stress in a human, opened may be large and small arteriovenous anastomoses, via which blood under high pressure is ejected into veins. It leads to pressure surges in arteries and veins. The vena cava dilates, its tonus increases. In some cases, the pulse waves travel via anastomoses along the vena cava walls to the atria and the ventricles. An above-threshold concentration of tensions from mechanical pulses may excite cardiomyocytes from different points of the myocardium, disturbing the sinus rhythm. As a result, extrasystoles, tachycardia attacks, blocking of blood circulation in the peripheral segments of the venous arterial networks, edemata, thrombosis and metabolism disorders appear. Arrhythmia, tachycardia attacks and concomitant myocardial ischemia lead to progression of heart fibrosis. Such changes increase the probability of fibrillations and sudden cardiac death. Conclusion Unhealthy lifestyle, the presence of opening and not properly closing anastomoses may provoke a number of diseases. To avoid the cardiac arrhythmia attacks and prevent SCD, it is necessary to suppress travel of the mechanical waves within the following circuitry: aorta – artery – anastomosis – vein – vena cava – atria – ventricles. The travel of the mechanical waves within the same vessel circuitry explains the fact that the fixed couplings under extrasystoles are observed, and the beat-to-beat RR intervals under tachycardia

  15. How common is substantial weight gain after pregnancy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumithran, Priya; Houlihan, Christine; Shub, Alexis; Churilov, Leonid; Pritchard, Natasha; Price, Sarah; Ekinci, Elif; Proietto, Joseph; Permezel, Michael

    2017-11-20

    Although population-based studies indicate that on average, women gain 1-2kg between pregnancies, women with obesity often attribute its development to childbearing. There is little contemporary data available regarding how commonly this occurs, particularly in women of different body mass index (BMI) categories. The aim of this study was to examine inter-pregnancy weight changes among women at a tertiary obstetric hospital in Melbourne, Australia. This was a retrospective review of data from the Birthing Outcomes System electronic record of 19,617 women aged 20 years or older, who delivered at least two consecutive singleton infants at ≥37 weeks' gestation at Mercy Hospital for Women between December 1994 and December 2015. A logistic regression model was used to assess the relationship between gain of ≥4kg/m 2 between pregnancies and maternal BMI category in the first pregnancy, adjusting for covariates of maternal age, inter-pregnancy interval, and socioeconomic status. Gain of ≥4kg/m 2 between the first two pregnancies occurred in 7.5% of normal weight women, 10.5% of overweight women, and 13.4% of women with obesity. One in five women who were normal weight in their first pregnancy increased to overweight or obese BMI categories in their second pregnancy. Substantial weight gain in relation to pregnancy affects a considerable proportion of women. Since inter-pregnancy weight gain is associated with several complications in the next pregnancy and longer term, avoiding excessive weight gain during and between pregnancies may prevent adverse health consequences in mothers and offspring. Copyright © 2017 Asia Oceania Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. 76 FR 38961 - Tobacco Products, Exemptions From Substantial Equivalence Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-05

    ... to be legible and in the English language. As discussed in the NPRM, FDA will provide information on... industry. One comment noted that a dictionary definition of ``modification'' supported excluding these...

  17. Associative cueing of attention through implicit feature-location binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girardi, Giovanna; Nico, Daniele

    2017-09-01

    In order to assess associative learning between two task-irrelevant features in cueing spatial attention, we devised a task in which participants have to make an identity comparison between two sequential visual stimuli. Unbeknownst to them, location of the second stimulus could be predicted by the colour of the first or a concurrent sound. Albeit unnecessary to perform the identity-matching judgment the predictive features thus provided an arbitrary association favouring the spatial anticipation of the second stimulus. A significant advantage was found with faster responses at predicted compared to non-predicted locations. Results clearly demonstrated an associative cueing of attention via a second-order arbitrary feature/location association but with a substantial discrepancy depending on the sensory modality of the predictive feature. With colour as predictive feature, significant advantages emerged only after the completion of three blocks of trials. On the contrary, sound affected responses from the first block of trials and significant advantages were manifest from the beginning of the second. The possible mechanisms underlying the associative cueing of attention in both conditions are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Mindful movement and skilled attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Dav; Schumann, Frank; Mostofsky, Stewart H.

    2015-01-01

    Bodily movement has long been employed as a foundation for cultivating mental skills such as attention, self-control or mindfulness, with recent studies documenting the positive impacts of mindful movement training, such as yoga and tai chi. A parallel “mind-body connection” has also been observed in many developmental disorders. We elaborate a spectrum of mindfulness by considering ADHD, in which deficient motor control correlates with impaired (disinhibited) behavioral control contributing to defining features of excessive distractibility and impulsivity. These data provide evidence for an important axis of variation for wellbeing, in which skillful cognitive control covaries with a capacity for skillful movement. We review empirical and theoretical literature on attention, cognitive control, mind wandering, mindfulness and skill learning, endorsing a model of skilled attention in which motor plans, attention, and executive goals are seen as mutually co-defining aspects of skilled behavior that are linked by reciprocal inhibitory and excitatory connections. Thus, any movement training should engage “higher-order” inhibition and selection and develop a repertoire of rehearsed procedures that coordinate goals, attention and motor plans. However, we propose that mindful movement practice may improve the functional quality of rehearsed procedures, cultivating a transferrable skill of attention. We adopt Langer’s spectrum of mindful learning that spans from “mindlessness” to engagement with the details of the present task and contrast this with the mental attitudes cultivated in standard mindfulness meditation. We particularly follow Feldenkrais’ suggestion that mindful learning of skills for organizing the body in movement might transfer to other forms of mental activity. The results of mindful movement training should be observed in multiple complementary measures, and may have tremendous potential benefit for individuals with ADHD and other

  19. Mindful Movement and Skilled Attention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dav eClark

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Bodily movement has long been employed as a foundation for cultivating mental skills such as attention, self-control or mindfulness, with recent studies documenting the positive impacts of mindful movement training, such as yoga and tai chi. A parallel mind-body connection has also been observed in many developmental disorders. We elaborate a spectrum of mindfulness by considering ADHD, in which deficient motor control correlates with impaired (disinhibited behavioral control contributing to defining features of excessive distractibility and impulsivity. These data provide evidence for an important axis of variation for wellbeing, in which skillful cognitive control covaries with a capacity for skillful movement. We review empirical and theoretical literature on attention, cognitive control, mind wandering, mindfulness and skill learning, endorsing a model of skilled attention in which motor plans, attention, and executive goals are seen as mutually co-defining aspects of skilled behavior that are linked by reciprocal inhibitory and excitatory connections. Thus, any movement training should engage higher-order inhibition and selection and develop a repertoire of rehearsed procedures that coordinate goals, attention and motor plans. However, we propose that mindful movement practice may improve the functional quality of rehearsed procedures, cultivating a transferrable skill of attention. We adopt Langer’s spectrum of mindful learning that spans from mindlessness to engagement with the details of the present task and contrast this with the mental attitudes cultivated in standard mindfulness meditation. We particularly follow Feldenkrais’ suggestion that mindful learning of skills for organizing the body in movement might transfer to other forms of mental activity. The results of mindful movement training should be observed in multiple complementary measures, and may have tremendous potential benefit for individuals with ADHD and other

  20. Modality-specificity of selective attention networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah Jamieson Stewart

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To establish the modality specificity and generality of selective attention networks. Method: Forty-eight young adults completed a battery of four auditory and visual selective attention tests based upon the Attention Network framework: the visual and auditory Attention Network Tests (vANT, aANT, the Test of Everyday Attention (TEA, and the Test of Attention in Listening (TAiL. These provided independent measures for auditory and visual alerting, orienting, and conflict resolution networks. The measures were subjected to an exploratory factor analysis to assess underlying attention constructs. Results: The analysis yielded a four-component solution. The first component comprised of a range of measures from the TEA and was labeled ‘general attention’. The third component was labeled ‘auditory attention’, as it only contained measures from the TAiL using pitch as the attended stimulus feature. The second and fourth components were labeled as ‘spatial orienting’ and ‘spatial conflict’, respectively – they were comprised of orienting and conflict resolution measures from the vANT, aANT and TAiL attend-location task – all tasks based upon spatial judgments (e.g., the direction of a target arrow or sound location. Conclusions: These results do not support our a-priori hypothesis that attention networks are either modality specific or supramodal. Auditory attention separated into selectively attending to spatial and non-spatial features, with the auditory spatial attention loading onto the same factor as visual spatial attention, suggesting spatial attention is supramodal. However, since our study did not include a non-spatial measure of visual attention, further research will be required to ascertain whether non-spatial attention is modality-specific.

  1. Attentional blink in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amador-Campos, Juan A; Aznar-Casanova, J Antonio; Bezerra, Izabela; Torro-Alves, Nelson; Sánchez, Manuel M

    2015-01-01

    To explore the temporal mechanism of attention in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and controls using a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) task in which two letters (T1 and T2) were presented in close temporal proximity among distractors (attentional blink [AB]). Thirty children aged between 9 and 13 years (12 with ADHD combined type and 18 controls) took part in the study. Both groups performed two kinds of RSVP task. In the single task, participants simply had to identify a target letter (T1), whereas in the dual task, they had to identify a target letter (T1) and a probe letter (T2). The ADHD and control groups were equivalent in their single-task performance. However, in the dual-task condition, there were significant between-group differences in the rate of detection of the probe letter (T2) at lag + 1 and lag + 4. The ADHD group exhibited a larger overall AB compared with controls. Our findings provide support for a link between ADHD and attentional blink.

  2. Attentional blink in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan A. Amador-Campos

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective:To explore the temporal mechanism of attention in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD and controls using a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP task in which two letters (T1 and T2 were presented in close temporal proximity among distractors (attentional blink [AB].Method:Thirty children aged between 9 and 13 years (12 with ADHD combined type and 18 controls took part in the study. Both groups performed two kinds of RSVP task. In the single task, participants simply had to identify a target letter (T1, whereas in the dual task, they had to identify a target letter (T1 and a probe letter (T2.Results:The ADHD and control groups were equivalent in their single-task performance. However, in the dual-task condition, there were significant between-group differences in the rate of detection of the probe letter (T2 at lag + 1 and lag + 4. The ADHD group exhibited a larger overall AB compared with controls.Conclusion:Our findings provide support for a link between ADHD and attentional blink.

  3. Paying attention to attention: evidence for an attentional contribution to the size congruity effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risko, Evan F; Maloney, Erin A; Fugelsang, Jonathan A

    2013-08-01

    Understanding the mechanisms supporting our comprehension of magnitude information represents a key goal in cognitive psychology. A major phenomenon employed in the pursuit of this goal has been the physical size congruity effect-namely, the observation that comparing the relative numerical sizes of two numbers is influenced by their relative physical sizes. The standard account of the physical size congruity effect attributes it to the automatic influence of the comparison of irrelevant physical magnitudes on numerical judgments. Here we develop an alternative account of this effect on the basis of the operation of attention in the typical size congruity display and the temporal dynamics of number comparison. We also provide a test of a number of predictions derived from this alternative account by combining a physical size congruity manipulation with a manipulation designed to alter the operation of attention within the typical size congruity display (i.e., a manipulation of the relative onsets of the digits). This test provides evidence consistent with an attentional contribution to the size congruity effect. Implications for our understanding of magnitude and the interactions between attention and magnitude are discussed.

  4. Infant Attention and Early Childhood Executive Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuevas, Kimberly; Bell, Martha Ann

    2014-01-01

    Individual differences in infant attention are theorized to reflect the speed of information processing and are related to later cognitive abilities (i.e., memory, language, and intelligence). This study provides the first systematic longitudinal analysis of infant attention and early childhood executive function (EF; e.g., working memory,…

  5. Human treadmill walking needs attention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Olivier

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the study was to assess the attentional requirements of steady state treadmill walking in human subjects using a dual task paradigm. The extent of decrement of a secondary (cognitive RT task provides a measure of the attentional resources required to maintain performance of the primary (locomotor task. Varying the level of difficulty of the reaction time (RT task is used to verify the priority of allocation of attentional resources. Methods 11 healthy adult subjects were required to walk while simultaneously performing a RT task. Participants were instructed to bite a pressure transducer placed in the mouth as quickly as possible in response to an unpredictable electrical stimulation applied on the back of the neck. Each subject was tested under five different experimental conditions: simple RT task alone and while walking, recognition RT task alone and while walking, walking alone. A foot switch system composed of a pressure sensitive sensor was placed under the heel and forefoot of each foot to determine the gait cycle duration. Results Gait cycle duration was unchanged (p > 0.05 by the addition of the RT task. Regardless of the level of difficulty of the RT task, the RTs were longer during treadmill walking than in sitting conditions (p 0.05 was found between the attentional demand of the walking task and the decrement of performance found in the RT task under varying levels of difficulty. This finding suggests that the healthy subjects prioritized the control of walking at the expense of cognitive performance. Conclusion We conclude that treadmill walking in young adults is not a purely automatic task. The methodology and outcome measures used in this study provide an assessment of the attentional resources required by walking on the treadmill at a steady state.

  6. Iconic memory requires attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persuh, Marjan; Genzer, Boris; Melara, Robert D

    2012-01-01

    Two experiments investigated whether attention plays a role in iconic memory, employing either a change detection paradigm (Experiment 1) or a partial-report paradigm (Experiment 2). In each experiment, attention was taxed during initial display presentation, focusing the manipulation on consolidation of information into iconic memory, prior to transfer into working memory. Observers were able to maintain high levels of performance (accuracy of change detection or categorization) even when concurrently performing an easy visual search task (low load). However, when the concurrent search was made difficult (high load), observers' performance dropped to almost chance levels, while search accuracy held at single-task levels. The effects of attentional load remained the same across paradigms. The results suggest that, without attention, participants consolidate in iconic memory only gross representations of the visual scene, information too impoverished for successful detection of perceptual change or categorization of features.

  7. Iconic memory requires attention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjan ePersuh

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments investigated whether attention plays a role in iconic memory, employing either a change-detection paradigm (Experiment 1 or a partial-report paradigm (Experiment 2. In each experiment, attention was taxed during initial display presentation, focusing the manipulation on consolidation of information into iconic memory, prior to transfer into working memory. Observers were able to maintain high levels of performance (accuracy of change detection or categorization even when concurrently performing an easy visual search task (low load. However, when the concurrent search was made difficult (high load, observers’ performance dropped to almost chance levels, while search accuracy held at single-task levels. The effects of attentional load remained the same across paradigms. The results suggest that, without attention, participants consolidate in iconic memory only gross representations of the visual scene, information too impoverished for successful detection of perceptual change or categorization of features.

  8. 29 CFR 4043.27 - Distribution to a substantial owner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... is one percent or less of the end-of-year current value of the plan's assets (as required to be...) The purchase price of any irrevocable commitment; and (iii) The fair market value of any other assets... benefits (as provided in § 4022.5) that are not funded. (b) Initial information required. In addition to...

  9. 45 CFR 1355.34 - Criteria for determining substantial conformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... and implemented standards to ensure that children in foster care placements are provided quality... children in all political subdivisions covered in the State's CFSP; and, (vi) Services that can be...) The State has established and maintains standards for foster family homes and child care institutions...

  10. Iconic memory requires attention

    OpenAIRE

    Persuh, Marjan; Genzer, Boris; Melara, Robert D.

    2012-01-01

    Two experiments investigated whether attention plays a role in iconic memory, employing either a change detection paradigm (Experiment 1) or a partial-report paradigm (Experiment 2). In each experiment, attention was taxed during initial display presentation, focusing the manipulation on consolidation of information into iconic memory, prior to transfer into working memory. Observers were able to maintain high levels of performance (accuracy of change detection or categorization) even when co...

  11. The effects of advertisement location and familiarity on selective attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessen, Tanja Lund; Rodway, Paul

    2010-06-01

    This study comprised two experiments to examine the distracting effects of advertisement familiarity, location, and onset on the performance of a selective attention task. In Exp. 1, familiar advertisements presented in peripheral vision disrupted selective attention when the attention task was more demanding, suggesting that the distracting effect of advertisements is a product of task demands and advertisement familiarity and location. In Exp. 2, the onset of the advertisement shortly before, or after, the attention task captured attention and disrupted attentional performance. The onset of the advertisement before the attention task reduced target response time without an increase in errors and therefore facilitated performance. Despite being instructed to ignore the advertisements, the participants were able to recall a substantial proportion of the familiar advertisements. Implications for the presentation of advertisements during human-computer interaction were discussed.

  12. Fundamentals of Agent Perception and Attention Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peters, Christopher; Castellano, Ginevra; Rehm, Matthias

    2011-01-01

    Perception and attention mechanisms are of great importance for entities situated within complex dynamic environments. With roles extending greatly beyond passive information services about the external environment, such mechanisms actively prioritise, augment and expedite information to ensure t...... agents can achieve a more substantial connection with their environment for the purposes of reacting, planning, decision making and, ultimately, behaving.......Perception and attention mechanisms are of great importance for entities situated within complex dynamic environments. With roles extending greatly beyond passive information services about the external environment, such mechanisms actively prioritise, augment and expedite information to ensure...... that the potentially relevant is made available so appropriate action can take place. Here, we describe the rationale behind endowing artificial entities, or virtual agents, with real-time perception and attention systems. We cover the fundamentals of designing and building such systems. Once equipped, the resulting...

  13. Attention modulates sensory suppression during back movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hulle, Lore; Juravle, Georgiana; Spence, Charles; Crombez, Geert; Van Damme, Stefaan

    2013-06-01

    Tactile perception is often impaired during movement. The present study investigated whether such sensory suppression also occurs during back movements, and whether this would be modulated by attention. In two tactile detection experiments, participants simultaneously engaged in a movement task, in which they executed a back-bending movement, and a perceptual task, consisting of the detection of subtle tactile stimuli administered to their upper or lower back. The focus of participants' attention was manipulated by raising the probability that one of the back locations would be stimulated. The results revealed that tactile detection was suppressed during the execution of the back movements. Furthermore, the results of Experiment 2 revealed that when the stimulus was always presented to the attended location, tactile suppression was substantially reduced, suggesting that sensory suppression can be modulated by top-down attentional processes. The potential of this paradigm for studying tactile information processing in clinical populations is discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Attention deficits and divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchard, Geneviève; Saint-Aubin, Jean

    2014-09-01

    Building on previous work on the role of attention deficits associated with the regulation of executive control in psychiatric disorders, we examine whether these attention deficits are related to an interpersonal disturbance, the experience of divorce. Attentional capacities of 95 randomly selected couples from the general population were measured with a well-established task, the Attentional Network Task, which assesses the efficiency of 3 attention networks (that is, alerting, orienting, and executive control). Among the 190 participants, 32 had experienced a divorce in the past. ANCOVAs were used to compare divorced people in marital or cohabiting unions with people in first unions in their performance on this purely cognitive task. Our findings indicate that divorced people who are currently living in a cohabiting relationship show significantly lower executive control than other adults living as couples, after controlling for sex, age, income, and education. This subgroup of divorced people not only exhibit greater difficulty in responding to some stimuli while ignoring irrelevant ones but also manifest cognitive deficits in conflict resolution. This study highlights the links between attention and the long-term maintenance of intimate relationships. Our results may have important implications for the identification of people at risk for divorce.

  15. Selective Attention and Attention Switching: Towards a Unified Developmental Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanania, Rima; Smith, Linda B.

    2010-01-01

    We review and relate two literatures on the development of attention in children: one concerning flexible attention switching and the other concerning selective attention. The first is a growing literature on preschool children's performances in an attention-switching task indicating that children become more flexible in their attentional control…

  16. Connectivity supporting attention in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita D. Barber

    2015-01-01

    While CON–DMN anti-correlation is associated with improved attention in ADHD, other circuitry supports improved attention in TD children. Greater CON–DMN anti-correlation supported better attentional control in children with ADHD, but worse attentional control in TD children. On the other hand, greater DMN–occipital anti-correlation supported better attentional control in TD children.

  17. Substantial convection and precipitation enhancements by ultrafine aerosol particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, Jiwen; Rosenfeld, Daniel; Zhang, Yuwei; Giangrande, Scott E.; Li, Zhanqing; Machado, Luiz A. T.; Martin, Scot T.; Yang, Yan; Wang, Jian; Artaxo, Paulo; Barbosa, Henrique M. J.; Braga, Ramon C.; Comstock, Jennifer M.; Feng, Zhe; Gao, Wenhua; Gomes, Helber B.; Mei, Fan; Pöhlker, Christopher; Pöhlker, Mira L.; Pöschl, Ulrich; de Souza, Rodrigo A. F.

    2018-01-25

    Aerosol-cloud interaction remains the largest uncertainty in climate projections. Ultrafine aerosol particles (UAP; size <50nm) are considered too small to serve as cloud condensation nuclei conventionally. However, this study provides observational evidence to accompany insights from numerical simulations to support that deep convective clouds (DCCs) over Amazon have strong capability of nucleating UAP from an urban source and forming greater numbers of droplets, because fast drop coalescence in these DCCs reduces drop surface area available for condensation, leading to high vapor supersaturation. The additional droplets subsequently decrease supersaturation and release more condensational latent heating, a dominant contributor to convection intensification, whereas enhanced latent heat from ice-related processes plays a secondary role. Therefore, the addition of anthropogenic UAP may play a much greater role in modulating clouds than previously believed over the Amazon region and possibly in other relatively pristine regions such as maritime and forest locations.

  18. Confidence Intervals: From tests of statistical significance to confidence intervals, range hypotheses and substantial effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominic Beaulieu-Prévost

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available For the last 50 years of research in quantitative social sciences, the empirical evaluation of scientific hypotheses has been based on the rejection or not of the null hypothesis. However, more than 300 articles demonstrated that this method was problematic. In summary, null hypothesis testing (NHT is unfalsifiable, its results depend directly on sample size and the null hypothesis is both improbable and not plausible. Consequently, alternatives to NHT such as confidence intervals (CI and measures of effect size are starting to be used in scientific publications. The purpose of this article is, first, to provide the conceptual tools necessary to implement an approach based on confidence intervals, and second, to briefly demonstrate why such an approach is an interesting alternative to an approach based on NHT. As demonstrated in the article, the proposed CI approach avoids most problems related to a NHT approach and can often improve the scientific and contextual relevance of the statistical interpretations by testing range hypotheses instead of a point hypothesis and by defining the minimal value of a substantial effect. The main advantage of such a CI approach is that it replaces the notion of statistical power by an easily interpretable three-value logic (probable presence of a substantial effect, probable absence of a substantial effect and probabilistic undetermination. The demonstration includes a complete example.

  19. TECHNICAL AND ECONOMIC SUBSTANTIATION OF PROJECTS OF THE AFFORDABLE HOUSING CONSTRUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KRAVCHUNOVSKA T. S.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Problem statement. The development of inhabitant locality of Ukraine is characterized by significant differences in levels of socio and economic development. An excessive concentration of population and industry in large cities, inefficient, slow development of most medium and small cities, towns and villages, considerable territorial disproportions of economic development of the country, considerable shortcomings in the territorial organization of society are observed. At the same time the tendency of the total area of increasing of inhabitant locality. The lands are used inefficiently. Among the most common problems of inhabitant locality is the housing problem. When making a decision on the design of affordable housing construction is one of the most important stages in the development of the technique and economic substantiation of the project is determination of the advisability and effectiveness of construction. The substantiation of advisability and effectiveness of affordable housing based on the definition of technical and economic indicators of projects, one of the most important among them is the cost, in its calculation is necessary to take into account the influence of organizational and technological factors, reflecting the features of construction in condition of compacted construction. Purpose. Development of methodical recommendations on substantiation of cost construction of affordable housing in the conditions of compacted construction. Conclusion. To provide a processing and the analysis of data is necessary development of the applied software on the basis of the developed block scheme of justification of cost construction of affordable housing.

  20. Infants’ Early Visual Attention and Social Engagement as Developmental Precursors to Joint Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salley, Brenda; Sheinkopf, Stephen J.; Neal-Beevers, A. Rebecca; Tenenbaum, Elena J.; Miller-Loncar, Cynthia L.; Tronick, Ed; Lagasse, Linda L.; Shankaran, Seetha; Bada, Henrietta; Bauer, Charles; Whitaker, Toni; Hammond, Jane; Lester, Barry M.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined infants’ early visual attention (at 1 month of age) and social engagement (4 months) as predictors of their later joint attention (12 and 18 months). The sample (n=325), drawn from the Maternal Lifestyle Study, a longitudinal multicenter project conducted at four centers of the NICHD Neonatal Research Network, included high-risk (cocaine exposed) and matched non-cocaine exposed infants. Hierarchical regressions revealed that infants’ attention orienting at 1 month significantly predicted more frequent initiating joint attention at 12 (but not 18) months of age. Social engagement at 4 months predicted initiating joint attention at 18 months. Results provide the first empirical evidence for the role of visual attention and social engagement behaviors as developmental precursors for later joint attention outcome. PMID:27786527

  1. Attention in Urban Foraging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malcolm McCullough

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This position paper argues how there has to be much more to smart city learning than just wayshowing, and something better as augmented reality than covering the world with instructions. Attention has become something for many people to know better in an age of information superabundance. Embodied cognition explains how the work-ings of attention are not solely a foreground task, as if attention is something to pay. As digital media appear in ever more formats and contexts, their hybrids with physical form increasing influence how habitual engagement with persistent situations creates learning. Ambient information can just add to the distraction by multitasking, or it can support more favorable processes of shifting among different kinds of information with a particular intent. As one word for this latter process, foraging deserves more consideration in smart city learning

  2. Sustained Attention Ability Affects Simple Picture Naming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne R. Jongman

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Sustained attention has previously been shown as a requirement for language production. However, this is mostly evident for difficult conditions, such as a dual-task situation. The current study provides corroborating evidence that this relationship holds even for simple picture naming. Sustained attention ability, indexed both by participants’ reaction times and individuals’ hit rate (the proportion of correctly detected targets on a digit discrimination task, correlated with picture naming latencies. Individuals with poor sustained attention were consistently slower and their RT distributions were more positively skewed when naming pictures compared to individuals with better sustained attention. Additionally, the need to sustain attention was manipulated by changing the speed of stimulus presentation. Research has suggested that fast event rates tax sustained attention resources to a larger degree than slow event rates. However, in this study the fast event rate did not result in increased difficulty, neither for the picture naming task nor for the sustained attention task. Instead, the results point to a speed-accuracy trade-off in the sustained attention task (lower accuracy but faster responses in the fast than in the slow event rate, and to a benefit for faster rates in the picture naming task (shorter naming latencies with no difference in accuracy. Performance on both tasks was largely comparable, supporting previous findings that sustained attention is called upon during language production.

  3. Superimposition, symbology, visual attention, and the head-up display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Emerson, R.; Wickens, C. D.

    1997-01-01

    In two experiments we examined a number of related factors postulated to influence head-up display (HUD) performance. We addressed the benefit of reduced scanning and the cost of increasing the number of elements in the visual field by comparing a superimposed HUD with an identical display in a head-down position in varying visibility conditions. We explored the extent to which the characteristics of HUD symbology support a division of attention by contrasting conformal symbology (which links elements of the display image to elements of the far domain) with traditional instrument landing system (ILS) symbology. Together the two experiments provide strong evidence that minimizing scanning between flight instruments and the far domain contributes substantially to the observed HUD performance advantage. Experiment 1 provides little evidence for a performance cost attributable to visual clutter. In Experiment 2 the pattern of differences in lateral tracking error between conformal and traditional ILS symbology supports the hypothesis that, to the extent that the symbology forms an object with the far domain, attention may be divided between the superimposed image and its counterpart in the far domain.

  4. Selective visual attention and motivation: the consequences of value learning in an attentional blink task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, Jane E; O'Brien, Jennifer L

    2009-08-01

    Learning to associate the probability and value of behavioral outcomes with specific stimuli (value learning) is essential for rational decision making. However, in demanding cognitive conditions, access to learned values might be constrained by limited attentional capacity. We measured recognition of briefly presented faces seen previously in a value-learning task involving monetary wins and losses; the recognition task was performed both with and without constraints on available attention. Regardless of available attention, recognition was substantially enhanced for motivationally salient stimuli (i.e., stimuli highly predictive of outcomes), compared with equally familiar stimuli that had weak or no motivational salience, and this effect was found regardless of valence (win or loss). However, when attention was constrained (because stimuli were presented during an attentional blink, AB), valence determined recognition; win-associated faces showed no AB, but all other faces showed large ABs. Motivational salience acts independently of attention to modulate simple perceptual decisions, but when attention is limited, visual processing is biased in favor of reward-associated stimuli.

  5. Immunity traits in pigs: substantial genetic variation and limited covariation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence Flori

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Increasing robustness via improvement of resistance to pathogens is a major selection objective in livestock breeding. As resistance traits are difficult or impossible to measure directly, potential indirect criteria are measures of immune traits (ITs. Our underlying hypothesis is that levels of ITs with no focus on specific pathogens define an individual's immunocompetence and thus predict response to pathogens in general. Since variation in ITs depends on genetic, environmental and probably epigenetic factors, our aim was to estimate the relative importance of genetics. In this report, we present a large genetic survey of innate and adaptive ITs in pig families bred in the same environment. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Fifty four ITs were studied on 443 Large White pigs vaccinated against Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and analyzed by combining a principal component analysis (PCA and genetic parameter estimation. ITs include specific and non specific antibodies, seric inflammatory proteins, cell subsets by hemogram and flow cytometry, ex vivo production of cytokines (IFNα, TNFα, IL6, IL8, IL12, IFNγ, IL2, IL4, IL10, phagocytosis and lymphocyte proliferation. While six ITs had heritabilities that were weak or not significantly different from zero, 18 and 30 ITs had moderate (0.10.4 heritability values, respectively. Phenotypic and genetic correlations between ITs were weak except for a few traits that mostly include cell subsets. PCA revealed no cluster of innate or adaptive ITs. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results demonstrate that variation in many innate and adaptive ITs is genetically controlled in swine, as already reported for a smaller number of traits by other laboratories. A limited redundancy of the traits was also observed confirming the high degree of complementarity between innate and adaptive ITs. Our data provide a genetic framework for choosing ITs to be included as selection criteria in multitrait selection

  6. Substantiation of vibration strength of nuclear reactor and steam generator internals. Main problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fyodorov, V.G.; Sinyavasky, V.F.

    1977-01-01

    The report details the scope and priority of studies necessary for substantiation of vibration strength of steam generator tube bundles and reactor fuel assemblies, and design modifications helping to reduce flow-induced vibration of the internals specified. Steam generator tube bundles are studied on the basis of a standard establishing vibration requirements at various stages of design, manufacture and operation of a steam generator at a nuclear power station. The main vibration characteristics of tubes obtained through model and full-scale tests are compared with calculation results. Results are provided concerning test-stand vibration tests of fuel elements and fuel assemblies. (author)

  7. Managerial Attention in International SMEs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fan, Jiasi

    2017-01-01

    Managerial attention affects organizational strategies and the resulting consequences. In the international business context, it is noted that how much attention managers give to the international marketplace, i.e., international attention, has profound implications for large global companies’

  8. Attention: Moral-Cognitive Geography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuan, Yi-Fu

    1987-01-01

    This article is an essay on the importance of attention as a personal trait. Offers a definition of attention, reviews symptoms of inattention, and identifies the categories of objects which typically hold a person's attention. (JDH)

  9. Are You Paying Attention?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørmen, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    and sustained. To study such attention practices, 16 semi-structured interviews with adult Danes are carried out. Through a thematic analysis of these interviews, the chapter explores how ways of attending relate to individual media and how patterns of daily life enable some practices and constrain others...

  10. Visual attention and stability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mathot, Sebastiaan; Theeuwes, Jan

    2011-01-01

    In the present review, we address the relationship between attention and visual stability. Even though with each eye, head and body movement the retinal image changes dramatically, we perceive the world as stable and are able to perform visually guided actions. However, visual stability is not as

  11. Automated visual attention manipulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosse, T.; Lambalgen, R. van; Maanen, P.P. van; Treur, J.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper a system for visual attention manipulation is introduced and formally described. This system is part of the design of a software agent that supports naval crew in her task to compile a tactical picture of the situation in the field. A case study is described in hich the system is used

  12. Laughter catches attention!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Ana P; Barros, Carla; Dias, Marcelo; Kotz, Sonja A

    2017-12-01

    In social interactions, emotionally salient and sudden changes in vocal expressions attract attention. However, only a few studies examined how emotion and attention interact in voice processing. We investigated neutral, happy (laughs) and angry (growls) vocalizations in a modified oddball task. Participants silently counted the targets in each block and rated the valence and arousal of the vocalizations. A combined event-related potential and time-frequency analysis focused on the P3 and pre-stimulus alpha power to capture attention effects in response to unexpected events. Whereas an early differentiation between emotionally salient and neutral vocalizations was reflected in the P3a response, the P3b was selectively enhanced for happy voices. The P3b modulation was predicted by pre-stimulus frontal alpha desynchronization, and by the perceived pleasantness of the targets. These findings indicate that vocal emotions may be differently processed based on task relevance and valence. Increased anticipation and attention to positive vocal cues (laughter) may reflect their high social relevance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Attention: oscillations and neuropharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deco, Gustavo; Thiele, Alexander

    2009-08-01

    Attention is a rich psychological and neurobiological construct that influences almost all aspects of cognitive behaviour. It enables enhanced processing of behaviourally relevant stimuli at the expense of irrelevant stimuli. At the cellular level, rhythmic synchronization at local and long-range spatial scales complements the attention-induced firing rate changes of neurons. The former is hypothesized to enable efficient communication between neuronal ensembles tuned to spatial and featural aspects of the attended stimulus. Recent modelling studies suggest that the rhythmic synchronization in the gamma range may be mediated by a fine balance between N-methyl-D-aspartate and alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionate postsynaptic currents, whereas other studies have highlighted the possible contribution of the neuromodulator acetylcholine. This review summarizes some recent modelling and experimental studies investigating mechanisms of attention in sensory areas and discusses possibilities of how glutamatergic and cholinergic systems could contribute to increased processing abilities at the cellular and network level during states of top-down attention.

  14. Attention Capture by Faces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langton, Stephen R. H.; Law, Anna S.; Burton, A. Mike; Schweinberger, Stefan R.

    2008-01-01

    We report three experiments that investigate whether faces are capable of capturing attention when in competition with other non-face objects. In Experiment 1a participants took longer to decide that an array of objects contained a butterfly target when a face appeared as one of the distracting items than when the face did not appear in the array.…

  15. Attentional mechanisms in the generation of sympathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Dickert

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Empathic responses, such as sympathy towards others, are a key ingredient in the decision to provide help to those in need. The determinants of empathic responses are usually thought to be the vividness, similarity, and proximity of the victim. However, recent research highlights the role that attention plays in the generation of feelings. We expanded on this idea by investigating whether sympathy depends on cognitive mechanisms such as attention. In two studies we found that sympathy responses were lower and reaction times were longer when targets were presented with distractors. In addition, online sympathy judgments that allow attentional focusing on a target lead to greater affective responses than judgments made from memory. We conclude that attention is an ingredient in the generation of sympathy, and discuss implications for research on prosocial behaviour and the interaction between attention and emotions.

  16. Multimodal assessment of visual attention using the Bethesda Eye & Attention Measure (BEAM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettenhofer, Mark L; Hershaw, Jamie N; Barry, David M

    2016-01-01

    Computerized cognitive tests measuring manual response time (RT) and errors are often used in the assessment of visual attention. Evidence suggests that saccadic RT and errors may also provide valuable information about attention. This study was conducted to examine a novel approach to multimodal assessment of visual attention incorporating concurrent measurements of saccadic eye movements and manual responses. A computerized cognitive task, the Bethesda Eye & Attention Measure (BEAM) v.34, was designed to evaluate key attention networks through concurrent measurement of saccadic and manual RT and inhibition errors. Results from a community sample of n = 54 adults were analyzed to examine effects of BEAM attention cues on manual and saccadic RT and inhibition errors, internal reliability of BEAM metrics, relationships between parallel saccadic and manual metrics, and relationships of BEAM metrics to demographic characteristics. Effects of BEAM attention cues (alerting, orienting, interference, gap, and no-go signals) were consistent with previous literature examining key attention processes. However, corresponding saccadic and manual measurements were weakly related to each other, and only manual measurements were related to estimated verbal intelligence or years of education. This study provides preliminary support for the feasibility of multimodal assessment of visual attention using the BEAM. Results suggest that BEAM saccadic and manual metrics provide divergent measurements. Additional research will be needed to obtain comprehensive normative data, to cross-validate BEAM measurements with other indicators of neural and cognitive function, and to evaluate the utility of these metrics within clinical populations of interest.

  17. EYE-TRAC: monitoring attention and utility for mTBI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruta, Jun; Tong, Jianliang; Lee, Stephanie W.; Iqbal, Zarah; Schonberger, Alison; Ghajar, Jamshid

    2012-06-01

    Attention is a core function in cognition and also the most prevalent cognitive deficit in mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). Predictive timing is an essential element of attention functioning because sensory processing and execution of goal-oriented behavior are facilitated by temporally accurate prediction. It is hypothesized that impaired synchronization between prediction and external events accounts for the attention deficit in mTBI. Other cognitive and somatic or affective symptoms associated with mTBI may be explained as secondary consequences of impaired predictive timing. Eye-Tracking Rapid Attention Computation (EYE-TRAC) is the quantification of predictive timing with indices of dynamic visuo-motor synchronization (DVS) between the gaze and the target during continuous predictive visual tracking. Such quantification allows for cognitive performance monitoring in comparison to the overall population as well as within individuals over time. We report preliminary results of normative data and data collected from subjects with a history of mTBI within 2 weeks of injury and post-concussive symptoms at the time of recruitment. A substantial proportion of mTBI subjects demonstrated DVS scores worse than 95% of normal subjects. In addition, longitudinal monitoring of acute mTBI subjects showed that initially abnormal DVS scores were followed by improvement toward the normal range. In summary, EYE-TRAC provides fast and objective indices of DVS that allow comparison of attention performance to a normative standard and monitoring of within-individual changes.

  18. Reward and Attentional Control in Visual Search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Brian A.; Wampler, Emma K.; Laurent, Patryk A.

    2015-01-01

    It has long been known that the control of attention in visual search depends both on voluntary, top-down deployment according to context-specific goals, and on involuntary, stimulus-driven capture based on the physical conspicuity of perceptual objects. Recent evidence suggests that pairing target stimuli with reward can modulate the voluntary deployment of attention, but there is little evidence that reward modulates the involuntary deployment of attention to task-irrelevant distractors. We report several experiments that investigate the role of reward learning on attentional control. Each experiment involved a training phase and a test phase. In the training phase, different colors were associated with different amounts of monetary reward. In the test phase, color was not task-relevant and participants searched for a shape singleton; in most experiments no reward was delivered in the test phase. We first show that attentional capture by physically salient distractors is magnified by a previous association with reward. In subsequent experiments we demonstrate that physically inconspicuous stimuli previously associated with reward capture attention persistently during extinction—even several days after training. Furthermore, vulnerability to attentional capture by high-value stimuli is negatively correlated across individuals with working memory capacity and positively correlated with trait impulsivity. An analysis of intertrial effects reveals that value-driven attentional capture is spatially specific. Finally, when reward is delivered at test contingent on the task-relevant shape feature, recent reward history modulates value-driven attentional capture by the irrelevant color feature. The influence of learned value on attention may provide a useful model of clinical syndromes characterized by similar failures of cognitive control, including addiction, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and obesity. PMID:23437631

  19. Auditory and Visual Attention Performance in Children With ADHD: The Attentional Deficiency of ADHD Is Modality Specific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hung-Yu; Hsieh, Hsieh-Chun; Lee, Posen; Hong, Fu-Yuan; Chang, Wen-Dien; Liu, Kuo-Cheng

    2017-08-01

    This study explored auditory and visual attention in children with ADHD. In a randomized, two-period crossover design, 50 children with ADHD and 50 age- and sex-matched typically developing peers were measured with the Test of Various Attention (TOVA). The deficiency of visual attention is more serious than that of auditory attention in children with ADHD. On the auditory modality, only the deficit of attentional inconsistency is sufficient to explain most cases of ADHD; however, most of the children with ADHD suffered from deficits of sustained attention, response inhibition, and attentional inconsistency on the visual modality. Our results also showed that the deficit of attentional inconsistency is the most important indicator in diagnosing and intervening in ADHD when both auditory and visual modalities are considered. The findings provide strong evidence that the deficits of auditory attention are different from those of visual attention in children with ADHD.

  20. Selective Attention and Attention Switching: Toward a Unified Developmental Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Hanania, Rima; Smith, Linda B.

    2010-01-01

    We review and relate two literatures on the development of attention in children: one concerning flexible attention switching and the other concerning selective attention. The first is a growing literature on preschool children’s performances in an attention switching task indicating that children become more flexible in their attentional control during the preschool years. The second literature encompasses a large and robust set of phenomena for the same developmental period that indicate a ...

  1. Beyond time and space: The effect of a lateralized sustained attention task and brain stimulation on spatial and selective attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalev, Nir; De Wandel, Linde; Dockree, Paul; Demeyere, Nele; Chechlacz, Magdalena

    2017-10-03

    The Theory of Visual Attention (TVA) provides a mathematical formalisation of the "biased competition" account of visual attention. Applying this model to individual performance in a free recall task allows the estimation of 5 independent attentional parameters: visual short-term memory (VSTM) capacity, speed of information processing, perceptual threshold of visual detection; attentional weights representing spatial distribution of attention (spatial bias), and the top-down selectivity index. While the TVA focuses on selection in space, complementary accounts of attention describe how attention is maintained over time, and how temporal processes interact with selection. A growing body of evidence indicates that different facets of attention interact and share common neural substrates. The aim of the current study was to modulate a spatial attentional bias via transfer effects, based on a mechanistic understanding of the interplay between spatial, selective and temporal aspects of attention. Specifically, we examined here: (i) whether a single administration of a lateralized sustained attention task could prime spatial orienting and lead to transferable changes in attentional weights (assigned to the left vs right hemi-field) and/or other attentional parameters assessed within the framework of TVA (Experiment 1); (ii) whether the effects of such spatial-priming on TVA parameters could be further enhanced by bi-parietal high frequency transcranial random noise stimulation (tRNS) (Experiment 2). Our results demonstrate that spatial attentional bias, as assessed within the TVA framework, was primed by sustaining attention towards the right hemi-field, but this spatial-priming effect did not occur when sustaining attention towards the left. Furthermore, we show that bi-parietal high-frequency tRNS combined with the rightward spatial-priming resulted in an increased attentional selectivity. To conclude, we present a novel, theory-driven method for attentional modulation

  2. Visual attention capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Habekost, Thomas; Starrfelt, Randi

    2009-01-01

    Psychophysical studies have identified two distinct limitations of visual attention capacity: processing speed and apprehension span. Using a simple test, these cognitive factors can be analyzed by Bundesen's Theory of Visual Attention (TVA). The method has strong specificity and sensitivity......, and measurements are highly reliable. As the method is theoretically founded, it also has high validity. TVA-based assessment has recently been used to investigate a broad range of neuropsychological and neurological conditions. We present the method, including the experimental paradigm and practical guidelines...... to patient testing, and review existing TVA-based patient studies organized by lesion anatomy. Lesions in three anatomical regions affect visual capacity: The parietal lobes, frontal cortex and basal ganglia, and extrastriate cortex. Visual capacity thus depends on large, bilaterally distributed anatomical...

  3. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Jaime O. Oliver

    2017-01-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is considered as among the most common yet serious brain disorders significant number of children are subjected to; the seriousness of which manifests in the ability of the disorder to continue to show up even after the childhood years, during the period of adolescence as well as adulthood. Considering the findings delivered by Brain Imaging Studies conducted on youth, it is revealed that people suffering from ADHD experiences del...

  4. Attention and Distraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Anne Ring

    2010-01-01

    This article aims to examine the interrelationship between attention and distraction in the reception of video installation art, a genre which is commonly associated with "immersion" and an intensified feeling of presence in the discourses on new media art and installation art. This tends to veil......, on the other hand, the cultural formations of television, film and computers have fundamentally re-configured "aesthetic experience."...

  5. Gaming the Attention Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Estrada, Daniel; Lawhead, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    The future of human computation (HC) benefits from examining tasks that agents already perform and designing environments to give those tasks computational significance. We call this natural human computation (NHC). We consider the possible future of NHC through the lens of Swarm!, an application under development for Google Glass. Swarm! motivates users to compute the solutions to a class of economic optimization problems by engaging the attention dynamics of crowds. We argue that anticipati...

  6. Attention to pain! A neurocognitive perspective on attentional modulation of pain in neuroimaging studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torta, D M; Legrain, V; Mouraux, A; Valentini, E

    2017-04-01

    Several studies have used neuroimaging techniques to investigate brain correlates of the attentional modulation of pain. Although these studies have advanced the knowledge in the field, important confounding factors such as imprecise theoretical definitions of attention, incomplete operationalization of the construct under exam, and limitations of techniques relying on measuring regional changes in cerebral blood flow have hampered the potential relevance of the conclusions. Here, we first provide an overview of the major theories of attention and of attention in the study of pain to bridge theory and experimental results. We conclude that load and motivational/affective theories are particularly relevant to study the attentional modulation of pain and should be carefully integrated in functional neuroimaging studies. Then, we summarize previous findings and discuss the possible neural correlates of the attentional modulation of pain. We discuss whether classical functional neuroimaging techniques are suitable to measure the effect of a fluctuating process like attention, and in which circumstances functional neuroimaging can be reliably used to measure the attentional modulation of pain. Finally, we argue that the analysis of brain networks and spontaneous oscillations may be a crucial future development in the study of attentional modulation of pain, and why the interplay between attention and pain, as examined so far, may rely on neural mechanisms shared with other sensory modalities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Selective attention reduces physiological noise in the external ear canals of humans. II: Visual attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Kyle P.; Pasanen, Edward G.; McFadden, Dennis

    2014-01-01

    Human subjects performed in several behavioral conditions requiring, or not requiring, selective attention to visual stimuli. Specifically, the attentional task was to recognize strings of digits that had been presented visually. A nonlinear version of the stimulus-frequency otoacoustic emission (SFOAE), called the nSFOAE, was collected during the visual presentation of the digits. The segment of the physiological response discussed here occurred during brief silent periods immediately following the SFOAE-evoking stimuli. For all subjects tested, the physiological-noise magnitudes were substantially weaker (less noisy) during the tasks requiring the most visual attention. Effect sizes for the differences were >2.0. Our interpretation is that cortico-olivo influences adjusted the magnitude of efferent activation during the SFOAE-evoking stimulation depending upon the attention task in effect, and then that magnitude of efferent activation persisted throughout the silent period where it also modulated the physiological noise present. Because the results were highly similar to those obtained when the behavioral conditions involved auditory attention, similar mechanisms appear to operate both across modalities and within modalities. Supplementary measurements revealed that the efferent activation was spectrally global, as it was for auditory attention. PMID:24732070

  8. Attentional mechanisms in the generation of sympathy

    OpenAIRE

    Stephan Dickert; Paul Slovic

    2009-01-01

    Empathic responses, such as sympathy towards others, are a key ingredient in the decision to provide help to those in need. The determinants of empathic responses are usually thought to be the vividness, similarity, and proximity of the victim. However, recent research highlights the role that attention plays in the generation of feelings. We expanded on this idea by investigating whether sympathy depends on cognitive mechanisms such as attention. In two studies we found that sympathy respons...

  9. Sequential sampling of visual objects during sustained attention.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianrong Jia

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In a crowded visual scene, attention must be distributed efficiently and flexibly over time and space to accommodate different contexts. It is well established that selective attention enhances the corresponding neural responses, presumably implying that attention would persistently dwell on the task-relevant item. Meanwhile, recent studies, mostly in divided attentional contexts, suggest that attention does not remain stationary but samples objects alternately over time, suggesting a rhythmic view of attention. However, it remains unknown whether the dynamic mechanism essentially mediates attentional processes at a general level. Importantly, there is also a complete lack of direct neural evidence reflecting whether and how the brain rhythmically samples multiple visual objects during stimulus processing. To address these issues, in this study, we employed electroencephalography (EEG and a temporal response function (TRF approach, which can dissociate responses that exclusively represent a single object from the overall neuronal activity, to examine the spatiotemporal characteristics of attention in various attentional contexts. First, attention, which is characterized by inhibitory alpha-band (approximately 10 Hz activity in TRFs, switches between attended and unattended objects every approximately 200 ms, suggesting a sequential sampling even when attention is required to mostly stay on the attended object. Second, the attentional spatiotemporal pattern is modulated by the task context, such that alpha-mediated switching becomes increasingly prominent as the task requires a more uniform distribution of attention. Finally, the switching pattern correlates with attentional behavioral performance. Our work provides direct neural evidence supporting a generally central role of temporal organization mechanism in attention, such that multiple objects are sequentially sorted according to their priority in attentional contexts. The results suggest

  10. Self-reflection Orients Visual Attention Downward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi; Tong, Yu; Li, Hong

    2017-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated abstract concepts associated with spatial location (e.g., God in the Heavens) could direct visual attention upward or downward, because thinking about the abstract concepts activates the corresponding vertical perceptual symbols. For self-concept, there are similar metaphors (e.g., "I am above others"). However, whether thinking about the self can induce visual attention orientation is still unknown. Therefore, the current study tested whether self-reflection can direct visual attention. Individuals often display the tendency of self-enhancement in social comparison, which reminds the individual of the higher position one possesses relative to others within the social environment. As the individual is the agent of the attention orientation, and high status tends to make an individual look down upon others to obtain a sense of pride, it was hypothesized that thinking about the self would lead to a downward attention orientation. Using reflection of personality traits and a target discrimination task, Study 1 found that, after self-reflection, visual attention was directed downward. Similar effects were also found after friend-reflection, with the level of downward attention being correlated with the likability rating scores of the friend. Thus, in Study 2, a disliked other was used as a control and the positive self-view was measured with above-average judgment task. We found downward attention orientation after self-reflection, but not after reflection upon the disliked other. Moreover, the attentional bias after self-reflection was correlated with above-average self-view. The current findings provide the first evidence that thinking about the self could direct visual-spatial attention downward, and suggest that this effect is probably derived from a positive self-view within the social context.

  11. Influence of focus of attention, reinvestment and fall history on elderly gait stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Melker Worms, Jonathan L A; Stins, John F; van Wegen, Erwin E H; Loram, Ian D; Beek, Peter J

    2017-01-01

    Falls represent a substantial risk in the elderly. Previous studies have found that a focus on the outcome or effect of the movement (external focus of attention) leads to improved balance performance, whereas a focus on the movement execution itself (internal focus of attention) impairs balance performance in elderly. A shift toward more conscious, explicit forms of motor control occurs when existing declarative knowledge is recruited in motor control, a phenomenon called reinvestment. We investigated the effects of attentional focus and reinvestment on gait stability in elderly fallers and nonfallers. Full body kinematics was collected from twenty-eight healthy older adults walking on a treadmill, while focus of attention was manipulated through instruction. Participants also filled out the Movement Specific Reinvestment Scale (MSRS) and the Falls Efficacy Scale International (FES-I), and provided details about their fall history. Coefficients of Variation (CV) of spatiotemporal gait parameters and Local Divergence Exponents (LDE) were calculated as measures of gait variability and gait stability, respectively. Larger stance time CV and LDE (decreased gait stability) were found for fallers compared to nonfallers. No significant effect of attentional focus was found for the gait parameters, and no significant relation between MSRS score (reinvestment) and fall history was found. We conclude that external attention to the walking surface does not lead to improved gait stability in elderly. Potential benefits of an external focus of attention might not apply to gait, because walking movements are not geared toward achieving a distinct environmental effect. © 2017 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  12. Psychometric properties of Persian version of the Sustained Auditory Attention Capacity Test in children with attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltanparast, Sanaz; Jafari, Zahra; Sameni, Seyed Jalal; Salehi, Masoud

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the psychometric properties (validity and reliability) of the Persian version of the Sustained Auditory Attention Capacity Test in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. The Persian version of the Sustained Auditory Attention Capacity Test was constructed to assess sustained auditory attention using the method provided by Feniman and colleagues (2007). In this test, comments were provided to assess the child's attentional deficit by determining inattention and impulsiveness error, the total scores of the sustained auditory attention capacity test and attention span reduction index. In the present study for determining the validity and reliability of in both Rey Auditory Verbal Learning test and the Persian version of the Sustained Auditory Attention Capacity Test (SAACT), 46 normal children and 41 children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity (ADHD), all right-handed and aged between 7 and 11 of both genders, were evaluated. In determining convergent validity, a negative significant correlation was found between the three parts of the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning test (first, fifth, and immediate recall) and all indicators of the SAACT except attention span reduction. By comparing the test scores between the normal and ADHD groups, discriminant validity analysis showed significant differences in all indicators of the test except for attention span reduction (pAttention Capacity test has good validity and reliability, that matches other reliable tests, and it can be used for the identification of children with attention deficits and if they suspected to have Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

  13. Helping Children with Attentional Challenges in the Montessori Classroom: Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehring Massie, Catherine

    2017-01-01

    Catherine Nehring Massie provides important contextual information in considering children with attentional challenges. She discusses the prevalence of attentional challenges in today's culture and the contributing factors. She gives a general overview of the spectrum of attentional challenges and some of the indicators in children. Her history of…

  14. 47 CFR 10.520 - Common audio attention signal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Common audio attention signal. 10.520 Section... Equipment Requirements § 10.520 Common audio attention signal. A Participating CMS Provider and equipment manufacturers may only market devices for public use under part 10 that include an audio attention signal that...

  15. Adapting the Theory of Visual Attention (TVA) to model auditory attention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roberts, Katherine L.; Andersen, Tobias; Kyllingsbæk, Søren

    Mathematical and computational models have provided useful insights into normal and impaired visual attention, but less progress has been made in modelling auditory attention. We are developing a Theory of Auditory Attention (TAA), based on an influential visual model, the Theory of Visual...... Attention (TVA). We report that TVA provides a good fit to auditory data when the stimuli are closely matched to those used in visual studies. In the basic visual TVA task, participants view a brief display of letters and are asked to report either all of the letters (whole report) or a subset of letters (e...... the auditory data, producing good estimates of the rate at which information is encoded (C), the minimum exposure duration required for processing to begin (t0), and the relative attentional weight to targets versus distractors (α). Future work will address the issue of target-distractor confusion, and extend...

  16. Substantiating the Target Level of Economic Security of Transport Enterprises and the Instrumentarium for Its Provision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lebedko Sergiy A.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at substantiating the methodology for assessing the economic security of transport enterprises, determining the target level and the instrumentarium for its provision. The proposed methodical approach to the assessment of the level of economic security of transport enterprises includes the determination of the level of counteracting threats and is based on the principles of integral estimation. The formed integrated indicator includes both indicators of counteracting the internal (human, managerial and technological, force majeure, financial and external threats (market, stakeholder, power-based, natural, infrastructural. Each measure of counteracting threats is determined by results of assessment of dynamics of the three indicators. A practical testing of the proposed approach is carried out in the case of transport enterprises. Based on the established equation of the regression relationship between the level of economic security and the financial strength, a target level of economic security of transport enterprises has been substantiated. The instrumentarium to provide a targeted level of economic security according to the threat types, including preventive and reactive measures, has been developed.

  17. Predicting risk of substantial weight gain in German adults-a multi-center cohort approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachlechner, Ursula; Boeing, Heiner; Haftenberger, Marjolein; Schienkiewitz, Anja; Scheidt-Nave, Christa; Vogt, Susanne; Thorand, Barbara; Peters, Annette; Schipf, Sabine; Ittermann, Till; Völzke, Henry; Nöthlings, Ute; Neamat-Allah, Jasmine; Greiser, Karin-Halina; Kaaks, Rudolf; Steffen, Annika

    2017-08-01

    A risk-targeted prevention strategy may efficiently utilize limited resources available for prevention of overweight and obesity. Likewise, more efficient intervention trials could be designed if selection of subjects was based on risk. The aim of the study was to develop a risk score predicting substantial weight gain among German adults. We developed the risk score using information on 15 socio-demographic, dietary and lifestyle factors from 32 204 participants of five population-based German cohort studies. Substantial weight gain was defined as gaining ≥10% of weight between baseline and follow-up (>6 years apart). The cases were censored according to the theoretical point in time when the threshold of 10% baseline-based weight gain was crossed assuming linearity of weight gain. Beta coefficients derived from proportional hazards regression were used as weights to compute the risk score as a linear combination of the predictors. Cross-validation was used to evaluate the score's discriminatory accuracy. The cross-validated c index (95% CI) was 0.71 (0.67-0.75). A cutoff value of ≥475 score points yielded a sensitivity of 71% and a specificity of 63%. The corresponding positive and negative predictive values were 10.4% and 97.6%, respectively. The proposed risk score may support healthcare providers in decision making and referral and facilitate an efficient selection of subjects into intervention trials. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association.

  18. Predicting risk of substantial weight gain in German adults—a multi-center cohort approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachlechner, Ursula; Boeing, Heiner; Haftenberger, Marjolein; Schienkiewitz, Anja; Scheidt-Nave, Christa; Vogt, Susanne; Thorand, Barbara; Peters, Annette; Schipf, Sabine; Ittermann, Till; Völzke, Henry; Nöthlings, Ute; Neamat-Allah, Jasmine; Greiser, Karin-Halina; Kaaks, Rudolf

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background A risk-targeted prevention strategy may efficiently utilize limited resources available for prevention of overweight and obesity. Likewise, more efficient intervention trials could be designed if selection of subjects was based on risk. The aim of the study was to develop a risk score predicting substantial weight gain among German adults. Methods We developed the risk score using information on 15 socio-demographic, dietary and lifestyle factors from 32 204 participants of five population-based German cohort studies. Substantial weight gain was defined as gaining ≥10% of weight between baseline and follow-up (>6 years apart). The cases were censored according to the theoretical point in time when the threshold of 10% baseline-based weight gain was crossed assuming linearity of weight gain. Beta coefficients derived from proportional hazards regression were used as weights to compute the risk score as a linear combination of the predictors. Cross-validation was used to evaluate the score’s discriminatory accuracy. Results The cross-validated c index (95% CI) was 0.71 (0.67–0.75). A cutoff value of ≥475 score points yielded a sensitivity of 71% and a specificity of 63%. The corresponding positive and negative predictive values were 10.4% and 97.6%, respectively. Conclusions The proposed risk score may support healthcare providers in decision making and referral and facilitate an efficient selection of subjects into intervention trials. PMID:28013243

  19. Attention, Predation, Counterintuition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clasen, Mathias

    2012-01-01

    Bram Stoker’s seminal horror novel Dracula (1897) has been subjected to a vast number of different critical readings, many of which are deeply flawed, e.g. by proceeding from defunct psychological theories. Incorporating recent advances in evolutionary social science, I offer a biocultural reading...... of Dracula to account for the novel’s impact and resilience. Dracula connected squarely with late-Victorian anxieties, but the novel also appeals to trans-historical adaptive dispositions. I analyze Stoker’s use of narrative strategies to grab and sustain attention, and Count Dracula as a supercharged...

  20. Attention: the claustrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goll, Yael; Atlan, Gal; Citri, Ami

    2015-08-01

    The claustrum is a mysterious thin sheet of neurons lying between the insular cortex and the striatum. It is reciprocally connected with almost all cortical areas, including motor, somatosensory, visual, auditory, limbic, associative, and prefrontal cortices. In addition, it receives neuromodulatory input from subcortical structures. A decade ago, Sir Francis Crick and Christof Koch published an influential review proposing the claustrum as the 'seat of consciousness', spurring a revival of interest in the claustrum. We review the literature on the claustrum, emphasizing recent discoveries, and develop a detailed hypothesis describing a role for the claustrum in the segregation of attention. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Attention to memory: orienting attention to sound object representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backer, Kristina C; Alain, Claude

    2014-01-01

    Despite a growing acceptance that attention and memory interact, and that attention can be focused on an active internal mental representation (i.e., reflective attention), there has been a paucity of work focusing on reflective attention to 'sound objects' (i.e., mental representations of actual sound sources in the environment). Further research on the dynamic interactions between auditory attention and memory, as well as its degree of neuroplasticity, is important for understanding how sound objects are represented, maintained, and accessed in the brain. This knowledge can then guide the development of training programs to help individuals with attention and memory problems. This review article focuses on attention to memory with an emphasis on behavioral and neuroimaging studies that have begun to explore the mechanisms that mediate reflective attentional orienting in vision and more recently, in audition. Reflective attention refers to situations in which attention is oriented toward internal representations rather than focused on external stimuli. We propose four general principles underlying attention to short-term memory. Furthermore, we suggest that mechanisms involved in orienting attention to visual object representations may also apply for orienting attention to sound object representations.

  2. 20 CFR 654.13 - Determination of areas of substantial unemployment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Determination of areas of substantial unemployment. 654.13 Section 654.13 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... 10582 § 654.13 Determination of areas of substantial unemployment. An area of substantial unemployment...

  3. The dynamics of attentional and inhibitory functions in the presence of distracting stimuli in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, high-functioning autism and oppositional defiant disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneta Rita Borkowska

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of this study is to elucidate the specific nature of attention and response inhibition deficits in three clinical groups: attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, and high-functioning autism, as compared to children with a typical development. The analysis approached task performance dynamics as a function of time and the presence of distracting stimuli. Material and method: 108 children aged 7–12 years participated in the study – 21 diagnosed with oppositional defiant disorder, 21 with high-functioning autism, 19 with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder; 47 made the control group. The study employed the MOXO-CPT to evaluate attention and inhibition functions. Results: Pairwise comparisons of clinical groups with typically-developing children in their performance on the entire test indicated considerable differences between the control group and children with both oppositional defiant disorders and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, but not between healthy subjects and children with autism. Performance profiles varied depending on the group, i.e. the type of disorder, and the level of the test, i.e. stimulus duration and intensity, but they were different for the particular studied aspects of attention and/or inhibition. High levels of similarity in functioning for all clinical groups were found in the measures of response accuracy, i.e. sustained attention and the speed of accurate response. The tendency to provide unnecessary responses and difficulties in complying with rules were found only in children with oppositional-defiant disorders. Impulsiveness rates increased over time in the attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder group, fluctuated over time in autism, while in the oppositional defiant disorder group performance was stable over time, but worse than in the control group. Conclusions: The dynamics of attentional and inhibitory control in clinical groups

  4. Attentional and Contextual Priors in Sound Perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolmetz, Michael; Elhilali, Mounya

    2016-01-01

    Behavioral and neural studies of selective attention have consistently demonstrated that explicit attentional cues to particular perceptual features profoundly alter perception and performance. The statistics of the sensory environment can also provide cues about what perceptual features to expect, but the extent to which these more implicit contextual cues impact perception and performance, as well as their relationship to explicit attentional cues, is not well understood. In this study, the explicit cues, or attentional prior probabilities, and the implicit cues, or contextual prior probabilities, associated with different acoustic frequencies in a detection task were simultaneously manipulated. Both attentional and contextual priors had similarly large but independent impacts on sound detectability, with evidence that listeners tracked and used contextual priors for a variety of sound classes (pure tones, harmonic complexes, and vowels). Further analyses showed that listeners updated their contextual priors rapidly and optimally, given the changing acoustic frequency statistics inherent in the paradigm. A Bayesian Observer model accounted for both attentional and contextual adaptations found with listeners. These results bolster the interpretation of perception as Bayesian inference, and suggest that some effects attributed to selective attention may be a special case of contextual prior integration along a feature axis.

  5. Independent effects of endogenous and exogenous attention in touch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Alexander; Forster, Bettina

    2013-12-01

    Endogenous and exogenous attention in touch have typically been investigated separately. Here we use a double-cueing paradigm manipulating both types of orienting in each trial. Bilateral endogenous cues induced long-lasting facilitation of endogenous attention up to 2 s. However, the exogenous cue only elicited an effect at short intervals. Our results favour a supramodal account of attention and this study provides new insight into how endogenous and exogenous attention operates in the tactile modality.

  6. Psilocybin can occasion mystical-type experiences having substantial and sustained personal meaning and spiritual significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, R R; Richards, W A; McCann, U; Jesse, R

    2006-08-01

    Although psilocybin has been used for centuries for religious purposes, little is known scientifically about its acute and persisting effects. This double-blind study evaluated the acute and longer-term psychological effects of a high dose of psilocybin relative to a comparison compound administered under comfortable, supportive conditions. The participants were hallucinogen-naïve adults reporting regular participation in religious or spiritual activities. Two or three sessions were conducted at 2-month intervals. Thirty volunteers received orally administered psilocybin (30 mg/70 kg) and methylphenidate hydrochloride (40 mg/70 kg) in counterbalanced order. To obscure the study design, six additional volunteers received methylphenidate in the first two sessions and unblinded psilocybin in a third session. The 8-h sessions were conducted individually. Volunteers were encouraged to close their eyes and direct their attention inward. Study monitors rated volunteers' behavior during sessions. Volunteers completed questionnaires assessing drug effects and mystical experience immediately after and 2 months after sessions. Community observers rated changes in the volunteer's attitudes and behavior. Psilocybin produced a range of acute perceptual changes, subjective experiences, and labile moods including anxiety. Psilocybin also increased measures of mystical experience. At 2 months, the volunteers rated the psilocybin experience as having substantial personal meaning and spiritual significance and attributed to the experience sustained positive changes in attitudes and behavior consistent with changes rated by community observers. When administered under supportive conditions, psilocybin occasioned experiences similar to spontaneously occurring mystical experiences. The ability to occasion such experiences prospectively will allow rigorous scientific investigations of their causes and consequences.

  7. [Attention characteristics of children with different clinical subtypes of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wen-Long; Zhao, Xu; Tan, Jian-Hui; Wang, Juan

    2014-09-01

    To explore the attention characteristics of children with different clinical subtypes of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and to provide a basis for clinical intervention. A total of 345 children diagnosed with ADHD were selected and the subtypes were identified. Attention assessment was performed by the intermediate visual and auditory continuous performance test at diagnosis, and the visual and auditory attention characteristics were compared between children with different subtypes. A total of 122 normal children were recruited in the control group and their attention characteristics were compared with those of children with ADHD. The scores of full scale attention quotient (AQ) and full scale response control quotient (RCQ) of children with all three subtypes of ADHD were significantly lower than those of normal children (Phyperactive/impulsive subtype (Pattention function of children with ADHD is worse than that of normal children, and the impairment of visual attention function is severer than that of auditory attention function. The degree of functional impairment of visual or auditory attention shows no significant differences between three subtypes of ADHD.

  8. Parents' and healthcare providers perspectives about hospitalised ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Parents' and healthcare providers perspectives about hospitalised children being visited by other ... Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... children should be visited by other children has been accorded minimal attention.

  9. Altering attentional control settings causes persistent biases of visual attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Helen C; Smith, Daniel T; Knight, David C; Ellison, Amanda

    2016-01-01

    Attentional control settings have an important role in guiding visual behaviour. Previous work within cognitive psychology has found that the deployment of general attentional control settings can be modulated by training. However, research has not yet established whether long-term modifications of one particular type of attentional control setting can be induced. To address this, we investigated persistent alterations to feature search mode, also known as an attentional bias, towards an arbitrary stimulus in healthy participants. Subjects were biased towards the colour green by an information sheet. Attentional bias was assessed using a change detection task. After an interval of either 1 or 2 weeks, participants were then retested on the same change detection task, tested on a different change detection task where colour was irrelevant, or were biased towards an alternative colour. One experiment included trials in which the distractor stimuli (but never the target stimuli) were green. The key finding was that green stimuli in the second task attracted attention, despite this impairing task performance. Furthermore, inducing a second attentional bias did not override the initial bias toward green objects. The attentional bias also persisted for at least two weeks. It is argued that this persistent attentional bias is mediated by a chronic change to participants' attentional control settings, which is aided by long-term representations involving contextual cueing. We speculate that similar changes to attentional control settings and continuous cueing may relate to attentional biases observed in psychopathologies. Targeting these biases may be a productive approach to treatment.

  10. Substantially Enhancing Quantum Coherence of Electrons in Graphene via Electron-Plasmon Coupling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Guanghui; Qin, Wei; Lin, Meng-Hsien; Wei, Laiming; Fan, Xiaodong; Zhang, Huayang; Gwo, Shangjr; Zeng, Changgan; Hou, J G; Zhang, Zhenyu

    2017-10-13

    The interplays between different quasiparticles in solids lay the foundation for a wide spectrum of intriguing quantum effects, yet how the collective plasmon excitations affect the quantum transport of electrons remains largely unexplored. Here we provide the first demonstration that when the electron-plasmon coupling is introduced, the quantum coherence of electrons in graphene is substantially enhanced with the quantum coherence length almost tripled. We further develop a microscopic model to interpret the striking observations, emphasizing the vital role of the graphene plasmons in suppressing electron-electron dephasing. The novel and transformative concept of plasmon-enhanced quantum coherence sheds new insight into interquasiparticle interactions, and further extends a new dimension to exploit nontrivial quantum phenomena and devices in solid systems.

  11. A Paradoxical Effect of Presession Attention on Stereotypy: Antecedent Attention as an Establishing, Not an Abolishing, Operation

    OpenAIRE

    Roantree, Christina F; Kennedy, Craig H

    2006-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that presession attention for problem behavior can serve as an abolishing operation when attention functions as a positive reinforcer. In the current study, we show that the stereotypy of a child with severe disabilities was undifferentiated during standard analogue functional analysis conditions. However, when noncontingent presession attention was provided, stereotypy occurred for social attention as a positive reinforcer, suggesting that the antecedent manipulat...

  12. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001551.htm Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a problem caused by ...

  13. Attention and apparent motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, T; Treisman, A

    1994-01-01

    Two dissociations between short- and long-range motion in visual search are reported. Previous research has shown parallel processing for short-range motion and apparently serial processing for long-range motion. This finding has been replicated and it has also been found that search for short-range targets can be impaired both by using bicontrast stimuli, and by prior adaptation to the target direction of motion. Neither factor impaired search in long-range motion displays. Adaptation actually facilitated search with long-range displays, which is attributed to response-level effects. A feature-integration account of apparent motion is proposed. In this theory, short-range motion depends on specialized motion feature detectors operating in parallel across the display, but subject to selective adaptation, whereas attention is needed to link successive elements when they appear at greater separations, or across opposite contrasts.

  14. Attentional Push: Augmenting Salience with Shared Attention Modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Gorji, Siavash; Clark, James J.

    2016-01-01

    We present a novel visual attention tracking technique based on Shared Attention modeling. Our proposed method models the viewer as a participant in the activity occurring in the scene. We go beyond image salience and instead of only computing the power of an image region to pull attention to it, we also consider the strength with which other regions of the image push attention to the region in question. We use the term Attentional Push to refer to the power of image regions to direct and man...

  15. Chewing and Attention: A Positive Effect on Sustained Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onozuka, Minoru

    2015-01-01

    Chewing is crushing food not only to aid swallowing and digestion, but also to help stress relief and regulate cognitive function, especially in attention. It is well known that chewing gum is used for sleepiness prevention during work, learning, and driving, suggesting a link between chewing and sustained attention. We hypothesized that chewing elevates attention and/or alertness, leading to improvements in cognitive performance. We carried out a systematic review of the PubMed database. We inspected the attributes of effects on attention in studies investigating the effects of chewing on attention or alertness conducted with pre-post design in healthy subjects, except elderly. We identified 151 references, 22 of which were included: 14 (64%) showed positive attributes of effects on attention, 1 (5%) showed negative attributes of effects on attention, 5 (23%) showed both positive and negative attributes of effects on attention, and 2 (9%) showed no significant attributes of effects on attention. Thus, positive attributes of effects of chewing on attention, especially on sustained attention, were shown in over half of the reports. These effects also appeared with improvement in mood and stress relief and were influenced by time-on-task effect. Further studies are needed, but chewing could be useful for modifying cognitive function. PMID:26075234

  16. Chewing and Attention: A Positive Effect on Sustained Attention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiyuki Hirano

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chewing is crushing food not only to aid swallowing and digestion, but also to help stress relief and regulate cognitive function, especially in attention. It is well known that chewing gum is used for sleepiness prevention during work, learning, and driving, suggesting a link between chewing and sustained attention. We hypothesized that chewing elevates attention and/or alertness, leading to improvements in cognitive performance. We carried out a systematic review of the PubMed database. We inspected the attributes of effects on attention in studies investigating the effects of chewing on attention or alertness conducted with pre-post design in healthy subjects, except elderly. We identified 151 references, 22 of which were included: 14 (64% showed positive attributes of effects on attention, 1 (5% showed negative attributes of effects on attention, 5 (23% showed both positive and negative attributes of effects on attention, and 2 (9% showed no significant attributes of effects on attention. Thus, positive attributes of effects of chewing on attention, especially on sustained attention, were shown in over half of the reports. These effects also appeared with improvement in mood and stress relief and were influenced by time-on-task effect. Further studies are needed, but chewing could be useful for modifying cognitive function.

  17. Chewing and attention: a positive effect on sustained attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Yoshiyuki; Onozuka, Minoru

    2015-01-01

    Chewing is crushing food not only to aid swallowing and digestion, but also to help stress relief and regulate cognitive function, especially in attention. It is well known that chewing gum is used for sleepiness prevention during work, learning, and driving, suggesting a link between chewing and sustained attention. We hypothesized that chewing elevates attention and/or alertness, leading to improvements in cognitive performance. We carried out a systematic review of the PubMed database. We inspected the attributes of effects on attention in studies investigating the effects of chewing on attention or alertness conducted with pre-post design in healthy subjects, except elderly. We identified 151 references, 22 of which were included: 14 (64%) showed positive attributes of effects on attention, 1 (5%) showed negative attributes of effects on attention, 5 (23%) showed both positive and negative attributes of effects on attention, and 2 (9%) showed no significant attributes of effects on attention. Thus, positive attributes of effects of chewing on attention, especially on sustained attention, were shown in over half of the reports. These effects also appeared with improvement in mood and stress relief and were influenced by time-on-task effect. Further studies are needed, but chewing could be useful for modifying cognitive function.

  18. Social Image Captioning: Exploring Visual Attention and User Attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Leiquan; Chu, Xiaoliang; Zhang, Weishan; Wei, Yiwei; Sun, Weichen; Wu, Chunlei

    2018-02-22

    Image captioning with a natural language has been an emerging trend. However, the social image, associated with a set of user-contributed tags, has been rarely investigated for a similar task. The user-contributed tags, which could reflect the user attention, have been neglected in conventional image captioning. Most existing image captioning models cannot be applied directly to social image captioning. In this work, a dual attention model is proposed for social image captioning by combining the visual attention and user attention simultaneously.Visual attention is used to compress a large mount of salient visual information, while user attention is applied to adjust the description of the social images with user-contributed tags. Experiments conducted on the Microsoft (MS) COCO dataset demonstrate the superiority of the proposed method of dual attention.

  19. Social Image Captioning: Exploring Visual Attention and User Attention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leiquan Wang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Image captioning with a natural language has been an emerging trend. However, the social image, associated with a set of user-contributed tags, has been rarely investigated for a similar task. The user-contributed tags, which could reflect the user attention, have been neglected in conventional image captioning. Most existing image captioning models cannot be applied directly to social image captioning. In this work, a dual attention model is proposed for social image captioning by combining the visual attention and user attention simultaneously.Visual attention is used to compress a large mount of salient visual information, while user attention is applied to adjust the description of the social images with user-contributed tags. Experiments conducted on the Microsoft (MS COCO dataset demonstrate the superiority of the proposed method of dual attention.

  20. Preparatory attention in visual cortex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Battistoni, E.; Stein, T.; Peelen, M.V.

    Top-down attention is the mechanism that allows us to selectively process goal-relevant aspects of a scene while ignoring irrelevant aspects. A large body of research has characterized the effects of attention on neural activity evoked by a visual stimulus. However, attention also includes a

  1. Unique sudden onsets capture attention even when observers are in feature-search mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spalek, Thomas M; Yanko, Matthew R; Poiese, Paola; Lagroix, Hayley E P

    2012-01-01

    Two sources of attentional capture have been proposed: stimulus-driven (exogenous) and goal-oriented (endogenous). A resolution between these modes of capture has not been straightforward. Even such a clearly exogenous event as the sudden onset of a stimulus can be said to capture attention endogenously if observers operate in singleton-detection mode rather than feature-search mode. In four experiments we show that a unique sudden onset captures attention even when observers are in feature-search mode. The displays were rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) streams of differently coloured letters with the target letter defined by a specific colour. Distractors were four #s, one of the target colour, surrounding one of the non-target letters. Capture was substantially reduced when the onset of the distractor array was not unique because it was preceded by other sets of four grey # arrays in the RSVP stream. This provides unambiguous evidence that attention can be captured both exogenously and endogenously within a single task.

  2. Connectivity supporting attention in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Anita D; Jacobson, Lisa A; Wexler, Joanna L; Nebel, Mary Beth; Caffo, Brian S; Pekar, James J; Mostofsky, Stewart H

    2015-01-01

    Intra-subject variability (ISV) is the most consistent behavioral deficit in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). ISV may be associated with networks involved in sustaining task control (cingulo-opercular network: CON) and self-reflective lapses of attention (default mode network: DMN). The current study examined whether connectivity supporting attentional control is atypical in children with ADHD. Group differences in full-brain connection strength and brain-behavior associations with attentional control measures were examined for the late-developing CON and DMN in 50 children with ADHD and 50 typically-developing (TD) controls (ages 8-12 years). Children with ADHD had hyper-connectivity both within the CON and within the DMN. Full-brain behavioral associations were found for a number of between-network connections. Across both groups, more anti-correlation between DMN and occipital cortex supported better attentional control. However, in the TD group, this brain-behavior association was stronger and occurred for a more extensive set of DMN-occipital connections. Differential support for attentional control between the two groups occurred with a number of CON-DMN connections. For all CON-DMN connections identified, increased between-network anti-correlation was associated with better attentional control for the ADHD group, but worse attentional control in the TD group. A number of between-network connections with the medial frontal cortex, in particular, showed this relationship. Follow-up analyses revealed that these associations were specific to attentional control and were not due to individual differences in working memory, IQ, motor control, age, or scan motion. While CON-DMN anti-correlation is associated with improved attention in ADHD, other circuitry supports improved attention in TD children. Greater CON-DMN anti-correlation supported better attentional control in children with ADHD, but worse attentional control in TD children. On the other

  3. Six-Month Market Exclusivity Extensions To Promote Research Offer Substantial Returns For Many Drug Makers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesselheim, Aaron S; Rome, Benjamin N; Sarpatwari, Ameet; Avorn, Jerry

    2017-02-01

    To incentivize pharmaceutical manufacturers to invest in areas of unmet medical need, policy makers frequently propose extending the market exclusivity period of desired drugs. Some such proposals are modeled after the pediatric exclusivity patent extension program, which since 1997 has provided six additional months of market exclusivity for drugs studied in children. The most recent proposal would encourage rare disease research by providing six months of extended exclusivity for any existing drug that is granted subsequent FDA approval for a new rare disease indication. Yet the economic impact of such proposals is rarely addressed. We found that for the thirteen FDA-approved drugs that gained supplemental approval for a rare disease indication from 2005 through 2010, the median projected cost of clinical trials leading to approval was $29.8 million. If the exclusivity extension had been in place, the median discounted financial gain to manufacturers would have been $94.6 million. Median net returns would have been $82.4 million, with higher returns for drugs with higher annual sales. Extending market exclusivity would provide substantial compensation to many manufacturers, particularly for top-selling products, far in excess of the cost of conducting these trials. Alternative strategies to incentivize the study of approved drugs for rare diseases may offer similar benefits at a lower cost. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  4. Attention and normalization circuits in macaque V1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanayei, M; Herrero, J L; Distler, C; Thiele, A

    2015-01-01

    Attention affects neuronal processing and improves behavioural performance. In extrastriate visual cortex these effects have been explained by normalization models, which assume that attention influences the circuit that mediates surround suppression. While normalization models have been able to explain attentional effects, their validity has rarely been tested against alternative models. Here we investigate how attention and surround/mask stimuli affect neuronal firing rates and orientation tuning in macaque V1. Surround/mask stimuli provide an estimate to what extent V1 neurons are affected by normalization, which was compared against effects of spatial top down attention. For some attention/surround effect comparisons, the strength of attentional modulation was correlated with the strength of surround modulation, suggesting that attention and surround/mask stimulation (i.e. normalization) might use a common mechanism. To explore this in detail, we fitted multiplicative and additive models of attention to our data. In one class of models, attention contributed to normalization mechanisms, whereas in a different class of models it did not. Model selection based on Akaike's and on Bayesian information criteria demonstrated that in most cells the effects of attention were best described by models where attention did not contribute to normalization mechanisms. This demonstrates that attentional influences on neuronal responses in primary visual cortex often bypass normalization mechanisms. PMID:25757941

  5. Recent theoretical, neural, and clinical advances in sustained attention research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortenbaugh, Francesca C.; DeGutis, Joseph; Esterman, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Models of attention often distinguish between attention subtypes, with classic models separating orienting, switching, and sustaining functions. Compared to other forms of attention, the neurophysiological basis of sustaining attention has received far less attention yet it is known that momentary failures of sustained attention can have far ranging negative impacts in healthy individuals and lasting sustained attention deficits are pervasive in clinical populations. In recent years, however, there has been increased interest in characterizing moment-to-moment fluctuations in sustained attention in addition to the overall vigilance decrement and understanding how these neurocognitive systems change over the lifespan and across various clinical populations. The use of novel neuroimaging paradigms and statistical approaches has allowed for better characterization of the neural networks supporting sustained attention, and highlighted dynamic interactions within and across multiple distributed networks that predict behavioral performance. These advances have also provided potential biomarkers to identify individuals with sustained attention deficits. These findings have led to new theoretical models of why sustaining focused attention is a challenge for individuals and form the basis for the next generation of sustained attention research, which seeks to accurately diagnose and develop theoretically-driven treatments for sustained attention deficits that affect a variety of clinical populations. PMID:28260249

  6. Attention and normalization circuits in macaque V1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanayei, M; Herrero, J L; Distler, C; Thiele, A

    2015-04-01

    Attention affects neuronal processing and improves behavioural performance. In extrastriate visual cortex these effects have been explained by normalization models, which assume that attention influences the circuit that mediates surround suppression. While normalization models have been able to explain attentional effects, their validity has rarely been tested against alternative models. Here we investigate how attention and surround/mask stimuli affect neuronal firing rates and orientation tuning in macaque V1. Surround/mask stimuli provide an estimate to what extent V1 neurons are affected by normalization, which was compared against effects of spatial top down attention. For some attention/surround effect comparisons, the strength of attentional modulation was correlated with the strength of surround modulation, suggesting that attention and surround/mask stimulation (i.e. normalization) might use a common mechanism. To explore this in detail, we fitted multiplicative and additive models of attention to our data. In one class of models, attention contributed to normalization mechanisms, whereas in a different class of models it did not. Model selection based on Akaike's and on Bayesian information criteria demonstrated that in most cells the effects of attention were best described by models where attention did not contribute to normalization mechanisms. This demonstrates that attentional influences on neuronal responses in primary visual cortex often bypass normalization mechanisms. © 2015 The Authors. European Journal of Neuroscience published by Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Attentional Lapses of Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Tasks of Sustained Attention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gmehlin, Dennis; Fuermaier, Anselm B.M.; Walther, Stephan; Tucha, Lara; Koerts, Janneke; Lange, Klaus W.; Tucha, Oliver; Weisbrod, Matthias; Aschenbrenner, Steffen

    Adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) show attentional dysfunction such as distractibility and mind-wandering, especially in lengthy tasks. However, fundamentals of dysfunction are ambiguous and relationships of neuropsychological test parameters with self-report measures of

  8. Attention, media and fuel efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thoenes, Stefan [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Energiewirtschaftliches Inst.; Koeln Univ. (Germany). Cologne Graduate School; Gores, Timo [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Cologne Graduate School

    2012-08-15

    This study examines attention effects in the market for hybrid vehicles. We show that local media coverage, gasoline price changes and unprecedented record gasoline prices have a significant causal impact on the consumers' attention. As attention is not directly observable, we analyze online search behavior as a proxy for the revealed consumer attention. Our study is based on weekly panel data of local newspaper coverage, gasoline prices and Google search trends for 19 metropolitan areas in the US. Additionally, we use monthly state-level panel data to show that the adoption rate of the hybrid vehicle technology is robustly related to our measure of attention.

  9. Dynamic crossmodal links revealed by steady-state responses in auditory-visual divided attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Ritske; Toffanin, Paolo; Harbers, Marten

    2010-01-01

    Frequency tagging has been often used to study intramodal attention but not intermodal attention. We used EEG and simultaneous frequency tagging of auditory and visual sources to study intermodal focused and divided attention in detection and discrimination performance. Divided-attention costs were smaller, but still significant, in detection than in discrimination. The auditory steady-state response (SSR) showed no effects of attention at frontocentral locations, but did so at occipital locations where it was evident only when attention was divided between audition and vision. Similarly, the visual SSR at occipital locations was substantially enhanced when attention was divided across modalities. Both effects were equally present in detection and discrimination. We suggest that both effects reflect a common cause: An attention-dependent influence of auditory information processing on early cortical stages of visual information processing, mediated by enhanced effective connectivity between the two modalities under conditions of divided attention. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Visual attention spreads broadly but selects information locally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shioiri, Satoshi; Honjyo, Hajime; Kashiwase, Yoshiyuki; Matsumiya, Kazumichi; Kuriki, Ichiro

    2016-10-19

    Visual attention spreads over a range around the focus as the spotlight metaphor describes. Spatial spread of attentional enhancement and local selection/inhibition are crucial factors determining the profile of the spatial attention. Enhancement and ignorance/suppression are opposite effects of attention, and appeared to be mutually exclusive. Yet, no unified view of the factors has been provided despite their necessity for understanding the functions of spatial attention. This report provides electroencephalographic and behavioral evidence for the attentional spread at an early stage and selection/inhibition at a later stage of visual processing. Steady state visual evoked potential showed broad spatial tuning whereas the P3 component of the event related potential showed local selection or inhibition of the adjacent areas. Based on these results, we propose a two-stage model of spatial attention with broad spread at an early stage and local selection at a later stage.

  11. Orienting attention to locations in mental representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astle, Duncan Edward; Summerfield, Jennifer; Griffin, Ivan; Nobre, Anna Christina

    2014-01-01

    Many cognitive processes depend on our ability to hold information in mind, often well beyond the offset of the original sensory input. The capacity of this ‘visual short-term memory’ (VSTM) is limited to around three to four items. Recent research has demonstrated that the content of VSTM can be modulated by top-down attentional biases. This has been demonstrated using retrodictive spatial cues, termed ‘retro-cues’, which orient participants’ attention to spatial locations within VSTM. In the current paper, we tested whether the use of these cues is modulated by memory load and cue delay. There are a number of important conclusions: i) top-down biases can operate upon very brief iconic traces as well as older VSTM representations (Experiment 1); ii) when operating within capacity, subjects use the cue to prioritize where they initiate their memory search, rather than to discard un-cued items (Experiments 2 and 3); iii) when capacity is exceeded there is little benefit to top-down biasing relative to a neutral condition, however, unattended items are lost, with there being a substantial cost of invalid spatial cueing (Experiment 3); iv) these costs and benefits of orienting spatial attention differ across iconic memory and VSTM representations when VSTM capacity is exceeded (Experiment 4). PMID:21972046

  12. Assessment of Attention in Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahone, E.M.; Schneider, H.E.

    2012-01-01

    In the past two decades, there has been an increased interest in the assessment and treatment of preschool children presenting with concerns about attention problems. This article reviews the research and clinical literature involving assessment of attention and related skills in the preschool years. While inattention among preschoolers is common, symptoms alone do not necessarily indicate a disorder, and most often represent a normal variation in typical preschool child development. Thus, accurate identification of “disordered” attention in preschoolers can be challenging, and development of appropriate, norm-referenced tests of attention for preschoolers is also difficult. The current review suggests that comprehensive assessment of attention and related functions in the preschool child should include thorough review of the child’s history, planned observations, and formal psychometric testing. The three primary methods of psychometric assessment that have been used to characterize attentional functioning in preschool children include performance-based tests, structured caregiver interviews, and rating scales (parent, teacher, and clinician). Among performance-based methods for measurement of attention in the preschool years, tests have been developed to assess sustained attention, selective (focused) attention, span of attention (encoding/manipulation), and (top-down) controlled attention—including freedom from distractibility and set shifting. Many of these tests remain experimental in nature, and review of published methods yields relatively few commercially available, nationally normed tests of attention for preschoolers, and an overall dearth of reliability and validity studies on the available measures. PMID:23090646

  13. Perceptual organization and visual attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimchi, Ruth

    2009-01-01

    Perceptual organization--the processes structuring visual information into coherent units--and visual attention--the processes by which some visual information in a scene is selected--are crucial for the perception of our visual environment and to visuomotor behavior. Recent research points to important relations between attentional and organizational processes. Several studies demonstrated that perceptual organization constrains attentional selectivity, and other studies suggest that attention can also constrain perceptual organization. In this chapter I focus on two aspects of the relationship between perceptual organization and attention. The first addresses the question of whether or not perceptual organization can take place without attention. I present findings demonstrating that some forms of grouping and figure-ground segmentation can occur without attention, whereas others require controlled attentional processing, depending on the processes involved and the conditions prevailing for each process. These findings challenge the traditional view, which assumes that perceptual organization is a unitary entity that operates preattentively. The second issue addresses the question of whether perceptual organization can affect the automatic deployment of attention. I present findings showing that the mere organization of some elements in the visual field by Gestalt factors into a coherent perceptual unit (an "object"), with no abrupt onset or any other unique transient, can capture attention automatically in a stimulus-driven manner. Taken together, the findings discussed in this chapter demonstrate the multifaceted, interactive relations between perceptual organization and visual attention.

  14. Paying attention through eye movements: a computational investigation of the premotor theory of spatial attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casarotti, Marco; Lisi, Matteo; Umiltà, Carlo; Zorzi, Marco

    2012-07-01

    Growing evidence indicates that planning eye movements and orienting visuospatial attention share overlapping brain mechanisms. A tight link between endogenous attention and eye movements is maintained by the premotor theory, in contrast to other accounts that postulate the existence of specific attention mechanisms that modulate the activity of information processing systems. The strong assumption of equivalence between attention and eye movements, however, is challenged by demonstrations that human observers are able to keep attention on a specific location while moving the eyes elsewhere. Here we investigate whether a recurrent model of saccadic planning can account for attentional effects without requiring additional or specific mechanisms separate from the circuits that perform sensorimotor transformations for eye movements. The model builds on the basis function approach and includes a circuit that performs spatial remapping using an "internal forward model" of how visual inputs are modified as a result of saccadic movements. Simulations show that the latter circuit is crucial to account for dissociations between attention and eye movements that may be invoked to disprove the premotor theory. The model provides new insights into how spatial remapping may be implemented in parietal cortex and offers a computational framework for recent proposals that link visual stability with remapping of attention pointers.

  15. Attention bias for chocolate increases chocolate consumption--an attention bias modification study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werthmann, Jessica; Field, Matt; Roefs, Anne; Nederkoorn, Chantal; Jansen, Anita

    2014-03-01

    The current study examined experimentally whether a manipulated attention bias for food cues increases craving, chocolate intake and motivation to search for hidden chocolates. To test the effect of attention for food on subsequent chocolate intake, attention for chocolate was experimentally modified by instructing participants to look at chocolate stimuli ("attend chocolate" group) or at non-food stimuli ("attend shoes" group) during a novel attention bias modification task (antisaccade task). Chocolate consumption, changes in craving and search time for hidden chocolates were assessed. Eye-movement recordings were used to monitor the accuracy during the experimental attention modification task as possible moderator of effects. Regression analyses were conducted to test the effect of attention modification and modification accuracy on chocolate intake, craving and motivation to search for hidden chocolates. Results showed that participants with higher accuracy (+1 SD), ate more chocolate when they had to attend to chocolate and ate less chocolate when they had to attend to non-food stimuli. In contrast, for participants with lower accuracy (-1 SD), the results were exactly reversed. No effects of the experimental attention modification on craving or search time for hidden chocolates were found. We used chocolate as food stimuli so it remains unclear how our findings generalize to other types of food. These findings demonstrate further evidence for a link between attention for food and food intake, and provide an indication about the direction of this relationship. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Spatial attention in written word perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica eMontani

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The role of attention in visual word recognition and reading aloud is a long debated issue. Studies of both developmental and acquired reading disorders provide growing evidence that spatial attention is critically involved in word reading, in particular for the phonological decoding of unfamiliar letter strings. However, studies on healthy participants have produced contrasting results. The aim of this study was to investigate how the allocation of spatial attention may influence the perception of letter strings in skilled readers. High frequency words, low frequency words and pseudowords were briefly and parafoveally presented either in the left or the right visual field. Attentional allocation was modulated by the presentation of a spatial cue before the target string. Accuracy in reporting the target string was modulated by the spatial cue but this effect varied with the type of string. For unfamiliar strings, processing was facilitated when attention was focused on the string location and hindered when it was diverted from the target. This finding is consistent the assumptions of the CDP+ model of reading aloud, as well as with familiarity sensitivity models that argue for a flexible use of attention according with the specific requirements of the string. Moreover, we found that processing of high-frequency words was facilitated by an extra-large focus of attention. The latter result is consistent with the hypothesis that a broad distribution of attention is the default mode during reading of familiar words because it might optimally engage the broad receptive fields of the highest detectors in the hierarchical system for visual word recognition.

  17. Spatial attention in written word perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montani, Veronica; Facoetti, Andrea; Zorzi, Marco

    2014-01-01

    The role of attention in visual word recognition and reading aloud is a long debated issue. Studies of both developmental and acquired reading disorders provide growing evidence that spatial attention is critically involved in word reading, in particular for the phonological decoding of unfamiliar letter strings. However, studies on healthy participants have produced contrasting results. The aim of this study was to investigate how the allocation of spatial attention may influence the perception of letter strings in skilled readers. High frequency words (HFWs), low frequency words and pseudowords were briefly and parafoveally presented either in the left or the right visual field. Attentional allocation was modulated by the presentation of a spatial cue before the target string. Accuracy in reporting the target string was modulated by the spatial cue but this effect varied with the type of string. For unfamiliar strings, processing was facilitated when attention was focused on the string location and hindered when it was diverted from the target. This finding is consistent the assumptions of the CDP+ model of reading aloud, as well as with familiarity sensitivity models that argue for a flexible use of attention according with the specific requirements of the string. Moreover, we found that processing of HFWs was facilitated by an extra-large focus of attention. The latter result is consistent with the hypothesis that a broad distribution of attention is the default mode during reading of familiar words because it might optimally engage the broad receptive fields of the highest detectors in the hierarchical system for visual word recognition.

  18. Cognitive maps and attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardt, Oliver; Nadel, Lynn

    2009-01-01

    Cognitive map theory suggested that exploring an environment and attending to a stimulus should lead to its integration into an allocentric environmental representation. We here report that directed attention in the form of exploration serves to gather information needed to determine an optimal spatial strategy, given task demands and characteristics of the environment. Attended environmental features may integrate into spatial representations if they meet the requirements of the optimal spatial strategy: when learning involves a cognitive mapping strategy, cues with high codability (e.g., concrete objects) will be incorporated into a map, but cues with low codability (e.g., abstract paintings) will not. However, instructions encouraging map learning can lead to the incorporation of cues with low codability. On the other hand, if spatial learning is not map-based, abstract cues can and will be used to encode locations. Since exploration appears to determine what strategy to apply and whether or not to encode a cue, recognition memory for environmental features is independent of whether or not a cue is part of a spatial representation. In fact, when abstract cues were used in a way that was not map-based, or when they were not used for spatial navigation at all, they were nevertheless recognized as familiar. Thus, the relation between exploratory activity on the one hand and spatial strategy and memory on the other appears more complex than initially suggested by cognitive map theory.

  19. Attention Networks and Consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael ePosner

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The term consciousness is an important one in the vernacular of the western literature in many fields. It is no wonder that scientists have assumed that consciousness will be found as a component of the human brain and that we will come to understand its neural basis. However, there is rather little in common between consciousness as the neurologist would use it to diagnose the vegetative state, how the feminist would use it to support raising male consciousness of the economic plight of women and as the philosopher would use it when defining the really hard question of the subjective state of awareness induced by sensory qualities. When faced with this kind of problem it is usual to subdivide the term into more manageable perhaps partly operational definitions. Three meanings that capture aspects of consciousness are: (1 the neurology of the state of mind allowing coherent orientation to time and place (2 the selection of sensory or memorial information for awareness and (3 the voluntary control over overt responses. In each of these cases the mechanisms of consciousness overlap with one or more of the attentional networks that have been studied with the methods of cognitive neuroscience. In this paper we explore t

  20. Information Technology & Applications Corporation v. United States: An Interested Party's "Substantial Chance" at APA Standing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Slicker, Christina

    2003-01-01

    .... Building on CICA's "interested party" definition with Information Technology's refinement of "substantial chance" rule, the Federal Circuit has effectively translated "APA standing" into the language...

  1. 20 CFR 416.972 - What we mean by substantial gainful activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Determining Disability and Blindness Substantial Gainful... consider activities like taking care of yourself, household tasks, hobbies, therapy, school attendance...

  2. Sustained attention, selective attention and cognitive control in deaf and hearing children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dye, Matthew W G; Hauser, Peter C

    2014-03-01

    Deaf children have been characterized as being impulsive, distractible, and unable to sustain attention. However, past research has tested deaf children born to hearing parents who are likely to have experienced language delays. The purpose of this study was to determine whether an absence of auditory input modulates attentional problems in deaf children with no delayed exposure to language. Two versions of a continuous performance test were administered to 37 deaf children born to Deaf parents and 60 hearing children, all aged 6-13 years. A vigilance task was used to measure sustained attention over the course of several minutes, and a distractibility test provided a measure of the ability to ignore task irrelevant information - selective attention. Both tasks provided assessments of cognitive control through analysis of commission errors. The deaf and hearing children did not differ on measures of sustained attention. However, younger deaf children were more distracted by task-irrelevant information in their peripheral visual field, and deaf children produced a higher number of commission errors in the selective attention task. It is argued that this is not likely to be an effect of audition on cognitive processing, but may rather reflect difficulty in endogenous control of reallocated visual attention resources stemming from early profound deafness. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Sustained attention, selective attention and cognitive control in deaf and hearing children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dye, Matthew W. G.; Hauser, Peter C.

    2014-01-01

    Deaf children have been characterized as being impulsive, distractible, and unable to sustain attention. However, past research has tested deaf children born to hearing parents who are likely to have experienced language delays. The purpose of this study was to determine whether an absence of auditory input modulates attentional problems in deaf children with no delayed exposure to language. Two versions of a continuous performance test were administered to 37 deaf children born to Deaf parents and 60 hearing children, all aged 6–13 years. A vigilance task was used to measure sustained attention over the course of several minutes, and a distractibility test provided a measure of the ability to ignore task irrelevant information – selective attention. Both tasks provided assessments of cognitive control through analysis of commission errors. The deaf and hearing children did not differ on measures of sustained attention. However, younger deaf children were more distracted by task-irrelevant information in their peripheral visual field, and deaf children produced a higher number of commission errors in the selective attention task. It is argued that this is not likely to be an effect of audition on cognitive processing, but may rather reflect difficulty in endogenous control of reallocated visual attention resources stemming from early profound deafness. PMID:24355653

  4. Technical considerations for evaluating substantially complete containment of high-level waste within the waste package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manaktala, H.K.; Interrante, C.G.

    1990-12-01

    This report deals with technical information that is considered essential for demonstrating the ability of the high-level radioactive waste package to provide ''substantially complete containment'' of its contents (vitrified waste form or spent light-water reactor fuel) for a period of 300 to 1000 years in a geological repository environment. The discussion is centered around technical considerations of the repository environment, materials and fabrication processes for the waste package components, various degradation modes of the materials of construction of the waste packages, and inspection and monitoring of the waste package during the preclosure and retrievability period, which could begin up to 50 years after initiation of waste emplacement. The emphasis in this report is on metallic materials. However, brief references have been made to other materials such as ceramics, graphite, bonded ceramic-metal systems, and other types of composites. The content of this report was presented to an external peer review panel of nine members at a workshop held at the Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses (CNWRA), Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, Texas, April 2--4, 1990. The recommendations of the peer review panel have been incorporated in this report. There are two companion reports; the second report in the series provides state-of-the-art techniques for uncertainty evaluations. 97 refs., 1 fig

  5. Technical considerations for evaluating substantially complete containment of high-level waste within the waste package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manaktala, H.K. (Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (USA). Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses); Interrante, C.G. (Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (USA). Div. of High-Level Waste Management)

    1990-12-01

    This report deals with technical information that is considered essential for demonstrating the ability of the high-level radioactive waste package to provide substantially complete containment'' of its contents (vitrified waste form or spent light-water reactor fuel) for a period of 300 to 1000 years in a geological repository environment. The discussion is centered around technical considerations of the repository environment, materials and fabrication processes for the waste package components, various degradation modes of the materials of construction of the waste packages, and inspection and monitoring of the waste package during the preclosure and retrievability period, which could begin up to 50 years after initiation of waste emplacement. The emphasis in this report is on metallic materials. However, brief references have been made to other materials such as ceramics, graphite, bonded ceramic-metal systems, and other types of composites. The content of this report was presented to an external peer review panel of nine members at a workshop held at the Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses (CNWRA), Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, Texas, April 2--4, 1990. The recommendations of the peer review panel have been incorporated in this report. There are two companion reports; the second report in the series provides state-of-the-art techniques for uncertainty evaluations. 97 refs., 1 fig.

  6. Attentional blink in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Amador-Campos,Juan A.; Aznar-Casanova,J. Antonio; Bezerra,Izabela; Torro-Alves,Nelson; Sánchez,Manuel M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To explore the temporal mechanism of attention in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and controls using a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) task in which two letters (T1 and T2) were presented in close temporal proximity among distractors (attentional blink [AB]). Method: Thirty children aged between 9 and 13 years (12 with ADHD combined type and 18 controls) took part in the study. Both groups performed two kinds of RSVP task. In the single task, p...

  7. Chewing and Attention: A Positive Effect on Sustained Attention

    OpenAIRE

    Hirano, Yoshiyuki; Onozuka, Minoru

    2015-01-01

    Chewing is crushing food not only to aid swallowing and digestion, but also to help stress relief and regulate cognitive function, especially in attention. It is well known that chewing gum is used for sleepiness prevention during work, learning, and driving, suggesting a link between chewing and sustained attention. We hypothesized that chewing elevates attention and/or alertness, leading to improvements in cognitive performance. We carried out a systematic review of the PubMed database. We ...

  8. Cigarette smoking substantially alters plasma microRNA profiles in healthy subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Kei; Yokota, Shin-ichi; Tatsumi, Naoyuki; Fukami, Tatsuki; Yokoi, Tsuyoshi; Nakajima, Miki, E-mail: nmiki@p.kanazawa-u.ac.jp

    2013-10-01

    Circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) are receiving attention as potential biomarkers of various diseases, including cancers, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and cardiovascular disease. However, it is unknown whether the levels of circulating miRNAs in a healthy subject might vary with external factors in daily life. In this study, we investigated whether cigarette smoking, a habit that has spread throughout the world and is a risk factor for various diseases, affects plasma miRNA profiles. We determined the profiles of 11 smokers and 7 non-smokers by TaqMan MicroRNA array analysis. A larger number of miRNAs were detected in smokers than in non-smokers, and the plasma levels of two-thirds of the detected miRNAs (43 miRNAs) were significantly higher in smokers than in non-smokers. A principal component analysis of the plasma miRNA profiles clearly separated smokers and non-smokers. Twenty-four of the miRNAs were previously reported to be potential biomarkers of disease, suggesting the possibility that smoking status might interfere with the diagnosis of disease. Interestingly, we found that quitting smoking altered the plasma miRNA profiles to resemble those of non-smokers. These results suggested that the differences in the plasma miRNA profiles between smokers and non-smokers could be attributed to cigarette smoking. In addition, we found that an acute exposure of ex-smokers to cigarette smoke (smoking one cigarette) did not cause a dramatic change in the plasma miRNA profile. In conclusion, we found that repeated cigarette smoking substantially alters the plasma miRNA profile, interfering with the diagnosis of disease or signaling potential smoking-related diseases. - Highlights: • Plasma miRNA profiles were unambiguously different between smokers and non-smokers. • Smoking status might interfere with the diagnosis of disease using plasma miRNAs. • Changes of plasma miRNA profiles may be a signal of smoking-related diseases.

  9. Cigarette smoking substantially alters plasma microRNA profiles in healthy subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Kei; Yokota, Shin-ichi; Tatsumi, Naoyuki; Fukami, Tatsuki; Yokoi, Tsuyoshi; Nakajima, Miki

    2013-01-01

    Circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) are receiving attention as potential biomarkers of various diseases, including cancers, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and cardiovascular disease. However, it is unknown whether the levels of circulating miRNAs in a healthy subject might vary with external factors in daily life. In this study, we investigated whether cigarette smoking, a habit that has spread throughout the world and is a risk factor for various diseases, affects plasma miRNA profiles. We determined the profiles of 11 smokers and 7 non-smokers by TaqMan MicroRNA array analysis. A larger number of miRNAs were detected in smokers than in non-smokers, and the plasma levels of two-thirds of the detected miRNAs (43 miRNAs) were significantly higher in smokers than in non-smokers. A principal component analysis of the plasma miRNA profiles clearly separated smokers and non-smokers. Twenty-four of the miRNAs were previously reported to be potential biomarkers of disease, suggesting the possibility that smoking status might interfere with the diagnosis of disease. Interestingly, we found that quitting smoking altered the plasma miRNA profiles to resemble those of non-smokers. These results suggested that the differences in the plasma miRNA profiles between smokers and non-smokers could be attributed to cigarette smoking. In addition, we found that an acute exposure of ex-smokers to cigarette smoke (smoking one cigarette) did not cause a dramatic change in the plasma miRNA profile. In conclusion, we found that repeated cigarette smoking substantially alters the plasma miRNA profile, interfering with the diagnosis of disease or signaling potential smoking-related diseases. - Highlights: • Plasma miRNA profiles were unambiguously different between smokers and non-smokers. • Smoking status might interfere with the diagnosis of disease using plasma miRNAs. • Changes of plasma miRNA profiles may be a signal of smoking-related diseases

  10. Attention without awareness: Attentional modulation of perceptual grouping without awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Shih-Yu

    2018-04-01

    Perceptual grouping is the process through which the perceptual system combines local stimuli into a more global perceptual unit. Previous studies have shown attention to be a modulatory factor for perceptual grouping. However, these studies mainly used explicit measurements, and, thus, whether attention can modulate perceptual grouping without awareness is still relatively unexplored. To clarify the relationship between attention and perceptual grouping, the present study aims to explore how attention interacts with perceptual grouping without awareness. The task was to judge the relative lengths of two centrally presented horizontal bars while a railway-shaped pattern defined by color similarity was presented in the background. Although the observers were unaware of the railway-shaped pattern, their line-length judgment was biased by that pattern, which induced a Ponzo illusion, indicating grouping without awareness. More importantly, an attentional modulatory effect without awareness was manifested as evident by the observer's performance being more often biased when the railway-shaped pattern was formed by an attended color than when it was formed by an unattended one. Also, the attentional modulation effect was shown to be dynamic, being more pronounced with a short presentation time than a longer one. The results of the present study not only clarify the relationship between attention and perceptual grouping but also further contribute to our understanding of attention and awareness by corroborating the dissociation between attention and awareness.

  11. Attentional capture and engagement during the attentional blink: A "camera" metaphor of attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zivony, Alon; Lamy, Dominique

    2016-11-01

    Identification of a target is impaired when it follows a previous target within 500 ms, suggesting that our attentional system suffers from severe temporal limitations. Although control-disruption theories posit that such impairment, known as the attentional blink (AB), reflects a difficulty in matching incoming information with the current attentional set, disrupted-engagement theories propose that it reflects a delay in later processes leading to transient enhancement of potential targets. Here, we used a variant of the contingent-capture rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) paradigm (Folk, Ester, & Troemel, 2009) to adjudicate these competing accounts. Our results show that a salient distractor that shares the target color captures attention to the same extent whether it appears within or outside the blink, thereby invalidating the notion that control over the attentional set is compromised during the blink. In addition, our results show that during the blink, not the attention-capturing object itself but the item immediately following it, is selected, indicating that the AB manifests as a delay between attentional capture and attentional engagement. We therefore conclude that attentional capture and attentional engagement can be dissociated as separate stages of attentional selection. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Components of Attention Modulated by Temporal Expectation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, Thomas Alrik; Vangkilde, Signe; Bundesen, Claus

    2015-01-01

    By varying the probabilities that a stimulus would appear at particular times after the presentation of a cue and modeling the data by the theory of visual attention (Bundesen, 1990), Vangkilde, Coull, and Bundesen (2012) provided evidence that the speed of encoding a singly presented stimulus letter into visual short-term memory (VSTM) is…

  13. The allocation of attention and working memory in visual crowding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacigalupo, Felix; Luck, Steven J

    2015-06-01

    When the distance between a visual target and nearby flankers falls below a critical distance, target discrimination declines precipitously. This is called "crowding." Many researchers have proposed that selective attention plays a role in crowding. However, although some research has examined the effects of directing attention toward versus away from the targets, no previous research has assessed how attentional allocation varies as a function of target-flanker distance in crowding. Here, we used ERPs to assess the operation of attention during crowding, focusing on the attention-related N2pc component. We used a typical crowding task in which participants were asked to report the category (vowel/consonant) of a lateralized target letter flanked by distractor letters at different distances. We tested the hypothesis that attention fails when the target-flanker distance becomes too small for attention to operate effectively. Consistent with this hypothesis, we found that N2pc amplitude was maximal at intermediate target-flanker distances and decreased substantially when crowding became severe. In addition, we examined the sustained posterior contralateral negativity (SPCN), which reflects the amount of information being maintained in working memory. Unlike the N2pc component, the SPCN increased in amplitude at small target-flanker distances, suggesting that observers stored information about the target and flankers in working memory when attention failed to select the target. Together, the N2pc and SPCN results suggest that attention and working memory play distinctive roles in crowding: Attention operates to minimize interference from the flankers at intermediate target-flanker distances, whereas working memory may be recruited when attention fails to select the target at small target-flanker distances.

  14. Service line structure and decision-maker attention in three health systems: Implications for patient-centered care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis, Christopher J; Clark, Jonathan R; Gray, Barbara; Brannon, Diane; Parker, Victoria

    2017-06-15

    Scholars have noted a disconnect between the level at which structure is typically examined (the organization) and the level at which the relevant coordination takes place (service delivery). Accordingly, our understanding of the role structure plays in care coordination is limited. In this article, we explore service line structure, with an aim of advancing our understanding of the role service line structure plays in producing coordinated, patient-centered care. We do so by giving special attention to the cognitive roots of patient-centeredness. Our exploratory study relied on comparative case studies of the breast cancer service lines in three health systems. Nonprobability discriminative snowball sampling was used to identify the final sample of key informants. We employed a grounded approach to analyzing and interpreting the data. We found substantial variation across the three service lines in terms of their structure. We also found corresponding variation across the three case sites in terms of where informant attention was primarily focused in the process of coordinating care. Drawing on the attention-based view of the firm, our results draw a clear connection between structural characteristics and the dominant focus of attention (operational tactics, provider roles and relationships, or patient needs and engagement) in health care service lines. Our exploratory results suggest that service line structures influence attention in two ways: (a) by regulating the type and intensity of the problems facing service line participants and (b) by encouraging (or discouraging) a shared purpose around patient needs. Patient-centered attention-a precursor to coordinated, patient-centered care-depends on the internal choices organizations make around service line structure. Moreover, a key task for organizational and service line leaders is to structure service lines to create a context that minimizes distractions and enables care providers to focus their attention on

  15. Semantic and Affective Salience: The Role of Meaning and Preference in Attentional Capture and Disengagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggs, Adam T.; Kreager, Ryan D.; Gibson, Bradley S.; Villano, Michael; Crowell, Charles R.

    2012-01-01

    Emotion appears to have a substantial impact on a wide variety of attentional functions. However, stimuli that elicit affective responses also tend to be meaningful. Here we attempted to disentangle the effects of meaning from the effects of affect on attentional capture by irrelevant distractors. Experiment 1 used a previously unfamiliar…

  16. Influence of focus of attention, reinvestment and fall history on elderly gait stability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Melker Worms, Jonathan L.A.; Stins, John F.; van Wegen, Erwin E.H.; Loram, Ian D.; Beek, Peter J.

    2017-01-01

    Falls represent a substantial risk in the elderly. Previous studies have found that a focus on the outcome or effect of the movement (external focus of attention) leads to improved balance performance, whereas a focus on the movement execution itself (internal focus of attention) impairs balance

  17. Objective assessment of attention in delirium: a narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tieges, Zoë; Brown, Laura J E; MacLullich, Alasdair M J

    2014-12-01

    Inattention is a core feature of delirium, and valid assessment of attention is central to diagnosis. Methods of measuring attention in delirium can be divided into two broad categories: (i) objective neuropsychological testing; and (ii) subjective grading of behaviour during interview and clinical examination. Here, we review and critically evaluate studies of objective neuropsychological testing of attention in delirium. We examine the implications of these studies for delirium detection and monitoring in clinical practice and research, and how these studies inform understanding of the nature of attentional deficits in delirium. Searches of MEDLINE and ISI Web of Knowledge databases were performed to identify studies in which objective tests of attention had been administered to patients with delirium, who had been diagnosed using DSM or ICD criteria. Sixteen publications were identified. The attention tests administered in these studies were grouped into the following categories: measures of attention span, vigilance tests, other pen-and-paper tests (e.g. Trail Making Test) and computerised tests of speeded reaction, vigilance and sustained attention. Patients with delirium showed deficits on all tasks, although most tasks were not considered pure measures of attention. Five papers provided data on differential diagnosis from dementia. Cancellation tests, spatial span tests and computerised tests of sustained attention discriminated delirium from dementia. Five studies presented reliability or validity statistics. The existing evidence base on objective assessment of attention in delirium is small. Objective testing of attention is underdeveloped but shows considerable promise in clinical practice and research. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Recent theoretical, neural, and clinical advances in sustained attention research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortenbaugh, Francesca C; DeGutis, Joseph; Esterman, Michael

    2017-05-01

    Models of attention often distinguish among attention subtypes, with classic models separating orienting, switching, and sustaining functions. Compared with other forms of attention, the neurophysiological basis of sustaining attention has received far less notice, yet it is known that momentary failures of sustained attention can have far-ranging negative effects in healthy individuals, and lasting sustained attention deficits are pervasive in clinical populations. In recent years, however, there has been increased interest in characterizing moment-to-moment fluctuations in sustained attention, in addition to the overall vigilance decrement, and understanding how these neurocognitive systems change over the life span and across various clinical populations. The use of novel neuroimaging paradigms and statistical approaches has allowed for better characterization of the neural networks supporting sustained attention and has highlighted dynamic interactions within and across multiple distributed networks that predict behavioral performance. These advances have also provided potential biomarkers to identify individuals with sustained attention deficits. These findings have led to new theoretical models explaining why sustaining focused attention is a challenge for individuals and form the basis for the next generation of sustained attention research, which seeks to accurately diagnose and develop theoretically driven treatments for sustained attention deficits that affect a variety of clinical populations. © 2017 New York Academy of Sciences.

  19. 26 CFR 1.42-7 - Substantially bond-financed buildings. [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Substantially bond-financed buildings. [Reserved] 1.42-7 Section 1.42-7 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY INCOME TAX INCOME TAXES Credits Against Tax § 1.42-7 Substantially bond-financed buildings. [Reserved] ...

  20. 20 CFR 416.1080 - Notice of right to hearing on proposed finding of substantial failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... agency has substantially failed to meet our standards unless the State submits a written request for a... finding of substantial failure. 416.1080 Section 416.1080 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Determinations of Disability...

  1. 20 CFR 404.1680 - Notice of right to hearing on proposed finding of substantial failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... agency has substantially failed to meet our standards unless the State submits a written request for a... finding of substantial failure. 404.1680 Section 404.1680 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY..., following the mandatory performance support period and the 3-month adjustment period, a State agency again...

  2. Detection of Dew-Point by substantial Raman Band Frequency Jumps (A new Method)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Susanne Brunsgaard; Berg, Rolf W.; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    Detection of Dew-Point by substantial Raman Band Frequency Jumps (A new Method). See poster at http://www.kemi.dtu.dk/~ajo/rolf/jumps.pdf......Detection of Dew-Point by substantial Raman Band Frequency Jumps (A new Method). See poster at http://www.kemi.dtu.dk/~ajo/rolf/jumps.pdf...

  3. Substantiation of Optimum Stoker Number in Potassium Production by Game Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. A. Bogatov

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Dump formation process of hard halite waste in potassium production has been analyzed in the paper. The paper shows high cost of a salt dump formation and an actuality to substantiate number of ОШ-1900-110/150 stokers that are operating simultaneously. A game theory method has been used to substantiate a solution of the problem.

  4. 32 CFR 48.302 - Substantiating evidence regarding dependency and age of dependents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Substantiating evidence regarding dependency and age of dependents. 48.302 Section 48.302 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE... Designation of Beneficiaries § 48.302 Substantiating evidence regarding dependency and age of dependents. At...

  5. Selective attention within the foveola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poletti, Martina; Rucci, Michele; Carrasco, Marisa

    2017-10-01

    Efficient control of attentional resources and high-acuity vision are both fundamental for survival. Shifts in visual attention are known to covertly enhance processing at locations away from the center of gaze, where visual resolution is low. It is unknown, however, whether selective spatial attention operates where the observer is already looking-that is, within the high-acuity foveola, the small yet disproportionally important rod-free region of the retina. Using new methods for precisely controlling retinal stimulation, here we show that covert attention flexibly improves and speeds up both detection and discrimination at loci only a fraction of a degree apart within the foveola. These findings reveal a surprisingly precise control of attention and its involvement in fine spatial vision. They show that the commonly studied covert shifts of attention away from the fovea are the expression of a global mechanism that exerts its action across the entire visual field.

  6. Substantiation of selection method of preferred alternative of belt conveyor drive systems on the basis of the analytic hierarchy process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goncharov K.A.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides substantiation of selection method of preferred alternative of belt conveyor drive systems on the basis of the analytic hierarchy process. Conditions for the correct application of the proposed method in the selection process of preferred alternative of technical objects were worked out. The set of criteria of system effectiveness evalua-tion and the corresponding hierarchical structure in accordance with the developed conditions was proposed.

  7. Substantial nutritional contribution of bacterial amino acids to earthworms and enchytraeids: A case study from organic grasslands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Thomas; Pollierer, Melanie M.; Holmstrup, Martin

    2016-01-01

    worms relied equally on bacterial and plant derived EAA. Our study provides answers to some of the long-standing questions in regards to the role of bacteria for earthworm nutrition. While bacterial EAA contribution to anecic worms was relatively modest, less than one-quarter, bacterial contribution...... to endogeic and enchytraeid worms was substantial comprising almost half of their EAA. Our findings are important for understanding how different ecological groups of terrestrial oligochaetes meet nutritional needs and partition food resources....

  8. Advertising, Attention, and Financial Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Focke, Florens; Ruenzi, Stefan; Ungeheuer, Michael

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the impact of product market advertising on investor attention and financial market outcomes. Using daily advertising data allows us to identify short-term effects of advertising. We measure daily investor attention based the company's number of Wikipedia page views. We show that TV and newspaper advertising positively impacts short-term investor attention. It also positively impacts turnover and liquidity, but the effects are not economically significant. Most importantly, ass...

  9. Measuring the amplification of attention

    OpenAIRE

    Blaser, Erik; Sperling, George; Lu, Zhong-Lin

    1999-01-01

    An ambiguous motion paradigm, in which the direction of apparent motion is determined by salience (i.e., the extent to which an area is perceived as figure versus ground), is used to assay the amplification of color by attention to color. In the red–green colored gratings used in these experiments, without attention instructions, salience depends on the chromaticity difference between colored stripes embedded in the motion sequence and the yellow background. Selective attention to red (or to ...

  10. Attentional Capture with Rapidly Changing Attentional Control Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lien, Mei-Ching; Ruthruff, Eric; Johnston, James C.

    2010-01-01

    The classic theory of spatial attention hypothesized 2 modes, voluntary and involuntary. Folk, Remington, and Johnston (1992) reported that even involuntary attention capture by stimuli requires a match between stimulus properties and what the observer is looking for. This surprising conclusion has been confirmed by many subsequent studies. In…

  11. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to glycaemic carbohydrates and maintenance of normal brain function (ID 603, 653) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    ; attention; memory”. The target population is assumed to be the general population. In the context of the proposed wordings, the Panel assumes that the claimed effects refer to the maintenance of normal brain function. The Panel considers that maintenance of normal brain function is a beneficial...... claims in relation to glycaemic carbohydrates and maintenance of normal brain function. The scientific substantiation is based on the information provided by the Member States in the consolidated list of Article 13 health claims and references that EFSA has received from Member States or directly from...

  12. Quantifying collective attention from tweet stream.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazutoshi Sasahara

    Full Text Available Online social media are increasingly facilitating our social interactions, thereby making available a massive "digital fossil" of human behavior. Discovering and quantifying distinct patterns using these data is important for studying social behavior, although the rapid time-variant nature and large volumes of these data make this task difficult and challenging. In this study, we focused on the emergence of "collective attention" on Twitter, a popular social networking service. We propose a simple method for detecting and measuring the collective attention evoked by various types of events. This method exploits the fact that tweeting activity exhibits a burst-like increase and an irregular oscillation when a particular real-world event occurs; otherwise, it follows regular circadian rhythms. The difference between regular and irregular states in the tweet stream was measured using the Jensen-Shannon divergence, which corresponds to the intensity of collective attention. We then associated irregular incidents with their corresponding events that attracted the attention and elicited responses from large numbers of people, based on the popularity and the enhancement of key terms in posted messages or "tweets." Next, we demonstrate the effectiveness of this method using a large dataset that contained approximately 490 million Japanese tweets by over 400,000 users, in which we identified 60 cases of collective attentions, including one related to the Tohoku-oki earthquake. "Retweet" networks were also investigated to understand collective attention in terms of social interactions. This simple method provides a retrospective summary of collective attention, thereby contributing to the fundamental understanding of social behavior in the digital era.

  13. The Contribution of Attentional Lapses to Individual Differences in Visual Working Memory Capacity

    OpenAIRE

    Adam, Kirsten C. S.; Mance, Irida; Fukuda, Keisuke; Vogel, Edward K.

    2015-01-01

    Attentional control and working memory capacity are important cognitive abilities that substantially vary between individuals. Although much is known about how attentional control and working memory capacity relate to each other and to constructs like fluid intelligence, little is known about how trial-by-trial fluctuations in attentional engagement impact trial-by-trial working memory performance. Here, we employ a novel whole-report memory task that allowed us to distinguish between varying...

  14. Foreground-background segmentation and attention: a change blindness study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazza, Veronica; Turatto, Massimo; Umiltà, Carlo

    2005-01-01

    One of the most debated questions in visual attention research is what factors affect the deployment of attention in the visual scene? Segmentation processes are influential factors, providing candidate objects for further attentional selection, and the relevant literature has concentrated on how figure-ground segmentation mechanisms influence visual attention. However, another crucial process, namely foreground-background segmentation, seems to have been neglected. By using a change blindness paradigm, we explored whether attention is preferentially allocated to the foreground elements or to the background ones. The results indicated that unless attention was voluntarily deployed to the background, large changes in the color of its elements remained unnoticed. In contrast, minor changes in the foreground elements were promptly reported. Differences in change blindness between the two regions of the display indicate that attention is, by default, biased toward the foreground elements. This also supports the phenomenal observations made by Gestaltists, who demonstrated the greater salience of the foreground than the background.

  15. Opposing effects of attention and consciousness on afterimages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Boxtel, Jeroen J A; Tsuchiya, Naotsugu; Koch, Christof

    2010-05-11

    The brain's ability to handle sensory information is influenced by both selective attention and consciousness. There is no consensus on the exact relationship between these two processes and whether they are distinct. So far, no experiment has simultaneously manipulated both. We carried out a full factorial 2 x 2 study of the simultaneous influences of attention and consciousness (as assayed by visibility) on perception, correcting for possible concurrent changes in attention and consciousness. We investigated the duration of afterimages for all four combinations of high versus low attention and visible versus invisible. We show that selective attention and visual consciousness have opposite effects: paying attention to the grating decreases the duration of its afterimage, whereas consciously seeing the grating increases the afterimage duration. These findings provide clear evidence for distinctive influences of selective attention and consciousness on visual perception.

  16. How motivation and reward learning modulate selective attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgeois, A; Chelazzi, L; Vuilleumier, P

    2016-01-01

    Motivational stimuli such as rewards elicit adaptive responses and influence various cognitive functions. Notably, increasing evidence suggests that stimuli with particular motivational values can strongly shape perception and attention. These effects resemble both selective top-down and stimulus-driven attentional orienting, as they depend on internal states but arise without conscious will, yet they seem to reflect attentional systems that are functionally and anatomically distinct from those classically associated with frontoparietal cortical networks in the brain. Recent research in human and nonhuman primates has begun to reveal how reward can bias attentional selection, and where within the cognitive system the signals providing attentional priority are generated. This review aims at describing the different mechanisms sustaining motivational attention, their impact on different behavioral tasks, and current knowledge concerning the neural networks governing the integration of motivational influences on attentional behavior. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Neurological soft signs are associated with attentional dysfunction in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitzianti, Mariabernarda; D'Agati, Elisa; Casarelli, Livia; Pontis, Marco; Kaunzinger, Ivo; Lange, Klaus W; Tucha, Oliver; Curatolo, Paolo; Pasini, Augusto

    2016-11-01

    Inattention is one of the core symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Most of patients with ADHD show motor impairment, consisting in the persistence of neurological soft signs (NSS). Our aim was to evaluate attentional and motor functioning in an ADHD sample and healthy children (HC) and possible link between attentional dysfunction and motor impairment in ADHD. Twenty-seven drug-naive patients with ADHD and 23 HC were tested with a test battery, measuring different aspects of attention. Motor evaluation has provided three primary variables: overflow movements (OM), dysrhythmia and total speed of timed activities. Compared to HC, patients were impaired in a considerable number of attentional processes and showed a greater number of NSS. Significant correlations between disturbances of attention and motor abnormalities were observed in ADHD group. Our findings suggest that attentional processes could be involved in the pathophysiology of the NSS and add scientific evidence to the predictive value of NSS as indicators of the severity of functional impairment in ADHD. Given the marked improvement or complete resolution of NSS following treatment with methylphenidate, we suggest that evaluation of NSS is useful to monitor the effectiveness of pharmacological treatment with MPH in ADHD.

  18. Consumer Attention Online: How to be Visible?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktorija Grigaliūnaitė

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The axiom “unseen – unsold” implies that marketing communication cannot be effective if it does not bypass the filter of attention, which is difficult in today’s information clutter. As internet has emerged as powerful channel for marketing communication, the same axiom applies to the online marketing communication. In this research the analysis and synthesis of scientific literature as well as two eye tracking experiments are applied for the analysis of internet context-related elements influencing consumer visual attention and as a consequence having influence on consumer behavior. As a result, the guidelines for the selection of advertising message-related factors and advertisement’s position in the internet news portals are provided. Moreover, recommendations for the attraction of consumer visual attention in the search engines are presented.

  19. Covering chemical diversity of genetically-modified tomatoes using metabolomics for objective substantial equivalence assessment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miyako Kusano

    Full Text Available As metabolomics can provide a biochemical snapshot of an organism's phenotype it is a promising approach for charting the unintended effects of genetic modification. A critical obstacle for this application is the inherently limited metabolomic coverage of any single analytical platform. We propose using multiple analytical platforms for the direct acquisition of an interpretable data set of estimable chemical diversity. As an example, we report an application of our multi-platform approach that assesses the substantial equivalence of tomatoes over-expressing the taste-modifying protein miraculin. In combination, the chosen platforms detected compounds that represent 86% of the estimated chemical diversity of the metabolites listed in the LycoCyc database. Following a proof-of-safety approach, we show that % had an acceptable range of variation while simultaneously indicating a reproducible transformation-related metabolic signature. We conclude that multi-platform metabolomics is an approach that is both sensitive and robust and that it constitutes a good starting point for characterizing genetically modified organisms.

  20. ECOLOGICAL AND ECONOMIC SUBSTANTIATION OF SELECTION OF THE METHOD FOR PLASTIC WASTE MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. P. Shanina

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of the classifications of plastic waste from production and consumption is made by various criteria. Distinctive features of the specifi ed waste behavior under various treatment methods (deposition at landfill, incineration and recycling are discussed. Clustering of the polymeric waste by hazard categories of the combustion products is performed. The polyvinyl-chlorides and polycarbonates which generate the most hazardous products under  the combustion are singled out in a particular cluster. The qualitative and quantitative descrip- The qualitative and quantitative description of the plastic waste generated in Ukraine from 2011 to 2013 is provided. Grossemissions of the polyvinylchloride and polystyrene waste incineration products are calculated. Evaluation of the environmental damage resulting from implementation of various methods for plastic waste management is based on an environmental tax rate having a compensatory nature. Potential profit from selling the secondary raw materials, produced from plastic waste, is analysed. Ranking of the potential methods for plastic waste management is presented in the context of ecological and economic substantiation: the most preferable method is production of secondary raw materials (recycled resources; the least preferable one is incineration of the specified wastes.

  1. Substantial secondary organic aerosol formation in a coniferous forest: observations of both day- and nighttime chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Y. Lee

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Substantial biogenic secondary organic aerosol (BSOA formation was investigated in a coniferous forest mountain region in Whistler, British Columbia. A largely biogenic aerosol growth episode was observed, providing a unique opportunity to investigate BSOA formation chemistry in a forested environment with limited influence from anthropogenic emissions. Positive matrix factorization of aerosol mass spectrometry (AMS measurement identified two types of BSOA (BSOA-1 and BSOA-2, which were primarily generated by gas-phase oxidation of monoterpenes and perhaps sesquiterpenes. The temporal variations of BSOA-1 and BSOA-2 can be explained by gas–particle partitioning in response to ambient temperature and the relative importance of different oxidation mechanisms between day and night. While BSOA-1 arises from gas-phase ozonolysis and nitrate radical chemistry at night, BSOA-2 is likely less volatile than BSOA-1 and consists of products formed via gas-phase oxidation by OH radical and ozone during the day. Organic nitrates produced through nitrate radical chemistry can account for 22–33 % of BSOA-1 mass at night. The mass spectra of BSOA-1 and BSOA-2 have higher values of the mass fraction of m/z 91 (f91 compared to the background organic aerosol. Using f91 to evaluate BSOA formation pathways in this unpolluted, forested region, heterogeneous oxidation of BSOA-1 is a minor production pathway of BSOA-2.

  2. Substantiation of the safety in the technical project of Belene NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyadzhiev, A.

    1990-01-01

    The chapter contains an evaluation of the safety of Belene NPP project, based on an experts study of the corresponding volume of the Technical Project documentation of the main contractor and also on other related documents. The authors state that most of the remarks are constitutive, part of them requiring additional information or research. The general explicit conclusion is that the materials on the safety substantiation provided in the project are insufficient for making final statements on the safety of the NPP and there is a need for a detailed analysis and expertise. There are 12 topical conclusion paragraphs and each of them comprises a number of remarks. Among the remarks there are some related to the reactivity coefficient values in certain modes of operation, the problem of the mechanical safety and control system efficiency, the unacceptable operation at nominal power in case of stringent safety rules enforcement, the insufficiency of the PSA, the automatic control systems and the software codes not standing up to the contemporary requirements. (R.Ts.)

  3. Covering Chemical Diversity of Genetically-Modified Tomatoes Using Metabolomics for Objective Substantial Equivalence Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirai, Tadayoshi; Oikawa, Akira; Matsuda, Fumio; Fukushima, Atsushi; Arita, Masanori; Watanabe, Shin; Yano, Megumu; Hiwasa-Tanase, Kyoko; Ezura, Hiroshi; Saito, Kazuki

    2011-01-01

    As metabolomics can provide a biochemical snapshot of an organism's phenotype it is a promising approach for charting the unintended effects of genetic modification. A critical obstacle for this application is the inherently limited metabolomic coverage of any single analytical platform. We propose using multiple analytical platforms for the direct acquisition of an interpretable data set of estimable chemical diversity. As an example, we report an application of our multi-platform approach that assesses the substantial equivalence of tomatoes over-expressing the taste-modifying protein miraculin. In combination, the chosen platforms detected compounds that represent 86% of the estimated chemical diversity of the metabolites listed in the LycoCyc database. Following a proof-of-safety approach, we show that % had an acceptable range of variation while simultaneously indicating a reproducible transformation-related metabolic signature. We conclude that multi-platform metabolomics is an approach that is both sensitive and robust and that it constitutes a good starting point for characterizing genetically modified organisms. PMID:21359231

  4. Grammar Clinical Marker Yields Substantial Heritability for Language Impairments in 16-Year-Old Twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Philip S; Rice, Mabel L; Rimfeld, Kaili; Hayiou-Thomas, Marianna E

    2018-01-22

    There is a need for well-defined language phenotypes suitable for adolescents in twin studies and other large-scale research projects. Rice, Hoffman, and Wexler (2009) have developed a grammatical judgment measure as a clinical marker of language impairment, which has an extended developmental range to adolescence. We conducted the first twin analysis, along with associated phenotypic analyses of validity, of an abridged, 20-item version of this grammatical judgment measure (GJ-20), based on telephone administration using prerecorded stimuli to 405 pairs of 16-year-olds (148 monozygotic and 257 dizygotic) drawn from the Twins Early Development Study (Haworth, Davis, & Plomin, 2012). The distribution of scores is markedly skewed negatively, as expected for a potential clinical marker. Low performance on GJ-20 is associated with lower maternal education, reported learning disability (age 7 years), and low scores on language tests administered via the Twins Early Development Study (age 16 years) as well as General Certificate of Secondary Education English and Math examination performance (age 16 years). Liability threshold estimates for the genetic influence on low performance on GJ-20 are substantial, ranging from 36% with a lowest 10% criterion to 74% for a lowest 5% criterion. The heritability of GJ-20 scores, especially at more extreme cutoffs, along with the score distribution and association with other indicators of language impairments, provides additional evidence for the potential value of this measure as a clinical marker of specific language impairment.

  5. Assessing the heritability of attentional networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fossella John A

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Current efforts to study the genetics of higher functions have been lacking appropriate phenotypes to describe cognition. One of the problems is that many cognitive concepts for which there is a single word (e.g. attention have been shown to be related to several anatomical networks. Recently we have developed an Attention Network Test (ANT that provides a separate measure for each of three anatomically defined attention networks. In this small scale study, we ran 26 pairs of MZ and DZ twins in an effort to determine if any of these networks show sufficient evidence of heritability to warrant further exploration of their genetic basis. Results The efficiency of the executive attention network, that mediates stimulus and response conflict, shows sufficient heritability to warrant further study. Alerting and overall reaction time show some evidence for heritability and in our study the orienting network shows no evidence of heritability. Conclusions These results suggest that genetic variation contributes to normal individual differences in higher order executive attention involving dopamine rich frontal areas including the anterior cingulate. At least the executive portion of the ANT may serve as a valid endophenotype for larger twin studies and subsequent molecular genetic analysis in normal subject populations.

  6. Serotonergic and dopaminergic modulation of attentional processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulougouris, Vasileios; Tsaltas, Eleftheria

    2008-01-01

    Disturbances in attentional processes are a common feature of several psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and Huntington's disease. The use of animal models has been useful in defining various candidate neural systems thus enabling us to translate basic laboratory science to the clinic and vice-versa. In this chapter, a comparative and integrated account is provided on the neuroanatomical and neurochemical modulation of basic behavioural operations such as selective attention, vigilance, set-shifting and executive control focusing on the comparative functions of the serotonin and dopamine systems in the cognitive control exerted by the prefrontal cortex. Specifically, we have reviewed evidence emerging from several behavioural paradigms in experimental animals and humans each of which centres on a different aspect of the attentional function. These paradigms offering both human and animal variants include the five-choice serial reaction time task (5CSRTT), attentional set-shifting and stop-signal reaction time task. In each case, the types of operation that are measured by the given paradigm and their neural correlates are defined. Then, the role of the ascending dopaminergic and serotonergic systems in the neurochemical modulation of its behavioural output are examined, and reference is made to clinical implications for neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders which exhibit deficits in these cognitive tests.

  7. Cueing spatial attention through timing and probability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girardi, Giovanna; Antonucci, Gabriella; Nico, Daniele

    2013-01-01

    Even when focused on an effortful task we retain the ability to detect salient environmental information, and even irrelevant visual stimuli can be automatically detected. However, to which extent unattended information affects attentional control is not fully understood. Here we provide evidences of how the brain spontaneously organizes its cognitive resources by shifting attention between a selective-attending and a stimulus-driven modality within a single task. Using a spatial cueing paradigm we investigated the effect of cue-target asynchronies as a function of their probabilities of occurrence (i.e., relative frequency). Results show that this accessory information modulates attentional shifts. A valid spatial cue improved participants' performance as compared to an invalid one only in trials in which target onset was highly predictable because of its more robust occurrence. Conversely, cuing proved ineffective when spatial cue and target were associated according to a less frequent asynchrony. These patterns of response depended on asynchronies' probability and not on their duration. Our findings clearly demonstrate that through a fine decision-making, performed trial-by-trial, the brain utilizes implicit information to decide whether or not voluntarily shifting spatial attention. As if according to a cost-planning strategy, the cognitive effort of shifting attention depending on the cue is performed only when the expected advantages are higher. In a trade-off competition for cognitive resources, voluntary/automatic attending may thus be a more complex process than expected. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Cognitive programs: Software for attention's executive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John K Tsotsos

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available What are the computational tasks that an executive controller for visual attention must solve? This question is posed in the context of the Selective Tuning model of attention. The range of required computations go beyond top-down bias signals or region-of-interest determinations, and must deal with overt and covert fixations, process timing and synchronization, information routing, memory, matching control to task, spatial localization, priming, and coordination of bottom-up with top-down information. During task execution, results must be monitored to ensure the expected results. This description includes the kinds of elements that are common in the control of any kind of complex machine or system. We seek a mechanistic integration of the above, in other words, algorithms that accomplish control. Such algorithms operate on representations, transforming a representation of one kind into another, which then forms the input to yet another algorithm. Cognitive Programs (CPs are hypothesized to capture exactly such representational transformations via stepwise sequences of operations. CPs, an updated and modernized offspring of Ullman's Visual Routines, impose an algorithmic structure to the set of attentional functions and play a role in the overall shaping of attentional modulation of the visual system so that it provides its best performance. This requires that we consider the visual system as a dynamic, yet general-purpose processor tuned to the task and input of the moment. This differs dramatically from the almost universal cognitive and computational views, which regard vision as a passively observing module to which simple questions about percepts can be posed, regardless of task. Differing from Visual Routines, CPs explicitly involve the critical elements of Visual Task Executive, Visual Attention Executive, and Visual Working Memory. Cognitive Programs provide the software that directs the actions of the Selective Tuning model of visual

  9. Paying More Attention to Attention: Improving the Performance of Convolutional Neural Networks via Attention Transfer

    OpenAIRE

    Zagoruyko, Sergey; Komodakis, Nikos

    2016-01-01

    Attention plays a critical role in human visual experience. Furthermore, it has recently been demonstrated that attention can also play an important role in the context of applying artificial neural networks to a variety of tasks from fields such as computer vision and NLP. In this work we show that, by properly defining attention for convolutional neural networks, we can actually use this type of information in order to significantly improve the performance of a student CNN network by forcin...

  10. Caffeine Modulates Attention Network Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunye, Tad T.; Mahoney, Caroline R.; Lieberman, Harris R.; Taylor, Holly A.

    2010-01-01

    The present work investigated the effects of caffeine (0 mg, 100 mg, 200 mg, 400 mg) on a flanker task designed to test Posner's three visual attention network functions: alerting, orienting, and executive control [Posner, M. I. (2004). "Cognitive neuroscience of attention". New York, NY: Guilford Press]. In a placebo-controlled, double-blind…

  11. Visuospatial selective attention in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridharan, Devarajan; Ramamurthy, Deepa L; Schwarz, Jason S; Knudsen, Eric I

    2014-05-13

    Voluntary control of attention promotes intelligent, adaptive behaviors by enabling the selective processing of information that is most relevant for making decisions. Despite extensive research on attention in primates, the capacity for selective attention in nonprimate species has never been quantified. Here we demonstrate selective attention in chickens by applying protocols that have been used to characterize visual spatial attention in primates. Chickens were trained to localize and report the vertical position of a target in the presence of task-relevant distracters. A spatial cue, the location of which varied across individual trials, indicated the horizontal, but not vertical, position of the upcoming target. Spatial cueing improved localization performance: accuracy (d') increased and reaction times decreased in a space-specific manner. Distracters severely impaired perceptual performance, and this impairment was greatly reduced by spatial cueing. Signal detection analysis with an "indecision" model demonstrated that spatial cueing significantly increased choice certainty in localizing targets. By contrast, error-aversion certainty (certainty of not making an error) remained essentially constant across cueing protocols, target contrasts, and individuals. The results show that chickens shift spatial attention rapidly and dynamically, following principles of stimulus selection that closely parallel those documented in primates. The findings suggest that the mechanisms that control attention have been conserved through evolution, and establish chickens--a highly visual species that is easily trained and amenable to cutting-edge experimental technologies--as an attractive model for linking behavior to neural mechanisms of selective attention.

  12. Concrete Operations and Attentional Capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Michael; Lindenberger, Ulman

    1989-01-01

    To test predictions regarding the attentional capacity requirements of Piaget's stage of concrete operations, a battery of concrete operational tasks and two measures of attentional capacity were administered to 120 first-, second-, and third-graders. Findings concern class inclusion, transitivity of length and weight, and multiplication of…

  13. Pay Attention!: Sluggish Multisensory Attentional Shifting as a Core Deficit in Developmental Dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Margaret B

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this review is to provide a background on the neurocognitive aspects of the reading process and review neuroscientific studies of individuals with developmental dyslexia, which provide evidence for amodal processing deficits. Hari, Renvall, and Tanskanen (2001) propose amodal sluggish attentional shifting (SAS) as a causal factor for temporal processing deficits in dyslexia. Undergirding this theory is the notion that when dyslexics are faced with rapid sequences of stimuli, their automatic attentional systems fail to disengage efficiently, which leads to difficulty when moving from one item to the next (Lallier et al., ). This results in atypical perception of rapid stimulus sequences. Until recently, the SAS theory, particularly the examination of amodal attentional deficits, was studied solely through the use of behavioural measures (Facoetti et al., ; Facoetti, Lorusso, Cattaneo, Galli, & Molteni, ). This paper examines evidence within the literature that provides a basis for further exploration of amodal SAS as an underlying deficit in developmental dyslexia. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Results of a "GWAS plus:" general cognitive ability is substantially heritable and massively polygenic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert M Kirkpatrick

    Full Text Available We carried out a genome-wide association study (GWAS for general cognitive ability (GCA plus three other analyses of GWAS data that aggregate the effects of multiple single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in various ways. Our multigenerational sample comprised 7,100 Caucasian participants, drawn from two longitudinal family studies, who had been assessed with an age-appropriate IQ test and had provided DNA samples passing quality screens. We conducted the GWAS across ∼ 2.5 million SNPs (both typed and imputed, using a generalized least-squares method appropriate for the different family structures present in our sample, and subsequently conducted gene-based association tests. We also conducted polygenic prediction analyses under five-fold cross-validation, using two different schemes of weighting SNPs. Using parametric bootstrapping, we assessed the performance of this prediction procedure under the null. Finally, we estimated the proportion of variance attributable to all genotyped SNPs as random effects with software GCTA. The study is limited chiefly by its power to detect realistic single-SNP or single-gene effects, none of which reached genome-wide significance, though some genomic inflation was evident from the GWAS. Unit SNP weights performed about as well as least-squares regression weights under cross-validation, but the performance of both increased as more SNPs were included in calculating the polygenic score. Estimates from GCTA were 35% of phenotypic variance at the recommended biological-relatedness ceiling. Taken together, our results concur with other recent studies: they support a substantial heritability of GCA, arising from a very large number of causal SNPs, each of very small effect. We place our study in the context of the literature-both contemporary and historical-and provide accessible explication of our statistical methods.

  15. NSRD-06. Computational Capability to Substantiate DOE-HDBK-3010 Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Louie, David L.Y. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Brown, Alexander L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Safety basis analysts throughout the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) complex rely heavily on the information provided in the DOE Hand book, DOE-HDBK-3010, Airborne Release Fractions/Rates and Resp irable Fractions for Nonreactor Nuclear Facilities , to determine source terms. In calcula ting source terms, analysts tend to use the DOE Handbook's bounding values on airbor ne release fractions (ARFs) and respirable fractions (RFs) for various cat egories of insults (representing potential accident release categories). This is typica lly due to both time constraints and the avoidance of regulatory critique. Unfort unately, these bounding ARFs/RFs represent extremely conservative values. Moreover, th ey were derived from very limited small- scale table-top and bench/labo ratory experiments and/or fr om engineered judgment. Thus the basis for the data may not be re presentative to the actual unique accident conditions and configura tions being evaluated. The goal of this res earch is to develop a more ac curate method to identify bounding values for the DOE Handbook using the st ate-of-art multi-physics-based high performance computer codes. This enable s us to better understand the fundamental physics and phenomena associated with the ty pes of accidents for the data described in it. This research has examined two of the DOE Handbook's liquid fire experiments to substantiate the airborne release frac tion data. We found th at additional physical phenomena (i.e., resuspension) need to be included to derive bounding values. For the specific cases of solid powder under pre ssurized condition and mechanical insult conditions the codes demonstrated that we can simulate the phenomena. This work thus provides a low-cost method to establis h physics-justified sa fety bounds by taking into account specific geometri es and conditions that may not have been previously measured and/or are too costly to do so.

  16. The DOPA decarboxylase (DDC) gene is associated with alerting attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Bi; Chen, Chuansheng; Moyzis, Robert K; Dong, Qi; Chen, Chunhui; He, Qinghua; Li, Jin; Li, Jun; Lei, Xuemei; Lin, Chongde

    2013-06-03

    DOPA decarboxylase (DDC) is involved in the synthesis of dopamine, norepinephrine and serotonin. It has been suggested that genes involved in the dopamine, norepinephrine, and cholinergic systems play an essential role in the efficiency of human attention networks. Attention refers to the cognitive process of obtaining and maintaining the alert state, orienting to sensory events, and regulating the conflicts of thoughts and behavior. The present study tested seven single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the DDC gene for association with attention, which was assessed by the Attention Network Test to detect three networks of attention, including alerting, orienting, and executive attention, in a healthy Han Chinese sample (N=451). Association analysis for individual SNPs indicated that four of the seven SNPs (rs3887825, rs7786398, rs10499695, and rs6969081) were significantly associated with alerting attention. Haplotype-based association analysis revealed that alerting was associated with the haplotype G-A-T for SNPs rs7786398-rs10499695-rs6969081. These associations remained significant after correcting for multiple testing by max(T) permutation. No association was found for orienting and executive attention. This study provides the first evidence for the involvement of the DDC gene in alerting attention. A better understanding of the genetic basis of distinct attention networks would allow us to develop more effective diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of deficient or underdeveloped alerting attention as well as its related prevalent neuropsychiatric disorders. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. What Attracts Decision Makers' Attention?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Eric; Christiansen, John K.; Varnes, Claus J.

    2011-01-01

    portfolio meetings. The study seeks to investigate how managers allocate their attention and the role of different factors for their attention. Observations also make it possible to compare prior research and expectations with the actual observed behavior of decision makers. Design....../methodology/approach – The present analysis draws on insights from previous research into decision making in product and portfolio management and studies on organizational decision making. The authors frame why the attention of decision makers is so critical in complex situations. Data for this study were collected through direct......Purpose – Managers' attention is a scarce resource in complex innovation settings. Prior research on the factors to which managers pay attention is mostly based on surveys. The present study aims to address the need for knowledge about the behavior of decision makers based on observations from...

  18. Social reward shapes attentional biases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Brian A

    2016-01-01

    Paying attention to stimuli that predict a reward outcome is important for an organism to survive and thrive. When visual stimuli are associated with tangible, extrinsic rewards such as money or food, these stimuli acquire high attentional priority and come to automatically capture attention. In humans and other primates, however, many behaviors are not motivated directly by such extrinsic rewards, but rather by the social feedback that results from performing those behaviors. In the present study, I examine whether positive social feedback can similarly influence attentional bias. The results show that stimuli previously associated with a high probability of positive social feedback elicit value-driven attentional capture, much like stimuli associated with extrinsic rewards. Unlike with extrinsic rewards, however, such stimuli also influence task-specific motivation. My findings offer a potential mechanism by which social reward shapes the information that we prioritize when perceiving the world around us.

  19. Brain activity associated with selective attention, divided attention and distraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salo, Emma; Salmela, Viljami; Salmi, Juha; Numminen, Jussi; Alho, Kimmo

    2017-06-01

    Top-down controlled selective or divided attention to sounds and visual objects, as well as bottom-up triggered attention to auditory and visual distractors, has been widely investigated. However, no study has systematically compared brain activations related to all these types of attention. To this end, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to measure brain activity in participants performing a tone pitch or a foveal grating orientation discrimination task, or both, distracted by novel sounds not sharing frequencies with the tones or by extrafoveal visual textures. To force focusing of attention to tones or gratings, or both, task difficulty was kept constantly high with an adaptive staircase method. A whole brain analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed fronto-parietal attention networks for both selective auditory and visual attention. A subsequent conjunction analysis indicated partial overlaps of these networks. However, like some previous studies, the present results also suggest segregation of prefrontal areas involved in the control of auditory and visual attention. The ANOVA also suggested, and another conjunction analysis confirmed, an additional activity enhancement in the left middle frontal gyrus related to divided attention supporting the role of this area in top-down integration of dual task performance. Distractors expectedly disrupted task performance. However, contrary to our expectations, activations specifically related to the distractors were found only in the auditory and visual cortices. This suggests gating of the distractors from further processing perhaps due to strictly focused attention in the current demanding discrimination tasks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. SUBSTANTIAL EXCEPTIONS AND (DELIMITATIONS OF THE POWERS OF THE JUDGES ON CIVIL PROCEDURAL LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Raatz

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This essay aims to unveil the role of the substantial exceptions on delimiting the powers of the judges on civil procedural law, especially regarding the ex officio judicial activity. This way, under a phenomenological method and based on a vision of guarantee of rights on procedural law, the article offers a brief explanation of the question concerning the content of the object under litigation and its role of (delimiting the powers of the judges. The work hypothesis is the addition of the substantial exceptions among the content of the object under litigation, along with the claim itself and the cause of action. The results lie on the premise that, by the substantial exceptions, the defendant extends the object under litigation – which is formed dynamically on civil procedure. The conclusion points towards the idea that the substantial exceptions act in a way of limiting the ex officio judicial activity on civil procedural law

  1. Main results of substantiation of the ecological safety of the Novovoronezh NPP-2 design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopytov, I.I.; Kocher'yan, V.M.; Leonov, S.V.; Chionov, V.G.; Ehrnestova, L.S.

    2005-01-01

    Paper presents the results of the efforts to determine both the actual (hydrochemical, hydrobiological, geobotanical, soil, radiological) and the predicted parameters of the region ecology derived when substantiating the ecological safety of the Novovoronezh NPP-2 design [ru

  2. Cumulative stress and substantiated maltreatment: the importance of caregiver vulnerability and adult partner violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wekerle, Christine; Wall, Anne-Marie; Leung, Eman; Trocmé, Nico

    2007-04-01

    Our goal is to assess the effect of caregiver vulnerabilities, singly and in combination, on the substantiation of child abuse (physical, sexual) and neglect, while controlling for relevant background variables. We test the moderator role of adult partner violence in qualifying the relationship between caregiver vulnerabilities and maltreatment substantiation. Secondary analyses of the 1998 Canadian Incidence Study of Reported Child Maltreatment (CIS) are used to predict child protective service investigation substantiation versus non-substantiation from a range of caregiver vulnerability factors. Involvement in partner violence was examined as a moderator in the relation between caregiver vulnerabilities and maltreatment substantiation. The CIS is an epidemiological survey of first-reported cases to child protective services, using a random sample of child welfare agencies across Canada. Child welfare workers completed a research form on the child, primary caregiver, family, perpetrator, severity and type of maltreatment, as well as services and court outcomes. All maltreatment classifications were assigned according to the Canadian legal definition of child abuse and neglect. Hierarchical logistic regression analyses were used, with stepped entry of: (1) demographic factors, socioeconomic disadvantage, and caregiver's own history of maltreatment; (2) caregiver vulnerability factors; (3) involvement in partner violence; (4) the interaction between caregiver vulnerability and partner violence. Caregiver substance abuse was found to be the single most potent kind of caregiver vulnerability in predicting maltreatment substantiation. When the total number of vulnerabilities was used as the predictor, prediction across all types of maltreatment increased, especially for substantiated neglect. Analyses also showed that the presence of partner violence in the home exacerbated the effect of caregiver vulnerability on substantiation. The total number of caregiver

  3. The origins and consequences of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Zheng

    2013-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is characterized by developmentally inappropriate levels of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity, and is the most common neurodevelopmental disorder of childhood. This highly prevalent disorder is estimated to affect about 5% of school-age children worldwide, with a substantial degree of persistence over time. Although the specific cause of ADHD is still largely unknown, despite a long history of research, it is believed to involve multip...

  4. Capture of exogenous attention modulates the attentional blink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Simon; Andersen, Tobias

    2011-01-01

    When two targets (T1 & T2) are presented in rapid succession, observers often fail to report T2 if they attend to T1. Bottleneck theories propose that this attentional blink (AB) is due to T1 occupying a slow processing stage when T2 is presented. Accordingly, if increasing T1 difficulty increases...... T1 processing time, this should cause a greater AB. Attention capture hypotheses suggest that T1 captures attention, which cannot be reallocated to T2 in time. Accordingly, if increasing T1 difficulty, decreases saliency, this should cause a smaller AB. Studies examining how T1 difficulty affects...... with T1 contrast energy. Our results indicate that T1 capture modulates the AB. We suggest that this effect has confounded previous studies on the effect of T1 difficulty. In an electrophysiological version of the study we will further examine the implied relation between attention capture and the AB....

  5. Therapy Provider Phase Information

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Therapy Provider Phase Information dataset is a tool for providers to search by their National Provider Identifier (NPI) number to determine their phase for...

  6. Brain Connectivity and Visual Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, Emily L.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Emerging hypotheses suggest that efficient cognitive functioning requires the integration of separate, but interconnected cortical networks in the brain. Although task-related measures of brain activity suggest that a frontoparietal network is associated with the control of attention, little is known regarding how components within this distributed network act together or with other networks to achieve various attentional functions. This review considers both functional and structural studies of brain connectivity, as complemented by behavioral and task-related neuroimaging data. These studies show converging results: The frontal and parietal cortical regions are active together, over time, and identifiable frontoparietal networks are active in relation to specific task demands. However, the spontaneous, low-frequency fluctuations of brain activity that occur in the resting state, without specific task demands, also exhibit patterns of connectivity that closely resemble the task-related, frontoparietal attention networks. Both task-related and resting-state networks exhibit consistent relations to behavioral measures of attention. Further, anatomical structure, particularly white matter pathways as defined by diffusion tensor imaging, places constraints on intrinsic functional connectivity. Lastly, connectivity analyses applied to investigate cognitive differences across individuals in both healthy and diseased states suggest that disconnection of attentional networks is linked to deficits in cognitive functioning, and in extreme cases, to disorders of attention. Thus, comprehensive theories of visual attention and their clinical translation depend on the continued integration of behavioral, task-related neuroimaging, and brain connectivity measures. PMID:23597177

  7. Extended attention span training system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Alan T.; Bogart, Edward H.

    1991-01-01

    Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) is a behavioral disorder characterized by the inability to sustain attention long enough to perform activities such as schoolwork or organized play. Treatments for this disorder include medication and brainwave biofeedback training. Brainwave biofeedback training systems feed back information to the trainee showing him how well he is producing the brainwave pattern that indicates attention. The Extended Attention Span Training (EAST) system takes the concept a step further by making a video game more difficult as the player's brainwaves indicate that attention is waning. The trainee can succeed at the game only by maintaining an adequate level of attention. The EAST system is a modification of a biocybernetic system that is currently being used to assess the extent to which automated flight management systems maintain pilot engagement. This biocybernetic system is a product of a program aimed at developing methods to evaluate automated flight deck designs for compatibility with human capabilities. The EAST technology can make a contribution in the fields of medical neuropsychology and neurology, where the emphasis is on cautious, conservative treatment of youngsters with attention disorders.

  8. Attentional modulation of reflex cough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssens, Thomas; Silva, Mitchell; Davenport, Paul W; Van Diest, Ilse; Dupont, Lieven J; Van den Bergh, Omer

    2014-07-01

    Reflex cough is a defensive response generated in the brainstem in response to chemical and mechanical stimulation of the airways. However, converging evidence shows that reflex cough is also influenced by central neural control processes. In this study, we investigate whether reflex cough can be modulated by attentional focus on either external stimuli or internal cough-related stimuli. Healthy volunteers (N = 24; seven men; age range, 18-25 years) completed four blocks of citric acid-induced cough challenges while, simultaneously, auditory stimuli were presented. Within each block, four concentrations were administered (30, 100, 300 and 1,000 mM, randomized). During two subsequent blocks, participants focused their attention externally (counting tones). During the other two blocks, participants focused their attention internally (counting coughs). The order of attentional focus was counterbalanced across participants. Ratings of the urge to cough were collected after each challenge. Cough frequency was determined by audio recording. Cough frequency was higher when participants focused their attention internally vs externally (P Reflex cough can be modulated by attentional focus. Internally focused attention may be a mechanism involved in excessive (idiopathic) cough, while an external focus may be introduced as part of treatments targeting excessive cough.

  9. Attention modulates visual size adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreutzer, Sylvia; Fink, Gereon R; Weidner, Ralph

    2015-01-01

    The current study determined in healthy subjects (n = 16) whether size adaptation occurs at early, i.e., preattentive, levels of processing or whether higher cognitive processes such as attention can modulate the illusion. To investigate this issue, bottom-up stimulation was kept constant across conditions by using a single adaptation display containing both small and large adapter stimuli. Subjects' attention was directed to either the large or small adapter stimulus by means of a luminance detection task. When attention was directed toward the small as compared to the large adapter, the perceived size of the subsequent target was significantly increased. Data suggest that different size adaptation effects can be induced by one and the same stimulus depending on the current allocation of attention. This indicates that size adaptation is subject to attentional modulation. These findings are in line with previous research showing that transient as well as sustained attention modulates visual features, such as contrast sensitivity and spatial frequency, and influences adaptation in other contexts, such as motion adaptation (Alais & Blake, 1999; Lankheet & Verstraten, 1995). Based on a recently suggested model (Pooresmaeili, Arrighi, Biagi, & Morrone, 2013), according to which perceptual adaptation is based on local excitation and inhibition in V1, we conclude that guiding attention can boost these local processes in one or the other direction by increasing the weight of the attended adapter. In sum, perceptual adaptation, although reflected in changes of neural activity at early levels (as shown in the aforementioned study), is nevertheless subject to higher-order modulation.

  10. External noise distinguishes attention mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Z L; Dosher, B A

    1998-05-01

    We developed and tested a powerful method for identifying and characterizing the effect of attention on performance in visual tasks as due to signal enhancement, distractor exclusion, or internal noise suppression. Based on a noisy Perceptual Template Model (PTM) of a human observer, the method adds increasing amounts of external noise (white gaussian random noise) to the visual stimulus and observes the effect on performance of a perceptual task for attended and unattended stimuli. The three mechanisms of attention yield three "signature" patterns of performance. The general framework for characterizing the mechanisms of attention is used here to investigate the attentional mechanisms in a concurrent location-cued orientation discrimination task. Test stimuli--Gabor patches tilted slightly to the right or left--always appeared on both the left and the right of fixation, and varied independently. Observers were cued on each trial to attend to the left, the right, or evenly to both stimuli, and decide the direction of tilt of both test stimuli. For eight levels of added external noise and three attention conditions (attended, unattended, and equal), subjects' contrast threshold levels were determined. At low levels of external noise, attention affected threshold contrast: threshold contrasts for non-attended stimuli were systematically higher than for equal attention stimuli, which were, in turn, higher than for attended stimuli. Specifically, when the rms contrast of the external noise is below 10%, there is a consistent 17% elevation of contrast threshold from attended to unattended condition across all three subjects. For higher levels of external noise, attention conditions did not affect threshold contrast values at all. These strong results are characteristic of a signal enhancement, or equivalently, an internal additive noise reduction mechanism of attention.

  11. The attention schema theory: a mechanistic account of subjective awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graziano, Michael S A; Webb, Taylor W

    2015-01-01

    We recently proposed the attention schema theory, a novel way to explain the brain basis of subjective awareness in a mechanistic and scientifically testable manner. The theory begins with attention, the process by which signals compete for the brain's limited computing resources. This internal signal competition is partly under a bottom-up influence and partly under top-down control. We propose that the top-down control of attention is improved when the brain has access to a simplified model of attention itself. The brain therefore constructs a schematic model of the process of attention, the 'attention schema,' in much the same way that it constructs a schematic model of the body, the 'body schema.' The content of this internal model leads a brain to conclude that it has a subjective experience. One advantage of this theory is that it explains how awareness and attention can sometimes become dissociated; the brain's internal models are never perfect, and sometimes a model becomes dissociated from the object being modeled. A second advantage of this theory is that it explains how we can be aware of both internal and external events. The brain can apply attention to many types of information including external sensory information and internal information about emotions and cognitive states. If awareness is a model of attention, then this model should pertain to the same domains of information to which attention pertains. A third advantage of this theory is that it provides testable predictions. If awareness is the internal model of attention, used to help control attention, then without awareness, attention should still be possible but should suffer deficits in control. In this article, we review the existing literature on the relationship between attention and awareness, and suggest that at least some of the predictions of the theory are borne out by the evidence.

  12. The attention schema theory: a mechanistic account of subjective awareness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor W. Webb

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available We recently proposed the attention schema theory, a novel way to explain the brain basis of subjective awareness in a mechanistic and scientifically testable manner. The theory begins with attention, the process by which signals compete for the brain’s limited computing resources. This internal signal competition is partly under a bottom-up influence and partly under top-down control. We propose that the top-down control of attention is improved when the brain has access to a simplified model of attention itself. The brain therefore constructs a schematic model of the process of attention, the ‘attention schema’, in much the same way that it constructs a schematic model of the body, the ‘body schema’. The content of this internal model leads a brain to conclude that it has a subjective experience. One advantage of this theory is that it explains how awareness and attention can sometimes become dissociated; the brain’s internal models are never perfect, and sometimes a model becomes dissociated from the object being modeled. A second advantage of this theory is that it explains how we can be aware of both internal and external events. The brain can apply attention to many types of information including external sensory information and internal information about emotions and cognitive states. If awareness is a model of attention, then this model should pertain to the same domains of information to which attention pertains. A third advantage of this theory is that it provides testable predictions. If awareness is the internal model of attention, used to help control attention, then without awareness, attention should still be possible but should suffer deficits in control. In this article, we review the existing literature on the relationship between attention and awareness, and suggest that at least some of the predictions of the theory are borne out by the evidence.

  13. Infant joint attention, neural networks and social cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundy, Peter; Jarrold, William

    2010-01-01

    Neural network models of attention can provide a unifying approach to the study of human cognitive and emotional development (Posner & Rothbart, 2007). In this paper we argue that a neural network approach to the infant development of joint attention can inform our understanding of the nature of human social learning, symbolic thought process and social cognition. At its most basic, joint attention involves the capacity to coordinate one's own visual attention with that of another person. We propose that joint attention development involves increments in the capacity to engage in simultaneous or parallel processing of information about one's own attention and the attention of other people. Infant practice with joint attention is both a consequence and an organizer of the development of a distributed and integrated brain network involving frontal and parietal cortical systems. This executive distributed network first serves to regulate the capacity of infants to respond to and direct the overt behavior of other people in order to share experience with others through the social coordination of visual attention. In this paper we describe this parallel and distributed neural network model of joint attention development and discuss two hypotheses that stem from this model. One is that activation of this distributed network during coordinated attention enhances the depth of information processing and encoding beginning in the first year of life. We also propose that with development, joint attention becomes internalized as the capacity to socially coordinate mental attention to internal representations. As this occurs the executive joint attention network makes vital contributions to the development of human symbolic thinking and social cognition. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Cold-Blooded Attention: Finger Temperature Predicts Attentional Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergara, Rodrigo C; Moënne-Loccoz, Cristóbal; Maldonado, Pedro E

    2017-01-01

    Thermal stress has been shown to increase the chances of unsafe behavior during industrial and driving performances due to reductions in mental and attentional resources. Nonetheless, establishing appropriate safety standards regarding environmental temperature has been a major problem, as modulations are also be affected by the task type, complexity, workload, duration, and previous experience with the task. To bypass this attentional and thermoregulatory problem, we focused on the body rather than environmental temperature. Specifically, we measured tympanic, forehead, finger and environmental temperatures accompanied by a battery of attentional tasks. We considered a 10 min baseline period wherein subjects were instructed to sit and relax, followed by three attentional tasks: a continuous performance task (CPT), a flanker task (FT) and a counting task (CT). Using multiple linear regression models, we evaluated which variable(s) were the best predictors of performance. The results showed a decrement in finger temperature due to instruction and task engagement that was absent when the subject was instructed to relax. No changes were observed in tympanic or forehead temperatures, while the environmental temperature remained almost constant for each subject. Specifically, the magnitude of the change in finger temperature was the best predictor of performance in all three attentional tasks. The results presented here suggest that finger temperature can be used as a predictor of alertness, as it predicted performance in attentional tasks better than environmental temperature. These findings strongly support that peripheral temperature can be used as a tool to prevent unsafe behaviors and accidents.

  15. Cold-Blooded Attention: Finger Temperature Predicts Attentional Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo C. Vergara

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Thermal stress has been shown to increase the chances of unsafe behavior during industrial and driving performances due to reductions in mental and attentional resources. Nonetheless, establishing appropriate safety standards regarding environmental temperature has been a major problem, as modulations are also be affected by the task type, complexity, workload, duration, and previous experience with the task. To bypass this attentional and thermoregulatory problem, we focused on the body rather than environmental temperature. Specifically, we measured tympanic, forehead, finger and environmental temperatures accompanied by a battery of attentional tasks. We considered a 10 min baseline period wherein subjects were instructed to sit and relax, followed by three attentional tasks: a continuous performance task (CPT, a flanker task (FT and a counting task (CT. Using multiple linear regression models, we evaluated which variable(s were the best predictors of performance. The results showed a decrement in finger temperature due to instruction and task engagement that was absent when the subject was instructed to relax. No changes were observed in tympanic or forehead temperatures, while the environmental temperature remained almost constant for each subject. Specifically, the magnitude of the change in finger temperature was the best predictor of performance in all three attentional tasks. The results presented here suggest that finger temperature can be used as a predictor of alertness, as it predicted performance in attentional tasks better than environmental temperature. These findings strongly support that peripheral temperature can be used as a tool to prevent unsafe behaviors and accidents.

  16. Assessing attentional systems in children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casagrande, Maria; Martella, Diana; Ruggiero, Maria Cleonice; Maccari, Lisa; Paloscia, Claudio; Rosa, Caterina; Pasini, Augusto

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficiency and interactions of attentional systems in children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) by considering the effects of reinforcement and auditory warning on each component of attention. Thirty-six drug-naïve children (18 children with ADHD/18 typically developing children) performed two revised versions of the Attentional Network Test, which assess the efficiency of alerting, orienting, and executive systems. In feedback trials, children received feedback about their accuracy, whereas in the no-feedback trials, feedback was not given. In both conditions, children with ADHD performed more slowly than did typically developing children. They also showed impairments in the ability to disengage attention and in executive functioning, which improved when alertness was increased by administering the auditory warning. The performance of the attentional networks appeared to be modulated by the absence or the presence of reinforcement. We suggest that the observed executive system deficit in children with ADHD could depend on their low level of arousal rather than being an independent disorder. © The Author 2011. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  17. Early vision and visual attention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gvozdenović Vasilije P.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The question whether visual perception is spontaneous, sudden or is running through several phases, mediated by higher cognitive processes, was raised ever since the early work of Gestalt psychologists. In the early 1980s, Treisman proposed the feature integration theory of attention (FIT, based on the findings of neuroscience. Soon after publishing her theory a new scientific approach appeared investigating several visual perception phenomena. The most widely researched were the key constructs of FIT, like types of visual search and the role of the attention. The following review describes the main studies of early vision and visual attention.

  18. Attention failures versus misplaced diligence: separating attention lapses from speed-accuracy trade-offs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seli, Paul; Cheyne, James Allan; Smilek, Daniel

    2012-03-01

    In two studies of a GO-NOGO task assessing sustained attention, we examined the effects of (1) altering speed-accuracy trade-offs through instructions (emphasizing both speed and accuracy or accuracy only) and (2) auditory alerts distributed throughout the task. Instructions emphasizing accuracy reduced errors and changed the distribution of GO trial RTs. Additionally, correlations between errors and increasing RTs produced a U-function; excessively fast and slow RTs accounted for much of the variance of errors. Contrary to previous reports, alerts increased errors and RT variability. The results suggest that (1) standard instructions for sustained attention tasks, emphasizing speed and accuracy equally, produce errors arising from attempts to conform to the misleading requirement for speed, which become conflated with attention-lapse produced errors and (2) auditory alerts have complex, and sometimes deleterious, effects on attention. We argue that instructions emphasizing accuracy provide a more precise assessment of attention lapses in sustained attention tasks. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. White matter abnormalities and their impact on attentional performance in adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konrad, Andreas; Dielentheis, Thomas F; El Masri, Dschamil; Dellani, Paulo R; Stoeter, Peter; Vucurevic, Goran; Winterer, Georg

    2012-06-01

    Inattention is the most important behavioral feature of adult patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Neuroimaging studies in ADHD have demonstrated abnormalities primarily in the frontostriatal circuitry and were mostly conducted in children. We investigated white matter (WM) integrity in adult ADHD patients and the correlation of WM microstructure and neuropsychological parameters in 37 (21 men) never-medicated adult ADHD patients and 34 age- and gender-matched healthy controls. All subjects underwent clinical interviews, rating scales, and neuropsychological tests of attentional performance. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) was acquired, and 12 WM regions-of-interest (ROIs) within the attentional network were chosen. Group differences of mean fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) values were calculated for each ROI, and patients' DTI measures were then correlated with measures of attentional performance. FA values in ADHD patients were significantly reduced in the left inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF), while MD values were significantly increased in ADHD patients in the frontal portion of the left frontooccipital fasciculus (IFO). In ADHD patients, MD values were negatively correlated with attentional performance in the left ILF. Our findings provide further support for disturbed frontostriatal structural connectivity and also point to an involvement of the left temporal white matter with an impact on attentional performance.

  20. Fearful, but not angry, expressions diffuse attention to peripheral targets in an attentional blink paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, James M; Whalen, Paul J

    2014-06-01

    We previously demonstrated that fearful facial expressions implicitly facilitate memory for contextual events whereas angry facial expressions do not. The current study sought to more directly address the implicit effect of fearful expressions on attention for contextual events within a classic attentional paradigm (i.e., the attentional blink) in which memory is tested on a trial-by-trial basis, thereby providing subjects with a clear, explicit attentional strategy. Neutral faces of a single gender were presented via rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) while bordered by four gray pound signs. Participants were told to watch for a gender change within the sequence (T1). It is critical to note that the T1 face displayed a neutral, fearful, or angry expression. Subjects were then told to detect a color change (i.e., gray to green; T2) at one of the four peripheral pound sign locations appearing after T1. This T2 color change could appear at one of six temporal positions. Complementing previous attentional blink paradigms, participants were told to respond via button press immediately when a T2 target was detected. We found that, compared with the neutral T1 faces, fearful faces significantly increased target detection ability at four of the six temporal locations (all ps enhance environmental monitoring above and beyond explicit attentional effects related to task instructions.

  1. Biological substantiation of antipsychotic-associated pneumonia: Systematic literature review and computational analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultana, Janet; Calabró, Marco; Garcia-Serna, Ricard; Ferrajolo, Carmen; Crisafulli, Concetta; Mestres, Jordi; Trifirò', Gianluca

    2017-01-01

    Antipsychotic (AP) safety has been widely investigated. However, mechanisms underlying AP-associated pneumonia are not well-defined. The aim of this study was to investigate the known mechanisms of AP-associated pneumonia through a systematic literature review, confirm these mechanisms using an independent data source on drug targets and attempt to identify novel AP drug targets potentially linked to pneumonia. A search was conducted in Medline and Web of Science to identify studies exploring the association between pneumonia and antipsychotic use, from which information on hypothesized mechanism of action was extracted. All studies had to be in English and had to concern AP use as an intervention in persons of any age and for any indication, provided that the outcome was pneumonia. Information on the study design, population, exposure, outcome, risk estimate and mechanism of action was tabulated. Public repositories of pharmacology and drug safety data were used to identify the receptor binding profile and AP safety events. Cytoscape was then used to map biological pathways that could link AP targets and off-targets to pneumonia. The literature search yielded 200 articles; 41 were included in the review. Thirty studies reported a hypothesized mechanism of action, most commonly activation/inhibition of cholinergic, histaminergic and dopaminergic receptors. In vitro pharmacology data confirmed receptor affinities identified in the literature review. Two targets, thromboxane A2 receptor (TBXA2R) and platelet activating factor receptor (PTAFR) were found to be novel AP target receptors potentially associated with pneumonia. Biological pathways constructed using Cytoscape identified plausible biological links potentially leading to pneumonia downstream of TBXA2R and PTAFR. Innovative approaches for biological substantiation of drug-adverse event associations may strengthen evidence on drug safety profiles and help to tailor pharmacological therapies to patient risk

  2. Plasma processing conditions substantially influence circulating microRNA biomarker levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Heather H; Yi, Hye Son; Kim, Yeonju; Kroh, Evan M; Chien, Jason W; Eaton, Keith D; Goodman, Marc T; Tait, Jonathan F; Tewari, Muneesh; Pritchard, Colin C

    2013-01-01

    Circulating, cell-free microRNAs (miRNAs) are promising candidate biomarkers, but optimal conditions for processing blood specimens for miRNA measurement remain to be established. Our previous work showed that the majority of plasma miRNAs are likely blood cell-derived. In the course of profiling lung cancer cases versus healthy controls, we observed a broad increase in circulating miRNA levels in cases compared to controls and that higher miRNA expression correlated with higher platelet and particle counts. We therefore hypothesized that the quantity of residual platelets and microparticles remaining after plasma processing might impact miRNA measurements. To systematically investigate this, we subjected matched plasma from healthy individuals to stepwise processing with differential centrifugation and 0.22 µm filtration and performed miRNA profiling. We found a major effect on circulating miRNAs, with the majority (72%) of detectable miRNAs substantially affected by processing alone. Specifically, 10% of miRNAs showed 4-30x variation, 46% showed 30-1,000x variation, and 15% showed >1,000x variation in expression solely from processing. This was predominantly due to platelet contamination, which persisted despite using standard laboratory protocols. Importantly, we show that platelet contamination in archived samples could largely be eliminated by additional centrifugation, even in frozen samples stored for six years. To minimize confounding effects in microRNA biomarker studies, additional steps to limit platelet contamination for circulating miRNA biomarker studies are necessary. We provide specific practical recommendations to help minimize confounding variation attributable to plasma processing and platelet contamination.

  3. Impaired cognition and attention in adults: pharmacological management strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Allain, Herv?; Akwa, Yvette; Lacomblez, Lucette; Lieury, Alain; Bentu?-Ferrer, Dani?le

    2007-01-01

    Cognitive psychology has provided clinicians with specific tools for analyzing the processes of cognition (memory, language) and executive functions (attention-concentration, abstract reasoning, planning). Neuropsychology, coupled with the neurosciences (including neuroimaging techniques), has authenticated the existence of early disorders affecting the ?superior or intellectual? functions of the human brain. The prevalence of cognitive and attention disorders is high in adults because all th...

  4. Child protection decisions to substantiate hospital child protection teams' reports of suspected maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedwab, Merav; Benbenishty, Rami; Chen, Wendy; Glasser, Saralee; Siegal, Gil; Lerner-Geva, Liat

    2015-02-01

    The present study focuses on the way child protection officers (CPOs) in Israel assess suspected abuse and neglect (SCAN) reports made by hospital child protection teams (CPTs), to determine whether the alleged maltreatment is substantiated. The study was conducted in six medical centers and included 358 reports investigated by CPOs for SCAN. A structured questionnaire was completed by hospital CPTs to capture all relevant information on each child referred to the CPTs. Structured phone interviews were conducted with each of the CPOs who received a CPT report. Bivariate associations and multivariate logistic regressions were conducted to estimate the substantiation rate of cases reported by CPTs and the types of maltreatment substantiated, as well as to identify case characteristics of the child and the family that were associated with the CPOs' substantiation decision. CPO follow-up investigations revealed a substantiation rate of 53.5%. The maltreatment type most commonly substantiated was neglect. The case characteristics associated with substantiation included socio-demographic background, parents' health and functioning, previous contact with social services, characteristics of the hospital referral, medical findings and an assessment of the parents' behaviors. The findings of the study highlighted the importance of cooperation between the health and welfare services and the policy makers. This cooperation is essential for identifying early signs of maltreatment. Enhanced cooperation and effective information transfer between various professionals would help prevent or at least reduce the recurrence of maltreatment and would ensure that the children and their families are treated appropriately. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Substantial injuries influence ranking position in young elite athletes of athletics, cross-country skiing and orienteering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Rosen, P; Heijne, A

    2018-04-01

    The relationship between injury and performance in young athletes is scarcely studied. The aim of this study was therefore to explore the association between injury prevalence and ranking position among adolescent elite athletes. One hundred and sixty-two male and female adolescent elite athletes (age range 15-19), competing in athletics (n = 59), cross-country skiing (n = 66), and orienteering (n = 37), were monitored weekly over 22-47 weeks using a web-based injury questionnaire. Ranking lists were collected. A significant (P = .003) difference was found in the seasonal substantial injury prevalence across the ranked athletes over the season, where the top-ranked (median 3.6%, 25-75th percentiles 0%-14.3%) and middle-ranked athletes (median 2.3%, 25-75th percentiles 0%-10.0%) had a lower substantial injury prevalence compared to the low-ranked athletes (median 11.3%, 25-75th percentiles 2.5%-27.1%), during both preseason (P = .002) and competitive season (P = .031). Athletes who improved their ranking position (51%, n = 51) reported a lower substantial injury prevalence (median 0%, 25-75th percentiles 0%-10.0%) compared to those who decreased (49%, n = 49) their ranking position (md 6.7%, 25-75th percentiles 0%-22.5%). In the top-ranked group, no athlete reported substantial injury more than 40% of all data collection time points compared to 9.6% (n = 5) in the middle-ranked, and 17.3% (n = 9) in the low-ranked group. Our results provide supporting evidence that substantial injuries, such as acute and overuse injuries leading to moderate or severe reductions in training or sports performance, influence ranking position in adolescent elite athletes. The findings are crucial to stakeholders involved in adolescent elite sports and support the value of designing effective preventive interventions for substantial injuries. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Vegetarianism and food perception. Selective visual attention to meat pictures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockburger, Jessica; Renner, Britta; Weike, Almut I; Hamm, Alfons O; Schupp, Harald T

    2009-04-01

    Vegetarianism provides a model system to examine the impact of negative affect towards meat, based on ideational reasoning. It was hypothesized that meat stimuli are efficient attention catchers in vegetarians. Event-related brain potential recordings served to index selective attention processes at the level of initial stimulus perception. Consistent with the hypothesis, late positive potentials to meat pictures were enlarged in vegetarians compared to omnivores. This effect was specific for meat pictures and obtained during passive viewing and an explicit attention task condition. These findings demonstrate the attention capture of food stimuli, deriving affective salience from ideational reasoning and symbolic meaning.

  7. Endogenous attention modulates early selective attention in psychopathy: An ERP investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krusemark, Elizabeth A; Kiehl, Kent A; Newman, Joseph P

    2016-10-01

    Psychopathic individuals are prone to act on urges without adequate consideration of future consequences or the rights of other individuals. One interpretation of this behavior is that it reflects abnormal selective attention (i.e., a failure to process information that is incongruent with their primary focus of attention; Hiatt, Schmitt, & Newman, Neuropsychology, 18, 50-59, 2004). Unfortunately, it is unclear whether this selective attention abnormality reflects top-down endogenous influences, such as the strength or specificity of attention focus (i.e., top-down set) apart from other, more exogenous (bottom-up), effects on attention. To explore this question, we used an early visual event-related potential (N2pc) in combination with a modified visual search task designed to assess the effect of early endogenous (i.e., top-down) attention on the processing of set-congruent information. The task was administered to a sample of 70 incarcerated adult males, who were assigned to high, intermediate, and low psychopathy groups using Hare's Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (Hare, 2003). Based on the assumption that their failure to process set-incongruent information reflects the exaggerated effects of endogenous attention, we predicted that participants with high psychopathy scores would show an exaggerated N2pc response to set-congruent information. The results supported the hypothesis and provide novel electrophysiological evidence that psychopathy is associated with exaggerated endogenous attention effects during early stages of processing. Further research is needed to examine the implications of this finding for the well-established failure of psychopathic individuals to process set-incongruent information and inhibit inappropriate responses.

  8. Measuring the amplification of attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaser, E; Sperling, G; Lu, Z L

    1999-09-28

    An ambiguous motion paradigm, in which the direction of apparent motion is determined by salience (i.e., the extent to which an area is perceived as figure versus ground), is used to assay the amplification of color by attention to color. In the red-green colored gratings used in these experiments, without attention instructions, salience depends on the chromaticity difference between colored stripes embedded in the motion sequence and the yellow background. Selective attention to red (or to green) alters the perceived direction of motion and is found to be equivalent to increasing the physical redness (or greenness) by 25-117%, depending on the observer and color. Whereas attention to a color drastically alters the salience of that color, it leaves color appearance unchanged. A computational model, which embodies separate, parallel pathways for object perception and for salience, accounts for 99% of the variance of the experimental data.

  9. Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as methylphenidate (Ritalin) or dextroamphetamine (Dexedrine), which are stimulants that decrease impulsivity and hyperactivity and increase attention. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has approved the generic versions ...

  10. Visual attention in posterior stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, Charlotte; Petersen, Anders; Iversen, Helle K

    Objective: Impaired visual attention is common following strokes in the territory of the middle cerebral artery, particularly in the right hemisphere. However, attentional effects of more posterior lesions are less clear. The aim of this study was to characterize visual processing speed...... and apprehension span following posterior cerebral artery (PCA) stroke. We also relate these attentional parameters to visual word recognition, as previous studies have suggested that reduced visual speed and span may explain pure alexia. Methods: Nine patients with MR-verified focal lesions in the PCA......-territory (four left PCA; four right PCA; one bilateral, all >1 year post stroke) were compared to 25 controls using single case statistics. Visual attention was characterized by a whole report paradigm allowing for hemifield-specific speed and span measurements. We also characterized visual field defects...

  11. Functional evolution of new and expanded attention networks in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Gaurav H; Yang, Danica; Jamerson, Emery C; Snyder, Lawrence H; Corbetta, Maurizio; Ferrera, Vincent P

    2015-07-28

    Macaques are often used as a model system for invasive investigations of the neural substrates of cognition. However, 25 million years of evolution separate humans and macaques from their last common ancestor, and this has likely substantially impacted the function of the cortical networks underlying cognitive processes, such as attention. We examined the homology of frontoparietal networks underlying attention by comparing functional MRI data from macaques and humans performing the same visual search task. Although there are broad similarities, we found fundamental differences between the species. First, humans have more dorsal attention network areas than macaques, indicating that in the course of evolution the human attention system has expanded compared with macaques. Second, potentially homologous areas in the dorsal attention network have markedly different biases toward representing the contralateral hemifield, indicating that the underlying neural architecture of these areas may differ in the most basic of properties, such as receptive field distribution. Third, despite clear evidence of the temporoparietal junction node of the ventral attention network in humans as elicited by this visual search task, we did not find functional evidence of a temporoparietal junction in macaques. None of these differences were the result of differences in training, experimental power, or anatomical variability between the two species. The results of this study indicate that macaque data should be applied to human models of cognition cautiously, and demonstrate how evolution may shape cortical networks.

  12. Motion-guided attention promotes adaptive communications during social navigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemasson, B H; Anderson, J J; Goodwin, R A

    2013-03-07

    Animals are capable of enhanced decision making through cooperation, whereby accurate decisions can occur quickly through decentralized consensus. These interactions often depend upon reliable social cues, which can result in highly coordinated activities in uncertain environments. Yet information within a crowd may be lost in translation, generating confusion and enhancing individual risk. As quantitative data detailing animal social interactions accumulate, the mechanisms enabling individuals to rapidly and accurately process competing social cues remain unresolved. Here, we model how motion-guided attention influences the exchange of visual information during social navigation. We also compare the performance of this mechanism to the hypothesis that robust social coordination requires individuals to numerically limit their attention to a set of n-nearest neighbours. While we find that such numerically limited attention does not generate robust social navigation across ecological contexts, several notable qualities arise from selective attention to motion cues. First, individuals can instantly become a local information hub when startled into action, without requiring changes in neighbour attention level. Second, individuals can circumvent speed-accuracy trade-offs by tuning their motion thresholds. In turn, these properties enable groups to collectively dampen or amplify social information. Lastly, the minority required to sway a group's short-term directional decisions can change substantially with social context. Our findings suggest that motion-guided attention is a fundamental and efficient mechanism underlying collaborative decision making during social navigation.

  13. Impairment of attention networks in patients with untreated hyperthyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Lili; Tian, Yanghua; Zhang, Fangfang; Dai, Fang; Luo, Li; Fan, Jin; Wang, Kai

    2014-06-27

    Attention disorders are common symptoms in patients with untreated hyperthyroidism. Nevertheless, it is unknown whether they represent a global attention deficit or selective impairment of attention networks. Thirty-seven patients with hyperthyroidism were recruited and underwent the Attention Network Test (ANT), which provided measures of three independent attention networks (alerting, orienting and executive control), before being treated with methimazole. This study demonstrated that patients with untreated hyperthyroidism had significant deficits in the alerting and executive control networks. Interestingly, a significant positive association was also found between T4 level and the value of the executive network in patients with hyperthyroidism. These results suggest that the patients with hyperthyroidism may not just exist a specific impairment of attention networks, and there was some relationship between the level of T4, not T3 or TSH, and the value of the executive control network in patients with hyperthyroidism. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Directed attention reduces processing of emotional distracters irrespective of valence and arousal level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiens, Stefan; Syrjänen, Elmeri

    2013-09-01

    Emotional stimuli tend to capture attention, and this so-called motivated attention is commonly measured using the early posterior negativity (EPN) and the late positive potential (LPP). We hypothesized that voluntary, directed attention reduces motivated attention more strongly for highly than moderately arousing pleasant or unpleasant pictures. Participants were instructed to direct their attention to either a picture at fixation or the letters flanking the picture. Pictures varied substantially in arousal and valence. When the pictures were attended to, EPN and LPP increased linearly with arousal. When the letters were attended to, these linear effects decreased in the EPN for pleasant and unpleasant pictures and in the LPP for pleasant pictures. Thus, directed attention decreases processing of emotional distracters more strongly for highly than moderately arousing pleasant and unpleasant pictures. These results are consistent with the view that directed attention decreases emotion effects on sensory gain. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Measuring Memory and Attention to Preview in Motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagacinski, Richard J; Hammond, Gordon M; Rizzi, Emanuele

    2017-08-01

    Objective Use perceptual-motor responses to perturbations to reveal the spatio-temporal detail of memory for the recent past and attention to preview when participants track a winding roadway. Background Memory of the recently passed roadway can be inferred from feedback control models of the participants' manual movement patterns. Similarly, attention to preview of the upcoming roadway can be inferred from feedforward control models of manual movement patterns. Method Perturbation techniques were used to measure these memory and attention functions. Results In a laboratory tracking task, the bandwidth of lateral roadway deviations was found to primarily influence memory for the past roadway rather than attention to preview. A secondary auditory/verbal/vocal memory task resulted in higher velocity error and acceleration error in the tracking task but did not affect attention to preview. Attention to preview was affected by the frequency pattern of sinusoidal perturbations of the roadway. Conclusion Perturbation techniques permit measurement of the spatio-temporal span of memory and attention to preview that affect tracking a winding roadway. They also provide new ways to explore goal-directed forgetting and spatially distributed attention in the context of movement. More generally, these techniques provide sensitive measures of individual differences in cognitive aspects of action. Application Models of driving behavior and assessment of driving skill may benefit from more detailed spatio-temporal measurement of attention to preview.

  16. Diverting attention suppresses human amygdala responses to faces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen eMorawetz

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent neuroimaging studies disagree as to whether the processing of emotion-laden visual stimuli is dependent upon the availability of attentional resources or entirely capacity-free. Two main factors have been proposed to be responsible for the discrepancies: the differences in the perceptual attentional demands of the tasks used to divert attentional resources from emotional stimuli and the spatial location of the affective stimuli in the visual field. To date, no neuroimaging report addressed these two issues in the same set of subjects. Therefore, the aim of the study was to investigate the effects of high and low attentional load as well as different stimulus locations on face processing in the amygdala using fMRI to provide further evidence for one of the two opposing theories. We were able for the first time to directly test the interaction of attentional load and spatial location. The results revealed a strong attenuation of amygdala activity when the attentional load was high. The eccentricity of the emotional stimuli did not affect responses in the amygdala and no interaction effect between attentional load and spatial location was found. We conclude that the processing of emotional stimuli in the amygdala is strongly dependent on the availability of attentional resources without a preferred processing of stimuli presented in the periphery and provide firm evidence for the concept of the attentional load theory of emotional processing in the amygdala.

  17. Behavioral and ERP measures of attentional bias to threat in the dot-probe task: Poor reliability and lack of correlation with anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily S. Kappenman

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The dot-probe task is often considered a gold standard in the field for investigating attentional bias to threat. However, serious issues with the task have been raised. Specifically, a number of studies have demonstrated that the traditional reaction time measure of attentional bias to threat in the dot-probe task has poor internal reliability and poor test-retest reliability. In addition, although threatening stimuli capture attention in other paradigms, attentional bias to threat has not usually been found in typical research participants in the dot-probe task. However, when attention is measured in the dot-probe task with the N2pc component of the event-related potential (ERP waveform, substantial attentional orienting to threat is observed, and the internal reliability is moderate. To provide a rigorous comparison of the reliability of this N2pc measure and the conventional behavioral measure, as well as to examine the relationship of these measures to anxiety, the present study examined the N2pc in conjunction with reaction time in the dot-probe task in a large sample of participants (N = 96. As in previous studies, reaction time showed no bias to threatening images across the sample and exhibited poor internal reliability. Moreover, this measure did not relate to trait anxiety. By contrast, the N2pc revealed a significant initial shift of attention to threat, and this measure was internally reliable. However, the N2pc was not correlated with trait anxiety, indicating that it does not provide a meaningful index of individual differences in anxiety in the dot-probe task. Together, these results indicate a serious need to develop new tasks and methods to more reliably investigate attentional bias to threat and its relationship to anxiety in both clinical and non-clinical populations.

  18. Dividing Attention Increases Operational Momentum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koleen McCrink

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available When adding or subtracting two quantities, adults often compute an estimated outcome that is larger or smaller, respectively, than the actual outcome, a bias referred to as “operational momentum”. The effects of attention on operational momentum were investigated. Participants viewed a display in which two arrays of objects were added, or one array was subtracted from another array, and judged whether a subsequent outcome (probe array contained the correct or incorrect number of objects. In a baseline condition, only the arrays to be added or subtracted were viewed. In divided attention conditions, participants simultaneously viewed a sequence of colors or shapes, and judged which color (a non-spatial judgment or shape (a spatial judgment was repeated. Operational momentum occurred in all conditions, but was higher in divided attention conditions than in the baseline condition, primarily for addition problems. This pattern suggests that dividing attention, rather than decreasing operational momentum by decreasing attentional shifts, actually increased operational momentum. These results are consistent with a heightened use of arithmetic heuristics under conditions of divided attention.

  19. Enhanced attention amplifies face adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Gillian; Jeffery, Linda; Evangelista, Emma; Ewing, Louise; Peters, Marianne; Taylor, Libby

    2011-08-15

    Perceptual adaptation not only produces striking perceptual aftereffects, but also enhances coding efficiency and discrimination by calibrating coding mechanisms to prevailing inputs. Attention to simple stimuli increases adaptation, potentially enhancing its functional benefits. Here we show that attention also increases adaptation to faces. In Experiment 1, face identity aftereffects increased when attention to adapting faces was increased using a change detection task. In Experiment 2, figural (distortion) face aftereffects increased when attention was increased using a snap game (detecting immediate repeats) during adaptation. Both were large effects. Contributions of low-level adaptation were reduced using free viewing (both experiments) and a size change between adapt and test faces (Experiment 2). We suggest that attention may enhance adaptation throughout the entire cortical visual pathway, with functional benefits well beyond the immediate advantages of selective processing of potentially important stimuli. These results highlight the potential to facilitate adaptive updating of face-coding mechanisms by strategic deployment of attentional resources. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Attentional Networks and Biological Motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandramouli Chandrasekaran

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Our ability to see meaningful actions when presented with pointlight traces of human movement is commonly referred to as the perception of biological motion. While traditionalexplanations have emphasized the spontaneous and automatic nature of this ability, morerecent findings suggest that attention may play a larger role than is typically assumed. Intwo studies we show that the speed and accuracy of responding to point-light stimuli is highly correlated with the ability to control selective attention. In our first experiment we measured thresholds for determining the walking direction of a masked point-light figure, and performance on a range of attention-related tasks in the same set of observers. Mask-density thresholds for the direction discrimination task varied quite considerably from observer to observer and this variation was highly correlated with performance on both Stroop and flanker interference tasks. Other components of attention, such as orienting, alerting and visual search efficiency, showed no such relationship. In a second experiment, we examined the relationship between the ability to determine the orientation of unmasked point-light actions and Stroop interference, again finding a strong correlation. Our results are consistent with previous research suggesting that biological motion processing may requite attention, and specifically implicate networks of attention related to executive control and selection.

  1. [Attentional impairment in children with attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbes, Zeineb; Bouden, Asma; Amado, Isabelle; Chantal Bourdel, Marie; Tabbane, Karim; Béchir Halayem, Mohamed

    2009-10-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a heterogeneous disorder currently defined by clinical history and behavioral report of impairment. The Attention Network test (ANT) gives measures of different aspects of the complex process of attention. We ask if children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) will show a characteristic pattern of deficits on this test. The sample included 40 children (M=9 years) who performed the "Attention network test". Children with an ADHD diagnosis (N=20) were compared to a control group (N=20). The group of children with ADHD showed slower reaction times in all conditions (mean RT=866 ms; SD=234,063). Children with ADHD showed a significant impairment in their executive control system compared to healthy subjects, with slower reaction times in incongruent conditions and lower accuracy scores (RT=1064 ms; F(1.38) p=0.02). Our results showed that spatial orienting and alerting in ADHD was no different than controls (p=0,68). ADHD group showed a greater variable response (p=0,0001). The present study showed that impairment in executive control system and variability measures are the characteristic pattern of deficits in children with ADHD.

  2. Does neurocognitive function affect cognitive bias toward an emotional stimulus? Association between general attentional ability and attentional bias toward threat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuko eHakamata

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although poorer cognitive performance has been found to be associated with anxiety, it remains unclear whether neurocognitive function affects biased cognitive processing toward emotional information. We investigated whether general cognitive function evaluated with a standard neuropsychological test predicts biased cognition, focusing on attentional bias toward threat.Methods: One hundred and five healthy young adults completed a dot-probe task measuring attentional bias and the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS measuring general cognitive function, which consists of five domains: immediate memory, visuospatial/constructional, language, attention, and delayed memory. Stepwise multiple regression analysis was performed to examine the relationships between attentional bias and cognitive function. Results: The attentional domain was the best predictor of attentional bias toward threat (β = -0.26, p = 0.006. Within the attentional domain, digit symbol coding was negatively correlated with attentional bias (r = -0.28, p = 0.005.Conclusions: The present study provides the first evidence that general attentional ability, which was assessed with a standard neuropsychological test, affects attentional bias toward threatening information. Individual cognitive profiles might be important for the measurement and modification of cognitive biases.

  3. Providing rehabilitation online

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Malene; Juul, Annegrete

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – Telecare promises to deliver healthcare services more efficiently while, at the same time, improving the quality of care. The purpose of this paper is to challenge these promises by analysing the implications of introducing telecare in the rehabilitation of patients suffering from chronic...... obstructive pulmonary disease. Design/methodology/approach – Empirically, the paper is based on interviews with and observations of rehabilitation therapists and patients taking part in a Danish telerehabilitation programme. Theoretically, the paper draws on Science and Technology Studies. Findings...... one ends. Practical implications – Evaluations of telecare technologies should pay more attention to workand responsibility-related effects of introducing telecare in order better to account for predicted and unpredicted as well as desirable and undesirable socio-technical changes. Originality/value...

  4. Does mindfulness meditation improve attention in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modesto-Lowe, Vania; Farahmand, Pantea; Chaplin, Margaret; Sarro, Lauren

    2015-12-22

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) manifests by high levels of inattention, impulsiveness and hyperactivity. ADHD starts in childhood and results in impairments that continue into adulthood. While hyperactivity declines over time, inattention and executive function difficulties persist, leading to functional deficits. Adolescents and adults with ADHD have pervasive impairment in interpersonal and family relationships. They may develop addiction, delinquent behavior and comorbid psychiatric disorders. Despite advances in diagnosis and treatment, persistent residual symptoms are common, highlighting the need for novel treatment strategies. Mindfulness training, derived from Eastern meditation practices, may improve self-regulation of attention. It may also be a useful strategy to augment standard ADHD treatments and may be used as a potential tool to reduce impairments in patients with residual symptoms of ADHD. Clinically, this would manifest by an increased ability to suppress task-unrelated thoughts and distractions resulting in improved attention, completion of tasks and potential improvement in occupational and social function.

  5. Medical service provider networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mougeot, Michel; Naegelen, Florence

    2018-05-17

    In many countries, health insurers or health plans choose to contract either with any willing providers or with preferred providers. We compare these mechanisms when two medical services are imperfect substitutes in demand and are supplied by two different firms. In both cases, the reimbursement is higher when patients select the in-network provider(s). We show that these mechanisms yield lower prices, lower providers' and insurer's profits, and lower expense than in the uniform-reimbursement case. Whatever the degree of product differentiation, a not-for-profit insurer should prefer selective contracting and select a reimbursement such that the out-of-pocket expense is null. Although all providers join the network under any-willing-provider contracting in the absence of third-party payment, an asymmetric equilibrium may exist when this billing arrangement is implemented. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montessori, Maria

    2016-01-01

    "The Advanced Montessori Method, Volume 1" was published in 1918 in English and is considered a seminal work along with "The Montessori Method." In the foreword to this book, Mario Montessori writes: "...the refulgent figure of the child, Dr. Montessori pointed out, who had found his own path to mental health, who…

  7. The role of selective attention on academic foundations: A cognitive neuroscience perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Stevens, Courtney; Bavelier, Daphné

    2012-01-01

    To the extent that selective attention skills are relevant for academic foundations and amenable to training, they represent an important focus for the field of education. Here, drawing on research on the neurobiology of attention, we review hypothesized links between selective attention and processing across three domains important to early academic skills. First, we provide a brief review of the neural bases of selective attention, emphasizing the effects of selective attention on neural pr...

  8. Attentional Selection and Suppression in Children With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Encong; Sun, Li; Sun, Meirong; Huang, Jing; Tao, Ye; Zhao, Xixi; Wu, Zhanliang; Ding, Yulong; Newman, Daniel P; Bellgrove, Mark A; Wang, Yufeng; Song, Yan

    2016-07-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a prevalent neurodevelopmental disorder with prominent impairments in directing and sustaining attention. The aim of this study was to identify the neurophysiologic bases of attention deficits in ADHD, focusing on electroencephalography markers of attentional selection (posterior contralateral N2 [N2pc]) and suppression (distractor positivity [P D ]). The electroencephalography data were collected from 135 children 9-15 years old with and without ADHD while they searched for a shape target in either the absence (experiment 1) or the presence (experiment 2) of a salient but irrelevant color distractor. In experiment 1, the shape target elicited a smaller N2pc in children with ADHD (n = 38) compared with typically developing children (n = 36). The smaller N2pc amplitude predicted higher levels of inattentive symptoms in children with ADHD. Moreover, the target-elicited N2pc was followed by a positivity in typically developing children but not in children with ADHD. In experiment 2, the salient but irrelevant color distractor elicited a smaller P D component in children with ADHD (n = 32) compared with typically developing children (n = 29). The smaller P D predicted higher inattentive symptom severity as well as lower behavioral accuracy in children with ADHD. The correlation between N2pc/P D amplitudes and ADHD symptom severity suggests that these signals of attentional selection and suppression may serve as potential candidates for neurophysiologic markers of ADHD. Our findings provide a neurophysiologic basis for the subjective reports of attention deficits in children with ADHD and highlight the importance of spatial attention impairments in ADHD. Copyright © 2016 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Imatinib treatment causes substantial transcriptional changes in adult Schistosoma mansoni in vitro exhibiting pleiotropic effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christin Buro

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Schistosome parasites cause schistosomiasis, one of the most important infectious diseases worldwide. For decades Praziquantel (PZQ is the only drug widely used for controlling schistosomiasis. The absence of a vaccine and fear of PZQ resistance have motivated the search for alternatives. Studies on protein kinases (PKs demonstrated their importance for diverse physiological processes in schistosomes. Among others two Abl tyrosine kinases, SmAbl1 and SmAbl2, were identified in Schistosoma mansoni and shown to be transcribed in the gonads and the gastrodermis. SmAbl1 activity was blocked by Imatinib, a known Abl-TK inhibitor used in human cancer therapy (Gleevec/Glivec. Imatinib exhibited dramatic effects on the morphology and physiology of adult schistosomes in vitro causing the death of the parasites.Here we show modeling data supporting the targeting of SmAbl1/2 by Imatinib. A biochemical assay confirmed that SmAbl2 activity is also inhibited by Imatinib. Microarray analyses and qRT-PCR experiments were done to unravel transcriptional processes influenced by Imatinib in adult schistosomes in vitro demonstrating a wide influence on worm physiology. Surface-, muscle-, gut and gonad-associated processes were affected as evidenced by the differential transcription of e.g. the gynecophoral canal protein gene GCP, paramyosin, titin, hemoglobinase, and cathepsins. Furthermore, transcript levels of VAL-7 and egg formation-associated genes such as tyrosinase 1, p14, and fs800-like were affected as well as those of signaling genes including a ribosomal protein S6 kinase and a glutamate receptor. Finally, a comparative in silico analysis of the obtained microarray data sets and previous data analyzing the effect of a TGFβR1 inhibitor on transcription provided first evidence for an association of TGFβ and Abl kinase signaling. Among others GCP and egg formation-associated genes were identified as common targets.The data affirm broad negative effects of

  10. Evidence that global evapotranspiration makes a substantial contribution to the global atmospheric temperature slowdown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leggett, L. Mark W.; Ball, David A.

    2018-02-01

    The difference between the time series trend for temperature expected from the increasing level of atmospheric CO2 and that for the (more slowly rising) observed temperature has been termed the global surface temperature slowdown. In this paper, we characterise the single time series made from the subtraction of these two time series as the `global surface temperature gap'. We also develop an analogous atmospheric CO2 gap series from the difference between the level of CO2 and first-difference CO2 (that is, the change in CO2 from one period to the next). This paper provides three further pieces of evidence concerning the global surface temperature slowdown. First, we find that the present size of both the global surface temperature gap and the CO2 gap is unprecedented over a period starting at least as far back as the 1860s. Second, ARDL and Granger causality analyses involving the global surface temperature gap against the major candidate physical drivers of the ocean heat sink and biosphere evapotranspiration are conducted. In each case where ocean heat data was available, it was significant in the models: however, evapotranspiration, or its argued surrogate precipitation, also remained significant in the models alongside ocean heat. In terms of relative scale, the standardised regression coefficient for evapotranspiration was repeatedly of the same order of magnitude as—typically as much as half that for—ocean heat. The foregoing is evidence that, alongside the ocean heat sink, evapotranspiration is also likely to be making a substantial contribution to the global atmospheric temperature outcome. Third, there is evidence that both the ocean heat sink and the evapotranspiration process might be able to continue into the future to keep the temperature lower than the level-of-CO2 models would suggest. It is shown that this means there can be benefit in using the first-difference CO2 to temperature relationship shown in Leggett and Ball (Atmos Chem Phys 15

  11. Complex researches on substantiation of construction and seismic stability of large dams in seismic region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negmatullaev, S.Kh.; Yasunov, P.A.

    2001-01-01

    This article is devoted to complex researches on substantiation of construction and seismic stability of large dams (Nurec hydroelectric power station) in seismic region. Geological, seismological, model, and engineering investigations are discussed in this work. At construction of Nurec hydroelectric power station the rich experience is accumulated. This experience can be used in analogous seismically active regions at construction similar hydroelectric power stations.

  12. 76 FR 41424 - Finding of Substantial Inadequacy of Implementation Plan; Call for Iowa State Implementation Plan...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-14

    ... modeling requirement for this SIP call should allow for the use of the modeling protocol developed by Iowa... is making a finding that the Iowa State Implementation Plan (SIP) is substantially inadequate to... ) in Muscatine County, Iowa. The specific SIP deficiencies needing revision are described below. EPA is...

  13. 77 FR 65169 - Extension of Certain Timber Sale Contracts; Finding of Substantial Overriding Public Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-25

    ... that are in breach, or (6) contracts when the purchaser's processing facility has not operated during... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Extension of Certain Timber Sale Contracts; Finding of Substantial Overriding Public Interest AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of contract extensions...

  14. 26 CFR 1.6662-4 - Substantial understatement of income tax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... arrangement does not have as its principal purpose the avoidance or evasion of Federal income tax solely as a... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Substantial understatement of income tax. 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Additions to the Tax, Additional Amounts, and Assessable...

  15. 75 FR 27504 - Substantial Product Hazard List: Hand-Held Hair Dryers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-17

    ... immersion during their use. Section 15(a) of the CPSA defines ``substantial product hazard'' to include, a....'' Hand-held hair dryers routinely contain open-coil heating elements that are, in essence, uninsulated..., bathtub, or lavatory). The proposed rule would define ``hand-held hair dryer'' as ``an electrical...

  16. 76 FR 32215 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Substantiation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-03

    ... of such disease in the United States [(U.S.)], describes the role of a nutrient or dietary ingredient... substantiation for their claims in the scientific literature. The time it takes to assemble the necessary... based on emerging science, where conducting literature searches and understanding the literature takes...

  17. Theoretical-and-Methodological Substantiation of Multilingual Model Activity in Kazakhstan Higher School Education System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ospanova, Bikesh Revovna; Azimbayeva, Zhanat Amantayevna; Timokhina, Tatyana Vladimirovna; Seydakhmetova, Zergul Koblandiyevna

    2016-01-01

    The need of implementing the model of professional development in training an expert in the conditions of multilingualism is considered. The possibility of using the multilingual approach in the context of present day education with the use of innovative technologies of training is substantiated, the definition of "multilingual…

  18. 78 FR 889 - Finding of Substantial Inadequacy of Implementation Plan; Call for California State...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-07

    ... Resources Defense Council; and Physicians for Social Responsibility--Los Angeles, (``environmental and... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 [EPA-R09-OAR-2012-0721; FRL-9767-3] Finding of Substantial Inadequacy of Implementation Plan; Call for California State Implementation Plan Revision; South...

  19. 26 CFR 1.6662-5T - Substantial and gross valuation misstatements under chapter 1 (temporary).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Additions to the Tax, Additional... persons). (iii) Property. For purposes of this section, the term property refers to both tangible and... adjustments. For rules relating to the penalty imposed with respect to a substantial or gross valuation...

  20. Domestic violence, parental substance misuse and the decision to substantiate child maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victor, Bryan G; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew; Ryan, Joseph P; Perron, Brian E; Gilbert, Terri Ticknor

    2018-05-01

    Families that experience domestic violence and parental substance misuse are disproportionately involved with the child welfare system. Prior research suggests that child protective services (CPS) caseworkers are more likely to substantiate maltreatment allegations when domestic violence and parental substance misuse are identified during the investigation, pointing to one possible mechanism for this disproportionate involvement. While previous studies have relied on nationally representative data sets, the current study used administrative records from a large Midwestern child welfare agency that accounts for state-level variation in child welfare policy and practice. A total of 501,060 substantiation decisions made between 2009 and 2013 were examined to assess the influence of caseworker-perceived domestic violence and parental substance misuse on the decision to substantiate reported maltreatment. Results from multilevel modeling suggest that the identification of domestic violence and parental substance misuse during an investigation significantly increased the probability that an allegation would be substantiated. The implication of these findings for child welfare practice are considered in light of the fact that many child welfare agencies do not consider exposure to domestic violence and parental substance misuse in and of themselves to constitute child maltreatment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. 26 CFR 301.6229(c)(2)-1T - Substantial omission of income (temporary).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ....6229(c)(2)-1T Substantial omission of income (temporary). (a) Partnership return—(1) General rule. (i) If any partnership omits from the gross income stated in its return an amount properly includible... omitted from gross income if information sufficient to apprise the Commissioner of the nature and amount...

  2. 26 CFR 1.162-17 - Reporting and substantiation of certain business expenses of employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Individuals and Corporations § 1.162-17 Reporting and substantiation of certain business expenses of employees.... The term “ordinary and necessary business expenses” means only those expenses which are ordinary and..., reimbursements, or otherwise, exceeds the ordinary and necessary business expenses paid or incurred by the...

  3. 34 CFR 692.41 - What standards may a State use to determine substantial financial need?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... PARTNERSHIP PROGRAM Leveraging Educational Assistance Partnership Program How Does A State Select Students... establishes that are approved by the Secretary. A State may define substantial financial need in terms of... “independent student” as defined under section 480(d) of the HEA. However, for good cause shown, the Secretary...

  4. Supramodal Executive Control of Attention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALFREDO eSPAGNA

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The human attentional system can be subdivided into three functional networks of alerting, orienting, and executive control. Although these networks have been extensively studied in the visuospatial modality, whether the same mechanisms are deployed across different sensory modalities remains unclear. In this study we used the attention network test for visuospatial modality, in addition to two auditory variants with spatial and frequency manipulations to examine cross-modal correlations between network functions. Results showed that among the visual and auditory tasks the effects of executive control, but not effects of alerting and orienting were significantly correlated. These findings suggest that while alerting and orienting functions rely more upon modality specific processes, the executive control of attention coordinates complex behavior via supramodal mechanisms.

  5. Grasp cueing and joint attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschentscher, Nadja; Fischer, Martin H

    2008-10-01

    We studied how two different hand posture cues affect joint attention in normal observers. Visual targets appeared over lateralized objects, with different delays after centrally presented hand postures. Attention was cued by either hand direction or the congruency between hand aperture and object size. Participants pressed a button when they detected a target. Direction cues alone facilitated target detection following short delays but aperture cues alone were ineffective. In contrast, when hand postures combined direction and aperture cues, aperture congruency effects without directional congruency effects emerged and persisted, but only for power grips. These results suggest that parallel parameter specification makes joint attention mechanisms exquisitely sensitive to the timing and content of contextual cues.

  6. No iconic memory without attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, Arien; Erol, Muge; Clarke, Jason; Bert, John

    2016-02-01

    The experiments reported extend the findings of our earlier paper, (Mack, Erol, & Clarke, 2015) and allow us to reject Bachmann and Aru's critique of our conclusion (2015) that IM requires attention. They suggested our manipulations, which diverted attention from a letter reporting task in a dual task procedure where the task-cue occurred after the array disappeared, might only have affected access to IM and not the "existence of the phenomenal experience". By further decreasing the probability of reporting letters to only 10% and adding a final trial in which the letter matrix was either completely absent or distorted, we found more than half our subjects were unaware of its absence, or distortion i.e., were inattentionally blind. We take this as powerful evidence against the existence of any phenomenal experience component of iconic memory and consistent with the view that iconic memory demands attention and that conscious perception does as well. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The Development of Attention Systems and Working Memory in Infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Greg D; Romano, Alexandra C

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we review research and theory on the development of attention and working memory in infancy using a developmental cognitive neuroscience framework. We begin with a review of studies examining the influence of attention on neural and behavioral correlates of an earlier developing and closely related form of memory (i.e., recognition memory). Findings from studies measuring attention utilizing looking measures, heart rate, and event-related potentials (ERPs) indicate significant developmental change in sustained and selective attention across the infancy period. For example, infants show gains in the magnitude of the attention related response and spend a greater proportion of time engaged in attention with increasing age (Richards and Turner, 2001). Throughout infancy, attention has a significant impact on infant performance on a variety of tasks tapping into recognition memory; however, this approach to examining the influence of infant attention on memory performance has yet to be utilized in research on working memory. In the second half of the article, we review research on working memory in infancy focusing on studies that provide insight into the developmental timing of significant gains in working memory as well as research and theory related to neural systems potentially involved in working memory in early development. We also examine issues related to measuring and distinguishing between working memory and recognition memory in infancy. To conclude, we discuss relations between the development of attention systems and working memory.

  8. Effects of visual attention on chromatic and achromatic detection sensitivities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchikawa, Keiji; Sato, Masayuki; Kuwamura, Keiko

    2014-05-01

    Visual attention has a significant effect on various visual functions, such as response time, detection and discrimination sensitivity, and color appearance. It has been suggested that visual attention may affect visual functions in the early visual pathways. In this study we examined selective effects of visual attention on sensitivities of the chromatic and achromatic pathways to clarify whether visual attention modifies responses in the early visual system. We used a dual task paradigm in which the observer detected a peripheral test stimulus presented at 4 deg eccentricities while the observer concurrently carried out an attention task in the central visual field. In experiment 1, it was confirmed that peripheral spectral sensitivities were reduced more for short and long wavelengths than for middle wavelengths with the central attention task so that the spectral sensitivity function changed its shape by visual attention. This indicated that visual attention affected the chromatic response more strongly than the achromatic response. In experiment 2 it was obtained that the detection thresholds increased in greater degrees in the red-green and yellow-blue chromatic directions than in the white-black achromatic direction in the dual task condition. In experiment 3 we showed that the peripheral threshold elevations depended on the combination of color-directions of the central and peripheral stimuli. Since the chromatic and achromatic responses were separately processed in the early visual pathways, the present results provided additional evidence that visual attention affects responses in the early visual pathways.

  9. When attention wanders: Pupillometric signatures of fluctuations in external attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konishi, Mahiko; Brown, Kevin; Battaglini, Luca; Smallwood, Jonathan

    2017-11-01

    Attention is not always directed to events in the external environment. On occasion our thoughts wander to people and places distant from the here and now. Sometimes, this lack of external attention can compromise ongoing task performance. In the current study we set out to understand the extent to which states of internal and external attention can be determined using pupillometry as an index of ongoing cognition. In two experiments we found that periods of slow responding were associated with elevations in the baseline pupil signal over three and a half seconds prior to a behavioural response. In the second experiment we found that unlike behavioural lapses, states of off-task thought, particularly those associated with a focus on the past and with an intrusive quality, were associated with reductions in the size of the pupil over the same window prior to the probe. These data show that both states of large and small baseline pupil size are linked to states when attention is not effectively focused on the external environment, although these states have different qualities. More generally, these findings illustrate that subjective and objective markers of task performance may not be equivalent and underscore the importance of developing objective indicators that can allow these different states to be understood. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Distracted and confused?: selective attention under load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavie, Nilli

    2005-02-01

    The ability to remain focused on goal-relevant stimuli in the presence of potentially interfering distractors is crucial for any coherent cognitive function. However, simply instructing people to ignore goal-irrelevant stimuli is not sufficient for preventing their processing. Recent research reveals that distractor processing depends critically on the level and type of load involved in the processing of goal-relevant information. Whereas high perceptual load can eliminate distractor processing, high load on "frontal" cognitive control processes increases distractor processing. These findings provide a resolution to the long-standing early and late selection debate within a load theory of attention that accommodates behavioural and neuroimaging data within a framework that integrates attention research with executive function.

  11. Modeling global scene factors in attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torralba, Antonio

    2003-07-01

    Models of visual attention have focused predominantly on bottom-up approaches that ignored structured contextual and scene information. I propose a model of contextual cueing for attention guidance based on the global scene configuration. It is shown that the statistics of low-level features across the whole image can be used to prime the presence or absence of objects in the scene and to predict their location, scale, and appearance before exploring the image. In this scheme, visual context information can become available early in the visual processing chain, which allows modulation of the saliency of image regions and provides an efficient shortcut for object detection and recognition. 2003 Optical Society of America

  12. A feedback model of visual attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spratling, M W; Johnson, M H

    2004-03-01

    Feedback connections are a prominent feature of cortical anatomy and are likely to have a significant functional role in neural information processing. We present a neural network model of cortical feedback that successfully simulates neurophysiological data associated with attention. In this domain, our model can be considered a more detailed, and biologically plausible, implementation of the biased competition model of attention. However, our model is more general as it can also explain a variety of other top-down processes in vision, such as figure/ground segmentation and contextual cueing. This model thus suggests that a common mechanism, involving cortical feedback pathways, is responsible for a range of phenomena and provides a unified account of currently disparate areas of research.

  13. Sustained-Paced Finger Tapping: A Novel Approach to Measure Internal Sustained Attention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco A. Petilli

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Sustained attention is a fundamental prerequisite for all cognitive functions and its impairment is a common aftermath of both developmental and acquired neurological disorders. To date, all the sustained attention tasks rely heavily on selective attention to external stimuli. The interaction between selective and sustained attention represents a limit in the field of assessment and may mislead researchers or distort conclusions. The aim of the present perspective study was to propose a sustained version of the Paced Finger Tapping (S-PFT test as a novel approach to measure sustained attention that does not leverage external stimuli. Here, we administered S-PFT and other attentional tasks (visual sustained attention, visuospatial attention capacity, selective attention, and divided attention tasks to 85 adolescents. Thus, we provide evidence suggesting that S-PFT is effective in causing performance decrement over time, an important trademark of sustained attention tasks. We also present descriptive statistics showing the relationship between S-PFT and the other attentional tasks. These analyses show that, unlike visual sustained attention tests, performances to our task of internal sustained attention were not correlated to measures of selective attention and visuospatial attention capacity. Our results suggest that S-PFT could represent a promising and alternative tool both for empirical research and clinical assessment of sustained attention.

  14. Attention for pediatric interventional radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Ming; Cheng Yongde

    2005-01-01

    Radiological interventions possess wide utilization in the diagnosis and treatment for pediatric patients. Pediatric interventional radiology is an important branch of interventional radiology and also an important branch of pediatric radiology. Pediatric interventional radiology has grown substantially over the last 30 years, radiologists closely cooperation with surgeons and other physicians providing a new horizon in the management of pediatric diseases in western countries. It includes pediatric cardiac interventional radiology, pediatric neuro-interventional radiology, pediatric vascular interventional radiology, pediatric nonvascular interventional radiology, pediatric tumor interventional radiology and others. In the United States, every children hospital which owns two hundred beds has to have special trained interventional radiologists in radiologic department installing with advanced digital subtraction angiographic equipment. Interventional therapeutic procedures and diagnostic angiography have been proceeding more and more for the congenital and acquired diseases of children. The promising results give use uprising and interventional therapy as an alternative or a replacement or supplement to surgical operation. Pediatric interventional radiology is rather underdeveloped in China with a few special pediatric interventional radiologist, lack of digital subtraction angiography equipment. Pediatric radiologists have no enough field for interventional procedures such as pediatric neuro-interventional radiology and pediatric vascular interventional radiology. In the contrary adult interventional radiologists do have better interventional jobs in China and Pediatric cardiologists also share the same trend. They perform angiocardiography for congenital heart diseases and treat congenital heart disease with interventional procedures including balloon dilation of valves and vessels, coil embolization of collaterals, patent ducts and other arterial fistulae

  15. Antecedent acute cycling exercise affects attention control: an ERP study using attention network test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Kai eChang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the after-effects of an acute bout of moderate-intensity aerobic cycling exercise on neuroelectric and behavioral indices of efficiency of three attentional networks: alerting, orienting, and executive (conflict control. Thirty young, highly fit amateur basketball players performed a multifunctional attentional reaction time task, the attention network test (ANT, with a two-group randomized experimental design after an acute bout of moderate-intensity spinning wheel exercise or without antecedent exercise. The ANT combined warning signals prior to targets, spatial cueing of potential target locations and target stimuli surrounded by congruent or incongruent flankers, which were provided to assess three attentional networks. Event-related brain potentials and task performance were measured during the ANT. Exercise resulted in a larger P3 amplitude in the alerting and executive control subtasks across frontal, central and parietal midline sites that was paralleled by an enhanced reaction speed only on trials with incongruent flankers of the executive control network. The P3 latency and response accuracy were not affected by exercise. These findings suggest that after spinning, more resources are allocated to task-relevant stimuli in tasks that rely on the alerting and executive control networks. However, the improvement in performance was observed in only the executively challenging conflict condition, suggesting that whether the brain resources that are rendered available immediately after acute exercise translate into better attention performance depends on the cognitive task complexity.

  16. The interplay of attention and consciousness in visual search, attentional blink and working memory consolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffone, Antonino; Srinivasan, Narayanan; van Leeuwen, Cees

    2014-05-05

    Despite the acknowledged relationship between consciousness and attention, theories of the two have mostly been developed separately. Moreover, these theories have independently attempted to explain phenomena in which both are likely to interact, such as the attentional blink (AB) and working memory (WM) consolidation. Here, we make an effort to bridge the gap between, on the one hand, a theory of consciousness based on the notion of global workspace (GW) and, on the other, a synthesis of theories of visual attention. We offer a theory of attention and consciousness (TAC) that provides a unified neurocognitive account of several phenomena associated with visual search, AB and WM consolidation. TAC assumes multiple processing stages between early visual representation and conscious access, and extends the dynamics of the global neuronal workspace model to a visual attentional workspace (VAW). The VAW is controlled by executive routers, higher-order representations of executive operations in the GW, without the need for explicit saliency or priority maps. TAC leads to newly proposed mechanisms for illusory conjunctions, AB, inattentional blindness and WM capacity, and suggests neural correlates of phenomenal consciousness. Finally, the theory reconciles the all-or-none and graded perspectives on conscious representation.

  17. Video game play, attention, and learning: how to shape the development of attention and influence learning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso-Leite, Pedro; Bavelier, Daphne

    2014-04-01

    The notion that play may facilitate learning has long been touted. Here, we review how video game play may be leveraged for enhancing attentional control, allowing greater cognitive flexibility and learning and in turn new routes to better address developmental disorders. Video games, initially developed for entertainment, appear to enhance the behavior in domains as varied as perception, attention, task switching, or mental rotation. This surprisingly wide transfer may be mediated by enhanced attentional control, allowing increased signal-to-noise ratio and thus more informed decisions. The possibility of enhancing attentional control through targeted interventions, be it computerized training or self-regulation techniques, is now well established. Embedding such training in video game play is appealing, given the astounding amount of time spent by children and adults worldwide with this media. It holds the promise of increasing compliance in patients and motivation in school children, and of enhancing the use of positive impact games. Yet for all the promises, existing research indicates that not all games are created equal: a better understanding of the game play elements that foster attention and learning as well as of the strategies developed by the players is needed. Computational models from machine learning or developmental robotics provide a rich theoretical framework to develop this work further and address its impact on developmental disorders.

  18. The interplay of attention and consciousness in visual search, attentional blink and working memory consolidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffone, Antonino; Srinivasan, Narayanan; van Leeuwen, Cees

    2014-01-01

    Despite the acknowledged relationship between consciousness and attention, theories of the two have mostly been developed separately. Moreover, these theories have independently attempted to explain phenomena in which both are likely to interact, such as the attentional blink (AB) and working memory (WM) consolidation. Here, we make an effort to bridge the gap between, on the one hand, a theory of consciousness based on the notion of global workspace (GW) and, on the other, a synthesis of theories of visual attention. We offer a theory of attention and consciousness (TAC) that provides a unified neurocognitive account of several phenomena associated with visual search, AB and WM consolidation. TAC assumes multiple processing stages between early visual representation and conscious access, and extends the dynamics of the global neuronal workspace model to a visual attentional workspace (VAW). The VAW is controlled by executive routers, higher-order representations of executive operations in the GW, without the need for explicit saliency or priority maps. TAC leads to newly proposed mechanisms for illusory conjunctions, AB, inattentional blindness and WM capacity, and suggests neural correlates of phenomenal consciousness. Finally, the theory reconciles the all-or-none and graded perspectives on conscious representation. PMID:24639586

  19. Abolishing and Establishing Operation Analyses of Social Attention as Positive Reinforcement for Problem Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinnis, Molly A.; Houchins-Juarez, Nealetta; McDaniel, Jill L.; Kennedy, Craig H.

    2010-01-01

    Three participants whose problem behavior was maintained by contingent attention were exposed to 45-min presessions in which attention was withheld, provided on a fixed-time (FT) 15-s schedule, or provided on an FT 120-s schedule. Following each presession, participants were then tested in a 15-min session similar to the social attention condition…

  20. The role of executive attention in object substitution masking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filmer, Hannah L; Wells-Peris, Roxanne; Dux, Paul E

    2017-05-01

    It was long thought that a key characteristic of object substitution masking (OSM) was the requirement for spatial attention to be dispersed for the mask to impact visual sensitivity. However, recent studies have provided evidence questioning whether spatial attention interacts with OSM magnitude, suggesting that the previous reports reflect the impact of performance being at ceiling for the low attention load conditions. Another technique that has been employed to modulate attention in OSM paradigms involves presenting the target stimulus foveally, but with another demanding task shown immediately prior, and thus taxing executive/temporal attention. Under such conditions, when the two tasks occur in close temporal proximity relatively to greater temporal separation, masking is increased. However this effect could also be influenced by performance being at ceiling in some conditions. Here, we manipulated executive attention for a foveated target using a dual-task paradigm. Critically, ceiling performance was avoided by thresholding the target stimulus prior to it being presented under OSM conditions. We found no evidence for an interaction between executive attention load and masking. Collectively, along with the previous findings, our results provide compelling evidence that OSM as a phenomenon occurs independently of attention.

  1. Providing free autopoweroff plugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Carsten Lynge; Hansen, Lars Gårn; Fjordbak, Troels

    2012-01-01

    Experimental evidence of the effect of providing households with cheap energy saving technology is sparse. We present results from a field experiment in which autopoweroff plugs were provided free of charge to randomly selected households. We use propensity score matching to find treatment effects...

  2. Attention processes in chronic fatigue syndrome: attentional bias for health-related threat and the role of attentional control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Ruihua; Moss-Morris, Rona; Risdale, Anna; Lynch, Jeannette; Jeevaratnam, Preshan; Bradley, Brendan P; Mogg, Karin

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive behavioural models of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) propose that attention processes, specifically, enhanced selective attention to health-threat related cues, may play an important role in symptom maintenance. The current study investigated attentional bias towards health-threat stimuli in CFS. It also examined whether individuals with CFS have impaired executive attention, and whether this was related to attentional bias. 27 participants with CFS and 35 healthy controls completed a Visual Probe Task measuring attentional bias, and an Attention Network Test measuring executive attention, alerting and orienting. Participants also completed self-report measures of CFS and mood symptoms. Compared to the control group, the CFS group showed greater attentional bias for health-threat words than pictures; and the CFS group was significantly impaired in executive attention. Furthermore, CFS individuals with poor executive attention showed greater attentional bias to health-threat related words, compared not only to controls but also to CFS individuals with good executive attention. Thus, this study revealed a significant relationship between attentional bias and executive attention in CFS: attentional bias to threat was primarily evident in those with impaired executive attention control. Taking account of individual differences in executive attention control in current intervention models may be beneficial for CFS. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of total sleep deprivation on divided attention performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, Eric Chern-Pin; Fang, Eric; Gooley, Joshua J

    2017-01-01

    Dividing attention across two tasks performed simultaneously usually results in impaired performance on one or both tasks. Most studies have found no difference in the dual-task cost of dividing attention in rested and sleep-deprived states. We hypothesized that, for a divided attention task that is highly cognitively-demanding, performance would show greater impairment during exposure to sleep deprivation. A group of 30 healthy males aged 21-30 years was exposed to 40 h of continuous wakefulness in a laboratory setting. Every 2 h, subjects completed a divided attention task comprising 3 blocks in which an auditory Go/No-Go task was 1) performed alone (single task); 2) performed simultaneously with a visual Go/No-Go task (dual task); and 3) performed simultaneously with both a visual Go/No-Go task and a visually-guided motor tracking task (triple task). Performance on all tasks showed substantial deterioration during exposure to sleep deprivation. A significant interaction was observed between task load and time since wake on auditory Go/No-Go task performance, with greater impairment in response times and accuracy during extended wakefulness. Our results suggest that the ability to divide attention between multiple tasks is impaired during exposure to sleep deprivation. These findings have potential implications for occupations that require multi-tasking combined with long work hours and exposure to sleep loss.

  4. Effects of total sleep deprivation on divided attention performance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Chern-Pin Chua

    Full Text Available Dividing attention across two tasks performed simultaneously usually results in impaired performance on one or both tasks. Most studies have found no difference in the dual-task cost of dividing attention in rested and sleep-deprived states. We hypothesized that, for a divided attention task that is highly cognitively-demanding, performance would show greater impairment during exposure to sleep deprivation. A group of 30 healthy males aged 21-30 years was exposed to 40 h of continuous wakefulness in a laboratory setting. Every 2 h, subjects completed a divided attention task comprising 3 blocks in which an auditory Go/No-Go task was 1 performed alone (single task; 2 performed simultaneously with a visual Go/No-Go task (dual task; and 3 performed simultaneously with both a visual Go/No-Go task and a visually-guided motor tracking task (triple task. Performance on all tasks showed substantial deterioration during exposure to sleep deprivation. A significant interaction was observed between task load and time since wake on auditory Go/No-Go task performance, with greater impairment in response times and accuracy during extended wakefulness. Our results suggest that the ability to divide attention between multiple tasks is impaired during exposure to sleep deprivation. These findings have potential implications for occupations that require multi-tasking combined with long work hours and exposure to sleep loss.

  5. Specificity and overlap of attention and memory biases in depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchetti, Igor; Everaert, Jonas; Dainer-Best, Justin; Loeys, Tom; Beevers, Christopher G; Koster, Ernst H W

    2018-01-01

    Attentional and memory biases are viewed as crucial cognitive processes underlying symptoms of depression. However, it is still unclear whether these two biases are uniquely related to depression or whether they show substantial overlap. We investigated the degree of specificity and overlap of attentional and memory biases for depressotypic stimuli in relation to depression and anxiety by means of meta-analytic commonality analysis. By including four published studies, we considered a pool of 463 healthy and subclinically depressed individuals, different experimental paradigms, and different psychological measures. Memory bias is reliably and strongly related to depression and, specifically, to symptoms of negative mood, worthlessness, feelings of failure, and pessimism. Memory bias for negative information was minimally related to anxiety. Moreover, neither attentional bias nor the overlap between attentional and memory biases were significantly related to depression. Limitations include cross-sectional nature of the study. Our study showed that, across different paradigms and psychological measures, memory bias (and not attentional bias) represents a primary mechanism in depression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Adult Attention-Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) Overview Adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a mental health disorder that includes a combination of persistent problems, such as difficulty paying attention, ...

  7. Maternal ratings of attention problems in ADHD: evidence for the existence of a continuum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lubke, Gitta H.; Hudziak, James J.; Derks, Eske M.; van Bijsterveldt, Toos C. E. M.; Boomsma, Dorret I.

    2009-01-01

    To investigate whether items assessing attention problems provide evidence of quantitative differences or categorically distinct subtypes of attention problems (APs) and to investigate the relation of empirically derived latent classes to DSM-IV diagnoses of subtypes of

  8. System for assessing classroom attention.

    OpenAIRE

    Raca Mirko; Dillenbourg Pierre

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we give a preview of our system for automatically evaluating attention in the classroom. We demonstrate our current behaviour metrics and preliminary observations on how they reflect the reactions of people to the given lecture. We also introduce foundations of our hypothesis on peripheral awareness of students during lectures.

  9. Joint Attention and Anthropological Difference

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Urban, Petr

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 1 (2014), s. 59-70 ISSN 1718-0198 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP401/10/1164 Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : joint attention * anthropological difference * phenomenology * great apes * shared intentionality Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion

  10. Attention: A Machine Learning Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars Kai

    2012-01-01

    We review a statistical machine learning model of top-down task driven attention based on the notion of ‘gist’. In this framework we consider the task to be represented as a classification problem with two sets of features — a gist of coarse grained global features and a larger set of low...

  11. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-04-10

    This podcast discusses Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, or ADHD, the most common behavioral disorder in children. Learn about symptoms, risk factors, and treatment.  Created: 4/10/2014 by National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities (NCBDDD).   Date Released: 5/7/2014.

  12. Cumulative Development of Attentional Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posner, Michael I.

    1982-01-01

    Describes current work in selective attention within a framework of research conducted over the past century. Presents evidence that findings at the level of performance, subjective experience, and neural systems can be linked, even though these findings are not yet reducible to a single theory. (Author/GC)

  13. Thinking of God Moves Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chasteen, Alison L.; Burdzy, Donna C.; Pratt, Jay

    2010-01-01

    The concepts of God and Devil are well known across many cultures and religions, and often involve spatial metaphors, but it is not well known if our mental representations of these concepts affect visual cognition. To examine if exposure to divine concepts produces shifts of attention, participants completed a target detection task in which they…

  14. Attention & Cognitive Style, FY 1972.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, John C.

    A study is presented which concentrates on the development of a cognitive style assessment instrument for 3- to 8-year-olds and on a series of studies designed to evaluate the role of stylistic and attentional processes in the development of various competencies in young children. This report incorporates a manual for users, a technical report on…

  15. Attentional Bias in Math Anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orly eRubinsten

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive theory from the field of general anxiety suggests that the tendency to display attentional bias toward negative information results in anxiety. Accordingly, the current study aims to investigate whether attentional bias is involved in math anxiety as well (i.e., a persistent negative reaction to math. Twenty seven participants (14 with high levels of math anxiety and 13 with low levels of math anxiety were presented with a novel computerized numerical version of the well established dot probe task. One of 6 types of prime stimuli, either math related or typically neutral, were presented on one side of a computer screen. The prime was preceded by a probe (either one or two asterisks that appeared in either the prime or the opposite location. Participants had to discriminate probe identity (one or two asterisks. Math anxious individuals reacted faster when the probe was at the location of the numerical related stimuli. This suggests the existence of attentional bias in math anxiety. That is, for math anxious individuals, the cognitive system selectively favored the processing of emotionally negative information (i.e., math related words. These findings suggest that attentional bias is linked to unduly intense math anxiety symptoms.

  16. Attentional bias in math anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubinsten, Orly; Eidlin, Hili; Wohl, Hadas; Akibli, Orly

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive theory from the field of general anxiety suggests that the tendency to display attentional bias toward negative information results in anxiety. Accordingly, the current study aims to investigate whether attentional bias is involved in math anxiety (MA) as well (i.e., a persistent negative reaction to math). Twenty seven participants (14 with high levels of MA and 13 with low levels of MA) were presented with a novel computerized numerical version of the well established dot probe task. One of six types of prime stimuli, either math related or typically neutral, was presented on one side of a computer screen. The prime was preceded by a probe (either one or two asterisks) that appeared in either the prime or the opposite location. Participants had to discriminate probe identity (one or two asterisks). Math anxious individuals reacted faster when the probe was at the location of the numerical related stimuli. This suggests the existence of attentional bias in MA. That is, for math anxious individuals, the cognitive system selectively favored the processing of emotionally negative information (i.e., math related words). These findings suggest that attentional bias is linked to unduly intense MA symptoms.

  17. Attentional episodes in visual perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wyble, Brad; Potter, Mary C.; Bowman, Howard; Nieuwenstein, Mark

    Is one's temporal perception of the world truly as seamless as it appears? This article presents a computationally motivated theory suggesting that visual attention samples information from temporal episodes (episodic simultaneous type/serial token model; Wyble, Bowman, & Nieuwenstein, 2009). Breaks

  18. Modelling of Attentional Dwell Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Anders; Kyllingsbæk, Søren; Bundesen, Claus

    2009-01-01

    . This confinement of attentional resources leads to the impairment in identifying the second target. With the model, we are able to produce close fits to data from the traditional two target dwell time paradigm. A dwell-time experiment with three targets has also been carried out for individual subjects...... and the model has been extended to fit these data....

  19. Credential Service Provider (CSP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — Provides a VA operated Level 1 and Level 2 credential for individuals who require access to VA applications, yet cannot obtain a credential from another VA accepted...

  20. MAX Provider Characteristics

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The MAX Provider Characteristics (PC) File Implementation Report describes the design, implementation, and results of the MAXPC prototype, which was based on three...

  1. The attentional blink in amblyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popple, Ariella V; Levi, Dennis M

    2008-10-31

    Amblyopia is a disorder of visual acuity in one eye, thought to arise from suppression by the other eye during development of the visual cortex. In the attentional blink, the second of two targets (T2) in a Rapid Serial Visual Presentation (RSVP) stream is difficult to detect and identify when it appears shortly but not immediately after the first target (T1). We investigated the attentional blink seen through amblyopic eyes and found that it was less finely tuned in time than when the 12 amblyopic observers viewed the stimuli with their preferred eyes. T2 performance was slightly better through amblyopic eyes two frames after T1 but worse one frame after T1. Previously (A. V. Popple & D. M. Levi, 2007), we showed that when the targets were red letters in a stream of gray letters (or vice versa), normal observers frequently confused T2 with the letters before and after it (neighbor errors). Observers viewing through their amblyopic eyes made significantly fewer neighbor errors and more T2 responses consisting of letters that were never presented. In normal observers, T1 (on the rare occasions when it was reported incorrectly) was often confused with the letter immediately after it. Viewing through their amblyopic eyes, observers with amblyopia made more responses to the letter immediately before T1. These results suggest that childhood suppression of the input from amblyopic eyes disrupts attentive processing. We hypothesize reduced connectivity between monocularly tuned lower visual areas, subcortical structures that drive foveal attention, and more frontal regions of the brain responsible for letter recognition and working memory. Perhaps when viewing through their amblyopic eyes, the observers were still processing the letter identity of a prior distractor when the color flash associated with the target was detected. After T1, unfocused temporal attention may have bound together erroneously the features of succeeding letters, resulting in the appearance of

  2. What would happen to Superstorm Sandy under the influence of a substantially warmer Atlantic Ocean?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, William K. M.; Shi, J. J.; Tao, W. K.; Kim, K. M.

    2016-01-01

    Based on ensemble numerical simulations, we find that possible responses of Sandy-like superstorms under the influence of a substantially warmer Atlantic Ocean bifurcate into two groups. In the first group, storms are similar to present-day Sandy from genesis to extratropical transition, except they are much stronger, with peak Power Destructive Index (PDI) increased by 50-80%, heavy rain by 30-50%, and maximum storm size (MSS) approximately doubled. In the second group, storms amplify substantially over the interior of the Atlantic warm pool, with peak PDI increased by 100-160%, heavy rain by 70-180%, and MSS more than tripled compared to present-day Superstorm Sandy. These storms when exiting the warm pool, recurve northeastward out to sea, subsequently interact with the developing midlatitude storm by mutual counterclockwise rotation around each other and eventually amplify into a severe Northeastern coastal storm, making landfall over the extreme northeastern regions from Maine to Nova Scotia.

  3. Technique of research of severe accidents and substantiation of safety of nuclear systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, E.A.; Tchenov, S.V.

    2001-01-01

    Work is devoted to development of possible ways of solution of the problems of nuclear safety substantiation. We believe that safety in severe accidents is one of significant factors, which restrict value of nuclear industry in future power production. In connection with it we can conclude followed items: -) Substantiation of safety in severe accidents in nuclear system should be built on a deterministic way of guaranteed exception of heavy consequences; -) It is easy that this aim can be achieved by modeling in functions of common type; -) Main purpose of this work is to show that it is possible to estimate physical allowed state of system in emergency and find of trajectory of heaviest scenarios by optimization procedure; and -) In this work we have developed new method and computer code purposed for study of accident conditions of water cooled un-managed nuclear systems such as cooling ponds of spent fuel, experimental facilities etc. (authors)

  4. Substantiating the Expediency of Costs on Introduction of the System of Economic Security of Enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melikhova Tetiana O.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The article substantiates expediency of introduction of the system of economic security of enterprise on the basis of money flows. The methods proposed in the long-term period stipulate the use as sources of financing: accumulated conditional economic costs, accumulated conditional gross and net money flow; and as costs: cumulative advanced costs and the advanced value of fixed assets. The article suggests methods for calculation of: gross index of conditional yield; gross conditional income of project; gross conditional profitability; gross conditional profitability of money flow. The managerial decision on introduction of the system of economic security of enterprise in the short-term production period has been substantiated on the basis of calculations of the following indicators: gross profitability of annual depreciation; annual gross economic effect; index of conditional yield of the gross money flow; differences between the conditional gross cash flow and the depreciation deductions associated with the implementation of the enterprise’s economic security system.

  5. Extremely short duration high intensity interval training substantially improves insulin action in young healthy males

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babraj, John A; Vollaard, Niels B J; Keast, Cameron

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Traditional high volume aerobic exercise training reduces cardiovascular and metabolic disease risk but involves a substantial time commitment. Extremely low volume high-intensity interval training (HIT) has recently been demonstrated to produce improvements to aerobic function...... cycle sprints per session). Aerobic performance (250-kJ self-paced cycling time trial), and glucose, insulin and NEFA responses to a 75-g oral glucose load (oral glucose tolerance test; OGTT) were determined before and after training. RESULTS: Following 2 weeks of HIT, the area under the plasma glucose......, to substantially improve insulin action in young sedentary subjects is remarkable. This novel time-efficient training paradigm can be used as a strategy to reduce metabolic risk factors in young and middle aged sedentary populations who otherwise would not adhere to time consuming traditional aerobic exercise...

  6. How getting noticed helps getting on: successful attention capture doubles children's cooperative play

    OpenAIRE

    Yuill, Nicola; Hinske, Steve; Williams, Sophie-Elizabeth; Leith, Georgia

    2014-01-01

    Cooperative social interaction is a complex skill that involves maintaining shared attention and continually negotiating a common frame of reference. Privileged in human evolution, cooperation provides support for the development of social-cognitive skills. We hypothesize that providing audio support for capturing playmates' attention will increase cooperative play in groups of young children. Attention capture was manipulated via an audio-augmented toy to boost children's attention bids. Stu...

  7. The development of attention skills in action video game players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dye, M W G; Green, C S; Bavelier, D

    2009-07-01

    Previous research suggests that action video game play improves attentional resources, allowing gamers to better allocate their attention across both space and time. In order to further characterize the plastic changes resulting from playing these video games, we administered the Attentional Network Test (ANT) to action game players and non-playing controls aged between 7 and 22 years. By employing a mixture of cues and flankers, the ANT provides measures of how well attention is allocated to targets as a function of alerting and orienting cues, and to what extent observers are able to filter out the influence of task irrelevant information flanking those targets. The data suggest that action video game players of all ages have enhanced attentional skills that allow them to make faster correct responses to targets, and leaves additional processing resources that spill over to process distractors flanking the targets.

  8. Entirely irrelevant distractors can capture and captivate attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, Sophie; Lavie, Nilli

    2011-12-01

    The question of whether a stimulus onset may capture attention when it is entirely irrelevant to the task and even in the absence of any attentional settings for abrupt onset or any dynamic changes has been highly controversial. In the present study, we designed a novel irrelevant capture task to address this question. Participants engaged in a continuous task making sequential forced choice (letter or digit) responses to each item in an alphanumeric matrix that remained on screen throughout many responses. This task therefore involved no attentional settings for onset or indeed any dynamic changes, yet the brief onset of an entirely irrelevant distractor (a cartoon picture) resulted in significant slowing of the two (Experiment 1) or three (Experiment 2) responses immediately following distractor appearance These findings provide a clear demonstration of attention being captured and captivated by a distractor that is entirely irrelevant to any attentional settings of the task.

  9. Retrospective Attention Gates Discrete Conscious Access to Past Sensory Stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibault, Louis; van den Berg, Ronald; Cavanagh, Patrick; Sergent, Claire

    2016-01-01

    Cueing attention after the disappearance of visual stimuli biases which items will be remembered best. This observation has historically been attributed to the influence of attention on memory as opposed to subjective visual experience. We recently challenged this view by showing that cueing attention after the stimulus can improve the perception of a single Gabor patch at threshold levels of contrast. Here, we test whether this retro-perception actually increases the frequency of consciously perceiving the stimulus, or simply allows for a more precise recall of its features. We used retro-cues in an orientation-matching task and performed mixture-model analysis to independently estimate the proportion of guesses and the precision of non-guess responses. We find that the improvements in performance conferred by retrospective attention are overwhelmingly determined by a reduction in the proportion of guesses, providing strong evidence that attracting attention to the target's location after its disappearance increases the likelihood of perceiving it consciously.

  10. Working memory capacity as controlled attention in tactical decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furley, Philip A; Memmert, Daniel

    2012-06-01

    The controlled attention theory of working memory capacity (WMC, Engle 2002) suggests that WMC represents a domain free limitation in the ability to control attention and is predictive of an individual's capability of staying focused, avoiding distraction and impulsive errors. In the present paper we test the predictive power of WMC in computer-based sport decision-making tasks. Experiment 1 demonstrated that high-WMC athletes were better able at focusing their attention on tactical decision making while blocking out irrelevant auditory distraction. Experiment 2 showed that high-WMC athletes were more successful at adapting their tactical decision making according to the situation instead of relying on prepotent inappropriate decisions. The present results provide additional but also unique support for the controlled attention theory of WMC by demonstrating that WMC is predictive of controlling attention in complex settings among different modalities and highlight the importance of working memory in tactical decision making.

  11. Tracking the allocation of attention using human pupillary oscillations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marnix eNaber

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The muscles that control the pupil are richly innervated by the autonomic nervous system. While there are central pathways that drive pupil dilations in relation to arousal, there is no anatomical evidence that cortical centers involved with visual selective attention innervate the pupil. In this study, we show that such connections must exist. Specifically, we demonstrate a novel Pupil Frequency Tagging (PFT method, where oscillatory changes in stimulus brightness over time are mirrored by pupil constrictions and dilations. We find that the luminance induced pupil oscillations are enhanced when covert attention is directed to the flicker stimulus and when targets are correctly detected in an attentional tracking task. These results suggest that the amplitudes of pupil responses closely follow the allocation of focal visual attention and the encoding of stimuli. PFT provides a new opportunity to study top down visual attention itself as well as identifying the pathways and mechanisms that support this unexpected phenomenon.

  12. Substantial Churn In Health Insurance Offerings By Small Employers, 2014-15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vistnes, Jessica P; Rohde, Frederick; Miller, G Edward; Cooper, Philip F

    2017-09-01

    New data for 2014-15 from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey-Insurance Component longitudinal survey show substantial churn in insurance offers by small employers (those with fifty or fewer workers), with 14.6 percent of employers that offered insurance in 2014 having dropped it in 2015 and 5.5 percent of those that did not offer it adding coverage. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  13. Substantiation for Approaches to Treatment of Latent Autoimmune Diabetes in Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.M. Tykhonova

    2014-10-01

    Conclusions. Analysis of carbohydrate metabolism on the manifestation stage and over time development of latent autoimmune diabetes in adults as well as reduction of β-cells insulin-producing function associated with autoimmune insulitis and progressing while the development of this form of disease, substantiate the rational for insulin administration as this form of diabetes has been diagnosed. If patients with latent autoimmune diabetes in adults have metabolic syndrome clusters it is quite reasonable to add metformin to insulin.

  14. Principles of geological substantiation for toxic waste disposal facilities sites selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khrushchov, D. P.; Matorin, Eu. M.; Shekhunova, S. B.

    2002-01-01

    Industrial, domestic and military activities result in accumulation of toxic and hazardous waste. Disposal of these waste comprises two main approaches: technological processing (utilization and destruction) and landfill. According to concepts and programs of advanced countries technological solutions are preferable, but in fact over 70 % of waste are buried in storages, prevailingly of near surface type. The target of this paper is to present principles of geological substantiation of sites selection for toxic and hazardous waste isolation facilities location. (author)

  15. Substantial improvements not seen in health behaviors following corner store conversions in two Latino food swamps

    OpenAIRE

    Ortega, Alexander N.; Albert, Stephanie L.; Chan-Golston, Alec M.; Langellier, Brent A.; Glik, Deborah C.; Belin, Thomas R.; Garcia, Rosa Elena; Brookmeyer, Ron; Sharif, Mienah Z.; Prelip, Michael L.

    2016-01-01

    Background The effectiveness of food retail interventions is largely undetermined, yet substantial investments have been made to improve access to healthy foods in food deserts and swamps via grocery and corner store interventions. This study evaluated the effects of corner store conversions in East Los Angeles and Boyle Heights, California on perceived accessibility of healthy foods, perceptions of corner stores, store patronage, food purchasing, and eating behaviors. Methods Household data ...

  16. A Paleocene penguin from New Zealand substantiates multiple origins of gigantism in fossil Sphenisciformes

    OpenAIRE

    Mayr, Gerald; Scofield, R. Paul; De Pietri, Vanesa L.; Tennyson, Alan J. D.

    2017-01-01

    One of the notable features of penguin evolution is the occurrence of very large species in the early Cenozoic, whose body size greatly exceeded that of the largest extant penguins. Here we describe a new giant species from the late Paleocene of New Zealand that documents the very early evolution of large body size in penguins. Kumimanu biceae, n. gen. et sp. is larger than all other fossil penguins that have substantial skeletal portions preserved. Several plesiomorphic features place the ne...

  17. Substantial population structure of Plasmodium vivax in Thailand facilitates identification of the sources of residual transmission.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veerayuth Kittichai

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Plasmodium vivax transmission in Thailand has been substantially reduced over the past 10 years, yet it remains highly endemic along international borders. Understanding the genetic relationship of residual parasite populations can help track the origins of the parasites that are reintroduced into malaria-free regions within the country.A total of 127 P. vivax isolates were genotyped from two western provinces (Tak and Kanchanaburi and one eastern province (Ubon Ratchathani of Thailand using 10 microsatellite markers. Genetic diversity was high, but recent clonal expansion was detected in all three provinces. Substantial population structure and genetic differentiation of parasites among provinces suggest limited gene flow among these sites. There was no haplotype sharing among the three sites, and a reduced panel of four microsatellite markers was sufficient to assign the parasites to their provincial origins.Significant parasite genetic differentiation between provinces shows successful interruption of parasite spread within Thailand, but high diversity along international borders implies a substantial parasite population size in these regions. The provincial origin of P. vivax cases can be reliably determined by genotyping four microsatellite markers, which should be useful for monitoring parasite reintroduction after malaria elimination.

  18. Substantial population structure of Plasmodium vivax in Thailand facilitates identification of the sources of residual transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittichai, Veerayuth; Koepfli, Cristian; Nguitragool, Wang; Sattabongkot, Jetsumon; Cui, Liwang

    2017-10-01

    Plasmodium vivax transmission in Thailand has been substantially reduced over the past 10 years, yet it remains highly endemic along international borders. Understanding the genetic relationship of residual parasite populations can help track the origins of the parasites that are reintroduced into malaria-free regions within the country. A total of 127 P. vivax isolates were genotyped from two western provinces (Tak and Kanchanaburi) and one eastern province (Ubon Ratchathani) of Thailand using 10 microsatellite markers. Genetic diversity was high, but recent clonal expansion was detected in all three provinces. Substantial population structure and genetic differentiation of parasites among provinces suggest limited gene flow among these sites. There was no haplotype sharing among the three sites, and a reduced panel of four microsatellite markers was sufficient to assign the parasites to their provincial origins. Significant parasite genetic differentiation between provinces shows successful interruption of parasite spread within Thailand, but high diversity along international borders implies a substantial parasite population size in these regions. The provincial origin of P. vivax cases can be reliably determined by genotyping four microsatellite markers, which should be useful for monitoring parasite reintroduction after malaria elimination.

  19. Aging and involuntary attention capture: electrophysiological evidence for preserved attentional control with advanced age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lien, Mei-Ching; Gemperle, Alison; Ruthruff, Eric

    2011-03-01

    The present study examined whether people become more susceptible to capture by salient objects as they age. Participants searched a target display for a letter in a specific color and indicated its identity. In Experiment 1, this target display was preceded by a non-informative cue display containing one target-color box, one ignored-color box, and two white boxes. On half of the trials, this cue display also contained a salient-but-irrelevant abrupt onset. To assess capture by the target-color cue, we used the N2pc component of the event-related potential, thought to reflect attentional allocation to the left or right visual field. The target-color box in the cue display produced a substantial N2pc effect for younger adults and, most importantly, this effect was not diminished by the presence of an abrupt onset. Therefore, the abrupt onset was unable to capture attention away from the target-color cue. Critically, older adults demonstrated the same resistance to capture by the abrupt onset. Experiment 2 extended these findings to irrelevant color singleton cues. Thus, we argue that the ability to attend to relevant stimuli and resist capture by salient-but-irrelevant stimuli is preserved with advancing age. (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved.

  20. Using Highlighting to Train Attentional Expertise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roads, Brett; Mozer, Michael C; Busey, Thomas A

    2016-01-01

    Acquiring expertise in complex visual tasks is time consuming. To facilitate the efficient training of novices on where to look in these tasks, we propose an attentional highlighting paradigm. Highlighting involves dynamically modulating the saliency of a visual image to guide attention along the fixation path of a domain expert who had previously viewed the same image. In Experiment 1, we trained naive subjects via attentional highlighting on a fingerprint-matching task. Before and after training, we asked subjects to freely inspect images containing pairs of prints and determine whether the prints matched. Fixation sequences were automatically scored for the degree of expertise exhibited using a Bayesian discriminative model of novice and expert gaze behavior. Highlighted training causes gaze behavior to become more expert-like not only on the trained images but also on transfer images, indicating generalization of learning. In Experiment 2, to control for the possibility that the increase in expertise is due to mere exposure, we trained subjects via highlighting of fixation sequences from novices, not experts, and observed no transition toward expertise. In Experiment 3, to determine the specificity of the training effect, we trained subjects with expert fixation sequences from images other than the one being viewed, which preserves coarse-scale statistics of expert gaze but provides no information about fine-grain features. Observing at least a partial transition toward expertise, we obtain only weak evidence that the highlighting procedure facilitates the learning of critical local features. We discuss possible improvements to the highlighting procedure.

  1. Visual attention: The past 25 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, Marisa

    2012-01-01

    This review focuses on covert attention and how it alters early vision. I explain why attention is considered a selective process, the constructs of covert attention, spatial endogenous and exogenous attention, and feature-based attention. I explain how in the last 25 years research on attention has characterized the effects of covert attention on spatial filters and how attention influences the selection of stimuli of interest. This review includes the effects of spatial attention on discriminability and appearance in tasks mediated by contrast sensitivity and spatial resolution; the effects of feature-based attention on basic visual processes, and a comparison of the effects of spatial and feature-based attention. The emphasis of this review is on psychophysical studies, but relevant electrophysiological and neuroimaging studies and models regarding how and where neuronal responses are modulated are also discussed. PMID:21549742

  2. Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder at work: Does it impact job performance?

    OpenAIRE

    Nikos Bozionelos; Giorgos Bozionelos

    2013-01-01

    Avaible online: http://dx.doi.org/10.5465/amp.2013.0107; International audience; The article focuses on Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), which affects a substantial proportion of the adult population and it often remains undiagnosed. Because of its symptoms, which include inability to focus and maintain attention, problems in time management and procrastination, ADHD is suspected as a cause of poor performance in the workplace. A recent contemplation suggests a mechanism for t...

  3. Sustained attention across the lifespan in a sample of 10,000: Dissociating ability and strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Fortenbaugh, Francesca C.; DeGutis, Joseph; Germine, Laura; Wilmer, Jeremy; Grosso, Mallory; Russo, Kathryn; Esterman, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Normal and abnormal differences in sustained visual attention have long been of interest to scientists, educators, and clinicians. Still lacking, however, is a clear understanding of how sustained visual attention varies across the broad sweep of the human lifespan. Here, we fill this gap in two ways. First, powered by an unprecedentedly large, 10,430-person sample, we model age-related differences with substantially greater precision than prior efforts. Second, using the recently developed g...

  4. Provider software buyer's guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-03-01

    To help long term care providers find new ways to improve quality of care and efficiency, Provider magazine presents the fourth annual listing of software firms marketing computer programs for all areas of nursing facility operations. On the following five pages, more than 80 software firms display their wares, with programs such as minimum data set and care planning, dietary, accounting and financials, case mix, and medication administration records. The guide also charts compatible hardware, integration ability, telephone numbers, company contacts, and easy-to-use reader service numbers.

  5. RELIGIOUS DEMOCRATIZATION IN INDONESIA: STRENGTHENING THE PRO-CEDURAL AND SUBSTANTIAL RELIGIOUS DEMOCRACY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eka Hendry AR.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Inspired by the book of Michael Mann about the dark side of democracy that discusses the paradox between the ideality of democratic values and empirical realities of violence in the name of freedom (democracy, this paper begins with the exposure of the paradox, such as the rise of the violent conflict between groups of people (both ethnic and religious-based and the high prevalence of violence between religious groups in Indonesia. Even worse, a very wrenching violence involves state actors (rulers. This paper tries to understand the roots of the paradox, with a look at how the relationship between state and religion and the religious community trend of Indonesia (especially Muslims. The author argues that the democratization of religion is a solution to the issues. To answer what kind of religious democracy lives in Indonesia, the author analyzes through a religious procedural (or constitutional democratic dimension and religious substantial democratic dimension. The phenomenon of disobedience of law and system and the euphoria of law-making that reflects “intolerance” in several places in Indonesia display the fundamental issue in the religious procedural democracy. Whereas in the context of religious substantial democracy, the prevailing trend of religion that serves as a political and economic vehicle and ignores religion as a substantial aspect of the behavior of the Indonesian society has resulted in the marginalization of religious position and function. Then, the infiltration of the model of political Islam has also led to alienation of the character of the Islamic society of Indonesia, from a democratic pattern to a revival (radical one. In this light, the author needs to present a strategy to encourage religious democracy in Indonesia, structurally through formulating the ideal relation model between state and religion and culturally through a substantial pattern of religion embedded with the character of Indonesian religious

  6. Anxiety, attention problems, hyperactivity, and the Aberrant Behavior Checklist in fragile X syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Anne; Raspa, Melissa; Bann, Carla; Bishop, Ellen; Hessl, David; Sacco, Pat; Bailey, Donald B

    2014-01-01

    Behavior problems are a common challenge for individuals with fragile X syndrome (FXS) and constitute the primary clinical outcome domain in trials testing new FXS medications. However, little is known about the relationship between caregiver-reported behavior problems and co-occurring conditions such as anxiety and attention problems. In this study, 350 caregivers, each with at least one son or daughter with full-mutation FXS, rated one of their children with FXS using the Aberrant Behavior Checklist-Community Version (ABC-C); the Anxiety subscale of the Anxiety, Depression, and Mood Scale; and the Attention/Hyperactivity Items from the Symptom Inventories. In addition to examining family consequences of these behaviors, this study also sought to replicate psychometric findings for the ABC-C in FXS, to provide greater confidence for its use in clinical trials with this population. Psychometric properties and baseline ratings of problem behavior were consistent with other recent studies, further establishing the profile of problem behavior in FXS. Cross-sectional analyses suggest that selected dimensions of problem behavior, anxiety, and hyperactivity are age related; thus, age should serve as an important control in any studies of problem behavior in FXS. Measures of anxiety, attention, and hyperactivity were highly associated with behavior problems, suggesting that these factors at least coincide with problem behavior. However, these problems generally did not add substantially to variance in caregiver burden predicted by elevated behavior problems. The results provide further evidence of the incidence of problem behaviors and co-occurring conditions in FXS and the impact of these behaviors on the family. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Towards a trust and attention based management concept : paying attention to attention first

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henny van Lienden; Marco Oteman

    2014-01-01

    Last year in Klagenfurt a poster was presented, in which a first attempt was made to combine institutional economic theory with organizational theory under the motto: transaction costs can be influenced! A framework of 4 theories was constructed of Social Capital theory, Attention Theory, Proactive

  8. Feature-based attentional modulation of orientation perception in somatosensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meike Annika Schweisfurth

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In a reaction time study of human tactile orientation detection the effects of spatial attention and feature-based attention were investigated. Subjects had to give speeded responses to target orientations (parallel and orthogonal to the finger axis in a random stream of oblique tactile distractor orientations presented to their index and ring fingers. Before each block of trials, subjects received a tactile cue at one finger. By manipulating the validity of this cue with respect to its location and orientation (feature, we provided an incentive to subjects to attend spatially to the cued location and only there to the cued orientation. Subjects showed quicker responses to parallel compared to orthogonal targets, pointing to an orientation anisotropy in sensory processing. Also, faster reaction times were observed in location-matched trials, i.e. when targets appeared on the cued finger, representing a perceptual benefit of spatial attention. Most importantly, reaction times were shorter to orientations matching the cue, both at the cued and at the uncued location, documenting a global enhancement of tactile sensation by feature-based attention. This is the first report of a perceptual benefit of feature-based attention outside the spatial focus of attention in somatosensory perception. The similarity to effects of feature-based attention in visual perception supports the notion of matching attentional mechanisms across sensory domains.

  9. Automatic Mechanisms for Social Attention Are Culturally Penetrable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Adam S; Sasaki, Joni Y; German, Tamsin C; Kim, Heejung S

    2017-01-01

    Are mechanisms for social attention influenced by culture? Evidence that social attention is triggered automatically by bottom-up gaze cues and is uninfluenced by top-down verbal instructions may suggest it operates in the same way everywhere. Yet considerations from evolutionary and cultural psychology suggest that specific aspects of one's cultural background may have consequence for the way mechanisms for social attention develop and operate. In more interdependent cultures, the scope of social attention may be broader, focusing on more individuals and relations between those individuals. We administered a multi-gaze cueing task requiring participants to fixate a foreground face flanked by background faces and measured shifts in attention using eye tracking. For European Americans, gaze cueing did not depend on the direction of background gaze cues, suggesting foreground gaze alone drives automatic attention shifting; for East Asians, cueing patterns differed depending on whether the foreground cue matched or mismatched background cues, suggesting foreground and background gaze information were integrated. These results demonstrate that cultural background influences the social attention system by shifting it into a narrow or broad mode of operation and, importantly, provides evidence challenging the assumption that mechanisms underlying automatic social attention are necessarily rigid and impenetrable to culture. Copyright © 2015 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  10. What HERA may provide?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Hannes [DESY, Hamburg (Germany); De Roeck, Albert [CERN, Genf (Switzerland); Bartles, Jochen [Univ. Hamburg (DE). Institut fuer Theoretische Physik II] (and others)

    2008-09-15

    More than 100 people participated in a discussion session at the DIS08 workshop on the topic What HERA may provide. A summary of the discussion with a structured outlook and list of desirable measurements and theory calculations is given. (orig.)

  11. What HERA may provide?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Hannes; De Roeck, Albert; Bartles, Jochen

    2008-09-01

    More than 100 people participated in a discussion session at the DIS08 workshop on the topic What HERA may provide. A summary of the discussion with a structured outlook and list of desirable measurements and theory calculations is given. (orig.)

  12. Provider of Services File

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The POS file consists of two data files, one for CLIA labs and one for 18 other provider types. The file names are CLIA and OTHER. If downloading the file, note it...

  13. Substantiation of ways for improvement of questionnaire-survey method of asssessment of population’s actual nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ieltsova L.B.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Actual nutrition state indicates a significant prevalence of polynutrient deficits in Ukraine. One of the key issues in the fight against alimentary-dependent diseases is monitoring of population’s nutrition status. Only reliable methods for assessing actual nutrition can provide reliable information about the nature of nutrition and establish a relationship with health state. Taking into account the abovementioned, the aim of our study was to compare the existing methods of studying nutrition and nutrition status of individuals or population groups to substantiate and develop a new universal, effective method for assessing nutrition and its subsequent approval. It has been found that existing methods for assessing human food consumption have its disadvantages and advantages and provide the opportunity to receive certain types of nutrition information. There is no single universal method that would allow to make comprehensive assessment of population’s nutrition, including student youth. To solve this issue, we have substantiated and developed a questionnaire for assessing the nutrition of different population groups, including student youth, which has been evaluated and approved by specialists from leading in­stitu­tions in the field of nutrition hygiene, gastroenterology and dietetics. Created survey questionnaire is a universal tool for collecting primary information and providing an opportunity to assess the social and welfare standards of respon­dents, working conditions and living conditions, the presence of hazard factors and bad habits, involvement in sports, anthropometric indicators, as well as it allows to assess the diet, drinking regime, main food product groups consumption, weight of portions, food handling methods, priority and benefits when choosing food, food intake places, which will be taken into account in the future to develop effective measures for the prevention of alimentary and alimentary-dependent diseases.

  14. Familial influences on the full range of variability in attention and activity levels during adolescence: A longitudinal twin study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Chun-Zi; Grant, Julia D; Heath, Andrew C; Reiersen, Angela M; Mulligan, Richard C; Anokhin, Andrey P

    2016-05-01

    To investigate familial influences on the full range of variability in attention and activity across adolescence, we collected maternal ratings of 339 twin pairs at ages 12, 14, and 16, and estimated the transmitted and new familial influences on attention and activity as measured by the Strengths and Weaknesses of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms and Normal Behavior Scale. Familial influences were substantial for both traits across adolescence: genetic influences accounted for 54%-73% (attention) and 31%-73% (activity) of the total variance, and shared environmental influences accounted for 0%-22% of the attention variance and 13%-57% of the activity variance. The longitudinal stability of individual differences in attention and activity was largely accounted for by familial influences transmitted from previous ages. Innovations over adolescence were also partially attributable to familial influences. Studying the full range of variability in attention and activity may facilitate our understanding of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder's etiology and intervention.

  15. Exogenous (automatic) attention to emotional stimuli: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carretié, Luis

    2014-12-01

    Current knowledge on the architecture of exogenous attention (also called automatic, bottom-up, or stimulus-driven attention, among other terms) has been mainly obtained from studies employing neutral, anodyne stimuli. Since, from an evolutionary perspective, exogenous attention can be understood as an adaptive tool for rapidly detecting salient events, reorienting processing resources to them, and enhancing processing mechanisms, emotional events (which are, by definition, salient for the individual) would seem crucial to a comprehensive understanding of this process. This review, focusing on the visual modality, describes 55 experiments in which both emotional and neutral irrelevant distractors are presented at the same time as ongoing task targets. Qualitative and, when possible, meta-analytic descriptions of results are provided. The most conspicuous result is that, as confirmed by behavioral and/or neural indices, emotional distractors capture exogenous attention to a significantly greater extent than do neutral distractors. The modulatory effects of the nature of distractors capturing attention, of the ongoing task characteristics, and of individual differences, previously proposed as mediating factors, are also described. Additionally, studies reviewed here provide temporal and spatial information-partially absent in traditional cognitive models-on the neural basis of preattention/evaluation, reorienting, and sensory amplification, the main subprocesses involved in exogenous attention. A model integrating these different levels of information is proposed. The present review, which reveals that there are several key issues for which experimental data are surprisingly scarce, confirms the relevance of including emotional distractors in studies on exogenous attention.

  16. A Real Attention-Getter

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    While most parents would agree that playing videos games is the antithesis of time well spent for their children, recent advances involving NASA biofeedback technology are proving otherwise. The same techniques used to measure brain activity in NASA pilots during flight simulation exercises are now a part of a revolutionary video game system that is helping to improve overall mental awareness for Americans of all ages, including those who suffer from Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD).

  17. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meek, D C

    1990-09-01

    The attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder is a common chronic disorder of childhood. No precise definition or approach to treatment is universally accepted; however, an extensive literature exists on which to base a rational approach to management. Symptomatic treatment with stimulant medication in selected patients is effective and safe, but not curative. Successful outcome depends on multimodality therapy, involving parents, teachers, and other professionals. Associated conditions, including learning disorders and emotional disturbance, must be identified and dealt with.

  18. Early vision and visual attention

    OpenAIRE

    Gvozdenović Vasilije P.

    2003-01-01

    The question whether visual perception is spontaneous, sudden or is running through several phases, mediated by higher cognitive processes, was raised ever since the early work of Gestalt psychologists. In the early 1980s, Treisman proposed the feature integration theory of attention (FIT), based on the findings of neuroscience. Soon after publishing her theory a new scientific approach appeared investigating several visual perception phenomena. The most widely researched were the key constru...

  19. Spatial attention during saccade decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonikaitis, Donatas; Klapetek, Anna; Deubel, Heiner

    2017-07-01

    Behavioral measures of decision making are usually limited to observations of decision outcomes. In the present study, we made use of the fact that oculomotor and sensory selection are closely linked to track oculomotor decision making before oculomotor responses are made. We asked participants to make a saccadic eye movement to one of two memorized target locations and observed that visual sensitivity increased at both the chosen and the nonchosen saccade target locations, with a clear bias toward the chosen target. The time course of changes in visual sensitivity was related to saccadic latency, with the competition between the chosen and nonchosen targets resolved faster before short-latency saccades. On error trials, we observed an increased competition between the chosen and nonchosen targets. Moreover, oculomotor selection and visual sensitivity were influenced by top-down and bottom-up factors as well as by selection history and predicted the direction of saccades. Our findings demonstrate that saccade decisions have direct visual consequences and show that decision making can be traced in the human oculomotor system well before choices are made. Our results also indicate a strong association between decision making, saccade target selection, and visual sensitivity. NEW & NOTEWORTHY We show that saccadic decisions can be tracked by measuring spatial attention. Spatial attention is allocated in parallel to the two competing saccade targets, and the time course of spatial attention differs for fast-slow and for correct-erroneous decisions. Saccade decisions take the form of a competition between potential saccade goals, which is associated with spatial attention allocation to those locations. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  20. Building Service Provider Capabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandl, Kristin; Jaura, Manya; Ørberg Jensen, Peter D.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we study whether and how the interaction between clients and the service providers contributes to the development of capabilities in service provider firms. In situations where such a contribution occurs, we analyze how different types of activities in the production process...... process. We find that clients influence the development of human capital capabilities and management capabilities in reciprocally produced services. While in sequential produced services clients influence the development of organizational capital capabilities and management capital capabilities....... of the services, such as sequential or reciprocal task activities, influence the development of different types of capabilities. We study five cases of offshore-outsourced knowledge-intensive business services that are distinguished according to their reciprocal or sequential task activities in their production...

  1. Dissociations between developmental dyslexias and attention deficits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukov, Limor; Friedmann, Naama; Shalev, Lilach; Khentov-Kraus, Lilach; Shalev, Nir; Lorber, Rakefet; Guggenheim, Revital

    2014-01-01

    We examine whether attention deficits underlie developmental dyslexia, or certain types of dyslexia, by presenting double dissociations between the two. We took into account the existence of distinct types of dyslexia and of attention deficits, and focused on dyslexias that may be thought to have an attentional basis: letter position dyslexia (LPD), in which letters migrate within words, attentional dyslexia (AD), in which letters migrate between words, neglect dyslexia, in which letters on one side of the word are omitted or substituted, and surface dyslexia, in which words are read via the sublexical route. We tested 110 children and adults with developmental dyslexia and/or attention deficits, using extensive batteries of reading and attention. For each participant, the existence of dyslexia and the dyslexia type were tested using reading tests that included stimuli sensitive to the various dyslexia types. Attention deficit and its type was established through attention tasks assessing sustained, selective, orienting, and executive attention functioning. Using this procedure, we identified 55 participants who showed a double dissociation between reading and attention: 28 had dyslexia with normal attention and 27 had attention deficits with normal reading. Importantly, each dyslexia with suspected attentional basis dissociated from attention: we found 21 individuals with LPD, 13 AD, 2 neglect dyslexia, and 12 surface dyslexia without attention deficits. Other dyslexia types (vowel dyslexia, phonological dyslexia, visual dyslexia) also dissociated from attention deficits. Examination of 55 additional individuals with both a specific dyslexia and a certain attention deficit found no attention function that was consistently linked with any dyslexia type. Specifically, LPD and AD dissociated from selective attention, neglect dyslexia dissociated from orienting, and surface dyslexia dissociated from sustained and executive attention. These results indicate that

  2. 29 CFR 785.43 - Medical attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Medical attention. 785.43 Section 785.43 Labor Regulations..., Medical Attention, Civic and Charitable Work, and Suggestion Systems § 785.43 Medical attention. Time spent by an employee in waiting for and receiving medical attention on the premises or at the direction...

  3. The pharmacology of visuospatial attention and inhibition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Logemann, H.N.A.

    2013-01-01

    Attention and inhibition are of vital importance in everyday functioning. Problems of attention and inhibition are central to disorders such as Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Both bias and disengagement key components of visuospatial attention. Bias refers to neuronal signals that

  4. Attentional Disengagement in Adults with Williams Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lense, Miriam D.; Key, Alexandra P.; Dykens, Elisabeth M.

    2011-01-01

    Williams syndrome (WS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by a distinctive behavioral and cognitive profile, including widespread problems with attention. However, the specific nature of their attentional difficulties, such as inappropriate attentional allocation and/or poor attentional disengagement abilities, has yet to be…

  5. Why healthcare providers merge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postma, Jeroen; Roos, Anne-Fleur

    2016-04-01

    In many OECD countries, healthcare sectors have become increasingly concentrated as a result of mergers. However, detailed empirical insight into why healthcare providers merge is lacking. Also, we know little about the influence of national healthcare policies on mergers. We fill this gap in the literature by conducting a survey study on mergers among 848 Dutch healthcare executives, of which 35% responded (resulting in a study sample of 239 executives). A total of 65% of the respondents was involved in at least one merger between 2005 and 2012. During this period, Dutch healthcare providers faced a number of policy changes, including increasing competition, more pressure from purchasers, growing financial risks, de-institutionalisation of long-term care and decentralisation of healthcare services to municipalities. Our empirical study shows that healthcare providers predominantly merge to improve the provision of healthcare services and to strengthen their market position. Also efficiency and financial reasons are important drivers of merger activity in healthcare. We find that motives for merger are related to changes in health policies, in particular to the increasing pressure from competitors, insurers and municipalities.

  6. PROVIDING WOMEN, KEPT MEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mojola, Sanyu A

    2014-01-01

    This paper draws on ethnographic and interview based fieldwork to explore accounts of intimate relationships between widowed women and poor young men that emerged in the wake of economic crisis and a devastating HIV epidemic among the Luo ethnic group in Western Kenya. I show how the cooptation of widow inheritance practices in the wake of an overwhelming number of widows as well as economic crisis resulted in widows becoming providing women and poor young men becoming kept men. I illustrate how widows in this setting, by performing a set of practices central to what it meant to be a man in this society – pursuing and providing for their partners - were effectively doing masculinity. I will also show how young men, rather than being feminized by being kept, deployed other sets of practices to prove their masculinity and live in a manner congruent with cultural ideals. I argue that ultimately, women’s practice of masculinity in large part seemed to serve patriarchal ends. It not only facilitated the fulfillment of patriarchal expectations of femininity – to being inherited – but also served, in the end, to provide a material base for young men’s deployment of legitimizing and culturally valued sets of masculine practice. PMID:25489121

  7. The role of dopamine in human addiction: from reward to motivated attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franken, Ingmar H A; Booij, Jan; van den Brink, Wim

    2005-12-05

    There is general consensus among preclinical researchers that dopamine plays an important role in the development and persistence of addiction. However, the precise role of dopamine in addictive behaviors is far from clear and only a few clinical studies on the role of dopamine in human addiction have been conducted so far. The present paper reviews studies addressing the role of dopamine in humans. There is substantial and consistent evidence that dopamine is involved in the experience of drug reward in humans. Dopamine may also be involved in motivational processes such as drug craving. However, given the inconsistent findings of studies using dopamine receptor (ant)agonists, the role of dopamine in the experience of craving is far from resolved. Recent theories claiming that dopamine signals salience and makes the brain paying attention to biological relevant stimuli may provide an interesting framework for explaining addictive behaviors. There is accumulating evidence that patients with drug and alcohol addiction have an aberrant focus on drug-related stimuli. Although there is some preliminary support for the role of dopamine in these attention processes, more studies have to be carried out in order to test the validity of these theories in human subjects.

  8. Chronic neglect. Stronger incentives needed to focus providers' attention on costly and common medical problems: IOM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Paul

    2012-02-06

    A new IOM report says the epidemic of chronic illness is nearing a crisis level, driven by a system that rewards treatment for a specific condition and not broader overall health. "The healthcare system doesn't really mind more people with more chronic disease. That's the elephant in the room," says Dr. Patrick Remington, left, who helped oversee the IOM report.

  9. Substantiated childhood maltreatment and young adulthood cannabis use disorders: A pre-birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abajobir, Amanuel Alemu; Najman, Jake Moses; Williams, Gail; Strathearn, Lane; Clavarino, Alexandra; Kisely, Steve

    2017-10-01

    This study investigates the association between exposure to prospectively-substantiated childhood maltreatment between 0 and 14 years of age and lifetime cannabis use, abuse and dependence reported at 21 years. Data were taken from 2526 (51.6% female) participants in the Mater Hospital-University of Queensland Study of Pregnancy, a pre-birth, prospective, cohort study. Prospectively-substantiated cases of childhood maltreatment, reported to the government child protection agencies between 0 and 14 years of age, were linked to CIDI DSM-IV self-report data from the 21-year follow-up. Exposure to any childhood maltreatment, and childhood neglect in particular, predicted subsequent cannabis abuse with adjusted odds ratios (AORs) of 1.79 and 2.62, respectively. Any childhood maltreatment, physical abuse, emotional abuse and neglect predicted cannabis dependence with AORs of 2.47, 2.81, 2.44 and 2.68, respectively. The associations for an early age of onset of cannabis abuse and dependence were significant and consistent for maltreated children. In addition, frequency of maltreatment substantiations predicted cannabis abuse, dependence and an early age of onset of these disorders. The AORs for cannabis ever use without any DSM-IV cannabis disorder were 1.78 for any maltreatment and 2.15 for emotional abuse. Any childhood maltreatment and neglect predicted lifetime ever cannabis use, as well as cannabis use disorder. There was little evidence for any interaction between gender and different forms of childhood maltreatment and its association with cannabis use disorders. Physical abuse, emotional abuse and neglect, as well as multiple episodes of maltreatment independently predicted cannabis use disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. To what extent can isotopes help substantiate natural attenuation of chlorinated ethenes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badin, A.; Broholm, Mette Martina; Hunkeler, D.

    to which isotopes could help substantiate natural attenuation of chlorinated ethenes at the field scale. Our work hence aims at exploring the latter based on data acquired in 2006 in a site located in Denmark which is contaminated with PCE and its end-products TCE, cDCE, and VC. Previous work on this site...... has enabled to demonstrate that PCE and TCE were undergoing reductive dechlorination while cDCE would be at least partially degraded through reductive dechlorination1. However, the magnitude of the contaminants attenuation by biodegradation was not evaluated. Based on simple modeling including...

  11. Method for the substantial reduction of quenching effects in luminescence spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demas, J.N.; Jones, W.M.; Keller, R.A.

    1987-06-26

    Method for reducing quenching effects in analytical luminescence measurements. Two embodiments of the present invention are described which relate to a form of time resolution based on the amplitudes and phase shifts of modulated emission signals. In the first embodiment, the measured modulated emission signal is substantially independent of sample quenching at sufficiently high frequencies. In the second embodiment, the modulated amplitude and the phase shift between the emission signal and the excitation source are simultaneously measured. Using either method, the observed modulated amplitude may be reduced to its unquenched value. 3 figs.

  12. Further substantial improvement of interventional diagnosis and treatment via portal vein system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Weizhu; Chen Yongde

    2006-01-01

    Along with the development of interventional appliances and proficiency of operational skills, the interventional diagnosis and treatment via hepatic portal vein system have achieved great progress and improvement. However, in order to further exploit the advantages of interventional diagnosis and treatment, the review of the anatomical structures, normal aberrance of portal venous system were needed. Getting familiar with pathologic condition to discover the new interventional appliances and embolic agents, and then in term of conduct the research on a very tough substantial base in a down-to-earth manner were important. (authors)

  13. Vegetarianism and food perception : selective visual attention to meat pictures

    OpenAIRE

    Stockburger, Jessica; Renner, Britta; Weike, Almut I.; Hamm, Alfons O.; Schupp, Harald Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Vegetarianism provides a model system to examine the impact of negative affect towards meat, based on ideational reasoning. It was hypothesized that meat stimuli are efficient attention catchers in vegetarians. Event-related brain potential recordings served to index selective attention processes at the level of initial stimulus perception. Consistent with the hypothesis, late positive potentials to meat pictures were enlarged in vegetarians compared to omnivores. This effect was specific fo...

  14. Aeromedical decision making in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, David J P; Navathe, Pooshan D; Drane, A Michael

    2011-05-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder is a problematic diagnosis in the context of aeromedical certification. Certain characteristics of the disorder such as impaired attention potentially affect the safe conduct of flying. Pharmacological treatment with stimulants also has issues surrounding short half-lives and effects on the recognition of fatigue. This article gives a broad overview of the issues involved and provides certification guidelines as adopted in the Australian Civil Aviation Safety Authority which may be helpful if adopted by other certification bodies.

  15. Providing Compassion through Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydia Royeen

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Meg Kral, MS, OTR/L, CLT, is the cover artist for the Summer 2015 issue of The Open Journal of Occupational Therapy. Her untitled piece of art is an oil painting and is a re-creation of a photograph taken while on vacation. Meg is currently supervisor of outpatient services at Rush University Medical Center. She is lymphedema certified and has a specific interest in breast cancer lymphedema. Art and occupational therapy serve similar purposes for Meg: both provide a sense of flow. She values the outcomes, whether it is a piece of art or improved functional status

  16. Attention training through gaze-contingent feedback: Effects on reappraisal and negative emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Alvaro; Everaert, Jonas; Koster, Ernst H W

    2016-10-01

    Reappraisal is central to emotion regulation but its mechanisms are unclear. This study tested the theoretical prediction that emotional attention bias is linked to reappraisal of negative emotion-eliciting stimuli and subsequent emotional responding using a novel attentional control training. Thirty-six undergraduates were randomly assigned to either the control or the attention training condition and were provided with different task instructions while they performed an interpretation task. Whereas control participants freely created interpretations, participants in the training condition were instructed to allocate attention toward positive words to efficiently create positive interpretations (i.e., recruiting attentional control) while they were provided with gaze-contingent feedback on their viewing behavior. Transfer to attention bias and reappraisal success was evaluated using a dot-probe task and an emotion regulation task which were administered before and after the training. The training condition was effective at increasing attentional control and resulted in beneficial effects on the transfer tasks. Analyses supported a serial indirect effect with larger attentional control acquisition in the training condition leading to negative attention bias reduction, in turn predicting greater reappraisal success which reduced negative emotions. Our results indicate that attentional mechanisms influence the use of reappraisal strategies and its impact on negative emotions. The novel attention training highlights the importance of tailored feedback to train attentional control. The findings provide an important step toward personalized delivery of attention training. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Attention-dependent sound offset-related brain potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horváth, János

    2016-05-01

    When performing sensory tasks, knowing the potentially occurring goal-relevant and irrelevant stimulus events allows the establishment of selective attention sets, which result in enhanced sensory processing of goal-relevant events. In the auditory modality, such enhancements are reflected in the increased amplitude of the N1 ERP elicited by the onsets of task-relevant sounds. It has been recently suggested that ERPs to task-relevant sound offsets are similarly enhanced in a tone-focused state in comparison to a distracted one. The goal of the present study was to explore the influence of attention on ERPs elicited by sound offsets. ERPs elicited by tones in a duration-discrimination task were compared to ERPs elicited by the same tones in not-tone-focused attentional setting. Tone offsets elicited a consistent, attention-dependent biphasic (positive-negative--P1-N1) ERP waveform for tone durations ranging from 150 to 450 ms. The evidence, however, did not support the notion that the offset-related ERPs reflected an offset-specific attention set: The offset-related ERPs elicited in a duration-discrimination condition (in which offsets were task relevant) did not significantly differ from those elicited in a pitch-discrimination condition (in which the offsets were task irrelevant). Although an N2 reflecting the processing of offsets in task-related terms contributed to the observed waveform, this contribution was separable from the offset-related P1 and N1. The results demonstrate that when tones are attended, offset-related ERPs may substantially overlap endogenous ERP activity in the postoffset interval irrespective of tone duration, and attention differences may cause ERP differences in such postoffset intervals. © 2016 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  18. Reliable gains? Evidence for substantially underpowered designs in studies of working memory training transfer to fluid intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogg, Tim; Lasecki, Leanne

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, cognitive scientists and commercial interests (e.g., Fit Brains, Lumosity) have focused research attention and financial resources on cognitive tasks, especially working memory tasks, to explore and exploit possible transfer effects to general cognitive abilities, such as fluid intelligence. The increased research attention has produced mixed findings, as well as contention about the disposition of the evidence base. To address this contention, Au et al. (2014) recently conducted a meta-analysis of extant controlled experimental studies of n-back task training transfer effects on measures of fluid intelligence in healthy adults; the results of which showed a small training transfer effect. Using several approaches, the current review evaluated and re-analyzed the meta-analytic data for the presence of two different forms of small-study effects: (1) publication bias in the presence of low power and; (2) low power in the absence of publication bias. The results of these approaches showed no evidence of selection bias in the working memory training literature, but did show evidence of small-study effects related to low power in the absence of publication bias. While the effect size estimate identified by Au et al. (2014) provided the most precise estimate to date, it should be interpreted in the context of a uniformly low-powered base of evidence. The present work concludes with a brief set of considerations for assessing the adequacy of a body of research findings for the application of meta-analytic techniques.

  19. Emotional cues enhance the attentional effects on spatial and temporal resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocanegra, Bruno R; Zeelenberg, René

    2011-12-01

    In the present study, we demonstrated that the emotional significance of a spatial cue enhances the effect of covert attention on spatial and temporal resolution (i.e., our ability to discriminate small spatial details and fast temporal flicker). Our results indicated that fearful face cues, as compared with neutral face cues, enhanced the attentional benefits in spatial resolution but also enhanced the attentional deficits in temporal resolution. Furthermore, we observed that the overall magnitudes of individuals' attentional effects correlated strongly with the magnitude of the emotion × attention interaction effect. Combined, these findings provide strong support for the idea that emotion enhances the strength of a cue's attentional response.

  20. Attentional bias in snus users: an experimental study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rune Aune Mentzoni

    Full Text Available The use of nicotine in the form of "snus" is substantial and increasing in some geographic areas, in particular among young people. It has previously been suggested that addictions may operate through a mechanism of attentional bias, in which stimuli representative of the dependent substance increase in salience, thus increasing the addictive behavior. However, this hypothesis has not been tested for the case of snus. The current experiment used a modified Stroop task and a dot-probe task to investigate whether 40 snus users show an attentional bias towards snus-relevant stimuli, compared to 40 non-snus users. There were no significant differences between the two groups on reaction times or accuracy on either Stroop or dot-probe task, thus failing to show an attentional bias towards snus-relevant stimuli for snus users. This could imply that other mechanisms may contribute to maintenance of snus use than for other addictions. However, this is the first experimental study investigating attentional bias in snus users, and more research is warranted.

  1. Multimodal exercise training in multiple sclerosis: A randomized controlled trial in persons with substantial mobility disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandroff, Brian M; Bollaert, Rachel E; Pilutti, Lara A; Peterson, Melissa L; Baynard, Tracy; Fernhall, Bo; McAuley, Edward; Motl, Robert W

    2017-10-01

    Mobility disability is a common, debilitating feature of multiple sclerosis (MS). Exercise training has been identified as an approach to improve MS-related mobility disability. However, exercise randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on mobility in MS have generally not selectively targeted those with the onset of irreversible mobility disability. The current multi-site RCT compared the efficacy of 6-months of supervised, multimodal exercise training with an active control condition for improving mobility, gait, physical fitness, and cognitive outcomes in persons with substantial MS-related mobility disability. 83 participants with substantial MS-related mobility disability underwent initial mobility, gait, fitness, and cognitive processing speed assessments and were randomly assigned to 6-months of supervised multimodal (progressive aerobic, resistance, and balance) exercise training (intervention condition) or stretching-and-toning activities (control condition). Participants completed the same outcome assessments halfway through and immediately following the 6-month study period. There were statistically significant improvements in six-minute walk performance (F(2158)=3.12, p=0.05, η p 2 =0.04), peak power output (F(2150)=8.16, pmobility disability. This is critical for informing the development of multi-site exercise rehabilitation programs in larger samples of persons with MS-related mobility disability. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Neighborhood-level social processes and substantiated cases of child maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnar, Beth E; Goerge, Robert M; Gilsanz, Paola; Hill, Andrea; Subramanian, S V; Holton, John K; Duncan, Dustin T; Beatriz, Elizabeth D; Beardslee, William R

    2016-01-01

    Child maltreatment is a preventable public health problem. Research has demonstrated that neighborhood structural factors (e.g. poverty, crime) can influence the proportion of a neighborhood's children who are victims of maltreatment. A newer strategy is the identification of potentially modifiable social processes at the neighborhood level that can also influence maltreatment. Toward this end, this study examines neighborhood-level data (maltreatment cases substantiated by Illinois' child protection agency, 1995-2005, social processes measured by the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods, U.S. Census data, proportions of neighborhoods on public assistance, and crime data) that were linked across clusters of contiguous, relatively homogenous Chicago, IL census tracts with respect to racial/ethnic and socioeconomic composition. Our analysis-an ecological-level, repeated cross-sectional design utilizing random-intercept logit models-with a sensitivity analysis using spatial models to control for spatial autocorrelation-revealed consistent associations between neighborhood social processes and maltreatment. Neighborhoods higher in collective efficacy, intergenerational closure, and social networks, and lower in disorder had lower proportions of neglect, physical abuse, and sexual abuse substantiated cases, controlling for differences in structural factors. Higher collective efficacy and social network size also predicted a lower proportion of substance-exposed infants. This research indicates that strategies to mobilize neighborhood-level protective factors may decrease child maltreatment more effectively than individual and family-focused efforts alone. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Substantial equivalence--an appropriate paradigm for the safety assessment of genetically modified foods?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuiper, Harry A.; Kleter, Gijs A.; Noteborn, Hub P.J.M.; Kok, Esther J.

    2002-01-01

    Safety assessment of genetically modified food crops is based on the concept of substantial equivalence, developed by OECD and further elaborated by FAO/WHO. The concept embraces a comparative approach to identify possible differences between the genetically modified food and its traditional comparator, which is considered to be safe. The concept is not a safety assessment in itself, it identifies hazards but does not assess them. The outcome of the comparative exercise will further guide the safety assessment, which may include (immuno)toxicological and biochemical testing. Application of the concept of substantial equivalence may encounter practical difficulties: (i) the availability of near-isogenic parental lines to compare the genetically modified food with; (ii) limited availability of methods for the detection of (un)intended effects resulting from the genetic modification; and (iii) limited information on natural variations in levels of relevant crop constituents. In order to further improve the methodology for identification of unintended effects, new 'profiling' methods are recommended. Such methods will allow for the screening of potential changes in the modified host organism at different integration levels, i.e. at the genome level, during gene expression and protein translation, and at the level of cellular metabolism

  4. Pharmaceutical manufacturing facility discharges can substantially increase the pharmaceutical load to U.S. wastewaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Tia-Marie; Phillips, Patrick J.; Kolpin, Dana W.; Colella, Kaitlyn M.; Furlong, Edward T.; Foreman, William T.; Gray, James L.

    2018-01-01

    Discharges from pharmaceutical manufacturing facilities (PMFs) previously have been identified as important sources of pharmaceuticals to the environment. Yet few studies are available to establish the influence of PMFs on the pharmaceutical source contribution to wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and waterways at the national scale. Consequently, a national network of 13 WWTPs receiving PMF discharges, six WWTPs with no PMF input, and one WWTP that transitioned through a PMF closure were selected from across the United States to assess the influence of PMF inputs on pharmaceutical loading to WWTPs. Effluent samples were analyzed for 120 pharmaceuticals and pharmaceutical degradates. Of these, 33 pharmaceuticals had concentrations substantially higher in PMF-influenced effluent (maximum 555,000 ng/L) compared to effluent from control sites (maximum 175 ng/L). Concentrations in WWTP receiving PMF input are variable, as discharges from PMFs are episodic, indicating that production activities can vary substantially over relatively short (several months) periods and have the potential to rapidly transition to other pharmaceutical products. Results show that PMFs are an important, national-scale source of pharmaceuticals to the environment.

  5. Videolaryngoscopes differ substantially in illumination of the oral cavity: A manikin study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbe MA Pieters

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Insufficient illumination of the oral cavity during endotracheal intubation may result in suboptimal conditions. Consequently, suboptimal illumination and laryngoscopy may lead to potential unwanted trauma to soft tissues of the pharyngeal mucosa. We investigated illumination of the oral cavity by different videolaryngoscopes (VLS in a manikin model. Methods: We measured light intensity from the mouth opening of a Laerdal intubation trainer comparing different direct and indirect VLS at three occasions, resembling optimal to less-than-optimal intubation conditions; at the photographer′s dark room, in an operating theatre and outdoors in bright sunlight. Results: Substantial differences in luminance were detected between VLS. The use of LED light significantly improved light production. All VLS produced substantial higher luminance values in a well-luminated environment compared to the dark photographer′s room. The experiments outside-in bright sunlight-were interfered with by direct sunlight penetration through the synthetic material of the manikin, making correct measurement of luminance in the oropharynx invalid. Conclusion: Illumination of the oral cavity differs widely among direct and indirect VLS. The clinician should be aware of the possibility of suboptimal illumination of the oral cavity and the potential risk this poses for the patient.

  6. Selective attention, working memory, and animal intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matzel, Louis D; Kolata, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates that the storage and processing capabilities of the human working memory system co-vary with individuals' performance on a wide range of cognitive tasks. The ubiquitous nature of this relationship suggests that variations in these processes may underlie individual differences in intelligence. Here we briefly review relevant data which supports this view. Furthermore, we emphasize an emerging literature describing a trait in genetically heterogeneous mice that is quantitatively and qualitatively analogous to general intelligence (g) in humans. As in humans, this animal analog of g co-varies with individual differences in both storage and processing components of the working memory system. Absent some of the complications associated with work with human subjects (e.g., phonological processing), this work with laboratory animals has provided an opportunity to assess otherwise intractable hypotheses. For instance, it has been possible in animals to manipulate individual aspects of the working memory system (e.g., selective attention), and to observe causal relationships between these variables and the expression of general cognitive abilities. This work with laboratory animals has coincided with human imaging studies (briefly reviewed here) which suggest that common brain structures (e.g., prefrontal cortex) mediate the efficacy of selective attention and the performance of individuals on intelligence test batteries. In total, this evidence suggests an evolutionary conservation of the processes that co-vary with and/or regulate "intelligence" and provides a framework for promoting these abilities in both young and old animals.

  7. Visual attention and the neuroimage bias.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D A Baker

    Full Text Available Several highly-cited experiments have presented evidence suggesting that neuroimages may unduly bias laypeople's judgments of scientific research. This finding has been especially worrisome to the legal community in which neuroimage techniques may be used to produce evidence of a person's mental state. However, a more recent body of work that has looked directly at the independent impact of neuroimages on layperson decision-making (both in legal and more general arenas, and has failed to find evidence of bias. To help resolve these conflicting findings, this research uses eye tracking technology to provide a measure of attention to different visual representations of neuroscientific data. Finding an effect of neuroimages on the distribution of attention would provide a potential mechanism for the influence of neuroimages on higher-level decisions. In the present experiment, a sample of laypeople viewed a vignette that briefly described a court case in which the defendant's actions might have been explained by a neurological defect. Accompanying these vignettes was either an MRI image of the defendant's brain, or a bar graph depicting levels of brain activity-two competing visualizations that have been the focus of much of the previous research on the neuroimage bias. We found that, while laypeople differentially attended to neuroimagery relative to the bar graph, this did not translate into differential judgments in a way that would support the idea of a neuroimage bias.

  8. Face processing is gated by visual spatial attention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy E Crist

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Human perception of faces is widely believed to rely on automatic processing by a domain-specifi c, modular component of the visual system. Scalp-recorded event-related potential (ERP recordings indicate that faces receive special stimulus processing at around 170 ms poststimulus onset, in that faces evoke an enhanced occipital negative wave, known as the N170, relative to the activity elicited by other visual objects. As predicted by modular accounts of face processing, this early face-specifi c N170 enhancement has been reported to be largely immune to the infl uence of endogenous processes such as task strategy or attention. However, most studies examining the infl uence of attention on face processing have focused on non-spatial attention, such as object-based attention, which tend to have longer-latency effects. In contrast, numerous studies have demonstrated that visual spatial attention can modulate the processing of visual stimuli as early as 80 ms poststimulus – substantially earlier than the N170. These temporal characteristics raise the question of whether this initial face-specifi c processing is immune to the infl uence of spatial attention. This question was addressed in a dual-visualstream ERP study in which the infl uence of spatial attention on the face-specifi c N170 could be directly examined. As expected, early visual sensory responses to all stimuli presented in an attended location were larger than responses evoked by those same stimuli when presented in an unattended location. More importantly, a signifi cant face-specifi c N170 effect was elicited by faces that appeared in an attended location, but not in an unattended one. In summary, early face-specifi c processing is not automatic, but rather, like other objects, strongly depends on endogenous factors such as the allocation of spatial attention. Moreover, these fi ndings underscore the extensive infl uence that top-down attention exercises over the processing of

  9. Energy providers: customer expectations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pridham, N.F.

    1997-01-01

    The deregulation of the gas and electric power industries, and how it will impact on customer service and pricing rates was discussed. This paper described the present situation, reviewed core competencies, and outlined future expectations. The bottom line is that major energy consumers are very conscious of energy costs and go to great lengths to keep them under control. At the same time, solutions proposed to reduce energy costs must benefit all classes of consumers, be they industrial, commercial, institutional or residential. Deregulation and competition at an accelerated pace is the most likely answer. This may be forced by external forces such as foreign energy providers who are eager to enter the Canadian energy market. It is also likely that the competition and convergence between gas and electricity is just the beginning, and may well be overshadowed by other deregulated industries as they determine their core competencies

  10. Trial-to-Trial Fluctuations in Attentional State and Their Relation to Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unsworth, Nash; McMillan, Brittany D.

    2014-01-01

    Trial-to-trial fluctuations in attentional state while performing measures of intelligence were examined in the current study. Participants performed various measures of fluid and crystallized intelligence while also providing attentional state ratings prior to each trial. It was found that pre-trial attentional state ratings strongly predicted…

  11. Attention and Working Memory Capacity: Insights from Blocking, Highlighting, and Knowledge Restructuring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sewell, David K.; Lewandowsky, Stephan

    2012-01-01

    The concept of attention is central to theorizing in learning as well as in working memory. However, research to date has yet to establish how attention as construed in one domain maps onto the other. We investigate two manifestations of attention in category- and cue-learning to examine whether they might provide common ground between learning…

  12. Components of Attention in Synesthesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Thomas Alrik; Nordfang, Maria; Pedersen, Michael Nygaard

    2013-01-01

    -color synesthesia (Mattingley, 2009). Results from the present experiment show that synesthesia affects both speed of processing (C) and the number of objects that can be retained in visual short-term memory (K). Participants were faster at encoding characters that were colored congruently with their synesthesia....... In addition, the capacity of the visual short-term memory increased slightly in the congruent compared to the incongruent condition. Interestingly, congruent trials compared to incongruent trials did not seem to afford bene¿ ts to attentional selectivity (a), nor did they affect the threshold for visual...

  13. Visual Attention to Radar Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moray, N.; Richards, M.; Brophy, C.

    1984-01-01

    A model is described which predicts the allocation of attention to the features of a radar display. It uses the growth of uncertainty and the probability of near collision to call the eye to a feature of the display. The main source of uncertainty is forgetting following a fixation, which is modelled as a two dimensional diffusion process. The model was used to predict information overload in intercept controllers, and preliminary validation obtained by recording eye movements of intercept controllers in simulated and live (practice) interception.

  14. Reducing attentional capture of emotion by broadening attention: increased global attention reduces early electrophysiological responses to negative stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gable, Philip A; Harmon-Jones, Eddie

    2012-05-01

    Decades of research has shown the influence of emotion on attentional capture, and more recently, the influence of emotion on neurophysiological processes related to attentional capture. The current research tested whether some of the earliest neurophysiological underpinnings of emotive attentional processes can be influenced by attentional manipulations of broadening versus narrowing. Previous research has shown that negative affects high in motivational intensity (e.g., disgust, fear) cause a relative narrowing of attentional scope (Gable and Harmon-Jones, 2010a; Easterbrook, 1959). Because of the strong link between motivation and attention, attentional scope should also influence the attentional capture of negative stimuli. The current study manipulated a local attentional scope or global attentional scope, then measured attentional capture towards disgust and neutral pictures using the N1 event-related potential component. Results revealed that a manipulated global attentional scope reduced N1 amplitude towards disgust pictures compared to a manipulated local attentional scope. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. What HERA May Provide?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Hannes; /DESY; De Roeck, Albert; /CERN; Bartels, Jochen; /Hamburg U., Inst. Theor. Phys. II; Behnke, Olaf; Blumlein, Johannes; /DESY; Brodsky, Stanley; /SLAC /Durham U., IPPP; Cooper-Sarkar, Amanda; /Oxford U.; Deak, Michal; /DESY; Devenish, Robin; /Oxford U.; Diehl, Markus; /DESY; Gehrmann, Thomas; /Zurich U.; Grindhammer, Guenter; /Munich, Max Planck Inst.; Gustafson, Gosta; /CERN /Lund U., Dept. Theor. Phys.; Khoze, Valery; /Durham U., IPPP; Knutsson, Albert; /DESY; Klein, Max; /Liverpool U.; Krauss, Frank; /Durham U., IPPP; Kutak, Krzysztof; /DESY; Laenen, Eric; /NIKHEF, Amsterdam; Lonnblad, Leif; /Lund U., Dept. Theor. Phys.; Motyka, Leszek; /Hamburg U., Inst. Theor. Phys. II /Birmingham U. /Southern Methodist U. /DESY /Piemonte Orientale U., Novara /CERN /Paris, LPTHE /Hamburg U. /Penn State U.

    2011-11-10

    More than 100 people participated in a discussion session at the DIS08 workshop on the topic What HERA may provide. A summary of the discussion with a structured outlook and list of desirable measurements and theory calculations is given. The HERA accelerator and the HERA experiments H1, HERMES and ZEUS stopped running in the end of June 2007. This was after 15 years of very successful operation since the first collisions in 1992. A total luminosity of {approx} 500 pb{sup -1} has been accumulated by each of the collider experiments H1 and ZEUS. During the years the increasingly better understood and upgraded detectors and HERA accelerator have contributed significantly to this success. The physics program remains in full swing and plenty of new results were presented at DIS08 which are approaching the anticipated final precision, fulfilling and exceeding the physics plans and the previsions of the upgrade program. Most of the analyses presented at DIS08 were still based on the so called HERA I data sample, i.e. data taken until 2000, before the shutdown for the luminosity upgrade. This sample has an integrated luminosity of {approx} 100 pb{sup -1}, and the four times larger statistics sample from HERA II is still in the process of being analyzed.

  16. The role of controlled attention on recall in major depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Alissa J; Wells, Tony T; Vanderlind, W Michael; Beevers, Christopher G

    2014-04-01

    Information processing biases are hallmark features of major depressive disorder (MDD). Depressed individuals display biased memory and attention for negative material. Given that memory is highly dependent on attention for initial encoding, understanding the interplay of these processes may provide important insight into mechanisms that produce memory biases in depression. In particular, attentional control-the ability to selectively attend to task-relevant information by both inhibiting the processing of irrelevant information and disengaging attention from irrelevant material-may be one area of impairment in MDD. In the current study, clinically depressed (MDD: n = 15) and never depressed (non-MDD: n = 22) participants' line of visual gaze was assessed while participants viewed positive and negative word pairs. For each word pair, participants were instructed to attend to one word (target) and ignore one word (distracter). Free recall of study stimuli was then assessed. Depressed individuals displayed greater recall of negatively valenced target words following the task. Although there were no group differences in attentional control in the context of negative words, attention to negative targets mediated the relationship between depression status and recall of negative words. Results suggest a stronger link between attention and memory for negative material in MDD.

  17. Neural Correlates of Attentional Flexibility during Approach and Avoidance Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcott, Rebecca D.; Berkman, Elliot T.

    2015-01-01

    Dynamic, momentary approach or avoidance motivational states have downstream effects on eventual goal success and overall well being, but there is still uncertainty about how those states affect the proximal neurocognitive processes (e.g., attention) that mediate the longer-term effects. Attentional flexibility, or the ability to switch between different attentional foci, is one such neurocognitive process that influences outcomes in the long run. The present study examined how approach and avoidance motivational states affect the neural processes involved in attentional flexibility using fMRI with the aim of determining whether flexibility operates via different neural mechanisms under these different states. Attentional flexibility was operationalized as subjects’ ability to switch between global and local stimulus features. In addition to subjects’ motivational state, the task context was manipulated by varying the ratio of global to local trials in a block in light of recent findings about the moderating role of context on motivation-related differences in attentional flexibility. The neural processes involved in attentional flexibility differ under approach versus avoidance states. First, differences in the preparatory activity in key brain regions suggested that subjects’ preparedness to switch was influenced by motivational state (anterior insula) and the interaction between motivation and context (superior temporal gyrus, inferior parietal lobule). Additionally, we observed motivation-related differences the anterior cingulate cortex during switching. These results provide initial evidence that motivation-induced behavioral changes may arise via different mechanisms in approach versus avoidance motivational states. PMID:26000735

  18. Grammatical Conception of Yuriy Shevel'ov: Nominative ↔ Vocative in the System of Substantial Categoriality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoliy Zahnitko

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. Analysis of Yuriy Shevel'ov’s approaches to the interpretation of the morphological tier of language, as well as his examination of particular phenomena of this level – substantiality, verbality, and others – reflects not only the author's understanding itself of all the grammatical system as a whole, and morphological one in particular, but also represents the features of modification of scientific approaches in the history of linguistic thought of mid-twentieth century, its strengthening in the studies of the XX – XXI century. The researcher’s definition of nominative and vocative cases as interrelated within the categorical substantiality is of particular importance. Purpose: to determine the main components of interpretation of the status dimension of the nominative and vocative cases within morpho-substantial categoriality of Yuriy Shevel'ov with the definition of theoretical foundations and practical principles, revealing the patterns of establishing internal sentence dimension of the nominative and vocative cases. Results: In the case theory with reliance on the sequence of forms of dependencies in the internal sentence space Yuriy Shevel'ov distinguishes five cases: genitive, dative, accusative, ablative, locative. In the statement about the nominative as grammatically independent case the scientist relies on sentence. Two-dimensionality of grammatically independent case opposes to the one-dimensional grammatically dependent nominative that is traceable in syntactic positions of predicate and apposition. Yuriy Shevel'ov did not consider addressing that is not grammatically linked to the sentence with a specific expression as an individual case. The forms of vocative case show functional three-componentity, because in its functional-semantic paradigm it covers the function of the addressee – potential subject of action (primary function that is represented in formal grammar sentence structure by the main element of

  19. The Cochrane Collaboration withdraws a review on methylphenidate for adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boesen, Kim; Saiz, Luis Carlos; Erviti, Juan

    2017-01-01

    A Cochrane systematic review on immediate-release methylphenidate for adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) was withdrawn from the Cochrane Library on 26 May 2016 after substantial criticism of its methods and flawed conclusions. Retraction of scientific papers on this basis...

  20. Effects of a Teacher Training Programme on Symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froelich, Jan; Breuer, Dieter; Doepfner, Manfred; Amonn, Frauke

    2012-01-01

    A substantial lack of effective school based interventions especially in the natural setting exists in the treatment of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. We performed a 18-week teacher training programme in a public elementary school with 378 pupils in 16 classes. After completing a screening assessment for symptoms related to ADHD and to…

  1. Emotional modulation of the attentional blink by pleasant and unpleasant pictures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oca, Beatrice M; Villa, Marie; Cervantes, Miguel; Welbourne, Tyler

    2012-01-01

    When shown a rapid series of images, attention to a second target that follows in short proximity to a first is diminished--a phenomenon sometimes called an "attentional blink." Three experiments compared detection of motivationally relevant pleasant, unpleasant, and neutral pictures when they appeared as the second target following a neutral (Experiment 1), unpleasant (Experiment 2) and pleasant (Experiment 3) picture target. The second target followed at lags of 2, 3 or 8 pictures. In all three experiments, detection of neutral pictures was reduced at lags 2 and 3, indicative of an attentional blink. In contrast, unpleasant pictures were detected more than neutral pictures at lags 2 and 3. Unexpectedly, pleasant pictures not only resisted the attentional blink, but they were detected substantially more than other pictures at all lags in all three experiments. Overall, the experiments support the idea that motivationally relevant stimuli preferentially capture attention more than motivationally neutral stimuli.

  2. Sigh rate and respiratory variability during mental load and sustained attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlemincx, Elke; Taelman, Joachim; De Peuter, Steven; Van Diest, Ilse; Van den Bergh, Omer

    2011-01-01

    Spontaneous breathing consists of substantial correlated variability: Parameters characterizing a breath are correlated with parameters characterizing previous and future breaths. On the basis of dynamic system theory, negative emotion states are predicted to reduce correlated variability whereas sustained attention is expected to reduce total respiratory variability. Both are predicted to evoke sighing. To test this, respiratory variability and sighing were assessed during a baseline, stressful mental arithmetic task, nonstressful sustained attention task, and recovery in between tasks. For respiration rate (excluding sighs), reduced total variability was found during the attention task, whereas correlated variation was reduced during mental load. Sigh rate increased during mental load and during recovery from the attention task. It is concluded that mental load and task-related attention show specific patterns in respiratory variability and sigh rate. Copyright © 2010 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  3. The Attentional Drift Diffusion Model of Simple Perceptual Decision-Making

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriela Tavares; Pietro Perona; Antonio Rangel; Antonio Rangel

    2017-01-01

    Perceptual decisions requiring the comparison of spatially distributed stimuli that are fixated sequentially might be influenced by fluctuations in visual attention. We used two psychophysical tasks with human subjects to investigate the extent to which visual attention influences simple perceptual choices, and to test the extent to which the attentional Drift Diffusion Model (aDDM) provides a good computational description of how attention affects the underlying decision processes. We find e...

  4. Pupil Size Tracks Attentional Performance In Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wainstein, G; Rojas-Líbano, D; Crossley, N A; Carrasco, X; Aboitiz, F; Ossandón, T

    2017-08-15

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) diagnosis is based on reported symptoms, which carries the potential risk of over- or under-diagnosis. A biological marker that helps to objectively define the disorder, providing information about its pathophysiology, is needed. A promising marker of cognitive states in humans is pupil size, which reflects the activity of an 'arousal' network, related to the norepinephrine system. We monitored pupil size from ADHD and control subjects, during a visuo-spatial working memory task. A sub group of ADHD children performed the task twice, with and without methylphenidate, a norepinephrine-dopamine reuptake inhibitor. Off-medication patients showed a decreased pupil diameter during the task. This difference was no longer present when patients were on-medication. Pupil size correlated with the subjects' performance and reaction time variability, two vastly studied indicators of attention. Furthermore, this effect was modulated by medication. Through pupil size, we provide evidence of an involvement of the noradrenergic system during an attentional task. Our results suggest that pupil size could serve as a biomarker in ADHD.

  5. The Speed of Feature-Based Attention: Attentional Advantage Is Slow, but Selection Is Fast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Liqiang

    2010-01-01

    When paying attention to a feature (e.g., red), no attentional advantage is gained in perceiving items with this feature in very brief displays. Therefore, feature-based attention seems to be slow. In previous feature-based attention studies, attention has often been measured as the difference in performance in a secondary task. In our recent work…

  6. Baseline omega-3 index correlates with aggressive and attention deficit disorder behaviours in adult prisoners.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara J Meyer

    Full Text Available There is emerging evidence that the supplementation of omega-3 contributes to a decrease in aggressive behaviour in prison populations. A challenge of such research is achieving statistical power against effect sizes which may be affected by the baseline omega-3 index. There are no published data on the blood omega-3 index with studies of this kind to assess the variability of the blood omega-3 index in conjunction with aggression and attention deficit assessments.To determine if the variance of the omega-3 index is correlated with aggressive and attention deficit behaviour in a prison population.136 adult male prisoners were recruited from South Coast Correctional Centre (SCCC, NSW Australia. A 7 point categorisation was used to quantify levels of aggressive behaviour (4 weeks from individual SCCC case notes, whereby higher scores correspond to increasingly aggressive behaviour. Study participants completed the Aggression Questionnaire (AQ and the Brown's Attention Deficit Disorder Scales (BADDS, provided a blood sample for erythrocyte fatty acid analysis using gas chromatography and the omega-3 index was calculated.The baseline omega-3 index ranged from 2.3% to 10.3%, indicating that some participants already had substantial omega-3 intake, however a median of 4.7% indicated a lower overall omega-3 intake than the general Australian population. Assessment of aggressive and attention deficit behaviour shows that there were negative correlations between baseline omega-3 index and baseline aggression categorisation scores (r = -0.21, P = 0.016; total AQ score (r = -0.234, P = 0.011; Anger (r = -0.222 p = 0.016; Hostility AQ (r = -0.239, P = 0.009; indirect aggression (r = -0.188 p = 0.042; total BADDS (r = -0.263, p = 0.005; Activation (r = -0.224, p = 0.016; Attention (r = -0.192, p = 0.043; Effort (r = -0.253, p = 0.007; Affect (r = -0.330, p = 0.000 and Memory (r = -0.240, p = 0.010.There is a high variability in omega-3 status of a NSW prison

  7. Deficient attention is hard to find: applying the perceptual load model of selective attention to attention deficit hyperactivity disorder subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang-Pollock, Cynthia L; Nigg, Joel T; Carr, Thomas H

    2005-11-01

    Whether selective attention is a primary deficit in childhood Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) remains in active debate. We used the perceptual load paradigm to examine both early and late selective attention in children with the Primarily Inattentive (ADHD-I) and Combined subtypes (ADHD-C) of ADHD. No evidence emerged for selective attention deficits in either of the subtypes, but sluggish cognitive tempo was associated with abnormal early selection. At least some, and possibly most, children with DSM-IV ADHD have normal selective attention. Results support the move away from theories of attention dysfunction as primary in ADHD-C. In ADHD-I, this was one of the first formal tests of posterior attention network dysfunction, and results did not support that theory. However, ADHD children with sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) warrant more study for possible early selective attention deficits.

  8. Substantial variability in postoperative treatment, and convalescence recommendations following vaginal repair. A nationwide questionnaire study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottesen, Marianne; Møller, Charlotte; Kehlet, H

    2001-01-01

    -employed gynecologists, and gynecologists in private practice, to patients undergoing vaginal repair. METHOD: In 1999 all Danish gynecologists (n=433) received a tested questionnaire about postoperative treatment and convalescence recommendations following vaginal repair. Non-responders received one reminder. OUTCOME...... MEASURES: Pre and postoperative treatment, and expected hospital stay. Furthermore, lifting restrictions, sick leave, and convalescence before resumption of defined activities. RESULTS: The overall response rate was 82%. The expected postoperative hospital stay was median 3 days (range, 1-7) following...... anterior repair, and 2 days (range, 1-7) following posterior repair. The recommended sick leave was median 6 weeks (range, 2-12) for patients with work with heavy lifts. There were substantial differences in recommendations. Recommended lifting restrictions were median 3 kg (range, 0-20) for median 4 weeks...

  9. Recommendations for successful substantiation of new health claims in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pravst, Igor; Kušar, Anita; Žmitek, Katja

    2018-01-01

    Background While functional foods offer promise for public health and innovation in the food industry, the efficiency of such foods should be assured to protect consumers from misleading claims. Globally, many countries regulate the communication of the health effects of such foods to final...... consumers. Scope and approach In the European Union (EU), the use of health claims was harmonized in 2006. All claims need to be scientifically assessed by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) and pre-approved. Implementing the regulation has involved a steep learning curve for stakeholders, resulting...... recommendations should be seen as a starting point for researchers in the area of nutrition and food technology, and for those dealing with functional foods, including the food industry. Keywords Functional foods; Health claims; Food labelling; Substantiation; Regulation; European Union...

  10. Challenges in Archiving and Sharing Video Data: Considering Moral, Pragmatic, and Substantial Arguments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terhi Kirsi Korkiakangas

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Social science researchers are facing new challenges in data archiving and sharing. The challenges encountered for video data are different from those encountered for other types of qualitative data. I will consider these challenges with respect to the moral, pragmatic, and substantial arguments with which funding bodies justify data archiving and sharing. Throughout the article, I will draw on a recent Economic and Social Research Council funded project, “Transient Teams in the Operating Theatre,” in which our research team video recorded work activities in the operating theatre of a UK hospital, thereby dealing with highly sensitive footage. I will consider how video data, on most occasions, cannot be archived for re-use by the wider research community, but how new avenues could be developed so as to benefit from further research on such “unarchivable” datasets.

  11. Experimental and calculating substantiation of reactivity balance and energy-release distribution in BN-600 core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moiseev, A.V.; Khomyakov, Yu.S.; Surov, S.V.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the results of experimental and theoretical work done in 2003-2010 years on substantiation of neutron-physical characteristics of the BN-600 core. 1. Transition to the new core 01M2 with high burnup 11.2% h.a. (the 4-th upgrade of the BN-600 core). Transfer was made without changing the constructive of the core almost by reducing conservatism of design decisions. 2. The end of BN-600 design life cycle and extending it to 10-15 years. Need for analysis and comprehension of the BN-600 experience. 3. Development and introduction of new methods of analysis (precision method of Monte Carlo). 4. In the experiments was a change of equipment and measurement techniques

  12. An unknown oxidative metabolism substantially contributes to soil CO2 emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Shahzad

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The respiratory release of CO2 from soils is a major determinant of the global carbon cycle. It is traditionally considered that this respiration is an intracellular metabolism consisting of complex biochemical reactions carried out by numerous enzymes and co-factors. Here we show that the endoenzymes released from dead organisms are stabilised in soils and have access to suitable substrates and co-factors to permit function. These enzymes reconstitute an extracellular oxidative metabolism (EXOMET that may substantially contribute to soil respiration (16 to 48% of CO2 released from soils in the present study. EXOMET and respiration from living organisms should be considered separately when studying effects of environmental factors on the C cycle because EXOMET shows specific properties such as resistance to high temperature and toxic compounds.

  13. Substantiation of basic scheme of grain cleaning machine for preparation of agricultural crops seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giyevskiy, A. M.; Orobinsky, V. I.; Tarasenko, A. P.; Chernyshov, A. V.; Kurilov, D. O.

    2018-03-01

    The article presents data on the feasibility of the concept of a high-efficiency seed cleaner with the consistent use of the air flow in aspiration and the multi-tier placement of the sorting grids in grating mills. As a result of modeling, the directions for further improvement of air-screen seed cleaning machines have been identified: an increase in the proportion of sorting grids in the mills up to 70 ... 80% and an increase in the speed of the air flow in the channel of the pre-filter cleaning up to 8.0 m / s. Experiments have established the competence of using mathematical modeling of airflow in the pneumatic system with the use of a finite-volume method for solving hydrodynamic equations for substantiating the basic parameters of the pneumatic system.

  14. Substantial and sustained seizure reduction with ketogenic diet in a patient with Ohtahara syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adithya Sivaraju

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ketogenic diet has been shown to be efficacious in some epileptic encephalopathies but rarely reported as being useful in children with Ohtahara syndrome. This could possibly be attributed to the rarity of the disease and associated short survival period. We report on a 5-year-old child with Ohtahara syndrome, whose seizures failed to improve with all known medications, continued to show persistent suppression-burst pattern on the electroencephalography (EEG and had substantial reduction in seizure frequency for one year post-initiation of ketogenic diet. He has not had a single visit to the emergency room because of seizures in the last one year, and more importantly, there has been a clear improvement noted in his level of interaction and temperament. Patients with Ohtahara syndrome invariably have medically intractable seizures and catastrophic neurodevelopmental outcome. Ketogenic diet is a treatment modality that might be worth considering even in this group of patients.

  15. Experimental substantiation of methodic of 11-13 years old boxers’ coordination development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Qiang Liu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: experimental substantiation of methodic of junior boxers’ coordination training. Material: in the research 18 boxers of 11-13 year old age participated. In total, during 4 months 42 trainings were conducted. Total time of coordination load’s fulfillment at each training was 15-45 minutes. Results: dynamic of results in control tests was statistically confident in the tested parameters of movements. It proves effectiveness of usage the tasks with complex-coordination orientation, accented on impact on sensor-informational and motor systems of movements in junior boxers’ trainings. Conclusions: coordination training in boxing at initial stage shall include specialized varied means and methods, which would facilitate formation of motor condition and skills’ basis. Motor condition and skills are a reserve for further rising of coordination abilities’ level of junior sportsmen.

  16. Attention Increases Spike Count Correlations between Visual Cortical Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Marlene R.

    2016-01-01

    from neurons in primary visual cortex and the middle temporal area while rhesus monkeys performed an attention task. We found that attention increased shared variability between neurons in the two areas and that attention increased the effect of microstimulation in V1 on the firing rates of MT neurons. Our results provide support for the hypothesis that attention increases communication between neurons in different brain areas on behaviorally relevant timescales. PMID:27413161

  17. Attention Increases Spike Count Correlations between Visual Cortical Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruff, Douglas A; Cohen, Marlene R

    2016-07-13

    visual cortex and the middle temporal area while rhesus monkeys performed an attention task. We found that attention increased shared variability between neurons in the two areas and that attention increased the effect of microstimulation in V1 on the firing rates of MT neurons. Our results provide support for the hypothesis that attention increases communication between neurons in different brain areas on behaviorally relevant timescales. Copyright © 2016 the authors 0270-6474/16/367523-12$15.00/0.

  18. Technique of Substantiating Requirements for the Vision Systems of Industrial Robotic Complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Ya. Kolyuchkin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In references, there is a lack of approaches to describe the justified technical requirements for the vision systems (VS of industrial robotics complexes (IRC. Therefore, an objective of the work is to develop a technique that allows substantiating requirements for the main quality indicators of VS, functioning as a part of the IRC.The proposed technique uses a model representation of VS, which, as a part of the IRC information system, sorts the objects in the work area, as well as measures their linear and angular coordinates. To solve the problem of statement there is a proposal to define the target function of a designed IRC as a dependence of the IRC indicator efficiency on the VS quality indicators. The paper proposes to use, as an indicator of the IRC efficiency, the probability of a lack of fault products when manufacturing. Based on the functions the VS perform as a part of the IRC information system, the accepted indicators of VS quality are as follows: a probability of the proper recognition of objects in the working IRC area, and confidential probabilities of measuring linear and angular orientation coordinates of objects with the specified values of permissible error. Specific values of these errors depend on the orientation errors of working bodies of manipulators that are a part of the IRC. The paper presents mathematical expressions that determine the functional dependence of the probability of a lack of fault products when manufacturing on the VS quality indicators and the probability of failures of IRC technological equipment.The offered technique for substantiating engineering requirements for the VS of IRC has novelty. The results obtained in this work can be useful for professionals involved in IRC VS development, and, in particular, in development of VS algorithms and software.

  19. Lack of Substantial Post-Cessation Weight Increase in Electronic Cigarettes Users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Russo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Minimization of post-cessation weight gain in quitters is important, but existing approaches (e.g., antismoking medications shows only limited success. We investigated changes in body weight in smokers who quit or reduced substantially their cigarette consumption by switching to electronic cigarettes (ECs use. Body weight and smoking/vaping history were extracted from medical records of smokers and ex-smokers to match three study groups: (1 regular EC users on at least two consecutive follow-up visits; (2 regular smokers (and not using ECs; (3 subjects who reported sustained smoking abstinence after completing a cessation program. Review of their medical records was conducted at two follow-up visits at 6- (F/U 6m and 12-months (F/U 12m. A total of 86 EC users, 93 regular smokers, and 44 quitters were studied. In the EC users study group, cigarettes/day use decreased from 21.1 at baseline to 1.8 at F/U 12m (p < 0.0001. Dual usage was reported by approximately 50% of EC users. Both within factor (time, p < 0.0001 and between factor (study groups, p < 0.0001 produced significant effect on weight (% change from baseline, with a significant 4.8% weight gain from baseline in the quitters study group at F/U 12m. For the EC users, weight gain at F/U 12m was only 1.5% of baseline. There was no evidence of post-cessation weight increase in those who reduced substantially cigarette consumption by switching to ECs (i.e., dual users and only modest post-cessation weight increase was reported in exclusive EC users at F/U 12m. By reducing weight gain and tobacco consumption, EC-based interventions may promote an overall improvement in quality of life.

  20. Substantial Differences between Organ and Muscle Specific Tracer Incorporation Rates in a Lactating Dairy Cow.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas A Burd

    Full Text Available We aimed to produce intrinsically L-[1-(13C]phenylalanine labeled milk and beef for subsequent use in human nutrition research. The collection of the various organ tissues after slaughter allowed for us to gain insight into the dynamics of tissue protein turnover in vivo in a lactating dairy cow. One lactating dairy cow received a constant infusion of L-[1-(13C]phenylalanine (450 µmol/min for 96 h. Plasma and milk were collected prior to, during, and after the stable isotope infusion. Twenty-four hours after cessation of the infusion the cow was slaughtered. The meat and samples of the various organ tissues (liver, heart, lung, udder, kidney, rumen, small intestine, and colon were collected and stored. Approximately 210 kg of intrinsically labeled beef (bone and fat free with an average L-[1-(13C]phenylalanine enrichment of 1.8±0.1 mole percent excess (MPE was obtained. The various organ tissues differed substantially in L-[1-(13C]phenylalanine enrichments in the tissue protein bound pool, the highest enrichment levels were achieved in the kidney (11.7 MPE and the lowest enrichment levels in the skeletal muscle tissue protein of the cow (between 1.5-2.4 MPE. The estimated protein synthesis rates of the various organ tissues should be regarded as underestimates, particularly for the organs with the higher turnover rates and high secretory activity, due to the lengthened (96 h measurement period necessary for the production of the intrinsically labeled beef. Our data demonstrates that there are relatively small differences in L-[1-(13C]phenylalanine enrichments between the various meat cuts, but substantial higher enrichment values are observed in the various organ tissues. We conclude that protein turnover rates of various organs are much higher when compared to skeletal muscle protein turnover rates in large lactating ruminants.

  1. Using Highlighting to Train Attentional Expertise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett Roads

    Full Text Available Acquiring expertise in complex visual tasks is time consuming. To facilitate the efficient training of novices on where to look in these tasks, we propose an attentional highlighting paradigm. Highlighting involves dynamically modulating the saliency of a visual image to guide attention along the fixation path of a domain expert who had previously viewed the same image. In Experiment 1, we trained naive subjects via attentional highlighting on a fingerprint-matching task. Before and after training, we asked subjects to freely inspect images containing pairs of prints and determine whether the prints matched. Fixation sequences were automatically scored for the degree of expertise exhibited using a Bayesian discriminative model of novice and expert gaze behavior. Highlighted training causes gaze behavior to become more expert-like not only on the trained images but also on transfer images, indicating generalization of learning. In Experiment 2, to control for the possibility that the increase in expertise is due to mere exposure, we trained subjects via highlighting of fixation sequences from novices, not experts, and observed no transition toward expertise. In Experiment 3, to determine the specificity of the training effect, we trained subjects with expert fixation sequences from images other than the one being viewed, which preserves coarse-scale statistics of expert gaze but provides no information about fine-grain features. Observing at least a partial transition toward expertise, we obtain only weak evidence that the highlighting procedure facilitates the learning of critical local features. We discuss possible improvements to the highlighting procedure.

  2. Ocularity Feature Contrast Attracts Attention Exogenously

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Zhaoping

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available An eye-of-origin singleton, e.g., a bar shown to the left eye among many other bars shown to the right eye, can capture attention and gaze exogenously or reflexively, even when it appears identical to other visual input items in the scene and when the eye-of-origin feature is irrelevant to the observer’s task. Defining saliency as the strength of exogenous attraction to attention, we say that this eye-of-origin singleton, or its visual location, is salient. Defining the ocularity of a visual input item as the relative difference between its left-eye input and its right-eye input, this paper shows the general case that an ocularity singleton is also salient. For example, a binocular input item among monocular input items is salient, so is a left-eye-dominant input item (e.g., a bar with a higher input contrast to the left eye than to the right eye among right-eye-dominant items. Saliency by unique input ocularity is analogous to saliency by unique input colour (e.g., a red item among green ones, as colour is determined by the relative difference(s between visual inputs to different photoreceptor cones. Just as a smaller colour difference between a colour singleton and background items makes this singleton less salient, so does a smaller ocularity difference between an ocularity singleton and background items. While a salient colour difference is highly visible, a salient ocularity difference is often perceptually invisible in some cases and discouraging gaze shifts towards it in other cases, making its behavioural manifestation not as apparent. Saliency by ocularity contrast provides another support to the idea that the primary visual cortex creates a bottom-up saliency map to guide attention exogenously.

  3. The role of selective attention on academic foundations: A cognitive neuroscience perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Courtney; Bavelier, Daphne

    2011-01-01

    To the extent that selective attention skills are relevant for academic foundations and amenable to training, they represent an important focus for the field of education. Here, drawing on research on the neurobiology of attention, we review hypothesized links between selective attention and processing across three domains important to early academic skills. First, we provide a brief review of the neural bases of selective attention, emphasizing the effects of selective attention on neural processing, as well as the neural systems important to deploying selective attention and managing response conflict. Second, we examine the developmental time course of selective attention. It is argued that developmental differences in selective attention are related to the neural systems important for deploying selective attention and managing response conflict. In contrast, once effectively deployed, selective attention acts through very similar neural mechanisms across ages. In the third section, we relate the processes of selective attention to three domains important to academic foundations: language, literacy, and mathematics. Fourth, drawing on recent literatures on the effects of video-game play and mind-brain training on selective attention, we discuss the possibility of training selective attention. The final section examines the application of these principles to educationally-focused attention-training programs for children. PMID:22682909

  4. The role of selective attention on academic foundations: a cognitive neuroscience perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Courtney; Bavelier, Daphne

    2012-02-15

    To the extent that selective attention skills are relevant for academic foundations and amenable to training, they represent an important focus for the field of education. Here, drawing on research on the neurobiology of attention, we review hypothesized links between selective attention and processing across three domains important to early academic skills. First, we provide a brief review of the neural bases of selective attention, emphasizing the effects of selective attention on neural processing, as well as the neural systems important to deploying selective attention and managing response conflict. Second, we examine the developmental time course of selective attention. It is argued that developmental differences in selective attention are related to the neural systems important for deploying selective attention and managing response conflict. In contrast, once effectively deployed, selective attention acts through very similar neural mechanisms across ages. In the third section, we relate the processes of selective attention to three domains important to academic foundations: language, literacy, and mathematics. Fourth, drawing on recent literatures on the effects of video-game play and mind-brain training on selective attention, we discuss the possibility of training selective attention. The final section examines the application of these principles to educationally-focused attention-training programs for children. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Towards the quantitative evaluation of visual attention models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bylinskii, Z; DeGennaro, E M; Rajalingham, R; Ruda, H; Zhang, J; Tsotsos, J K

    2015-11-01

    Scores of visual attention models have been developed over the past several decades of research. Differences in implementation, assumptions, and evaluations have made comparison of these models very difficult. Taxonomies have been constructed in an attempt at the organization and classification of models, but are not sufficient at quantifying which classes of models are most capable of explaining available data. At the same time, a multitude of physiological and behavioral findings have been published, measuring various aspects of human and non-human primate visual attention. All of these elements highlight the need to integrate the computational models with the data by (1) operationalizing the definitions of visual attention tasks and (2) designing benchmark datasets to measure success on specific tasks, under these definitions. In this paper, we provide some examples of operationalizing and benchmarking different visual attention tasks, along with the relevant design considerations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The influence of lapses of attention on working memory capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unsworth, Nash; Robison, Matthew K

    2016-02-01

    In three experiments, the influence of lapses of attention on working memory (WM) capacity measures was examined. Participants performed various change detection tasks while also reporting whether they were focused on the current task or whether they were unfocused and mind-wandering. Participants reported that they were mind-wandering roughly 27% of the time, and when participants reported mind-wandering, their performance was worse compared to when they reported being on-task. Low WM capacity individuals reported more mind-wandering and lapses of attention than high WM capacity individuals, and mind-wandering and filtering abilities were shown to make independent contributions to capacity estimates. These results provide direct support for the notion that the ability to focus attention on-task and prevent lapses of attention is an important contributor to performance on measures of WM capacity.

  7. Attention biases visual activity in visual short-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Bo-Cheng; Stokes, Mark G; Murray, Alexandra M; Nobre, Anna Christina

    2014-07-01

    In the current study, we tested whether representations in visual STM (VSTM) can be biased via top-down attentional modulation of visual activity in retinotopically specific locations. We manipulated attention using retrospective cues presented during the retention interval of a VSTM task. Retrospective cues triggered activity in a large-scale network implicated in attentional control and led to retinotopically specific modulation of activity in early visual areas V1-V4. Importantly, shifts of attention during VSTM maintenance were associated with changes in functional connectivity between pFC and retinotopic regions within V4. Our findings provide new insights into top-down control mechanisms that modulate VSTM representations for flexible and goal-directed maintenance of the most relevant memoranda.

  8. Maternal DHA levels and toddler free-play attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannass, Kathleen N; Colombo, John; Carlson, Susan E

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between maternal docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) levels at birth and toddler free-play attention in the second year. Toddler free-play attention was assessed at 12 and 18 months, and maternal erythrocyte (red-blood cell; RBC) phospholipid DHA (percentage of total fatty acids) was measured from mothers at delivery. Overall, higher maternal DHA status at birth was associated with enhanced attentional functioning during the second year. Toddlers whose mothers had high DHA at birth exhibited more total looking and fewer episodes of inattention during free-play than did toddlers whose mothers had low DHA at birth. Analyses also provided further information on changes in attention during toddlerhood. These findings are consistent with evidence suggesting a link between DHA and cognitive development in infancy and early childhood.

  9. Performance effects of nicotine during selective attention, divided attention, and simple stimulus detection: an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Britta; Ross, Thomas J; Wolkenberg, Frank A; Shakleya, Diaa M; Huestis, Marilyn A; Stein, Elliot A

    2009-09-01

    Attention-enhancing effects of nicotine appear to depend on the nature of the attentional function. Underlying neuroanatomical mechanisms, too, may vary depending on the function modulated. This functional magnetic resonance imaging study recorded blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) activity in minimally deprived smokers during tasks of simple stimulus detection, selective attention, or divided attention after single-blind application of a transdermal nicotine (21 mg) or placebo patch. Smokers' performance in the placebo condition was unimpaired as compared with matched nonsmokers. Nicotine reduced reaction time (RT) in the stimulus detection and selective attention but not divided attention condition. Across all task conditions, nicotine reduced activation in frontal, temporal, thalamic, and visual regions and enhanced deactivation in so-called "default" regions. Thalamic effects correlated with RT reduction selectively during stimulus detection. An interaction with task condition was observed in middle and superior frontal gyri, where nicotine reduced activation only during stimulus detection. A visuomotor control experiment provided evidence against nonspecific effects of nicotine. In conclusion, although prefrontal activity partly displayed differential modulation by nicotine, most BOLD effects were identical across tasks, despite differential performance effects, suggesting that common neuronal mechanisms can selectively benefit different attentional functions. Overall, the effects of nicotine may be explained by increased functional efficiency and downregulated task-independent "default" functions.

  10. Generating a taxonomy of spatially cued attention for visual discrimination: Effects of judgment precision and set size on attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetley, Richard; Dosher, Barbara Anne; Lu, Zhong-Lin

    2014-01-01

    Attention precues improve the performance of perceptual tasks in many but not all circumstances. These spatial attention effects may depend upon display set size or workload, and have been variously attributed to external noise filtering, stimulus enhancement, contrast gain, or response gain, or to uncertainty or other decision effects. In this study, we document systematically different effects of spatial attention in low- and high-precision judgments, with and without external noise, and in different set sizes in order to contribute to the development of a taxonomy of spatial attention. An elaborated perceptual template model (ePTM) provides an integrated account of a complex set of effects of spatial attention with just two attention factors: a set-size dependent exclusion or filtering of external noise and a narrowing of the perceptual template to focus on the signal stimulus. These results are related to the previous literature by classifying the judgment precision and presence of external noise masks in those experiments, suggesting a taxonomy of spatially cued attention in discrimination accuracy. PMID:24939234

  11. Generating a taxonomy of spatially cued attention for visual discrimination: effects of judgment precision and set size on attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetley, Richard; Dosher, Barbara Anne; Lu, Zhong-Lin

    2014-11-01

    Attention precues improve the performance of perceptual tasks in many but not all circumstances. These spatial attention effects may depend upon display set size or workload, and have been variously attributed to external noise filtering, stimulus enhancement, contrast gain, or response gain, or to uncertainty or other decision effects. In this study, we document systematically different effects of spatial attention in low- and high-precision judgments, with and without external noise, and in different set sizes in order to contribute to the development of a taxonomy of spatial attention. An elaborated perceptual template model (ePTM) provides an integrated account of a complex set of effects of spatial attention with just two attention factors: a set-size dependent exclusion or filtering of external noise and a narrowing of the perceptual template to focus on the signal stimulus. These results are related to the previous literature by classifying the judgment precision and presence of external noise masks in those experiments, suggesting a taxonomy of spatially cued attention in discrimination accuracy.

  12. Deficient Attention Is Hard to Find: Applying the Perceptual Load Model of Selective Attention to Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Subtypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang-Pollock, Cynthia L.; Nigg, Joel T.; Carr, Thomas H.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Whether selective attention is a primary deficit in childhood Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) remains in active debate. Methods: We used the "perceptual load" paradigm to examine both early and late selective attention in children with the Primarily Inattentive (ADHD-I) and Combined subtypes (ADHD-C) of ADHD. Results:…

  13. Social Attention, Joint Attention and Sustained Attention in Autism Spectrum Disorder and Williams Syndrome: Convergences and Divergences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivanti, Giacomo; Fanning, Peter A. J.; Hocking, Darren R.; Sievers, Stephanie; Dissanayake, Cheryl

    2017-01-01

    There is limited knowledge on shared and syndrome-specific attentional profiles in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and Williams syndrome (WS). Using eye-tracking, we examined attentional profiles of 35 preschoolers with ASD, 22 preschoolers with WS and 20 typically developing children across social and non-social dimensions of attention. Children…

  14. Eating 'attentively' reduces later energy consumption in overweight and obese females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Eric; Kersbergen, Inge; Higgs, Suzanne

    2014-08-28

    Attentional and memory processes underpin appetite control, but whether encouraging overweight individuals to eat more 'attentively' can promote reductions in energy consumption is unclear. In the present study with a between-subjects design, a total of forty-eight overweight and obese females consumed a fixed lunchtime meal. Their ad libitum energy intake of high-energy snack food was observed during a second laboratory session that occurred later that day. In the focused-attention condition, participants ate their lunch while listening to audio instructions that encouraged them to pay attention to the food being eaten. In a control condition, participants ate while listening to an audio book with a neutral (non-food-related) content. To test whether focused attention influenced food intake via enhancing the memory of the earlier consumed meal, we measured the participants' memory of their lunchtime meal. Ad libitum snack intake was approximately 30 % lower for participants in the focused-attention condition than for those in the control condition, and this difference was statistically significant. There was limited evidence that attention decreased later food intake by enhancing memory representation of the earlier consumed meal. Eating attentively can lead to a substantial decrease in later energy intake in overweight and obese individuals. Behavioural strategies that encourage a more 'attentive' way of eating could promote sustained reductions in energy intake and weight loss.

  15. Economic principles motivating social attention in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayden, Benjamin Y; Parikh, Purak C; Deaner, Robert O; Platt, Michael L

    2007-07-22

    We know little about the processes by which we evaluate the opportunity to look at another person. We propose that behavioural economics provides a powerful approach to understanding this basic aspect of social attention. We hypothesized that the decision process culminating in attention to another person follows the same economic principles that govern choices about rewards such as food, drinks and money. Specifically, such rewards are discounted as a function of time, are tradable for other rewards, and reinforce work. Behavioural and neurobiological evidence suggests that looking at other people can also be described as rewarding, but to what extent these economic principles apply to social orienting remains unknown. Here, we show that the opportunity to view pictures of the opposite sex is discounted by delay to viewing, substitutes for money and reinforces work. The reward value of photos of the opposite sex varied with physical attractiveness and was greater in men, suggesting differential utility of acquiring visual information about the opposite sex in men and women. Together, these results demonstrate that choosing whom to look at follows a general set of economic principles, implicating shared neural mechanisms in both social and non-social decision making.

  16. Focus of attention and automaticity in handwriting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacMahon, Clare; Charness, Neil

    2014-04-01

    This study investigated the nature of automaticity in everyday tasks by testing handwriting performance under single and dual-task conditions. Item familiarity and hand dominance were also manipulated to understand both cognitive and motor components of the task. In line with previous literature, performance was superior in an extraneous focus of attention condition compared to two different skill focus conditions. This effect was found only when writing with the dominant hand. In addition, performance was superior for high familiarity compared to low familiarity items. These findings indicate that motor and cognitive familiarity are related to the degree of automaticity of motor skills and can be manipulated to produce different performance outcomes. The findings also imply that the progression of skill acquisition from novel to novice to expert levels can be traced using different dual-task conditions. The separation of motor and cognitive familiarity is a new approach in the handwriting domain, and provides insight into the nature of attentional demands during performance. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. A Reevaluation of the Attentional Inertia Concept

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.J.M.I. Verbeke (Willem)

    1992-01-01

    textabstractAnderson's (1983) theory about children's attention behavior during television viewing hypothesizes that attention behavior is affected by positive feedback (the inertia hypothesis) and the degree to which a child understands the television program. During an experiment, neither

  18. When Might Sunburn Require Medical Attention?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... need medical attention? When might sunburn require medical attention? Answers from Lawrence E. Gibson, M.D. Consult ... of Privacy Practices Notice of Nondiscrimination Manage Cookies Advertising Mayo Clinic is a not-for-profit organization ...

  19. Focusing on ADHD - Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... September 2014 Print this issue Focusing on ADHD Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder En español Send us your comments ... might be signs of a developmental disorder called attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, or ADHD. ADHD is a common ...

  20. Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tube DysfunctionStrep ThroatAnemiaHyperthyroidismOpioid AddictionDiabetesCroup Home Diseases and Conditions Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Condition Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder ( ...