SEYBOLD, DARA; CALHOUN, BYRON; BURGESS, DENISE; LEWIS, TAMMI; GILBERT, KELLY; CASTO, ANGIE
The objective of this article is not to present a scientific or systematic study, but to provide an initial framework for designing a training workshop to enhance health practitioners’ (nurses, social workers, physicians, etc.) knowledge regarding substance abuse treatment and to decrease their bias toward substance-abusing women, particularly pregnant women in rural communities. We incorporated the 4 Transdisciplinary Foundations from the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administra...
Wells, Rebecca; Chuang, Emmeline; Haynes, Lindsey E.; Lee, I-Heng; Bai, Yu
Policy makers and advocates are increasingly encouraging child-serving organizations to work together. The current study examined how child welfare agency ties with substance abuse treatment providers and schools correlated with substance abuse treatment for adolescents receiving child protective services. A sample of adolescents with substance use risk was extracted from a national survey of families engaged with child welfare. Logistic regressions with adjustments for complex survey design used child welfare agency ties to substance abuse treatment providers and schools to predict treatment. As expected, adolescents were more likely to report treatment when child protective services and substance abuse treatment were in the same agency and when child welfare agency directors reported joint planning with schools. However, child welfare agency agreements with substance abuse treatment providers were negatively associated with treatment. This unexpected finding implies that agencies may sometimes cooperate to address problems as well as to improve service utilization. PMID:20870374
... Culture in Elder Abuse Mental capacity, consent, and undue influence The relationship between elder abuse and substance abuse ... older person's financial resources and to wield significant ... financially or, in the case of illegal drug use, less likely to report. ...
Haug, Nancy A.; Shopshire, Michael; Tajima, Barbara; Gruber, Valerie; Guydish, Joseph
This research was conducted at a Substance Abuse Forum designed to address local community needs by focusing on Evidence-Based Practices (EBPs) in addiction treatment. The purpose of the study was to assess substance abuse treatment professionals' readiness to adopt EBPs, experience with EBPs, and attitudes toward EBPs, as well as agency support…
Pediatricians and other medical providers caring for children need to be aware of the dynamics in the significant relationship between substance abuse and child maltreatment. A caregiver's use and abuse of alcohol, marijuana, heroin, cocaine, methamphetamine, and other drugs place the child at risk in multiple ways. Members of the medical community need to understand these risks because the medical community plays a unique and important role in identifying and caring for these children. Substance abuse includes the abuse of legal drugs as well as the use of illegal drugs. The abuse of legal substances may be just as detrimental to parental functioning as abuse of illicit substances. Many substance abusers are also polysubstance users and the compounded effect of the abuse of multiple substances may be difficult to measure. Often other interrelated social features, such as untreated mental illness, trauma history, and domestic violence, affect these families.
Cunningham, John A.; Herie, Marilyn; Martin, Garth; Turner, Bonnie J.
The results of field-testing a substance-abuse treatment protocol are reported. Ten probation and parole officers were trained in Structured Relapse Prevention, and 55 clients were treated. Incentives and barriers to treatment are highlighted. The use of this type of field test as a dissemination technique is discussed. (EMK)
Fuhrmann, Barbara S., Ed.; Washington, Craig S., Ed.
Presents ten articles about substance abuse: its effects, consequences, and strategies for intervention. Describes specific group therapy techniques and presents both a court service designed for assisting juveniles with drug/alcohol offenses, and a school-based substance abuse prevention program. Looks at strategies for counseling special…
This brochure outlines the substance abuse policy for students at the Philadelphia College of Osteopathic Medicine (PCOM/Pennsylvania). Noted are the dangers of substance abuse during the stressful time of medical training and later for the doctor and clients during professional practice. The policy's five goals are briefly stated. Described next…
Full Text Available Abstract Background This article, developed for the Betty Ford Institute Consensus Conference on Graduate Medical Education (December, 2008, presents a model curriculum for Family Medicine residency training in substance abuse. Methods The authors reviewed reports of past Family Medicine curriculum development efforts, previously-identified barriers to education in high risk substance use, approaches to overcoming these barriers, and current training guidelines of the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME and their Family Medicine Residency Review Committee. A proposed eight-module curriculum was developed, based on substance abuse competencies defined by Project MAINSTREAM and linked to core competencies defined by the ACGME. The curriculum provides basic training in high risk substance use to all residents, while also addressing current training challenges presented by U.S. work hour regulations, increasing international diversity of Family Medicine resident trainees, and emerging new primary care practice models. Results This paper offers a core curriculum, focused on screening, brief intervention and referral to treatment, which can be adapted by residency programs to meet their individual needs. The curriculum encourages direct observation of residents to ensure that core skills are learned and trains residents with several "new skills" that will expand the basket of substance abuse services they will be equipped to provide as they enter practice. Conclusions Broad-based implementation of a comprehensive Family Medicine residency curriculum should increase the ability of family physicians to provide basic substance abuse services in a primary care context. Such efforts should be coupled with faculty development initiatives which ensure that sufficient trained faculty are available to teach these concepts and with efforts by major Family Medicine organizations to implement and enforce residency requirements for
Thorne, Craig R.; DeBlassie, Richard R.
Cummings (1979), citing evidence from the National Institute of Drug Abuse, reports that one of every eleven adult Americans suffers from a severe addictive problem. Drug addiction is epidemic among teenagers; one of every six teenagers suffers from a severe addictive problem. This paper focuses on adolescent drug/substance abuse. (Author)
Forman, Robert; Crits-Christoph, Paul; Kaynak, Ovgü; Worley, Matt; Hantula, Donald A; Kulaga, Agatha; Rotrosen, John; Chu, Melissa; Gallop, Robert; Potter, Jennifer; Muchowski, Patrice; Brower, Kirk; Strobbe, Stephen; Magruder, Kathy; Chellis, A'Delle H; Clodfelter, Tad; Cawley, Margaret
We report here on the feasibility of implementing a semiautomated performance improvement system-Patient Feedback (PF)-that enables real-time monitoring of patient ratings of therapeutic alliance, treatment satisfaction, and drug/alcohol use in outpatient substance abuse treatment clinics. The study was conducted in six clinics within the National Institute on Drug Abuse Clinical Trials Network. It involved a total of 39 clinicians and 6 clinic supervisors. Throughout the course of the study (consisting of five phases: training period [4 weeks], baseline [4 weeks], intervention [12 weeks], postintervention assessment [4 weeks], sustainability [1 year]), there was an overall collection rate of 75.5% of the clinic patient census. In general, the clinicians in these clinics had very positive treatment satisfaction and alliance ratings throughout the study. However, one clinic had worse drug use scores at baseline than other participating clinics and showed a decrease in self-reported drug use at postintervention. Although the implementation of the PF system proved to be feasible in actual clinical settings, further modifications of the PF system are needed to enhance any potential clinical usefulness.
Ramsey, Alex T; van den Berk-Clark, Carissa
Substance abuse agencies have been slow to adopt and implement evidence-based practices (EBPs), due in part to poor provider morale and organizational climates that are not conducive to successful learning and integration of these practices. Person-organization fit theory suggests that alignment, or fit, between provider- and agency-level characteristics regarding the implementation of EBPs may influence provider morale and organizational learning climate and, thus, implementation success. The current study hypothesized that discrepancies, or lack of fit, between provider- and agency-level contextual factors would negatively predict provider morale and organizational learning climate, outcomes shown to be associated with successful EBP implementation. Direct service providers (n = 120) from four substance abuse treatment agencies responded to a survey involving provider morale, organizational learning climate, agency expectations for EBP use, agency resources for EBP use, and provider attitudes towards EBP use. Difference scores between combinations of provider- and agency-level factors were computed to model provider-agency fit. Quadratic regression analyses were conducted to more adequately and comprehensively model the level of the dependent variables across the entire "fit continuum". Discrepancies, or misfit, between agency expectations and provider attitudes and between agency resources and provider attitudes were associated with poorer provider morale and weaker organizational learning climate. For all hypotheses, the curvilinear model of provider-agency discrepancies significantly predicted provider morale and organizational learning climate, indicating that both directions of misfit (provider factors more favorable than agency factors, and vice-versa) were detrimental to morale and climate. However, outcomes were most negative when providers viewed EBPs favorably, but perceived that agency expectations and resources were less supportive of EBP use. The
Hamza, Heather; Bryson, Ethan O
To determine the experience, attitudes, and opinions of anesthesia providers in recovery from addiction to anesthetic agents, who subsequently undergo surgery or who require opioid analgesics for injuries or other conditions. Survey instrument. Academic medical center. Physicians and nurse-anesthetists in recovery in the United States. A link to a survey was posted on the Anesthetists in Recovery website on January 17, 2010 and allowed to remain active for a period of one week. The survey also was distributed via email to recovering anesthesiologists in a "snowball sampling" method. Completed surveys were reviewed, and data were compiled using Survey Monkey, with categorical variables described as frequencies and percentages. A total of 30 surveys were returned, with 27 (90%) reporting a history of abusing anesthetics or drugs commonly found in the work environment, and 19 (65.5%) reporting abuse of recreational drugs and drugs used during the administration of anesthesia. Twenty-eight (93%) respondents reported finding themselves in a situation that necessitated they receive their former drug of choice for legitimate medical reasons while in recovery. Anesthesia care providers in recovery from addiction to anesthetic agents may undergo subsequent exposure to these agents due to medical necessity. Participation in a program of recovery with support from family members may decrease the risk of relapse but does not eliminate it. Copyright Â© 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Greenfield, Shelly F; Back, Sudie E; Lawson, Katie; Brady, Kathleen T
Gender differences in substance use disorders (SUDs) and treatment outcomes for women with SUDs have been a focus of research in the last 15 years. This article reviews gender differences in the epidemiology of SUDs, highlighting the convergence of male/female prevalence ratios of SUDs in the last 20 years. The telescoping course of SUDs, recent research on the role of neuroactive gonadal steroid hormones in craving and relapse, and sex differences in stress reactivity and relapse to substance abuse are described. The role of co-occurring mood and anxiety, eating, and posttraumatic stress disorders is considered in the epidemiology, natural history, and treatment of women with SUDs. Women's use of alcohol, stimulants, opioids, cannabis, and nicotine are examined in terms of recent epidemiology, biologic and psychosocial effects, and treatment. Although women may be less likely to enter substance abuse treatment than men over the course of the lifetime, once they enter treatment, gender itself is not a predictor of treatment retention, completion, or outcome. Research on gender-specific treatments for women with SUDs and behavioral couples treatment has yielded promising results for substance abuse treatment outcomes in women. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Introduction: stroke in recreational substance users can be an indirect complication, like endocarditis and cardio embolism in parenteral drug users. With some drug like cocaine, stroke appear to be the result of a direct effect. In young subjects without other risk factors provide persuasive evidence for causality . OPIATES: Heroine is the most abused opiate drug, which is administered by injection, by snorting or by smoking. Stroke affects heroin users by diverse mechanisms,. Injectors are at risk of infections endocarditis, which carries risk for both ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke. Cerebral or subarachnoid hemorrhage usually occurs after rupture of a septic (mycotic aneurysm. Heroine users can are also at risk for hemorrhagic stroke secondary to liver failure with deranged clotting and to heroin nephropathy with uremia or malignant hypertension. In some heroin users the drug it self is directly causal due to vasculitis, hypersensitivity and immunologic changes. Embolization of foreign material to brain due to mixed of heroine with quinine can cause cerebral embolism. AMPHETAMINE AND other psychostimulants: In abuser of amphetamine hemorrhagic stroke can occur, oral, intravenous, nasal, and inhalational routes of administration have been reported. Most were chronic user, but in several patients, stroke followed a first exposure. Some of amphetamine induced intracranial hemorrhages are secondary to acute hypertension, some to cerebral vacuities, and some to a combination of two. Decongestants and diet pills: Phenylpropanolamine (PPA, an amphetamine – like drug, in decongestants and diet pills, induce acute hypertension, sever headache, psychiatric symptoms, seizures and hemorrhagic stroke. Ephedrine and pseudo ephedrine are present in decongestants and bronchodilators and induce headache, tachyarrhythmia, hypertensive emergency, and hemorrhagic and occlusive stroke. Ecstasy, 3,4 Methylenedioxymethamphetamin (MDMA with amphetamine like can
Rieckmann, Traci; Moore, Laurie A; Croy, Calvin D; Novins, Douglas K; Aarons, Gregory
American Indians and Alaska Natives (AIANs) experience major disparities in accessing quality care for mental health and substance use disorders. There are long-standing concerns about access to and quality of care for AIANs in rural and urban areas including the influence of staff and organizational factors, and attitudes toward evidence-based treatment for addiction. We conducted the first national survey of programs serving AIAN communities and examined workforce and programmatic differences between clinics located in urban/suburban (n=50) and rural (n=142) communities. We explored the correlates of openness toward using evidence-based treatments (EBTs). Programs located in rural areas were significantly less likely to have nurses, traditional healing consultants, or ceremonial providers on staff, to consult outside evaluators, to use strategic planning to improve program quality, to offer pharmacotherapies, pipe ceremonies, and cultural activities among their services, and to participate in research or program evaluation studies. They were significantly more likely to employ elders among their traditional healers, offer AA-open group recovery services, and collect data on treatment outcomes. Greater openness toward EBTs was related to a larger clinical staff, having addiction providers, being led by directors who perceived a gap in access to EBTs, and working with key stakeholders to improve access to services. Programs that provided early intervention services (American Society of Addiction Medicine level 0.5) reported less openness. This research provides baseline workforce and program level data that can be used to better understand changes in access and quality for AIAN over time. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Rojas, Julio I; Jeon-Slaughter, Haekyung; Brand, Michael; Koos, Erin
Three impaired health care provider groups (N = 84) (nurses, pharmacists, and providers with prescriptive authority) referred for a substance abuse evaluation at an outpatient-based program were compared on demographic and family factors, substance abuse patterns, and psychiatric symptomology as assessed by the Personality Assessment Inventory. Nurses had the highest rates of family history of addiction, problems with benzodiazepines, and psychiatric comorbidity. Overall, health care professionals endorsed opioids twice as often as alcohol as a preferred substance. Family history of addiction, sex, and psychiatric comorbidity emerged as salient factors among these health care professionals. Clinical implications are examined in light of the current findings.
Butts, Jeffrey A., Ed.; Roman, John, Ed.
Juvenile justice officials across the United States are embracing a new method of dealing with adolescent substance abuse. Importing a popular innovation from adult courts, state and local governments have started hundreds of specialized drug courts to provide judicial supervision and coordinate substance abuse treatment for drug-involved…
Najavits, Lisa M; Norman, Sonya B; Kivlahan, Daniel; Kosten, Thomas R
We surveyed 205 Veterans Affairs (VA) staff on treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), substance use disorder (SUD), and the combination (PTSD/SUD). The survey was anonymous and VA-wide. PTSD/SUD was perceived as more difficult to treat than either disorder alone; gratification in the work was stronger than difficulty (for PTSD, SUD, and PTSD/SUD); and difficulty and gratification appeared separate constructs. Respondents endorsed views that represent expert treatment for the comorbidity; however, there was also endorsement of "myths." Thus, there is a need for more training, policy clarifications, service integration, and adaptations for veterans returning from Iraq and Afghanistan. Limitations are described.
Substance abuse is a serious concern in the profession of nursing. The American Nurses Association (1997) estimates that 10% to 20% of nurses have substance abuse problems, and that 6% to 8% of registered nurses are impaired due to their abuse of alcohol and other drugs. Chemical dependency is considered a disease that requires treatment. Early identification and treatment of the chemically dependent nurse is important for the safety of the public and for the well-being of the nurse and her profession. This article addresses substance abuse from a biopsychosocial perspective, and includes a description of an approach to treatment and suggestions for the role of nursing administration.
Roberto, Anthony J; Shafer, Michael S; Marmo, Jennifer
The purpose of this investigation is to determine if the theory of reasoned action (TRA) and theory of planned behavior (TPB) can retrospectively predict whether substance-abuse treatment providers encourage their clients to use medicated-assisted treatment (MAT) as part of their treatment plan. Two-hundred and ten substance-abuse treatment providers completed a survey measuring attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, intentions, and behavior. Results indicate that substance-abuse treatment providers have very positive attitudes, neutral subjective norms, somewhat positive perceived behavioral control, somewhat positive intentions toward recommending MAT as part of their clients' treatment plan, and were somewhat likely to engage in the actual behavior. Further, the data fit both the TRA and TPB, but with the TPB model having better fit and predictive power for this target audience and behavior. The theoretical and practical implications for the developing messages for substance-abuse treatment providers and other health-care professionals who provide treatment to patients with substance use disorders are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Mangrum, Laurel F; Spence, Richard T
The study compares counselor and client characteristics of state-funded co-occurring disorder (COPSD) programs in mental health (MH) versus substance abuse (SA) settings. SA counselors more often had graduate degrees and MH counselors rated their knowledge and skills lower on two of nine COPSD best practice principles. MH clients were more frequently diagnosed with schizophrenia, depression, and bipolar disorder, whereas SA clients displayed evidence of greater substance use severity and had higher rates of treatment completion and abstinence at discharge. Results reveal significant implications for workforce development and potential system changes to enhance COPSD services that are unique to each setting.
Dhawan, Anju; Balhara, Yatan Pal Singh; Natasha, M. Phil.
Adolescent substance abuse is a major public health concern. It is associated with an increased incidence of various psychiatric disorders like depressive disorders, anxiety disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and conduct disorders and the relationship between mental and behavioral disorders and the substance use problems seems…
Brown, T G; Werk, A; Caplan, T; Seraganian, P
Although substance abuse is frequently encountered in men receiving services in violence treatment settings, systematic study of these 'dual-problem' men has lagged. This study had two main objectives: (1) the characterization of psychoactive substance abuse disorders in a naturalistic sample of men in domestic violence treatment; and (2) clarification of the role of substance abuse on the sociodemographic, personality, psychosocial, and abuse characteristics of dual-problem men. Fifty-three adult men who were attending domestic violence treatment were recruited. They were administered the Addiction Severity Index, the Conflicts Tactics Scale, Structured Clinical Diagnostic Interview, the 16PF and the Symptoms Checklist-90. Partners, when available, were asked to provide corroboration. Sixty-three percent of the men had a current diagnosis of psychoactive substance abuse or dependence, while 92.5% had a lifetime diagnosis. Of the former, the majority was diagnosed as multiply dependent on alcohol and other drugs. As the severity of the substance abuse increased, so too did the dangerousness and frequency of abusive behaviors. Moreover, dual-problem men reported more hostility, apprehension, frustration and suspiciousness and past arrests than did their violence-only cohorts as well as a history of multiple (unsuccessful) treatments for substance abuse. These findings suggest that the trend toward multiple drug complaints seen in other clinical milieus is also being confronted in conjugal violence settings. In addition to the greater therapeutic challenge such dual-problem men present, these findings speak to the need to investigate integrated treatment approaches to improve the outlook of men grappling with both conjugal violence and multiple substance abuse problems.
Full Text Available Jarrett M Burns, Edward W Boyer Division of Medical Toxicology, Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA, USA Abstract: Abuse of antitussive preparations is a continuing problem in the United States and throughout the world. Illicit, exploratory, or recreational use of dextromethorphan and codeine/promethazine cough syrups is widely described. This review describes the pharmacology, clinical effects, and management of toxicity from commonly abused antitussive formulations. Keywords: dextromethorphan, purple drank, sizzurp, codeine/promethazine
... certification/accreditation All / None / Reverse   State substance abuse agency   State mental health department   State department of health   Hospital licensing authority   The Joint Commission   Commission on Accreditation ...
Brande, M.C.; Zimmerman, A.M.
This book provides an overview of the effects of several abused drugs, including opiates, cannabinoids, alcohol, nicotine, and cocaine, with special emphasis on the actions of these substances at the molecular and cellular levels. The first half deals with genetic effects, including molecular genetics, biochemical genetics, pharmacogenetics, cytogenetics, and genetic toxicity. The second half focuses on perinatal effects and covers: drug abuse during pregnancy; biochemical aspects of marihuana on male reproduction; and long-term behavioral and neuroendocrine effects of perinatal alcohol exposure.
Full Text Available Li-Tzy Wu*Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Duke University School of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA *Li-Tzy Wu is the Editor-in-Chief of Substance Abuse and RehabilitationAbstract: Alcohol, tobacco, and illegal drug use are pervasive throughout the world. Substance use problems are among the major contributors to the global disease burden, which includes disability and mortality. The benefits of treatment far outweigh the economic costs. Despite the availability of treatment services, however, the vast majority of people with substance use disorders do not seek or use treatment. Barriers to and unmet need for evidence-based treatment are widespread even in the United States. Women, adolescents, and young adults are especially vulnerable to adverse effects from substance abuse, but they face additional barriers to getting evidence-based treatment or other social/medical services. Substance use behaviors and the diseases attributable to substance use problems are preventable and modifiable. Yet the ever-changing patterns of substance use and associated problems require combined research and policy-making efforts from all parts of the world to establish a viable knowledge base to inform for prevention, risk-reduction intervention, effective use of evidence-based treatment, and rehabilitation for long-term recovery. The new international, open-access, peer-reviewed Substance Abuse and Rehabilitation (SAR journal strives to provide an effective platform for sharing ideas for solutions and disseminating research findings globally. Substance use behaviors and problems have no boundaries. The journal welcomes papers from all regions of the world that address any aspect of substance use, abuse/dependence, intervention, treatment, and policy. The “open-access” journal makes cutting edge knowledge freely available to practitioners and researchers worldwide, and this is particularly important for addressing
Substance abuse affects American children across all geographic and economic boundaries and has been linked to poor academic performance, truancy, and dropping out. Schools lacking clear alcohol and drug policies are more likely to experience problems with substance abuse. A districtwide substance abuse policy makes a public statement that…
... or support groups on a regular basis. Take vitamin and mineral supplements if recommended by the health care provider. Alternative Names Substance use recovery and diet; Nutrition and substance use References Kowalchuk A, Reed BC. ...
Pinto, Rogério M; Spector, Anya Y; Yu, Gary; Campbell, Aimee N C
To examine the relative contribution of providers' professional affiliation (medical vs. non-medical), involvement in research, and training needs for associations with endorsement of the following evidence-based practices (EBPs): (1) pharmacological - buprenorphine treatment and (2) psychosocial - Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT). Secondary analysis from a 2008 survey of a national sample (n = 571) of substance abuse treatment providers (medical, social workers, psychologists and counsellors) affiliated with the United States National Institute on Drug Abuse's National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network. Multivariate linear regression models to analyze cross-sectional survey data. Results demonstrated that medical providers and providers with previous research involvement more strongly endorsed the effectiveness of buprenorphine over CBT. Compared to medical providers, psychosocial providers more strongly endorsed CBT. There was a positive association between needing training in rapport with patients and endorsement of buprenorphine and a negative association with CBT. There was a positive association between needing training in behavioural management and needs assessment and endorsement of CBT. Results underscore the importance of providers' involvement in research and the need for training medical and non-medical providers in practice areas that can purposely enhance their use of pharmacological and psychosocial EBPs.
Epstein, Patricia M; Burns, Candace; Conlon, Helen Acree
The stressful conditions under which nurses work, due in part to the nursing shortage, are among the risk factors that contribute to nurses' abuse of illicit drugs. Nurses differ from the general population in that they work in an environment where they not only have access to controlled substances, but also are exposed to death and dying, the stress of which can increase the risk of drug abuse. However, practicing while impaired places patients' lives at risk and decreases staff morale. Copyright 2010, SLACK Incorporated.
Giordano, Amanda L.; Prosek, Elizabeth A.; Stamman, Julia; Callahan, Molly M.; Loseu, Sahar; Bevly, Cynthia M.; Cross, Kaitlin; Woehler, Elliott S.; Calzada, Richard-Michael R.; Chadwell, Katie
Trauma is prevalent among clients with substance abuse issues, yet addictions counselors' training in trauma approaches is limited. The purpose of the current article is to provide pertinent information regarding trauma treatment including the use of assessments, empirically supported clinical approaches, self-help groups and the risk of vicarious…
Zilberman, Monica L; Blume, Sheila B
Domestic violence and substance abuse are common in primary care patients. Although these problems are associated with severe physical and psychological sequelae, they are often undiagnosed. This article provides an overview of the prevalence of these problems, the health-related consequences for adults, children and elderly, as well as the challenges for clinicians in screening, assessment and referral.
Gage, Susan; Melillo, Karen Devereaux
By 2020, it is projected that the number of older adults needing treatment for drug and alcohol addictions will increase dramatically. Although Medicare covers treatment for mental health issues, copayments can be prohibitive for those with lower incomes. The Positive Aging Act, an amendment to the Public Health Service Act, is a policy alternative that could address substance abuse in the older adult population by (a) demonstrating ways of integrating mental health services for older adults into primary care settings, and (b) supporting the establishment and maintenance of interdisciplinary geriatric mental health outreach teams in community settings where older adults reside or receive social services. Increasing funding to states to emphasize primary care provider education on the detection, evaluation, and treatment of substance abuse problems of older adults has the potential to better meet the substance abuse needs of this population. Educating primary care providers, including gerontological nurses, to recognize signs of substance abuse in this population and providing age-appropriate treatment options is critically important but will require funding beyond what is currently available. Copyright 2011, SLACK Incorporated.
... Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Center for Substance Abuse Treatment www. samhsa. gov Acknowledgments This booklet was produced ... No. 270-99-7072 with the Center for Substance Abuse Treatment (CSAT), Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration ( ...
Bitar, Raoul; Dürsteler, Kenneth M; Rösner, Susanne; Grosshans, Martin; Herdener, Marcus; Mutschler, Jochen
In respect of demographic change, the number of older patients with substance abuse and addiction is on the raise. In this review we present important clinical and therapeutic aspects of substance abuse and addiction in the elderly and focus on alcohol, benzodiazepines and opioids. Daily and risky alcohol consumption is common among older people. They also have an increased risk getting alcohol-related complications. For early detection, laboratory parameters and questionnaires such as the AUDIT-C are suitable. Therapeutically brief interventions have been proved successful. Also, abuse of benzodiazepines, especially low-dose addiction, is widespread among older persons, although often overlooked, and patients often do not recognize their addiction. The physician has to know the correct indication, adequate dosage and pharmacological interactions. A slow-dose reduction is recommended in case of addiction. Thanks to opioid substitution therapy, patients with an opioidaddiction can reach a higher age. Age influences the effects of the substitute, which may require an adjustment of the dosage. Treatment of elderly patients should be based on their needs and resources and is usually very effective.
Bondurant, Samuel R.; Lindo, Jason M.; Isaac D. Swensen
In this paper we estimate the effects of expanding access to substance-abuse treatment on local crime. We do so using an identification strategy that leverages variation driven by substance-abuse-treatment facility openings and closings measured at the county level. The results indicate that substance-abuse-treatment facilities reduce both violent and financially motivated crimes in an area, and that the effects are particularly pronounced for relatively serious crimes. The effects on homicid...
Peltan, Jessica R; Cellucci, Tony
Incarcerated women have high rates of substance abuse problems and trauma. A variety of variables may influence whether these women seek help or are referred for substance abuse problems. This study reports an exploratory project on service utilization among incarcerated substance-dependent women (N = 40) in southeastern Idaho. Using self-report and interview tools, most participants reported some substance abuse treatment history, although extent and types of treatment varied. Most of the women also reported some type of childhood abuse. Age, income, and consequences of alcohol and other drug use related positively to substance abuse treatment. However, severity of childhood sexual abuse and current trauma symptoms were negatively correlated with substance abuse treatment episodes. These women may use substances to cope with childhood trauma or may not perceive the substance abuse system as responsive to their co-occurring trauma symptoms. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hamid, Humera; El-Mallakh, Rif S; Vandeveir, Keith
Substance abuse is among one of the major problems plaguing our society. It has come to the attention of several healthcare professionals that a communication gap exists between themselves and substance abusers. Most of the time the substance abusers are only familiar with the slang terms of abused substances, a terminology that medical professionals are usually unaware of. This paper is an attempt to close that communication gap, allowing health care professionals to understand the slang terminology that their patients use, thus enabling them to make appropriate treatment decisions. In addition, the article presents some key features (including active ingredient, pharmacological classification, medical use, abuse form, usage method, combinations used, effects sought, long-term possible effects, and detectability in urine) of the most commonly abused substances.
Alcohol, tobacco, and illegal drug use are pervasive throughout the world. Substance use problems are among the major contributors to the global disease burden, which includes disability and mortality. The benefits of treatment far outweigh the economic costs. Despite the availability of treatment services, however, the vast majority of people with substance use disorders do not seek or use treatment. Barriers to and unmet need for evidence-based treatment are widespread even in the United States. Women, adolescents, and young adults are especially vulnerable to adverse effects from substance abuse, but they face additional barriers to getting evidence-based treatment or other social/medical services. Substance use behaviors and the diseases attributable to substance use problems are preventable and modifiable. Yet the ever-changing patterns of substance use and associated problems require combined research and policy-making efforts from all parts of the world to establish a viable knowledge base to inform for prevention, risk-reduction intervention, effective use of evidence-based treatment, and rehabilitation for long-term recovery. The new international, open-access, peer-reviewed Substance Abuse and Rehabilitation (SAR) journal strives to provide an effective platform for sharing ideas for solutions and disseminating research findings globally. Substance use behaviors and problems have no boundaries. The journal welcomes papers from all regions of the world that address any aspect of substance use, abuse/dependence, intervention, treatment, and policy. The "open-access" journal makes cutting edge knowledge freely available to practitioners and researchers worldwide, and this is particularly important for addressing the global disease burden attributable to substance abuse.
Rutkow, Lainie; Vernick, Jon S; Mojtabai, Ramin; Rodman, Sarah O; Kaufmann, Christopher N
Certain groups with preexisting mental and behavioral health conditions, such as substance use disorders, may be especially vulnerable during and shortly after disasters. Researchers have found that substance abuse treatment programs and the individuals they serve experienced major disruptions after the September 11, 2001, attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon and after Hurricane Katrina. This column considers legal challenges that may arise when a rapid influx of licensed providers is needed for substance abuse treatment during disasters and reviews specific legal issues that disasters may raise for opioid treatment programs. Opportunities to mitigate legal challenges and facilitate substance abuse treatment during disasters are discussed.
Kane, Michael N.; Green, Diane
Human service students' (social work, criminal justice, public administration, psychology) were surveyed (N = 242). Their perceptions about older persons' resilience and recovery from substance abuse were investigated. Overall, respondents did not agree that treating older persons for a substance abuse problem was wasteful of resources or older…
The study investigated the factors influencing substance abuse amongundergraduate students in Osun State; Nigeria. A sample of 1, 200undergraduate students were randomly selected from three tertiaryinstitution in Osun State. Factors Influencing Substance Abuse Questionnaire (FISA) was developed by the researcher ...
Hudson, J I; Weiss, R D; Pope, H G; McElroy, S K; Mirin, S M
Among 386 consecutive patients hospitalized for substance abuse, 15% of 143 women had a lifetime diagnosis of anorexia or bulimia nervosa, compared to only 1% of 243 men. Women with eating disorders had significantly higher rates of stimulant abuse and lower rates of opioid abuse than women without eating disorders.
Thurstone, Chris; Lajoie, Travis
Strategies are needed to improve adolescent substance abuse treatment outcomes. For example, during outpatient substance abuse treatment, up to 80% of adolescents continue to use. 1 , 2 Following residential substance abuse treatment, 88% of adolescents relapse within 6 months. 3
Lee, Young Sik; Han, Doug Hyun; Kim, Sun Mi; Renshaw, Perry F
The purpose of the current study was to evaluate possible overlapping substance abuse and internet addiction in a large, uniformly sampled population, ranging in age from 13 to 18 years. Participants (N=73,238) in the current study were drawn from the 6th Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey (KYRBWS-V) for students from 400 middle schools and 400 high schools in 16 cities within South Korea. Of adolescent internet users, 85.2% were general users (GU), 11.9% were users with potential risk for internet addiction (PR), and 3.0% were users with high risk for internet addiction (HR). There was a difference in the number of students with alcohol drinking among the GU, PR, and HR groups (20.8% vs 23.1% vs 27.4%). There was a difference in the number of students who smoked among the GS, PR, and HR groups (11.7% vs 13.5% vs 20.4%). There was a difference in the number of students with drug use among the GU, PR, and HR groups (1.7% vs 2.0% vs 6.5%). After adjusting for sex, age, stress, depressed mood, and suicidal ideation, smoking may predict a high risk for internet addiction (OR=1.203, p=0.004). In addition, drug use may predict a high risk for internet addiction (OR=2.591, pinternet addiction have vulnerability for addictive behaviors, co-morbid substance abuse should be evaluated and, if found, treated in adolescents with internet addiction. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lacey, Krim K; Mouzon, Dawne M; Govia, Ishtar O; Matusko, Niki; Forsythe-Brown, Ivy; Abelson, Jamie M; Jackson, James S
Lower rates of substance abuse are found among Black Americans compared to Whites, but little is known about differences in substance abuse across ethnic groups within the black population. We examined prevalence rates of substance abuse among Blacks across three geographic regions (US, Jamaica, Guyana). The study also sought to ascertain whether length of time, national context and major depressive episodes (MDE) were associated with substance abuse. We utilized three different data sources based upon probability samples collected in three different countries. The samples included 3,570 African Americans and 1,621 US Caribbean Black adults from the 2001-2003 National Survey of American Life (NSAL). An additional 1,142 Guyanese Blacks and 1,176 Jamaican Blacks living in the Caribbean region were included from the 2005 NSAL replication extension study, Family Connections Across Generations and Nations (FCGN). Mental disorders were based upon DSM-IV criteria. For the analysis, we used descriptive statistics, chi-square, and multivariate logistic regression analytic procedures. Prevalence of substance abuse varied by national context, with higher rates among Blacks within the United States compared to the Caribbean region. Rates of substance abuse were lower overall for women, but differ across cohorts by nativity and length of time in the United States, and in association with major depressive episode. The study highlights the need for further examination of how substance abuse disparities between US-based and Caribbean-based populations may become manifested.
Martin, Sandra L; Moracco, Kathryn E; Chang, Judy C; Council, Carol L; Dulli, Lisa S
This article discusses the results of a survey of North Carolina domestic violence programs that found that substance abuse problems are common among program clients, yet only half of the programs had policies concerning substance-abusing clients, and one fourth had memoranda of agreement with substance abuse treatment providers. Most programs with shelters asked clients about substance use; however, one third of the shelters would not admit women if they were noticeably under the influence of substances while seeking shelter residence, instead referring them to substance abuse programs. Approximately one tenth of the domestic violence programs did not have any staff or volunteers with training in substance abuse issues. Implications are discussed.
IT IS NOT EASY to report a coworker who may have a substance abuse problem, so many nurses choose to remain silent about this issue. THIS ARTICLE PROVIDES suggestions for staff nurses about how to confront a peer, document inappropriate nursing behaviors related to substance abuse, and report these issues to a manager. The manager's role in counseling and intercession with a substance abusing employee also is detailed. REMEDIATION AND SUPPORT programs are addressed along with return-to-work issues and the need for education about this debilitating disease.
Knisely, J S; Barker, S B; Ingersoll, K S; Dawson, K S
This study compared MMPI-2 profiles and evaluated the ability of the MMPI-2 and its two new post-traumatic stress scales (PK and PS) to discriminate women in outpatient substance abuse treatment reporting positive (n = 24) and negative (n = 69) child sexual abuse histories. T-tests revealed significantly higher mean scores for the sexual abuse group for the following scales: F, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7, and 8. A discriminant analysis yielded a linear function of L, F, 3, 5, 8, and PK that correctly categorized 75% with positive histories and 77% with negative histories. The optimal cutoff PK score was 17, which correctly classified 75% and 46% of those reporting positive and negative abuse histories, respectively. These findings support early identification of abuse survivors among substance abusing women and suggests that the MMPI-2 may be useful in patient-treatment matching.
As for substance-related disorders, there were several differences between ICD-10 and DSM-IV, however, the concept of "dependence" had been essential for both criteria. DSM-5 published in 2013 had erased dependence. This confuses us. It is important to recognize dependence again. "Abuse" is the self-intake behavior of drug against the social norms. Repeated abuse results in dependence. Dependence is a state of loss of control against drug use due to craving. Abuse can produce "acute intoxication", and repeated abuse under dependence can produce "chronic intoxication". It is important to understand abuse, dependence and "intoxication" based on their relationship from the point of time course.
... and Violence Tribal Affairs Underage Drinking Veterans and Military Families Wellness Workforce Featured Campaign Recovery Month Recovery ... areas. The Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA), U.S. Department of Health and Human Services ( ...
The rise of authorized marijuana use in the U.S. means that many individuals are using cannabis as they concurrently engage in other forms of treatment, such as substance abuse counseling and psychotherapy...
... Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's Center for Substance Abuse Treatment (CSAT... HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Center for Substance Abuse.... Committee Name: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's CSAT National Advisory Council...
... Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's Center for Substance Abuse Treatment (CSAT... HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Center for Substance Abuse.... Committee Name: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's CSAT National Advisory Council...
Glover-Graf, N M; Janikowski, T P
Counselors delivering substance abuse treatment from within 39 treatment facilities throughout the United States were surveyed using the Substance Abuse Counselor Survey on Clients with Incest Histories (SACSCIH). The sample of 114 participants reported upon experiences and perceptions related to their incest-related training, identification of incest victims, prevalence of incest victims on their caseloads, and referral and treatment practices. Additionally, group comparisons provided information on differences based upon participants' gender, educational degree, recovery status, and experience with incest counseling.
Rimsza, Mary Ellen; Moses, Karen S
Substance abuse is a major health and behavioral concern in college students. Alcohol and marijuana are the most commonly abused drugs on college campuses. Others include tobacco, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, gamma-hydroxybutyrate, flunitrazepam (Rohypnol), lysergic acid, ketamine, methamphetamine, phencyclidine, cocaine, and psilocybin mushrooms. This article reviews the use of these drugs by college students. Substance use is a major contributing factor in poor academic performance and failure to successfully complete a college education.
Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 2011
This report uses data from the Treatment Episode Data Set (TEDS) for 2008 to provide information on the characteristics of youths aged 12 to 14 admitted to substance abuse treatment. In 2008, approximately 23,770 substance abuse treatment admissions were adolescents aged 12 to 14. The two most frequently reported primary substances of abuse among…
Caponnetto, Pasquale; Auditore, Roberta; Russo, Cristina; Alamo, Angela; Campagna, Davide; Demma, Shirin; Polosa, Riccardo
Commonly abused drug are cocaine, marijuana, cigarettes, heroin, and alcohol. The review emphasizes the importance for clinicians to be alert to the possibility of this substance as a precipitating factor for acute asthma. Substance use disorders to characterize illnesses associated with drug use. The use of drugs of abuse increases risk of developing more severe symptoms, higher frequency of exacerbations and having and significant effect on care resources due to clinicians visits and frequent hospital admissions. Abused drug has been shown to accelerate the decline in lung function and to increase numbers of life-threatening asthma attacks, and greater asthma mortality.
Daley, Kathryn; Chamberlain, Chris
To help explain why some young people move from recreational drug use to substance abuse, twelve in-depth interviews were conducted with young people who had experienced problematic substance use. The data were supplemented by statistical data on 111 young people. The researchers found a variety of "structural" factors that help explain…
Glenn, Margaret K.; Moore, Lucas C.
This study explored the perceived external and internal issues that may have an effect on collaborative ventures designed to provide vocational rehabilitation services to persons with substance use disorders. Participants in the study were professionals from substance abuse (SA) treatment and vocational rehabilitation (VR) agencies in 1 state…
There is minimal research that has considered influences in mental health care service delivery in rural and disadvantaged communities in South Africa. Methods: A qualitative study with ... prevalence of substance users. Keywords: community occupational therapy, rural, service delivery, service providers, substance abuse ...
Dimeff, Linda A; Linehan, Marsha M
Dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) is a well-established treatment for individuals with multiple and severe psychosocial disorders, including those who are chronically suicidal. Because many such patients have substance use disorders (SUDs), the authors developed DBT for Substance Abusers, which incorporates concepts and modalities designed to promote abstinence and to reduce the length and adverse impact of relapses. Among these are dialectical abstinence, "clear mind," and attachment strategies that include off-site counseling as well as active attempts to find patients who miss sessions. Several randomized clinical trials have found that DBT for Substance Abusers decreased substance abuse in patients with borderline personality disorder. The treatment also may be helpful for patients who have other severe disorders co-occurring with SUDs or who have not responded to other evidence-based SUD therapies.
Full Text Available Objective: This study investigated if there was a significant relationship between physical abuse during childhood and experiencing psychological distress and substance abuse among university students. Methods: This cross-sectional study utilized a questionnaire to collect retrospective data from 382 university students (103 males and 279 females about their substance use patterns, level of psychological distress and their exposure to physical abuse. The data were then analysed using bivariate statistics. Results: Most (61.8% participants met the criteria for being physically abused, however, only 27.2% recognized the experience as abuse. Another 38.9% of the students reported moderate to severe psychological distress. There was a significant relationship between being physically abused and experiencing higher levels of psychological distress (p < 0.001. Cannabis was the most frequently utilized illicit drug (10.3% while alcohol was the most frequently utilized licit drug (37.4%. Drug abuse was found to be significantly associated with being physically abused during childhood (p < 0.05. Conclusion: Even though the results obtained are not generalizable, this study has provided important preliminary information, that experiencing physical abuse increases the likelihood of having higher levels of psychological distress and becoming a substance abuser during adulthood; thereby identifying an overlooked area to target anti-drug use interventions.
Addington, J; Addington, D
Individuals with schizophrenia have an increased vulnerability to abuse drugs or alcohol. This vulnerability can interfere with the course and treatment of the disorder and may also have a detrimental effect on already compromised cognitive functioning. This study has a matched, cross-sectional design and compares the social and cognitive functioning and the symptoms of 33 schizophrenia subjects who abuse substances with 33 nonabusing schizophrenia subjects. Subjects were matched on sex, age,...
Tenegra, Johnny C; Leebold, Bobby
One of the more prevalent and often undiagnosed problems seen by primary care clinicians is substance misuse. Resulting in increased morbidity and mortality, loss of productivity, and increased health care costs, substance misuse in our society remains a significant public health issue. Primary care physicians are on the front lines of medical care, and as such, are in a distinctive position to recognize potential problems in this area and assist. This article outlines office-based screening approaches and strategies for managing and treating this complex issue confronting primary care. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Schippers, Gerard M.; Schramade, Mark; Walburg, Jan A.
The Dutch substance abuse treatment system is in the middle of a major reorganization. The goal is to improve outcomes by redesigning all major primary treatment processes and by implementing a system of regular monitoring and feedback of clinical outcome data. The new program includes implementing
Substance Abuse Among Female Senior Secondary School Students In Anambra State South Eastern Nigeria. ... Results: Out of a study population of 725, 34 or 4.7% of the girls smoked tobacco (cigarette) while 69 or 9.5% indulged in alcohol and 109 or 15% took sedatives as a means of inducing sleep. There was no ...
The paper examines the logotherapeutic management of persons with substance abuse/dependence which involves the utilization of a multi- displinary approach. Therefore, the paper highlights how this view is in relationship with the concept of logotherapy about man that comprises biological, psychological and spiritual ...
ABSTRACT. The paper argues that non-governmental organisations have important roles in the fight against substance abuse and sexuality issues among adolescent street children of Harare Central Business District. However, there is also evidence pointing towards the fact that some of the non-governmental ...
Phillips, Lindsay A.
This qualitative analysis explores the role of substance abuse in reentry from prison to society. Participants who recidivated (N = 20) in an urban prison system identified substance abuse as their primary reason for recidivism. Treatment implications are discussed.
Characteristics of Pregnant Teen Substance Abuse Treatment Admissions May 9, 2013 Teenage pregnancy is a serious public ... to treatment entry TEDS_121 THE TEDS REPORT: Characteristics of Pregnant Teen Substance Abuse Treatment Admissions May ...
Wesson, D R; Hink, R H
Computer programs can assist humans in solving complex problems that cannot be solved by traditional computational techniques using mathematic formulas. These programs, or "expert systems," are commonly used in finance, engineering, and computer design. Although not routinely used in medicine at present, medical expert systems have been developed to assist physicians in solving many kinds of medical problems that traditionally require consultation from a physician specialist. No expert systems are available specifically for drug abuse treatment, but at least one is under development. Where access to a physician specialist in substance abuse is not available for consultation, this expert system will extend specialized substance abuse treatment expertise to nonspecialists. Medical expert systems are a developing technologic tool that can assist physicians in practicing better medicine.
The rise of authorized marijuana use in the U.S. means that many individuals are using cannabis as they concurrently engage in other forms of treatment, such as substance abuse counseling and psychotherapy. Clinical and legal decisions may be influenced by findings that suggest marijuana use during treatment serves as an obstacle to treatment success, compromises treatment integrity, or increases the prevalence or severity of relapse. In this paper, the author reviews the relationship between authorized marijuana use and substance abuse treatment utilizing data from a preliminary pilot study that, for the first time, uses a systematic methodology to collect data examining possible effects on treatment. Data from the California Outcomes Measurement System (CalOMS) were compared for medical (authorized) marijuana users and non-marijuana users who were admitted to a public substance abuse treatment program in California. Behavioral and social treatment outcomes recorded by clinical staff at discharge and reported to the California Department of Alcohol and Drug Programs were assessed for both groups, which included a sample of 18 reported medical marijuana users. While the findings described here are preliminary and very limited due to the small sample size, the study demonstrates that questions about the relationship between medical marijuana use and involvement in drug treatment can be systematically evaluated. In this small sample, cannabis use did not seem to compromise substance abuse treatment amongst the medical marijuana using group, who (based on these preliminary data) fared equal to or better than non-medical marijuana users in several important outcome categories (e.g., treatment completion, criminal justice involvement, medical concerns). This exploratory study suggests that medical marijuana is consistent with participation in other forms of drug treatment and may not adversely affect positive treatment outcomes. These findings call for more extensive
Wilsnack, S C; Vogeltanz, N D; Klassen, A D; Harris, T R
Clinical studies have found elevated rates of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) in women seeking treatment for alcohol or drug abuse, and elevated rates of alcohol and drug disorders among female psychiatric patients with histories of CSA. The present study examines the relationship of CSA to women's use of alcohol and other drugs in a large, nationally representative sample of U.S. women. As part of a national survey of women's drinking, 1,099 women were asked about sexual experiences occurring before age 18. Women who reported sexual experiences classified as abusive were compared to women without histories of CSA on nine measures of substance use, self-perception of anxiousness, the occurrence of one or more lifetime depressive episodes, five measures of sexual dysfunction, and early onset of masturbation and consensual sexual intercourse. Results of logit analyses, controlling for age, ethnicity and parental education, indicated that women with histories of CSA were significantly more likely than women without CSA histories to report recent alcohol use, intoxication, drinking-related problems and alcohol dependence symptoms; lifetime use of prescribed psychoactive drugs and illicit drugs; depression and anxiety; pain that prevented intercourse; and consensual sexual intercourse before age 15. Findings from this U.S. national sample support those of previous clinical studies and suggest that women's experience of sexual abuse in childhood may be an important risk factor for later substance abuse, psychopathology and sexual dysfunction. Implications of these findings for future research, treatment and prevention are discussed.
Riger, Stephanie; Bennett, Larry W; Sigurvinsdottir, Rannveig
Substance abuse commonly co-occurs with intimate partner violence among both perpetrators and survivors. Specialized courts that focus on intimate partner violence provide a unique opportunity to address both problems simultaneously, but research has yet to identify whether this happens. In this qualitative study of a domestic violence court in a large midwestern metropolitan area, key informants were interviewed to understand how the Court treats substance abuse. Results indicate that substance abuse typically is not identified among perpetrators or survivors going through the Court unless it is mentioned in a police report. Barriers to such identification are the organization of the Court, bounded definition of actors' roles in the Court, limited resources, and negative attitudes towards survivors. These results suggest that specialized courts that attend to only one problem may overlook the possibility of addressing issues that commonly co-occur.
Case studies illustrate how a restorative approach to substance abuse can bring about the recognition of profound community injustices and how confronting injustices can help tackle substance abuse. Outlines the research and development needed to test the hypothesis that criminalization of the harm caused by substance abuse (e.g., burglary) may be…
Socio-demographic characteristics of substance abusers admitted to a private specialist clinic. ... The results show that substance abuse is largely a problem of the young/adolescent males (p<0.05). There are significant differences between male and female substance abuses (p<0.05). Some of them seek treatment four to ...
To determine the effect of substance abuse on psychosis in terms of onset, duration, severity of symptoms, use of medication ... Subjects in the first-episode psychosis group were more likely to choose cannabis as their substance of abuse than controls. They also started abusing substances at a younger age than controls.
Aromin, Romulo Alcalde
Knowing how to manage substance abuse in all youth is an important aspect of pediatric care, including providing clinically appropriate anticipatory guidance, monitoring, assessment, and treatment. Although most lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth do not abuse substances, as a group they experience unique challenges in self-identity development that put them at an increased risk for substance abuse. This article addresses prevention and management of substance use in LGBT youth relevant to pediatrics and allied professions as an aspect of their overall health care. It reviews basic information about substance abuse in youth and special considerations for LGBT youth. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Center for Substance Abuse... Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's (SAMHSA) Center for Substance Abuse Prevention...
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Center for Substance Abuse... the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's (SAMHSA) Center for Substance Abuse...
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Center for Substance Abuse... Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's (SAMHSA) Center for Substance Abuse Prevention...
Boudreaux, Edwin D.; Bedek, Kristyna L.; Gilles, Donna; Baumann, Brigitte M.; Hollenberg, Steven; Lord, Sherrill A.; Grissom, Grant
The Dynamic Assessment and Referral System for Substance Abuse (DARSSA) conducts a computerized substance abuse assessment; prints personalized summary reports that include tailored substance abuse treatment referral lists; and, for individuals who provide authorization, automatically faxes their contact information to a “best match” substance abuse treatment provider (dynamic referral). After piloting the program and resolving problems that were noted, we enrolled a sample of 85 medical pati...
Rieckmann, Traci; Fussell, Holly; Doyle, Kevin; Ford, Jay; Riley, Katherine J.; Henderson, Stuart
Substance abuse treatment agencies serving youth face unique barriers to providing quality care. Interviews with 17 adolescent programs found that family engagement, community involvement, and gender and diversity issues affected treatment delivery. Programs report organizational change efforts with implications for future process improvement…
Vik, Peter W.; And Others
Examined social resource network characteristics of adolescent substance abusers (n=19). Perceived similarity to one's social network emerged as important moderator of whether social network provided support to remain abstinent or elevated risk for relapse. Increased perceived support predicted continued posttreatment abstinence when recovering…
Schroeder, Steven A
Despite their huge health toll, substance abuse disorders remain underappreciated and underfunded. Reasons include stigma, tolerance of personal choices, acceptance of youthful experimentation, pessimism about treatment efficacy, fragmented and weak leadership, powerful tobacco and alcohol industries, underinvestment in research, and difficult patients. Positive signs include declining prevalence rates, successful counter-marketing campaigns, changing public attitudes, new scientific discoveries that could yield new treatments, and effective new organizations. Further progress will require better treatment, more research, better education of health professionals, more nongovernmental support, and stronger leadership. Policy changes regarding each of the three substance groups are indicated, as are reforms in the criminal justice and educational systems.
Jimerson, Steven D; Musick, Sarah
Several states have proposed laws that urine drug screening be performed as a part of qualifying for public assistance. At least one state (Florida) has passed such a law, and several other states are considering similar laws. The Oklahoma Commission on Children and Youth created a committee to study laws and policies regarding the use of illegal drugs while pregnant. To get a better understanding of drug screening and pregnancy, 151 consecutive obstetrical patients receiving Medicaid were screened at their initial obstetrical visit by verbal and written questionnaire's concerning the use of alcohol, nicotine, and other illicit\\dangerous drugs; in addition a urine drug screen for the use of illicit or dangerous drugs was performed. The patient histories regarding the use of dangerous or illicit substances was reviewed and compared with the urine drug screens performed at the same visit. The authors note that when studied the incidence of substance abuse has been similar in patient population receiving public assistance and patient populations with traditional insurance. Oklahoma is one of 13 states with laws requiring mandatory reporting of substance abuse in pregnancy or the exposure of the newborn to illicit substances.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The rise of authorized marijuana use in the U.S. means that many individuals are using cannabis as they concurrently engage in other forms of treatment, such as substance abuse counseling and psychotherapy. Clinical and legal decisions may be influenced by findings that suggest marijuana use during treatment serves as an obstacle to treatment success, compromises treatment integrity, or increases the prevalence or severity of relapse. In this paper, the author reviews the relationship between authorized marijuana use and substance abuse treatment utilizing data from a preliminary pilot study that, for the first time, uses a systematic methodology to collect data examining possible effects on treatment. Methods Data from the California Outcomes Measurement System (CalOMS were compared for medical (authorized marijuana users and non-marijuana users who were admitted to a public substance abuse treatment program in California. Behavioral and social treatment outcomes recorded by clinical staff at discharge and reported to the California Department of Alcohol and Drug Programs were assessed for both groups, which included a sample of 18 reported medical marijuana users. Results While the findings described here are preliminary and very limited due to the small sample size, the study demonstrates that questions about the relationship between medical marijuana use and involvement in drug treatment can be systematically evaluated. In this small sample, cannabis use did not seem to compromise substance abuse treatment amongst the medical marijuana using group, who (based on these preliminary data fared equal to or better than non-medical marijuana users in several important outcome categories (e.g., treatment completion, criminal justice involvement, medical concerns. Conclusions This exploratory study suggests that medical marijuana is consistent with participation in other forms of drug treatment and may not adversely affect
Wallman, Carol M; Smith, Pat Bohling; Moore, Karen
Newborns exposed to illicit drugs or alcohol in utero can face physical, social, and emotional obstacles. Outcomes for children with fetal alcohol syndrome disorders are well documented in the literature. Data exist on the effects of maternal illicit drug use. Identifying perinatal substance abuse can increase positive outcomes for newborns and create the opportunity for mothers to access assistance through referrals to community resources.This article provides insight on how hospitals can implement an effective screening tool through patient surveying and testing, nurse education, and collaboration with community agencies in a multidisciplinary advisory committee setting.This discussed method of universal perinatal screening results in increased positive screens and increased referrals for care and support. Emphasis is placed on universal screening and testing methods. Nurses are trained in motivational interview techniques that convey empathy, listening, and objectivity. Community agencies partner with hospital staff through onsite meetings with families that determine the best discharge plan for the newborn. The multidisciplinary advisory committee meets continually to discuss future enhancements.
Myers, Bronwyn; Burnhams, Nadine Harker; Fakier, Nuraan
Although outcomes monitoring and the collection of other performance data holds benefits for service managers and policy makers, the extent to which these data are collected by South African substance abuse service providers is unknown. To describe (i) the extent to which substance abuse service providers in South Africa monitor and evaluate their…
Gibbs, Deborah A
...: spouse abuse child abuse and substance abuse. By supporting the development of improved responses to troubled families findings from this study can potentially reduce mortality and morbidity among military personal and their family members...
However, logistic regression revealed that only alcohol abuse (B = -1.383, df = 1, p = .002) predicted non adherence to ART. We recommend the screening of patients on ART for substance abuse and a multi-disciplinary approach to the treatment of HIV/AIDS. Keywords: HIV, substance abuse, medication adherence ...
Goldberg, Margaret E.
Reviews and interprets some recent literature on substance abuse problems and treatments among women. Major risk factors include childhood sexual or physical abuse, domestic violence, and a spouse or partner who abuses substances. Discusses the enormous problems of access to treatment for women with minor children. (JPS)
Background: Personality and other psychological variables have been suggested to be closely related to drug abuse. An understanding of such relationship could be beneficial in the management of patients with substance abuse. Aim: The study investigated psychological correlates of substance abuse psychiatric patients.
Shamsalinia, Abbas; Norouzi, Kiyan; Khoshknab, Masoud Fallahi; Farhoudian, Ali
Background and Purpose: Spirituality is an important factor influencing the decrease of substance abuse severity and maintenance of the recovery phase. This research, investigates the effect of spiritual experiences in the recovery of substance abusers. Material and Methods: Qualitative data was collected from 16 men and 6 women, selected through purposeful sampling to ensure an equilibrated gender representation and data from different recovery periods. Data were collected via semi-structured interviews. Results: Data showed two main categories: “Mutual relationship between spirituality and recovery,” divided into four subcategories: religious background, religious teachings, experience exchange, and support of family and society; and “A new perspective toward life” subdivided into access to calmness and spiritual development. A factor “spirituality meaning religion” arose repeatedly throughout the study. Conclusion: The results of this study can be useful for policy makers, care providers, families, and drug addicts. The promotion of spirituality in substance abusers can help in their struggle with temptation. Effective strategies to ensure drug abstinence and maintenance of the recovery phase are encouraging substance abusers and their families to participate in spirituality-based psychotherapy sessions held in addiction treatment centers, multi-disciplinary cooperation among the organizations involved in the addiction phenomenon, and training the families regarding the importance of spirituality in the mental health of their children through mass media. PMID:25363097
Background: Substance abuse is a worldwide problem and public health issue with attendant health, social, and economic consequences. However, the types of substances and pattern of abuse vary from place to place and with time. Aim: The aim of the study was to determine the pattern of substance use with the specific ...
Li-Tzy Wu*Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Duke University School of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA *Li-Tzy Wu is the Editor-in-Chief of Substance Abuse and RehabilitationAbstract: Alcohol, tobacco, and illegal drug use are pervasive throughout the world. Substance use problems are among the major contributors to the global disease burden, which includes disability and mortality. The benefits of treatment far outweigh the economic costs. Despite the...
Myers, Bronwyn; Fakier, Nuraan
To date, South African research has not examined mental health service provision in substance abuse treatment facilities, even though these services improve client retention and treatment outcomes. To describe the extent to which substance abuse treatment facilities in Gauteng and KwaZulu-Natal provinces provide clients with mental health services…
Weiss Ogden, Karen R.; Sias, Shari M.
Substance abuse counselors who address clients' spiritual development may provide more comprehensive counseling. This article presents an integrative supervision model designed to promote the spiritual development of substance abuse counselors-in-training, reviews the model, and discusses the implications for counselor education.
Slesnick, Natasha; Glassman, Michael; Katafiasz, Heather; Collins, Jennifer C.
This article documents the experiences of providing housing and supportive services, or ecologically based treatment, to shelter-recruited, substance-abusing homeless women with young children in their care. Among clients, observed experiences related to housing, substance abuse, and health and mental health care are discussed. Among therapists,…
Bryson, Ethan O; Silverstein, Jeffrey H
Despite substantial advances in our understanding of addiction and the technology and therapeutic approaches used to fight this disease, addiction still remains a major issue in the anesthesia workplace, and outcomes have not appreciably changed. Although alcoholism and other forms of impairment, such as addiction to other substances and mental illness, impact anesthesiologists at rates similar to those in other professions, as recently as 2005, the drug of choice for anesthesiologists entering treatment was still an opioid. There exists a considerable association between chemical dependence and other psychopathology, and successful treatment for addiction is less likely when comorbid psychopathology is not treated. Individuals under evaluation or treatment for substance abuse should have an evaluation with subsequent management of comorbid psychiatric conditions. Participation in self-help groups is still considered a vital component in the therapy of the impaired physician, along with regular monitoring if the anesthesiologist wishes to attempt reentry into clinical practice.
Striley, Catherine W.; Nattala, Prasanthi; Ben Abdallah, Arbi; Dennis, Michael L.; Cottler, Linda B.
This pilot study evaluated the effectiveness of enhanced case management for substance abusers with comorbid major depression, which was an integrated approach to care. One hundred and 20 participants admitted to drug treatment who also met Computerized Diagnostic Interview Schedule criteria for major depression at baseline were randomized to…
Hernandez, L.; Lavigne, A.; Wood, M.; Wiers, R.W.; Maric, M.; Prins, P.J.M.; Ollendick, T.H.
Adolescence is a period when substance use problems often emerge. Accordingly, efficacious, empirically valdated interventions, which can arrest the development of substance abuse by targeting etiologically relevant risk, promotive, and protective factors, are critically important. Enhanced
... Substance Abuse Treatment (CSAT) National Advisory Council will meet August 14, 2013, 9:00 a.m.--4:30 p.m...: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Center for Substance Abuse Treatment National... HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Center for Substance Abuse...
Derakhshanfar, Hojjat; Kalantari Meibodi, Mohamad; Kariman, Hamid; Arhamidolatabadi, Ali; Safari, Saeed
Background: Motor vehicle collisions (MVC) comprise a majority cause of referral to the emergency department (ED). A large proportion of MVC appear to be preventable, if more effective measures against driving after substance abuse can be implemented. Objective: This study was aimed to investigate the prevalence of substance abuse among drivers of MVC, following road traffic accidents (RTA). Materials and Methods: This case-control research was conducted from July to October 2007. One hundred MVC drivers admitted in the ED were included as the case group and 110 hospitalized patients, due to nontraumatic causes were used as controls. History of substances abused was obtained and urine samples were tested for opium in both groups. Finally the history and laboratory results of the groups were compared using SPSS 18. Results: Of the 100 patients in the case group, 39 (39%) were positive for substance abuse (100% males). On the other hand, 49 (44.5%) patients in the control group had positive history or laboratory findings of substance abuse (73.9% male). Opioids were the most common agent abused in both groups. There was no significant difference between two groups regarding the prevalence of substance abuse (P = 0.92). Conclusions: The prevalence of substance abuse is high among victims of road traffic injury but in equal proportion to the control group. Health education and counseling is needed to reduce substance abuse in the general population although it was not significantly related to the cause of RTA. PMID:24829889
Schultz, Jordan L; Kamholz, John A; Moser, David J; Feely, Shawna M E; Paulsen, Jane S; Nopoulos, Peg C
To investigate the relationship between substances of abuse and age at motor onset (AMO) in patients with Huntington disease (HD) in a large and diverse patient population. This was a retrospective, observational study of the Enroll-HD database. Participants were determined to belong to 1 of 3 substance abuse groups: (1) tobacco abusers, (2) alcohol abusers, and (3) drug abusers. A group of participants who had never abused substances served as a control group. The average AMO of patients in the substance abuse groups was compared to the control group. The number of CAG repeats was used as a covariate in all analyses. The average difference in AMOs of participants in the tobacco (n = 566), alcohol (n = 374), and drug abuse groups (n = 217) compared to the control group (n = 692) were 2.3 (F1, 1,258 = 33.8, p < 0.0001), 1.0 (F1, 1,066 = 4.2, p = 0.04), and 3.3 (F1, 909 = 29.7, p < 0.0001) years earlier, respectively. In all substance abuse groups, the AMO was lowered to a greater degree in female participants than it was in male participants. Substances of abuse have a strong effect on the AMO in patients with HD. These effects seem to be amplified in women with HD compared to men. These results may provide a safe intervention capable of adding disease-free years to patients with HD. © 2017 American Academy of Neurology.
Full Text Available In the last few decades, mental disorders resulting from substance abuse have become a frequent phenomenon, which features diverse forms and degrees of severity. In addition to being a medical and extremely harmful social phenomenon, substance abuse (commonly known as drug or narcotics abuse is frequently a subject matter of research in many sciences or scientific disciplines, such as medicine, psychology, sociology, legal science, etc. Drug abusers may develop diverse mental disorders, which largely depends on the type of psychoactive substance which is being abused and the method of taking narcotics (including frequency, daily dose, mode of administration, etc.. In this paper, the author provides an overview of different types of mental disorders according to the applicable International Classification of Mental and Behavioral Disorders. The disturbance of mental functions due to drug abuse (which may or may not result in the development of a mental disorder changes the perception and behaviour of drug users. The disturbance of mental functions becomes particularly prominent in the circumstances where substance abuse has turned into a drug addiction; the basic characteristic of the dependence syndrome is an irresistible urge (craving or even compulsion to take the substance in order to enjoy its effects again or to avoid/relieve the drug addiction crisis or the abstinence syndrome, which may be extremely painful and agonizing. As a consequence of these mental disturbances and other disorders arising from drug addiction, human behaviour may be disrupted to such an extent that a person may demonstrate some criminal conduct, which ultimately makes these mental disorders highly relevant in the field of criminal law. Given the fact that the criminal offender is a drug abuser who may have different forms of mental disorders, there is a need to consider the offender's mental capacity (sanity, which ultimately makes these mental disorders highly
Selseng Lillian Bruland
Full Text Available BACKGROUND & AIMS – Previous research has shown that age categories play a vital part in the decision-making processes of counsellors in substance abuse services, yet very little is known about how the meanings of “age” and “substance abuse” are constructed and intertwined. This article aims to provide insights into the dynamic relationship between discourses on age and substance abuse. It explores the narratives of a group of counsellors on age and substance abuse, and looks at the subject positions this intersection produces.
Kidorf, Michael; King, Van L; Peirce, Jessica; Pierce, Jessica; Kolodner, Ken; Brooner, Robert K
Participation in syringe exchange programs (SEPs) is associated with many individual and public health benefits but may have little impact on reducing drug use without concurrent treatment engagement. This study evaluated rates of drug use, other risk behaviors, and illegal activities in newly registered SEP participants (N = 240) enrolled versus not enrolled in substance abuse treatment over a 4-month observation window and examined the effect of days in treatment on these outcomes. After controlling for baseline differences, SEP registrants enrolled in treatment (n = 113) reported less days of opioid and cocaine use, injection drug use, illegal activities, and incarceration than those not enrolled in treatment (n = 127). For those enrolled in treatment, days of treatment was strongly correlated with each of these outcomes. These findings provide good evidence for a dose-response effect of treatment in syringe exchangers and suggest that substance abuse treatment significantly expands the harm reduction benefits of SEP participation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Gallucci, Nicholas T.
The correlates of 16 scales for the identification of substance abuse developed for the adolescent form of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory were studied with 180 adolescents receiving treatment for substance abuse. As expected, previously validated scales were reliably and positively correlated with therapists' ratings of behavioral…
show that parental involvement, reactions and anticipated consequences were significant factors in substance abuse treatment and prevention among university students. The extended family also emerged as a protective factor for the development of substance abuse behavior amongst university students. This study ...
Vaughn, Michael G.; Howard, Matthew O.
Objective: A synthesis was conducted to assess outcome findings and methodological characteristics of controlled evaluations of adolescent substance abuse treatments. Method: Extensive computerized and manual bibliographic searches were employed to identify controlled evaluations of adolescent substance abuse treatment. Meta-analytic techniques…
Join Together, Boston, MA.
According to the United States Department of Labor, 73% of drug users in 1997 were employed. Numerous studies, reports, and surveys suggest that substance abuse is having a negative effect on the workplace in terms of decreased productivity; increased accidents; absenteeism; turnover; and medical costs. However, workplace substance abuse is a…
State and Local Government Labor-Management Committee, Washington, DC.
This short booklet is a joint expression by public sector labor and management that recognizes that neither side has all the answers to the problems of employee substance abuse and that both share a common concern for a successful outcome. The booklet summarizes the dimension of substance abuse in today's workplace; and it tries to encourage…
Rienzi, Beth M.; And Others
To investigate gender differences in acceptance of substance abuse behavior among adolescents, 968 students were administered a questionnaire to assess their perceptions. Results show that both genders felt that boys would be more approving of teenage substance abuse. Most students were disapproving of a teenager driving after drinking. Other…
Salm, Twyla; Sevigny, Phil; Mulholland, Val; Greenberg, Hirsch
This case study examines not only the prevalence of substance abuse in one rural, Canadian high school, but also how teachers understand teaching and learning in relation to substance abuse. Over one third of students reported that they had used marijuana (37%) and alcohol (38%) in the last seven days, a rate considerably higher than typical…
Brown, Thomas G.; Caplan, Thomas; Seraganian, Peter; Werk, Annette
The linkage between conjugal violence and substance abuse is well established. The evidence suggests that little coordination exists among the therapeutic communities positioned to treat co-existing problems. A survey was conducted in Quebec with professionals representing 57 substance abuse treatment centers, 38 of which were public. Questions…
... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Substance abuse professional (SAP). 655.52 Section 655.52 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL TRANSIT... OPERATIONS Drug and Alcohol Testing Procedures § 655.52 Substance abuse professional (SAP). The SAP must...
This is a survey research study which investigated gender and peer influence on substance abuse among undergraduates in Lagos State University, Ojo, Lagos, Nigeria. 513 undergraduates were purposively selected for the study. The researchers designed the instrument, Gender and Peer Influence on Substance Abuse ...
Adams, Loree; Wallace, John L.
Substance abusing adolescents (n=30) with Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and substance abusing non-ADHD (n=30) adolescents were compared in terms of treatment outcomes. Although treatment outcomes did not vary significantly, a difference was observed in actual length of stay. Those with a behavior diagnosis stayed an average of 36…
Crozier, Mary K.
In the field of rehabilitation services, substance abuse counseling requires unique skills. Post-baccalaureate academic certificate programs offer professionals an opportunity to retool or expand their skills and meet licensure needs in this evolving field. East Carolina University's online Substance Abuse Counseling Certificate Program was…
Gabany, Steve G.; Plummer, Portia
Studied 617 high school and college students prior to and after substance abuse instruction to determine relationship between perceptions and demographic characteristics, and to learn whether substance abuse instruction was related to changes in student's perception of relationships. Findings from Marihuana Perception Inventory showed five factors…
Wade, Jay C.
Examines factors--such as unemployment, economic deprivation, racism, issues pertaining to gender roles--and their contribution to substance abuse in African American men. Specifically reviews the use of alcohol, opiates, crack, and cocaine. Argues that a biopsychosocial model offers the best framework in conceptualizing substance abuse and…
Mueser, Kim T.; And Others
Reviews substance abuse disorders in schizophrenia patients, including prevalence of comorbid disorders, assessment, hypothesized mechanisms underlying abuse, and clinical effects of abuse on course of illness and cognitive functioning. Outlines principles of treatment for dual-diagnosis schizophrenia patients, noting limitations of existing…
This confirmed the verbal and unofficial report of the abuse of such medicament. Other substances of abuse were cannabis 9 (2.8%), cigarette 7 (2.2%), heroine and cocaine (0.003%). In all instances of abuse, (except for heroine which was even) males predominated. The law enforcement agencies like the Nigeria Police ...
... CONTROL POLICY Technology Innovations for Substance Abuse and Mental Health Treatment Conference & Related... Technology Innovations for Substance Abuse and Mental Health Treatment Conference highlighting promising... call ONDCP's Technology Innovations for Substance Abuse and Mental Health Treatment Conference...
Full Text Available Child abuse and neglect is any interaction or lack of interaction between a caregiver and a child resulting in nonaccidental harm to the child′s physical and developmental state. Substance abuse is ingestion of any drug, which is capable of altering the mental functioning eventually leading to addiction. This paper presents a case report of a 12-year-old neglected girl with substance abuse for which she was physically abused by her mother.
Snenghi, Rossella; Forza, Giovanni; Favretto, Donata; Sartore, Daniela; Rodinis, Silvia; Terranova, Claudio; Nalesso, Alessandro; Montisci, Massimo; Ferrara, Santo Davide
The aim of this study was to investigate polydrug use in drunk drivers. The experimental study was conducted on 2,072 drunk drivers undergoing a driving license reissue protocol at the Department of Legal Medicine of Padova University Hospital in the period between January 2011 and December 2012. The study protocol involved anamnesis, clinical examination, toxicological history, and toxicological analyses on multiple biological samples. One thousand eight hundred seventy-seven subjects (90.6%) were assessed as fit to drive, and 195 (9.5%) were declared unfit. Among those unfit, 32 subjects (1.6%) were declared unfit due to recent use of an illicit drug (time span drive after completeness of the protocol was established in 1.2% of cases for alcohol disorders and in 5.7% of cases for illicit drug abuse; only one subject was included in both subgroups. Cocaine was the most widely used substance, followed by cannabis, opiates, and psychotropic pharmaceutical drugs. The application of the protocol presented in this study allowed the identification of underlying polydrug use in drunk drivers. The study led to the identification of 6.8% unfit subjects on the basis of alcohol disorders and/or drug abuse, compared to 1.2% of identifiable unfitness if the protocol were limited to the mere assessment of alcohol consumption. The frequent association of alcohol and cocaine is different from other patterns of use in North Europe countries.
Phillips, Susan D.; Gleeson, James P.; Waites-Garrett, Melissa
The expansion of the criminal justice system over the last several decades helped to focus attention on children of incarcerated parents, many of whom have parents with substance abuse problems. Since the 1990's, a national grassroots campaign has been underway to make substance abuse treatment an alternative to incarceration for parents who…
Flentje, A; Heck, NC; Sorensen, JL
Little is known about the needs or characteristics of transgender individuals in substance abuse treatment settings. Transgender (n=199) and non-transgender (cisgender, n=13,440) individuals were compared on psychosocial factors related to treatment, health risk behaviors, medical and mental health status and utilization, and substance use behaviors within a database that documented individuals entering substance abuse treatment in San Francisco, CA from 2007 to 2009 using logistic and linear...
Edwards, Jessica M; Stein-Seroussi, Al; Flewelling, Robert L; Orwin, Robert G; Zhang, Lei
Recent national substance abuse prevention efforts that have been disseminated at the state level have provided fertile ground for addressing the dearth of systematic research on state-level substance abuse prevention infrastructure. The Strategic Prevention Framework State Incentive Grant Program (SPF SIG), a national public health initiative sponsored by the US Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration and its Center for Substance Abuse Prevention, is one such effort, providing an opportunity to examine state-level substance abuse prevention infrastructure across the country. The aims of the SPF SIG initiative include reducing substance abuse and its related problems, as well as enhancing state and local prevention infrastructure and capacity. In this article, we describe the status of state-level substance abuse prevention infrastructure and capacity 1 year after the first 26 funded states ended their projects, based on follow-up interviews with state prevention decision-makers. We found that, in five of the six prevention domains we measured, prevention infrastructure capacity increased during the 12-month period after the grants ended. The evidence for further SPF capacity development even after the conclusion of the grants suggests that states recognized the benefits of using the SPF and took deliberate steps to sustain and enhance the integration of this framework into their state prevention systems. In addition, the findings suggest that state agencies and organizations can benefit from time-limited resources aimed at increasing their capacity and that such efforts can have a lasting impact on measures of state prevention system capacity.
Full Text Available Background and Objective: The previous research has demonstrated that addiction treatment services for women need to be based on knowledge of female psychological needs. Therefore, the aim of current study is to compare body image, quality of sleep and marital satisfaction among substance abuser and non-substance abuser women.Materials and Methods: This study is a descriptive comparative research. 200 women including 100 substance abuser women and 100 non-substance abuser women were chosen through convenience method in Arak in 2015. The measuring instruments were Fisher body image scale (1970, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (1989 and Enrich Marital Satisfaction Scale (1989. Data was analyzed utilizing t independent.Results: The results showed that there is the significant difference between marital satisfaction (P=0.001 and quality of sleep (P=0.001 among substance abuser and non-substance abuser women. Additionally, the significant difference was not observed between body image (P= 0.31 among these two groups.Conclusion: These findings emphasized that substance use decreases the quality of sleep and marital satisfaction in women. Hence, it should be considered these factors in process of therapeutic intervention in substance abuser women.
Sutarso, Toto; Tang, Thomas Li-Ping; Anerin, Denny R; McCartt, Intan W S; Gibson, Courtney B
University students' substance abuse and risky sex contribute to sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). We develop and empirically test a formative theoretical model of sexual temptation involving substance abuse (cigarettes, alcohol, and marijuana), safe sexual behavior (use of condom/barrier for oral and vaginal intercourse), risky sexual behavior (unprotected sex and multiple sexual partners), and STDs: gonorrhea, HIV, and genital herpes. We simultaneously explore these constructs, controlling membership in social groups (fraternity/sorority, varsity athlete, and club sports) and perceived norm of substance abuse. A total of 687 American university students completed the National College Health Assessment (NCHA). We use structural equation modeling (SEM) to test the goodness of fit between our formative theoretical model and actual data. Results reveal the following discoveries: membership in campus social groups is positively associated with STDs, whereas perceived norm of peer substance abuse is negatively related to STDs. Under the influence of substance abuse, we test three outcomes of sexual temptation as related to STDs. Those who have no sex do not contract STDs. For those who fall into temptation and have sex, substance abuse is more strongly related to risky sex which leads to STDs than safe sex which does not. Those engaging in risky sex have significantly higher cognitive impairment than those practicing safe sex. Substance abuse contributes to STDs through risky sex only. Those having risky sex suffer higher cognitive impairment than those practicing safe sex. We provide novel implications to policy makers, practitioners, and researchers.
Thylstrup, Birgitte; Hesse, Morten
workshops completed a self-report inventory of emotional reactions to patients, the Feeling Word Checklist-58, and substance abusers completed a self-report of DSM-IV personality disorder, the DSM-IV and ICD-10 Personality Disorder Questionnaire. Correlational analysis and multiple regression analysis...... impact on emotional reactions. Conclusion The findings confirm clinical experiences that personality disorder features in patients with substance abuse have an impact on staff members reactions to them. These reactions should be considered in supervision of staff, and in treatment models for patients...... with co-morbid personality disorders and substance abuse....
The prevalence of substance abuse in the nurse population is believed to parallel that in the general population (i.e. approximately 10%). Nurses with substance abuse problems need help. They are in danger of harming patients, the facility's reputation, the nursing profession, and themselves. The consequences of not reporting concerns can be far worse than those of reporting the issue. Part one of this two-part series discusses how society views addiction and the nursing profession, signs and symptoms of substance abuse, reasons nurses should report an impaired colleague, the code of silence that exists among nurses, and board of nursing jurisdiction.
Full Text Available This is a case of a 22-year-old Hispanic male with a history of bipolar disorder and methamphetamine dependence who was admitted after presenting with suicidal ideations by slashing his throat with a machete. The patient had been smoking and inhaling “processed” pyrethroid for about eight weeks as an inexpensive methamphetamine substitute. He reported experiencing a “rush” similar to methamphetamine after using pyrethroid from liquid insecticide that had been heated (electrocuted or sprayed on hot metal sheets until it crystallized. The patient presented with no significant physical markings or findings but claimed to have his suicidal ideations precipitated by concerns of ill effects of pyrethroid on his health. He also had positive urine drug screen for methamphetamine, which he admitted to using on the day of admission. We conclude that it is important for physicians to maintain a high level of suspicion for alternate and uncommon substances of abuse as well as risks for suicidal tendencies in these patients.
To elucidate the role of child sexual abuse in the etiology of substance-related disorders, a systematic review of the several articles on the childhood sexual abuse-related risk for developing substance problems in adolescence or adulthood is provided. Seven databases were searched, supplemented with hand-search of reference lists. Six reviews, including 200 studies, were included. Results indicate that child sexual abuse is a statistically significant, although general and nonspecific, risk factor for substance problems. Other biological and psychosocial variables contribute to substance-related disorders, with sexual abuse conferring additional risk, either as a distal, indirect cause or as a proximal, direct cause. Recommendations for future research are provided.
Clinical diagnoses of personality disorders have been discredited in the literature. However, the artificial dichotomization of dimensions, along with the constraint of having to select only one or a few diagnoses, may have limited the ability of clinical judgment to converge with other clinician's judgments, or with relevant external criteria. Assessment with a dimensional approach to personality disorders may provide improved agreement. In this study, substance abusers were rated by two different staff members involved in their treatment. Inter-rater agreement was moderately high for paranoid, schizotypal, antisocial, and borderline personality disorder, and high-moderate discriminant validity was found for all personality disorders except schizoid and obsessive-compulsive personality disorder.
French, Michael T; Drummond, Michael
Economic analyses of substance abuse interventions play a critical role in informing the decision makers involved in funding these programs. Despite the emergence of new and more effective interventions, the adoption of costlier services still demands justification based on economic evidence. Updated and more rigorous economic information allows patients, health care professionals, insurance companies, policymakers, and others to allocate scarce resources more efficiently. To prepare for the next wave of addiction health services research, this article presents background information on the economics of addiction health services, reviews recent empirical and methodological contributions, and provides 15 research recommendations.
Non -governmental organisations' response to substance abuse and sexual behaviours of adolescent street children of Harare central business district. ... The PDF file you selected should load here if your Web browser has a PDF reader ...
... Families - Vietnamese Substance Abuse Treatment For Children And Adolescents: Questions To Ask No. 41; Reviewed July 2013 Many children and adolescents use alcohol and other drugs. Some develop serious ...
Dunn, Marija G; Tarter, Ralph E; Mezzich, Ada C; Vanyukov, Michael; Kirisci, Levent; Kirillova, Galina
The empirical literature pertaining to the prevalence, origins, and consequences of neglectful parenting as it relates to substance abuse is critically reviewed. Available evidence indicates that children who experience parental neglect, with or without parental alcohol or drug abuse, are at high risk for substance use disorder (SUD). The effects of parental substance abuse on substance abuse outcome of their children appear to be partly mediated by their neglectful parenting. The discussion concludes with presentation of a developmental multifactorial model in which neglect, in conjunction with other individual and environmental factors, can be integratively investigated to quantify the child's overall liability across successive stages of development as well as to map the trajectory toward good and poor outcomes.
Rothschild, Debra; Gellman, Melinda
Recent changes in psychoanalysis and substance abuse treatment are healing long-standing rifts that had kept these two fields apart. This article elaborates the historical positions that contributed to the schism and describes how the harm reduction model of substance abuse treatment and the relational orientation in psychoanalysis can bring them together. Three clinical examples illustrate how integrating these methods can offer an approach that is effective and comprehensive.
Derakhshanfar, Hojjat; Kalantari Meibodi, Mohamad; Kariman, Hamid; Arhamidolatabadi, Ali; Safari, Saeed
Background: Motor vehicle collisions (MVC) comprise a majority cause of referral to the emergency department (ED). A large proportion of MVC appear to be preventable, if more effective measures against driving after substance abuse can be implemented. Objective: This study was aimed to investigate the prevalence of substance abuse among drivers of MVC, following road traffic accidents (RTA). Materials and Methods: This case-control research was conducted from July to October 2007. One hundred...
DoD Alcohol and Substance Abuse Consortium Award Annual Report 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR (S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER...Award Number: W81XWH-15-2-0077 TITLE: DoD Alcohol and Substance Abuse Consortium Award PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Rick Williams CONTRACTING...views, opinions and/or findings contained in this report are those of the author (s) and should not be construed as an official Department of the Army
civilians. c. All urine specimens will be forwarded to the supporting FTDTL. d. Illicit use of anabolic steroids by military members is recognized as an...Army Regulation 600–85 Personnel—General Army Substance Abuse Program (ASAP) Headquarters Department of the Army Washington, DC 1 October 2001...Substance Abuse Program (ASAP) Contract Number Grant Number Program Element Number Author(s) Project Number Task Number Work Unit Number
Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment. 2004; 26: 237–242. 13. Cunningham JA, Sobell LC, Sobell MC, Agrawal S, Toneatto T. Barriers to treatment: Why alcohol and drug abusers delay or never seek treatment. Addictive Behaviours 1993; 18: 347-353. 14. Moos RH. Addictive behaviors in context: Principles and puzzles of.
Background: The increasing drug abuse globally has brought problems of increased violent crimes, transmittable diseases such as HIV/AIDS, Hepatitis B viruses and tuberculosis. Objective: The main objective of this study was to assess substance abuse in Sagamu Local Government, Ogun State. Material and Methods: A ...
... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Leave for treatment of substance abuse. 825.119 Section 825... Leave for treatment of substance abuse. (a) Substance abuse may be a serious health condition if the... for treatment, does not qualify for FMLA leave. (b) Treatment for substance abuse does not prevent an...
... HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Center for Substance Abuse... meeting of the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's (SAMHSA) Center for Substance Abuse Treatment National Advisory Council on April 10, 2013. The meeting is open to the public and will...
... Collection: Title: Online Skills Training for PCPs on Substance Abuse. Type of Information Collection Request... Online Skills Training for PCPs on Substance Abuse, via the Web site SBIRTTraining.com , to positively... U.S. who treat substance abuse patients. The Online Skills Training for PCPs on Substance Abuse is a...
Jerome, Lisa; Schuster, Shira; Yazar-Klosinski, B Berra
A wider array of treatments are needed for people with substance abuse disorders. Some psychedelic compounds have been assessed as potential substance abuse treatments with promising results. MDMA may also help treat substance abuse based on shared features with psychedelic compounds and recent reports indicating that MDMAassisted psychotherapy can reduce symptoms of PTSD. Narrative reports and data from early investigations found that some people reduced or eliminated their substance use after receiving MDMA, especially in a therapeutic setting. MDMA is a potent monoamine releaser with sympathomimetic effects that may indirectly activate 5-HT2A receptors. It increases interpersonal closeness and prosocial feelings, potentially through oxytocin release. Findings suggest that ecstasy, material represented as containing MDMA, is associated with deleterious long-term effects after heavy lifetime use, including fewer serotonin transporter sites and impaired verbal memory. Animal and human studies demonstrate moderate abuse liability for MDMA, and this effect may be of most concern to those treating substance abuse disorders. However, subjects who received MDMA-assisted psychotherapy in two recent clinical studies were not motivated to seek out ecstasy, and tested negative in random drug tests during follow-up in one study. MDMA could either directly treat neuropharmacological abnormalities associated with addiction, or it could indirectly assist with the therapeutic process or reduce symptoms of comorbid psychiatric conditions, providing a greater opportunity to address problematic substance use. Studies directly testing MDMA-assisted psychotherapy in people with active substance abuse disorder may be warranted.
Stover, Carla Smith; Hall, Chelsea; McMahon, Thomas J; Easton, Caroline J
The relationship between fatherhood and both psychiatric distress and severity of substance abuse (SA) among men entering SA treatment has not been well explored. This study was designed to (a) examine differences in symptoms of men presenting for SA assessment based on fatherhood status and (b) determine how posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and severity of SA were associated with parenting for men who were fathers. PTSD symptoms, severity of SA, and parenting data reported on structured questionnaires were collected from 126 men presenting for an SA evaluation at a forensic drug diversion clinic. There were no differences in severity of alcohol or drug use between fathers and nonfathers; however, fathers with more PTSD symptoms reported greater severity of alcohol and drug use. Among the fathers, PTSD symptoms correlated significantly and positively with negative parenting behaviors, whereas SA did not. Fathers with more significant PTSD symptoms were more likely to want help with parenting. Further exploration of the impact of trauma-related symptoms on the parenting behaviors of substance-abusing men is warranted. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
McCulloh Nair, Julie; Nemeth, Lynne S; Sommers, Marilyn; Newman, Susan
Nursing students practicing in healthcare settings may increase risks to consumers, if impaired by drugs and/or alcohol, and are incapable of practicing safely. Several agencies implemented educational/professional policies, designed to protect healthcare consumers from risks. Policies addressing impaired nursing students vary among these agencies, and no nationally implemented policy exists for the treatment of impaired nursing student practice in the United States. This scoping study synthesizes substance abuse policy among nursing students, guided by the research question: What professional and state policies exist to address substance abuse among U.S. nursing students? The broader term, substance abuse, was used because alcohol-specific policies were not identified. Evidence was drawn from several policy documents identified through electronic sources that include national nursing organizations (NNOs) and nurse practice acts (NPAs) and rules. A comparative analysis was conducted on the identified policies to determine similarities and differences at the national and state levels and between national and state levels. Four NNO policies, 50 U.S. states, District of Columbia, and two U.S. territories' NPAs were selected for review based on selection criteria. Six areas were identified in NNO policies, and four were identified in NPAs that addressed chemically impaired nursing students. This review of current policy provided evidence that identifies and describes areas of concern. Impaired nursing practice, which includes nursing students, remains a major issue, complicated by the inconsistencies noted particularly within the reviewed NPAs. Knowledge gained from this review will be used to guide future research and subsequent state policy development.
Patestos, Chrysanthe; Patterson, Kristen; Fitzsimons, Virginia
As a health care provider, health educator, and school/family/community liaison, the school nurse is in a unique position to act as a change agent for youth substance abuse prevention. This article discusses the roles of the school nurse as they apply to the prevention of substance abuse among school-age children, across a continuum of care model first introduced by the Institute of Medicine (IOM) in 1994. Through careful assessment, identification of substance abuse risk factors, and promoting the enhancement of protective factors of students, both in and out of the school setting, the school nurse can play a vital role in the prevention of substance abuse. Existing tools, including the IOM Mental Health Intervention Spectrum Model, can be easily adapted to nursing practice and may prove helpful in assisting school nurses in the evaluation and implementation of effective prevention interventions in the school setting.
Pillet, Susan; Eschiti, Valerie
Oncology nurses may encounter patients recovering from substance abuse who will need acute or chronic pain management. Knowing how to assess, treat, and manage that pain is a benefit to the nurse and patient. In addition, understanding and overcoming bias toward patients with a history of substance abuse can lead to a trusting relationship and more effective pain management. A thorough assessment and documentation of the patient's pain during each visit provide a solid basis for prescribing opioids to patients with a history of substance abuse. The use of long-acting and higher-dose opioids in this population will be discussed. Functional improvement versus absence of pain may be a more realistic goal for patients recovering from substance abuse, and complementary and alternative therapy may be considered. Setting standards to deal with lost prescriptions or medication, missed appointments, and the use of contracts for all patients receiving opioids establishes unbiased treatment.
Solis, Jessica M.; Shadur, Julia M.; Burns, Alison R.; Hussong, Andrea M.
In this review, we consider the potential service needs of children of substance abusing parents based on what we know about the risk outcomes faced by these children and the parenting deficits often present in these families. Importantly, our review does not address the etiological role of parental substance abuse in children's negative outcomes but instead we discuss the complex inter-related risk factors that often co-occur with and exacerbate risk associated with parental alcohol and drug use. We first review studies showing the elevated risk that children of substance abusing parents face in general for poorer academic functioning; emotional, behavioral, and social problems; and an earlier onset of substance use, faster acceleration in substance use patterns, and higher rates of alcohol and drug use disorders. We then review studies showing contextual risk factors for children of substance abusing parents, including parenting deficits (less warmth, responsiveness, and physical and verbal engagement as well as harsher and more over-involved interaction styles), greater risk for child maltreatment, and less secure attachment patterns. We conclude with a discussion of future directions for research and guidelines for professionals working with children and their families where parental substance abuse is present. PMID:22455509
Solis, Jessica M; Shadur, Julia M; Burns, Alison R; Hussong, Andrea M
In this review, we consider the potential service needs of children of substance abusing parents based on what we know about the risk outcomes faced by these children and the parenting deficits often present in these families. Importantly, our review does not address the etiological role of parental substance abuse in children's negative outcomes but instead we discuss the complex inter-related risk factors that often co-occur with and exacerbate risk associated with parental alcohol and drug use. We first review studies showing the elevated risk that children of substance abusing parents face in general for poorer academic functioning; emotional, behavioral, and social problems; and an earlier onset of substance use, faster acceleration in substance use patterns, and higher rates of alcohol and drug use disorders. We then review studies showing contextual risk factors for children of substance abusing parents, including parenting deficits (less warmth, responsiveness, and physical and verbal engagement as well as harsher and more over-involved interaction styles), greater risk for child maltreatment, and less secure attachment patterns. We conclude with a discussion of future directions for research and guidelines for professionals working with children and their families where parental substance abuse is present.
Kelly Peter J
, and 12 months post intervention. Participants will also complete weekly self-report measures during the treatment period. Discussion This study will provide comprehensive data on the effect of introducing a computer delivered, cognitive behavioral therapy based co-morbidity treatment program within a residential substance abuse setting. If shown to be effective, this intervention can be disseminated within other residential substance abuse programs. Trial registration Australia and New Zealand Clinical Trials Register (ANZCTR: ACTRN12611000618954
Full Text Available There has been an increase in the frequency of substance abuse among hospitalized burn injury patients. However, few studies have investigated substance abuse among burn patients. This study was aimed to identify the incidence of substance abuse in burn injury patients using the "Drug Abuse Screening Test" (DAST-20. We determined the validity of DAST-20 in spring 2010. Subsequently, this descriptive study was performed on 203 burn injury patients who fit the study's inclusion criteria. We chose a score of 6 as the cutoff and thus achieved a sensitivity of 89% and a specificity of 85% for the DAST-20. During the study, we gathered demographic data, burn features and DAST-20 results for all patients. Patients with scores of 6 or more were considered to be substances abusers. A statistical analysis was conducted using SPSS v16 software. According to the DAST-20 results, 33% of the patients were in the user group. The mean score of DAST-20 was significantly higher among users than it was among nonusers (P<0.05. The level of substance abuse was severe in 77% of users. No significant differences were found among the substances, with the exception of alcohol. Substance abuse is an important risk factor for burn patients. In addition, this study showed that DAST-20 is a valid screening measure for studies on burn patients.
Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD. Office of Applied Studies.
Understanding the cost of resources used in substance abuse treatment is of critical concern to policymakers, payers, and providers of care. The Alcohol and Drug Services Study (ADSS) was performed from 1996 to 1999. ADSS is a national study conducted in three phases to collect representative data on the characteristics of substance abuse…
Boulton, Martha A; Nosek, Laura J
Substance abuse among nurses was recognized by nurse leaders and professional nursing organizations as a growing threat to patient safety and to the health of the abusing nurse more than 30years ago. Although numerous studies on nurse impairment were published in the 1980s and 1990s, there was minimal focus on student nurses' perceptions about impaired nurses and less research has been published more recently, despite a growing rate of substance abuse. A quasi-experimental study to explore the perceptions of student nurses toward nurses who are chemically dependent was conducted using a two-group, pretest-posttest design. The Perception of Nurse Impairment Inventory (PNII) was completed by student nurses at the beginning of their junior course work, prior to formal education about substance abuse. The PNII was repeated after the students received substance abuse education. The PNII was also completed by a control group of sophomore student nurses who did not receive the formal substance abuse education. A repeated measures analysis of variance was used to measure the differences between the two groups of students. Students who received the education chose more compassionate responses on the PNII and were more likely to respond that an impaired nurse's supervisor is responsible for supporting and guiding the impaired nurse to access professional care. Discrepancies in study findings about the efficacy of education for effecting positive attitudes of student nurses toward impaired nurses may be related to the length and type of the education. © 2014.
... is a term for when someone experiences a mental illness and a substance use disorder simultaneously. Either disorder—substance use or mental illness—can develop first. People experiencing a mental health ...
M.Cur. (Psychiatric Nursing) Globally, the use of substances which seem to be harmful in all life dimensions appear to be an alarming problem. Recent studies indicate that the use and abuse of these substances is more prevalent among adolescents than any other age group. This is so because there are enormous changes to the physical, psychological and social dimensions at this stage. The use of these substances is a daily occurrence and reality for many people. However, for some individuals...
Grella, Christine E; Hser, Yih-Ing; Huang, Yu-Chuang
Greater awareness of the role of parental substance abuse in child maltreatment makes it imperative that the substance abuse treatment and child welfare systems coordinate services for these parents. Yet little is known about the characteristics of child-welfare involved parents (primarily mothers) who enter into substance abuse treatment. This paper compares the characteristics of mothers in substance abuse treatment who were and were not involved with child welfare services, and discusses the treatment implications of these differences. Data were obtained from a statewide treatment outcome monitoring project in California. Clients were assessed at treatment admission using the Addiction Severity Index. Bivariate analyses and multivariate logistic regression were conducted comparing mothers who were (N=1,939) and were not (N=2,217) involved with child welfare. Mothers who were involved with child welfare were younger, had more children, and had more economic problems. They were more likely to be referred by the criminal justice system or other service providers, to have a history of physical abuse, and to be treated in outpatient programs. They had lower levels of alcohol severity, but did not differ with regard to psychiatric severity or criminal involvement. Primary users of methamphetamine were disproportionately represented among this group and had a distinct profile from primary alcohol- and opiate-users. Study findings suggest that mothers involved with child welfare enter substance abuse treatment through different avenues and present a clinical profile of treatment needs related to exposure to physical abuse, economic instability, and criminal justice involvement.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The substance abuse prevention goal of the theatre production "TUNNELS" was to provide community education on substance abuse to an audience in Durham, NC and surrounding communities. The education effort intended to increase awareness and understanding of the risk and protective factors associated with alcohol and other drug use, and to promote pro-active behaviors in substance abuse prevention within the adult community. It was hypothesized that community-based education via drama would change attitudes toward alcohol and substance abuse, and increase participation in family and community activities aimed at substance abuse prevention. Methods A focus group comprised of educators, substance abuse researchers and local substance abuse counselors developed "life stories" of users of alcohol and other drugs and a local playwright incorporated these and other experiences into a series of six vignettes. The production was publicized throughout the Durham area, and 700 adults attending the play signed a consent form and completed the pre-play survey. The participant pool was restricted to those adults who completed both the time-1 and time-2 surveys and resided within Durham and surrounding communities. Paired comparisons of mean responses were analyzed using a paired sample two-tailed t-test. A telephone survey three months after the play assessed attitudes toward substance abuse as a disease, and whether the respondents had increased their participation in prevention activities including discussions of the play with others. Results Viewing the play increased the knowledge base of participants regarding substance abuse as a disease, even though the audience demonstrated an appreciation of risk and protective factors prior to attending the performance. In the pre-play survey, participants indicated a strong opinion that parental involvement in teen life was important, and therefore this was not increased as a result of viewing
Mark, Tami L; Vandivort-Warren, Rita
From 1986 to 2003, substance abuse spending covered by private insurance fell in nominal dollars from $2444 million to $2239 million. The present study updated this literature to determine recent spending and utilization trends and provides a baseline for assessing the effects of recent health care policy changes. We used insurance claims data from Thomson Reuters MarketScan Commercial Claims and Encounters Database to study approximately 100 large, self-insured employers and millions of enrollees. We examined patterns in substance abuse treatment utilization and spending from 2001 through 2009. The study revealed that substance abuse spending remained a relatively constant share of all health spending, comprising about 0.4% of all health spending in 2009. The share of substance abuse spending on medications increased from 1% to 14%, but remained a small share of all health spending at about $2.45 per-member per-year. The study has implications for anticipating the effects of the federal parity law, in that the low share of substance abuse treatment means that even large increases in substance abuse utilization and spending are unlikely to have a significant impact on total health care costs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Tai, Betty; Wu, Li-Tzy; Clark, H Westley
While substance use problems are considered to be common in medical settings, they are not systematically assessed and diagnosed for treatment management. Research data suggest that the majority of individuals with a substance use disorder either do not use treatment or delay treatment-seeking for over a decade. The separation of substance abuse services from mainstream medical care and a lack of preventive services for substance abuse in primary care can contribute to under-detection of substance use problems. When fully enacted in 2014, the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act 2010 will address these barriers by supporting preventive services for substance abuse (screening, counseling) and integration of substance abuse care with primary care. One key factor that can help to achieve this goal is to incorporate the standardized screeners or common data elements for substance use and related disorders into the electronic health records (EHR) system in the health care setting. Incentives for care providers to adopt an EHR system for meaningful use are part of the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act 2009. This commentary focuses on recent evidence about routine screening and intervention for alcohol/drug use and related disorders in primary care. Federal efforts in developing common data elements for use as screeners for substance use and related disorders are described. A pressing need for empirical data on screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment (SBIRT) for drug-related disorders to inform SBIRT and related EHR efforts is highlighted. PMID:24474861
Mesic, Salih; Ramadani, Sokolj; Zunic, Lejla; Skopljak, Amira; Pasagic, Almir; Masic, Izet
Drug addiction is one of the most prominent problems in many countries in transition, including Bosnia and Herzegovina. Age limit of drug addiction is shifted to the younger age groups, especially is troubling the increase in number of injection drug users. Our study was aimed to investigate the habits, attitudes and practices related to drug use among young people from the area of Sarajevo city. We can still feel the effects of the war, among which are the most important life without closest relatives, banishment and various types of war and post-war trauma. To determine the frequency of substance abuse among adolescents; Identify potentially relevant biological, psychological and socio economic characteristics of the adolescents; To explore adolescents attitudes towards drug use; Examine the general level of knowledge of adolescents about drugs and their effects. The study was conducted on randomized sample of 502 students in two primary and three secondary schools in Sarajevo and Gracanica. To study used survey method. Survey instrument was a self-made questionnaire with the research variables. The obtained data were processed by a computer and statistically correlated. The study is of combined, retrospective, prospective and transversal type. To the question "How many times have you consumed cannabis in the last 30 days" about 6% of the respondents have tried once or twice, while 1.5% use it daily, ecstasy have tried one or two times 2.25%, while 0.5% have daily use. Based on the obtained results it can be concluded that students at schools in Sarajevo consumed drugs 50% more than the children in Gracanica. Analyzing the age at which the subjects consumed the drug for the first time, we came to the conclusion that in the third year of high school only 8% of adolescents have tried any drugs before they turned 15 years. This percentage among eighth graders is about three times higher. Presented research results clearly suggest a strong contamination of the living
Burrow-Sanchez, Jason; Call, Megan E; Adolphson, S Lillian; Hawken, Leanne S
School psychologists are some of the most likely personnel to deliver mental health services, including substance abuse, in school settings, but there is limited research on the perceived competence of school psychologists to address student substance abuse concerns. The 3 aims of this study were to determine how school psychologists perceive their training in 9 competence areas related to student substance abuse and to identify which training areas they indicate as being most needed to address student substance and which substances they perceive as being the most common in their schools. A descriptive survey study was conducted with a national sample of 210 school psychologists working in high schools. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance to test for differences between competency areas; descriptive statistics and correlation analyses were employed to determine key training areas for school psychologists. Findings indicated that school psychologists varied in their ratings of perceived competence to address student substance abuse concerns. Participants identified screening and assessment, consultation, and individual interventions as the most important areas for future training. School psychologists need and want more training for working with students who use or abuse substances. Implications for pre-service and in-service training are discussed and directions for future research are provided.
Flentje, Annesa; Heck, Nicholas C; Sorensen, James L
Little is known about the needs or characteristics of transgender individuals in substance abuse treatment settings. Transgender (n=199) and non-transgender (cisgender, n=13,440) individuals were compared on psychosocial factors related to treatment, health risk behaviors, medical and mental health status and utilization, and substance use behaviors within a database that documented individuals entering substance abuse treatment in San Francisco, CA from 2007 to 2009 using logistic and linear regression analyses (run separately by identified gender). Transgender men (assigned birth sex of female) differed from cisgender men across many psychosocial factors, including having more recent employment, less legal system involvement, greater incidence of living with a substance abuser, and greater family conflict, while transgender women (assigned birth sex of male) were less likely to have minor children than cisgender women. Transgender women reported greater needle use, and HIV testing rates were greater among transgender women. Transgender men and women reported higher rates of physical health problems, mental health diagnoses, and psychiatric medications, but there were no differences in service utilization. There were no differences in substance use behaviors except that transgender women were more likely to endorse primary methamphetamine use. Transgender individuals evidence unique strengths and challenges that could inform targeted services in substance abuse treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The research aimed to investigate the phenomena of adolescent depressive symptomology, substance abuse and the relationship between the two phenomena in a South African context. The influence of moderator variables was also examined. Another objective was to determine risk factors for the before mentioned. This was done by using a questionnaire with a sample of 1298 conveniently selected adolescents in a South African high school. It was determined that adolescents become progressively unhappier from 13 to 17 years of age. Girls are more depressed than boys. This research also revealed that adolescent depressive symptomology is significantly and positively correlated with earlier age of onset of substance abuse as well as frequency of usage. There appear to be no gender differences in substance abuse but teenagers from different ethnic and language groups differ in their use of substances. Risk factors for depression and substance abuse included a conflict relationship with parents, the experience of major stressful events, dissatisfaction with school grades and friends’ use of substances.
Tracy, Elizabeth M.; Kim, HyunSoo; Brown, Suzanne; Min, Meeyoung O.; Jun, Min Kyoung; McCarty, Christopher
This study examines the relationship among 4 treatment stages (i.e., engagement, persuasion, active treatment, relapse prevention) and the composition, social support, and structural characteristics of personal networks. The study sample includes 242 women diagnosed with substance dependence who were interviewed within their first month of intensive outpatient treatment. Using EgoNet software, the women reported on their 25 alter personal networks and the characteristics of each alter. With one exception, few differences were found in the network compositions at different stages of substance abuse treatment. The exception was the network composition of women in the active treatment stage, which included more network members from treatment programs or 12-Step meetings. Although neither the type nor amount of social support differed across treatment stages, reciprocity differed between women in active treatment and those in the engagement stage. Networks of women in active treatment were less connected, as indicated by a higher number of components, whereas networks of women in the persuasion stage had a higher degree of centralization, as indicated by networks dominated by people with the most ties. Overall, we find social network structural variables to relate to the stage of treatment, whereas network composition, type of social support, and sociodemographic variables (with a few exceptions) do not relate to treatment stage. Results suggest that social context, particularly how social contacts are arranged around clients, should be incorporated into treatment programs, regardless of demographic background. PMID:22639705
Dévieux, Jessy G; Jean-Gilles, Michèle; Rosenberg, Rhonda; Beck-Sagué, Consuelo; Attonito, Jennifer M; Saxena, Anshul; Stein, Judith A
Substance-abusing pregnant and postpartum women are less likely to maintain consistent condom use and drug and alcohol abstinence, which is particularly concerning in high HIV-prevalence areas. Data from 224 pregnant and postpartum women in substance abuse treatment were analyzed to examine effects of history of substance use, child abuse, and mental health problems on current substance use and condom-use barriers. Mediators were depression, relationship power and social support. Most participants (72.9 %) evidenced current depression. Less social support (-0.17, p power (-0.48, p power (0.15, p power limit highest-risk women's ability to negotiate condom use and abstain from substance use, increasing their risk of acute HIV infection and vertical transmission.
Looman, Jan; Abracen, Jeffrey
There has been relatively little research on the degree to which measures of lifetime history of substance abuse add to the prediction of risk based on actuarial measures alone among sexual offenders. This issue is of relevance in that a history of substance abuse is related to relapse to substance using behavior. Furthermore, substance use has…
Full Text Available Drug abuse is considered as the most common poisoning in the world. Stimulants agent especially amphetamines and methamphetamines are among important abused substances. Different types of neurologic, psychiatric, respiratory, gastrointestinal, and cardiogenic complications have been reported to be related to methamphetamine consumption. Some of these substances could cause dysrhythmias which is the most prevalent etiology of cardiogenic syncope. Ecstasy, as one of the most commonly abused drugs, is known as a cause of cardiac dysrhythmias. Here we report a young boy who was admitted into the emergency department following three syncope attacks. All cardiac and neurologic assessments were normal; and finally ecstasy abuse was detected as the main etiology of syncopes.
Soldz, Stephen; Panas, Lee; Rodriguez-Howard, Mayra
State substance abuse management information systems increasingly are becoming important tools for research, program management, and policy formulation at federal and state levels. These systems are currently undergoing radical expansion, leading to the creation of statewide performance and outcome monitoring systems for publicly-funded substance abuse treatment. This expansion makes imperative increased knowledge of the psychometric properties of the data in these systems. This study develops a method for examining the reliability of such data and applies it to the Massachusetts Substance Abuse Management Information System (SAMIS). Cohen's kappa, intraclass correlations, and the techniques of Heise (1969) are used to assess the reliability of different types of variables. Results show that key variables on the SAMIS Admission Form exhibit moderate to high reliability, supporting the use of this data for aggregate analyses. At the same time, caution should be used in making judgments about individual patients. Copyright 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Rogers, Ralph; Baird, Janette; He, Jun Kit; Adams, Charles; Mello, Michael
Level I trauma centers are required to provide screening and brief interventions for alcohol abuse. The World Health Organization (WHO) Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST) is a validated screening measure for all substances of abuse. This study is the first to use the ASSIST to screen a trauma population. A cross-sectional screening study using the ASSIST was conducted which included all patients admitted to the trauma service at Rhode Island Hospital during July and August 2012 who met inclusion criteria. The ASSIST categorized 25% of participants as needing a brief intervention for alcohol and an additional 6.3% as needing more intensive treatment. At least a brief intervention was indicated for at least one other substance besides alcohol in 37% of participants. The ability of the ASSIST to identify misuse of multiple substances makes it a good candidate for the screening measure used by trauma centers.
Full Text Available There is an increased prevalence of maternal substance abuse during pregnancy in younger women in all socioeconomic classes and races. Our aim was to determine the prevalence and correlates of self-reported substance abuse among pregnant women and obstetric complications or neonatal outcomes in Iran. This retrospective cohort study is covering a five year period on medical records of pregnant women attending the maternity unit of four major hospitals (Mahdieh, Taleghani, Imam Hossein and Akbarabadi Hospitals. Women who reported using opium, heroin, crack, cannabis or methamphetamine were compared with women with no reported history of drug abuse for obstetric complications and prenatal morbidity and neonatal mortality. From 100,620 deliveries substance abuse was recorded for 519 women giving a prevalence of 0.5%. Opium was the most prevalent substance abused followed by crack (a mix of heroin and amphetamines. The exposed group had significantly more obstetric complications including preterm low birth weight and postpartum hemorrhage than the non-exposed group. The exposed group had significantly worse prenatal outcomes including more admissions to intensive care unit and higher infant mortality than the non-exposed group. None of the women in the exposed group was on methadone treatment at time of delivery. Risks of maternal and neonatal complications were increased in substance using pregnant women, especially preterm birth and low birth weight. We recommend a multidisciplinary team to provide methadone maintenance therapy for substance using pregnant women and urinary screen of all pregnant women presenting to hospital.
Gray, R H; Smith, M C; Garner, D D; Cage, B N; Freeman, R A
A multivariate analysis of the relationships between service attributes and physician perceptions was conducted as an approach to marketing substance abuse treatment services. The results of this attribute-perceptive-preference study indicate: the physician(s) on staff attribute makes the greatest contribution to perceived quality and efficiency; easy referral admission makes the largest contribution to accessibility perceptions; and providing feedback produces the greatest contribution to perceived continuity. The JCAH attributes neither adds to nor subtracts from the perceptions of any of the four perceptual attributes. Other findings indicate that perceived efficiency produces the greatest contribution to overall consumer preference. Quality perceptions make the second largest contribution to overall preference, followed by continuity and accessibility perceptions.
Boudreaux, Edwin D; Bedek, Kristyna L; Gilles, Donna; Baumann, Brigitte M; Hollenberg, Steven; Lord, Sherrill A; Grissom, Grant
The Dynamic Assessment and Referral System for Substance Abuse (DARSSA) conducts a computerized substance abuse assessment; prints personalized summary reports that include tailored substance abuse treatment referral lists; and, for individuals who provide authorization, automatically faxes their contact information to a "best match" substance abuse treatment provider (dynamic referral). After piloting the program and resolving problems that were noted, we enrolled a sample of 85 medical patients. The DARSSA identified 48 (56%) participants who were risky substance users, many of whom had not been identified during their routine medical assessment. Mean satisfaction scores for all domains ranged between "Good" to "Excellent" across patients, nurses, doctors, and substance abuse treatment providers. The median completion time was 13min. Of the 48 risky substance using participants, 20 (42%) chose to receive a dynamic referral. The DARSSA provides a user-friendly, desirable service for patients and providers. It has the potential to improve identification of substance abuse in medical settings and to provide referrals that would not routinely be provided. Future studies are planned to establish its efficacy at promoting treatment initiation and abstinence.
ELWYN, LAURA; SMITH, CAROLYN
Child maltreatment is a risk factor for substance abuse in adulthood. This study examines whether memory of maltreatment is a necessary link in the path leading from prospectively measured childhood maltreatment to adult substance use problems. Official Child Protective Services reports and adult retrospective recall of childhood maltreatment were used to predict illegal drug use and alcohol problems in adulthood controlling for covariates. Memory was a necessary link in the path between pros...
Riggs, Paula D.
Recent research has identified a cluster of standardized approaches that effectively treat adolescents with substance abuse disorders. Many of these approaches share elements that may be adopted to improve outcomes in substance treatment programs. In adolescents, treatment goals should be informed by a comprehensive assessment that includes the adolescent patient?s developmental history and evaluation of psychiatric comorbidity. Treatment for behavioral, psychosocial, and psychiatric problems...
An exploratory study was conducted to investigate the construct of sexual self-esteem of women in substance abuse (SA) treatment. Demographical and abuse data were collected from 99 women in SA treatment centers in New York State in 2006 to explore relationships between demographic, addiction, abuse, and treatment variables and sexual self-esteem. Correlation of scores from the SSEI-W and its subscales and abuse variables were conducted to examine relationships between variables. T-tests showed significant differences between the mean scores of the physical abuse and physical/sexual abuse variables, relationship variables and sexual orientation. Regression analyses examined the effects of abuse, sexual orientation, relationship variables and treatment characteristics. Abuse and sexual orientation remained significant in all of the models and their affect is not influenced by controlling for the other variables. The results are discussed with regard to treatment implications. This study provides evidence of the reliability of this measure in a female substance-abusing population and contributes to the knowledge of sexual self-esteem as it relates to an adult female population of women in SA treatment. Limitations and future directions are discussed, along with proposed clinical use and assessment.
Festinger, David S; Dugosh, Karen Leggett
Research involving substance-abusing participants is often hindered by low rates of recruitment and retention. Research suggests that monetary payment or remuneration can be an effective strategy to overcome these obstacles. This article provides a brief overview of these issues and provides data reflecting how substance-abusing participants in several of our studies used their baseline and follow-up payments. We also present research findings related to how the mode of payment (i.e., cash, check, gift card) may affect how payments are used. Overall, our findings suggest that participants use their research payments in a responsible and safe manner. Limitations and recommendations for future research are discussed.
Paulozzi, Leonard J; Zhou, Chao; Jones, Christopher M; Xu, Likang; Florence, Curtis S
When providers recognize that patients are abusing prescription drugs, review of the drugs they are prescribed and attempts to treat the substance use disorder are warranted. However, little is known about whether prescribing patterns change following such a diagnosis. We used national longitudinal health claims data from the Market Scan® commercial claims database for January 2010-June 2011. We used a cohort of 1.85 million adults 18-64 years old prescribed opioid analgesics but without abuse diagnoses during a 6-month "preabuse" period. We identified a subset of 9009 patients receiving diagnoses of abuse of non-illicit drugs (abuse group) during a 6-month "abuse" period and compared them with patients without such a diagnosis (nonabuse group) during both the abuse period and a subsequent 6-month "postabuse" period. During the abuse period 5.78% of the abuse group and 0.14% of the nonabuse group overdosed. Overdose rates declined to 2.12% in the abuse group in the postabuse period. Opioid prescribing rates declined 13.5%, and benzodiazepine rates declined 12.3% in the abuse group in the post-abuse period. Antidepressants and gabapentin were prescribed to roughly one half and one quarter of the abuse group, respectively, during all three periods. Daily opioid dosage did not decline in the abuse group following diagnosis. Prescribing to people who abuse drugs changes little after their abuse is documented. Actions such as tapering opioid and benzodiazepine prescriptions, maximizing alternative treatments for pain, and greater use of medication-assisted treatment such as buprenorphine could help reduce risk in this population. Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.
van den Bosch, L. M.; Verheul, R.; van den Brink, W.
This work examines differences between female borderline patients with and without substance abuse problems and between borderline patients from different treatment settings. A total of 64 female borderline patients were recruited from mental health services (n = 34) and addiction treatment services
Salomonsen-Sautel, Stacy; Sakai, Joseph T.; Thurstone, Christian; Corley, Robin; Hopfer, Christian
Objective: To assess the prevalence and frequency of medical marijuana diversion and use among adolescents in substance abuse treatment and to identify factors related to their medical marijuana use. Method: This study calculated the prevalence and frequency of diverted medical marijuana use among adolescents (n = 164), ages 14-18 years (mean age…
Objective: Access to substance abuse treatment among historically disadvantaged communities (HDCs) in Cape Town, South Africa is limited, despite a growing demand for services. Although research has reported on structural barriers to treatment access, nonstructural factors remain largely unexplored. The aim of this ...
The study investigated the effects of peer modelling techniques in reducing substance abuse among undergraduates in Nigeria. The participants were one hundred and twenty (120) undergraduate students in 100 and 400 levels respectively. There are two groups: one treatment group and one control group.
Sodano, Ruthlyn; Watson, Donnie W.; Rataemane, Solomon; Rataemane, Lusanda; Ntlhe, Nomvuyo; Rawson, Richard
The purpose of this paper is to describe characteristics of substance abuse treatment counselors in the Republic of South Africa, including demographics, education, training, and job duties. Counselors recruited from 24 treatment centers completed a survey after signing informed consent. Counselors were primarily female (75%), racially diverse…
Agrawal, Shantanu; Everett, Worth W.; Sharma, Sonali
Purpose: This study examined the impact of medical education on students' views of substance abuse treatment, public policy options and training. Method: A longitudinal survey was conducted on a single-class cohort of 101 students in a major American, urban medical school. The survey was administered in the Spring semesters of the first to third…
Waldron, Holly Barrett; Turner, Charles W.
This review synthesized findings from 17 studies since 1998 regarding evaluation of outpatient treatments for adolescent substance abuse. These studies represented systematic design advances in adolescent clinical trial science. The research examined 46 different intervention conditions with a total sample of 2,307 adolescents. The sample included…
Galanter, Marc; Glickman, Linda; Singer, David
This paper reviews the literature on ambulatory substance abuse treatment for adolescents, including brief intervention, Twelve-Step-based outpatient treatment, family-based treatment, cognitive behavioral therapy, and pharmacologic treatment. An overview of socially and culturally specific strategies is also included. The diversity of settings…
Hammink, A.B.; Nagel, J.E.L. van der; Mheen, H. van de; Dom, G.; Moggi, F.
In European countries, there is an increasing awareness that substance abuse also occurs among people with a mild intellectual disability (MID). Individuals with MID often do not fit within the traditional (addiction) treatment systems and subsequently treatment outcomes can be poor. To improve
by smoking 147/174 (84.5%). Conclusion: Substance abuse is an important concern affecting ... Street children's drug use often commences with alcohol, tobacco and inhalants which ... auditory or verbal dysfunction (difficulty in communicating). • Children in a state of severe drug intoxication, aggressive behavior. The main ...
health activity, the child protective Case Management Team, Army Community Services, schools) or other family members. c. Referred family members will be...of osteopathy ) responsible for receiving laboratory results generated by an employer’s drug testing program, and who has knowledge of substance abuse
Rhemtulla, M.; Fried, E.I.; Aggen, S.H.; Tuerlinckx, F.; Kendler, K.S.; Borsboom, D.
Background: The DSM uses one set of abuse and dependence criteria to assess multiple substance use disorders (SUDs). Most SUD research aggregates across these symptoms to study the behavior of SUD as a static construct. We use an alternative approach that conceptualizes symptoms as directly
Non -governmental organisations' response to substance abuse and sexual behaviours of adolescent street children of Harare central business district. ... qualitative research methodology and street ethnography approach. In analysing the various roles of these organisations, the study adopted the child rights perspective.
Tobacco and alcohol remain the most abused substances in South Africa and elsewhere in the western world. Tobacco is commonly smoked, but in South Africa it is also “sniffed” as snuff, and if inhaled causes as much damage as inhaled tobacco smoke. There is also a high incidence of related cancer.1 Likewise people ...
education, shelter, food, hygiene, healthcare and a loving family has been violated. Street children ... drugs to minors is a crime punishable by law in most countries, implementation of the law is ... psychoactive substance abuse and the related behaviours among street children in Cameroon. The information is critical to ...
Koehn, Corinne; O'Neill, Linda; Sherry, John
Hope is a vital component of psychological healing and plays a critical role in counselling. With despair so prominent for individuals with serious substance abuse problems, the question arises as to how to foster hope in such clients. There are recent suggestions in the general counselling literature that some of the work in counselling involve…
addiction because we grew up with alcohol, we stay with alcohol and it's part of our lives so we think it's not .... as the Prevention of and Treatment for Substance Abuse (Act no. 70 of 2008),16 states that 'the minister must ... demand for the service and prevention programmes but determine trends, patterns and types of drugs ...
... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8879 of October 1, 2012 National Substance Abuse Prevention Month, 2012 By... safer, drug-free America. By stopping drug use before it starts, we can prevent the disease of addiction and create stronger neighborhoods across our country. My Administration has placed prevention at the...
Saleh, Shadi S.; Vaughn, Thomas; Levey, Samuel; Fuortes, Laurence; Uden-Holmen, Tanya; Hall, James A.
Objective: The purpose of this study, which is part of a larger clinical trial, was to examine the cost-effectiveness of case management for individuals treated for substance abuse in a residential setting. Method: Clients who agreed to participate were randomly assigned to one of four study groups. Two groups received face-to-face case management…
... are still huge child rights violations taking place. These child rights violations are seen when children including street children engage in substance abuse and commerical sex work. This paper is part of the author's doctoral degree study that adopted a qualitative research methodology and street ethnographic approach.
... diagnosable substance abuse or dependence problems--countless families and communities also live with the pain... the efforts of parents and guardians, our children's first teachers and role models, whose positive... making health choices. Through national collaboration, community programs, and the help of engaged youth...
Full Text Available Background. Co-morbidity between substance abuse and psy- chotic disorders is high. Few studies have examined therelationship between first-episode psychosis and substance abuse. Several questions emerge from this common relationship and many of them remain unanswered. Objectives. To determine the effect of substance abuse on psychosis in terms of onset, duration, severity of symptoms, use of medication and outcome. Method. Thirty - three subjects with first-episode psychosis, as well as primary caregivers, were interviewed re g a rding substance abuse and its relation to illness. Thirty-six control subjects were also interv i e w e d . Results. Twenty-seven per cent of subjects abused substances in the 3 months before onset of illness, and 77.8% of the abusers w e re male. Subjects in the first-episode psychosis group were m o re likely to choose cannabis as their substance of abuse than c o n t rols. They also started abusing substances at a younger age than controls. Subjects with first-episode psychosis who abused substances presented at an earlier age than non-abusers. Substances affected symptoms at baseline presentation . Conclusions. Substance abuse has a significant impact on first- onset psychosis as far as age of onset and symptom severity are c o n c e rned. Subjects with an underlying vulnerability to psychosis seem to start abusing substances at an earlier age than the general population. Males are more likely to abuse substances than females.
... Episode Data Set (TEDS), the proportion of female substance abuse treatment admissions aged 15 to 44 who were pregnant ... see http: / / store. samhsa. gov/ product/ TIP- 51- Substance- Abuse- Treatment- Addressing- the- Specific- Needs- of- Women/ SMA12- 4426. ...
Petersen, Lone; Jeppesen, Pia; Thorup, Anne
To evaluate whether integrated treatment (given by OPUS), in comparison with standard treatment, significantly reduced the number of patients with substance abuse and improved clinical and social outcome in the group of substance abusers after 2 years....
.... Mood disorders and substance abuse are risk factors for inmate violence and recidivism, so the prevalence of depression, anxiety, and substance abuse was examined in this cohort using psychometric tests...
Barahmand, Usha; Khazaee, Ali; Hashjin, Goudarz Sadeghi
The purpose of this study is to assess the relative mediating effects of impulsivity and emotion dysregulation in the relationship between childhood maltreatment and motives for opiate use. Seventy four adolescent users of Tramadol, a synthetic opiate, were recruited from a boot camp for de-addiction and rehabilitation services for the study. Data were collected between May, 2014 and November, 2014. Participants completed assessments of childhood abuse history, difficulties regulating emotions, impulsiveness and motives for substance use as well as a socio-demographic information sheet. The results of the current study indicate that types of abuse may be associated with particular outcomes and can inform treatment planning for substance users. Findings from bootstrap mediator analyses indicated that emotion dysregulation, but not impulsiveness, mediated the relationship between childhood emotional abuse and expansion and enhancement motives for substance use. The current study provides preliminary evidence that difficulties regulating emotions may function as a mechanism linking prior childhood experiences of emotional abuse to subsequent motives for substance use. Clinical implications of these findings suggest that targeting emotion dysregulation problems may be an effective adjunct in the treatment of childhood emotional abuse adolescent victims at risk for substance use. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Fickenscher, Alexandra; Novins, Douglas K; Manson, Spero M
Few studies to date have addressed illicit (i.e., nonceremonial) peyote use among American Indians (AIs). Participants were 89 AI adolescents admitted to a tribally operated residential substance abuse treatment program (RSATP) between 1998 and 2001. The RSATP is designed to provide specialized treatment of patients with substance use and other comorbid psychiatric disorders and is infused with a culturally sensitive approach to treatment. The participants completed a series of interviews that collected information on psychiatric diagnostic status, history of substance use, and ethnic identity. The majority of participants were male (65%), did not come from a two-parent household (75%), reported a mean use of 5.4 substances, and met full criteria for a median of 2.9 substance use disorders. Of 89 clients, 10 (11.2%) reported illicit use of peyote. The vast majority of these youth (n = 8) reported using peyote only once or twice in their lifetime. Illicit peyote users did not differ from nonusers in terms of age, gender, other substance use, prevalence of either other substance abuse/dependence or other nonsubstance use psychiatric disorders. However, illicit peyote users were more likely to report low levels of social support, low levels of self-esteem, and low identification with AI culture yet comparable involvement in AI traditional practices. The results of this exploratory study suggest that illicit peyote use is uncommon among AI adolescents with serious substance abuse problems.
Petersen, Lone; Jeppesen, Pia; Thorup, Anne
To evaluate whether integrated treatment (given by OPUS), in comparison with standard treatment, significantly reduced the number of patients with substance abuse and improved clinical and social outcome in the group of substance abusers after 2 years.......To evaluate whether integrated treatment (given by OPUS), in comparison with standard treatment, significantly reduced the number of patients with substance abuse and improved clinical and social outcome in the group of substance abusers after 2 years....
Saldana, Lisa; Smith, Dana K.; Weber, Elisa
Although maternal substance abuse in child welfare populations is a well-documented occurrence, little is known about the onset of these behaviors or the substance abuse histories of these mothers. Descriptive data from a small feasibility trial of mothers referred for substance abuse and child neglect suggest adolescent onset of hard substance use. Age of onset was associated with family history of use. The majority of mothers reported polysubstance abuse starting at an early age and quickly...
Thiel, Thelma King
This guide provides information for teachers to use in teaching about liver wellness, hepatitis B, and substance abuse. The guide includes effective motivational techniques to help students understand how valuable their liver is to their health and well being. It also provides basic information to help students avoid liver damaging behaviors, such…
Lansford, Jennifer E; Dodge, Kenneth A; Pettit, Gregory S; Bates, John E
Prospective longitudinal data from 585 families were used to examine parents' reports of child physical abuse in the first 5 years of life as a predictor of substance use at ages 12, 16, and 24. Path analyses revealed that physical abuse in the first 5 years of life predicted subsequent substance use for females but not males. We found a direct effect of early physical abuse on girls'substance use at age 12 and indirect effects on substance use at age 16 and age 24 through substance use at age 12. For boys, age 12 substance use predicted age 16 substance use, and age 16 substance use predicted age 24 substance use, but physical abuse in the first 5 years of life was unrelated to subsequent substance use. These findings suggest that for females, a mechanism of influence of early physical abuse on substance use into early adulthood appears to be through precocious initiation of substance use in early adolescence.
Ramo, Danielle Elizabeth
Most models of addiction treatment outcome and relapse have been formulated on adult populations, with only modest consideration of developmental factors which are salient issues for substance use disordered (SUD) youth. The dominant cognitive behavioral model of addiction relapse (Marlatt & Gordon, 1985) has been compelling in its description of how situational context (e.g., high risk situations) interacts with cognitive factors (e.g., self-efficacy, coping resources) to elevate risk for re...
personnel about the use of substances as a poor coping mechanism for combat and operational stress reactions (COSRs) and (2) boost resilience to COSRs...private and convenient approach and should facilitate access to care by reducing the stigma and common barriers associated with seeking treatment. 15...including COSRs). Studies with soldiers have found that symptoms increase 3 to 6 months after returning home. Perceived stigma often keeps
Saint-Jean, Gilbert; Dévieux, Jessy; Malow, Robert; Tammara, Hayley; Carney, Kimberly
US immigrants of Caribbean origin are overrepresented in the HIV/AIDS prevalence statistics. Bidirectional travel between the United States and the Caribbean region by providing opportunities for sexual mixing may contribute to these high HIV rates. Caribbean immigrants face further risk because of limited health care access, social isolation, and stigma. Additionally, although substance abuse may not represent a major health issue in their countries of origin, Caribbean immigrants are composed disproportionately of adolescents who are at greatest risk of substance abuse. There is little information on the health care characteristics of these migrants, especially regarding HIV care. This article describes how the social and economic circumstances that surround the lives of people from the Caribbean and the challenges of the acculturation process have placed these individuals at risk of substance abuse and HIV infection. The article draws on findings from the literature and analysis of data from several sources.
Janikowski, Timothy P; Glover-Graf, Noreen M
The study was an initial investigation into substance abuse counselors' qualifications and their training related to providing counseling for incest. Perceptions regarding the incidence of incest and insights into the difficulties of serving this subpopulation were also gathered. A total of 121 practicing substance abuse counselors, randomly sampled from treatment facilities across the United States, completed the "Substance Abuse Counselor Survey on Clients with Incest Histories" (SACSCIH). Participants estimated that, on average, about 24% of their clients were victims of incest. They also suspected that, on average, an additional 14% of their clients were victims of incest but did not report this information to the treatment staff. Participants revealed how they collected incest-related information and the various challenges they face in treating these clients. Data are analyzed descriptively and recommendations for future research are presented.
... Treatment; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to Public Law 92-463, notice is hereby given that the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's (SAMHSA) Center for Substance Abuse Treatment (CSAT... information below). Committee Name: SAMHSA's Center for Substance Abuse Treatment National Advisory Council...
... Treatment; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to Public Law 92-463, notice is hereby given that the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's (SAMHSA) Center for Substance Abuse Treatment (CSAT... information below). Committee Name: SAMHSA's Center for Substance Abuse Treatment National Advisory Council...
... Treatment; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to Public Law 92-463, notice is hereby given that the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's (SAMHSA) Center for Substance Abuse Treatment (CSAT... information below). Committee Name: SAMHSA's Center for Substance Abuse Treatment National Advisory Council...
Haynes, L. F.; Korte, J. E.; Holmes, B. E.; Gooden, L.; Matheson, T.; Feaster, D. J.; Leff, J. A.; Wilson, L.; Metsch, L. R.; Schackman, B. R.
The Substance Abuse Mental Health Services Administration has promoted HIV testing and counseling as an evidence-based practice. Nevertheless, adoption of HIV testing in substance abuse treatment programs has been slow. This article describes the experience of a substance abuse treatment agency where, following participation in a clinical trial,…
... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Substance abuse prevention and treatment services... organizations under the substance abuse prevention and treatment Block Grant. (b) For the purpose of determining... substance abuse prevention and treatment Block Grant, an Indian tribe or tribal organization is not required...
Hojjat, Seyed Kaveh; Rezaei, Mahdi; Namadian, Gholamreza; Hatami, Seyed Esmaeil; Norozi Khalili, Mina
Parental substance abuse is associated with impaired skills and ability to take care of children. Children of substance-abusing parents display higher levels of emotional difficulties. This article shows the effectiveness of emotional intelligence group training on anger in adolescents with substance-abusing fathers. The sample consisted of 60…
American Association of Colleges of Nursing, Washington, DC.
This paper suggests that in order to facilitate the management of substance abuse problems, schools of nursing should adopt written, comprehensive, and equitable substance abuse policies for students, faculty, and staff. Such policies should be based on the assumption that substance abuse is an illness that can be treated successfully and the…
Osborne, Cynthia; Berger, Lawrence M.
Parental substance abuse is associated with adverse health and developmental outcomes for children. Existing research, however, has not fully explored the relative magnitude of the associations between maternal, paternal, and both parents' substance abuse and child outcomes, nor has it examined these associations in regard to substance abuse among…
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to Public Law 92-463, notice is hereby given that the Substance Abuse...
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to Public Law 92-463, notice is hereby given that the Substance Abuse...
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice... the February 10, 2010 meeting of the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA...
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to Public Law 92-463, notice is hereby given that the Substance Abuse...
Full Text Available Drug abuse in pregnancy is not uncommon, and the use of illicit opioids during pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of adverse outcomes. The aim of the study was to assess neonatal outcome of pregnancy with maternal addiction. Materials and Methods: In this cohort study we assessed 100 pregnant women 15 -49 years old. To identify drug exposure was used self- questionnaire (Self-Report. Data on pregnancies complicated by illicit drug abuse (n = 50 were collected during a 2-year period (2014 - 2016 at Hospitals affiliated to Mashhad University of medical sciences. Data on the type of drug, course of gestation and labor, and on neonatal complications outcome were considered. Medical records on all non-dependence pregnancies during the study period were used as a non-exposed group (n = 50.To control possible confounding factor was used of multiple logistic regression model. Results: our results showed The risk of various congenital anomalies was 5-fold in the group of children born to addicted mothers (RR = 5.65, 95% CI: 0.27-114.7. Also RDS (RR=5.1, 95% CI: 1.16-22.3, meconial amniotic fluid (RR=2.26, 95% CI: 0.21-24.1, NICU admission (RR=3.07, 95% CI: 1.93-4.88, neonatal seizure (RR=5.38, 95%CI: 1.97-14.64, neonatal hypoglycemia (RR=2.26, 95% CI: 0.60-8.54 were significantly more common in the group of pregnant addicts. Conclusion: Addiction pregnancies must be considered as high-risk pregnancies according to perinatal outcome. We should prepare Appropriate obstetric and neonatal care in these pregnancies.
Gloria, A M; Peregoy, J J
This article presents a sociocultural alcohol/drug counseling model for counselors working with Latino users/abusers. Intended to supplement different treatment models, this model addresses pre-treatment issues of Latino users/abusers. A demographic overview of Latinos and a discussion of selected Latino cultural values and issues as they relate to substance use/abuse are included. These cultural values include Simpatía, Personalismo, Familismo, Gender Roles (Machismo and Hembrismo/Marianisimo), Vergüenza, and Espiritismo. Along with identifying misperceptions and issues that may occur within the counseling session, specific recommendations and interventions for counselors are provided.
Flores, Juan M; Santos, Glenn-Milo; Makofane, Keletso; Arreola, Sonya; Ayala, George
Substance use is common among men who have sex with men (MSM) worldwide, and epidemiologic data suggest that alcohol/substance-using MSM are at greater risk for HIV. However, there are scarce data on substance abuse treatment programs (SATPs) for substance-using MSM. We examined proportions of substance use as well as SATP availability and use. We used multivariable regression models, controlling for potential confounders, to examine behavioral and demographic correlates of SATP availability and use. This is a cross-sectional study of a multi-region, online sample of substance-using MSM. In this sample, 75% were substance-using MSM of whom 36% reported at-least-weekly use. Substance use was most prevalent among respondents from Eastern Europe/Central Asia (86%) and Latin America (79%). Among substance-using MSM, 96% and 33% reported alcohol intoxication and other substance use, respectively; 11% reported having high SATP availability; and 5% reported using SATPs. Controlling for global region of origin and age, high SATP availability was associated with high access to HIV risk-reduction education (aOR = 3.19; CI = 1.48-6.89), mental health services (aOR = 2.53; CI = 1.32-4.83), and medical care (aOR = 2.32; CI = 1.12-4.80); less than college-level education (aOR = 0.32; CI = 0.18-0.54); and higher comfort levels with providers (aOR = 1.75; CI = 1.30-2.37). Controlling for substance use frequency and personal income additionally, using SATPs was associated with higher levels of connection to the gay community (aOR = 2.76; CI = 1.22-6.22). In this global sample of MSM, we found high alcohol intoxication and other substance use proportions. Few substance-using MSM report SATP availability, highlighting the need to develop novel substance use programs outside traditional treatment settings.
Holovits, Zsuzsanna; Gerevich, József; Pálinkás, Bence András
The consequences of childhood abuse and neglect can be grave. One of them is the use of drugs since it is conducive to the incidence of several physical and psychological problems. Many sorts of abuses can be differentiated, but from the point of view of this study the most significant ones are sexual, physical and emotional abuses as well as neglect. For the exploration of the specialized literature the following English data bases were used: PubMed, PsycINFO, EISZ, EBSCO, Science Direct. The selection from 1992 to 2008 was assembled with a complex search applied so as to find the relevant articles in which there is a connection between abuses in the family, substance use and psychological status. By reason of scientific achievements, the suffered abuse at an early age was a risk factor on later substance use and in the formation of psychiatric disorders, e. g. depression, panic disorder, anxiety, and it was accompanied by psychological consequences such as a low self-esteem. On the grounds of scientific achievements it was proved that abuse in the family can entail the risk of growing substance use, and serious psychological problems can appear which can initiate a vicious circle with a growing risk of being a victim again.
Licanin, Ifeta; Music, Emina; Laslo, Erdes; Berg-Kelly, Kristina; Masic, Izet; Redzic, Amira; Vejzagic, Anesa; Krosnjar, Sanja
The enquiry of suicide is of particular importance. According to WHO statistics suicide in people aged from 15 to 24 years has shown the greatest increase of relative mortality. In the group of suicidal adolescents, depression, behavioural disorders, abuse of different substances and personality deviations are frequent factors in presence. The aim of our investigation was to determine the correlation between psychoactive substance abuse and the occurrence of suicidal thoughts in adolescents. The specific "Q 2000" test was used to question 600 adolescents, from Tuzla and Sarajevo Cantons, with the same gender and age distribution and rural-urban ambient. The more prevailing suicidal idea occurrence was observed in cannabis abusers (50.0%) and alcohol abusers (36.6%) in comparison to non-abusers regardless gender and/or living ambient (settlement types) (19.5% and 17.6% per each, x2 = 17.184 p = 0.00001). The augmentation in number of suicidal ideas was not observed in tobacco smokers.
Parker, Richard; Armstrong, Matthew J; Corbett, Chris; Day, Edward J; Neuberger, James M
This review focuses on alcohol and substance abuse in the context of solid-organ transplantation. Alcohol and substance abuse are common and may lead to a need for solid-organ transplantation and may also contribute to significant physical and psychologic problems that impact upon the recipient. Damaging levels of alcohol intake can occur in the absence of dependence. Alcohol or substance abuse after transplantation is associated with poor medication compliance and this may increase risk of graft loss. Intravenous drug use is associated with increased risk of infections (especially secondary to opportunistic organisms-bacterial, viral, protozoal, and others-and such infections may be more severe in the immunosuppressed), but there is only anecdotal evidence that such behavior has a worse outcome in transplant recipients. Whereas previous alcohol excess and drug use in kidney recipients are both associated with a small but statistically significantly increased risk of adverse outcomes (hazard ratio, 1.16-1.56), alcohol use within recommended guidelines after transplantation appears safe and possibly beneficial. Robust data are lacking for other organs, but those available suggest that heart transplantation is safe in individuals with a history of alcohol or substance abuse. Health specialists in drug or alcohol addiction should carefully screen all potential transplant candidates for these conditions, and where there is evidence of dependency or abuse, effective psychologic and physical treatment should be offered. Studies have shown that interventions such as psychologic intervention have improved alcohol behavior in the context of liver transplantation. Although there are no comparable studies with other solid-organ recipients, it is reasonable to expect transferable outcomes.
Liebschutz, Jane; Savetsky, Jacqueline B.; Saitz, Richard; Horton, Nicholas J.; Lloyd-Travaglini, Christine; Samet, Jeffrey H.
This study examines the relationship between a history of physical and sexual abuse (PhySexAbuse) and drug and alcohol related consequences. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of data from 359 male and 111 female subjects recruited from an inpatient detoxification unit. The Inventory of Drug Use Consequences (InDUC), measured negative life consequences of substance use. Eighty-one percent of women and 69% of men report past PhySexAbuse, starting at a median age of 13 and 11, respectively...
Chang, Sulie L
The "Potential Therapeutic Strategy to Treat Substance Abuse Related Disorders" session was chaired by Dr. Sulie Chang, director of NeuroImmune Phamacology at Seton University. The four presenters (and their topics) were: Dr. Wen-zhe Ho (Miniway to stop HIV/HCV), Dr. Ru-Band Lu (Low dose of memantine in the treatment of opioid dependence in human), Dr. Ping Zhang (Treatment of alcohol-related disorders-Learning from stem/progenitor cell), and Chia-Hsiang Chen (Treatment of methamphetamine abuse: an antibody-based immunotherapy approach).
Richard-Devantoy, S; Bouyer-Richard, A I; Jollant, F; Mondoloni, A; Voyer, M; Senon, J-L
The prevalence of homicide perpetrators with a diagnosis of schizophrenia is 6% in Western countries populations. The relationship between schizophrenia and homicide is complex and cannot be reduced to a simple causal link. The aim of this systematic review was to clarify the role of substance abuse in the commission of murder in people suffering from schizophrenia. A systematic English-French Medline and EMBASE literature search of cohort studies, case-control studies and transversal studies published between January 2001 and December 2011 was performed, combining the MeSH terms "schizophrenia", "psychotic disorders", "homicide", "violence", "substance use disorder", and the TIAB term "alcohol". Abstract selection was based on the STROBE and PRISMA checklist for observational studies and systematic and meta-analysis studies, respectively. Of the 471 selected studies, eight prospective studies and six systematic reviews and meta-analysis studies met the selection criteria and were included in the final analysis. Homicide committed by a schizophrenic person is associated with socio-demographic (young age, male gender, low socioeconomic status), historical (history of violence against others), contextual (a stressful event in the year prior to the homicide), and clinical risk factors (severe psychotic symptoms, long duration of untreated psychosis, poor adherence to medication). In comparison to the general population, the risk of homicide is increased 8-fold in schizophrenics with a substance abuse disorder (mainly alcohol abuse) and 2-fold in schizophrenics without any comorbidities. A co-diagnosis of substance abuse allows us to divide the violent schizophrenics into "early-starters" and "late-starters" according to the age of onset of their antisocial and violent behavior. The violence of the "early-starters" is unplanned, usually affects an acquaintance and is not necessarily associated with the schizophrenic symptoms. Substance abuse is frequent and plays an
Lo, Celia C.; Cheng, Tyrone C.
Using data from the 2007 National Survey on Drug Use and Health, this study examines whether several social exclusion and psychological factors affect adolescents' receipt of substance abuse treatment. Multinomial logistic regression techniques were used to analyze data. The study asked how the specified factors provide pathways to receipt of…
Chuang, Emmeline; Wells, Rebecca; Alexander, Jeffrey; Green, Sherri
Aims: Community outreach services play an important role in infectious disease prevention and engaging drug users not currently in treatment. However, fewer than half of US substance abuse treatment units provide these services and many have little financial incentive to do so. Unit directors generally have latitude about scope of services,…
Titus, Janet C.; Schiller, James A.; Guthmann, Debra
The purpose of this study is to provide a profile of youths with hearing loss admitted to substance abuse treatment facilities. Intake data on 4,167 youths (28% female; 3% reporting a hearing loss) collected via the Global Appraisal of Individual Need-I assessment was used for the analyses. Information on demographics, environmental…
Background: It has become increasingly difficult to assist an individual to maintain long-term recovery from substance abuse. Irre-spective of which treatment centre the individual has been to, none guarantees a successful recovery. This is frustrating to individuals, their families and service providers. The reason for this ...
Alabama Univ., Birmingham. School of Education.
Quality substance abuse training for 279 educational personnel (school counselors, school nurses, and school psychologists) across the state of Alabama was provided in a series of two-day training sessions through a federal grant. Although the original grant proposed 7 training sessions, 9 training sessions were ultimately offered over the course…
Epidemiology and Symptomatology, Neuroscience and Psychology and Intervention and Policy, focusing on the most salient issues related to substance use and abuse. The introductory chapter provides a very good overview of what each chapter deals with and therefore helps the reader navigate to the chapters that are of.
Tartakovsky, Eugene; Kovardinsky, Slava
This study investigates the therapeutic orientations of substance abuse social workers and the relationship between these orientations and burnout. Ninety-two social workers who provided outpatient treatment to people suffering from substance-related disorders in Israel participated in the study. The results obtained demonstrated that the substance abuse social workers adhere more to the psychodynamic and ecosystemic therapeutic orientations than to the cognitive-behavioral orientation. A greater adherence to the cognitive-behavioral orientation was associated with a higher sense of professional efficacy; a greater adherence to the psychodynamic orientation was associated with a higher level of exhaustion; and greater adherence to the ecosystemic orientation was associated with lower levels of exhaustion and cynicism. Female social workers reported lower levels of exhaustion and cynicism. The cognitive-behavioral orientation mediated the connection between the social workers' experience in the field of substance abuse and two dimensions of burnout-exhaustion and professional efficacy. Significance of the findings for improving the well-being of substance abuse social workers and for the advancement of psychosocial services is discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Neger, Emily N.; Prinz, Ronald J.
Parental substance abuse is a serious problem affecting the well-being of children and families. The co-occurrence of parental substance abuse and problematic parenting is recognized as a major public health concern. This review focuses on 21 outcome studies that tested dual treatment of substance abuse and parenting. A summary of theoretical conceptualizations of the connections between substance abuse and parenting provides a backdrop for the review. Outcomes of the dual treatment studies were generally positive with respect to reduction of parental substance use and improvement of parenting. Research in this area varied in methodological rigor and needs to overcome challenges regarding design issues, sampling frame, and complexities inherent in such a high-risk population. This area of work can be strengthened by randomized controlled trials, use of mixed-methods outcome measures, consideration of parent involvement with child protective services, involvement of significant others in treatment, provision of concrete supports for treatment attendance and facilitative public policies. PMID:25939033
Ulibarri, Monica D; Ulloa, Emilio C; Salazar, Marissa
This study examined self-reported sexually abusive experiences in childhood and adulthood as correlates of current drug use, alcohol abuse, and depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. Participants were 204 Latina women 18-34 years old. Results indicated significant relationships between history of sexual abuse (regardless of age of occurrence), depression symptoms, PTSD symptoms, alcohol abuse, and drug use. When examined separately, childhood sexual abuse was associated with symptoms of depression, PTSD, and substance use but not alcohol abuse behaviors. Experiencing sexual abuse in adulthood was associated with symptoms of depression, alcohol abuse behaviors, and substance use but not PTSD symptoms. Structural equation modeling showed that substance use partially mediated the relationship between sexual abuse and mental health outcomes. These findings suggest mental health and substance use services should incorporate treatment for trauma, which may be the root of comorbid mental health and substance use issues.
Beane, E A; Beck, J C
Problem. To study court ordered substance abuse commitment (SAC) in one jurisdiction. We investigated who was evaluated, by whom, and with what outcome. Is SAC primarily a purely civil procedure as originally intended? Are men and women being treated equally? Questionnaire survey of court clinicians to determine demographic and clinical status of persons evaluated, the process of evaluation, and the disposition. SAC is common and more frequent in criminal cases than in purely civil ones. SAC of women is clearly influenced by the restricted choices for disposition: either state prison or an unlocked facility. SAC is an important public health procedure, which courts are using in highly variable and at times unintended ways. SAC has emerged as an alternative to other dispositions in criminal cases involving substance-abusing defendants.
Gustavo Manoel Schier Dória; Sérgio Antonio Antoniuk; Francisco Baptista Assumpção Junior; Daniele Nascimento Fajardo; Maurício Nasser Ehlke
Objective: to determine the incidence and associations of attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), conduct disorder (CD), and substance abuse disorder (SAD) in adolescents in conflict with the law in a Brazilian cohort. Methods: the Brazilian version of the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School Aged-Children (K-SADS-PL) was administered to 69 adolescent boys who were incarcerated for 45 days in the city of Curitiba, Brazil. Results: mean age was 15.5 years (ran...
MacKinnon, David P; Lockwood, Chondra M.
The paper describes advances in statistical methods for prevention research with a particular focus on substance abuse prevention. Standard analysis methods are extended to the typical research designs and characteristics of the data collected in prevention research. Prevention research often includes longitudinal measurement, clustering of data in units such as schools or clinics, missing data, and categorical as well as continuous outcome variables. Statistical methods to handle these featu...
Hesse Morten; Thylstrup Birgitte
Abstract Background Previous research has indicated that aggressive behaviour and DSM-IV cluster B personality disorders (PD) may be associated with professionals' emotional reactions to clients, and that cluster C PD may be associated with positive emotional reactions. Methods Staff members recruited from workshops completed a self-report inventory of emotional reactions to patients, the Feeling Word Checklist-58, and substance abusers completed a self-report of DSM-IV personality disorder, ...
Kelley, Allyson; Witzel, Morgan; Fatupaito, Bethany
American Indian youth experience higher rates of substance use than non-American Indian youth. Researchers, clinicians, and treatment programs embrace evidence-based practices (EBPs) and practice based evidence (PBE) as a primary method for addressing substance abuse and advancing behavioral health. However, less is known about the use of tribal best practices (TBPs) and how they are implemented in American Indian substance use prevention contexts. The main objective of this systematic review was to determine how TBPs are implemented and shared in the context of tribal substance use prevention. The second objective was to document TBP examples from three tribal communities involved in a 5-year substance use prevention initiative. A systematic review of published and grey literature was conducted using funding agencies websites, EBSCO Host and national registries. Three tribal communities involved in the initiative documented current TBPs to highlight characteristics of TBPs, costs, and approval processes. TBPs are very limited in the literature. Despite tribal use for thousands of years, TBPs are underrepresented and misunderstood. This review found that the terminology used to describe TBPs is not consistent across agencies, publications, websites, or reports. There is also variation in how TBPs originate in substance use prevention contexts and there is not a primary resource or protocol for sharing TBPs. Continued efforts are needed to support the use and dissemination of TBPs in substance use prevention.
Modestin, J; Nussbaumer, C; Angst, K; Scheidegger, P; Hell, D
A series of 417 consecutively admitted psychiatric inpatients were studied with regard to their use of potentially abusive psychotropic substances in the last 3 months preceding admission. In all patients face-to-face interviews were performed; in 354 of them urine specimens could also be tested. Alcohol and benzodiazepines belonged to the most frequently used substances followed by cannabis, opiates and cocaine. Barbiturates, hallucinogens and amphetamine derivatives were only exceptionally reported. The most important finding of the study is that every fifth patient regularly used "hard" drugs (opiates and/or cocaine), every fourth patient illegal drugs and every third patient alcohol. Substances were found in 54% of all urine specimens; methadone, opiates and cocaine were hardly found alone. For the latter substances excellent agreement was found between interview reports and urine exams. Excluding patients diagnosed as substance-use disorders, there were no statistically significant differences between schizophrenic, affective, neurotic/stress/somatoform and other disorders with regard to the use of "hard" drugs and illegal drugs. Regular substance use correlated with much worse psychosocial adjustment. Substance use has to be explored and considered in every individual psychiatric inpatient.
Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this research was to investigate the relationship between individual and family religiosity with substance abuse. In other side because of the importance of prevention and the role of people beliefs about the causes of substance use/ non-use in this area, the relationship between (university students’ beliefs about drug and their consequences with amount of the substance use was explored. Method: Study sample included 270 students (128 females and 142 males from the University of Shiraz that were selected by multistage cluster sampling. They completed religious orientation questionnaire, family religiosity questionnaire and drug questionnaire. Findings: Results indicated significant negative relationship between individual religiosity in general and amount of substance use .however, the relationship between drug use and family religiosity was not found. Also, there was significant negative correlation between believing the consequences (mostly physical and mental and rate of substance use. Results: According to this results, religious beliefs and considering the consequences of substance use play important role in reducing substance use.
Butler, Stephen F; McNaughton, Emily C; Black, Ryan A
Abuse of prescription opioid pain relievers continues to be a serious public health concern. In contrast to opioids such as oxycodone or morphine, tapentadol, a prescription analgesic, has two mechanisms of action: μ-opioid receptor agonism and norepinephrine reuptake inhibition. As a result of differences in its receptor pharmacology, there may be differences in its abuse profile. As an initial step toward testing this hypothesis, we present a postmarketing examination of tapentadol's abuse liability relative to comparators. A sentinel sample of 113,914 individuals assessed for substance abuse treatment as part of the NAVIPPRO ASI-MV(®) surveillance system at 624 facilities in 38 states from January 2011 to September 2012 was examined for prevalence and prescription-adjusted prevalence of past 30-day abuse of tapentadol as a compound and its immediate-release (IR) and extended-release (ER) formulations with oxymorphone, hydromorphone, hydrocodone, morphine, fentanyl, oxycodone, tramadol, and buprenorphine as comparators. Tapentadol abuse was reported significantly less often (P Tapentadol IR abuse prevalence was significantly lower than all comparators except fentanyl IR, which had the next lowest unadjusted abuse prevalence. Prevalence of tapentadol ER abuse was lower than comparators except hydromorphone ER. Low prescription-adjusted estimates were observed for tapentadol as a compound as well as its IR and ER formulations, which were among the lowest observed and the lowest of the Schedule II comparators. Prescription-adjusted risk for tapentadol ER was less than comparators except hydromorphone ER (P = 0.06). Tapentadol abuse was seen infrequently in this study and, on a prescription basis, was less likely to be abused than most of the examined Schedule II analgesics. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Tipps, Megan E; Raybuck, Jonathan D; Lattal, K Matthew
A large body of literature demonstrates the effects of abused substances on memory. These effects differ depending on the drug, the pattern of delivery (acute or chronic), and the drug state at the time of learning or assessment. Substance use disorders involving these drugs are often comorbid with anxiety disorders, such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). When the cognitive effects of these drugs are considered in the context of the treatment of these disorders, it becomes clear that these drugs may play a deleterious role in the development, maintenance, and treatment of PTSD. In this review, we examine the literature evaluating the cognitive effects of three commonly abused drugs: nicotine, cocaine, and alcohol. These three drugs operate through both common and distinct neurobiological mechanisms and alter learning and memory in multiple ways. We consider how the cognitive and affective effects of these drugs interact with the acquisition, consolidation, and extinction of learned fear, and we discuss the potential impediments that substance abuse creates for the treatment of PTSD. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Knuuttila, Vesa; Kuusisto, Katja; Saarnio, Pekka; Nummi, Tapio
Background: The study examined the effect of the early working alliance on outcome in outpatient substance abuse treatment. Methods: A total of 327 clients and 33 therapists participated in the study. Data were collected in southern and western Finland in outpatient treatment units (N = 7). The dependent variables were percentage of days abstinent…
Flentje, Annesa; Heck, Nicholas C; Sorensen, James L
This study evaluated whether sexual orientation-specific differences in substance use behaviors exist among adults entering substance abuse treatment. Admissions records (July 2007-December 2009) were examined for treatment programs in San Francisco, California receiving government funding. Lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) persons (n = 1,441) were compared to heterosexual persons (n = 11,770) separately by sex, examining primary problem substance of abuse, route of administration, age of first use, and frequency of use prior to treatment. Regarding bisexual males, the only significant finding of note was greater prevalence of methamphetamine as the primary substance of abuse. When compared to heterosexual men, gay and bisexual men evidenced greater rates of primary problem methamphetamine use (44.5% and 21.8%, respectively, vs. 7.7%, adjusted odds ratios [ORs] 6.43 and 2.94), and there was lower primary heroin use among gay men (9.3% vs. 25.8%, OR 0.35). Among LGB individuals, race and ethnicity did not predict primary problem substance, except that among LGB men and women, a non-White race predicted cocaine use (OR 4.83 and 6.40, respectively), and among lesbian and bisexual women, Hispanic ethnicity predicted lower odds of primary cocaine use (OR 0.24). When compared to heterosexual men, gay men were more likely to smoke their primary problem substance (OR 1.61), first used this substance at an older age (M = 23.16 vs. M = 18.55, p substance fewer days prior to treatment (M = 8.75 vs. M = 11.41, p substance use for gay and bisexual men entering substance abuse treatment, but women did not evidence differences. Gay men evidenced unique factors that may reflect less severity of use when entering treatment including fewer days of use and a later age of initiation of their primary problem substances. The results underscore the importance of being sensitive to differences between gay, bisexual, and heterosexual males when considering substance use disorders. (Psyc
McGillicuddy, Neil B; Eliseo-Arras, Rebecca K
Research on the correspondence between adolescent and parent reports of adolescent substance abuse has typically been conducted on adolescent outpatient treatment samples, or on non-treatment samples. In the current study, fifty adolescents receiving residential substance abuse treatment, and their parents were assessed separately regarding the teen's substance use (e.g., cigarettes, alcohol, marijuana, other illicit drugs) during the 90 days preceding adolescent treatment entry. Correspondence between reporters was for the most part fair to excellent, with observed discrepancies generally due to parents providing lower estimates of use than did adolescents. Multiple regression analysis revealed that higher discrepancy between reporters occurred when the parent was younger, when the parent encountered fewer problems due to the teen's substance use, when the adolescent attended more probation or parole meetings, the fewer the number of days the adolescent was incarcerated, and the fewer days the adolescent lived at home prior to treatment. Results from exploratory analyses suggest that parents and adolescents are more discrepant when the assessment occurs later in the adolescent's treatment program. Overall, results suggest that in the absence of a cooperative teen, parental report of the adolescent's previous substance use could serve as a good proxy among families in which the adolescent is entering residential substance abuse treatment. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Rosen, Daniel; Engel, Rafael J.; Hunsaker, Amanda E.; Engel, Yael; Detlefsen, Ellen Gay; Reynolds, Charles F.
This article examines the extent to which studies of alcohol abuse, illicit drug use, and prescription drug abuse among older adults appear in the leading gerontological and substance abuse journals. The authors reviewed articles published in the 10 social science gerontological journals and the 10 social science substance abuse journals with the highest 5-year impact factors in PubMed from 2000 to 2010. Articles were selected that presented original research on alcohol, substance, or prescription abuse with older adults aged 50 and older; and were identified through aging and substance abuse-related Medical Subject Headings and word searches of titles and abstracts (N = 634). Full text of each article was reviewed by the authors, and consensus determined inclusion in the final sample. Of the 19,953 articles published respectively in the top 10 gerontological and substance abuse journals, 181 articles met the inclusion criteria of reporting findings related to substance use disorders among older adults. Specifically, 0.9% (102 of 11,700) of articles from the top 10 gerontology journals and 1.0% (79 of 8,253) of articles from the top 10 substance abuse journals met the criteria. Most published articles addressed alcohol misuse/abuse or polysubstance abuse with few articles addressing illicit drug use or the misuse of prescription medications. Less than 1% of articles published in the 10 gerontology journals and the 10 substance abuse journals with the highest 5-year impact scores addressed substance abuse in older adults. Practitioners treating health and/or mental health problems are at a disadvantage in accurately identifying and treating these conditions in older adult populations without a proper understanding of the role of comorbid substance use disorders. PMID:23731426
Hanson, Karen E; Saul, Dale H; Vanderploeg, Jeffrey J; Painter, Mary; Adnopoz, Jean
Family-based in-home treatment can effectively meet the needs of mothers and fathers struggling with the dual challenges of substance abuse recovery and parenting infants and toddlers. This article describes one such program, Family-Based Recovery (FBR), which integrates substance abuse treatment for parents and infant mental health intervention with the goal of preventing child maltreatment and family disruption. Program design, implementation, and results are provided. Outcome data suggest that FBR is a promising model.
Background In South Africa, district social service offices are often the first point of entry into the substance abuse treatment system. Despite this, little is known about the profile of people presenting with substance-related problems at these service points. This has a negative impact on treatment service planning. This paper begins to redress this gap through describing patterns of substance use and service needs among people using general social services in the Western Cape and comparing findings against the profile of persons attending specialist substance abuse treatment facilities in the region. Methods As part of a standard client information system, an electronic questionnaire was completed for each person seeking social assistance. Data on socio-demographic characteristics, the range of presenting problems, patterns of substance use, perceived consequences of substance use, as well as types of services provided were analysed for the 691 social welfare clients who reported substance use between 2007 and 2009. These data were compared against clients attending substance abuse treatment centres during the same time period. Results Findings indicate that social services offices are used as a way of accessing specialist services but are also used as a service point, especially by groups under-represented in the specialist treatment sector. Women, people from rural communities and people with alcohol-related problems are more likely to seek assistance at social service offices providing low threshold intervention services than from the specialist treatment sector. Conclusions The study provides evidence that social services are a point of entry and intervention for people from underserved communities in the Western Cape. If these low-threshold services can be supported to provide good quality services, they may be an effective and efficient way of improving access to treatment in a context of limited service availability. PMID:22642796
Full Text Available Introduction: Narcotic drug abuse and illicit use of drugs is a major, complicated multifactorial phenomenon affecting most of the societies today. Incidence of drug abuse among adolescents is very high. Adolescents become addicted to substances more quickly than adults. The aim of this study was to assess the pattern of drug abuse among male adolescents in Hamadan. Methods: This study was a descriptive study and samples (n=400 were collected on the basis of snowball sampling method. Information was collected individually through completion of a researcher-designed questionnaire including demographic and epidemiological indices, perceived familial support, religiosity, and locus of control. Results: The results showed that smoking (93%, alcohol (92.5%, marijuana (64.3%, and opium (57.8% use were very high, while LSD (4.8% and Cocaine(2.3% use was rare. 77.8 % of adolescents began drug abuse between 12 and 18 years of age. Moreover, sensation seeking (26.5%, individual interest (24.8%, and peer pressure (22%, were the main reasons for drug abuse. Conclusion: As initial smoking, alcohol and marijuana use play an important role in determining the future addiction of adolescents to narcotics, yearly surveillance programs in the country and evaluation of etiological factors of narcotic addiction need to be studied carefully. All of the preventive and school programs designed for the young should take into account environmental, demographic and policy factors in addition to personal factors so that the programs have a maximum effect.
Nelson, Andrea; Galon, Patricia
There is an ongoing debate among prescribers concerning the risk of inadvertently contributing to the initiation of substance abuse (SA) in children and adolescents through the use of stimulants in the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Psychiatric nurses at all levels of practice must be informed about this important discourse in order to provide accurate and timely interventions to clients and their families. This literature review explores the current state of prescriptive stimulant use for ADHD and the possible links to SA. Developmental, genetic, and neuro-chemical theories of the disorder that may contribute to SA as well as the burden of comorbidity are considered. The impact of gender, cultural, legal, and ethical influences on diagnostic and treatment recommendations is also included. U.S. and other English language articles were identified through PubMed and the Cumulated Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature. These sources were used to determine the current practice of stimulant prescription and the prevalence of SA as a comorbidity to other child psychiatric disorders including ADHD. Textbooks were consulted for information regarding relevant neurochemistry, genetics, and psychopharmacology. The authors conclude that the use of stimulants is appropriate for children and adolescents with ADHD when opportunities for screening, family and child education, and counseling concerning SA are consistently integrated into the ongoing treatment regimen. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Taillac, Cosette; Goler, Nancy; Armstrong, Mary Anne; Haley, Kathleen; Osejo, Veronica
Untreated perinatal substance abuse is associated with serious adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes. Historically, many barriers have prevented pregnant women from seeking treatment. Early Start (ES) breaks new ground by sidestepping these barriers with a fully integrated service delivery model.ES is the largest HMO-based prenatal substance-abuse program in the United States targeting all pregnant women seen at Kaiser Permanente Northern California (KPNC) prenatal clinics, currently screening more than 39,000 women each year. The program is based on the premise that substance abuse is a treatable disease and addresses it in a nonjudgmental, accepting manner. A substance-abuse counselor is located in each obstetrics clinic providing accessible one-to-one counseling to pregnant women screened at risk for alcohol, tobacco, or drug use as part of the routine prenatal care package offered to all patients.A 2006 ES study, sponsored by the Kaiser Foundation Research Institute, evaluated program effectiveness in terms of its impact on neonatal and maternal outcomes. Preliminary results that included 49,986 KPNC patients indicate that compared with pregnant women whose results on screening for substance use were positive but who were untreated, ES-treated women had significantly lower rates on a number of outcome measures.The originality and transferability of ES has led to both local and national recognition. Universal screening of all pregnant women with access to an integrated model of substance-abuse treatment should be the standard of care for every prenatal patient because of the significant benefits for mothers and their babies.
Bride, Brian E.; Walls, Erin
The terms secondary traumatic stress (STS), vicarious traumatization (VT), and compassion fatigue (CF) have all been used, sometimes interchangeably, to refer to the observation that those who provide clinical services to trauma survivors may themselves experience considerable emotional disruption, becoming indirect victims of the trauma.…
Full Text Available Background:Economy,lack of welfare and social services, AIDS and civil war,and also substance abuse are predominant factors that attributes with street children.Method:576 street children of 10-19 years were evaluated.Data were gathered by demographic and substance use check list.Theses check lists were designed by the researchers and included some simple question about type and duration of substance use.Several psychiatrists confirmed the content of check list.Results:36.7% of the children had lifetime smoking of cigarette.The frequency of smoking in boys was significantly higher than girls (P<0.05.Conclusion:It should be noted that street children are at high risk group for using tobacco. Theses children are also exposed to the dangerous behaviors and sexually transmitted
Spector, Anya Y; Pinto, Rogerio M
Integrating HIV prevention into substance abuse counselling is recommended to ameliorate the health outcomes of men who have sex with men. However, culture-based countertransferences (CBCs) may hamper this effort. Using a case illustration, this paper will explain the manifestation of CBCs held among substance abuse counsellors and how they hinder counsellors' work with men who have sex with men. The following CBCs will be explored: distancing, topic avoidance, heteronormativity, assumptions and denying client strengths. These CBCs allow counsellors to avoid discussions about sexual practices and curtail HIV prevention counselling, while undermining the counsellor-client relationship. Based on the empirical literature on HIV and substance abuse prevention with men who have sex with men, we provide recommendations to help counsellors overcome CBCs and integrate HIV prevention consistently with men who are in treatment for substance abuse.
González-Guarda, Rosa M; Florom-Smith, Aubrey L; Thomas, Tainayah
Hispanics are disproportionately affected by substance abuse, HIV infection, intimate partner violence, and mental health conditions. To address health disparities among Hispanics and other vulnerable groups, it is necessary to understand the complex interactions between health conditions clustering together (e.g., substance abuse, intimate partner violence, and HIV) and the social ecology in which these conditions exist. A syndemic orientation, a consideration of clustering epidemics and common individual, relationship, cultural, and socioenvironmental factors linking these conditions, may be helpful in developing comprehensive models that expand our ability to understand and address health disparities. The purpose of this paper is to introduce a Syndemic Model of Substance Abuse, Intimate Partner Violence, HIV Infection, and Mental Health among Hispanics, and provide evidence from the research literature to support the central relationships and risk and protective factors (i.e., potential links between conditions) depicted by the model. The development and evaluation of interventions aimed at the prevention of substance abuse, intimate partner violence, HIV/AIDS, and mental health problems as a syndemic affecting Hispanics is urgently needed. Public health nurses can initiate this endeavor with the guidance of a Syndemic Model. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Patton, Rikki; Snyder, Anastasia; Glassman, Michael
Substance abuse treatment providers commonly provide services for men and women involved in sex work. Sex workers often present to treatment with a complicated array of challenges (M. L. Burnette et al., 2008a; D. C. Ling, W. C. W. Wong, E. A. Holroyd, & S. A. Grayson, 2007; M. Young, C. Boyd, & A. Hubbell, 2000), and, while many scholars have posited the need for adapted interventions for sex workers (L. Nuttbrock, A. Rosenblum, S. Magura, C. Villano, & J. Wallace, 2004; A. Weiner, 1996), there is still a lull in the development of comprehensive, tailored services for sex workers seeking substance abuse treatment (L. Nuttbrock et al., 2004). Augmenting this gap is the lack of a clear framework through which to understand the challenges that sex workers endure and how their challenges may differ from treatment-seeking non-sex workers. In order to address this gap, the current study explored the utility of a social justice framework, namely the Capability Approach, in predicting sex work involvement among a substance-abusing sample. We hypothesize that increased challenges to achieving capability will predict sex work involvement among a substance-abusing sample. Results suggest that the Capability Approach is a useful framework that can be used to differentiate between sex workers and their substance-abusing counterparts and that sex workers experience greater challenges to achieving capability. As such, the current findings support recent calls in the literature for the development of tailored services to meet the needs of this population. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Macy, Rebecca J; Goodbourn, Melissa
Women who experience intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization are more likely to struggle with substance abuse problems than are women who do not experience IPV. Given the connection between IPV victimization and substance abuse, recommended practices urge collaboration between domestic violence service agencies and substance abuse treatment agencies to provide comprehensive services for women with these co-occurring problems. However, domestic violence and substance abuse services have unique histories of development that have led to distinct ways of service delivery. To promote successful collaborations, service providers and researchers are developing strategies to foster relationships across the two service sectors. The authors conducted a review of this emerging body of knowledge with the aim of assembling recommendations for strategies to foster collaboration between domestic violence and substance abuse services. The authors identified 15 documents for review inclusion and our analysis established 5 categories of documents. Findings yield key collaboration strategies and recommended service models. In addition, the review determined the existence of considerable challenges to promoting collaborative relationships between domestic violence and substance abuse treatment service sectors.
Full Text Available Background: It is clear that tobacco smoking and substance abuse have negative consequences on adolescent and youth′s health. Tobacco smoking especially hookah smoking has increased worldwide especially among university students. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of risk-taking behaviors such as cigarette smoking, hookah smoking, alcohol use, and drug abuse and its predictors in students of Karaj universities. Methods: This cross-sectional study took place in Karaj in January and February 2014. The randomly selected sample consisted of 1959 college students. A self-administered questionnaire was used to measure risk-taking behaviors as well as demographic and related risk factors. Logistic regression model was performed in data analysis. Results: The prevalence of cigarette smoking was 9.3%. The prevalence of hookah smoking was 9.3%. 7% of students used illegal drugs and 9.5% of students used alcohol at least once in last 30 days. After adjustment for other factors, being male, living without parents, having smoker friends, and presence any smoker in the family were factors associated with students′ risk-taking behaviors. The results showed the co-occurrence of risk-taking behaviors. Conclusions: The prevalence of tobacco smoking and substance abuse, particular in males, are high. It seems that planning preventive interventions for this part of the population are necessary. This study emphasized the co-occurrence of risky behaviors, so, it is better high-risk behaviors simultaneously targeted at reducing or preventing interventions.
Malhotra, Anil; Mohan, Ashwin
Drug abuse has become a growing issue of concern to humanity. India has a large consumer base of drug and alcohol abusers. This has serious repercussions in terms of morbidity & mortality. Hence the need for a national policy. In India, the Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances Act. 1985 (NDPS) provides the framework for drug abuse control in the country. A large number of measures have been undertaken as part of demand reduction activities. These include framing policies and programmes, setting up of centres, developing pilot projects, etc. However, the implementation still needs a lot to be desired. The efforts have not yet been streamlined and no revision of policies has taken place based on experience. This paper critically reviews the initiatives taken thus far to control drug abuse in our country. PMID:21407973
Grella, Christine E.; Hser, Yih-Ing; Huang; Yu-Chuang
Problem: Greater awareness of the role of parental substance abuse in child maltreatment makes it imperative that the substance abuse treatment and child welfare systems coordinate services for these parents. Yet little is known about the characteristics of child-welfare involved parents (primarily mothers) who enter into substance abuse…
Gilbert, Jonathan Max; Oliff, Helen; Sutton, David; Bartlett, Catalina; Henderson, Randi
This Treatment Improvement Protocol (TIP) addresses substance abuse treatment in the context of family therapy. TIPs are best-practice guidelines for the treatment of substance use disorders that make the latest research in substance abuse treatment available to counselors and educators. The content was generated by a panel of experts in the…
... ADMINISTRATION BLOCK GRANTS Substance Abuse Prevention and Treatment Block Grant § 96.126 Capacity of treatment... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Capacity of treatment for intravenous substance... programs that receive funding under the grant and that treat individuals for intravenous substance abuse to...
Chong, Jenny; Lopez, Darlene
The objective of this study was to describe the predictors of substance use relapse of American Indian (AI) women up to one year following substance abuse treatment. Relapse is defined as any use of alcohol or drugs in the past 30 days at the follow-up points. Data were collected from AI women in a 45-day residential substance abuse treatment…
Gilbert, Jonathan Max; Hills, Susan; Rife, Mary Lou
This Treatment Improvement Protocol (TIP) presents an overview of the role and efficacy of group therapy in substance abuse treatment. TIPs are best-practice guidelines for the treatment of substance use disorders that make the latest research in substance abuse treatment available to counselors and educators. The content was generated by a panel…
Ersöğütçü, Filiz; Karakaş, Sibel Asi
This descriptive study was conducted to examine the levels of social functioning and self-esteem in individuals diagnosed with substance abuse. The study was conducted at the AMATEM (Alcohol and Substance Abuse Treatment Center) service of a psychiatry clinic in the Elazığ province in eastern Turkey between September 1, 2014 and February 1, 2015. The population is comprised of 249 patients being treated in this clinic, and the sample included 203 patients who comply with the research criteria and agreed to participate in the study. A Socia-Demographic Questionnaire, Coopersmith Self-esteem Scale (CSI) and Social Functioning Scale (SFS) were used for data collection. Percentages, averages, standard deviations and Pearson's correlation were used for data analysis. This study found that the patients' mean sore on the Self-esteem Scale is 50.97±18.01. Their score on the Social Functioning Scale is 115.76±22.41. A significant correlation between the patients' self-esteem and the age of first substance use was detected (p=0.001). A significant correlation was detected between their social functioning and the duration of their substance use (pself-esteem (pself-esteem and social functioning. A significant positive correlation between social functioning and self-esteem was found. It was also found that the age of first substance use and self-esteem are directly correlated. Counseling to increase patients' levels of self-esteem and improve their social functioning is recommended. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kang, Sung-Yeon; Magura, Stephen; Laudet, Alexandre; Whitney, Shirley
Study examined adverse effects of childhood sexual/physical abuse among substance-abusing women with children. Several significant differences between abused and nonabused women were found in service outcomes. Abused women had more problems relating to drug use and psychiatric/psychological adjustment at follow-up. Findings support a need for…
Artists create their work in conditions of disequilibrium, states of creative chaos that may appear turbulent but are capable of bringing forth new order. By absorbing information from the environment and discharging it negentropically as new work, artists can be modeled as dissipative systems. A characteristic of chaotic systems is a heightened sensitivity to stimuli, which can generate either positive experiences or negative ones that can lead some artists to substance abuse and misguided searches for a creative chaos. Alcohol and drug use along with inadequately addressed co-occurring emotional disorders interfere with artists' quest for the nonlinearity of creativity. Instead, metaphorically modeled by a limit cycle of addiction and then a spiral to disorder, the joys of a creative chaos become an elusive chimera for them rather than a fulfilling experience. Untreated mental illness and addiction to substances have shortened the lives of artists such as Vincent Van Gogh, Frida Kahlo, Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, and Jackson Pollock, all of whom committed suicide. In contrast Edvard Munch and John Callahan, who chose to address their emotional problems and substance abuse, continued to live and remain creative. Choosing to access previously avoided moments of pain can activate the nonlinear power of self-transformation.
Full Text Available Aims: The aim of this research was the study of the role of identity formation styles on substance abuse behavior of referred people to addiction withdrawal and DIC centers of Tehran city and its comparison with non addicted people. Method: The research design was causal effect research method, which 100 substance abusers compared with 100 non substance abusers. The sampling method was cluster random sampling and both groups were matched in consideration of age. Bersinesky’s identity making questionnaire administered in two samples. Results: The results showed that substance abusers were scored higher on normative and confused/avoidant identity formation also the non substance abusers were scored higher on information identity formation style. Conclusion: With different kind of intervention-training trials the parents and people who are effective on children’s identity formation can be mobilized, in order to prevention of identity formation styles which can planning teenagers’ substance abusing.
Camila Garcia de Grandi
Full Text Available Introduction: Psychoactive substance abuse problems in the family have an impact on the development of children and adolescents. This risk conditions can harm mental health and hinder healthy development in psychosocial areas. Objectives: This study investigated the psychosocial profile of children and adolescents assisted in a prevention service center for children of substance abusers in a deprived community located in the outskirts of Sao Paulo. Methods: Exploratory and descriptive study, based on cross-sectional methodology and a convenience sample of 791 children and adolescents assisted at the Intervention and Support Center for Children of Substance Abusers - CUIDA between January 2001 and December 2008. The sample was divided into groups according to discharge status: Active, Therapeutic Discharge (TD, Abandonment, Without Information about the Reason for Leaving and With Information about the Length of Treatment (WIRL, Without Information (WI, and Other Reasons for Leaving (OR. Results: In the Active group, 26% of mothers had completed high-school and 11% belonged to the A/B socioeconomic classes. The TD group showed the highest percentages of wage earning parents (52% living together (64%. In the WIRL group, 17% of the mothers were illiterate or had not completed primary education, and 23% of the fathers were unemployed. In the WI group, 22% lived in houses that had been lent to them. Conclusions: Results indicate the impact of addiction and underprivileged conditions (such as housing status, fathers’ level of education, and socioeconomic status on retention in the service and the importance of health prevention and promotion strategies aimed at this population.
Lynch, Wendy J; Nicholson, Katherine L; Dance, Mario E; Morgan, Richard W; Foley, Patricia L
Substance abuse and addiction are well recognized public health concerns, with 2 NIH institutes (the National Institute on Drug Abuse and the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism) specifically targeting this societal problem. As such, this is an important area of research for which animal experiments play a critical role. This overview presents the importance of substance abuse and addiction in society; reviews the development and refinement of animal models that address crucial...
Mej?a, Bertha; Zea, Paloma; Romero, Martha; Sald?var, Gabriela
Background In the past decade, several studies have focused on the treatment needs of female inmates with substance abuse problems. An important finding has been that these women are more likely to report histories of sexual, physical, and emotional abuse-at rates varying from 77% to 90%. The trauma resulting from this kind of abuse is a key contributing factor in behavioral problems in adolescence and subsequent delinquency, substance abuse, and criminality in adulthood. Methods This was a r...
Burlew, A. Kathleen; Copeland, Valire Carr; Ahuama-Jonas, Chizara; Calsyn, Donald A.
The changing ethnic composition of the nation and increasing requirements to use evidence-based treatments (EBTs) challenge mental health professionals to adapt treatments and interventions to be appropriate for their clients. This article applies the available information on cultural adaptation to substance abuse. The authors’ review suggests that the most common approaches for adapting substance use interventions include some combination of either community involvement in the adaptation, existing research and literature, and/or consultation from experts to adapt EBTs. The challenges facing the development of culturally adapted interventions include the need for additional research to determine which specific EBTs warrant adaptation, the responsibility of maintaining the balance between fidelity and adaptation, and the challenge of intragroup diversity. PMID:23731430
Full Text Available BACKGROUND According to UNDCP World Drug Report, the problem of substance abuse in adolescence is fast assuming alarming proportions in both developed and developing nations. Kullu District of Himachal Pradesh has regularly been in media headlines for extensive cannabis cultivation and abuse of other substances. The study was conducted to provide an essential source of information about substance abuse and its correlates in this Himalayan region. MATERIALS AND METHODS This was a descriptive school-based cross-sectional study conducted among students (13-19 years studying in classes 7th to 12th. Multi-stage cluster random design and PPS sampling methodology was adopted. A sample of 3000 students both from rural and urban areas studying in 20 government and private senior secondary schools was selected. An anonymous, pretested, self-administered questionnaire adapted from WHO and ESPAD questionnaires was used to collect relevant information. Statistical analysis was done by entering the data in SPSS. RESULTS The ultimate response rate was 98.5%. Out of the total of 2864 participants, 785 (27.4%; 95%, CI 25.8% to 29.1% had indulged in substance abuse at least once in their lifetime. Prevalence of current and regular users was 13.8% (95%, CI 12.5% to 15.1% and 4.1% (95%, CI 3.4% to 4.9%, respectively. Alcohol was the most commonly abused substance among ever users at 18.1% followed by tobacco (17.6% and cannabis (6.2%. Around 85% of the students perceived indulgence in substance abuse to be harmful for health. The logistic regression model revealed that substance abuse among friends (AOR 5.32, family members (AOR 2.04, inability to spend quality time with parents (AOR 2.44, gender (AOR 1.68 and older age group of 16-19 years (AOR 1.51 were the factors found to be positively associated with substance abuse. CONCLUSION The study has brought out a high prevalence of substance abuse among the students. The participants’ high knowledge about
Kelly, Thomas M.; Daley, Dennis C.; Douaihy, Antoine B.
Objective To update clinicians on the latest in evidence-based treatments for substance use disorders (SUD) and non-substance use disorders among adults and suggest how these treatments can be combined into an evidence based process that enhances treatment effectiveness in comorbid patients. Method Articles were extracted from Pubmed using the search terms “dual diagnosis,” “comorbidity” and “co-occurring” and were reviewed for evidence of effectiveness for pharmacologic and psychotherapeutic treatments of comorbidity. Results Twenty-four research reviews and 43 research trials were reviewed. The preponderance of the evidence suggests that antidepressants prescribed to improve substance-related symptoms among patients with mood and anxiety disorders are either not highly effective or involve risk due to high side-effect profiles or toxicity. Second-generation antipsychotics are more effective for treatment of schizophrenia and comorbid substance abuse and current evidence suggests clozapine, olanzapine and risperidone are among the best. Clozapine appears to be the most effective of the antipsychotics for reducing alcohol, cocaine and cannabis abuse among patients with schizophrenia. Motivational interviewing has robust support as a highly effective psychotherapy for establishing a therapeutic alliance. This finding is critical since retention in treatment is essential for maintaining effectiveness. Highly structured therapy programs that integrate intensive outpatient treatments, case management services and behavioral therapies such as Contingency Management (CM) are most effective for treatment of severe comorbid conditions. Conclusions Creative combinations of psychotherapies, behavioral and pharmacological interventions offer the most effective treatment for comorbidity. Intensity of treatment must be increased for severe comorbid conditions such as the schizophrenia/cannabis dependence comorbidity due to the limitations of pharmacological
Tsounis, Andreas; Niakas, Dimitris; Sarafis, Pavlos
Job satisfaction is an important predictor for management and clinical ratios. Although it is accepted that is affected by many aspects, the influence of social capital remains to be determined. The main purpose of the article is to examine the relationship between job satisfaction and individual social capital for employees offering services in the treatment of addiction. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 239 employees from 14 therapeutic programs at KETEA (Therapy Center for Dependent Individuals in Greece) (KETHEA). A revised Greek Version of the Social Capital Questionnaire (SCQ-G) for the individual social capital measurement, and of the Job Satisfaction Survey (JSS) for the job satisfaction measurement, were used. Individual Social Capital ranged in medium levels. We observed a significant positive association between social capital and its' different aspects and gender, age, place of residence and working experience. Men, older employees, those who lived in smaller places, and those working more years, reached higher levels of individual social capital. Concerning overall job satisfaction most of the participants were ambivalent (61.5%), while 21.8% were satisfied and 16.7% were dissatisfied. Concerning its separate aspects, 77% were least satisfied with pay, 69.9% were least satisfied with advancement opportunities, 60.3% were least satisfied with fringe benefits, 85.8% were most satisfied with the nature of their work, 80.8% with their relationship with colleagues, and 77.8% were satisfied with supervision. Total Job Satisfaction was positively associated with place of residence and monthly salary. A significant positive correlation between social capital and job satisfaction was also observed. Early evidence suggests that social capital is associated with job satisfaction of employees providing services in the treatment of substance abuse. Further research, regarding social capital on job satisfaction, is suggested. We need to design and implement
Raniseski, J M; Sigelman, C K
To explore the possibility that peer influences not only contribute to adolescent substance abuse but shape feelings about being in treatment for substance abuse, forty adolescent inpatients were surveyed. Misconduct, including substance abuse, was predicted best by perceived peer pressure toward misconduct, low opinions of the value of treatment by disposition to conform to antisocial peers, and sense of stigma associated with being treated by perceived peer pressure toward conformity. Concerns over peer acceptance may be one basis for resistance to substance abuse treatment.
Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Substance abuse is believed to be one of the greatest social, economical ,and cultural problems all over the world and it is commonly observed among all social classes especially among mental disorder patients. Substance abuse can influence on the receptive-mental states such as mood and on the external visible activities such as behaviors. The aim of this study is to survey the frequency of Substance abuse in hospitalized mental-psychic patients in psychiatric ward of Farshchian hospital in Hamadan. Materials & Methods: In this descriptive and retrospective study, available sampling method was used along with examining filed records in which the records of 400 hospitalized patients (293 men and 107 women from September 2000 to 2001 were checked and required data such as demographic information, infliction duration, substance abuse duration, psychiatric diagnosis were extracted and registered. The data were analyzed with descriptive statistical methods.Results: About half of the hospitalized patients in the psychiatric ward had simultaneous substance abuse. Men had substance abuse more than women and the youths aged 20-39 more than the other groups. The study showed that widowing had positive relationship and higher education negative relationship with substance abuse.Conclusion: Mood disorders with 90.53%, schizophrenia with 8.29%, and other diagnostics with 1.18% were observed in persons with substance abuse and these diagnostics in non substance abuse persons were 79.22% ,11.26% and 9.52% respectively.
Nomimol Lucy Thomas,
Full Text Available Background: Substance abuse and dependency are most common during adolescence. Adolescents are in a transitional phase, confusion can sometimes make them susceptible to taking up unfavourable habits. Attitude shaping by parents and knowledge of harmfulness of substance abuse can indirectly motivate the user to give up the habit. Substance abuse control programmes, focusing on youth, are essential, to reduce the burden of related diseases. Objectives: It was aimed to assess the level of knowledge of adolescents regarding substance abuse, to find the effectiveness of role play on knowledge regarding substance abuse among adolescents, to find out the association of knowledge scores of adolescents regarding substance abuse with selected socio demographic variables. Material and Methods: A quasi experimental, one group pre-test post-test design with evaluative approach was adopted for this study. The study was conducted at Krishna Charitable Trust’s English Medium School and Junior College, Karad, Maharashtra, India. Simple random sampling with lottery method was used for selecting the 60 subjects from VIIIth, IXth and Xth class. On the 1st day a structured knowledge questionnaire was used to assess the knowledge on substance abuse and role play was conducted followed by post test on the 7thday. Data was analyzed by using descriptive and inferential statistics. Result: The mean and standard deviation of the knowledge scores of the subjects in pre test was 11.51 + 3.55 which increased in post test after role play to 17.5 + 2.89. The paired ‘t’ test value were 15.363 (p < 0.0001 showing a significant increase in knowledge regarding substance abuse. There was an association between type of family and general information on substance abuse, education of father with commonly abused substances and the total score on substance abuse, education of mother with commonly abused substances and prevention and management of substance abuse and number of
Lewis, Todd F.; Mobley, A. Keith
Many college students are using substances at levels consistent with Substance Abuse or Dependence, yet little explanation for this phenomenon exits. The aim of this study was to explore a risk factor profile that best separates those with low and high potential for having a Substance Use Disorder (SUD). A discriminant function analysis revealed…
Sinakhone, Joyce K; Hunter, Bronwyn A; Jason, Leonard A
Women in metropolitan areas have lower employment participation and employment rates than men. Although women face multiple challenges in the labor market, those who have a history of substance use and are abstinent may have a greater disadvantage in obtaining viable employment opportunities due to factors associated with substance use. No research to date has examined employment experiences among women in recovery from substance use. This study examined employment characteristics and experiences of women who had a history of substance use and lived in sober-living environments in urban areas. Data were collected through telephone interviews to sober living homes that were located in 20 urban areas. Themes identified through thematic analysis included employment challenges, the importance of work to substance abuse recovery, job satisfaction, employment aspirations, and employment support in the sober living home. Employment is important to women in substance abuse recovery, not only as a means for financial support, but also as a life priority. The results highlight how employer scheduling practices, low-level positions, and lack of employment supports impact recovery. Findings provide insight into the need for employment support services, including employer education and flexible policies for women in recovery.
West, Margaret Mary
To investigate early risk factors that led to substance-related disorders and to predict group differences between substance-impaired (SI) and nonimpaired (NI) registered nurses. Donovan's multifactorial model of impairment, and Rogers' Science of Unitary Human Beings. Data were gathered from 100 previously SI and 100 NI nurses located through use of the Internet. Three questionnaires were used: the Zuckerman Sensation Seeking Scale (ZSSS), the Efinger Alcohol Risk Survey (EARS), and the Children of Alcoholics Screening Test (CAST). Independent t-test scores showed the two groups differed significantly on all three instruments' total scores. Discriminate analysis indicated a correct prediction of 87% for SI and 95% for NI nurses, with an overall rate of 91%. EARS scores were the best predictor of nurses with substance-related disorders (.99), followed by ZSSS (.44) and CAST (.42) scores. The three variables indicate early risk factors for substance-abuse impairment. Identification of nurses at risk for impairment will allow for earlier intervention and possible prevention. Methods to reduce the number of modifiable risk factors are recommended.
Zuleta-Alarcón, Alix; Coffman, John C; Soghomonyan, Suren; Papadimos, Thomas J; Bergese, Sergio D; Moran, Kenneth R
The objective of this narrative review is to provide an overview of the problem of non-opioid anesthetic drug abuse among anesthesia care providers (ACPs) and to describe current approaches to screening, therapy, and rehabilitation of ACPs suffering from non-opioid anesthetic drug abuse. We first performed a search of all literature available on PubMed prior to April 11, 2016. The search was limited to articles published in Spanish and English, and the following key words were used: anesthesiology, anesthesia personnel, AND substance-related disorders. We also searched Ovid MEDLINE® databases from 1946-April 11, 2016 using the following search terms: anesthesiology OR anesthesia, OR nurse anesthetist OR anesthesia care provider OR perioperative nursing AND substance-related disorders. Despite an increased awareness of drug abuse among ACPs and improvements in preventive measures, the problem of non-opioid anesthetic drug abuse remains significant. While opioids are the most commonly abused anesthesia medications among ACPs, the abuse of non-opioid anesthetics is a significant cause of morbidity, mortality, and professional demise. Early detection, effective therapy, and long-term follow-up help ACPs cope more effectively with the problem and, when possible, resume their professional activities. There is insufficient evidence to determine the ability of ACPs to return safely to anesthesia practice after rehabilitation, though awareness of the issue and ongoing treatment are necessary to minimize patient risk from potentially related clinical errors.
Myra Siv Merete
Full Text Available BACKGROUND – Use of coercion against pregnant women who misuse substances was legalised in Norway in 1996. The background for the law was that substance abuse during pregnancy represents a significant health problem for the child.
Geary, Franklyn H; Turnquest Wells, Mureena A
The drug abusing patient can provide a management dilemma for health care providers including nurses, obstetrician, anesthesiologist, and pediatrician. Certain illicit drugs may mimic other diseases of pregnancy and result in inappropriate treatment for the mother and child. Pain management may be challenging in such patients because of increasing drug tolerance and increased sensitivity to pain. This article highlights the clinical presentation in a pregnant patient who may have recently used some of the more commonly abused drugs. The ability to identify such a patient is crucial so that the appropriate screening and treatment can occur.
Lefebvre, Lisa; Midmer, Deana; Boyd, Jennifer Anne; Ordean, Alice; Graves, Lisa; Kahan, Meldon; Pantea, Lydia
To assess participant perception of an integrated model of care for substance abuse in pregnancy. Focus groups were employed for this qualitative study. Two Family Medicine Units, 1 in Toronto and 1 in Montreal, where integrated care for licit and illicit substance abuse in pregnancy is provided by a team of doctors, nurses, nurse practitioners, and social workers. Women who had received addiction and prenatal care at 1 of the 2 sites. Women were asked to discuss their experiences of care in focus groups. Five central themes emerged: judgment, physician-patient communication, team communication, support groups, and self-responsibility. Women felt more comfortable with provider teams that shared a consistent nonjudgmental attitude.
Gustavo Manoel Schier Dória
Full Text Available Objective: to determine the incidence and associations of attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, conduct disorder (CD, and substance abuse disorder (SAD in adolescents in conflict with the law in a Brazilian cohort. Methods: the Brazilian version of the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School Aged-Children (K-SADS-PL was administered to 69 adolescent boys who were incarcerated for 45 days in the city of Curitiba, Brazil. Results: mean age was 15.5 years (range, 12-16.9 years and most adolescents originated from disadvantaged social classes (87%. They resided in neighborhoods on the outskirts of the city or towns in the greater metropolitan area. Truancy and low educational achievement were common, with 73.9% not currently attending school and 43.4% not having finished the 5th grade. The great majority lived in single-parent families and many had relatives who themselves had problems with the law. Psychiatric disorders were apparent in 81.1% of the subjects, with the most common disorders being CD (59.4%, SAD (53.6%, and ADHD (43.5%. Both ADHD (p <0.001 and CD (p <0.01 had significant associations with substance abuse. Conclusion: in male adolescents in conflict with the law, ADHD, CD, and SAD were all found to be associated with delinquency.
Goldberg, J F
Alcohol and drug abuse occur frequently in individuals with bipolar disorder, but clinicians may often feel ill-prepared to identify such multi-diagnosis syndromes, to contextualize drug abuse alongside affective symptoms, and to formulate appropriate treatment strategies. Plausible explanations for high comorbidity rates between bipolar illness and substance use disorders are complex and likely embrace numerous factors that extend beyond simple, older theories about drug use as sheer "self-medication." Evidence from epidemiologic, family-genetic, pharmacologic, psychosocial, and clinical psychopathology studies suggest that a majority of bipolar patients are at risk for developing lifetime drug or alcohol-related problems, which may in turn contribute to more varied and complex clinical presentations, accelerated relapses, worsening of depressive features, poorer lithium response, functional disability, and elevated suicide risk. In this article, the author reviews essential concepts about the phenomenology and treatment outcome of bipolar illness with substance use comorbidities and offers a systematic approach to the diagnosis and management of patients with such dual diagnoses.
Sanchez, Rebecca Polley; Bartel, Chelsea M
The purpose of this study was to test the feasibility and acceptability of a novel online adolescent substance abuse relapse prevention tool, "Arise" (3C Institute, Cary, NC). The program uses an innovative platform including interactive instructional segments and skill-building games to help adolescents learn and practice coping skills training strategies. We conducted a pilot test with nine adolescents in substance abuse treatment (44 percent female) and a feasibility test with treatment providers (n=8; 50 percent female). Adolescents interacted with the program via a secure Web site for approximately 30 minutes for each of two instructional units. Treatment providers reviewed the same material at their own pace. All participants completed a questionnaire with items assessing usability, acceptability, understanding, and subjective experience of the program. Regarding feasibility, recruitment of this population within the study constraints proved challenging, but participant retention in the trial was high (no attrition). Adolescents and treatment providers completed the program with no reported problems, and overall we were able to collect data as planned. Regarding acceptability, the program received strong ratings from both adolescents and providers, who found the prototype informative, engaging, and appealing. Both groups strongly recommended continuing development. We were able to deliver the intervention as intended, and acceptability ratings were high, demonstrating the feasibility and acceptability of online delivery of engaging interactive interventions. This study contributes to our understanding of how interactive technologies, including games, can be used to modify behavior in substance abuse treatment and other health areas.
Vitaro, F; Rorive, M; Zoccolillo, M; Romano, E; Tremblay, R E
This article examines coocurrence of three types of problems of adaptation during adolescence : abuse of psychotropic drugs, behavioral disorder (oppositional and behavioral disorders) and feelings of depression (depression and dysthymia). The study also examines behavioral, social as well as family characteristics which, during childhood, distinguish youths with many adaptation problems from those with only one or no problem. More than 1600 youths from all regions of Quebec participated in the study. These youths were around 15,7 years old when they completed an interview aiming at determining the possible presence of abusive use of psychotropic drugs, behavioral problems and feelings of depression. Their behavioral and sociofamilial characteristics had been previously evaluated (between the ages of 6 and 12) with questionnaires answered by parents and teachers. Results reveal that almost 10 % of youths experience two or three adaptation problems. These youths distinguish themselves from those with only one problem on various personal and sociofamilial dimensions in the course of childhood. Those with one problem represent a little more than 25 % of the sample. They also distinguish themselves from the group of youth with no problem on several variables. However, the group of youths with a problem of substance abuse only, is an exception. The discussion underlines the importance of knowing if there is simultaneous presence of several problems and proposes to intervene in a preventive fashion with youths who risk experiencing many problems.
Nielsen, S M; Toftdahl, N G; Nordentoft, M
increases the risk of developing schizophrenia, addressing some of these limitations. METHOD: The longitudinal, nationwide Danish registers were linked to establish a cohort of 3 133 968 individuals (105 178 673 person-years at risk), identifying 204 505 individuals diagnosed with substance abuse and 21 305...... analyses, and adjusted for calendar year, gender, urbanicity, co-abuse, other psychiatric diagnosis, parental substance abuse, psychiatric history, immigration and socioeconomic status. RESULTS: A diagnosis of substance abuse increased the overall risk of developing schizophrenia [hazard ratio (HR) 6...... increased the risk significantly. The risk was found to be significant even 10-15 years subsequent to a diagnosis of substance abuse. CONCLUSION: Our results illustrate robust associations between almost any type of substance abuse and an increased risk of developing schizophrenia later in life....
Chan, Lai Fong; Maniam, T; Saini, Suriati Mohamed; Shah, Shamsul Azhar; Loh, Sit Fong; Sinniah, Aishvarya; Idris, Zawaha Haji; Che Rus, Sulaiman; Hassan Nudin, Siti Sa'adiah; Tan, Susan Mooi Koon
The aim of this study was to determine the association between sexual abuse, substance abuse and socio-demographic factors with suicidal ideation (SI), plans (SP) and deliberate self-harm (DSH) and propose steps to prevent youth suicidal behavior. This was a cross-sectional study of 6786 adolescents aged 17-18 years, selected randomly from all Malaysian adolescents to undergo compulsory youth camps located in Selangor, Malaysia (2008-2009). Participants were assessed using self-administered questionnaires developed to reflect the local cultural setting. However, only 4581 subjects were analyzed after excluding incomplete data. The rates of SI, SP and DSH were 7.6%, 3.2% and 6.3%, respectively. The multivariable-adjusted odds ratio showed that sexual abuse was associated with SI 1.99 (95% CI: 1.56-2.55), SP 1.57 (95% CI: 1.09-2.27) and DSH 2.26 (95% CI: 1.75-2.94); illicit drug use was associated with SI 4.05 (95% CI: 2.14-7.67), SP 2.62 (95% CI: 1.05-6.53) and DSH 2.06, (95% CI: 1.05-4.04); for alcohol use DSH was 1.34 (95% CI: 1.00-1.79). Being female was associated with all suicidal behaviors: SI 2.51 (95% CI: 1.91-3.30), SP 2.07 (95% CI: 1.39-3.08) and DSH 1.59 (95% CI: 1.19-2.11). Given the well-founded concern of increasing risk of suicidal behavior among youth, preventive efforts should adopt a more comprehensive approach in dealing with sexual abuse and substance abuse, and their sequelae, especially in girls. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Hjerkinn, Bjørg; Lindbaek, Morten; Skogmo, Idar; Rosvold, Elin Olaug
Exposure to alcohol and illicit substances during pregnancy can have an impact on the child for the rest of his/her life. A Special Child Welfare Clinic (SCWC) in Norway provides care for pregnant women with substance abuse problems. Treatment and support are provided without replacement therapy. We performed a neuropsychological screening of 40 children aged four to 11 years whose mothers had attended the SCWC during pregnancy, and of a comparison group of 80 children of women without substance abuse problems. The children were presented with tests chosen from Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, third version (WISC-III), Nepsy, Halstead-Reitan and Raven's Progressive Matrices, Coloured Version. The tests were grouped into five main domains; (1) learning and memory, (2) visual scanning, planning and attention, (3) executive function, (4) visuo-motor speed and dexterity and (5) general intellectual ability No children in the study had test results in the clinical range in any domain. Bivariate analyses revealed that children of short-term substance-abusing mothers (who stopped substance abuse within the first trimester) had significantly lower test scores than the comparison group in three out of five domains (domain 2,3,4). Children of long-term substance abusers (who maintained moderate substance abuse throughout pregnancy) had significantly lower test results than the comparison group in one domain of the test results (domain 1). All but one child in the long-term group were or had been in foster homes. Most children in the short-term group stayed with their mothers. Multivariate regression analyses revealed that foster care minimum 50% of life time was associated with better scores on domains (1) learning and memory, (2) visual scanning, planning and attention, and (3) executive functions, while no significant associations with test scores was found for substance abuse and birth before 38 weeks of gestation. Children raised by former substance abusing
Full Text Available Abstract Background Exposure to alcohol and illicit substances during pregnancy can have an impact on the child for the rest of his/her life. A Special Child Welfare Clinic (SCWC in Norway provides care for pregnant women with substance abuse problems. Treatment and support are provided without replacement therapy. Methods We performed a neuropsychological screening of 40 children aged four to 11 years whose mothers had attended the SCWC during pregnancy, and of a comparison group of 80 children of women without substance abuse problems. The children were presented with tests chosen from Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, third version (WISC-III, Nepsy, Halstead-Reitan and Raven's Progressive Matrices, Coloured Version. The tests were grouped into five main domains; (1 learning and memory, (2 visual scanning, planning and attention, (3 executive function, (4 visuo-motor speed and dexterity and (5 general intellectual ability Results No children in the study had test results in the clinical range in any domain. Bivariate analyses revealed that children of short-term substance-abusing mothers (who stopped substance abuse within the first trimester had significantly lower test scores than the comparison group in three out of five domains (domain 2,3,4. Children of long-term substance abusers (who maintained moderate substance abuse throughout pregnancy had significantly lower test results than the comparison group in one domain of the test results (domain 1. All but one child in the long-term group were or had been in foster homes. Most children in the short-term group stayed with their mothers. Multivariate regression analyses revealed that foster care minimum 50% of life time was associated with better scores on domains (1 learning and memory, (2 visual scanning, planning and attention, and (3 executive functions, while no significant associations with test scores was found for substance abuse and birth before 38 weeks of gestation
Nuttbrock, Larry; Bockting, Walter; Rosenblum, Andrew; Hwahng, Sel; Mason, Mona; Macri, Monica; Becker, Jeffrey
We examined the effects of gender abuse (enacted stigma), depressive symptoms, and demographic, economic, and lifestyle factors on substance use among transgender women. We conducted a 3-year prospective study (December 2004 to September 2007) of 230 transgender women aged 19 to 59 years from the New York Metropolitan Area. Statistical techniques included generalized estimating equations with logistic and linear regression links. Six-month prevalence of any substance use at baseline was 76.2%. Across assessment points, gender abuse was associated with alcohol, cannabis, cocaine, or any substance use during the previous 6 months, the number of days these substances were used during the previous month, and the number of substances used. Additional modeling associated changes in gender abuse with changes in substance use across time. Associations of gender abuse and substance use were mediated 55% by depressive symptoms. Positive associations of employment income, sex work, transgender identity, and hormone therapy with substance use were mediated 19% to 42% by gender abuse. Gender abuse, in conjunction with depressive symptoms, is a pervasive and moderately strong risk factor for substance use among transgender women. Improved substance abuse treatment is sorely needed for this population.
Mears, Cynthia J; Knight, John R
Disturbingly high levels of illicit drug use remain a problem among American teenagers. As the physical, social, and psychological "home away from home" for most youth, schools naturally assume a primary role in substance abuse education, prevention, and early identification. However, the use of random drug testing on students as a component of drug prevention programs requires additional, more rigorous scientific evaluation. Widespread implementation should await the result of ongoing studies to address the effectiveness of testing and evaluate possible inadvertent harm. If drug testing on students is conducted, it should never be implemented in isolation. A comprehensive assessment and therapeutic management program for the student who tests positive should be in place before any testing is performed. Schools have the opportunity to work with parents, health care professionals, and community officials to use programs with proven effectiveness, to identify students who show behavioral risks for drug-related problems, and to make referrals to a student's medical home. When use of an illicit substance is detected, schools can foster relationships with established health care experts to assist them. A student undergoing individualized intervention for using illicit substances merits privacy. This requires that awareness of the student's situation be limited to parents, the student's physician, and only those designated school health officials with a need to know. For the purposes of this statement, alcohol, tobacco, and inhalants are not addressed.
Durvasula, Ramani; Miller, Theodore R
Clinical management of HIV must account for the "triple diagnosis" of HIV, psychiatric diagnosis, and substance use disorders and requires integrated treatment services that focus beyond just mitigation of substance use and psychiatric and medical symptoms but also address other health behaviors. Because clinical management of HIV/AIDS has shifted significantly with the advent of highly active antiretroviral therapies (HAART) in the mid 1990s, a literature review focusing on literature published since 2000, and using relevant key words was conducted using a wide range of literature search databases. This literature review was complemented by studies to expand on specific treatment modalities for which there was a dearth of literature addressing HIV infected cohorts and to provide discussion of issues around substance abuse treatment as an HIV prevention tool. Existing models of substance abuse treatment including cognitive behavioral therapy and motivational interviewing have proven to be useful for enhancing adherence and reducing substance use in outpatient populations, while methadone maintenance and directly observed treatment have been useful with specific subgroups of users. Contextualization of services heightens the likelihood of successful outcomes and relapse prevention.
Campbell-Heider, Nancy; Baird, Carolyn
Many nurses, especially those in addictions, work directly in the prison system and or relate to inmates before or after institutionalization for criminal activity. This connection led to the theme of the 2009 Annual Education Conference held in Albuquerque, New Mexico, entitled "Substance Abuse Prevention and Treatment: Working with the Criminal Justice Systems." The conference was partially funded through an award from the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA), Center for Substance Abuse Prevention (grant # SP015963) and focused on identifying the special risk factors for and barriers to the treatment of addictions for those who enter the criminal justice system. The conference, presented in collaboration with the American Association of Nurse Attorneys (AANA) highlighted the tremendous need for more access to addictions and mental health providers in the criminal justice system. Papers presented at that conference confirmed that nurses can make a real difference in the health of inmates, especially those of us engaged in addictions and mental health practices, and inspired this specially focused edition of the Journal of Addictions Nursing. The purpose of this editorial is to provide an overview of the addictions problems affecting individuals under supervision in the criminal justice system, barriers to treatment within this system, and the cost-benefits of evidence based treatment.
Copur, Mazlum; Turkcan, Ahmet; Erdogmus, Meral
The purpose of the present study was to determine the rate of substance abuse in the juvenile detention house and to determine the relationship between crime and substance abuse and conduct disorder. Two hundred and thirty cases in the biggest juvenile detention house in Istanbul, Turkey were assessed according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th edn; DSM-IV) criteria. Law files and data of crime were examined. A total of 80 out of 230 juvenile detainees (34.8%) were found to have substance abuse excluding nicotine and alcohol. The substances abused in preferential order were cannabis (72.5%), volatile substances (21.3% bally and 3.7% thinner; 25%) and sedative hypnotic drugs and biperidents (2.5%). The rate of conduct disorder was 46.3% in substance abusers and 25.3% in the others (odds ratio: 2.536). The rate of substance abuse was 48.5% in the juveniles who had committed multiple crimes and 14.1% in the others (odds ratio: 5.735). The study shows that conduct disorder was very high in juvenile detainees. Conduct disorder was higher in substance-abusing than in non-abusing juvenile detainees. Substance-abusing juvenile detainees were found to have a higher detention rate than non-abusing juvenile detainees. There was a close relation between conduct disorder and substance abuse and multiple crimes. In the light of these results, diagnosis and treatment for conduct disorder in juvenile detainees are of great importance.
Tross, Susan; Feaster, Daniel J; Thorens, Gabriel; Duan, Rui; Gomez, Zoilyn; Pavlicova, Martina; Hu, Mei Chen; Kyle, Tiffany; Erickson, Sarah; Spector, Anya; Haynes, Louise; Metsch, Lisa R
The NIDA Clinical Trials Network trial of rapid HIV testing/counseling in 1281 patients was a unique opportunity to examine relationships among substance use, depressive symptoms, and sex risk behavior. Past 6-month substance use; substance use severity (Drug Abuse Screening Test - 10); depressive symptoms (Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology); and three types of sex risk behavior (unprotected sex occasions [USOs] with primary partners; USOs with nonprimary partners; and USOs while high/drunk) were assessed. Zero-inflated negative binomial analyses provided: probability and rate of sex risk behavior (in risk behavior subsample). Levels of sexual risk behavior were high, while variable across the three types of sex risk behaviors. Among the patients, 50.4% had engaged in USOs with primary partners, 42% in sex while drunk or high, and 23.8% in USOs with nonprimary partners. Similar factors were significantly associated with all three types of sex risk behaviors. For all types, problem drinking, cocaine use, and substance use severity had an exacerbating effect. Older age was associated with lower risk behavior; other relationship categories (eg, married, separated/divorced, cohabitating) were associated with greater risk behavior than was single status. Depressive symptoms were associated with decreased likelihood of USOs with a primary partner. Sexual risk behavior is common among individuals in outpatient substance abuse treatment. Results highlight problem drinking (eg, up to three-fold) and cocaine (eg, up to twice) in increasing sex risk behavior. They demonstrate the utility of distinguishing between partner types and presence/absence of alcohol/drugs during sex. Findings argue for the need to integrate sex risk reduction into drug treatment.
Gallucci, Nicholas T.
The contributions of specific scales of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-Adolescent (MMPI-A) to the classification of 180 adolescent substance abusers into groups characterized by aspects of behavioral control were studied. Seven scales made significant contributions to the classification of substance abusers into three groups, with…
West, Paul L.; Hamm, Terri
Data from 57 clinical supervisors in licensed substance abuse treatment programs indicate that 28% had completed formal graduate course work in clinical supervision and 33% were professionally licensed or certified. Findings raise concerns about the scope and quality of clinical supervision available to substance abuse counselors. (Contains 3…
This article examines the unique ethical considerations for the provision of family therapy as substance abuse treatment. Use of family therapy as substance abuse treatment has grown rapidly, but the ethical codes that guide clinical practice have not kept pace. Ethical pitfalls specific to family counseling within alcohol and drug treatment…
Ong, Lee Za; Lee, Dal-Yob; Cha, Grace; Arokiasamy, Charles
One hundred rehabilitation counselors in California reported that about 90% of consumers with whom they worked with had substance abuse and cooccurring issues, yet about half rated their graduate training in substance abuse treatment and assessment as poor and their practices as marginally proficient. The correlation analysis revealed that…
Glassmire, David M.; Welsh, Robert K.; Clevenger, Jeanne K.
The Substance Abuse and Mental Illness (SAMI) program combines cognitive rehabilitation and dual-diagnosis substance abuse treatment within a stages of change context. This article describes the development, implementation, and preliminary outcome analysis of the SAMI program in a forensic hospital.
VanDeMark, Nancy R.; Russell, Lisa A.; O'Keefe, Maura; Finkelstein, Norma; Noether, Chanson D.; Gampel, Joanne C.
Children exposed to parental substance abuse, mental illness, and violence face profound challenges, including increased risk for emotional and behavioral problems, substance abuse, and victimization. In this article, we describe the characteristics of a sample of children of women entering treatment. These children had been exposed to domestic…
Columbia Univ., New York, NY. National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse.
The National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuses surveys have consistently found that the family is fundamental to keeping children away from tobacco, alcohol and illegal drugs. This 2002 survey keeps the focus on family and seeks to assess the impact of siblings on the likelihood of teen substance abuse. This year 1,000 teens ages 12 to 17…
Stice, Eric; Presnell, Katherine; Bearman, Sarah Kate
Used interview data from a community study to test whether early menarche partially accounts for increased depression, eating pathology, substance abuse, and comorbid psychopathology among adolescent girls. Found that menarche prior to 11.6 years related to elevated depression and substance abuse. Findings support assertion that early menarche is…
Substance abuse co-morbidity with psychiatric disorders is common and has been widely reported, except in Kenya. This study aimed to determine the prevalence, pattern and socio-economic burden of a dual diagnosis of substance abuse disorder and other psychiatric conditions. This was a cross-sectional descriptive ...
Toriello, Paul J.; Leierer, Stephen J.
In this study, the authors examined the relationship between the clinical orientations of substance abuse professionals (SAPs) and their clinical decisions. Cluster analysis grouped a sample of 245 SAPs on two clinical orientations that differed in their relative endorsement of traditional versus contemporary substance abuse counseling processes…
Murphy, Anne P.; Ponterotto, Joseph G.; Cancelli, Anthony A.; Chinitz, Susan P.
The purpose of this grounded theory (Strauss & Corbin, 1998) study was to explore the experiences of racially and culturally diverse young mothers whose own mothers abused substances two decades ago when substance abuse peaked in inner city, urban neighborhoods in the United States and to identify the factors that have influenced how they parent…
Bial, Martha C.; Gutheil, Irene A.; Hanson, Meredith; White-Ryan, Linda
This article reports on a project to sensitize graduate social work students taking courses in substance abuse to the needs of older adults. Graduate social work students at a major urban school of social work in the Northeast were recruited and trained to interview older adults with a history of substance abuse problems regarding their life…
... substance abuse professionals. 120.223 Section 120.223 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... misuse information, training, and substance abuse professionals. (a) Employer obligation to promulgate a... authority independent of this subpart. Any such additional policies or consequences must be clearly and...
... the Mandatory Guidelines for Federal Workplace Drug Testing Programs. Therefore, this meeting is... Administration Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to Public Law 92-463, notice is... Substance Abuse Prevention (CSAP) Drug Testing Advisory Board (DTAB) will meet on August 27 and 28, 2012...
Substance abuse and criminality are critical problems in South Africa, yet little is understood about youth resilience. Through narrative analysis, this study sought to gain an understanding of resilience in eight men who have disengaged from criminality and substance abuse. Childhood difficulties, ineffective parenting, ...
Besinger, Bridgett A.; Garland, Ann F.; Litrownik, Alan J.; Landsverk, John A.
Reviewed child protective services' case records of 639 children placed in out-of-home care due to maltreatment, and systematically evaluated substance abuse by the child's parents or guardian prior to placement. Found that 79% of caregivers met criteria for caregiver substance abuse (CSA); children with and without CSA differed in age, ethnicity,…
Martel, Michelle M.; Pierce, Laura; Nigg, Joel T.; Jester, Jennifer M.; Adams, Kenneth; Puttler, Leon I.; Buu, Anne; Fitzgerald, Hiram; Zucker, Robert A.
Temperament traits may increase risk for developmental psychopathology like Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and disruptive behaviors during childhood, as well as predisposing to substance abuse during adolescence. In the current study, a cascade model of trait pathways to adolescent substance abuse was examined. Component…
... research will evaluate the effectiveness of the Online Skills Training for PCPs on Substance Abuse, via the... clinical skills of primary care physicians in the US who treat substance abuse patients. The Online Skills... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND...
Jester, Jennifer M.; Nigg, Joel T.; Buu, Anne; Puttler, Leon I.; Glass, Jennifer M.; Heitzeg, Mary M.; Fitzgerald, Hiram E.; Zucker, Robert A.
335 children of alcoholic and nonalcoholic fathers were examined to study the relation between childhood behavior trajectories and adolescent substance abuse. Findings suggested that children with both aggression and inattention/hyperactivity were at an increased risk of substance abuse when compared to children with only inattention/hyperactivity…
Lynch, Wendy J; Nicholson, Katherine L; Dance, Mario E; Morgan, Richard W; Foley, Patricia L
Substance abuse and addiction are well recognized public health concerns, with 2 NIH institutes (the National Institute on Drug Abuse and the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism) specifically targeting this societal problem. As such, this is an important area of research for which animal experiments play a critical role. This overview presents the importance of substance abuse and addiction in society; reviews the development and refinement of animal models that address crucial areas of biology, pathophysiology, clinical treatments, and drug screening for abuse liability; and discusses some of the unique veterinary, husbandry, and IACUC challenges associated with these models.
Melnick, Gerald; Duncan, Alexandra; Thompson, Azure; Wexler, Harry K; Chaple, Michael; Cleland, Charles M
This study examined engagement in treatment in substance abuse treatment programs that treated primarily either African American or White clients. Findings showed higher levels of engagement in White programs; however, engagement of African Americans in White programs was similar to that of Whites and was greater than Whites in African American programs. No significant differences emerged when a mixed model analysis considered additional variables of staff consensus (regarding treatment elements), treatment climate, acceptance of Medicaid clients, the proportion mandated to treatment, and the quality of the physical space. Although African American programs may show poorer levels of engagement than White programs, attribution of engagement in treatment to client level race/ethnicity should be made with caution.
Ogle, Richard L; Baer, John S
Two personalized substance abuse assessment and feedback interventions were tested for effectiveness in engaging female domestic violence shelter residents in substance abuse treatment. One hundred forty-seven residents were assessed for quantity andfrequency of substance use, negative consequences due to use, motivation to change substance use behavior, and psychopathological symptoms related to substance abuse. Assessment identified (33) 22% of participants as heavy substance users. Twenty of the 33 heavy-using residents received one of two personalized substance use feedback interventions:face-to-face feedback or writtenfeedbackplaced in shelter mailboxes. Treatment engagement was defined as attending at least one substance abuse treatment session within 30 days after the intervention. Results showed a significant difference in treatment engagement rates in favor of the face-to-face feedback group (60% vs. 0%). The results provide preliminary data suggesting that substance abuse assessment can be effectively accomplished in the shelter environment and that the face-to-face feedback procedure may be an effective intervention to bridge the service linkage problem between domestic violence services and substance abuse treatment.
Richter Kimber P
Full Text Available Abstract Most persons in drug treatment smoke cigarettes. Until drug treatment facilities systematically treat their patients' tobacco use, millions will flow through the drug treatment system, overcome their primary drug of abuse, but die prematurely from tobacco-related illnesses. This paper reviews the literature on the health benefits of quitting smoking for drug treatment patients, whether smoking causes relapse to other drug or alcohol abuse, the treatment of tobacco dependence, and good and bad times for quitting smoking among drug treatment patients. It also presents a conceptual model and recommendations for treating tobacco in substance abuse treatment, and provides references to internet and paper-copy tools and information for treating tobacco dependence. At present, research on tobacco treatment in drug treatment is in its infancy. Although few drug treatment programs currently offer formal services, many more will likely begin to treat nicotine dependence as external forces and patient demand for these services increases. In the absence of clear guidelines and attention to quality of care, drug treatment programs may adopt smoking cessation services based on cost, convenience, or selection criteria other than efficacy. Because research in this field is relatively new, substance abuse treatment professionals should adhere to the standards of care for the general population, but be prepared to update their practices with emerging interventions that have proven to be effective for patients in drug treatment.
Monroe, Todd; Kenaga, Heidi
The purpose of this manuscript is to illustrate the challenges faced by nurses who abuse substances and to promote international dialogue about what practitioners, administrators, health care providers and students can do when they suspect someone in the profession is abusing substances, or they may themselves be suffering from addiction. Addiction among nurses has been recognised by professionals in the field for over 100 years, and current estimates place rates of substance misuse, abuse and addiction rates as high as 20% among practicing nurses. Unfortunately, fear of punishment and discipline may keep nurses or students from asking for help for themselves or from reporting a colleague or friend who is in need of help. Discursive paper. This paper synthesises the results of three previous papers conducted on substance abuse policies in the nursing profession. In the first paper, the authors reviewed the history of addiction in nursing and compared disciplinary and alternative-to-discipline policies. The second focused on the development of an alternative-to-dismissal policy for substance abuse in a school of nursing and using telephone and email interviews, and the final paper reported findings of what types of policies seem to be working to retain and rehabilitate nurses who suffer from addiction in the USA. Lastly, this paper introduces international policy for nurses with addictions. Poor or ineffective policies that mandate punitive action endanger the public by making it difficult for impaired students or professionals to ask for help. Providing early intervention and assistance is essential in helping colleagues and students recover from an addictive disorder and providing a non-punitive atmosphere of support may well be a life-saving first step for nurses and those in their care. Many territories and countries throughout the world now offer confidential, non-punitive, assistance for nurses suffering from addictions. Recognition of a colleague's need of
McClure, Erin A; Acquavita, Shauna P; Harding, Emily; Stitzer, Maxine L
Technology-based applications represent a promising method for providing efficacious, widely available interventions to substance abuse treatment patients. However, limited access to communication technology (i.e., mobile phones, computers, internet, and e-mail) could significantly impact the feasibility of these efforts, and little is known regarding technology utilization in substance abusing populations. A survey was conducted to characterize utilization of communication technology in 266 urban, substance abuse treatment patients enrolled at eight drug-free, psychosocial or opioid-replacement therapy clinics. Survey participants averaged 41 years of age and 57% had a yearly household income of less than $15,000. The vast majority reported access to a mobile phone (91%), and to SMS text messaging (79%). Keeping a consistent mobile phone number and yearly mobile contract was higher for White participants, and also for those with higher education, and enrolled in drug-free, psychosocial treatment. Internet, e-mail, and computer use was much lower (39-45%), with younger age, higher education and income predicting greater use. No such differences existed for the use of mobile phones however. Concern regarding the digital divide for marginalized populations appears to be disappearing with respect to mobile phones, but still exists for computer, internet, and e-mail access and use. Results suggest that mobile phone and texting applications may be feasibly applied for use in program-client interactions in substance abuse treatment. Careful consideration should be given to frequent phone number changes, access to technology, and motivation to engage with communication technology for treatment purposes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Reid, Sandra D; Downes, Erica; Khenti, Akwatu
Substance abuse is a significant public health challenge in the Caribbean. It is important that health and allied professionals be adequately trained in this field. The Caribbean Institute on Alcoholism and other Drug Problems (CARIAD) was established to provide new knowledge and share successful best practices in substance abuse in the Caribbean. CARIAD brings together diverse participants from throughout the region in a structured community of practice and emphasizes local knowledge formation. This paper evaluates the acceptability and perceived impact of CARIAD to/on participants. The authors analyzed anonymous written evaluations of 458 CARIAD participants completed immediately after the program in 2003-2012. Questionnaires collected quantitative data on the acceptability of the program in meeting the learning needs of participants. Perception of program acceptability and impact on the participant were also obtained from descriptive content analysis of qualitative data obtained through open-ended questions. A 2013 online follow-up survey collected data about the utilization and dissemination of knowledge acquired at CARIAD from 141 graduates of the same period. Data analysis employed basic descriptive statistics and qualitative content analysis. Participant evaluation immediately following CARIAD showed a high level of satisfaction with the organization, structure, content, and usefulness of the program. Participants valued the program's cultural relevance and the opportunity for networking and collaboration. They expressed a collective solidarity, and empowerment to address substance abuse problems. Participants reported that CARIAD had impacted positively on their professional practice and facilitated knowledge transfer to colleagues and communities. CARIAD is perceived as an effective community of practice, producing a network of graduates who use the acquired knowledge, skills, and motivation to lead in the field of substance abuse in the Caribbean. This
To help in understanding the manner in which community, individual, and other factors in the United States and Mexico contribute to drug use among transnational migrants, this paper introduces a binational social ecology model of substance abuse in this population. We draw on our 2 NIH-funded ethnographic studies—1 on problem drinking and the other on drug abuse—among transnational Mexican workers in the mushroom industry of southeastern Pennsylvania. Our model demonstrates that major reasons for substance abuse among transnational migrants include nontraditional living arrangements in labor camps and overcrowded apartments, the absence of kin and community deterrents to drug use, social isolation, the presence of drug use and binge drinking subcultures, the availability of drugs, family history of drugs, previous drug use or witnessing of drug use in Mexico, and drug use norms and drug availability in Mexico. It suggests the need for US and Mexican researchers to collaborate in binational teams and address factors on both sides of the border. Our binational social ecology model, together with our research recommendations, will assist alcohol and drug researchers to discover how community and individual factors in both the United States and abroad fit and interact beyond mere association and provide a more comprehensive research approach to substance abuse research among transnational migrants. PMID:18237326
Martínez, Cristina; Guydish, Joseph; Le, Thao; Tajima, Barbara; Passalacqua, Emma
This study investigates factors predicting past year quit attempts among smokers enrolled in substance abuse treatment in New York State. Data were drawn from two prior cross-sectional surveys conducted among clients treated in 10 randomly selected substance abuse treatment programs. Among 820 clients recruited, 542 self-identified as current smokers, and 485 provided information about their quit attempts. The main outcome was reporting a quit smoking attempt in the past year, dichotomized as quit attempters or non-quit attempters. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to explore predictors of attempting to quit. Half of substance abuse clients in treatment programs reported a past year quit attempt. Quit attempters were more likely to be in a preparation and contemplation stage of change (preparation: OR=2.68, 95% CI: 1.51-4.77; contemplation: OR=2.96 95% CI: 1.61-5.42), reported more positive attitudes toward quitting (OR=1.49; 95% CI: 1.11-1.99) and received more cessation services than non-quit attempters (OR=1.21; 95% CI: 1.11-1.99). Addressing patient attitudes about quitting smoking, having clinicians address smoking in the course of addiction treatment, and offering interventions to increase readiness to quit may contribute to increased quit attempts in smokers enrolled in addiction treatment programs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Knudsen, Hannah K; Abraham, Amanda J
Little is known about the organizational and environmental factors associated with the employment of nurses in substance abuse treatment programs. Using data collected from the administrators of 250 publicly funded substance abuse treatment programs, this study examined the organizational and environmental correlates of nurse employment in these settings. Negative binomial regression models indicated that the number of nurses employed by treatment programs was positively associated with government ownership, location within a healthcare setting, and the availability of detoxification services. Outpatient-only programs employed fewer nurses than programs with inpatient/residential services. Two environmental factors were associated with nurse employment. Programs that more strongly endorsed a scale of financial barriers employed significantly fewer nurses, whereas programs indicating that funding from state contracts could be used to pay for healthcare providers employed significantly more nurses. These findings suggest that organizational decisions about employing nurses may reflect both the characteristics of the program and the funding environment. Future research should continue to examine the employment of nurses in substance abuse treatment settings, particularly given the shifting environment due to the implementation of healthcare reform.
Kelley, J L; Petry, N M
Antisocial personality disorder (ASP) is common in male substance abusers and may be associated with increased human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) risk behaviors. In this study, 91 male substance abusers were recruited from the community, and 42% met diagnostic criteria for ASP. Although ASP and non-ASP subjects demonstrated equivalent knowledge about HIV, subjects with ASP participated in more risky behaviors. On a lifetime measure of drug risk behaviors, ASP subjects reported higher rates of intravenous drug use (IVDU), frequency of needle-sharing, and number of equipment-sharing partners and lower rates of needle-cleaning. On a measure of past-month risk behaviors, ASP subjects reported higher rates of IVDU and lower rates of needle-cleaning. Subjects with ASP also reported greater participation in lifetime sexual risk behaviors, including number of sexual partners and frequency of anal sex. These findings suggest that clients entering substance abuse treatment programs should be screened for ASP, and clients identified with ASP should be provided risk-reduction interventions early in treatment.
Tenorio, Kimberly A; Lo, Celia C
In the United States, social stratification has generally led individuals occupying lower social locations to have more health problems than other individuals, even acknowledging that social groups are distinguished by their particular manifestations of health problems. This study examined whether two social integration factors, marriage and religiosity, mediate the relationship between social location and co-occurrence of substance abuse and psychological distress and the nature of this relationship. Multinomial logistic regression was conducted on data from a national sample of 34,650 adults mostly between the ages of 18 to 35, collected through the 2007 National Survey on Drug Use and Health. White males who were lesser educated and living in poverty were more likely to exhibit co-occuring substance abuse and psychological distress than their demographically similar counterparts. Additionally, being married and religious appeared to be protective factors within the overall study cohort with fewer co-occurring behaviors reported. The data generally confirm the hypothesis concerning mediating roles for religiosity and marriage. Confirmation that marriage and religiosity can protect adults against co-occurring substance abuse and psychological distress potentially provides the information necessary to better target health policy and interventions that serve to further enhance the population?s mental health.
Rasmussen, Hannah F; Borelli, Jessica L; Decoste, Cindy; Suchman, Nancy E
As a group, substance-abusing parents are at risk for maladaptive parenting. The association between substance abuse and parenting may result, in part, from parents' emotional disengagement from the parent-child relationship, which makes perceiving and responding to children's cues more challenging. In this study, we examined whether substance-abusing mothers' levels of disengagement from their relationship with their children (ages 2-44 months), operationalized in two different ways using parenting narratives (representational and linguistic disengagement), prospectively predicted children's engagement and disengagement cues during a structured mother-child interaction. Within a sample of 29 mothers, we tested the hypotheses that greater maternal disengagement at Time 1 would predict a decrease in children's engagement and an increase in children's disengagement at Time 2. Results indicated that representational disengagement predicted a decrease in children's engagement cues whereas linguistic disengagement predicted an increase in children's disengagement cues. Results provide partial support for a reciprocal, iterative process in which mothers and children mutually adjust their emotional and behavioral disengagement with one another. © 2016 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.
Santos Paulo Roberto
Full Text Available Abstract Background Several aspects linked to social are involved in the onset of depressive feelings. We aimed to find out if social adaptability and substance abuse predict depression among end-stage renal disease (ESRD patients undergoing hemodialysis (HD. Methods We included 145 ESRD patients undergoing HD. Social adaptability was estimated by the Social Adaptability Index (SAI. Substance abuse was defined according to SAI. We screened for depression by applying the 20-item version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. A score ≥ 24 classified the patients as depressed. Comparisons between depressed and non-depressed patients were carried out and logistic regression was performed to test gender, age, total SAI, SAI without the substance abuse item, only the substance abuse score and substance abuse as a categorical variable (yes/no as predictors of depression. Results There were 36 (24.8% depressed patients. There were no differences regarding demographic and laboratory data between the depressed and non-depressed patients. Mean SAI among depressed and non-depressed patients was, respectively, 6.1 ± 1.6 vs. 6.2 ± 1.9 (p=0.901. The percentage of patients with or without substance abuse among depressed patients was, respectively, 13.8% vs. 13.9% (p=1.000. Gender, age, total SAI, SAI without the substance abuse item, only the substance abuse score and substance abuse as a categorical variable did not predict depression. Conclusions Social adaptability and substance abuse did not predict depression in HD patients. We propose that aspects related to socioeconomic status not comprised in SAI items should be ruled out as predictors of depression.
Kraanen, Fleur L; Vedel, Ellen; Scholing, Agnes; Emmelkamp, Paul M G
Research has shown that treatments that solely addressed intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration were not very effective in reducing IPV, possibly due to neglecting individual differences between IPV perpetrators. A large proportion of IPV perpetrators is diagnosed with co-occurring substance use disorders and it has been demonstrated that successful treatment of alcohol dependence among alcohol dependent IPV perpetrators also led to less IPV. The current study investigated the relative effectiveness of Integrated treatment for Substance abuse and Partner violence (I-StoP) to cognitive behavioral treatment addressing substance use disorders including only one session addressing partner violence (CBT-SUD+) among patients in substance abuse treatment who repeatedly committed IPV. Substance use and IPV perpetration were primary outcome measures. Patients who entered substance abuse treatment were screened for IPV. Patients who disclosed at least 7 acts of physical IPV in the past year (N = 52) were randomly assigned to either I-StoP or CBT-SUD+. Patients in both conditions received 16 treatment sessions. Substance use and IPV perpetration were assessed at pretreatment, halfway treatment and posttreatment in blocks of 8 weeks. Both completers and intention-to-treat (ITT) analyses were performed. Patients (completers and ITT) in both conditions significantly improved regarding substance use and IPV perpetration at posttreatment compared with pretreatment. There were no differences in outcome between conditions. Completers in both conditions almost fully abstained from IPV in 8 weeks before the end of treatment. Both I-StoP and CBT-SUD+ were effective in reducing substance use and IPV perpetration among patients in substance abuse treatment who repeatedly committed IPV and self-disclosed IPV perpetration. Since it is more cost and time-effective to implement CBT-SUD+ than I-StoP, it is suggested to treat IPV perpetrators in substance abuse treatment with CBT-SUD+.
Frielink, N; Schuengel, C; Kroon, A; Embregts, P J C M
Despite a lack of consensus regarding prevalence rates of substance abuse, people with intellectual disabilities (ID) on average use substances slightly less often than their non-disabled peers. However, their use of substances is more often problematic. Avoidance of treatment is a crucial problem among substance-abusing people with ID. This study tested a motivational intervention to facilitate autonomous motivation (i.e. wanting to change substance abuse because of a sense of free choice and volition) for engaging with a subsequent addiction treatment. A multiple-case experimental design (N = 6) was conducted to measure day-to-day motivation to change substance abuse among individuals with mild ID (N = 3) and borderline level of intellectual functioning (N = 3) in the Netherlands. The participants (five men, one woman) lived in the community (except one, he lived in a residential facility) and abused cannabis, alcohol or hashish. During the intervention phase, the 10-session treatment programme 'Beat the kick' was delivered by an experienced psychologist, based on motivational interviewing techniques adapted for people with mild to borderline ID. Participants completed an adaptive self-reported inventory based on self-determination theory (SDT) two to three times a week during baseline, intervention and 1-month follow-up. The results of five of the six participants (one dropped out) showed that the type of motivation changed from more controlled types of motivation (i.e. external motivation and introjected motivation) at baseline to more autonomous types of motivation after completion of the intervention. In addition, the participants reported a significant increase in overall need satisfaction and autonomy satisfaction and a significant decrease of overall need frustration. The implementation of SDT and motivational interviewing principles in the treatment programme 'Beat the kick' reliably changed the type of motivation. In addition, the experimental effects
Murphy, Mary K; Chabon, Brenda; Delgado, Arelis; Newville, Howard; Nicolson, Stephen E
Approximately 25% of US hospital beds are occupied by individuals with active substance use disorders (SUD). Acute medical hospitalization provides an opportunity to address SUDs and provide patient-centered intervention and referral for treatment. Nationally, some hospitals have developed substance abuse consultation departments to improve the care of hospitalized substance users. In this paper we describe the Addiction Psychiatry Service (APS) in a large urban hospital which provides bed-side SUD consultation, screening, intervention and referral to treatment. APS utilizes the multiple disciplines of psychology, social work and medicine to integrate substance abuse services throughout the hospital and educate future generations of medical and psychology trainees. We conclude with how the APS service is informing the development of similar programs in other academic departments within our hospital and best practice recommendations to further disseminate this service model.
Scott, Melanie C; Easton, Caroline J
It is unclear whether racial differences in treatment effect exist for individuals in substance abuse and domestic violence programs. This study examined racial differences in treatment effect among substance dependent Caucasian and African-American male intimate partner violence (IPV) offenders court mandated to an integrated substance abuse and domestic violence treatment. From baseline to completion of treatment (week 12), 75 participants (39 Caucasian; 36 African-American) were assessed on demographics, substance use, legal characteristics, and use of violence (physical, verbal, and psychological). African-American men served more months incarcerated in their life than Caucasian men. Both groups showed decreases in their use of physical violence and alcohol abuse over treatment. Caucasian men also showed a decrease in their use of verbal abuse. At treatment completion, both groups showed a reduction in physical abuse and alcohol abuse. Caucasian men showed a reduction in their use of verbal abuse, but African-American men did not. Substance dependent African-American male IPV offenders may benefit from interventions that thoroughly target communication skills in addition to issues of substance abuse and IPV to reduce use of verbal abuse and improve treatment outcomes among African American men.
Banducci, Anne N; Hoffman, Elana; Lejuez, C W; Koenen, Karestan C
Adults with substance use disorders (SUDs) report higher rates of child abuse than adults without SUDs. Prior work suggests that this abuse is associated with higher rates of psychosis, posttraumatic stress disorder, physical health problems, alcohol dependence, and cannabis dependence among substance users. Little is known about other problems associated with child abuse experienced by substance users. We hypothesized that among adults with SUDs, child abuse would be associated with elevated rates of all Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM-IV-TR) psychiatric disorders, substance dependencies, and comorbidities assessed. We assessed 280 inpatients in substance use treatment with the Structured Clinical Interview for the DSM-IV-TR, the Diagnostic Instrument for Personality Disorders, and Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ). We used chi-square and regression analyses to establish whether rates of psychiatric disorders, substance dependencies, and comorbidities differed as a function of child abuse. Consistent with our hypotheses, higher scores on the CTQ were associated with elevated rates of psychiatric disorders (mood disorders, anxiety disorders, psychotic symptoms, and personality disorders) and substance dependencies (alcohol dependence and cocaine dependence). Moreover, higher rates of all comorbidity patterns (e.g. comorbid alcohol dependence and anxiety) were observed among individuals who reported experiencing child abuse. Across all substance dependencies examined, individuals who had been abused had significantly higher rates of all psychiatric disorders assessed. Individuals with substance use disorders who have been abused have particularly elevated rates of psychiatric and substance use disorders as a function of their abuse experiences. These findings have important treatment implications for individuals in residential substance use treatment settings. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Akinhanmi Akinwande O
Full Text Available Abstract Background Nigeria, the most populous country in Africa and the 8th most populous in the world with a population of over 154 million, does not have current data on substance abuse treatment demand and treatment facilities; however, the country has the highest one-year prevalence rate of Cannabis use (14.3% in Africa and ranks third in Africa with respect to the one-year prevalence rate of cocaine (0.7% and Opioids (0.7% use. This study aimed to determine the types, spread and characteristics of the substance abuse treatment centers in Nigeria. Methods The study was a cross sectional survey of substance abuse treatment centers in Nigeria. Thirty-one units were invited and participated in filling an online questionnaire, adapted from the European Treatment Unit/Program Form (June 1997 version. Results All the units completed the online questionnaire. A large proportion (48% was located in the South-West geopolitical zone of the country. Most (58% were run by Non-Governmental Organizations. Half of them performed internal or external evaluation of treatment process or outcome. There were a total of 1043 for all categories of paid and volunteer staff, with an average of 33 staff per unit. Most of the funding came from charitable donations (30%. No unit provided drug substitution/maintenance therapy. The units had a total residential capacity of 566 beds. New client admissions in the past one year totalled 765 (mean = 48, median = 26.5, min = 0, max = 147 and 2478 clients received services in the non-residential units in the past year. No unit provided syringe exchange services. Conclusions The study revealed a dearth of substance abuse treatment units (and of funds for the available ones in a country with a large population size and one of the highest prevalence rates of substance abuse in Africa. The available units were not networked and lacked a directory or an evaluation framework. To provide an environment for effective monitoring
Mathew, R J; Mathew, V G; Wilson, W H; Georgi, J M
A modified version of an instrument called the Mathew Materialism-Spiritualism Scale (MMSS), originally developed in India, was evaluated for possible use in substance abuse research in the U.S. The scale was administered to 62 individuals recovering from substance use, 20 clergy people and 61 general controls. Test-retest reliability for the MMSS was verified by administering it to 18 control subjects on two separate occasions, 7 days apart. The Pearson correlation for the MMSS total scores was 0.83 (p < .0001). Internal consistency was examined with Cronbach's alpha in the entire sample of 143 subjects; the result for the total score was .93. Factor analysis showed a factor structure compatible with the subscales proposed by the developer. Women, in general, obtained higher spirituality scores. Members of the recovering group obtained significantly higher scores on "character" and "mysticism" than the general controls. When general controls were divided into MAST positive and MAST negative individuals, the MAST positive group obtained lower scores than the recovering group for "God," "mysticism" and "character." MAST negative individuals had lower scores on "mysticism" than the recovering group. Christians had higher scores on "God" and "religion" subscales than did nonChristians and agnostics. The results of this study need confirmation using an improved methodology and larger sample sizes. However, they suggest that the scale may be useful for the study of spirituality in the U.S.
Riemann, D; Nissen, C
The intake of a large variety of substances has a negative impact on sleep. Widely used, readily available substances like alcohol, nicotine, or caffeine need to be mentioned here. Illicit drugs (e.g., heroin or ecstasy) have different mechanisms of action with a high sleep-disrupting potential. Prescription drugs, i.e., corticosteroids or β-blockers, may also negatively affect sleep. An important question is whether the intake of hypnotics, especially benzodiazepines, may have a negative long-term effect on sleep. Classical benzodiazepines (BZ) initially lead to a reduction of nocturnal wake time and prolong total sleep time as a desired effect. Regarding the microstructure of sleep, BZ lead to a reduction of slow frequencies and an increase of fast frequencies in the EEG. With many BZ, tolerance may occur, thus, leading to unwanted dose increases. Further problems include rebound effects that occur upon discontinuation of BZ, including a drastic deterioration of sleep upon drug withdrawal. This phenomenon may pave the way for the development of drug dependency. Further unwanted side-effects (e.g., nocturnal falls) and the question of BZ abuse and dependency will be discussed.
Chambers, R. Andrew; Krystal, John H.; Self, David W.
It is commonly held that substance use comorbidity in schizophrenia represents self-medication, an attempt by patients to alleviate adverse positive and negative symptoms, cognitive impairment, or medication side effects. However, recent advances suggest that increased vulnerability to addictive behavior may reflect the impact of the neuropathology of schizophrenia on the neural circuitry mediating drug reward and reinforcement. We hypothesize that abnormalities in the hippocampal formation and frontal cortex facilitate the positive reinforcing effects of drug reward and reduce inhibitory control over drug-seeking behavior. In this model, disturbances in drug reward are mediated, in part, by dysregulated neural integration of dopamine and glutamate signaling in the nucleus accumbens resulting form frontal cortical and hippocampal dysfunction. Altered integration of these signals would produce neural and motivational changes similar to long-term substance abuse but without the necessity of prior drug exposure. Thus, schizophrenic patients may have a predilection for addictive behavior as a primary disease symptom in parallel to, and in many cases independent from, their other symptoms. PMID:11526998
Digangi, Julia A; Jason, Leonard A; Mendoza, Leslie; Miller, Steve A; Contreras, Richard
Wisdom is theorized to be an important construct in recovery from substance abuse. In order to explore the role of wisdom in substance abuse recovery behaviors, the present study had two goals. First, it sought to examine the factor structure of a wisdom scale, the Foundational Value Scale (FVS) in a community sample of women in recovery from substance abuse. Second, the study examined how wisdom predicted the women's beliefs about their ability to abstain from future substance use. 116 women in recovery from substance abuse disorders were recruited from self-run recovery homes and a substance abuse recovery convention. Results from an exploratory factor analysis indicated that a modified version of the FVS has good internal consistency reliability and is composed of three wisdom-related dimensions. The three factors were then used to create a higher-order wisdom factor in a structural equation model (SEM) that was used to predict abstinence self-efficacy behaviors. Results from the SEM showed that the wisdom factor was predictive of greater abstinence self-efficacy behaviors. The FVS was found to be a reliable measure with women in recovery from substance abuse. In addition, wisdom predicted beliefs about self-efficacy such that those who reported higher levels of wisdom felt more confident in their abilities to abstain from alcohol. The results of this study indicate that wisdom is an important construct in the abstinence behaviors of women who are in recovery from substance abuse disorders.
Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the present study was to study the personality characteristics and criminal behavior in the substance abusers. The role of various sociodemographic variables in substance abusers, which affected their criminal behavior was also studied. Moreover, in the present study, the personality profile of substance users and nonusers was compared using psychoticism, extraversion, and neuroticism (PEN inventory. Materials and Methods: A total of 50 consecutive subjects diagnosed as per International Classification of Diseases-10 criteria for substance abuse, fulfilling the inclusive and exclusive criteria were taken. A well-matched control was also assessed to compare the studied subject using a well-designed semi-structured proforma and PEN inventory. Results: Most of the substance abusers were Hindus, married, belonged to 21-30 age group and urban domicile, and were presently unemployed, educated up to middle class, and belonged to lower socioeconomic status. Family history of substance use was significant in the subjects, and the chief substance of use was opioids. Scores for psychoticism and neuroticism, as well as the criminal behavior was significantly higher in studied subjects. Conclusion: Thus, conclusions drawn were that personality characteristics of the substance abusers differed significantly from the control group and second, the number of variables including occupational status, socioeconomic status, family history of substance use, and type of substance of abuse significantly correlated with the criminal behavior in the substance abusers. Identifying these variables can be the first step in the intervention in substance abusers in order to reduce their future criminal behavior.
Marsh, Jeanne C.; Smith, Brenda D.
A review of empirical literature reveals improvements in service utilization and outcomes for women when substance abuse and child welfare services are integrated. The increased use of substances by women involved in the child welfare system has resulted in a call for integrated, coordinated, evidence-based practices. Since the late 1990s, specific system- and service-level strategies have been developed to coordinate and integrate the provision of substance abuse and child welfare services s...
Most exhibitions are conceived to convey information the experts making the exhibition believe other people need or want. But the notion that the intended exhibition public will cooperate with the exhibition organizers. intent disregards the reasons people come to exhibitions and the way they use them. While the author contends that an exhibition cannot use facts to convince someone to abstain from substances they crave, exhibitions can nonetheless make a difference in lives complicated by substance use by providing representation for voices that are rarely heard and building empathy between witness and witnessed. The purpose of such an endeavor is not to change attitudes or behaviors toward a pre-determined outcome, but to facilitate a witnessing of others. The uniquely intersubjective medium of exhibition can thus succeed in this field by opening the potential of mutual, humanizing recognition among people with varied life experience of substance use and abuse.
Sekulic, Damir; Ostojic, Marko; Ostojic, Zdenko; Hajdarevic, Braco; Ostojic, Ljerka
Substance abuse among adolescents is a major public health and social problem. However, studies rarely investigate the relationships between substance abuse, educational achievement and sport factors...
Full Text Available Background & objectives: Substance abuse is found worldwide including among students. We carried out this study to estimate the prevalence of substance abuse among medical student studying in a medical college in north India. Methods: Using a validated questionnaire a cross-sectional survey was conducted among 230 undergraduate and postgraduate medical students in a private medical college. Results: The prevalence of substance abuse was 20.43 per cent (47/230 among medical students. An increase in substance abuse was observed in the latter years of medical education. A total of 43 of 47 (91.7% students using these substances were aware of the ill effects. The most common reasons for substance use were relief from psychological stress (34/47, 72.4% and occasional celebration (34/47, 72.4%. Of the 47 substance users, 28 (59.6% made past attempts to quit the substance abuse. Interpretation & conclusions:Nearly one-fifth of medical students abuse at least one substance despite knowing the ill effects with the main predisposing factor being the psychological stress.
Machielsen, Marise W. J.; de Haan, Lieuwe
In patients with a psychotic disorder, substance abuse is a major problem. Substance abuse is associated with changes in dopaminergic neurotransmission of dopamine D1 and D2 receptors. Differences in efficacy between antipsychotics on substance abuse could be explained by differences in D2 receptor
Stefansson, Ragnar; Hesse, Morten
A large body of literature has shown a high prevalence of personality disorders in substance abusers. We compared a sample of substance abusers treated in a prison setting with substance abusers treated in a non-prison inpatient setting rated with the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III. Base-rate scores indicated a prevalence of 95% of…
Fields, Dail; Blum, Terry C; Roman, Paul M
The Affordable Care Act calls for integration of substance abuse treatment into medical care via medical homes and continuing specialty care. For this integration to occur in the substance abuse treatment field, substantial sharing and dissemination of information by treatment providers is required. This study explored the determinants of organizational activities directed at disseminating evidence-based practices (EBPs) undertaken by 193 community treatment programs who are members of the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) Clinical Trials Network. Using factor analysis, the research identified two generic categories reflecting different motivations for dissemination activities and explored both treatment center leadership and organizational characteristics as determinants of these different types of dissemination activities. Organizational characteristics predicting treatment center dissemination activities included size, previous involvement in research protocols, linkages with other providers, and having non-profit status. The treatment center leader's membership in professional organizations was also a significant determinant. Organization variables account for a larger portion of the variance in treatment center dissemination activities. The results suggest that the willingness of treatment providers to help disseminate EBPs within the industry may be heavily influenced through shared network connections with other treatment organizations.
Lappalainen-Lehto, Riitta; Seppä, Kaija; Nordback, Isto
Although substance abuse is variably common among surgical patients, detection of the problem and brief interventions are seldom undertaken. The aim of the present study was to assess surgeons' and nurses' activity in screening substance abuse among their patients and obstacles concerning intervention of patients with substance abuse. Surgeons and nurses of The Department of Surgery, Tampere University Hospital were asked to predict if the surgical patients treated during a 24-h period (n=211) had a substance abuse disorder. This was compared to the patients' self-reports based on the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) and questions about use of other substances. The surgeons and the nurses were also asked to complete a questionnaire related to interventions of patients with substance abuse; perceived knowledge, skills, attitudes and obstacles. Of the surgical patients, 47 (22%) proved to be substance abusers. Out of them, 23% were detected by surgeons and nurses. Of the surgeons (n=44) 83% and of the nurses (n=332) 84% perceived responsibility for intervention but claimed many obstacles. Nurses reported the lack of knowledge as the main obstacle. Of the nurses 18% reported enough knowledge to conduct the whole brief intervention compared to 34% of surgeons (p=0.021). The main obstacle reported by surgeons was the lack of time. Surgeons and nurses detect only minority of the substance abusing surgical patients. Lack of knowledge and time prevent intervening in patients' substance abuse. These results may be utilized when developing a program to better involve surgeons and nurses in detection and intervention of surgical patients' substance abuse.
Morton, Cory M; Simmel, Cassandra; Peterson, N Andrew
This study investigates the relationship between concentrations of on- and off-premises alcohol outlets and rates of child abuse and neglect. Additionally, the study seeks to locate protective features of a neighborhood's built environment by investigating the potentially moderating role that access to substance abuse treatment and prevention services plays in the relationship between alcohol outlet density and child maltreatment. Using a cross-sectional design, this ecological study utilized data from 163 census tracts in Bergen County, New Jersey, on reports of child abuse and neglect, alcohol outlets, substance abuse treatment and prevention facilities, and the United States Census to investigate the linkages between socioeconomic structure, alcohol availability, and access to substance abuse service facilities on rates of child abuse and neglect. Findings indicate areas with a greater concentration of on-premises alcohol outlets (i.e., bars) had higher rates of child neglect, and those with easier access to substance abuse services had lower rates of neglect, controlling for neighborhood demographic and socioeconomic structure. Additionally, the relationship between on-premises alcohol outlet density and rates of child neglect was moderated by the presence of substance abuse service facilities. A greater concentration of off-premises outlets (i.e., liquor stores) was associated with lower rates of physical abuse. Findings suggest that the built environment and socioeconomic structure of neighborhoods have important consequences for child well-being. The implications for future research on the structural features of neighborhoods that are associated with child well-being are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Burke, Anna C.; Gregoire, Thomas K.
This study provides new evidence regarding the relation of coerced care to posttreatment substance use and addiction severity while controlling for two important factors: readiness to change and addiction severity at admission to treatment. The initial study sample consisted of 289 people who agreed to participate in a prospective study of…
Neville, Kathleen; Roan, Nora
The objective of this study was to investigate nurses' perceptions of caring for hospitalized medical-surgical patients with comorbid conditions of substance abuse/dependence. Critical to this issue of quality patient care is the rising incidence of comorbid drug and alcohol abuse among hospitalized patients. Little research exists on the perceptions of nurses providing care to substance abuse/dependent medical-surgical hospitalized patients. There exists the need to further explore nurses' perceptions regarding caring for this challenging population. Using a qualitative inductive approach, a convenience sample of 24 nurses completed research questions regarding their perceptions of caring for hospitalized patients with substance abuse/dependence. Data analysis revealed ethical duty to care, negative perceptions toward patients with substance abuse/dependence, need for further education, sympathy, and issues with pain management. Providing quality nursing care for the hospitalized medical-surgical patient with concomitant alcohol and/or drug dependence is challenging for nursing. Nurses need additional education and professional support in caring for these individuals.
Resnick, Heidi S.; Walsh, Kate; Schumacher, Julie A.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.; Acierno, Ron
To inform intervention approaches, the current study examined prevalence and comorbidity of recent use and history of abuse of alcohol, marijuana, and other illicit drugs as well as history of substance treatment among a sample of female victims of sexual assault seeking post-assault medical care. Demographic variables and prior history of assault were also examined to further identify factors relevant to treatment or prevention approaches. Participants were 255 women and adolescent girls seeking post sexual assault medical services who completed an initial follow-up assessment on average within 3 months post-assault. The majority (72.9%) reported recent substance use prior to assault, approximately 40% reported prior substance abuse history, and 12.2% reported prior substance treatment history. Prior history of assault was associated with recent drug use and history of drug abuse as well as substance treatment. Among those with prior histories of substance abuse and assault, assault preceded substance abuse onset in the majority of cases. Almost all those with prior treatment history reported recent drug or alcohol use. A portion of sexual assault survivors seen for acute medical services may benefit from facilitated referral for substance abuse treatment in addition to counseling at the time of screening. Assessment and intervention approaches should target alcohol, marijuana, and other illicit drug use and abuse. Substance use and associated impairment may serve as a rape tactic by perpetrators of assault. Substance use at the time of assault does not imply blame on the part of assault victims. Previous findings indicate that rape poses high risk of PTSD particularly among women with prior history of assault. Screening and intervention related to substance abuse should be done with recognition of the increased vulnerability it may pose with regard to assault and the high risk of PTSD within this population. PMID:23396174
Frielink, N.; Schuengel, C.; Kroon, A.; Embregts, P.J.C.M.
Background Despite a lack of consensus regarding prevalence rates of substance abuse, people with intellectual disabilities (ID) on average use substances slightly less often than their non-disabled peers. However, their use of substances is more often problematic. Avoidance of treatment is a
Perkins, Elizabeth B.; Sprang, Ginny
This study examines compassion fatigue, burnout and compassion satisfaction in two groups of counselors who specialize in substance dependency treatment in order to identify the unique features of substance abuse service delivery that may be related to professional quality of life. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 20 substance abuse…
Full Text Available Impaired mucociliary clearance (MCC is a hallmark of acquired chronic airway diseases like chronic bronchitis associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and asthma. This manifests as microbial colonization of the lung consequently leading to recurrent respiratory infections. People living with HIV demonstrate increased incidence of these chronic airway diseases. Bacterial pneumonia continues to be an important comorbidity in people living with HIV even though anti-retroviral therapy has succeeded in restoring CD4+ cell counts. People living with HIV demonstrate increased microbial colonization of the lower airways. The microbial flora is similar to that observed in diseases like cystic fibrosis and COPD suggesting that mucociliary dysfunction could be a contributing factor to the increased incidence of chronic airway diseases in people living with HIV. The three principal components of the MCC apparatus are, a mucus layer, ciliary beating and a periciliary airway surface liquid (ASL layer that facilitates ciliary beating. Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR plays a pivotal role in regulating the periciliary airway surface liquid. HIV proteins can suppress all the components of the MCC apparatus by increasing mucus secretion and suppressing CFTR function. This can decrease ASL height leading to suppressed ciliary beating. The effects of HIV on MCC are exacerbated when combined with other aggravating factors like smoking or inhaled substance abuse, which by themselves can suppress one or more components of the MCC system. This review discusses the pathophysiological mechanisms that lead to MCC suppression in people living with HIV who also smoke tobacco or abuse illicit drugs.
Riegler, Anita; Völkl-Kernstock, Sabine; Lesch, Otto; Walter, Henriette; Skala, Katrin
Many studies have found an association between Substance Use Disorders (SUDs) and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in children, adolescents and adults. We intended to determine whether substance abuse and SUDs are associated with former and current ADHD symptomatology in a non-clinical sample of 17 and 18 year old males. A representative sample of 3280 young men (6.8% of all males born in Austria in the respective year) was investigated during the examination for military service. We collected data on past (WURS) and current (ADHD symptom checklist) ADHD symptomatology, substance abuse, parental substance use and abuse and motives for substance use. Measured by WURS, 10.1% had scored positive for past ADHD symptoms. 2.7% of all subjects stated that they have been treated for ADHD and 1.5% reported that they had at one point received pharmacological treatment for the condition. Abuse of alcohol, nicotine and illicit substances was significantly (pADHD syndrome. Perceived parental alcohol abuse increased the risk for ADHD in the offspring. Motives for substance use differed greatly between groups. The sample consists of men only. Subjects had to be fit enough to be enlisted military service, generating a possible bias towards healthier subjects. The cross-sectional design does not allow conclusions about the temporal relationships between ADHD symptoms and substance abuse. Identification of vulnerability factors for comorbid ADHD and SUD in adolescence should be intensified. Preventive strategies ought to be established. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Daniel T. L. Shek
Full Text Available In the 2007 Policy Address, the Chief Executive of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, P.R.C. expressed the Administration’s concern about adolescent substance abuse and proposed to form a high-level interdepartmental task force to tackle the problem in a holistic manner. In this paper, the author presents his observations about adolescent substance abuse in Hong Kong, and outlines the risk factors and related strategies based on the ecological perspective that the Government should consider in order to tackle the problem of adolescent substance abuse in Hong Kong. Furthermore, the directions where the Government should and should not go are discussed.
Barry, Colleen L; Sindelar, Jody L
Congress is considering enactment of comprehensive parity legislation. The intent of parity is to equalize private coverage of behavioral and general medical care, thereby improving efficiency and fairness in insurance markets. One issue is whether to extend parity to substance abuse (SA) benefits. In the past, inclusion of substance abuse has been a hurdle to passage of parity. We examine the politics of SA parity, compare coverage trends for substance abuse and mental health, and assess the rationale for equalizing benefits. We conclude that the justification for SA parity is as compelling as it is for mental health parity.
Levi, Benjamin H.; Crowell, Kathryn; Walsh, Kerryann; Dellasega, Cheryl
Background: Childcare providers are often "first responders" for suspected child abuse, and how they understand the concept of "reasonable suspicion" will influence their decisions regarding which warning signs warrant reporting. Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate how childcare providers interpret the…
Columbia Univ., New York, NY. National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse.
This national survey examines the family characteristics and relationships that contribute to a teen's substance abuse risk. It provides insights that can help parents develop in their children the will and skills to resist the lure of cigarettes, alcohol, and drugs. One thousand boys and 1,000 girls age 12-17, and 1,000 parents (536 mothers and…
Bonner, Jason E; Barritt, A Sidney; Fried, Michael W; Evon, Donna M
A new era has dawned in the treatment of chronic hepatitis C (HCV) virus with the use of direct-acting antiviral medications augmenting combination therapy. Unfortunately, the significant impact of improvements may not be realized if antiviral treatment is not expanded to include a larger proportion of patients, many of whom have coexisting mental health and/or substance abuse issues and have been historically deferred from treatment. We reviewed the extent literature on HCV treatment for individuals with co-occurring mental health and/or substance abuse issues. A number of empirically-based arguments exist in favor of treating HCV-infected individuals with mental health and/or substance abuse issues within the context of multidisciplinary team approaches. Integrated, collaborative, or hybrid models of care are just a few examples of multidisciplinary approaches that can combine the care of HCV treating providers with mental health and/or addictions providers to safely and effectively treat these patients. Collectively, these arguments and the empirical evidence that supports them, provides a strong rationale for why expanding antiviral therapy to these patients is critical and timely. A decade of evidence suggests that HCV-infected individuals with mental health and/or substance abuse issues can safely and effectively undergo antiviral treatment when delivered through multidisciplinary care settings. Multidisciplinary approaches that combine HCV treating providers with mental health, addictions, and other support systems can facilitate preparation and successful treatment of these patients on antiviral therapy.
Igwe Wilson C
Full Text Available Abstract Background Association between psychiatric morbidity and substance abuse among adolescent has been reported. However prevalence and pattern of such dysfunctions are unknown in our environment. Aims To determine the prevalence of psychosocial dysfunction and depressive symptoms among adolescents who abuse substance and also note the influence of socio-demographic factors and type of substance on the pattern of dysfuction. Method A cross-sectional study was carried out among 900 adolescents selected from 29 secondary schools in Enugu metropolis. A multi-stage sampling procedure was used to select the students. The student drug use questionnaire was used to screen respondents for substance abuse. Those who were abusing substance and matched controls (non substance abusers were assessed for psychiatric symptoms using the 35-item Paediatric Symptom Checklist (PSC and the Zung Self-rating Depression Scale (SDS. Social classification was done using the parental educational attainment and occupation. Result A total of 290 students were current substance abusers. The substances most commonly abused were alcohol (31.6%, cola nitida (kola nut (20.7% and coffee (15.7%. Using the PSC scale, 70 (24.1% subjects compared to 29 (10.7% of the controls had scores in the morbidity range of ≥ 28 for psychosocial dysfuction. This was statistically significant (χ2 = 17.57 p = 0.001. Fifty-four subjects (18.6% had scores in the morbidity range of ≥ 50 for depressive symptoms using the Zung SDS compared to 21 (7.7% of controls. This was statistically significant (χ2 = 14.43, p = 0.001. Prevalence of dysfunction was not significantly related to age in both subjects and controls (χ2 = 4.62, p = 0.010, χ2 = 4.8, p = 0.10 respectively. Also using both scales, there was no significant relationship between psychosocial dysfunction and gender or social class in both subjects and control. The prevalence of dysfuction using both scales was significantly higher
MacKinnon, David P; Lockwood, Chondra M
The paper describes advances in statistical methods for prevention research with a particular focus on substance abuse prevention. Standard analysis methods are extended to the typical research designs and characteristics of the data collected in prevention research. Prevention research often includes longitudinal measurement, clustering of data in units such as schools or clinics, missing data, and categorical as well as continuous outcome variables. Statistical methods to handle these features of prevention data are outlined. Developments in mediation, moderation, and implementation analysis allow for the extraction of more detailed information from a prevention study. Advancements in the interpretation of prevention research results include more widespread calculation of effect size and statistical power, the use of confidence intervals as well as hypothesis testing, detailed causal analysis of research findings, and meta-analysis. The increased availability of statistical software has contributed greatly to the use of new methods in prevention research. It is likely that the Internet will continue to stimulate the development and application of new methods.
Full Text Available Drug use remains today one of the health problems of greatest concern to society. According to the most recent state epidemiological data, women's consumption continuously increases, becoming more and more similar to that of men. However, this same trend does not occur in terms of access to treatment, and when women seek treatment, there is a marked difficulty in adherence to treatment as abandoning it is often the case. Such is the importance of meeting the specific needs of substance-abusing women, that it is even highlighted as a priority and an integral element of the latest Action Plan on Drugs 2013-2016 (Plan Nacional Sobre Drogas, 2013a. In this sense, at the empirical level, researchers have started to study the possible differences men and women may present in drug treatment, as well as the development of a gender-specific treatment. The aim of this theoretical review paper is to analyze the elements that characterize drug dependent women, establishing what aspects should be taken into account in the intervention with women from previous research or from on-going research, suggesting its implementation and future research directions.
Smedema, Susan Miller; Ebener, Deborah
To analyse the current state of the literature with respect to substance abuse and psychosocial adjustment in persons with disabilities. The two primary databases containing the literature related to rehabilitation and disability issues (PsychINFO and MedLine) were searched to identify articles addressing the psychosocial impact of substance abuse in persons with disabilities. Eleven empirical articles specifically measuring the strength of the relationship between substance use and psychosocial outcomes in persons with disabilities were selected for analysis. Of the studies identified, five were related to spinal cord injury, three were related to traumatic brain injury, one was related to chronic back pain, one was related to HIV/AIDS, and one was related to persons with any type of disability. Each of the studies used different methodologies, measured substance abuse in different ways, and examined different psychosocial outcome variables. Examination of trends suggested that pre-injury substance abuse appears to be unrelated to acceptance of disability in persons with spinal cord injury and negatively associated with satisfaction in persons with traumatic brain injury. Recent substance abuse tends to have a detrimental effect on psychosocial outcomes across all disability groups. Future research, combined with appropriate pre-service and continuing education related to substance abuse and disability for rehabilitation practitioners, has the potential to lead to improved psychosocial outcomes in persons with disabilities.
In recent years, an increased and special emphasis on family issues of public housing residents emerged among social service professionals in northeast Georgia. This emphasis was launched because of the disparity between the number of substance-dependent African-Americans and those who sought and remained in substance abuse treatment programs. The relationship between these factors prompted an examination of preferences for substance abuse treatment among African-Americans in three northeast Georgia public housing complexes. This paper describes the implementation and evaluation of a traditional social work practice approach involving the identification of families where substance abuse was present, the examination of their preferences for substance abuse treatment, and the efficacy of home-based, family-centered practice. The evaluation results support the claim that elements of traditional social work practice, such as community or home-based, family-centered treatment, can be effective in addressing substance abuse issues of African-Americans residing in public housing complexes. In addition, this form of treatment supports the notion that African-American families residing in public housing can be assisted in the resolution of substance abuse issues.
Unfortunately, substance abuse is increasing in the patients that we see in labor and delivery. Many women who are abusing drugs are of childbearing age and frequently present first for care in labor. It can then be a challenge to manage them. From caring for them, we have learned much about the drug-addicted patient and how to more completely care for them. The care provided by the whole team must not only be competent but with compassion. We have also learned about our own and our colleagues' biases and how we can best manage our feelings and theirs as well. The goal of all the clinicians managing these patients has to be excellence in managing their labor physically, clinically, pharmacologically, and psychologically.
Waldman, H Barry; Perlman, Steven P
The rapidly evolving demographic base of our communities intensifies the need for an awareness which in the past seemed beyond the traditional concerns of pediatric dentists; in this case, substance abuse by teenagers. A review was carried out regarding evolving demographics, the proportion of teenagers involved with substance abuse, the rationale for the use of varying elicit substances and the associated symptoms. A series of options for action are considered given the potential for pediatric dentists to be involved in the care of teenagers using elicit substances.
Guerrero, Erick G; Marsh, Jeanne C; Cao, Dingcai; Shin, Hee-Choon; Andrews, Christina
This study examined gender differences within Black, Latino, and White subgroups in the utilization of comprehensive services and their relation to posttreatment substance use. Survey data were collected during the National Treatment Improvement Evaluation Study (NTIES), a prospective, longitudinal, multisite study of substance abuse treatment programs and their clients in the United States. The analytic sample consisted of 1,812 blacks (734 women and 1,078 men), 486 Latinos (147 women and 339 men), and 844 whites (147 women and 339 men) from 59 service delivery organizations. Results related to service utilization indicated that compared to men, women in all racial and ethnic groups needed and received more services targeted to their needs and reported more positive relations with service providers. Gender was a significant moderator of the relationship between service receipt and treatment outcomes for all racial and ethnic groups, but especially for the Latino subsample. Findings point to the need to consider race-specific gender differences in the development of culturally competent, comprehensive substance abuse treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Gonzales, Rachel; Anglin, M Douglas; Glik, Deborah C; Zavalza, Christina
This study used mixed methods to explore youth attitudes about recovery-related needs and important drug-avoidance behaviors after treatment. Focus groups were conducted with 118 substance using youth in treatment (four residential and 10 outpatient settings) throughout Los Angeles County. The average age was 17.4 (SD = 2.9); 78.3% were male, 66.1% Latino; and most were in treatment for primary marijuana (40.9%) or methamphetamine (30.4%) abuse. Quantitatve results from the drug-avoidance activity survey identified the following factors youth rated as important to their recovery after treatment: lifestyle improvement activities (95.7%); changing personal drug behaviors (89.6%); drug environment/culture change activities (82.5%); with the least important being therapeutic activities (78.5%). Qualitative findings from focus groups that asked what youth think are important for recovery programs to address after treatment revealed the following four areas: (1) recovery promotion to developmentally appropriate activities (95%); (2) facilitating the use of coping skills to deal with stress (85%); (3) offering alternative recovery support options (not just abstinence only) (75%); and (4) continuing to provide substance use education (65%). Findings highlight essential aspects of recovery in terms of need and drug-avoidance behaviors considered important to youth in treatment. Such information will help to better address clinical and recovery support models aimed at relapse prevention to ensure that the perceived problems of substance-abusing youth are adequately met.
Dworkin, Emily R; Wanklyn, Sonya; Stasiewicz, Paul R; Coffey, Scott F
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and substance use disorders (SUDs) commonly co-occur, and there is some evidence to suggest that PTSD symptom clusters are differentially related to various substances of abuse. However, few studies to date have compared PTSD symptom patterns across people with different types of SUDs, and fewer still have accounted for the presence of comorbidity across types of SUDs in understanding symptom patterns. Thus, in the current study, we use a treatment-seeking sample of people with elevated symptoms of PTSD and problem alcohol use to explore differential associations between past-year SUDs with active use and PTSD symptoms, while accounting for the presence of multiple SUDs. When comparing alcohol and drug use disorders, avoidance symptoms were elevated in those with alcohol use disorder, and hyperarousal symptoms were elevated in those who had a drug use disorder. In the subsample with alcohol use disorder, hyperarousal symptoms were elevated in people with co-occurring cocaine use disorders and numbing symptoms were elevated in people with co-occurring sedative/hypnotic/anxiolytic use disorder. These findings provide evidence for different symptom cluster patterns between PTSD and various types of SUDs and highlight the importance of examining the functional relationship between specific substances of abuse when understanding the interplay between PTSD and SUDs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kim, HyunSoo; Tracy, Elizabeth; Brown, Suzanne; Jun, MinKyoung; Park, Hyunyong; Min, Meeyoung; McCarty, Chris
This study compared compositional, social support, and structural characteristics of personal networks among women in residential (RT) and intensive outpatient (IOP) substance abuse treatment. The study sample included 377 women from inner-city substance use disorder treatment facilities. Respondents were asked about 25 personal network members known within the past 6 months, characteristics of each (relationship, substance use, types of support), and relationships between each network member. Differences between RT women and IOP women in personal network characteristics were identified using Chi-square and t-tests. Compared to IOP women, RT women had more substance users in their networks, more network members with whom they had used substances and fewer network members who provided social support. These findings suggest that women in residential treatment have specific network characteristics, not experienced by women in IOP, which may make them more vulnerable to relapse; they may therefore require interventions that target these specific network characteristics in order to reduce their vulnerability to relapse.
Stein, L A; Graham, J R
In this study, we examined the ability of the MMPI-A (Butcher et al., 1992) to detect substance abuse problems in a juvenile correctional setting. Specifically, we evaluated the Alcohol/Drug Problem Acknowledgment scale (ACK; Weed, Butcher, & Williams, 1994), the Alcohol/Drug Problem Proneness scale (PRO; Weed et al., 1994), and the MacAndrew Alcoholism Scale-Revised (MAC-R; Butcher et al., 1992) in the prediction of substance abuse. In addition, the incremental validity of ACK in comparison to PRO was evaluated, as was the incremental validity of PRO in comparison to ACK. The sample consisted of 123 boys and girls from ajuvenile correctional facility in Northeastern Ohio. Results indicate that ACK and PRO, but not MAC-R, were related to interviewer ratings of substance abuse. Results point to the superiority of ACK over PRO in substance abuse identification.
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Survey of Substance Abuse Treatment Services (N-SSATS) is designed to collect information from all facilities in the United States, both public and...
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Survey of Substance Abuse Treatment Services (N-SSATS) is designed to collect information from all facilities in the United States, both public and...
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Survey of Substance Abuse Treatment Services (N-SSATS) is designed to collect information from all facilities in the United States, both public and...
Full Text Available The aim of this study is to examine mediation effect of social skills between impulsivity with substance abuse in adolescents. The research sample consists of 616 students of vulnerable high schools in Ardabil City. Together the data of Impulsivity Scale, Matson social skills scale and substance abuse survey were used [Matson, J. L., Rotatori, A. F., & Helsel, W. J. (1983. Development of a rating scale to measure social skills in children: The Matson Evaluation of Social Skills with Youngsters (MESSY. Behaviour Research and therapy, 21(4, 335-340.]. The results show that impulsivity indirectly is associated with substance abuse students (P<0.001 through the effect on social skills. The results indicate that high levels of impulsivity and low-level social skills increase substance abuse in students. These results are consistent with other existing results found in the literature.
... make arrangements to attend, comment or to request special accommodations for persons with disabilities... Prevention; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to Public Law 92-463, notice is hereby given that the Substance Abuse...
... special accommodations for persons with disabilities, please register at the SAMHSA Advisory Committees... Prevention; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to Public Law 92-463, notice is hereby given that the Substance Abuse...
... comments, or request special accommodations for persons with disabilities, please register at the SAMHSA... Prevention; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to Public Law 92-463, notice is hereby given that the Substance Abuse...
... written or brief oral comments, or request special accommodations for persons with disabilities, please... Prevention; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to Public Law 92-463, notice is hereby given that the Substance Abuse...
Chartas, Nicole D.; Culbreth, John R.
This study explored the philosophical issues hindering the linkage of substance abuse and domestic violence treatment. Results suggest that counselors tend to use treatment models that could not concurrently assign responsibility and address either present or past victimization. (Author)
Full Text Available Introduction: The main aim of this study was to investigate the over generality of autobiographical memory among depressed, depressed with substance abuse, and normal boy adolescents. Method: 76 adolescent boys (25 depressed, 25 depressed with substance abuse, and 26 normal selected of Kermanshah adolescents. Three groups were matched with consideration of age, gender, educational levels, and marital status. Williams and Broadbent’s (1986 autobiographical memory test was administered among selected samples. U Mann Whitney runs for analyzing of data. Results: The results showed that depressed adolescents have higher scored in over generality of autobiographical memory in comparison of normal adolescents. This result repeated for depressed adolescents with substance abuse. Also, depressed adolescents have higher scored in comparison of depressed adolescents with substance abuse. Conclusion: Altogether, the result of this research showed over generality of autobiographical memory is an important characteristic of depression, continuity of depression and relapse of depression.
Multidrug abuse represented 41.03% followed by cannabis (26.54%) and cocaine (14.74%) abuse. The deficient syndrome has been more frequent in amphetamines (61.64%), cocaïne (60%) and heroine (79.50%) abuse. Acute psychosis have been diagnosed in 59.26% of cannabis and all the alcohol users, paranoiac ...
Small, Eusebius; Kohl, Patricia L.
Despite the strong correlation between caregiver substance abuse and child maltreatment, little information exists to understand the typology of African American caregivers with substance abuse problems in the child welfare system. Research shows African American caregivers contend with multiple problems stemming from substance abuse. Unfortunately, we do not yet know how to best tailor resources to be responsive to varying groups of African American caregivers. Using data from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-being (NSCAW), this investigation tested for distinct multivariate profiles among a subset of African American caregivers with substance abuse problems (n=258). Latent Class Analysis (LCA) was used to classify caregivers, and five classes were identified among this high risk sample – each with distinct risk profiles. Based on these findings, we discuss implications for tailored practices to enhance the safety and stability of children involved with child welfare. PMID:22962521
Cunha, Paulo Jannuzzi; de Oliveira, Paula Approbato; Cortezzi, Mariana; Busatto, Geraldo F.; Scivoletto, Sandra
OBJECTIVE: Substance abuse and maltreatment are highly associated with Executive Cognitive Function impairments, but very little is known about how symptoms of a condition known as Dysexecutive Syndrome may impact on real-life activities, especially in adolescents. This study investigated the presence of Executive Cognitive Function deficits in maltreated substance-abusing adolescents relative to healthy control subjects and analyzed the association between executive performance and education...
Elisabeth Hansen Punzi; Inga Tidefors; Claudia Fahlke
Purpose: The co-occurrence of substance abuse and excessive sexual activities is acknowledged in research and treatment practice. Men seem particularly at risk for developing excessive sexual activities. Excessive sexual activities complicate substance abuse treatment, and clients with such co-occurring difficulties have considerable treatment needs. It is therefore considered important to investigate how male clients who had enacted excessive sexual activities, perceive their excessive sexua...
Knudsen, Hannah K.; Abraham, Amanda J.
Little is known about the organizational and environmental factors associated with the employment of nurses in substance abuse treatment programs. Using data collected from the administrators of 250 publicly funded substance abuse treatment programs, this study examined the organizational and environmental correlates of nurse employment in these settings. Negative binomial regression models indicated that the number of nurses employed by treatment programs was positively associated with gover...
Chadwick, O; Anderson, R; Bland, M.; Ramsey, J.
OBJECTIVE--To examine the effects of volatile substance abuse on neuropsychological functioning. DESIGN--A sample of index children and matched controls were identified by a two stage procedure. Firstly, over 5000 secondary school pupils completed a screening questionnaire, and, secondly, a sample of those who acknowledged volatile substance abuse and a matched sample of those who denied the practice were assessed in detail by means of (a) individually conducted interviews and (b) toxicologic...
Osama Hasan Gaber
This study aimed to examine the relationship between Personality Disorders and Relapses among Sample of 75 Substance Abuse Patients (personality disorder scale (prepared by the researchers) were used Pearson Correlation Coefficient showed that there are statistically significant relationship between Antisocial personality disorder(ASPD), Borderline personality disorder (BPD, Avoidant personality disorder (AVPD) and Dependent personality disorder (DPD) and substance abuse relapses (P≤=0.00)...
Martel, Michelle M.; Pierce, Laura; Nigg, Joel T.; Jester, Jennifer M; Adams, Kenneth; Puttler, Leon I.; Buu, Anne; Fitzgerald, Hiram; Zucker, Robert A.
Temperament traits may increase risk for developmental psychopathology like Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and disruptive behaviors during childhood, as well as predisposing to substance abuse during adolescence. In the current study, a cascade model of trait pathways to adolescent substance abuse was examined. Component hypotheses were that (a) maladaptive traits would increase risk for inattention/hyperactivity, (b) inattention/hyperactivity would increase risk for disrupti...
Facility-level, state, and financial factors associated with changes in the provision of smoking cessation services in US substance abuse treatment facilities: Results from the National Survey of Substance Abuse Treatment Services 2006 to 2012.
Cohn, Amy; Elmasry, Hoda; Niaura, Ray
Cigarette smoking is common among patients in substance abuse treatment. Tobacco control programs have advocated for integrated tobacco dependence treatment into behavioral healthcare, including within substance abuse treatment facilities (SATFs) to reduce the public health burden of tobacco use. This study used data from seven waves (2006 to 2012) of the National Survey of Substance Abuse Treatment Services (n=94,145) to examine state and annual changes in the provision of smoking cessation services within US SATFs and whether changes over time could be explained by facility-level (private vs public ownership, receipt of earmarks, facility admissions, acceptance of government insurance) and state-level factors (cigarette tax per pack, smoke free policies, and percent of CDC recommended tobacco prevention spending). Results showed that the prevalence of SATFs offering smoking cessation services increased over time, from 13% to 65%. The amount of tax per cigarette pack, accepting government insurance, government (vs private) ownership, facility admissions, and CDC recommended tobacco prevention spending (per state) were the strongest correlates of the provision of smoking cessation programs in SATFs. Facilities that received earmarks were less likely to provide cessation services. Adult smoking prevalence and state-level smoke free policies were not significant correlates of the provision of smoking cessation services over time. Policies aimed at increasing the distribution of tax revenues to cessation services in SATFs may offset tobacco-related burden among those with substance abuse problems. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.
The study sought to identify how rural high school students are prone to substance abuse as compared to abuse by urban high school students. A research was conducted at a high school in rural areas. The target population was 1320 boys and girls at this high school. A sample of 132 boys and girls was selected.
Gonzales, Rachel; Hernandez, Mayra; Douglas, Samantha B; Yu, Chong Ho
To date, the measurement of recovery in the field of substance abuse is limited. Youth recovery from substance abuse is an important area to consider, given the complexities of such issues. The Recovery Assessment Scale (RAS) has been validated with mental health patient populations; however, its measurement characteristics have not been examined for individuals in substance abuse treatment. The current study explored the factor structure of the RAS with a sample of 80 substance-abusing youth who participated in a pilot aftercare study (Mage 20.5, SD=3.5; 71.3% male). Reliability analysis showed an internal consistency of α=.90 for the entire RAS measure among the youth sample. Results of exploratory factor analysis identified the following four factors: personal determination, skills for recovery, self-control in recovery, and social support/moving beyond recovery among the substance-abusing youth sample. The RAS also demonstrated sound convergent and divergent validity in comparison to other validated measures of functioning, sobriety, and well-being. Collectively, results support that the RAS has adequate psychometric properties for measuring recovery among substance-abusing youth.
Frank C Bandiera
Full Text Available The rate of cigarette smoking is greater among persons with mental health and/or substance abuse problems. There are few population-based datasets with which to study tobacco mortality in these vulnerable groups. The Oregon Health Authority identified persons who received publicly-funded mental health or substance abuse services from January 1996 through December 2005. These cases were then matched to Oregon Vital Statistics records for all deaths (N= 148,761 in the period 1999-2005. The rate of tobacco-related death rates was higher among persons with substance abuse problems only (53.6% and those with both substance abuse and mental health problems (46.8%, as compared to the general population (30.7%. The rate of tobacco-related deaths among persons with mental health problems (30% was similar to that in the general population. Persons receiving substance abuse treatment alone, or receiving both substance abuse and mental health treatment, were more likely to die and more likely to die prematurely of tobacco-related causes as compared to the general population. Persons receiving mental health services alone were not more likely to die of tobacco-related causes, but tobacco-related deaths occurred earlier in this population.
Bandiera, Frank C; Anteneh, Berhanu; Le, Thao; Delucchi, Kevin; Guydish, Joseph
The rate of cigarette smoking is greater among persons with mental health and/or substance abuse problems. There are few population-based datasets with which to study tobacco mortality in these vulnerable groups. The Oregon Health Authority identified persons who received publicly-funded mental health or substance abuse services from January 1996 through December 2005. These cases were then matched to Oregon Vital Statistics records for all deaths (N= 148,761) in the period 1999-2005. The rate of tobacco-related death rates was higher among persons with substance abuse problems only (53.6%) and those with both substance abuse and mental health problems (46.8%), as compared to the general population (30.7%). The rate of tobacco-related deaths among persons with mental health problems (30%) was similar to that in the general population. Persons receiving substance abuse treatment alone, or receiving both substance abuse and mental health treatment, were more likely to die and more likely to die prematurely of tobacco-related causes as compared to the general population. Persons receiving mental health services alone were not more likely to die of tobacco-related causes, but tobacco-related deaths occurred earlier in this population.
Full Text Available Introduction: Individuals with substance abuse show signs of negative emotion regulation strategies and impaired interpersonal behaviors. The aim of the present research was to determine the relationship between emotion regulation strategies and interpersonal behavior among substance abusers. Method: The research design was a correlation study. The research sample consisted of 100 who were selected of the substance abusers that referred to clinical of addiction withdrawal by random sample method in Ardabil city. To collect the data, Emotion regulation Scale and Interpersonal Reactivity Index were used. Results: The results showed that positive and negative emotion regulation strategies were correlated to interpersonal behavior in substance abusers. The results of multiple regression analysis showed positive and negative emotion regulation strategies explained 16 percent of interpersonal behavior variance. Also the results showed that “putting into perspective“ was found to be the best predictor for interpersonal behavior. Conclusion: These results have important implications in psychopathological of substance abuse. On the basis of these results, clinicians can use emotion regulation strategies in order to cope substance abuse.
Vungkhanching, Martha; Heinemann, Allen W; Langley, Mervin J; Ridgely, Mary; Kramer, Karen M
To demonstrate the feasibility of a skills-based substance abuse prevention counseling program in a community setting for adults who sustained traumatic brain injury. Convenience sample of 117 participants (mean age=35 years) with preinjury history of alcohol or other drug use. Intervention group participants (n=36) from 3 vocational rehabilitation programs; a no-intervention comparison group (n=81) from an outpatient rehabilitation service. 12 individual counseling sessions featuring skills-based intervention. Changes in self-reported alcohol and other drug use, coping skillfulness, affect, and employment status from baseline to 9 months postintervention. Significant differences were noted at baseline for the intervention and comparison groups on ethnicity, time postinjury, marital status, and employment (Pskillfulness (Pskills-based intervention provides a promising approach to promoting abstinence from all substances and increasing readiness for employment for adults with traumatic brain injuries in outpatient settings.
Jackson, Afton; Shannon, Lisa
Research presenting outcomes for women who enter substance abuse treatment during pregnancy consistently shows benefits. While treatment has nearly universal benefits, there are many barriers to seeking substance abuse treatment for pregnant women. The purpose of this study is to explore barriers for rural pregnant women seeking substance abuse treatment. There were three eligibility criteria for study participation: (1) aged 18 and older, (2) pregnant, and (3) undergoing short-term inpatient detoxification at the University of Kentucky Chandler Medical Center. Eighty-five rural women (N = 85) were included in the analysis. Substance use history and previous treatment were assessed with measures adapted from the Addiction Severity Index. Treatment barriers were measured with three qualitative questions and were coded into four overarching categories: availability, accessibility, affordability, and acceptability barriers. This sample had an extensive substance use history. Almost all participants had used alcohol (98%), marijuana (98%), illicit opiates (99%), and cigarettes (97%). On average, participants reported about two barriers to receiving treatment (Mean = 1.8; SD = 1.3), with over 80% of the sample reporting having experienced any barrier to treatment. The majority experienced acceptability (51%) and accessibility (49%) barriers. Twenty-six percent (26%) of the sample reported availability barriers. A smaller percentage of participants reported affordability barriers (13%). Rural pregnant women seeking substance abuse treatment face many obstacles to receiving needed treatment. More studies on barriers to substance abuse treatment among rural pregnant women are needed. Identifying these barriers can help in improving treatment access and services.
Sarkola, Taisto; Kahila, Hanna; Gissler, Mika; Halmesmäki, Erja
To study the risk of children to mothers with alcohol and/or substance abuse related problems for early childhood out-of-home care in Finland. A population-based cross-sectional retrospective analysis of 526 pregnant women attending special outpatient clinics during 1992-2001 and their 626 offspring, with out-of-home care data until 2003 provided by the National Child Welfare Register. Fifty percent (95% confidence interval 46-54%) were at some point and 38% (34-42%) by the age of two years, in out-of-home care. Out-of-home care was associated with maternal care for substance abuse after delivery, nonemployment, housing, daily smoking during pregnancy, increasing number of previous births, mother in custody in her childhood, maternal education, previous child in custody, drug in urine during pregnancy, unplanned pregnancy, partner with significant abuse, regular health-care contact for abuse, daily alcohol consumption before and/or during pregnancy, newborn not discharged with mother, neonatal abstinence symptoms (NAS), intensified perinatal surveillance or NICU, and delayed discharge from hospital. There is a substantial risk of children born to mothers with significant alcohol and/or substance abuse related problems for out-of-home care during early childhood. Factors identified during the pre- and perinatal period are associated with this risk.
Crosby, G M; Stall, R D; Paul, J P; Barrett, D C
This analysis was undertaken to identify (a) the level of HIV sexual risk behaviors of men who drop out of treatment and (b) baseline variables associated with later treatment dropout. A cross-sectional sample of 340 gay/bisexual men were recruited from an outpatient substance abuse treatment facility in San Francisco. We compared participants who completed less than 15 visits with participants who graduated from the program. Men who dropped out were more likely than treatment graduates to report injection drug use, social problems related to substance use, self-blaming coping strategies, and more recent substance use prior to entering treatment and less likely to have a college degree, report using sex for tension relief, and have previously attended Alcoholics Anonymous or Narcotics Anonymous. Given the strong link between the substance abuse and HIV epidemics, substance abuse treatment agencies have been forced into addressing the issues of HIV sexual risk taking with their clients. Strategies toward reducing substance use relapse and HIV risk reduction are offered.
Larsen, Tor K; Melle, Ingrid; Auestad, Bjørn
Abuse of alcohol and drugs is an important and clinically challenging aspect of first-episode psychosis. Only a few studies have been carried out on large-sized and reliably characterized samples. These are reviewed, and the results are compared with a sample of 300 first-episode psychosis patients...... recruited for the TIPS (Early Treatment and Identification of Psychosis) study from Norway and Denmark. Prevalence rates from the literature vary from 6% to 44% for drugs and 3% to 35% for alcohol. In our sample, 23% abused drugs and 15% abused alcohol during the last 6 months. When compared to non-abusers......, the drug-abusing group is characterized by the following: male gender, younger age, better premorbid social, poor premorbid academic functioning, and more contact with friends in the last year before onset. Alcohol abusers were the oldest group and they had the least contact with friends. A group...
Full Text Available Background: Substance abuse and mental disorder comorbidity is high among patients admitted to acute psychiatric wards. The aim of the study was to identify this co-occurrence as a reason for involuntary admission and if specific substance use-related diagnoses were associated with such admissions.Methods: The study was a part of a multicentre, cross-sectional national study carried out during 2005-2006 within a research network of acute mental health services. Seventy-five percent of Norwegian hospitals providing acute in-patient treatment participated. Substance use was measured using the Clinician Rating Scale and the ICD-10 diagnoses F10-19. Diagnostic assessments were performed by the clinicians during hospital stay.Results: Overall, 33.2% (n=1,187 of the total patient population (3,506 were abusing alcohol or drugs prior to admission according to the Clinician Rating Scale. No difference in the overall prevalence of substance abuserelated diagnoses between the two groups was found. Overall, 310 (26% of the admissions, 216 voluntarily and 94 involuntarily admitted patients received a double diagnosis. Frequent comorbid combinations among voluntarily admitted patients were; a combination of alcohol and either mood disorder (40% or multiple mental disorders (29%. Among involuntarily admitted patients, a combination of poly drug use and schizophrenia was most frequent (47%. Substance abusing patients diagnosed with mental and behavioral disorders due to the use of psychoactive stimulant substances had a significantly higher risk of involuntary hospitalization (OR 2.3.Conclusion: Nearly one third of substance abusing patients are involuntarily admitted to mental hospitals, in particular stimulant drug use was associated with involuntarily admissions.
Gonzalez-Guarda, Rosa Maria; Vasquez, Elias P; Urrutia, Maria T; Villarruel, Antonia M; Peragallo, Nilda
Hispanic females are disproportionately affected by substance abuse, intimate partner violence, and HIV. Despite these disparities, research describing the cultural and gender-specific experiences of Hispanic women with regard to these conditions is lacking. Transplantadas en otro mundo (Uprooted in another world), El criador de abuso (The breeding ground of abuse), and Rompiendo el silencio (Breaking the silence). This study supports the importance of addressing substance abuse, violence, and risk for HIV in an integrated manner and stresses the importance of addressing associated cultural factors (e.g., acculturation, machismo ) in interventions targeting Hispanics.
VanDeMark Nancy R
Full Text Available Abstract Background The continuing gap between the number of people requiring treatment for substance use disorders and those receiving treatment suggests the need to develop new approaches to service delivery. Meanwhile, the use of technology to provide counseling and support in the substance abuse field is exploding. Despite the increase in the use of technology in treatment, little is known about the impact of technology-supported interventions on access to services for substance use disorders. The E-TREAT intervention brings together the evidence-based practice of Motivational Interviewing and theories of Persuasive Technology to sustain clients' motivation to change substance use behaviors, provide support for change, and facilitate continuity across treatment settings. Methods This study used descriptive statistics, tests of statistical significance, and logistic regression to explore the characteristics and perceptions of the first 157 people who agreed to participate in E-TREAT and the predictors of their active engagement in E-TREAT services. In addition, responses to open-ended questions about the participants' experiences with the intervention were analyzed. Results The data reveal that clients who engaged in E-TREAT were more likely than those who did not engage to be female, have children and report a positive relationship with their recovery coach, and were less likely to have completed treatment for a substance use disorder in the past. A majority of people engaging in E-TREAT reported that it was helpful to talk with others with similar problems and that the program assisted them in developing a sense of community. Conclusions The authors conclude that technology-assisted interventions hold promise in expanding access to treatment for substance use disorders especially for women and parents. Further, the characteristics of the relationship with a coach or helper may be critical to engagement in technology-supported interventions
Kraanen, F.L.; Scholing, A.; Hamdoune, M.; Emmelkamp, P.M.G.
Substance use disorders and intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration frequently co-occur, and it has been hypothesized that alcohol use and IPV perpetration are causally related. This led to the development of an Integrated treatment for Substance abuse and Partner violence (I-StoP). This case
Florsheim, Paul; Heavin, Sarah; Tiffany, Stephen; Colvin, Peter; Hiraoka, Regina
This paper describes an experiment designed to test an imagery-based craving management technique with a sample of adolescents diagnosed with substance-use disorders. Seventy adolescents between the ages of 14 and 18 (41 males) were recruited through two substance-abuse treatment programs. The experimental procedure involved stimulating craving…
Tyler, Kimberly A.; Melander, Lisa A.
Although previous research documents high rates of child abuse, street victimization, and substance use among homeless youth, few studies have investigated these three constructs simultaneously, and thus little is known about how various forms of victimization are uniquely associated with substance use among this population. The purpose of this…
Chun, JongSerl; Guydish, Joseph; Chan, Ya-Fen
The study was designed to: (1) identify smoking policies and interventions in adolescent residential treatment settings; (2) examine the prevalence of smoking among adolescents in these settings; and (3) assess relationships between program-level smoking policies and client-level smoking. The Center for Substance Abuse Treatment funded 17 sites to evaluate the effectiveness of Adolescent Residential Treatment (ART) programs for substance abuse. To describe program smoking policies and interventions, we conducted phone interviews with one key informant at each program (N = 12). To describe client smoking behaviors, we conducted a secondary data analysis of baseline data for adolescents (N = 912) entering ART programs. All sites had no smoking indoors and 75% of the site had tobacco-free grounds for adolescents. Forty-two percent provided their youth with nicotine replacement therapy, and 42% provided counseling for smoking cessation. Also, 33% did not allow staff smoking on and off campus. The prevalence of any smoking in the past month was 66%, and 22% of current smokers were daily smokers at admission. Where smoking was allowed on grounds, adolescents more often reported recent smoking. Smoking behavior is prevalent among adolescents in residential drug treatment, and should be addressed in all such programs through policy implementation and client-level smoking cessation intervention. PMID:18303701
Pajulo, Helena; Pajulo, Marjukka; Jussila, Heidi; Ekholm, Eeva
Substance-abusing pregnant and parenting women are considered one of the most challenging, but important, target groups for developing early parenting interventions. Some valuable efforts to develop such interventions have been made in the organizational sector in Finland. However, there is a great need for new ways of work that would simultaneously concentrate in substance-abuse treatment and enhance parenting in public healthcare settings. The present article describes the background, content, and protocol of a new prenatal intervention developed for substance-abusing pregnant women in a hospital setting in public healthcare. The intervention includes two new elements and pathways aimed to enhance the mothers' curiosity toward her developing child and provide motivation to stay abstinent from substance use. The pathways are interactive ultrasound consultation and a new pregnancy diary, both using a parental mentalization focus. The intervention elements, experiences from running the intervention, evaluation protocol, and general characteristics of the study sample gained (n = 90) are described and discussed. Two case vignettes from the study sample are presented, and the applicability of this prenatal work with other groups and settings is considered. © 2016 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.
Dolan Mairead C
Full Text Available Abstract Background Violent victimisation among people with major mental illness is well-documented but the risk factors for criminal violent victimisation are not well understood. Methods We examined the relationship between illness-related variables, indices of substance abuse and previous history of violence in a sample of 23 male criminally violently victimized and 69 non-criminally violently victimized male patients with DSM-IV-TR diagnoses of schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder that were resident in the community and in contact with public mental health services in Victoria Australia. Data on criminal victimisation was acquired from the police database. Results Demographic, a history of violence or illness-related variables did not distinguish between those had been the victim of a violent crime and those who had not. Our data indicated that drug abuse was a key factor in distinguishing between the groups, but the age of onset of substance abuse was not a significant factor. Scores on measures of drug abuse were modest predictors of criminal victimisation status in our Receiver Operator Characteristic analyses. Conclusion Overall, our findings suggest that substance abuse (particularly drug abuse is a key predictor of violent victimisation based on criminal statistics. The latter has implications for mental health professions involved in the care planning and community management of patients with major mental illness and work points to the importance of substance abuse treatment in the prevention of victimisation as well as violence perpetration.
Individuals who attended the famous Woodstock concert--known collectively as hippies--were part of the "counterculture" of the late 1960s and well known for their use of illicit, sometimes psychedelic, drugs. Did they and other former hippies, who are now in their sixties and seventies, continue their substance abuse, and how are they presenting now? This case evaluates a 77-year-old man who was referred to the geriatric assessment clinic for evaluation of worsening cognition. This case illustrates the need to conduct a complete medication history, including substance abuse and dietary supplements, in elderly patients. Consultant pharmacists with knowledge of alcohol and substance abuse and the influence of this abuse on a patient's drug regimen can make improved quality-of-life recommendations for appropriate dosage adjustments as needed.
Chuang, Emmeline; Wells, Rebecca; Bellettiere, John; Cross, Theodore P
Parental substance use significantly increases risk of child maltreatment, but is often under-identified by child protective services. This study examined how agency use of standardized substance use assessments and child welfare investigative caseworker education, experience, and caseload affected caseworkers' identification of parental substance abuse treatment needs. Data are from a national probability sample of permanent, primary caregivers involved with child protective services whose children initially remained at home and whose confidential responses on two validated instruments indicated harmful substance use or dependence. Investigative caseworkers reported use of a formal assessment in over two thirds of cases in which substance use was accurately identified. However, weighted logistic regression indicated that agency provision of standardized assessment instruments was not associated with caseworker identification of caregiver needs. Caseworkers were also less likely to identify substance abuse when their caseloads were high and when caregivers were fathers. Implications for agency practice are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Stein, L. A. R.; Graham, John R.
The ability of respondents to underreport successfully on substance abuse and validity scales of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-Adolescent was evaluated. Incarcerated teens (67 substance abusing, 59 non-substance abusing) completed the MMPI-A twice: once under standard instructions (SI) and once under instructions to fake good (FG). Under SI, substance scales correctly classified about 60% to 85% of adolescents. Under FG, substance- and non-substance-abusing juveniles produced lower scores on substance scales. However, the Lie Scale (L) was able to detect more than 75% of deceptive profiles and about 77% of honest profiles. When scale L and the best substance scale were used in combination, only about 18% of faking substance abusers were not identified as either substance abusers or as underreporting. For feigning substance abusers, only about 10% of substance abusers were detected, with about 72% being categorized as faking and needing further assessment. PMID:15695741
Horton, Gail; Diaz, Naelys; McIlveen, John; Weiner, Michael; Mullaney, Donald
The purpose of this study was to explore the prevalence rates of co-occurring mental health problems among 70 flight attendants in substance abuse treatment. Results indicated that flight attendants in treatment were more likely to experience alcohol dependency than drug dependency. A high proportion of participants reported clinical levels of…
Oshri, Assaf; Kogan, Steve M; Kwon, Josephine A; Wickrama, K A S; Vanderbroek, Lauren; Palmer, Abraham A; MacKillop, James
Emerging developmental perspectives suggest that adverse rearing environments promote neurocognitive adaptations that heighten impulsivity and increase vulnerability to risky behavior. Although studies document links between harsh rearing environments and impulsive behavior on substance use, the developmental hypothesis that impulsivity acts as mechanism linking adverse rearing environments to downstream substance use remains to be investigated. The present study investigated the role of impulsivity in linking child abuse and neglect with adult substance use using data from (a) a longitudinal sample of youth (Study 1, N = 9,421) and (b) a cross-sectional sample of adults (Study 2, N = 1,011). In Study 1, the links between child abuse and neglect and young adult smoking and marijuana use were mediated by increases in adolescent impulsivity. In Study 2, indirect links between child abuse and neglect and substance use were evidenced via delayed reward discounting and impulsivity traits. Among impulsivity subcomponents, robust indirect effects connecting childhood experiences to cigarette use emerged for negative urgency. Negative urgency, positive urgency, and sensation seeking mediated the effect of child abuse and neglect on cannabis and alcohol use. Results suggest that child abuse and neglect increases risk for substance use in part, due to effects on impulsivity. Individuals with adverse childhood experiences may benefit from substance use preventive intervention programs that target impulsive behaviors.
Lewis, Todd F; Mobley, A Keith
Many college students are using substances at levels consistent with Substance Abuse or Dependence, yet little explanation for this phenomenon exits. The aim of this study was to explore a risk factor profile that best separates those with low and high potential for having a substance use disorder (SUD). A discriminant function analysis revealed that participants with a high probability of having a SUD misperceive others' alcohol and marijuana use to a greater extent than those with a low probability of having a SUD. Implications for educators and counselors on college campuses are discussed.
Shuler, Monique; Suzuki, Sumihiro; Podesta, Arwen; Qualls-Hampton, Raquel; Wallington, Sherrie Flynt
There is increasing literature supporting the adverse effects of disasters on substance use and psychiatric disorders. The co-occurrence of psychiatric disorders with substance use intensifies the challenge of treatment delivery. Thus the aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of substance use, treatment characteristics, and demographics of discharges from substance abuse treatment in New Orleans, post-Hurricane Katrina. Trends associated with discharges that have a co-occurring psychiatric and substance use disorder (COD) were also assessed. The secondary aim of this study was to examine the association of successful substance abuse treatment completion among those with a COD post-Hurricane Katrina. Substance abuse treatment discharge data (N = 16,507) from New Orleans, Louisiana, for years 2006 through 2011 were obtained from the Treatment Episode Data Set-Discharge. Multiple logistic regression analysis was employed to examine the association of discharges with a COD and completion of substance abuse treatment. Demographic, psychiatric, and treatment characteristics of discharges in 2006 were compared to characteristics in 2011. Trends of characteristics were also assessed through the study period. Roughly a third (35.2%) of all discharges in New Orleans from 2006 to 2011 had a COD. After controlling for race, employment, treatment service setting at discharge, primary substance problem, and the discharge's principal source of referral, discharges with a COD were 29% less likely to complete treatment as compared to those with no COD (AOR = 0.71, 95% CI [0.56, 0.90], p = .004). Treatment completion among discharges with a COD has significantly declined from 36.8% in 2006 to 18.7% in 2011 (p Substance abuse treatment undergoes various changes in the event of a natural disaster. These changes may increase challenges for successful treatment completion for vulnerable populations such as those with a COD. Results of this study demonstrate that discharges
The motivation for this study was to find out the prevalence of drug use and abuse among youths in Calabar. The study also focused on the type of drugs that are mostly used and abused. Two research questions were posed one hypothesis formulated to guide the study. The subjects (2500 in all) were drawn from 15 post ...
The analysis trends observed in this study demonstrate global patterns of drug abuse emerging in the Western Cape. The medical and social effects of drug abuse impose a grave responsibility on policymakers to ensure that adequate funding is available for analytical laboratories. Only in such a way can these patients be ...
Dum, Mariam; Pickren, Jason; Sobell, Linda Carter; Sobell, Mark B
Because of the high co-occurrence of Axis-I mood disorders with primary substance use disorders (SUD), it is important to routinely assess substance abusers for evidence of a mood disorder. The primary goal of the present study was to examine the psychometric characteristics of two widely used self-report measures of depression (Beck Depression Inventory-II; Patient Health Questionnaire PRIME MD) with substance abusers (N=108) in an outpatient treatment setting. Using Cronbach's alpha, the reliabilities of the BDI-II and the PHQ-9 were 0.95 and 0.91, respectively. Principal component factor analyses of both measures were conducted to evaluate the relationship between a 3-factor solution (cognitive, affective, and somatic) for the BDI-II and a 1-factor solution for the PHQ-9 (depression). Both measures were correlated with severity levels of alcohol and drug use. Advantages and disadvantages of using both measures with substance abusers are discussed.
Jeanne, G; Purper-Ouakil, D; Rigole, H; Franc, N
-term consequences of the use of these substances. Moreover, these products have a strong addictive potential and may be a risk factor for other addictions. For this reason, increased supervision is justified, both for surveillance and reduction of harm. Taking care of an adolescent with substance abuse can be difficult. Updated information regarding these new substances and the particular danger they pose to adolescent health is needed. Informed clinicians can provide up to date and accurate information to the patient and family, assess potential risk factors and comorbidities, and provide appropriate support. Furthermore, because of the high prevalence of substance abuse in the adolescent population, systematic screening of adolescent consumption habit is useful to avoid or anticipate complications. Often, problematic substance consumption behaviors are signs of more complicated psychological or psychiatric issues. Substance abuse behaviors will often disappear over time but they can also become a major problem as the adolescent moves into adulthood. If problems persist, consultation with an addiction specialist may be warranted. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.
Hunt, Priscillia; Hunter, Sarah B; Levan, Deborah
Continuous quality improvement (CQI) has grown in the U.S. since the 1970s, yet little is known about the costs to implement CQI in substance abuse treatment facilities. This paper is part of a larger group randomized control trial in a large urban county evaluating the impact of Plan-Study-Do-Act (PDSA)-CQI designed for community service organizations (Hunter, Ober, Paddock, Hunt, & Levan, 2014). Operated by one umbrella organization, each of the eight facilities of the study, four residential and four outpatient substance abuse treatment facilities, selected their own CQI Actions, including administrative- and clinical care-related Actions. Using an activity-based costing approach, we collected labor and supplies and equipment costs directly attributable to CQI Actions over a 12-month trial period. Our study finds implementation of CQI and meeting costs of this trial per facility were approximately $2000 to $10,500 per year ($4500 on average), or $10 to $60 per admitted client. We provide a description of the sources of variation in these costs, including differing intensity of the CQI Actions selected, which should help decision makers plan use of PDSA-CQI. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Salah Adin Karimi
Full Text Available Background: Many researches have been done on the addiction process, but few studies have examined the process of resiliency against addiction. This study was aimed to identify the facilitating and inhibiting factors in the young people’s resiliency process by analyzing their living experiences. Methodology: This qualitative study was based on grounded theory with Strauss and Corbin’s approach. The data underwent open, axial and selective coding. The study focused on Darvaze Ghar neighborhood of Tehran. Data were collected through open unstructured interviews and focus group discussion. In total, 21 interviews were conducted with 12 respondents and a focus group discussion was held with 7 participants. Lincoln and Guba (1985 scales were used to ensure the trustworthiness of the study. Results: The obtained codes were classified into 19 categories, including personal characteristics, family support, culture, spirituality, spiritual beliefs, environment, and social interventions. According to their nature, these categories were facilitating or inhibiting the process of resiliency against substance abuse. Conclusion: The youth with more religious beliefs, awareness, self-confidence, optimism and hatred towards drugs are more resilient against substance abuse. Moreover, the families with a higher sense of responsibility trust and monitor their children’s activities, talk to them about different issues and provide them with good trainings from the very childhood; therefore their children will be more resilient against addiction.
Groman, Stephanie M; James, Alex S; Jentsch, J David
The co-morbidity between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and substance abuse and dependence disorders may have multiple causes and consequences. In this review, we will describe neurobehavioral, genetic and animal model studies that support the notion that a common, genetically determined failure of response inhibition function is an endophenotype for both disorders. Through an impairment in the ability to cognitively control pre-potent behaviors, subjects can exhibit a collection of ADHD-like traits (impulsivity and hyperactivity), as well as susceptibility for the initiation of drug taking and its ultimate progression to an inflexible, uncontrollable form. At the neural level, dysfunction within circuitry that includes the ventrolateral frontal and cingulate cortices, as well as in associated basal ganglia zones, contributes to a common pattern of behavioral impairment, explaining aspects of co-morbidity. Animal models of substance abuse/dependence and ADHD that exhibit deficits in response inhibition have substantiated the role of this endophenotype in both disorders and their co-morbidity and should provide a testing ground for interventions targeting it. New directions for research that will further explore this hypothesis and begin to reveal the underlying biological mechanisms will be proposed.
Metz, Verena E; Brandt, Laura; Unger, Annemarie; Fischer, Gabriele
During the past decade, substantial progress has been made in the field of addiction medicine in Europe, particularly regarding the development of new treatment interventions, resulting in a wide range of therapeutic options for patients with substance use disorders. However, not all interventions are evidence based. Patients with cannabis and cocaine/amphetamine use disorders and special patient populations especially lack evidence-based treatment recommendations. Many patients undergo treatment that has not been scientifically evaluated for quality and efficacy. Moreover, there are large disparities regarding availability and treatment access across Europe, with the new member states of the European Union (EU) reporting long waiting lists and low treatment coverage. Even in Austria, which ranks among the countries with relatively high treatment coverage and good diversification of treatment in opioid maintenance therapy due to the availability of methadone, buprenorphine, and slow-release oral morphine (SROM), a considerable population of untreated or inadequately treated patients exists. Treatment for substance use disorders in Europe still has scope for improvement in terms of treatment availability and access, which is ideally provided by further development and implementation of evidence-based interventions.
Meade, Christina S; Kershaw, Trace S; Hansen, Nathan B; Sikkema, Kathleen J
The prevalence of childhood sexual and physical abuse among persons with severe mental illness (SMI) is disproportionately high. Adults with SMI also engage in high rates of HIV risk behaviors. This study examined the association between childhood abuse and adult victimization, substance abuse, and lifetime HIV sexual risk in a sample of 152 adults with SMI receiving community mental health services. Structured interviews assessed psychiatric, psychosocial, and behavioral risk factors. Seventy percent reported childhood physical and/or sexual abuse, and 32% reported both types of abuse. Participants with childhood abuse were more likely to report adult victimization and greater HIV risk. A structural equation model found that childhood abuse was directly and indirectly associated with HIV risk through drug abuse and adult vicitimization. Integrated treatment approaches that address interpersonal violence and substance abuse may be necessary for HIV risk reduction in this population.
Mejía, Bertha; Zea, Paloma; Romero, Martha; Saldívar, Gabriela
In the past decade, several studies have focused on the treatment needs of female inmates with substance abuse problems. An important finding has been that these women are more likely to report histories of sexual, physical, and emotional abuse-at rates varying from 77% to 90%. The trauma resulting from this kind of abuse is a key contributing factor in behavioral problems in adolescence and subsequent delinquency, substance abuse, and criminality in adulthood. This was a retrospective clinical study. A convenience sample of 112 women who entered the program's treatment groups consecutively for one year form part of the study. Information on traumatic events was obtained using some questions from the Initial Trauma Review. It explores whether the participant experienced physical abuse, sexual abuse, disasters, automobile accidents, or witnessed violence under the age of 18. It also examines experiences as an adult, including sexual and physical abuse, attacks by others who are not intimate partners, and abuse by authorities. Revictimization in sexual abuse was found in 78.1% of participants. Significant differences were identified between women who had experienced a traumatic sexual event from a person five years their senior before the age of 18 and then suffered from sexual violence as an adult, and women who had never undergone either of these events (x(2) = 11.3, df 112/1, p = abuse, the figure was 82.17%. Differences were observed between women who were revictimized through physical abuse before and after the age of 18 (x(2) = 5.91, df 112/1, p = treatment in these areas during the prison sentence and after release may contribute to preventing these women from become repeat offenders. Creating sources of work and halfway houses that continue the program to prevent relapses into substance use can help defend the human rights of this group of women and achieve social justice.
Hahm, Hyeouk Chris; Chang, Stephanie Tzu-Han; Tong, Hui Qi; Meneses, Michelle Ann; Yuzbasioglu, Rojda Filiz; Hien, Denise
The purpose of this paper is to provide a review of the current literature uncovering specific factors associated with self-harm and suicidality among young Asian American women, as well as to present the Fractured Identity Model as a framework for understanding these factors. This paper offers concrete suggestions for the development of culturally competent interventions to target suicidality, substance abuse, and mental illness among young Asian American women. Empirical studies and theory-based papers featured in peer-reviewed journals between 1990 and 2014 were identified through scholarly databases, such as PubMed, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, JSTOR, and Google Scholar. We identified several factors associated with suicidality among young Asian American women: (1) family dynamics, or having lived in a household where parents practice "disempowering parenting styles," (2) substance use/abuse, and (3) untreated mental illness(es), which are exacerbated by the stigma and shame attached to seeking out mental health services. The Fractured Identity Model by Hahm et al. (2014) is presented as a possible pathway from disempowering parenting to suicidal and self-harm behaviors among this population, with substance abuse playing a significant mediating role. Research limitations/implications - Our review focused on Asian American women, substance use among Asian Americans, and mental health among Asian Americans. Literature that focused on Asians living in Asia or elsewhere outside of the USA was excluded from this review; the review was limited to research conducted in the USA and written in the English language. The complex interplay among Asian American culture, family dynamics, gender roles/expectations, and mental health justifies the development of a suicide and substance abuse intervention that is tailored to the culture- and gender-specific needs of Asian Pacific Islander young women. It is imperative for professionals in the fields of public health, mental health
Hahm, Hyeouk Chris; Chang, Stephanie Tzu-Han; Tong, Hui Qi; Meneses, Michelle Ann; Yuzbasioglu, Rojda Filiz; Hien, Denise
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to provide a review of the current literature uncovering specific factors associated with self-harm and suicidality among young Asian American women, as well as to present the Fractured Identity Model as a framework for understanding these factors. This paper offers concrete suggestions for the development of culturally competent interventions to target suicidality, substance abuse, and mental illness among young Asian American women. Design/methodology/approach Empirical studies and theory-based papers featured in peer-reviewed journals between 1990 and 2014 were identified through scholarly databases, such as PubMed, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, JSTOR, and Google Scholar. Findings We identified several factors associated with suicidality among young Asian American women: (1) family dynamics, or having lived in a household where parents practice “disempowering parenting styles,” (2) substance use/abuse, and (3) untreated mental illness(es), which are exacerbated by the stigma and shame attached to seeking out mental health services. The Fractured Identity Model by Hahm et al. (2014) is presented as a possible pathway from disempowering parenting to suicidal and self-harm behaviors among this population, with substance abuse playing a significant mediating role. Research limitations/implications – Our review focused on Asian American women, substance use among Asian Americans, and mental health among Asian Americans. Literature that focused on Asians living in Asia or elsewhere outside of the USA was excluded from this review; the review was limited to research conducted in the USA and written in the English language. Practical implications The complex interplay among Asian American culture, family dynamics, gender roles/expectations, and mental health justifies the development of a suicide and substance abuse intervention that is tailored to the culture- and gender-specific needs of Asian Pacific Islander young women. It is
Banducci, Anne N.; Hoffman, Elana M; Lejuez, C.W.; Koenen, Karestan
Adults with substance use disorders (SUDs) report a high prevalence of childhood abuse. Research in the general population suggests specific types of abuse lead to particular negative outcomes; it is not known whether this pattern holds for adults with SUDs. We hypothesized that specific types of abuse would be associated with particular behavioral and emotional outcomes among substance users. That is, childhood sexual abuse would be associated with risky sex behaviors, childhood physical abu...
Chueh, Ke-Hsin; Ding, Guan-Yu; Yao, Ke-Wu; Huang, Yi-Jien; Hung, Chao-Chia
The Ministries of Justice and Education have implemented adolescent substance abuse prevention programs for many years. Rates of substance abuse among high school students continue to rise in spite of such programs. This study investigates adolescents' substance abuse-related knowledge and attitudes and self-confidence to resist substance use in order to identify predictive factors of poor adolescent resistance to substance use. A cross-sectional study survey gathered data on substance abuse-related knowledge and attitudes and self-confidence to resist substance use from 243 second-year senior high school students studying at two schools in northern Taiwan. Participants were most knowledgeable about tobacco (80.2%), followed by alcohol (72.0%), ecstasy (56.0%), and marijuana (30.0%). Only 19.3% demonstrated an understanding of the harmful effects of using Ketamine. A 10-point Likert scale measured participant substance use attitudes. Alcohol was the substance participants were most willing to use (2.18 ± 3.27), followed by tobacco (0.66 ± 2.19), ecstasy (0.45 ± 1.88), Ketamine (0.43 ± 1.93), and marijuana (0.38 ± 1.83). Participants had higher awareness of the harmful effects of Ketamine (t = -2.37, p = .018), marijuana (t = -2.33, p = .021), and tobacco (t = -2.02, p = .044), with participants reporting greater self-confidence to resist using these three substances. Multiple regression analysis found the three most important factors affecting participant self-confidence to resist substance use to be gender (β= .26, p substance (β= .15, p = .028), and attitude toward substance use (β= -.20, p substances considered in this paper. Being female, having strong knowledge about the substance, and negative attitude toward substance use correlated with higher levels of self-confidence to resist substance use. Study results will be used in ongoing research designed to establish an empirical basis for adolescent substance use prevention and research, the results of
Greenfield, Lawrence; Wolf-Branigin, Michael
Indicators of co-occurring mental health and substance abuse problems routinely collected at treatment admission in 19 State substance abuse treatment systems include a dual diagnosis and a State mental health (cognitive impairment) agency referral. These indicators have yet to be compared as predictors of treatment outcomes. 1. Compare both indices as outcomes predictors individually and interactively. 2. Assess relationship of both indices to other client risk factors, e.g., physical/sexual abuse. Client admission and discharge records from the Nevada substance abuse treatment program, spanning 1995-2001 were reviewed (n = 17,591). Logistic regression analyses predicted treatment completion with significant improvement (33%) and treatment readmission following discharge (21%). Using Cox regression, the number of days from discharge to treatment readmission was predicted. Examined as predictors were two mental health indicators and their interaction with other admission and treatment variables controlled. Neither mental health indicator alone significantly predicted any of the three outcomes; however, the interaction between the two indicators significantly predicted each outcome (p abuse, domestic violence, homelessness, out of labor force and prior treatment. Indicator interactions may help improve substance abuse treatment outcomes prediction.
Substance abusers often face substantial systematic and personal barriers to receiving required substance abuse treatment services as well as other services; hence, various linkage mechanisms have been proposed for drug abuse treatment programs to overcome such barriers. Although there is a growing interest in the use of case management with a substance abuse background, its effectiveness in child welfare has yet to be explored. In this study the author attempts to investigate the effectiveness of case management in service utilization by systematically evaluating the five-year Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse (AODA) waiver demonstration project with Recovery Coaches in Illinois. A classic experimental design with a control group was used. Random assignment occurs at the agency level. Parents in the experimental group (N = 1562) received recovery coaches in addition to traditional child welfare services while parents in the control group (N = 598) only received traditional child welfare services. Bivariate and multivariate analyses (Ordinary Last Square regressions) were used. Compared to parents in the control group, parents in the experimental group were more likely to utilize substance abuse treatment. The results suggest that gender, education level, employment status, and the number of service needs were significantly associated with service utilization. Controlling other factors, recovery coaches improved overall service utilization. Because the outcome of child welfare often depends on the improvement of risks or resolution, it is important for parents to utilize the needed services. Future studies need to address what aspects of recovery coaches facilitate the services utilization.
Full Text Available Sally StevensSouthwest Institute for Research on Women (SIROW and Department of Gender and Women’s Studies (GWS, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, USAAbstract: Research on the incidence, etiology and substance abuse treatment needs of lesbian, bisexual and transgender (LBT women is limited. Most research indicates higher levels of alcohol and drug abuse among these populations compared to their heterosexual counterparts, with recent research indicating that substance abuse is a particular concern for transgender individuals and an increasing problem among younger LBT individuals. Risk factors and reasons for substance abuse among sexual minority women are similar to those of heterosexual women, yet are substantially complicated by issues of family rejection and lack of social support, stigma and minority stress, as well as abuse and harassment. Historically, substance abuse prevention, early intervention, and clinical treatment programs were designed to meet the needs of the sexual majority population with relatively few programs designed to incorporate the specific needs of sexual minorities. This article reviews findings from previous studies and utilizes new data collected from community-based and residential substance abuse treatment programs to (1 examine issues relevant to LBT women and substance use, and (2 make recommendations for tailoring substance abuse treatment programs to meet the needs of these populations.Keywords: lesbian, bisexual, transgender, substance abuse, family rejection, social support, stigma, minority stress, abuse, harassment
Walters, Glenn D
The purpose of this study was to determine (a) which of 2 dimensions of criminal thinking (proactive and/or reactive) correlates with prior substance abuse; (b) whether criminal thinking mediates the relationship between prior substance abuse and recidivism; (c) if a direct relationship exists between specific drugs of abuse and specific criminal thinking styles. First, the reconstructed Proactive (Prc) and Reactive (Rrc) Criminal Thinking scores from the Psychological Inventory of Criminal Thinking Styles (PICTS; Walters, 1995) were correlated with a dichotomous measure of prior substance abuse and a continuous measure of the number of substances abused in a sample of 2877 male federal prisoners (age: M = 34.96, SD = 9.89, range = 18-84; race: 63.6% Black, 17.3% White, 17.6% Hispanic, 1.4% other). The results indicated that only the Rrc score correlated significantly with prior substance abuse when the effect of the alternative measure (Prc in the case of Rrc and Rrc in the case of the Prc) was controlled through partial correlations. Second, reactive criminal thinking was found to mediate the relationship between a history of prior substance abuse and subsequent recidivism in a subsample of 1101 inmates who were released from prison during a 1- to 76-month follow-up. Third, both specific (alcohol with cutoff; marijuana with cognitive indolence) and global (heroin, cocaine, and amphetamine with cutoff, cognitive indolence, and discontinuity) drug-criminal thinking correlations were obtained. These results suggest that reactive criminal thinking plays a potentially important role in the drug-crime relationship.
Full Text Available Objective:The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between experiencing household dysfunction and substance abuse in adulthood among Jamaican university students. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study which consisted of university students who were 18 years or older. Systematic sampling techniques were utilized to identify participants spanning across all faculties of a single university. The questionnaire utilized for this study included questions from several standardized scales: Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10, the Inter-American Drug Abuse Control Commission/Organization of American States (CICAD/OAS drug use questionnaire and the household dysfunction scale from the Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE questionnaire. Results:A total of 382 students participated in the study (279 females and 103 males. More than a third of the students (38.9% reported substance use, with 13.6% being substance abusers. Seven of every ten respondents were raised in a dysfunctional household. A significant positive relationship was observed between household dysfunction and substance abuse, where higher levels of household dysfunction were found to be associated with substance abuse: χ2 (2, n = 382 = 7.685, p < 0.05. Additionally, witnessing a mother or caregiver being violently treated, living with an alcoholic family member or a household member who attempted suicide was found to be associated with substance abuse during adulthood. Conclusion:These findings highlight the role of household dysfunction as a serious risk factor for adult drug abuse and can be used to help guide and inform drug prevention and intervention strategies.
Yu, Jiang; Warner, Lynn A
According to New York statewide substance abuse treatment and discharge data, Asians are a small minority who differ significantly from other racial-ethnic groups on income, primary language, treatment setting, substance abuse, referral source, and discharge status. The present study further compares alcohol and substance abuse service utilization patterns of Asians with those of Whites, Blacks, and Hispanics in New York State. Cox regressions were employed to examine the differences in treatment admission patterns among Asians and other ethnic groups, while controlling a number of demographic, treatment-related, and non-treatment-related factors. A sample of 408,158 clients was selected from the Client Data System of the New York State Office of Alcoholism and Substance Abuse Services for the analysis. While Asians in general are less likely to use treatment services and to have multiple treatment admissions compared with other groups, those Asians with multiple admissions tend to show utilization patterns - the period of greatest risk for readmission, the rate at which readmissions occur, and the likelihood of readmission - similar to the other groups at each subsequent admission. These findings suggest both similarities and differences in treatment readmission patterns between Asians and other clients of substance abuse treatment services. Future research on the cultural and linguistic factors related to Asians' recovery and service utilization patterns after the initial treatment experience may be particularly important for systems of care seeking to be responsive to Asians' needs.
Lee A James
Full Text Available Abstract This short report investigates scale effects in family substance abuse treatment programs. In Massachusetts, the family substance abuse treatment programs were much more costly than other adult residential treatment models. State officials were concerned that the "scale" or size of these programs (averaging just eight families was too small to be economical. Although the sample size (just nine programs was too small to permit reliable inference, the data clearly signalled the importance of "scale effects" in these family substance abuse treatment programs. To further investigate scale effects in family substance abuse treatment programs, data from the Center for Substance Abuse Treatment's (CSAT's Residential Women and Children and Pregnant and Postpartum Women (RWC-PPW Demonstration were re-analyzed, focusing on the relationship between cost per family-day and the estimated average family census. This analysis indicates strong economies of scale up until an average family census of about 14, and less apparent scale effects beyond that point. In consideration of these and other study findings, a multidisciplinary interagency team redesigned the Massachusetts' family treatment program model. The new programs are larger than the former family treatment programs, with each new program having capacity to treat 11 to 15 families depending on family makeup.
Raitakari, Suvi; Günther, Kirsi; Juhila, Kirsi; Saario, Sirpa
Professionals in human service work are at the centre of complicated client cases. The ways client cases are constructed and the problems explained form the basis for professionals' assessments, decisions, actions and interventions. In this article the ways professionals make sense of dual-diagnosis client cases are examined. Applying the concept of causal accounting, it is argued that 'theories of cause' are embedded in professional discourse and profoundly shape professionals' understandings of social and health problems, as well as of their own roles and responsibilities and of what interventions and outcomes are possible. The data consist of 48 tape-recorded weekly team meetings among professionals in a supported housing unit targeted for clients with both mental health and substance abuse problems. It was found that professionals reason about the relationship between these two problems in four different ways: (1) substance abuse causes or makes mental health problems worse; (2) substance abuse eases mental health problems; (3) mental health problems cause or make substance abuse worse; or (4) good mental health reduces substance abuse. Causal account research makes visible the ways professionals do institutional work by categorizing clients, accounting for responsibilities as well as assessing their work and clients' achievements according to moral expectations of a 'good'professional and a worthy client.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Completion of substance abuse treatment is a proximal indicator of positive treatment outcomes. To design interventions to improve outcomes, it is therefore important to unpack the factors contributing to treatment completion. To date, substance abuse research has not examined the factors associated with treatment completion among poor, disadvantaged communities in developing countries. This study aimed to address this gap by exploring client-level factors associated with treatment completion among poor communities in South Africa. Methods Secondary data analysis was conducted on cross-sectional survey data collected from 434 persons residing in poor communities in Cape Town, South Africa who had accessed substance abuse treatment in 2006. Results Multiple regression analyses revealed that therapeutic alliance, treatment perceptions, abstinence-specific social support, and depression were significant partial predictors of treatment completion. Conclusions Findings suggest that treatment completion rates of individuals from poor South African communities can be enhanced by i improving perceptions of substance abuse treatment through introducing quality improvement initiatives into substance abuse services, ii strengthening clients' abstinence-oriented social networks and, iii strengthening the counselor-client therapeutic alliance.
Zlotnick, Cheryl; Lawental, Maayan; Pud, Dorit
This study examined the profiles of symptoms and health-related quality of life (QOL) of women in substance abuse treatment, comparing those with higher versus lower histories of adverse childhood events (ACE), and those with versus without current pain. Adult women in outpatient substance abuse treatment (n = 30) completed questionnaires (cross-sectional study) on topics including drug use, adverse childhood events (ACE), QOL, functional ability, current pain, and depression. Women with pain indicated significant differences in emotional (p substance abuse treatment illustrates areas of concern in the overall status of women in substance abuse treatment.
Full Text Available Prevalent substance use among hospitality employees appears to be the norm, but should this be a cause of concern for employers and the industry as a whole? This commentary illustrates the main shortcomings of current references in the hospitality literature to substance use among employees, calling for a cautious and skeptical approach on the part of hospitality scholars and practitioners in the face of a general alarmism regarding the impact of substance use on the workplace
Full Text Available Abstract Background Attachment theory allows specific predictions about the role of attachment representations in organizing behavior. Insecure attachment is hypothesized to predict maladaptive emotional regulation whereas secure attachment is hypothesized to predict adaptive emotional regulation. In this paper, we test specific hypotheses about the role of attachment representations in substance abuse/dependence and treatment participation. Based on theory, we expect divergence between levels of maladaptive functioning and adaptive methods of regulating negative emotions. Methods Participants for this study consist of a sample of adoptees participating in an ongoing longitudinal adoption study (n = 208. The Semi-Structured Assessment of the Genetics of Alcohol-II 41 was used to determine lifetime substance abuse/dependence and treatment participation. Attachment representations were derived by the Adult Attachment Interview [AAI; 16]. We constructed a prior contrasts reflecting theoretical predictions for the association between attachment representations, substance abuse/dependence and treatment participation. Results Logistic regression was used to test our hypotheses. As predicted, individuals classified as dismissing, preoccupied or earned-secure reported the highest rates of substance abuse/dependence. Individuals classified as dismissing reported significantly lower rates of treatment participation despite their high rates of substance abuse/dependence. As expected, the continuous-secure group reported lowest rates of both substance abuse/dependence and treatment participation. Conclusion The findings from this study identify attachment representations as an influential factor in understanding the divergence between problematic substance use and treatment utilization. The findings further imply that treatment may need to take attachment representations into account to promote successful recovery.
McCabe, Sean Esteban; West, Brady T.; Hughes, Tonda L.; Boyd, Carol J.
This study examined substance abuse treatment utilization across three dimensions of sexual orientation (identity, attraction, behavior) in a large national sample of adults in the United States. Prevalence estimates were based on data collected from the 2004–2005 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. The sample consisted of 34,653 adults aged 20 years and older: 52% women, 71% White, 12% Hispanic, 11% African American, 4% Asian, and 2% other race/ethnicities. Approximately 2% of the sample self-identified as lesbian, gay or bisexual; 4% reported same-sex sexual behavior, and 6% reported same-sex sexual attraction. Sexual minorities, especially women, had a greater likelihood of lifetime substance use disorders and earlier age of drinking onset. The majority of respondents with substance use disorders were untreated and lifetime substance abuse treatment utilization differed based on sexual orientation. Sexual minorities were found to have more extensive family history of substance abuse problems. The findings indicate the underutilization of substance abuse treatment among all adults, and highlight some important factors to consider when working with sexual minorities. PMID:22444421
McCabe, Sean Esteban; West, Brady T; Hughes, Tonda L; Boyd, Carol J
This study examined substance abuse treatment utilization across three dimensions of sexual orientation (identity, attraction, and behavior) in a large national sample of adults in the United States. Prevalence estimates were based on data collected from the 2004-2005 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. The sample consisted of 34,653 adults 20 years and older, and represented a population that was 52% women, 71% White, 12% Hispanic, 11% African American, 4% Asian, and 2% other race/ethnicities. An estimated 2% of the target population self-identified as lesbian, gay or bisexual; 4% reported same-sex sexual behavior, and 6% reported same-sex sexual attraction. Sexual minorities, especially women, had a greater likelihood of lifetime substance use disorders and earlier age of drinking onset. The majority of respondents with substance use disorders were untreated and lifetime substance abuse treatment utilization differed based on sexual orientation. Sexual minorities were found to have more extensive family histories of substance abuse problems. The findings indicate the underutilization of substance abuse treatment among all adults, and highlight some important factors to consider when working with sexual minorities. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Daigre, Constanza; Rodríguez-Cintas, Laia; Tarifa, Núria; Rodríguez-Martos, Lola; Grau-López, Lara; Berenguer, Marta; Casas, Miguel; Roncero, Carlos
Sexual, emotional or physical abuse history is a risk factor for mental disorders in addicted patients. However, the relationship between addiction and abuse lifespan is not well known. This study aims to compare clinical and psychopathological features of addicted patients according to the experience of abuse and to the number of different types of abuse suffered. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted. 512 addicted patients seeking treatment were included, 45.9% reported abuse throughout life (38.9% emotional, 22.3% physical and 13.5% sexual abuse). It was found that female gender; depressive symptoms and borderline personality disorder were independently associated with history of any abuse throughout life. As well, it was found that 14% have been suffered from all three types of abuse (sexual, emotional and physical), 34.5% from two and 55.5% from one type. Female gender and borderline personality disorder were independently associated independently with a greater number of different types of abuse. Results suggest that history of abuse is frequent among substance-dependent patients and these experiences are more prevalent in women and are associated with more psychiatric comorbidity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
... theme, ``Learn it! Live it!'' encourages Americans to come together, learn how substance use affects our... National Drug Control Strategy begins with a commitment to stop drug use before it begins. We have expanded... substance use disorder and mental health benefits for more than 60 million Americans. And beginning this...
Background: The nature of continuous exposure to the street and its associated life‑styles make street children vulnerable to the use of psychoactive substances. Aims: The aim of the present study is to study some social factors of street children in Guwahati city and to ascertain the substance use behavior of the street ...
Zellner, Tiffany; Trotter, Jennie; Lenoir, Shelia; Walston, Kelvin; Men-Na'a, L'dia; Henry-Akintobi, Tabia; Miller, Assia
Few interventions have targeted perceived stress as a co-occurring construct central to substance use and subsequent HIV/AIDS risk reduction among African American urban young adults. The Color It Real Program was a seven session, weekly administered age-specific and culturally-tailored intervention designed to provide substance abuse and HIV education and reduce perceived stress among African Americans ages 18 to 24 in Atlanta, GA. Effectiveness was assessed through a quasi-experimental study design that consisted of intervention (n = 122) and comparison (n = 70) groups completing a pre- and post-intervention survey. A series of Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) tests were used to assess pre- to post-intervention changes between study groups. For intervention participants, perceived stress levels were significantly reduced by the end of the intervention (t(70) = 2.38, p = 0.020), condom use at last sexual encounter significantly increased (F = 4.43, p = 0.0360), intervention participants were significantly less likely to drink five or more alcoholic drinks in one sitting (F = 5.10, p = 0.0245), and to use clean needles when injecting the drug (F = 36.99, p = 0.0001). This study is among the first of its kind to incorporate stress management as an integral approach to HIV/SA prevention. The program has implications for the design of other community-based, holistic approaches to addressing substance use and risky behaviors for young adults.
Full Text Available Few interventions have targeted perceived stress as a co-occurring construct central to substance use and subsequent HIV/AIDS risk reduction among African American urban young adults. The Color It Real Program was a seven session, weekly administered age-specific and culturally-tailored intervention designed to provide substance abuse and HIV education and reduce perceived stress among African Americans ages 18 to 24 in Atlanta, GA. Effectiveness was assessed through a quasi-experimental study design that consisted of intervention (n = 122 and comparison (n = 70 groups completing a pre- and post-intervention survey. A series of Analysis of Variance (ANOVA tests were used to assess pre- to post-intervention changes between study groups. For intervention participants, perceived stress levels were significantly reduced by the end of the intervention (t(70 = 2.38, p = 0.020, condom use at last sexual encounter significantly increased (F = 4.43, p = 0.0360, intervention participants were significantly less likely to drink five or more alcoholic drinks in one sitting (F = 5.10, p = 0.0245, and to use clean needles when injecting the drug (F = 36.99, p = 0.0001. This study is among the first of its kind to incorporate stress management as an integral approach to HIV/SA prevention. The program has implications for the design of other community-based, holistic approaches to addressing substance use and risky behaviors for young adults.
Sanja Tatalović Vorkapić
Full Text Available AIM: In this study, burnout and its internal and external factors were investigated among substance abuse counsellors (no. = 68 who worked in centres for Prevention and Substance Abuse Treatment (no. = 18 in Croatia. METHODS: Maslach Burnout Inventory was used which measured three burnout dimensions: emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and personal accomplishment; and questionnaire of internal and external burnout factors. RESULTS: The higher levels of emotional exhaustion and depersonalization, and the higher level of personal accomplishment were determined. Factors such as work conditions, emotions about us and work, work organization and certain personality traits showed significant relationship with three burnout dimensions. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, findings implicated a certain specificity of professional burnout in substance abuse counsellors, and the need for specific design of mental health care for them.
Sanja Tatalovic Vorkapic
Full Text Available One of the most important factors of successful substance abuse treatment is the early start of the same treatment. Recent selection method for identification of Croatian adolescents in the substance abuse risk that has been using drug tests from urine samples, has been simple and exact on the one hand, but on the other, has been very rare and usually guided by the pressure of parents or the court. Besides, such method presented the source of legal and ethical questions. So, the proposal of application of standardized psychological tests during systematic medical exams of Croatian adolescents at the age range of 15-22 years could help with the early detection of those adolescents who were in the substance abuse risk or already had the developed addiction problem.
Tatalović Vorkapić, Sanja; Mustapić, Jelena
In this study, burnout and its internal and external factors were investigated among substance abuse counsellors (no. = 68) who worked in Centres for Prevention and Substance Abuse Treatment (no. = 18) in Croatia. Maslach Burnout Inventory was used which measured three burnout dimensions: emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and personal accomplishment; and questionnaire of internal and external burnout factors. The higher levels of emotional exhaustion and depersonalization, and the higher level of personal accomplishment were determined. Factors such as work conditions, emotions about us and work, work organization and certain personality traits showed significant relationship with three burnout dimensions. Overall, findings implicated a certain specificity of professional burnout in substance abuse counsellors, and the need for specific design of mental health care for them.
Full Text Available Background & Objective: Nowaday, substance abuse is one of the bitterest social damages. In the recent years, substance abuse has increased among students of schools and universities, therefore special attention it requires. This study aimed to study the effect of life skills training on the promotion of the preventive behaviors of Gonabad University medical school students’ abuse of substances. Materials & Methods: During the experimental research and field trail, 60 students were Selected through a quota random sampling method and were randomly assigned to the two case and control groups. A Questionnaire that involved demographic factors and Preventive behaviors, whichwere caused as the result of drug abuse, was used for data collection. The questionnaire’s reliability and validity was assessed before and after educational intervention, and as a follow-up, 4 years after educational intervention. The Data was analyzed using T-Test and Chi-square. Results: Comparison of the mean of the scores in scale Preventive behaviors caused by drug abuse in post-test of two case and control groups had a significant difference (p<0/01 that remained stable 4 years after the end of the intervention. There was a significant difference between some of the demographic factors and Preventive behaviors that had been caused by drug abuse (p<0/01. Conclusion: Life skills training are effective in strengthening Preventive behaviors of substance abuse in university students. Therefore, life skills training programs should be integrated into university courses in order to comprehensively and consistently the effect of drug abuse on the educational level of students
Svanum, S; McGrew, J; Ehrmann, L
This study assessed the validity of three Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2-based (MMPI-2; Butcher, Dahlstrom, Graham, Tellegen, & Kaemmer, 1989) substance abuse scales. The scales were the MacAndrew Alcoholism Scale-Revised (MAC-R; Butcher et al., 1989) and the recently developed Addiction Acknowledgment Scale and Addiction Potential Scale (AAS & APS; Weed, Butcher, McKenna, & Ben-Porath, 1992). Study participants were 308 male and female college students who completed the MMPI-2 and the substance use disorder modules of the Diagnostic Interview Schedule. The MAC-R and the APS had a nonsignificant-to-weak relationship with substance dependence as defined by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (3rd ed., rev. [DSM-III-R]; American Psychiatric Association, 1980). The AAS had a moderate ability to identify the 33 study participants who met DSM-III-R criteria for a substance use disorder, primarily alcoholism. Broadening the definition of substance abuse to a continuum of alcohol/drug problems did not alter the character of findings. These results highlight the relative superiority of direct (AAS) versus subtle (APS, MAC-R) scales to detect substance dependence and support studies that question the overall utility of traditional MMPI scales to identify substance abuse.
Full Text Available Udi E Ghitza,1 Li-Tzy Wu,2 Betty Tai11Center for the Clinical Trials Network, National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health, United States Department of Health and Human Services, Bethesda, MD, 2Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USAAbstract: Cigarette smoking and alcohol use are prevalent among individuals with diabetes in the US, but little is known about screening and treatment for substance use disorders in the diabetic population. This commentary discusses the scope and clinical implications of the public health problem of coexisting substance use and diabetes, including suggestions for future research. Diabetes is the seventh leading cause of death in the US, and is associated with many severe health complications like cardiovascular disease, stroke, kidney damage, and limb amputations. There are an estimated 24 million adults in the US with type 2 diabetes. Approximately 20% of adults aged 18 years or older with diabetes report current cigarette smoking. The prevalence of current alcohol use in the diabetic population is estimated to be around 50%–60% in epidemiological surveys and treatment-seeking populations. Cigarette smoking is associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes in a dose-dependent manner and is an independent modifiable risk factor for development of type 2 diabetes. Diabetic patients with an alcohol or other drug use disorder show a higher rate of adverse health outcomes. For example, these patients experience more frequent and severe health complications as well as an increased risk of hospitalization, and require longer hospital stays. They are also less likely to seek routine care for diabetes or adhere to diabetes treatment than those without an alcohol or other drug use disorder. The Affordable Care Act of 2010 and the Mental Health Parity Act and Addiction Equity Act of 2008 provide opportunities for facilitating integration of
Miller, Mark W.; Reardon, Annemarie F.; Wolf, Erika J.; Prince, Lauren B.; Hein, Christina L.
This study examined the relative influences of PTSD, other psychopathology, and intimate partner alcohol and drug use on substance-related problems in U.S. veterans (242 couples, N = 484). Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that partner alcohol and drug use severity explained more variance in veteran alcohol use and drug use (20% and 13%, respectively) than did veteran PTSD, adult antisocial behavior, or depression symptoms combined (6% for veteran alcohol use; 7% for veteran drug use). Findings shed new light on the influence of relationship factors on veteran alcohol and drug use and underscore the importance of couples-oriented approaches to treating veterans with comorbid PTSD and substance abuse. PMID:23325433
Hamid Tavakoli Ghouchani
Full Text Available Background and Objectives: The world population has reached over seven billion people. Of these, 230 million individuals abuse substances. Therefore, substance abuse prevention and treatment programs have received increasing attention during the past two decades. Understanding people’s motivations for quitting drug abuse is essential to the success of treatment. This study hence sought to identify major motivations for quitting and to compare them with the constructs of health education models. Materials and Methods: In the present study, qualitative content analysis was used to determine the main motivations for quitting substance abuse. Overall, 22 patients, physicians, and psychotherapists were selected from several addiction treatment clinics in Bojnord (Iran during 2014. Purposeful sampling method was applied and continued until data saturation was achieved. Data were collected through semi-structured, face-to-face interviews and field notes. All interviews were recorded and transcribed. Results: Content analysis revealed 33 sub-categories and nine categories including economic problems, drug-related concerns, individual problems, family and social problems, family expectations, attention to social status, beliefs about drug addiction, and valuing the quitting behavior. Accordingly, four themes, i.e. perceived threat, perceived barriers, attitude toward the behavior, and subjective norms, were extracted. Conclusion: Reasons for quitting substance abuse match the constructs of different behavioral models (e.g. the health belief model and the theory of planned behavior.
Gonzalez-Guarda, Rosa Maria; Vasquez, Elias P.; Urrutia, Maria T.; Villarruel, Antonia M.; Peragallo, Nilda
Hispanic females are disproportionately affected by substance abuse, intimate partner violence, and HIV. Despite these disparities, research describing the cultural and gender-specific experiences of Hispanic women with regard to these conditions is lacking. The purpose of this study is to describe the experiences that Hispanic community-dwelling women have with regard to substance abuse, violence, and risky sexual behaviors. Eight focus groups with 81 women were conducted. A bilingual, bicultural moderator asked women open-ended questions regarding the experiences that Hispanic women have with these conditions. Focus groups were audiotaped, transcribed, translated, verified, and then analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Participants discussed substance abuse, violence, and risky sexual behaviors interchangeably, often identifying common risk factors associated with these. Nevertheless, intimate partner violence was the most salient of conditions discussed. Three major themes emerged from the analysis: Transplantadas en otro mundo (Uprooted in another world), El criador de abuso (The breeding ground of abuse), and Rompiendo el silencio (Breaking the silence). This study supports the importance of addressing substance abuse, violence, and risk for HIV in an integrated manner and stresses the importance of addressing associated cultural factors (e.g., acculturation, machismo) in interventions targeting Hispanics. PMID:21191036
Dimaggio, Giancarlo; D'Urzo, Maddalena; Pasinetti, Manuela; Salvatore, Giampaolo; Lysaker, Paul H; Catania, Dario; Popolo, Raffaele
Many patients with substance abuse problems present with co-occurrent cluster C personality disorders. Focusing on both disorders disrupts the maintenance mechanisms and the vicious cycle between the 2 conditions; however, treatment teams often neglect this issue. In this work, we describe the features of metacognitive interpersonal therapy as applied to a man with avoidant and depressive personality disorders and heroin, cocaine, and alcohol abuse. Psychotherapy proceeded through the following steps: (a) conducting drug therapy to deal with symptoms of abstinence from heroin; (b) forming a therapeutic bond to overcome the patient's severe emotional withdrawal; (c) fostering basic metacognitive capacities such as awareness of emotions and their triggers; (d) sharing formulations of maladaptive interpersonal schemas and descriptions of the associated states of mind; (e) conveying an understanding of the link between interpersonal events (recent ones and traumatic memories) and substance abuse; (f) facilitating the acquisition of critical distance from maladaptive schemas; and (g) promoting the use of adaptive coping skills instead of resorting to substance abuse. Implications for generalizing these procedures to the treatment of other patients with co-occurrent personality disorders and substance abuse are described. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Kanayama, Gen; Cohane, Geoffrey H; Weiss, Roger D; Pope, Harrison G
Recent reports suggest that anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) may cause mood disorders or dependence syndromes and may help to introduce some individuals to opioid abuse. At present, however, little is known about prior AAS use among men entering inpatient substance abuse treatment. We assessed lifetime AAS use in 223 male substance abusers admitted to a substance abuse treatment unit primarily for treatment of alcohol, cocaine, and opioid dependence. Subjects reporting definite or possible AAS use were then asked to participate in a detailed semistructured interview that covered demographics, drug use history, and symptoms experienced during AAS use and withdrawal, and whether AAS use had helped introduce the subject to other classes of drugs. Twenty-nine men (13%) reported prior AAS use, but this history was documented on physicians' admission evaluations in only 4 cases. Among 88 men listing opioids as their drug of choice, 22 (25%) acknowledged AAS use, versus only 7 (5%) of the other 135 men (p abuse treatment, especially those with opioid dependence. AAS use may serve as a "gateway" to opioid abuse in some cases and may also cause morbidity in its own right.
Dass-Brailsford, Priscilla; Myrick, Amie C
There is consensus that an integrated approach which addresses the clinical needs of individuals who have histories of substance abuse and psychological trauma concurrently is an acceptable and preferred approach to treatment. Several integrated models have emerged in recent years. In this paper we first define the concepts of substance abuse and psychological trauma, investigate the relationship between both and proceed to discuss why an integrated approach is most compelling. Finally, we review and critically examine the different integrated models that have been developed in terms of efficacy, effectiveness and empirical evidence. The paper concludes with suggestions on how the field can be improved.
Mignon, Sylvia I; Holmes, William M
Substance abuse and mental health problems among Native Americans are associated with a variety of general health, social, and economic problems. This current study examined Native American grandparents who are raising their grandchildren and found that a child, parent, or grandparent had an alcohol or drug problem in 36% of families. Substance abuse on the part of a parent was correlated with the reasons grandparents were raising their grandchildren. Native American grandparents raising grandchildren cope with a variety of challenges and receive little state-funded assistance or help from others.