WorldWideScience

Sample records for providing specific recommendations

  1. Race-specific trends in HPV vaccinations and provider recommendations: persistent disparities or social progress?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdette, Amy M; Webb, Noah S; Hill, Terrence D; Jokinen-Gordon, Hanna

    2017-01-01

    Although racial and ethnic differences in HPV vaccination initiation are well established, it is unclear whether these disparities have changed over time. The role of health provider recommendations in reducing any racial and ethnic inequalities is also uncertain. This study addresses these gaps in the literature. Repeated cross-sectional design. Using data from the National Immunization Survey-Teen (2008-2013), we estimated a series of binary logistic regressions to model race-specific trends in (1) provider recommendations to vaccinate against HPV and (2) HPV vaccine initiation for males (n = 56,632) and females (n = 77,389). Provider recommendations to vaccinate and HPV vaccination uptake have increased over time for adolescent males and females and across all racial and ethnic groups. Among girls, minority youths have seen a sharper increase in provider recommendations and HPV vaccination uptake than their White counterparts. Among boys, minority teens maintain higher overall rates of HPV vaccine uptake, however, Hispanics have lagged behind non-Hispanic Whites in the rate of increase in provider recommendations and HPV vaccinations. Our results suggest that racial and ethnic disparities in provider recommendations and HPV vaccinations have waned over time among males and females. While these trends are welcomed, additional interventions are warranted to increase overall rates of vaccination across race, ethnicity, and gender. Copyright © 2016 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. EMF recommendations specific for children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pölzl, Christiane

    2011-12-01

    When discussing health risks for children due to electromagnetic fields it is crucial to translate scientific knowledge both into adequate protection and precautionary measures for the general public and, more particularly into specific recommendations for children. It is often aimed at influencing health-related attitudes and behaviour by means of information about health affecting behaviour, health risk factors, and health promoting possibilities. Children have to be treated differently from adults in addressing their ability and willingness to modify behaviour and their competence to comprehend cognitively the sense of behavioural recommendations. Research has shown that adults can be motivated to adjust their own behaviour in order to protect their children or to be role models for their children. Hence one way to modify children's behaviour is to address the parents and care persons. Generally education in the family, the social environment and in peer groups, nursery school and at school plays an important role in forming and influencing individual behaviour. The age of the target group has also to be taken into consideration. An important question is how to deal with scientific uncertainties when expressing EMF recommendations for children. Accentuating scientific uncertainties may under certain circumstances raise risk awareness. This can be an intended effect. But the expression of scientific uncertainties can also lead to unintended consequences in parent's behaviour or even senseless dealing with the respective EMF source. The paper points out relevant aspects of risk communication regarding EMF and children and suggests how recommendations for children might be designed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Provider communication and HPV vaccination: The impact of recommendation quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilkey, Melissa B.; Calo, William A.; Moss, Jennifer L.; Shah, Parth D.; Marciniak, Macary W.; Brewer, Noel T.

    2016-01-01

    Background Receiving a healthcare provider’s recommendation is a strong predictor of HPV vaccination, but little is known empirically about which types of recommendation are most influential. Thus, we sought to investigate the relationship between recommendation quality and HPV vaccination among U.S. adolescents. Methods In 2014, we conducted a national, online survey of 1,495 parents of 11- to 17-year-old adolescents. Parents reported whether providers endorsed HPV vaccination strongly, encouraged same-day vaccination, and discussed cancer prevention. Using an index of these quality indicators, we categorized parents as having received no, low-quality, or high-quality recommendations for HPV vaccination. Separate multivariable logistic regression models assessed associations between recommendation quality and HPV vaccine initiation (≥1 dose), follow through (3 doses, among initiators), refusal, and delay. Results Almost half (48%) of parents reported no provider recommendation for HPV vaccination, while 16% received low-quality recommendations and 36% received high-quality recommendations. Compared to no recommendation, high-quality recommendations were associated with over nine times the odds of HPV vaccine initiation (23% vs. 74%, OR=9.31, 95% CI, 7.10–12.22) and over three times the odds of follow through (17% vs. 44%, OR=3.82, 95% CI, 2.39–6.11). Low-quality recommendations were more modestly associated with initiation (OR=4.13, 95% CI, 2.99–5.70), but not follow through. Parents who received high-versus low-quality recommendations less often reported HPV vaccine refusal or delay. Conclusions High-quality recommendations were strongly associated with HPV vaccination behavior, but only about one-third of parents received them. Interventions are needed to improve not only whether, but how providers recommend HPV vaccination for adolescents. PMID:26812078

  4. Primary HPV testing recommendations of US providers, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Crystale Purvis; Saraiya, Mona

    2017-12-01

    To investigate the HPV testing recommendations of US physicians who perform cervical cancer screening. Data from the 2015 DocStyles survey of U.S. health care providers were analyzed using multivariate logistic regression to identify provider characteristics associated with routine recommendation of primary HPV testing for average-risk, asymptomatic women ≥30years old. The analysis was limited to primary care physicians and obstetrician-gynecologists who performed cervical cancer screening (N=843). Primary HPV testing for average-risk, asymptomatic women ≥30years old was recommended by 40.8% of physicians who performed cervical cancer screening, and 90.1% of these providers recommended primary HPV testing for women of all ages. The screening intervals most commonly recommended for primary HPV testing with average-risk, asymptomatic women ≥30years old were every 3years (35.5%) and annually (30.2%). Physicians who reported that patient HPV vaccination status influenced their cervical cancer screening practices were almost four times more likely to recommend primary HPV testing for average-risk, asymptomatic women ≥30years old than other providers (Adj OR=3.96, 95% CI=2.82-5.57). Many US physicians recommended primary HPV testing for women of all ages, contrary to guidelines which limit this screening approach to women ≥25years old. The association between provider recommendation of primary HPV testing and patient HPV vaccination status may be due to anticipated reductions in the most oncogenic HPV types among vaccinated women. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Impact of Provider Recommendation on Tdap Vaccination of Adolescents Aged 13-17 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Peng-Jun; Yankey, David; Jeyarajah, Jenny; O'Halloran, Alissa; Meyer, Sarah A; Elam-Evans, Laurie D; Reagan-Steiner, Sarah

    2017-09-01

    Tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccination has been recommended for adolescents in the U.S. since 2006. Information on Tdap vaccination by provider recommendation is limited. The purpose of this study is to assess recent Tdap vaccination by provider recommendation status among adolescents aged 13-17 years. The 2013 National Immunization Survey-Teen data (N=18,948) were analyzed in 2016 to assess national and state-specific Tdap vaccination coverage disparities among adolescents by provider recommendation status, and other demographic and access to care variables. Multivariable logistic regression analysis and predictive marginal modeling evaluated associations between Tdap vaccination and provider recommendation status and other factors among adolescents aged 13-17 years. Overall, only 56.9% of adolescents aged 13-17 years received a provider recommendation for Tdap. Coverage was significantly higher among adolescents with a provider recommendation (88.6%) compared with those without a provider recommendation (80.5%) (precommendation, Hispanic ethnicity, having two to three physician contacts in the past 12 months, having one or two vaccination providers, and receiving vaccinations from more than one type of facility (precommendations were significantly associated with Tdap vaccination among adolescents aged 13-17 years. However, 43% of parents of adolescents did not receive a provider recommendation. Evidence-based strategies such as standing orders and provider reminders alone or health systems interventions in combination should be taken to improve provider recommendation and Tdap vaccination coverage. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. 77 FR 10535 - Final Guidances for Industry Describing Product-Specific Bioequivalence Recommendations...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-22

    ... guidances represent the Agency's current thinking on product-specific design of BE studies to support ANDAs... bioequivalence (BE) recommendations. The recommendations provide product-specific guidance on the design of BE... Recommendations for Specific Products,'' which explained the process that would be used to make product-specific...

  7. Customer satisfaction surveys: Methodological recommendations for financial service providers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđić Marko

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This methodological article investigates practical challenges that emerge when conducting customer satisfaction surveys (CSS for financial service providers such as banks, insurance or leasing companies, and so forth. It displays methodological recommendations in reference with: (a survey design, (b sampling, (c survey method, (d questionnaire design, and (e data acquisition. Article provides appropriate explanations that usage of: two-stage survey design, SRS method, large samples, and rigorous fieldwork preparation can enhance the overall quality of CSS in financial services. Proposed methodological recommendations can primarily be applied to the primary quantitative marketing research in retail financial services. However, majority of them can be successfully applied when conducting primary quantitative marketing research in corporate financial services as well. .

  8. Determinants of healthcare provider recommendations for influenza vaccinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reginald Villacorta

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: ACIP priority groups experienced higher rates of recommendations compared to non-ACIP groups. Racial differences in HCP recommendations cannot explain racial disparities in flu vaccination rates.

  9. Providing Personalized Services to Users in a Recommender System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oduwobi, Olukunle; Ojokoh, Bolanle Adefowoke

    2015-01-01

    Instructors recommend learning materials to a class of students not minding the learning ability and reading habit of each student. Learners are finding it problematic to make a decision about which available learning materials best meet their situation and will be beneficial to their course of study. In order to address this challenge, a new…

  10. Providing Mental Health Services to Arab Americans: Recommendations and Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Chris D.; Al-Timimi, Nada R.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents background information on the cultural sociopathology of the Arab American experience. It discusses how, in order to effectively deliver services, mental health workers need to be aware of their own biases. It explores ways to provide culturally relevant mental health services to Arab Americans. (JDM)

  11. Recommendations for the user-specific enhancement of flood maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Meyer

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The European Union Floods Directive requires the establishment of flood maps for high risk areas in all European member states by 2013. However, the current practice of flood mapping in Europe still shows some deficits. Firstly, flood maps are frequently seen as an information tool rather than a communication tool. This means that, for example, local stocks of knowledge are not incorporated. Secondly, the contents of flood maps often do not match the requirements of the end-users. Finally, flood maps are often designed and visualised in a way that cannot be easily understood by residents at risk and/or that is not suitable for the respective needs of public authorities in risk and event management. The RISK MAP project examined how end-user participation in the mapping process may be used to overcome these barriers and enhance the communicative power of flood maps, fundamentally increasing their effectiveness.

    Based on empirical findings from a participatory approach that incorporated interviews, workshops and eye-tracking tests, conducted in five European case studies, this paper outlines recommendations for user-specific enhancements of flood maps. More specific, recommendations are given with regard to (1 appropriate stakeholder participation processes, which allow incorporating local knowledge and preferences, (2 the improvement of the contents of flood maps by considering user-specific needs and (3 the improvement of the visualisation of risk maps in order to produce user-friendly and understandable risk maps for the user groups concerned. Furthermore, "idealised" maps for different user groups are presented: for strategic planning, emergency management and the public.

  12. Primary Care Providers' Recommendations for Hypertension Prevention, DocStyles Survey, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Jing; Ayala, Carma; Loustalot, Fleetwood

    2015-07-01

    Healthy behaviors, including maintaining an ideal body weight, eating a healthy diet, being physically active, limiting alcohol intake, and not smoking, can help prevent hypertension. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of recommending these behaviors to patients by primary care providers (PCPs) and to assess what PCP characteristics, if any, were associated with making the recommendations. DocStyles 2012, a Web-based panel survey, was used to assess PCPs' demographic characteristics, health-related behaviors, practice setting, and prevalence of making selected recommendations to prevent hypertension. Logistic regression was used to calculate the odds of making all 6 recommendations, by demographic, professional, or personal health behavior characteristics. Overall, 1253 PCPs responded to the survey (537 family physicians, 464 internists, and 252 nurse practitioners). To prevent hypertension, 89.4% recommended a healthy diet, 89.9% recommended lower salt intake, 90.3% recommended maintaining a healthy weight, 69.4% recommended limiting alcohol intake, 95.1% recommended being physically active, and 90.4% recommended smoking cessation for their patients who smoked. More than half (56.1%) of PCPs recommended all 6 healthy behaviors. PCPs' demographic characteristics and practice setting were not associated with recommending all 6. PCPs who reported participating in regular physical activity (odds ratio [OR] 1.68, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.05-2.67) and eating healthy diet (OR 1.68, 95% CI 1.11-2.56) were more likely to offer all 6 healthy behavior recommendations than those without these behaviors. Most PCPs recommended healthy behaviors to their adult patients to prevent hypertension. PCPs' own healthy behaviors were associated with their recommendations. Preventing hypertension is a multifactorial effort, and in the clinical environment, PCPs have frequent opportunities to model and promote healthy lifestyles to their patients. © The

  13. Provider Specific Data for Public Use in SAS Format

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Fiscal Intermediary maintains the Provider Specific File (PSF). The file contains information about the facts specific to the provider that affects computations...

  14. Recommendations for the treatment of aging in standard technical specifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orton, R.D.; Allen, R.P.

    1995-09-01

    As part of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s Nuclear Plant Aging Research Program, Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) evaluated the standard technical specifications for nuclear power plants to determine whether the current surveillance requirements (SRs) were effective in detecting age-related degradation. Nuclear Plant Aging Research findings for selected systems and components were reviewed to identify the stressors and operative aging mechanisms and to evaluate the methods available to detect, differentiate, and trend the resulting aging degradation. Current surveillance and testing requirements for these systems and components were reviewed for their effectiveness in detecting degraded conditions and for potential contributions to premature degradation. When the current surveillance and testing requirements appeared ineffective in detecting aging degradation or potentially could contribute to premature degradation, a possible deficiency in the SRs was identified that could result in undetected degradation. Based on this evaluation, PNL developed recommendations for inspection, surveillance, trending, and condition monitoring methods to be incorporated in the SRs to better detect age- related degradation of these selected systems and components.

  15. Recommendations for the ethical use and design of artificial intelligent care providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luxton, David D

    2014-09-01

    This paper identifies and reviews ethical issues associated with artificial intelligent care providers (AICPs) in mental health care and other helping professions. Specific recommendations are made for the development of ethical codes, guidelines, and the design of AICPs. Current developments in the application of AICPs and associated technologies are reviewed and a foundational overview of applicable ethical principles in mental health care is provided. Emerging ethical issues regarding the use of AICPs are then reviewed in detail. Recommendations for ethical codes and guidelines as well as for the development of semi-autonomous and autonomous AICP systems are described. The benefits of AICPs and implications for the helping professions are discussed in order to weigh the pros and cons of their use. Existing ethics codes and practice guidelines do not presently consider the current or the future use of interactive artificial intelligent agents to assist and to potentially replace mental health care professionals. AICPs present new ethical issues that will have significant ramifications for the mental health care and other helping professions. Primary issues involve the therapeutic relationship, competence, liability, trust, privacy, and patient safety. Many of the same ethical and philosophical considerations are applicable to use and design of AICPs in medicine, nursing, social work, education, and ministry. The ethical and moral aspects regarding the use of AICP systems must be well thought-out today as this will help to guide the use and development of these systems in the future. Topics presented are relevant to end users, AI developers, and researchers, as well as policy makers and regulatory boards. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Recommended environmental dose calculation methods and Hanford-specific parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schreckhise, R.G.; Rhoads, K.; Napier, B.A.; Ramsdell, J.V. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)); Davis, J.S. (Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States))

    1993-03-01

    This document was developed to support the Hanford Environmental Dose overview Panel (HEDOP). The Panel is responsible for reviewing all assessments of potential doses received by humans and other biota resulting from the actual or possible environmental releases of radioactive and other hazardous materials from facilities and/or operations belonging to the US Department of Energy on the Hanford Site in south-central Washington. This document serves as a guide to be used for developing estimates of potential radiation doses, or other measures of risk or health impacts, to people and other biota in the environs on and around the Hanford Site. It provides information to develop technically sound estimates of exposure (i.e., potential or actual) to humans or other biotic receptors that could result from the environmental transport of potentially harmful materials that have been, or could be, released from Hanford operations or facilities. Parameter values and information that are specific to the Hanford environs as well as other supporting material are included in this document.

  17. Updated CDC recommendations for the management of hepatitis B virus-infected health-care providers and students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-06

    This report updates the 1991 CDC recommendations for the management of hepatitis B virus (HBV)-infected health-care providers and students to reduce risk for transmitting HBV to patients during the conduct of exposure-prone invasive procedures (CDC. Recommendations for preventing transmission of human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis B virus to patients during exposure-prone invasive procedures. MMWR 1991;40[No. RR-8]). This update reflects changes in the epidemiology of HBV infection in the United States and advances in the medical management of chronic HBV infection and policy directives issued by health authorities since 1991. The primary goal of this report is to promote patient safety while providing risk management and practice guidance to HBV-infected health-care providers and students, particularly those performing exposure-prone procedures such as certain types of surgery. Because percutaneous injuries sustained by health-care personnel during certain surgical, obstetrical, and dental procedures provide a potential route of HBV transmission to patients as well as providers, this report emphasizes prevention of operator injuries and blood exposures during exposure-prone surgical, obstetrical, and dental procedures. These updated recommendations reaffirm the 1991 CDC recommendation that HBV infection alone should not disqualify infected persons from the practice or study of surgery, dentistry, medicine, or allied health fields. The previous recommendations have been updated to include the following changes: no prenotification of patients of a health-care provider's or student's HBV status; use of HBV DNA serum levels rather than hepatitis B e-antigen status to monitor infectivity; and, for those health-care professionals requiring oversight, specific suggestions for composition of expert review panels and threshold value of serum HBV DNA considered "safe" for practice (<1,000 IU/ml). These recommendations also explicitly address the issue of medical and

  18. Current issues in the treatment of specific phobia: recommendations for innovative applications of hypnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegel, Sharon B

    2014-04-01

    Specific phobia is the most common and treatable of the anxiety disorders. Exposure-based therapies are the treatment of choice and empirically validated protocols are available that promise rapid and effective results. In many cases, however, patients are reluctant to comply with demanding schedules of exposure, increasing the risk of treatment failure. Furthermore, in clinical practice, patients often present with multiple phobias and other Axis I and Axis II disorders that can further complicate therapy. This article covers four important issues that have been addressed in the literature: (a) managing resistance to treatment, (b) reducing length of treatment, (c) clarifying the optimal application of relaxation training, and (d) applying advances in cognitive neuroscience. These issues are reviewed and recommendations proposed for ways in which to modify current treatments. Specific suggestions are provided for implementing these recommendations including examples of innovative applications of standard hypnotic techniques.

  19. Implementation of online suicide-specific training for VA providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Elizabeth; York, Janet; Magruder, Kathryn; Yeager, Derik; Knapp, Rebecca; De Santis, Mark L; Burriss, Louisa; Mauldin, Mary; Sulkowski, Stan; Pope, Charlene; Jobes, David A

    2014-10-01

    Due to the gap in suicide-specific intervention training for mental health students and professionals, e-learning is one solution to improving provider skills in the Veterans Affairs (VA) health system. This study focused on the development and evaluation of an equivalent e-learning alternative to the Collaborative Assessment and Management of Suicidality (CAMS) in-person training approach at a Veteran Health Affairs medical center. The study used a multicenter, randomized, cluster, and three group design. the development of e-CAMS was an iterative process and included pilot testing. Eligible and consenting mental health providers, who completed a CAMS pre-survey, were randomized. Provider satisfaction was assessed using the standard VA evaluation of training consisting of 20 items. Two post training focus groups, divided by learning conditions, were conducted to assess practice adoption using a protocol focused on experiences with training and delivery of CAMS. A total of 215 providers in five sites were randomized to three conditions: 69 to e-learning, 70 to in-person, 76 to the control. The providers were primarily female, Caucasian, midlife providers. Based on frequency scores of satisfaction items, both learning groups rated the trainings positively. In focus groups representing divided by learning conditions, participants described positive reactions to CAMS training and similar individual and institutional barriers to full implementation of CAMS. This is the first evaluation study of a suicide-specific e-learning training within the VA. The e-CAMS appears equivalent to the in-person CAMS in terms of provider satisfaction with training and practice adoption, consistent with other comparisons of training deliveries across specialty areas. Additional evaluation of provider confidence and adoption and patient outcomes is in progress. The e-CAMS has the potential to provide ongoing training for VA and military mental health providers and serve as a tutorial for

  20. Recommendation 1071 on child welfare -- Providing institutional care for infants and children, 23 March 1988.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    This document contains the text of a 1988 Recommendation of the Council of Europe on child welfare, particularly on providing institutional care for infants and children. The recommendation is based on an assessment of the dangers and costs to society which result from the inadequate provision of child care, such as an increase in juvenile delinquency and a breakdown in parent-child relationships. The recommendation also acknowledges 1) the right of all children to care provisions which complement those received in their families and 2) the enormous efforts currently being made by child care professionals. With these factors in mind, the governments of member states are invited to create a permanent body to monitor the decompartmentalization of government child welfare services and departments, to promote the development of child care policies, and to foster the preparation of a charter of children's rights. Governments are also encouraged to create administrative units to perform advisory and training functions, to assess child care needs, to increase the sums devoted to early childhood research and the protection of children's rights, to create pilot child care projects for children under three years old, to rebudget at all levels to meet child care needs, to assess local programs regularly, to guarantee education to all children, to integrate child welfare services, to give financial support to innovative forms of child care, to set up information programs for parents and child-care staff, and to hold a European conference on children.

  1. 75 FR 33311 - Guidance for Industry on Bioequivalence Recommendations for Specific Products; Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-11

    ... describes a new process for making available recommendations on how to design product- specific... guidance describes a new process for making available recommendations on how to design product-specific BE... guidance represents the agency's current thinking on a new process for making available to sponsors FDA...

  2. Willingness to provide behavioral health recommendations: a cross-sectional study of entering medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCurdy Stephen A

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Behavioral factors contribute importantly to morbidity and mortality, and physicians are trusted sources for information on reducing associated risks. Unfortunately, many clinical encounters do not include prevention counseling, and medical school curriculum plays an important role in training and promoting such counseling among medical students. Methods We surveyed all 93 freshman medical students at entry to the University of California, Davis School of Medicine in 2009 to evaluate baseline knowledge of population health principles and examine their approach to clinical situations involving four common behavioral risk factors illustrated in brief clinical vignettes: smoking, alcohol use in a patient with indications of alcoholism, diet and exercise in an overweight sedentary patient, and a 16-year-old contemplating initiation of sexual intercourse. Based on vignette responses, we assessed willingness to (1 provide information on risks, (2 recommend elimination of the behavior as the most efficacious means for reducing risk, (3 include strategies apart from elimination of the behavior for lowering risk (i.e., harm reduction, and (4 assure of their intention to continue care whether or not recommendations are accepted. Results Students answered correctly 71.4 % (median; interquartile range 66.7 % - 85.7 % of clinical prevention and population health knowledge questions; men scored higher than women (median 83.3 % vs. 66.7 %, p Conclusion Students showed high willingness to educate and respect patient autonomy. There was high willingness to recommend elimination of risk behaviors for smoking, alcohol, and poor diet/exercise, but not for sexual intercourse in an adolescent considering sexual debut. Further research should address promoting appropriate science-based preventive health messages, and curriculum should include explicit discussion of content of recommendations.

  3. Health-care providers' perceptions, attitudes towards and recommendation practice of cervical cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hweissa, N Ab; Lim, J N W; Su, T T

    2016-09-01

    In Libya, cervical cancer is ranked third as the most frequent cancer among women with early diagnosis being shown to reduce morbidity and mortality. Health-care providers can influence women's screening behaviours, and their lack of recommendations for screening can be one of the barriers that affect women's participation in screening programmes. This study aims to assess the health-care provider's perception around cervical cancer screening. In-depth, face-to-face interviews were conducted with 16 health-care providers, from both public and private sectors in Az-Zawiya city, Libya, between February and July of 2014. The interviews were recorded and transcribed, then analysed using thematic analysis. Our findings suggest that health-care providers did not provide sufficient information regarding cervical cancer screening for women who attend health-care facilities. The results highlight the role played by health-care professionals in motivating women to attend cervical cancer screening programs, and the need for health education of health-care providers to offer a precious advice regarding the screening. On the other hand, health-care providers highlighted that implementation of reminding system of cervical cancer screening will support them to improve screening attendance. In addition, health-care providers stressed the necessity for educational and awareness campaigns of cervical cancer screening among Libyan women. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. EEG topographies provide subject-specific correlates of motor control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirondini, Elvira; Coscia, Martina; Minguillon, Jesus; Millán, José Del R; Van De Ville, Dimitri; Micera, Silvestro

    2017-10-16

    Electroencephalography (EEG) of brain activity can be represented in terms of dynamically changing topographies (microstates). Notably, spontaneous brain activity recorded at rest can be characterized by four distinctive topographies. Despite their well-established role during resting state, their implication in the generation of motor behavior is debated. Evidence of such a functional role of spontaneous brain activity would provide support for the design of novel and sensitive biomarkers in neurological disorders. Here we examined whether and to what extent intrinsic brain activity contributes and plays a functional role during natural motor behaviors. For this we first extracted subject-specific EEG microstates and muscle synergies during reaching-and-grasping movements in healthy volunteers. We show that, in every subject, well-known resting-state microstates persist during movement execution with similar topographies and temporal characteristics, but are supplemented by novel task-related microstates. We then show that the subject-specific microstates' dynamical organization correlates with the activation of muscle synergies and can be used to decode individual grasping movements with high accuracy. These findings provide first evidence that spontaneous brain activity encodes detailed information about motor control, offering as such the prospect of a novel tool for the definition of subject-specific biomarkers of brain plasticity and recovery in neuro-motor disorders.

  5. Association of provider recommendation and offer and influenza vaccination among adults aged ≥18 years - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Peng-Jun; Srivastav, Anup; Amaya, Ashley; Dever, Jill A; Roycroft, Jessica; Kurtz, Marshica Stanley; O'Halloran, Alissa; Williams, Walter W

    2018-01-09

    Influenza vaccination has been recommended for all persons aged ≥6 months since 2010. Data from the 2016 National Internet Flu Survey were analyzed to assess provider vaccination recommendations and early influenza vaccination during the 2016-17 season among adults aged ≥18 years. Predictive marginals from a multivariable logistic regression model were used to identify factors independently associated with early vaccine uptake by provider vaccination recommendation status. Overall, 24.0% visited a provider who both recommended and offered influenza vaccination, 9.0% visited a provider who only recommended but did not offer, 25.1% visited a provider who neither recommended nor offered, and 41.9% did not visit a doctor from July 1 through date of interview. Adults who reported that a provider both recommended and offered vaccine had significantly higher vaccination coverage (66.6%) compared with those who reported that a provider only recommended but did not offer (48.4%), those who neither received recommendation nor offer (32.0%), and those who did not visit a doctor during the vaccination period (28.8%). Results of multivariable logistic regression indicated that having received a provider recommendation, with or without an offer for vaccination, was significantly associated with higher vaccination coverage after controlling for demographic and access-to-care factors. Provider recommendation was significantly associated with influenza vaccination. However, overall, 67.0% of adults did not visit a doctor during the vaccination period or did visit a doctor but did not receive a provider recommendation. Evidence-based strategies such as client reminder/recall, standing orders, provider reminders, or health systems interventions in combination should be undertaken to improve provider recommendation and influenza vaccination coverage. Other factors significantly associated with a higher level of influenza vaccination included age ≥50 years, being Hispanic

  6. Switching basal insulins in type 2 diabetes: practical recommendations for health care providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Sarah L; Trujillo, Jennifer M; Anderson, John E; Tanenberg, Robert J

    2017-12-27

    Basal insulin remains the mainstay of treatment of type 2 diabetes when diet changes and exercise in combination with oral drugs and other injectable agents are not sufficient to control hyperglycemia. Insulin therapy should be individualized, and several factors influence the choice of basal insulin; these include pharmacological properties, patient preferences, and lifestyle, as well as health insurance plan formularies. The recent availability of basal insulin formulations with longer durations of action has provided further dosing flexibility; however, patients may need to switch agents throughout therapy for a variety of personal, clinical, or economic reasons. Although a unit-to-unit switching approach is usually recommended, this conversion strategy may not be appropriate for all patients and types of insulin. Glycemic control and risk of hypoglycemia must be closely monitored by health care providers during the switching process. In addition, individual changes in care and formulary coverage need to be adequately addressed in order to enable a smooth transition with optimal outcomes.

  7. Specific phobia: a review of DSM-IV specific phobia and preliminary recommendations for DSM-V.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBeau, Richard T; Glenn, Daniel; Liao, Betty; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Beesdo-Baum, Katja; Ollendick, Thomas; Craske, Michelle G

    2010-02-01

    The present review was conducted in order to evaluate the current diagnostic criteria for specific phobia (SP) in light of the empirical evidence gathered since DSM-IV and to propose changes to DSM-V where change is clearly and reliably indicated by the evidence. In response to questions put forth by the DSM-V Anxiety, OC Spectrum, Posttraumatic, and Dissociative Disorder Work Group, four primary areas were determined for this review: the accuracy and utility of the current SP type classification system, the validity of test anxiety as a type of SP, the boundary between agoraphobia and SP, and the reliability and utility of the diagnostic criteria for SP. Developmental issues are addressed within each area. Literature reviews examining academic findings published between 1994 and 2009 were carried out and the results are included herein. The review presents a number of options and preliminary recommendations to be considered for DSM-V. All of these recommendations should be considered tentative as they await the field trials and expert consensus necessary prior to their inclusion in the DSM-V. The present review also reveals a great need for future research in the area of SP and directions for such research is provided.

  8. Provider Adherence to Syphilis Testing Recommendations for Women Delivering a Stillbirth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Chirag G; Huppert, Jill S; Tao, Guoyu

    2017-11-01

    To assess overall adherence to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology recommended guidelines for syphilis testing among women who delivered a stillbirth and compare it with other tests recommended for stillbirth evaluation. We used MarketScan claims data with 40 million commercially insured and 8 million Medicaid enrollees annually to estimate prenatal care and follow-up testing among women who had stillbirths between January 1, 2013, and December 24, 2013. Stillbirth was identified if women had any International Classification of Disease, Ninth Revision codes related to a stillbirth outcome. Among women with stillbirths, we estimated the proportions of women who received prenatal care and prenatal syphilis testing within 280 days before stillbirth, and testing at the time of stillbirth (syphilis testing, complete blood count, placental examination and autopsy) using Physician's Current Procedural Terminology codes. We identified 3672 Medicaid-insured women and 6023 commercially insured women with stillbirths in 2013. Approximately, 61.7% of Medicaid-insured women and 66.0% of commercially insured women had claims data indicating prenatal syphilis testing. At the time of stillbirth, Medicaid-insured and commercially insured women had similar rates of syphilis testing (6.5% vs 9.3%), placental examination (61.6% vs 57.8%), and complete blood count (31.9% vs 37.6%). Autopsies were too infrequent to be reported. Approximately, 34.6% of Medicaid-insured women and 29.7% of commercially insured women had no syphilis testing either prenatally or at the time of stillbirth. Syphilis testing among women after stillbirth was less than 10%, illustrating limited adherence to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology recommendations. Such low prenatal and delivery syphilis testing rates may impact the number of stillbirth cases identified as congenital syphilis cases and

  9. Quality of Cancer Surveillance Clinical Practice Guidelines: Specificity and Consistency of Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkow, Ryan P; Korenstein, Deborah; Yeahia, Rubaya; Bach, Peter B; Baxi, Shrujal S

    2017-05-01

    Primary care clinicians, who are increasingly responsible for caring for the growing population of cancer survivors, may be unfamiliar with appropriate cancer surveillance strategies. Clinical practice guidelines can inform cancer follow-up care and surveillance testing. Vague recommendations and inconsistencies among guidelines can lead to overuse and underuse of health care resources and have a negative impact on cost and quality of survivorship care. To examine the specificity and consistency of recommendations for surveillance after active treatment across cancer guidelines. Retrospective cross-sectional analysis of national cancer guidelines from North America and Europe published since 2010 addressing posttreatment care for survivors of the 9 most common cancers. We categorized surveillance modalities into history and physical examinations, tumor markers, diagnostic procedures (eg, colonoscopy), and imaging. Within each guideline, we classified individual recommendations into 5 categories: (1) risk-based recommendation, (2) recommendation for surveillance, (3) addressed but no clear recommendation, (4) recommendation against surveillance, or (5) cases in which surveillance was not addressed. We reviewed each surveillance recommendation for frequency and a stop date, evaluated consistency among guidelines, and analyzed associations between the organizations proposing the guidelines and recommendation characteristics. Description of guideline recommendations for cancer surveillance. We identified 41 guidelines published between January 1, 2010, and March 1, 2016. Eighty-five percent of guidelines (35) were from professional organizations. Ambiguous recommendations (ie, modality not discussed or discussed without a clear recommendation) were present in 83% of guidelines (34), and 44% (18) recommended against at least 1 test. European guidelines were more likely than North American guidelines to contain ambiguous recommendations (100% vs 68%; P guidelines for

  10. Photodynamic therapy: occupational hazards and preventative recommendations for clinical administration by healthcare providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breskey, John D; Lacey, Steven E; Vesper, Benjamin J; Paradise, William A; Radosevich, James A; Colvard, Michael D

    2013-08-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) as a medical treatment for cancers is an increasing practice in clinical settings, as new photosensitizing chemicals and light source technologies are developed and applied. PDT involves dosing patients with photosensitizing drugs, and then exposing them to light using a directed energy device in order to manifest a therapeutic effect. Healthcare professionals providing PDT should be aware of potential occupational health and safety hazards posed by these treatment devices and photosensitizing agents administered to patients. Here we outline and identify pertinent health and safety considerations to be taken by healthcare staff during PDT procedures. Physical hazards (for example, non-ionizing radiation generated by the light-emitting device, with potential for skin and eye exposure) and chemical hazards (including the photosensitizing agents administered to patients that have the potential for exposure via skin, subcutaneous, ingestion, or inhalation routes) must be considered for safe use of PDT by the healthcare professional. Engineering, administrative, and personal protective equipment controls are recommendations for the safe use and handling of PDT agents and light-emitting technologies.

  11. Clinical practice recommendations for allergen-specific immunotherapy in children: the Italian consensus report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajno, Giovanni Battista; Bernardini, Roberto; Peroni, Diego; Arasi, Stefania; Martelli, Alberto; Landi, Massimo; Passalacqua, Giovanni; Muraro, Antonella; La Grutta, Stefania; Fiocchi, Alessandro; Indinnimeo, Luciana; Caffarelli, Carlo; Calamelli, Elisabetta; Comberiati, Pasquale; Duse, Marzia

    2017-01-23

    Allergen-specific immunotherapy (AIT) is currently recognized as a clinically effective treatment for allergic diseases, with a unique disease-modifying effect. AIT was introduced in clinical practice one century ago, and performed in the early years with allergenic extracts of poor quality and definition. After the mechanism of allergic reaction were recognized, the practice of AIT was refined, leading to remarkable improvement in the efficacy and safety profile of the treatment. Currently AIT is accepted and routinely prescribed worldwide for respiratory allergies and hymenoptera venom allergy. Both the subcutaneous (SCIT) and sublingual (SLIT) routes of administration are used in the pediatric population.AIT is recommended in allergic rhinitis/conjunctivitis with/without allergic asthma, with an evidence of specific IgE-sensitization towards clinically relevant inhalant allergens. Long-term studies provided evidence that AIT can also prevent the onset of asthma and of new sensitizations. The favorable response to AIT is strictly linked to adherence to treatment, that lasts 3-5 years. Therefore, several factors should be carefully evaluated before starting this intervention, including the severity of symptoms, pharmacotherapy requirements and children and caregivers' preference and compliance.In recent years, there have been increasing interest in the role of AIT for the treatment of IgE-associated food allergy and extrinsic atopic dermatitis. A growing body of evidence shows that oral immunotherapy represents a promising treatment option for IgE-associated food allergy. On the contrary, there are still controversies on the effectiveness of AIT for patients with atopic dermatitis.This consensus document was promoted by the Italian Society of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology (SIAIP) to provide evidence-based recommendations on AIT in order to implement and optimize current prescription practices of this treatment for allergic children.

  12. An exploratory qualitative assessment of factors influencing childhood vaccine providers' intention to recommend immunization in the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Mollema Liesbeth; Staal Jojet M; van Steenbergen Jim E; Paulussen Theo GWM; de Melker Hester E

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Under the Dutch national immunization program (NIP), childhood vaccination is not mandatory, but its recommendation by childhood vaccine providers (CVP) is important for maintaining high vaccination coverage. We therefore examined factors related to providers' intentions to recommend vaccinations to parents of young children. Methods We conducted four focus group discussions with nurses and physicians who provide vaccines to children 0-4 years old in diverse regions of the...

  13. Providers' beliefs about the effectiveness of the HPV vaccine in preventing cancer and their recommended age groups for vaccination: Findings from a provider survey, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkowitz, Z; Malone, M; Rodriguez, J; Saraiya, M

    2015-12-01

    The human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine was recommended in 2007 by the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) to preadolescent and adolescent girls. Vaccination initiation was recommended at age 11-12 years with the option to start at age 9. Catchup vaccination was recommended to females aged 13-26 previously not vaccinated. However, vaccination coverage remains low. Studies show that the HPV vaccine can prevent cervical, vulvar, vaginal, anal and some oropharyngeal cancers and that provider recommendation of vaccines can improve low vaccination rates. Using data from 2012 DocStyles, an annual, web-based survey of U.S. healthcare professionals including physicians and nurse practitioners (n=1753), we examined providers' knowledge about the effectiveness of the HPV vaccine in preventing cancer and their vaccine recommendation to all age-eligible females (9-26 years). Descriptive statistics and Chi-square tests were used to assess differences across specialties. Knowledge about HPV vaccine effectiveness in preventing cervical cancer was highly prevalent (96.9%), but less so for anal, vaginal, vulvar and oropharyngeal cancers. Only 14.5% of providers recommended the vaccine to all age-eligible females and 20.2% recommended it to females aged 11-26 years. Knowledge assessment of cancers associated with HPV and vaccination recommendations varied significantly among providers (pvaccine to girls older than 11-12 years. Improving providers' knowledge about HPV-associated cancers and the age for vaccination initiation, communicating messages focusing on the vaccine safety and benefits in cancer prevention and on the importance of its delivery prior to sexual onset, may improve HPV vaccine coverage. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Investigating country-specific music preferences and music recommendation algorithms with the LFM-1b dataset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schedl, Markus

    2017-01-01

    Recently, the LFM-1b dataset has been proposed to foster research and evaluation in music retrieval and music recommender systems, Schedl (Proceedings of the ACM International Conference on Multimedia Retrieval (ICMR). New York, 2016). It contains more than one billion music listening events created by more than 120,000 users of Last.fm. Each listening event is characterized by artist, album, and track name, and further includes a timestamp. Basic demographic information and a selection of more elaborate listener-specific descriptors are included as well, for anonymized users. In this article, we reveal information about LFM-1b's acquisition and content and we compare it to existing datasets. We furthermore provide an extensive statistical analysis of the dataset, including basic properties of the item sets, demographic coverage, distribution of listening events (e.g., over artists and users), and aspects related to music preference and consumption behavior (e.g., temporal features and mainstreaminess of listeners). Exploiting country information of users and genre tags of artists, we also create taste profiles for populations and determine similar and dissimilar countries in terms of their populations' music preferences. Finally, we illustrate the dataset's usage in a simple artist recommendation task, whose results are intended to serve as baseline against which more elaborate techniques can be assessed.

  15. Challenges in assigning endocrine-specific modes of action: Recommendations for researchers and regulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihaich, Ellen M; Schäfers, Christoph; Dreier, David A; Hecker, Markus; Ortego, Lisa; Kawashima, Yukio; Dang, Zhi-Chao; Solomon, Keith

    2017-03-01

    As regulatory programs evaluate substances for their endocrine-disrupting properties, careful study design and data interpretation are needed to distinguish between responses that are truly endocrine specific and those that are not. This is particularly important in regulatory environments where criteria are under development to identify endocrine-disrupting properties to enable hazard-based regulation. Irrespective of these processes, most jurisdictions use the World Health Organization/International Programme on Chemical Safety definition of an endocrine disruptor, requiring that a substance is demonstrated to cause a change in endocrine function that consequently leads to an adverse effect in an intact organism. Such a definition is broad, and at its most cautious might capture many general mechanisms that would not specifically denote an endocrine disruptor. In addition, endocrine responses may be adaptive in nature, designed to maintain homeostasis rather than induce an irreversible adverse effect. The likelihood of indirect effects is increased in (eco)toxicological studies that require the use of maximum tolerated concentrations or doses, which must produce some adverse effect. The misidentification of indirect effects as truly endocrine mediated has serious consequences for prompting animal- and resource-intensive testing and regulatory consequences. To minimize the risk for misidentification, an objective and transparent weight-of-evidence procedure based on biological plausibility, essentiality, and empirical evidence of key events in an adverse outcome pathway is recommended to describe the modes of action that may be involved in toxic responses in nontarget organisms. Confounding factors such as systemic toxicity, general stress, and infection can add complexity to such an evaluation and should be considered in the weight of evidence. A recommended set of questions is proffered to help guide researchers and regulators in discerning endocrine and

  16. Exercise training intensity prescription in breast cancer survivors: validity of current practice and specific recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharhag-Rosenberger, Friederike; Kuehl, Rea; Klassen, Oliver; Schommer, Kai; Schmidt, Martina E; Ulrich, Cornelia M; Wiskemann, Joachim; Steindorf, Karen

    2015-12-01

    Cancer survivors are recommended to perform 150 min/week of moderate or 75 min/week of vigorous aerobic exercise, but it remains unclear how moderate and vigorous intensities can be prescribed. Therefore, it was investigated whether and how intensity prescriptions for healthy adults by the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) need to be adapted for breast cancer survivors. Fifty-two breast cancer survivors (stage 0-III, age 52 ± 9 years, BMI 25.4 ± 3.5 kg/m2) performed cardiopulmonary exercise tests at the end of primary therapy. Intensity classes defined as percentages of maximal heart rate (HRmax), heart rate reserve (HRR), and maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) were compared to the ACSM's intensity classes using oxygen uptake reserve as reference. The prescriptions for moderate and vigorous exercise intensities were significantly different between breast cancer survivors and healthy adults when using VO2max (moderate 50-66 vs. 46-63 and vigorous 67-91 vs. 64-90% VO2max) or HRR (moderate 26-50 vs. 40-59 and vigorous 51-88 vs. 60-89 % HRR), but not when using HRmax (moderate 65-76 vs. 64-76 and vigorous 77-94 vs. 77-95% HRmax). In breast cancer survivors, intensity prescriptions for healthy adults result in considerably too intense training if HRR is used as guiding factor. Prescriptions using VO2max result in a slightly too low exercise intensity, whereas recommendations in percentages of HRmax appear valid. Cancer survivors should not uncritically adopt exercise intensity prescriptions for healthy adults. Specific prescriptions for the studied population are provided.

  17. 77 FR 36281 - Solicitation of Information and Recommendations for Revising OIG's Provider Self-Disclosure Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-18

    ...) to establish a process for health care providers to disclose potential fraud involving the Federal health care programs. The Protocol provides guidance on how to investigate this conduct, quantify damages, and report the conduct to OIG to resolve the provider's liability exposure under OIG's civil money...

  18. Specific Business and Management Challenges in Globalised World: Opportunities and Recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MA. Arben Salihu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Globalisation is continually shaping the way we live, we travel and also the way and structure we work. It is generally acknowledged that there are a number of fundamental factors that play a crucial role in the business life cycle. Management is one of the main pillars of the organization because it provides direction, implementation, and coordination, so that organizations can attain their goals. An organisation’s life depends heavily on the quality of management. If there is any lack within the management element, it may severely limit an organisation’s existence. It is thus imperative to put all the elements in the right shape and place. Yet still this may be insufficient, due to ever growing competitiveness. Vision, strategy and innovation are fundamental in business enterprises but there are other issues related that have an effect to the management and need careful consideration. This study lists a number of specific challenges (namely leadership, innovation and human resources that businesses and management is encountering and ought to be facing in several decades to come, and offers recommendation to the topics brought forward

  19. Open communication: Recommendations for enhancing communication among primary care and mental health providers, services, and systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Shale L; Talmi, Ayelet

    2015-06-01

    Comments on the article "Please break the silence: Parents' views on communication between pediatric primary care and mental health providers" by Greene et al. (see record 2015-14521-001). The article highlights the need to improve communication between primary care and mental health care providers to better serve children and families. The report reaffirms that parents understand the value and necessity of collaborative care, as evidenced by the identification of gaps in consistency of bidirectional communication between providers in traditional and separate practice settings and the desire for improved care coordination. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Cloud Service Provider Methods for Managing Insider Threats: Analysis Phase 2, Expanded Analysis and Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Sharing and Analysis Center (CSP- ISAC ) could serve as a trusted entity, established by both government and commercial CSPs, to provide comprehensive...sector analysis. Results could then be shared within the sector and with other ISACs to provide risk mitigation, incident response, and relevant alerting...data points. ISACs have long been established in other sectors, such as financial services, higher education, and electric utilities. The

  1. Recommendations from primary care providers for integrating mental health in a primary care system in rural Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, Bibhav; Tenpa, Jasmine; Thapa, Poshan; Gauchan, Bikash; Citrin, David; Ekstrand, Maria

    2016-09-19

    Globally, access to mental healthcare is often lacking in rural, low-resource settings. Mental healthcare services integration in primary care settings is a key intervention to address this gap. A common strategy includes embedding mental healthcare workers on-site, and receiving consultation from an off-site psychiatrist. Primary care provider perspectives are important for successful program implementation. We conducted three focus groups with all 24 primary care providers at a district-level hospital in rural Nepal. We asked participants about their concerns and recommendations for an integrated mental healthcare delivery program. They were also asked about current practices in seeking referral for patients with mental illness. We collected data using structured notes and analyzed the data by template coding to develop themes around concerns and recommendations for an integrated program. Participants noted that the current referral system included sending patients to the nearest psychiatrist who is 14 h away. Participants did not think this was effective, and stated that integrating mental health into the existing primary care setting would be ideal. Their major concerns about a proposed program included workplace hierarchies between mental healthcare workers and other clinicians, impact of staff turnover on patients, reliability of an off-site consultant psychiatrist, and ability of on-site primary care providers to screen patients and follow recommendations from an off-site psychiatrist. Their suggestions included training a few existing primary care providers as dedicated mental healthcare workers, recruiting both senior and junior mental healthcare workers to ensure retention, recruiting academic psychiatrists for reliability, and training all primary care providers to appropriately screen for mental illness and follow recommendations from the psychiatrist. Primary care providers in rural Nepal reported the failure of the current system of referral, which

  2. HPV Vaccine recommendations: does a health care provider's gender and ethnicity matter to Unvaccinated Latina college women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Natalie D; Daley, Ellen M; Young, Lauren; Kolar, Stephanie K; Wheldon, Christopher; Vamos, Cheryl A; Cooper, Dexter

    2017-08-22

    There are disparities in the uptake of HPV vaccine among racial/ethnic minority women. The strongest predictor of HPV vaccine uptake among adult women is health care provider (HCP) recommendation; however, it is unclear how issues relating to race/ethnicity may mitigate these recommendations. Research shows that racial/ethnic and gender concordance between a patient and HCP can improve patient satisfaction, access and quality of care. If concordance contributes to improved patient-provider interactions, then it may be a factor in patient decisions regarding HPV vaccination. The objectives of this study were to (1) explore gender and ethnicity HCP preference regarding HPV vaccination among unvaccinated; and (2) understand factors associated with those preferences. Unvaccinated Latina college students (n = 187) completed a survey that assessed HCP preferences, medical mistrust, cultural assimilation and HPV vaccine recommendation. Logistic regression models evaluated associations between above variables with HPV knowledge and preference for a female and/or Latina HCP. Most respondents had health insurance (71%), a regular HCP (64%), were US-born (67%), with foreign-born parents (74%). Thirty-four percent and 18% agreed that they would be more likely to get the HPV vaccine if the recommending HCP was female and Latino, respectively. Latina women reporting higher medical mistrust preferred a HPV vaccine recommendation from a Latino/a provider. Latinas' preferences regarding gender and ethnicity of their HCPs may affect patient-provider interactions. Increasing diversity and cultural awareness among HCPs, and providing linguistically and culturally-appropriate information may decrease patient-provider mistrust, increase uptake of the HPV vaccine, and decrease persistent cervical cancer disparities.

  3. Listening to the experts: provider recommendations on the health needs of immigrants and refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fennelly, Katherine

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative, exploratory study was to better understand the needs of immigrants and refugees and how they are affected by poverty and post-immigration stresses. Data were obtained through in-depth interviews with 62 health and social service providers working with immigrants in the state of Minnesota. Although the state is home to many refugees who were victims of torture or severe deprivation in their home countries, the majority of providers defined the principal needs of their clients as affordable housing, jobs, and access to health services rather than needs related to health conditions or services per se. The providers' open-ended comments painted a picture of the ways in which post-immigration experiences lead to tangible stresses that compromise immigrants' health and well-being.

  4. Region-specific study of the electric utility industry: problem identification, analysis, and recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pochan, M.J.

    1985-07-01

    A number of problems were identified that could stand in the way of maintaining an adequate, reliable and economic supply of electric power for the United States in the future. The problems were analyzed by studying a specific region, VACAR (Virginia-Carolinas), in some detail. It was concluded that the future power supply is in jeopardy, but that drastic changes in the present system of investor-owned utilities, specifically, deregulation or government ownership, were not justified. It was recommended that the present electric system be modified and strengthened to meet future needs. 2 refs., 8 figs., 15 tabs.

  5. Considerations of Administrative Licensure, Provider Type, and Leadership Quality: Recommendations for Research, Policy, and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackmann, Donald G.

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews U.S. administrative licensure regulations, focusing on type of school leader licensure, provider types, and leadership quality. Licensure obtained through university-based and alternative routes is examined. Due to limited research on alternative school administrative licensure, regulations in medicine, psychology,…

  6. Internet-Based Resources Frequently Provide Inaccurate and Out-of-Date Recommendations on Preoperative Fasting: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roughead, Taren; Sewell, Darreul; Ryerson, Christopher J; Fisher, Jolene H; Flexman, Alana M

    2016-12-01

    Preoperative fasting is important to avoid morbidity and surgery delays, yet recommendations available on the Internet may be inaccurate. Our objectives were to describe the characteristics and recommendations of Internet resources on preoperative fasting and assess the quality and readability of these websites. We searched the Internet for common search terms on preoperative fasting using Google® search engines from 4 English-speaking countries (Canada, the United States, Australia, and the United Kingdom). We screened the first 30 websites from each search and extracted data from unique websites that provided recommendations on preoperative fasting. Website quality was assessed using validated tools (JAMA Benchmark criteria, DISCERN score, and Health on the Net Foundation code [HONcode] certification). Readability was scored using the Flesch Reading Ease score and Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level. A total of 87 websites were included in the analysis. A total of 48 websites (55%) provided at least 1 recommendation that contradicted established guidelines. Websites from health care institutions were most likely to make inaccurate recommendations (61%). Only 17% of websites encouraged preoperative hydration. Quality and readability were poor, with a median JAMA Benchmark score of 1 (interquartile range 0-3), mean DISCERN score 39.8 (SD 12.5), mean reading ease score 49 (SD 15), and mean grade level of 10.6 (SD 2.7). HONcode certification was infrequent (10%). Anesthesia society websites and scientific articles had higher DISCERN scores but worse readability compared with websites from health care institutions. Online fasting recommendations are frequently inconsistent with current guidelines, particularly among health care institution websites. The poor quality and readability of Internet resources on preoperative fasting may confuse patients.

  7. An exploratory qualitative assessment of factors influencing childhood vaccine providers' intention to recommend immunization in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollema, Liesbeth; Staal, Jojet M; van Steenbergen, Jim E; Paulussen, Theo Gwm; de Melker, Hester E

    2012-02-14

    Under the Dutch national immunization program (NIP), childhood vaccination is not mandatory, but its recommendation by childhood vaccine providers (CVP) is important for maintaining high vaccination coverage. We therefore examined factors related to providers' intentions to recommend vaccinations to parents of young children. We conducted four focus group discussions with nurses and physicians who provide vaccines to children 0-4 years old in diverse regions of the Netherlands. Three groups represented CVPs at child welfare centers (CWCs) serving the general population, with the fourth representing anthroposophical CWCs. Elements of the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) were used to design the groups; thematic analysis was used to structure and analyze the dataset. Four main themes emerged, including 1) perceived responsibility: to promote vaccines and discuss pros and cons with parents (although this was usually not done if parents readily accepted the vaccination); 2) attitudes toward the NIP: mainly positive, but doubts as to NIP plans to vaccinate against diseases with a low perceived burden; 3) organizational factors: limited time and information can hamper discussions with parents; 4) relationship with parents: crucial and based mainly on communication to establish trust. Compared to CVPs at standard CWCs, the anthroposophical CWCs spent more time communicating and were more willing to adapt the NIP to individual cases. Our qualitative assessment provides an overview of beliefs associated with providers' intention to recommend vaccinations. They were motivated to support the NIP, but their intentions to recommend vaccinations were affected by the perceived relevance of the vaccines, practical issues like limited time and by certain types of resistant parents. These results will inform future studies to test the magnitude and relative impact of these factors.

  8. An exploratory qualitative assessment of factors influencing childhood vaccine providers' intention to recommend immunization in the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mollema Liesbeth

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Under the Dutch national immunization program (NIP, childhood vaccination is not mandatory, but its recommendation by childhood vaccine providers (CVP is important for maintaining high vaccination coverage. We therefore examined factors related to providers' intentions to recommend vaccinations to parents of young children. Methods We conducted four focus group discussions with nurses and physicians who provide vaccines to children 0-4 years old in diverse regions of the Netherlands. Three groups represented CVPs at child welfare centers (CWCs serving the general population, with the fourth representing anthroposophical CWCs. Elements of the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB were used to design the groups; thematic analysis was used to structure and analyze the dataset. Results Four main themes emerged, including 1 perceived responsibility: to promote vaccines and discuss pros and cons with parents (although this was usually not done if parents readily accepted the vaccination; 2 attitudes toward the NIP: mainly positive, but doubts as to NIP plans to vaccinate against diseases with a low perceived burden; 3 organizational factors: limited time and information can hamper discussions with parents; 4 relationship with parents: crucial and based mainly on communication to establish trust. Compared to CVPs at standard CWCs, the anthroposophical CWCs spent more time communicating and were more willing to adapt the NIP to individual cases. Conclusions Our qualitative assessment provides an overview of beliefs associated with providers' intention to recommend vaccinations. They were motivated to support the NIP, but their intentions to recommend vaccinations were affected by the perceived relevance of the vaccines, practical issues like limited time and by certain types of resistant parents. These results will inform future studies to test the magnitude and relative impact of these factors.

  9. Lost in the rush to national reform: recommendations to improve impact on behavioral health providers in rural areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semansky, Rafael; Willging, Cathleen; Ley, David J; Rylko-Bauer, Barbara

    2012-05-01

    As the United States embarks on the most ambitious national health reform since the 1960s, this article highlights the challenges faced by behavioral health agencies, providers, and clients in rural areas and presents recommendations to improve access to and quality of services. Lessons learned from five years of research on a major systems-change initiative in New Mexico illuminate potential problem areas for rural agencies under national health reform, including insufficient financial resources, shortages of trained staff, particularly clinicians with advanced credentials, and delays in adopting the latest information technology. We recommend that rural states: (1) undertake careful planning for smooth transitions; (2) provide financial resources and technical assistance to expand rural safety-net services and capacity; (3) modify the health home model for the rural context; and (4) engage in ongoing evaluation, which can help ensure the early identification and rectification of unanticipated implementation issues.

  10. Physical activity recommendations for patients with electrophysiologic and structural congenital heart disease: a survey of Canadian health care providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roston, Thomas M; De Souza, Astrid M; Sandor, George G S; Sanatani, Shubhayan; Potts, James E

    2013-08-01

    Determining safe levels of physical activity for children and adolescents with electrophysiologic and structural congenital heart disease is a challenging clinical problem. The body of evidence for making these recommendations is limited and likely based on expert opinion, medicolegal concerns, and perceived risks of sudden cardiac death (SCD) with activity. The Bethesda Conference has established consensus guidelines for determining the eligibility of athletes with cardiovascular abnormalities for competitive sports and their disqualification from them. However, literature on guidelines for noncompetitive physical activity is not available. A survey was designed to determine practice patterns for patients with electrophysiologic and structural congenital heart disease. Between July 2011 and December 2011, approximately 350 health care providers working with this group of patients were recruited by email or while attending professional meetings. The survey received 81 responses, primarily from pediatric cardiologists (70 %). The findings indicate that the majority of Canadian cardiac care providers surveyed are only partially implementing current recommendations. Areas of variance included physical activity recommendations for hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, long QT syndrome, catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia, and heart transplantation, among others. The development of comprehensive consensus guidelines for activity recommendations was supported by 96 % of the respondents. The heterogeneity of responses may be attributable to conflicting and poorly evidenced information in the literature, a lack of emphasis on recreational activity, an entrenched tendency toward bed rest in the cardiology community, and a lack of awareness by cardiac care providers regarding the actual risk associated with physical activity in electrophysiologic and structural congenital heart disease. A balanced discussion is required in considering both the significant benefit of

  11. Endorsing good quality assurance practices in molecular pathology: risks and recommendations for diagnostic laboratories and external quality assessment providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tembuyser, Lien; Dequeker, Elisabeth M C

    2016-01-01

    Quality assurance is an indispensable element in a molecular diagnostic laboratory. The ultimate goal is to warrant patient safety. Several risks that can compromise high quality procedures are at stake, from sample collection to the test performed by the laboratory, the reporting of test results to clinicians, and the organization of effective external quality assessment schemes. Quality assurance should therefore be safeguarded at each level and should imply a holistic multidisciplinary approach. This review aims to provide an overview of good quality assurance practices and discusses certain risks and recommendations to promote and improve quality assurance for both diagnostic laboratories and for external quality assessment providers. The number of molecular targets is continuously rising, and new technologies are evolving. As this poses challenges for clinical implementation and increases the demand for external quality assessment, the formation of an international association for improving quality assurance in molecular pathology is called for.

  12. Multi-state Beef Reproduction Task Force provides science-based recommendations for the application of reproductive technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, S K; Funston, R N; Hall, J B; Kesler, D J; Lamb, G C; Lauderdale, J W; Patterson, D J; Perry, G A; Strohbehn, D R

    2011-09-01

    Since its formation, the Beef Reproduction Task Force (BRTF) has worked to enhance productivity and profitability of US beef herds by integrating research and extension efforts with the intent of more effectively transferring the use of reproductive technologies to the field. A key early step was to coordinate efforts in identifying effective breeding management protocols for beef cattle and to clarify their associated acronyms. A short list of recommended protocols and their acronyms for synchronization of estrus and ovulation in beef cattle was developed based on results from peer-reviewed, published research and a comprehensive review of data collected from the field. The list of recommended protocols was developed by the BRTF in cooperation with veterinarians and cattle AI industries. These protocols and their acronyms are presented uniformly in all of the major AI sire directories and are available online at http://www.beefrepro.info. Protocol updates are made annually to incorporate the most recent research findings related to estrous cycle control in beef cattle. The Estrus Synchronization Planner, a software program developed in cooperation with the Iowa Beef Center, now reflects these same recommendations. Beginning in 2002, the BRTF hosted and presented 11 educational workshops to more than 1,900 attendees in key cow-calf states. These Applied Reproductive Strategies in Beef Cattle workshops targeted beef producers, AI industry personnel, veterinarians, allied industry representatives, and academicians. A national media sponsor provided online coverage of the last 3 workshops at http://www.appliedreprostrategies.com. A postmeeting evaluation, developed to assess application of information from 2 recent workshops, was returned by 55% of those contacted (n = 150). Attendees averaged 16 (± 13.4 SD) yr of AI experience, and 80% of respondents represented more than 100 cows. Respondents were asked to estimate the value of AI-sired calves compared with natural

  13. Tailoring pharmacotherapy to specific eating behaviours in obesity: Can recommendations for personalised therapy be made from the current data?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Carl A; Christiansen, Paul; Halford, Jason C G

    2017-08-01

    Pharmacotherapy provides an adjunct to behaviour modification in the management of obesity. There are a number of new drug therapies purportedly targeting appetite; liraglutide, and bupropion/naltrexone, which are European Medicines Agency and US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved, and lorcaserin and phentermine/topiramate, which have FDA approval only. Each of the six drugs, used singly or in combination, has distinct pharmacological, and presumably distinct behavioural, mechanisms of action, thus the potential to provide defined therapeutic options to personalise the management of obesity. Yet, with regard to pharmacotherapy for obesity, we are far from true personalised medicine. We review the limited mechanistic data with four mono and combination pharmacotherapies, to assess the potential for tailoring their use to target specific obesogenic behaviours. Potential treatment options are considered, but in the absence of adequate research in respect to effects of these drugs on eating behaviour, neural activity and psychological substrates that underlie poorly controlled eating, we are far from definitive therapeutic recommendations. Specific mechanistic studies and broader behavioural phenotyping, possibly in conjunction with pharmacogenetic research, are required to characterise responders for distinct pharmacotherapeutic options.

  14. Recommendations and administration of the HPV vaccine to 11- to 12-year-old girls and boys: a statewide survey of Georgia vaccines for children provider practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luque, John S; Tarasenko, Yelena N; Dixon, Betty T; Vogel, Robert L; Tedders, Stuart H

    2014-10-01

    This study explores the prevalence and provider- and practice-related correlates of physician recommendation and administration of the quadrivalent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine, Gardasil, to 11- to 12-year-old girls and the intention to recommend the HPV vaccine to 11- to 12-year-old boys in Georgia. The study also describes physician knowledge about and barriers to HPV vaccination. This cross-sectional study was conducted from December 2010 to February 2011. The study sample was drawn using the Georgia Vaccines for Children (VFC) provider list as a sampling frame and probability 1-stage cluster sampling with counties as clusters. The final analytic sample was restricted to 206 provider locations. Weighted percentages and corresponding statistics were calculated accounting for selection probabilities, nonresponse, and the cluster sample design. Among Georgia VFC providers attending to 11- to 12-year-old girls, 46% had always recommended that their patients get the HPV vaccination and 41% had vaccinated their female patients. Among Georgia VFC providers attending to 11- to 12-year-old boys, 20% would always recommend that their male patients get vaccinated.Physicians most frequently endorsed costs of stocking the vaccine (73%), upfront costs (69%), vaccination (68%), and insurance reimbursements (63%) as barriers to their HPV vaccination practices. Despite the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices' recommendations on HPV vaccination, the prevalence of recommending and administering the HPV vaccine to female and male patients, aged 11 to 12 years, by VFC providers is an ongoing challenge in Georgia.

  15. Recommended environmental dose calculation methods and Hanford-specific parameters. Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schreckhise, R.G.; Rhoads, K.; Napier, B.A.; Ramsdell, J.V. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Davis, J.S. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1993-03-01

    This document was developed to support the Hanford Environmental Dose overview Panel (HEDOP). The Panel is responsible for reviewing all assessments of potential doses received by humans and other biota resulting from the actual or possible environmental releases of radioactive and other hazardous materials from facilities and/or operations belonging to the US Department of Energy on the Hanford Site in south-central Washington. This document serves as a guide to be used for developing estimates of potential radiation doses, or other measures of risk or health impacts, to people and other biota in the environs on and around the Hanford Site. It provides information to develop technically sound estimates of exposure (i.e., potential or actual) to humans or other biotic receptors that could result from the environmental transport of potentially harmful materials that have been, or could be, released from Hanford operations or facilities. Parameter values and information that are specific to the Hanford environs as well as other supporting material are included in this document.

  16. Specification and verification of nuclear-power-plant training-simulator response characteristics. Part II. Conclusions and recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haas, P M; Selby, D L; Kerlin, T W; Felkins, L

    1982-05-01

    The nuclear industry should adopt and NRC regulatory and research actions should support the systems approach to training as a structured framework for development and validation of personnel training systems. Potential exists for improving the ability to assess simulator fidelity. Systems Identification Technology offers a potential framework for model validation. Installation of the data collection/recording equipment required by NUREG-0696 could provide a vastly improved source of data for simulator fidelity assessment. The NRC needs to continue its post-TMI actions to involve itself more rigorously and more formally in the entire process of NPP personnel training system development. However, this involvement should be a participative one with industry. The existing similator standards and guidelines should be reorganized to support the use of systems approach to training. The standards should require and support a holistic approach to training system development that recognizes simulators and simulator training as only parts of the complete training program and full-scope, high-fidelity, site-specific simulators as only one useful training device. Some recommendations for adapting the SAT/ISD process to the nuclear industry are: The formation of an NRC/industry planning/coordination group, a program planning study to develop a programmatic plan, development of a user's guide and NRC/industry workshops to establish common terminology and practice, and a pilot study applying the adopted SAT/ISD methodology to an actual nuclear industry training program.

  17. Effect of cervical cancer education and provider recommendation for screening on screening rates: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonah Musa

    Full Text Available Although cervical cancer is largely preventable through screening, detection and treatment of precancerous abnormalities, it remains one of the top causes of cancer-related morbidity and mortality globally.The objective of this systematic review is to understand the evidence of the effect of cervical cancer education compared to control conditions on cervical cancer screening rates in eligible women population at risk of cervical cancer. We also sought to understand the effect of provider recommendations for screening to eligible women on cervical cancer screening (CCS rates compared to control conditions in eligible women population at risk of cervical cancer.We used the PICO (Problem or Population, Interventions, Comparison and Outcome framework as described in the Cochrane Collaboration Handbook to develop our search strategy. The details of our search strategy has been described in our systematic review protocol published in the International Prospective Register of systematic reviews (PROSPERO. The protocol registration number is CRD42016045605 available at: http://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/display_record.asp?src=trip&ID=CRD42016045605. The search string was used in Pubmed, Embase, Cochrane Systematic Reviews and Cochrane CENTRAL register of controlled trials to retrieve study reports that were screened for inclusion in this review. Our data synthesis and reporting was guided by the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis (PRISMA. We did a qualitative synthesis of evidence and, where appropriate, individual study effects were pooled in meta-analyses using RevMan 5.3 Review Manager. The Higgins I2 was used to assess for heterogeneity in studies pooled together for overall summary effects. We did assessment of risk of bias of individual studies included and assessed risk of publication bias across studies pooled together in meta-analysis by Funnel plot.Out of 3072 study reports screened, 28 articles were found to

  18. Effect of cervical cancer education and provider recommendation for screening on screening rates: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achenbach, Chad J.; O’Dwyer, Linda C.; Evans, Charlesnika T.; McHugh, Megan; Hou, Lifang; Simon, Melissa A.; Murphy, Robert L.; Jordan, Neil

    2017-01-01

    Background Although cervical cancer is largely preventable through screening, detection and treatment of precancerous abnormalities, it remains one of the top causes of cancer-related morbidity and mortality globally. Objectives The objective of this systematic review is to understand the evidence of the effect of cervical cancer education compared to control conditions on cervical cancer screening rates in eligible women population at risk of cervical cancer. We also sought to understand the effect of provider recommendations for screening to eligible women on cervical cancer screening (CCS) rates compared to control conditions in eligible women population at risk of cervical cancer. Methods We used the PICO (Problem or Population, Interventions, Comparison and Outcome) framework as described in the Cochrane Collaboration Handbook to develop our search strategy. The details of our search strategy has been described in our systematic review protocol published in the International Prospective Register of systematic reviews (PROSPERO). The protocol registration number is CRD42016045605 available at: http://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/display_record.asp?src=trip&ID=CRD42016045605. The search string was used in Pubmed, Embase, Cochrane Systematic Reviews and Cochrane CENTRAL register of controlled trials to retrieve study reports that were screened for inclusion in this review. Our data synthesis and reporting was guided by the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis (PRISMA). We did a qualitative synthesis of evidence and, where appropriate, individual study effects were pooled in meta-analyses using RevMan 5.3 Review Manager. The Higgins I2 was used to assess for heterogeneity in studies pooled together for overall summary effects. We did assessment of risk of bias of individual studies included and assessed risk of publication bias across studies pooled together in meta-analysis by Funnel plot. Results Out of 3072 study reports screened

  19. Associations Between Provider Designation and Female-specific Cancer Screening in Women Veterans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean-Mayberry, Bevanne; Bastian, Lori; Trentalange, Mark; Murphy, Terrence E.; Skanderson, Melissa; Allore, Heather; Reyes-Harvey, Evelyn; Maisel, Natalya C.; Gaetano, Vera; Wright, Steven; Haskell, Sally; Brandt, Cynthia

    2017-01-01

    Background In 2010, the Department of Veterans Affairs Healthcare System (VA) implemented policy to provide Comprehensive Primary Care (for acute, chronic, and female-specific care) from designated Women’s Health providers (DWHPs) at all VA sites. However, since that time no comparisons of quality measures have been available to assess the level of care for women Veterans assigned to these providers. Objectives To evaluate the associations between cervical and breast cancer screening rates among age-appropriate women Veterans and designation of primary-care provider (DWHP vs. non-DWHP). Research Design Cross-sectional analyses using the fiscal year 2012 data on VA women’s health providers, administrative files, and patient-specific quality measures. Subjects The sample included 37,128 women Veterans aged 21 through 69 years. Measures Variables included patient demographic and clinical factors (ie, age, race, ethnicity, mental health diagnoses, obesity, and site), and provider factors (ie, DWHP status, sex, and panel size). Screening measures were defined by age-appropriate subgroups using VA national guidelines. Results Female-specific cancer screening rates were higher among patients assigned to DWHPs (cervical cytology 94.4% vs. 91.9%, P screening (odds ratio, 1.26; 95% confidence interval, 1.07–1.47; P screening (odds ratio, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.10–1.39; P screening within VA. Separate evaluation of sex neutral measures is needed to determine whether other measures accrue benefits for patients with DWHPs. PMID:25767975

  20. The effects on saturated fat purchases of providing internet shoppers with purchase- specific dietary advice: a randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Amy; Barzi, Federica; Huxley, Rachel; Denyer, Gareth; Rohrlach, Beth; Jayne, Kathy; Neal, Bruce

    2006-09-22

    The supermarket industry now services many customers through online food shopping over the Internet. The Internet shopping process offers a novel opportunity for the modification of dietary patterns. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects on consumers' purchases of saturated fat of a fully automated computerised system that provided real-time advice tailored to the consumers' specific purchases recommending foods lower in saturated fat. This study was a blinded, randomised controlled trial. The study was conducted in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. The participants were consumers using a commercial online Internet shopping site between February and June 2004. Individuals assigned to intervention received fully automated advice that recommended specific switches from selected products higher in saturated fat to alternate similar products lower in saturated fat. Participants assigned to control received general non-specific advice about how to eat a diet lower in saturated fat. The outcome measure was the difference in saturated fat (grams per 100 g of food) in shopping baskets between the intervention and control groups. There were 497 randomised participants, mean age 40 y, each shopping for an average of about three people. The amount of saturated fat in the foods purchased by the intervention group was 0.66% lower (95% confidence interval 0.48-0.84, p effects of the intervention were sustained over consecutive shopping episodes, and there was no difference in the average cost of the food bought by each group. Fully automated, purchase-specific dietary advice offered to customers during Internet shopping can bring about changes in food purchasing habits that are likely to have significant public health implications. Because implementation is simple to initiate and maintain, this strategy would likely be highly cost-effective.

  1. The Effects on Saturated Fat Purchases of Providing Internet Shoppers with Purchase- Specific Dietary Advice: A Randomised Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Amy; Barzi, Federica; Huxley, Rachel; Denyer, Gareth; Rohrlach, Beth; Jayne, Kathy; Neal, Bruce

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: The supermarket industry now services many customers through online food shopping over the Internet. The Internet shopping process offers a novel opportunity for the modification of dietary patterns. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects on consumers' purchases of saturated fat of a fully automated computerised system that provided real-time advice tailored to the consumers' specific purchases recommending foods lower in saturated fat. Design: This study was a blinded, randomised controlled trial. Setting: The study was conducted in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. Participants: The participants were consumers using a commercial online Internet shopping site between February and June 2004. Interventions: Individuals assigned to intervention received fully automated advice that recommended specific switches from selected products higher in saturated fat to alternate similar products lower in saturated fat. Participants assigned to control received general non-specific advice about how to eat a diet lower in saturated fat. Outcome Measures: The outcome measure was the difference in saturated fat (grams per 100 g of food) in shopping baskets between the intervention and control groups. Results: There were 497 randomised participants, mean age 40 y, each shopping for an average of about three people. The amount of saturated fat in the foods purchased by the intervention group was 0.66% lower (95% confidence interval 0.48–0.84, p < 0.001) than in the control group. The effects of the intervention were sustained over consecutive shopping episodes, and there was no difference in the average cost of the food bought by each group. Conclusions: Fully automated, purchase-specific dietary advice offered to customers during Internet shopping can bring about changes in food purchasing habits that are likely to have significant public health implications. Because implementation is simple to initiate and maintain, this strategy would likely be highly

  2. Do group-specific equations provide the best estimates of stature?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albanese, John; Osley, Stephanie E; Tuck, Andrew

    2016-04-01

    An estimate of stature can be used by a forensic anthropologist with the preliminary identification of an unknown individual when human skeletal remains are recovered. Fordisc is a computer application that can be used to estimate stature; like many other methods it requires the user to assign an unknown individual to a specific group defined by sex, race/ancestry, and century of birth before an equation is applied. The assumption is that a group-specific equation controls for group differences and should provide the best results most often. In this paper we assess the utility and benefits of using group-specific equations to estimate stature using Fordisc. Using the maximum length of the humerus and the maximum length of the femur from individuals with documented stature, we address the question: Do sex-, race/ancestry- and century-specific stature equations provide the best results when estimating stature? The data for our sample of 19th Century White males (n=28) were entered into Fordisc and stature was estimated using 22 different equation options for a total of 616 trials: 19th and 20th Century Black males, 19th and 20th Century Black females, 19th and 20th Century White females, 19th and 20th Century White males, 19th and 20th Century any, and 20th Century Hispanic males. The equations were assessed for utility in any one case (how many times the estimated range bracketed the documented stature) and in aggregate using 1-way ANOVA and other approaches. This group-specific equation that should have provided the best results was outperformed by several other equations for both the femur and humerus. These results suggest that group-specific equations do not provide better results for estimating stature while at the same time are more difficult to apply because an unknown must be allocated to a given group before stature can be estimated. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Killing Bugs at the Bedside: A prospective hospital survey of how frequently personal digital assistants provide expert recommendations in the treatment of infectious diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richardson W Scott

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Personal Digital Assistants (PDAS are rapidly becoming popular tools in the assistance of managing hospitalized patients, but little is known about how often expert recommendations are available for the treatment of infectious diseases in hospitalized patients. Objective To determine how often PDAs could provide expert recommendations for the management of infectious diseases in patients admitted to a general medicine teaching service. Design Prospective observational cohort study Setting Internal medicine resident teaching service at an urban hospital in Dayton, Ohio Patients 212 patients (out of 883 patients screened were identified with possible infectious etiologies as the cause for admission to the hospital. Measurements Patients were screened prospectively from July 2002 until October 2002 for infectious conditions as the cause of their admissions. 5 PDA programs were assessed in October 2002 to see if treatment recommendations were available for managing these patients. The programs were then reassessed in January 2004 to evaluate how the latest editions of the software would perform under the same context as the previous year. Results PDAs provided treatment recommendations in at least one of the programs for 100% of the patients admitted over the 4 month period in the 2004 evaluation. Each of the programs reviewed improved from 2002 to 2004, with five of the six programs offering treatment recommendations for over 90% of patients in the study. Conclusion Current PDA software provides expert recommendations for a great majority of general internal medicine patients presenting to the hospital with infectious conditions.

  4. A procedure-specific systematic review and consensus recommendations for postoperative analgesia following total knee arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, H.B.; Simanski, C.J.; Sharp, C.

    2008-01-01

    The PROSPECT Working Group, a collaboration of anaesthetists and surgeons, conducts systematic reviews of postoperative pain management for different surgical procedures (http://www.postoppain.org). Evidence-based consensus recommendations for the effective management of postoperative pain...... are then developed from these systematic reviews, incorporating clinical practice observations, and transferable evidence from other relevant procedures. We present the results of a systematic review of pain and other outcomes following analgesic, anaesthetic and surgical interventions for total knee arthroplasty...... (TKA). The evidence from this review supports the use of general anaesthesia combined with a femoral nerve block for surgery and postoperative analgesia, or alternatively spinal anaesthesia with local anaesthetic plus spinal morphine. The primary technique, together with cooling and compression...

  5. What Factors Are Associated With Receiving a Recommendation to Get Tested for HIV by Health Care Providers Among Men Who Have Sex With Men?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Wilson; McFarland, Willi; Raymond, H Fisher

    2017-07-01

    The approach of treatment as prevention for reducing HIV incidence and prevalence hinges on early detection of HIV infection and treatment to achieve viral suppression and, thus, to reduce HIV transmissibility. However, men who have sex with men (MSM), who are at greater risk of HIV infection than the average adult in the United States, are often not tested because many providers do not provide routine opt-out testing or even recommend HIV testing. In a sample of 244 MSM in San Francisco, CA, this study examined whether (1) sociodemographic characteristics (ie, youth, education, employment status, being African American, being Latino), (2) health care access and utilization, and (3) participants disclosing their sexual orientation to their health care providers were associated with their odds of having received a recommendation from a health care provider for HIV testing. Results showed that none of the sociodemographic or health care-related factors were associated with whether a health care provider recommended HIV testing, but MSM disclosing their sexual orientation to their health care providers was associated with an over 8 times greater odds of MSM receiving a recommendation for HIV testing. The study findings underscore the need for routine opt-out HIV testing to screen members of high-risk populations who may not enter the HIV continuum of care and for health care providers to be able to ask patients about HIV risk behavior and sexual orientation and behavior.

  6. Recommendations from primary care providers for integrating mental health in a primary care system in rural Nepal

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Acharya, Bibhav; Tenpa, Jasmine; Thapa, Poshan; Gauchan, Bikash; Citrin, David; Ekstrand, Maria

    2016-01-01

    .... Primary care provider perspectives are important for successful program implementation. We conducted three focus groups with all 24 primary care providers at a district-level hospital in rural Nepal...

  7. Comprehensive review of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: screening and preventive recommendations for plastic surgeons and other surgical health care providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly, Eamon B; Johnson, Mark D; Rohrich, Rod J

    2014-11-01

    Up to 2.3 million people are colonized with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in the United States, causing well-documented morbidity and mortality. Although the association of clinical outcomes with community and hospital carriage rates is increasingly defined, less is reported about asymptomatic colonization prevalence among physicians, and specifically plastic surgeons and the subsequent association with the incidence of patient surgical-site infection. A review of the literature using the PubMed and Cochrane databases analyzing provider screening, transmission, and prevalence was undertaken. In addition, a search was completed for current screening and decontamination guidelines and outcomes. The methicillin-resistant S. aureus carriage prevalence of surgical staff is 4.5 percent. No prospective data exist regarding transmission and interventions for plastic surgeons. No studies were found specifically looking at prevalence or treatment of plastic surgeons. Current recommendations by national organizations focus on patient-oriented point-of-care testing and intervention, largely ignoring the role of the health care provider. Excellent guidelines exist regarding screening, transmission prevention, and treatment both in the workplace and in the community. No current such guidelines exist for plastic surgeons. No Level I or II evidence was found regarding physician screening, treatment, or transmission. Current expert opinion, however, indicates that plastic surgeons and their staff should be vigilant for methicillin-resistant S. aureus transmission, and once a sentinel cluster of skin and soft-tissue infections is identified, systematic screening and decontamination should be considered. If positive, topical decolonization therapy should be offered. In refractory cases, oral antibiotic therapy may be required, but this should not be used as a first-line strategy.

  8. Do current national and international guidelines have specific recommendations for older adults with bipolar disorder? A brief report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dols, Annemiek; Kessing, Lars Vedel; Strejilevich, Sergio A; Rej, Soham; Tsai, Shang-Ying; Gildengers, Ariel G; Almeida, Osvaldo P; Shulman, Kenneth I; Sajatovic, Martha

    2016-12-01

    Older adults with bipolar disorder (OABD) are a growing segment of patients with bipolar disorder (BD) for which specific guidelines are warranted. Although, OABD are frequently excluded from randomized controlled trials due to their age or somatic comorbidity, more treatment data from a variety of sources have become available in recent years. It is expected that at least some of this emerging information on OABD would be incorporated into treatment guidelines available to clinicians around the world. The International Society of Bipolar Disorders OABD task force compiled and compared recommendations from current national and international guidelines that specifically address geriatric or older individuals with BD (from year 2005 onwards). There were 34 guidelines, representing six continents and 19 countries. The majority of guidelines had no separate section on OABD. General principles for treating OABD with medication are recommended to be similar to those for younger adults, with special caution for side effects due to somatic comorbidity and concomitant medications. Therapeutic lithium serum levels are suggested to be lower but recommendations are very general and mostly not informed by specific research evidence. There is a lack of emphasis of OABD-specific issues in existing guidelines. Given the substantial clinical heterogeneity in BD across the life span, along with the rapidly expanding population of older individuals worldwide, and limited mental health workforce with geriatric expertise, it is critical that additional effort and resources be devoted to studying treatment interventions specific to OABD and that treatment guidelines reflect research findings. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Adherence to Hypertension Management Recommendations for Patient Follow-Up Care and Lifestyle Modifications Made by Military Healthcare Providers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Collins, Timothy

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe military healthcare providers adherence to nationally recognized hypertensive patient guidelines concerning lifestyle modifications and follow-up instructions...

  10. SMS for Sexual Health: A Comparison of Service Types and Recommendations for Sexual Health Text Message Service Providers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willoughby, Jessica Fitts; Muldrow, Adrienne

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: Text message-based interventions may provide sexual health information to young people through a number of service types, from sending information on a regularly scheduled timeline, to providing an automated menu, to allowing young people to connect directly with health educators. While such service types exist, it is not clear which…

  11. Do current national and international guidelines have specific recommendations for older adults with bipolar disorder?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dols, Annemiek; Kessing, Lars Vedel; Strejilevich, Sergio A

    2016-01-01

    a variety of sources have become available in recent years. It is expected that at least some of this emerging information on OABD would be incorporated into treatment guidelines available to clinicians around the world. METHODS: The International Society of Bipolar Disorders OABD task force compiled......OBJECTIVE: Older adults with bipolar disorder (OABD) are a growing segment of patients with bipolar disorder (BD) for which specific guidelines are warranted. Although, OABD are frequently excluded from randomized controlled trials due to their age or somatic comorbidity, more treatment data from...

  12. Recommendations for the Revision of MIL-C-915 Outboard Cable Specifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-03-15

    completed cable or cord approximately 6 Teet Tong. 4.8.5.2 Apparatus. The testing machine shall be power-driven, and shall be equipped with a dial...The presence of occasional particles or slivers of filler residue will be accept- able, providing that these can be removed by light brushing with the

  13. International Veterinary Epilepsy Task Force recommendations for a veterinary epilepsy-specific MRI protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusbridge, Clare; Long, Sam; Jovanovik, Jelena; Milne, Marjorie; Berendt, Mette; Bhatti, Sofie F M; De Risio, Luisa; Farqhuar, Robyn G; Fischer, Andrea; Matiasek, Kaspar; Muñana, Karen; Patterson, Edward E; Pakozdy, Akos; Penderis, Jacques; Platt, Simon; Podell, Michael; Potschka, Heidrun; Stein, Veronika M; Tipold, Andrea; Volk, Holger A

    2015-08-28

    Epilepsy is one of the most common chronic neurological diseases in veterinary practice. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is regarded as an important diagnostic test to reach the diagnosis of idiopathic epilepsy. However, given that the diagnosis requires the exclusion of other differentials for seizures, the parameters for MRI examination should allow the detection of subtle lesions which may not be obvious with existing techniques. In addition, there are several differentials for idiopathic epilepsy in humans, for example some focal cortical dysplasias, which may only apparent with special sequences, imaging planes and/or particular techniques used in performing the MRI scan. As a result, there is a need to standardize MRI examination in veterinary patients with techniques that reliably diagnose subtle lesions, identify post-seizure changes, and which will allow for future identification of underlying causes of seizures not yet apparent in the veterinary literature.There is a need for a standardized veterinary epilepsy-specific MRI protocol which will facilitate more detailed examination of areas susceptible to generating and perpetuating seizures, is cost efficient, simple to perform and can be adapted for both low and high field scanners. Standardisation of imaging will improve clinical communication and uniformity of case definition between research studies. A 6-7 sequence epilepsy-specific MRI protocol for veterinary patients is proposed and further advanced MR and functional imaging is reviewed.

  14. Relationship between anaerobic parameters provided from MAOD and critical power model in specific table tennis test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagatto, A M; Gobatto, C A

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this study was to verify the validity of the curvature constant parameter (W'), calculated from 2-parameter mathematical equations of critical power model, in estimating the anaerobic capacity and anaerobic work capacity from a table tennis-specific test. Specifically, we aimed to i) compare constants estimated from three critical intensity models in a table tennis-specific test (Cf); ii) correlate each estimated W' with the maximal accumulated oxygen deficit (MAOD); iii) correlate each W' with the total amount of anaerobic work (W ANAER) performed in each exercise bout performed during the Cf test. Nine national-standard male table tennis players participated in the study. MAOD was 63.0(10.8) mL · kg - 1 and W' values were 32.8(6.6) balls for the linear-frequency model, 38.3(6.9) balls for linear-total balls model, 48.7(8.9) balls for Nonlinear-2 parameter model. Estimated W' from the Nonlinear 2-parameter model was significantly different from W' from the other 2 models (P0.13). Thus, W' estimated from the 2-parameter mathematical equations did not correlate with MAOD or W ANAER in table tennis-specific tests, indicating that W' may not provide a strong and valid estimation of anaerobic capacity and anaerobic capacity work. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  15. Pediatric Care Provided at Urgent Care Centers in the United States: Compliance With Recommendations for Emergency Preparedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Robert; Olympia, Robert P; Dunnick, Jennifer; Brady, Jodi

    2016-02-01

    To describe the compliance of urgent care centers in the United States with pediatric care recommendations for emergency preparedness as set forth by the American Academy of Pediatrics. An electronic questionnaire was distributed to urgent care center administrators as identified by the American Academy of Urgent Care Medicine directory. A total of 122 questionnaires of the 872 distributed were available for analysis (14% usable response rate). The most common diagnoses reported for pediatric patients included otitis media (72%), upper respiratory illness (69%), strep pharyngitis (61%), bronchiolitis (30%), and extremity sprain/strain (28%). Seventy-one percent of centers have contacted community emergency medical services (EMS) to transport a critically ill or injured child to their local emergency department in the past year. Sixty-two percent of centers reported having an established written protocol with community EMS and 54% with their local emergency department or hospital. Centers reported the availability of the following essential medications and equipment: oxygen source (75%), nebulized/inhaled β-agonist (95%), intravenous epinephrine (88%), oxygen masks/nasal cannula (89%), bag-valve-mask resuscitator (81%), suctioning device (60%), and automated external defibrillator (80%). Centers reported the presence of the following written emergency plans: respiratory distress (40%), seizures (67%), dehydration/shock (69%), head injury (59%), neck injury (67%), significant fracture (69%), and blunt chest or abdominal injury (81%). Forty-seven percent of centers conduct formal reviews of emergent or difficult cases in a quality improvement format. Areas for improvement in urgent care center preparedness were identified, such as increasing the availability of essential medications and equipment, establishing transfer and transport agreements with local hospitals and community EMS, and ensuring a structured quality improvement program.

  16. Specific targeting of whole lymphoma cells to dendritic cells ex vivo provides a potent antitumor vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mocikat Ralph

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dendritic cells (DC pulsed with tumor-derived antigenic material have widely been used in antitumor vaccination protocols. However, the optimal strategy of DC loading has not yet been established. Our aim was to define requirements of optimal DC vaccines in terms of in vivo protection in a murine B-cell lymphoma model. Methods We compare various loading reagents including whole parental and modified tumor cells and a single tumor-specific antigen, namely the lymphoma idiotype (Id. Bone marrow-derived DC were pulsed in vitro and used for therapy of established A20 lymphomas. Results We show that a vaccine with superior antitumor efficacy can be generated when DC are loaded with whole modified tumor cells which provide both (i antigenic polyvalency and (ii receptor-mediated antigen internalization. Uptake of cellular material was greatly enhanced when the tumor cells used for DC pulsing were engineered to express an anti-Fc receptor immunoglobulin specificity. Upon transfer of these DC, established tumor burdens were eradicated in 50% of mice. By contrast, pulsing DC with unmodified lymphoma cells or with the lymphoma Id, even when it was endowed with the anti-Fc receptor binding arm, was far less effective. A specific humoral anti-Id response could be detected, particularly following delivery of Id protein-pulsed DC, but it was not predictive of tumor protection. Instead a T-cell response was pivotal for successful tumor protection. Interaction of the transferred DC with CD8+ T lymphocytes seemed to play a role for induction of the immune response but was dispensable when DC had received an additional maturation stimulus. Conclusion Our analyses show that the advantages of specific antigen redirection and antigenic polyvalency can be combined to generate DC-based vaccines with superior antitumor efficacy. This mouse model may provide information for the standardization of DC-based vaccination protocols.

  17. Recommendations for Guidelines for Environment-Specific Magnetic-Field Measurements, Rapid Program Engineering Project #2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Electric Research and Management, Inc.; IIT Research Institute; Magnetic Measurements; Survey Research Center, University of California; T. Dan Bracken, Inc.

    1997-03-11

    The purpose of this project was to document widely applicable methods for characterizing the magnetic fields in a given environment, recognizing the many sources co-existing within that space. The guidelines are designed to allow the reader to follow an efficient process to (1) plan the goals and requirements of a magnetic-field study, (2) develop a study structure and protocol, and (3) document and carry out the plan. These guidelines take the reader first through the process of developing a basic study strategy, then through planning and performing the data collection. Last, the critical factors of data management, analysis reporting, and quality assurance are discussed. The guidelines are structured to allow the researcher to develop a protocol that responds to specific site and project needs. The Research and Public Information Dissemination Program (RAPID) is based on exposure to magnetic fields and the potential health effects. Therefore, the most important focus for these magnetic-field measurement guidelines is relevance to exposure. The assumed objective of an environment-specific measurement is to characterize the environment (given a set of occupants and magnetic-field sources) so that information about the exposure of the occupants may be inferred. Ideally, the researcher seeks to obtain complete or "perfect" information about these magnetic fields, so that personal exposure might also be modeled perfectly. However, complete data collection is not feasible. In fact, it has been made more difficult as the research field has moved to expand the list of field parameters measured, increasing the cost and complexity of performing a measurement and analyzing the data. The guidelines address this issue by guiding the user to design a measurement protocol that will gather the most exposure-relevant information based on the locations of people in relation to the sources. We suggest that the "microenvironment" become the base unit of area in a study, with

  18. Increasing Access to Preschool: Recommendations for Reducing Barriers to Providing Full-day, Full-year Programs. Policy Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Kate

    2008-01-01

    More than ever before, Californians recognize that preschool provides young children with a strong start in school and life. Research confirms that effective preschool not only prepares children for kindergarten, but benefits them in the long-term. Despite the benefits, only 48% of 3- and 4-year-old children attend preschool in California. While…

  19. HBB-Next: Providing independent content recommendations in a next-generation hybrid broadcast broadband TV ecosystem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deventer, M.O. van; Wit, J.J. de; Gerrits, B.M.; Guelbahar, M.; Probst, M.

    2012-01-01

    The European FP7 project HBB-Next envisions a future in which connected televisions and hybrid broadcast broadband (HbbTV) offer consumers access to large amounts of scheduled and on demand content. Companion screens provide access to auxiliary content that may, or may not, be related to the content

  20. Physiological and nutritional aspects of post-exercise recovery: specific recommendations for female athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausswirth, Christophe; Le Meur, Yann

    2011-10-01

    Gender-based differences in the physiological response to exercise have been studied extensively for the last four decades, and yet the study of post-exercise, gender-specific recovery has only been developing in more recent years. This review of the literature aims to present the current state of knowledge in this field, focusing on some of the most pertinent aspects of physiological recovery in female athletes and how metabolic, thermoregulatory, or inflammation and repair processes may differ from those observed in male athletes. Scientific investigations on the effect of gender on substrate utilization during exercise have yielded conflicting results. Factors contributing to the lack of agreement between studies include differences in subject dietary or training status, exercise intensity or duration, as well as the variations in ovarian hormone concentrations between different menstrual cycle phases in female subjects, as all are known to affect substrate metabolism during sub-maximal exercise. If greater fatty acid mobilization occurs in females during prolonged exercise compared with males, the inverse is observed during the recovery phase. This could explain why, despite mobilizing lipids to a greater extent than males during exercise, females lose less fat mass than their male counterparts over the course of a physical training programme. Where nutritional strategies are concerned, no difference appears between males and females in their capacity to replenish glycogen stores; optimal timing for carbohydrate intake does not differ between genders, and athletes must consume carbohydrates as soon as possible after exercise in order to maximize glycogen store repletion. While lipid intake should be limited in the immediate post-exercise period in order to favour carbohydrate and protein intake, in the scope of the athlete's general diet, lipid intake should be maintained at an adequate level (30%). This is particularly important for females specializing in

  1. Tissue-specific transcriptome analyses provide new insights into GPCR signalling in adult Schistosoma mansoni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahnel, Steffen; Wheeler, Nic; Lu, Zhigang; Wangwiwatsin, Arporn; McVeigh, Paul; Maule, Aaron; Berriman, Matthew; Day, Timothy; Ribeiro, Paula; Grevelding, Christoph G

    2018-01-01

    Schistosomes are blood-dwelling trematodes with global impact on human and animal health. Because medical treatment is currently based on a single drug, praziquantel, there is urgent need for the development of alternative control strategies. The Schistosoma mansoni genome project provides a platform to study and connect the genetic repertoire of schistosomes to specific biological functions essential for successful parasitism. G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) form the largest superfamily of transmembrane receptors throughout the Eumetazoan phyla, including platyhelminths. Due to their involvement in diverse biological processes, their pharmacological importance, and proven druggability, GPCRs are promising targets for new anthelmintics. However, to identify candidate receptors, a more detailed understanding of the roles of GPCR signalling in schistosome biology is essential. An updated phylogenetic analysis of the S. mansoni GPCR genome (GPCRome) is presented, facilitated by updated genome data that allowed a more precise annotation of GPCRs. Additionally, we review the current knowledge on GPCR signalling in this parasite and provide new insights into the potential roles of GPCRs in schistosome reproduction based on the findings of a recent tissue-specific transcriptomic study in paired and unpaired S. mansoni. According to the current analysis, GPCRs contribute to gonad-specific functions but also to nongonad, pairing-dependent processes. The latter may regulate gonad-unrelated functions during the multifaceted male-female interaction. Finally, we compare the schistosome GPCRome to that of another parasitic trematode, Fasciola, and discuss the importance of GPCRs to basic and applied research. Phylogenetic analyses display GPCR diversity in free-living and parasitic platyhelminths and suggest diverse functions in schistosomes. Although their roles need to be substantiated by functional studies in the future, the data support the selection of GPCR candidates

  2. Child Care Provider Adherence to Infant and Toddler Feeding Recommendations: Findings from the Baby Nutrition and Physical Activity Self-Assessment for Child Care (Baby NAP SACC) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaine, Rachel E; Davison, Kirsten K; Hesketh, Kathryn; Taveras, Elsie M; Gillman, Matthew W; Benjamin Neelon, Sara E

    2015-06-01

    Identifying characteristics associated with the Institute of Medicine's (IOM) recommended feeding practices among infant and toddler care providers in child care centers could help in preventing childhood obesity. In 2009, at baseline in a pilot intervention study of 29 licensed Massachusetts child care centers with at least 50% of enrolled children identified as racial minorities, 57 infant and 109 toddler providers completed feeding questionnaires. To assess provider adherence to six IOM-recommended behaviors, we used cluster-adjusted multivariable logistic regression models including provider type (infant or toddler), race, education, and center Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP) participation. In multivariable analysis, CACFP participation was associated with providers sitting with children at meals (odds ratio [OR], 5.2; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.2-21.7), offering fruits and vegetables (OR, 3.3; 95% CI 1.7-6.2), and limiting fast food (OR, 3.5; 95% CI, 1.8-6.7). Providers at centers serving meals family style were less likely to allow children to leave food unfinished (OR, 0.27; 95% CI, 0.09-0.77). Infant providers were more likely than toddler providers to sit with children at meals (OR, 6.98; 95% CI, 1.51-32.09), allow children to eat when hungry (OR, 3.50; 95% CI, 1.34-9.16), and avoid serving sugary (OR, 8.74; 95% CI, 3.05-25.06) or fast foods (OR, 11.56; 95% CI, 3.20-41.80). CACFP participation may encourage IOM-recommended feeding practices among infant and toddler providers. Child care providers may benefit from education about how to feed infants and toddlers responsively, especially when offering foods family style. Future research should explore ways to promote child-centered feeding practices, while addressing barriers to providing children with nutrient-rich foods.

  3. Recommended Methods for Monitoring Skeletal Health in Astronauts to Distinguish Specific Effects of Prolonged Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasadi, Lukas J.; Spector, Elizabeth R.; Smith, Scott A.; Yardley, Gregory L.; Evans, Harlan J.; Sibonga, Jean D.

    2016-01-01

    NASA uses areal bone mineral density (aBMD) by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) to monitor skeletal health in astronauts after typical 180-day spaceflights. The osteoporosis field and NASA, however, recognize the insufficiency of DXA aBMD as a sole surrogate for fracture risk. This is an even greater concern for NASA as it attempts to expand fracture risk assessment in astronauts, given the complicated nature of spaceflight-induced bone changes and the fact that multiple 1-year missions are planned. In the past decade, emerging analyses for additional surrogates have been tested in clinical trials; the potential use of these technologies to monitor the biomechanical integrity of the astronaut skeleton will be presented. OVERVIEW: An advisory panel of osteoporosis policy-makers provided NASA with an evidence-based assessment of astronaut biomedical and research data. The panel concluded that spaceflight and terrestrial bone loss have significant differences and certain factors may predispose astronauts to premature fractures. Based on these concerns, a proposed surveillance program is presented which a) uses Quantitative Computed Tomography (QCT) scans of the hip to monitor the recovery of spaceflight-induced deficits in trabecular BMD by 2 years after return, b) develops Finite Element Models [FEM] of QCT data to evaluate spaceflight effect on calculated hip bone strength and c) generates Trabecular Bone Score [TBS] from serial DXA scans of the lumbar spine to evaluate the effect of age, spaceflight and countermeasures on this novel index of bone microarchitecture. SIGNIFICANCE: DXA aBMD is a widely-applied, evidence-based predictor for fractures but not applicable as a fracture surrogate for premenopausal females and males assessing changes in bone integrity with and without countermeasures. Collective use of aBMD, TBS, QCT, and FEM analysis for astronaut surveillance could accommodate NASA's aggressive schedule for risk definition and inform a NASA

  4. Providing continuity of care for chronic diseases in the aftermath of Katrina: from field experience to policy recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrieta, Martha I; Foreman, Rachel D; Crook, Errol D; Icenogle, Marjorie L

    2009-10-01

    This study sought to elicit challenges and solutions in the provision of health care to those with chronic diseases after Hurricane Katrina in coastal Alabama and Mississippi. In-depth interviews with 30 health and social service providers (key informants) and 4 focus groups with patients with chronic diseases were conducted. Subsequently an advisory panel of key informants was convened. Findings were summarized and key informants submitted additional feedback. The chronic diseases identified as medical management priorities by key informants were mental health, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, respiratory illness, end-stage renal disease, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. The most frequently mentioned barrier to providing care was maintaining continuity of medications. Contributing factors were inadequate information (inaccessible medical records, poor patient knowledge) and financial constraints. Implemented or suggested solutions included relaxation of insurance limitations preventing advance prescription refills; better predisaster patient education to improve medical knowledge; promotion of personal health records; support for information technology systems at community health centers, in particular electronic medical records; improved allocation of donated medications/medical supplies (centralized coordination, decentralized distribution); and networking between local responders and external aid.

  5. Impact of biomedical and biopsychosocial training sessions on the attitudes, beliefs, and recommendations of health care providers about low back pain: a randomised clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domenech, J; Sánchez-Zuriaga, D; Segura-Ortí, E; Espejo-Tort, B; Lisón, J F

    2011-11-01

    The beliefs and attitudes of health care providers may contribute to chronic low back pain (LBP) disability, influencing the recommendations that they provide to their patients. An excessively biomedical style of undergraduate training can increase negative beliefs and attitudes about LBP, whereas instruction following a biopsychosocial model could possibly lessen these negative beliefs in health care professionals. The objectives of this study were to determine the effectiveness of 2 brief educational modules with different orientations (biomedical or biopsychosocial) on changing the beliefs and attitudes of physical therapy students and the recommendations that they give to patients. The intervention in the experimental group was based on the general biopsychosocial model, whereas the sessions in the control group dealt with the basics of the biomechanics of back pain. The participants completed the Fear-Avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire (FABQ), Health Care Providers' Pain and Impairment Relationship Scale (HC-PAIRS), and Rainville et al. Clinical Cases questionnaire before and after the interventions. The participants attending the biopsychosocial session displayed a reduction in fear-avoidance beliefs (P<.001) and Pain-Impairement beliefs (P<.001), which was strongly correlated with an improvement in clinicians' activity and work recommendations. However, the students assigned to the biomechanics sessions increased their fear-avoidance scores (P<.01), and their recommendations for activity levels worsened significantly (P<.001). Our results confirm the possibility of modifying the behaviour of students through the modification of their beliefs and attitudes. We also conclude that a strictly biomedical education exacerbates maladaptive beliefs, and consequently results in inadequate activity recommendations. The implications of this study are important for both the development of continuing medical education and the design of the training curriculum for

  6. Complexes of Thermotoga maritima S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase provide insights into substrate specificity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bale, Shridhar; Baba, Kavita; McCloskey, Diane E.; Pegg, Anthony E.; Ealick, Steven E.

    2010-06-25

    The polyamines putrescine, spermidine and spermine are ubiquitous aliphatic cations and are essential for cellular growth and differentiation. S-Adenosylmethionine decarboxylase (AdoMetDC) is a critical pyruvoyl-dependent enzyme in the polyamine-biosynthetic pathway. The crystal structures of AdoMetDC from humans and plants and of the AdoMetDC proenzyme from Thermotoga maritima have been obtained previously. Here, the crystal structures of activated T. maritima AdoMetDC (TmAdoMetDC) and of its complexes with S-adenosylmethionine methyl ester and 5{prime}-deoxy-5{prime}-dimethylthioadenosine are reported. The results demonstrate for the first time that TmAdoMetDC autoprocesses without the need for additional factors and that the enzyme contains two complete active sites, both of which use residues from both chains of the homodimer. The complexes provide insights into the substrate specificity and ligand binding of AdoMetDC in prokaryotes. The conservation of the ligand-binding mode and the active-site residues between human and T. maritima AdoMetDC provides insight into the evolution of AdoMetDC.

  7. Polysaccharide specific monoclonal antibodies provide passive protection against intranasal challenge with Burkholderia pseudomallei.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David P AuCoin

    Full Text Available Burkholderia pseudomallei is a Gram-negative bacillus that is the causative agent of melioidosis. The bacterium is inherently resistant to many antibiotics and mortality rates remain high in endemic areas. The lipopolysaccharide (LPS and capsular polysaccharide (CPS are two surface-associated antigens that contribute to pathogenesis. We previously developed two monoclonal antibodies (mAbs specific to the CPS and LPS; the CPS mAb was shown to identify antigen in serum and urine from melioidosis patients. The goal of this study was to determine if passive immunization with CPS and LPS mAbs alone and in combination would protect mice from a lethal challenge with B. pseudomallei. Intranasal (i.n. challenge experiments were performed with B. pseudomallei strains 1026b and K96423. Both mAbs provided significant protection when administered alone. A combination of mAbs was protective when low doses were administered. In addition, combination therapy provided a significant reduction in spleen colony forming units (cfu compared to results when either the CPS or LPS mAbs were administered alone.

  8. Towards sustainable fisheries of the Öresund cod (Gadus morhua) through sub-stock-specific assessment and management recommendations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegren, Martin; Waldo, Staffan; Nilsson, P. Anders

    2013-01-01

    elements. Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) frequently occurs in spatially segregated populations, some of which exhibit fine-scaled stock structuring within current management boundaries. Here we use the locally spawning cod stock in the Sound (“Öresund”) as a case study, and perform a sub......Fisheries management traditionally relies on stock assessments assuming discrete populations within large administrational areas. However, failing to account for sub-stock structuring may result in overestimation of the stocks' true harvest potential and unsustainable exploitation of small stock......-term net benefits to the local gill-net fishery. Furthermore, our study emphasizes the need for developing sub-stock-specific management recommendations in order to ensure the maintenance of fisheries resources in general, and the persistence of sub-stock structuring in particular....

  9. Specific descriptions of functional providing of the special endurance of boxers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiprich S.B.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to determine the specific characteristics of functional and metabolic support of special endurance of qualified boxers. Material: in research took part 16 boxers of high qualification at the age of 19-26 years. To estimate special endurance is used technique of detection the basic parameters of performance boxers "Spuderg-10." To estimate the response of cardiorespiratory system during the test "3x3" is used portable ergo-spirometry complex «Meta Max 3B» (Cortex, Germany. Results: It is shown that the range of individual distinctions of indexes of capacity and functional providing of the special endurance increased in every round under act of accumulation of fatigue. It is related to distinctions of kinetics of the cardiorespiratory system (by the increase of pulmonary ventilation in the first round, by the consumption of О 2 (by a capacity for the achievement of VO 2 max - in the second and by power of reaction of respiratory indemnification of metabolic acidosis - in the third. These distinctions are registered in default of reliable distinctions of quantitative descriptions of acidemic changes in an organism, increasing in the process of the test job processing. Conclusions: in different periods (rounds in boxers high grade found differences of manifestation and combinations of properties features of functional readiness.

  10. Ethnic specific recommendations in clinical practice guidelines: a first exploratory comparison between guidelines from the USA, Canada, the UK, and the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.R. Manna; M.A. Bruijnzeels (Marc); H.G. Mokkink; M. Berg (Marc)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVES: To investigate whether clinical practice guidelines in different countries take ethnic differences between patients into consideration and to assess the scientific foundation of such ethnic specific recommendations. DESIGN: Analysis of the primary care

  11. Adherence to the WCRF/AICR cancer prevention recommendations and cancer-specific mortality: Results from the Vitamins and Lifestyle (VITAL) Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastert, Theresa A.; Beresford, Shirley A.A.; Sheppard, Lianne; White, Emily

    2014-01-01

    Purpose In 2007 the World Cancer Research Fund (WCRF) and American Institute for Cancer Research (AICR) released eight recommendations related to body fatness, physical activity and diet aimed at preventing the most common cancers worldwide. The purpose of this paper is to estimate the association between meeting these recommendations and cancer-specific mortality. Methods We operationalized six recommendations (related to body fatness; physical activity; and consumption of foods that promote weight gain, plant foods, red and processed meat, and alcohol) and examined their association with cancer-specific mortality over 7.7 years of follow-up in the VITamins And Lifestyle (VITAL) Study cohort. Participants included 57,841 men and women ages 50–76 in 2000–2002 who had not been diagnosed with cancer prior to baseline. Cancer-specific deaths (n = 1,595) were tracked through the Washington State death file. Results Meeting the recommendations related to plant foods and foods that promote weight gain were most strongly associated with lower cancer-specific mortality (hazard ratio (HR): 0.82, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.67, 1.00 and HR: 0.82, 95% CI: 0.70, 0.96, respectively). Cancer-specific mortality was 61% lower in respondents who met at least five recommendations compared to those who met none (HR: 0.39, 95% CI: 0.24, 0.62). Cancer-specific mortality was 10% lower on average with each additional recommendation met (per-recommendation HR: 0.90, 95% CI: 0.85, 0.94; Ptrend cancer prevention recommendations developed to reduce incidence of common cancers could substantially reduce cancer-specific mortality in older adults. PMID:24557428

  12. Baghouse on a glass furnace provides lesson in filter bag specification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carney, K.E.; King, W.R.

    1983-09-01

    This paper, directed toward individuals who specify filter bags for industrial dust collectors, is a case history illustrating the need for a complete bag specification. The case history documents Owens-Corning Fiberglas solution to a glass bag failure that occurred during the start-up of a new baghouse on a gas fired glass furnace. Based on the chemical and physical testing described in this paper, the conclusion was reached that the early problems were due to a lack of precess understanding and attention to the bag specification. The process has operated satisfactorily with the respecified glass bag.

  13. Using data mining techniques to explore physicians' therapeutic decisions when clinical guidelines do not provide recommendations: methods and example for type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toussi, Massoud; Lamy, Jean-Baptiste; Le Toumelin, Philippe; Venot, Alain

    2009-06-10

    Clinical guidelines carry medical evidence to the point of practice. As evidence is not always available, many guidelines do not provide recommendations for all clinical situations encountered in practice. We propose an approach for identifying knowledge gaps in guidelines and for exploring physicians' therapeutic decisions with data mining techniques to fill these knowledge gaps. We demonstrate our method by an example in the domain of type 2 diabetes. We analyzed the French national guidelines for the management of type 2 diabetes to identify clinical conditions that are not covered or those for which the guidelines do not provide recommendations. We extracted patient records corresponding to each clinical condition from a database of type 2 diabetic patients treated at Avicenne University Hospital of Bobigny, France. We explored physicians' prescriptions for each of these profiles using C5.0 decision-tree learning algorithm. We developed decision-trees for different levels of detail of the therapeutic decision, namely the type of treatment, the pharmaco-therapeutic class, the international non proprietary name, and the dose of each medication. We compared the rules generated with those added to the guidelines in a newer version, to examine their similarity. We extracted 27 rules from the analysis of a database of 463 patient records. Eleven rules were about the choice of the type of treatment and thirteen rules about the choice of the pharmaco-therapeutic class of each drug. For the choice of the international non proprietary name and the dose, we could extract only a few rules because the number of patient records was too low for these factors. The extracted rules showed similarities with those added to the newer version of the guidelines. Our method showed its usefulness for completing guidelines recommendations with rules learnt automatically from physicians' prescriptions. It could be used during the development of guidelines as a complementary source from

  14. Using data mining techniques to explore physicians' therapeutic decisions when clinical guidelines do not provide recommendations: methods and example for type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toussi Massoud

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clinical guidelines carry medical evidence to the point of practice. As evidence is not always available, many guidelines do not provide recommendations for all clinical situations encountered in practice. We propose an approach for identifying knowledge gaps in guidelines and for exploring physicians' therapeutic decisions with data mining techniques to fill these knowledge gaps. We demonstrate our method by an example in the domain of type 2 diabetes. Methods We analyzed the French national guidelines for the management of type 2 diabetes to identify clinical conditions that are not covered or those for which the guidelines do not provide recommendations. We extracted patient records corresponding to each clinical condition from a database of type 2 diabetic patients treated at Avicenne University Hospital of Bobigny, France. We explored physicians' prescriptions for each of these profiles using C5.0 decision-tree learning algorithm. We developed decision-trees for different levels of detail of the therapeutic decision, namely the type of treatment, the pharmaco-therapeutic class, the international non proprietary name, and the dose of each medication. We compared the rules generated with those added to the guidelines in a newer version, to examine their similarity. Results We extracted 27 rules from the analysis of a database of 463 patient records. Eleven rules were about the choice of the type of treatment and thirteen rules about the choice of the pharmaco-therapeutic class of each drug. For the choice of the international non proprietary name and the dose, we could extract only a few rules because the number of patient records was too low for these factors. The extracted rules showed similarities with those added to the newer version of the guidelines. Conclusion Our method showed its usefulness for completing guidelines recommendations with rules learnt automatically from physicians' prescriptions. It could be used

  15. A Highly Flexible, Automated System Providing Reliable Sample Preparation in Element- and Structure-Specific Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorberg, Ellen; Fleischer, Heidi; Junginger, Steffen; Liu, Hui; Stoll, Norbert; Thurow, Kerstin

    2016-10-01

    Life science areas require specific sample pretreatment to increase the concentration of the analytes and/or to convert the analytes into an appropriate form for the detection and separation systems. Various workstations are commercially available, allowing for automated biological sample pretreatment. Nevertheless, due to the required temperature, pressure, and volume conditions in typical element and structure-specific measurements, automated platforms are not suitable for analytical processes. Thus, the purpose of the presented investigation was the design, realization, and evaluation of an automated system ensuring high-precision sample preparation for a variety of analytical measurements. The developed system has to enable system adaption and high performance flexibility. Furthermore, the system has to be capable of dealing with the wide range of required vessels simultaneously, allowing for less cost and time-consuming process steps. However, the system's functionality has been confirmed in various validation sequences. Using element-specific measurements, the automated system was up to 25% more precise compared to the manual procedure and as precise as the manual procedure using structure-specific measurements. © 2015 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening.

  16. Child Poverty in Vietnam: Providing Insights Using a Country-Specific and Multidimensional Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelen, Keetie; Gassmann, Franziska; de Neubourg, Chris

    2010-01-01

    Despite a wide under-prioritization, the issue of child poverty has received increasing attention worldwide over the last decade. The acknowledgement in Vietnam that child-specific poverty measurement is crucial for poverty efforts directed towards children, and the current lack thereof, instigated the development of a Vietnam child poverty…

  17. Whole-grain intake in middle school students achieves dietary guidelines for Americans and MyPlate recommendations when provided as commercially available foods: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radford, Allyson; Langkamp-Henken, Bobbi; Hughes, Christine; Christman, Mary C; Jonnalagadda, Satya; Boileau, Thomas W; Thielecke, Frank; Dahl, Wendy J

    2014-09-01

    In accordance with the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans, at least half of total grain intake should be whole grains. Adolescents are currently not consuming the recommended daily intake of whole grains. Research is needed to determine whether whole grains are acceptable to adolescents and whether changing their food environment to include whole-grain foods will improve intake. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of providing refined-grain or whole-grain foods to adolescents, with encouragement to eat three different grain-based foods per day, on total grain and whole-grain intakes. Middle school students (n=83; aged 11 to 15 years) were randomly assigned to either refined-grain or whole-grain foods for 6 weeks. Participants and their families were provided with weekly grains (eg, bread, pasta, and cereals), and participants were provided grain snacks at school. Intake of grains in ounce equivalents (oz eq) was determined through eight baseline and intervention targeted 24-hour diet recalls. Participants consumed 1.1±1.3 oz eq (mean±standard deviation) of whole grains at baseline, out of 5.3±2.4 oz eq of total grains. During intervention, whole-grain intake increased in the whole-grain group (0.9±1.0 to 3.9±1.8 oz eq/day), whereas those in the refined-grain group reduced whole-grain intake (1.3±1.6 to 0.3±0.3 oz eq/day; Ptime period interaction). Total grain intake achieved was 6.4±2.1 oz eq/day and did not differ across intervention groups. Providing adolescents with whole-grain foods in their school and home environments was an effective means of achieving recommendations. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Child Poverty in Vietnam: Providing Insights Using a Country-Specific and Multidimensional Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelen, Keetie; Gassmann, Franziska; de Neubourg, Chris

    2010-08-01

    Despite a wide under-prioritization, the issue of child poverty has received increasing attention worldwide over the last decade. The acknowledgement in Vietnam that child-specific poverty measurement is crucial for poverty efforts directed towards children, and the current lack thereof, instigated the development of a Vietnam child poverty approach. This paper proposes a country-specific, multidimensional and outcome-based approach for the measurement of the incidence, depth and severity of child poverty. It does so at the level of the individual child using household survey data. The development of such an approach at the level of the individual child presents an appropriate alternative for or supplement to the widely used monetary poverty approach, allowing for the use of compatible analytical methods. Findings suggest that 37% of all children in Vietnam live in poverty, with the most pressing areas of deprivation being water, sanitation and leisure. We do not find evidence for a gender bias but do observe a large urban-rural divide, regional disparities and large ethnic inequalities. We argue that this tailor-made approach is a valuable new tool for policy makers and analysts in Vietnam as it enables identification and analysis of poor children, their characteristics and most pressing areas of deprivation within the country's specific social and cultural context.

  19. Ion-specific ice recrystallization provides a facile approach for the fabrication of porous materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shuwang; Zhu, Chongqin; He, Zhiyuan; Xue, Han; Fan, Qingrui; Song, Yanlin; Francisco, Joseph S.; Zeng, Xiao Cheng; Wang, Jianjun

    2017-05-01

    Ice recrystallization is of great importance to both fundamental research and practical applications, however understanding and controlling ice recrystallization processes remains challenging. Here, we report the discovery of an ion-specific effect on ice recrystallization. By simply changing the initial type and concentration of ions in an aqueous solution, the size of ice grains after recrystallization can be tuned from 27.4+/-4.1 to 277.5+/-30.9 μm. Molecular dynamics simulations show that the ability of the ion to be incorporated into the ice phase plays a key role in the ultimate size of the ice grains after recrystallization. Moreover, by using recrystallized ice crystals as templates, 2D and 3D porous networks with tuneable pore sizes could be prepared from various materials, for example, NaBr, collagen, quantum dots, silver and polystyrene colloids. These porous materials are suitable for a wide range of applications, for example, in organic electronics, catalysis and bioengineering.

  20. Sequential and Multistep Substrate Interrogation Provides the Scaffold for Specificity in Human Flap Endonuclease 1

    KAUST Repository

    Sobhy, M.

    2013-06-06

    Human flap endonuclease 1 (FEN1), one of the structure-specific 5\\' nucleases, is integral in replication, repair, and recombination of cellular DNA. The 5\\' nucleases share significant unifying features yet cleave diverse substrates at similar positions relative to 5\\' end junctions. Using single-molecule Förster resonance energy transfer, we find a multistep mechanism that verifies all substrate features before inducing the intermediary-DNA bending step that is believed to unify 5\\' nuclease mechanisms. This is achieved by coordinating threading of the 5\\' flap of a nick junction into the conserved capped-helical gateway, overseeing the active site, and bending by binding at the base of the junction. We propose that this sequential and multistep substrate recognition process allows different 5\\' nucleases to recognize different substrates and restrict the induction of DNA bending to the last common step. Such mechanisms would also ensure the protection ofDNA junctions from nonspecific bending and cleavage. 2013 The Authors.

  1. Unplanned, urgent and emergency care: what are the roles that EMS plays in providing for older people with dementia? An integrative review of policy, professional recommendations and evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buswell, Marina; Lumbard, Philip; Prothero, Larissa; Lee, Caroline; Martin, Steven; Fleming, Jane; Goodman, Claire

    2016-01-01

    To synthesise the existing literature on the roles that emergency medical services (EMS) play in unplanned, urgent and emergency care for older people with dementia (OPWD), to define these roles, understand the strength of current research and to identify where the focus of future research should lie. An integrative review of the synthesised reports, briefings, professional recommendations and evidence. English-language articles were included if they made any reference to the role of EMS in the urgent or emergency care of OPWD. Preparatory scoping and qualitative work with frontline ambulance and primary care staff and carers of OPWD informed our review question and subsequent synthesis. Seventeen literature sources were included. Over half were from the grey literature. There was no research that directly addressed the review question. There was evidence in reports, briefings and professional recommendations of EMS addressing some of the issues they face in caring for OPWD. Three roles of EMS could be drawn out of the literature: emergency transport, assess and manage and a 'last resort' or safety net role. The use of EMS by OPWD is not well understood, although the literature reviewed demonstrated a concern for this group and awareness that services are not optimum. Research in dementia care should consider the role that EMS plays, particularly if considering crises, urgent care responses and transitions between care settings. EMS research into new ways of working, training or extended paramedical roles should consider specific needs and challenges of responding to people with dementia. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  2. Recommended Changes to Specifications for Demand Controlled Ventilation in California's Title 24 Building Energy Efficiency Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisk, William J.; Sullivan, Douglas P.; Faulkner, David

    2010-04-08

    In demand-controlled ventilation (DCV), rates of outdoor air ventilation are automatically modulated as occupant density varies. The objective is to keep ventilation rates at or above design specifications and code requirements and also to save energy by avoiding excessive ventilation rates. DCV is most often used in spaces with highly variable and sometime dense occupancy. In almost all cases, carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) sensors installed in buildings provide the signal to the ventilation rate control system. People produce and exhale CO{sub 2} as a consequence of their normal metabolic processes; thus, the concentrations of CO{sub 2} inside occupied buildings are higher than the concentrations of CO{sub 2} in the outdoor air. The magnitude of the indoor-outdoor CO{sub 2} concentration difference decreases as the building's ventilation rate per person increases. The difference between the indoor and outdoor CO{sub 2} concentration is also a proxy for the indoor concentrations of other occupant-generated bioeffluents, such as body odors. Reviews of the research literature on DCV indicate a significant potential for energy savings, particularly in buildings or spaces with a high and variable occupancy. Based on modeling, cooling energy savings from applications of DCV are as high as 20%. With support from the California Energy Commission and the U.S. Department of Energy, the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory has performed research on the performance of CO{sub 2} sensing technologies and optical people counters for DCV. In addition, modeling was performed to evaluate the potential energy savings and cost effectiveness of using DCV in general office spaces within the range of California climates. The above-described research has implications for the specifications pertaining to DCV in section 121 of the California Title 24 Standard. Consequently, this document suggests possible changes in these specifications based on the research findings. The suggested

  3. The Spacing Effect for Structural Synaptic Plasticity Provides Specificity and Precision in Plastic Changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Martin, Alvaro; Rela, Lorena; Gelb, Bruce; Pagani, Mario Rafael

    2017-05-10

    In contrast to trials of training without intervals (massed training), training trials spaced over time (spaced training) induce a more persistent memory identified as long-term memory (LTM). This phenomenon, known as the spacing effect for memory, is poorly understood. LTM is supported by structural synaptic plasticity; however, how synapses integrate spaced stimuli remains elusive. Here, we analyzed events of structural synaptic plasticity at the single-synapse level after distinct patterns of stimulation in motoneurons of Drosophila We found that the spacing effect is a phenomenon detected at synaptic level, which determines the specificity and the precision in structural synaptic plasticity. Whereas a single pulse of stimulation (massed) induced structural synaptic plasticity, the same amount of stimulation divided in three spaced stimuli completely prevented it. This inhibitory effect was determined by the length of the interstimulus intervals. The inhibitory effect of the spacing was lost by suppressing the activity of Ras or mitogen-activated protein kinase, whereas the overexpression of Ras-WT enhanced it. Moreover, dividing the same total time of stimulation into five or more stimuli produced a higher precision in the number of events of plasticity. Ras mutations associated with intellectual disability abolished the spacing effect and led neurons to decode distinct stimulation patterns as massed stimulation. This evidence suggests that the spacing effect for memory may result from the effect of the spacing in synaptic plasticity, which appears to be a property not limited to neurons involved in learning and memory. We propose a model of spacing-dependent structural synaptic plasticity. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Long-term memory (LTM) induced by repeated trials spaced over time is known as the spacing effect, a common property in the animal kingdom. Altered mechanisms in the spacing effect have been found in animal models of disorders with intellectual

  4. Sequential and Multistep Substrate Interrogation Provides the Scaffold for Specificity in Human Flap Endonuclease 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed A. Sobhy

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Human flap endonuclease 1 (FEN1, one of the structure-specific 5′ nucleases, is integral in replication, repair, and recombination of cellular DNA. The 5′ nucleases share significant unifying features yet cleave diverse substrates at similar positions relative to 5′ end junctions. Using single-molecule Förster resonance energy transfer, we find a multistep mechanism that verifies all substrate features before inducing the intermediary-DNA bending step that is believed to unify 5′ nuclease mechanisms. This is achieved by coordinating threading of the 5′ flap of a nick junction into the conserved capped-helical gateway, overseeing the active site, and bending by binding at the base of the junction. We propose that this sequential and multistep substrate recognition process allows different 5′ nucleases to recognize different substrates and restrict the induction of DNA bending to the last common step. Such mechanisms would also ensure the protection of DNA junctions from nonspecific bending and cleavage.

  5. Muscle-Specific PPARβ/δ Agonism May Provide Synergistic Benefits with Life Style Modifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan Erol

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor β/δ (PPARβ/δ has emerged as a powerful metabolic regulator in diverse tissues including fat, skeletal muscle, and the heart. It is now established that activation of PPARβ/δ promotes fatty acid oxidation in several tissues, such as skeletal muscle and adipose tissue. In muscle, PPARβ/δ appears to act as a central regulator of fatty acid catabolism. PPARβ/δ contents are increased in muscle during physiological situations such as physical exercise or long-term fasting, characterized by increased fatty acid oxidation. Targeted expression of an activated form of PPARβ/δ in skeletal muscle induces a switch to form increased numbers of type I muscle fibers resembling the fiber type transition by endurance training. Activation of PPARβ/δ also enhances mitochondrial capacity and fat oxidation in the skeletal muscle that resembles the effect of regular exercise. Therefore, it is hypothesized that muscle-specific PPARβ/δ agonists could be a key strategy to support the poor cardiorespiratory fitness associated with metabolic disorders.

  6. Behind Closed Doors: What Happens when Patients and Providers Talk about Prostate-Specific Antigen Screening?: Survey of the Effects of a Community-Based Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormack, Lauren; Williams-Piehota, Pamela; Bann, Carla

    2009-09-01

    : Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening is controversial because of uncertainty about whether it reduces mortality and whether the potential benefits outweigh the harms. Given these uncertainties, many medical associations recommend using an informed decision-making (IDM) process for making decisions about PSA screening, so that men can make well informed decisions that reflect their values and preferences. : The aim of this paper was to describe the communication exchange between men and their providers regarding PSA screening and the outcomes associated with having a discussion about screening from the patient perspective. : We evaluated survey results obtained at baseline and approximately 12 months post-intervention. Baseline data collection took place in community-based organizations, and follow-up data were collected by mail. Men between 40 and 80 years of age who had not been diagnosed with prostate cancer were eligible for the study. We implemented a multicomponent, community-based intervention designed to help men make informed decisions about PSA screening. Primary outcome measures included characteristics of patient-provider discussions, screening behavior, feeling informed and satisfied, and patients' preferred and actual levels of involvement in screening decisions and concordance between the two. : Overall, 59% of men (220 of 373) had a discussion with a healthcare professional about the PSA screening test. Older men (those aged ≥50 years), Black men, and those who were married were more likely to talk to a provider. When a discussion did occur, two out of three men said that the discussion affected their decision making, and one-quarter changed their screening choice as a result. According to patients, there was apparent variation regarding the extent to which providers recommended the PSA test: 68% of providers recommended it and 3% did not recommend it. One in ten men said that the provider ordered the test without making a recommendation

  7. A Conserved Motif Provides Binding Specificity to the PP2A-B56 Phosphatase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertz, Emil Peter Thrane; Kruse, Thomas; Davey, Norman E

    2016-01-01

    -exposed pocket on PP2A regulatory B56 subunits binds to a consensus sequence on interacting proteins, which we term the LxxIxE motif. The composition of the motif modulates the affinity for B56, which in turn determines the phosphorylation status of associated substrates. Phosphorylation of amino acid residues......Dynamic protein phosphorylation is a fundamental mechanism regulating biological processes in all organisms. Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is the main source of phosphatase activity in the cell, but the molecular details of substrate recognition are unknown. Here, we report that a conserved surface...... within the motif increases B56 binding, allowing integration of kinase and phosphatase activity. We identify conserved LxxIxE motifs in essential proteins throughout the eukaryotic domain of life and in human viruses, suggesting that the motifs are required for basic cellular function. Our study provides...

  8. Species-specific markers provide molecular genetic evidence for natural introgression of bullhead catfishes in Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Béres, Beatrix; Kánainé Sipos, Dóra; Müller, Tamás; Staszny, Ádám; Farkas, Milán; Bakos, Katalin; Urbányi, Béla

    2017-01-01

    Since three bullhead catfish species were introduced to Europe in the late 19th century, they have spread to most European countries. In Hungary, the brown bullhead (Ameiurus nebulosus) was more widespread in the 1970s–1980s, but the black bullhead (Ameiurus melas) has gradually supplanted since their second introduction in 1980. The introgressive hybridization of the two species has been presumed based on morphological examinations, but it has not previously been supported by genetic evidence. In this study, 11 different Hungarian habitats were screened with a new species-specific nuclear genetic, duplex PCR based, marker system to distinguish the introduced catfish species, Ameiurus nebulosus, Ameiurus melas, and Ameiurus natalis, as well as the hybrids of the first two. More than 460 specimens were analyzed using the above markers and additional mitochondrial sequence analyses were also conducted on >25% of the individuals from each habitat sampled. The results showed that only 7.9% of the specimens from two habitats belonged to Ameiurus nebulosus, and 92.1% were classified as Ameiurus melas of all habitats, whereas the presence of Ameiurus natalis was not detected. Two specimens (>0.4%) showed the presence of both nuclear genomes and they were identified as hybrids of Ameiurus melas and Ameiurus nebulosus. An additional two individuals showed contradicting results from the nuclear and mitochondrial assays as a sign of a possible footprint of introgressive hybridization that might have happened two or more generations before. Surprisingly, the level of hybridization was much smaller than expected based on the analyses of the North American continent’s indigenous stock from the hybrid zones. This phenomenon has been observed in several invasive fish species and it is regarded as an added level of complexity in the management of their rapid adaptation. PMID:28265489

  9. Crystal structure of the Epithiospecifier Protein, ESP from Arabidopsis thaliana provides insights into its product specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weiwei; Wang, Wenhe; Liu, Zihe; Xie, Yongchao; Wang, Hao; Mu, Yajuan; Huang, Yao; Feng, Yue

    2016-09-16

    Specifier proteins are important components of the glucosinolate-myrosinase system, which mediate plant defense against herbivory and pathogen attacks. Upon tissue disruption, glucosinolates are hydrolyzed to instable aglucones by myrosinases, and then aglucones will rearrange to form defensive isothiocyanates. Specifier proteins can redirect this reaction to form other products, such as simple nitriles, epithionitriles and organic thiocyanates instead of isothiocyanates based on the side chain structure of glucosinolate and the type of the specifier proteins. Nevertheless, the molecular mechanism underlying the different product spectrums of various specifier proteins was not fully understood. Here in this study, we solved the crystal structure of the Epithiospecifier Protein, ESP from Arabidopsis thaliana (AtESP) at 2.3 Å resolution. Structural comparisons with the previously solved structure of thiocyanate forming protein, TFP from Thlaspi arvense (TaTFP) reveal that AtESP shows a dimerization pattern different from TaTFP. Moreover, AtESP harbors a slightly larger active site pocket than TaTFP and several residues around the active site are different between the two proteins, which might account for the different product spectrums of the two proteins. Together, our structural study provides important insights into the molecular mechanisms of specifier proteins and shed light on the basis of their different product spectrums. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Patient-health care provider relationship in patients with non-specific low back pain: a review of some problem situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordin, M; Cedraschi, C; Skovron, M L

    1998-02-01

    Problem situations in the patient-health care relationship may relate to the patient or to the health care provider characteristics or to the way they interact; they may also relate to the general social context. Such situations force the clinician dealing with non-specific low back pain patients to look beyond the traditional biomedical model that assumes a linear connection between pathology and symptomatology. The introduction of the biopsychosocial model approximately 10 years ago has improved the understanding of common low back pain. This chapter gives some insight into areas relating to factors that may hamper the patient-therapist relationship and thus complicate treatment and recommendation outcomes. It emphasizes the necessity to involve the patient in the decision-making. Recognizing the patients' psychological, social and cultural background as well as the level of education and employability are important to make successful recommendations. This knowledge is not new but the difficulty is to implement it in today's cost effectiveness driven society. However the benefit at the end may be the decrease of chronicity and/or permanent disability, suffering for the patient and frustration for the clinician. Identifying the underlying cause of non-compliance or of unexpected delayed recovery is an exciting issue. The cause may or may not be biomedical. If a specific cause can be identified, it has to be diagnosed and evaluated. If the clinical examination has ruled out specific or emergency conditions, another perspective may be needed and the course of action could then be determined.

  11. Microscale spatial analysis provides evidence for adhesive monopolization of dietary nutrients by specific intestinal bacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuke Nagara

    Full Text Available Each species of intestinal bacteria requires a nutritional source to maintain its population in the intestine. Dietary factors are considered to be major nutrients; however, evidence directly explaining the in situ utilization of dietary factors is limited. Microscale bacterial distribution would provide clues to understand bacterial lifestyle and nutrient utilization. However, the detailed bacterial localization around dietary factors in the intestine remains uninvestigated. Therefore, we explored microscale habitats in the murine intestine by using histology and fluorescent in situ hybridization, focusing on dietary factors. This approach successfully revealed several types of bacterial colonization. In particular, bifidobacterial colonization and adhesion on granular starch was frequently and commonly observed in the jejunum and distal colon. To identify the bacterial composition of areas around starch granules and areas without starch, laser microdissection and next-generation sequencing-based 16S rRNA microbial profiling was performed. It was found that Bifidobacteriaceae were significantly enriched by 4.7 fold in peri-starch areas compared to ex-starch areas. This family solely consisted of Bifidobacterium pseudolongum. In contrast, there was no significant enrichment among the other major families. This murine intestinal B. pseudolongum had starch-degrading activity, confirmed by isolation from the mouse feces and in vitro analysis. Collectively, our results demonstrate the significance of starch granules as a major habitat and potential nutritional niche for murine intestinal B. pseudolongum. Moreover, our results suggest that colonizing bifidobacteria effectively utilize starch from the closest location and maintain the location. This may be a bacterial strategy to monopolize solid dietary nutrients. We believe that our analytical approach could possibly be applied to other nutritional factors, and can be a powerful tool to investigate

  12. Mutational activation of niche-specific genes provides insight into regulatory networks and bacterial function in a complex environment

    OpenAIRE

    Giddens, Stephen R.; Robert W Jackson; Moon, Christina D.; Jacobs, Michael A.; Zhang, Xue-Xian; Gehrig, Stefanie M; Rainey, Paul B

    2007-01-01

    The genome of the plant-colonizing bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens SBW25 harbors a subset of genes that are expressed specifically on plant surfaces. The function of these genes is central to the ecological success of SBW25, but their study poses significant challenges because no phenotype is discernable in vitro. Here, we describe a genetic strategy with general utility that combines suppressor analysis with IVET (SPyVET) and provides a means of identifying regulators of niche-specific gen...

  13. Lipid-Based Nutrient Supplements Providing Approximately the Recommended Daily Intake of Vitamin A Do Not Increase Breast Milk Retinol Concentrations among Ghanaian Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klevor, Moses K; Haskell, Marjorie J; Lartey, Anna; Adu-Afarwuah, Seth; Zeilani, Mamane; Dewey, Kathryn G

    2016-02-01

    Vitamin A deficiency remains a global public health problem. Daily supplementation with a lipid-based nutrient supplement (LNS) has potential for increasing milk vitamin A concentrations. The objective of this study was to determine whether daily supplementation with approximately the recommended daily intake of vitamin A in an LNS or a multiple-micronutrient supplement (MMN) during pregnancy and the first 6 mo postpartum has an effect on breast milk retinol concentration at 6 mo postpartum. Women ≤20 wk pregnant (n = 1320) were randomly assigned to receive either the MMN providing 18 micronutrients, including 800 μg retinol equivalents of vitamin A, or the LNS with the same nutrients as the MMN group, plus 4 minerals and macronutrients, until 6 mo postpartum; a control group received iron and folic acid during pregnancy and a placebo (calcium tablet) during the first 6 mo postpartum. Breast milk samples collected at 6 mo postpartum were analyzed for retinol and fat concentrations by HPLC and creamatocrit, respectively, in a subsample of 756 women. The breast milk retinol concentration was (mean ± SD) 56.3 ± 2.1 nmol/g fat, with no significant differences between groups [iron and folic acid (n = 243): 59.1 ± 2.8; MMN (n = 260): 55.4 ± 2.5; LNS (n = 253): 54.7 ± 2.5 nmol/g fat; P = 0.45], regardless of whether the woman had or had not received a high-dose vitamin A supplement (200,000 IU) soon after childbirth. Around 17% of participants had low milk retinol (≤28 nmol/g fat). We estimated that 41% of infants were potentially receiving vitamin A at amounts above the Tolerable Upper Intake Level (600 μg retinol activity equivalents/d), with no group differences in percentages with low or high milk retinol concentration. Daily consumption of approximately the recommended intake of vitamin A did not increase breast milk retinol concentrations in this sample of Ghanaian women. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00970866. © 2016 American

  14. Systematic Review on N-3 and N-6 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Intake in European Countries in Light of the Current Recommendations - Focus on Specific Population Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sioen, Isabelle; van Lieshout, Lilou; Eilander, Ans; Fleith, Mathilde; Lohner, Szimonetta; Szommer, Alíz; Petisca, Catarina; Eussen, Simone; Forsyth, Stewart; Calder, Philip C; Campoy, Cristina; Mensink, Ronald P

    2017-01-01

    Earlier reviews indicated that in many countries adults, children and adolescents consume on an average less polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) than recommended by the Food and Agriculture Organisation/World Health Organisation. The intake of total and individual n-3 and n-6 PUFAs in European infants, children, adolescents, elderly and pregnant/lactating women was evaluated systematically. The evaluations were done against recommendations of the European Food Safety Authority. Key Messages: Fifty-three studies from 17 different European countries reported an intake of total n-3 and n-6 PUFAs and/or individual n-3 or n-6 PUFAs in at least one of the specific population groups: 10 in pregnant women, 4 in lactating women, 3 in infants 6-12 months, 6 in children 1-3 years, 11 in children 4-9 years, 8 in adolescents 10-18 years and 11 in elderly >65 years. Mean linoleic acid intake was within the recommendation (4 energy percentage [E%]) in 52% of the countries, with inadequate intakes more likely in lactating women, adolescents and elderly. Mean α-linolenic acid intake was within the recommendation (0.5 E%) in 77% of the countries. In 26% of the countries, mean eicosapentaenoic acid and/or docosahexaenoic acid intake was as recommended. These results indicate that intake of n-3 and n-6 PUFAs may be suboptimal in specific population groups in Europe. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Systematic Review on N-3 and N-6 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Intake in European Countries in Light of the Current Recommendations – Focus on Specific Population Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sioen, Isabelle; van Lieshout, Lilou; Eilander, Ans; Fleith, Mathilde; Lohner, Szimonetta; Szommer, Alíz; Petisca, Catarina; Eussen, Simone; Forsyth, Stewart; Calder, Philip C.; Campoy, Cristina; Mensink, Ronald P.

    2017-01-01

    Background Earlier reviews indicated that in many countries adults, children and adolescents consume on an average less polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) than recommended by the Food and Agriculture Organisation/World Health Organisation. Summary The intake of total and individual n-3 and n-6 PUFAs in European infants, children, adolescents, elderly and pregnant/lactating women was evaluated systematically. Results The evaluations were done against recommendations of the European Food Safety Authority. Key Messages Fifty-three studies from 17 different European countries reported an intake of total n-3 and n-6 PUFAs and/or individual n-3 or n-6 PUFAs in at least one of the specific population groups: 10 in pregnant women, 4 in lactating women, 3 in infants 6–12 months, 6 in children 1–3 years, 11 in children 4–9 years, 8 in adolescents 10–18 years and 11 in elderly >65 years. Mean linoleic acid intake was within the recommendation (4 energy percentage [E%]) in 52% of the countries, with inadequate intakes more likely in lactating women, adolescents and elderly. Mean α-linolenic acid intake was within the recommendation (0.5 E%) in 77% of the countries. In 26% of the countries, mean eicosapentaenoic acid and/or docosahexaenoic acid intake was as recommended. These results indicate that intake of n-3 and n-6 PUFAs may be suboptimal in specific population groups in Europe. PMID:28190013

  16. The ZmRCP-1 promoter of maize provides root tip specific expression of transgenes in plantain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onyango, Stephen O; Roderick, Hugh; Tripathi, Jaindra N; Collins, Richard; Atkinson, Howard J; Oduor, Richard O; Tripathi, Leena

    2016-12-01

    Bananas and plantains (Musa spp.) provide 25 % of the food energy requirements for more than 100 million people in Africa. Plant parasitic nematodes cause severe losses to the crop due to lack of control options. The sterile nature of Musa spp. hampers conventional breeding but makes the crop suitable for genetic engineering. A constitutively expressed synthetic peptide in transgenic plantain has provided resistance against nematodes. Previous work with the peptide in potato plants indicates that targeting expression to the root tip improves the efficacy of the defence mechanism. However, a promoter that will provide root tip specific expression of transgenes in a monocot plant, such as plantain, is not currently available. Here, we report the cloning and evaluation of the maize root cap-specific protein-1 (ZmRCP-1) promoter for root tip targeted expression of transgenes that provide a defence against plant parasitic nematodes in transgenic plantain. Our findings indicate that the maize ZmRCP-1 promoter delivers expression of β-glucuronidase (gusA) gene in roots but not in leaves of transgenic plantains. In mature old roots, expression of gusA gene driven by ZmRCP-1 becomes limited to the root cap. Invasion by the nematode Radopholus similis does not modify Root Cap-specific Protein-1 promoter activity. Root cap-specific protein-1 promoter from maize can provide targeted expression of transgene for nematode resistance in transgenic plantain.

  17. Provider recommendations for patient-reported muscle symptoms on statin therapy: Insights from the Understanding Statin Use in America and Gaps in Patient Education survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Terry A; Khan, Abdullah; Maki, Kevin C; Brinton, Eliot A; Cohen, Jerome D

    Statin-associated muscle symptoms are reported by 10% to 29% of patients in clinical practice and are a major determinant of statin nonadherence, discontinuation, and switching. Little is known about what advice patients receive from their providers when dealing with these symptoms. The objective of the study was to assess patient's reports of provider advice when experiencing new or worsened muscle symptoms while taking a statin. Data were analyzed from the Understanding Statin Use in America and Gaps in Education survey, a self-administered internet-based survey of 10,138 adults with a reported history of high cholesterol and statin use. Of the respondents, 60% of former statin users (n = 1220) reported ever experiencing new or worsened muscle pain on a statin, in contrast to 25% of current users (n = 8918; P < .001). Former statin users reported stopping more statins because of muscle symptoms (mean ± standard deviation, 2.2 ± 1.7) compared with current users (mean 1.6 ± 1.5, P < .0001). For those with muscle-related symptoms while on a statin, participants reported that providers most often suggested switching to another statin (33.8%), stopping the statin (15.9%), continuing the statin with further monitoring of muscle symptoms (12.2%), reducing the statin dose (9.8%), or getting a blood test for signs of muscle damage (9.2%). A lower percentage were advised to add either vitamin D (7.0%) or coenzyme Q10 (5.8%), or to switch to nonstatin therapy (6.1%) or red yeast rice (2.6%). This study highlights patient experience with statin-associated muscle symptoms and the strategies recommended by providers in managing these symptoms. More research is needed to develop patient-centric and evidence-based approaches to managing statin-associated muscle symptoms, which is especially important in light of recent data showing increased cardiovascular risk among those who discontinue statin therapy. Copyright © 2017 National Lipid Association. Published by

  18. A family-specific use of the Measure of Processes of Care for Service Providers (MPOC-SP)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siebes, R. C.; Nijhuis, B. J. G.; Boonstra, A. M.; Ketelaar, M.; Wijnroks, L.; Reinders-Messelink, H. A.; Postema, K.; Vermeer, A.

    Objective: To examine the validity and utility of the Dutch Measure of Processes of Care for Service Providers (MPOC-SP) as a family-specific measure. Design: A validation study. Setting: Five paediatric rehabilitation settings in the Netherlands. Main measures: The MPOC-SP was utilized in a general

  19. Biochemical discrimination between selenium and sulfur 1: a single residue provides selenium specificity to human selenocysteine lyase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruairi Collins

    Full Text Available Selenium and sulfur are two closely related basic elements utilized in nature for a vast array of biochemical reactions. While toxic at higher concentrations, selenium is an essential trace element incorporated into selenoproteins as selenocysteine (Sec, the selenium analogue of cysteine (Cys. Sec lyases (SCLs and Cys desulfurases (CDs catalyze the removal of selenium or sulfur from Sec or Cys and generally act on both substrates. In contrast, human SCL (hSCL is specific for Sec although the only difference between Sec and Cys is the identity of a single atom. The chemical basis of this selenium-over-sulfur discrimination is not understood. Here we describe the X-ray crystal structure of hSCL and identify Asp146 as the key residue that provides the Sec specificity. A D146K variant resulted in loss of Sec specificity and appearance of CD activity. A dynamic active site segment also provides the structural prerequisites for direct product delivery of selenide produced by Sec cleavage, thus avoiding release of reactive selenide species into the cell. We thus here define a molecular determinant for enzymatic specificity discrimination between a single selenium versus sulfur atom, elements with very similar chemical properties. Our findings thus provide molecular insights into a key level of control in human selenium and selenoprotein turnover and metabolism.

  20. A specific database for providing local and national level of integration of clinical data in cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, T; Reychler, G; Mailleux, P; Gigi, J; Godding, V; Lebecque, P

    2007-05-01

    It has recently been stated that a database is an essential tool in the management of CF. The purpose of this work is to create a specific database allowing optimal performance of storage, search and retrieval functions on patients with CF. A specific database was developed using a Windev licence, for application via Microsoft supported platforms or Intranet system. The database allows real-time point of care data management of medical, investigational and administrative data. It is currently being used in the 6 Belgian reference centres. It represents a useful tool for gathering information on routine clinical and lab data, bacteriology, treatments, complications and specific outcomes for clinical and research purposes. The ongoing evolution of the database includes enhancements toward research data orientation including comparison of patient data between different centres and completeness of the National CF registry questionnaire. A complimentary copy of the software can be provided to multidisciplinary accredited CF centres worldwide upon request.

  1. Primary care provider reflections on context-specific quandaries from special issue on ethical quandaries when delivering integrated primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Debra A

    2013-03-01

    Comments on the articles by Robinson & Rickard, (see record 2013-11498-007), Dobmeyer, (see record 2013-11498-008), Mullin & Stenger (see record 2013-11498-009), and Rosenberg & Speice (see record 2013-11498-010) regarding the topic of context-specific quandaries for the special issue on ethical quandaries when delivering integrated primary care. The current author provides brief reflections on each article. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Ethnic specific recommendations in clinical practice guidelines: a first exploratory comparison between guidelines from the USA, Canada, the UK, and the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Manna, D.R.; Bruijnzeels, Marc; Mokkink, H G; Berg, Marc

    2003-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVES: To investigate whether clinical practice guidelines in different countries take ethnic differences between patients into consideration and to assess the scientific foundation of such ethnic specific recommendations. DESIGN: Analysis of the primary care sections of clinical practice guidelines. SETTING: Primary care practice guidelines for type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and asthma developed in the USA, Canada, the UK, and the Netherlands. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:...

  3. Use of contraceptive methods and contraceptive recommendations among health care providers actively involved in contraceptive counseling -- results of an international survey in 10 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gemzell-Danielsson, Kristina; Cho, SiHyun; Inki, Pirjo; Mansour, Diana; Reid, Robert; Bahamondes, Luis

    2012-12-01

    This study was conducted to determine the personal choices of contraceptive methods among an international sample of contraception health care professionals (HCPs) and to determine if these choices are concordant with their recommendations to women. In an anonymous online survey, 1001 HCPs actively involved in contraceptive counseling [obstetrician/gynecologists (OB/GYNs), general practitioners (GPs) and midwives (only in Sweden)] from 10 countries (Australia, Brazil, Canada, France, Germany, Korea, Mexico, Spain, Sweden and the United Kingdom) were asked about their personal use of contraceptive methods and their recommendations to women in two different clinical scenarios: for spacing between children (Group A) and after completion of the family (Group B). The largest HCP group was OB/GYNs (67.1%), followed by GPs (31.4%) and midwives (1.5%). A total of 42.7% of respondents were male, and 57.3% were female. The majority of respondents were aged 36-45 years (38.9%) or 46-55 years (42.8%), 79.7% had children, and 53.9% were currently using contraception (by themselves or by their partners). Among 540 contraceptive users, the three most common methods were the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS; 29.3%), combined oral contraceptives (COCs; 20.0%) and condoms (17.0%). OB/GYNs were more likely to be using the LNG-IUS than GPs (p=.014). Gender did not seem to influence contraceptive preference. Reasons for these choices were largely influenced by family situation and high contraceptive efficacy (for the LNG-IUS) or side effects caused by other methods (for condoms). The top contraceptive recommendation was COCs for Group A and the LNG-IUS for Group B. HCPs currently using COCs and the LNG-IUS were more likely to recommend these methods than other contraceptive methods for Group A and Group B, respectively. The most popular contraceptive method in this sample of HCPs was the LNG-IUS. Choice of contraceptive method was driven by family situation, age

  4. New binding site on common molecular scaffold provides HERG channel specificity of scorpion toxin BeKm-1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korolkova, Yuliya V; Bocharov, Eduard V; Angelo, Kamilla

    2002-01-01

    resolved by NMR consists of a short alpha-helix and a triple-stranded antiparallel beta-sheet. By toxin mutagenesis study we identified the residues that are important for the binding of BeKm-1 to the human ERG K+ (HERG) channel. The most critical residues (Tyr-11, Lys-18, Arg-20, Lys-23) are located...... in the alpha-helix and following loop whereas the "traditional" functional site of other short scorpion toxins is formed by residues from the beta-sheet. Thus the unique location of the binding site of BeKm-1 provides its specificity toward the HERG channel....

  5. Structural analysis of the α-glucosidase HaG provides new insights into substrate specificity and catalytic mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xing; Saburi, Wataru; Gai, Zuoqi; Kato, Koji; Ojima-Kato, Teruyo; Yu, Jian; Komoda, Keisuke; Kido, Yusuke; Matsui, Hirokazu; Mori, Haruhide; Yao, Min

    2015-06-01

    α-Glucosidases, which catalyze the hydrolysis of the α-glucosidic linkage at the nonreducing end of the substrate, are important for the metabolism of α-glucosides. Halomonas sp. H11 α-glucosidase (HaG), belonging to glycoside hydrolase family 13 (GH13), only has high hydrolytic activity towards the α-(1 → 4)-linked disaccharide maltose among naturally occurring substrates. Although several three-dimensional structures of GH13 members have been solved, the disaccharide specificity and α-(1 → 4) recognition mechanism of α-glucosidase are unclear owing to a lack of corresponding substrate-bound structures. In this study, four crystal structures of HaG were solved: the apo form, the glucosyl-enzyme intermediate complex, the E271Q mutant in complex with its natural substrate maltose and a complex of the D202N mutant with D-glucose and glycerol. These structures explicitly provide insights into the substrate specificity and catalytic mechanism of HaG. A peculiar long β → α loop 4 which exists in α-glucosidase is responsible for the strict recognition of disaccharides owing to steric hindrance. Two residues, Thr203 and Phe297, assisted with Gly228, were found to determine the glycosidic linkage specificity of the substrate at subsite +1. Furthermore, an explanation of the α-glucosidase reaction mechanism is proposed based on the glucosyl-enzyme intermediate structure.

  6. Allele-specific suppression of mutant huntingtin using antisense oligonucleotides: providing a therapeutic option for all Huntington disease patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niels H Skotte

    Full Text Available Huntington disease (HD is an inherited, fatal neurodegenerative disorder caused by a CAG repeat expansion in the huntingtin gene. The mutant protein causes neuronal dysfunction and degeneration resulting in motor dysfunction, cognitive decline, and psychiatric disturbances. Currently, there is no disease altering treatment, and symptomatic therapy has limited benefit. The pathogenesis of HD is complicated and multiple pathways are compromised. Addressing the problem at its genetic root by suppressing mutant huntingtin expression is a promising therapeutic strategy for HD. We have developed and evaluated antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs targeting single nucleotide polymorphisms that are significantly enriched on HD alleles (HD-SNPs. We describe our structure-activity relationship studies for ASO design and find that adjusting the SNP position within the gap, chemical modifications of the wings, and shortening the unmodified gap are critical for potent, specific, and well tolerated silencing of mutant huntingtin. Finally, we show that using two distinct ASO drugs targeting the two allelic variants of an HD-SNP could provide a therapeutic option for all persons with HD; allele-specifically for roughly half, and non-specifically for the remainder.

  7. Allele-specific suppression of mutant huntingtin using antisense oligonucleotides: providing a therapeutic option for all Huntington disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skotte, Niels H; Southwell, Amber L; Østergaard, Michael E; Carroll, Jeffrey B; Warby, Simon C; Doty, Crystal N; Petoukhov, Eugenia; Vaid, Kuljeet; Kordasiewicz, Holly; Watt, Andrew T; Freier, Susan M; Hung, Gene; Seth, Punit P; Bennett, C Frank; Swayze, Eric E; Hayden, Michael R

    2014-01-01

    Huntington disease (HD) is an inherited, fatal neurodegenerative disorder caused by a CAG repeat expansion in the huntingtin gene. The mutant protein causes neuronal dysfunction and degeneration resulting in motor dysfunction, cognitive decline, and psychiatric disturbances. Currently, there is no disease altering treatment, and symptomatic therapy has limited benefit. The pathogenesis of HD is complicated and multiple pathways are compromised. Addressing the problem at its genetic root by suppressing mutant huntingtin expression is a promising therapeutic strategy for HD. We have developed and evaluated antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) targeting single nucleotide polymorphisms that are significantly enriched on HD alleles (HD-SNPs). We describe our structure-activity relationship studies for ASO design and find that adjusting the SNP position within the gap, chemical modifications of the wings, and shortening the unmodified gap are critical for potent, specific, and well tolerated silencing of mutant huntingtin. Finally, we show that using two distinct ASO drugs targeting the two allelic variants of an HD-SNP could provide a therapeutic option for all persons with HD; allele-specifically for roughly half, and non-specifically for the remainder.

  8. Mutational activation of niche-specific genes provides insight into regulatory networks and bacterial function in a complex environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giddens, Stephen R; Jackson, Robert W; Moon, Christina D; Jacobs, Michael A; Zhang, Xue-Xian; Gehrig, Stefanie M; Rainey, Paul B

    2007-11-13

    The genome of the plant-colonizing bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens SBW25 harbors a subset of genes that are expressed specifically on plant surfaces. The function of these genes is central to the ecological success of SBW25, but their study poses significant challenges because no phenotype is discernable in vitro. Here, we describe a genetic strategy with general utility that combines suppressor analysis with IVET (SPyVET) and provides a means of identifying regulators of niche-specific genes. Central to this strategy are strains carrying operon fusions between plant environment-induced loci (EIL) and promoterless 'dapB. These strains are prototrophic in the plant environment but auxotrophic on laboratory minimal medium. Regulatory elements were identified by transposon mutagenesis and selection for prototrophs on minimal medium. Approximately 10(6) mutants were screened for each of 27 strains carrying 'dapB fusions to plant EIL and the insertion point for the transposon determined in approximately 2,000 putative regulator mutants. Regulators were functionally characterized and used to provide insight into EIL phenotypes. For one strain carrying a fusion to the cellulose-encoding wss operon, five different regulators were identified including a diguanylate cyclase, the flagella activator, FleQ, and alginate activator, AmrZ (AlgZ). Further rounds of suppressor analysis, possible by virtue of the SPyVET strategy, revealed an additional two regulators including the activator AlgR, and allowed the regulatory connections to be determined.

  9. The Structure of Allophanate Hydrolase from Granulibacter bethesdensis Provides Insights into Substrate Specificity in the Amidase Signature Family

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Yi [Marquette Univ., Milwaukee, WI (United States); Maurice, Martin [Marquette Univ., Milwaukee, WI (United States)

    2013-01-02

    Allophanate hydrolase (AH) catalyzes the hydrolysis of allophanate, an intermediate in atrazine degradation and urea catabolism pathways, to NH3 and CO2. AH belongs to the amidase signature family, which is characterized by a conserved block of 130 amino acids rich in Gly and Ser and a Ser-cis-Ser-Lys catalytic triad. In this study, the first structures of AH fromGranulibacter bethesdensis were determined, with and without the substrate analogue malonate, to 2.2 and 2.8 Å, respectively. The structures confirm the identity of the catalytic triad residues and reveal an altered dimerization interface that is not conserved in the amidase signature family. The structures also provide insights into previously unrecognized substrate specificity determinants in AH. Two residues, Tyr299 and Arg307, are within hydrogen bonding distance of a carboxylate moiety of malonate. Both Tyr299 and Arg307 were mutated, and the resulting modified enzymes revealed >3 order of magnitude reductions in both catalytic efficiency and substrate stringency. It is proposed that Tyr299 and Arg307 serve to anchor and orient the substrate for attack by the catalytic nucleophile, Ser172. The structure further suggests the presence of a unique C-terminal domain in AH. While this domain is conserved, it does not contribute to catalysis or to the structural integrity of the core domain, suggesting that it may play a role in mediating transient and specific interactions with the urea carboxylase component of urea amidolyase. Analysis of the AH active site architecture offers new insights into common determinants of catalysis and specificity among divergent members of the amidase signature family.

  10. Novel UDP-GalNAc Derivative Structures Provide Insight into the Donor Specificity of Human Blood Group Glycosyltransferase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Gerd K; Pesnot, Thomas; Palcic, Monica M; Jørgensen, Rene

    2015-12-25

    Two closely related glycosyltransferases are responsible for the final step of the biosynthesis of ABO(H) human blood group A and B antigens. The two enzymes differ by only four amino acid residues, which determine whether the enzymes transfer GalNAc from UDP-GalNAc or Gal from UDP-Gal to the H-antigen acceptor. The enzymes belong to the class of GT-A folded enzymes, grouped as GT6 in the CAZy database, and are characterized by a single domain with a metal dependent retaining reaction mechanism. However, the exact role of the four amino acid residues in the specificity of the enzymes is still unresolved. In this study, we report the first structural information of a dual specificity cis-AB blood group glycosyltransferase in complex with a synthetic UDP-GalNAc derivative. Interestingly, the GalNAc moiety adopts an unusual yet catalytically productive conformation in the binding pocket, which is different from the "tucked under" conformation previously observed for the UDP-Gal donor. In addition, we show that this UDP-GalNAc derivative in complex with the H-antigen acceptor provokes the same unusual binding pocket closure as seen for the corresponding UDP-Gal derivative. Despite this, the two derivatives show vastly different kinetic properties. Our results provide a important structural insight into the donor substrate specificity and utilization in blood group biosynthesis, which can very likely be exploited for the development of new glycosyltransferase inhibitors and probes. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  11. Structure of putrescine aminotransferase from Escherichia coli provides insights into the substrate specificity among class III aminotransferases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Hyung Jin; Jeong, Jae-Hee; Rojviriya, Catleya; Kim, Yeon-Gil

    2014-01-01

    YgjG is a putrescine aminotransferase enzyme that transfers amino groups from compounds with terminal primary amines to compounds with an aldehyde group using pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (PLP) as a cofactor. Previous biochemical data show that the enzyme prefers primary diamines, such as putrescine, over ornithine as a substrate. To better understand the enzyme's substrate specificity, crystal structures of YgjG from Escherichia coli were determined at 2.3 and 2.1 Å resolutions for the free and putrescine-bound enzymes, respectively. Sequence and structural analyses revealed that YgjG forms a dimer that adopts a class III PLP-dependent aminotransferase fold. A structural comparison between YgjG and other class III aminotransferases revealed that their structures are similar. However, YgjG has an additional N-terminal helical structure that partially contributes to a dimeric interaction with the other subunit via a helix-helix interaction. Interestingly, the YgjG substrate-binding site entrance size and charge distribution are smaller and more hydrophobic than other class III aminotransferases, which suggest that YgjG has a unique substrate binding site that could accommodate primary aliphatic diamine substrates, including putrescine. The YgjG crystal structures provide structural clues to putrescine aminotransferase substrate specificity and binding.

  12. Do health workers' preferences influence their practices? Assessment of providers' attitude and personal use of new treatment recommendations for management of uncomplicated malaria, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masanja, Irene M; Lutambi, Angelina M; Khatib, Rashid A

    2012-11-08

    Due to growing antimalarial drug resistance, Tanzania changed malaria treatment policies twice within a decade. First in 2001 chloroquine (CQ) was replaced by sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) for management of uncomplicated malaria and by late 2006, SP was replaced by artemether-lumefantrine (AL). We assessed health workers' attitudes and personal practices following the first treatment policy change, at six months post-change and two years later. Two cross-sectional surveys were conducted in 2002 and 2004 among healthcare workers in three districts in South-East Tanzania using semi-structured questionnaires. Attitudes were assessed by enquiring which antimalarial was considered most suitable for the management of uncomplicated malaria for the three patient categories: i) children below 5; ii) older children and adults; and iii) pregnant women. Practice was ascertained by asking which antimalarial was used in the last malaria episode by the health worker him/herself and/or dependants. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with reported attitudes and practices towards the new treatment recommendations. A total of 400 health workers were interviewed; 254 and 146 in the first and second surveys, respectively. SP was less preferred antimalarial in hospitals and private health facilities (pinfluence in their personal treatment practices.

  13. Designing area optimized application-specific network-on-chip architectures while providing hard QoS guarantees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khawaja, Sajid Gul; Mushtaq, Mian Hamza; Khan, Shoab A; Akram, M Usman; Jamal, Habib Ullah

    2015-01-01

    With the increase of transistors' density, popularity of System on Chip (SoC) has increased exponentially. As a communication module for SoC, Network on Chip (NoC) framework has been adapted as its backbone. In this paper, we propose a methodology for designing area-optimized application specific NoC while providing hard Quality of Service (QoS) guarantees for real time flows. The novelty of the proposed system lies in derivation of a Mixed Integer Linear Programming model which is then used to generate a resource optimal Network on Chip (NoC) topology and architecture while considering traffic and QoS requirements. We also present the micro-architectural design features used for enabling traffic and latency guarantees and discuss how the solution adapts for dynamic variations in the application traffic. The paper highlights the effectiveness of proposed method by generating resource efficient NoC solutions for both industrial and benchmark applications. The area-optimized results are generated in few seconds by proposed technique, without resorting to heuristics, even for an application with 48 traffic flows.

  14. Structural studies provide clues for analog design of specific inhibitors of Cryptosporidium hominis thymidylate synthase-dihydrofolate reductase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vidya P; Cisneros, Jose A; Frey, Kathleen M; Castellanos-Gonzalez, Alejandro; Wang, Yiqiang; Gangjee, Aleem; White, A Clinton; Jorgensen, William L; Anderson, Karen S

    2014-09-01

    Cryptosporidium is the causative agent of a gastrointestinal disease, cryptosporidiosis, which is often fatal in immunocompromised individuals and children. Thymidylate synthase (TS) and dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) are essential enzymes in the folate biosynthesis pathway and are well established as drug targets in cancer, bacterial infections, and malaria. Cryptosporidium hominis has a bifunctional thymidylate synthase and dihydrofolate reductase enzyme, compared to separate enzymes in the host. We evaluated lead compound 1 from a novel series of antifolates, 2-amino-4-oxo-5-substituted pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidines as an inhibitor of Cryptosporidium hominis thymidylate synthase with selectivity over the human enzyme. Complementing the enzyme inhibition compound 1 also has anti-cryptosporidial activity in cell culture. A crystal structure with compound 1 bound to the TS active site is discussed in terms of several van der Waals, hydrophobic and hydrogen bond interactions with the protein residues and the substrate analog 5-fluorodeoxyuridine monophosphate (TS), cofactor NADPH and inhibitor methotrexate (DHFR). Another crystal structure in complex with compound 1 bound in both the TS and DHFR active sites is also reported here. The crystal structures provide clues for analog design and for the design of ChTS-DHFR specific inhibitors. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Designing area optimized application-specific network-on-chip architectures while providing hard QoS guarantees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajid Gul Khawaja

    Full Text Available With the increase of transistors' density, popularity of System on Chip (SoC has increased exponentially. As a communication module for SoC, Network on Chip (NoC framework has been adapted as its backbone. In this paper, we propose a methodology for designing area-optimized application specific NoC while providing hard Quality of Service (QoS guarantees for real time flows. The novelty of the proposed system lies in derivation of a Mixed Integer Linear Programming model which is then used to generate a resource optimal Network on Chip (NoC topology and architecture while considering traffic and QoS requirements. We also present the micro-architectural design features used for enabling traffic and latency guarantees and discuss how the solution adapts for dynamic variations in the application traffic. The paper highlights the effectiveness of proposed method by generating resource efficient NoC solutions for both industrial and benchmark applications. The area-optimized results are generated in few seconds by proposed technique, without resorting to heuristics, even for an application with 48 traffic flows.

  16. Personalized Recommender System for Digital Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omisore, M. O.; Samuel, O. W.

    2014-01-01

    The huge amount of information available online has given rise to personalization and filtering systems. Recommender systems (RS) constitute a specific type of information filtering technique that present items according to user's interests. In this research, a web-based personalized recommender system capable of providing learners with books that…

  17. Effects on the estimated cause-specific mortality fraction of providing physician reviewers with different formats of verbal autopsy data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chow Clara

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The process of data collection and the methods used to assign the cause of death vary significantly among different verbal autopsy protocols, but there are few data to describe the consequences of the choices made. The aim of this study was to objectively define the impact of the format of data presented to physician reviewers on the cause-specific mortality fractions defined by a verbal autopsy-based mortality-surveillance system. Methods Verbal autopsies were done by primary health care workers for all deaths between October 2006 and September 2007 in a community in rural Andhra Pradesh, India (total population about 180,162. Each questionnaire had a structured section, composed of a series of check boxes, and a free-text section, in which a narrative description of the events leading to death was recorded. For each death, a physician coder was presented first with one section and then the other in random order with a 20- to 40-day interval between. A cause of death was recorded for each data format at the level of ICD 10 chapter headings or else the death was documented as unclassified. After another 20- to 40-day interval, both the structured and free-text sections of the questionnaire were presented together and an index cause of death was assigned. Results In all, 1,407 verbal autopsies were available for analysis, representing 94% of all deaths recorded in the population that year. An index cause of death was assigned using the combined data for 1,190 with the other 217 remaining unclassified. The observed cause-specific mortality fractions were the same regardless of whether the structured, free-text or combined data sources were used. At the individual level, the assignments made using the structured format matched the index in 1,012 (72% of cases with a kappa statistic of 0.66. For the free-text format, the corresponding figures were 989 (70% and 0.64. Conclusions The format of the verbal autopsy data used to assign

  18. Accurate market price formation model with both supply-demand and trend-following for global food prices providing policy recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagi, Marco; Bar-Yam, Yavni; Bertrand, Karla Z; Bar-Yam, Yaneer

    2015-11-10

    Recent increases in basic food prices are severely affecting vulnerable populations worldwide. Proposed causes such as shortages of grain due to adverse weather, increasing meat consumption in China and India, conversion of corn to ethanol in the United States, and investor speculation on commodity markets lead to widely differing implications for policy. A lack of clarity about which factors are responsible reinforces policy inaction. Here, for the first time to our knowledge, we construct a dynamic model that quantitatively agrees with food prices. The results show that the dominant causes of price increases are investor speculation and ethanol conversion. Models that just treat supply and demand are not consistent with the actual price dynamics. The two sharp peaks in 2007/2008 and 2010/2011 are specifically due to investor speculation, whereas an underlying upward trend is due to increasing demand from ethanol conversion. The model includes investor trend following as well as shifting between commodities, equities, and bonds to take advantage of increased expected returns. Claims that speculators cannot influence grain prices are shown to be invalid by direct analysis of price-setting practices of granaries. Both causes of price increase, speculative investment and ethanol conversion, are promoted by recent regulatory changes-deregulation of the commodity markets, and policies promoting the conversion of corn to ethanol. Rapid action is needed to reduce the impacts of the price increases on global hunger.

  19. Transphosphorylation of E. coli proteins during production of recombinant protein kinases provides a robust system to characterize kinase specificity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protein kinase specificity is of fundamental importance to pathway regulation and signal transduction. Here, we report a convenient system to monitor the activity and specificity of recombinant protein kinases expressed in E.coli. We apply this to the study of the cytoplasmic domain of the plant rec...

  20. Size-specific dose estimate (SSDE) provides a simple method to calculate organ dose for pediatric CT examinations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, Bria M.; Brady, Samuel L., E-mail: samuel.brady@stjude.org; Kaufman, Robert A. [Department of Radiological Sciences, St Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee 38105 (United States); Mirro, Amy E. [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Washington University, St Louis, Missouri 63130 (United States)

    2014-07-15

    Purpose: To investigate the correlation of size-specific dose estimate (SSDE) with absorbed organ dose, and to develop a simple methodology for estimating patient organ dose in a pediatric population (5–55 kg). Methods: Four physical anthropomorphic phantoms representing a range of pediatric body habitus were scanned with metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) dosimeters placed at 23 organ locations to determine absolute organ dose. Phantom absolute organ dose was divided by phantom SSDE to determine correlation between organ dose and SSDE. Organ dose correlation factors (CF{sub SSDE}{sup organ}) were then multiplied by patient-specific SSDE to estimate patient organ dose. The CF{sub SSDE}{sup organ} were used to retrospectively estimate individual organ doses from 352 chest and 241 abdominopelvic pediatric CT examinations, where mean patient weight was 22 kg ± 15 (range 5–55 kg), and mean patient age was 6 yrs ± 5 (range 4 months to 23 yrs). Patient organ dose estimates were compared to published pediatric Monte Carlo study results. Results: Phantom effective diameters were matched with patient population effective diameters to within 4 cm; thus, showing appropriate scalability of the phantoms across the entire pediatric population in this study. IndividualCF{sub SSDE}{sup organ} were determined for a total of 23 organs in the chest and abdominopelvic region across nine weight subcategories. For organs fully covered by the scan volume, correlation in the chest (average 1.1; range 0.7–1.4) and abdominopelvic region (average 0.9; range 0.7–1.3) was near unity. For organ/tissue that extended beyond the scan volume (i.e., skin, bone marrow, and bone surface), correlation was determined to be poor (average 0.3; range: 0.1–0.4) for both the chest and abdominopelvic regions, respectively. A means to estimate patient organ dose was demonstrated. Calculated patient organ dose, using patient SSDE and CF{sub SSDE}{sup organ}, was compared to

  1. A Plasmodium falciparum FcB1-schizont-EST collection providing clues to schizont specific gene structure and polymorphism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charneau Sébastien

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Plasmodium falciparum genome (3D7 strain published in 2002, revealed ~5,400 genes, mostly based on in silico predictions. Experimental data is therefore required for structural and functional assessments of P. falciparum genes and expression, and polymorphic data are further necessary to exploit genomic information to further qualify therapeutic target candidates. Here, we undertook a large scale analysis of a P. falciparum FcB1-schizont-EST library previously constructed by suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH to study genes expressed during merozoite morphogenesis, with the aim of: 1 obtaining an exhaustive collection of schizont specific ESTs, 2 experimentally validating or correcting P. falciparum gene models and 3 pinpointing genes displaying protein polymorphism between the FcB1 and 3D7 strains. Results A total of 22,125 clones randomly picked from the SSH library were sequenced, yielding 21,805 usable ESTs that were then clustered on the P. falciparum genome. This allowed identification of 243 protein coding genes, including 121 previously annotated as hypothetical. Statistical analysis of GO terms, when available, indicated significant enrichment in genes involved in "entry into host-cells" and "actin cytoskeleton". Although most ESTs do not span full-length gene reading frames, detailed sequence comparison of FcB1-ESTs versus 3D7 genomic sequences allowed the confirmation of exon/intron boundaries in 29 genes, the detection of new boundaries in 14 genes and identification of protein polymorphism for 21 genes. In addition, a large number of non-protein coding ESTs were identified, mainly matching with the two A-type rRNA units (on chromosomes 5 and 7 and to a lower extent, two atypical rRNA loci (on chromosomes 1 and 8, TARE subtelomeric regions (several chromosomes and the recently described telomerase RNA gene (chromosome 9. Conclusion This FcB1-schizont-EST analysis confirmed the actual expression of 243

  2. Virus-specific memory CD8 T cells provide substantial protection from lethal severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Channappanavar, Rudragouda; Fett, Craig; Zhao, Jincun; Meyerholz, David K; Perlman, Stanley

    2014-10-01

    Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) caused an acute human respiratory illness with high morbidity and mortality in 2002-2003. Several studies have demonstrated the role of neutralizing antibodies induced by the spike (S) glycoprotein in protecting susceptible hosts from lethal infection. However, the anti-SARS-CoV antibody response is short-lived in patients who have recovered from SARS, making it critical to develop additional vaccine strategies. SARS-CoV-specific memory CD8 T cells persisted for up to 6 years after SARS-CoV infection, a time at which memory B cells and antivirus antibodies were undetectable in individuals who had recovered from SARS. In this study, we assessed the ability of virus-specific memory CD8 T cells to mediate protection against infection in the absence of SARS-CoV-specific memory CD4 T or B cells. We demonstrate that memory CD8 T cells specific for a single immunodominant epitope (S436 or S525) substantially protected 8- to 10-month-old mice from lethal SARS-CoV infection. Intravenous immunization with peptide-loaded dendritic cells (DCs) followed by intranasal boosting with recombinant vaccinia virus (rVV) encoding S436 or S525 resulted in accumulation of virus-specific memory CD8 T cells in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL), lungs, and spleen. Upon challenge with a lethal dose of SARS-CoV, virus-specific memory CD8 T cells efficiently produced multiple effector cytokines (gamma interferon [IFN-γ], tumor necrosis factor alpha [TNF-α], and interleukin 2 [IL-2]) and cytolytic molecules (granzyme B) and reduced lung viral loads. Overall, our results show that SARS-CoV-specific memory CD8 T cells protect susceptible hosts from lethal SARS-CoV infection, but they also suggest that SARS-CoV-specific CD4 T cell and antibody responses are necessary for complete protection. Virus-specific CD8 T cells are required for pathogen clearance following primary SARS-CoV infection. However, the role of SARS-CoV-specific memory CD

  3. Therapy Decision Support Based on Recommender System Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Gräßer

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a system for data-driven therapy decision support based on techniques from the field of recommender systems. Two methods for therapy recommendation, namely, Collaborative Recommender and Demographic-based Recommender, are proposed. Both algorithms aim to predict the individual response to different therapy options using diverse patient data and recommend the therapy which is assumed to provide the best outcome for a specific patient and time, that is, consultation. The proposed methods are evaluated using a clinical database incorporating patients suffering from the autoimmune skin disease psoriasis. The Collaborative Recommender proves to generate both better outcome predictions and recommendation quality. However, due to sparsity in the data, this approach cannot provide recommendations for the entire database. In contrast, the Demographic-based Recommender performs worse on average but covers more consultations. Consequently, both methods profit from a combination into an overall recommender system.

  4. Therapy Decision Support Based on Recommender System Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gräßer, Felix; Beckert, Stefanie; Küster, Denise; Schmitt, Jochen; Abraham, Susanne; Malberg, Hagen; Zaunseder, Sebastian

    2017-01-01

    We present a system for data-driven therapy decision support based on techniques from the field of recommender systems. Two methods for therapy recommendation, namely, Collaborative Recommender and Demographic-based Recommender, are proposed. Both algorithms aim to predict the individual response to different therapy options using diverse patient data and recommend the therapy which is assumed to provide the best outcome for a specific patient and time, that is, consultation. The proposed methods are evaluated using a clinical database incorporating patients suffering from the autoimmune skin disease psoriasis. The Collaborative Recommender proves to generate both better outcome predictions and recommendation quality. However, due to sparsity in the data, this approach cannot provide recommendations for the entire database. In contrast, the Demographic-based Recommender performs worse on average but covers more consultations. Consequently, both methods profit from a combination into an overall recommender system.

  5. National Prostate Cancer Screening Rates After the 2012 US Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Discouraging Prostate-Specific Antigen-Based Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drazer, Michael W; Huo, Dezheng; Eggener, Scott E

    2015-08-01

    In 2012, the US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) discouraged prostate-specific antigen (PSA) -based prostate cancer screening. Previous USPSTF recommendations did not appreciably alter prostate cancer screening. Therefore, we designed a trend analysis to determine the population-based impact of the 2012 recommendation. The nationally representative National Health Interview Survey was used to estimate the proportion of men age 40 years and older who saw a physician and were screened for prostate cancer in 2013. An externally validated 9-year mortality index was used to analyze screening rates based on remaining life expectancy. Screening rates from 2005, 2010, and 2013 were compared using logistic regression. PSA-based screening did not significantly change from 2010 to 2013 among 40- to 49-year-old men (from 12.5% to 11.2%; P = .4). Screening rates significantly declined in men age 50 to 59 years (from 33.2% to 24.8%; P screened for prostate cancer despite a high risk (> 52%) of 9-year mortality, including approximately one third of men older than age 75 years. Approximately 1.4 million men age 65 years or older with a high risk (> 52%) of 9-year mortality were screened in 2013. Prostate cancer screening significantly declined among men older than age 50 years after the 2012 USPSTF guideline discouraging PSA-based screening. A significant proportion of men continue to be screened despite a high risk of 9-year mortality, including one third of men age 75 years and older. © 2015 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  6. Huntingtin Haplotypes Provide Prioritized Target Panels for Allele-specific Silencing in Huntington Disease Patients of European Ancestry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Chris; Collins, Jennifer A; Skotte, Niels H; Southwell, Amber L; Warby, Simon C; Caron, Nicholas S; Doty, Crystal N; Nguyen, Betty; Griguoli, Annamaria; Ross, Colin J; Squitieri, Ferdinando; Hayden, Michael R

    2015-11-01

    Huntington disease (HD) is a dominant neurodegenerative disorder caused by a CAG repeat expansion in the Huntingtin gene (HTT). Heterozygous polymorphisms in cis with the mutation allow for allele-specific suppression of the pathogenic HTT transcript as a therapeutic strategy. To prioritize target selection, precise heterozygosity estimates are needed across diverse HD patient populations. Here we present the first comprehensive investigation of all common target alleles across the HTT gene, using 738 reference haplotypes from the 1000 Genomes Project and 2364 haplotypes from HD patients and relatives in Canada, Sweden, France, and Italy. The most common HD haplotypes (A1, A2, and A3a) define mutually exclusive sets of polymorphisms for allele-specific therapy in the greatest number of patients. Across all four populations, a maximum of 80% are treatable using these three target haplotypes. We identify a novel deletion found exclusively on the A1 haplotype, enabling potent and selective silencing of mutant HTT in approximately 40% of the patients. Antisense oligonucleotides complementary to the deletion reduce mutant A1 HTT mRNA by 78% in patient cells while sparing wild-type HTT expression. By suppressing specific haplotypes on which expanded CAG occurs, we demonstrate a rational approach to the development of allele-specific therapy for a monogenic disorder.

  7. Huntingtin Haplotypes Provide Prioritized Target Panels for Allele-specific Silencing in Huntington Disease Patients of European Ancestry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Chris; Collins, Jennifer A; Skotte, Niels H; Southwell, Amber L; Warby, Simon C; Caron, Nicholas S; Doty, Crystal N; Nguyen, Betty; Griguoli, Annamaria; Ross, Colin J; Squitieri, Ferdinando; Hayden, Michael R

    2015-01-01

    Huntington disease (HD) is a dominant neurodegenerative disorder caused by a CAG repeat expansion in the Huntingtin gene (HTT). Heterozygous polymorphisms in cis with the mutation allow for allele-specific suppression of the pathogenic HTT transcript as a therapeutic strategy. To prioritize target selection, precise heterozygosity estimates are needed across diverse HD patient populations. Here we present the first comprehensive investigation of all common target alleles across the HTT gene, using 738 reference haplotypes from the 1000 Genomes Project and 2364 haplotypes from HD patients and relatives in Canada, Sweden, France, and Italy. The most common HD haplotypes (A1, A2, and A3a) define mutually exclusive sets of polymorphisms for allele-specific therapy in the greatest number of patients. Across all four populations, a maximum of 80% are treatable using these three target haplotypes. We identify a novel deletion found exclusively on the A1 haplotype, enabling potent and selective silencing of mutant HTT in approximately 40% of the patients. Antisense oligonucleotides complementary to the deletion reduce mutant A1 HTT mRNA by 78% in patient cells while sparing wild-type HTT expression. By suppressing specific haplotypes on which expanded CAG occurs, we demonstrate a rational approach to the development of allele-specific therapy for a monogenic disorder. PMID:26201449

  8. Epidermal growth factor receptor-targeted lipid nanoparticles retain self-assembled nanostructures and provide high specificity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Jiali; Scoble, Judith A.; Li, Nan; Lovrecz, George; Waddington, Lynne J.; Tran, Nhiem; Muir, Benjamin W.; Coia, Gregory; Kirby, Nigel; Drummond, Calum J.; Mulet, Xavier

    2015-02-01

    Next generation drug delivery utilising nanoparticles incorporates active targeting to specific sites. In this work, we combined targeting with the inherent advantages of self-assembled lipid nanoparticles containing internal nano-structures. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-targeting, PEGylated lipid nanoparticles using phytantriol and 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine-PEG-maleimide amphiphiles were created. The self-assembled lipid nanoparticles presented here have internal lyotropic liquid crystalline nano-structures, verified by synchrotron small angle X-ray scattering and cryo-transmission electron microscopy, that offer the potential of high drug loading and enhanced cell penetration. Anti-EGFR Fab' fragments were conjugated to the surface of nanoparticles via a maleimide-thiol reaction at a high conjugation efficiency and retained specificity following conjugation to the nanoparticles. The conjugated nanoparticles were demonstrated to have high affinity for an EGFR target in a ligand binding assay.Next generation drug delivery utilising nanoparticles incorporates active targeting to specific sites. In this work, we combined targeting with the inherent advantages of self-assembled lipid nanoparticles containing internal nano-structures. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-targeting, PEGylated lipid nanoparticles using phytantriol and 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine-PEG-maleimide amphiphiles were created. The self-assembled lipid nanoparticles presented here have internal lyotropic liquid crystalline nano-structures, verified by synchrotron small angle X-ray scattering and cryo-transmission electron microscopy, that offer the potential of high drug loading and enhanced cell penetration. Anti-EGFR Fab' fragments were conjugated to the surface of nanoparticles via a maleimide-thiol reaction at a high conjugation efficiency and retained specificity following conjugation to the nanoparticles. The conjugated nanoparticles

  9. The tissue microarray data exchange specification: Extending TMA DES to provide flexible scoring and incorporate virtual slides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Wright

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tissue MicroArrays (TMAs are a high throughput technology for rapid analysis of protein expression across hundreds of patient samples. Often, data relating to TMAs is specific to the clinical trial or experiment it is being used for, and not interoperable. The Tissue Microarray Data Exchange Specification (TMA DES is a set of eXtensible Markup Language (XML-based protocols for storing and sharing digitized Tissue Microarray data. XML data are enclosed by named tags which serve as identifiers. These tag names can be Common Data Elements (CDEs, which have a predefined meaning or semantics. By using this specification in a laboratory setting with increasing demands for digital pathology integration, we found that the data structure lacked the ability to cope with digital slide imaging in respect to web-enabled digital pathology systems and advanced scoring techniques. Materials and Methods: By employing user centric design, and observing behavior in relation to TMA scoring and associated data, the TMA DES format was extended to accommodate the current limitations. This was done with specific focus on developing a generic tool for handling any given scoring system, and utilizing data for multiple observations and observers. Results: DTDs were created to validate the extensions of the TMA DES protocol, and a test set of data containing scores for 6,708 TMA core images was generated. The XML was then read into an image processing algorithm to utilize the digital pathology data extensions, and scoring results were easily stored alongside the existing multiple pathologist scores. Conclusions: By extending the TMA DES format to include digital pathology data and customizable scoring systems for TMAs, the new system facilitates the collaboration between pathologists and organizations, and can be used in automatic or manual data analysis. This allows complying systems to effectively communicate complex and varied scoring data.

  10. Genome-wide association analysis of eosinophilic esophagitis provides insight into the tissue specificity of this allergic disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kottyan, Leah C.; Davis, Benjamin P.; Sherrill, Joseph D.; Liu, Kan; Rochman, Mark; Kaufman, Kenneth; Weirauch, Matthew T.; Vaughn, Samuel; Lazaro, Sara; Rupert, Andrew M.; Kohram, Mojtaba; Stucke, Emily M.; Kemme, Katherine A.; Magnusen, Albert; He, Hua; Dexheimer, Phillip; Chehade, Mirna; Wood, Robert A.; Pesek, Robbie D.; Vickery, Brian P.; Fleischer, David M.; Lindbad, Robert; Sampson, Hugh A.; Mukkada, Vince; Putnam, Phil E.; Abonia, J. Pablo; Martin, Lisa J.; Harley, John B.; Rothenberg, Marc E.

    2014-01-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a chronic inflammatory disorder associated with allergic hypersensitivity to food. We interrogated >1.5 million genetic variants in European EoE cases and subsequently in a multi-site cohort with local and out-of-study control subjects. In addition to replication of the 5q22 locus (meta-analysis p = 1.9×10−16), we identified association at 2p23 (encoding CAPN14, p = 2.5×10−10). CAPN14 was specifically expressed in the esophagus, dynamically upregulated as a function of disease activity and genetic haplotype and after exposure of epithelial cells to IL-13, and located in an epigenetic hotspot modified by IL-13. There was enriched esophageal expression for the genes neighboring the top 208 EoE sequence variants. Multiple allergic sensitization loci were associated with EoE susceptibility (4.8×10−2 < p < 5.1×10−11). We propose a model that elucidates the tissue specific nature of EoE that involves the interplay of allergic sensitization with an EoE-specific, IL-13–inducible esophageal response involving CAPN14. PMID:25017104

  11. Food Assistance: Research Provides Limited Information on the Effectiveness of Specific WIC Nutrition Services. Report to Congressional Committees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Robert E.

    The Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) is a federally funded program providing supplemental food and nutrition services to lower-income pregnant, breastfeeding, and postpartum women and also serves infants and children up to age 5 who are at nutritional risk. Included in these services are nutrition…

  12. Satisfaction of osteoarthritis patients with provided care is not related to the disease-specific quality of life.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosemann, T.J.; Wensing, M.J.P.; Szecsenyi, J.; Grol, R.P.T.M.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Osteoarthritis (OA) has a high prevalence in primary care. Patient satisfaction is an important indicator for the quality of care provided to OA patients. Little is known about satisfaction of patients with this condition in a primary care setting in Germany. The aim of the study was to

  13. Specific ranges of anti-Mullerian hormone and antral follicle count correlate to provide a prognostic indicator for IVF outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keane, Kevin; Cruzat, Vincius Fernandes; Wagle, Susbin; Chaudhary, Nitin; Newsholme, Philip; Yovich, John

    2017-03-01

    Advanced female age correlates with reduced ovarian reserve (OR) and is the primary factor underlying the limitation of success rates in Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART). Currently, predicted ovarian response to gonadotrophin stimulation is determined using transvaginal ultrasound to measure antral follicle count (AFC), an indirect measure of OR. However, assessing the level of anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) has more recently been shown to correlate with OR, and its application has been adopted widely. This retrospective study was designed to determine the relationship between novel ranges of AMH and AFC in patients undergoing ART. There was a positive correlation between AMH and AFC category (r=0.458, P0.05), but even more reliant on female age. Finally, the number of oocytes collected was positively correlated with AMH and AFC grading, while oocyte and embryo utilization rates were negatively correlated. Overall, both OR markers were positively and strongly related with each other, and when individual AMH readings were categorised into specific novel ranges, they demonstrated a more robust correlation with AFC groupings. Taken together, applying patient AMH within specific ranges may lead to a better estimation of OR and IVF outcomes. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o.

  14. Adaptation of Fusarium oxysporum and Fusarium dimerum to the specific aquatic environment provided by the water systems of hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Christian; Laurent, Julie; Edel-Hermann, Véronique; Barbezant, Marie; Sixt, Nathalie; Dalle, Frédéric; Aho, Serge; Bonnin, Alain; Hartemann, Philippe; Sautour, Marc

    2015-06-01

    Members of the Fusarium group were recently detected in water distribution systems of several hospitals in the world. An epidemiological investigation was conducted over 2 years in hospital buildings in Dijon and Nancy (France) and in non-hospital buildings in Dijon. The fungi were detected only within the water distribution systems of the hospital buildings and also, but at very low concentrations, in the urban water network of Nancy. All fungi were identified as Fusarium oxysporum species complex (FOSC) and Fusarium dimerum species complex (FDSC) by sequencing part of the translation elongation factor 1-alpha (TEF-1α) gene. Very low diversity was found in each complex, suggesting the existence of a clonal population for each. Density and heterogeneous distributions according to buildings and variability over time were explained by episodic detachments of parts of the colony from biofilms in the pipes. Isolates of these waterborne populations as well as soilborne isolates were tested for their ability to grow in liquid medium in the presence of increasing concentrations of sodium hypochlorite, copper sulfate, anti-corrosion pipe coating, at various temperatures (4°-42 °C) and on agar medium with amphotericin B and voriconazole. The waterborne isolates tolerated higher sodium hypochlorite and copper sulfate concentrations and temperatures than did soilborne isolates but did not show any specific resistance to fungicides. In addition, unlike waterborne isolates, soilborne isolates did not survive in water even supplemented with glucose, while the former developed in the soil as well as soilborne isolates. We concluded the existence of homogeneous populations of FOSC and FDSC common to all contaminated hospital sites. These populations are present at very low densities in natural waters, making them difficult to detect, but they are adapted to the specific conditions offered by the complex water systems of public hospitals in Dijon and Nancy and probably other

  15. The reconstruction of condition-specific transcriptional modules provides new insights in the evolution of yeast AP-1 proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christel Goudot

    Full Text Available AP-1 proteins are transcription factors (TFs that belong to the basic leucine zipper family, one of the largest families of TFs in eukaryotic cells. Despite high homology between their DNA binding domains, these proteins are able to recognize diverse DNA motifs. In yeasts, these motifs are referred as YRE (Yap Response Element and are either seven (YRE-Overlap or eight (YRE-Adjacent base pair long. It has been proposed that the AP-1 DNA binding motif preference relies on a single change in the amino acid sequence of the yeast AP-1 TFs (an arginine in the YRE-O binding factors being replaced by a lysine in the YRE-A binding Yaps. We developed a computational approach to infer condition-specific transcriptional modules associated to the orthologous AP-1 protein Yap1p, Cgap1p and Cap1p, in three yeast species: the model yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and two pathogenic species Candida glabrata and Candida albicans. Exploitation of these modules in terms of predictions of the protein/DNA regulatory interactions changed our vision of AP-1 protein evolution. Cis-regulatory motif analyses revealed the presence of a conserved adenine in 5' position of the canonical YRE sites. While Yap1p, Cgap1p and Cap1p shared a remarkably low number of target genes, an impressive conservation was observed in the YRE sequences identified by Yap1p and Cap1p. In Candida glabrata, we found that Cgap1p, unlike Yap1p and Cap1p, recognizes YRE-O and YRE-A motifs. These findings were supported by structural data available for the transcription factor Pap1p (Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Thus, whereas arginine and lysine substitutions in Cgap1p and Yap1p proteins were reported as responsible for a specific YRE-O or YRE-A preference, our analyses rather suggest that the ancestral yeast AP-1 protein could recognize both YRE-O and YRE-A motifs and that the arginine/lysine exchange is not the only determinant of the specialization of modern Yaps for one motif or another.

  16. Structural and mutational analysis of Escherichia coli AlkB provides insight into substrate specificity and DNA damage searching.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul J Holland

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In Escherichia coli, cytotoxic DNA methyl lesions on the N1 position of purines and N3 position of pyrimidines are primarily repaired by the 2-oxoglutarate (2-OG iron(II dependent dioxygenase, AlkB. AlkB repairs 1-methyladenine (1-meA and 3-methylcytosine (3-meC lesions, but it also repairs 1-methylguanine (1-meG and 3-methylthymine (3-meT at a much less efficient rate. How the AlkB enzyme is able to locate and identify methylated bases in ssDNA has remained an open question. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We determined the crystal structures of the E. coli AlkB protein holoenzyme and the AlkB-ssDNA complex containing a 1-meG lesion. We coupled this to site-directed mutagenesis of amino acids in and around the active site, and tested the effects of these mutations on the ability of the protein to bind both damaged and undamaged DNA, as well as catalyze repair of a methylated substrate. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: A comparison of our substrate-bound AlkB-ssDNA complex with our unliganded holoenzyme reveals conformational changes of residues within the active site that are important for binding damaged bases. Site-directed mutagenesis of these residues reveals novel insight into their roles in DNA damage recognition and repair. Our data support a model that the AlkB protein utilizes at least two distinct conformations in searching and binding methylated bases within DNA: a "searching" mode and "repair" mode. Moreover, we are able to functionally separate these modes through mutagenesis of residues that affect one or the other binding state. Finally, our mutagenesis experiments show that amino acid D135 of AlkB participates in both substrate specificity and catalysis.

  17. Properties of pre-cast terrazzo tiles and recommended specifications Propriedades de telhas de terrazzo pré-moldadas e especificações recomendadas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Karam

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available A targeted experimental program was carried out to establish basic reference physical and mechanical properties of commercially available pre-cast marble chip terrazzo tiles and to investigate the effects of varying manufacturing process parameters on those properties. The transverse strength, density, water absorption, and abrasion resistance were measured as a function of casting pressure and residence time in the casting mold for a standard mix design. A simple surface abrasion index test was developed and applied comparing pre-cast terrazzo tiles with reference natural tiling stones. Recommendations for improving existing specifications and developing quality control measures are presented.Foi feito um programa experimental direcionado para estabelecer propriedades físicas e mecânicas como referências básicas de telhas de terrazzo de peças de mármore pré-moldadas disponíveis comercialmente e para investigar os efeitos de vários parâmetros de processo de fabricação nessas propriedades. A resistência transversal, a densidade, a absorção de água e a resistência ao desgaste foram medidas em função da pressão de moldagem e do tempo de residência do molde de um projeto de mistura padrão. Um teste simples de índice de desgaste de superfície foi desenvolvido e aplicado na comparação de telhas de terrazzo pré-moldadas com pedras de telhas naturais de referência. As recomendações para a melhoria das especificações existentes e o desenvolvimento de medidas para controle de qualidade são apresentadas.

  18. Whole-Genome Relationships among Francisella Bacteria of Diverse Origins Define New Species and Provide Specific Regions for Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Challacombe, Jean F; Petersen, Jeannine M; Gallegos-Graves, La Verne; Hodge, David; Pillai, Segaran; Kuske, Cheryl R

    2017-02-01

    Francisella tularensis is a highly virulent zoonotic pathogen that causes tularemia and, because of weaponization efforts in past world wars, is considered a tier 1 biothreat agent. Detection and surveillance of F. tularensis may be confounded by the presence of uncharacterized, closely related organisms. Through DNA-based diagnostics and environmental surveys, novel clinical and environmental Francisella isolates have been obtained in recent years. Here we present 7 new Francisella genomes and a comparison of their characteristics to each other and to 24 publicly available genomes as well as a comparative analysis of 16S rRNA and sdhA genes from over 90 Francisella strains. Delineation of new species in bacteria is challenging, especially when isolates having very close genomic characteristics exhibit different physiological features-for example, when some are virulent pathogens in humans and animals while others are nonpathogenic or are opportunistic pathogens. Species resolution within Francisella varies with analyses of single genes, multiple gene or protein sets, or whole-genome comparisons of nucleic acid and amino acid sequences. Analyses focusing on single genes (16S rRNA, sdhA), multiple gene sets (virulence genes, lipopolysaccharide [LPS] biosynthesis genes, pathogenicity island), and whole-genome comparisons (nucleotide and protein) gave congruent results, but with different levels of discrimination confidence. We designate four new species within the genus; Francisella opportunistica sp. nov. (MA06-7296), Francisella salina sp. nov. (TX07-7308), Francisella uliginis sp. nov. (TX07-7310), and Francisella frigiditurris sp. nov. (CA97-1460). This study provides a robust comparative framework to discern species and virulence features of newly detected Francisella bacteria. DNA-based detection and sequencing methods have identified thousands of new bacteria in the human body and the environment. In most cases, there are no cultured isolates that correspond

  19. 75 FR 64389 - Proposed Recommendation to the Social Security Administration for Occupational Information System...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-19

    ... ADMINISTRATION Proposed Recommendation to the Social Security Administration for Occupational Information System... Occupational Information Development Advisory Panel (Panel) to provide independent advice and recommendations on plans and activities to create an occupational information system tailored specifically for our...

  20. 77 FR 39561 - Recommendations from Airman Testing Standards and Training Aviation Rulemaking Committee (ARC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-03

    ... recommendations to enhance the content, process, and methodology for development of aeronautical knowledge testing... techniques. The FAA specifically tasked the ARC with providing recommendations on the content of these...

  1. Recommended Wilderness

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Recommended wilderness is an Arcview shapefile representing the porposed wilderness areas throughout the park. The boundaries for this data set were digitized by...

  2. Recommender systems

    CERN Document Server

    Kembellec, Gérald; Saleh, Imad

    2014-01-01

    Acclaimed by various content platforms (books, music, movies) and auction sites online, recommendation systems are key elements of digital strategies. If development was originally intended for the performance of information systems, the issues are now massively moved on logical optimization of the customer relationship, with the main objective to maximize potential sales. On the transdisciplinary approach, engines and recommender systems brings together contributions linking information science and communications, marketing, sociology, mathematics and computing. It deals with the understan

  3. Efficiently Computing Private Recommendations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erkin, Z.; Beye, M.; Veugen, P.J.M.; Lagendijk, R.L.

    2011-01-01

    Online recommender systems enable personalized service to users. The underlying collaborative filtering techniques operate on privacy sensitive user data, which could be misused by the service provider. To protect user privacy, we propose to encrypt the data and generate recommendations by

  4. Assessment of fraction-specific toxicity and derivation of recommended soil quality guidelines for crude oil in agricultural/grassland soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leggett, S. [Matrix Solutions Inc., Jackson, MS (United States); Stephenson, G. [ESG International, Guelph, ON (Canada); Visser, S. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada); Lee, K.; Bolton, A. [Anderson Exploration Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2000-06-01

    A project was initiated in 1998 to collect scientific data through a combination of laboratory and field studies to help determine risk-based soil quality guidelines for petroleum hydrocarbons (PHC) in agricultural soils. The data obtained will provide useful information for the Alberta Tier I Criteria for Contaminated Soil Assessment and Remediation (CCSA) regarding the source and nature of ecotoxicity associated with PHC contaminated sites. The first phase of the project involved the collection of ecotoxicological data for specific hydrocarbon fractions to develop an approach to support ecologically relevant, risk-based, soil quality criteria for the protection of human health. The second phase involved the evaluation of short- and long-term risks associated with high concentrations of residual hydrocarbons in soils. Although the project is not scheduled to be completed until 2001, preliminary results are available regarding the toxicity of a crude oil mixture and two hydrocarbon fractions on terrestrial plant and animal species in topsoil. Data from both phases will be integrated to better understand the risk associated with hydrocarbon residuals in soil. The results will help regulators to establish relevant clean up standards for PHCs. They will also help industry to establish risk based clean-up standards for PHCs during site-specific risk assessments. 4 refs.

  5. Dendritic cells, engineered to overexpress 25-hydroxyvitamin D 1α-hydroxylase and pulsed with a myelin antigen, provide myelin-specific suppression of ongoing experimental allergic encephalomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chih-Huang; Zhang, Jintao; Baylink, David J; Wang, Xiaohua; Goparaju, Naga Bharani; Xu, Yi; Wasnik, Samiksha; Cheng, Yanmei; Berumen, Edmundo Carreon; Qin, Xuezhong; Lau, Kin-Hing William; Tang, Xiaolei

    2017-07-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is caused by immune-mediated damage of myelin sheath. Current therapies aim to block such immune responses. However, this blocking is not sufficiently specific and hence compromises immunity, leading to severe side effects. In addition, blocking medications usually provide transient effects and require frequent administration, which further increases the chance to compromise immunity. In this regard, myelin-specific therapy may provide the desired specificity and a long-lasting therapeutic effect by inducing myelin-specific regulatory T (T reg ) cells. Tolerogenic dendritic cells (TolDCs) are one such therapy. However, ex vivo generated TolDCs may be converted into immunogenic DCs in a proinflammatory environment. In this study, we identified a potential novel myelin-specific therapy that works with immunogenic DCs, hence without the in vivo conversion concern. We showed that immunization with DCs, engineered to overexpress 25-hydroxyvitamin D 1α-hydroxylase for de novo synthesis of a focally high 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D concentration in the peripheral lymphoid tissues, induced T reg cells. In addition, such engineered DCs, when pulsed with a myelin antigen, led to myelin-specific suppression of ongoing experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (an MS animal model), and the disease suppression depended on forkhead-box-protein-P3(foxp3) + T reg cells. Our data support a novel concept that immunogenic DCs can be engineered for myelin-specific therapy for MS.-Li, C.-H., Zhang, J., Baylink, D. J., Wang, X., Goparaju, N. B., Xu, Y., Wasnik, S., Cheng, Y., Berumen, E. C., Qin, X., Lau, K.-H. W., Tang, X. Dendritic cells, engineered to overexpress 25-hydroxyvitamin D 1α-hydroxylase and pulsed with a myelin antigen, provide myelin-specific suppression of ongoing experimental allergic encephalomyelitis. © The Author(s).

  6. Probabilistic approaches to recommendations

    CERN Document Server

    Barbieri, Nicola; Ritacco, Ettore

    2014-01-01

    The importance of accurate recommender systems has been widely recognized by academia and industry, and recommendation is rapidly becoming one of the most successful applications of data mining and machine learning. Understanding and predicting the choices and preferences of users is a challenging task: real-world scenarios involve users behaving in complex situations, where prior beliefs, specific tendencies, and reciprocal influences jointly contribute to determining the preferences of users toward huge amounts of information, services, and products. Probabilistic modeling represents a robus

  7. OARSI Clinical Trials Recommendations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAlindon, T. E.; Driban, J. B.; Henrotin, Y.

    2015-01-01

    the members voted we calculated the median score among the nine members of the working group who completed the score. The document includes 25 recommendations regarding randomization, blocking and stratification, blinding, enhancing accuracy of patient-reported outcomes (PRO), selecting a study population......The goal of this document is to update the original OARSI recommendations specifically for the design, conduct, and reporting of clinical trials that target symptom or structure modification among individuals with knee osteoarthritis (OA). To develop recommendations for the design, conduct...

  8. Mining and representing recommendations in actively evolving recommender systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Assent, Ira

    2010-01-01

    Recommender systems provide an automatic means of filtering out interesting items, usually based on past similarity of user ratings. In previous work, we have suggested a model that allows users to actively build a recommender network. Users express trust, obtain transparency, and grow (anonymous......) recommender connections. In this work, we propose mining such active systems to generate easily understandable representations of the recommender network. Users may review these representations to provide active feedback. This approach further enhances the quality of recommendations, especially as topics...... of interest change over time. Most notably, it extends the amount of control users have over the model that the recommender network builds of their interests....

  9. Variation in Recommendation for Surgical Treatment for Compressive Neuropathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hageman, Michiel G. H.; Becker, Stephanie J. E.; Bot, Arjan G. J.; Guitton, Thierry; Ring, David; Wahegaonkar, Abhijeet L.; Garcia, Aida E.; Schefer, Alan; Castillo, Alberto Perez; Terrono, Andrew L.; Gurman, Andrew W.; Apard, T.; Watkins, Barry; Ilyas, Asif; Hearon, Bernard F.; Wills, Brian P. D.; Wintman, Bruce I.; Swigart, Carrie; Spath, Catherine; Dario, Cesar; Miranda, Oliveira; Goldfarb, Charles A.; Cassidy, Charles; Metzger, Charles; Eaton, Charles; Wilson, Chris; Walsh, Christopher J.; Wilson, Christopher J.; Jones, Christopher M.; Young, Colby; Bottke, Craig A.; Osei, Daniel A.; Kirkpatrick, D. Kay; Tate, David; Polatsch, Daniel; Nelson, David L.; Kalainov, David M.; Lamey, David M.; Hanel, Doug; Ostrowski, David M.; Miller, David R.; McKee, Desirae M.; Shin, Eon K.; Ruchelsman, David; Bonatz, Ekkehard; Hofmeister, Eric P.; Fischer, Evan S.; Kaplan, F. Thomas D.; Fernandes, C. H.; Forigua, Jamie E.; Cayon Cayon, Fidel Ernesto; Raia, Frank J.; Walter, Frank L.; Frykman, Gary K.; Pess, Gary M.; Kuzma, Gary R.; Huemer, Georg M.; Byrd, Gregory Dee; Balfour, George W.; Caro, Gladys Cecilia Zambrano; Hernandez, German Ricardo; DeSilva, Gregory; Bamberger, H. Brent; Grunwald, H. W.; MccUtchan, Hal; Solomon, Harrison; Kimball, Hervey L.; Stuart, J. E. B.; Lin, Ines C.; Choueka, Jack; Reid, James G.; Boler, James M.; Pomerance, Jay; Johnson, Jeff W.; Yao, Jeffrey; Calandruccio, Jim; Green, Jennifer B.; Wolf, Jennifer Moriatis; Frankenhoff, Jessica A.; Oakey, Jerome W.; Fischer, Jochen; Howlett, John; Jiuliano, John; Erickson, John M.; McAuliffe, John; Evans, John P.; Taras, John; Boretto, Jorge G.; Isaacs, Jonathan; Di Giovanni, Jose Fernando; Nolla, Jose; Abzug, Joshua M.; Adams, Julie; Chivers, Karel; Prommersberger, Karl-Josef; Malone, Kevin J.; Lee, Kendrick; Halperin, Lawrence S.; Weiss, Lawrence; Benson, Leon; Lane, Lewis B.; Paz, Lior; Lattanza, Lisa; Palmer, M. Jason; Catalano, Louis; Richard, Marc J.; Rizzo, Marco; Boyer, Martin; Calcagni, Maurizio; Wood, Megan M.; Baskies, Michael; Grafe, Michael W.; Behrman, Michael; Jones, Michael; Quinn, Michael; Nancollas, Michael; Kessler, Michael W.; Pirela-Cruz, Miguel A.; Patel, Milan M.; Felipe, Naquira Escobar Luis; Harness, Neil G.; Akabudike, Ngozi M.; Horangic, Nicholas J.; Semenkin, Oleg M.; Leung, Nicky L.; McCulloch, Patrick T.; Owens, Patrick W.; Martineau, Paul A.; Bettinger, Paul; Guidera, Paul; Hoepfner, Peter E.; Sitaram, Prasad; DeNoble, Peter H.; Jebson, Peter; Coogan, Philip; Dantuluri, Phani; Gaston, R. Glenn; Nyszkiewicz, Ralf; Costanzo, Ralph M.; de Bedout, Ramon; Hauck, Randy; Fricker, Renato M.; GIlbert, Richard S.; Hutchison, Richard L.; Barth, Richard W.; Papandrea, Rick; Szabo, Robert M.; Gray, Robert R. L.; Nathan, Ross; Spruijt, Sander; Shatford, Russell; Klinefelter, Ryan; Sodha, Samir; Calfee, Ryan P.; Kakar, Sanjeev; Kaplan, Saul; Duncan, Scott F.; Mitchell, Scott; Dodds, Seth; Jacoby, Sidney M.; Kennedy, Stephen A.; Marczyk, Stanley Casimir; Dailey, Stephen W.; Kronlage, Steve; Alter, Steven; Beldner, Steven; McCabe, Steven J.; Hilliard, Stuart M.; Fischer, Thomas J.; Baxamusa, Taizoon; Taleb, C.; Varecka, Thomas F.; Wyrick, Theresa; Havenhill, Timothy G.; Siff, Todd; Knoll, Victoria D.; Patel, Vipul P.; Batson, W. Arnnold; Hammert, Warren C.; van Wyk, William J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose It is our impression that there is substantial, unexplained variation in hand surgeon recommendations for treatment of peripheral mononeuropathy. We tested the null hypothesis that specific patient and provider factors do not influence recommendations for surgery. Methods Using a web-based

  10. Discovery of a Prefusion Respiratory Syncytial Virus F-Specific Monoclonal Antibody That Provides Greater In Vivo Protection than the Murine Precursor of Palivizumab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Min; Zheng, Zi-Zheng; Chen, Man; Modjarrad, Kayvon; Zhang, Wei; Zhan, Lu-Ting; Cao, Jian-Li; Sun, Yong-Peng; McLellan, Jason S; Graham, Barney S; Xia, Ning-Shao

    2017-08-01

    Palivizumab, a humanized murine monoclonal antibody that recognizes antigenic site II on both the prefusion (pre-F) and postfusion (post-F) conformations of the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) F glycoprotein, is the only prophylactic agent approved for use for the treatment of RSV infection. However, its relatively low neutralizing potency and high cost have limited its use to a restricted population of infants at high risk of severe disease. Previously, we isolated a high-potency neutralizing antibody, 5C4, that specifically recognizes antigenic site Ø at the apex of the pre-F protein trimer. We compared in vitro and in vivo the potency and protective efficacy of 5C4 and the murine precursor of palivizumab, antibody 1129. Both antibodies were synthesized on identical murine backbones as either an IgG1 or IgG2a subclass and evaluated for binding to multiple F protein conformations, in vitro inhibition of RSV infection and propagation, and protective efficacy in mice. Although 1129 and 5C4 had similar pre-F protein binding affinities, the 5C4 neutralizing activity was nearly 50-fold greater than that of 1129 in vitro In BALB/c mice, 5C4 reduced the peak titers of RSV 1,000-fold more than 1129 did in both the upper and lower respiratory tracts. These data indicate that antibodies specific for antigenic site Ø are more efficacious at preventing RSV infection than antibodies specific for antigenic site II. Our data also suggest that site Ø-specific antibodies may be useful for the prevention or treatment of RSV infection and support the use of the pre-F protein as a vaccine antigen.IMPORTANCE There is no vaccine yet available to prevent RSV infection. The use of the licensed antibody palivizumab, which recognizes site II on both the pre-F and post-F proteins, is restricted to prophylaxis in neonates at high risk of severe RSV disease. Recommendations for using passive immunization in the general population or for therapy in immunocompromised persons with

  11. [Organizational recommendations for day surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bontemps, Gilles

    2014-03-01

    In France, the delayed development of day surgery compared to other countries led the ANAP and the HAS in 2011 to enter into a joint work program to provide some reference guide for hospitals to change their practices to outpatient. In this context, organizational guidelines and operational tools were published in May 2013. The method of construction of the recommendations resulting from an original work that combined a three-fold approach: field vision by identifying the highlights of 15 hospitals selected for their representative performance and analyzing the risks of five voluntary hospitals, mobilization organizational theories from the social sciences, using 53 professional experts. The work concluded on 16 organizational recommendations under four forms (basic principles, strategic elements, operational elements and perspectives). These recommendations are accompanied by tools and guides diagnosis and implementation, as well as productions for further reflection. These organizational recommendations confirmed the specificity of day surgery, which is not related to the act, but to the organization, management and optimization of different flows of a hospital (patient flow, professional flows, logistical, informational…). The performance of a day surgery organization is linked to its ability to control its flow and anticipation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Skin prick test to egg white provides additional diagnostic utility to serum egg white-specific IgE antibody concentration in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Adina Kay; Shreffler, Wayne G; Sampson, Hugh A; Sicherer, Scott H; Noone, Sally; Mofidi, Shideh; Nowak-Wegrzyn, Anna

    2006-04-01

    Levels of IgE antibody to egg white of greater than 7 kIU/L are highly predictive of clinical reactivity to egg, and lower levels often require evaluation with oral food challenge (OFC) to establish definitive diagnosis. OFCs have inherent risks, and diagnostic criteria indicating high likelihood of passing would be clinically useful. We sought to determine whether the size of the skin prick test (SPT) to egg white adds diagnostic utility for children with low egg white-specific IgE antibody levels. A retrospective analysis of clinical history, egg white-specific IgE antibody levels, SPT responses, and egg OFC outcomes was performed. Children who passed (n = 29) egg OFCs and those who failed (n = 45) did not differ significantly in age, clinical characteristics, or egg white-specific IgE levels. There were, however, significant differences between both egg white SPT wheal response size and egg/histamine SPT wheal index. Children who failed egg OFCs had a median wheal of 5.0 mm; those who passed had a median wheal of 3.0 mm (P = .003). Children who failed egg OFCs had a median egg/histamine index of 1.00; those who passed had a median index of 0.71 (P = .001). For egg white-specific IgE levels of less than 2.5 kIU/L, an SPT wheal of 3 mm or an egg/histamine index of 0.65 was associated with a 50% chance of passing. In children with low egg white-specific IgE levels, those with smaller SPT wheal responses to egg were more likely to pass an egg OFC than those with larger wheal responses. The size of the egg white SPT response might provide additional information to determine the timing of egg OFC. The size of the egg white SPT wheal response might provide the clinician with additional information to determine the timing of egg OFC in children with low egg white-specific IgE antibody levels.

  13. Machine learning paradigms applications in recommender systems

    CERN Document Server

    Lampropoulos, Aristomenis S

    2015-01-01

    This timely book presents Applications in Recommender Systems which are making recommendations using machine learning algorithms trained via examples of content the user likes or dislikes. Recommender systems built on the assumption of availability of both positive and negative examples do not perform well when negative examples are rare. It is exactly this problem that the authors address in the monograph at hand. Specifically, the books approach is based on one-class classification methodologies that have been appearing in recent machine learning research. The blending of recommender systems and one-class classification provides a new very fertile field for research, innovation and development with potential applications in “big data” as well as “sparse data” problems. The book will be useful to researchers, practitioners and graduate students dealing with problems of extensive and complex data. It is intended for both the expert/researcher in the fields of Pattern Recognition, Machine Learning and ...

  14. Multi-Criteria Recommender Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adomavicius, Gediminas; Manouselis, Nikos; Kwon, Youngok

    This chapter aims to provide an overview of the class of multi-criteria recommender systems. First, it defines the recommendation problem as a multicriteria decision making (MCDM) problem, and reviews MCDM methods and techniques that can support the implementation of multi-criteria recommenders. Then, it focuses on the category of multi-criteria rating recommenders - techniques that provide recommendations by modelling a user's utility for an item as a vector of ratings along several criteria. A review of current algorithms that use multi-criteria ratings for calculating predictions and generating recommendations is provided. Finally, the chapter concludes with a discussion on open issues and future challenges for the class of multi-criteria rating recommenders.

  15. Finding and Recommending Scholarly Articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, Michael J.; Henneken, Edwin A.

    2014-05-01

    The rate at which scholarly literature is being produced has been increasing at approximately 3.5 percent per year for decades. This means that during a typical 40 year career the amount of new literature produced each year increases by a factor of four. The methods scholars use to discover relevant literature must change. Just like everybody else involved in information discovery, scholars are confronted with information overload. Two decades ago, this discovery process essentially consisted of paging through abstract books, talking to colleagues and librarians, and browsing journals. A time-consuming process, which could even be longer if material had to be shipped from elsewhere. Now much of this discovery process is mediated by online scholarly information systems. All these systems are relatively new, and all are still changing. They all share a common goal: to provide their users with access to the literature relevant to their specific needs. To achieve this each system responds to actions by the user by displaying articles which the system judges relevant to the user's current needs. Recently search systems which use particularly sophisticated methodologies to recommend a few specific papers to the user have been called "recommender systems". These methods are in line with the current use of the term "recommender system" in computer science. We do not adopt this definition, rather we view systems like these as components in a larger whole, which is presented by the scholarly information systems themselves. In what follows we view the recommender system as an aspect of the entire information system; one which combines the massive memory capacities of the machine with the cognitive abilities of the human user to achieve a human-machine synergy.

  16. Recommendations of the German Society for Medical Education and the German Association of Medical Faculties regarding university-specific assessments during the study of human, dental and veterinary medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jünger, Jana; Just, Ingo

    2014-01-01

    The practice of assessing student performance in human, dental and veterinary medicine at universities in German-speaking countries has undergone significant changes in the past decade. Turning the focus to practical requirements regarding medical practice during undergraduate study away from an often theory-dominated curriculum, the academic scrutiny of the basics of teaching medical knowledge and skills, and amendments to legislation, all require ongoing adjustments to curricula and the ways in which assessments are done during undergraduate medical education. To establish quality standards, the Gesellschaft für medizinische Ausbildung (GMA German Society for Medical Education) reached a consensus in 2008 on recommendations for administering medical school-specific exams which have now been updated and approved by the GMA assessments committee, together with the Medizinischer Fakultätentag (MFT German Association of Medical Faculties), as recommendations for the administration of high-quality assessments.

  17. A whole blood monokine-based reporter assay provides a sensitive and robust measurement of the antigen-specific T cell response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bennett Sophia C

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ability to measure T-cell responses to antigens is proving critical in the field of vaccine development and for understanding immunity to pathogens, allergens and self-antigens. Although a variety of technologies exist for this purpose IFNγ-ELISpot assays are widely used because of their sensitivity and simplicity. However, ELISpot assays cannot be performed on whole blood, and require relatively large volumes of blood to yield sufficient numbers of peripheral blood mononuclear cells. To address these deficiencies, we describe an assay that measures antigen-specific T cell responses through changes in monokine gene transcription. The biological amplification of the IFNγ signal generated by this assay provides sensitivity comparable to ELISpot, but with the advantage that responses can be quantified using small volumes of whole blood. Methods Whole blood or peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs from healthy controls and immunosuppressed recipients of solid organ transplants were incubated with peptide pools covering viral and control antigens or mitogen for 20 hours. Total RNA was extracted and reverse transcribed before amplification in a TaqMan qPCR reaction using primers and probes specific for MIG (CXCL9, IP-10 (CXCL10 and HPRT. The induction of MIG and IP-10 in response to stimuli was analysed and the results were compared with those obtained by ELISpot. Results Antigen-specific T cell responses can be measured through the induction of MIG or IP-10 gene expression in PBMCs or whole blood with results comparable to those achieved in ELISpot assays. The biological amplification generated by IFNγ-R signaling allows responses to be detected in as little as 25 μL of whole blood and enables the assay to retain sensitivity despite storage of samples for up to 48 hours prior to processing. Conclusions A monokine-based reporter assay provides a sensitive measure of antigen-specific T cell activation. Assays can be

  18. Privacy in Recommender Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeckmans, Arjan; Beye, Michael; Erkin, Zekeriya; Erkin, Zekeriya; Hartel, Pieter H.; Lagendijk, Reginald; Tang, Qiang; Ramzan, Naeem; van Zwol, Roelof; Lee, Jong-Seok; Clüver, Kai; Hua, Xian-Sheng

    In many online applications, the range of content that is offered to users is so wide that a need for automated recommender systems arises. Such systems can provide a personalized selection of relevant items to users. In practice, this can help people find entertaining movies, boost sales through

  19. Recommendation systems in software engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Robillard, Martin P; Walker, Robert J; Zimmermann, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    With the growth of public and private data stores and the emergence of off-the-shelf data-mining technology, recommendation systems have emerged that specifically address the unique challenges of navigating and interpreting software engineering data.This book collects, structures and formalizes knowledge on recommendation systems in software engineering. It adopts a pragmatic approach with an explicit focus on system design, implementation, and evaluation. The book is divided into three parts: "Part I - Techniques" introduces basics for building recommenders in software engineering, including techniques for collecting and processing software engineering data, but also for presenting recommendations to users as part of their workflow.?"Part II - Evaluation" summarizes methods and experimental designs for evaluating recommendations in software engineering.?"Part III - Applications" describes needs, issues and solution concepts involved in entire recommendation systems for specific software engineering tasks, fo...

  20. A Single 17D Yellow Fever Vaccination Provides Lifelong Immunity; Characterization of Yellow-Fever-Specific Neutralizing Antibody and T-Cell Responses after Vaccination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosanne W Wieten

    Full Text Available Prompted by recent amendments of Yellow Fever (YF vaccination guidelines from boost to single vaccination strategy and the paucity of clinical data to support this adjustment, we used the profile of the YF-specific CD8+ T-cell subset profiles after primary vaccination and neutralizing antibodies as a proxy for potentially longer lasting immunity.PBMCs and serum were collected in six individuals on days 0, 3, 5, 12, 28 and 180, and in 99 individuals >10 years after YF-vaccination. Phenotypic characteristics of YF- tetramer+ CD8+ T-cells were determined using class I tetramers. Antibody responses were measured using a standardized plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT. Also, characteristics of YF-tetramer positive CD8+ T-cells were compared between individuals who had received a primary- and a booster vaccination. YF-tetramer+ CD8+ T-cells were detectable on day 12 (median tetramer+ cells as percentage of CD8+ T-cells 0.2%, range 0.07-3.1%. On day 180, these cells were still present (median 0.06%, range 0.02-0.78%. The phenotype of YF-tetramer positive CD8+ T-cells shifted from acute phase effector cells on day 12, to late differentiated or effector memory phenotype (CD45RA-/+CD27- on day 28. Two subsets of YF-tetramer positive T-cells (CD45RA+CD27- and CD45RA+CD27+ persisted until day 180. Within all phenotypic subsets, the T-bet: Eomes ratio tended to be high on day 28 after vaccination and shifted towards predominant Eomes expression on day 180 (median 6.0 (day 28 vs. 2.2 (day 180 p = 0.0625, suggestive of imprinting compatible with long-lived memory properties. YF-tetramer positive CD8+ T-cells were detectable up to 18 years post vaccination, YF-specific antibodies were detectable up to 40 years after single vaccination. Booster vaccination did not increase titers of YF-specific antibodies (mean 12.5 vs. 13.1, p = 0.583, nor induce frequencies or alter phenotypes of YF-tetramer+ CD8+ T-cells.The presence of a functionally competent YF-specific

  1. [A systematic review of worldwide natural history models of colorectal cancer: classification, transition rate and a recommendation for developing Chinese population-specific model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Z F; Huang, H Y; Shi, J F; Guo, C G; Zou, S M; Liu, C C; Wang, Y; Wang, L; Zhu, S L; Wu, S L; Dai, M

    2017-02-10

    Objective: To review the worldwide studies on natural history models among colorectal cancer (CRC), and to inform building a Chinese population-specific CRC model and developing a platform for further evaluation of CRC screening and other interventions in population in China. Methods: A structured literature search process was conducted in PubMed and the target publication dates were from January 1995 to December 2014. Information about classification systems on both colorectal cancer and precancer on corresponding transition rate, were extracted and summarized. Indicators were mainly expressed by the medians and ranges of annual progression or regression rate. Results: A total of 24 studies were extracted from 1 022 studies, most were from America (n=9), but 2 from China including 1 from the mainland area, mainly based on Markov model (n=22). Classification systems for adenomas included progression risk (n=9) and the sizes of adenoma (n=13, divided into two ways) as follows: 1) Based on studies where adenoma was risk-dependent, the median annual transition rates, from ' normal status' to ' non-advanced adenoma', 'non-advanced' to ' advanced' and ' advanced adenoma' to CRC were 0.016 0 (range: 0.002 2-0.020 0), 0.020 (range: 0.002-0.177) and 0.044 (range: 0.005-0.063), respectively. 2) Median annual transition rates, based on studies where adenoma were classified by sizes, into system of CRC mainly included LRD (localized/regional/distant, n=10), Dukes' (n=7) and TNM (n=3). When using the LRD classification, the median annual transition rates from ' localized' to ' regional' and ' regional' to 'distant' were 0.28 (range: 0.20-0.33) and 0.40 (range: 0.24-0.63), respectively. Under the Dukes' classification, the median annual transition rates appeared as 0.583 (range: 0.050-0.910), 0.656 (range: 0.280-0.720) and 0.830 (range: 0.630-0.865) from Dukes' A to B, B to C and C to Dukes' D, respectively. Again, when using the TNM classification, very limited transition rate

  2. Comparison of CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP frequency in colon cancer using different probe- and gene-specific scoring alternatives on recommended multi-gene panels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne Berg

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In colorectal cancer a distinct subgroup of tumours demonstrate the CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP. However, a consensus of how to score CIMP is not reached, and variation in definition may influence the reported CIMP prevalence in tumours. Thus, we sought to compare currently suggested definitions and cut-offs for methylation markers and how they influence CIMP classification in colon cancer. METHODS: Methylation-specific multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MS-MLPA, with subsequent fragment analysis, was used to investigate methylation of tumour samples. In total, 31 CpG sites, located in 8 different genes (RUNX3, MLH1, NEUROG1, CDKN2A, IGF2, CRABP1, SOCS1 and CACNA1G were investigated in 64 distinct colon cancers and 2 colon cancer cell lines. The Ogino gene panel includes all 8 genes, in addition to the Weisenberger panel of which only 5 of the 8 genes included were investigated. In total, 18 alternative combinations of scoring of CIMP positivity on probe-, gene-, and panel-level were analysed and compared. RESULTS: For 47 samples (71%, the CIMP status was constant and independent of criteria used for scoring; 34 samples were constantly scored as CIMP negative, and 13 (20% consistently scored as CIMP positive. Only four of 31 probes (13% investigated showed no difference in the numbers of positive samples using the different cut-offs. Within the panels a trend was observed that increasing the gene-level stringency resulted in a larger difference in CIMP positive samples than increasing the probe-level stringency. A significant difference between positive samples using 'the most stringent' as compared to 'the least stringent' criteria (20% vs 46%, respectively; p<0.005 was demonstrated. CONCLUSIONS: A statistical significant variation in the frequency of CIMP depending on the cut-offs and genes included in a panel was found, with twice as many positives samples by least compared to most stringent definition

  3. Archetypal Game Recommender Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sifa, Rafet; Bauckhage, C.; Drachen, Anders

    2014-01-01

    Contemporary users (players, consumers) of digital games have thousands of products to choose from, which makes nding games that t their interests challenging. Towards addressing this challenge, in this paper two dierent formulations of Archetypal Analysis for Top-L recommender tasks using implicit...... feedback are presented: factor- and neighborhood-oriented models. These form the rst application of rec- ommender systems to digital games. Both models are tested on a dataset of 500,000 users of the game distribution platform Steam, covering game ownership and playtime data across more than 3000 games....... Compared to four other recommender models (nearest neighbor, two popularity mod- els, random baseline), the archetype based models provide the highest recall rates showing that Archetypal Analysis can be successfully applied for Top-L recommendation purposes...

  4. Teacher Leadership: Federal Policy Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gran, Jackie; Young, Margaret; Broin, Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    This policy brief was developed specifically for federal policymakers, and builds upon the policy recommendations included in "Leading from Every Seat: Empowering Principals to Cultivate Teacher Leadership for School Improvement." The recommendations in this report include the following: (1) Uncover New Leadership Ideas and Seed…

  5. Dengue virus specific IgY provides protection following lethal dengue virus challenge and is neutralizing in the absence of inducing antibody dependent enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Ashley L; Williams, Katherine L; Harris, Eva; Alvine, Travis D; Henderson, Thomas; Schiltz, James; Nilles, Matthew L; Bradley, David S

    2017-07-01

    Dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) and dengue shock syndrome (DSS) are severe disease manifestations that can occur following sequential infection with different dengue virus serotypes (DENV1-4). At present, there are no licensed therapies to treat DENV-induced disease. DHF and DSS are thought to be mediated by serotype cross-reactive antibodies that facilitate antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) by binding to viral antigens and then Fcγ receptors (FcγR) on target myeloid cells. Using genetically engineered DENV-specific antibodies, it has been shown that the interaction between the Fc portion of serotype cross-reactive antibodies and FcγR is required to induce ADE. Additionally, it was demonstrated that these antibodies were as neutralizing as their non-modified variants, were incapable of inducing ADE, and were therapeutic following a lethal, antibody-enhanced infection. Therefore, we hypothesized that avian IgY, which do not interact with mammalian FcγR, would provide a novel therapy for DENV-induced disease. We demonstrate here that goose-derived anti-DENV2 IgY neutralized DENV2 and did not induce ADE in vitro. Anti-DENV2 IgY was also protective in vivo when administered 24 hours following a lethal DENV2 infection. We were also able to demonstrate via epitope mapping that both full-length and alternatively spliced anti-DENV2 IgY recognized different epitopes, including epitopes that have not been previously identified. These observations provide evidence for the potential therapeutic applications of goose-derived anti-DENV2 IgY.

  6. Whole genome sequencing of a banana wild relative Musa itinerans provides insights into lineage-specific diversification of the Musa genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wei; Yang, Yu-Lan; He, Wei-Ming; Rouard, Mathieu; Li, Wei-Ming; Xu, Meng; Roux, Nicolas; Ge, Xue-Jun

    2016-08-17

    Crop wild relatives are valuable resources for future genetic improvement. Here, we report the de novo genome assembly of Musa itinerans, a disease-resistant wild banana relative in subtropical China. The assembled genome size was 462.1 Mb, covering 75.2% of the genome (615.2Mb) and containing 32, 456 predicted protein-coding genes. Since the approximate divergence around 5.8 million years ago, the genomes of Musa itinerans and Musa acuminata have shown conserved collinearity. Gene family expansions and contractions enrichment analysis revealed that some pathways were associated with phenotypic or physiological innovations. These include a transition from wood to herbaceous in the ancestral Musaceae, intensification of cold and drought tolerances, and reduced diseases resistance genes for subtropical marginally distributed Musa species. Prevalent purifying selection and transposed duplications were found to facilitate the diversification of NBS-encoding gene families for two Musa species. The population genome history analysis of M. itinerans revealed that the fluctuated population sizes were caused by the Pleistocene climate oscillations, and that the formation of Qiongzhou Strait might facilitate the population downsizing on the isolated Hainan Island about 10.3 Kya. The qualified assembly of the M. itinerans genome provides deep insights into the lineage-specific diversification and also valuable resources for future banana breeding.

  7. RARD: The Related-Article Recommendation Dataset

    OpenAIRE

    Beel, Joeran; Carevic, Zeljko; Schaible, Johann; Neusch, Gabor

    2017-01-01

    Recommender-system datasets are used for recommender-system evaluations, training machine-learning algorithms, and exploring user behavior. While there are many datasets for recommender systems in the domains of movies, books, and music, there are rather few datasets from research-paper recommender systems. In this paper, we introduce RARD, the Related-Article Recommendation Dataset, from the digital library Sowiport and the recommendation-as-a-service provider Mr. DLib. The dataset contains ...

  8. Comparative genomic analysis of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citrumelo F1, which causes citrus bacterial spot disease, and related strains provides insights into virulence and host specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalan, Neha; Aritua, Valente; Kumar, Dibyendu; Yu, Fahong; Jones, Jeffrey B; Graham, James H; Setubal, João C; Wang, Nian

    2011-11-01

    Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citrumelo is a citrus pathogen causing citrus bacterial spot disease that is geographically restricted within the state of Florida. Illumina, 454 sequencing, and optical mapping were used to obtain a complete genome sequence of X. axonopodis pv. citrumelo strain F1, 4.9 Mb in size. The strain lacks plasmids, in contrast to other citrus Xanthomonas pathogens. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that this pathogen is very close to the tomato bacterial spot pathogen X. campestris pv. vesicatoria 85-10, with a completely different host range. We also compared X. axonopodis pv. citrumelo to the genome of citrus canker pathogen X. axonopodis pv. citri 306. Comparative genomic analysis showed differences in several gene clusters, like those for type III effectors, the type IV secretion system, lipopolysaccharide synthesis, and others. In addition to pthA, effectors such as xopE3, xopAI, and hrpW were absent from X. axonopodis pv. citrumelo while present in X. axonopodis pv. citri. These effectors might be responsible for survival and the low virulence of this pathogen on citrus compared to that of X. axonopodis pv. citri. We also identified unique effectors in X. axonopodis pv. citrumelo that may be related to the different host range as compared to that of X. axonopodis pv. citri. X. axonopodis pv. citrumelo also lacks various genes, such as syrE1, syrE2, and RTX toxin family genes, which were present in X. axonopodis pv. citri. These may be associated with the distinct virulences of X. axonopodis pv. citrumelo and X. axonopodis pv. citri. Comparison of the complete genome sequence of X. axonopodis pv. citrumelo to those of X. axonopodis pv. citri and X. campestris pv. vesicatoria provides valuable insights into the mechanism of bacterial virulence and host specificity.

  9. Comparative Genomic Analysis of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citrumelo F1, Which Causes Citrus Bacterial Spot Disease, and Related Strains Provides Insights into Virulence and Host Specificity ▿ #

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalan, Neha; Aritua, Valente; Kumar, Dibyendu; Yu, Fahong; Jones, Jeffrey B.; Graham, James H.; Setubal, João C.; Wang, Nian

    2011-01-01

    Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citrumelo is a citrus pathogen causing citrus bacterial spot disease that is geographically restricted within the state of Florida. Illumina, 454 sequencing, and optical mapping were used to obtain a complete genome sequence of X. axonopodis pv. citrumelo strain F1, 4.9 Mb in size. The strain lacks plasmids, in contrast to other citrus Xanthomonas pathogens. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that this pathogen is very close to the tomato bacterial spot pathogen X. campestris pv. vesicatoria 85-10, with a completely different host range. We also compared X. axonopodis pv. citrumelo to the genome of citrus canker pathogen X. axonopodis pv. citri 306. Comparative genomic analysis showed differences in several gene clusters, like those for type III effectors, the type IV secretion system, lipopolysaccharide synthesis, and others. In addition to pthA, effectors such as xopE3, xopAI, and hrpW were absent from X. axonopodis pv. citrumelo while present in X. axonopodis pv. citri. These effectors might be responsible for survival and the low virulence of this pathogen on citrus compared to that of X. axonopodis pv. citri. We also identified unique effectors in X. axonopodis pv. citrumelo that may be related to the different host range as compared to that of X. axonopodis pv. citri. X. axonopodis pv. citrumelo also lacks various genes, such as syrE1, syrE2, and RTX toxin family genes, which were present in X. axonopodis pv. citri. These may be associated with the distinct virulences of X. axonopodis pv. citrumelo and X. axonopodis pv. citri. Comparison of the complete genome sequence of X. axonopodis pv. citrumelo to those of X. axonopodis pv. citri and X. campestris pv. vesicatoria provides valuable insights into the mechanism of bacterial virulence and host specificity. PMID:21908674

  10. ISFG: Recommendations on biostatistics in paternity testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjertson, David W; Brenner, Charles H; Baur, Max P

    2007-01-01

    The Paternity Testing Commission (PTC) of the International Society for Forensic Genetics has taken up the task of establishing the biostatistical recommendations in accordance with the ISO 17025 standards and a previous set of ISFG recommendations specific to the genetic investigations in patern......The Paternity Testing Commission (PTC) of the International Society for Forensic Genetics has taken up the task of establishing the biostatistical recommendations in accordance with the ISO 17025 standards and a previous set of ISFG recommendations specific to the genetic investigations...... in paternity cases. In the initial set, the PTC recommended that biostatistical evaluations of paternity are based on a likelihood ratio principle - yielding the paternity index, PI. Here, we have made five supplementary biostatistical recommendations. The first recommendation clarifies and defines basic....../reconstruction and immigration cases), respectively. The fourth recommendation considers strategies regarding genetic evidence against paternity. The fifth recommendation covers necessary documentation, reporting details and assumptions underlying calculations. The PTC strongly suggests that these recommendations should...

  11. Research on Long Tail Recommendation Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xuezhi; Zhang, Chuang; Wu, Ming; Zeng, Yang

    2017-10-01

    Most recommendation systems in the major electronic commerce platforms are influenced by the long tail effect more or less. There are sufficient researches of how to assess recommendation effect while no criteria to evaluate long tail recommendation rate. In this study, we first discussed the existing problems of recommending long tail products through specific experiments. Then we proposed a long tail evaluation criteria and compared the performance in long tail recommendation between different models.

  12. RECODE: Policy recommendations for open access to research data

    OpenAIRE

    Tsoukala, Victoria; Angelaki, Marina; Kalaitzi, Vasso; Wessels, Bridgette; Price, Lada; Taylor, Mark J.; Smallwood, Rod; Linde, Peter; Sondervan, Jeroen; Reilly, Susan; Noorman, Merel; Wyatt, Sally; Bigagli, Lorenzo; Finn, Rachel; Sveinsdottir, Thordis

    2016-01-01

    These policy recommendations are a deliverable from the EC FP7 funded RECODE project (2012-2014), which aimed at assisting stakeholders within the scholarly communications ecosystem, e.g., policy makers, research funders, data managers, and publishers, to implement open access to research data. The recommendations, which are a product of research, analysis and stakeholder consultations, provide both over-arching and stakeholder specific guidance. While a consensus is observed amongst many...

  13. White Paper: Recommendations on the Conduct of Superiority and Organism-Specific Clinical Trials of Antibacterial Agents for the Treatment of Infections Caused by Drug-Resistant Bacterial Pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    There is a critical need for new pathways to develop antibacterial agents to treat life-threatening infections caused by highly resistant bacteria. Traditionally, antibacterial agents have been studied in noninferiority clinical trials that focus on one site of infection (eg, pneumonia, intra-abdominal infection). Conduct of superiority trials for infections caused by highly antibiotic-resistant bacteria represents a new, and as yet, untested paradigm for antibacterial drug development. We sought to define feasible trial designs of antibacterial agents that could enable conduct of superiority and organism-specific clinical trials. These recommendations are the results of several years of active dialogue among the white paper's drafters as well as external collaborators and regulatory officials. Our goal is to facilitate conduct of new types of antibacterial clinical trials to enable development and ultimately approval of critically needed new antibacterial agents. PMID:22891041

  14. Evaluation of the overweight/obese child--practical tips for the primary health care provider: recommendations from the Childhood Obesity Task Force of the European Association for the Study of Obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, Jennifer L; Farpour-Lambert, Nathalie J; Nowicka, Paulina

    2010-01-01

    in the primary care setting. The tips and tools provided are based on data from the recent body of work that has been published in this field, official statements of several scientific societies along with expert opinion provided by the members of the Childhood Obesity Task Force (COTF) of the European......The prevalence of obesity among children and adolescents is on the rise. The majority of overweight or obese children are treated by primary health care providers including paediatricians, family practitioners, dieticians, nurses, and school health services - and not by specialists. The majority...... of obese children have no underlying medical disorder causing their obesity yet a significant proportion might suffer from obesity-related co-morbidities. This text is aimed at providing simple and practical tools for the identification and management of children with or at risk of overweight and obesity...

  15. OARSI Clinical Trials Recommendations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraus, V B; Blanco, F J; Englund, M

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this work was to describe requirements for inclusion of soluble biomarkers in osteoarthritis (OA) clinical trials and progress toward OA-related biomarker qualification. The Guidelines for Biomarkers Working Group, representing experts in the field of OA biomarker research from...... both academia and industry, convened to discuss issues related to soluble biomarkers and to make recommendations for their use in OA clinical trials based on current knowledge and anticipated benefits. This document summarizes current guidance on use of biomarkers in OA clinical trials...... and their utility at five stages, including preclinical development and phase I to phase IV trials. As demonstrated by this summary, biomarkers can provide value at all stages of therapeutics development. When resources permit, we recommend collection of biospecimens in all OA clinical trials for a wide variety...

  16. Recommendation System for Adaptive Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yunxiao; Li, Xiaoou; Liu, Jingchen; Ying, Zhiliang

    2018-01-01

    An adaptive learning system aims at providing instruction tailored to the current status of a learner, differing from the traditional classroom experience. The latest advances in technology make adaptive learning possible, which has the potential to provide students with high-quality learning benefit at a low cost. A key component of an adaptive learning system is a recommendation system, which recommends the next material (video lectures, practices, and so on, on different skills) to the learner, based on the psychometric assessment results and possibly other individual characteristics. An important question then follows: How should recommendations be made? To answer this question, a mathematical framework is proposed that characterizes the recommendation process as a Markov decision problem, for which decisions are made based on the current knowledge of the learner and that of the learning materials. In particular, two plain vanilla systems are introduced, for which the optimal recommendation at each stage can be obtained analytically.

  17. Developing Constraint-based Recommenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felfernig, Alexander; Friedrich, Gerhard; Jannach, Dietmar; Zanker, Markus

    Traditional recommendation approaches (content-based filtering [48] and collaborative filtering[40]) are well-suited for the recommendation of quality&taste products such as books, movies, or news. However, especially in the context of products such as cars, computers, appartments, or financial services those approaches are not the best choice (see also Chapter 11). For example, apartments are not bought very frequently which makes it rather infeasible to collect numerous ratings for one specific item (exactly such ratings are required by collaborative recommendation algorithms). Furthermore, users of recommender applications would not be satisfied with recommendations based on years-old item preferences (exactly such preferences would be exploited in this context by content-based filtering algorithms).

  18. ANALYSIS OF PROVIDING A FAIR TAX TREATMENT IN THE ECONOMIC ENVIRONMENT OF THE NEW TAX SPECIFIC TO THE ACTIVITIES IN TOURISM SINCE 2017

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NICOLAE ECOBICI

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The work is in the applied research line and aims to analyze the legal provisions on specific tax regarding the measure in which this tax would ensure an equal tax treatment in the economic environment that would comply with the principle of proportionality. The specific tax will take effect from January 1st, 2017 in Romania for the activities in tourism and hotels field, restaurants, bars and public food services. The research methods are based on analysis and comparison. The paper specifically follows the way in which the specific tax will influence the taxpayers, corporate tax payers currently operating in the areas listed above, as they are obliged to replace the corporate tax with a fixed tax until 2017. This tax influenced only by the entity's ability to produce income (useful surface of the location, commercial venue (area and location, category and seasonality of activities, it no longer takes into account the actual obtained profit. We believe that in those areas was rather necessary to establish a minimum tax, not a fixed tax. We welcome the calculation and substantiation mode of the specific tax depending on the national average set at the level of 2014 based on the tax data from NAFA and other institutes and business organizations in these areas, however, after the analysis, we believe that this tax, although is going to ensure more efficient collection of tax claims from a larger number of taxpayers and is going to facilitate the reduction of tax evasion level from certain taxpayers and it will also facilitate the large taxpayers who usually due a lower tax than the performed profit.

  19. New epifluorescence microscope providing pairs of specific fluorescence images of double-stained cells for simultaneous visual perception and for quantification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiden, Thomas; Tribukait, Bernhard

    1996-05-01

    A new epi-fluorescence microscope for analysis of cells stained with two fluorochromes which can be spectrally isolated is described. The system makes it possible to perform independent and specific spectral selection of each dye (e.g. DAPI and CY3) while perceiving the two specific images simultaneously by eye. The optics uses splitting of the primary excitation and emission light beams, independent modification of the separated beams, and their reunification. Modifications in the separated beams comprise: (1) isolation of specific wavelengths (365 nm and 546 nm in the excitation light path, 435 - 500 nm and 590 - 750 nm in the emission light beams), (2) wavelength switching without image displacement and blur by means of a light chopper alternating between ultraviolet-excitation/blue-detection and green-excitation/red-detection at frequencies of up to 140 Hz for observation by eye without image flicker, and (3) the possible separate positioning of lenses for compensation of chromatic aberrations. The system demonstrates a good transmission of the chosen wavelengths. A high specificity of double fluorescence analysis with minimal effects of spectral overlap was attained with good temporal resolution. It has been shown that it is feasible to obtain separate chromatic compensations for the use of a microscope objective in spectral regions outside the range for which the objective is corrected. Quantitative and independent measurements of the two fluorescence images by a CCD camera synchronized with the light chopper are feasible. In conclusion, this imaging system is outlined for highly specific visual analysis and exact quantitative measurement of double fluorescence labeled specimens in cytology and histology.

  20. Military Personnel: Progress Made in Implementing Recommendations to Reduce Domestic Violence, but Further Management Action Needed

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Melvin, Valerie C; Durland, Laura L; Bancroft, James R; Brown, Renee S; Brown, Robert B; Bryant, Carissa D; Gatling, Marion A; Harms, Nicole; Miller, Amanda; Newton, J. P

    2006-01-01

    ...) the resources DoD has provided to implement the recommendations; and (3) DoD's specific actions to ensure victim confidentiality and the education of commanding officers, senior enlisted personnel, and chaplains...

  1. 78 FR 73200 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Bioequivalence Recommendations for Paliperidone Palmitate Extended...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-05

    ...). The draft guidance, when finalized, will represent the Agency's current thinking on the design of BE... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry on Bioequivalence... for Paliperidone Palmitate.'' The guidance provides specific recommendations on the design of...

  2. 78 FR 55263 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Bioequivalence Recommendations for Fluticasone Propionate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-10

    ....115). The draft guidance, when finalized, will represent the Agency's current thinking on the design... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry on Bioequivalence... Propionate; Salmeterol Xinafoate.'' The recommendations provide specific guidance on the design of...

  3. Tell Us™: A Web-Based Tool for Improving Communication Among Patients, Families, and Providers in Hospice and Palliative Care Through Systematic Data Specification, Collection, and Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dy, Sydney M.; Roy, Jayashree; Ott, Geoffrey E.; McHale, Michael; Kennedy, Christine; Kutner, Jean S.; Tien, Allen

    2015-01-01

    Context Routine electronic patient-reported outcome collection in patients with advanced disease could improve communication among patients, caregivers and providers and improve the timeliness of identifying problems and effectiveness of follow-up. Objective To develop a web-based tool to collect symptoms and need data and provide feedback to hospice and palliative care patients, caregivers and providers. Methods We developed Tell Us™ based on an existing pure web technology platform, the Medical Decision Logic, Inc. (“mdlogix”) Health Science Process Framework (HSPF™). The software development process included eliciting information on systems and needs and mapping care processes with three diverse hospices, and soliciting ideas for the software from clinicians and researchers. We developed a prototype software product, incorporated the hospices’ processes, assessment questions, and educational materials, and refined the product with feedback from other hospice and palliative care professionals. Results Tell Us includes modules for authoring and deploying clinical queries and completion schedules; for enrolling clinical sites and patients for patients and/or families to complete assigned assessments on a scheduled basis; and for providers to view patient-reported data. Tell Us provides customizable automated provider e-mail alerts based on patient responses (such as uncontrolled symptoms or need for medication refills) and provides educational materials targeted to patient needs. Conclusions This web-based toolset may be useful for improving communication between hospice and palliative care patients, caregivers, and providers and proactive patient management. Future research will involve integrating the software into care and evaluating its feasibility and use for data collection, patient education, and improving outcomes. PMID:21458214

  4. Evaluation of the overweight/obese child--practical tips for the primary health care provider: recommendations from the Childhood Obesity Task Force of the European Association for the Study of Obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, Jennifer L; Farpour-Lambert, Nathalie J; Nowicka, Paulina

    2010-01-01

    Association for the Study of Obesity (EASO). We have attempted to use an evidence-based approach while allowing flexibility for the practicing clinician in domains where evidence is currently lacking and ensuring that treating the obese child involves the entire family as well.......The prevalence of obesity among children and adolescents is on the rise. The majority of overweight or obese children are treated by primary health care providers including paediatricians, family practitioners, dieticians, nurses, and school health services - and not by specialists. The majority...... of obese children have no underlying medical disorder causing their obesity yet a significant proportion might suffer from obesity-related co-morbidities. This text is aimed at providing simple and practical tools for the identification and management of children with or at risk of overweight and obesity...

  5. Bulk and Compound Specific Isotope Analysis Provide Insights into Habitat Use and Diet Variability Among Female Sperm Whales (Physeter macrocephalus) from the Eastern Tropical Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zupcic-Moore, J. R.; Ruiz-Cooley, R. I.; McCarthy, M. D.; Koch, P. L.

    2016-02-01

    Sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus) have a strong social structure and females form sympatric clans that span thousands of kilometers and encompass thousands of whales. We investigated variability in foraging habitat and diet through the life history of ten female sperm whales from the Eastern Tropical Pacific (ETP), using coupled bulk and compound specific amino acid stable isotope measurements made on annual tooth growth layers. We identified three broad temporal patterns in annual records of bulk nitrogen (δ15N) and carbon (δ13C) isotope values in sub-groups of individuals: 1) constant, 2) increasing, and 3) decreasing isotopic values between ca.1930 and 1960. These different isotopic patterns suggest that whales sampled may belong to different clans. In addition, average bulk δ15N and δ13C values differed among individuals and appear to be group-specific. This suggests that whales from different sub-groups foraged in different habitats and/or had differing diets. To differentiate between these interpretations, we conducted compound specific amino acid isotope analysis on dentin samples from six whales. Amino acid proxies for baseline δ15N values indicate that bulk variability among whales is due to δ15N differences at the base of the food web, indicating different feeding areas. The δ13C values of essential amino acids, which are positively correlated to bulk δ13C values, support this conclusion. Together, the compound specific and bulk annual records suggest that whales with higher isotopic values likely foraged in regions closer to the coast throughout their lives, while whales with lower isotopic values likely foraged further offshore. Overall, our data suggest clear spatial segregation of clans within a similar ocean region. Since molecular analysis cannot yet distinguish genetic variability among whale clans, we suggest that stable isotope analysis can help to identify clans and their foraging ecology, based on habitat use.

  6. Novel combinations of Post-Translational Modification (PTM) neo-epitopes provide tissue-specific biochemical markers--are they the cause or the consequence of the disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karsdal, Morten Asser; Henriksen, Kim; Leeming, Diana Julie; Woodworth, Thasia; Vassiliadis, Efstathios; Bay-Jensen, Anne-Christine

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this review is to discuss the potential usefulness of novel advances in the class of biochemical markers, neo-epitopes. Neo-epitopes are post-translational modifications (PTMs) of proteins formed by processes such as protease cleavage, citrullination, nitrosylation, glycosylation and isomerization. Each modification results from a specific local physiological or pathobiologial process. Identification of each modification, and the affected tissue-specific protein, may produce a unique disease-specific biochemical marker. One example of neo-epitopes detectable in protein fragments are type II collagen degradation products. These 2nd generation biochemical markers have proven useful for research on joint damage. Such neo-epitopes are being utilized in translational medicine to estimate safety and efficacy in both preclinical models and clinical settings. More advanced, 3rd generation biochemical markers, which may more accurately identify both the affected tissue and the disease stage, might be developed through research into multiple PTMs occurring during specific disease pathogenesis. The end-product of these investigations is one single measurement for each disease. To date, advanced biochemical markers have been identified in bone, cardiovascular, fibrosis and cartilage diseases and continue research in Alzheimer's and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases. These advanced biochemical marker assays relying on analytes that are modified by multiple PTMs may become optimal tools that meet the BIPED (Burden of disease, Investigatory, Prognostic, Efficacy of intervention and Diagnosis) biochemical marker "usefulness" criteria. For some of these markers it may be interesting to also investigate whether the PTMs are the cause or consequence of a certain disease. Copyright 2010 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. All rights reserved.

  7. Recommender systems in knowledge-mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volna, Eva

    2017-07-01

    The subject of the paper is to analyse the possibilities of application of recommender systems in the field of data mining. The work focuses on three basic types of recommender systems (collaborative, content-based and hybrid). The goal of the article is to evaluate which of these three concepts of recommender systems provides forecast with the lowest error rate in the domain of recommending movies. This target is fulfilled by the practical part of the work - at first, the own recommender system was designed and created, capable of obtaining movies recommendation from the database based on the user's preferences. Next, we verified experimentally which recommender system produces more accurate results.

  8. Optimization of Palmitic Acid Composition in Crude Oleic Acid to Provide Specifications of Titer and Cloud Point of Distillate Oleic Acid using a Flash Distiller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Yusuf Ritonga

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Titer and cloud point of Distilled Oleic Acid is higher than is the standard on feed composition palmitic acid (C15H31COOH or C16 11.2 %. Feed composition C16, top temperature precut and bottom main distiller column were optimized to produce DOA. A factorial design with 3 independent variables, 3 X 2 X 3, repeated twice as much, is applied to observe effects of feed composition C16 to quality parameters. In the optimum C16, feed composition at 5.20 % produced DOA with titer 6.8 oC, cloud point 5.0 oC (inside its specification.

  9. Online Training in Specific Meditation Practices Improves Gratitude, Well-Being, Self-Compassion, and Confidence in Providing Compassionate Care Among Health Professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Nisha; Kemper, Kathi J

    2016-04-06

    Mind-body practices that intentionally generate positive emotion could improve health professionals' well-being and compassion. However, the feasibility and impact of clinician training in these practices is unknown. Data were analyzed from 3 online modules offered to health professionals: (a) Gratitude, (b) Positive Word, and (c) Loving-kindness/Compassion meditation. Pairedttests were used to assess pre- to posttraining changes in gratitude (Gratitude Questionnaire), well-being (World Health Organization Well-Being Index), self-compassion (Neff's Self-Compassion Scale), and confidence in providing compassionate care (Confidence in Providing Calm, Compassionate Care Scale). The 177 enrollees included diverse practitioners (nurses, physicians, social workers, and others). Training was associated with statistically significant improvements in gratitude (38.3 ± 4.6 to 39.5 ± 3.3), well-being (16.4 ± 4.0 to 17.9 ± 4.2), self-compassion (39.5 ± 8.1 to 43.1 ± 7.6), and confidence in providing compassionate care (73.3 ± 16.4 to 80.9 ± 13.8;Pgratitude, well-being, self-compassion, and confidence in providing compassionate care. © The Author(s) 2016.

  10. Developing a semantic web model for medical differential diagnosis recommendation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Osama; Benlamri, Rachid

    2014-10-01

    In this paper we describe a novel model for differential diagnosis designed to make recommendations by utilizing semantic web technologies. The model is a response to a number of requirements, ranging from incorporating essential clinical diagnostic semantics to the integration of data mining for the process of identifying candidate diseases that best explain a set of clinical features. We introduce two major components, which we find essential to the construction of an integral differential diagnosis recommendation model: the evidence-based recommender component and the proximity-based recommender component. Both approaches are driven by disease diagnosis ontologies designed specifically to enable the process of generating diagnostic recommendations. These ontologies are the disease symptom ontology and the patient ontology. The evidence-based diagnosis process develops dynamic rules based on standardized clinical pathways. The proximity-based component employs data mining to provide clinicians with diagnosis predictions, as well as generates new diagnosis rules from provided training datasets. This article describes the integration between these two components along with the developed diagnosis ontologies to form a novel medical differential diagnosis recommendation model. This article also provides test cases from the implementation of the overall model, which shows quite promising diagnostic recommendation results.

  11. Caregiver awareness of prone play recommendations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zachry, Anne H; Kitzmann, Katherine M

    2011-01-01

    We examined caregiver awareness of the American Academy of Pediatrics' prone play recommendation, determined the primary sources of the recommendation, and examined why some infants are not provided "tummy time." Of caregivers, 25...

  12. NCBO Ontology Recommender 2.0: an enhanced approach for biomedical ontology recommendation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Romero, Marcos; Jonquet, Clement; O'Connor, Martin J; Graybeal, John; Pazos, Alejandro; Musen, Mark A

    2017-06-07

    Ontologies and controlled terminologies have become increasingly important in biomedical research. Researchers use ontologies to annotate their data with ontology terms, enabling better data integration and interoperability across disparate datasets. However, the number, variety and complexity of current biomedical ontologies make it cumbersome for researchers to determine which ones to reuse for their specific needs. To overcome this problem, in 2010 the National Center for Biomedical Ontology (NCBO) released the Ontology Recommender, which is a service that receives a biomedical text corpus or a list of keywords and suggests ontologies appropriate for referencing the indicated terms. We developed a new version of the NCBO Ontology Recommender. Called Ontology Recommender 2.0, it uses a novel recommendation approach that evaluates the relevance of an ontology to biomedical text data according to four different criteria: (1) the extent to which the ontology covers the input data; (2) the acceptance of the ontology in the biomedical community; (3) the level of detail of the ontology classes that cover the input data; and (4) the specialization of the ontology to the domain of the input data. Our evaluation shows that the enhanced recommender provides higher quality suggestions than the original approach, providing better coverage of the input data, more detailed information about their concepts, increased specialization for the domain of the input data, and greater acceptance and use in the community. In addition, it provides users with more explanatory information, along with suggestions of not only individual ontologies but also groups of ontologies to use together. It also can be customized to fit the needs of different ontology recommendation scenarios. Ontology Recommender 2.0 suggests relevant ontologies for annotating biomedical text data. It combines the strengths of its predecessor with a range of adjustments and new features that improve its reliability

  13. Divergent oestrogen receptor-specific breast cancer trends in Ireland (2004-2013): Amassing data from independent Western populations provide etiologic clues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullooly, Maeve; Murphy, Jeanne; Gierach, Gretchen L; Walsh, Paul M; Deady, Sandra; Barron, Thomas I; Sherman, Mark E; Rosenberg, Philip S; Anderson, William F

    2017-11-01

    The aetiology and clinical behaviour of breast cancers vary by oestrogen receptor (ER) expression, HER2 expression and over time. Data from the United States and Denmark show rising incidence rates for ER+ and falling incidence rates for ER- breast cancers. Given that Ireland is a somewhat similar Western population but with distinctive risk exposures (especially for lactation), we analysed breast cancer trends by ER status; and for the first time, by the joint expression of ER±/HER2±. We assessed invasive breast cancers (n = 24,845; 2004-2013) within the population-based National Cancer Registry of Ireland. The population at risk was obtained from the Irish Central Statistics Office (n = 10,401,986). After accounting for missing ER and HER2 data, we assessed receptor-specific secular trends in age-standardised incidence rates (ASRs) with the estimated annual percentage change (EAPC) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). Age-period-cohort models were also fitted to further characterise trends accounting for age, calendar-period and birth-cohort interactions. ASRs increased for ER+ (EAPC: 2.2% per year [95% CI: 0.97, 3.45%/year]) and decreased for ER- cancers (EAPC: -3.43% per year [95% CI: -5.05, -1.78%/year]), as well as for specific age groups at diagnosis (Ireland were like those previously observed. Stratification by HER2± expression did not substantively alter ER± trends. The divergence of ER± incidence rates among independent Western populations likely reflects calendar-period and/or risk factor changes with differential effects for ER+ and ER- breast cancers. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. VP2-serotyped live-attenuated bluetongue virus without NS3/NS3a expression provides serotype-specific protection and enables DIVA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feenstra, Femke; Maris-Veldhuis, Mieke; Daus, Franz J; Tacken, Mirriam G J; Moormann, Rob J M; van Gennip, René G P; van Rijn, Piet A

    2014-12-12

    Bluetongue virus (BTV) causes Bluetongue in ruminants and is transmitted by Culicoides biting midges. Vaccination is the most effective measure to control vector borne diseases; however, there are 26 known BTV serotypes showing little cross protection. The BTV serotype is mainly determined by genome segment 2 encoding the VP2 protein. Currently, inactivated and live-attenuated Bluetongue vaccines are available for a limited number of serotypes, but each of these have their specific disadvantages, including the inability to differentiate infected from vaccinated animals (DIVA). BTV non-structural proteins NS3 and NS3a are not essential for virus replication in vitro, but are important for cytopathogenic effect in mammalian cells and for virus release from insect cells in vitro. Recently, we have shown that virulent BTV8 without NS3/NS3a is non-virulent and viremia in sheep is strongly reduced, whereas local in vivo replication leads to seroconversion. Live-attenuated BTV6 without NS3/NS3a expression protected sheep against BTV challenge. Altogether, NS3/NS3a knockout BTV6 is a promising vaccine candidate and has been named Disabled Infectious Single Animal (DISA) vaccine. Here, we show serotype-specific protection in sheep by DISA vaccine in which only genome segment 2 of serotype 8 was exchanged. Similarly, DISA vaccines against other serotypes could be developed, by exchange of only segment 2, and could therefore safely be combined in multi-serotype cocktail vaccines with respect to reassortment between vaccine viruses. Additionally, NS3 antibody responses are raised after natural BTV infection and NS3-based ELISAs are therefore appropriate tools for DIVA testing accompanying the DISA vaccine. To enable DIVA, we developed an experimental NS3 ELISA. Indeed, vaccinated sheep remained negative for NS3 antibodies, whereas seroconversion for NS3 antibodies was associated with viremia after heterologous BTV challenge. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Recommended temperature and relative humidity for storage of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Post-harvest treatment and proper handling is essential so that the flowers can maintain their quality during marketing and exporting. This review aims to gives information on the storage temperature used in postharvest handling of tropical flowers of Brazil. This review provides detailed specifications and recommendations ...

  16. Patterns of Multistakeholder Recommendation

    OpenAIRE

    Burke, Robin; Abdollahpouri, Himan

    2017-01-01

    Recommender systems are personalized information systems. However, in many settings, the end-user of the recommendations is not the only party whose needs must be represented in recommendation generation. Incorporating this insight gives rise to the notion of multistakeholder recommendation, in which the interests of multiple parties are represented in recommendation algorithms and evaluation. In this paper, we identify patterns of stakeholder utility that characterize different multistakehol...

  17. French recommendations on electroencephalography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    André-Obadia, N; Lamblin, M D; Sauleau, P

    2015-03-01

    Electroencephalography allows the functional analysis of electrical brain cortical activity and is the gold standard for analyzing electrophysiological processes involved in epilepsy but also in several other dysfunctions of the central nervous system. Morphological imaging yields complementary data, yet it cannot replace the essential functional analysis tool that is EEG. Furthermore, EEG has the great advantage of being non-invasive, easy to perform and allows repeat testing when follow-up is necessary, even at the patient's bedside. Faced with advances in knowledge, techniques and indications, the Société de neurophysiologie clinique de langue française (SNCLF) and the Ligue française contre l'épilepsie (LFCE) found it necessary to provide an update on EEG recommendations. This article will review the methodology applied to this work, refine the various topics detailed in the following chapters. It will go over the summary of recommendations for each of these chapters and highlight proposals for writing an EEG report. Some questions could not be answered by review of the literature; in such cases, in addition to the guidelines the working and reading groups provided their expert opinion. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Technology, recommendation and design: on being a 'paternalistic' philosopher.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Pak-Hang

    2013-03-01

    Philosophers have talked to each other about moral issues concerning technology, but few of them have talked about issues of technology and the good life, and even fewer have talked about technology and the good life with the public in the form of recommendation. In effect, recommendations for various technologies are often left to technologists and gurus. Given the potential benefits of informing the public on their impacts on the good life, however, this is a curious state of affairs. In the present paper, I will examine why philosophers are seemingly reluctant to offer recommendations to the public. While there are many reasons for philosophers to refrain from offering recommendations, I shall focus on a specific normative reason. More specifically, it appears that, according to a particular definition, offering recommendations can be viewed as paternalistic, and therefore is prima facie wrong to do so. I will provide an argument to show that the worry about paternalism is unfounded, because a form of paternalism engendered by technology is inevitable. Given the inevitability of paternalism, I note that philosophers should accept the duty to offer recommendations to the public. I will then briefly turn to design ethics, which has reconceptualised the role of philosophers and, in my mind, fitted well with the inevitability of paternalism. Finally, I shall argue that design ethics has to be supplemented by the practice of recommendation if it is to sustain its objective.

  19. International open-label studies to assess the efficacy and safety of single-pill amlodipine/atorvastatin in attaining blood pressure and lipid targets recommended by country-specific guidelines: the JEWEL programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard Hobbs, Frederick D; Gensini, Gianfranco; John Mancini, Giovanni B; Manolis, Athanasios J; Bauer, Beverly; Genest, Jacques; Feldman, Ross D; Harvey, Peter; Jenssen, Trond G; da Silva, Pedro Marques

    2009-08-01

    Single-pill amlodipine/atorvastatin targets the two most common modifiable cardiovascular risk factors, hypertension and dyslipidaemia. We evaluated the clinical utility of this single pill to help patients across Europe and Canada achieve country-specific targets for blood pressure (BP) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). Two 16-week, open-label studies conducted in 122 study centres across the United Kingdom and Canada (JEWEL 1) and 113 centres across 11 European countries (JEWEL 2). Patients with uncontrolled BP and controlled/uncontrolled LDL-C qualifying for treatment according to local governing guidelines were administered single-pill amlodipine/atorvastatin with appropriate lifestyle modification. Eight dosages of amlodipine/atorvastatin (5/10-10/80 mg) were titrated to achieve country-specific BP and LDL-C targets. The primary outcome was the percentage of patients reaching country-specific BP and LDL-C targets in 16 weeks. Among 2245 patients enrolled in the studies (JEWEL 1, n = 1138; JEWEL 2, n = 1107), 62.9% in JEWEL 1 and 50.6% in JEWEL 2 achieved both country-specific BP and LDL-C goals. BP was reduced by 20.4/10.7 and 21.8/12.6 mmHg in JEWEL 1 and JEWEL 2, respectively, and reductions in LDL-C were 0.90 mmol/l (34.8 mg/dl) and 1.09 mmol/l (42.2 mg/dl), respectively. The most common adverse events were peripheral oedema (11.0%), joint swelling (2.9%) and headache (2.9%), of which, only oedema was linked to study treatment. Single-pill amlodipine/atorvastatin is an effective and well-tolerated treatment, which in a real-world setting helped more than half of the patients achieve both BP and LDL-C targets as recommended by local guidelines. Although fewer patients met their goals in JEWEL 2 than JEWEL 1, reductions in BP and LDL-C were slightly greater in JEWEL 2, suggesting that the observed differences are likely because of more stringent targets in Europe than in the UK/Canada.

  20. Towards Information Enrichment through Recommendation Sharing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Li-Tung; Xu, Yue; Li, Yuefeng; Nayak, Richi

    Nowadays most existing recommender systems operate in a single organisational basis, i.e. a recommender system recommends items to customers of one organisation based on the organisation's datasets only. Very often the datasets of a single organisation do not have sufficient resources to be used to generate quality recommendations. Therefore, it would be beneficial if recommender systems of different organisations with similar nature can cooperate together to share their resources and recommendations. In this chapter, we present an Ecommerce-oriented Distributed Recommender System (EDRS) that consists of multiple recommender systems from different organisations. By sharing resources and recommendations with each other, these recommenders in the distributed recommendation system can provide better recommendation service to their users. As for most of the distributed systems, peer selection is often an important aspect. This chapter also presents a recommender selection technique for the proposed EDRS, and it selects and profiles recommenders based on their stability, average performance and selection frequency. Based on our experiments, it is shown that recommenders' recommendation quality can be effectively improved by adopting the proposed EDRS and the associated peer selection technique.

  1. Male-specific DNA markers provide genetic evidence of an XY chromosome system, a recombination arrest and allow the tracing of paternal lineages in date palm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherif, Emira; Zehdi, Salwa; Castillo, Karina; Chabrillange, Nathalie; Abdoulkader, Sabira; Pintaud, Jean-Christophe; Santoni, Sylvain; Salhi-Hannachi, Amel; Glémin, Sylvain; Aberlenc-Bertossi, Frédérique

    2013-01-01

    Whether sex chromosomes are differentiated is an important aspect of our knowledge of dioecious plants, such as date palm (Phoenix dactylifera). In this crop plant, the female individuals produce dates, and are thus the more valuable sex. However, there is no way to identify the sex of date palm plants before reproductive age, and the sex-determining mechanism is still unclear. To identify sex-linked microsatellite markers, we surveyed a set of 52 male and 55 female genotypes representing the geographical diversity of the species. We found three genetically linked loci that are heterozygous only in males. Male-specific alleles allowed us to identify the gender in 100% of individuals. These results confirm the existence of an XY chromosomal system with a nonrecombining XY-like region in the date palm genome. The distribution of Y haplotypes in western and eastern haplogroups allowed us to trace two male ancestral paternal lineages that account for all known Y diversity in date palm. The very low diversity associated with Y haplotypes is consistent with clonal paternal transmission of a nonrecombining male-determining region. Our results establish the date palm as a biological model with one of the most ancient sex chromosomes in flowering plants. © 2012 IRD. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

  2. Accuracy of device-specific 2D and 3D image distortion correction algorithms for magnetic resonance imaging of the head provided by a manufacturer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karger, Christian P [German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Department of Medical Physics in Radiation Oncology, Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Hoess, Angelika [German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Department of Medical Physics in Radiation Oncology, Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Bendl, Rolf [German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Department of Medical Physics in Radiation Oncology, Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Canda, Valer [Siemens Medical Solutions, MRE W, Karl-Schall-Str. 4, 91052 Erlangen (Germany); Schad, Lothar [German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Department of Medical Physics in Radiology, Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2006-06-21

    For the application of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in precision radiotherapy, image distortions must be reduced to a minimum to maintain geometrical accuracy. Recently, two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) algorithms for MRI-device-specific distortion corrections were developed by the manufacturers of MRI devices. A previously developed phantom (Karger C P et al 2003 Phys. Med. Biol. 48 211-21) was used to quantify and assess the size of geometrical image distortions before and after application of the 2D and 3D correction algorithm in the head region. Four different types of MRI devices with different gradient systems were measured. For comparison, measurements were also performed with two computed tomography (CT) devices. Mean distortions of up to 4.6{+-}1.4 mm (maximum: 5.8 mm) were found prior to the correction. After the correction, the mean distortions were well below 2.0 mm in most cases. Distortions in the CT images were below or equal to 1.0 mm on average. Generally, the 3D algorithm produced comparable or better results than the 2D algorithm. The remaining distortions after the correction appear to be acceptable for fractionated radiotherapy. (note)

  3. Single site-specific integration targeting coupled with embryonic stem cell differentiation provides a high-throughput alternative to in vivo enhancer analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam C. Wilkinson

    2013-10-01

    Comprehensive analysis of cis-regulatory elements is key to understanding the dynamic gene regulatory networks that control embryonic development. While transgenic animals represent the gold standard assay, their generation is costly, entails significant animal usage, and in utero development complicates time-course studies. As an alternative, embryonic stem (ES cells can readily be differentiated in a process that correlates well with developing embryos. Here, we describe a highly effective platform for enhancer assays using an Hsp68/Venus reporter cassette that targets to the Hprt locus in mouse ES cells. This platform combines the flexibility of Gateway® cloning, live cell trackability of a fluorescent reporter, low background and the advantages of single copy insertion into a defined genomic locus. We demonstrate the successful recapitulation of tissue-specific enhancer activity for two cardiac and two haematopoietic enhancers. In addition, we used this assay to dissect the functionality of the highly conserved Ets/Ets/Gata motif in the Scl+19 enhancer, which revealed that the Gata motif is not required for initiation of enhancer activity. We further confirmed that Gata2 is not required for endothelial activity of the Scl+19 enhancer using Gata2−/− Scl+19 transgenic embryos. We have therefore established a valuable toolbox to study gene regulatory networks with broad applicability.

  4. Single site-specific integration targeting coupled with embryonic stem cell differentiation provides a high-throughput alternative to in vivo enhancer analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Adam C; Goode, Debbie K; Cheng, Yi-Han; Dickel, Diane E; Foster, Sam; Sendall, Tim; Tijssen, Marloes R; Sanchez, Maria-Jose; Pennacchio, Len A; Kirkpatrick, Aileen M; Göttgens, Berthold

    2013-01-01

    Comprehensive analysis of cis-regulatory elements is key to understanding the dynamic gene regulatory networks that control embryonic development. While transgenic animals represent the gold standard assay, their generation is costly, entails significant animal usage, and in utero development complicates time-course studies. As an alternative, embryonic stem (ES) cells can readily be differentiated in a process that correlates well with developing embryos. Here, we describe a highly effective platform for enhancer assays using an Hsp68/Venus reporter cassette that targets to the Hprt locus in mouse ES cells. This platform combines the flexibility of Gateway® cloning, live cell trackability of a fluorescent reporter, low background and the advantages of single copy insertion into a defined genomic locus. We demonstrate the successful recapitulation of tissue-specific enhancer activity for two cardiac and two haematopoietic enhancers. In addition, we used this assay to dissect the functionality of the highly conserved Ets/Ets/Gata motif in the Scl+19 enhancer, which revealed that the Gata motif is not required for initiation of enhancer activity. We further confirmed that Gata2 is not required for endothelial activity of the Scl+19 enhancer using Gata2(-/-) Scl+19 transgenic embryos. We have therefore established a valuable toolbox to study gene regulatory networks with broad applicability.

  5. DNA strand damage product analysis provides evidence that the tumor cell-specific cytotoxin tirapazamine produces hydroxyl radical and acts as a surrogate for O(2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Goutam; Junnotula, Venkatraman; Daniels, J Scott; Greenberg, Marc M; Gates, Kent S

    2007-10-24

    The compound 3-amino-1,2,4-benzotriazine 1,4-dioxide (tirapazamine, TPZ) is a clinically promising anticancer agent that selectively kills the oxygen-poor (hypoxic) cells found in solid tumors. It has long been known that, under hypoxic conditions, TPZ causes DNA strand damage that is initiated by the abstraction of hydrogen atoms from the deoxyribose phosphate backbone of duplex DNA, but exact chemical mechanisms underlying this process remain unclear. Here we describe detailed characterization of sugar-derived products arising from TPZ-mediated strand damage. We find that the action of TPZ on duplex DNA under hypoxic conditions generates 5-methylene-2-furanone (6), oligonucleotide 3'-phosphoglycolates (7), malondialdehyde equivalents (8 or 9), and furfural (10). These results provide evidence that TPZ-mediated strand damage arises via hydrogen atom abstraction from both the most hindered (C1') and least hindered (C4' and C5') positions of the deoxyribose sugars in the double helix. The products observed are identical to those produced by hydroxyl radical. Additional experiments were conducted to better understand the chemical pathways by which TPZ generates the observed DNA-damage products. Consistent with previous work showing that TPZ can substitute for molecular oxygen in DNA damage reactions, it is found that, under anaerobic conditions, reaction of TPZ with a discrete, photogenerated C1'-radical in a DNA 2'-oligodeoxynucleotide cleanly generates the 2-deoxyribonolactone lesion (5) that serves as the precursor to 5-methylene-2-furanone (6). Overall, the results provide insight regarding the chemical structure of the DNA lesions that confront cellular repair, transcription, and replication machinery following exposure to TPZ and offer new information relevant to the chemical mechanisms underlying TPZ-mediated strand cleavage.

  6. [Recommendations for physical exercise practice during pregnancy: a critical review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Nascimento, Simony Lira; Godoy, Ana Carolina; Surita, Fernanda Garanhani; Pinto e Silva, João Luiz

    2014-09-01

    Physical exercise is recommended for all healthy pregnant women. Regular practice of exercises during pregnancy can provide many physical and psychological benefits, with no evidence of adverse outcomes for the fetus or the newborn when exercise is performed at mild to moderate intensity. However, few pregnant women engage in this practice and many still have fears and doubts about the safety of exercise. The objective of the present study was to inform the professionals who provide care for Brazilian pregnant women about the current recommendations regarding physical exercise during pregnancy based on the best scientific evidence available. In view of the perception that few systematic models are available about this topic and after performing several studies in this specific area, we assembled practical information of interest to both the professionals and the pregnant women. We also provide recommendations about the indications, contraindications, modalities (aerobics, resistance training, stretching and pelvic floor training), frequency, intensity and duration indicated for each gestational trimester. The review addresses physical exercise recommendation both for low risk pregnant women and for special populations, such as athletes and obese, hypertensive and diabetic subjects. The advantages of an active and healthy lifestyle should be always reinforced during and after gestation since pregnancy is an appropriate period to introduce new habits because pregnant women are usually more motivated to adhere to recommendations. Thus, routine exams, frequent returns and supervision are recommended in order to provide new guidelines that will have long-term beneficial effects for both mother and child.

  7. 78 FR 19271 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Bioequivalence Recommendations for Metronidazole Vaginal Gel...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-29

    ... finalized, will represent the Agency's current thinking on the design of BE studies to support ANDAs for... guidance provides specific recommendations on the design of bioequivalence (BE) studies to support... for Specific Products,'' which explained the process that would be used to make product-specific...

  8. cGMP-Elevating Compounds and Ischemic Conditioning Provide Cardioprotection Against Ischemia and Reperfusion Injury via Cardiomyocyte-Specific BK Channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankenreiter, Sandra; Bednarczyk, Piotr; Kniess, Angelina; Bork, Nadja I; Straubinger, Julia; Koprowski, Piotr; Wrzosek, Antoni; Mohr, Eva; Logan, Angela; Murphy, Michael P; Gawaz, Meinrad; Krieg, Thomas; Szewczyk, Adam; Nikolaev, Viacheslav O; Ruth, Peter; Lukowski, Robert

    2017-12-12

    The nitric oxide-sensitive guanylyl cyclase/cGMP-dependent protein kinase type I signaling pathway can afford protection against the ischemia/reperfusion injury that occurs during myocardial infarction. Reportedly, voltage and Ca2+-activated K+ channels of the BK type are stimulated by cGMP/cGMP-dependent protein kinase type I, and recent ex vivo studies implicated that increased BK activity favors the survival of the myocardium at ischemia/reperfusion. It remains unclear, however, whether the molecular events downstream of cGMP involve BK channels present in cardiomyocytes or in other cardiac cell types. Gene-targeted mice with a cardiomyocyte- or smooth muscle cell-specific deletion of the BK (CMBK or SMBK knockouts) were subjected to the open-chest model of myocardial infarction. Infarct sizes of the conditional mutants were compared with litter-matched controls, global BK knockout, and wild-type mice. Cardiac damage was assessed after mechanical conditioning or pharmacological stimulation of the cGMP pathway and by using direct modulators of BK. Long-term outcome was studied with respect to heart functions and cardiac fibrosis in a chronic myocardial infarction model. Global BK knockouts and CMBK knockouts, in contrast with SMBK knockouts, exhibited significantly larger infarct sizes compared with their respective controls. Ablation of CMBK resulted in higher serum levels of cardiac troponin I and elevated amounts of reactive oxygen species, lower phosphorylated extracellular receptor kinase and phosphorylated AKT levels and an increase in myocardial apoptosis. Moreover, CMBK was required to allow beneficial effects of both nitric oxide-sensitive guanylyl cyclase activation and inhibition of the cGMP-degrading phosphodiesterase-5, ischemic preconditioning, and postconditioning regimens. To this end, after 4 weeks of reperfusion, fibrotic tissue increased and myocardial strain echocardiography was significantly compromised in CMBK-deficient mice. Lack of CMBK

  9. An online virtual-patient program to teach pharmacists and pharmacy students how to provide diabetes-specific medication therapy management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battaglia, Jessica N; Kieser, Mara A; Bruskiewitz, Ruth H; Pitterle, Michael E; Thorpe, Joshua M

    2012-09-10

    To develop, implement, and assess the effectiveness of an online medication therapy management (MTM) program to train pharmacists and pharmacy students in providing MTM services for patients with diabetes and to increase their intent to perform these services. An online program was created using an Internet-based learning platform to simulate 4 MTM meetings between a pharmacist and a virtual patient diagnosed with diabetes. Eighty students and 42 pharmacists completed the program. After completing the program, scores on post-intervention assessments showed significant improvement in 2 areas: control over performing MTM, and knowledge of how to perform MTM. Students had a significantly less-positive attitude about MTM and a decline in their perception of the social expectation that MTM is part of the practice of pharmacy, while pharmacists' attitudes did not change significantly in these areas. This online program using a virtual patient improved both participants' belief that they have control over performing MTM, and their knowledge of how to perform MTM for diabetic patients, which may increase the likelihood that pharmacists and pharmacy students will perform MTM in the future.

  10. Airway-Resident Memory CD8 T Cells Provide Antigen-Specific Protection against Respiratory Virus Challenge through Rapid IFN-γ Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMaster, Sean R; Wilson, Jarad J; Wang, Hong; Kohlmeier, Jacob E

    2015-07-01

    CD8 airway resident memory T (TRM) cells are a distinctive TRM population with a high turnover rate and a unique phenotype influenced by their localization within the airways. Their role in mediating protective immunity to respiratory pathogens, although suggested by many studies, has not been directly proven. This study provides definitive evidence that airway CD8 TRM cells are sufficient to mediate protection against respiratory virus challenge. Despite being poorly cytolytic in vivo and failing to expand after encountering Ag, airway CD8 TRM cells rapidly express effector cytokines, with IFN-γ being produced most robustly. Notably, established airway CD8 TRM cells possess the ability to produce IFN-γ faster than systemic effector memory CD8 T cells. Furthermore, naive mice receiving intratracheal transfer of airway CD8 TRM cells lacking the ability to produce IFN-γ were less effective at controlling pathogen load upon heterologous challenge. This direct evidence of airway CD8 TRM cell-mediated protection demonstrates the importance of these cells as a first line of defense for optimal immunity against respiratory pathogens and suggests they should be considered in the development of future cell-mediated vaccines. Copyright © 2015 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  11. Classification of Recommender Expertise in the Wikipedia Recommender System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christian D.; Pilkauskas, Povilas; Lefévre, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    to the quality of articles. The Wikipedia Recommender System (WRS) was developed to help users determine the credibility of articles based on feedback from other Wikipedia users. The WRS implements a collaborative filtering system with trust metrics, i.e., it provides a rating of articles which emphasizes......The Wikipedia is a web-based encyclopedia, written and edited collaboratively by Internet users. The Wikipedia has an extremely open editorial policy that allows anybody, to create or modify articles. This has promoted a broad and detailed coverage of subjects, but also introduced problems relating...... feedback from recommenders that the user has agreed with in the past. This exposes the problem that most recommenders are not equally competent in all subject areas. The first WRS prototype did not include an evaluation of the areas of expertise of recommenders, so the trust metric used in the article...

  12. Classification of Recommender Expertise in the Wikipedia Recommender System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christian D.; Pilkauskas, Povilas; Lefevre, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    to the quality of articles. The Wikipedia Recommender System (WRS) was developed to help users determine the credibility of articles based on feedback from other Wikipedia users. The WRS implements a collaborative filtering system with trust metrics, i.e., it provides a rating of articles "which emphasizes......The Wikipedia is a web-based encyclopedia, written and edited collaboratively by Internet users. The Wikipedia has an extremely open editorial policy that allows anybody, to create or modify articles. This has promoted a broad and detailed coverage of subjects, but also introduced problems relating...... feedback from recommenders that the user has agreed with in the past. This exposes the problem that most recommenders are not equally competent in all subject areas. The first WRS prototype did not include an evaluation of the areas of expertise of recommenders, so the trust metric used in the article...

  13. A dimer of the Toll-like receptor 4 cytoplasmic domain provides a specific scaffold for the recruitment of signalling adaptor proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Núñez Miguel

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4 is a class I transmembrane receptor expressed on the surface of immune system cells. TLR4 is activated by exposure to lipopolysaccharides derived from the outer membrane of Gram negative bacteria and forms part of the innate immune response in mammals. Like other class 1 receptors, TLR4 is activated by ligand induced dimerization, and recent studies suggest that this causes concerted conformational changes in the receptor leading to self association of the cytoplasmic Toll/Interleukin 1 receptor (TIR signalling domain. This homodimerization event is proposed to provide a new scaffold that is able to bind downstream signalling adaptor proteins. TLR4 uses two different sets of adaptors; TRAM and TRIF, and Mal and MyD88. These adaptor pairs couple two distinct signalling pathways leading to the activation of interferon response factor 3 (IRF-3 and nuclear factor kappaB (NFkappaB respectively. In this paper we have generated a structural model of the TLR4 TIR dimer and used molecular docking to probe for potential sites of interaction between the receptor homodimer and the adaptor molecules. Remarkably, both the Mal and TRAM adaptors are strongly predicted to bind at two symmetry-related sites at the homodimer interface. This model of TLR4 activation is supported by extensive functional studies involving site directed mutagenesis, inhibition by cell permeable peptides and stable protein phosphorylation of receptor and adaptor TIR domains. Our results also suggest a molecular mechanism for two recent findings, the caspase 1 dependence of Mal signalling and the protective effects conferred by the Mal polymorphism Ser180Leu.

  14. MO-E-17A-04: Size-Specific Dose Estimate (SSDE) Provides a Simple Method to Calculate Organ Dose for Pediatric CT Examinations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, B; Brady, S; Kaufman, R [St Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States); Mirro, A [Washington University, St. Louis, MO (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Investigate the correlation of SSDE with organ dose in a pediatric population. Methods: Four anthropomorphic phantoms, representing a range of pediatric body habitus, were scanned with MOSFET dosimeters placed at 23 organ locations to determine absolute organ dosimetry. Phantom organ dosimetry was divided by phantom SSDE to determine correlation between organ dose and SSDE. Correlation factors were then multiplied by patient SSDE to estimate patient organ dose. Patient demographics consisted of 352 chest and 241 abdominopelvic CT examinations, 22 ± 15 kg (range 5−55 kg) mean weight, and 6 ± 5 years (range 4 mon to 23 years) mean age. Patient organ dose estimates were compared to published pediatric Monte Carlo study results. Results: Phantom effective diameters were matched with patient population effective diameters to within 4 cm. 23 organ correlation factors were determined in the chest and abdominopelvic region across nine pediatric weight subcategories. For organs fully covered by the scan volume, correlation in the chest (average 1.1; range 0.7−1.4) and abdominopelvic (average 0.9; range 0.7−1.3) was near unity. For organs that extended beyond the scan volume (i.e., skin, bone marrow, and bone surface), correlation was determined to be poor (average 0.3; range: 0.1−0.4) for both the chest and abdominopelvic regions, respectively. Pediatric organ dosimetry was compared to published values and was found to agree in the chest to better than an average of 5% (27.6/26.2) and in the abdominopelvic region to better than 2% (73.4/75.0). Conclusion: Average correlation of SSDE and organ dosimetry was found to be better than ± 10% for fully covered organs within the scan volume. This study provides a list of organ dose correlation factors for the chest and abdominopelvic regions, and describes a simple methodology to estimate individual pediatric patient organ dose based on patient SSDE.

  15. Medicare Provider Data - Hospice Providers

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Hospice Utilization and Payment Public Use File provides information on services provided to Medicare beneficiaries by hospice providers. The Hospice PUF...

  16. Velocardiofacial Syndrome and Early Intervention Providers: Recommendations for Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Valerie E.; Fullman, Leah I.; Bruns, Deborah A.

    2012-01-01

    Velocardiofacial syndrome (VCFS), the most common microdeletion syndrome, is increasingly diagnosed in young children because of advances in diagnostic testing. The result is an increase in the number of young children with VCFS referred for early intervention (EI) services. We describe early development of children with VCFS and strategies to…

  17. 21 CFR 316.14 - Refusal to provide written recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... and marketing history of the drug to determine the scope and type of investigations that have already... marketing application for any of the following reasons: (1) The information required to be submitted by...

  18. May I Suggest? Comparing Three PLE Recommender Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Mödritscher

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Personal learning environment (PLE solutions aim at empowering learners to design (ICT and web-based environments for their learning activities, mashingup content and people and apps for different learning contexts. Widely used in other application areas, recommender systems can be very useful for supporting learners in their PLE-based activities, to help discover relevant content, peers sharing similar learning interests or experts on a specific topic. In this paper we examine the utilization of recommender technology for PLEs. However, being confronted by a variety of educational contexts we present three strategies for providing PLE recommendations to learners. Consequently, we compare these recommender strategies by discussing their strengths and weaknesses in general.

  19. Allergen-specific immunotherapy provides immediate, long-term and preventive clinical effects in children and adults: the effects of immunotherapy can be categorised by level of benefit -the centenary of allergen specific subcutaneous immunotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacobsen Lars

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Allergen Specific Immunotherapy (SIT for respiratory allergic diseases is able to significantly improve symptoms as well as reduce the need for symptomatic medication, but SIT also has the capacity for long-term clinical effects and plays a protective role against the development of further allergies and symptoms. The treatment acts on basic immunological mechanisms, and has the potential to change the pathological allergic immune response. In this paper we discuss some of the most important achievements in the documentation of the benefits of immunotherapy, over the last 2 decades, which have marked a period of extensive research on the clinical effects and immunological background of the mechanisms involved. The outcome of immunotherapy is described as different levels of benefit from early reduction in symptoms over progressive clinical effects during treatment to long-term effects after discontinuation of the treatment and prevention of asthma. The efficacy of SIT increases the longer it is continued and immunological changes lead to potential long-term benefits. SIT alone and not the symptomatic treatment nor other avoidance measures has so far been documented as the therapy with long-term or preventive potential. The allergic condition is driven by a subset of T-helper lymphocytes (Th2, which are characterised by the production of cytokines like IL-4, and IL-5. Immunological changes following SIT lead to potential curative effects. One mechanism whereby immunotherapy suppresses the allergic response is through increased production of IgG4 antibodies. Induction of specific IgG4 is able to influence the allergic response in different ways and is related to immunological effector mechanisms, also responsible for the reduced late phase hyperreactivity and ongoing allergic inflammation. SIT is the only treatment which interferes with the basic pathophysiological mechanisms of the allergic disease, thereby creating the potential for

  20. Trust for intelligent recommendation

    CERN Document Server

    Bhuiyan, Touhid

    2013-01-01

    Recommender systems are one of the recent inventions to deal with the ever-growing information overload in relation to the selection of goods and services in a global economy. Collaborative Filtering (CF) is one of the most popular techniques in recommender systems. The CF recommends items to a target user based on the preferences of a set of similar users known as the neighbors, generated from a database made up of the preferences of past users. In the absence of these ratings, trust between the users could be used to choose the neighbor for recommendation making. Better recommendations can b

  1. Defining and Supporting Narrative-driven Recommendation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogers, Toine; Koolen, Marijn

    2017-01-01

    of the user's past transactions as well as a narrative description of their current interest(s). Through an analysis of a set of real-world recommendation narratives from the LibraryThing forums, we demonstrate the uniqueness and richness of this scenario and highlight common patterns and properties......: evaluating recommended items never takes place in a vacuum, and it is often a single step in the user's more complex background task. In this paper, we define a specific type of recommendation scenario called narrative-driven recommendation, where the recommendation process is driven by both a log...... of such narratives....

  2. Antihistamine provides sex-specific radiation protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mickley, G.A.

    1981-04-01

    Rats suffer an early transient performance decrement immediately after a sufficiently large dose of ionizing radiation. However, it has been shown that males experience a more severe incapacitation than females. This sex difference has been attributed to the low estrogen levels in the male. In support of this notion, supplemental estrogens in castrated male rats have produced less-severe performance decrements post-irradiation. Antihistamines have also previously been shown to alleviate radiation's effect on behavior. The present study revealed that antihistamines are only effective in altering the behavioral incapacitation of sexually intact male subjects. This contrasts with previous work which indicates that estrogens can only benefit gonadectomized rats. These findings suggest that different mechanisms may underly antihistamine and estrogen radiation protection.

  3. Building a biomedical ontology recommender web service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonquet, Clement; Musen, Mark A; Shah, Nigam H

    2010-06-22

    Researchers in biomedical informatics use ontologies and terminologies to annotate their data in order to facilitate data integration and translational discoveries. As the use of ontologies for annotation of biomedical datasets has risen, a common challenge is to identify ontologies that are best suited to annotating specific datasets. The number and variety of biomedical ontologies is large, and it is cumbersome for a researcher to figure out which ontology to use. We present the Biomedical Ontology Recommender web service. The system uses textual metadata or a set of keywords describing a domain of interest and suggests appropriate ontologies for annotating or representing the data. The service makes a decision based on three criteria. The first one is coverage, or the ontologies that provide most terms covering the input text. The second is connectivity, or the ontologies that are most often mapped to by other ontologies. The final criterion is size, or the number of concepts in the ontologies. The service scores the ontologies as a function of scores of the annotations created using the National Center for Biomedical Ontology (NCBO) Annotator web service. We used all the ontologies from the UMLS Metathesaurus and the NCBO BioPortal. We compare and contrast our Recommender by an exhaustive functional comparison to previously published efforts. We evaluate and discuss the results of several recommendation heuristics in the context of three real world use cases. The best recommendations heuristics, rated 'very relevant' by expert evaluators, are the ones based on coverage and connectivity criteria. The Recommender service (alpha version) is available to the community and is embedded into BioPortal.

  4. Building a biomedical ontology recommender web service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonquet Clement

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Researchers in biomedical informatics use ontologies and terminologies to annotate their data in order to facilitate data integration and translational discoveries. As the use of ontologies for annotation of biomedical datasets has risen, a common challenge is to identify ontologies that are best suited to annotating specific datasets. The number and variety of biomedical ontologies is large, and it is cumbersome for a researcher to figure out which ontology to use. Methods We present the Biomedical Ontology Recommender web service. The system uses textual metadata or a set of keywords describing a domain of interest and suggests appropriate ontologies for annotating or representing the data. The service makes a decision based on three criteria. The first one is coverage, or the ontologies that provide most terms covering the input text. The second is connectivity, or the ontologies that are most often mapped to by other ontologies. The final criterion is size, or the number of concepts in the ontologies. The service scores the ontologies as a function of scores of the annotations created using the National Center for Biomedical Ontology (NCBO Annotator web service. We used all the ontologies from the UMLS Metathesaurus and the NCBO BioPortal. Results We compare and contrast our Recommender by an exhaustive functional comparison to previously published efforts. We evaluate and discuss the results of several recommendation heuristics in the context of three real world use cases. The best recommendations heuristics, rated ‘very relevant’ by expert evaluators, are the ones based on coverage and connectivity criteria. The Recommender service (alpha version is available to the community and is embedded into BioPortal.

  5. Dietary recommendations for the prevention of depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opie, R S; Itsiopoulos, C; Parletta, N; Sanchez-Villegas, A; Akbaraly, T N; Ruusunen, A; Jacka, F N

    2017-04-01

    Major depressive disorder is a common, chronic condition that imposes a substantial burden of disability globally. As current treatments are estimated to address only one-third of the disease burden of depressive disorders, there is a need for new approaches to prevent depression or to delay its progression. While in its early stages, converging evidence from laboratory, population research, and clinical trials now suggests that dietary patterns and specific dietary factors may influence the risk for depression. However, largely as a result of the recency of the nutritional psychiatry field, there are currently no dietary recommendations for depression. The aim of this paper is to provide a set of practical dietary recommendations for the prevention of depression, based on the best available current evidence, in order to inform public health and clinical recommendations. Five key dietary recommendations for the prevention of depression emerged from current published evidence. These comprise: (1) follow 'traditional' dietary patterns, such as the Mediterranean, Norwegian, or Japanese diet; (2) increase consumption of fruits, vegetables, legumes, wholegrain cereals, nuts, and seeds; (3) include a high consumption of foods rich in omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids; (4) replace unhealthy foods with wholesome nutritious foods; (5) limit your intake of processed-foods, 'fast' foods, commercial bakery goods, and sweets. Although there are a number of gaps in the scientific literature to date, existing evidence suggests that a combination of healthful dietary practices may reduce the risk of developing depression. It is imperative to remain mindful of any protective effects that are likely to come from the cumulative and synergic effect of nutrients that comprise the whole-diet, rather than from the effects of individual nutrients or single foods. As the body of evidence grows from controlled intervention studies on dietary patterns and depression, these recommendations

  6. Automata learning algorithms and processes for providing more complete systems requirements specification by scenario generation, CSP-based syntax-oriented model construction, and R2D2C system requirements transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinchey, Michael G. (Inventor); Margaria, Tiziana (Inventor); Rash, James L. (Inventor); Rouff, Christopher A. (Inventor); Steffen, Bernard (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    Systems, methods and apparatus are provided through which in some embodiments, automata learning algorithms and techniques are implemented to generate a more complete set of scenarios for requirements based programming. More specifically, a CSP-based, syntax-oriented model construction, which requires the support of a theorem prover, is complemented by model extrapolation, via automata learning. This may support the systematic completion of the requirements, the nature of the requirement being partial, which provides focus on the most prominent scenarios. This may generalize requirement skeletons by extrapolation and may indicate by way of automatically generated traces where the requirement specification is too loose and additional information is required.

  7. Recommendations for open data science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gymrek, Melissa; Farjoun, Yossi

    2016-01-01

    Life science research increasingly relies on large-scale computational analyses. However, the code and data used for these analyses are often lacking in publications. To maximize scientific impact, reproducibility, and reuse, it is crucial that these resources are made publicly available and are fully transparent. We provide recommendations for improving the openness of data-driven studies in life sciences.

  8. Application of Recommended Design Practices for Conceptual Nuclear Fusion Space Propulsion Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Craig H.

    2004-01-01

    An AIAA Special Project Report was recently produced by AIAA's Nuclear and Future Flight Propulsion Technical Committee and is currently in peer review. The Report provides recommended design practices for conceptual engineering studies of nuclear fusion space propulsion systems. Discussion and recommendations are made on key topics including design reference missions, degree of technological extrapolation and concomitant risk, thoroughness in calculating mass properties (nominal mass properties, weight-growth contingency and propellant margins, and specific impulse), and thoroughness in calculating power generation and usage (power-flow, power contingencies, specific power). The report represents a general consensus of the nuclear fusion space propulsion system conceptual design community and proposes 15 recommendations. This paper expands on the Report by providing specific examples illustrating how to apply each of the recommendations.

  9. Tour Recommendation Guide- Personalized travel sequence recommendation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivakumar, Akshitha; Prabadevi, B.

    2017-11-01

    Presents a personalized travel sequence for the given area the individual wants to visit. It not only helps to personalize the travel but also recommend a travel sequence based on the area mentioned. Firstly the frequently visited routes are ranked then top ranked routes are chosen based on previous travel records. The data is being collected using data mining and the famous routes are ranked based on user and the route. It helps in bridging the gap between user travel preference and routes.

  10. [Recommendations for neonatal transport].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno Hernando, J; Thió Lluch, M; Salguero García, E; Rite Gracia, S; Fernández Lorenzo, J R; Echaniz Urcelay, I; Botet Mussons, F; Herranz Carrillo, G; Sánchez Luna, M

    2013-08-01

    During pregnancy, it is not always possible to identify maternal or foetal risk factors. Infants requiring specialised medical care are not always born in centres providing intensive care and will need to be transferred to a referral centre where intensive care can be provided. Therefore Neonatal Transport needs to be considered as part of the organisation of perinatal health care. The aim of Neonatal Transport is to transfer a newborn infant requiring intensive care to a centre where specialised resources and experience can be provided for the appropriate assessment and continuing treatment of a sick newborn infant. Intrauterine transfer is the ideal mode of transport when the birth of an infant with risk factors is diagnosed. Unfortunately, not all problems can be detected in advance with enough time to safely transfer a pregnant woman. Around 30- 50% of risk factors will be diagnosed during labour or soon after birth. Therefore, it is important to have the knowledge and resources to resuscitate and stabilise a newborn infant, as well as a specialised neonatal transport system. With this specialised transport it is possible to transfer newly born infants with the same level of care that they would receive if they had been born in a referral hospital, without increasing their risks or affecting the wellbeing of the newborn. The Standards Committee of the Spanish Society of Neonatology reviewed and updated recommendations for intrauterine transport and indications for neonatal transfer. They also reviewed organisational and logistic factors involved with performing neonatal transport. The Committee review included the type of personnel who should be involved; communication between referral and receiving hospitals; documentation; mode of transport; equipment to stabilise newly born infants; management during transfer, and admission at the referral hospital. Copyright © 2012 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  11. Search and Recommendation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogers, Toine

    2014-01-01

    -scale application by companies like Amazon, Facebook, and Netflix. But are search and recommendation really two different fields of research that address different problems with different sets of algorithms in papers published at distinct conferences? In my talk, I want to argue that search and recommendation...

  12. Economics and lighting level recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clear, R.; Berman, S.

    1992-04-01

    The Illuminating Engineering Society of North America develops light level recommendations for tasks where visual performance is important. The 1959 and 1972 recommendations for illumination levels were based on the principle of delivering a fixed level of performance as predicted by the visual performance models of the time. This same principle is being considered for future revisions to the recommendations. There is currently no explicit method for determining whether a given fixed performance level is in any sense optimal or best. Visual performance increases with lighting levels, but so do economic and environmental costs. These costs lessen the economic benefits of the improved visual performance. A formal method for including these factors in light level recommendations is to restate the problem in terms of net benefits (benefits minus costs). The resulting equations have well defined optima versus light level, and thus give an explicit estimate of what the best lighting levels are in terms of current visual performance models, and current economic conditions. A simple net-benefit procedure is described, and sample calculations are shown for two current visual performance models. Fixed performance levels do not provide economically optimal recommendations with either model. There are also differences between models, but they are less significant than the large differences between the principles of fixed performance levels and economic optimization.

  13. 78 FR 46965 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Bioequivalence Recommendations for Mesalamine Rectal Suppositories...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-02

    ..., will represent the Agency's current thinking on the design of BE studies to support ANDAs for... provide specific guidance on the design of bioequivalence (BE) studies to support abbreviated new drug...,'' which explained the process that would be used to make product-specific BE recommendations available to...

  14. A bottom-up approach to MEDLINE indexing recommendations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jimeno-Yepes, Antonio; Wilkowski, Bartlomiej; Mork, James/G

    2011-01-01

    in which the abstract is searched for indicators for a specific MeSH recommendation in a two-step process. Supervised machine learning combined with triage rules improves sensitivity of recommendations while keeping the number of recommended terms relatively small. Improvement in recommendations observed...

  15. Intervention recommendations and subsequent access to services following clinical assessment for fetal alcohol spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Jacqueline; Baugh, Lauren; Andrew, Gail; Rasmussen, Carmen

    2017-01-01

    Children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) and prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) experience multiple difficulties requiring various interventions. Researchers have called for investigation into service use with respect to clinically recommended interventions. To examine intervention recommendations for children with FASD/PAE and subsequent access to these recommended interventions. Intervention recommendations following FASD assessment were examined for children (1-17 years). Recommendations were compared according to diagnostic status and demographic and environmental variables. Subsequent access to several interventions was examined for 45 participants. A variety of recommendations were given. Children with FASD received more recommendations overall and received more education, anticipatory guidance, family support, and safety recommendations than undiagnosed children with PAE. Undiagnosed children received more mental health and reassessment recommendations. Older children received fewer family support and developmental therapy recommendations but more mental health recommendations than younger age groups. Many families accessed modified school programming, developmental therapy, psychiatry, child counseling, and parent support as recommended. Children with FASD and PAE have extensive needs and should receive individualized recommendations. An assessment is valuable even without an FASD diagnosis. Areas of high/low service access may provide insight into accessibility and perceived importance of interventions. This study responds to important research questions regarding the intervention needs of individuals with FASD. It is novel in its exploration of intervention recommendations given to children prenatally exposed to alcohol without an FASD diagnosis (rather than only children with FASD) and in its examination of post-assessment service use patterns specifically in relation to clinical recommendations. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier

  16. Vulnerability and adaptation to climate change in the arctic (VACCA): Implementing recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    This report provides recommendations for how Norway's government could move forward with the results from the Arctic Council supported VACCA project, suggesting how concrete activities may be implemented and applied to policy and practice. Based on the results of interviews with Arctic peoples and people involved in Arctic work, combined with desk studies of relevant literature, four Arctic contexts are defined within the dividing lines coastal/non-coastal and urban/non-urban. This report provides up to five concrete recommendations within each context, recommendations for cross-contextual action, and specific projects for further research and action.(auth)

  17. An Agent Framework of Tourism Recommender System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Zhi Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes the development of an Agent framework for tourism recommender system. The recommender system can be featured as an online web application which is capable of generating a personalized list of preference attractions for tourists. Traditional technologies of classical recommender system application domains, such as collaborative filtering, content-based filtering and content-based filtering are effectively adopted in the framework. In the framework they are constructed as Agents that can generate recommendations respectively. Recommender Agent can generate recommender information by integrating the recommendations of Content-based Agent, collaborative filtering-based Agent and constraint-based Agent. In order to make the performance more effective, linear combination method of data fusion is applied. User interface is provided by the tourist Agent in form of webpages and mobile app.

  18. Preparticipation screening of high school athletes: are recommendations enough?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koester, Michael C; Amundson, Chris L

    2003-08-01

    The American Heart Association (AHA) recommends cardiovascular screening and injury history for all student-athletes to prevent sudden cardiac death and related problems. No standard preparticipation physical evaluation (PPE) form is currently required, and the qualifications of those who perform these evaluations vary. To assess the PPE process of high school student-athletes in Oregon. A survey was mailed to the athletic directors at 258 Oregon high schools that were members of the Oregon Schools Activities Association (OSAA) and had interscholastic athletic programs for the 1999-2000 school year. Directors were asked to complete the survey and return it with a copy of the PPE form they used if they were not already using the recommended form. Responses were received from 154 (60%) of the 258 high schools surveyed. Seventy-five (53%) of the 142 forms evaluated contained fewer than 5 of the AHA recommendations for cardiac screening. Forty-two schools (27%) were implementing the PPE form recommended by the OSAA. Most Oregon high schools were not adequately screening student-athletes for injury history or for cardiovascular conditions as recommended by the AHA. We recommend required use of an approved PPE form and specific guidelines for healthcare providers who perform the exam.

  19. Management recommendations: Bear River

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is a review of land management practices at the Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge, by a land use specialist. Recommendations, time frame and additional...

  20. Recommended Types of Sunglasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Eyes? Recommended Types of Sunglasses Leer en Español: Tipos Recomendados de Anteojos de Sol Dec. 12, 2015 ... is linked to cataracts and eye growths, including cancer. UVB radiation is considered more dangerous to the ...

  1. Management recommendations: Kirwin Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is a review of land management practices at the Kirwin National Wildlife Refuge, by a land use specialist. Recommendations, time frame and additional...

  2. Management recommendations: Tewaukon Complex

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is a review of land management practices at the Tewaukon Complex, by a land use specialist. Recommendations, time frame and additional comments are...

  3. Global Consensus Recommendations on Prevention and Management of Nutritional Rickets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munns, Craig F; Shaw, Nick; Kiely, Mairead; Specker, Bonny L; Thacher, Tom D; Ozono, Keiichi; Michigami, Toshimi; Tiosano, Dov; Mughal, M Zulf; Mäkitie, Outi; Ramos-Abad, Lorna; Ward, Leanne; DiMeglio, Linda A; Atapattu, Navoda; Cassinelli, Hamilton; Braegger, Christian; Pettifor, John M; Seth, Anju; Idris, Hafsatu Wasagu; Bhatia, Vijayalakshmi; Fu, Junfen; Goldberg, Gail; Sävendahl, Lars; Khadgawat, Rajesh; Pludowski, Pawel; Maddock, Jane; Hyppönen, Elina; Oduwole, Abiola; Frew, Emma; Aguiar, Magda; Tulchinsky, Ted; Butler, Gary; Högler, Wolfgang

    2016-02-01

    Vitamin D and calcium deficiencies are common worldwide, causing nutritional rickets and osteomalacia, which have a major impact on health, growth, and development of infants, children, and adolescents; the consequences can be lethal or can last into adulthood. The goals of this evidence-based consensus document are to provide health care professionals with guidance for prevention, diagnosis, and management of nutritional rickets and to provide policy makers with a framework to work toward its eradication. A systematic literature search examining the definition, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of nutritional rickets in children was conducted. Evidence-based recommendations were developed using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) system that describe the strength of the recommendation and the quality of supporting evidence. Thirty-three nominated experts in pediatric endocrinology, pediatrics, nutrition, epidemiology, public health, and health economics evaluated the evidence on specific questions within five working groups. The consensus group, representing 11 international scientific organizations, participated in a multiday conference in May 2014 to reach a global evidence-based consensus. This consensus document defines nutritional rickets and its diagnostic criteria and describes the clinical management of rickets and osteomalacia. Risk factors, particularly in mothers and infants, are ranked, and specific prevention recommendations including food fortification and supplementation are offered for both the clinical and public health contexts. Rickets, osteomalacia, and vitamin D and calcium deficiencies are preventable global public health problems in infants, children, and adolescents. Implementation of international rickets prevention programs, including supplementation and food fortification, is urgently required.

  4. Hanford waste-form release and sediment interaction: A status report with rationale and recommendations for additional studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serne, R.J. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA)); Wood, M.I. (Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (USA))

    1990-05-01

    This report documents the currently available geochemical data base for release and retardation for actual Hanford Site materials (wastes and/or sediments). The report also recommends specific laboratory tests and presents the rationale for the recommendations. The purpose of this document is threefold: to summarize currently available information, to provide a strategy for generating additional data, and to provide recommendations on specific data collection methods and tests matrices. This report outlines a data collection approach that relies on feedback from performance analyses to ascertain when adequate data have been collected. The data collection scheme emphasizes laboratory testing based on empiricism. 196 refs., 4 figs., 36 tabs.

  5. Recommendation-Aware Smartphone Sensing System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mu-Yen Chen

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The context-aware concept is to reduce the gap between users and information systems so that the information systems actively get to understand users’ context and demand and in return provide users with better experience. This study integrates the concept of context-aware with association algorithms to establish the context-aware recommendation systems (CARS. The CARS contains three modules and provides the product recommendations for users with their smartphone. First, the simple RSSI Indoor localization module (SRILM locates the user position and detects the context information surrounding around users. Second, the Apriori recommendation module (ARM provides effective recommended product information for users through association rules mining. The appropriate product information can be received effectiveness and greatly enhanced the recommendation service.

  6. Physical Activity Recommendations in Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartman, Jorine E.; Boezen, H. Marike; Zuidema, Menno J.; de Greef, Mathieu H. G.; ten Hacken, Nick H. T.; Boezen, Hendrika

    2014-01-01

    Background: Physical activity recommendations are hardly studied in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and specifically recommendations that are individualized to a patient's aerobic fitness level are not studied. Objectives: To compare individualized (relative) and

  7. Distributed Deliberative Recommender Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recio-García, Juan A.; Díaz-Agudo, Belén; González-Sanz, Sergio; Sanchez, Lara Quijano

    Case-Based Reasoning (CBR) is one of most successful applied AI technologies of recent years. Although many CBR systems reason locally on a previous experience base to solve new problems, in this paper we focus on distributed retrieval processes working on a network of collaborating CBR systems. In such systems, each node in a network of CBR agents collaborates, arguments and counterarguments its local results with other nodes to improve the performance of the system's global response. We describe D2ISCO: a framework to design and implement deliberative and collaborative CBR systems that is integrated as a part of jcolibritwo an established framework in the CBR community. We apply D2ISCO to one particular simplified type of CBR systems: recommender systems. We perform a first case study for a collaborative music recommender system and present the results of an experiment of the accuracy of the system results using a fuzzy version of the argumentation system AMAL and a network topology based on a social network. Besides individual recommendation we also discuss how D2ISCO can be used to improve recommendations to groups and we present a second case of study based on the movie recommendation domain with heterogeneous groups according to the group personality composition and a group topology based on a social network.

  8. Recommending Multidimensional Queries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacometti, Arnaud; Marcel, Patrick; Negre, Elsa

    Interactive analysis of datacube, in which a user navigates a cube by launching a sequence of queries is often tedious since the user may have no idea of what the forthcoming query should be in his current analysis. To better support this process we propose in this paper to apply a Collaborative Work approach that leverages former explorations of the cube to recommend OLAP queries. The system that we have developed adapts Approximate String Matching, a technique popular in Information Retrieval, to match the current analysis with the former explorations and help suggesting a query to the user. Our approach has been implemented with the open source Mondrian OLAP server to recommend MDX queries and we have carried out some preliminary experiments that show its efficiency for generating effective query recommendations.

  9. Order Theoretical Semantic Recommendation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joslyn, Cliff A.; Hogan, Emilie A.; Paulson, Patrick R.; Peterson, Elena S.; Stephan, Eric G.; Thomas, Dennis G.

    2013-07-23

    Mathematical concepts of order and ordering relations play multiple roles in semantic technologies. Discrete totally ordered data characterize both input streams and top-k rank-ordered recommendations and query output, while temporal attributes establish numerical total orders, either over time points or in the more complex case of startend temporal intervals. But also of note are the fully partially ordered data, including both lattices and non-lattices, which actually dominate the semantic strcuture of ontological systems. Scalar semantic similarities over partially-ordered semantic data are traditionally used to return rank-ordered recommendations, but these require complementation with true metrics available over partially ordered sets. In this paper we report on our work in the foundations of partial order measurement in ontologies, with application to top-k semantic recommendation in workflows.

  10. Fusing Recommendations for Social Bookmarking Websites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogers, Toine; van den Bosch, Antal

    2011-01-01

    Social bookmarking websites are rapidly growing in popularity. Recommender systems, a promising remedy to the information overload accompanying the explosive growth in content, are designed to identify which unseen content might be of interest to a particular user, based on his or her past...... preferences. Most previous work in recommendation for social bookmarking suffers from a lack of comparisons between the different available approaches. In this article, we address this issue by comparing and evaluating eight recommendation approaches on four data sets from two domains. We find that approaches...... that use tag overlap and metadata provide better results for social bookmarking data sets than the transaction patterns that are used traditionally in recommender systems research. In addition, we investigate how to fuse different recommendation approaches to further improve recommendation accuracy. We...

  11. Application of CCSDS recommendations to small satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stones, Alan; Bastikar, Arvind

    1993-11-01

    The Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) was formed to make recommendations on the systematic harmonization of space data system standards. CCSDS membership includes national space agencies, space data systems experts, and aerospace industries. CCSDS activities are executed by four expert panels supported by a secretariat and coordinated by a technical steering group and a management council. Panel conclusions are ultimately published as recommendations and technical reports. Two independent sets of CCSDS recommendations exist: conventional telemetry and command systems, and advanced orbiting systems. An overview of the basic design philosophies behind the CCSDS recommendations is provided, referring to communications protocols, layering of systems, separation of source data formats from transmission data formats, coding, and grade of service. The subject of cross-support is addressed and the present degree of acceptance of CCSDS recommendations is reviewed. Some implementation feedback is presented. The advantages and disadvantages of CCSDS recommendations in regard to Canadian small-satellite programs are discussed.

  12. RECOMMENDER SYSTEMS IN E-COMMERCE APPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gyöngyvér KOVÁCS

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the major problem with online shopping is finingd the right product, because finding the right product presumes that we know its name, but in most cases it is not so. For this reason the users need help in the process of online searching/shopping. Recommender systems have became a popular technique and strategy for helping users to select desirable products or services. In the past few years the recommender systems have changed from novelties used by a few big e-commerce sites, to serious business tools that are re-shaping the world of e-commerce. In this paper, we provide a brief overview of the classification of recommendation systems based on technology used to create recommendations, and inputs they need from the customers. Furthermore we analyze a few algorithms used by recommender systems and we will also present some marketing recommender systems and their comparative analysis.

  13. Recommender Systems for the Social Web

    CERN Document Server

    Pazos Arias, José J; Díaz Redondo, Rebeca P

    2012-01-01

    The recommendation of products, content and services cannot be considered newly born, although its widespread application is still in full swing. While its growing success in numerous sectors, the progress of the  Social Web has revolutionized the architecture of participation and relationship in the Web, making it necessary to restate recommendation and reconciling it with Collaborative Tagging, as the popularization of authoring in the Web, and  Social Networking, as the translation of personal relationships to the Web. Precisely, the convergence of recommendation with the above Social Web pillars is what motivates this book, which has collected contributions from well-known experts in the academy and the industry to provide a broader view of the problems that Social Recommenders might face with.  If recommender systems have proven their key role in facilitating the user access to resources on the Web, when sharing resources has become social, it is natural for recommendation strategies in the Social Web...

  14. Recommender system based on scarce information mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Wei; Chung, Fu-Lai; Lai, Kunfeng; Zhang, Liang

    2017-09-01

    Guessing what user may like is now a typical interface for video recommendation. Nowadays, the highly popular user generated content sites provide various sources of information such as tags for recommendation tasks. Motivated by a real world online video recommendation problem, this work targets at the long tail phenomena of user behavior and the sparsity of item features. A personalized compound recommendation framework for online video recommendation called Dirichlet mixture probit model for information scarcity (DPIS) is hence proposed. Assuming that each clicking sample is generated from a representation of user preferences, DPIS models the sample level topic proportions as a multinomial item vector, and utilizes topical clustering on the user part for recommendation through a probit classifier. As demonstrated by the real-world application, the proposed DPIS achieves better performance in accuracy, perplexity as well as diversity in coverage than traditional methods. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. [Malignant insulinoma: recommendations for workup and treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudin, Eric; Caron, Philippe; Lombard-Bohas, Catherine; Tabarin, Antoine; Mitry, Emmanuel; Reznick, Yves; Taieb, David; Pattou, François; Goudet, Pierre; Vezzosi, Delphine; Scoazec, Jean-Yves; Cadiot, Guillaume; Borson-Chazot, Françoise; Do Cao, Christine

    2014-06-01

    Insulinoma are malignant in 4 to 14 % of cases. Their rarity and the sparse data available in the literature have limited publication of specific guidelines for their management. The following review aim to provide up-to-date recommendations on initial evaluation including pathologic grading, measures to control hypoglycemia, antitumor strategies and long term follow-up. Will be discussed in detail respective indications of surgery, diazoxide, somatostatin analogs, everolimus, sunitinib, liver directed treatments including arterial embolization, chemotherapy and radiometabolic therapy. A Medline search using terms "insulinoma", "neuroendocrine pancreatic tumors", "islet cell carcinoma", "malignant insulinoma" was performed limiting the selection to English language articles and adult age cases, along with cross referencing. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Synthetic Sling Failure - Evaluations and Recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henderson, C. S. [Washington River Protection Solutions, Richland, WA (United States); Mackey, Thomas C. [Washington River Protection Solutions, Richland, WA (United States)

    2009-10-26

    The information and evaluations provided in this report were compiled to address the recurring problem of synthetic sling failure. As safety is the number one priority in all work aspects, a solution must be devised to prevent accidents from occurring. A total of thirteen cases regarding synthetic sling failure were evaluated in order to determine their causes, effects, and preventative measures. From the collected data, it was found that all cases in which the synthetic sling contacted the edge of its load resulted in sling failure. It is required that adequate synthetic sling protection devices be used to protect slings in any lift where the sling comes in direct contact with the edge or corner of its load. However, there are no consensus codes or standards stating the type, material, or purpose of the type of protective device used to protect the sling from being cut. Numerous industry standards and codes provide vague descriptions on how to protect synthetic slings. Without a clear, concise statement of how to protect synthetic slings, it is common for inadequate materials and sling protection devices to be used in an attempt to meet the intent of these requirements. The use of an inadequate sling protection device is the main cause of synthetic sling failure in all researched cases. Commercial sling protection devices come in many shapes and sizes, and have a variety of names, as well as advertised uses. 'Abrasion pads' and 'wear protectors' are two different names for products with the same intended purpose. There is no distinguishable way to determine the extent of sling protection which these devices will provide, or what specific scenarios they are made for. This creates room for error in a field where error is unacceptable. This report provides a recommended action for hoisting and rigging activities which require synthetic slings to contact a load, as well as recommended changes to industry standards which will benefit overall

  17. Informed Consent Documents Used in Critical Care Trials Often Do Not Implement Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwere, Pearl; McIntyre, Lauralyn; Carroll, Kelly; Hayes, Tavis; Brehaut, Jamie C

    2018-02-01

    Informed consent documents are often poorly understood by research participants. In critical care, issues such as time pressure, patient capacity, and surrogate decision making complicate the consent process further. Recommendations exist for addressing critical care-specific consent issues; we examined how well existing practice implements these recommendations. We conducted a systematic search of the literature for recommendations specific to critical care informed consent and rated existing informed consent documents on their implementation of 1) 18 of these critical care recommendations and 2) 36 previously developed general informed consent recommendations. Four hundred twelve registered critical care trials were identified and a request sent to the principal investigators for an example of the informed consent document associated with the trial. Each consent document was rated on both set of recommendations. We evaluated informed consent documents for trials conducted in English or French registered with clinicaltrials.gov. Not applicable. Not applicable. Independent coders rated implementation of each recommendation on a four-point scale. Of 412 requests, 137 informed consent documents were returned, for a response rate of 34.1%. Of these, 86 met inclusion criteria and were assessed. Overall agreement between raters was 90.6% (weighted κ = 0.79; 0.77-0.81). Implementation of the 18 critical care recommendations was highly variable, ranging between 2% and 96.5%. Critical care studies often do not provide the information recommended for those providing consent for research. These clear recommendations provide testable hypotheses about how to improve the consent process for patients and family members considering trial participation in the critical care setting.

  18. Estimating Probabilities in Recommendation Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Mingxuan; Lebanon, Guy; Kidwell, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Recommendation systems are emerging as an important business application with significant economic impact. Currently popular systems include Amazon's book recommendations, Netflix's movie recommendations, and Pandora's music recommendations. In this paper we address the problem of estimating probabilities associated with recommendation system data using non-parametric kernel smoothing. In our estimation we interpret missing items as randomly censored observations and obtain efficient computat...

  19. Recommendation: Comprehensive Programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Judith

    1989-01-01

    This article summarizes recommendations of the Richardson Study regarding a comprehensive approach to programing for gifted students. Basic components of comprehensive programing are outlined, and seven steps deemed essential to program development and implementation are described, as implemented by the Pyramid Project in four school districts in…

  20. Hybrid Personalization for Recommendations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herder, Eelco; Kärger, Philipp

    2008-01-01

    Herder, E., & Kärger, P. (2008). Hybrid Personalization for Recommendations. In J. Baumeister & M. Atzmüller, Proceedings of the 16th Workshop on Adaptivity and User Modeling in Interactive System, ABIS 2008 (pp. 20-25). October, 6-10, 2008, Würzburg, Germany: Universität Würzburg. Website with link

  1. OARSI Clinical Trials Recommendations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emery, C. A.; Roos, Ewa M.; Verhagen, E.

    2015-01-01

    The risk of post-traumatic osteoarthritis (PTOA) substantially increases following joint injury. Research efforts should focus on investigating the efficacy of preventative strategies in high quality randomized controlled trials (RCT). The objective of these OARSI RCT recommendations is to inform...

  2. Concluding Comments and Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Russell L.; Landers, Rian Q.; Blankenship, Bonnie Tjeerdsma

    2010-01-01

    Using the expertise from the academy interest areas of the National Association for Sport and Physical Education, the 2010 All-Academy Symposium and this feature set out to discern the promises and pitfalls of youth sport specialization. This final article offers a few conclusions and recommendations based on the multidisciplinary perspectives and…

  3. Providing Contraception to Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raidoo, Shandhini; Kaneshiro, Bliss

    2015-12-01

    Adolescents have high rates of unintended pregnancy and face unique reproductive health challenges. Providing confidential contraceptive services to adolescents is important in reducing the rate of unintended pregnancy. Long-acting contraception such as the intrauterine device and contraceptive implant are recommended as first-line contraceptives for adolescents because they are highly effective with few side effects. The use of barrier methods to prevent sexually transmitted infections should be encouraged. Adolescents have limited knowledge of reproductive health and contraceptive options, and their sources of information are often unreliable. Access to contraception is available through a variety of resources that continue to expand. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Optimal Corrosion Control Treatment Evaluation Technical Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document provides technical recommendations that both systems and primacy agencies can use to comply with LCR CCT requirements and effective evaluation and designation of optimal corrosion control treatment (OCCT).

  5. Developing evidence-based immunization recommendations and GRADE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duclos, P; Durrheim, D N; Reingold, A L; Bhutta, Z A; Vannice, K; Rees, H

    2012-12-17

    The Strategic Group of Advisory Experts (SAGE) on immunization is an independent advisory committee with a mandate to advise the World Health Organization (WHO) on the development of vaccine and immunization related policies. SAGE working groups are established on a time-limited basis to review and provide evidence-based recommendations, together with their implications, for open deliberation and decision-making by SAGE. In making its recommendations, SAGE takes into consideration: the epidemiologic and clinical characteristics of the disease; vaccine and immunization characteristics; economic analysis; health system considerations; the existence of and interaction with other intervention and control strategies; costing and social impacts; and legal and ethical concerns. Since 1998, WHO has produced evidence-based vaccine position papers for use primarily by national public health officials and immunization programme managers. Since April 2006 all new or updated position papers have been based on SAGE recommendations. The Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach has been adopted by WHO and, since 2008, GRADE tables that rate the quality of evidence have been produced in support of key recommendations. SAGE previously expressed concern that GRADE was not ideally suited to many immunization-specific issues such as the vaccine population level effect and the inclusion of surveillance system data, particularly for vaccine safety. Extensive productive interactions with various advisory groups including the US Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices, the European Centres for Disease Control, the German Standing Committee on Vaccination (STIKO), WHO's Global Advisory Committee on Vaccine Safety and the GRADE working group resulted in key enhancements to accommodate vaccine-relevant evidence. This facilitated integration and acceptability of the GRADE approach in the development of immunization related SAGE and WHO

  6. A Privacy-Preserving Framework for Trust-Oriented Point-of-Interest Recommendation

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, An

    2017-10-23

    Point-of-Interest (POI) recommendation has attracted many interests recently because of its significant potential for helping users to explore new places and helping LBS providers to carry out precision marketing. Compared with the user-item rating matrix in conventional recommender systems, the user-location check-in matrix in POI recommendation is usually much more sparse, which makes the notorious cold start problem more prominent in POI recommendation. Trust-oriented recommendation is an effective way to deal with this problem but it requires that the recommender has access to user check-in and trust data. In practice, however, these data are usually owned by different businesses who are not willing to share their data with the recommender mainly due to privacy and legal concerns. In this paper, we propose a privacy-preserving framework to boost data owners willingness to share their data with untrustworthy businesses. More specifically, we utilize partially homomorphic encryption to design two protocols for privacy-preserving trustoriented POI recommendation. By offline encryption and parallel computing, these protocols can efficiently protect the private data of every party involved in the recommendation. We prove that the proposed protocols are secure against semi-honest adversaries. Experiments on both synthetic data and real data show that our protocols can achieve privacy-preserving with acceptable computation and communication cost.

  7. Recommender systems and the social web leveraging tagging data for recommender systems

    CERN Document Server

    Gedikli, Fatih

    2013-01-01

    There is an increasing demand for recommender systems due to the information overload users are facing on the Web. The goal of a recommender system is to provide personalized recommendations of products or services to users. With the advent of the Social Web, user-generated content has enriched the social dimension of the Web. As user-provided content data also tells us something about the user, one can learn the user's individual preferences from the Social Web. This opens up completely new opportunities and challenges for recommender systems research. Fatih Gedikli deals with the question of

  8. Global Advisory Group: conclusions and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-02-01

    The conclusions and recommendations formulated for the global program by the 8th meeting of the Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) Global Advisory Group, which took place during November 1985, are summarized. The Global Advisory Group recommends that, in furtherance of the Five-Point Action Program endorsed by the World Health Assembly in 1983, 3 general and 4 specific actions be taken by national immunization programs with the support of the World Health Organization (WHO) to accelerate EPI progress. These recommendations reflect optimism that the 1990 goal of reducing morbidity and mortality by providing immunization for all children of the world can be realized but also acknowledge that many fundamental problems of national program management remain to be resolved. The general actions are: to promote the achievement of the 1990 immunization goal at national and international levels through collaboration among ministries, organizations, and individuals in both the public and private sectors; to adopt a mix of complementary strategies for program acceleration; and to ensure that rapid increases in coverage can be sustained through mechanisms which strengthen th delivery of other primary health care interventions. The specific actions are as follows: to provide immunization at every contact point; to reduce dropout rates between 1st and last immunizations; to improve immunization services to the disadvantaged in urban areas; and to increase priority for the control of measles, poliomyelitis, and neonatal tetanus. The WHO and the UN International Children's Emergency Fund (UNICEF) have collaborated in support of the EPI since the early days of the program. The acceleration of national efforts heightens the importance of this collaboration, particularly at the national level. It may be further facilitated by the provision of policy guidance from global and regional levels, by WHO and UNICEF collaborative agreements at the regional level, and by country agreements

  9. Youth injury prevention in Canada: use of the Delphi method to develop recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pike, Ian; Piedt, Shannon; Davison, Colleen M; Russell, Kelly; Macpherson, Alison K; Pickett, William

    2015-12-22

    The Health Behaviour in School-aged Children Survey is one of very few cross-national health surveys that includes information on injury occurrence and prevention within adolescent populations. A collaboration to develop a Canadian youth injury report using these data resulted in, Injury among Young Canadians: A national study of contextual determinants. The objective of this study was to develop specific evidence-based, policy-oriented recommendations arising from the national report, using a modified-Delphi process with a panel of expert stakeholders. Eight injury prevention experts and a 3-person youth advisory team associated with a Canadian injury prevention organization (Parachute Canada) reviewed, edited and commented on report recommendations through a three-stage iterative modified-Delphi process. From an initial list of 27 draft recommendations, the modified-Delphi process resulted in a final list of 19 specific recommendations, worded to resonate with the group(s) responsible to lead or take the recommended action. Two recommendations were rated as "extremely important" or "very important" by 100 % of the expert panel, two were deleted, a further two recommendations were deleted but the content included as text in the report, and four were merged with other existing recommendations. The modified-Delphi process was an appropriate method to achieve agreement on 19 specific evidence-based, policy-oriented recommendations to complement the national youth injury report. In providing their input, it is noted that the injury stakeholders each acted as individual experts, unattached to any organizational position or policy. These recommendations will require multidisciplinary collaborations in order to support the proposed policy development, additional research, programming and clear decision-making for youth injury prevention.

  10. weHelp: A Reference Architecture for Social Recommender Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheth, Swapneel; Arora, Nipun; Murphy, Christian; Kaiser, Gail

    2010-01-01

    Recommender systems have become increasingly popular. Most of the research on recommender systems has focused on recommendation algorithms. There has been relatively little research, however, in the area of generalized system architectures for recommendation systems. In this paper, we introduce weHelp: a reference architecture for social recommender systems - systems where recommendations are derived automatically from the aggregate of logged activities conducted by the system's users. Our architecture is designed to be application and domain agnostic. We feel that a good reference architecture will make designing a recommendation system easier; in particular, weHelp aims to provide a practical design template to help developers design their own well-modularized systems.

  11. A Genome-wide Association Study Provides Evidence of Sex-specific Involvement of Chr1p35.1 (ZSCAN20-TLR12P and Chr8p23.1 (HMGB1P46 With Diabetic Neuropathic Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weihua Meng

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Neuropathic pain is defined as pain arising as a direct consequence of a lesion or a disease affecting the somatosensory system and it affects around 1 in 4 diabetic patients in the UK. The purpose of this genome-wide association study (GWAS was to identify genetic contributors to this disorder. Cases of neuropathic pain were defined as diabetic patients with a multiple prescription history of at least one of five drugs specifically indicated for the treatment of neuropathic pain. Controls were diabetic individuals who were not prescribed any of these drugs, nor amitriptyline, carbamazepine, or nortriptyline. Overall, 961 diabetic neuropathic pain cases and 3260 diabetic controls in the Genetics of Diabetes Audit and Research Tayside (GoDARTS cohort were identified. We found a cluster in the Chr1p35.1 (ZSCAN20-TLR12P with a lowest P value of 2.74 × 10−7 at rs71647933 in females and a cluster in the Chr8p23.1, next to HMGB1P46 with a lowest P value of 8.02 × 10−7 at rs6986153 in males. Sex-specific narrow sense heritability was higher in males (30.0% than in females (14.7%. This GWAS on diabetic neuropathic pain provides evidence for the sex-specific involvement of Chr1p35.1 (ZSCAN20-TLR12P and Chr8p23.1 (HMGB1P46 with the disorder, indicating the need for further research.

  12. A ddRAD-based genetic map and its integration with the genome assembly of Japanese eel (Anguilla japonica) provides insights into genome evolution after the teleost-specific genome duplication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kai, Wataru; Nomura, Kazuharu; Fujiwara, Atushi; Nakamura, Yoji; Yasuike, Motoshige; Ojima, Nobuhiko; Masaoka, Tetsuji; Ozaki, Akiyuki; Kazeto, Yukinori; Gen, Koichiro; Nagao, Jiro; Tanaka, Hideki; Kobayashi, Takanori; Ototake, Mitsuru

    2014-03-26

    Recent advancements in next-generation sequencing technology have enabled cost-effective sequencing of whole or partial genomes, permitting the discovery and characterization of molecular polymorphisms. Double-digest restriction-site associated DNA sequencing (ddRAD-seq) is a powerful and inexpensive approach to developing numerous single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers and constructing a high-density genetic map. To enrich genomic resources for Japanese eel (Anguilla japonica), we constructed a ddRAD-based genetic map using an Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine and anchored scaffolds of the current genome assembly to 19 linkage groups of the Japanese eel. Furthermore, we compared the Japanese eel genome with genomes of model fishes to infer the history of genome evolution after the teleost-specific genome duplication. We generated the ddRAD-based linkage map of the Japanese eel, where the maps for female and male spanned 1748.8 cM and 1294.5 cM, respectively, and were arranged into 19 linkage groups. A total of 2,672 SNP markers and 115 Simple Sequence Repeat markers provide anchor points to 1,252 scaffolds covering 151 Mb (13%) of the current genome assembly of the Japanese eel. Comparisons among the Japanese eel, medaka, zebrafish and spotted gar genomes showed highly conserved synteny among teleosts and revealed part of the eight major chromosomal rearrangement events that occurred soon after the teleost-specific genome duplication. The ddRAD-seq approach combined with the Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine sequencing allowed us to conduct efficient and flexible SNP genotyping. The integration of the genetic map and the assembled sequence provides a valuable resource for fine mapping and positional cloning of quantitative trait loci associated with economically important traits and for investigating comparative genomics of the Japanese eel.

  13. Performing Hybrid Recommendation in Intermodal Transportation – the FTMarket System’s Recommendation Module

    OpenAIRE

    Lazanas, Alexis

    2009-01-01

    Diverse recommendation techniques have been already proposed and encapsulated into several e-business applications, aiming to perform a more accurate evaluation of the existing information and accordingly augment the assistance provided to the users involved. This paper reports on the development and integration of a recommendation module in an agent-based transportation transactions management system. The module is built according to a novel hybrid recommendation technique, which combines th...

  14. Understanding sports preparticipation cardiovascular screening recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bultas, Margaret W

    2012-11-01

    School nurses have the responsibility of maintaining the medical files of middle- and high-school athletes. This includes collecting and monitoring the sports preparticipation physical exam. Sudden cardiac death is the leading cause of death in young athletes and, therefore, is one of the primary reasons that competitive athletes undergo sports preparticipation physical exams. Although there is no governing body that has established mandates regarding the nature and scope of this physical exam, the American Heart Association (AHA) has recommendations for cardiovascular screening for competitive athletes. However, these recommendations are not always included on the preparticipation physical exam form and it is not always clear if the health care provider completing the form screened the athlete using these recommendations. Therefore, it is important that school nurses not only be knowledgeable of the AHA recommendations but also consider advocating for their school districts to include these recommendations on the physical exam form if they are not currently.

  15. Evaluating Recommender Systems for Technology Enhanced Learning: A Quantitative Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdt, Mojisola; Fernandez, Alejandro; Rensing, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    The increasing number of publications on recommender systems for Technology Enhanced Learning (TEL) evidence a growing interest in their development and deployment. In order to support learning, recommender systems for TEL need to consider specific requirements, which differ from the requirements for recommender systems in other domains like…

  16. Generating private recommendations efficiently using homomorphic encryption and data packing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erkin, Z.; Veugen, P.J.M.; Toft, T.; Lagendijk, R.L.

    2012-01-01

    Recommender systems have become an important tool for personalization of online services. Generating recommendations in online services depends on privacy-sensitive data collected from the users. Traditional data protection mechanisms focus on access control and secure transmission, which provide

  17. Generating Private Recommendations Efficiently Using Homomorphic Encryption and Data Packing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erkin, Zekeriya; Erkin, Zekeriya; Veugen, Thijs; Toft, Tomas; Lagendijk, Reginald L.

    Recommender systems have become an important tool for personalization of online services. Generating recommendations in online services depends on privacy-sensitive data collected from the users. Traditional data protection mechanisms focus on access control and secure transmission, which provide

  18. Evaluating the environmental impacts of dietary recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrens, Paul; Kiefte-de Jong, Jessica C; Bosker, Thijs; Rodrigues, João F D; de Koning, Arjan; Tukker, Arnold

    2017-12-19

    Dietary choices drive both health and environmental outcomes. Information on diets come from many sources, with nationally recommended diets (NRDs) by governmental or similar advisory bodies the most authoritative. Little or no attention is placed on the environmental impacts within NRDs. Here we quantify the impact of nation-specific NRDs, compared with an average diet in 37 nations, representing 64% of global population. We focus on greenhouse gases (GHGs), eutrophication, and land use because these have impacts reaching or exceeding planetary boundaries. We show that compared with average diets, NRDs in high-income nations are associated with reductions in GHG, eutrophication, and land use from 13.0 to 24.8%, 9.8 to 21.3%, and 5.7 to 17.6%, respectively. In upper-middle-income nations, NRDs are associated with slight decrease in impacts of 0.8-12.2%, 7.7-19.4%, and 7.2-18.6%. In poorer middle-income nations, impacts increase by 12.4-17.0%, 24.5-31.9%, and 8.8-14.8%. The reduced environmental impact in high-income countries is driven by reductions in calories (∼54% of effect) and a change in composition (∼46%). The increased environmental impacts of NRDs in low- and middle-income nations are associated with increased intake in animal products. Uniform adoption of NRDs across these nations would result in reductions of 0.19-0.53 Gt CO2 eq⋅a-1, 4.32-10.6 Gt [Formula: see text] eq⋅a-1, and 1.5-2.8 million km2, while providing the health cobenefits of adopting an NRD. As a small number of dietary guidelines are beginning to incorporate more general environmental concerns, we anticipate that this work will provide a standardized baseline for future work to optimize recommended diets further. Copyright © 2017 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  19. Preliminary Anthropometric Specification for Land Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    worked for QinetiQ and BAE Systems in the UK. He has provided Human Factors expertise to numerous procurement programs and currently leads the...specification be updated when sufficient data becomes available for the female Army population. 4. It is recommended that the intergenerational change in

  20. 77 FR 58399 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Bioequivalence Recommendations for Pentosan Polysulfate Sodium...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-20

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry on Bioequivalence... recommendations provide specific guidance on the design of bioequivalence (BE) studies to support abbreviated new... regulation (21 CFR 10.115). The draft guidance, when finalized, will represent the Agency's current thinking...

  1. How-To-Do-It: Dietary Recommendations and Nutrient Content of Food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenneman, James A.

    1988-01-01

    Describes an exercise that students can use to evaluate their intake of specific nutrients in relation to the Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA). Discusses the practicality and concepts involved in the RDA and procedures for dietary analysis. Provides a chart of the RDA and student worksheets for dietary self analysis. (CW)

  2. Medicare Program; Hospital Inpatient Prospective Payment Systems for Acute Care Hospitals and the Long-Term Care Hospital Prospective Payment System and Policy Changes and Fiscal Year 2018 Rates; Quality Reporting Requirements for Specific Providers; Medicare and Medicaid Electronic Health Record (EHR) Incentive Program Requirements for Eligible Hospitals, Critical Access Hospitals, and Eligible Professionals; Provider-Based Status of Indian Health Service and Tribal Facilities and Organizations; Costs Reporting and Provider Requirements; Agreement Termination Notices. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-14

    We are revising the Medicare hospital inpatient prospective payment systems (IPPS) for operating and capital-related costs of acute care hospitals to implement changes arising from our continuing experience with these systems for FY 2018. Some of these changes implement certain statutory provisions contained in the Pathway for Sustainable Growth Rate (SGR) Reform Act of 2013, the Improving Medicare Post-Acute Care Transformation Act of 2014, the Medicare Access and CHIP Reauthorization Act of 2015, the 21st Century Cures Act, and other legislation. We also are making changes relating to the provider-based status of Indian Health Service (IHS) and Tribal facilities and organizations and to the low-volume hospital payment adjustment for hospitals operated by the IHS or a Tribe. In addition, we are providing the market basket update that will apply to the rate-of-increase limits for certain hospitals excluded from the IPPS that are paid on a reasonable cost basis subject to these limits for FY 2018. We are updating the payment policies and the annual payment rates for the Medicare prospective payment system (PPS) for inpatient hospital services provided by long-term care hospitals (LTCHs) for FY 2018. In addition, we are establishing new requirements or revising existing requirements for quality reporting by specific Medicare providers (acute care hospitals, PPS-exempt cancer hospitals, LTCHs, and inpatient psychiatric facilities). We also are establishing new requirements or revising existing requirements for eligible professionals (EPs), eligible hospitals, and critical access hospitals (CAHs) participating in the Medicare and Medicaid Electronic Health Record (EHR) Incentive Programs. We are updating policies relating to the Hospital Value-Based Purchasing (VBP) Program, the Hospital Readmissions Reduction Program, and the Hospital-Acquired Condition (HAC) Reduction Program. We also are making changes relating to transparency of accrediting organization survey

  3. Lidar base specification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidemann, Hans Karl

    2012-01-01

    In late 2009, a $14.3 million allocation from the “American Recovery and Reinvestment Act” for new light detection and ranging (lidar) elevation data prompted the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Geospatial Program (NGP) to develop a common base specification for all lidar data acquired for The National Map. Released as a draft in 2010 and formally published in 2012, the USGS–NGP “Lidar Base Specification Version 1.0” (now Lidar Base Specification) was quickly embraced as the foundation for numerous state, county, and foreign country lidar specifications. Prompted by a growing appreciation for the wide applicability and inherent value of lidar, a USGS-led consortium of Federal agencies commissioned a National Enhanced Elevation Assessment (NEEA) study in 2010 to quantify the costs and benefits of a national lidar program. A 2012 NEEA report documented a substantial return on such an investment, defined five Quality Levels (QL) for elevation data, and recommended an 8-year collection cycle of Quality Level 2 (QL2) lidar data as the optimum balance of benefit and affordability. In response to the study, the USGS–NGP established the 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) in 2013 as the interagency vehicle through which the NEEA recommendations could be realized. Lidar is a fast evolving technology, and much has changed in the industry since the final draft of the “Lidar Base Specification Version 1.0” was written. Lidar data have improved in accuracy and spatial resolution, geospatial accuracy standards have been revised by the American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing (ASPRS), industry standard file formats have been expanded, additional applications for lidar have become accepted, and the need for interoperable data across collections has been realized. This revision to the “Lidar Base Specification Version 1.0” publication addresses those changes and provides continued guidance towards a nationally consistent lidar dataset.

  4. Biobrick chain recommendations for genetic circuit design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jiaoyun; Yu, Song; Gong, Bowen; An, Ning; Alterovitz, Gil

    2017-07-01

    Synthetic biology databases have collected numerous biobricks to accelerate genetic circuit design. However, selecting biobricks is a tough task. Here, we leverage the fact that these manually designed circuits can provide underlying knowledge to support biobrick selection. We propose to design a recommendation system based on the analysis of available genetic circuits, which can narrow down the biobrick selection range and provide candidate biobricks for users to choose. A recommendation strategy based on a Markov model is established to tackle this issue. Furthermore, a biobrick chain recommendation algorithm Sira is proposed that applies a dynamic programming process on a layered state transition graph to obtain the top k recommendation results. In addition, a weighted filtering strategy, WFSira, is proposed to augment the performance of Sira. The experimental results on the Registry of Standard Biological Parts show that Sira outperforms other algorithms significantly for biobrick recommendations, with approximately 30% improvement in terms of recall rate. It is also able to make biobrick chain recommendations. WFSira can further improve the recall rate of Sira by an average of 7.5% for the top 5 recommendations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Ebola virus: recommendations

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Medical Service

    2014-01-01

    The CERN Medical Service has been closely following, in particular via the WHO, the development of the Ebola virus outbreak currently affecting some African countries. This infectious disease may be passed on through direct contact with the bodily fluids of a sick person.   Based on the recommendations of the WHO and the two Host States, Switzerland and France, as updated on their respective websites, so far there has been no ban on travel to the countries concerned. However, unless it is absolutely essential, you are advised not to visit any of the countries affected by Ebola (Guinea, Republic of Sierra Leone, Liberia, Nigeria). The two Host States have established an alert system, and a check is carried out on departure from the airports of those countries. It is strongly recommended that you contact the Medical Service if you are travelling to those countries. We remind you to observe the basic rules of hygiene such as frequent hand washing, whatever your destination. The Medical Service is...

  6. Leveraging position bias to improve peer recommendation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Lerman

    Full Text Available With the advent of social media and peer production, the amount of new online content has grown dramatically. To identify interesting items in the vast stream of new content, providers must rely on peer recommendation to aggregate opinions of their many users. Due to human cognitive biases, the presentation order strongly affects how people allocate attention to the available content. Moreover, we can manipulate attention through the presentation order of items to change the way peer recommendation works. We experimentally evaluate this effect using Amazon Mechanical Turk. We find that different policies for ordering content can steer user attention so as to improve the outcomes of peer recommendation.

  7. Recommendations of technical specifications for ethanol and its blends (E6) and the infrastructure for their management in Mexico; Recomendaciones de especificaciones tecnicas para el etanol y sus mezclas (E6) y la infraestructura para su manejo en Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-15

    This paper describes the importance and benefits of using ethanol-gasoline blend as a substitute for pure gasoline. It presents data of global ethanol market, as well as major producers, processes involved for different raw materials and productivity indicators. It discusses the main properties to be monitored in ethanol and the importance of each one. It also examines the impact of the addition of ethanol in automotive gasoline and the influence of each property in the operation of the cars and the environment. It presents an assessment of the international specifications anhydrous ethanol used in the United States, Brazil and the European Union as well as suggestions for limits harmonization of the main parameters and methodologies, from recently published studies (White Paper-Bioetahnol Guidelines Task Force and to Ethanol from Worldwide Fuel Charter Committee). It includes the specification of Brazilian gasoline, added with 25% of ethanol (E25). It suggests an anhydrous ethanol specification and a specification for gasoline mixtures / ethanol E6 for implementation in Mexico. It presents a prioritization of laboratory testing methods for ethanol and ethanol-blended gasoline in three categories, indicating the most appropriate test to be used at different points in the distribution chain of products. It discusses the impact of ethanol on the distribution facilities for fuels, actions to control potential problems, selection of materials and equipment, safety procedures and presents the mixing gasoline / ethanol. It also describes the Brazilian system of production / distribution of fuels and the experience of this country to control fuel quality from the legislation. It includes a table with the top teams, their costs, Brazilian suppliers and a list of Brazilian standards for fuel storage and transport. Finally, we present some suggestions that may be important to ensure the evolution of specifications of ethanol and ethanol-blended gasoline in the course of the

  8. Targeted Expression of Stromelysin-1 in Mammary Gland Provides Evidence for a Role of Proteinases in Branching Morphogenesis and the Requirement for an Intact Basement Membrane for Tissue-specific Gene Expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sympson, Carolyn J; Talhouk, Rabih S; Alexander, Caroline M; Chin, Jennie R; Cliff, Shirley M; Bissell, Mina J; Werb, Zena

    1994-05-01

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) is an important regulator of the differentiated phenotype of mammary epithelial cells in culture. Despite the fact that ECM-degrading enzymes have been implicated in morphogenesis and tissue remodeling, there is little evidence for a direct role for such regulation in vivo. We generated transgenic mice that express autoactivated isoforms of the matrix metalloproteinase stromelysin-1, under the control of the whey acidic protein gene promoter, to examine the effect of inappropriate expression of this enzyme. Stromelysin-1 is implicated as the primary player in the loss of basement membrane and loss of function in the mammary gland during involution. The transgene was expressed at low levels in mammary glands of virgin female mice, leading to an unexpected phenotype: The primary ducts had supernumerary branches and showed precocious development of alveoli that expressed beta-casein at levels similar to that of an early- to mid-pregnant gland. Lactating glands showed high levels of transgene expression, with accumulation at the basement membrane, and a decrease in laminin and collagen IV, resulting in a loss of basement membrane integrity; this was accompanied by a dramatic alteration of alveolar morphology, with decreased size and shrunken lumina containing little beta-casein. During pregnancy, expression of endogenous whey acidic protein and beta-casein was reduced in transgenic glands, confirming the observed dependence of milk protein transcription of ECM in mammary epithelial cells in culture. These data provide direct evidence that stromelysin-1 activity can be morphogenic for mammary epithelial cells, inducing hyperproliferation and differentiation in virgin animals, and that its lytic activity can, indeed, disrupt membrane integrity and reduce mammary-specific function. We conclude that the balance of ECM-degrading enzymes with their inhibitors, and the associated regulation of ECM structure, is crucial for tissue-specific gene

  9. Parents' perceptions of provider communication regarding adolescent vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempsey, Amanda F; Pyrzanowski, Jennifer; Lockhart, Steven; Campagna, Elizabeth; Barnard, Juliana; O'Leary, Sean T

    2016-06-02

    Strong provider recommendations for adolescent vaccines are critical for achieving high vaccination levels.  However, little is known about parents' preferred provider communication strategies for adolescent vaccines in general, and for human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines specifically. We performed a cross-sectional survey of 800 parents of 9-14 year olds in April 2014 to assess current adolescent vaccine communication practices by providers, parents' preferred HPV vaccine-specific communication strategies, and the association of these two outcomes with experiential, attitudinal and demographic characteristics.  Among the 356 parents in the study (response rate 48%), HPV vaccines were reported as less likely to have been "very strongly" recommended by their adolescent's provider (39%) than other adolescent-targeted vaccines (45%-59%, parents (87%) reported that, if available, they would use a website providing personalized HPV vaccine-related materials before their adolescent's next check-up, and other technology-based communications were also endorsed by the majority of parents.   From these data we conclude that parents received weaker recommendations for HPV vaccines than other adolescent vaccines, and that most parents want additional HPV vaccine-related materials, preferably delivered using a variety of technology-based modalities which is not their providers' current practice.

  10. Wind energy Computerized Maintenance Management System (CMMS) : data collection recommendations for reliability analysis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, Valerie A.; Ogilvie, Alistair; Veers, Paul S.

    2009-09-01

    This report addresses the general data requirements for reliability analysis of fielded wind turbines and other wind plant equipment. The report provides a list of the data needed to support reliability and availability analysis, and gives specific recommendations for a Computerized Maintenance Management System (CMMS) to support automated analysis. This data collection recommendations report was written by Sandia National Laboratories to address the general data requirements for reliability analysis of fielded wind turbines. This report is intended to help the reader develop a basic understanding of what data are needed from a Computerized Maintenance Management System (CMMS) and other data systems, for reliability analysis. The report provides: (1) a list of the data needed to support reliability and availability analysis; and (2) specific recommendations for a CMMS to support automated analysis. Though written for reliability analysis of wind turbines, much of the information is applicable to a wider variety of equipment and a wider variety of analysis and reporting needs.

  11. Ransomware - Threats Vulnerabilities And Recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadeem Shah

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Attack methodologies transform with the transforming dynamics of technology. Consequently it becomes imperative that individuals and organization implement the highest levels of security within their devices and infrastructure for optimal protection against these rapidly evolving attacks. Ransomware is one such attack that never fails to surprise in terms of its ability to identify vulnerabilities and loopholes in technology. This paper discusses the categories of ransomware its common attack vectors and provides a threat landscape with the aim to highlight the true potential and destructive nature of such malware based attacks. In this paper we also present the most current ransomware attack that is still a potential threat and also provide recommendations and strategies for prevention and protection against these attacks. A novel solution is also discussed that could be further worked upon in the future by other researchers and vendors of security devices.

  12. Recommendations to Improve Downloads of Large Earth Observation Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Ramachandran

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available With the volume of Earth observation data expanding rapidly, cloud computing is quickly changing the way these data are processed, analyzed, and visualized. Collocating freely available Earth observation data on a cloud computing infrastructure may create opportunities unforeseen by the original data provider for innovation and value-added data re-use, but existing systems at data centers are not designed for supporting requests for large data transfers. A lack of common methodology necessitates that each data center handle such requests from different cloud vendors differently. Guidelines are needed to support enabling all cloud vendors to utilize a common methodology for bulk-downloading data from data centers, thus preventing the providers from building custom capabilities to meet the needs of individual vendors. This paper presents recommendations distilled from use cases provided by three cloud vendors (Amazon, Google, and Microsoft and are based on the vendors’ interactions with data systems at different Federal agencies and organizations. These specific recommendations range from obvious steps for improving data usability (such as ensuring the use of standard data formats and commonly supported projections to non-obvious undertakings important for enabling bulk data downloads at scale. These recommendations can be used to evaluate and improve existing data systems for high-volume data transfers, and their adoption can lead to cloud vendors utilizing a common methodology.

  13. Non-IID Recommender Systems: A Review and Framework of Recommendation Paradigm Shifting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longbing Cao

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available While recommendation plays an increasingly critical role in our living, study, work, and entertainment, the recommendations we receive are often for irrelevant, duplicate, or uninteresting products and services. A critical reason for such bad recommendations lies in the intrinsic assumption that recommended users and items are independent and identically distributed (IID in existing theories and systems. Another phenomenon is that, while tremendous efforts have been made to model specific aspects of users or items, the overall user and item characteristics and their non-IIDness have been overlooked. In this paper, the non-IID nature and characteristics of recommendation are discussed, followed by the non-IID theoretical framework in order to build a deep and comprehensive understanding of the intrinsic nature of recommendation problems, from the perspective of both couplings and heterogeneity. This non-IID recommendation research triggers the paradigm shift from IID to non-IID recommendation research and can hopefully deliver informed, relevant, personalized, and actionable recommendations. It creates exciting new directions and fundamental solutions to address various complexities including cold-start, sparse data-based, cross-domain, group-based, and shilling attack-related issues.

  14. [Vaccination recommendations for health care workers in Austria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedermann, Ursula; Rendi-Wagner, Pamela; Aigner, Gerhard; Bechter, Elmar; Druml, Christiane; Falb, Petra; Holzmann, Heidemarie; Karbus, Gabriele; Kollaritsch, Herwig; Kundi, Michael; Presterl, Elisabeth; Szymanski, Eva-Elisabeth; Tucek, Barbara; Zenz, Werner; Zwiauer, Karl

    2014-04-01

    In Austria the vaccination coverage among health care workers (HCW) - particularly among hospital personnel - is not sufficient. This is of specific concern, because not only the individual protection but also the prevention of disease transmission of vaccine preventable diseases between HCW and patients needs to be guaranteed. Particularly immunosuppressed patients, who are at higher risk for morbidity and mortality due to certain infections, but cannot be vaccination themselves, must be able to rely on herd protection, i.e. not being infected by surrounding/caring persons. The following publication provides for the first time detailed guidelines for vaccination programs for HCWs in Austria, including personnel within hospitals, medical institutions and laboratories, as well as Medical Universities including students. Moreover, these guidelines are also recommended to medical personnel in outpatient clinics, social service institutions and medical practices. Additionally to the vaccination schedules this publication also includes a chapter on ethical as well as legal background underlying these recommendations.

  15. Exercise recommendations in patients with newly diagnosed fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Brad; Spencer, Horace; Kortebein, Patrick

    2012-04-01

    To evaluate exercise recommendations in patients newly diagnosed with fibromyalgia. A retrospective chart review. A public university rheumatology clinic. Patients newly diagnosed with fibromyalgia (N = 122). Frequency and type of exercise recommendations. The mean (standard deviation) age of these patients with fibromyalgia was 45 ± 12 years; 91% were women. Exercise was recommended as part of the documented treatment plan in 47% of these patients (57/122); only 3 patients had a documented contraindication for exercise. Aquatic exercise was most frequently recommended (56% [32/57]), followed by combined aquatic-aerobic exercise (26% [15/57]), and, infrequently, aerobic exercise only (5% [3/57]); only 7% of these patients (4/57) were referred for physical therapy. The primary method of communication was verbal discussion (94% [54/57]). Although there is well-documented evidence that exercise is beneficial for patients with fibromyalgia, we found that less than half of patients with newly diagnosed fibromyalgia in our study were provided recommendations to initiate an exercise program as part of their treatment plan. Further investigation of these findings are warranted, including evaluation of other university and community rheumatology practices as well as that of other physicians caring for patients with fibromyalgia. However, our findings indicate that there appears to be an opportunity to provide more specific and practical education regarding the implementation of an exercise regimen for patients with newly diagnosed fibromyalgia. Physiatrists may be particularly well suited to manage the exercise component of patients with fibromyalgia because of their specialized training in exercise prescription. Copyright © 2012 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Recommended approaches to the scientific evaluation of ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    A SETAC Pellston Workshop™ ?‘Environmental Hazard and Risk Assessment Approaches for Endocrine-Active Substances (EHRA)’ was held from 31st January to 5th February 2016 in Pensacola, Florida, USA. The primary aim of the workshop was to provide objective advice, based on current scientific understanding, to regulators and policy makers, whether in industry, government or academia. The aim being to make considered, informed decisions on whether to select an environmental hazard- or a risk-based approach for regulating a given endocrine-disrupting substance (EDS) under review. The workshop additionally considered recent developments in the identification of EDS. Case studies were undertaken on six endocrine active substances (EAS not necessarily proven EDS), that are representative of a range of endocrine system perturbations and considered to be data-rich in relevant information at multiple biological levels of organisation for one or more ecologically-relevant taxa. The substances selected were 17á-ethinylestradiol, perchlorate, propiconazole, 17â-trenbolone, tributyltin and vinclozolin. The six case studies were not comprehensive safety evaluations, but provided the foundations for clarifying key issues and procedures that should be considered when assessing the environmental hazards and risks of EAS and EDS. The workshop also highlighted areas of scientific uncertainty, and made specific recommendations for research and methods-development to resolve

  17. Global Consensus Recommendations on Prevention and Management of Nutritional Rickets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munns, Craig F.; Shaw, Nick; Kiely, Mairead; Specker, Bonny L.; Thacher, Tom D.; Ozono, Keiichi; Michigami, Toshimi; Tiosano, Dov; Mughal, M. Zulf; Mäkitie, Outi; Ramos-Abad, Lorna; Ward, Leanne; DiMeglio, Linda A.; Atapattu, Navoda; Cassinelli, Hamilton; Braegger, Christian; Pettifor, John M.; Seth, Anju; Idris, Hafsatu Wasagu; Bhatia, Vijayalakshmi; Fu, Junfen; Goldberg, Gail; Sävendahl, Lars; Khadgawat, Rajesh; Pludowski, Pawel; Maddock, Jane; Hyppönen, Elina; Oduwole, Abiola; Frew, Emma; Aguiar, Magda; Tulchinsky, Ted; Butler, Gary

    2016-01-01

    Background: Vitamin D and calcium deficiencies are common worldwide, causing nutritional rickets and osteomalacia, which have a major impact on health, growth, and development of infants, children, and adolescents; the consequences can be lethal or can last into adulthood. The goals of this evidence-based consensus document are to provide health care professionals with guidance for prevention, diagnosis, and management of nutritional rickets and to provide policy makers with a framework to work toward its eradication. Evidence: A systematic literature search examining the definition, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of nutritional rickets in children was conducted. Evidence-based recommendations were developed using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) system that describe the strength of the recommendation and the quality of supporting evidence. Process: Thirty-three nominated experts in pediatric endocrinology, pediatrics, nutrition, epidemiology, public health, and health economics evaluated the evidence on specific questions within five working groups. The consensus group, representing 11 international scientific organizations, participated in a multiday conference in May 2014 to reach a global evidence-based consensus. Results: This consensus document defines nutritional rickets and its diagnostic criteria and describes the clinical management of rickets and osteomalacia. Risk factors, particularly in mothers and infants, are ranked, and specific prevention recommendations including food fortification and supplementation are offered for both the clinical and public health contexts. Conclusion: Rickets, osteomalacia, and vitamin D and calcium deficiencies are preventable global public health problems in infants, children, and adolescents. Implementation of international rickets prevention programs, including supplementation and food fortification, is urgently required. PMID:26745253

  18. Parents’ perceptions of provider communication regarding adolescent vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempsey, Amanda F.; Pyrzanowski, Jennifer; Lockhart, Steven; Campagna, Elizabeth; Barnard, Juliana; O'Leary, Sean T.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Strong provider recommendations for adolescent vaccines are critical for achieving high vaccination levels.  However, little is known about parents’ preferred provider communication strategies for adolescent vaccines in general, and for human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines specifically. We performed a cross-sectional survey of 800 parents of 9-14 year olds in April 2014 to assess current adolescent vaccine communication practices by providers, parents’ preferred HPV vaccine-specific communication strategies, and the association of these two outcomes with experiential, attitudinal and demographic characteristics.  Among the 356 parents in the study (response rate 48%), HPV vaccines were reported as less likely to have been “very strongly” recommended by their adolescent’s provider (39%) than other adolescent-targeted vaccines (45%-59%, HPV vaccines was associated with a higher likelihood of vaccine receipt (71% versus 39%, pvaccinated, increased likelihood of positive vaccination intentions (82% vs. 60%, p = 0.015).  Nearly all parents (87%) reported that, if available, they would use a website providing personalized HPV vaccine-related materials before their adolescent’s next check-up, and other technology-based communications were also endorsed by the majority of parents.   From these data we conclude that parents received weaker recommendations for HPV vaccines than other adolescent vaccines, and that most parents want additional HPV vaccine-related materials, preferably delivered using a variety of technology-based modalities which is not their providers’ current practice. PMID:27078515

  19. AAPT Lab Recommendations: Past, Present, and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozminski, Joseph

    The ``AAPT Recommendations for the Undergraduate Physics Laboratory Curriculum'' was endorsed by the American Association of Physics Teachers Executive Board in November 2014. This set of curriculum recommendations focuses on developing skills and competencies that will prepare students for research in graduate school and for jobs in the STEM sector, education, and many other employment sectors. The recommendations can be used to guide changes in laboratory curricula, to assess department laboratory curricula during program reviews, and to educate university officials about the importance of laboratory experiences. The recommendations offer many potential opportunities for collaboration between physics education researchers and laboratory instructors in studying skill development in the lab and how various elements of the laboratory curriculum can best be assessed. There are also discussions underway to create an online resource for laboratory instructors to share implementation ideas and resources. This presentation provides an overview of these recommendations and their development, how the recommendations are currently being used, and opportunities for expanded use of the recommendations going forward.

  20. Recommendations for Curricula That Stress Reflective Thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, Dennis M.

    1998-01-01

    Offers a criticism of journalism as a professional practice of "doing" rather than "thinking," and suggests a higher standard through the notion of reflective judgment. Makes specific recommendations for curriculum additions to increase undergraduates' performance as critical thinkers and creators of reflective judgments that…

  1. Recommended foods for male infertility in Iranian traditional medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nejatbakhsh, Fatemeh; Nazem, Esmaeil; Goushegir, Ashrafeddin; Isfahani, Mohammad Mahdi; Nikbakht Nasrabadi, Alireza; Baygom Siahpoosh, Marzieh

    2012-11-01

    Male infertility accounts for 30-50% of all infertilities among couples. Iranian traditional medicine (ITM) stressed the importance of nutrition in the prevention and treatment of male infertility. Many Iranian traditional physicians have described the traits of specific foods for prevention and treatment of male infertility. To explore the principles and roles of foods recommended by ITM scientists in prevention and treatment of male infertility as well as enlisting all the recommended foods for treating this problem addressed through the ITM original resources written between 815 and 1901. In this review study specific data related to the subject among all referral ITM texts was extracted firstly, and then the collected data were analyzed using inductive content analysis. The analysis of data revealed that foods that enhance sexual performance must have 3 properties; they should be warm in nature, very nutritious, and flatulent. Foods that are warm in nature and nutritious affect the quality and quantity of semen. A food having the third trait of being flatulent is required to complete sexual performance by creating an erection. Foods with only one of these traits must be consumed with another food that has the other trait. This study also provided a list of foods that can enhance the quality and increase the quantity of semen. Foods that can enhance sexual performance and the quality and quantity of semen can be recommended to male patients who suffer from infertility in medical centers.

  2. Strategy Guideline: Advanced Construction Documentation Recommendations for High Performance Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lukachko, A.; Gates, C.; Straube, J.

    2011-12-01

    As whole house energy efficiency increases, new houses become less like conventional houses that were built in the past. New materials and new systems require greater coordination and communication between industry stakeholders. The Guideline for Construction Documents for High Performance Housing provides advice to address this need. The reader will be presented with four changes that are recommended to achieve improvements in energy efficiency, durability and health in Building America houses: create coordination drawings, improve specifications, improve detail drawings, and review drawings and prepare a Quality Control Plan.

  3. From micronutrient recommendations to policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timotijevic, Lada; Raats, Monique M.; Barnett, Julie

    2010-01-01

    Background/Objectives: To achieve the nutritional goals stipulated by micronutrient recommendations, greater attention must be paid to the behavioural routes to such nutritional outcomes. Coopting stakeholders and consumers into decisions regarding micronutrient recommendations is an important st...

  4. Statistical and Economic Techniques for Site-specific Nematode Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zheng; Griffin, Terry; Kirkpatrick, Terrence L

    2014-03-01

    Recent advances in precision agriculture technologies and spatial statistics allow realistic, site-specific estimation of nematode damage to field crops and provide a platform for the site-specific delivery of nematicides within individual fields. This paper reviews the spatial statistical techniques that model correlations among neighboring observations and develop a spatial economic analysis to determine the potential of site-specific nematicide application. The spatial econometric methodology applied in the context of site-specific crop yield response contributes to closing the gap between data analysis and realistic site-specific nematicide recommendations and helps to provide a practical method of site-specifically controlling nematodes.

  5. Patient- and provider-related determinants of generic and specific health-related quality of life of patients with chronic systolic heart failure in primary care: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peters-Klimm Frank

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Identifying the determinants of health-related quality of life (HRQOL in patients with systolic heart failure (CHF is rare in primary care; studies often lack a defined sample, a comprehensive set of variables and clear HRQOL outcomes. Our aim was to explore the impact of such a set of variables on generic and disease-specific HRQOL. Methods In a cross-sectional study, we evaluated data from 318 eligible patients. HRQOL measures used were the SF-36 (Physical/Mental Component Summary, PCS/MCS and four domains of the KCCQ (Functional status, Quality of life, Self efficacy, Social limitation. Potential determinants (instruments included socio-demographical variables (age, sex, socio-economic status: SES, clinical (e.g. NYHA class, LVEF, NT-proBNP levels, multimorbidity (CIRS-G, depression (PHQ-9, behavioural (EHFScBs and prescribing and provider (e.g. list size of and number. of GPs in practice variables. We performed linear (mixed regression modelling accounting for clustering. Results Patients were predominantly male (71.4%, had a mean age of 69.0 (SD: 10.4 years, 12.9% had major depression, according to PHQ-9. Across the final regression models, eleven determinants explained 27% to 55% of variance (frequency across models, lowest/highest β: Depression (6×, -0.3/-0.7; age (4×, -0.1/-0.2; multimorbidity (4×, 0.1; list size (2×, -0.2; SES (2×, 0.1/0.2; and each of the following once: no. of GPs per practice, NYHA class, COPD, history of CABG surgery, aldosterone antagonist medication and Self-care (0.1/-0.2/-0.2/0.1/-0.1/-0.2. Conclusions HRQOL was determined by a variety of established individual variables. Additionally the presence of multimorbidity burden, behavioural (self-care and provider determinants may influence clinicians in tailoring care to individual patients and highlight future research priorities.

  6. Personalized recommendation based on unbiased consistence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xuzhen; Tian, Hui; Zhang, Ping; Hu, Zheng; Zhou, Tao

    2015-08-01

    Recently, in physical dynamics, mass-diffusion-based recommendation algorithms on bipartite network provide an efficient solution by automatically pushing possible relevant items to users according to their past preferences. However, traditional mass-diffusion-based algorithms just focus on unidirectional mass diffusion from objects having been collected to those which should be recommended, resulting in a biased causal similarity estimation and not-so-good performance. In this letter, we argue that in many cases, a user's interests are stable, and thus bidirectional mass diffusion abilities, no matter originated from objects having been collected or from those which should be recommended, should be consistently powerful, showing unbiased consistence. We further propose a consistence-based mass diffusion algorithm via bidirectional diffusion against biased causality, outperforming the state-of-the-art recommendation algorithms in disparate real data sets, including Netflix, MovieLens, Amazon and Rate Your Music.

  7. Content recommendation, a challenge for television

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joëlle Farchy

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we use the term recommendation in order to analyze every apparatus aimed at guiding the Internet user toward a specific content, surrounded by an overabundant and profuse offer. For the purpose of the analysis, we distinguish four types of recommendation: on the one hand, editorial and contributive recommendation, based either on experts or users’ judgments and opinions, and on the other hand, aggregative and personalized. The latter appear to be more and more central, based on users’ online behaviour. With the algorithmic recommendation, alleged, declared or observed users’ preferences form the material of predictive recommendation in apparatuses developed by different operators of legacy media. This step is the almost final one in a process of delinearization and individualization. However, despite its efficiency, this form of recommendation raises a number of questions. More than the risk of confinement and filter bubble, the biggest problem seems to be related to the oligopolistic power of a few players, controlling consumer behaviour data.

  8. Followee Recommendation in Microblog Using Matrix Factorization Model with Structural Regularization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Yu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Microblog that provides us a new communication and information sharing platform has been growing exponentially since it emerged just a few years ago. To microblog users, recommending followees who can serve as high quality information sources is a competitive service. To address this problem, in this paper we propose a matrix factorization model with structural regularization to improve the accuracy of followee recommendation in microblog. More specifically, we adapt the matrix factorization model in traditional item recommender systems to followee recommendation in microblog and use structural regularization to exploit structure information of social network to constrain matrix factorization model. The experimental analysis on a real-world dataset shows that our proposed model is promising.

  9. Usability Guidelines for Product Recommenders Based on Example Critiquing Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Pearl; Faltings, Boi; Chen, Li; Zhang, Jiyong; Viappiani, Paolo

    Over the past decade, our group has developed a suite of decision tools based on example critiquing to help users find their preferred products in e-commerce environments. In this chapter, we survey important usability research work relative to example critiquing and summarize the major results by deriving a set of usability guidelines. Our survey is focused on three key interaction activities between the user and the system: the initial preference elicitation process, the preference revision process, and the presentation of the systems recommendation results. To provide a basis for the derivation of the guidelines, we developed a multi-objective framework of three interacting criteria: accuracy, confidence, and effort (ACE). We use this framework to analyze our past work and provide a specific context for each guideline: when the system should maximize its ability to increase users' decision accuracy, when to increase user confidence, and when to minimize the interaction effort for the users. Due to the general nature of this multi-criteria model, the set of guidelines that we propose can be used to ease the usability engineering process of other recommender systems, especially those used in e-commerce environments. The ACE framework presented here is also the first in the field to evaluate the performance of preference-based recommenders from a user-centric point of view.

  10. Organizational culture associated with provider satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scammon, Debra L; Tabler, Jennifer; Brunisholz, Kimberly; Gren, Lisa H; Kim, Jaewhan; Tomoaia-Cotisel, Andrada; Day, Julie; Farrell, Timothy W; Waitzman, Norman J; Magill, Michael K

    2014-01-01

    Organizational culture is key to the successful implementation of major improvement strategies. Transformation to a patient-centered medical home (PCHM) is such an improvement strategy, requiring a shift from provider-centric care to team-based care. Because this shift may impact provider satisfaction, it is important to understand the relationship between provider satisfaction and organizational culture, specifically in the context of practices that have transformed to a PCMH model. This was a cross-sectional study of surveys conducted in 2011 among providers and staff in 10 primary care clinics implementing their version of a PCMH: Care by Design. Measures included the Organizational Culture Assessment Instrument and the American Medical Group Association provider satisfaction survey. Providers were most satisfied with quality of care (mean, 4.14; scale of 1-5) and interactions with patients (mean, 4.12) and were least satisfied with time spent working (mean, 3.47), paperwork (mean, 3.45), and compensation (mean, 3.35). Culture profiles differed across clinics, with family/clan and hierarchical cultures the most common. Significant correlations (P ≤ .05) between provider satisfaction and clinic culture archetypes included family/clan culture negatively correlated with administrative work; entrepreneurial culture positively correlated with the Time Spent Working dimension; market/rational culture positively correlated with how practices were facing economic and strategic challenges; and hierarchical culture negatively correlated with the Relationships with Staff and Resource dimensions. Provider satisfaction is an important metric for assessing experiences with features of a PCMH model. Identification of clinic-specific culture archetypes and archetype associations with provider satisfaction can help inform practice redesign. Attention to effective methods for changing organizational culture is recommended.

  11. Context-Aware Location Recommendation Using Geotagged Photos in Social Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haosheng Huang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the increasing availability of digital cameras and the rapid advances in social media have led to the accumulation of a large number of geotagged photos, which may reflect people’s travel experiences in different cities and can be used to generate location recommendations for tourists. Research on this aspect mainly focused on providing personalized recommendations matching a tourist’s travel preferences, while ignoring the context of the visit (e.g., weather, season and time of the day that potentially influences his/her travel behavior. This article explores context-aware methods to provide location recommendations matching a tourist’s travel preferences and visiting context. Specifically, we apply clustering methods to detect touristic locations and extract travel histories from geotagged photos on Flickr. We then propose a novel context similarity measure to quantify the similarity between any two contexts and develop three context-aware collaborative filtering methods, i.e., contextual pre-filtering, post-filtering and modeling. With these methods, location recommendations like “in similar contexts, other tourists similar to you often visited …” can be provided to the current user. Results of the evaluation with a publicly-available Flickr photo collection show that these methods are able to provide a tourist with location recommendations matching his/her travel preferences and visiting context. More importantly, compared to other state-of-the-art methods, the proposed methods, which employ the introduced context similarity measure, can provide tourists with significantly better recommendations. While Flickr data have been used in this study, these context-aware collaborative filtering (CaCF methods can also be extended for other kinds of travel histories, such as GPS trajectories and Foursquare check-ins, to provide context-aware recommendations.

  12. Recommendations for mechanical ventilation of critically ill children from the Paediatric Mechanical Ventilation Consensus Conference (PEMVECC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneyber, Martin C J; de Luca, Daniele; Calderini, Edoardo; Jarreau, Pierre-Henri; Javouhey, Etienne; Lopez-Herce, Jesus; Hammer, Jürg; Macrae, Duncan; Markhorst, Dick G; Medina, Alberto; Pons-Odena, Marti; Racca, Fabrizio; Wolf, Gerhard; Biban, Paolo; Brierley, Joe; Rimensberger, Peter C

    2017-12-01

    Much of the common practice in paediatric mechanical ventilation is based on personal experiences and what paediatric critical care practitioners have adopted from adult and neonatal experience. This presents a barrier to planning and interpretation of clinical trials on the use of specific and targeted interventions. We aim to establish a European consensus guideline on mechanical ventilation of critically children. The European Society for Paediatric and Neonatal Intensive Care initiated a consensus conference of international European experts in paediatric mechanical ventilation to provide recommendations using the Research and Development/University of California, Los Angeles, appropriateness method. An electronic literature search in PubMed and EMBASE was performed using a combination of medical subject heading terms and text words related to mechanical ventilation and disease-specific terms. The Paediatric Mechanical Ventilation Consensus Conference (PEMVECC) consisted of a panel of 15 experts who developed and voted on 152 recommendations related to the following topics: (1) general recommendations, (2) monitoring, (3) targets of oxygenation and ventilation, (4) supportive measures, (5) weaning and extubation readiness, (6) normal lungs, (7) obstructive diseases, (8) restrictive diseases, (9) mixed diseases, (10) chronically ventilated patients, (11) cardiac patients and (12) lung hypoplasia syndromes. There were 142 (93.4%) recommendations with "strong agreement". The final iteration of the recommendations had none with equipoise or disagreement. These recommendations should help to harmonise the approach to paediatric mechanical ventilation and can be proposed as a standard-of-care applicable in daily clinical practice and clinical research.

  13. Location-Aware POI Recommendation for Indoor Space by Exploiting WiFi Logs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zengwei Zheng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Indoor shopping trajectories provide us with a new approach to understanding user’s behaviour pattern in urban shopping mall, which can be derived from user-generated WiFi logs using indoor localization technology. In this paper, we propose a location-aware Point-of-Interest (POI recommendation service in urban shopping mall that offers a user a set of indoor POIs by considering both personal interest and location preference. The POI recommendation service cannot only improve user’s shopping experience but also help the store owner better understand user’s shopping preference and intent. Specifically, the proposed method consists of two phases: offline modelling and online recommendation. The offline modelling phase is designed to learn user preference by mining his/her historical shopping trajectories. The online recommendation phase automatically produces top-k recommended POIs based on the learnt preference. To demonstrate the utility of our proposed approach, we have performed a comprehensive experiment evaluation on a real-world dataset collected by 468 users over 33 days. The experimental results show that the proposed recommendation service achieves much better recommendation performance than several existing benchmark methods.

  14. Recommendations for reducing ambiguity in written procedures.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matzen, Laura E.

    2009-11-01

    Previous studies in the nuclear weapons complex have shown that ambiguous work instructions (WIs) and operating procedures (OPs) can lead to human error, which is a major cause for concern. This report outlines some of the sources of ambiguity in written English and describes three recommendations for reducing ambiguity in WIs and OPs. The recommendations are based on commonly used research techniques in the fields of linguistics and cognitive psychology. The first recommendation is to gather empirical data that can be used to improve the recommended word lists that are provided to technical writers. The second recommendation is to have a review in which new WIs and OPs and checked for ambiguities and clarity. The third recommendation is to use self-paced reading time studies to identify any remaining ambiguities before the new WIs and OPs are put into use. If these three steps are followed for new WIs and OPs, the likelihood of human errors related to ambiguity could be greatly reduced.

  15. Recent developments in affective recommender systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katarya, Rahul; Verma, Om Prakash

    2016-11-01

    Recommender systems (RSs) are playing a significant role since 1990s as they provide relevant, personalized information to the users over the internet. Lots of work have been done in information filtering, utilization, and application related to RS. However, an important area recently draws our attention which is affective recommender system. Affective recommender system (ARS) is latest trending area of research, as publication in this domain are few and recently published. ARS is associated with human behaviour, human factors, mood, senses, emotions, facial expressions, body gesture and physiological with human-computer interaction (HCI). Due to this assortment and various interests, more explanation is required, as it is in premature phase and growing as compared to other fields. So we have done literature review (LR) in the affective recommender systems by doing classification, incorporate reputed articles published from the year 2003 to February 2016. We include articles which highlight, analyse, and perform a study on affective recommender systems. This article categorizes, synthesizes, and discusses the research and development in ARS. We have classified and managed ARS papers according to different perspectives: research gaps, nature, algorithm or method adopted, datasets, the platform on executed, types of information and evaluation techniques applied. The researchers and professionals will positively support this survey article for understanding the current position, research in affective recommender systems and will guide future trends, opportunity and research focus in ARS.

  16. Clustering recommendations to compute agent reputation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedi, Punam; Kaur, Harmeet

    2005-03-01

    Traditional centralized approaches to security are difficult to apply to multi-agent systems which are used nowadays in e-commerce applications. Developing a notion of trust that is based on the reputation of an agent can provide a softer notion of security that is sufficient for many multi-agent applications. Our paper proposes a mechanism for computing reputation of the trustee agent for use by the trustier agent. The trustier agent computes the reputation based on its own experience as well as the experience the peer agents have with the trustee agents. The trustier agents intentionally interact with the peer agents to get their experience information in the form of recommendations. We have also considered the case of unintentional encounters between the referee agents and the trustee agent, which can be directly between them or indirectly through a set of interacting agents. The clustering is done to filter off the noise in the recommendations in the form of outliers. The trustier agent clusters the recommendations received from referee agents on the basis of the distances between recommendations using the hierarchical agglomerative method. The dendogram hence obtained is cut at the required similarity level which restricts the maximum distance between any two recommendations within a cluster. The cluster with maximum number of elements denotes the views of the majority of recommenders. The center of this cluster represents the reputation of the trustee agent which can be computed using c-means algorithm.

  17. Biosecurity management recommendations for rinderpest laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodsky, Benjamin H [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Caskey, Susan Adele [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Arndt, William [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-10-01

    Rinderpest is a virus that can affect cattle and other even toes ungulates; evidence of outbreaks from over 10,000 years ago highlights the potential impact of this virus. During the 18th century, Rinderpest caused huge losses in cattle throughout Europe. Starting in the mid 1900’s vaccination efforts seemed feasible and work was initiated to vaccinate large populations of cattle. Walter Plowright received numerous awards for updating the Rinderpest vaccine which many believed would be the key to eradication. Vaccination of the disease lead to a massive drop in outbreaks and the last confirmed case of Rinderpest in Asia was in 2000 and in Africa in 2001.1 At this point, Rinderpest has been declared eradicated from nature. However, stocks of the virus are still in many laboratories.2 Rinderpest was investigated as a biological weapon agent during the Second World War. However, following WWII, rinderpest was not considered a high risk as a biological weapon as there was no direct military advantage. Now, with the concern of the use of biological agents as weapons in acts of terrorism, concern regarding rinderpest has resurfaced. Since the eradication of this virus, cattle populations are highly susceptibility to the virus and the economic impacts would be significant. This paper will discuss the specific nature of the terrorism risks associated with rinderpest; and based upon those risks provide recommendations regarding biosecurity management. The biosecurity management measures will be defined in a manner to align with the CWA 15793: the laboratory biorisk management document.

  18. Useful and usable alarm systems : recommended properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veland, Oeystein; Kaarstad, Magnhild; Seim, Lars Aage; Foerdestroemmen, Nils T.

    2001-01-15

    This document describes the result of a study on alarm systems conducted by IFE in Halden. The study was initiated by the Norwegian Petroleum Directorate. The objective was to identify and formulate a set of important properties for useful and usable alarm systems. The study is mainly based on review of the latest international recognised guidelines and standards on alarm systems available at the time of writing, with focus on realistic solutions from research and best practice from different industries. In addition, IFE experiences gathered through specification and design of alarm systems and experimental activities in HAMMLAB and bilateral projects, have been utilized where relevant. The document presents a total of 43 recommendations divided into a number of general recommendations and more detailed recommendations on alarm generation, structuring, prioritisation, presentation and handling. (Author)

  19. Reducing Delay in Diagnosis: Multistage Recommendation Tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wandtke, Ben; Gallagher, Sarah

    2017-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether a multistage tracking system could improve communication between health care providers, reducing the risk of delay in diagnosis related to inconsistent communication and tracking of radiology follow-up recommendations. Unconditional recommendations for imaging follow-up of all diagnostic imaging modalities excluding mammography (n = 589) were entered into a database and tracked through a multistage tracking system for 13 months. Tracking interventions were performed for patients for whom completion of recommended follow-up imaging could not be identified 1 month after the recommendation due date. Postintervention compliance with the follow-up recommendation required examination completion or clinical closure (i.e., biopsy, limited life expectancy or death, or subspecialist referral). Baseline radiology information system checks performed 1 month after the recommendation due date revealed timely completion of 43.1% of recommended imaging studies at our institution before intervention. Three separate tracking interventions were studied, showing effectiveness between 29.0% and 57.8%. The multistage tracking system increased the examination completion rate to 70.5% (a 52% increase) and reduced the rate of unknown follow-up compliance and the associated risk of delay in diagnosis to 13.9% (a 74% decrease). Examinations completed after tracking intervention generated revenue of 4.1 times greater than the labor cost. Performing sequential radiology recommendation tracking interventions can substantially reduce the rate of unknown follow-up compliance and add value to the health system. Unknown follow-up compliance is a risk factor for delay in diagnosis, a form of preventable medical error commonly identified in malpractice claims involving radiologists and office-based practitioners.

  20. Epilepsy and recommendations for breastfeeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiby, Gyri; Bjørk, Marte; Engelsen, Bernt A; Gilhus, Nils Erik

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this paper is to provide a synopsis of benefits and potential harmful effects of exposure to antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) via breastmilk, and present recommendations for breastfeeding in women with epilepsy. The article is based on a discretionary selection of English language articles retrieved by a literature search in the PubMed database, the LactMed database, and the authors' clinical experience. Breastfeeding is associated with benefits for the infant, including nutrition, protection against infectious and immunological disease, and promotion of development and psychological attachment. Exposure to AEDs via breastmilk could potentially produce side effects or negatively affect development. Most studies on AED transfer through breastmilk report infant serum levels well below the limit of an expected pharmacological effect. Some drugs have the potential to reach significant serum levels in breastfed infants, such as barbiturates, benzodiazepines, lamotrigine, and ethosuximide. Thus, breastfed infants should be monitored for side effects. Still, adverse symptoms are rarely reported in breastfed infants of mothers taking AEDs, and prospective studies have failed to demonstrate any negative developmental effects in children that have been exposed to AEDs via breastmilk. The nursing infant's degree of drug exposure can be minimized by breastfeeding when drug concentrations in the milk are low, reducing maternal AED dosage to prepregnancy levels, and administering mixed nutrition. Most AEDs are considered safe or moderately safe during breastfeeding. Mothers with epilepsy should be encouraged to breastfeed, provided careful monitoring of the infant. Copyright © 2015 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. IMIA Educational Recommendations and Nursing Informatics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mantas, John; Hasman, Arie

    2017-01-01

    The updated version of the IMIA educational recommendations has given an adequate guidelines platform for developing educational programs in Biomedical and Health Informatics at all levels of education, vocational training, and distance learning. This chapter will provide a brief introduction of the

  2. Mining Feedback in Ranking and Recommendation Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Ziming

    2009-01-01

    The amount of online information has grown exponentially over the past few decades, and users become more and more dependent on ranking and recommendation systems to address their information seeking needs. The advance in information technologies has enabled users to provide feedback on the utilities of the underlying ranking and recommendation…

  3. Recommendations based on semantically enriched museum collections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y. Wang (Yanjing); N. Stash; L. Aroyo; P. Gorgels; L. Rutledge (Lloyd); G. Schreiber

    2008-01-01

    htmlabstractThis article presents the CHIP demonstrator1 for providing personalized access to digital museum collections. It consists of three main components: Art Recommender, Tour Wizard, and Mobile Tour Guide. Based on the semantically enriched Rijksmuseum Amsterdam2 collection, we show how

  4. Staff Knowledge, Adherence to Infection Control Recommendations ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: We evaluated hemodialysis (HD) staff knowledge, adherence to infection control recommendations and seroconversion rates for hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) in 13 centers that continuously provided HD services in Khartoum State between June 2009 and November 2010. Methods: The ...

  5. Implementing a Commercial-Strength Parallel Hybrid Movie Recommendation Engine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amolochitis, Emmanouil; Christou, Ioannis T.; Tan, Zheng-Hua

    2014-01-01

    AMORE is a hybrid recommendation system that provides movie recommendations for a major triple-play services provider in Greece. Combined with our own implementations of several user-, item-, and content-based recommendation algorithms, AMORE significantly outperforms other state-of-the-art imple......-of-the-art implementations both in solution quality and response time. AMORE currently serves daily recommendation requests for all active subscribers of the provider's video-on-demand services and has contributed to an increase of rental profits and customer retention....

  6. Recommendations for Weight Gain During Pregnancy in the Context of the Obesity Epidemic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Kathleen M.; Abrams, Barbara; Bodnar, Lisa M.; Butte, Nancy F.; Catalano, Patrick M.; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria

    2015-01-01

    The Institute of Medicine and the National Research Council have issued new guidelines for gestational weight gain as well as recommendations for action and research that call for “a radical change in the care provided to women of childbearing age.” For the first time, these guidelines consider the outcomes of both mother and child during and after delivery and the trade-offs between them. The recommendations call for women to begin pregnancy at a healthy weight and to gain within the guidelines, a goal not previously achieved. They also call for individualized preconceptional, prenatal, and postpartum care to help women attain a healthy weight, gain within the guidelines, and return to a healthy weight. Scientific evidence was inadequate to provide specific guidelines by obesity class or to support a public health recommendation to reduce the guidelines below 5–9 kg (11–20 lb) for obese women. PMID:20966705

  7. Recommendation Sets and Choice Queries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Viappiani, Paolo Renato; Boutilier, Craig

    2011-01-01

    Utility elicitation is an important component of many applications, such as decision support systems and recommender systems. Such systems query users about their preferences and offer recommendations based on the system's belief about the user's utility function. We analyze the connection between...... the problem of generating optimal recommendation sets and the problem of generating optimal choice queries, considering both Bayesian and regret-based elicitation. Our results show that, somewhat surprisingly, under very general circumstances, the optimal recommendation set coincides with the optimal query....

  8. Exposure Assessment Based Recommendations to Improve Nanosafety at Nanoliposome Production Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe Bressot

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The NANOFOL concept aims at creating nanodevices containing a drug for inflammatory disorder treatment. This paper provides recommendations for nanosafety based on a measurement campaign which aimed at identifying exposure risks with respect to two specific phases of the product’s lifecycle, that is, production of the device and its waste management. The nanoparticle’s presence both in air and in liquid phase was studied. While no emissions were detected during the production period, many recommendations have been made, particularly regarding the nanowaste treatment, based on nanosafety guidelines.

  9. Creating adaptive web recommendation system based on user behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walek, Bogdan

    2018-01-01

    The paper proposes adaptive web recommendation system based on user behavior. The proposed system uses expert system to evaluating and recommending suitable items of content. Relevant items are subsequently evaluated and filtered based on history of visited items and user´s preferred categories of items. Main parts of the proposed system are presented and described. The proposed recommendation system is verified on specific example.

  10. Providing Compassion through Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydia Royeen

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Meg Kral, MS, OTR/L, CLT, is the cover artist for the Summer 2015 issue of The Open Journal of Occupational Therapy. Her untitled piece of art is an oil painting and is a re-creation of a photograph taken while on vacation. Meg is currently supervisor of outpatient services at Rush University Medical Center. She is lymphedema certified and has a specific interest in breast cancer lymphedema. Art and occupational therapy serve similar purposes for Meg: both provide a sense of flow. She values the outcomes, whether it is a piece of art or improved functional status

  11. Nomenclature in laboratory robotics and automation (IUPAC Recommendation 1994).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Kingston, H M; Kingstonz, M L

    1994-01-01

    These recommended terms have been prepared to help provide a uniform approach to terminology and notation in laboratory automation and robotics. Since the terminology used in laboratory automation and robotics has been derived from diverse backgrounds, it is often vague, imprecise, and in some cases, in conflict with classical automation and robotic nomenclature.These dejinitions have been assembled from standards, monographs, dictionaries, journal articles, and documents of international organizations emphasizing laboratory and industrial automation and robotics. When appropriate, definitions have been taken directly from the original source and identified with that source. However, in some cases no acceptable definition could be found and a new definition was prepared to define the object, term, or action. Attention has been given to defining specific robot types, coordinate systems, parameters, attributes, communication protocols and associated workstations and hardware. Diagrams are included to illustrate specific concepts that can best be understood by visualization.

  12. Implementing Trauma-Informed Care: Recommendations on the Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane K. Yatchmenoff

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The importance of trauma-informed care (TIC is now recognized across most health and human service systems. Providers are calling for concrete examples of what TIC means in practice and how to create more trauma-informed organizations. However, much of the current understanding about implementation rests on principles and values rather than specific recommendations for action. This paper addresses this gap based on observations during the provision of technical assistance over the past decade in fields like mental health and addictions, juvenile justice, child welfare, healthcare, housing, and education. Focusing on the infrastructure for making change (the TIC workgroup, assessment and planning, and the early stages of implementation, the authors discuss barriers and challenges that are commonly encountered, strategies that have proven effective in addressing barriers, and specific action steps that can help sustain momentum for the longer term.

  13. Information Retrieval and Graph Analysis Approaches for Book Recommendation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chahinez Benkoussas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A combination of multiple information retrieval approaches is proposed for the purpose of book recommendation. In this paper, book recommendation is based on complex user's query. We used different theoretical retrieval models: probabilistic as InL2 (Divergence from Randomness model and language model and tested their interpolated combination. Graph analysis algorithms such as PageRank have been successful in Web environments. We consider the application of this algorithm in a new retrieval approach to related document network comprised of social links. We called Directed Graph of Documents (DGD a network constructed with documents and social information provided from each one of them. Specifically, this work tackles the problem of book recommendation in the context of INEX (Initiative for the Evaluation of XML retrieval Social Book Search track. A series of reranking experiments demonstrate that combining retrieval models yields significant improvements in terms of standard ranked retrieval metrics. These results extend the applicability of link analysis algorithms to different environments.

  14. Neural bases of recommendations differ according to social network structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Matthew Brook; Bayer, Joseph B; Cascio, Christopher N; Falk, Emily B

    2017-01-01

    Ideas spread across social networks, but not everyone is equally positioned to be a successful recommender. Do individuals with more opportunities to connect otherwise unconnected others-high information brokers-use their brains differently than low information brokers when making recommendations? We test the hypothesis that those with more opportunities for information brokerage may use brain systems implicated in considering the thoughts, perspectives, and mental states of others (i.e. 'mentalizing') more when spreading ideas. We used social network analysis to quantify individuals' opportunities for information brokerage. This served as a predictor of activity within meta-analytically defined neural regions associated with mentalizing (dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, temporal parietal junction, medial prefrontal cortex, /posterior cingulate cortex, middle temporal gyrus) as participants received feedback about peer opinions of mobile game apps. Higher information brokers exhibited more activity in this mentalizing network when receiving divergent peer feedback and updating their recommendation. These data support the idea that those in different network positions may use their brains differently to perform social tasks. Different social network positions might provide more opportunities to engage specific psychological processes. Or those who tend to engage such processes more may place themselves in systematically different network positions. These data highlight the value of integrating levels of analysis, from brain networks to social networks. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. National recommendations: Psychosocial management of diabetes in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalra, Sanjay; Sridhar, G. R.; Balhara, Yatan Pal Singh; Sahay, Rakesh Kumar; Bantwal, Ganapathy; Baruah, Manash P.; John, Mathew; Unnikrishnan, Ambika Gopalkrishnan; Madhu, K.; Verma, Komal; Sreedevi, Aswathy; Shukla, Rishi; Prasanna Kumar, K. M.

    2013-01-01

    Although several evidence-based guidelines for managing diabetes are available, few, if any, focus on the psychosocial aspects of this challenging condition. It is increasingly evident that psychosocial treatment is integral to a holistic approach of managing diabetes; it forms the key to realizing appropriate biomedical outcomes. Dearth of attention is as much due to lack of awareness as due to lack of guidelines. This lacuna results in diversity among the standards of clinical practice, which, in India, is also due to the size and complexity of psychosocial care itself. This article aims to highlight evidence- and experience-based Indian guidelines for the psychosocial management of diabetes. A systemic literature was conducted for peer-reviewed studies and publications covering psychosocial aspects in diabetes. Recommendations are classified into three domains: General, psychological and social, and graded by the weight they should have in clinical practice and by the degree of support from the literature. Ninety-four recommendations of varying strength are made to help professionals identify the psychosocial interventions needed to support patients and their families and explore their role in devising support strategies. They also aid in developing core skills needed for effective diabetes management. These recommendations provide practical guidelines to fulfill unmet needs in diabetes management, and help achieve a qualitative improvement in the way physicians manage patients. The guidelines, while maintaining an India-specific character, have global relevance, which is bound to grow as the diabetes pandemic throws up new challenges. PMID:23869293

  16. Recommendations for medical training: a Native Hawaiian patient perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamaka, Martina L; Paloma, Diane S L; Maskarinec, Gregory G

    2011-11-01

    Culturally competent health care providers are needed to eliminate healthcare disparities. In the State of Hawai'i, Native Hawaiians suffer some of the worst health disparities. Prior to implementing a cultural competency curriculum to address these disparities, the John A. Burns School of Medicine's Department of Native Hawaiian Health Cultural Competency Curriculum Development team asked Native Hawaiian patients about their experiences and recommendations. We conducted four focus groups of Native Hawaiians to obtain recommendations on physician training, to be incorporated into the curriculum. Participants came from both rural and urban areas. Classical qualitative analysis of data identified recurrent themes. Five primary themes, arising in all four groups, were: (1) customer service; (2) respect for the patient; (3) inter-personal skills; (4) thoroughness of care; and (5) costs of medical care. Secondary themes, occurring in three of the four groups, were: (1) cultural competency training; (2) the training of medical office staff; (3) continuity of care; and (4) the role of the patient. Participants specifically requested that medical students receive cultural competency training about the host culture, its history, values, and traditional and alternative healing practices. The emphasis participants placed on the need for cultural competency training of physicians supports the need to address the role of culture in medical education. Although most of the issues raised are not unique to Hawai'i, participants' recommendations to teach students about the host culture and traditional healing practices identify important themes not usually found in medical school curricula.

  17. 77 FR 35688 - Draft and Revised Draft Guidances for Industry Describing Product-Specific Bioequivalence...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-14

    ... guidances represent the Agency's current thinking on product-specific design of BE studies to support ANDAs... provide product-specific guidance on the design of BE studies to support abbreviated new drug applications... the process that would be used to make product-specific BE recommendations available to the public on...

  18. 77 FR 10536 - Draft and Revised Draft Guidances for Industry Describing Product-Specific Bioequivalence...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-22

    ...). The guidances represent the Agency's current thinking on product-specific design of BE studies to... provide product-specific guidance on the design of BE studies to support abbreviated new drug applications... the process that would be used to make product-specific BE recommendations available to the public on...

  19. 78 FR 20925 - Draft and Revised Draft Guidances for Industry Describing Product-Specific Bioequivalence...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-08

    ... represent the Agency's current thinking on product-specific design of BE studies to support ANDAs. They do... provide product-specific guidance on the design of BE studies to support abbreviated new drug applications... the process that would be used to make product-specific BE recommendations available to the public on...

  20. Redundant correlation effect on personalized recommendation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Tian; Han, Teng-Yue; Zhong, Li-Xin; Zhang, Zi-Ke; Chen, Guang

    2014-02-01

    The high-order redundant correlation effect is investigated for a hybrid algorithm of heat conduction and mass diffusion (HHM), through both heat conduction biased (HCB) and mass diffusion biased (MDB) correlation redundancy elimination processes. The HCB and MDB algorithms do not introduce any additional tunable parameters, but keep the simple character of the original HHM. Based on two empirical datasets, the Netflix and MovieLens, the HCB and MDB are found to show better recommendation accuracy for both the overall objects and the cold objects than the HHM algorithm. Our work suggests that properly eliminating the high-order redundant correlations can provide a simple and effective approach to accurate recommendation.

  1. A Literature Review on Recommender Systems Algorithms, Techniques and Evaluations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasra Madadipouya

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the most crucial issues, nowadays, is to provide personalized services to each individual based on their preferences. To achieve this goal, recommender system could be utilized as a tool to help the users in decision-making process offering different items and options. They are utilized to predict and recommend relevant items to end users. In this case an item could be anything such as a document, a location, a movie, an article or even a user (friend suggestion. The main objective of the recommender systems is to suggest items which have great potential to be liked by users. In modern recommender systems, various methods are combined together with the aim of extracting patterns in available datasets. Combination of different algorithms make prediction more convoluted since various parameters should be taken into account in providing recommendations. Recommendations could be personalized or non-personalized. In non-personalized type, selection of the items for a user is based on the number of the times that an item has been visited in the past by other users. However, in the personalized type, the main objective is to provide the best items to the user based on her taste and preferences. Although, in many domains recommender systems gained significant improvements and provide better services for users, it still requires further research to improve accuracy of recommendations in many aspects. In fact, the current available recommender systems are far from the ideal model of the recommender system. This paper reviews state of art in recommender systems algorithms and techniques which is necessary to identify the gaps and improvement areas. In addition to that, we provide possible solutions to overcome shortages and known issues of recommender systems as well as discussing about recommender systems evaluation methods and metrics in details.

  2. PROSPECT: evidence-based, procedure-specific postoperative pain management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehlet, Henrik; Wilkinson, Roseanne C; Fischer, H Barrie J; Camu, Frederic

    2007-03-01

    Existing general guidelines for perioperative pain management do not consider procedure-specific differences in analgesic efficacy or applicability of a given analgesic technique. For the clinician, an evidence-based, procedure-specific guideline for perioperative pain management is therefore desirable. This chapter reviews the methodology and results of a public web site (www.postoppain.org) which provides information and recommendations for evidence-based procedure-specific postoperative pain management.

  3. Functional Foods Programs Serve as a Vehicle to Provide Nutrition Education to Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirignano, Sherri M.

    2011-01-01

    An increase in consumer interest in functional foods provides an opportunity for FCS educators to use this topic in Extension programming to promote current nutrition recommendations. The Functional Foods for Life Educational Programs (FFL) are a curriculum of six evidence-based mini-seminars that highlight specific functional foods that have the…

  4. The complex becomes more complex: protein-protein interactions of SnRK1 with DUF581 family proteins provide a framework for cell- and stimulus type-specific SnRK1 signaling in plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madlen eNietzsche

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In plants, SNF1-related kinase (SnRK1 responds to the availability of carbohydrates as well as to environmental stresses by down-regulating ATP consuming biosynthetic processes, while stimulating energy-generating catabolic reactions through gene expression and post-transcriptional regulation. The functional SnRK1 complex is a heterotrimer where the catalytic alpha subunit associates with a regulatory beta subunit and an activating gamma subunit. Several different metabolites as well as the hormone abscisic acid (ABA have been shown to modulate SnRK1 activity in a cell- and stimulus-type specific manner. It has been proposed that tissue- or stimulus-specific expression of adapter proteins mediating SnRK1 regulation can at least partly explain the differences observed in SnRK1 signaling. By using yeast two-hybrid and in planta bi-molecular fluorescence complementation assays we were able to demonstrate that proteins containing the domain of unknown function (DUF 581 could interact with both isoforms of the SnRK1 alpha subunit (AKIN10/11 of Arabidopsis. A structure/function analysis suggests that the DUF581 is a generic SnRK1 interaction module and co-expression with DUF581 proteins in plant cells leads to reallocation of the kinase to specific regions within the nucleus. Yeast two-hybrid analyses suggest that SnRK1 and DUF581 proteins can share common interaction partners inside the nucleus. The analysis of available microarray data implies that expression of the 19 members of the DUF581 encoding gene family in Arabidopsis is differentially regulated by hormones and environmental cues, indicating specialized functions of individual family members. We hypothesize that DUF581 proteins could act as mediators conferring tissue- and stimulus-type specific differences in SnRK1 regulation.

  5. Work-life integration in neuropsychology: a review of the existing literature and preliminary recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feigon, Maia; Block, Cady; Guidotti Breting, Leslie; Boxley, Laura; Dawson, Erica; Cobia, Derin

    2017-12-13

    The purpose of the current review paper is to identify and describe challenges to work-life integration in neuropsychology, and from this review extrapolate an initial set of recommendations and present a set of scenarios in which the recommendations might apply in the hopes of improving quality of life for current and prospective neuropsychologists. Specific areas of focus include diversity, early and mid-career transitions, and potential barriers to advancement in specific practice settings. A broad review was conducted of extant literature on work-life integration. There is scant scientific literature in this area that is specific to neuropsychologists, or even psychology as a whole. Subsequently, the majority of this review was collected from more developed literatures in business and medical fields. The authors then provided recommendations based on experiences in their respective careers. Attempts were made to promote generalizability of recommendations for neuropsychologists in different settings. Evidence supports a potentially adverse impact on quality of life and overall life satisfaction when work and personal lives conflict. This manuscript identifies some of the potential risks when work and life responsibilities are not well integrated. It is anticipated this will serve as a catalyst for future studies on work-life integration in the field of neuropsychology, specifically.

  6. Generic knowledge-based analysis of social media for recommendations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Graaff, V.; van de Venis, Anne; van Keulen, Maurice; de By, R.A.

    2015-01-01

    Recommender systems have been around for decades to help people find the best matching item in a pre-defined item set. Knowledge-based recommender systems are used to match users based on information that links the two, but they often focus on a single, specific application, such as movies to watch

  7. [Recommendations for the management of candidemia in children in Latin America. Grupo Proyecto Épico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santolaya, María E; de Queiroz Telles, Flavio; Alvarado Matute, Tito; Colombo, Arnaldo Lopes; Zurita, Jeannete; Tiraboschi, Iris Nora; Cortes, Jorge Alberto; Thompson-Moya, Luis; Guzman-Blanco, Manuel; Sifuentes, Jose; Echevarría, Juan; Nucci, Marcio

    2013-01-01

    Candidemia is one of the most frequent opportunistic mycoses worldwide. Limited epidemiological studies in Latin America indicate that incidence rates are higher in this region than in the Northern Hemisphere. Diagnosis is often made late in the infection, affecting the initiation of antifungal therapy. A more scientific approach, based on specific parameters, for diagnosis and management of candidemia in Latin America is warranted. 'Recommendations for the diagnosis and management of candidemia' are a series of manuscripts that have been developed by members of the Latin America Invasive Mycosis Network. They aim to provide a set of best-evidence recommendations for the diagnosis and management of candidemia. This publication, 'Recommendations for the management of candidemia in children in Latin America', was written to provide guidance to healthcare professionals on the management of children who have, or who are at risk of, candidemia. Computerized searches of existing literature were performed by PubMed. The data were extensively reviewed and analyzed by members of the group. The group also met on two occasions to pose questions, discuss conflicting views, and deliberate on a series of management recommendations. 'Recommendations for the management of candidemia in children in Latin America' includes prophylaxis, empirical therapy, therapy for proven candidemia, patient work-up following diagnosis of candidemia, duration of candidemia treatment, and central venous catheter management in children with candidemia. This manuscript is the third of this series that deals with diagnosis and treatment of invasive candidiasis. Other publications in this series include: 'Recommendations for the diagnosis of candidemia in Latin America', 'Recommendations for the management of candidemia in adults in Latin America', and 'Recommendations for the management of candidemia in neonates in Latin America'. Copyright © 2013 Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. Published by

  8. [Recommendations for the management of candidemia in neonates in Latin America. Grupo Proyecto Épico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santolaya, María E; Alvarado Matute, Tito; de Queiroz Telles, Flavio; Colombo, Arnaldo Lopes; Zurita, Jeannete; Tiraboschi, Iris Nora; Cortes, Jorge Alberto; Thompson-Moya, Luis; Guzman-Blanco, Manuel; Sifuentes, Jose; Echevarría, Juan; Nucci, Marcio

    2013-01-01

    Candidemia is one of the most frequent opportunistic mycoses worldwide. Limited epidemiological studies in Latin America indicate that incidence rates are higher in this region than in the Northern Hemisphere. Diagnosis is often made late in the infection, affecting the initiation of antifungal therapy. A more scientific approach, based on specific parameters, for diagnosis and management of candidemia in Latin America is warranted. 'Recommendations for the diagnosis and management of candidemia' are a series of manuscripts that have been developed by members of the Latin America Invasive Mycosis Network. They aim to provide a set of best-evidence recommendations for the diagnosis and management of candidemia. This publication, 'Recommendations for the management of candidemia in neonates in Latin America', was written to provide guidance to healthcare professionals on the management of neonates who have, or who are at risk of, candidemia. Computerized searches of existing literature were performed by PubMed. The data were extensively reviewed and analyzed by members of the group. The group also met on two occasions to pose questions, discuss conflicting views, and deliberate on a series of management recommendations. 'Recommendations for the management of candidemia in neonates in Latin America' includes prophylaxis, empirical therapy, therapy for proven candidemia, patient work-up following diagnosis of candidemia, central venous catheter management, and management of complications. This manuscript is the fourth of this series that deals with diagnosis and treatment of invasive candidiasis. Other publications in this series include: 'Recommendations for the diagnosis of candidemia in Latin America', 'Recommendations for the management of candidemia in adults in Latin America', and 'Recommendations for the management of candidemia in children in Latin America'. Copyright © 2013 Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights

  9. [Recommendations for the management of candidemia in adults in Latin America. Grupo Proyecto Épico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nucci, Marcio; Thompson-Moya, Luis; Guzman-Blanco, Manuel; Tiraboschi, Iris Nora; Cortes, Jorge Alberto; Echevarría, Juan; Sifuentes, Jose; Zurita, Jeannete; Santolaya, María E; Alvarado Matute, Tito; de Queiroz Telles, Flavio; Colombo, Arnaldo Lopes

    2013-01-01

    Candidemia is one of the most frequent opportunistic mycoses worldwide. Limited epidemiological studies in Latin America indicate that incidence rates are higher in this region than in the Northern Hemisphere. Diagnosis is often made late in the infection, affecting the initiation of antifungal therapy. A more scientific approach, based on specific parameters, for diagnosis and management of candidemia in Latin America is warranted. 'Recommendations for the diagnosis and management of candidemia' are a series of manuscripts that have been developed by members of the Latin America Invasive Mycosis Network. They aim to provide a set of best-evidence recommendations for the diagnosis and management of candidemia. This publication, 'Recommendations for the management of candidemia in adults in Latin America', was written to provide guidance to healthcare professionals on the management of adults who have, or who are at risk of, candidemia. Computerized searches of existing literature were performed by PubMed. The data were extensively reviewed and analyzed by members of the group. The group also met on two occasions to pose questions, discuss conflicting views, and deliberate on a series of management recommendations. 'Recommendations for the management of candidemia in adults in Latin America' includes prophylaxis, empirical therapy, therapy for proven candidemia, patient work-up following diagnosis of candidemia, duration of candidemia treatment, and central venous catheter management in patients with candidemia. This manuscript is the second of this series that deals with diagnosis and treatment of invasive candidiasis. Other publications in this series include: 'Recommendations for the diagnosis of candidemia in Latin America', 'Recommendations for the management of candidemia in children in Latin America', and 'Recommendations for the management of candidemia in neonates in Latin America'. Copyright © 2013 Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. Published by

  10. [Recommendations for the diagnosis of candidemia in Latin America. Grupo Proyecto Épico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, Arnaldo Lopes; Cortes, Jorge Alberto; Zurita, Jeannete; Guzman-Blanco, Manuel; Alvarado Matute, Tito; de Queiroz Telles, Flavio; Santolaya, María E; Tiraboschi, Iris Nora; Echevarría, Juan; Sifuentes, Jose; Thompson-Moya, Luis; Nucci, Marcio

    2013-01-01

    Candidemia is one of the most frequent opportunistic mycoses worldwide. Limited epidemiological studies in Latin America indicate that incidence rates are higher in this region than in the Northern Hemisphere. Diagnosis is often made late in the infection, affecting the initiation of antifungal therapy. A more scientific approach, based on specific parameters, for diagnosis and management of candidemia in Latin America is warranted. 'Recommendations for the diagnosis and management of candidemia' are a series of manuscripts that have been developed by members of the Latin America Invasive Mycosis Network. They aim to provide a set of best-evidence recommendations for the diagnosis and management of candidemia. This publication, 'Recommendations for the diagnosis of candidemia in Latin America', was written to provide guidance to healthcare professionals on the diagnosis of candidemia, as well as on the usefulness and application of susceptibility testing in patients who have a confirmed diagnosis of candidemia. Computerized searches of existing literature were performed by PubMed. The data were extensively reviewed and analyzed by members of the group. The group also met on two occasions to pose questions, discuss conflicting views, and deliberate on a series of management recommendations. 'Recommendations for the diagnosis of candidemia in Latin America' includes diagnostic methods used to detect candidemia, Candida species identification, and susceptibility testing. The availability of methods, their costs and treatment settings are considered. This manuscript is the first of this series that deals with diagnosis and treatment of invasive candidiasis. Other publications in this series include: 'Recommendations for the management of candidemia in adults in Latin America', 'Recommendations for the management of candidemia in children in Latin America', and 'Recommendations for the management of candidemia in neonates in Latin America'. Copyright © 2013 Revista

  11. Do recommender systems benefit users? a modeling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Chi Ho

    2016-04-01

    Recommender systems are present in many web applications to guide purchase choices. They increase sales and benefit sellers, but whether they benefit customers by providing relevant products remains less explored. While in many cases the recommended products are relevant to users, in other cases customers may be tempted to purchase the products only because they are recommended. Here we introduce a model to examine the benefit of recommender systems for users, and find that recommendations from the system can be equivalent to random draws if one always follows the recommendations and seldom purchases according to his or her own preference. Nevertheless, with sufficient information about user preferences, recommendations become accurate and an abrupt transition to this accurate regime is observed for some of the studied algorithms. On the other hand, we find that high estimated accuracy indicated by common accuracy metrics is not necessarily equivalent to high real accuracy in matching users with products. This disagreement between estimated and real accuracy serves as an alarm for operators and researchers who evaluate recommender systems merely with accuracy metrics. We tested our model with a real dataset and observed similar behaviors. Finally, a recommendation approach with improved accuracy is suggested. These results imply that recommender systems can benefit users, but the more frequently a user purchases the recommended products, the less relevant the recommended products are in matching user taste.

  12. Automatic Recommendation of Astronomy Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henneken, Edwin A.; Kurtz, M. J.; Accomazzi, A.; Grant, C. S.; Thompson, D.; Bohlen, E.; Di Milia, G.; Luker, J.; Murray, S. S.

    2011-01-01

    Authors publish because they want to transfer information. An essential ingredient for this transfer is being able to find this information. As the Literature Universe is expanding rapidly, finding your way in this deluge of information can be a daunting task. How do you find what you are looking for in a reasonable amount of time and more importantly, information you could not have found using the normal information discovery model? When you have some prior information (like author names and/or subject keywords), you can use your favorite search engine and apply that information as filters. There are also more sophisticated services like the myADS service of the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS), that do intelligent filtering for you and provide you with customized suggestions. Alternatively, you can ask somebody you consider to be an expert. On this poster we describe a method (the "recommender system") that mimics this information "ask the export" discovery model, argue that it is practically feasible to incorporate this method as a useful addition to the existing ADS service and show that it is able to produce meaningful results. The ADS is funded by NASA Grant NNX09AB39G.

  13. Specific Dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidoo, Sandhya

    The investigation reported in this volume attempts to clarify some issues relating to the existence, nature, and causes of specific dyslexia. Based on an extended study of 98 boys of at least average intelligence with severe reading and spelling problems, the report provides detailed data relating to their developmental and perinatal histories,…

  14. Distributed Online Learning in Social Recommender Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekin, Cem; Zhang, Simpson; van der Schaar, Mihaela

    2014-08-01

    In this paper, we consider decentralized sequential decision making in distributed online recommender systems, where items are recommended to users based on their search query as well as their specific background including history of bought items, gender and age, all of which comprise the context information of the user. In contrast to centralized recommender systems, in which there is a single centralized seller who has access to the complete inventory of items as well as the complete record of sales and user information, in decentralized recommender systems each seller/learner only has access to the inventory of items and user information for its own products and not the products and user information of other sellers, but can get commission if it sells an item of another seller. Therefore the sellers must distributedly find out for an incoming user which items to recommend (from the set of own items or items of another seller), in order to maximize the revenue from own sales and commissions. We formulate this problem as a cooperative contextual bandit problem, analytically bound the performance of the sellers compared to the best recommendation strategy given the complete realization of user arrivals and the inventory of items, as well as the context-dependent purchase probabilities of each item, and verify our results via numerical examples on a distributed data set adapted based on Amazon data. We evaluate the dependence of the performance of a seller on the inventory of items the seller has, the number of connections it has with the other sellers, and the commissions which the seller gets by selling items of other sellers to its users.

  15. Vaccine hesitancy and healthcare providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, Pauline; Meurice, François; Stanberry, Lawrence R; Glismann, Steffen; Rosenthal, Susan L; Larson, Heidi J

    2016-12-20

    While most people vaccinate according to the recommended schedule, this success is challenged by individuals and groups who delay or refuse vaccines. The aim of this article is to review studies on vaccine hesitancy among healthcare providers (HCPs), and the influences of their own vaccine confidence and vaccination behaviour on their vaccination recommendations to others. The search strategy was developed in Medline and then adapted across several multidisciplinary mainstream databases including Embase Classic & Embase, and PschInfo. All foreign language articles were included if the abstract was available in English. A total of 185 articles were included in the literature review. 66% studied the vaccine hesitancy among HCPs, 17% analysed concerns, attitudes and/or behaviour of HCPs towards vaccinating others, and 9% were about evaluating intervention(s). Overall, knowledge about particular vaccines, their efficacy and safety, helped to build HCPs own confidence in vaccines and their willingness to recommend vaccines to others. The importance of societal endorsement and support from colleagues was also reported. In the face of emerging vaccine hesitancy, HCPs still remain the most trusted advisor and influencer of vaccination decisions. The capacity and confidence of HCPs, though, are stretched as they are faced with time constraints, increased workload and limited resources, and often have inadequate information or training support to address parents' questions. Overall, HCPs need more support to manage the quickly evolving vaccine environment as well as changing public, especially those who are reluctant or refuse vaccination. Some recommended strategies included strengthening trust between HCPs, health authorities and policymakers, through more shared involvement in the establishment of vaccine recommendations. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Structural insight into the specificity of the B3 DNA-binding domains provided by the co-crystal structure of the C-terminal fragment of BfiI restriction enzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golovenko, Dmitrij; Manakova, Elena; Zakrys, Linas; Zaremba, Mindaugas; Sasnauskas, Giedrius; Gražulis, Saulius; Siksnys, Virginijus

    2014-04-01

    The B3 DNA-binding domains (DBDs) of plant transcription factors (TF) and DBDs of EcoRII and BfiI restriction endonucleases (EcoRII-N and BfiI-C) share a common structural fold, classified as the DNA-binding pseudobarrel. The B3 DBDs in the plant TFs recognize a diverse set of target sequences. The only available co-crystal structure of the B3-like DBD is that of EcoRII-N (recognition sequence 5'-CCTGG-3'). In order to understand the structural and molecular mechanisms of specificity of B3 DBDs, we have solved the crystal structure of BfiI-C (recognition sequence 5'-ACTGGG-3') complexed with 12-bp cognate oligoduplex. Structural comparison of BfiI-C-DNA and EcoRII-N-DNA complexes reveals a conserved DNA-binding mode and a conserved pattern of interactions with the phosphodiester backbone. The determinants of the target specificity are located in the loops that emanate from the conserved structural core. The BfiI-C-DNA structure presented here expands a range of templates for modeling of the DNA-bound complexes of the B3 family of plant TFs.

  17. Avoiding congestion in recommender systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xiaolong; Lü, Linyuan; Liu, Runran; Zhang, Jianlin

    2014-06-01

    Recommender systems use the historical activities and personal profiles of users to uncover their preferences and recommend objects. Most of the previous methods are based on objects’ (and/or users’) similarity rather than on their difference. Such approaches are subject to a high risk of increasingly exposing users to a narrowing band of popular objects. As a result, a few objects may be recommended to an enormous number of users, resulting in the problem of recommendation congestion, which is to be avoided, especially when the recommended objects are limited resources. In order to quantitatively measure a recommendation algorithm's ability to avoid congestion, we proposed a new metric inspired by the Gini index, which is used to measure the inequality of the individual wealth distribution in an economy. Besides this, a new recommendation method called directed weighted conduction (DWC) was developed by considering the heat conduction process on a user-object bipartite network with different thermal conductivities. Experimental results obtained for three benchmark data sets showed that the DWC algorithm can effectively avoid system congestion, and greatly improve the novelty and diversity, while retaining relatively high accuracy, in comparison with the state-of-the-art methods.

  18. Brownfields Recommendations for Sustainable Site Design — Green Landscape Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    The assessment of conditions contained in this report focuses on site-specific environmental and soil conditions that might affect recommendations related to sustainable landscaping and site design, stormwater management, and stormwater reuse.

  19. Context-Aware Recommender System: A Review of Recent Developmental Process and Future Research Direction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid Haruna

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Intelligent data handling techniques are beneficial for users; to store, process, analyze and access the vast amount of information produced by electronic and automated devices. The leading approach is to use recommender systems (RS to extract relevant information from the vast amount of knowledge. However, early recommender systems emerged without the cognizance to contextualize information regarding users’ recommendations. Considering the historical methodological limitations, Context-Aware Recommender Systems (CARS are now deployed, which leverage contextual information in addition to the classical two-dimensional search processes, providing better-personalized user recommendations. This paper presents a review of recent developmental processes as a fountainhead for the research of a context-aware recommender system. This work contributes by taking an integrated approach to the complete CARS developmental process, unlike other review papers, which only address a specific aspect of the CARS process. First, an in-depth review is presented pertaining to the state-of-the-art and classified literature, considering the domain of the application models, filters, extraction and evaluation approaches. Second, viewpoints are presented relating to the extraction of literature with analysis on the merit and demerit of each, and the evolving processes between them. Finally, the outstanding challenges and opportunities for future research directions are highlighted.

  20. An effective trust-based recommendation method using a novel graph clustering algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi, Parham; Ahmadian, Sajad; Akhlaghian, Fardin

    2015-10-01

    Recommender systems are programs that aim to provide personalized recommendations to users for specific items (e.g. music, books) in online sharing communities or on e-commerce sites. Collaborative filtering methods are important and widely accepted types of recommender systems that generate recommendations based on the ratings of like-minded users. On the other hand, these systems confront several inherent issues such as data sparsity and cold start problems, caused by fewer ratings against the unknowns that need to be predicted. Incorporating trust information into the collaborative filtering systems is an attractive approach to resolve these problems. In this paper, we present a model-based collaborative filtering method by applying a novel graph clustering algorithm and also considering trust statements. In the proposed method first of all, the problem space is represented as a graph and then a sparsest subgraph finding algorithm is applied on the graph to find the initial cluster centers. Then, the proposed graph clustering algorithm is performed to obtain the appropriate users/items clusters. Finally, the identified clusters are used as a set of neighbors to recommend unseen items to the current active user. Experimental results based on three real-world datasets demonstrate that the proposed method outperforms several state-of-the-art recommender system methods.

  1. A Novel Contextual Information Recommendation Model and Its Application in e-Commerce Customer Satisfaction Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feipeng Guo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the current supply chain environment, distributed cognition theory tells us that various types of context information in which a recommendation is provided are important for e-commerce customer satisfaction management. However, traditional recommendation model does not consider the distributed and differentiated impact of different contexts on user needs, and it also lacks adaptive capacity of contextual recommendation service. Thus, a contextual information recommendation model based on distributed cognition theory is proposed. Firstly, the model analyzes the differential impact of various sensitive contexts and specific examples on user interest and designs a user interest extraction algorithm based on distributed cognition theory. Then, the sensitive contexts extracted from user are introduced into the process of collaborative filtering recommendation. The model calculates similarity among user interests. Finally, a novel collaborative filtering algorithm integrating with context and user similarity is designed. The experimental results in e-commerce and benchmark dataset show that this model has a good ability to extract user interest and has higher recommendation accuracy compared with other methods.

  2. Evaluation of new asphalt concrete density specification. Final report, July 1987-June 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maupin, G.W.

    1988-06-01

    The purpose of the investigation was to evaluate a new asphalt concrete density specification that utilizes a nuclear gauge and a control strip technique. The specification was studied on two field projects, and recommendations were made to improve it. The recommendations were to eliminate the correction factor, increase the number of density determinations, adopt a uniform policy in establishing the Marshall density, and provide instruction concerning roller patterns.

  3. Specifying Specification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulo, Norbert

    2016-03-01

    This paper tackles the accusation that applied ethics is no serious academic enterprise because it lacks theoretical bracing. It does so in two steps. In the first step I introduce and discuss a highly acclaimed method to guarantee stability in ethical theories: Henry Richardson's specification. The discussion shows how seriously ethicists take the stability of the connection between the foundational parts of their theories and their further development as well as their "application" to particular problems or cases. A detailed scrutiny of specification leads to the second step, where I use insights from legal theory to inform the debate around stability from that point of view. This view reveals some of specification's limitations. I suggest that, once specification is sufficiently specified, it appears astonishingly similar to deduction as used in legal theory. Legal theory also provides valuable insight into the functional range of deduction and its relation to other forms of reasoning. This leads to a richer understanding of stability in normative theories and to a smart division of labor between deduction and other forms of reasoning. The comparison to legal theory thereby provides a framework for how different methods such as specification, deduction, balancing, and analogy relate to one another.

  4. Treatment recommendations for DSM-5-defined mixed features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblat, Joshua D; McIntyre, Roger S

    2017-04-01

    The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) mixed features specifier provides a less restrictive definition of mixed mood states, compared to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR), including mood episodes that manifest with subthreshold symptoms of the opposite mood state. A limited number of studies have assessed the efficacy of treatments specifically for DSM-5-defined mixed features in mood disorders. As such, there is currently an inadequate amount of data to appropriately inform evidence-based treatment guidelines of DSM-5 defined mixed features. However, given the high prevalence and morbidity of mixed features, treatment recommendations based on the currently available evidence along with expert opinion may be of benefit. This article serves to provide these interim treatment recommendations while humbly acknowledging the limited amount of evidence currently available. Second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) appear to have the greatest promise in the treatment of bipolar disorder (BD) with mixed features. Conventional mood stabilizing agents (ie, lithium and divalproex) may also be of benefit; however, they have been inadequately studied. In the treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD) with mixed features, the comparable efficacy of antidepressants versus other treatments, such as SGAs, remains unknown. As such, antidepressants remain first-line treatment of MDD with or without mixed features; however, there are significant safety concerns associated with antidepressant monotherapy when mixed features are present, which merits increased monitoring. Lurasidone is the only SGA monotherapy that has been shown to be efficacious specifically in the treatment of MDD with mixed features. Further research is needed to accurately determine the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of treatments specifically for mood episodes with mixed features to adequately inform

  5. Dietary Recommendations for Healthy Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Preschoolers Infographic How to Make a Healthy Home Dietary Recommendations for Healthy Children Top 10 Tips to Help Children Develop Healthy Habits Fruit and Veggie Toolkit for Kids Healthy Foods ...

  6. Management recommendations: Lee Metcalf Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is a review of land management practices at the Lee Metcalf National Wildlife Refuge, by a land use specialist. Recommendations, time frame and...

  7. Management recommendations: Sand Lake Complex

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is a review of land management practices at the Sand Lake National Wildlife Refuge, by a land use specialist. Recommendations, time frame and...

  8. RECOMMENDER SYSTEMS IN SOCIAL NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleomar Valois Batista Jr

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The continued and diversified growth of social networks has changed the way in which users interact with them. With these changes, what once was limited to social contact is now used for exchanging ideas and opinions, creating the need for new features. Users have so much information at their fingertips that they are unable to process it by themselves; hence, the need to develop new tools. Recommender systems were developed to address this need and many techniques were used for different approaches to the problem. To make relevant recommendations, these systems use large sets of data, not taking the social network of the user into consideration. Developing a recommender system that takes into account the social network of the user is another way of tackling the problem. The purpose of this project is to use the theory of six degrees of separation (Watts 2003 amongst users of a social network to enhance existing recommender systems.

  9. Strategic Arrivals Recommendation Tool Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — During the conduct of a NASA Research Announcement (NRA) in 2012 and 2013, the Mosaic ATM team first developed the Strategic Arrivals Recommendation Tool concept, or...

  10. Disability: recommendations for eye programmes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In 2012, CBM’s Medical Eye Care Advisory Working Group met in Hyderabad, India to discuss the inclusion of people with disabilities in eye care.As a result of these discussions, recommendations were made.

  11. Contemporaneous International Asthma Guidelines Present Differing Recommendations: An Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir Gupta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Several international groups develop asthma guidelines. Conflicting recommendations across guidelines have been described in several disease areas and may contribute to practice variability. Accordingly, we compared the latest Canadian Thoracic Society (CTS asthma guideline with contemporaneous international asthma guidelines to evaluate conflicting recommendations and their causes. Methods. We identified the latest CTS asthma guideline update (2012 and the following societies which also updated their guidelines in 2012: the British Thoracic Society and Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network and the Global Initiative for Asthma. We compared these three guidelines on (1 key methodological factors and (2 adult pharmacotherapy recommendations. Results. Methods used and documentation provided for literature search strategy and dates, evidence synthesis, outcomes considered, evidence appraisal, and recommendation formulation varied between guidelines. Criteria used to define suboptimal asthma control varied widely between guidelines. Inhaled corticosteroid dosing recommendations diverged, as did recommendations surrounding use of budesonide/formoterol as a reliever and controller and recommendations in the subsequent step. Conclusions. There are important differences between recommendations provided in contemporaneous asthma guidelines. Causes include differences in methods used for interpreting evidence and formulating recommendations. Adopting a common set of valid and explicit methods across international societies could harmonize recommendations and facilitate guideline implementation.

  12. Contemporaneous International Asthma Guidelines Present Differing Recommendations: An Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Samir; Paolucci, Emily; Kaplan, Alan; Boulet, Louis-Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Background. Several international groups develop asthma guidelines. Conflicting recommendations across guidelines have been described in several disease areas and may contribute to practice variability. Accordingly, we compared the latest Canadian Thoracic Society (CTS) asthma guideline with contemporaneous international asthma guidelines to evaluate conflicting recommendations and their causes. Methods. We identified the latest CTS asthma guideline update (2012) and the following societies which also updated their guidelines in 2012: the British Thoracic Society and Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network and the Global Initiative for Asthma. We compared these three guidelines on (1) key methodological factors and (2) adult pharmacotherapy recommendations. Results. Methods used and documentation provided for literature search strategy and dates, evidence synthesis, outcomes considered, evidence appraisal, and recommendation formulation varied between guidelines. Criteria used to define suboptimal asthma control varied widely between guidelines. Inhaled corticosteroid dosing recommendations diverged, as did recommendations surrounding use of budesonide/formoterol as a reliever and controller and recommendations in the subsequent step. Conclusions. There are important differences between recommendations provided in contemporaneous asthma guidelines. Causes include differences in methods used for interpreting evidence and formulating recommendations. Adopting a common set of valid and explicit methods across international societies could harmonize recommendations and facilitate guideline implementation.

  13. NUCLEAR DATA EVALUATIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HOLDEN, N.E.

    2005-05-08

    The published scientific literature is scanned and periodically evaluated for neutron and non-neutron nuclear data and the resulting recommendations are published [1,2]. After the literature has been scanned and appropriate data collected, there are often problems with regard to the treatment of the various types of data during this evaluation process and with regard to the method by which the recommendations are drawn from the assessment of the collection of individual measurements. Some-problems with uncertainties are presented.

  14. Cloud-based Recommendation Systems: Applications and Solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Çano, Erion

    2016-01-01

    Recommender systems have become extremely common in recent years, and are applied in a variety of applications. They help businesses increase their sales and customer satisfaction. More and more computing applications including recommender systems, are being deployed as cloud computing services. This papers presents some of the most common recommendation applications and solutions which follow SaaS, PaaS or other cloud computing service models. They are provided both from academia and busines...

  15. Finding useful users on twitter : twittomender the followee recommender

    OpenAIRE

    Hannon, John; McCarthy, Kevin; Smyth, Barry

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines an application for finding pertinent friends (followees) on Twitter. Whilst Twitter provides a great basis for receiving information, we believe a potential downfall lies in the lack of an effective way in which users of Twitter can find other Twitter users to follow. We apply several recommendation techniques to build a followee recommender for Twitter. We evaluate a variety of different recommendation strategies, using real-user data, to demonstrate the potential for thi...

  16. A Recommender System in the Cyber Defense Domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-27

    to provide recommended actions. Recommender systems have commonly been used to suggest items of interest to consumers. For example, Netflix uses a...recommender system 2 to suggest movies for users to watch. Netflix takes in information about what movies the user enjoys by asking them to rate movies...on a 1 to 5 scale and what types of movies the user enjoys based on genre. The exact algorithm implemented by Netflix is proprietary, but it is easy

  17. Wrist range of motion and motion frequency during toy and game play with a joint-specific controller specially designed to provide neuromuscular therapy: A proof of concept study in typically developing children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crisco, Joseph J; Schwartz, Joel B; Wilcox, Bethany; Brideau, Holly; Basseches, Benjamin; Kerman, Karen

    2015-08-20

    Upper extremities affected by hemiplegic cerebral palsy (CP) and other neuromuscular disorders have been demonstrated to benefit from therapy, and the greater the duration of the therapy, the greater the benefit. A great motivator for participating in and extending the duration of therapy with children is play. Our focus is on active motion therapy of the wrist and forearm. In this study we examine the wrist motions associated with playing with two toys and three computer games controlled by a specially-designed play controller. Twenty children (ages 5-11) with no diagnosis of a muscular disorder were recruited. The play controller was fitted to the wrist and forearm of each child and used to measure and log wrist flexion and extension. Play activity and enjoyment were quantified by average wrist range of motion (ROM), motion frequency measures, and a discrete visual scale. We found significant differences in the average wrist ROM and motion frequency among the toys and games, yet there were no differences in the level of enjoyment across all toys and games, which was high. These findings indicate which toys and games may elicit the greater number of goal-directed movements, and lay the foundation for our long-term goal to develop and evaluate innovative motion-specific play controllers that are engaging rehabilitative devices for enhancing therapy and promoting neural plasticity and functional recovery in children with CP. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The partial sequence of RNA 1 of the ophiovirus Ranunculus white mottle virus indicates its relationship to rhabdoviruses and provides candidate primers for an ophiovirus-specific RT-PCR test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaira, A M; Accotto, G P; Costantini, A; Milne, R G

    2003-06-01

    A 4018 nucleotide sequence was obtained for RNA 1 of Ranunculus white mottle virus (RWMV), genus Ophiovirus, representing an incomplete ORF of 1339 aa. Amino acid sequence analysis revealed significant similarities with RNA polymerases of viruses in the family Rhabdoviridae and a conserved domain of 685 aa, corresponding to the RdRp domain of those in the order Mononegavirales. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the genus Ophiovirus is not related to the genus Tenuivirus or the family Bunyaviridae, with which it has been linked, and probably deserves a special taxonomic position, within a new family. A pair of degenerate primers was designed from a consensus sequence obtained from a relatively conserved region in the RNA 1 of two members of the genus, Citrus psorosis virus (CPsV) and RWMV. The primers, used in RT-PCR experiments, amplified a 136 bp DNA fragment from all the three recognized members of the genus, i.e. CPsV, RWMV and Tulip mild mottle mosaic virus (TMMMV) and from two tentative ophioviruses from lettuce and freesia. The amplified DNAs were sequenced and compared with the corresponding sequences of CPsV and RWMV and phylogenetic relationships were evaluated. Assays using extracts from plants infected by viruses belonging to the genera Tospovirus, Tenuivirus, Rhabdovirus and Varicosavirus indicated that the primers are genus-specific.

  19. Introduction on health recommender systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Bocanegra, C L; Sanchez-Laguna, F; Sevillano, J L

    2015-01-01

    People are looking for appropriate health information which they are concerned about. The Internet is a great resource of this kind of information, but we have to be careful if we don't want to get harmful info. Health recommender systems are becoming a new wave for apt health information as systems suggest the best data according to the patients' needs.The main goals of health recommender systems are to retrieve trusted health information from the Internet, to analyse which is suitable for the user profile and select the best that can be recommended, to adapt their selection methods according to the knowledge domain and to learn from the best recommendations.A brief definition of recommender systems will be given and an explanation of how are they incorporated in the health sector. A description of the main elementary recommender methods as well as their most important problems will also be made. And, to finish, the state of the art will be described.

  20. Hybrid context aware recommender systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Rajshree; Tyagi, Jaya; Singh, Sandeep Kumar; Alam, Taj

    2017-10-01

    Recommender systems and context awareness is currently a vital field of research. Most hybrid recommendation systems implement content based and collaborative filtering techniques whereas this work combines context and collaborative filtering. The paper presents a hybrid context aware recommender system for books and movies that gives recommendations based on the user context as well as user or item similarity. It also addresses the issue of dimensionality reduction using weighted pre filtering based on dynamically entered user context and preference of context. This unique step helps to reduce the size of dataset for collaborative filtering. Bias subtracted collaborative filtering is used so as to consider the relative rating of a particular user and not the absolute values. Cosine similarity is used as a metric to determine the similarity between users or items. The unknown ratings are calculated and evaluated using MSE (Mean Squared Error) in test and train datasets. The overall process of recommendation has helped to personalize recommendations and give more accurate results with reduced complexity in collaborative filtering.

  1. Treatment recommendations for psoriatic arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchlin, C T; Kavanaugh, A; Gladman, D D; Mease, P J; Helliwell, P; Boehncke, W-H; de Vlam, K; Fiorentino, D; Fitzgerald, O; Gottlieb, A B; McHugh, N J; Nash, P; Qureshi, A A; Soriano, E R; Taylor, W J

    2009-09-01

    To develop comprehensive recommendations for the treatment of the various clinical manifestations of psoriatic arthritis (PsA) based on evidence obtained from a systematic review of the literature and from consensus opinion. Formal literature reviews of treatment for the most significant discrete clinical manifestations of PsA (skin and nails, peripheral arthritis, axial disease, dactylitis and enthesitis) were performed and published by members of the Group for Research and Assessment of Psoriasis and Psoriatic Arthritis (GRAPPA). Treatment recommendations were drafted for each of the clinical manifestations by rheumatologists, dermatologists and PsA patients based on the literature reviews and consensus opinion. The level of agreement for the individual treatment recommendations among GRAPPA members was assessed with an online questionnaire. Treatment recommendations were developed for peripheral arthritis, axial disease, psoriasis, nail disease, dactylitis and enthesitis in the setting of PsA. In rotal, 19 recommendations were drafted, and over 80% agreement was obtained on 16 of them. In addition, a grid that factors disease severity into each of the different disease manifestations was developed to help the clinician with treatment decisions for the individual patient from an evidenced-based perspective. Treatment recommendations for the cardinal physical manifestations of PsA were developed based on a literature review and consensus between rheumatologists and dermatologists. In addition, a grid was established to assist in therapeutic reasoning and decision making for individual patients. It is anticipated that periodic updates will take place using this framework as new data become available.

  2. Recommendations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Graphics. Eucalyptus is not a bad tree. Eucalyptus is not a bad tree. Its Monoculture being environmentally unsafe, we should discourage its monoculture in arable, arid and semiarid areas. In waterlogged soils however, it could be planted, but preferably mixed with some broad-leaved ...

  3. Solving the stability-accuracy-diversity dilemma of recommender systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Lei; Liu, Kecheng; Liu, Jianguo; Zhang, Runtong

    2017-02-01

    Recommender systems are of great significance in predicting the potential interesting items based on the target user's historical selections. However, the recommendation list for a specific user has been found changing vastly when the system changes, due to the unstable quantification of item similarities, which is defined as the recommendation stability problem. To improve the similarity stability and recommendation stability is crucial for the user experience enhancement and the better understanding of user interests. While the stability as well as accuracy of recommendation could be guaranteed by recommending only popular items, studies have been addressing the necessity of diversity which requires the system to recommend unpopular items. By ranking the similarities in terms of stability and considering only the most stable ones, we present a top- n-stability method based on the Heat Conduction algorithm (denoted as TNS-HC henceforth) for solving the stability-accuracy-diversity dilemma. Experiments on four benchmark data sets indicate that the TNS-HC algorithm could significantly improve the recommendation stability and accuracy simultaneously and still retain the high-diversity nature of the Heat Conduction algorithm. Furthermore, we compare the performance of the TNS-HC algorithm with a number of benchmark recommendation algorithms. The result suggests that the TNS-HC algorithm is more efficient in solving the stability-accuracy-diversity triple dilemma of recommender systems.

  4. Health Information Provided by Retail Health Food Outlets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaclyn Calder

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Alternative health practices have become increasingly popular in recent years. Many patients visit specific complementary practitioners, while others attempt to educate themselves, trusting advice from employees at local health food stores or the Internet. Thirty-two retail health food stores were surveyed on the nature of the information provided by their staff. A research assistant visited the stores and presented as the mother of a child in whom Crohn’s disease had been diagnosed. Seventy-two per cent (23 of 32 of store employees offered advice, such as to take nutritional and herbal supplements. Of the 23 stores where recommendations were made, 15 (65% based their recommendation on a source of information. Fourteen of the 15 stores using information sources used the same reference book. This had a significant impact on the recommendations; the use of nutritional supplements was favoured. In conclusion, retail health food stores are not as inconsistent as hypothesized, although there are many variances in the types of supplements recommended for the same chronic disease.

  5. NUTRITION FOR TENNIS: PRACTICAL RECOMMENDATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayur K. Ranchordas

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Tennis is a pan-global sport that is played year-round in both hemispheres. This places notable demands on the physical and psychological preparation of players and included in these demands are nutritional and fluid requirements both of training and match- play. Thus, the purpose of this article is to review nutritional recommendations for tennis. Notably, tennis players do not excel in any particular physiological or anthropometric characteristic but are well adapted in all areas which is probably a result of the varied nature of the training demands of tennis match play. Energy expenditures of 30.9 ± 5.5 and 45.3 ± 7.3 kJ·min-1 have been reported in women and men players respectively regardless of court surface. Tennis players should follow a habitually high carbohydrate diet of between 6-10 g·kg-1·d-1 to ensure adequate glycogen stores, with women generally requiring slightly less than men. Protein intake guidelines for tennis players training at a high intensity and duration on a daily basis should be ~1.6 g·kg-1·d-1 and dietary fat intake should not exceed 2 g·kg-1·d-1. Caffeine in doses of 3 mg·kg-1 provides ergogenic benefit when taken before and/or during tennis match play. Depending on environmental conditions, sweat rates of 0.5 to and over 5 L·hr-1 and sodium losses of 0.5 - 1.8 g have been recorded in men and women players. 200 mL of fluid containing electrolytes should be consumed every change-over in mild to moderate temperatures of 400 mL. 30-60 g·hr-1 of carbohydrate should be ingested when match play exceeds 2 hours.

  6. Adherence to colonoscopy recommendations for first-degree relatives of young patients diagnosed with colorectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme H. Garcia

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES:Colorectal cancer is the third leading cause of cancer death in the United States. The American College of Gastroenterology recommends screening for first-degree relatives of patients diagnosed with colorectal cancer before the age of 50. A colonoscopy is one of the most commonly recommended exams due to its specificity and the possibility to resect pre-malignant lesions. Nevertheless, the rate of physician adherence to this recommendation is unknown.METHODS:This transversal study was performed at a major cancer center in Brazil with 62 patients, aged 18 to 50, who completed a questionnaire on information received from their physicians regarding screening their first-degree relatives. We used the answers from patients who provided explicit consent.RESULTS:Two hundred and three patients were eligible to participate and 93 (45.8% agreed to complete the questionnaire. Twenty-three questionnaires (24.73% were returned and 39 were completed by telephone. Of the patients who answered the questionnaire, 39 (62.9% had received a colonoscopy recommendation for their first-degree relatives and 23 (37.1% were not informed of the recommendation. Among the patients who received the recommendations, 20.51% affirmed that all relatives completed the exam and 51.28% stated that no relatives completed the exam.DISCUSSION:The adherence rate of our physicians to the ACG guideline recommendations was 62.9%. Considering that our study was performed at a leading center for cancer treatment in Latin America, we had expected better adherence. The results show that adherence to the colorectal cancer screening recommendations for high-risk patients must be improved.

  7. Extracorporeal treatment for theophylline poisoning: systematic review and recommendations from the EXTRIP workgroup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghannoum, Marc; Wiegand, Timothy J; Liu, Kathleen D; Calello, Diane P; Godin, Melanie; Lavergne, Valery; Gosselin, Sophie; Nolin, Thomas D; Hoffman, Robert S

    2015-05-01

    The Extracorporeal Treatments in Poisoning workgroup was created to provide evidence-based recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatments (ECTRs) in poisoning. Here, the workgroup presents its systematic review and recommendations for theophylline. After a systematic review of the literature, a subgroup reviewed articles, extracted data, summarized findings, and proposed structured voting statements following a pre-determined format. A two-round modified Delphi method was chosen to reach a consensus on voting statements and the RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method was used to quantify disagreement. Anonymous votes were compiled, returned, and discussed. A second vote determined the final recommendations. 141 articles were included: 6 in vitro studies, 4 animal studies, 101 case reports/case series, 7 descriptive cohorts, 4 observational studies, and 19 pharmacokinetic studies, yielding a low-to-very-low quality of evidence for all recommendations. Data on 143 patients were reviewed, including 10 deaths. The workgroup concluded that theophylline is dialyzable (level of evidence = A) and made the following recommendations: ECTR is recommended in severe theophylline poisoning (1C). Specific recommendations for ECTR include a theophylline concentration [theophylline] > 100 mg/L (555 μmol/L) in acute exposure (1C), the presence of seizures (1D), life-threatening dysrhythmias (1D) or shock (1D), a rising [theophylline] despite optimal therapy (1D), and clinical deterioration despite optimal care (1D). In chronic poisoning, ECTR is suggested if [theophylline] > 60 mg/L (333 μmol/L) (2D) or if the [theophylline] > 50 mg/L (278 μmol/L) and the patient is either less than 6 months of age or older than 60 years of age (2D). ECTR is also suggested if gastrointestinal decontamination cannot be administered (2D). ECTR should be continued until clinical improvement is apparent or the [theophylline] is Theophylline poisoning is amenable to ECTRs. The workgroup recommended

  8. Clinical recommendations of Cochrane reviews in pediatric gastroenterology: systematic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goda, Yvonne; Sauer, Harald; Schöndorf, Dominik; Hennes, Pia; Gortner, Ludwig; Gräber, Stefan; Meyer, Sascha

    2015-01-01

    Systematic and up-to-date Cochrane reviews in pediatrics in general and in pediatric gastroenterology in particular are important tools in disseminating the best available evidence to the medical community, thus providing the physician at the bedside with invaluable information and recommendations with regard to specific clinical questions. A systematic literature review was conducted, including all Cochrane reviews published by the Cochrane Review Group in the field of pediatric gastroenterology between 1993 and 2012, with regard to the percentage of reviews that concluded that a certain intervention provided a benefit, percentage of reviews that concluded that a certain intervention should not be performed, and percentage of studies that concluded that the current level of evidence was inconclusive. In total, 86 reviews in the field of pediatric gastroenterology were included. The majority of reviews assessed pharmacological interventions (46/86); other important fields included prevention (15/86) and nutrition (9/86). A total of 33/86 reviews issued definite recommendations (positive, 19/86; negative, 14/86). The remaining 53/86 reviews were either inconclusive (24/86) or only of limited conclusiveness (29/86). The percentage of inconclusive reviews increased from 9% (1998-2002) to 19% (2003-2007; P < 0.05) to finally 24% (2008-2012) (P < 0.05). The three most common reasons for the need for further research were heterogeneity of studies (26/86), small number of patients (18/86), and insufficient data (16/86). Further high-quality research is necessary to increase the proportion of reviews with clear recommendations. Funding and research agencies are key to selecting the most appropriate research programs. © 2014 Japan Pediatric Society.

  9. R6 Wildlife Health Office recommendations for FWS bison metapopulation management 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — R6 Wildlife Health Office is providing herd management recommendations for bison culling based on information provided by each refuge. Our recommendations are based...

  10. A Categorical Review of Recommender Systems

    OpenAIRE

    RVVSV Prasad; V Valli Kumari

    2012-01-01

    As more and more information became available electronically, the need for effective information retrieval and implementation of filtering tools have became essential for easy access of relevant information. Recommender Systems (RS) are software tools and techniques providing suggestions for items and/or services to be of use to a user. These systems are achieving widespread success in ecommerce applications now a days, with the advent of internet. This paper presents a categorical review ...

  11. Electronic Resources Management System: Recommendation Report 2017

    KAUST Repository

    Ramli, Rindra M.

    2017-05-01

    This recommendation report provides an overview of the selection process for the new Electronic Resources Management System. The library has decided to move away from Innovative Interfaces Millennium ERM module. The library reviewed 3 system as potential replacements namely: Proquest 360 Resource Manager, Ex Libris Alma and Open Source CORAL ERMS. After comparing and trialling the systems, it was decided to go for Proquest 360 Resource Manager.

  12. The effect of physician’s recommendation on seasonal influenza immunization in children with chronic diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandolfi Elisabetta

    2012-11-01

    .2% in those with cystic fibrosis. While 10.6% of children who did not receive any recommendation toward influenza immunization were immunized, among those who received a recommendation 87.5-94.7% did, depending on the health professional providing the recommendation. Receiving a recommendation by any provider is a strong predictor of immunization (PR = 8.5 95% CI 4.6;15.6 Most children received an immunization recommendation by a specialty (25.8% or a family pediatrician (23.3% and were immunized by a family pediatrician (58.7% or a community vaccinator (55.2%. Conclusions Receiving a specific recommendation by a physician is a strong determinant of being immunized against seasonal influenza in children with chronic diseases independently of other factors. Heterogeneity exists among children with different chronic diseases regarding influenza recommendation despite international guidelines. Increasing the frequency of appropriate recommendations toward influenza immunization by physicians is a single powerful intervention that may increase coverage in children with chronic conditions.

  13. Meta-analysis provides evidence-based interpretation guidelines for the clinical significance of mean differences for the FACT-G, a cancer-specific quality of life questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madeleine T King

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Madeleine T King1, David Cella2, David Osoba3, Martin Stockler4, David Eton5, Joanna Thompson6, Amy Eisenstein71Psycho-oncology Co-operative Research Group School of Psychology, University of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia; 2Department of Medical Social Sciences, Northwestern University, Illinois, USA; 3QOL Consulting, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada; 4NHMRC Clinical Trials Centre, University of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia; 5Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, USA; 6Centre for Health Economics Research and Evaluation, University of Technology, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia; 7Center on Outcomes Research and Education (CORE, Evanston Northwestern Healthcare (ENH, Evanston, Illinois, USAAbstract: Our aim was to develop evidence-based interpretation guidelines for the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-General (FACT-G, a cancer-specific health-related quality of life (HRQOL instrument, from a range of clinically relevant anchors, incorporating expert judgment about clinical significance. Three clinicians with many years’ experience managing cancer patients and using HRQOL outcomes in clinical research reviewed 71 papers. Blinded to the FACT-G results, they considered the clinical anchors associated with each FACT-G mean difference, predicted which dimensions of HRQOL would be affected, and whether the effects would be trivial, small, moderate, or large. These size classes were defined in terms of clinical relevance. The experts’ judgments were then linked with FACT-G mean differences, and inverse-variance weighted mean differences were calculated for each size class. Small, medium, and large differences (95% confidence interval from 1,118 cross-sectional comparisons were as follows: physical well-being 1.9 (0.6–3.2, 4.1 (2.7–5.5, 8.7 (5.2–12; functional well-being 2.0 (0.5–3.5, 3.8 (2.0–5.5, 8.8 (4.3–13; emotional well-being 1.0 (0.1–2.6, 1.9 (0.3–3.5, no large differences; social well-being 0.7 (-0.7 to 2

  14. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) provides survival factors to EBV+diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) lines and modulates cytokine induced specific chemotaxis in EBV+ DLBCL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Liang; Ehlin-Henriksson, Barbro; Zhou, Xiaoying; Zhu, Hong; Ernberg, Ingemar; Kis, Lorand L; Klein, George

    2017-12-01

    Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), the most common type of malignant lymphoma, accounts for 30% of adult non-Hodgkin lymphomas. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) -positive DLBCL of the elderly is a newly recognized subtype that accounts for 8-10% of DLBCLs in Asian countries, but is less common in Western populations. Five DLBCL-derived cell lines were employed to characterize patterns of EBV latent gene expression, as well as response to cytokines and chemotaxis. Interleukin-4 and interleukin-21 modified LMP1, EBNA1 and EBNA2 expression depending on cell phenotype and type of EBV latent programme (type I, II or III). These cytokines also affected CXCR4- or CCR7-mediated chemotaxis in two of the cell lines, Farage (type III) and Val (type II). Further, we investigated the effect of EBV by using dominant-negative EBV nuclear antigen 1(dnEBNA1) to eliminate EBV genomes. This resulted in decreased chemotaxis. By employing an alternative way to eliminate EBV genomes, Roscovitine, we show an increase of apoptosis in the EBV-positive lines. These results show that EBV plays an important role in EBV-positive DLBCL lines with regard to survival and chemotactic response. Our findings provide evidence for the impact of microenvironment on EBV-carrying DLBCL cells and might have therapeutic implications. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Influenza Vaccination among Pregnant Women: Patient Beliefs and Medical Provider Practices

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stark, Lauren M; Power, Michael L; Turrentine, Mark; Samelson, Renee; Siddiqui, Maryam M; Paglia, Michael J; Strassberg, Emmie R; Kelly, Elizabeth; Murtough, Katie L; Schulkin, Jay

    2016-01-01

    ...% of patients reported receiving a recommendation. Age, education, a medical provider's recommendation, and educational materials were found to positively influence patient beliefs about the influenza...

  16. PDF4LHC recommendations for LHC Run II

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Butterworth, Jon; Carrazza, Stefano; Cooper-Sarkar, Amanda; Roeck, Albert de; Feltesse, Joel; Forte, Stefano; Gao, Jun; Glazov, Sasha; Huston, Joey; Kassabov, Zahari; McNulty, Ronan; Morsch, Andreas; Nadolsky, Pavel; Radescu, Voica; Rojo, Juan; Thorne, Robert S.

    2015-01-01

    We provide an updated recommendation for the usage of sets of parton distribution functions (PDFs) and the assessment of PDF and PDF+$\\alpha_s$ uncertainties suitable for applications at the LHC Run II. We review developments since the previous PDF4LHC recommendation, and discuss and compare the new

  17. Employee Retention. Building Organizational Commitment. Recommendations for Nonprofit Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula BEUDEAN

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides recommendations onbuilding commitment which can be used by thenonprofit agencies that experience high personnelturnover. The recommendations are based on thetheories and research concerning retention andorganizational commitment. The study focuseson the organizational actions needed to buildcommitment and to retain employees.

  18. Web items recommendation using hybridized content-based and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Recommender Systems are software agent developed to tackle the problem of information overload by providing recommendations that assist individual users identify contents of interest by using the opinions of a community of users, similarities between items contents or the user's preferences. The exponential growth of ...

  19. Diagnosis and recommender system for some neglected tropical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    With this development, a prompt medical diagnosis, effective drug recommendations and promulgation of effective policies could be provided at community settings where there are shortages in material and human resources for managing these neglected tropical diseases. Keywords: Tropical diseases, recommender ...

  20. From recommendation to action: psychosocial factors influencing physician intention to use Health Technology Assessment (HTA recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sánchez Emília

    2006-03-01

    technology assessment into professional practice. Results identify determinant factors that should be considered in the elaboration of strategies to support the implementation of evidence-based practice, with respect to emerging health technologies and modalities of practice. However, it is important to emphasise that behavioural determinants of evidence-based practice vary according to the specific technology considered. Evidence-based implementation of HTA recommendations, as well as other evidence-based practices, should build on a theoretical understanding of the complex forces that shape the practice of healthcare professionals.

  1. OARSI Clinical Trials Recommendations for Hip Imaging in Osteoarthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Garry E.; Cicuttini, Flavia; Crema, Michel D.; Eckstein, Felix; Guermazi, Ali; Kijowski, Richard; Link, Thomas M.; Maheu, Emmanuel; Martel-Pelletier, Johanne; Miller, Colin G.; Pelletier, Jean-Pierre; Peterfy, Charles G.; Potter, Hollis G.; Roemer, Frank W.; Hunter, David. J

    2015-01-01

    Imaging of hip in osteoarthritis (OA) has seen considerable progress in the past decade, with the introduction of new techniques that may be more sensitive to structural disease changes. The purpose of this expert opinion, consensus driven recommendation is to provide detail on how to apply hip imaging in disease modifying clinical trials. It includes information on acquisition methods/ techniques (including guidance on positioning for radiography, sequence/protocol recommendations/ hardware for MRI); commonly encountered problems (including positioning, hardware and coil failures, artifacts associated with various MRI sequences); quality assurance/ control procedures; measurement methods; measurement performance (reliability, responsiveness, and validity); recommendations for trials; and research recommendations. PMID:25952344

  2. The APOSTEL recommendations for reporting quantitative optical coherence tomography studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cruz-Herranz, Andrés; Balk, Lisanne J; Oberwahrenbrock, Timm

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To develop consensus recommendations for reporting of quantitative optical coherence tomography (OCT) study results. METHODS: A panel of experienced OCT researchers (including 11 neurologists, 2 ophthalmologists, and 2 neuroscientists) discussed requirements for performing and reporting...... quantitative analyses of retinal morphology and developed a list of initial recommendations based on experience and previous studies. The list of recommendations was subsequently revised during several meetings of the coordinating group. RESULTS: We provide a 9-point checklist encompassing aspects deemed...... relevant when reporting quantitative OCT studies. The areas covered are study protocol, acquisition device, acquisition settings, scanning protocol, funduscopic imaging, postacquisition data selection, postacquisition data analysis, recommended nomenclature, and statistical analysis. CONCLUSIONS...

  3. An Interactive Personalized Recommendation System Using the Hybrid Algorithm Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Guo

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of e-commerce, the contradiction between the disorder of business information and customer demand is increasingly prominent. This study aims to make e-commerce shopping more convenient, and avoid information overload, by an interactive personalized recommendation system using the hybrid algorithm model. The proposed model first uses various recommendation algorithms to get a list of original recommendation results. Combined with the customer’s feedback in an interactive manner, it then establishes the weights of corresponding recommendation algorithms. Finally, the synthetic formula of evidence theory is used to fuse the original results to obtain the final recommendation products. The recommendation performance of the proposed method is compared with that of traditional methods. The results of the experimental study through a Taobao online dress shop clearly show that the proposed method increases the efficiency of data mining in the consumer coverage, the consumer discovery accuracy and the recommendation recall. The hybrid recommendation algorithm complements the advantages of the existing recommendation algorithms in data mining. The interactive assigned-weight method meets consumer demand better and solves the problem of information overload. Meanwhile, our study offers important implications for e-commerce platform providers regarding the design of product recommendation systems.

  4. Illuminating the Decision Path: The Yucca Mountain Site Recommendation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knox, E.; Slothouber, L.

    2003-02-25

    On February 14, 2002, U.S. Secretary of Energy Spencer Abraham provided to the President the ''Recommendation by the Secretary of Energy Regarding the Suitability of the Yucca Mountain Site for a Repository Under the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982.'' This Recommendation, along with supporting materials, complied with statutory requirements for communicating a site recommendation to the President, and it did more: in 49 pages, the Recommendation also spoke directly to the Nation, illuminating the methodology and considerations that led toward the decision to recommend the site. Addressing technical suitability, national interests, and public concerns, the Recommendation helped the public understand the potential risks and benefits of repository development and placed those risks and benefits in a meaningful national context.

  5. An effective collaborative movie recommender system with cuckoo search

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Katarya

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Recommender systems are information filtering tools that aspire to predict the rating for users and items, predominantly from big data to recommend their likes. Movie recommendation systems provide a mechanism to assist users in classifying users with similar interests. This makes recommender systems essentially a central part of websites and e-commerce applications. This article focuses on the movie recommendation systems whose primary objective is to suggest a recommender system through data clustering and computational intelligence. In this research article, a novel recommender system has been discussed which makes use of k-means clustering by adopting cuckoo search optimization algorithm applied on the Movielens dataset. Our approach has been explained systematically, and the subsequent results have been discussed. It is also compared with existing approaches, and the results have been analyzed and interpreted. Evaluation metrics such as mean absolute error (MAE, standard deviation (SD, root mean square error (RMSE and t-value for the movie recommender system delivers better results as our approach offers lesser value of the mean absolute error, standard deviation, and root mean square error. The experiment results obtained on Movielens dataset stipulate that the proposed approach may provide high performance regarding reliability, efficiency and delivers accurate personalized movie recommendations when compared with existing methods. Our proposed system (K-mean Cuckoo has 0.68 MAE, which is superior to existing work (0.78 MAE [1] and also has improvement of our previous work (0.75 MAE [2].

  6. TDCCREC: AN EFFICIENT AND SCALABLE WEB-BASED RECOMMENDATION SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.Latha

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Web browsers are provided with complex information space where the volume of information available to them is huge. There comes the Recommender system which effectively recommends web pages that are related to the current webpage, to provide the user with further customized reading material. To enhance the performance of the recommender systems, we include an elegant proposed web based recommendation system; Truth Discovery based Content and Collaborative RECommender (TDCCREC which is capable of addressing scalability. Existing approaches such as Learning automata deals with usage and navigational patterns of users. On the other hand, Weighted Association Rule is applied for recommending web pages by assigning weights to each page in all the transactions. Both of them have their own disadvantages. The websites recommended by the search engines have no guarantee for information correctness and often delivers conflicting information. To solve them, content based filtering and collaborative filtering techniques are introduced for recommending web pages to the active user along with the trustworthiness of the website and confidence of facts which outperforms the existing methods. Our results show how the proposed recommender system performs better in predicting the next request of web users.

  7. PV GRID Advisory Paper. Consultation version: key recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barth, Bianca; Concas, Giorgia; Cossent, Rafael; Franz, Oliver; Frias, Pablo; Hermes, Roland; Lama, Riccardo; Loew, Holger; Mateo, Carlos; Rekinger, Manoel; Sonvilla, Paolo Michele; Vandenbergh, Michel

    2014-01-15

    PV GRID is a transnational collaborative effort under the umbrella of the Intelligent Energy Europe programme. The main project goal is to enhance photovoltaic (PV) hosting capacity in distribution grids while overcoming regulatory and normative barriers hampering the application of available technical solutions. The European PV GRID advisory paper aims at providing an overview of the issues and barriers that need to be addressed in order to enhance the distribution grid hosting capacity for PV and other distributed generation (DG).To this purpose, barriers are classified as either cross-cutting challenges or specific barriers, depending on whether they have an overarching, system-wide character or rather focus on one single issue such as curtailment, self-consumption or storage. Finally, a set of preliminary recommendations on how to overcome these issues is presented, allowing for the implementation of the identified technical solutions.

  8. Recommendations concerning energy information model documentation, public access, and evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, D.O.; Mason, M.J.

    1979-10-01

    A review is presented of the Energy Information Administration (EIA) response to Congressional and management concerns, relating specifically to energy information system documentation, public access to EIA systems, and scientific/peer evaluation. The relevant organizational and policy responses of EIA are discussed. An analysis of the model development process and approaches to, and organization of, model evaluation is presented. Included is a survey of model evaluation studies. A more detailed analysis of the origins of the legislated documentation and public access requirements is presented in Appendix A, and the results of an informal survey of other agency approaches to public access and evaluation is presented in Appendix B. Appendix C provides a survey of non-EIA activities relating to model documentation and evaluation. Twelve recommendations to improve EIA's procedures for energy information system documentation, evaluation activities, and public access are determined. These are discussed in detail. (MCW)

  9. Implementing portfolio in postgraduate general practice training. Benefits and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alotaibi, Fawaz S

    2012-10-01

    This paper presents a review to explore the literature focusing on portfolio in postgraduate general practice (GP) training, and to examine the impact of implementation of portfolio on learning process, as well as proposing recommendations for its implementation in postgraduate GP training. An electronic search was carried out on several databases for studies addressing portfolio in postgraduate GP training. Six articles were included to address specifically the effectiveness of portfolio in postgraduate GP training. Five of them described successful experiences of portfolio-based learning implementation. Only one article addressed portfolio-based assessment in postgraduate GP training. The existing evidence provides various benefits of professional portfolio-based learning. It does appear to have advantages of stimulating reflective learning, promoting proactive learning, and bridging the hospital experiences of the learners to GP. Moreover, the challenges to implementation of portfolio-based learning are often based on orientation and training of stakeholders.

  10. Recommendations for clinical electron beam dosimetry: supplement to the recommendations of Task Group 25.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerbi, Bruce J; Antolak, John A; Deibel, F Christopher; Followill, David S; Herman, Michael G; Higgins, Patrick D; Huq, M Saiful; Mihailidis, Dimitris N; Yorke, Ellen D; Hogstrom, Kenneth R; Khan, Faiz M

    2009-07-01

    The goal of Task Group 25 (TG-25) of the Radiation Therapy Committee of the American Association of.Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) was to provide a methodology and set of procedures for a medical physicist performing clinical electron beam dosimetry in the nominal energy range of 5-25 MeV. Specifically, the task group recommended procedures for acquiring basic information required for acceptance testing and treatment planning of new accelerators with therapeutic electron beams. Since the publication of the TG-25 report, significant advances have taken place in the field of electron beam dosimetry, the most significant being that primary standards laboratories around the world have shifted from calibration standards based on exposure or air kerma to standards based on absorbed dose to water. The AAPM has published a new calibration protocol, TG-51, for the calibration of high-energy photon and electron beams. The formalism and dosimetry procedures recommended in this protocol are based on the absorbed dose to water calibration coefficient of an ionization chamber at 60Co energy, N60Co(D,w), together with the theoretical beam quality conversion coefficient k(Q) for the determination of absorbed dose to water in high-energy photon and electron beams. Task Group 70 was charged to reassess and update the recommendations in TG-25 to bring them into alignment with report TG-51 and to recommend new methodologies and procedures that would allow the practicing medical physicist to initiate and continue a high quality program in clinical electron beam dosimetry. This TG-70 report is a supplement to the TG-25 report and enhances the TG-25 report by including new topics and topics that were not covered in depth in the TG-25 report. These topics include procedures for obtaining data to commission a treatment planning computer, determining dose in irregularly shaped electron fields, and commissioning of sophisticated special procedures using high-energy electron beams. The use of

  11. Technology recommendations for pre-screening of IAEA swipe samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steeb, Jennifer L. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Smith, Nicholas A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Lee, Denise L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Huckabay, Heath A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Ticknor, Brian W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Argonne and Oak Ridge National Laboratories have prepared an analysis of recommended, possible, and not recommended technologies for pre-screening and prioritizing IAEA swipes. The analytical techniques listed under the recommended technology list are the most promising techniques available to date. The recommended list is divided into two sections: Argonne’s recommended techniques and Oak Ridge’s recommended techniques. This list was divided based upon the expertise of staff in each subject area and/or the instrumentation available at each laboratory. The following section, titled Possible Techniques, is a list of analytical techniques that could be used for pre-screening and prioritizing swipes if additional instrumentation and effort were provided. These techniques are not necessarily top priority, but should not be discounted for future or expanded efforts. Lastly, a list of not recommended techniques is provided to outline the analytical methods and instrumentation that were investigated by each lab but deemed not suitable for this task. In addition to the recommendation list, a short procedure is provided outlining the steps followed for destructive analysis by the Network of Analytical Laboratories (NWAL) for determination of uranium concentrations, isotopic content of sample and swipe. Swipes generated for this project will be given to ORNL’s NWAL laboratory for analysis after analysis by other techniques at both laboratories.

  12. Recommendations regarding splenectomy in hereditary hemolytic anemias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iolascon, Achille; Andolfo, Immacolata; Barcellini, Wilma; Corcione, Francesco; Garçon, Loïc; De Franceschi, Lucia; Pignata, Claudio; Graziadei, Giovanna; Pospisilova, Dagmar; Rees, David C; de Montalembert, Mariane; Rivella, Stefano; Gambale, Antonella; Russo, Roberta; Ribeiro, Leticia; Vives-Corrons, Jules; Martinez, Patricia Aguilar; Kattamis, Antonis; Gulbis, Beatrice; Cappellini, Maria Domenica; Roberts, Irene; Tamary, Hannah

    2017-08-01

    Hereditary hemolytic anemias are a group of disorders with a variety of causes, including red cell membrane defects, red blood cell enzyme disorders, congenital dyserythropoietic anemias, thalassemia syndromes and hemoglobinopathies. As damaged red blood cells passing through the red pulp of the spleen are removed by splenic macrophages, splenectomy is one possible therapeutic approach to the management of severely affected patients. However, except for hereditary spherocytosis for which the effectiveness of splenectomy has been well documented, the efficacy of splenectomy in other anemias within this group has yet to be determined and there are concerns regarding short- and long-term infectious and thrombotic complications. In light of the priorities identified by the European Hematology Association Roadmap we generated specific recommendations for each disorder, except thalassemia syndromes for which there are other, recent guidelines. Our recommendations are intended to enable clinicians to achieve better informed decisions on disease management by splenectomy, on the type of splenectomy and the possible consequences. As no randomized clinical trials, case control or cohort studies regarding splenectomy in these disorders were found in the literature, recommendations for each disease were based on expert opinion and were subsequently critically revised and modified by the Splenectomy in Rare Anemias Study Group, which includes hematologists caring for both adults and children. Copyright© 2017 Ferrata Storti Foundation.

  13. Recommendations regarding splenectomy in hereditary hemolytic anemias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iolascon, Achille; Andolfo, Immacolata; Barcellini, Wilma; Corcione, Francesco; Garçon, Loïc; De Franceschi, Lucia; Pignata, Claudio; Graziadei, Giovanna; Pospisilova, Dagmar; Rees, David C.; de Montalembert, Mariane; Rivella, Stefano; Gambale, Antonella; Russo, Roberta; Ribeiro, Leticia; Vives-Corrons, Jules; Martinez, Patricia Aguilar; Kattamis, Antonis; Gulbis, Beatrice; Cappellini, Maria Domenica; Roberts, Irene; Tamary, Hannah

    2017-01-01

    Hereditary hemolytic anemias are a group of disorders with a variety of causes, including red cell membrane defects, red blood cell enzyme disorders, congenital dyserythropoietic anemias, thalassemia syndromes and hemoglobinopathies. As damaged red blood cells passing through the red pulp of the spleen are removed by splenic macrophages, splenectomy is one possible therapeutic approach to the management of severely affected patients. However, except for hereditary spherocytosis for which the effectiveness of splenectomy has been well documented, the efficacy of splenectomy in other anemias within this group has yet to be determined and there are concerns regarding short- and long-term infectious and thrombotic complications. In light of the priorities identified by the European Hematology Association Roadmap we generated specific recommendations for each disorder, except thalassemia syndromes for which there are other, recent guidelines. Our recommendations are intended to enable clinicians to achieve better informed decisions on disease management by splenectomy, on the type of splenectomy and the possible consequences. As no randomized clinical trials, case control or cohort studies regarding splenectomy in these disorders were found in the literature, recommendations for each disease were based on expert opinion and were subsequently critically revised and modified by the Splenectomy in Rare Anemias Study Group, which includes hematologists caring for both adults and children. PMID:28550188

  14. Recommended measures for the assessment of cognitive and physical performance in older patients with dementia: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossers, Willem J R; van der Woude, Lucas H V; Boersma, Froukje; Scherder, Erik J A; van Heuvelen, Marieke J G

    2012-01-01

    AIM/GOAL: To recommend a set of neuropsychological and physical exercise tests for researchers to assess cognition and physical fitness in clinical trials with older patients with dementia; to create consensus, decrease heterogeneity, and improve research quality. A literature search (2005-2011) yielded 89 randomized controlled trials. To provide information on test recommendations the frequency of test use, effect size of the test outcome, study quality, and psychometric properties of tests were analyzed. Fifty-nine neuropsychological tests (cognitive domains: global cognition, executive functioning, memory, and attention) and 10 exercise tests (physical domains: endurance capacity, muscle strength, balance, and mobility) were found. The Severe Impairment Battery, Mini Mental State Examination, and Alzheimer Disease Assessment Scale - cognitive subscale were recommended to measure global cognition. The Verbal Fluency Test Category/Letters, Clock Drawing Test, and Trail Making Test-B were recommended to measure executive functioning. No specific memory test could be recommended. The Digit Span Forward, Digit Span Backward, and Trail Making Test-A were recommended to measure attention. As physical exercise tests, the Timed Up and Go and Six Meter Walk for mobility, the Six Minute Walk Distance for endurance capacity, and the Tinetti Balance Scale were recommended.

  15. Recommended Measures for the Assessment of Cognitive and Physical Performance in Older Patients with Dementia: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willem J.R. Bossers

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim/Goal: To recommend a set of neuropsychological and physical exercise tests for researchers to assess cognition and physical fitness in clinical trials with older patients with dementia; to create consensus, decrease heterogeneity, and improve research quality. Methods: A literature search (2005–2011 yielded 89 randomized controlled trials. To provide information on test recommendations the frequency of test use, effect size of the test outcome, study quality, and psychometric properties of tests were analyzed. Results: Fifty-nine neuropsychological tests (cognitive domains: global cognition, executive functioning, memory, and attention and 10 exercise tests (physical domains: endurance capacity, muscle strength, balance, and mobility were found. Conclusion: The Severe Impairment Battery, Mini Mental State Examination, and Alzheimer Disease Assessment Scale – cognitive subscale were recommended to measure global cognition. The Verbal Fluency Test Category/Letters, Clock Drawing Test, and Trail Making Test-B were recommended to measure executive functioning. No specific memory test could be recommended. The Digit Span Forward, Digit Span Backward, and Trail Making Test-A were recommended to measure attention. As physical exercise tests, the Timed Up and Go and Six Meter Walk for mobility, the Six Minute Walk Distance for endurance capacity, and the Tinetti Balance Scale were recommended.

  16. NMR Nomenclature: Nuclear Spin Properties and Conventions for Chemical Shifts. IUPAC Recommendations 2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Robin K.; Becker, Edwin D.; Cabral de Menezes, Sonia M.; Goodfellow, Robin; Granger, Pierre

    2002-12-01

    A unified scale is recommended for reporting the NMR chemical shifts of all nuclei relative to the (1)H resonance of tetramethylsilane. The unified scale is designed to provide a precise ratio, Xi, of the resonance frequency of a given nuclide to that of the primary reference, the (1)H resonance of tetramethylsilane (TMS) in dilute solution (volume fraction, varphi<1%) in chloroform. Referencing procedures are discussed, including matters of practical application of the unified scale. Special attention is paid to recommended reference samples, and values of Xi for secondary references on the unified scale are listed, many of which are the results of new measurements. Some earlier recommendations relating to the reporting of chemical shifts are endorsed. The chemical shift, delta, is redefined to avoid previous ambiguities but to leave practical usage unchanged. Relations between the unified scale and recently published recommendations for referencing in aqueous solutions (for specific use in biochemical work) are discussed, as well as the special effects of working in the solid state with magic-angle spinning. In all, nine new recommendations relating to chemical shifts are made. Standardised nuclear spin data are also presented in tabular form for the stable (and some unstable) isotopes of all elements with non-zero quantum numbers. The information given includes quantum numbers, isotopic abundances, magnetic moments, magnetogyric ratios, and receptivities, together with quadrupole moments and line-width factors (where appropriate).

  17. Recommendations for improving ART adherence

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article reports on the fi ndings of a study that aimed to explore experts' and patients' opinions and recommendations regarding adherence to antiretroviral medication. This study was prompted firstly by the lack of existing local research on adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) and secondly by the importance of ...

  18. Ubiquitous Multicriteria Clinic Recommendation System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Toly

    2016-05-01

    Advancements in information, communication, and sensor technologies have led to new opportunities in medical care and education. Patients in general prefer visiting the nearest clinic, attempt to avoid waiting for treatment, and have unequal preferences for different clinics and doctors. Therefore, to enable patients to compare multiple clinics, this study proposes a ubiquitous multicriteria clinic recommendation system. In this system, patients can send requests through their cell phones to the system server to obtain a clinic recommendation. Once the patient sends this information to the system, the system server first estimates the patient's speed according to the detection results of a global positioning system. It then applies a fuzzy integer nonlinear programming-ordered weighted average approach to assess four criteria and finally recommends a clinic with maximal utility to the patient. The proposed methodology was tested in a field experiment, and the experimental results showed that it is advantageous over two existing methods in elevating the utilities of recommendations. In addition, such an advantage was shown to be statistically significant.

  19. Parenteral administration medicines: recommendations of preparation, administration and stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Gaspar Carreño

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To develop recommendations for the preparation of parenteral drugs (MAP, to assess the transferability of their preparation, from nursing units in the hospital ward to the pharmacy service (SF. Method: A table of stabilities of parenteral drugs included in the pharmacotherapeutic guideline was developed using the american and spanish guidelines. Information about MAP was collected (method of preparation, support, maintenance, validity, administration specifications and packaging by consulting product technical sheets, pharmaceutical industries, literature review and databases. Results: After reviewing 209 drugs, a list of recommendations was developed. According to the data, MAP will be prepared as follows: 89 drugs will be prepared from SF, 62 drugs at nursing units because of its immediate administration requirement and 58 are already packed for its administration by the industry. Of these 62 drugs prepared a nursing units, 14 of them will be prepared in the following doses by the SF. Therefore, 48 drugs will be prepared at nursing units from the 209 parenteral drugs reviewed. Conclusions: A standardized method of preparation, storage, administration and validity of MAP was established by the SF. The preparation of MAP in the SF extends its shelf life, by considering physicochemical stability, level of risk and product vulnerability to microbiological contamination. The information provided will contribute to a reduction of errors associated with the preparation and administration of MAP.

  20. [Parenteral administration medicines: recommendations of preparation, administration and stability].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspar Carreño, M; Torrico Martín, F; Novajarque Sala, L; Batista Cruz, M; Ribeiro Gonçalves, P; Porta Oltra, B; Sánchez Santos, J C

    2014-11-03

    To develop recommendations for the preparation of parenteral drugs (MAP), to assess the transferability of their preparation, from nursing units in the hospital ward to the pharmacy service (SF). A table of stabilities of parenteral drugs included in the pharmacotherapeutic guideline was developed using the american and spanish guidelines. Information about MAP was collected (method of preparation, support, maintenance, validity, administration specifications and packaging) by consulting product technical sheets, pharmaceutical industries, literature review and databases. After reviewing 209 drugs, a list of recommendations was developed. According to the data, MAP will be prepared as follows: 89 drugs will be prepared from SF, 62 drugs at nursing units because of its immediate administration requirement and 58 are already packed for its administration by the industry. Of these 62 drugs prepared a nursing units, 14 of them will be prepared in the following doses by the SF. Therefore, 48 drugs will be prepared at nursing units from the 209 parenteral drugs reviewed. A standardized method of preparation, storage, administration and validity of MAP was established by the SF. The preparation of MAP in the SF extends its shelf life, by considering physicochemical stability, level of risk and product vulnerability to microbiological contamination. The information provided will contribute to a reduction of errors associated with the preparation and administration of MAP. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  1. Exercise redox biochemistry: Conceptual, methodological and technical recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James N. Cobley

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Exercise redox biochemistry is of considerable interest owing to its translational value in health and disease. However, unaddressed conceptual, methodological and technical issues complicate attempts to unravel how exercise alters redox homeostasis in health and disease. Conceptual issues relate to misunderstandings that arise when the chemical heterogeneity of redox biology is disregarded: which often complicates attempts to use redox-active compounds and assess redox signalling. Further, that oxidised macromolecule adduct levels reflect formation and repair is seldom considered. Methodological and technical issues relate to the use of out-dated assays and/or inappropriate sample preparation techniques that confound biochemical redox analysis. After considering each of the aforementioned issues, we outline how each issue can be resolved and provide a unifying set of recommendations. We specifically recommend that investigators: consider chemical heterogeneity, use redox-active compounds judiciously, abandon flawed assays, carefully prepare samples and assay buffers, consider repair/metabolism, use multiple biomarkers to assess oxidative damage and redox signalling.

  2. A bottom-up approach to MEDLINE indexing recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimeno-Yepes, Antonio; Wilkowski, Bartłomiej; Mork, James G; Van Lenten, Elizabeth; Fushman, Dina Demner; Aronson, Alan R

    2011-01-01

    MEDLINE indexing performed by the US National Library of Medicine staff describes the essence of a biomedical publication in about 14 Medical Subject Headings (MeSH). Since 2002, this task is assisted by the Medical Text Indexer (MTI) program. We present a bottom-up approach to MEDLINE indexing in which the abstract is searched for indicators for a specific MeSH recommendation in a two-step process. Supervised machine learning combined with triage rules improves sensitivity of recommendations while keeping the number of recommended terms relatively small. Improvement in recommendations observed in this work warrants further exploration of this approach to MTI recommendations on a larger set of MeSH headings.

  3. International commission on trichinellosis : recommendations on the use of serological tests for the detection of Trichinella infection in animals and man

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamble H.R.

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of serological tests to detect Trichinella infection in domestic and wild animals and in humans has not been standardised yet. This review provides an uniform set of recommendations for the development and use of serological tests to detect circulating antibodies in serum samples. The recommendations are based on the best scientific published information and on the unpublished data from laboratories with a great expertise in this field and represent the official position of the International Commission on Trichinellosis regarding acceptable methods and the evaluation of the sensitivity and specificity. These recommendations are subject to change as new scientific information becomes available.

  4. Negative Statements in Letters of Recommendation: From Defamation to Defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clear, Delbert K.

    1978-01-01

    The law clearly provides protection for those who write negative recommendations; however, the standard tests for libel and slander that are used in tort suits where damages are sought for defamation of character are applicable. (Author/MLF)

  5. Libros y mas libros: Recommended Children's Books in Spanish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schon, Isabel

    2000-01-01

    Provides an annotated bibliography of recommended Spanish-language children's books. A total of 15 books are grouped in the following categories: (1) books for the very young; (2) fiction; (3) folklore; (4) literature; (5) poetry; and (6) history. (EV)

  6. ROSS Skills, Knowledge, and Abilities Training Evaluation. Gaps and Recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ala, Maureen [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Gruidl, Jeremiah [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Buddemeier, Brooke [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-09-30

    This document describes the development of the ROSS SKAs, the cross-mapping of the SKAs to the available training, identifies gaps in the SKA and training, and provides recommendations to address those gaps.

  7. Fisheries Management Recommendations : Big Stone National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report provides objectives and recommendations which are intended to improve the fishery resources and enhance quality fishing opportunities. Big Stone National...

  8. Pharmacogenetic Allele Nomenclature: International Workgroup Recommendations for Test Result Reporting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.V. Kalman; J.A.G. Agúndez; M.L. Appell (M Lindqvist); J.L. Black; G.C. Bell; S. Boukouvala; C. Bruckner; E. Bruford (Elspeth); K. Caudle; S.A. Coulthard; A.K. Daly; A.L. Del Tredici; J.T. Den Dunnen; K. Drozda; R.E. Everts; D. Flockhart; R.R. Freimuth; A. Gaedigk; H. Hachad; T. Hartshorne; M. Ingelman-Sundberg (Magnus); T.E. Klein (T.); V.M. Lauschke; D. Maglott (Donna); H.L. McLeod (Howard); G.A. McMillin; U.A. Meyer; D.J. Müller; D.A. Nickerson (Deborah); W.S. Oetting; M. Pacanowski; V.M. Pratt; M.V. Relling (Mary); A. Roberts; D. Flesch-Janys (Dieter); K. Sangkuhl; M. Schwab; S.A. Scott (S.); S.C. Sim; R.K. Thirumaran; L.H. Toji; R.F. Tyndale; R.H.N. van Schaik (Ron); M. Whirl-Carrillo; K.T.J. Yeo; U. Zanger (Ulrich)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractThis article provides nomenclature recommendations developed by an international workgroup to increase transparency and standardization of pharmacogenetic (PGx) result reporting. Presently, sequence variants identified by PGx tests are described using different nomenclature systems. In

  9. Planetary Science Technology Infusion Study: Findings and Recommendations Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, David J.; Sandifer, Carl E., II; Sarver-Verhey, Timothy R.; Vento, Daniel M.; Zakrajsek, June F.

    2014-01-01

    The Planetary Science Division (PSD) within the National Aeronautics and Space Administrations (NASA) Science Mission Directorate (SMD) at NASA Headquarters sought to understand how to better realize a scientific return on spacecraft system technology investments currently being funded. In order to achieve this objective, a team at NASA Glenn Research Center was tasked with surveying the science and mission communities to collect their insight on technology infusion and additionally sought inputs from industry, universities, and other organizations involved with proposing for future PSD missions. This survey was undertaken by issuing a Request for Information (RFI) activity that requested input from the proposing community on present technology infusion efforts. The Technology Infusion Study was initiated in March 2013 with the release of the RFI request. The evaluation team compiled and assessed this input in order to provide PSD with recommendations on how to effectively infuse new spacecraft systems technologies that it develops into future competed missions enabling increased scientific discoveries, lower mission cost, or both. This team is comprised of personnel from the Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) Program and the In-Space Propulsion Technology (ISPT) Program staff.The RFI survey covered two aspects of technology infusion: 1) General Insight, including: their assessment of barriers to technology infusion as related to infusion approach; technology readiness; information and documentation products; communication; integration considerations; interaction with technology development areas; cost-capped mission areas; risk considerations; system level impacts and implementation; and mission pull. 2) Specific technologies from the most recent PSD Announcements of Opportunities (AOs): The Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG), aerocapture and aeroshell hardware technologies, the NASA Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT) ion propulsion system, and the

  10. Problem Posing as Providing Students with Content-Specific Motives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaassen, C.W.J.M.; Doorman, L.M.

    2015-01-01

    We interpret problem posing not as an end in itself, but as a means to add quality to students' process of learning content. Our basic tenet is that all along students know the purpose(s) of what they are doing. This condition is not easily and not often satisfied in education, as we illustrate with

  11. 42 CFR 413.64 - Payments to providers: Specific rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... SERVICES; OPTIONAL PROSPECTIVELY DETERMINED PAYMENT RATES FOR SKILLED NURSING FACILITIES Payments to... following period. However, since initially there is no previous history of cost under the program, the... cost reporting periods, see § 413.350 regarding periodic interim payments for skilled nursing...

  12. Antihistamine provides sex-specific radiation protection. [Ionizing radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mickley, G.A.

    1981-04-01

    Rats suffer an early transient performance decrement immediately after a sufficiently large dose of ionizing radiation. However, it has been shown that males experience a more severe incapacitation than females. This sex difference has been attributed to the low estrogen levels in the male. In support of this notion, supplemental estrogens in castrated male rats have produced less-severe performance decrements post-irradiation. Antihistamines have also previously been shown to alleviate radiation's effect on behavior. The present study revealed that antihistamines are only effective in altering the behavioral incapacitation of sexually intact male subjects. This contrasts with previous work which indicates that estrogens can only benefit gonadectomized rats. These findings suggest that different mechanisms may underlie antihistamine and estrogen radiation protection.

  13. Recommendation 87/567/EEC on vocational training for women, 24 November 1987.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    This document contains the text of a 1987 Recommendation of the Commission of the European Communities on vocational training for women. Article 1 recommends that Member States adopt a policy to encourage participation of women in training schemes, especially those relevant to occupations of the future and in areas where women are under-represented. Article 2 recommends that Member States: 1) integrate training for women within a broad framework of cooperation between all parties involved; 2) staff such services with personnel trained to deal with the specific problems faced by women; 3) promote outreach activities on the part of such services; 4) provide more decentralized and widely distributed educational and training facilities; 5) promote images of women engaged in nontraditional activities; 6) encourage female participation in higher education, especially in technological areas; 7) encourage female participation in nontraditional apprenticeships; 8) encourage female entrepreneurs by offering appropriate training; 9) develop measures to promote participation of women in continuous training activities; 10) provide underprivileged women and women returning to work with specific courses designed to meet their needs; 11) provide flexible child care arrangements and financial incentives for women to participate in training activities; 12) recognize skills acquired in running a household and looking after a family; and 13) monitor the progress of women taking part in training schemes. Member States are to inform the Commission of their activities in these areas within three years to enable the Commission to create a report on such measures.

  14. Therapy Provider Phase Information

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Therapy Provider Phase Information dataset is a tool for providers to search by their National Provider Identifier (NPI) number to determine their phase for...

  15. Solving the apparent diversity-accuracy dilemma of recommender systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Tao; Kuscsik, Zoltán; Liu, Jian-Guo; Medo, Matús; Wakeling, Joseph Rushton; Zhang, Yi-Cheng

    2010-03-09

    Recommender systems use data on past user preferences to predict possible future likes and interests. A key challenge is that while the most useful individual recommendations are to be found among diverse niche objects, the most reliably accurate results are obtained by methods that recommend objects based on user or object similarity. In this paper we introduce a new algorithm specifically to address the challenge of diversity and show how it can be used to resolve this apparent dilemma when combined in an elegant hybrid with an accuracy-focused algorithm. By tuning the hybrid appropriately we are able to obtain, without relying on any semantic or context-specific information, simultaneous gains in both accuracy and diversity of recommendations.

  16. A Flexible Electronic Commerce Recommendation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Songjie

    Recommendation systems have become very popular in E-commerce websites. Many of the largest commerce websites are already using recommender technologies to help their customers find products to purchase. An electronic commerce recommendation system learns from a customer and recommends products that the customer will find most valuable from among the available products. But most recommendation methods are hard-wired into the system and they support only fixed recommendations. This paper presented a framework of flexible electronic commerce recommendation system. The framework is composed by user model interface, recommendation engine, recommendation strategy model, recommendation technology group, user interest model and database interface. In the recommender strategy model, the method can be collaborative filtering, content-based filtering, mining associate rules method, knowledge-based filtering method or the mixed method. The system mapped the implementation and demand through strategy model, and the whole system would be design as standard parts to adapt to the change of the recommendation strategy.

  17. A survey of exercise advice and recommendations in United Kingdom paediatric cardiac clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Craig A; Gowing, Lucy; Horn, Richard; Stuart, Alan Graham

    2017-07-01

    Physical activity and exercise have important health benefits for children and adolescents with CHD. The objective of this study was to survey the provision of advice and recommendations in United Kingdom paediatric CHD clinics. A three-page questionnaire was sent out to paediatric cardiac consultants in the United Kingdom, paediatric consultants with expertise in cardiology, and nursing staff (Paediatricians with Expertise in Cardiology Special Interest Group), as well as all members of the British Congenital Cardiovascular Association. The aim of this questionnaire was to determine the extent and scope of current information provision and to assess the importance that clinicians place on this advice. There were 68 responses in total, and the data showed that, of these, 24 (36%) clinicians had never provided paediatric CHD patients with written advice about exercise. Only 27 (39%) clinicians provided physical activity advice at every appointment. Lack of time during consultation (n=39, 56.9%), lack of training (n=38, 55.2%), and uncertainty about appropriate recommendations (n=38, 55.2%) were identified as the main factors preventing clinicians from providing patients with advice about physical activity. Although healthcare providers consider physical activity to be very important, the provision of clear, specific advice and recommendations is underutilised; therefore, more education and provision of resources to support the promotion of exercise need to be provided to clinicians and their support teams.

  18. Food recommender systems for diabetic patients: a narrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somaye Norouzi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available World Health Organization (WHO estimates that the number of people with diabetes will grow 114% by 2030. It declares that patients themselves have more responsibility for controlling and the treatment of diabetes by being provided with updated knowledge about the disease and different aspects of available treatments, and diet therapy in particular. In this regard, diet recommendation systems would be helpful. They are techniques and tools which suggest the best diets according to patient’s health situation and preferences. Accordingly, this narrative review studied food recommendation systems and their features by focusing on nutrition and diabetic issues. Literature searches in Google scholar and Pubmed were conducted in February 2015. Records were limited to papers in English language; however, no limitations were applied for the published date. We recognized three common methods for food recommender system: collaborative filtering recommender system (CFRS, knowledge based recommender system (KBRS and context-aware recommender system (CARS. Also wellness recommender systems are a subfield of food recommender systems, which help users to find and adapt suitable personalized wellness treatments based on their individual needs. Food recommender systems often used artificial intelligence and semantic web techniques. Some used the combination of both techniques.

  19. A service brokering and recommendation mechanism for better selecting cloud services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gui, Zhipeng; Yang, Chaowei; Xia, Jizhe; Huang, Qunying; Liu, Kai; Li, Zhenlong; Yu, Manzhu; Sun, Min; Zhou, Nanyin; Jin, Baoxuan

    2014-01-01

    Cloud computing is becoming the new generation computing infrastructure, and many cloud vendors provide different types of cloud services. How to choose the best cloud services for specific applications is very challenging. Addressing this challenge requires balancing multiple factors, such as business demands, technologies, policies and preferences in addition to the computing requirements. This paper recommends a mechanism for selecting the best public cloud service at the levels of Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) and Platform as a Service (PaaS). A systematic framework and associated workflow include cloud service filtration, solution generation, evaluation, and selection of public cloud services. Specifically, we propose the following: a hierarchical information model for integrating heterogeneous cloud information from different providers and a corresponding cloud information collecting mechanism; a cloud service classification model for categorizing and filtering cloud services and an application requirement schema for providing rules for creating application-specific configuration solutions; and a preference-aware solution evaluation mode for evaluating and recommending solutions according to the preferences of application providers. To test the proposed framework and methodologies, a cloud service advisory tool prototype was developed after which relevant experiments were conducted. The results show that the proposed system collects/updates/records the cloud information from multiple mainstream public cloud services in real-time, generates feasible cloud configuration solutions according to user specifications and acceptable cost predication, assesses solutions from multiple aspects (e.g., computing capability, potential cost and Service Level Agreement, SLA) and offers rational recommendations based on user preferences and practical cloud provisioning; and visually presents and compares solutions through an interactive web Graphical User Interface (GUI).

  20. A service brokering and recommendation mechanism for better selecting cloud services.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhipeng Gui

    Full Text Available Cloud computing is becoming the new generation computing infrastructure, and many cloud vendors provide different types of cloud services. How to choose the best cloud services for specific applications is very challenging. Addressing this challenge requires balancing multiple factors, such as business demands, technologies, policies and preferences in addition to the computing requirements. This paper recommends a mechanism for selecting the best public cloud service at the levels of Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS and Platform as a Service (PaaS. A systematic framework and associated workflow include cloud service filtration, solution generation, evaluation, and selection of public cloud services. Specifically, we propose the following: a hierarchical information model for integrating heterogeneous cloud information from different providers and a corresponding cloud information collecting mechanism; a cloud service classification model for categorizing and filtering cloud services and an application requirement schema for providing rules for creating application-specific configuration solutions; and a preference-aware solution evaluation mode for evaluating and recommending solutions according to the preferences of application providers. To test the proposed framework and methodologies, a cloud service advisory tool prototype was developed after which relevant experiments were conducted. The results show that the proposed system collects/updates/records the cloud information from multiple mainstream public cloud services in real-time, generates feasible cloud configuration solutions according to user specifications and acceptable cost predication, assesses solutions from multiple aspects (e.g., computing capability, potential cost and Service Level Agreement, SLA and offers rational recommendations based on user preferences and practical cloud provisioning; and visually presents and compares solutions through an interactive web Graphical

  1. Dietary Recommendations for Cyclists during Altitude Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Michalczyk

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The concept of altitude or hypoxic training is a common practice in cycling. However, several strategies for training regimens have been proposed, like “live high, train high” (LH-TH, “live high, train low” (LH-TL or “intermittent hypoxic training” (IHT. Each of them combines the effect of acclimatization and different training protocols that require specific nutrition. An appropriate nutrition strategy and adequate hydration can help athletes achieve their fitness and performance goals in this unfriendly environment. In this review, the physiological stress of altitude exposure and training will be discussed, with specific nutrition recommendations for athletes training under such conditions. However, there is little research about the nutrition demands of athletes who train at moderate altitude. Our review considers energetic demands and body mass or body composition changes due to altitude training, including respiratory and urinary water loss under these conditions. Carbohydrate intake recommendations and hydration status are discussed in detail, while iron storage and metabolism is also considered. Last, but not least the risk of increased oxidative stress under hypoxic conditions and antioxidant supplementation suggestions are presented.

  2. Dietary Recommendations for Cyclists during Altitude Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalczyk, Małgorzata; Czuba, Miłosz; Zydek, Grzegorz; Zając, Adam; Langfort, Józef

    2016-01-01

    The concept of altitude or hypoxic training is a common practice in cycling. However, several strategies for training regimens have been proposed, like “live high, train high” (LH-TH), “live high, train low” (LH-TL) or “intermittent hypoxic training” (IHT). Each of them combines the effect of acclimatization and different training protocols that require specific nutrition. An appropriate nutrition strategy and adequate hydration can help athletes achieve their fitness and performance goals in this unfriendly environment. In this review, the physiological stress of altitude exposure and training will be discussed, with specific nutrition recommendations for athletes training under such conditions. However, there is little research about the nutrition demands of athletes who train at moderate altitude. Our review considers energetic demands and body mass or body composition changes due to altitude training, including respiratory and urinary water loss under these conditions. Carbohydrate intake recommendations and hydration status are discussed in detail, while iron storage and metabolism is also considered. Last, but not least the risk of increased oxidative stress under hypoxic conditions and antioxidant supplementation suggestions are presented. PMID:27322318

  3. Perineal burn care: French working group recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordes, Julien; Le Floch, Ronan; Bourdais, Ludovic; Gamelin, Alexandre; Lebreton, Françoise; Perro, Gérard

    2014-06-01

    Burns to the perineum are frequently exposed to faeces. Diverting colostomy is often described to prevent faecal soiling. Because this technique is invasive with frequent complications, use of non-surgical devices including specifically designed faecal management systems has been reported in perineal burns. In order to standardise the faecal management strategy in patients with perineal burns, a group of French experts was assembled. This group first evaluated the ongoing practice in France by analysing a questionnaire sent to every French burn centre. Based on the results of this study and on literature data, the experts proposed recommendations on the management of perineal burns in adults. Specifically designed faecal management systems are the first-line method to divert faeces in perineal burns. The working group proposed recommendations and an algorithm to assist in decisions in the management of perineal burns in four categories of patients, depending on total burn skin area, depth and extent of the perineal burn. In France, non-surgical devices are the leading means of faecal diversion in perineal burns. The proposed algorithm may assist in decisions in the management of perineal burns. The expert group emphasises that large clinical studies are needed to better evaluate these devices. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  4. Online Tonsillectomy Resources: Are Parents Getting Consistent and Readable Recommendations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wozney, Lori; Chorney, Jill; Huguet, Anna; Song, Jin Soo; Boss, Emily F; Hong, Paul

    2017-05-01

    Objective Parents frequently refer to information on the Internet to confirm or broaden their understanding of surgical procedures and to research postoperative care practices. Our study evaluated the readability, comprehensiveness, and consistency around online recommendations directed at parents of children undergoing tonsillectomy. Study Design A cross-sectional study design was employed. Setting Thirty English-language Internet websites. Subjects and Methods Three validated measures of readability were applied and content analysis was employed to evaluate the comprehensiveness of information in domains of perioperative education. Frequency effect sizes and percentile ranks were calculated to measure dispersion of recommendations across sites. Results The mean readability level of all sites was above a grade 10 level with fewer than half of the sites (n = 14, 47%) scoring at or below the eight-grade level. Provided information was often incomplete with a noted lack of psychosocial support and skills-training recommendations. Content analysis showed 67 unique recommendations spanning the full perioperative period. Most recommendations had low consensus, being reported in 5 or fewer sites (frequency effect size resources do not meet readability recommendations, portray incomplete education about perioperative care and expectations, and provide recommendations with low levels of consensus. Up-to-date mapping of the research evidence around recommendations is needed as well as improved efforts to make online information easier to read.

  5. Building Scientific Data's list of recommended data repositories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hufton, A. L.; Khodiyar, V.; Hrynaszkiewicz, I.

    2016-12-01

    When Scientific Data launched in 2014 we provided our authors with a list of recommended data repositories to help them identify data hosting options that were likely to meet the journal's requirements. This list has grown in size and scope, and is now a central resource for authors across the Nature-titled journals. It has also been used in the development of data deposition policies and recommended repository lists across Springer Nature and at other publishers. Each new addition to the list is assessed according to a series of criteria that emphasize the stability of the resource, its commitment to principles of open science and its implementation of relevant community standards and reporting guidelines. A preference is expressed for repositories that issue digital object identifiers (DOIs) through the DataCite system and that share data under the Creative Commons CC0 waiver. Scientific Data currently lists fourteen repositories that focus on specific areas within the Earth and environmental sciences, as well as the broad scope repositories, Dryad and figshare. Readers can browse and filter datasets published at the journal by the host repository using ISA-explorer, a demo tool built by the ISA-tools team at Oxford University1. We believe that well-maintained lists like this one help publishers build a network of trust with community data repositories and provide an important complement to more comprehensive data repository indices and more formal certification efforts. In parallel, Scientific Data has also improved its policies to better support submissions from authors using institutional and project-specific repositories, without requiring each to apply for listing individually. Online resources Journal homepage: http://www.nature.com/scientificdata Data repository criteria: http://www.nature.com/sdata/policies/data-policies#repo-criteria Recommended data repositories: http://www.nature.com/sdata/policies/repositories Archived copies of the list: https

  6. Fractional lasers in dermatology - Current status and recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apratim Goel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Fractional laser technology is a new emerging technology to improve scars, fine lines, dyspigmentation, striae and wrinkles. The technique is easy, safe to use and has been used effectively for several clinical and cosmetic indications in Indian skin. Devices: Different fractional laser machines, with different wavelengths, both ablative and non-ablative, are now available in India. A detailed understanding of the device being used is recommended. Indications: Common indications include resurfacing for acne, chickenpox and surgical scars, periorbital and perioral wrinkles, photoageing changes, facial dyschromias. The use of fractional lasers in stretch marks, melasma and other pigmentary conditions, dermatological conditions such as granuloma annulare has been reported. But further data are needed before adopting them for routine use in such conditions. Physician qualification: Any qualified dermatologist may administer fractional laser treatment. He/ she should possess a Master′s degree or diploma in dermatology and should have had specific hands-on training in lasers, either during postgraduation or later at a facility which routinely performs laser procedures under a competent dermatologist or plastic surgeon with experience and training in using lasers. Since parameters may vary with different systems, specific training tailored towards the concerned device at either the manufacturer′s facility or at another center using the machine is recommended. Facility: Fractional lasers can be used in the dermatologist′s minor procedure room for the above indications. Preoperative counseling and Informed consent: Detailed counseling with respect to the treatment, desired effects and possible postoperative complications should be provided to the patient. The patient should be provided brochures to study and also adequate opportunity to seek information. A detailed consent form needs to be completed by the patient. Consent form should

  7. Treatment recommendations for non-infectious anterior uveitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa, Gerard; Muñoz-Fernández, Santiago; García Ruiz de Morales, José M; Herreras, José M; Cordero-Coma, Miguel

    2017-12-20

    To develop recommendations on the use of immunodepressors in patients with non-infectious, non-neoplastic anterior uveitis (AU) based on best evidence and experience. A multidisciplinary panel of five experts was established, who, in the first nominal group meeting defined the scope, users, and chapters of the document. A systematic literature review was performed to assess the efficacy and safety of immunosuppressors in patients with non-infectious, non-neoplastic AU. All the above was discussed in a second nominal group meeting and 33 recommendations were generated. Through the Delphi methodology, the degree of agreement with the recommendations was tested also by 25 more experts. Recommendations were voted on from one (total disagreement) to 10 (total agreement). We defined agreement if at least 70% voted ≥7. The level of evidence and degree of recommendation was assessed using the Oxford Centre for Evidence-based Medicine's Levels of Evidence. The 33 recommendations were accepted. They include specific recommendations on patients with non-infectious, non-neoplastic AU, as well as different treatment lines. In patients with non-infectious, non-neoplastic AU, these recommendations on the use of immunosuppressors might be a guide in order to help in the treatment decision making, due to the lack of robust evidence or other globally accepted algorithms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Scientific and educational recommender systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guseva, A. I.; Kireev, V. S.; Bochkarev, P. V.; Kuznetsov, I. A.; Philippov, S. A.

    2017-01-01

    This article discusses the questions associated with the use of reference systems in the preparation of graduates in physical function. The objective of this research is creation of model of recommender system user from the sphere of science and education. The detailed review of current scientific and social network for scientists and the problem of constructing recommender systems in this area. The result of this study is to research user information model systems. The model is presented in two versions: the full one - in the form of a semantic network, and short - in a relational form. The relational model is the projection in the form of semantic network, taking into account the restrictions on the amount of bonds that characterize the number of information items (research results), which interact with the system user.

  9. Specific Phobias

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health This information in Spanish ( en español ) Specific phobias Treatment More information on specific phobias A specific ... psychotherapy. Return to top More information on Specific phobias Explore other publications and websites Phobias (Copyright © Mayo ...

  10. Personalized recommendation based on heat bidirectional transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Wenping; Feng, Xiang; Wang, Shanfeng; Gong, Maoguo

    2016-02-01

    Personalized recommendation has become an increasing popular research topic, which aims to find future likes and interests based on users' past preferences. Traditional recommendation algorithms pay more attention to forecast accuracy by calculating first-order relevance, while ignore the importance of diversity and novelty that provide comfortable experiences for customers. There are some levels of contradictions between these three metrics, so an algorithm based on bidirectional transfer is proposed in this paper to solve this dilemma. In this paper, we agree that an object that is associated with history records or has been purchased by similar users should be introduced to the specified user and recommendation approach based on heat bidirectional transfer is proposed. Compared with the state-of-the-art approaches based on bipartite network, experiments on two benchmark data sets, Movielens and Netflix, demonstrate that our algorithm has better performance on accuracy, diversity and novelty. Moreover, this method does better in exploiting long-tail commodities and cold-start problem.

  11. Virtual Goods Recommendations in Virtual Worlds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuan-Yu Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Virtual worlds (VWs are computer-simulated environments which allow users to create their own virtual character as an avatar. With the rapidly growing user volume in VWs, platform providers launch virtual goods in haste and stampede users to increase sales revenue. However, the rapidity of development incurs virtual unrelated items which will be difficult to remarket. It not only wastes virtual global companies’ intelligence resources, but also makes it difficult for users to find suitable virtual goods fit for their virtual home in daily virtual life. In the VWs, users decorate their houses, visit others’ homes, create families, host parties, and so forth. Users establish their social life circles through these activities. This research proposes a novel virtual goods recommendation method based on these social interactions. The contact strength and contact influence result from interactions with social neighbors and influence users’ buying intention. Our research highlights the importance of social interactions in virtual goods recommendation. The experiment’s data were retrieved from an online VW platform, and the results show that the proposed method, considering social interactions and social life circle, has better performance than existing recommendation methods.

  12. Virtual goods recommendations in virtual worlds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kuan-Yu; Liao, Hsiu-Yu; Chen, Jyun-Hung; Liu, Duen-Ren

    2015-01-01

    Virtual worlds (VWs) are computer-simulated environments which allow users to create their own virtual character as an avatar. With the rapidly growing user volume in VWs, platform providers launch virtual goods in haste and stampede users to increase sales revenue. However, the rapidity of development incurs virtual unrelated items which will be difficult to remarket. It not only wastes virtual global companies' intelligence resources, but also makes it difficult for users to find suitable virtual goods fit for their virtual home in daily virtual life. In the VWs, users decorate their houses, visit others' homes, create families, host parties, and so forth. Users establish their social life circles through these activities. This research proposes a novel virtual goods recommendation method based on these social interactions. The contact strength and contact influence result from interactions with social neighbors and influence users' buying intention. Our research highlights the importance of social interactions in virtual goods recommendation. The experiment's data were retrieved from an online VW platform, and the results show that the proposed method, considering social interactions and social life circle, has better performance than existing recommendation methods.

  13. Dealing with Time in Health Economic Evaluation: Methodological Issues and Recommendations for Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Mahony, James F; Newall, Anthony T; van Rosmalen, Joost

    2015-12-01

    Time is an important aspect of health economic evaluation, as the timing and duration of clinical events, healthcare interventions and their consequences all affect estimated costs and effects. These issues should be reflected in the design of health economic models. This article considers three important aspects of time in modelling: (1) which cohorts to simulate and how far into the future to extend the analysis; (2) the simulation of time, including the difference between discrete-time and continuous-time models, cycle lengths, and converting rates and probabilities; and (3) discounting future costs and effects to their present values. We provide a methodological overview of these issues and make recommendations to help inform both the conduct of cost-effectiveness analyses and the interpretation of their results. For choosing which cohorts to simulate and how many, we suggest analysts carefully assess potential reasons for variation in cost effectiveness between cohorts and the feasibility of subgroup-specific recommendations. For the simulation of time, we recommend using short cycles or continuous-time models to avoid biases and the need for half-cycle corrections, and provide advice on the correct conversion of transition probabilities in state transition models. Finally, for discounting, analysts should not only follow current guidance and report how discounting was conducted, especially in the case of differential discounting, but also seek to develop an understanding of its rationale. Our overall recommendations are that analysts explicitly state and justify their modelling choices regarding time and consider how alternative choices may impact on results.

  14. A Real-Time Taxicab Recommendation System Using Big Trajectories Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengpeng Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Carpooling is becoming a more and more significant traffic choice, because it can provide additional service options, ease traffic congestion, and reduce total vehicle exhaust emissions. Although some recommendation systems have proposed taxicab carpooling services recently, they cannot fully utilize and understand the known information and essence of carpooling. This study proposes a novel recommendation algorithm, which provides either a vacant or an occupied taxicab in response to a passenger’s request, called VOT. VOT recommends the closest vacant taxicab to passengers. Otherwise, VOT infers destinations of occupied taxicabs by similarity comparison and clustering algorithms and then recommends the occupied taxicab heading to a close destination to passengers. Using an efficient large data-processing framework, Spark, we greatly improve the efficiency of large data processing. This study evaluates VOT with a real-world dataset that contains 14747 taxicabs’ GPS data. Results show that the ratio of range (between forecasted and actual destinations of less than 900 M can reach 90.29%. The total mileage to deliver all passengers is significantly reduced (47.84% on average. Specifically, the reduced total mileage of nonrush hours outperforms other systems by 35%. VOT and others have similar performances in actual detour ratio, even better in rush hours.

  15. Aggregated Recommendation through Random Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heng-Ru Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aggregated recommendation refers to the process of suggesting one kind of items to a group of users. Compared to user-oriented or item-oriented approaches, it is more general and, therefore, more appropriate for cold-start recommendation. In this paper, we propose a random forest approach to create aggregated recommender systems. The approach is used to predict the rating of a group of users to a kind of items. In the preprocessing stage, we merge user, item, and rating information to construct an aggregated decision table, where rating information serves as the decision attribute. We also model the data conversion process corresponding to the new user, new item, and both new problems. In the training stage, a forest is built for the aggregated training set, where each leaf is assigned a distribution of discrete rating. In the testing stage, we present four predicting approaches to compute evaluation values based on the distribution of each tree. Experiments results on the well-known MovieLens dataset show that the aggregated approach maintains an acceptable level of accuracy.

  16. APLAR rheumatoid arthritis treatment recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Chak Sing; Chia, Faith; Harrison, Andrew; Hsieh, Tsu-Yi; Jain, Rahul; Jung, Seung Min; Kishimoto, Mitsumasa; Kumar, Ashok; Leong, Khai Pang; Li, Zhanguo; Lichauco, Juan Javier; Louthrenoo, Worawit; Luo, Shue-Fen; Nash, Peter; Ng, Chin Teck; Park, Sung-Hwan; Suryana, Bagus Putu Putra; Suwannalai, Parawee; Wijaya, Linda Kurniaty; Yamamoto, Kazuhiko; Yang, Yue; Yeap, Swan Sim

    2015-09-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic inflammatory condition that affects approximately 1% of the world's population. There are a wide number of guidelines and recommendations available to support the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis; however, the evidence used for these guidelines is predominantly based on studies in Caucasian subjects and may not be relevant for rheumatoid arthritis patients in the Asia-Pacific region. Therefore, the Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology established a Steering Committee in 2013 to address this issue. The AGREE II instrument and the ADAPTE Collaboration framework were applied to systematically identify, appraise, synthesize, and adapt international rheumatoid arthritis guidelines for use in the Asia-Pacific region. Forty rheumatoid arthritis treatment recommendations, based on evidence and expert opinion, were drafted and are presented in this report. The Asia Pacific of Associations for Rheumatology rheumatoid arthritis treatment recommendations are intended to serve as a reference for best practice management of rheumatoid arthritis in Asia-Pacific, focusing on local issues to ensure the delivery of basic care for these patients, and to improve their outcomes. In addition, the document will serve as a reference for national rheumatology associations in Asia-Pacific for developing guidelines in their respective countries. © 2015 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  17. An incentive-based architecture for social recommendations

    KAUST Repository

    Bhattacharjee, Rajat

    2009-01-01

    We present an incentive-based architecture for providing recommendations in a social network. We maintain a distinct reputation system for each individual and we rely on users to identify appropriate correlations and rate the items using a system-provided recommendation language. The key idea is to design an incentive structure and a ranking system such that any inaccuracy in the recommendations implies the existence of a profitable arbitrage opportunity, hence making the system resistant to malicious spam and presentation bias. We also show that, under mild assumptions, our architecture provides users with incentive to minimize the Kullback-Leibler divergence between the ratings and the actual item qualities, quickly driving the system to an equilibrium state with accurate recommendations. Copyright 2009 ACM.

  18. Finding Your Literature Match - A Recommender System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henneken, Edwin A.; Kurtz, Michael J.; Accomazzi, Alberto; Grant, Carolyn; Thompson, Donna; Bohlen, Elizabeth; Di Milia, Giovanni; Luker, Jay; Murray, Stephen S.

    The universe of potentially interesting, searchable literature is expanding continuously. Besides the normal expansion, there is an additional influx of literature because of interdisciplinary boundaries becoming more and more diffuse. Hence, the need for accurate, efficient and intelligent search tools is bigger than ever. Even with a sophisticated search engine, looking for information can still result in overwhelming results. An overload of information has the intrinsic danger of scaring visitors away, and any organization, for-profit or not-for-profit, in the business of providing scholarly information wants to capture and keep the attention of its target audience. Publishers and search engine engineers alike will benefit from a service that is able to provide visitors with recommendations that closely meet their interests. Providing visitors with special deals, new options and highlights may be interesting to a certain degree, but what makes more sense (especially from a commercial point of view) than to let visitors do most of the work by the mere action of making choices? Hiring psychics is not an option, so a technological solution is needed to recommend items that a visitor is likely to be looking for. In this presentation we will introduce such a solution and argue that it is practically feasible to incorporate this approach into a useful addition to any information retrieval system with enough usage.

  19. Revisiting Pneumatic Nail Gun Trigger Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albers, James; Lowe, Brian; Lipscomb, Hester; Hudock, Stephen; Dement, John; Evanoff, Bradley; Fullen, Mark; Gillen, Matt; Kaskutas, Vicki; Nolan, James; Patterson, Dennis; Platner, James; Pompeii, Lisa; Schoenfisch, Ashley

    2015-03-01

    Use of a pneumatic nail gun with a sequential actuation trigger (SAT) significantly diminishes the risk for acute traumatic injury compared to use of a contact actuation trigger (CAT) nail gun. A theoretically-based increased risk of work-related musculoskeletal disorders from use of a SAT nail gun, relative to CAT, appears unlikely and remains unproven. Based on current knowledge, the use of CAT nail guns cannot be justified as a safe alternative to SAT nail guns. This letter provides a perspective of ergonomists and occupational safety researchers recommending the use of the sequential actuation trigger for all nail gun tasks in the construction industry.

  20. SNL RML recommended dosimetry cross section compendium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffin, P.J.; Kelly, J.G.; Luera, T.F. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); VanDenburg, J. [Science and Engineering Associates, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1993-11-01

    A compendium of dosimetry cross sections is presented for use in the characterization of fission reactor spectrum and fluence. The contents of this cross section library are based upon the ENDF/B-VI and IRDF-90 cross section libraries and are recommended as a replacement for the DOSCROS84 multigroup library that is widely used by the dosimetry community. Documentation is provided on the rationale for the choice of the cross sections selected for inclusion in this library and on the uncertainty and variation in cross sections presented by state-of-the-art evaluations.

  1. Two tier pricing system recommendation and summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1974-06-01

    In both the U.S. and the world today the most critical price system problem is the spectacular crude price set by the OPEC monopoly. In the U.S. this $10.00 plus price currently sets the price of 60% of our crude petroleum input. Therefore, the most powerful method available to reduce U.S. crude input price inflation is to reduce the OPEC monopoly price by at least $2 or 20%. At this price, it would supposedly approximate the long run cost of such energy. The situation is reviewed and recommendations and a summary are provided.

  2. Recommendations to write better scientific articles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Threlfall (Author

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Disseminate results is one of the functions of the scientists, and we all must have approach to the knowledge to carry it a greater number of people. This is done by writing and publishing scientific articles. But though we all have good intentions and ours goals are the best, not always we get our papers are accepted and published in scientific journals. With the aim of providing assistance to achieve greater efficiency and effectiveness in our work, in this article the translation of some interesting recommendations for best writing scientific papers is presented.

  3. Finding Your Literature Match -- A Recommender System

    CERN Document Server

    Henneken, Edwin A; Accomazzi, Alberto; Grant, Carolyn; Thompson, Donna; Bohlen, Elizabeth; Di Milia, Giovanni; Luker, Jay; Murray, Stephen S

    2010-01-01

    The universe of potentially interesting, searchable literature is expanding continuously. Besides the normal expansion, there is an additional influx of literature because of interdisciplinary boundaries becoming more and more diffuse. Hence, the need for accurate, efficient and intelligent search tools is bigger than ever. Even with a sophisticated search engine, looking for information can still result in overwhelming results. An overload of information has the intrinsic danger of scaring visitors away, and any organization, for-profit or not-for-profit, in the business of providing scholarly information wants to capture and keep the attention of its target audience. Publishers and search engine engineers alike will benefit from a service that is able to provide visitors with recommendations that closely meet their interests. Providing visitors with special deals, new options and highlights may be interesting to a certain degree, but what makes more sense (especially from a commercial point of view) than to...

  4. Recommended observational skills training for IAEA safeguards inspections. Final report: Recommended observational skills training for IAEA safeguards inspections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toquam, J.L.; Morris, F.A.

    1994-09-01

    This is the second of two reports prepared to assist the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA or Agency) in enhancing the effectiveness of its international safeguards inspections through inspector training in {open_quotes}Observational Skills{close_quotes}. The first (Phase 1) report was essentially exploratory. It defined Observational Skills broadly to include all appropriate cognitive, communications, and interpersonal techniques that have the potential to help IAEA safeguards inspectors function more effectively. It identified 10 specific Observational Skills components, analyzed their relevance to IAEA safeguards inspections, and reviewed a variety of inspection programs in the public and private sectors that provide training in one or more of these components. The report concluded that while it should be possible to draw upon these other programs in developing Observational Skills training for IAEA inspectors, the approaches utilized in these programs will likely require significant adaption to support the specific job requirements, policies, and practices that define the IAEA inspector`s job. The overall objective of this second (Phase 2) report is to provide a basis for the actual design and delivery of Observational Skills training to IAEA inspectors. The more specific purposes of this report are to convey a fuller understanding of the potential application of Observational Skills to the inspector`s job, describe inspector perspectives on the relevance and importance of particular Observational Skills, identify the specific Observational Skill components that are most important and relevant to enhancing safeguards inspections, and make recommendations as to Observational Skills training for the IAEA`s consideration in further developing its Safeguards training program.

  5. Recommended vitamin D levels in the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varsavsky, Mariela; Rozas Moreno, Pedro; Becerra Fernández, Antonio; Luque Fernández, Inés; Quesada Gómez, José Manuel; Ávila Rubio, Verónica; García Martín, Antonia; Cortés Berdonces, María; Naf Cortés, Silvia; Romero Muñoz, Manuel; Reyes García, Rebeca; Jódar Gimeno, Esteban; Muñoz Torres, Manuel

    2017-03-01

    To provide recommendations based on evidence on the management of vitaminD deficiency in the general population. Members of the Bone Metabolism Working Group of the Spanish Society of Endocrinology. Recommendations were formulated using the GRADE system (Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation) to describe both the strength of recommendations and the quality of evidence. A systematic search was made in MEDLINE (Pubmed) using the term VitaminD and the name of each issue. Papers in English and Spanish with publication date before 17 March 2016 were included. Recommendations were jointly discussed by the Working Group. This document summarizes the data about vitaminD deficiency in terms of prevalence, etiology, screening indications, adequate levels and effects of supplementation on bone and non-skeletal health outcomes. Copyright © 2017 SEEN. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Diffusion-based recommendation with trust relations on tripartite graphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ximeng; Liu, Yun; Zhang, Guangquan; Xiong, Fei; Lu, Jie

    2017-08-01

    The diffusion-based recommendation approach is a vital branch in recommender systems, which successfully applies physical dynamics to make recommendations for users on bipartite or tripartite graphs. Trust links indicate users’ social relations and can provide the benefit of reducing data sparsity. However, traditional diffusion-based algorithms only consider rating links when making recommendations. In this paper, the complementarity of users’ implicit and explicit trust is exploited, and a novel resource-allocation strategy is proposed, which integrates these two kinds of trust relations on tripartite graphs. Through empirical studies on three benchmark datasets, our proposed method obtains better performance than most of the benchmark algorithms in terms of accuracy, diversity and novelty. According to the experimental results, our method is an effective and reasonable way to integrate additional features into the diffusion-based recommendation approach.

  7. ComplexRec 2017: Recommendation in Complex Scenarios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Recommendation algorithms for ratings prediction and item ranking have steadily matured during the past decade. However, these state-of-the-art algorithms are typically applied in relatively straightforward scenarios. In reality, recommendation is often a more complex problem: it is usually just...... a single step in the user's more complex background need. These background needs can often place a variety of constraints on which recommendations are interesting to the user and when they are appropriate. However, relatively little research has been done on these complex recommendation scenarios....... The ComplexRec 2017 workshop addressed this by providing an interactive venue for discussing approaches to recommendation in complex scenarios that have no simple one-size-fits-all-solution....

  8. Workshop on Recommendation in Complex Scenarios (ComplexRec 2017)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogers, Toine

    2017-01-01

    Recommendation algorithms for ratings prediction and item ranking have steadily matured during the past decade. However, these state-of-the-art algorithms are typically applied in relatively straightforward scenarios. In reality, recommendation is often a more complex problem: it is usually just...... a single step in the user's more complex background need. These background needs can often place a variety of constraints on which recommendations are interesting to the user and when they are appropriate. However, relatively little research has been done on these complex recommendation scenarios....... The ComplexRec 2017 workshop addressed this by providing an interactive venue for discussing approaches to recommendation in complex scenarios that have no simple one-size-fits-all-solution....

  9. AN EFFECTIVE RECOMMENDATIONS BY DIFFUSION ALGORITHM FOR WEB GRAPH MINING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Vasukipriya

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The information on the World Wide Web grows in an explosive rate. Societies are relying more on the Web for their miscellaneous needs of information. Recommendation systems are active information filtering systems that attempt to present the information items like movies, music, images, books recommendations, tags recommendations, query suggestions, etc., to the users. Various kinds of data bases are used for the recommendations; fundamentally these data bases can be molded in the form of many types of graphs. Aiming at provided that a general framework on effective DR (Recommendations by Diffusion algorithm for web graphs mining. First introduce a novel graph diffusion model based on heat diffusion. This method can be applied to both undirected graphs and directed graphs. Then it shows how to convert different Web data sources into correct graphs in our models.

  10. The Effect of Incorporating Good Learners' Ratings in e-Learning Content-Based Recommender System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghauth, Khairil Imran; Abdullah, Nor Aniza

    2011-01-01

    One of the anticipated challenges of today's e-learning is to solve the problem of recommending from a large number of learning materials. In this study, we introduce a novel architecture for an e-learning recommender system. More specifically, this paper comprises the following phases i) to propose an e-learning recommender system based on…

  11. Navigating barriers: two-year follow up on recommendations to improve the use of maternal health guidelines in Kosovo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Julia E; Uka, Sami; Vogel, Joshua P; Timmings, Caitlyn; Rashid, Shusmita; Gülmezoglu, A Metin; Straus, Sharon E

    2016-09-15

    Although there are a growing number of initiatives aimed at supporting guideline implementation in resource-constrained settings, few studies assess progress on achieving next steps and goals after the initial activities are completed and the initial funding period has ended. The aim of the current study was to conduct a qualitative process evaluation of progress, barriers, facilitators, and proposed solutions to operationalize nine recommendations to prepare Kosovo to implement the 2012 World Health Organization (WHO) prevention and treatment of postpartum haemorrhage guideline. In 2012, we co-created nine recommendations designed to support implementing the WHO's guideline on the prevention and treatment of postpartum haemorrhage in Kosovo. The current study uses a realist evaluation approach to assess activities and progress two years after the recommendations were developed. The study involved conducting qualitative focus groups and one-on-one interviews with participants from the first meeting to evaluate the activities and progress on the nine recommendations. Forty-three participants provided insights into the barriers and opportunities experienced to date and proposed future directions. Although progress has been made towards implementation of a number of the recommendations, scaling up has been limited by barriers, such as lack of awareness, limited resources, and evaluation challenges. Participants proposed addressing these barriers by building within- and between-country partnerships to facilitate guideline implementation. In addition, participants reported less progress on implementing recommendations related to broader cultural changes, which indicates a need for specific and actionable recommendations to operationalize implementation efforts. In the two years since the initial meeting, there has been mixed progress on the recommendations. Based on participant feedback, we refined the recommendations so that they can be operationalized by health care

  12. Raising the quality of rheumatology management recommendations: lessons from the EULAR process 10 years after provision of standard operating procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colebatch-Bourn, Alexandra N; Conaghan, Philip G; Arden, Nigel K; Cooper, Cyrus; Dougados, Maxime; Edwards, Christopher J

    2015-08-01

    To increase understanding of how to raise the quality of rheumatology guidelines by reviewing European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) management recommendations, using the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation (AGREE) II instrument, 10 years after publication of the EULAR standardized operating procedures (SOP) for the production of recommendations. It was hoped that this work could help inform improvements in guideline development by other societies and organizations. The SOP were published in 2004 to ensure the quality of EULAR-endorsed recommendations. We reviewed 27 published EULAR recommendations for management using the AGREE II tool. This provides a framework to assess the quality of guidelines across six broad domains using 23 specific questions. Overall the EULAR recommendations reviewed have been performed to a high standard. There are particular strengths in the methodology and presentation of the guidelines; however, the results indicate areas for development in future recommendations: in particular, stakeholder involvement and applicability of the recommendations. Improvements in quality were evident in recent years, with patient representation in 9 of 15 (60.0%) recommendations published 2010-14 compared with 4 of 12 (33.3%) published 2000-09. In the last 10 years the overall quality of recommendations was good, with standards improving over the decade following publication of the SOP. However, this review process has identified potential areas for improvement, especially in patient representation and provision of implementation tools. The lessons from this work can be applied to the development of rheumatology guidelines by other societies and organizations. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Rheumatology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Navigating barriers: two-year follow up on recommendations to improve the use of maternal health guidelines in Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia E. Moore

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although there are a growing number of initiatives aimed at supporting guideline implementation in resource-constrained settings, few studies assess progress on achieving next steps and goals after the initial activities are completed and the initial funding period has ended. The aim of the current study was to conduct a qualitative process evaluation of progress, barriers, facilitators, and proposed solutions to operationalize nine recommendations to prepare Kosovo to implement the 2012 World Health Organization (WHO prevention and treatment of postpartum haemorrhage guideline. Methods/Design In 2012, we co-created nine recommendations designed to support implementing the WHO’s guideline on the prevention and treatment of postpartum haemorrhage in Kosovo. The current study uses a realist evaluation approach to assess activities and progress two years after the recommendations were developed. The study involved conducting qualitative focus groups and one-on-one interviews with participants from the first meeting to evaluate the activities and progress on the nine recommendations. Results Forty-three participants provided insights into the barriers and opportunities experienced to date and proposed future directions. Although progress has been made towards implementation of a number of the recommendations, scaling up has been limited by barriers, such as lack of awareness, limited resources, and evaluation challenges. Participants proposed addressing these barriers by building within- and between-country partnerships to facilitate guideline implementation. In addition, participants reported less progress on implementing recommendations related to broader cultural changes, which indicates a need for specific and actionable recommendations to operationalize implementation efforts. Conclusions In the two years since the initial meeting, there has been mixed progress on the recommendations. Based on participant feedback, we

  14. Consumers' intention to use health recommendation systems to receive personalized nutrition advice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Wendel (Sonja); B.G.C. Dellaert (Benedict); A. Ronteltap (Amber); H.C.M. van Trijp (Hans)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Sophisticated recommendation systems are used more and more in the health sector to assist consumers in healthy decision making. In this study we investigate consumers' evaluation of hypothetical health recommendation systems that provide personalized nutrition advice. We

  15. Consumers’ intention to use health recommendation systems to receive personalized nutrition advice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)</