WorldWideScience

Sample records for providing social benefits

  1. Social demand for multiple benefits provided by Aleppo pine forest management in Catalonia, Spain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varela, Elsa; Jacobsen, Jette Bredahl; Mavsar, Robert

    2017-01-01

    This paper estimates the social demand for key benefits provided by Aleppo pine forests in Catalonia that can be enhanced by management. These so-called externalities are the side effects of forest management on citizens’ welfare and can be either positive or negative. The externalities addressed...

  2. Factors associated with providing social security benefits for traumatic brain injury resulting from occupational accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denismar Borges de Miranda

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The Occupational Accident (OA is considered to be an important public health problem in Brazil. Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI is the most common among them. The TBI is associated with high morbidity and mortality rates among workers. OBJECTIVE: To identify factors associated with providing social security benefits for TBI due to occupational accidents according to the specific type of economic activity in Brazil, in 2009. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study that was conducted with all workers who were part of the General Regime of Social Security (RGPS of Brazil. Secondary data were obtained from the National Information System Benefit, from the Synchronized National Register of the Ministry of Finance and from the General Register of Employed and Unemployed Persons. Data were analyzed using the multiple logistic regression method. RESULTS: We analyzed 2,006 cases of social security benefits for traumatic brain injury due to Occupational Accident. Factors associated with the concession of the benefit according to the economic activity of the Company of the beneficiary were identified. Associations were found with sex, income and the region of the Company. CONCLUSION: Factors associated with the concession of social security benefits by TBI resulting from OA differ depending on the type of economic activity in the study. Understanding these factors may contribute to the planning of preventive policies.

  3. Factors associated with providing social security benefits for traumatic brain injury resulting from occupational accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Miranda, Denismar Borges; Rego, Rita Franco; Viola, Denise Nunes; Lima, Verônica Maria Cadena; Teixeira, Edriene Barros

    2014-01-01

    The Occupational Accident (OA) is considered to be an important public health problem in Brazil. Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) is the most common among them. The TBI is associated with high morbidity and mortality rates among workers. To identify factors associated with providing social security benefits for TBI due to occupational accidents according to the specific type of economic activity in Brazil, in 2009. This is a cross-sectional study that was conducted with all workers who were part of the General Regime of Social Security (RGPS) of Brazil. Secondary data were obtained from the National Information System Benefit, from the Synchronized National Register of the Ministry of Finance and from the General Register of Employed and Unemployed Persons. Data were analyzed using the multiple logistic regression method. We analyzed 2,006 cases of social security benefits for traumatic brain injury due to Occupational Accident. Factors associated with the concession of the benefit according to the economic activity of the Company of the beneficiary were identified. Associations were found with sex, income and the region of the Company. Factors associated with the concession of social security benefits by TBI resulting from OA differ depending on the type of economic activity in the study. Understanding these factors may contribute to the planning of preventive policies.

  4. Means of transport and ontological security: do cars provide psycho-social benefits to their users?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiscock, Rosemary [St Andrews Univ., School of Geography and Geosciences, St Andrews (United Kingdom); Macintyre, Sally; Ellaway, Anne [MRC, Social and Public Health Sciences Unit, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Kearns, Ade [Glasgow Univ., Dept. of Urban Studies, Glasgow (United Kingdom)

    2002-07-01

    This paper presents some empirical evidence on the psycho-social benefits people seem to derive from their cars based on in-depth interviews with a sample of car owners and non-car owners in the West of Scotland. We suggest that psycho-social benefits of protection, autonomy and prestige may help to explain people's attachment to cars and also why studies have found consistently that car owners are healthier than non-car owners. In our study cars were seen to provide protection from undesirable people events, and a comfortable cocoon (but not as providing protection against accidents). Cars provided autonomy because car use was seen as being more convenient, reliable and providing access to more destinations than public transport. Cars were seen to confer prestige and other socially desirable attributes such as competence, skill and masculinity. We think that it is important for policy makers to consider how to make public transport more attractive by increasing its potential to provide similar sorts of benefits, and to do so by targeting the different needs of various population groups. (Author)

  5. The Economic and Social Benefits and the Barriers of Providing People with Disabilities Accessible Clean Water and Sanitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregor Wolbring

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Resolution A/HRC/RES/16/2 adopted by the UN Human Rights Council on 8 April 2011 declared access to safe drinking water and sanitation a human right. However many people around the globe including people with disabilities do not have access to safe drinking water, hygiene or sanitation facilities. Inaccessibility of clean water sources, hygiene and sanitation facilities negatively impacts among others health, education, the ability to work, and the ability to partake in social activities. This paper looks at the benefits of, and access barriers to, clean water and sanitation for people with disabilities.

  6. Deserving social benefits?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esmark, Anders; Richardt Schoop, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    welfare reforms involving reductions of social benefits in Denmark in 2005 and 2013, the article analyses the frames used by politicians supporting and opposing reform, as well as the frames used by the media. The article shows, first, that political reforms reducing social benefits are followed......The article contributes to the growing literature on framing of deservingness as an alternative to ‘blame avoidance’ strategies in the politics of welfare retrenchment. In particular, the article focuses on the interplay between political framing and media framing. Based on an analysis of two major...... by increased framing of recipients as undeserving. The article finds a strong correlation between the political objective of reducing benefits and the reliance on frames that position recipients as undeserving. Second, the article shows that media framing remains significantly different from political framing...

  7. Social Security and Medicare Benefits

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — Cash benefits and rehabilitation benefits paid in each year from the Old-Age and Survivors Insurance, and Disability Insurance Trust Funds, and benefits paid from...

  8. [Analysis of state costs of the social security benefits provided to the insured presenting with lung cancer and pulmonary diseases caused by external factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuklińska-Janiak, Dorota

    2013-12-01

    Lung cancer and pneumoconioses constitute two serious problems of contemporary medicine and a public health system. To analyze the costs associated with social security benefits provided to the insured presenting with lung cancer and pulmonary diseases (including pneumoconioses) caused by external factors. The analysis was based on the data obtained from the Department of Statistics and Actuarial Forecasts of the Social Insurance Institution (SlI) in Warsaw. Structural diversity of the costs of the separate benefits available within the national health insurance system has been considered. Based on the data available in Poland costs associated with the incidence of lung cancer and pneumoconiosis were assessed taking into account sex and age of the insured as well as the administrative division of Poland. Additionally, mortality rates from the selected pulmonary diseases were analyzed. Costs of the pensions paid to the insured presenting with lung cancer amount to 81.11% of the total social security costs associated with these diseases, while the sick leave money paid to the insured lung cancer patients equal to 15.5% of the total costs. In the insured women, costs of the pensions paid due to occupational pulmonary diseases (predominantly pneumoconioses) constitute 41.1% and in the insured men--11.5% of the total 'occupational' pensions. Although the maximal incidence of lung cancer occurs in both men and women above their retirement ages the costs of the work incapacity pensions paid to lung cancer patients still exceed 81% of the total social security costs associated with these diseases. In the insured women, the cost of pensions paid due to occupational pulmonary diseases, most of which are pneumoconioses, ranks first among the costs of 'occupational' pensions received by these subjects, while in the insured men the respective cost ranks third (after injuries plus intoxications and cardiovascular diseases) among their 'occupational' pensions. Moreover, the

  9. Family benefits - Obligation to provide information

    CERN Document Server

    HR Department

    2015-01-01

    Pursuant to Article R V 1.38 of the Staff Regulations, members of the personnel are reminded that they are required to inform the Organization in writing, within 30 calendar days, of any change in their family situation (marriage, partnership, birth of a child, etc.) and of the amount of any financial benefit of a similar nature to those provided for in the Staff Regulations (e.g. family allowance, child allowance, infant allowance, non-resident allowance or international indemnity) to which they or a member of their family may be entitled from a source other than CERN.   The procedures to be followed are available in the Admin e-guide: https://admin-eguide.web.cern.ch/en/procedure/change-family-situation Members of the personnel are also reminded that any false declaration or failure to make a declaration with a view to deceiving others or achieving a gain resulting in a loss of funds or reputation for CERN constitutes fraud and may lead to disciplinary action in accordance with Article S ...

  10. Family benefits – Obligation to provide information

    CERN Document Server

    HR department

    2016-01-01

    Pursuant to Article R V 1.38 of the Staff Regulations, members of the personnel are reminded that they are required to inform the Organization in writing, within 30 calendar days, of any change in their family situation (marriage, partnership, birth of a child, etc.) and of the amount of any financial benefit of a similar nature to those stipulated in the Staff Regulations (e.g. family allowance, child allowance, infant allowance, non-resident allowance or international indemnity) to which they or a member of their family may be entitled from a source other than CERN.   The procedures to be followed are available in the admin e-guide: https://admin-eguide.web.cern.ch/en/procedure/change-family-situation Members of the personnel are also reminded that any false declaration or failure to make a declaration with a view to deceiving others or achieving a gain resulting in a loss of funds or reputation for CERN constitutes fraud and may lead to disciplinary action in accordance with Article S VI 2.01 of ...

  11. Family benefits - Obligation to provide information

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2015-01-01

    Pursuant to Article R V 1.38 of the Staff Regulations, members of the personnel are reminded that they are required to inform the Organization in writing, within 30 calendar days, of any change in their family situation (marriage, partnership, birth of a child, etc.) and of the amount of any financial benefit of a similar nature to those stipulated in the Staff Regulations (e.g. family allowance, child allowance, infant allowance, non-resident allowance or international indemnity) to which they or a member of their family may be entitled from a source other than CERN.   The procedures to be followed are available in the Admin e-guide: https://admin-eguide.web.cern.ch/en/procedure/change-family-situation Members of the personnel are also reminded that any false declaration or failure to make a declaration with a view to deceiving others or achieving a gain resulting in a loss of funds or reputation for CERN constitutes fraud and may lead to disciplinary action in accordance with Article S VI 2.01 of ...

  12. Social Aspects of Urban Forestry: Urban Greening and Social Benefits: a Study of Empowerment Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynne M. Westphal

    2003-01-01

    This paper provides a framework in which to consider social benefits of urban and community forestry projects. The framework clarifies who gets the benefits - An individual? An organization? A community? Further, the benefits can be derived from passive and/or active experience of the urban forest. Examples of social benefits in each category are reviewed. The paper...

  13. Environmental benefits and social cost

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, H.J.; Kjær, J.; Brüsh, W.

    2007-01-01

    There is a need for introducing interdisciplinary tools and approaches in water management for participatory integrated assessment of water protection costs and environmental benefits for different management scenarios. This is required for the Water Framework Directive. Bayesian belief networks...... management actions on agricultural economics and groundwater and drinking water quality, with the overall aim of exploring complexity and uncertainties...

  14. Conserving critical sites for biodiversity provides disproportionate benefits to people

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Frank Wugt; Turner, Will R.; Brooks, Thomas M.

    2012-01-01

    Protecting natural habitats in priority areas is essential to halt the loss of biodiversity. Yet whether these benefits for biodiversity also yield benefits for human well-being remains controversial. Here we assess the potential human well-being benefits of safeguarding a global network of sites......) benefits to maintenance of human cultural diversity - significantly exceeding those anticipated from randomly selected sites within the same countries and ecoregions. Results suggest that safeguarding sites important for biodiversity conservation provides substantial benefits to human well-being....

  15. Conserving Critical Sites for Biodiversity Provides Disproportionate Benefits to People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Frank W.; Turner, Will R.; Brooks, Thomas M.

    2012-01-01

    Protecting natural habitats in priority areas is essential to halt the loss of biodiversity. Yet whether these benefits for biodiversity also yield benefits for human well-being remains controversial. Here we assess the potential human well-being benefits of safeguarding a global network of sites identified as top priorities for the conservation of threatened species. Conserving these sites would yield benefits – in terms of a) climate change mitigation through avoidance of CO2 emissions from deforestation; b) freshwater services to downstream human populations; c) retention of option value; and d) benefits to maintenance of human cultural diversity – significantly exceeding those anticipated from randomly selected sites within the same countries and ecoregions. Results suggest that safeguarding sites important for biodiversity conservation provides substantial benefits to human well-being. PMID:22666337

  16. Conserving critical sites for biodiversity provides disproportionate benefits to people.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank W Larsen

    Full Text Available Protecting natural habitats in priority areas is essential to halt the loss of biodiversity. Yet whether these benefits for biodiversity also yield benefits for human well-being remains controversial. Here we assess the potential human well-being benefits of safeguarding a global network of sites identified as top priorities for the conservation of threatened species. Conserving these sites would yield benefits--in terms of a climate change mitigation through avoidance of CO(2 emissions from deforestation; b freshwater services to downstream human populations; c retention of option value; and d benefits to maintenance of human cultural diversity--significantly exceeding those anticipated from randomly selected sites within the same countries and ecoregions. Results suggest that safeguarding sites important for biodiversity conservation provides substantial benefits to human well-being.

  17. Researchers Cite Social Benefits in Coed Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, Sarah D.

    2012-01-01

    Generally, boys and girls become more polarized through their first years in school. Now, researchers have started to explore how to span that sex divide and are finding that more-equitable coed classrooms can have social and academic benefits for boys and girls alike. While children of both sexes play together as toddlers, by the end of…

  18. Social media and physicians: Exploring the benefits and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panahi, Sirous; Watson, Jason; Partridge, Helen

    2016-06-01

    Healthcare professionals' use of social media platforms, such as blogs, wikis, and social networking web sites has grown considerably in recent years. However, few studies have explored the perspectives and experiences of physicians in adopting social media in healthcare. This article aims to identify the potential benefits and challenges of adopting social media by physicians and demonstrates this by presenting findings from a survey conducted with physicians. A qualitative survey design was employed to achieve the research goal. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 24 physicians from around the world who were active users of social media. The data were analyzed using the thematic analysis approach. The study revealed six main reasons and six major challenges for physicians adopting social media. The main reasons to join social media were as follows: staying connected with colleagues, reaching out and networking with the wider community, sharing knowledge, engaging in continued medical education, benchmarking, and branding. The main challenges of adopting social media by physicians were also as follows: maintaining confidentiality, lack of active participation, finding time, lack of trust, workplace acceptance and support, and information anarchy. By revealing the main benefits as well as the challenges of adopting social media by physicians, the study provides an opportunity for healthcare professionals to better understand the scope and impact of social media in healthcare, and assists them to adopt and harness social media effectively, and maximize the benefits for the specific needs of the clinical community. © The Author(s) 2014.

  19. Exergames for Physical Education Courses: Physical, Social, and Cognitive Benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staiano, Amanda E; Calvert, Sandra L

    2011-06-01

    Digital games combining exercise with game play, known as exergames, can improve youths' health status and provide social and academic benefits. Exergame play increases caloric expenditure, heart rate, and coordination. Psychosocial and cognitive impacts of exergame play may include increased self-esteem, social interaction, motivation, attention, and visual-spatial skills. This article summarizes the literature on exergames, with a special emphasis on physical education courses and the potential of exergames to improve students' physical health, as well as transfer effects that may benefit related physical, social, and academic outcomes.

  20. Social media for patients: benefits and drawbacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Martino, Ivan; D'Apolito, Rocco; McLawhorn, Alexander S; Fehring, Keith A; Sculco, Peter K; Gasparini, Giorgio

    2017-03-01

    Social media is increasingly utilized by patients to educate themselves on a disease process and to find hospital, physicians, and physician networks most capable of treating their condition. However, little is known about quality of the content of the multiple online platforms patients have to communicate with other potential patients and their potential benefits and drawbacks. Patients are not passive consumers of health information anymore but are playing an active role in the delivery of health services through an online environment. The control and the regulation of the sources of information are very difficult. The overall quality of the information was poor. Bad or misleading information can be detrimental for patients as well as influence their confidence on physicians and their mutual relationship. Orthopedic surgeons and hospital networks must be aware of these online patient portals as they provide important feedback on the patient opinion and experience that can have a major impact on future patient volume, patient opinion, and perceived quality of care.

  1. Do incentives matter? Providing benefits to families of organ donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryce, C L; Siminoff, L A; Ubel, P A; Nathan, H; Caplan, A; Arnold, R M

    2005-12-01

    Whether the number of organs available for transplant would be positively or negatively affected by providing benefits to families of organ donors has been debated by policymakers, ethicists and the transplant community at large. We designed a telephone survey to measure public opinion regarding the use of benefits in general and of five types in particular: funeral benefits, charitable contributions, travel/lodging expenses, direct payments and medical expenses. Of the 971 adults who completed the survey (response rate = 69%), all were from Pennsylvania households, 45.6% were registered organ donors, and 51.7% were nonwhite. Although 59% of respondents favored the general idea of incentives, support for specific incentives ranged from 53% (direct payment) to 84% (medical expenses). Among those registered as donors, more nonwhites than whites supported funeral benefits (88% vs. 81%; p = 0.038), direct payment (63% vs. 41%; p donation but would influence the behavior of others. While benefits appear to be favored, their true impact can only be assessed through pilot programs.

  2. Electronic consultation system demonstrates educational benefit for primary care providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, Jonas; Olayiwola, J Nwando; Knox, Margae; Murphy, Elizabeth J; Tuot, Delphine S

    2017-01-01

    Background Electronic consultation systems allow primary care providers to receive timely speciality expertise via iterative electronic communication. The use of such systems is expanding across the USA with well-documented high levels of user satisfaction. We characterise the educational impact for primary care providers of a long-standing integrated electronic consultation and referral system. Methods Primary care providers' perceptions of the educational value inherent to electronic consultation system communication and the impact on their ability to manage common speciality clinical conditions and questions were examined by electronic survey using five-point Likert scales. Differences in primary care providers' perceptions were examined overall and by primary care providers' speciality, provider type and years of experience. Results Among 221 primary care provider participants (35% response rate), 83.9% agreed or strongly agreed that the integrated electronic consultation and referral system provided educational value. There were no significant differences in educational value reported by provider type (attending physician, mid-level provider, or trainee physician), primary care providers' speciality, or years of experience. Perceived benefit of the electronic consultation and referral system in clinical management appeared stronger for laboratory-based conditions (i.e. subclinical hypothyroidism) than more diffuse conditions (i.e. abdominal pain). Nurse practitioners/physician assistants and trainee physicians were more likely to report improved abilities to manage specific clinical conditions when using the electronic consultation and/or referral system than were attending physicians, as were primary care providers with ≤10 years experience, versus those with >20 years of experience. Conclusions Primary care providers report overwhelmingly positive perceptions of the educational value of an integrated electronic consultation and referral system. Nurse

  3. Benefit adequacy among elderly Social Security retired-worker beneficiaries and the SSI federal benefit rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupp, Kalman; Strand, Alexander; Davies, Paul; Sears, Jim

    2007-01-01

    Both target effectiveness and administrative simplicity are desirable properties in the design of minimum benefit packages for public retirement programs. The federal benefit rate (FBR) of the Supplemental Security Income (SSI) program has been proposed by some analysts as a potentially attractive basis of establishing a new minimum benefit for Social Security on both of these grounds. This type of proposal is related to a broader array of minimum benefit proposals that would establish a Social Security benefit floor based on the poverty rate. In contrast to Social Security, the SSI program is means tested, including both an income and asset screen and also a categorical eligibility screen (the requirement to qualify as aged or disabled). The SSI FBR provides an inflation-adjusted, guaranteed income floor for aged and disabled people with low assets. The FBR has been perceived by proponents as a minimal measure of Social Security benefit adequacy because it represents a subpoverty income level for a family of one or two depending on marital status. For this same reason it has been seen as a target-effective tool of designing a minimum Social Security benefit. An FBR-based minimum benefit has also been viewed as administratively simple to implement; the benefit can be calculated from Social Security administrative records using a completely automated electronic process. Therefore-in contrast to the SSI program itself-an FBR-based minimum benefit would incur virtually no ongoing administrative costs, would not require a separate application for a means-tested program, and would avoid the perception of welfare stigma. While these ideas have been discussed in the literature and among policymakers in the United States over the years, and similar proposals have been considered or implemented in several foreign countries, there have been no previous analyses measuring the size of the potentially affected beneficiary population. Nor has there been any systematic assessment

  4. The benefits of social influence in optimized cultural markets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Abeliuk

    Full Text Available Social influence has been shown to create significant unpredictability in cultural markets, providing one potential explanation why experts routinely fail at predicting commercial success of cultural products. As a result, social influence is often presented in a negative light. Here, we show the benefits of social influence for cultural markets. We present a policy that uses product quality, appeal, position bias and social influence to maximize expected profits in the market. Our computational experiments show that our profit-maximizing policy leverages social influence to produce significant performance benefits for the market, while our theoretical analysis proves that our policy outperforms in expectation any policy not displaying social signals. Our results contrast with earlier work which focused on showing the unpredictability and inequalities created by social influence. Not only do we show for the first time that, under our policy, dynamically showing consumers positive social signals increases the expected profit of the seller in cultural markets. We also show that, in reasonable settings, our profit-maximizing policy does not introduce significant unpredictability and identifies "blockbusters". Overall, these results shed new light on the nature of social influence and how it can be leveraged for the benefits of the market.

  5. The benefits of social influence in optimized cultural markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeliuk, Andrés; Berbeglia, Gerardo; Cebrian, Manuel; Van Hentenryck, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    Social influence has been shown to create significant unpredictability in cultural markets, providing one potential explanation why experts routinely fail at predicting commercial success of cultural products. As a result, social influence is often presented in a negative light. Here, we show the benefits of social influence for cultural markets. We present a policy that uses product quality, appeal, position bias and social influence to maximize expected profits in the market. Our computational experiments show that our profit-maximizing policy leverages social influence to produce significant performance benefits for the market, while our theoretical analysis proves that our policy outperforms in expectation any policy not displaying social signals. Our results contrast with earlier work which focused on showing the unpredictability and inequalities created by social influence. Not only do we show for the first time that, under our policy, dynamically showing consumers positive social signals increases the expected profit of the seller in cultural markets. We also show that, in reasonable settings, our profit-maximizing policy does not introduce significant unpredictability and identifies "blockbusters". Overall, these results shed new light on the nature of social influence and how it can be leveraged for the benefits of the market.

  6. Oregon's mobility needs : social service provider survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-06-01

    In 1998, the Oregon Department of Transportation undertook the Social Services Provider Survey as part of an investigation of the transportation needs of mobility impaired individuals in Oregon. This survey was designed to gain information about the ...

  7. 42 CFR 408.43 - Deduction from social security benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Deduction from social security benefits. 408.43... § 408.43 Deduction from social security benefits. SSA, acting as CMS's agent, deducts the premiums from the monthly social security benefits if the enrollee is not entitled to railroad retirement benefits...

  8. Exergames for Physical Education Courses: Physical, Social, and Cognitive Benefits

    OpenAIRE

    Staiano, Amanda E.; Calvert, Sandra L.

    2011-01-01

    Digital games combining exercise with game play, known as exergames, can improve youths’ health status and provide social and academic benefits. Exergame play increases caloric expenditure, heart rate, and coordination. Psychosocial and cognitive impacts of exergame play may include increased self-esteem, social interaction, motivation, attention, and visual–spatial skills. This article summarizes the literature on exergames, with a special emphasis on physical education courses and the poten...

  9. Organically Grown Food Provides Health Benefits to Drosophila melanogaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhabra, Ria; Kolli, Santharam; Bauer, Johannes H.

    2013-01-01

    The “organic food” market is the fastest growing food sector, yet it is unclear whether organically raised food is nutritionally superior to conventionally grown food and whether consuming organic food bestows health benefits. In order to evaluate potential health benefits of organic foods, we used the well-characterized fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster as a model system. Fruit flies were raised on a diets consisting of extracts of either conventionally or organically raised produce (bananas, potatoes, raisins, soy beans). Flies were then subjected to a variety of tests designed to assess overall fly health. Flies raised on diets made from organically grown produce had greater fertility and longevity. On certain food sources, greater activity and greater stress resistance was additionally observed, suggesting that organic food bestows positive effects on fly health. Our data show that Drosophila can be used as a convenient model system to experimentally test potential health effects of dietary components. Using this system, we provide evidence that organically raised food may provide animals with tangible benefits to overall health. PMID:23326371

  10. Organically grown food provides health benefits to Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ria Chhabra

    Full Text Available The "organic food" market is the fastest growing food sector, yet it is unclear whether organically raised food is nutritionally superior to conventionally grown food and whether consuming organic food bestows health benefits. In order to evaluate potential health benefits of organic foods, we used the well-characterized fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster as a model system. Fruit flies were raised on a diets consisting of extracts of either conventionally or organically raised produce (bananas, potatoes, raisins, soy beans. Flies were then subjected to a variety of tests designed to assess overall fly health. Flies raised on diets made from organically grown produce had greater fertility and longevity. On certain food sources, greater activity and greater stress resistance was additionally observed, suggesting that organic food bestows positive effects on fly health. Our data show that Drosophila can be used as a convenient model system to experimentally test potential health effects of dietary components. Using this system, we provide evidence that organically raised food may provide animals with tangible benefits to overall health.

  11. Organically grown food provides health benefits to Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhabra, Ria; Kolli, Santharam; Bauer, Johannes H

    2013-01-01

    The "organic food" market is the fastest growing food sector, yet it is unclear whether organically raised food is nutritionally superior to conventionally grown food and whether consuming organic food bestows health benefits. In order to evaluate potential health benefits of organic foods, we used the well-characterized fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster as a model system. Fruit flies were raised on a diets consisting of extracts of either conventionally or organically raised produce (bananas, potatoes, raisins, soy beans). Flies were then subjected to a variety of tests designed to assess overall fly health. Flies raised on diets made from organically grown produce had greater fertility and longevity. On certain food sources, greater activity and greater stress resistance was additionally observed, suggesting that organic food bestows positive effects on fly health. Our data show that Drosophila can be used as a convenient model system to experimentally test potential health effects of dietary components. Using this system, we provide evidence that organically raised food may provide animals with tangible benefits to overall health.

  12. Adjustments to financial and social benefits

    CERN Document Server

    HR Department

    2010-01-01

    In accordance with recommendations made by the Finance Committee in November 2009 and decisions taken by the Council in December 2009, certain financial benefits have been adjusted with effect from 1 January 2010. An increase of 1.6% has been applied to the scale of basic salaries and to stipends paid to Fellows (Annexes R A 5 and R A 6 of the Staff Rules and Regulations, respectively). The adjusted amounts are available from the HR Department intranet site or from departmental secretariats. As a result of the evolution of the Geneva consumer price index, no adjustments have been made to the subsistence allowances of Paid Associates and Students (Annex R A 7 of the Staff Rules and Regulations). The following social benefits also remain unchanged: Family, child and infant allowances (Annex R A 3 of the Staff Rules and Regulations). Payment ceilings of education fees (Annex R A 4 of the Staff Rules and Regulations). Tel. 70674 (Classification and Remuneration Service)

  13. Women's receipt of Social Security retirement benefits: expectations compared to elections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillen, Martie; Heath, Claudia J

    2013-01-01

    This research contributes knowledge regarding the options of early, normal, or delayed receipt of Social Security retirement benefits and research-based findings regarding women's expected and actual timing of election of Social Security retirement benefits. First, descriptive analyses of alternative retirement options, based on Social Security retirement benefit rules, are provided. Second, the 2000, 2002, 2004, and 2006 waves of Health and Retirement Study (HRS) data are used to analyze women's anticipated and actual election of Social Security retirement benefits. Third, based on these considerations, recommendations are made regarding Social Security retirement benefit receipt alternatives.

  14. Cognitive Benefits of Online Social Networking for Healthy Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myhre, Janelle W; Mehl, Matthias R; Glisky, Elizabeth L

    2017-09-01

    Research suggests that older adults who remain socially active and cognitively engaged have better cognitive function than those who are isolated and disengaged. This study examined the efficacy of learning and using an online social networking website, Facebook.com, as an intervention to maintain or enhance cognitive function in older adults. Forty-one older adults were assigned to learn and use Facebook (n = 14) or an online diary website (active control, n = 13) for 8 weeks or placed on a waitlist (n = 14). Outcome measures included neuropsychological tests of executive functions, memory, and processing speed and self-report questionnaires about social engagement. The Facebook group showed a significant increase in a composite measure of updating, an executive function factor associated with complex working memory tasks, compared to no significant change in the control groups. Other measures of cognitive function and social support showed no differential improvement in the Facebook group. Learning and using an online social networking site may provide specific benefits for complex working memory in a group of healthy older adults. This may reflect the particular cognitive demands associated with online social networking and/or the benefits of social engagement more generally.

  15. Comparison of benefits provided by different hearing aid technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walden, B E; Surr, R K; Cord, M T; Edwards, B; Olson, L

    2000-01-01

    The performance of 40 hearing-impaired adults with the GN ReSound digital BZ5 hearing instrument was compared with performance with linear hearing aids with input compression limiting (AGC-I) or two-channel analog wide dynamic range compression (WDRC) instruments. The BZ5 was evaluated with an omnidirectional microphone, dual-microphone directionality, and a noise reduction circuit in combination with dual-microphone directionality. Participants were experienced hearing aid users who were wearing linear AGC-I or analog WDRC instruments at the time of enrolment. Performance was assessed using the Connected Speech Test (CST) presented at several presentation levels and under various conditions of signal degradation and by the Profile of Hearing Aid Benefit (PHAB). Subjective ratings of speech understanding, listening comfort, and sound quality/naturalness were also obtained using 11-point interval scales. Small performance advantages were observed for WDRC over linear AGC-I, although WDRC did not have to be implemented digitally for these performance advantages to be realized. Substantial performance advantages for the dual microphones over the omnidirectional microphone were observed in the CST results in noise, but participants generally did not perceive these large advantages in everyday listening. The noise reduction circuit provided improved listening comfort but little change in speech understanding.

  16. Adjustments to financial and social benefits

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    In accordance with decisions taken by the Finance Committee and Council in December 2008, certain financial and social benefits will be adjusted with effect from 1st January 2009. An increase of 2.7% will be applied to the scale of basic salaries and the scale of stipends paid to Fellows (Annexes R A 5 and R A 6 of the Staff Rules and Regulations, respectively). As a result of the evolution of the Geneva consumer price index, the following financial elements will increase by 3.2%: a) Family Allowance, Child Allowance and Infant Allowance (Annex R A 3 of the Staff Rules and Regulations) b) Payment of education fees: payment ceilings (Annex R A 4 of the Staff Rules and Regulations) for the academic year 2008/2009. As a result of the evolution of the Geneva consumer price index, adjustments will be applied to the subsistence allowances of Paid Associates and Students. The adjusted amounts are available in Departmental Secretariats. Human Resources Department Tel. 70674

  17. 20 CFR 404.1363 - Treatment of social security benefits or payments where Federal benefit payable other than by...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Treatment of social security benefits or... Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950... Social Security Benefits and Payments § 404.1363 Treatment of social security benefits or payments where...

  18. Providing Benefit to Black College Students in Counseling Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Chalmer E.

    Counseling psychologists are in ideal positions to address issues pertinent to black college students, particularly via empirical research study and advocacy. The first step towards maximizing benefit to black college students is to respond to their need for personal and community-wide intervention. It is necessary to collaborate with the…

  19. 20 CFR 404.1407 - When railroad retirement benefits do not bar payment of social security benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When railroad retirement benefits do not bar payment of social security benefits. 404.1407 Section 404.1407 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY... retirement benefits do not bar payment of social security benefits. The provisions of § 404.1406 shall not...

  20. Lifetime distributional effects of Social Security retirement benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Karen; Toder, Eric; Iams, Howard

    This article presents three measures of the distribution of actual and projected net benefits (benefits minus payroll taxes) from Social Security's Old-Age and Survivors Insurance (OASI) for people born between 1931 and 1960. The results are based on simulations with the Social Security Administration's Model of Income in the Near Term (MINT), which projects retirement income through 2020. The base sample for MINT is the U.S. Census Bureau's Survey of Income and Program Participation panels for 1990 to 1993, matched with Social Security administrative records. The study population is grouped into 5-year birth cohorts and then ranked by economic status in three ways. First, the population is divided into five groups on the basis of individual lifetime covered earnings, and their lifetime present values of OASI benefits received and payroll taxes paid are calculated. By this measure, OASI provides much higher benefits to the lowest quintile of earners than to other groups, but it becomes less redistributive toward lower earners in more recent birth cohorts. Second, people are ranked by shared lifetime covered earnings, and the values of shared benefits received and payroll taxes paid are computed. Individuals are assumed to split covered earnings, benefits, and payroll taxes with their spouses in the years they are married. By the shared covered earnings measure, OASI is still much more favorable to persons in the lower income quintiles, although to a lesser degree than when people are ranked by individual covered earnings. OASI becomes more progressive among recent cohorts, even as net lifetime benefits decline for the entire population. Finally, individuals are ranked on the basis of their shared permanent income from age 62, when they become eligible for early retirement benefits, until death. Their annual Social Security benefits are compared with the benefits they would have received if they had saved their payroll taxes in individual accounts and used the

  1. Growing Power?: Social Benefits From Urban Greening Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynne Westphal

    1999-01-01

    In this study I investigated practitioners claims for social benefits of urban greening projects (e.g., tree planting, community gardens). Practitioners' claims of increased neighborliness, reduced drug dealing and other social benefits have led to interest in using greening projects specifically to achieve these ends.Four sites that...

  2. Strengthening flood warning systems: the benefits of encouraging social preparedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girons Lopez, Marc; Di Baldassarre, Giuliano; Seibert, Jan

    2017-04-01

    Flood warning and response have normally been focused on the technical aspects and disregarded the connections and feedbacks between the hydrological and social dimensions. An increasing body of research, however, points at the importance of considering socio-hydrological aspects to improve flood damage mitigation. One of the key factors is the preparedness of the public and first responders during flood situations, which is influenced by many behavioural traits such as perceived benefits, risk awareness, or denial. In this study, we investigate the impact of social preparedness on the efficiency of flood early warning systems by using the recency of flood experience as a proxy for social preparedness. To this end, we developed a stylised model and a synthetic data-set to perform a hypothetical analysis. The main findings point to the importance of social preparedness for flood loss mitigation, especially when the technical forecasting and warning capabilities are limited. More specifically, efforts to promote and preserve social preparedness may help to reduce disaster-induced losses by almost one half. The findings from this study provide insights into the importance of considering social preparedness in decision-making for disaster risk reduction.

  3. Social media usage among health care providers

    OpenAIRE

    Surani, Zoya; Hirani, Rahim; Elias, Anita; Quisenberry, Lauren; Varon, Joseph; Surani, Sara; Surani, Salim

    2017-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of social media among healthcare workers in an attempt to identify how it affects the quality of patient care. Results An anonymous survey of 35 questions was conducted in South Texas, on 366 healthcare workers. Of the 97% of people who reported owning electronic devices, 87.9% indicated that they used social media. These healthcare workers indicated that they spent approximately 1 h on social media every day. The healthcare worker...

  4. Providing undergraduate science partners for elementary teachers: benefits and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goebel, Camille A; Umoja, Aminata; DeHaan, Robert L

    2009-01-01

    Undergraduate college "science partners" provided content knowledge and a supportive atmosphere for K-5 teachers in a university-school professional development partnership program in science instruction. The Elementary Science Education Partners program, a Local Systemic Change initiative supported by the National Science Foundation, was composed of four major elements: 1) a cadre of mentor teachers trained to provide district-wide teacher professional development; 2) a recruitment and training effort to place college students in classrooms as science partners in semester-long partnerships with teachers; 3) a teacher empowerment effort termed "participatory reform"; and 4) an inquiry-based curriculum with a kit distribution and refurbishment center. The main goals of the program were to provide college science students with an intensive teaching experience and to enhance teachers' skills in inquiry-based science instruction. Here, we describe some of the program's successes and challenges, focusing primarily on the impact on the classroom teachers and their science partners. Qualitative analyses of data collected from participants indicate that 1) teachers expressed greater self-confidence about teaching science than before the program and they spent more class time on the subject; and 2) the college students modified deficit-model negative assumptions about the children's science learning abilities to express more mature, positive views.

  5. Social media usage among health care providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surani, Zoya; Hirani, Rahim; Elias, Anita; Quisenberry, Lauren; Varon, Joseph; Surani, Sara; Surani, Salim

    2017-11-29

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of social media among healthcare workers in an attempt to identify how it affects the quality of patient care. An anonymous survey of 35 questions was conducted in South Texas, on 366 healthcare workers. Of the 97% of people who reported owning electronic devices, 87.9% indicated that they used social media. These healthcare workers indicated that they spent approximately 1 h on social media every day. The healthcare workers below the age of 40 were more involved in social media compared to those above 40 (p media among physicians and nurses was noted to be identical (88% for each group), and both groups encouraged their patients to research their clinical conditions on social media (p media policy in their hospital compared to nurses (p < 0.05). However, a large proportion of healthcare workers (40%) were unaware of their workplace policy, which could potentially cause a privacy breach of confidential medical information. Further studies are required to evaluate specific effects of these findings on the quality of patient care.

  6. Smartphone medication adherence apps: potential benefits to patients and providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayer, Lindsey; Heldenbrand, Seth; Anderson, Paul; Gubbins, Paul O; Martin, Bradley C

    2013-01-01

    To provide an overview of medication adherence, discuss the potential for smartphone medication adherence applications (adherence apps) to improve medication nonadherence, evaluate features of adherence apps across operating systems (OSs), and identify future opportunities and barriers facing adherence apps. Medication nonadherence is a common, complex, and costly problem that contributes to poor treatment outcomes and consumes health care resources. Nonadherence is difficult to measure precisely, and interventions to mitigate it have been largely unsuccessful. Using smartphone adherence apps represents a novel approach to improving adherence. This readily available technology offers many features that can be designed to help patients and health care providers improve medication-taking behavior. Currently available apps were identified from the three main smartphone OSs (Apple, Android, and Blackberry). In addition, desirable features for adherence apps were identified and ranked by perceived importance to user desirability using a three-point rating system: 1, modest; 2, moderate; or 3, high. The 10 highest-rated apps were installed and subjected to user testing to assess app attributes using a standard medication regimen. RESULTS 160 adherence apps were identified and ranked. These apps were most prevalent for the Android OS. Adherence apps with advanced functionality were more prevalent on the Apple iPhone OS. Among all apps, MyMedSchedule, MyMeds, and RxmindMe rated the highest because of their basic medication reminder features coupled with their enhanced levels of functionality. Despite being untested, medication apps represent a possible strategy that pharmacists can recommend to nonadherent patients and incorporate into their practice.

  7. 38 CFR 1.575 - Social security numbers in veterans' benefits matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Social security numbers... Affairs Records § 1.575 Social security numbers in veterans' benefits matters. (a) Except as provided in... because of refusal to disclose to the Department of Veterans Affairs a social security number. (b) VA...

  8. The Benefits and Limitations of Social Networking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strom, Paris; Strom, Robert

    2012-01-01

    The Center for the Digital Future at the University of Southern California surveys 2,000 households each year to find out how online technology affects Internet users. Findings in the latest report show social networks are increasing and a majority of users report feeling as strongly about their communities online as their real-world communities.…

  9. 20 CFR 404.1406 - Eligibility to railroad retirement benefits as a bar to payment of social security benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... as a bar to payment of social security benefits. 404.1406 Section 404.1406 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Interrelationship of... Eligibility to railroad retirement benefits as a bar to payment of social security benefits. Notwithstanding...

  10. Chinese Entrepreneurs Human and Social Capital Benefiting Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kent Wickstrøm; Rezaei, Shahamak; Schøtt, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    home country and in the new host country. Such dual embeddedness may have a reinforcing or a countervailing impact on the benefits of human and social capital for innovation. Using a sample of 3,593 Chinese entrepreneurs in China and 177 Chinese entrepreneurs residing abroad, we examine the benefits...

  11. Individuals’ Uncertainty about Future Social Security Benefits and Portfolio Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delavande, Adeline

    2013-01-01

    Summary Little is known about the degree to which individuals are uncertain about their future Social Security benefits, how this varies within the U.S. population, and whether this uncertainty influences financial decisions related to retirement planning. To illuminate these issues, we present empirical evidence from the Health and Retirement Study Internet Survey and document systematic variation in respondents’ uncertainty about their future Social Security benefits by individual characteristics. We find that respondents with higher levels of uncertainty about future benefits hold a smaller share of their wealth in stocks. PMID:23914049

  12. Benefits of using a Social-Ecological Systems Approach to ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Using a social-ecological systems (SES) perspective to examine wetland restoration helps decision-makers recognize interdependencies and relations between ecological and social components of coupled systems. Conceptual models are an invaluable tool to capture, visualize, and organize the key factors in complex social-ecological systems, but can be overwhelming to generate and lead to key concepts being overlooked if development is unstructured. Using a DPSIR approach (Drivers, Pressures, State, Impact, Responses), conceptual models can be developed to link decision scenarios and stressors to impacts on ecosystem services. These impacts on priority ecosystem services can then be linked to changes in human health and well-being through benefit functions. Expert input and contributions across disciplines provides appropriate temporal and spatial scales for determination of targets, project implementation, and monitoring strategies. This approach is being applied to create descriptive SES models of two wetland restoration projects. The first, the dredging of a degraded estuarine channel and restoration of mangrove forests in Caño Martìn Peña in San Juan, Puerto Rico is in the planning stage. The second, the restoration of a former cranberry farm in Plymouth, Massachusetts has completed a large restoration of freshwater wetland, and is gearing up for a second phase. Through the development of conceptual models, we are connecting driving forces wi

  13. The Social Benefits of Intramural Sports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artinger, Lori; Clapham, Lisa; Hunt, Carla; Meigs, Matthew; Milord, Nadia; Sampson, Bryan; Forrester, Scott A.

    2006-01-01

    One of the distinguishing features of collegiate student recreational sports complexes is the sense of community that is intentionally introduced in the programs and services that occur within these facilities. Intramural sports programs provide a powerful medium for student interaction (Belch, Gebel, & Mass, 2001). This study was designed to…

  14. Fragmentation in social security old-age benefit provision in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tianhong; Turner, John A

    2015-01-01

    Currently, in many countries most workers are covered by a national social security benefits program that applies equally in all parts of the country. In China, however, social security old-age benefits are provided in a highly fragmented manner. This article documents the high degree of fragmentation. It discusses both why that has occurred and the effects of the fragmentation on participants. It examines effects of the fragmentation on benefit levels, focusing on variations in the generosity of benefit formulas but also considering other measures of benefit adequacy. Fragmentation is seen to cause differences in benefit levels even within a single city. While the new National Rural Pension Scheme is a major improvement in the provision of retirement security for rural workers, important differences still exist in the social security programs for urban and rural workers.

  15. 20 CFR 235.3 - Who is paid social security benefits by the Board.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Who is paid social security benefits by the... RETIREMENT ACT PAYMENT OF SOCIAL SECURITY BENEFITS BY THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD § 235.3 Who is paid social security benefits by the Board. The following individuals, if entitled to social security benefits...

  16. How Do Black Graduate Social Work Students Benefit from a Course on Institutional Racism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Louis H.

    1978-01-01

    The benefits of a course on American racism for Black graduate social work students are discussed. It is suggested that their personal experiences of oppression and social alienation provide an impetus to use the present to counteract attitudinal/institutional White racism, and that feelings about the past can offer insight to affect social…

  17. Perspectives from the frontlines: palliative care providers' expectations of Canada's compassionate care benefit programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giesbrecht, Melissa; Crooks, Valorie A; Williams, Allison

    2010-11-01

    Recognising their valuable role as key informants, this study examines the perspectives of front-line palliative care providers (FLPCP) regarding a social benefit programme in Canada designed to support family caregivers at end-of-life, namely the Compassionate Care Benefit (CCB). The CCB's purpose is to provide income assistance and job security to family caregivers who take temporary leave from employment to care for a dying family member. Contributing to an evaluative study that aims to provide policy-relevant recommendations about the CCB, this analysis draws on semi-structured interviews undertaken in 2007/2008 with FLPCPs (n = 50) from across Canada. Although participants were not explicitly asked during interviews about their expectations of the CCB, thematic content analysis revealed 'expectations' as a key finding. Through participants' discussions of their knowledge of and familiarity with the CCB, specific expectations were identified and grouped into four categories: (1) temporal; (2) financial; (3) informational; and (4) administrative. Findings demonstrate that participants expect the CCB to provide: (1) an adequate length of leave time from work, which is reflective of the uncertain nature of caregiving at end-of-life; (2) adequate financial support; (3) information on the programme to be disseminated to FLPCPs so that they may share it with others; and (4) a simple, clear, and quick application process. FLPCPs hold unique expertise, and ultimately the power to shape uptake of the CCB. As such, their expectations of the CCB contribute valuable knowledge from which relevant policy recommendations can be made to better meet the needs of family caregivers and FLPCPs alike. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. Social Benefits of Secondary School Farms in Rivers State, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to determine the social benefits of school farms in secondary schools in Rivers State. The study used two research questions and simple random sampling technique for data collection with a total of 560 questionnaires administered to teachers and students. The results showed that 75% of ...

  19. Peoples Human and Social Capital Benefiting Careers in Entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashourizadeh, Shayegheh; Rezaei, Shahamak; Schøtt, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    of residence does not impact entrepreneurial intention. Human and social capital benefits entrepreneurial intention, as expected. Furthermore, the place of residence has moderating effects on the relationship between self-efficacy and entrepreneurial intention, but not on the relationship between education...

  20. Prescribed minimum benefits – quagmire or foundation for social ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prescribed minimum benefits – quagmire or foundation for social health reform? B Taylor, A Taylor, D Burns, J D Rust, P Grobler. Abstract. No Abstract South African Medical Journal Vol. 97 (6) 2007: pp. 446-450. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL ...

  1. 42 CFR 408.46 - Effect of suspension of social security benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Effect of suspension of social security benefits... Benefits § 408.46 Effect of suspension of social security benefits. (a) Benefit payments to be resumed during the taxable year. (1) If social security benefit payments are scheduled to be resumed during the...

  2. The Relationship of Social Security Benefits and the Military Survivors Benefit Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-07-09

    The fdct that she is .jtIj cL, to benefits’based on her husband’s earnings iikes the reduction Illanid’iury. There is, however, no reduction in the...nondisabled) and thus would be conservative for a woman . 19 ,g {. PIA - .9(194) + .32 (424.05- 194) (See Appendix C for bend points.) = 174.60 + 73.62...those for a military member (nondisabled) and thus would be conservative for a woman . 12 Some differences in social security benefits attributable to

  3. Empowering patients through social media: the benefits and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Househ, Mowafa; Borycki, Elizabeth; Kushniruk, Andre

    2014-03-01

    This article explores the range of social media platforms used by patients and examines the benefits and challenges of using these tools from a patient perspective. A literature review was performed to investigate the use of social media technology by patients. The MEDLINE database was searched using the terms "social media" and "patient." The search was conducted in September 2012 and yielded 765 abstracts. Initially, 63 abstracts were selected. All articles dating from 2004 through 2012 were included. Only 12 articles were found to be relevant for the purposes of the review. The results of this research found that there appears to be an increase in the use of social media by patients across the healthcare spectrum. The research indicates a promising future for the use of social media by patients; however, evidence related to the efficacy and effectiveness of social media is currently limited. Various challenges have also been identified relating to privacy and security concerns, usability, the manipulation of identity, and misinformation. The use of social media technology is an emerging trend for patients who are seeking health information. Conclusions are that such technology holds promise for improving patient engagement and empowerment and community building. Social media has a future in healthcare, especially with regard to patient engagement and empowerment; however, there are several challenges to overcome before the technology can achieve its potential.

  4. Convenience of providing employee benefits compared to increase of gross wages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Duda

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Using tax allowances when providing contributions for life insurance, pension insurance and food, employers significantly decrease their costs in comparison with the traditional increase of wages of employees (the saves range in several hundreds of crowns per one employee. These benefits are more profitable than increase of wages for employees, as well. The paper analyses and mathematically reasons these financial benefits, and compares advantages of employee benefits and wage increase.A disadvantage for employees is that these financial means (contributions for pension and life insurance can not be immediately used for their needs, and are bound with the negotiated types of insurance. This is, perhaps, also the reason why employees of selected firms preferred wage increase before employee-benefits. The above-mentioned employee benefits can become an important factor of stabilisation of current employees, or acquiring new, needed employees. The paper briefly characterises these employee benefits.

  5. Social networking in online support groups for health: how online social networking benefits patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Jae Eun

    2014-01-01

    An increasing number of online support groups (OSGs) have embraced the features of social networking. So far, little is known about how patients use and benefit from these features. By implementing the uses-and-gratifications framework, the author conducted an online survey with current users of OSGs to examine associations among motivation, use of specific features of OSG, and support outcomes. Findings suggest that OSG users make selective use of varied features depending on their needs, and that perceptions of receiving emotional and informational support are associated more with the use of some features than others. For example, those with strong motivation for social interaction use diverse features of OSG and make one-to-one connections with other users by friending. In contrast, those with strong motivation for information seeking limit their use primarily to discussion boards. Results also show that online social networking features, such as friending and sharing of personal stories on blogs, are helpful in satisfying the need for emotional support. The present study sheds light on online social networking features in the context of health-related OSGs and provides practical lessons on how to improve the capacity of OSGs to serve the needs of their users.

  6. 20 CFR 229.55 - Reduction for spouse social security benefit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reduction for spouse social security benefit... RETIREMENT ACT SOCIAL SECURITY OVERALL MINIMUM GUARANTEE Computation of the Overall Minimum Rate § 229.55 Reduction for spouse social security benefit. A spouse benefit under the overall minimum, after any...

  7. 20 CFR 228.19 - Reduction for a social security benefit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reduction for a social security benefit. 228... RETIREMENT ACT COMPUTATION OF SURVIVOR ANNUITIES The Tier I Annuity Component § 228.19 Reduction for a social security benefit. The tier I annuity component is reduced for the amount of any social security benefit to...

  8. 20 CFR 229.56 - Reduction for child's social security benefit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reduction for child's social security benefit... RETIREMENT ACT SOCIAL SECURITY OVERALL MINIMUM GUARANTEE Computation of the Overall Minimum Rate § 229.56 Reduction for child's social security benefit. A child's benefit under the overall minimum, after any...

  9. 20 CFR 235.4 - How the Board pays social security benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How the Board pays social security benefits... RETIREMENT ACT PAYMENT OF SOCIAL SECURITY BENEFITS BY THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD § 235.4 How the Board pays social security benefits. (a) When an individual described in § 235.3 of this part is determined...

  10. Does Social Media Benefit Dominant or Alternative Water Discourses?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Mancilla-García

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Political ecology and cognate fields have highlighted the social constructedness of different water discourses, exposing them as the product of a particular view of nature with underpinning interests and political consequences. Integrated Water Resources Management, technical approaches, or the privatisation of drinking water services have enjoyed dominant positions, being able to determine what constitutes common sense. This has excluded numerous other alternative approaches, such as those championed by indigenous peoples. Social media, through its easy accessibility and its emphasis on visual, interactive, and short communication forms, bears the promise to challenge dominant discourses. Whether social media benefits dominant or alternative discourses has not yet been explored by the political ecology literature to which this article contributes. The article conducts a qualitative analysis of the use of two of the main social networking services (Facebook and Twitter by nine organisations working on water. Organisations were selected considering their likelihood to champion different water discourses. The article analyses the formats used, the place of communities, and the kind of language employed. It argues that while social media presents an interesting potential for alternative discourses, it also offers important tools for dominant discourses to consolidate themselves. The article concludes that social media does not structurally challenge the status quo and suggests avenues for future research.

  11. Residential immersive life skills programs for youth with disabilities: service providers' perceptions of experiential benefits and key program features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Gillian; McPherson, Amy; Kingsnorth, Shauna; Stewart, Debra; Glencross-Eimantas, Tanya; Gorter, Jan Willem; Jones-Galley, Kimberlea; Morrison, Andrea; Isihi, Ana Maria

    2015-01-01

    The objective was to determine service providers' perceptions of the experiential benefits of residential immersive life skills (RILS) programs for youth with disabilities, along with important program features. Thirty-seven service providers from three RILS programs took part in qualitative interviews. Themes were derived using a phenomenological approach. There were perceived benefits for youth, and also for parents and service providers. Study themes concerned the process of youth empowerment, life-changing experiences for youth and parents, and changed service provider views affecting practice. Youth changes were attributed to the residential group format and afforded opportunities, which included being away from home, navigating public transportation, directing attendant services, and sharing intense learning and social experiences with peers. Youth were seen to experience important personal changes in life skills, self-confidence, self-understandings, and self-advocacy. Perceived benefits for parents included realizations concerning their child's abilities and new hope for the future. Service providers indicated changes in their knowledge, perspectives, and approach to practice. The findings suggest that life skills programs should be intentionally designed to provide challenging experiential opportunities that motivate youth to engage in new life directions by providing new insights, self-realizations, and positive yet realistic views of the future. Service providers indicated the importance of challenging, real-world experiential opportunities that provide youth with disabilities with new insights, self-realizations, and positive yet realistic views of the future. Important experiential opportunities for youth included being away from home, navigating public transportation, directing attendant care, and sharing intense learning and social experiences with peers. The findings provide preliminary qualitative evidence that life skills programs should be

  12. Social capital and burnout among mental healthcare providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliacin, Johanne; Flanagan, Mindy; Monroe-DeVita, Maria; Wasmuth, Sarah; Salyers, Michelle P; Rollins, Angela L

    2018-01-06

    Provider burnout is a critical problem in mental health services. Contributing factors have been explicated across three domains: personal, job and organizational characteristics. Of these, organizational characteristics, including workplace environment, appear to be particularly important given that most interventions addressing burnout via the other domains (e.g. bolstering personal coping skills) have been modestly effective at best. This study builds on previous research by using social capital as a framework for the experience of work social milieu, and aims to provide a richer understanding of how workplace social environment might impact burnout and help create more effective ways to reduce burnout. Providers (n = 40) taking part in a larger burnout intervention study were randomly selected to take part in interviews regarding their workplace environment and burnout. Participant responses were analyzed thematically. Workplace social milieu revolved around two primary themes: workplace social capital in provider burnout and the protective qualities of social capital in cohesive work teams that appear to mitigate burnout. These results imply that work environments where managers support collaboration and social interaction among work teams may reduce burnout.

  13. 20 CFR 225.13 - Social Security Earnings Dual Benefit PIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Social Security Earnings Dual Benefit PIA... Spouse Annuities § 225.13 Social Security Earnings Dual Benefit PIA. (a) General. The Social Security... certain eligibility requirements as described in part 216 of this chapter. The Social Security Dual...

  14. 20 CFR 1002.261 - Who is responsible for funding any plan obligation to provide the employee with pension benefits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... obligation to provide the employee with pension benefits? 1002.261 Section 1002.261 Employees' Benefits... and Benefits Pension Plan Benefits § 1002.261 Who is responsible for funding any plan obligation to provide the employee with pension benefits? With the exception of multiemployer plans, which have separate...

  15. Does social marketing provide a framework for changing healthcare practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Zoë Slote; Clarkson, Peter John

    2009-07-01

    We argue that social marketing can be used as a generic framework for analysing barriers to the take-up of clinical guidelines, and planning interventions which seek to enable this change. We reviewed the literature on take-up of clinical guidelines, in particular barriers and enablers to change; social marketing principles and social marketing applied to healthcare. We then applied the social marketing framework to analyse the literature and to consider implications for future guideline policy to assess its feasibility and accessibility. There is sizeable extant literature on healthcare practitioners' non-compliance with clinical guidelines. This is an international problem common to a number of settings. The reasons for poor levels of take up appear to be well understood, but not addressed adequately in practice. Applying a social marketing framework brings new insights to the problem." We show that a social marketing framework provides a useful solution-focused framework for systematically understanding barriers to individual behaviour change and designing interventions accordingly. Whether the social marketing framework provides an effective means of bringing about behaviour change remains an empirical question which has still to be tested in practice. The analysis presented here provides strong motivation to begin such testing.

  16. Perspectives on Self-Advocacy: Comparing Perceived Uses, Benefits, and Drawbacks Among Survivors and Providers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagan, Teresa; Rosenzweig, Margaret; Zorn, Kristin; van Londen, Josie; Donovan, Heidi

    2017-01-03

    To describe and compare survivors' and providers' views of the uses of and perceived benefits and drawbacks of survivor self-advocacy. A cross-sectional, two-group, mixed-methods survey. Survivors were recruited from local and national registries and advocacy organizations. Providers were recruited from the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center Cancer Center and a regional Oncology Nursing Society chapter. 122 female cancer survivors and 39 providers involved in their direct care. Quantitative survey data were summarized using descriptive statistics, including means and frequencies. Qualitative survey data were collected and analyzed using content analysis techniques, and main themes were counted and summarized. Perceptions of the uses, benefits, and drawbacks of female cancer survivor self-advocacy. Survivors and providers perceived similar but distinct uses of self-advocacy. Survivors and providers generally agreed on the potential benefits of self-advocacy but had different views of the potential drawbacks. Survivors were most concerned with finding and making sense of information, that their questions would not be answered, and having a worse relationship with their provider; providers were concerned with increases in clinic time and difficulties developing treatment plans. Although survivors and providers recognized similar benefits to survivor self-advocacy, they had different views of the uses and drawbacks of female cancer survivor self-advocacy. Attempts to increase self-advocacy among female cancer survivors must address survivors’ and providers’ views and apprehensions about self-advocacy.

  17. 41 CFR 101-28.303 - Benefits provided by customer supply centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... customer supply centers. 101-28.303 Section 101-28.303 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal...-STORAGE AND DISTRIBUTION 28.3-Customer Supply Centers § 101-28.303 Benefits provided by customer supply centers. The customer supply centers (CSCs) provide the following: (a) Overall savings to the Federal...

  18. Further limiting bisphenol a in food uses could provide health and economic benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trasande, Leonardo

    2014-02-01

    There is mounting evidence that bisphenol A (BPA), a chemical used in the production of polycarbonate plastics and the linings of aluminum cans, may have adverse health consequences. The Food and Drug Administration has banned BPA from baby bottles and sippy cups but has deferred further action on other food uses-that is, uses in metal-based food and beverage containers. This article quantifies the potential social costs of childhood obesity and adult coronary heart disease attributable to BPA exposure in the United States in 2008 and models the potential health and economic benefits associated with replacing BPA in all food uses. BPA exposure was estimated to be associated with 12,404 cases of childhood obesity and 33,863 cases of newly incident coronary heart disease, with estimated social costs of $2.98 billion in 2008. Removing BPA from food uses might prevent 6,236 cases of childhood obesity and 22,350 cases of newly incident coronary heart disease per year, with potential annual economic benefits of $1.74 billion (sensitivity analysis: $889 million-$13.8 billion per year). Although more data are needed, these potentially large health and economic benefits could outweigh the costs of using a safer substitute for BPA.

  19. Dilemmas in providing resilience-enhancing social services to long-term social assistance clients. A qualitative study of Swedish social workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Long-term recipients of social assistance face barriers to social and economic inclusion, and have poorer health and more limited opportunities for improving their health than many other groups in the population. During recent decades there have been changes in Swedish social policy, with cutbacks in public benefits and a re-emphasis on means-tested policies. In this context, it is important to investigate the necessary conditions for social workers to offer social assistance and services, as well as the mediating role of social workers between public policies and their clients. Swedish social services aim to promote social inclusion by strengthening the individual´s own resources. We investigated the issues that arise when providing social services to long-term social assistance clients within the framework of resilience, which focuses on the processes leading to positive functioning in adverse conditions. Methods Interviews were conducted with 23 social workers in Stockholm and analysed by qualitative content analysis. Results The main theme to emerge from the interviews concerned the constraints that the social workers faced in providing social services to social assistance clients. The first subtheme focused on dilemmas in the interaction between social workers and clients resulting from the dual role of exercising authority and supporting and building trust with clients. Working conditions of social workers also played a crucial role. The second subtheme addressed the impact of the societal context, such as labour market opportunities and coordination between authorities. Conclusions Overall, we found that social workers to a great extent tried to find individual solutions to structural problems. To provide resilience-enhancing social services to long-term social assistance clients with varying obstacles and needs requires a constructive working environment, supportive societal structures and inter-sectoral cooperation between different authorities

  20. The Benefits of Providing External Beam Radiotherapy in Low- and Middle-income Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, M L; Hanna, T P; Shafiq, J; Ferlay, J; Bray, F; Delaney, G P; Barton, M

    2017-02-01

    More than half of all cancer diagnoses worldwide occur in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) and the incidence is projected to rise substantially within the next 20 years. Radiotherapy is a vital, cost-effective treatment for cancer; yet there is currently a huge deficit in radiotherapy services within these countries. The aim of this study was to estimate the potential outcome benefits if external beam radiotherapy was provided to all patients requiring such treatment in LMICs, according to the current evidence-based guidelines. Projected estimates of these benefits were calculated to 2035, obtained by applying the previously published Collaboration for Cancer Outcomes, Research and Evaluation (CCORE) demand and outcome benefit estimates to cancer incidence and projection data from the GLOBOCAN 2012 data. The estimated optimal radiotherapy utilisation rate for all LMICs was 50%. There were about 4.0 million cancer patients in LMICs who required radiotherapy in 2012. This number is projected to increase by 78% by 2035, a far steeper increase than the 38% increase expected in high-income countries. National radiotherapy benefits varied widely, and were influenced by case mix. The 5 year population local control and survival benefits for all LMICs, if radiotherapy was delivered according to guidelines, were estimated to be 9.6% and 4.4%, respectively, compared with no radiotherapy use. This equates to about 1.3 million patients who would derive a local control benefit in 2035, whereas over 615 000 patients would derive a survival benefit if the demand for radiotherapy in LMICs was met. The potential outcome benefits were found to be higher in LMICs. These results further highlight the urgent need to reduce the gap between the supply of, and demand for, radiotherapy in LMICs. We must attempt to address this 'silent crisis' as a matter of priority and the approach must consider the complex societal challenges unique to LMICs. Copyright © 2016 The Royal College

  1. Survival benefits select for group living in a social spider despite reproductive costs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bilde, T.; Coates, K.S.; Birkhofer, K.

    2007-01-01

    The evolution of cooperation requires benefits of group living to exceed costs. Hence, some components of fitness are expected to increase with increasing group size, whereas others may decrease because of competition among group members. The social spiders provide an excellent system to investig......The evolution of cooperation requires benefits of group living to exceed costs. Hence, some components of fitness are expected to increase with increasing group size, whereas others may decrease because of competition among group members. The social spiders provide an excellent system...... to investigate the costs and benefits of group living: they occur in groups of various sizes and individuals are relatively short-lived, therefore life history traits and Lifetime Reproductive Success (LRS) can be estimated as a function of group size. Sociality in spiders has originated repeatedly...... and survival in the social spider Stegodyphus dumicola in two populations in Namibia. In both populations, the major benefit of group living was improved survival of colonies and late-instar juveniles with increasing colony size. By contrast, female fecundity, female body size and early juvenile survival...

  2. 20 CFR 229.53 - Reduction for social security benefits on employee's wage record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reduction for social security benefits on... UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT SOCIAL SECURITY OVERALL MINIMUM GUARANTEE Computation of the Overall Minimum Rate § 229.53 Reduction for social security benefits on employee's wage record. The total annuity...

  3. Health benefits of primary care social work for adults with complex health and social needs: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGregor, Jules; Mercer, Stewart W; Harris, Fiona M

    2018-01-01

    The prevalence of complex health and social needs in primary care patients is growing. Furthermore, recent research suggests that the impact of psychosocial distress on the significantly poorer health outcomes in this population may have been underestimated. The potential of social work in primary care settings has been extensively discussed in both health and social work literature and there is evidence that social work interventions in other settings are particularly effective in addressing psychosocial needs. However, the evidence base for specific improved health outcomes related to primary care social work is minimal. This review aimed to identify and synthesise the available evidence on the health benefits of social work interventions in primary care settings. Nine electronic databases were searched from 1990 to 2015 and seven primary research studies were retrieved. Due to the heterogeneity of studies, a narrative synthesis was conducted. Although there is no definitive evidence for effectiveness, results suggest a promising role for primary care social work interventions in improving health outcomes. These include subjective health measures and self-management of long-term conditions, reducing psychosocial morbidity and barriers to treatment and health maintenance. Although few rigorous study designs were found, the contextual detail and clinical settings of studies provide evidence of the practice applicability of social work intervention. Emerging policy on the integration of health and social care may provide an opportunity to develop this model of care. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Training as a Social Purpose: Are Economic and Social Benefits Delivered?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Allan; Lobley, Matt

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports original research which measures the social and economic impact of training and skills development on individuals who participated in training provided by social purpose, nonprofit organizations. An implicit policy assumption is that such organizations contribute to social and economic regeneration. Examining the costs and…

  5. The factors associated with the belief that vegetarian diets provide health benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lea, Emma; Worsley, Anthony

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to examine the factors associated with the belief that vegetarian diets provide health benefits. A random population mail survey about food choice was conducted among a sample of 1000 South Australians. An additional (non-random) survey of 106 vegetarians and semi-vegetarians was also conducted, giving a total of 707 participants from both samples. The main predictors of the belief that vegetarian diets provide health benefits for all respondents were found to be the belief that meat is neither healthy nor necessary and frequent searching for information on healthy eating. However, there were differences between vegetarians, non-vegetarians and semi-vegetarians. In particular, health issues were relatively more important for semi-vegetarians and vegetarians, while knowledge and convenience issues were most important for non-vegetarians. The results have important implications for public health. Many South Australians perceive that health benefits are associated with eating a vegetarian diet, which may also apply to plant-based diets in general. However, if non-vegetarians are to obtain some of the health benefits associated with the consumption of a plant-based diet, they require information on the preparation of quick and easy plant- based meals.

  6. Economic, Social and Environmental Benefits of Smart Grids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignas MIKALAUSKAS

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of new technologies is faster than ever before in the human history, and as such there is an increased need of adaptation. In this sense, the present paper argues that current electrical grids should be transformed into a more modern and sustainable grid – the smart grid. This article will review the current situation from three main perspectives: economic, social and environmental. Each of these dimensions is influenced by various factors and in this paper we will systematically evaluate them. Our analysis suggests that currently there is a series of benefits offered by smart grids attributable to each dimension. Still, the level to which consumers will enjoy them is also conditioned by their willingness to embrace this technical change and transition to a new way of engaging with energy consumption through a user mediated relationship

  7. Meeting Basic Needs: Social Supports and Services Provided by Hospice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucher, Nathan A; Kuchibhatla, Maragatha; Johnson, Kimberly S

    2017-06-01

    Describe social goods and services for which hospices assist patients and families and the resources hospices use to do so. Basic social supports and services not routinely covered by insurers may be needed by terminally ill patients and their families. Little is known about hospices' provision of such social supports and services. A 2014-2015 cross-sectional survey of hospices nationwide. Participating hospices had been in operation for at least 3 years and were located in any of the 50 states or District of Columbia. Hospices were surveyed about availability and sources of internal funds and referral to obtain basic social supports for patients. Descriptive statistics, bivariate analysis, and categorization were used to describe hospice practices. Measures included frequency and nature of goods and services provision in the prior year; and extent to which hospices used internal funds or community referral for goods and services. Over 80% (n = 203) reported internal funds covered services not reimbursed by insurers; 78% used funds in last year. Hospices used internal funds for food (81.7%), shelter (57.8%), utility bills (73.5%), and funeral costs (50%). Hospices referred patients/families to community organizations to obtain a similar range of services, including transportation, clothing, linens/towels, furniture/appliances, home repairs, and caregiver support. Hospices are using internal resources and accessing community resources to provide patients with basic social needs not routinely covered by insurance.

  8. Enclosed nests may provide greater thermal than nest predation benefits compared with open nests across latitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Thomas E.; Boyce, Andy J.; Fierro-Calderon, Karolina; Mitchell, Adam E.; Armstad, Connor E.; Mouton, James C.; Bin Soudi, Evertius E.

    2017-01-01

    Nest structure is thought to provide benefits that have fitness consequences for several taxa. Traditionally, reduced nest predation has been considered the primary benefit underlying evolution of nest structure, whereas thermal benefits have been considered a secondary or even non-existent factor. Yet, the relative roles of these factors on nest structures remain largely unexplored.Enclosed nests have a constructed or natural roof connected to sides that allow a restricted opening or tube entrance that provides cover in all directions except the entrance, whereas open nests are cups or platforms that are open above. We show that construction of enclosed nests is more common among songbirds (Passeriformes) in tropical and southern hemisphere regions than in north temperate regions. This geographic pattern may reflect selection from predation risk, under long-standing assumptions that nest predation rates are higher in southern regions and that enclosed nests reduce predation risk compared with open cup nests. We therefore compared nest predation rates between enclosed vs. open nests in 114 songbird species that do not nest in tree holes among five communities of coexisting birds, and for 205 non-hole-nesting species from the literature, across northern temperate, tropical, and southern hemisphere regions.Among coexisting species, enclosed nests had lower nest predation rates than open nests in two south temperate sites, but not in either of two tropical sites or a north temperate site. Nest predation did not differ between nest types at any latitude based on literature data. Among 319 species from both our field studies and the literature, enclosed nests did not show consistent benefits of reduced predation and, in fact, predation was not consistently higher in the tropics, contrary to long-standing perspectives.Thermal benefits of enclosed nests were indicated based on three indirect results. First, species that built enclosed nests were smaller than species using

  9. Social benefits of financial investment support in energy conservation policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haugland, T. [ECON Centre for Economic Analysis, Oslo (Norway)

    1996-12-01

    Energy conservation became an important component of energy policy after the oil price increases in the 1970s. The authors refer to energy conservation as policy measures other than price and tax changes intended to improve the efficiency in end use of energy. From 1973 to 1985, more stringent technical standards, information and financial incentives contributed to a 20 percent drop in energy intensities in Organization Economic and Cooperative Developing (OECD) countries. However, high end use prices rather than conservation policies had the greatist effect. The author examines the costs and benefits of a Norwegian energy conservation program that provided financial support for investments in energy efficiency. 28 refs., 6 figs.

  10. Valuing blue carbon: carbon sequestration benefits provided by the marine protected areas in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarate-Barrera, Tatiana G; Maldonado, Jorge H

    2015-01-01

    Marine protected areas are aimed to protect and conserve key ecosystems for the provision of a number of ecosystem services that are the basis for numerous economic activities. Among the several services that these areas provide, the capacity of sequestering (capturing and storing) organic carbon is a regulating service, provided mainly by mangroves and seagrasses, that gains importance as alternatives for mitigating global warming become a priority in the international agenda. The objective of this study is to value the services associated with the capture and storage of oceanic carbon, known as Blue Carbon, provided by a new network of marine protected areas in Colombia. We approach the monetary value associated to these services through the simulation of a hypothetical market for oceanic carbon. To do that, we construct a benefit function that considers the capacity of mangroves and seagrasses for capturing and storing blue carbon, and simulate scenarios for the variation of key variables such as the market carbon price, the discount rate, the natural rate of loss of the ecosystems, and the expectations about the post-Kyoto negotiations. The results indicate that the expected benefits associated to carbon capture and storage provided by these ecosystems are substantial but highly dependent on the expectations in terms of the negotiations surrounding the extension of the Kyoto Protocol and the dynamics of the carbon credit's demand and supply. We also find that the natural loss rate of these ecosystems does not seem to have a significant effect on the annual value of the benefits. This approach constitutes one of the first attempts to value blue carbon as one of the services provided by conservation.

  11. Valuing blue carbon: carbon sequestration benefits provided by the marine protected areas in Colombia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana G Zarate-Barrera

    Full Text Available Marine protected areas are aimed to protect and conserve key ecosystems for the provision of a number of ecosystem services that are the basis for numerous economic activities. Among the several services that these areas provide, the capacity of sequestering (capturing and storing organic carbon is a regulating service, provided mainly by mangroves and seagrasses, that gains importance as alternatives for mitigating global warming become a priority in the international agenda. The objective of this study is to value the services associated with the capture and storage of oceanic carbon, known as Blue Carbon, provided by a new network of marine protected areas in Colombia. We approach the monetary value associated to these services through the simulation of a hypothetical market for oceanic carbon. To do that, we construct a benefit function that considers the capacity of mangroves and seagrasses for capturing and storing blue carbon, and simulate scenarios for the variation of key variables such as the market carbon price, the discount rate, the natural rate of loss of the ecosystems, and the expectations about the post-Kyoto negotiations. The results indicate that the expected benefits associated to carbon capture and storage provided by these ecosystems are substantial but highly dependent on the expectations in terms of the negotiations surrounding the extension of the Kyoto Protocol and the dynamics of the carbon credit's demand and supply. We also find that the natural loss rate of these ecosystems does not seem to have a significant effect on the annual value of the benefits. This approach constitutes one of the first attempts to value blue carbon as one of the services provided by conservation.

  12. Incomes and Outcomes: Social Security Disability Benefits in First-Episode Psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenheck, Robert A; Estroff, Sue E; Sint, Kyaw; Lin, Haiqun; Mueser, Kim T; Robinson, Delbert G; Schooler, Nina R; Marcy, Patricia; Kane, John M

    2017-09-01

    Social Security Administration (SSA) disability benefits are an important source of income for people with psychoses and confer eligibility for health insurance. The authors examined the impact of coordinated specialty care on receipt of such benefits in first-episode psychosis, along with the correlates and consequences of receiving them. The Recovery After an Initial Schizophrenia Episode-Early Treatment Program (RAISE-ETP) study, a 34-site cluster-randomized trial, compared NAVIGATE, a coordinated specialty care program, to usual community care over 2 years. Receipt of SSA benefits and clinical outcomes were assessed at program entry and every 6 months for 2 years. Piecewise regression analysis was used to identify relative change in outcome trajectories after receipt of disability benefits. Among 399 RAISE-ETP participants, 36 (9%) were receiving SSA disability benefits at baseline; of the remainder, 124 (34.1%) obtained benefits during the 2-year study period. The NAVIGATE intervention improved quality of life, symptoms, and employment but did not significantly reduce the likelihood of receiving SSA disability benefits. Obtaining benefits was predicted by more severe psychotic symptoms and greater dysfunction and was followed by increased total income but fewer days of employment, reduced motivation (e.g., sense of purpose, greater anhedonia), and fewer days of intoxication. A 2-year coordinated specialty care intervention did not reduce receipt of SSA disability benefits. There were some advantages for those who obtained SSA disability benefits over the 2-year treatment period, but there were also some unintended adverse consequences. Providing income supports without impeding recovery remains an important policy challenge.

  13. E-health: potential benefits and challenges in providing and accessing sexual health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minichiello, Victor; Rahman, Saifur; Dune, Tinashe; Scott, John; Dowsett, Gary

    2013-08-30

    E-health has become a burgeoning field in which health professionals and health consumers create and seek information. E-health refers to internet-based health care and information delivery and seeks to improve health service locally, regionally and worldwide. E-sexual health presents new opportunities to provide online sexual health services irrespective of gender, age, sexual orientation and location. The paper used the dimensions of the RE-AIM model (reach, efficacy, adoption, implementation and maintenance) as a guiding principle to discuss potentials of E-health in providing and accessing sexual health services. There are important issues in relation to utilising and providing online sexual health services. For healthcare providers, e-health can act as an opportunity to enhance their clients' sexual health care by facilitating communication with full privacy and confidentiality, reducing administrative costs and improving efficiency and flexibility as well as market sexual health services and products. Sexual health is one of the common health topics which both younger and older people explore on the internet and they increasingly prefer sexual health education to be interactive, non-discriminate and anonymous. This commentary presents and discusses the benefits of e-sexual health and provides recommendations towards addressing some of the emerging challenges. The provision of sexual health services can be enhanced through E-health technology. Doing this can empower consumers to engage with information technology to enhance their sexual health knowledge and quality of life and address some of the stigma associated with diversity in sexualities and sexual health experiences. In addition, e-sexual health may better support and enhance the relationship between consumers and their health care providers across different locations. However, a systematic and focused approach to research and the application of findings in policy and practice is required to ensure that

  14. The social benefits of WEEE re-use schemes. A cost benefit analysis for PCs in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Xose Manuel; Rodríguez, Miguel; Pena-Boquete, Yolanda

    2017-06-01

    One goal of the new European legislation set out in WEEE Directive 2012/19/UE is the promotion of WEEE re-use schemes. However, some authors are rather sceptical about the contribution of WEEE re-use schemes to improve resource efficiency. In order to evaluate and to design adequate policy instruments, some authors recommend the cost-benefit analysis (CBA) as a compulsory first step. In this context, the main contribution of this paper is to enlarge the empirical literature by providing a CBA of re-use schemes versus recycling processes of PCs. The analysis is made for Spain by quantifying in monetary terms the social damages of environmental impacts such as climate change, human toxicity, particulate matter formation, metal depletion, etc. Our results suggest that promoting re-use against recycling (and consequently the need for manufacturing a new PC from raw materials) may reduce environmental costs by 45.20€ per PC. Those social benefits are mainly generated in the re-use preparation process and distribution activities, whereas the re-use scenario displays a worse performance in energy consumption. The difference in the distribution stage during the second life cycle originates from the fact that the ready to re-use product is produced locally, while the brand new product is manufactured and distributed from abroad, mainly Asia. These results provide valuable information to policymakers and think tanks willing to design support schemes for re-use over recycling operations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Benefit distribution of social health insurance: evidence from china's urban resident basic medical insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Jay; Tian, Sen; Zhou, Qin; Han, Wei

    2016-09-01

    Equity is one of the essential objectives of the social health insurance. This article evaluates the benefit distribution of the China's Urban Residents' Basic Medical Insurance (URBMI), covering 300 million urban populations. Using the URBMI Household Survey data fielded between 2007 and 2011, we estimate the benefit distribution by the two-part model, and find that the URBMI beneficiaries from lower income groups benefited less than that of higher income groups. In other words, government subsidy that was supposed to promote the universal coverage of health care flew more to the rich. Our study provides new evidence on China's health insurance system reform, and it bears meaningful policy implication for other developing countries facing similar challenges on the way to universal coverage of health insurance. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Self-fill oxygen technology: benefits for patients, healthcare providers and the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphie, Phyllis; Hex, Nick; Setters, Jo; Little, Stuart

    2016-06-01

    "Non-delivery" home oxygen technologies that allow self-filling of ambulatory oxygen cylinders are emerging. They can offer a relatively unlimited supply of ambulatory oxygen in suitably assessed people who require long-term oxygen therapy (LTOT), providing they can use these systems safely and effectively. This allows users to be self-sufficient and facilitates longer periods of time away from home. The evolution and evidence base of this technology is reported with the experience of a national service review in Scotland (UK). Given that domiciliary oxygen services represent a significant cost to healthcare providers globally, these systems offer potential cost savings, are appealing to remote and rural regions due to the avoidance of cylinder delivery and have additional lower environmental impact due to reduced fossil fuel consumption and subsequently reduced carbon emissions. Evidence is emerging that self-fill/non-delivery oxygen systems can meet the ambulatory oxygen needs of many patients using LTOT and can have a positive impact on quality of life, increase time spent away from home and offer significant financial savings to healthcare providers. Provide update for oxygen prescribers on options for home oxygen provision.Provide update on the evidence base for available self-fill oxygen technologies.Provide and update for healthcare commissioners on the potential cost-effective and environmental benefits of increased utilisation of self-fill oxygen systems.

  17. Building capacity in social service agencies to employ peer providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, Lauren B; Mandiberg, James M; Akabas, Sheila H

    2010-01-01

    While there is evidence that peer providers are valuable to service delivery teams, the agencies where they work face difficulties in fulfilling the potential of including peers on staff effectively. The purpose of this article is to report findings of a pilot test of a workplace strategy that promoted inclusion of peer providers at social service agencies by building organizational capacity to support people with mental health conditions in peer provider roles. The strategy included training, goal setting and ongoing consultation. Seventy-one peer, non-peer and supervisory staff participated from 6 agencies over a one year period. Goal attainment scaling and data from in-depth interviews about perceptions of differences in the ways in which staff are supported, administered prior to and after the consultation period, were used to assess strategy impact. Most frequently staff set goals to respond to role conflict or a lack of support. Staff that met or exceeded their goals utilized the formal structure of consultation to improve communication among themselves, had leadership that sanctioned changes and felt that their participation was of value to the organization and contributed to their individual development. Strategy participation promoted inclusion by initiating changes to policies and practices that devalued the peer provider role, increased skill sets, and formalized lines of communication for sharing information and understanding related to peer providers. Findings demonstrate that a strategy of training, goal setting and consultation can positively affect perceptions of inclusion, and promote implementation of practices associated with inclusive workplaces.

  18. Benefits to the Europa Clipper Mission Provided by the Space Launch System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creech, Stephen D.; Patel, Keyur

    2013-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) proposed Europa Clipper mission would provide an unprecedented look at the icy Jovian moon, and investigate its environment to determine the possibility that it hosts life. Focused on exploring the water, chemistry, and energy conditions on the moon, the spacecraft would examine Europa's ocean, ice shell, composition and geology by performing 32 low-altitude flybys of Europa from Jupiter orbit over 2.3 years, allowing detailed investigations of globally distributed regions of Europa. In hopes of expediting the scientific program, mission planners at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory are working with the Space Launch System (SLS) program, managed at Marshall Space Flight Center. Designed to be the most powerful launch vehicle ever flown, SLS is making progress toward delivering a new capability for exploration beyond Earth orbit. The SLS rocket will offer an initial low-Earth-orbit lift capability of 70 metric tons (t) beginning with a first launch in 2017 and will then evolve into a 130 t Block 2 version. While the primary focus of the development of the initial version of SLS is on enabling human exploration missions beyond low Earth orbit using the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle, the rocket offers unique benefits to robotic planetary exploration missions, thanks to the high characteristic energy it provides. This paper will provide an overview of both the proposed Europa Clipper mission and the Space Launch System vehicle, and explore options provided to the Europa Clipper mission for a launch within a decade by a 70 t version of SLS with a commercially available 5-meter payload fairing, through comparison with a baseline of current Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicle (EELV) capabilities. Compared to that baseline, a mission to the Jovian system could reduce transit times to less than half, or increase mass to more than double, among other benefits. In addition to these primary benefits, the paper will

  19. Benefits of social media marketing for small businesses

    OpenAIRE

    Väänänen, Eeva-Maria

    2015-01-01

    The studied topic of this thesis was the usage of social media marketing especially in small businesses. Social media marketing creates challenges in marketing, but it also opens new possibilities especially for the growth of small businesses. This research aimed to explain what the difference between marketing and social media marketing is. It also studied how companies are using social media as a marketing tool.The theoretical framework discusses marketing and social media marketing. In the...

  20. Can video playback provide social information for foraging blue tits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hämäläinen, Liisa; Rowland, Hannah M; Mappes, Johanna; Thorogood, Rose

    2017-01-01

    Video playback is becoming a common method for manipulating social stimuli in experiments. Parid tits are one of the most commonly studied groups of wild birds. However, it is not yet clear if tits respond to video playback or how their behavioural responses should be measured. Behaviours may also differ depending on what they observe demonstrators encountering. Here we present blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus) videos of demonstrators discovering palatable or aversive prey (injected with bitter-tasting Bitrex) from coloured feeding cups. First we quantify variation in demonstrators' responses to the prey items: aversive prey provoked high rates of beak wiping and head shaking. We then show that focal blue tits respond differently to the presence of a demonstrator on a video screen, depending on whether demonstrators discover palatable or aversive prey. Focal birds faced the video screen more during aversive prey presentations, and made more head turns. Regardless of prey type, focal birds also hopped more frequently during the presence of a demonstrator (compared to a control video of a different coloured feeding cup in an empty cage). Finally, we tested if demonstrators' behaviour affected focal birds' food preferences by giving individuals a choice to forage from the same cup as a demonstrator, or from the cup in the control video. We found that only half of the individuals made their choice in accordance to social information in the videos, i.e., their foraging choices were not different from random. Individuals that chose in accordance with a demonstrator, however, made their choice faster than individuals that chose an alternative cup. Together, our results suggest that video playback can provide social cues to blue tits, but individuals vary greatly in how they use this information in their foraging decisions.

  1. Can video playback provide social information for foraging blue tits?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liisa Hämäläinen

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Video playback is becoming a common method for manipulating social stimuli in experiments. Parid tits are one of the most commonly studied groups of wild birds. However, it is not yet clear if tits respond to video playback or how their behavioural responses should be measured. Behaviours may also differ depending on what they observe demonstrators encountering. Here we present blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus videos of demonstrators discovering palatable or aversive prey (injected with bitter-tasting Bitrex from coloured feeding cups. First we quantify variation in demonstrators’ responses to the prey items: aversive prey provoked high rates of beak wiping and head shaking. We then show that focal blue tits respond differently to the presence of a demonstrator on a video screen, depending on whether demonstrators discover palatable or aversive prey. Focal birds faced the video screen more during aversive prey presentations, and made more head turns. Regardless of prey type, focal birds also hopped more frequently during the presence of a demonstrator (compared to a control video of a different coloured feeding cup in an empty cage. Finally, we tested if demonstrators’ behaviour affected focal birds’ food preferences by giving individuals a choice to forage from the same cup as a demonstrator, or from the cup in the control video. We found that only half of the individuals made their choice in accordance to social information in the videos, i.e., their foraging choices were not different from random. Individuals that chose in accordance with a demonstrator, however, made their choice faster than individuals that chose an alternative cup. Together, our results suggest that video playback can provide social cues to blue tits, but individuals vary greatly in how they use this information in their foraging decisions.

  2. Social Media in the Dental School Environment, Part A: Benefits, Challenges, and Recommendations for Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spallek, Heiko; Turner, Sharon P; Donate-Bartfield, Evelyn; Chambers, David; McAndrew, Maureen; Zarkowski, Pamela; Karimbux, Nadeem

    2015-10-01

    Social media consist of powerful tools that impact not only communication but relationships among people, thus posing an inherent challenge to the traditional standards of who we are as dental educators and what we can expect of each other. This article examines how the world of social media has changed dental education. Its goal is to outline the complex issues that social media use presents for academic dental institutions and to examine these issues from personal, professional, and legal perspectives. After providing an update on social media, the article considers the advantages and risks associated with the use of social media at the interpersonal, professional, and institutional levels. Policies and legal issues of which academic dental institutions need to be aware from a compliance perspective are examined, along with considerations and resources needed to develop effective social media policies. The challenge facing dental educators is how to capitalize on the benefits that social media offer, while minimizing risks and complying with the various forms of legal constraint.

  3. Effects of receipt of Social Security retirement benefits on older women's employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillen, Martie; Heath, Claudia J

    2017-01-01

    Labor force participation of women has declined since 1999; however, labor force participation of women 62+ has increased. The 2000-2006 waves of Health and Retirement Study (HRS) data, the initial years of the continuing upward trajectory, were used to test the effects of receipt of Social Security retirement benefits on older women's employment. The models tested: (a) the effect of receipt of Social Security retirement benefits on whether employed; and (b) for women receiving Social Security retirement benefits, the effect of age elected receipt of benefits on whether employed. Both models included the effects of human capital characteristics and income sources. Receipt of Social Security benefits, pension income, and current age reduced the likelihood of employment; while educational level, good to excellent health, and nonmarried marital status increased the likelihood of employment. The older the woman was when she elected Social Security benefits, the more likely she was to be employed.

  4. Survival benefits select for group living in a social spider despite reproductive costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilde, T; Coates, K S; Birkhofer, K; Bird, T; Maklakov, A A; Lubin, Y; Avilés, L

    2007-11-01

    The evolution of cooperation requires benefits of group living to exceed costs. Hence, some components of fitness are expected to increase with increasing group size, whereas others may decrease because of competition among group members. The social spiders provide an excellent system to investigate the costs and benefits of group living: they occur in groups of various sizes and individuals are relatively short-lived, therefore life history traits and Lifetime Reproductive Success (LRS) can be estimated as a function of group size. Sociality in spiders has originated repeatedly in phylogenetically distant families and appears to be accompanied by a transition to a system of continuous intra-colony mating and extreme inbreeding. The benefits of group living in such systems should therefore be substantial. We investigated the effect of group size on fitness components of reproduction and survival in the social spider Stegodyphus dumicola in two populations in Namibia. In both populations, the major benefit of group living was improved survival of colonies and late-instar juveniles with increasing colony size. By contrast, female fecundity, female body size and early juvenile survival decreased with increasing group size. Mean individual fitness, estimated as LRS and calculated from five components of reproduction and survival, was maximized for intermediate- to large-sized colonies. Group living in these spiders thus entails a net reproductive cost, presumably because of an increase in intra-colony competition with group size. This cost is traded off against survival benefits at the colony level, which appear to be the major factor favouring group living. In the field, many colonies occur at smaller size than expected from the fitness curve, suggesting ecological or life history constraints on colony persistence which results in a transient population of relatively small colonies.

  5. EXPLORING THE RELATIONSHIPS AMONG SOCIAL BENEFITS, ONLINE SOCIAL NETWORK DEPENDENCY, SATISFACTION, AND YOUTH’S HABIT FORMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tran Van Dat

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Online social network is one of the biggest Internet phenomenon, which has attracted the interest of many marketers and psychologists who wanted to understand social network users’ behavior. Recognizing the lack of theoretical and empirical attention that has been given to this field, especially in Vietnam market, this study was conducted to examine the relationships among social benefits, online social network dependency, satisfaction, and youth’s habit formation in the context of Facebook. The findings of the study of 200 Facebook users indicated that the interrelationship among four factors of social benefits, online social network dependency, satisfaction, and habit formation affect each other. Indeed, dependency on online social network among the youth whose age ranged from 16 to 24 years old is significantly affected by social benefits factor and leads to the formation of habit. In addition, satisfaction plays a role in determining habitual Facebook use. This paper discusses theoretical and practical implication in marketing and psychology field.

  6. The economic and social benefits of childhood vaccinations in BRICS

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mirelman, Andrew J; Ozawa, Sachiko; Grewal, Simrun

    2014-01-01

      Brazil, the Russian Federation, India, China and South Africa (BRICS) have considerable potential to save lives and obtain economic benefits through introducing or scaling up childhood vaccination...

  7. SOCIAL PERFORMANCE ENHANCES FINANCIAL PERFORMANCE. BENEFITS FROM CSR

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    gazzola patrizia

    2012-01-01

    The research aims to show how Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) should not be considered a cost to bear as an economic social actor but an investment that will contribute to the competitiveness and growth of the firm...

  8. A Typology of Benefit Sharing Arrangements for the Governance of Social-Ecological Systems in Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bimo Abraham. Nkhata

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This study explores and interprets relevant literature to construct a typology of benefit sharing arrangements for the governance of social-ecological systems in developing countries. The typology comprises three generic categories of benefit sharing arrangements: collaborative, market-oriented, and egalitarian. We contend that the three categories provide a useful basis for exploring and classifying the different societal arrangements required for governance of social-ecological systems. The typology we present is founded on a related set of explicit assumptions that can be used to explore and better understand the linkages among ecosystem services, benefit sharing, and governance. Issues that are strongly related to sustainability in developing countries form the core basis of our assumptions. Our aim is not to write a definitive exposition, but to spark debate and engage ongoing dialogue on governance and benefit sharing in the field of social-ecological systems.

  9. Providing Foundations for Social Studies in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagano, Alicia L.

    1978-01-01

    Recommends the introduction of social studies/social science content into early childhood and elementary grade curricula. Gives examples of activities based on simple concepts in history, psychology, and geography. (AV)

  10. Providing Focus via a Social Media Exploitation Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    getting information about particular person of interest, groups, organizations.  Social Network Analysis Social networks Genealogy Location...Analysis Social networks Genealogy Location Event posting  In-depth content about a subject or content Profile  Structure of orgs  Understanding

  11. The Social Benefits of Initial Vocational Education and Training for Individuals in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabates, Ricardo; Salter, Emma; Obolenskaya, Polina

    2012-01-01

    This article investigates the social benefits of initial vocational education and training (VET) for individuals in different European contexts. Drawing on data from the European Community Household Panel, results show that initial VET is associated with positive changes in social outcomes for individuals across Europe. Health benefits were mainly…

  12. Costs and benefits of railway urban logistics: a prospective social cost benefit analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez-Feliu, Jesus

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a general framework to assess urban rail logistics suitability via a socio-economic cost benefit analysis. Firstly, we propose an overview on the basic notions of CBA and SCBA. Secondly, we identify and present the main types of costs and benefits or railway urban logistics services and the related final delivery services using low emission road vehicles to serve customers where the rail systems cannot. Thirdly, as an example of application, we propose to assess a scenario...

  13. Trends in social assistance, minimum income benefits and income polarization in an international perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, J.

    2016-01-01

    This thesis collects six empirical studies regarding the developments of social assistance benefits, their determinants and the impact of the benefit changes on income polarization. The first study suggests that the real minimum income benefit levels increased in many OECD countries whilst minimum

  14. [Doctors and the benefits and dangers of social networks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tisseron, Serge

    2015-05-13

    Social networks have many different uses. Most young people use them for experimentation and innovation. Social networks help young people get familiar with the digital world, and develop themselves in interrelation with their peers. But social networks can also be used to avoid relationships in the real world, or to practice different forms of harassment. A specific danger lies in forgetting that a great number of people can have access to personal information posted online. Doctors should be particularly aware of this issue.

  15. The role of social media in schizophrenia: evaluating risks, benefits, and potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torous, John; Keshavan, Matcheri

    2016-05-01

    Patients with schizophrenia suffer from numerous social problems often because of negative symptoms of the illness and impairments in social cognition. Social media and social networks now offer a novel tool to engage and help patients navigate and potentially improve social functioning. In this review, we aim to explore how impaired neural networks in schizophrenia impair social functioning, examine the evidence base for social networks and social media to help in the role, consider the evidence for current risks and benefits of use, and discuss the future of social media and social networks for schizophrenia. Patients with schizophrenia are increasingly connected to and engaged with social media. There is strong evidence that they own, use, and accept digital tools like smartphones and already use social media services like Facebook at high rates, especially among those who are younger. Less is known about the clinical risks and benefits of social media use in schizophrenia, although there are increasingly more social networking platforms being designed specifically for those with mental illness. Social media tools have the potential to offer a plethora of new services to patients with schizophrenia, although the clinical evidence base for such is still nascent. It is important to ensure that both clinicians and patients are aware of and educated about the risks of using social media. Going forward, it is likely that social media will have an expanding role in care, with social media offering new pathways to address negative symptoms and impairments in social cognition in schizophrenia.

  16. Space-Based Sensor Web for Earth Science Applications: An Integrated Architecture for Providing Societal Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Shahid; Talabac, Stephen J.

    2004-01-01

    There is a significant interest in the Earth Science research and user remote sensing community to substantially increase the number of useful observations relative to the current frequency of collection. The obvious reason for such a push is to improve the temporal, spectral, and spatial coverage of the area(s) under investigation. However, there is little analysis available in terms of the benefits, costs and the optimal set of sensors needed to make the necessary observations. Classic observing system solutions may no longer be applicable because of their point design philosophy. Instead, a new intelligent data collection system paradigm employing both reactive and proactive measurement strategies with adaptability to the dynamics of the phenomena should be developed. This is a complex problem that should be carefully studied and balanced across various boundaries including: science, modeling, applications, and technology. Modeling plays a crucial role in making useful predictions about naturally occurring or human-induced phenomena In particular, modeling can serve to mitigate the potentially deleterious impacts a phenomenon may have on human life, property, and the economy. This is especially significant when one is interested in learning about the dynamics of, for example, the spread of forest fires, regional to large-scale air quality issues, the spread of the harmful invasive species, or the atmospheric transport of volcanic plumes and ash. This paper identifies and examines these challenging issues and presents architectural alternatives for an integrated sensor web to provide observing scenarios driving the requisite dynamic spatial, spectral, and temporal characteristics to address these key application areas. A special emphasis is placed on the observing systems and its operational aspects in serving the multiple users and stakeholders in providing societal benefits. We also address how such systems will take advantage of technological advancement in

  17. Benefits of social intelligence in home dialogue systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saini, P.; Ruyter, B.E.R. de; Markopoulos, P.; Breemen, A. van

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports an exploration of the concept of social intelligence in the context of home dialogue systems for an Ambient Intelligence home. It reports a Wizard of Oz experiment involving a robotic interface capable of displaying several human social behaviors. Our results show that endowing a

  18. The Psychological and Social Benefits of Sport and Physical Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wankel, Leonard M.; Berger, Bonnie G.

    1990-01-01

    An overview is given of research evidence pertaining to the contribution of sport and physical activity to personal enjoyment, growth, social integration, and social change. It is important to identify the prerequisite activity, leadership, organizational, and environmental conditions for facilitating positive outcomes. (JD)

  19. Use of faith-based social service providers in a representative sample of urban homeless women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heslin, Kevin C; Andersen, Ronald M; Gelberg, Lillian

    2003-09-01

    There are few quantitative studies on the characteristics of homeless persons who use faith-based social service providers. To help address the lack of information in this area, we analyzed survey data on 974 participants in the University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA) Homeless Women's Health Study, a representative sample of homeless women at shelters and meal programs in Los Angeles County. The primary objective of this analysis was to estimate the association of religious affiliation, race/ethnicity, income, and other client characteristics with the use of faith-based programs. In interviews at 78 homeless shelters and meal programs, study respondents provided information about their religious affiliation and other social and demographic characteristics. The names of the organizations were examined, and those with names that referenced specific religions or contained words connoting religiosity were designated as "faith based." At the time they were selected for study participation, 52% of respondents were using the services of faith-based providers. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, lower odds of using these providers were estimated for participants with no religious affiliation (compared with Christian respondents) and for African Americans and Latinas (compared with whites). There is evidence of systematic differences between the clients of faith-based and secular social service providers. The benefits of increased funding through a federal faith-based policy initiative may accrue primarily to subgroups of clients already using faith-based programs.

  20. The MonAMI project: the social benefits of telecare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damant, Jacqueline; Knapp, Martin; Watters, Sarah; King, Derek; Ellis, Maggie; Freddolino, Paul

    2012-01-01

    health score was 63.8. In general, users with better self-rated independence 4 and health scores at baseline found the services more helpful compared to users with poorer ratings. However, specific analyses revealed the services had positive effects on perceptions of safety for users with a greater number of disabilities as compared to those with fewer disabilities (Odds ratio 2.51, p<0.05). Users with leg impairments conveyed feeling more energetic as compared to those without such impairments (Odds ratio 7.49, p<0.05); while users living alone confirmed that the services were helpful for their social networking5 as compared to users living with others (Odds ratio 2.49, p<0.1). Collectively, significantly more than 50% of users (70.6% p<0.001) rated the acceptability and usefulness of MonAMI services highly. Moreover many users stated that if possible, they would continue using the MonAMI system beyond the trial. Conclusions Overall, the trial results are promising; demonstrating that the MonAMI telecare services are beneficial for older people with needs. The trial also confirmed the potential of deploying and providing continuous services using MonAMI technology across diverse health and social care systems in Europe, lending support to MonAMI’s proof of concept of an open core platform approach for delivering care services.

  1. Social Comparison Seeking: Providing General Comparison Curtails Local Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckingham, Justin T.; Zell, Ethan; Schurtz, David R.

    2012-01-01

    Past research shows that people use local social comparison information more than general social comparison information when both are given (Zell & Alicke, 2010). The present studies examined the extent to which people seek local comparisons when they have already received general comparison information. In Study 1, students received their…

  2. Social media disruptive change in healthcare : responses of healthcare providers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smailhodzic, Edin; Boonstra, Albert; Langley, David

    Social media represent specific types of technologies that are end-user driven and end-users are able to drive disruptive change giving little time to organizations to react. With rapid and powerful emergence of social media communities in healthcare, this sector is faced with new and alternative

  3. Social media disruptive change in healthcare : Responses of healthcare providers?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smailhodzic, E.; Boonstra, A.; Langley, D.J.

    2016-01-01

    Social media represent specific types of technologies that are end-user driven and end-users are able to drive disruptive change giving little time to organizations to react. With rapid and powerful emergence of social media communities in healthcare, this sector is faced with new and alternative

  4. Frugal cannibals: how consuming conspecific tissues can provide conditional benefits to wood frog tadpoles ( Lithobates sylvaticus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferson, Dale M.; Hobson, Keith A.; Demuth, Brandon S.; Ferrari, Maud C. O.; Chivers, Douglas P.

    2014-04-01

    Tadpoles show considerable behavioral plasticity. When population densities become high, tadpoles often become cannibalistic, likely in response to intense competition. Conspecific tissues are potentially an ideal diet by composition and should greatly improve growth and development. However, the potential release of alarm cues from the tissues of injured conspecifics may act to deter potential cannibals from feeding. We conducted multiple feeding experiments to test the relative effects that a diet of conspecifics has on tadpole growth and development. Results indicate that while conspecific tissues represent a better alternative to starvation and provide some benefits over low-protein diets, such a diet can have detrimental effects to tadpole growth and/or development relative to diets of similar protein content. Additionally, tadpoles raised individually appear to avoid consuming conspecific tissues and may continue to do so until they suffer from the effects of starvation. However, tadpoles readily fed upon conspecific tissues immediately when raised with competitors. These results suggest that cannibalism may occur as a result of competition rather than the specific quality of available diets, unless such diets lead to starvation.

  5. 20 CFR 255.14 - Waiver not available when recovery can be made from accrual of social security benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... made from accrual of social security benefits. 255.14 Section 255.14 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD... available when recovery can be made from accrual of social security benefits. Where the overpayment is the... individual's entitlement to social security benefits and recovery of such overpayment may be made by offset...

  6. Social Motivation: Costs and Benefits of Selfishness and Otherishness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crocker, Jennifer; Canevello, Amy; Brown, Ashley A

    2017-01-03

    We examine recent evidence on the consequences of selfishness and otherishness for psychological well-being, physical health, and relationships. In the first sections, we consider recent evidence regarding the costs and benefits of giving time, money, and support to others and the costs and benefits of taking or receiving those things from others. Then, because the behaviors of giving and taking can be motivated either by selfish or otherish concerns, we next consider the costs and benefits of the motivation underlying giving and taking. We also examine why and for whom selfishness and otherishness have consequences for psychological well-being, physical health, and relationships. We focus on mechanisms identified in research, including intrapsychic mechanisms such as positive and negative affect, self-esteem and self-efficacy, a sense of meaning and purpose in life, and a sense of connectedness to or isolation from others, as well as interpersonal processes such as reciprocation of support and responsiveness.

  7. Do Cochrane reviews provide a good model for social science?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konnerup, Merete; Kongsted, Hans Christian

    2012-01-01

    Formalised research synthesis to underpin evidence-based policy and practice has become increasingly important in areas of public policy. In this paper we discuss whether the Cochrane standard for systematic reviews of healthcare interventions is appropriate for social research. We examine...... to conclude that the majority of reviews appears limited to considering randomised controlled trials only. Because recent studies have delineated conditions for observational studies in social research to produce valid evidence, we argue that an inclusive approach is essential for truly evidence-based policy...... and practice in regard to social interventions....

  8. Stories, shrines, and symbols: Recognizing psycho-social-spiritual benefits of urban parks and natural areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erika S. Svendsen; Lindsay K. Campbell; Heather L. McMillen

    2016-01-01

    Urban parklands are biological and social resources. While there is a growing recognition that park users interact with these resources to promote well-being, the diversity of these practices and benefits is not fully appreciated. Here we draw upon data from a social assessment of 40 New York City (NYC) parks spanning 11,200 acres and we focus on psycho-social-...

  9. Social media in health care: benefits, concerns, and guidelines for use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suby, ChrysMarie

    2013-01-01

    The use of social media and other electronic communication has exploded as the number of social media outlets and applications continue to increase. These are exciting and valuable tools when used wisely, but pose risks when inappropriately used. The purpose of this article is to consider what comprises social media, its benefits and concerns, and guidelines for use that protect patients, employees, and organizations.

  10. Benefits and Pitfalls: Simple Guidelines for the Use of Social Networking Tools in K-12 Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffman, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    The article will outline a framework for the use of social networking tools in K-12 education framed around four thought provoking questions: 1) what are the benefits and pitfalls of using social networking tools in P-12 education, 2) how do we plan effectively for the use of social networking tool, 3) what role does professional development play…

  11. Self-disclosure in social networking sites : the role of perceived cost, perceived benefits and social influence.

    OpenAIRE

    Cheung, C. M. K.; Lee, Z. W. Y.; Chan, T. K. H.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine the relative impacts of perceived cost, perceived benefits, and social influence on self-disclosure behaviors in social networking sites under an integrated theoretical framework. Design/methodology/approach – Building upon social exchange theory and privacy calculus theory, an integrated model was developed. The model was tested empirically using a sample of 405 social networking site’s users. Users were required to complete a ...

  12. Risks and benefits of social computing as a healthcare tool

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mxoli, Avuya

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Cybercitizen describes a frequent user of the Internet or in other terms, a member of an online community (cybercommunity). This digital space can be used to participate in educational, economical and cultural activities. Social computing...

  13. Partnering with patients to realize the benefits of social media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colbert, James A; Lehmann, Lisa Soleymani

    2015-03-01

    Despite widespread concern about the potential risks of the use of social media, we are optimistic that social networks and blogs have the potential to enhance the practice of medicine by allowing clinicians to share ideas and information within the health care community, with patients, and with the general public. In particular, we believe that there can be value in posting information related to a patient encounter on social media, but only if care has been taken to consider the consequences of such a post from the patient's perspective. Thus, having a discussion with a patient and obtaining verbal consent before posting even deidentified patient information should become standard practice for all physicians who use social media. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. SOCIAL PERFORMANCE ENHANCES FINANCIAL PERFORMANCE. BENEFITS FROM CSR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    gazzola patrizia

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The research aims to show how Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR should not be considered a cost to bear as an economic social actor but an investment that will contribute to the competitiveness and growth of the firm. In the first part we consider capitalistic firm as systems for the creation of economic and financial value for their shareholders. We measure their performance by a system of monetary values. In the second part we do not limit our view to simply the shareholders, but we consider, instead a vast group of stakeholders because it is important not only to make profits, but also how companies make them . In these years characterized by the financial crisis, where many big companies went bankrupt, more and more companies are speaking about ethics and CSR. For a firm, acting socially responsible, means for example having fair compensations, promoting transparency and the respect of employees, neutralizing conflicts of interest, as well as taking care of the environment. CSR is today a topic for discussion not only for business people but also for politicians, media, researchers, NGOs and consumers. Growing awareness of CSR is evident in the growth of voluntary codes of corporate conduct, in the growth of companies that are using self-reporting on social and environmental practices, and in increasingly social and ethical investment funds. The public and governments of the world have been steadily increasing pressure on corporations to increase their CSR. Recently the European Commission has put forward a new, simpler definition of corporate social responsibility as “the responsibility of enterprises for their impacts on society” (European Commission 25/10/2011. Companies have realized that to increase their market share or keep their market share, they must adopt CSR, but the synergy between social performance and financial performance is not automatic; rather it is the result of efforts that combine managerial

  15. Health benefits of nature experience: psychological, social and cultural processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartig, T.; Berg, van den A.E.; Hagerhall, M.

    2011-01-01

    In this chapter we consider how experiences of nature can affect human health and well-being. We first address the matter of ‘what has been’; that is, we sketch the development of theory and research concerned with health benefits of natural environments, from ancient times to the current situation.

  16. Will Mangrove Reforestation Provide Net Benefits: A Case in Sibunag, Guimaras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheryl Joy Fernandez

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available In response to the threats in mangrove resources such as massive fishpond conversion, industrialization,and increased human settlements in coastal areas, the province of Guimaras answered these threats bywidespread mangrove reforestation projects in its coastal communities. These projects were found outto be beneficial, as depicted on large gap on the mangroves overall benefits and the costs of implementationof the mangrove reforestation project. Results of the study show that the present total benefit of mangroveper hectare with sustainable harvesting in the first year is lesser than the costs. However after the firstyear, the net benefits are positive. However, in compliance with Republic Act 7161 (R.A. 7161 thatbanned the cutting/using of all mangrove species, cost-benefit analysis of mangrove reforestation withoutharvesting was also computed. The net benefits exceed the costs from the start of the year up to the 20thyear. Both the scenarios include the Mean WTP equivalent to PhP 142.75, which is the amount peopleare willing to give for the conservation of mangroves. The net present values (net benefits of mangrovereforestation were found positive for both scenarios: with sustainable harvesting and without harvesting.

  17. Social Entrepreneurs by Chance: How environmentalists provide a favorable context for social entrepreneurial action.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loohuis, Raymond Petrus Antonius; Groen, Arend J.; von Raesfeld Meijer, Ariane M.; Hutschemaekers, B.

    2012-01-01

    How, why, and under what conditions can social movements contribute to the development of social entrepreneurial process developed by embedded actors? Social entrepreneurship scholars are increasingly adopting social movement theories to explain how individual entrepreneurs develop their social

  18. [Who benefits from stepwise occupational reintegration provided under the statutory pension insurance scheme?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bürger, W; Streibelt, M

    2011-06-01

    Stepwise occupational reintegration (SOR) - since law amendments in April 2004 also provided under the German pension insurance scheme (Deutsche Rentenversicherung, DRV) - is an instrument intended to support insurants on sick-leave in reintegrating into work step by step after long-term illness. In 2008, the effectiveness of SOR regarding return to work was affirmed for the first time in a comprehensive study. However, in view of the growing amount of SOR, the question of differential effects of SOR in special subgroups is raised. This paper presents a re-analysis of data collected in the 2008 study. A total of 696 patients after medical rehabilitation were included in the analyses, 348 with SOR provided by the DRV, and a control group of 348 patients without SOR matched on a multitude of different variables using the Propensity Scores. Successful outcome was measured using a combined criterion "Return to work in good health", that is, patients returning to gainful activity and with sick leave of under 6 weeks and no intention to retire within a one-year follow-period after medical rehabilitation. Differentiating criteria are age gender, rehab indication, periods of sick leave in the year before medical rehabilitation, kind of and access to medical rehabilitation. The data indicate especially good results of SOR for patients with mental disorders (OR=2.49), patients who were requested to participate in medical rehabilitation by a health insurance fund because of long-term sick leave (OR=2.71), and patients with longer periods of sick leave before medical rehabilitation (3 to <6 months: OR=2.41, 6 months and more: OR=2.23). In contrast, there are only minimal effects (statistically not significant) of SOR in patients with medical rehabilitation directly after a hospital stay ("Anschlussheilbehandlung"), patients with cardiac or oncological diseases, and in younger (age 19-34) and older patients (age 55-60). In-depth analyses show that SOR success is more marked in

  19. Social benefits of ecotourism : the monarch butterfly reserve in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Monterrubio Cordero, Juan Carlos; Rodríguez Muñoz, Gregoria; Mendoza Ontiveros, Martha Marivel

    2013-01-01

    Ecotourism can contribute to both positive and negative socioeconomic impacts at the local level. However, ecotourism’s socioeconomic impacts have received limited scholarly attention in the context of developing countries. Based on qualitative interviews and observations, this paper looks at the socioeconomic benefits of ecotourism in a local community in the Monarch Butterfly Reserve in Mexico. It was found that ecotourism replaced most of the economic activities in the lo...

  20. The Benefits of Learning Social Welfare: Lessons from Student Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dichter, Melissa E.; Cnaan, Ram A.

    2010-01-01

    It is widely assumed that most entering MSW students exhibit a primary interest in individual clinical practice but minimal understanding of or interest in welfare policy knowledge. However, this assumption is mostly based on attitudes before and at the beginning of encountering social welfare courses. Using a mixed-methods approach of both…

  1. Tree Mortality Undercuts Ability of Tree-Planting Programs to Provide Benefits: Results of a Three-City Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Widney

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Trees provide numerous benefits for urban residents, including reduced energy usage, improved air quality, stormwater management, carbon sequestration, and increased property values. Quantifying these benefits can help justify the costs of planting trees. In this paper, we use i-Tree Streets to quantify the benefits of street trees planted by nonprofits in three U.S. cities (Detroit, Michigan; Indianapolis, Indiana, and Philadelphia, Pennsylvania from 2009 to 2011. We also use both measured and modeled survival and growth rates to “grow” the tree populations 5 and 10 years into the future to project the future benefits of the trees under different survival and growth scenarios. The 4059 re-inventoried trees (2864 of which are living currently provide almost $40,000 (USD in estimated annual benefits ($9–$20/tree depending on the city, the majority (75% of which are increased property values. The trees can be expected to provide increasing annual benefits during the 10 years after planting if the annual survival rate is higher than the 93% annual survival measured during the establishment period. However, our projections show that with continued 93% or lower annual survival, the increase in annual benefits from tree growth will not be able to make up for the loss of benefits as trees die. This means that estimated total annual benefits from a cohort of planted trees will decrease between the 5-year projection and the 10-year projection. The results of this study indicate that without early intervention to ensure survival of planted street trees, tree mortality may be significantly undercutting the ability of tree-planting programs to provide benefits to neighborhood residents.

  2. Meanings and robustness: Propositions for enhancing benefit sharing in social-ecological systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernita van Wyk

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Given increased pressure on natural resources to deliver benefits, complex trade-offs and the regulation of behaviours in relation to benefits is of key concern. Behaviours that signify resistance to the rules according to which benefits are allocated prompt us to consider causal links and feedbacks between benefits, perceptions of benefits, meanings attached to the benefits, and the regulatory instruments that mediate the distribution of benefits. An understanding of how meanings influence the perception of benefits exposes the complexity inherent in how people perceive and allocate value to natural resource benefits. Meanings are personal, sometimes overlapping, context dependent and variable across space and time. A challenge in directing resource user behaviour in common pool resources is that the relationship between the resource and resource use is typically not interpreted to include the manner in which users associate resource benefits with meanings. We propose that collective ordering of meanings and associated rules help to direct behaviours and in doing so they contribute to the purposeful maintenance of desirable elements of a social-ecological system (i.e. robustness. Using an example, we illustrate how tensions around benefit sharing are rooted in the emergence and changing prioritisation of contexts and meanings over time. The importance of eliciting, ordering and sanctioning of meanings is emphasised. We conclude by discussing the implications for robustness and benefit sharing in social-ecological systems and we comment on the usefulness and limitations of the framework.

  3. The impact of changes in couples' earnings on married women's Social Security benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butrica, Barbara A; Smith, Karen E

    2012-01-01

    Women's labor force participation and earnings dramatically increased after World War II. Those changes have important implications for women's Social Security benefits. This article uses the Social Security Administration's Modeling Income in the Near Term (version 6) to examine Social Security benefits for current and future beneficiary wives. The projections show that fewer wives in more recent birth cohorts will be eligible for auxiliary benefits as spouses because their earnings are too high. If their husbands die, however, most wives will still be eligible for survivor benefits because, despite the increase in their earnings over time, they still typically have lower earnings than their husbands. Even so, the share of wives who would be ineligible for widow benefits is projected to double between cohorts.

  4. Social benefits of luxury brands as costly signals of wealth and status

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nelissen, R.M.A.; Meijers, M.H.C.

    2011-01-01

    Drawing from costly signaling theory, we predicted that luxury consumption enhances status and produces benefits in social interactions. Across seven experiments, displays of luxury — manipulated through brand labels on clothes — elicited different kinds of preferential treatment, which even

  5. Social benefits in the Working for Water programme as a public works initiative

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Magadlela, D

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The Working for Water programme is a pioneering environmental conservation initiative in that its implementation successfully combines ecological concerns and social development benefits. By addressing unemployment, skills training and empowerment...

  6. 5 CFR 537.106 - Conditions and procedures for providing student loan repayment benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... begin making loan payments until the job candidate begins serving in the position. (5) Student loan... verify with the holder of the loan that the employee (or job candidate) has an outstanding student loan... student loan repayment benefits. 537.106 Section 537.106 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL...

  7. Preventing HIV transmission among Iranian prisoners: Initial support for providing education on the benefits of harm reduction practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshrati, Babak; Asl, Rahim Taghizadeh; Dell, Colleen Anne; Afshar, Parviz; Millson, Peggy Margaret E; Kamali, Mohammad; Weekes, John

    2008-01-01

    Background Harm reduction is a health-centred approach that seeks to reduce the health and social harms associated with high-risk behaviors, such as illicit drug use. The objective of this study is to determine the association between the beliefs of a group of adult, male prisoners in Iran about the transmission of HIV and their high-risk practices while in prison. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2004. The study population was a random selection of 100 men incarcerated at Rajaei-Shahr prison. The data were collected through a self-administered questionnaire. Focus group discussions were held at the prison to guide the design of the questionnaire. The relationship between components of the Health Belief Model (HBM) and prisoners' risky HIV-related behaviors was examined. Results Calculating Pearson's correlation coefficient, a significant, positive association was found between the benefit component of the HBM and prisoners not engaging in HIV high-risk behaviors. Conclusion Educational harm reduction initiatives that promote the effectiveness of strategies designed to reduce the risk of HIV transmission may decrease prisoners' high-risk behaviors. This finding provides initial support for the Iran prison system's current offering of HIV/AIDS harm reduction programming and suggests the need to offer increased education about the effectiveness of HIV prevention practices. PMID:18541032

  8. Preventing HIV transmission among Iranian prisoners: Initial support for providing education on the benefits of harm reduction practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Millson Peggy

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Harm reduction is a health-centred approach that seeks to reduce the health and social harms associated with high-risk behaviors, such as illicit drug use. The objective of this study is to determine the association between the beliefs of a group of adult, male prisoners in Iran about the transmission of HIV and their high-risk practices while in prison. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2004. The study population was a random selection of 100 men incarcerated at Rajaei-Shahr prison. The data were collected through a self-administered questionnaire. Focus group discussions were held at the prison to guide the design of the questionnaire. The relationship between components of the Health Belief Model (HBM and prisoners' risky HIV-related behaviors was examined. Results Calculating Pearson's correlation coefficient, a significant, positive association was found between the benefit component of the HBM and prisoners not engaging in HIV high-risk behaviors. Conclusion Educational harm reduction initiatives that promote the effectiveness of strategies designed to reduce the risk of HIV transmission may decrease prisoners' high-risk behaviors. This finding provides initial support for the Iran prison system's current offering of HIV/AIDS harm reduction programming and suggests the need to offer increased education about the effectiveness of HIV prevention practices.

  9. A new dimension of health care: systematic review of the uses, benefits, and limitations of social media for health communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorhead, S Anne; Hazlett, Diane E; Harrison, Laura; Carroll, Jennifer K; Irwin, Anthea; Hoving, Ciska

    2013-04-23

    There is currently a lack of information about the uses, benefits, and limitations of social media for health communication among the general public, patients, and health professionals from primary research. To review the current published literature to identify the uses, benefits, and limitations of social media for health communication among the general public, patients, and health professionals, and identify current gaps in the literature to provide recommendations for future health communication research. This paper is a review using a systematic approach. A systematic search of the literature was conducted using nine electronic databases and manual searches to locate peer-reviewed studies published between January 2002 and February 2012. The search identified 98 original research studies that included the uses, benefits, and/or limitations of social media for health communication among the general public, patients, and health professionals. The methodological quality of the studies assessed using the Downs and Black instrument was low; this was mainly due to the fact that the vast majority of the studies in this review included limited methodologies and was mainly exploratory and descriptive in nature. Seven main uses of social media for health communication were identified, including focusing on increasing interactions with others, and facilitating, sharing, and obtaining health messages. The six key overarching benefits were identified as (1) increased interactions with others, (2) more available, shared, and tailored information, (3) increased accessibility and widening access to health information, (4) peer/social/emotional support, (5) public health surveillance, and (6) potential to influence health policy. Twelve limitations were identified, primarily consisting of quality concerns and lack of reliability, confidentiality, and privacy. Social media brings a new dimension to health care as it offers a medium to be used by the public, patients, and health

  10. Aquatic habitat measurement and valuation: imputing social benefits to instream flow levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Aaron J.; Johnson, Richard L.

    1991-01-01

    Instream flow conflicts have been analysed from the perspectives offered by policy oriented applied (physical) science, theories of conflict resolution and negotiation strategy, and psychological analyses of the behavior patterns of the bargaining parties. Economics also offers some useful insights in analysing conflict resolution within the context of these water allocation problems. We attempt to analyse the economics of the bargaining process in conjunction with a discussion of the water allocation process. In particular, we examine in detail the relation between certain habitat estimation techniques, and the socially optimal allocation of non-market resources. The results developed here describe the welfare implications implicit in the contemporary general equilibrium analysis of a competitive market economy. We also review certain currently available techniques for assigning dollar values to the social benefits of instream flow. The limitations of non-market valuation techniques with respect to estimating the benefits provided by instream flows and the aquatic habitat contingent on these flows should not deter resource managers from using economic analysis as a basic tool for settling instream flow conflicts.

  11. Leaders benefit followers in the collective movement of a social sawfly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgkin, L K; Symonds, M R E; Elgar, M A

    2014-12-07

    The challenges of maintaining cohesion while making collective decisions in social or aggregating insects can result in the emergence of a leader or leaders. Larval aggregations of the steel-blue sawfly Perga affinis forage nocturnally, and some larvae lead the aggregation on foraging trips more often than expected by chance. We investigated the relationship between these leader and follower roles by comparing the weight and growth of individual larvae with different roles. Our observations reveal no significant difference between the growth of leaders and followers, suggesting that the role of leadership may not provide direct foraging benefits. However, by experimentally manipulating the social structure of larval aggregations, we found that individuals within aggregations that comprise a mixture of leaders and followers enjoy higher growth rates than those in aggregations comprising a single behavioural type. These data demonstrate, for the first time, individual benefits to maintaining a balance of leader and follower roles within larval aggregations, and highlight the importance of considering the perspectives of both leaders and followers when investigating the evolutionary significance of this behavioural variation within animal groups. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  12. 20 CFR 229.54 - Reduction for social security benefit paid to employee on another person's earnings record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reduction for social security benefit paid to... BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT SOCIAL SECURITY OVERALL MINIMUM GUARANTEE Computation of the Overall Minimum Rate § 229.54 Reduction for social security benefit paid to employee on...

  13. Electricity production potential and social benefits from rice husk, a case study in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obaidullah Mohiuddin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Pakistan has been experiencing energy crisis owing to its sole dependence on fossil fuels. Reduction in local fossil fuel reserves has led to an increase in their prices, thereby increasing the cost of electricity. Since the tariff remains the same, Pakistan is over-burdened with circular debts and observes a daily power shortfall of about 12–14 h. Being an Agra-economic country, many major and minor crops are produced and exported in large quantities. This results in a bulk of the agricultural waste which are not utilized. The waste can be utilized to meet the country’s energy demand while mitigating climate change and its impact. The study examines the electricity production potential and social benefits of rice husk in Pakistan. It is estimated in this study that if 70% of rice husk residues are utilized, there will be annual electricity production of 1,328 GWh and the cost of per unit electricity by rice husk is found at 47.36 cents/kWh as compared to 55.22 cents/kWh of electricity generated by coal. Importantly, the study will increase the awareness of the benefits of utilizing agricultural waste for useful products such as silica, with several social and environmental benefits such as a reduction of 36,042 tCO2e/yr of methane, reducing carbon dioxide emissions, improving the air quality, and providing 4.5 k new jobs. The paper concludes with the policy recommendations based on this study.

  14. Factors affecting direct and indirect benefit exchange in the social media–based learning experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter L. Mkhize

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Social media platforms are thriving on the co-creation of content, usually socially orientated content about the social interests of participants. There is also a growing trend of social media application in the human resources and marketing for business purposes. This study investigates factors that have an impact on the sharing of knowledge on social media platforms, particularly students at an Open Distance Learning (ODL institution.Objective: This study evaluates the difference between direct and indirect benefit exchange expected by students when sharing knowledge.Method: Random and theoretical sampling were used to select the sample in this study from the population. A literature-informed questionnaire was used as an instrument to collect data from a selected sample of 315 students from the School of Computing at the University of South Africa.Results: A test of association was conducted to evaluate correlations, which revealed that only reputation and social language correlate with direct and indirect benefit exchange. Results indicate that there is a significant mean difference between direct and indirect benefit exchange and that issues concerning social identity and trust should be taken into account when developing social media instructional design.Conclusion: In this study, a survey was used to test the hypothesis. The authors concluded that instructional designer can design teaching and learning experience in the social media platform by catering for both direct and indirect benefit knowledge exchange. The results of the study further confirmed that some students share knowledge with the expectation of direct exchange benefit and, meanwhile, expect indirect exchange benefit.

  15. A strategy for obtaining social benefits from the gene revolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.A.B. de Castro

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available The strategy described in the present paper offers details about the possibility for Brazil to play a more substantial role in the gene revolution. If successfully applied, the powerful science-based technology currently available in Brazil can contribute to extend the benefits of the gene revolution to the poorest countries, very much like the Green Revolution did in the past, thereby reducing the hunger syndrome which claimed the lives of millions of people in some Asian countries, particularly Pakistan and India, decades ago. In his visit to Brazil in February 2004, Norman Borlaug had the opportunity to witness the success of Brazilian agriculture. At a Conference held at ESALQ - Superior School of Agriculture Luiz de Queiroz in Piracicaba, SP, Brazil, he stated that the 21st century revolution will come from Brazil in the area of agriculture. He also said that reducing hunger is essential for the world to achieve socioeconomic stability. A central question remains unanswered: who will fund this revolution? The FAO 2003-2004 Annual Report listed the barriers preventing the gene revolution from reaching the poorest countries: inadequate regulatory procedures - Intellectual Property Rights and Biosafety, poorly functioning seed delivering systems and weak domestic plant breeding capacity; all are discussed in this paper.

  16. Stochastic Actuarial Modelling of a Defined-Benefit Social Security Pension Scheme: An Analytical Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Iyer, Subramaniam

    2017-01-01

    Among the systems in place in different countries for the protection of the population against the long-term contingencies of old-age (or retirement), disability and death (or survivorship), defined-benefit social security pension schemes, i.e. social insurance pension schemes, by far predominate, despite the recent trend towards defined-contribution arrangements in social security reforms. Actuarial valuations of these schemes, unlike other branches of insurance, continue to be carried out a...

  17. Dancer perceptions of the cognitive, social, emotional, and physical benefits of modern styles of partnered dancing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakes, Kimberley D; Marvin, Shesha; Rowley, Jessica; Nicolas, Malia San; Arastoo, Sara; Viray, Leo; Orozco, Amanda; Jurnak, Frances

    2016-06-01

    To study dancers' perceptions of the physical, cognitive, affective, and social benefits of partnered dancing. 225 dancers (71% female) were recruited through a community ballroom dance center and completed an online survey designed to measure their perceptions of the physical, cognitive, affective, and social benefits of modern, partnered dance styles (swing, Lindy Hop, and ballroom dancing). Subgroups were formed for analyses. For one set of analyses, groups based on length of dance participation were formed: experienced (dancing for more than 2 years) or novice (dancing for less than a year) dancers. For another set of analyses, groups based on frequency of dance practice were formed: committed (dancing at least one or more times per week) or occasional (dancing two or fewer times per month). The majority of participants reported perceived benefits in physical fitness, cognition, affect, and social functioning. Experienced dancers reported significantly greater self-perceived physical, social, and cognitive benefits than novice dancers. Committed dancers were more likely than occasional dancers to report improvements in physical fitness, U=6942, z=2.38, r=0.16, p<0.05. A Mann-Whitney test indicated that self-reported improvements in mood (i.e., feeling less depressed and more happy) were greater for women than for men, U=3945, z=-3.07, r=0.20, p<0.001. Length and frequency of dance participation significantly predicted perceived physical benefits [Χ(2) (1,6)=35.463, p <0.001, R(2)=0.16] and social benefits [Χ(2) (1,6)=15.776, p<0.05, R(2)=0.07], but not cognitive benefits. Results suggest that participation in partnered dance styles is associated with perceived improvements in physical fitness, cognitive functioning, social functioning, mood, and self-confidence, and that perceived benefits may increase as individuals dance more frequently and over longer periods of time. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Benefiting from Authentic Education to a Sustainable Social Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watagodakumbura, Chandana

    2013-01-01

    Authentic education provides a unique learning experience to individual learners, specifically by addressing their psychological and neurological needs. The assessment of learners is done through generic attributes that have more validity and relates to intrinsic learner characteristics that could last throughout the life span of the learner.…

  19. PeerWise provides significant academic benefits to biological science students across diverse learning tasks, but with minimal instructor intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQueen, H A; Shields, C; Finnegan, D J; Higham, J; Simmen, M W

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate that student engagement with PeerWise, an online tool that allows students to author and answer multiple-choice questions (MCQs), is associated with enhanced academic performance across diverse assessment types on a second year Genetics course. Benefits were consistent over three course deliveries, with differential benefits bestowed on groups of different prior ability. A rating scheme, to assess the educational quality of students' questions, is presented and demonstrates that our students are able intuitively to make such quality assessments, and that the process of authoring high quality questions alone does not explain the academic benefits. We further test the benefits of providing additional PeerWise support and conclude that PeerWise works efficiently with minimal intervention, and can be reliably assessed using automatically generated PeerWise scores. Copyright © 2014 The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  20. In the company of wolves: the physical, social, and psychological benefits of dog ownership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Sarah; Edwards, Victoria

    2008-06-01

    The increase in aging populations has implications for the provision of health and social services. A preventative approach is taken to address this problem by examining a mechanism that can enhance physical health and reduce minor ailments. Participants in 10 focus groups discussed physical, psychological, and social benefits associated with human-dog interactions. Interaction between humans and dogs is a mechanism that can enhance the physical and psychological health of elderly citizens and promote a social support network between dog owners. In turn, dependence and impact on health and social services are alleviated. The social and community consequences of promoting dog ownership in the elderly are addressed, and it is concluded that the benefits of dog ownership should be promoted among the elderly and acknowledged by relevant agencies.

  1. Practice development: providing benefits for both managers and older patients with delerium and dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezzant, Kim

    2008-03-01

    This article describes the ways in which practice development can aid Nurse Managers to enhance both efficiency and effectiveness, focussing particularly on the care of older people with delerium and dementia. Practitioners caring for this group of patients in acute general hospitals need specialist skills, particularly skills in working with the unusual ('challenging') behaviours that these patients often exhibit. These skills are rarely present at the point of registration but practice development techniques can facilitate the acquisition of appropriate skills with resultant benefits for both patients and organization. The study contains an outline of the ways in which a practice development approach can be delivered and appraised: the theories are outlined, strategies for delivery of the techniques are described and methods of evaluation are suggested. These theories and techniques are being applied in a project in Portsmouth called 'Rise to the Challenge', which has the specific aim of improving the care of people with delerium and dementia in an acute hospital setting. This project is currently running and will be evaluated in the summer of 2008.

  2. A haemovigilance team provides both significant financial and quality benefits in a University Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decadt, Ine; Costermans, Els; Van de Poel, Maai; Kesteloot, Katrien; Devos, Timothy

    2017-04-01

    Haemovigilance is the process of surveillance of blood transfusion procedures including unexpected hazards and reactions during the transfusion pathway in both donors and recipients. The haemovigilance team aims to increase blood transfusion safety and to decrease both morbidity and mortality in donors and recipients. The team collects data about transfusion reactions and incidents, instructs the involved health workers and assures the tracing of blood components. The haemovigilance team at the University Hospitals Leuven has played a pioneering role in the development of haemovigilance in Belgium Although the literature about safety and quality improvements by haemovigilance systems is abundant, there are no published data available measuring their financial impact in a hospital. Therefore, we studied the costs and returns of the haemovigilance team at the University Hospitals Leuven. This study has a descriptive explorative design. Research of the current costs and returns of the haemovigilance team were based upon data from the Medical Administration of the hospital. Data were analyzed descriptively. The haemovigilance team of the University Hospitals Leuven is financially viable: the direct costs are covered by the annual financial support of the National Public Health Service. The indirect returns come from two important tasks of the haemovigilance team itself: correction of the electronic registration of administered blood component and improvement of the return of conform preserved blood components to the blood bank. Besides safety and quality improvement, which are obviously their main goals, the haemovigilance team also implies a financial benefit for the hospital. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Development and evaluation of a survey-based type of benefit classification for the Social Security program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, D R

    1989-01-01

    This attempt to classify Social Security beneficiaries by type of benefit using the new Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP) has yielded promising results. Evaluations of the classification algorithm based on comparison of the estimated number of beneficiaries in each of the several categories to independent estimates of the number of beneficiaries indicate that in most instances a high percentage of each category has been identified. For the most part, age and monthly benefit amount size distributions seem reasonable. Furthermore, very few persons in the sample who were identified as Social Security beneficiaries could not be assigned to one or another of the benefit groups. The classification procedure also represents a marked improvement over earlier efforts to classify type of beneficiary that relied on data from the March Supplement to the Current Population Survey (CPS). Most importantly, the benefit classification scheme based on SIPP data appears to provide reasonably reliable distinctions between retired-worker and widow benefits for widowed women and permits the identification of retired-worker benefits for those women dually entitled to retired-worker and spouse benefits. In addition, the distinction between disabled- and retired-worker benefits for recipients aged 62-64 appears to be reasonably reliable, and for women under age 65, the classification procedure distinguishes between disabled-worker benefits on the one hand and widow and widowed mother benefits on the other. Finally, SIPP procedures for identifying minor child beneficiaries yield markedly better estimates than those available from the Current Population Survey. These improvements in the SIPP context are due entirely to the presence of information not collected in the CPS. The enhancement of the SIPP data set in turn resulted directly from an assessment of earlier work carried out by Projector and Bretz in the CPS context and on extensive research into the nature of Social

  4. Rotigotine polyoxazoline conjugate SER-214 provides robust and sustained antiparkinsonian benefit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskow Jaunarajs, Karen L; Standaert, David G; Viegas, Tacey X; Bentley, Michael D; Fang, Zhihao; Dizman, Bekir; Yoon, Kunsang; Weimer, Rebecca; Ravenscroft, Paula; Johnston, Tom H; Hill, Michael P; Brotchie, Jonathan M; Moreadith, Randall W

    2013-10-01

    Currently available dopaminergic drugs such as levodopa and dopamine (DA) receptor agonists impart considerable improvement in Parkinson's disease (PD) motor symptoms but often lead to significant motor complications including "wearing-off" and dyskinesia. Such complications are believed to stem from the pulsatile nature of dopaminergic stimulation with these agents. Continuous dopaminergic drug delivery using polyoxazoline (POZ) polymer conjugation may improve motor symptoms, while avoiding development of side effects. The purposes of the current study are to characterize the in vitro and in vivo pharmacokinetics of POZ conjugation of a U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved DA agonist, rotigotine, and to evaluate their effects in an established rat model of PD. After determination of release profiles of several POZ-conjugated constructs ("fast": SER-212; "moderate": SER-213; and "slow": SER-214) using in vitro hydrolysis, normal male Sprague-Dawley rats were used for determination of the pharmacokinetic profile of both acute and chronic exposure. Finally, a separate group of rats was rendered hemiparkinsonian using intracranial 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) infusions, treated acutely with POZ-rotigotine, and assessed for rotational behavior and antiparkinsonian benefit using the cylinder test. POZ-rotigotine formulations SER-213 and SER-214 led to substantial pharmacokinetic improvement compared to unconjugated rotigotine. In addition, SER-214 led to antiparkinsonian effects in DA-lesioned rats that persisted up to 5 days posttreatment. Repeated weekly dose administration of SER-214 to normal rats for up to 12 weeks demonstrated highly reproducible pharmacokinetic profiles. The continuous dopaminergic stimulation profile afforded by SER-214 could represent a significant advance in the treatment of PD, with potential to be a viable, once-per-week therapy for PD patients. © 2013 Movement Disorder Society.

  5. Assessing Knowledge and Attitudes of U.S. Healthcare Providers about Benefits and Risks of Consuming Seafood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Doris T.; Pivarnik, Lori F.; Richard, Nicole Leydon; Gable, Robert K.; Morrissey, Michael T.

    2013-01-01

    An online needs assessment survey of healthcare providers was developed and implemented to determine knowledge and attitudes about the benefits and risks of consuming seafood along with how this might impact patient/clientele counseling. Only 6 of the 45 knowledge items queried (13%) met the 80% subject mastery or proficiency with a total…

  6. Will electronic personal health records benefit providers and patients in rural America?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargreaves, John S

    2010-03-01

    The objective of this study was to educate stakeholders (e.g., providers, patients, insurers, government) in the healthcare industry about electronic personal health records (PHRs) and their potential application in rural America. Extensive research was performed on PHRs through standard literature search, product demonstrations, educational webinars, and fact finding via news releases. Various stakeholders are eager to transform the healthcare industry into the digital age like other industries (i.e., banking, retail). Despite low adoption of PHRs in 2008 (2.7% of U.S. adults), patients are interested in secure messaging and eVisits with their physicians, online appointment scheduling and reminders, and online access to their laboratory and radiology results. Federal agencies (e.g., Health and Human Services, Department of Defense, Veterans Affairs [VA]), popular information technology (IT) vendors (e.g., Google, Microsoft), and large insurers (e.g., Aetna) have energized the industry through pilot programs and new product announcements. It remains to be seen if barriers to adoption, including privacy concerns, lack of interoperability standards and funding, and provider resistance, can be overcome to enable PHRs to become a critical tool in the creation of a more efficient and less costly U.S. healthcare industry. Electronic PHRs hold great promise to enhance access and improve the quality of care provided to patients in rural America. Government, vendors, and insurers should create incentives for providers and patients to implement PHRs. Likewise, patients need to become more aware of PHRs and their ability to improve health outcomes.

  7. [Disability due to mental illness: social security benefits in Brazil 2008-2011].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva Junior, João Silvestre da; Fischer, Frida Marina

    2014-02-01

    This communication aimed to analyze the profile variation of disability benefits due to mental disorders. Secondary data published by Brazilian Social Security between 2008 and 2011 were evaluated. Mean annual variation rates over the period were calculated for the economically active population, as were the number insured, paid out overall sickness benefits and for mental and behavioral disorders. Mental disorders are the third most common reason for disability benefits. There was an average annual increase of 0.3% in new benefit claims, with a 2.5% fall in mean annual incidence. Work-related disease was identified in 6.2% of cases, most of it due to mood disorders. The government should use the data from the Social Security Institute to support a debate of public policies regarding mental health.

  8. Social capital as a key determinant of perceived benefits of community-based marine protected areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diedrich, Amy; Stoeckl, Natalie; Gurney, Georgina G; Esparon, Michelle; Pollnac, Richard

    2017-04-01

    Globally, marine protected areas (MPAs) have been relatively unsuccessful in meeting biodiversity objectives. To be effective, they require some alteration of people's use and access to marine resources, which they will resist if they do not perceive associated benefits. Stakeholders' support is crucial to ecological success of MPAs, and their support is likely to depend on their capacity to adapt to and benefit from MPAs. We examined the influence of social adaptive capacity (SAC) on perceived benefits of MPAs in Siquijor, Philippines, in the Coral Triangle. This region has substantial biodiversity and a population of over 120 million people, many of them dependent on marine resources for food and income. The region has many MPAs, most of which are managed under decentralized governance systems. We collected survey data from 540 households in 19 villages with associated MPAs. We evaluated the influence of multiple SAC variables (e.g., occupational multiplicity and social capital) on perceived benefits with decision trees (CHAID) and qualitatively analyzed this relationship with respect to types and recipients of benefits. Our models revealed the key role of social capital, particularly trust in leadership, in influencing perceptions of benefits (χ2 = 14.762, p = 0.000). A path analysis revealed that perceptions of distributional equity were a key mechanism through which social capital affected perceived MPA benefits (root mean-square error of approximation = 0.050). Building social capital and equity within communities could lead to more effective management of MPAs and thus to expenditure of fewer resources relative to, for example, regulation enforcement. © 2016 Society for Conservation Biology.

  9. Prevalence of temporary social security benefits due to respiratory disease in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ildefonso, Simone de Andrade Goulart; Barbosa-Branco, Anadergh; Albuquerque-Oliveira, Paulo Rogério

    2009-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of temporary social security benefits due to respiratory disease granted to employees, as well as the number of lost workdays and costs resulting from those in Brazil between 2003 and 2004. Cross-sectional study using data obtained from the Unified System of Benefits of the Brazilian Institute of Social Security (INSS, Instituto Nacional de Seguro Social) and the Brazilian Social Registry Database. Data regarding gender, age, diagnosis and type of economic activity, as well as type, duration and cost of benefits, were compiled. Respiratory diseases accounted for 1.3% of the total number of temporary social security benefits granted by INSS, with a prevalence rate of 9.92 (per 10,000 employment contracts). Females and individuals older than 50 years of age were the most affected. Non-work-related benefits were more common than were work-related benefits. The most prevalent diseases were pneumonia, asthma and COPD, followed by laryngeal and vocal cord diseases. The most prevalent types of economic activity were auxiliary transportation equipment manufacturing, tobacco product manufacturing and computer-related activities. The mean duration of benefits was 209.68 days, with a mean cost of R$ 4,495.30 per occurrence. Respiratory diseases caused by exogenous agents demanded longer sick leave (mean, 296.72 days) and greater cost (mean, R$ 7,105.74). The most prevalent diseases were airway diseases and pneumonia. Workers from auxiliary transportation equipment manufacturing, tobacco product manufacturing and computer-related activities were the most affected. Diseases caused by exogenous agents demanded longer sick leaves and resulted in greater costs.

  10. Technology-Enhanced Peer Review: Benefits and Implications of Providing Multiple Reviews

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papadopoulos, Pantelis M.; Lagkas, Thomas D.; Demetriadis, Stavros N.

    2016-01-01

    This study analyses the impact of self and peer feedback in technology-enhanced peer review settings. The impact of receiving peer comments (“receiver” perspective) is compared to that of reaching own insights by reviewing others’ work (“giver” perspective). In this study, 38 sophomore students...... were randomly assigned in two conditions and engaged in peer review activity facilitated by a web-based learning environment asking them to provide multiple reviews. In the Peer Reviewed (PR) condition students both reviewed peer work and received peer comments for their own work. By contrast......, in the Self Reviewed (SR) condition students provided peer reviews, but did not receive any. Instead, they were asked to perform self reviewing, before proceeding to any revisions of their work. Result showed that the two groups were comparable in all aspects, suggesting that the lack of getting peer reviews...

  11. Technology-Enhanced Peer Review: Benefits and Implications of Providing Multiple Reviews

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papadopoulos, Pantelis M.; Lagkas, Thomas D.; Demetriadis, Stavros N.

    2017-01-01

    This study analyses the impact of self and peer feedback in technology-enhanced peer review settings. The impact of receiving peer comments (“receiver” perspective) is compared to that of reaching own insights by reviewing others’ work (“giver” perspective). In this study, 38 sophomore students...... were randomly assigned in two conditions and engaged in peer review activity facilitated by a web-based learning environment asking them to provide multiple reviews. In the Peer Reviewed (PR) condition students both reviewed peer work and received peer comments for their own work. By contrast......, in the Self Reviewed (SR) condition students provided peer reviews, but did not receive any. Instead, they were asked to perform self reviewing, before proceeding to any revisions of their work. Result showed that the two groups were comparable in all aspects, suggesting that the lack of getting peer reviews...

  12. Social Cost-Benefit Analysis of Scientific Versus Traditional Shrimp Farming: A Case Study from India

    OpenAIRE

    Bhattacharya, Poulomi; Ninan, K.N.

    2009-01-01

    This paper attempts a social cost-benefit analysis of scientific versus traditional shrimp farming in West Bengal, India. Using primary data, the paper shows that although intensive or scientific shrimp farming yields high returns as compared to traditional shrimp farming, when the opportunity costs and environmental costs of shrimp farming including disease risk are accounted for, scientific shrimp farming loses its advantage. In fact sensitivity analysis shows that if expected benefits were...

  13. Health care provider perceptions of a query-based health information exchange: barriers and benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary L. Cochran

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundHealth information exchange (HIE systems are implemented nationwide to integrate health information and facilitate communication among providers. The Nebraska Health Information Initiative is a state-wide HIE launched in 2009. Objective The purpose of this study was to conduct a comprehensive assessment of health care providers’ perspectives on a query-based HIE, including barriers to adoption and important functionality for continued utilization. MethodsWe surveyed 5618 Nebraska health care providers in 2013. Reminder letters were sent 30 days after the initial mailing. ResultsA total of 615 questionnaires (11% were completed. Of the 100 current users, 63 (63% indicated satisfaction with HIE. The most common reasons for adoption among current or previous users of an HIE (N = 198 were improvement in patient care (N = 111, 56% as well as receiving (N = 95, 48% and sending information (N = 80, 40% in the referral network. Cost (N = 233, 38% and loss of productivity (N = 220, 36% were indicated as the ‘major barriers’ to adoption by all respondents. Accessing a comprehensive patient medication list was identified as the most important feature of the HIE (N = 422, 69%. ConclusionsThe cost of HIE access and workflow integration are significant concerns of health care providers. Additional resources to assist practices plan the integration of the HIE into a sustainable workflow may be required before widespread adoption occurs. The clinical information sought by providers must also be readily available for continued utilization. Query-based HIEs must ensure that medication history, laboratory results and other desired clinical information be present, or long-term utilization of the HIE is unlikely. 

  14. E-health: potential benefits and challenges in providing and accessing sexual health services

    OpenAIRE

    Minichiello, Victor; Rahman, Saifur; Dune, Tinashe; Scott, John; Dowsett, Gary

    2013-01-01

    Background E-health has become a burgeoning field in which health professionals and health consumers create and seek information. E-health refers to internet-based health care and information delivery and seeks to improve health service locally, regionally and worldwide. E-sexual health presents new opportunities to provide online sexual health services irrespective of gender, age, sexual orientation and location. Discussion The paper used the dimensions of the RE-AIM model (reach, efficacy, ...

  15. Service Providers of the Sharing Economy: Who Joins and Who Benefits?

    OpenAIRE

    Ke, Qing

    2017-01-01

    Many "sharing economy" platforms, such as Uber and Airbnb, have become increasingly popular, providing consumers with more choices and suppliers a chance to make profit. They, however, have also brought about emerging issues regarding regulation, tax obligation, and impact on urban environment, and have generated heated debates from various interest groups. Empirical studies regarding these issues are limited, partly due to the unavailability of relevant data. Here we aim to understand servic...

  16. An court action for payment from the National Health Fund for health benefits provided in emergency – selected practical issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damian Wąsik

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The publication describes the problems of payment seeking by healthcare institutions from the National Health Fund for the so-called “life-saving health benefits”. Issues, which are discussed, include the possibility of health benefits financing in the context of the contract’s limits, the burden of proof to provide the health benefits in emergencies, and the necessary of consult experts on these issues in the context of the conditions of Article 248 § 1 Polish Civil Procedure Code.

  17. Social security survivors benefits: the effects of reproductive pathways and intestacy law on attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hans, Jason D; Gillen, Martie

    2013-01-01

    Most minor children are eligible for Social Security survivors benefits if a wage-earning parent dies, but eligibility of children not in utero at the time of death is more nuanced. The purpose of this study was to examine attitudes concerning access to Social Security survivors benefits in the context of posthumous reproduction. A probability sample of 540 Florida households responded to a multiple-segment factorial vignette designed to examine the effects of state intestacy laws and five reproductive pathways - normative, posthumous birth, cryopreserved embryo, cryopreserved gametes, and posthumous gamete retrieval - on attitudes toward eligibility for the Social Security survivors benefits. Broad support was found for the survivors benefits following normative and posthumous birth pathways, but attitudes were decidedly less favorable when the child was not in utero at the time of parental death. In addition, in stark contrast to the recent U.S. Supreme Court decision in Astrue v. Capato, the vast majority of respondents did not believe state intestacy laws should determine eligibility for Social Security survivors benefits. © 2013 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

  18. Exploring Social Service Providers' Perspectives on Barriers to Social Services for Early Adjustment of Immigrant Adolescents in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Jaehee; Kim, Min Ah; Kim, Kihyun; Hong, Jun Sung

    2016-10-01

    Recently arrived immigrant adolescents experience difficulties in adjusting to school in South Korea. However, the existing social services do not meet their psychosocial needs. This study investigates the perspectives of social service providers about challenges in providing services for immigrant adolescents early in their adjustments. We conducted qualitative, in-depth interviews with 27 South Korean social service providers. We identified barriers to social services, categorized into three themes: (1) Initial Contact Phase; (2) Service Delivery Phase; and (3) Structural Challenges. We suggest interventions concerning work-related stress for the social service providers, family-level involvement, diversity training, and integrated and collaborative immigration services. An examination of social service providers' challenges in working with immigrant adolescents is a necessary first step toward the development of programs and policies.

  19. Health organizations providing and seeking social support: a Twitter-based content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rui, Jian Raymond; Chen, Yixin; Damiano, Amanda

    2013-09-01

    Providing and seeking social support are important aspects of social exchange. New communication technologies, especially social network sites (SNSs), facilitate the process of support exchange. An increasing number of health organizations are using SNSs. However, how they provide and seek social support via SNSs has yet to garner academic attention. This study examined the types of social support provided and sought by health organizations on Twitter. A content analysis was conducted on 1,500 tweets sent by a random sample of 58 health organizations within 2 months. Findings indicate that providing informational and emotional support, as well as seeking instrumental support, were the main types of social support exchanged by health organizations through Twitter. This study provides a typology for studying social support exchanges by health organizations, and recommends strategies for health organizations regarding the effective use of Twitter.

  20. Hedonic Benefits of Close and Distant Interaction Partners: The Mediating Roles of Social Approval and Authenticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venaglia, Rachel B; Lemay, Edward P

    2017-09-01

    The current research utilized ecological momentary assessment methodology to examine affective responses to interacting with close versus distant interaction partners during naturally occurring social interactions, and to test predictions regarding the mediating roles of perceived social approval and authenticity. Analysis of 4,602 social interactions reported by 176 participants suggested that, relative to interactions with distant partners, interactions with close partners were characterized by more positive affect. This effect was mediated by perceived social approval and authenticity. These findings suggest that social interactions with close others confer greater hedonic benefits relative to interactions with distant partners due to greater confidence in social approval and feelings of authenticity. Exploratory analyses suggested that interactions with close partners featured warmer and less shy behavior, and that participants who placed more importance on close relationships (as measured by high relational-interdependent self-construal) experienced more approval and authenticity in their interactions, particularly with distant partners.

  1. 20 CFR 404.469 - Nonpayment of benefits where individual has not furnished or applied for a Social Security number.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... not furnished or applied for a Social Security number. 404.469 Section 404.469 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Deductions... or applied for a Social Security number. No monthly benefits will be paid to an entitled individual...

  2. 20 CFR 404.408b - Reduction of retroactive monthly social security benefits where supplemental security income (SSI...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ....408b Section 404.408b Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND... retroactive monthly social security benefits where supplemental security income (SSI) payments were received for the same period. (a) When reduction is required. We will reduce your retroactive social security...

  3. Two randomized trials provide no consistent evidence for nonmusical cognitive benefits of brief preschool music enrichment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel A Mehr

    Full Text Available Young children regularly engage in musical activities, but the effects of early music education on children's cognitive development are unknown. While some studies have found associations between musical training in childhood and later nonmusical cognitive outcomes, few randomized controlled trials (RCTs have been employed to assess causal effects of music lessons on child cognition and no clear pattern of results has emerged. We conducted two RCTs with preschool children investigating the cognitive effects of a brief series of music classes, as compared to a similar but non-musical form of arts instruction (visual arts classes, Experiment 1 or to a no-treatment control (Experiment 2. Consistent with typical preschool arts enrichment programs, parents attended classes with their children, participating in a variety of developmentally appropriate arts activities. After six weeks of class, we assessed children's skills in four distinct cognitive areas in which older arts-trained students have been reported to excel: spatial-navigational reasoning, visual form analysis, numerical discrimination, and receptive vocabulary. We initially found that children from the music class showed greater spatial-navigational ability than did children from the visual arts class, while children from the visual arts class showed greater visual form analysis ability than children from the music class (Experiment 1. However, a partial replication attempt comparing music training to a no-treatment control failed to confirm these findings (Experiment 2, and the combined results of the two experiments were negative: overall, children provided with music classes performed no better than those with visual arts or no classes on any assessment. Our findings underscore the need for replication in RCTs, and suggest caution in interpreting the positive findings from past studies of cognitive effects of music instruction.

  4. Two Randomized Trials Provide No Consistent Evidence for Nonmusical Cognitive Benefits of Brief Preschool Music Enrichment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehr, Samuel A.; Schachner, Adena; Katz, Rachel C.; Spelke, Elizabeth S.

    2013-01-01

    Young children regularly engage in musical activities, but the effects of early music education on children's cognitive development are unknown. While some studies have found associations between musical training in childhood and later nonmusical cognitive outcomes, few randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have been employed to assess causal effects of music lessons on child cognition and no clear pattern of results has emerged. We conducted two RCTs with preschool children investigating the cognitive effects of a brief series of music classes, as compared to a similar but non-musical form of arts instruction (visual arts classes, Experiment 1) or to a no-treatment control (Experiment 2). Consistent with typical preschool arts enrichment programs, parents attended classes with their children, participating in a variety of developmentally appropriate arts activities. After six weeks of class, we assessed children's skills in four distinct cognitive areas in which older arts-trained students have been reported to excel: spatial-navigational reasoning, visual form analysis, numerical discrimination, and receptive vocabulary. We initially found that children from the music class showed greater spatial-navigational ability than did children from the visual arts class, while children from the visual arts class showed greater visual form analysis ability than children from the music class (Experiment 1). However, a partial replication attempt comparing music training to a no-treatment control failed to confirm these findings (Experiment 2), and the combined results of the two experiments were negative: overall, children provided with music classes performed no better than those with visual arts or no classes on any assessment. Our findings underscore the need for replication in RCTs, and suggest caution in interpreting the positive findings from past studies of cognitive effects of music instruction. PMID:24349171

  5. Two randomized trials provide no consistent evidence for nonmusical cognitive benefits of brief preschool music enrichment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehr, Samuel A; Schachner, Adena; Katz, Rachel C; Spelke, Elizabeth S

    2013-01-01

    Young children regularly engage in musical activities, but the effects of early music education on children's cognitive development are unknown. While some studies have found associations between musical training in childhood and later nonmusical cognitive outcomes, few randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have been employed to assess causal effects of music lessons on child cognition and no clear pattern of results has emerged. We conducted two RCTs with preschool children investigating the cognitive effects of a brief series of music classes, as compared to a similar but non-musical form of arts instruction (visual arts classes, Experiment 1) or to a no-treatment control (Experiment 2). Consistent with typical preschool arts enrichment programs, parents attended classes with their children, participating in a variety of developmentally appropriate arts activities. After six weeks of class, we assessed children's skills in four distinct cognitive areas in which older arts-trained students have been reported to excel: spatial-navigational reasoning, visual form analysis, numerical discrimination, and receptive vocabulary. We initially found that children from the music class showed greater spatial-navigational ability than did children from the visual arts class, while children from the visual arts class showed greater visual form analysis ability than children from the music class (Experiment 1). However, a partial replication attempt comparing music training to a no-treatment control failed to confirm these findings (Experiment 2), and the combined results of the two experiments were negative: overall, children provided with music classes performed no better than those with visual arts or no classes on any assessment. Our findings underscore the need for replication in RCTs, and suggest caution in interpreting the positive findings from past studies of cognitive effects of music instruction.

  6. Attitudes of Social Service Providers towards the Sexuality of Individuals with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazzo, Giuseppe; Nota, Laura; Soresi, Salvatore; Ferrari, Lea; Minnes, Patricia

    2007-01-01

    Background: The sexual lives of people with intellectual disability is made complex by the involvement and influence of social service providers, whose beliefs and values have a great impact on the support they provide. We hypothesized that social service providers' role, educational level and service in which they worked could affect attitudes…

  7. Social Entrepreneurship ‒ Innovative Solutions' Provider to the Challenges of an Ageing Population: The Case of Romanian Retirees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Drăgușin

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available As an emerging field of practice and investigation Social Entrepreneurship (SE provides many opportunities and challenges. This paper is exploring specific insights of the concept, including its fine borders with two other related terms: social economy and social enterprise. It also outlines steps forward in the process of enhancing SE eco-systems at both E.U. and national levels in order to provide transformational and innovative solutions to complex issues, like that of a fast growing ageing population, having strong social, economic and political implications. As a highly vulnerable social group, Romanian Retirees are the focus of the paper authors' experimental pilot model for social innovation and change ‒ Senior Active Platform (S.A.P., that can lead to their improved economic and social inclusion. Based on in depth desk research and an exploratory survey, main coordinates (mission, objectives, main stakeholders' benefits, business model etc. of S.A.P. are identified and set up. Further needed pieces of research are outlined in order to refine the model and transform it into a replicable one in countries with similar background.

  8. Benefits and barriers to physical activity for individuals with disabilities: a social-relational model of disability perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jeffrey J

    2013-01-01

    To provide a qualitative overview of selected research on physical activity (PA) engagement by people with physical disabilities (1) from a social relational model perspective. Selected articles that exemplify some of the paradoxes, nuances, contrasting perspectives and complexities of the knowledge base in this area are discussed within a disability studies framework. PA is arguably more important for people with disabilities relative to people without disabilities although they are quite inactive. Individuals who are physically activity enjoy a range of benefits spanning physiological, emotional, cognitive and social categories. Unfortunately many people cannot enjoy the benefits of PA because of the many medical, psychological, social and environmental barriers they face making PA quite difficult. Rehabilitation professionals can provide a better standard of care to clients if they are aware of the benefits and barriers of PA. Rehabilitation professionals should understand behavior change strategies and their application to people with disabilities in order to help their clients initiate and maintain physical activity (PA). Rehabilitation professionals should be aware of how they might convey low PA expectations to their clients and simultaneously understand the unique challenges faced by their clients in attempting to incorporate PA into their lives on a regular basis. Rehabilitation professionals should be familiar with local disability friendly exercise facilities and adapted sport programs in order to steer their clients towards such opportunities.

  9. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease involves substantial health-care service and social benefit costs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Martin Bach; Fenger-Grøn, Morten; Fonager, Kirsten

    2013-01-01

    of disability pensions. CONCLUSION: Health care-related costs and costs for social benefits and transfer payments were higher for participants with COPD than for non-COPD participants and nonresponders. FUNDING: This study was supported by The Obel Family Foundation, The Danish Lung Association and The Health...

  10. Mimicry in social interaction: Benefits for mimickers, mimickees, and their interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stel, M.; Vonk, R.

    2010-01-01

    Mimicry has benefits for people in social interactions. However, evidence regarding the consequences of mimicry is incomplete. First, research on mimicry has particularly focused on effects of being mimicked. Secondly, on the side of the mimicker evidence is correlational or lacks real interaction

  11. How Toqueville's Theory of the "Tyranny of the Majority" Can Benefit Social Justice Pedagogies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burch, Kerry

    2006-01-01

    Alexis de Tocqueville's concept of the "tyranny of the majority" can benefit social justice pedagogies owing to its capacity to illuminate the silent, invisible character of hegemonic power. As many critical pedagogues have pointed out, this silent and invisible power seeps not only into the public spaces of education, but also into the…

  12. Social Work's Response to Poverty: From Benefits Dependence to Economic Self-Sufficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, Lauren B.; Koza, Jennifer; Akabas, Sheila H.

    2017-01-01

    Welfare reform in the 1990s represented a fundamental policy shift in the United States' response to poverty from supporting benefits dependency to promoting economic self-sufficiency. Social work's capacity to integrate this policy shift into practice is central to meeting its mission to alleviate poverty. This study looked at the preparation of…

  13. Conceptual Framework for Measuring the Total Social and Private Benefits of Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Walter W.

    1997-01-01

    This chapter discusses a conceptual framework for measurement of the private and social benefits of education. It relates recent major theoretical and empirical contributions concerning the measurement and valuation of these impacts on economic development to that framework. The intent is to arrive at monetary and nonmonetary rates of return…

  14. The social benefits in higher public Portuguese education in the last four decades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Manuel CAETANO MONTEIRO

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The study entitled «the I&D transfer, innovation and entrepreneurship in universities (Clay, 2015» ran through the decade of 2000 to 2010 refers that the binary system of higher education in Portugal was responsible for 40% of the investment in innovation and development (I&D of all the Portuguese economy.Students are a fundamental and indispensable part of an educational institution from the point of view of citizenship and social development. For this reason, a reflection on its economic difficulties, when they join in higher education institutions, is transferred to these institutions and responsible its leaders towards the pursuit of educational goals related to the school, providing students a better well-being, both mental, social and economic.This design has, slowly, over the last four decades, been provided with greater range and with increased equity, very under the legislative changes proposed by the educational institutions, as well as by the demands expressed by receivers who attend this school level, the students.It is important to stress that the School Social action in the Portuguese higher education appears associated with the concept of effective equal opportunities that are produced through legislation or through other information sources that discuss the subject, as has occurred in the last four decades analyzed.The approach of social benefits in this level of education shall examine the multiple facets that it takes given their link to the educational success and welfare of trainees and therefore to the enhancement of a meritocratic society.Also due to the important contribution of territorial cohesion, especially in areas of Portugal, in the case of Portugal, with a lower population density and lower socio-economic levels, as well reflected in the study entitled «the I&D transfer, innovation and entrepreneurship in universities (Clay, 2015» ran through the decade of 2000 to 2010 refers that the binary system of higher

  15. Social and genetic benefits of parental investment suggest sex differences in selection pressures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schroeder, Julia; Cleasby, Ian; Dugdale, Hannah L.; Nakagawa, Shinichi; Burke, Terry

    Provisioning behavior in altricial birds is often used to measure parental investment and is assumed to have fitness consequences to the parents providing it, with the benefits outweighing the costs. Here we investigate the fitness costs and benefits (parent survival and offspring recruitment) of

  16. Maximising the net social benefit of the construction of post-disaster alternative housing projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Anwar, Omar

    2013-07-01

    The widespread destruction that follows large-scale natural disasters, such as Hurricane Katrina in August 2005, challenges the efficacy of traditional temporary housing methods in providing adequate solutions to housing needs. Recognising these housing challenges, the Congress of the United States allocated, in 2006, USD 400 million to the Department of Homeland Security to support Alternative Housing Pilot Programs, which are intended to explore the possibilities of providing permanent and affordable housing to displaced families instead of traditional temporary housing. This paper presents a new methodology and optimisation model to identify the optimal configurations of post-shelter housing arrangements to maximise the overall net socioeconomic benefit. The model is capable of quantifying and optimising the impacts of substituting temporary housing with alternative housing on the social and economic welfare of displaced families as well as the required additional costs of doing so. An application example is presented to illustrate the use of the model and its capabilities. © 2013 The Author(s). Journal compilation © Overseas Development Institute, 2013.

  17. Looking on the bright side in social anxiety: the potential benefit of promoting positive mental imagery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaud ePictet

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Current cognitive models of social phobia converge on the view that negative imagery is a key factor in the development and maintenance of the disorder. Research to date has predominantly focussed on the detrimental impact of negative imagery on cognitive bias and anxiety symptoms, while the potential benefit of promoting positive imagery has been relatively unexplored. Emerging evidence suggests however that positive imagery could have multiple benefits such as improving positive affect, self-esteem and positive interpretation bias, and enhancing social performance. The present article defends the view that combining bias induction with a repeated practice in generating positive imagery in a cognitive bias modification procedure could represent a promising area for future research and clinical innovation in social anxiety disorder.

  18. New accounting information system: An application for a basic social benefit in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noemí Peña-Miguel

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Accounting information on social benefits is included, in accordance with the scope of its management, in the general Social Security budget. The information contained in the budget may be relevant, but it is likely to be insufficient to enable comparisons to be made with an entity's financial statements for previous periods and with the financial statements of other entities. Thus, IPSAS 1 proposes the presentation of additional information. On the basis of the New Public Management theory, this paper proposes an aggregate accounting model for accounting expenditure as a multi-annual information system which complements and expands information on a potential basic social benefit. This system reports in detail on the trends in the items that fund it, with the aim of achieving maximum transparency and accountability in public administrations by ensuring timely provision of quality information.

  19. Determining preferences for ecosystem benefits in Great Lakes Areas of Concern from photographs posted to social media (presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Relative valuation of potentially affected ecosystem benefits can increase the legitimacy and social acceptance of ecosystem restoration projects. As an alternative or supplement to traditional methods of deriving beneficiary preference, we downloaded from social media and classi...

  20. Occupational Safety Management Framework for Healthcare and Social Assistance Service Providers

    OpenAIRE

    Edorisiagbon, James

    2015-01-01

    This thesis focuses on improving safety management for healthcare and social assistance service providers who deliver healthcare for patients and client in Healthcare and Social centers and homes. The quality of these provided services is dependent heavily on attitudes and well-being of its care workers and staff. Therefore, healthcare and social assistant workers’ (HCSA) safety is crucial to the quality of patient care, though it remains a challenge in countries of various levels of developm...

  1. Electromagnetic treatment to old Alzheimer's mice reverses β-amyloid deposition, modifies cerebral blood flow, and provides selected cognitive benefit.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary W Arendash

    Full Text Available Few studies have investigated physiologic and cognitive effects of "long-term" electromagnetic field (EMF exposure in humans or animals. Our recent studies have provided initial insight into the long-term impact of adulthood EMF exposure (GSM, pulsed/modulated, 918 MHz, 0.25-1.05 W/kg by showing 6+ months of daily EMF treatment protects against or reverses cognitive impairment in Alzheimer's transgenic (Tg mice, while even having cognitive benefit to normal mice. Mechanistically, EMF-induced cognitive benefits involve suppression of brain β-amyloid (Aβ aggregation/deposition in Tg mice and brain mitochondrial enhancement in both Tg and normal mice. The present study extends this work by showing that daily EMF treatment given to very old (21-27 month Tg mice over a 2-month period reverses their very advanced brain Aβ aggregation/deposition. These very old Tg mice and their normal littermates together showed an increase in general memory function in the Y-maze task, although not in more complex tasks. Measurement of both body and brain temperature at intervals during the 2-month EMF treatment, as well as in a separate group of Tg mice during a 12-day treatment period, revealed no appreciable increases in brain temperature (and no/slight increases in body temperature during EMF "ON" periods. Thus, the neuropathologic/cognitive benefits of EMF treatment occur without brain hyperthermia. Finally, regional cerebral blood flow in cerebral cortex was determined to be reduced in both Tg and normal mice after 2 months of EMF treatment, most probably through cerebrovascular constriction induced by freed/disaggregated Aβ (Tg mice and slight body hyperthermia during "ON" periods. These results demonstrate that long-term EMF treatment can provide general cognitive benefit to very old Alzheimer's Tg mice and normal mice, as well as reversal of advanced Aβ neuropathology in Tg mice without brain heating. Results further underscore the potential for EMF

  2. The Potential Effects of Obesity on Social Security Claiming Behavior and Retirement Benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoll, Melissa A Z; Shoffner, Dave; O'Leary, Samantha

    2016-04-04

    Obesity prevalence among Americans has increased for nearly three decades. We explore the relationship between the rise in obesity and Social Security retirement benefit claiming, a decision impacting nearly all aging Americans. Specifically, we investigate whether obesity can affect individuals' decision to claim benefits early, a choice that has important implications for financial security in retirement, particularly for those with lower socioeconomic status (SES). We use a microsimulation model called MINT6 (Modeling Income in the Near Term, version 6) to demonstrate the potential effects of obesity on subjective life expectancy and claiming behavior. We impute obesity status using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), which describes the distribution of obesity prevalence within the United States by gender, poverty status, and race/ethnicity. We find that the rise in obesity and the consequent incidence of obesity-related diseases may lead some individuals to make claiming decisions that lead to lower monthly and lifetime Social Security retirement benefits. Further, we find that the potential economic impact of this decision is larger for those with lower SES. We present a behavioral perspective by addressing the potential effects that obesity can have on individuals' retirement decisions and their resulting Social Security retirement benefits. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Gerontological Society of America 2016.

  3. A New Dimension of Health Care: Systematic Review of the Uses, Benefits, and Limitations of Social Media for Health Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazlett, Diane E; Harrison, Laura; Carroll, Jennifer K; Irwin, Anthea; Hoving, Ciska

    2013-01-01

    Background There is currently a lack of information about the uses, benefits, and limitations of social media for health communication among the general public, patients, and health professionals from primary research. Objective To review the current published literature to identify the uses, benefits, and limitations of social media for health communication among the general public, patients, and health professionals, and identify current gaps in the literature to provide recommendations for future health communication research. Methods This paper is a review using a systematic approach. A systematic search of the literature was conducted using nine electronic databases and manual searches to locate peer-reviewed studies published between January 2002 and February 2012. Results The search identified 98 original research studies that included the uses, benefits, and/or limitations of social media for health communication among the general public, patients, and health professionals. The methodological quality of the studies assessed using the Downs and Black instrument was low; this was mainly due to the fact that the vast majority of the studies in this review included limited methodologies and was mainly exploratory and descriptive in nature. Seven main uses of social media for health communication were identified, including focusing on increasing interactions with others, and facilitating, sharing, and obtaining health messages. The six key overarching benefits were identified as (1) increased interactions with others, (2) more available, shared, and tailored information, (3) increased accessibility and widening access to health information, (4) peer/social/emotional support, (5) public health surveillance, and (6) potential to influence health policy. Twelve limitations were identified, primarily consisting of quality concerns and lack of reliability, confidentiality, and privacy. Conclusions Social media brings a new dimension to health care as it offers a

  4. A Questionnaire-Based Study on the Perceptions of Canadian Seniors About Cognitive, Social, and Psychological Benefits of Digital Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duplàa, Emmanuel; Kaufman, David; Sauvé, Louise; Renaud, Lise

    2017-06-01

    This study explored the perceptions of seniors who play digital games on the potential benefits of these games and on the factors associated with these perceptions. We developed and administered a questionnaire to a sample of 590 Canadian seniors in British Columbia and Quebec that addressed demographics, digital game practices, and perceived benefits. Results of administering the questionnaire showed that cognitive benefits were reported more frequently than social or psychological benefits. First language and gender were associated with the benefits reported, with fewer Francophones and women reporting benefits. The most important factor found was whether or not they played online, as playing online was associated with greater perceptions of social, as well as cognitive, benefits. Social and cognitive benefits are reported by seniors from playing digital games and should be investigated through future experimental and quasi-experimental research.

  5. Does an extra kidney-ureter-bladder radiograph taken in the upright position during routine intravenous urography provide diagnostic benefit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürel, Kamil; Gürel, Safiye; Kalfaoğlu, Melike; Yilmaz, Ozlem; Metin, Ahmet

    2008-12-01

    The aim of this prospective study was to assess the diagnostic benefit of taking a kidney-ureter-bladder (KUB) radiograph in an upright position during routine intravenous urography (IVU). Between February 2005 and September 2007, 170 consecutive patients were included in the study. A basal IVU exam consisted of pre-contrast supine KUB, post-contrast supine KUB at the 7th and 15th minutes, and supine pelvic radiographs with full bladder and post-voiding. When needed, additional compression and/or oblique radiographs were taken. In this study, for all patients, a post-contrast 15th minute upright KUB radiograph was added to IVU. Two consecutive radiographs taken at the 15th minute postcontrast in supine and upright positions were evaluated by consensus of 2 radiologists. Primary benefits were improved filling and emptying of the collecting system, and secondary benefits were nephroptosis and ascertaining diagnosis of phlebolith. Of 170 patients, 337 kidneys and collecting systems (n = 168 right; n = 169 left) were examined. Improved filling, emptying of the collecting system, nephroptosis, ascertaining diagnosis of phleboliths were detected with the rates of 12.5%, 44.2%, 8.3%, and 3.2%, respectively. Improved filling was significant in the presence of hydronephrosis (P IVU (P < 0.05) on either side. Upright KUB radiographs provide supplementary data about urine flow in terms of improved filling and emptying of the collecting system.

  6. The Benefits of Social Technology Use Among Older Adults Are Mediated by Reduced Loneliness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Technology has the ability to enhance and enrich the lives of older adults by facilitating better interpersonal relationships. However, few studies have directly examined associations between technology use for social reasons and physical and psychological health among older adults. The current study examines the benefits of technology use in 591 older adults from the 2012 wave of the Health and Retirement Study (Mage = 68.18, SD = 10.75; 55.5% female). Social technology use was assessed through five technology-based behaviors (i.e., using e-mail, social networking sites, online video/phone calls, online chatting/instant messaging, using a smartphone). Attitudes toward the usability and benefits of technology use were also assessed. Older adults had generally positive attitudes toward technology. Higher social technology use was associated with better self-rated health, fewer chronic illnesses, higher subjective well-being, and fewer depressive symptoms. Furthermore, each of the links between social technology use and physical and psychological health was mediated by reduced loneliness. Close relationships are a large determinant of physical health and well-being, and technology has the potential to cultivate successful relationships among older adults. PMID:27541746

  7. The Benefits of Social Technology Use Among Older Adults Are Mediated by Reduced Loneliness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopik, William J

    2016-09-01

    Technology has the ability to enhance and enrich the lives of older adults by facilitating better interpersonal relationships. However, few studies have directly examined associations between technology use for social reasons and physical and psychological health among older adults. The current study examines the benefits of technology use in 591 older adults from the 2012 wave of the Health and Retirement Study (Mage = 68.18, SD = 10.75; 55.5% female). Social technology use was assessed through five technology-based behaviors (i.e., using e-mail, social networking sites, online video/phone calls, online chatting/instant messaging, using a smartphone). Attitudes toward the usability and benefits of technology use were also assessed. Older adults had generally positive attitudes toward technology. Higher social technology use was associated with better self-rated health, fewer chronic illnesses, higher subjective well-being, and fewer depressive symptoms. Furthermore, each of the links between social technology use and physical and psychological health was mediated by reduced loneliness. Close relationships are a large determinant of physical health and well-being, and technology has the potential to cultivate successful relationships among older adults.

  8. The Analysis of Social Insurance Benefits Provided for the Indonesian Military Personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-06-01

    private naticnal banks, PERUM ASABRI was encouraged to deFposit its funds in selected private national banks. The interest rate in private national banks...E.A.T. Indonesia 13.54 - Iificc 17.40 - Richardson Vicks Indonesia 20.44% - Good Year Indonesia 10.88X - Merck Indcresia 17.62 - Unilever Indonesia

  9. Creating Social Safeguards for REDD+: Lessons Learned from Benefit Sharing Mechanisms in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mucahid Mustafa Bayrak

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Currently, many studies on benefit sharing mechanisms (BSM and the Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation programme (REDD+ focus on poverty alleviation and livelihood development. However, relatively few studies incorporate an integrated livelihood framework. This study employs the sustainable livelihoods framework to assess the impact of BSM in Vietnam. The lessons learned could be used in creating social safeguards for REDD+. The communities in Central Vietnam involved in BSM were impacted by the programme on various dimensions. These dimensions, expressed in different types of capital, are interconnected and contribute to a person’s well-being. While the communities have restricted access to their natural forests, they benefited in terms of income diversification, knowledge improvement and network expansion. On the other hand, they faced food insecurity, they were more vulnerable to natural hazards, and their human, social and cultural capital faced risk of deterioration.

  10. Does manual therapy provide additional benefit to breathing retraining in the management of dysfunctional breathing? A randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Mandy; Troup, Fiona; Nugus, John; Roughton, Michael; Hodson, Margaret; Rayner, Charlotte; Bowen, Frances; Pryor, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Dysfunctional breathing (DB) is associated with an abnormal breathing pattern, unexplained breathlessness and significant patient morbidity. Treatment involves breathing retraining through respiratory physiotherapy. Recently, manual therapy (MT) has also been used, but no evidence exists to validate its use. This study sought to investigate whether MT produces additional benefit when compared with breathing retraining alone in patients with DB. Sixty subjects with primary DB were randomised into either breathing retraining (standard treatment; n = 30) or breathing retraining plus MT (intervention; n = 30) group. Both the groups received standardised respiratory physiotherapy, which included: DB education, breathing retraining, home regimen, and audio disc. Intervention group subjects additionally received MT following further assessment. Data from 57 subjects were analysed. At baseline, standard treatment group subjects were statistically younger (41.7 + 13.5 versus 50.8 + 13.0 years; p = 0.001) with higher Nijmegen scores (38.6 + 9.5 versus 31.5 + 6.9; p = 0.001). However, no significant difference was found between the groups for primary outcome Nijmegen score (95% CI (-1.1, 6.6) p = 0.162), or any secondary outcomes (Hospital Anxiety & Depression Score, spirometry or exercise tolerance). Breathing retraining is currently the mainstay of treatment for patients with DB. The results of this study suggest MT provides no additional benefit in this patient group. Dysfunctional breathing (DB) is associated with significant patient morbidity but often goes unrecognised, leading to prolonged investigation and significant use of health care resources. Breathing retraining remains the primary management of this condition. However, physiotherapists are also using manual therapy (MT) as an adjunctive treatment for patients with DB. However, the results of this study suggest that MT provides no further benefit and cannot be recommended in

  11. Using cost-benefit analysis and social return on investment to evaluate the impact of social enterprise: Promises, implementation, and limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordes, Joseph J

    2017-10-01

    Since the early 2000's there has been growing interest in using the Social Return on Investment (SROI) as a measure for assessing the performance of social enterprises. By analogy with its business counterpart, the Return on Investment (ROI), the SROI is a metric that compares the monetized social costs of a program with the monetized social benefits of achieving an outcome (or set of outcomes). For example, calculating the SROI of a nonprofit half-way house for drug addicts might involve estimating the reduced social costs attributable to successful rehabilitation of addicts, and comparing this to the social costs of operating the half-way house. Alternatively, the total return of a for-profit social enterprise providing affordable housing might consist both of the traditional private return on investment along with the economic value of meeting the housing needs of lower income households. Early descriptions of the methodology for calculating the SROI suggest that the approach initially evolved from standard methodologies found in the business finance literature for evaluating investments, with the important twist that nonprofit sector returns/payoffs are defined in broader social terms (Thornley, Anderson, & Dixon, 2016). Yet, someone who is familiar with the economic literature on cost benefit analysis (CBA) as it is applied to the evaluation of public programs cannot help but be struck by the similarity between the outcomes that CBA is intended to measure, and those that are the object of efforts to calculate the SROI. One implication is that the literature on the theory and practice of cost benefit analysis offers useful lessons about how to measure the social return on investment, as well as about potential caveats and limitations that need to be confronted when attempting to undertake an analysis of the SROI. The paper discusses the potential uses and limitations of CBA and SROI as tools that governments, private donor/investors, and foundations can use to

  12. Modelling major projects: What are the factors that determine net social benefits?

    OpenAIRE

    James A Giesecke; Madden, John R.

    2009-01-01

    Economic impact statements are part and parcel of project proponents seeking government assistance, infrastructure, or environmental clearance. Such impact assessments are increasingly being conducted with computable general equilibrium (CGE) models. Frequently, however, CGE modellers do not report results in economic welfare terms nor give sufficient attention to the proper simulation requirements for determining net social benefits correctly. In this paper we take the example of a major min...

  13. Knowledge transfer between and within alliance partners: Private versus collective benefits of social capital

    OpenAIRE

    Walter, Jorge; Lechner, Christoph; FRANZ W. KELLERMANNS

    2007-01-01

    This article examines the process through which multilevel network structures translate into knowledge acquisition from alliance partners. The degree of knowledge transfer a multidivisional company achieves from its network of alliance partners is determined not only by the organization's external network structure, but also by the structure of relationships among its business units. By distinguishing two perspectives on the distribution of social capital's benefits - private versus collectiv...

  14. Cognitive Benefits of Social Dancing and Walking in Old Age: The Dancing Mind Randomized Controlled Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Dafna eMerom; Anne eGrunseit; Ranmalee eEramudugolla; Barbarra eJefferis; Jade eMcneil; Anstey, Kaarin J.

    2016-01-01

    Background A physically active lifestyle has the potential to prevent cognitive decline and dementia, yet the optimal type of physical activity/exercise remains unclear. Dance is of special interest as it complex sensorimotor rhythmic activity with additional cognitive, social, and affective dimensions. Objectives To determine whether dance benefits executive function more than walking, an activity that is simple and functional. Methods Two-arm randomized controlled trial a...

  15. Benefits of resilience and social support in mentoring relations with school children

    OpenAIRE

    Novotná, Petra

    2014-01-01

    This diploma thesis is concerned with medium-term benefits of peer mentorng programs from the point of resilience and social support to the care recipients- children and adolescents from risk environment or with risk factors influenced. Data of this study comes from International peer mentoring survey Big Brothers Big Sisters- Pět P in Czech republic. The study is important for its in-depth and longitudinal (1 year) survey of 7 mentoring couples. Thesis is secondary analysis of mentioned stud...

  16. Organic foods contain higher levels of certain nutrients, lower levels of pesticides, and may provide health benefits for the consumer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crinnion, Walter J

    2010-04-01

    The multi-billion dollar organic food industry is fueled by consumer perception that organic food is healthier (greater nutritional value and fewer toxic chemicals). Studies of the nutrient content in organic foods vary in results due to differences in the ground cover and maturity of the organic farming operation. Nutrient content also varies from farmer to farmer and year to year. However, reviews of multiple studies show that organic varieties do provide significantly greater levels of vitamin C, iron, magnesium, and phosphorus than non-organic varieties of the same foods. While being higher in these nutrients, they are also significantly lower in nitrates and pesticide residues. In addition, with the exception of wheat, oats, and wine, organic foods typically provide greater levels of a number of important antioxidant phytochemicals (anthocyanins, flavonoids, and carotenoids). Although in vitro studies of organic fruits and vegetables consistently demonstrate that organic foods have greater antioxidant activity, are more potent suppressors of the mutagenic action of toxic compounds, and inhibit the proliferation of certain cancer cell lines, in vivo studies of antioxidant activity in humans have failed to demonstrate additional benefit. Clear health benefits from consuming organic dairy products have been demonstrated in regard to allergic dermatitis.

  17. The Long-Term Health Implications of Marital Disruption: Divorce, Work Limits, and Social Security Disability Benefits Among Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couch, Kenneth A; Tamborini, Christopher R; Reznik, Gayle L

    2015-10-01

    We provide new evidence on the long-term impact of divorce on work disability among U.S. men. Using data from the 2004 Survey of Income and Program Participation linked to U.S. Social Security Administration records, we assess the relationship between divorce and subsequent self-reports of work limitations and the receipt of federal disability benefits. The examination of self-reports and administrative records of medically qualified benefits provides dual confirmation of key relationships. We compare men who experienced a marital dissolution between 1975 and 1984 with continuously married men for 20 years following divorce using fixed-effects and propensity score matching models, and choose a sample to help control for selection into divorce. On average, we find that divorce is not associated with an increased probability of self-reported work limitations or receipt of disability benefits over the long run. However, among those who do not remarry, we do find that divorce increases men's long-term probability of both self-reported work limitations and federal disability benefit receipt. Lack of marital resources may drive this relationship. Alternative estimates that do not control for selection into divorce demonstrate that selection bias can substantially alter findings regarding the relationship between marital status changes and subsequent health.

  18. Providing Social Enterprises with Better Access to Public Procurement : The Development of Supportive Legal Frameworks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Argyrou, A.

    2017-01-01

    This article discusses the issue of social enterprises gaining access to public procurement processes and contracts at the EU and national level. It primarily examines the opportunities for social enterprises to access public procurement contracts provided for in the Public Procurement Directive

  19. Parents and Peers as Providers of Support in Adolescents' Social Network: A Developmental Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Valle, Jorge F.; Bravo, Amaia; Lopez, Monica

    2010-01-01

    The authors carried out an assessment of social support networks with a sample of 884 Spanish adolescents aged 12 to 17. The main goal was to analyze the development of the figures of parents and peers as providers of social support in the two basic dimensions of emotional and instrumental support. In peers, they distinguished between the contexts…

  20. Maize benefits the predatory beetle, Propylea japonica (Thunberg, to provide potential to enhance biological control for aphids in cotton.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Ouyang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Biological control provided by natural enemies play an important role in integrated pest management. Generalist insect predators provide an important biological service in the regulation of agricultural insect pests. Our goal is to understand the explicit process of oviposition preference, habitat selection and feeding behavior of predators in farmland ecosystem consisting of multiple crops, which is central to devising and delivering an integrated pest management program. METHODOLOGY: The hypotheses was that maize can serve as habitat for natural enemies and benefits predators to provide potential to enhance biological control for pest insects in cotton. This explicit process of a predatory beetle, Propylea japonica, in agricultural ecosystem composed of cotton and maize were examined by field investigation and stable carbon isotope analysis during 2008-2010. PRINCIPAL FINDING: Field investigation showed that P. japonica adults will search host plants for high prey abundance before laying eggs, indicating indirectly that P. japonica adults prefer to inhabit maize plants and travel to cotton plants to actively prey on aphids. The δ(13C values of adult P. japonica in a dietary shift experiment found that individual beetles were shifting from a C(3- to a C(4-based diet of aphids reared on maize or cotton, respectively, and began to reflect the isotope ratio of their new C(4 resources within one week. Approximately 80-100% of the diet of P. japonica adults in maize originated from a C(3-based resource in June, July and August, while approximately 80% of the diet originated from a C(4-based resource in September. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Results suggest that maize can serve as a habitat or refuge source for the predatory beetle, P. japonica, and benefits predators to provide potential to enhance biological control for insect pests in cotton.

  1. Maize benefits the predatory beetle, Propylea japonica (Thunberg), to provide potential to enhance biological control for aphids in cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Fang; Men, Xingyuan; Yang, Bing; Su, Jianwei; Zhang, Yongsheng; Zhao, Zihua; Ge, Feng

    2012-01-01

    Biological control provided by natural enemies play an important role in integrated pest management. Generalist insect predators provide an important biological service in the regulation of agricultural insect pests. Our goal is to understand the explicit process of oviposition preference, habitat selection and feeding behavior of predators in farmland ecosystem consisting of multiple crops, which is central to devising and delivering an integrated pest management program. The hypotheses was that maize can serve as habitat for natural enemies and benefits predators to provide potential to enhance biological control for pest insects in cotton. This explicit process of a predatory beetle, Propylea japonica, in agricultural ecosystem composed of cotton and maize were examined by field investigation and stable carbon isotope analysis during 2008-2010. Field investigation showed that P. japonica adults will search host plants for high prey abundance before laying eggs, indicating indirectly that P. japonica adults prefer to inhabit maize plants and travel to cotton plants to actively prey on aphids. The δ(13)C values of adult P. japonica in a dietary shift experiment found that individual beetles were shifting from a C(3)- to a C(4)-based diet of aphids reared on maize or cotton, respectively, and began to reflect the isotope ratio of their new C(4) resources within one week. Approximately 80-100% of the diet of P. japonica adults in maize originated from a C(3)-based resource in June, July and August, while approximately 80% of the diet originated from a C(4)-based resource in September. Results suggest that maize can serve as a habitat or refuge source for the predatory beetle, P. japonica, and benefits predators to provide potential to enhance biological control for insect pests in cotton.

  2. Patient-provider communication over social media: perspectives of adolescents with psychiatric illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rensburg, Samuel H; Klingensmith, Katherine; McLaughlin, Paige; Qayyum, Zheala; van Schalkwyk, Gerrit I

    2016-02-01

    Social media is an increasingly dominant platform for communication, especially among adolescents. Statements from professional bodies and a growing body of empirical evidence support a role for social media in improving provider-patient interactions. In psychiatry, particular concerns exist about the suitability of this style of communication. Very limited data are available exploring how patients would like to incorporate social media into their communication with their psychiatric providers. We conducted a qualitative study with 20 adolescents attending the Yale Psychiatric Hospital Intensive Outpatient Programme. Interviews were analysed using inductive thematic analysis. Participants highlighted how social media could allow for constant access to a mental health provider, provide a less anxiety-provoking mode of communication, and allow for them to be monitored in a more on-going fashion. However, participants also identified many potential risks associated with these applications, including the potential for anxiety if a provider was not able to respond immediately, and a sense that online interactions would be less rich overall. Our findings suggest that adolescents are open to the idea of communicating with mental health providers over social media and are able to describe a number of instances where this could be of value. The risks participants described, as well as concerns raised by existing literature, indicate the need for further work and protocol development in order for social media to be a feasible tool for communication between providers and adolescents with psychiatric illness. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Social Security for China’s Migrant Workers – Providing for Old Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Watson

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of “migrant workers” derives from the household registration system of China’s planned economy period. The continued existence of that system conflicts with the development of an integrated labour market. The current social security system, based on household registration and a large number of local pools, discriminates against migrant workers because of their mobility and the lack of mechanisms to transfer benefits between pools. As a result, migrants have made major contributions to China’s economic development but do not get the same benefits as urban residents. Faced with this challenge, China’s government has begun to introduce policy reforms to improve social security for migrants. This article explores this development through a focus on old-age insurance. It analyses the special needs of migrants, the obstacles facing policy development and the proposed solutions. It argues that social justice and social equity require the development of a system that treats all citizens equally, and that the logic of an integrated labour market will ultimately require a unified national system of old-age insurance.

  4. Social Security Disability Insurance May Reduce Benefits by 2016: Population at Financial Risk from Reductions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siordia, Carlos

    2016-10-01

    In the United States, 10.9 million people are receiving Social Security Disability Insurance (SSDI) benefits with an average pay of $12,000 per year. If the U.S. House of Congress fails to enact a new bill by the end of fiscal-year 2016, SSDI benefits are estimated to be reduced by $2,300 per-person per year. In the pass, the U.S. Congress has always found a way to enact new bills capable of maintains benefits at existing levels. The specific aim of this project was to report the number of people potentially at risk for experiencing an economic impact if SSDI benefits are reduced. The cross-sectional analysis used data from the American Community Survey, 2009-2013 Public Use Microdata Sample file. Characteristics on a total of 153,627 actual survey participants were used to generalize findings to 2,748,735 residents of the United States. Results indicate non-Hispanic Whites, the Pacific and South Atlantic geographic divisions are at the largest risk for being affected by changes to SSDI benefits.

  5. 42 CFR 406.10 - Individual age 65 or over who is entitled to social security or railroad retirement benefits, or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... security or railroad retirement benefits, or who is eligible for social security benefits. 406.10 Section... § 406.10 Individual age 65 or over who is entitled to social security or railroad retirement benefits, or who is eligible for social security benefits. (a) Requirements. An individual is entitled to...

  6. Interdepartmental Occupational Standards for Social Service Providers and Their Role in Improving Job Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zabrodin Yu.M.,

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an analysis of the occupational standards development abroad and in Russia. It focuses on interdepartmental occupational standards for social service providers. While creating occupational standards for social services as an integrated industry it is advisable to consider the design of whole system and its macro-level effects in a document called “sectoral qualification framework”. It is pointed out that 1 real professional activity in social sphere has a clear humanitarian focus, and its objects are radically different population groups; 2 the complexity of the social work is often associated with the interaction between various professionals and their activity have to be interdepartmentally organized. The author identifies the factors influencing development and implementation of professional standards in different countries and consider the main strategy directions of development and application of occupational standards of education and social service providers in Russia.

  7. Benefit of social media on patient engagement and satisfaction: Results of a 9-month, qualitative pilot study using Facebook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhar, Vikrom K; Kim, Young; Graff, Justin T; Jung, Andrew D; Garrett, Jennifer; Dick, Lauren E; Harris, Jenifer; Shah, Shimul A

    2018-03-01

    Despite the potential benefits of social media, health care providers are often hesitant to engage patients through these sites. Our aim was to explore how implementation of social media may affect patient engagement and satisfaction. In September 2016 a Facebook support group was created for liver transplant patients to use as a virtual community forum. Data including user demographics and group activity were reviewed. A survey was conducted evaluating users' perceptions regarding participation in the group. Over 9 months, 350 unique users (50% liver transplant patients, 36% caregivers/friends, 14% health care providers) contributed 339 posts, 2,338 comments, and 6,274 reactions to the group; 98% of posts were reacted to or commented on by other group members. Patients were the most active users compared with health care providers and caregivers. A total of 95% of survey respondents reported that joining the group had a positive impact on their care; and 97% reported that their main motivation for joining was to provide or receive support from other patients. This pilot study indicates that the integration of social media into clinical practice can empower surgeons to synthesize effectively a patient support community that augments patient engagement and satisfaction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. A qualitative study: potential benefits and challenges of traditional healers in providing aspects of palliative care in rural South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, L M; Amin, N N

    2014-01-01

    This article draws on selected palliative care providers' views and experiences to reflect on the potential benefits and possible challenges of involving traditional healers in palliative care in rural areas of South Africa. There is increasing consensus that palliative care should be offered by a range of professional and non-professional healthcare givers. Including non-professionals such as traditional healers in a palliative care team may strengthen care provisioning as they have intimate knowledge of patients' local culture and spiritual beliefs. Employing the qualitative method of photo-elicitation, one-on-one discussions about the photographs taken by participants were conducted. The participants - 4 palliative care nurses and 17 home-based care workers - were purposively selected to provide in-depth information about their experiences as palliative caregivers in rural homes. Healthcare workers' experiences revealed that the patients they cared for valued traditional rituals connected to illness, dying, death and bereavement. Participants suggested that traditional healers should be included in palliative care training programs as they could offer appropriate psychological, cultural and spiritual care. A challenge identified by participants was the potential of traditional healers to foster a false sense of longevity in patients facing death. The importance of recognising the value of traditional practices in palliative care should not be underrated in rural South Africa. Traditional healers could enhance palliative care services as they have deep, insider knowledge of patients' spiritual needs and awareness of cultural practices relating to illness, death, dying and bereavement. Incorporating traditional healers into healthcare services where there are differences in the worldviews of healthcare providers and patients, and a sensitivity to mediate cultural differences between caregivers and patients, could have the benefit of providing appropriate care in

  9. Welfare migration? Free movement of EU citizens and access to social benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Blauberger

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the political impact of the European Court of Justice’s (ECJ case law concerning the free movement of EU citizens and their cross-border access to social benefits. Public debates about ‘welfare migration’ or ‘social tourism’ often fluctuate between populist hysteria and outright denial, but they obscure the real political and legal issues at stake: that ECJ jurisprudence incrementally broadens EU citizens’ opportunities to claim social benefits abroad while narrowing member states’ scope to regulate and restrict access to national welfare systems. We argue that legal uncertainty challenges national administrations in terms of workload and rule-of-law standards, while domestic legislative reforms increasingly shift the burden of legal uncertainty to EU migrants by raising evidentiary requirements and threatening economically inactive EU citizens with expulsion. We illustrate this argument first with a brief overview of the EU’s legal framework, highlighting the ambiguity of core concepts from the Court’s case law, and then with empirical evidence from the UK, Germany and Austria, analyzing similar domestic responses to the ECJ’s jurisprudence. We conclude that EU citizenship law, while promising to build the union from below on the basis of equal legal entitlements, may, in fact, risk rousing further nationalism and decrease solidarity across the union.

  10. Social and private benefits of assisted reproductive technology: a national survey-based evaluation in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonen, Limor Dina

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this paper was to measure the private and social benefits resulting from technological advances in fertility treatment. An empirical model investigates the willingness-to-pay (WTP) for advances in the medical technology of in vitro fertilization (IVF) among the general public and among IVF patients in Israel. The empirical model's findings demonstrate that IVF patients and the general public value medical technology advances and have a positive WTP for it. The average WTP for IVF technology advances, among IVF patients, is US $3116.9 whereas for the general public it is US$2284.4. Available evidence suggests that advances in medical technology have delivered substantial benefits and appear to have contributed to improved wellbeing.

  11. A soluble form of Siglec-9 provides an antitumor benefit against mammary tumor cells expressing MUC1 in transgenic mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomioka, Yukiko, E-mail: ytomi@muses.tottori-u.ac.jp [Division of Disease Model Innovation, Institute for Genetic Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0815 (Japan); Avian Zoonosis Research Center, Faculty of Agriculture, Tottori University, Tottori 680-8553 (Japan); Morimatsu, Masami, E-mail: mmorimat@vetmed.hokudai.ac.jp [Division of Disease Model Innovation, Institute for Genetic Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0815 (Japan); Laboratory of Laboratory Animal Science and Medicine, Department of Disease Control, Graduate School of Veterinary Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0818 (Japan); Nishijima, Ken-ichi, E-mail: nishijma@nubio.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Department of Biotechnology, Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Usui, Tatsufumi, E-mail: usutatsu@muses.tottori-u.ac.jp [Avian Zoonosis Research Center, Faculty of Agriculture, Tottori University, Tottori 680-8553 (Japan); Yamamoto, Sayo, E-mail: ysayo@anim.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Center of Biomedical Research, Research Center for Human Disease Modeling, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Suyama, Haruka, E-mail: sharuka@anim.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Center of Biomedical Research, Research Center for Human Disease Modeling, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Ozaki, Kinuyo, E-mail: k-ozaki@anim.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Center of Biomedical Research, Research Center for Human Disease Modeling, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Ito, Toshihiro, E-mail: toshiito@muses.tottori-u.ac.jp [Avian Zoonosis Research Center, Faculty of Agriculture, Tottori University, Tottori 680-8553 (Japan); and others

    2014-07-18

    Highlights: • Tumor-associated antigen MUC1 binds to Siglec-9. • Soluble Siglec-9 reduced proliferation of MUC1-positive tumor in transgenic mice. • Soluble Siglec-9 and MUC1 on tumor cells were colocalized in transgenic mice. • MUC1 expression on tumor cells were reduced in soluble Siglec-9 transgenic mice. - Abstract: Tumor-associated MUC1 binds to Siglec-9, which is expected to mediate tumor cell growth and negative immunomodulation. We hypothesized that a soluble form of Siglec-9 (sSiglec-9) competitively inhibits a binding of MUC1 to its receptor molecules like human Siglec-9, leading to provide antitumor benefit against MUC1-expressing tumor, and generated transgenic mouse lines expressing sSiglec-9 (sSiglec-9 Tg). When mammary tumor cells expressing MUC1 were intraperitoneally transplanted into sSiglec-9 Tg, tumor proliferation was slower with the lower histological malignancy as compared with non-transgenic mice. The sSiglec-9 was detected in the ascites caused by the tumor in the sSiglec-9 Tg, and sSiglec-9 and MUC1 were often colocalized on surfaces of the tumor cells. PCNA immunohistochemistry also revealed the reduced proliferation of the tumor cells in sSiglec-9 Tg. In sSiglec-9 Tg with remarkable suppression of tumor proliferation, MUC1 expressions were tend to be reduced. In the ascites of sSiglec-9 Tg bearing the tumor, T cells were uniformly infiltrated, whereas aggregations of degenerative T cells were often observed in the non-transgenic mice. These results suggest that sSiglec-9 has an antitumor benefit against MUC1-expressing tumor in the transgenic mice, which may avoid the negative immunomodulation and/or suppress tumor-associated MUC1 downstream signal transduction, and subsequent tumor proliferation.

  12. Plant defences against ants provide a pathway to social parasitism in butterflies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patricelli, Dario; Barbero, Francesca; Occhipinti, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the chemical cues and gene expressions that mediate herbivore-host-plant and parasite-host interactions can elucidate the ecological costs and benefits accruing to different partners in tight-knit community modules, and may reveal unexpected complexities. We investigated...... the exploitation of sequential hosts by the phytophagous-predaceous butterfly Maculinea arion, whose larvae initially feed on Origanum vulgare flowerheads before switching to parasitize Myrmica ant colonies for their main period of growth. Gravid female butterflies were attracted to Origanum plants that emitted......, which in turn may benefit infested Origanum plants by relieving their roots of further damage. Our results suggest a new pathway, whereby social parasites can detect successive resources by employing plant volatiles to simultaneously select their initial plant food and a suitable sequential host....

  13. Providing social services in a new immigrant settlement city: A qualitative inquiry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negi, Nalini Junko; Maskell, Erin; Goodman, Marci; Hooper, Jenia; Roberts, Jamie

    2018-01-01

    Nationally, a new trend in migration has included the settlement of Latina/o immigrants in cities without an established community of Latinas/os. Social services become even more salient in this context in the absence of informal social networks of support. This study, guided by social ecological theory, advances our limited understanding of social services in new immigrant settlement destinations by elucidating contextual and structural factors endemic to the social service delivery process in these new immigrant destinations. Twenty-nine social service providers who work with Latina/o immigrants in Baltimore were interviewed and Consensual Qualitative Research (CQR; Hill, Thompson, & Nutt Williams, 1997) methods were used to analyze data through consensus and the use of multiple data "auditors." Findings extend our understanding of the context of social services in a new immigrant settlement city by identifying qualitative factors related to the new immigrant settlement, organization and work, community, and client level that impact access and quality of services. A theoretically driven conceptual framework adapted from the Structural Environmental conceptual framework (Organista, 2007) is also proposed to explain the transactional interconnectedness among structural-, environmental-, and client-level factors in the social service delivery process. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Prevalence and duration of social security benefits allowed to workers with asthma in Brazil in 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branco, Anadergh Barbosa de Abreu; Ildefonso, Simone de Andrade Goulart

    2012-01-01

    To determine the prevalence and duration of social security benefits (SSBs) claims to registered workers with asthma in Brazil by the Brazilian National Institute of Social Security in 2008. This was a retrospective, descriptive study, based on information obtained from the Brazilian Unified Benefit System database, on the number of SSB claims granted to registered workers with asthma in 2008. The reference population was the monthly mean number of workers registered in the Brazilian Social Registry Database in 2008. The variables studied were type of economic activity, gender, age, and type/duration of the SSB claim. The relationship between work and asthma was evaluated by the prevalence ratio (PR) between work-related and non-work-related SSB claims for asthma. In 2008, 2,483 SSB claims were granted for asthma, with a prevalence of 7.5 allowances per 100,000 registered workers. The prevalence was higher among females than among males (PR = 2.1 between the sexes). Workers > 40 years of age were 2.5 times more likely to be granted an SSB claim for asthma than were younger workers. The prevalence was highest among workers engaged in the following types of economic activity: sewage, wood and wood product manufacturing, and furniture manufacturing (78.8, 22.4, and 22.2 claims/100,000 registered workers, respectively). The median (interquartile range) duration of SSB claims for asthma was 49 (28-87) days. Asthma is a major cause of sick leave, and its etiology has a strong occupational component. This has a major impact on employers, employees, and the social security system. Being female, being > 40 years of age, and working in the areas of urban sanitation/sewage, wood and wood product manufacturing, and furniture manufacturing increase the chance of sick leave due to asthma.

  15. Adolescents' Perceptions of Health Risks, Social Risks, and Benefits Differ Across Tobacco Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roditis, Maria; Delucchi, Kevin; Cash, David; Halpern-Felsher, Bonnie

    2016-05-01

    This study assesses perceptions of overall harm, short-term health and social risks, long-term health risks, and benefits associated with various tobacco products including conventional cigarettes, e-cigarettes, cigars, chew, and hookah. This study also assesses whether and how perceptions differ by age, gender, race/ethnicity, and previous experience with tobacco. A total of 722 high school students completed an online survey, answering questions about their use and perceptions of a variety of tobacco products. Differences in perceptions across products were assessed using a generalized estimation equation with an exchangeable correlation structure. Adolescents rated the various tobacco products as conferring significantly different levels of risks and benefits. Generally, adolescents rated cigarettes as most risky, followed by cigars and chew, with hookah and e-cigarettes rated as least risky. Adolescents rated hookah followed by cigarettes and e-cigarettes as most likely to make them look cool or fit in and cigars and chew as least likely to confer these benefits. There were interaction effects by age and use, with older adolescents and those with tobacco experience holding lower perceptions of risk. There were no significant interaction effects by race/ethnicity or gender. Given the significant differences in adolescents' perceptions of risks and benefits of using different tobacco products and research showing the predictive relationship between perceptions and behavior, there is a need for comprehensive messaging that discusses risks of all tobacco products, particularly hookah and e-cigarettes. There is also a need to address perceived benefits of tobacco products, especially hookah and e-cigarettes. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Adolescents’ Perceptions of Health Risks, Social Risks, and Benefits Differ Across Tobacco Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roditis, Maria; Delucchi, Kevin; Cash, David; Halpern-Felsher, Bonnie

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study assesses perceptions of overall harm, short-term health and social risks, long-term health risks, and benefits associated with various tobacco products including conventional cigarettes, e-cigarettes, cigars, chew, and hookah. This study also assesses whether and how perceptions differ by age, gender, race/ethnicity, and previous experience with tobacco. Methods A total of 722 high school students completed an online survey, answering questions about their use and perceptions of a variety of tobacco products. Differences in perceptions across products were assessed using a generalized estimation equation with an exchangeable correlation structure. Results Adolescents rated the various tobacco products as conferring significantly different levels of risks and benefits. Generally, adolescents rated cigarettes as most risky, followed by cigars and chew, with hookah and e-cigarettes rated as least risky. Adolescents rated hookah followed by cigarettes and e-cigarettes as most likely to make them look cool or fit in and cigars and chew as least likely to confer these benefits. There were interaction effects by age and use, with older adolescents and those with tobacco experience holding lower perceptions of risk. There were no significant interaction effects by race/ethnicity or gender. Conclusion Given the significant differences in adolescents’ perceptions of risks and benefits of using different tobacco products and research showing the predictive relationship between perceptions and behavior, there is a need for comprehensive messaging that discusses risks of all tobacco products, particularly hookah and e-cigarettes. There is also a need to address perceived benefits of tobacco products, especially hookah and e-cigarettes. PMID:27107909

  17. Finding social benefits after a collective trauma: perceiving societal changes and well-being following 9/11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulin, Michael J; Silver, Roxane Cohen; Gil-Rivas, Virginia; Holman, E Alison; McIntosh, Daniel N

    2009-04-01

    Individuals frequently perceive positive changes in themselves following adversity; after a collective trauma, they may perceive such benefits in others or in their society as well. We examined perceived benefits of the September 11, 2001 (9/11) terrorist attacks in a 3-year study of a national sample of adults (N = 1382). Many individuals (57.8%) perceived social benefits of 9/11, including increased prosocial behavior, religiousness, or political engagement. Individuals who found increased national religiosity as a benefit 2 months post-9/11 reported greater positive affect and life satisfaction and lower distress and posttraumatic stress up to 3 years post-9/11. Pre-9/11 religiousness and Republican political affiliation predicted perceiving religion-related social benefits post-9/11. Perceptions of social change are important but understudied responses to stressful events.

  18. Health Benefits of Urban Allotment Gardening: Improved Physical and Psychological Well-Being and Social Integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soga, Masashi; Cox, Daniel T C; Yamaura, Yuichi; Gaston, Kevin J; Kurisu, Kiyo; Hanaki, Keisuke

    2017-01-12

    With an ever-increasing urban population, promoting public health and well-being in towns and cities is a major challenge. Previous research has suggested that participating in allotment gardening delivers a wide range of health benefits. However, evidence from quantitative analyses is still scarce. Here, we quantify the effects, if any, of participating in allotment gardening on physical, psychological and social health. A questionnaire survey of 332 people was performed in Tokyo, Japan. We compared five self-reported health outcomes between allotment gardeners and non-gardener controls: perceived general health, subjective health complaints, body mass index (BMI), mental health and social cohesion. Accounting for socio-demographic and lifestyle variables, regression models revealed that allotment gardeners, compared to non-gardeners, reported better perceived general health, subjective health complaints, mental health and social cohesion. BMI did not differ between gardeners and non-gardeners. Neither frequency nor duration of gardening significantly influenced reported health outcomes. Our results highlight that regular gardening on allotment sites is associated with improved physical, psychological and social health. With the recent escalation in the prevalence of chronic diseases, and associated healthcare costs, this study has a major implication for policy, as it suggests that urban allotments have great potential for preventative healthcare.

  19. Health Benefits of Urban Allotment Gardening: Improved Physical and Psychological Well-Being and Social Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masashi Soga

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With an ever-increasing urban population, promoting public health and well-being in towns and cities is a major challenge. Previous research has suggested that participating in allotment gardening delivers a wide range of health benefits. However, evidence from quantitative analyses is still scarce. Here, we quantify the effects, if any, of participating in allotment gardening on physical, psychological and social health. A questionnaire survey of 332 people was performed in Tokyo, Japan. We compared five self-reported health outcomes between allotment gardeners and non-gardener controls: perceived general health, subjective health complaints, body mass index (BMI, mental health and social cohesion. Accounting for socio-demographic and lifestyle variables, regression models revealed that allotment gardeners, compared to non-gardeners, reported better perceived general health, subjective health complaints, mental health and social cohesion. BMI did not differ between gardeners and non-gardeners. Neither frequency nor duration of gardening significantly influenced reported health outcomes. Our results highlight that regular gardening on allotment sites is associated with improved physical, psychological and social health. With the recent escalation in the prevalence of chronic diseases, and associated healthcare costs, this study has a major implication for policy, as it suggests that urban allotments have great potential for preventative healthcare.

  20. Investment in Social Marketing Campaign to Reduce Stigma and Discrimination Associated with Mental Illness Yields Positive Economic Benefits to California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashwood, J Scott; Briscombe, Brian; Collins, Rebecca L; Wong, Eunice C; Eberhart, Nicole K; Cerully, Jennifer; May, Libby; Roth, Beth; Burnam, M Audrey

    2017-01-01

    This article examines the potential impact of the California Mental Health Services Authority's stigma and discrimination reduction social marketing campaign on the use of adult behavioral health services, and it estimates the benefit-cost ratios.

  1. A New Dimension of Health Care: Systematic Review of the Uses, Benefits, and Limitations of Social Media for Health Communication

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Moorhead, S. Anne; Hazlett, Diane E; Harrison, Laura; Carroll, Jennifer K; Irwin, Anthea; Hoving, Ciska

    2013-01-01

    There is currently a lack of information about the uses, benefits, and limitations of social media for health communication among the general public, patients, and health professionals from primary research...

  2. Quantifying the net social benefits of vehicle trip reductions : guidance for customizing the TRIMMS(c) model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    This study details the development of a series of enhancements to the Trip Reduction Impacts of : Mobility Management Strategies (TRIMMS) model. TRIMMS allows quantifying the net social : benefits of a wide range of transportation demand management...

  3. The Impact of Social Media on Press Freedom in Greece: Benefits, Challenges and Limitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katerina SERAFEIM

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the essay is to put light on the expansion of social media in news broadcasting in Greece, highlighting their impact on press freedom and freedom of expression. Taken for granted that the media in Greece (television, radio and print press have created, except from their “traditional version”, social media profiles (facebook profile, twitter etc. in order to disseminate the news, the essay investigates the interconnection between the aforementioned use of social media and press freedom. In addition, special focus is given to the challenges that appear from the emergence of social media as news platforms and to the debate that has occurred “for” and “against” this new role of them. Moreover, the essay puts light to some crucial questions that arise:Do social media in Greece, as news platforms, extend freedom of expression and how do they accomplish that? Does the fact that social media empower journalists to provide journalism in more ways than one through tweets, postings, and video and photo uploads, enhance journalists’ freedom of expression and, in a wider sense, the freedom of the press? Has the invasion of social media in the news flow and coverage changed the media landscape in Greece?

  4. Actually, It's About Ethics in Computational Social Science: A Multi-party Risk-Benefit Framework for Online Community Research

    OpenAIRE

    Keegan, Brian C.; Matias, J. Nathan

    2015-01-01

    Managers regularly face a complex ethical dilemma over how to best govern online communities by evaluating the effectiveness of different social or technical strategies. What ethical considerations should guide researchers and managers when they employ causal research methods that make different community members bear different risks and benefits, under different levels of consent? We introduce a structural framework for evaluating the flows of risks and benefits in social systems with multip...

  5. Social models provide a norm of appropriate food intake for young women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenny R Vartanian

    Full Text Available It is often assumed that social models influence people's eating behavior by providing a norm of appropriate food intake, but this hypothesis has not been directly tested. In three experiments, female participants were exposed to a low-intake model, a high-intake model, or no model (control condition. Experiments 1 and 2 used a remote-confederate manipulation and were conducted in the context of a cookie taste test. Experiment 3 used a live confederate and was conducted in the context of a task during which participants were given incidental access to food. Participants also rated the extent to which their food intake was influenced by a variety of factors (e.g., hunger, taste, how much others ate. In all three experiments, participants in the low-intake conditions ate less than did participants in the high-intake conditions, and also reported a lower perceived norm of appropriate intake. Furthermore, perceived norms of appropriate intake mediated the effects of the social model on participants' food intake. Despite the observed effects of the social models, participants were much more likely to indicate that their food intake was influenced by taste and hunger than by the behavior of the social models. Thus, social models appear to influence food intake by providing a norm of appropriate eating behavior, but people may be unaware of the influence of a social model on their behavior.

  6. The role of social environment on parental care: offspring benefit more from the presence of female than male helpers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouwer, Lyanne; van de Pol, Martijn; Cockburn, Andrew

    2014-03-01

    Investment in offspring depends on the costs and benefits to the carer, which can vary with sex and social status. Investment also depends on the effort of others by allowing for compensation (load-lightening), with biparental care studies showing that this depends on the state and type of the other carer. By contrast, studies on cooperative breeders have solely focussed on the effects of group size rather than its composition (i.e. social environment). Here we propose and provide the first test of the 'Social Environment' hypothesis, that is, how the characteristics (here the sex) of other helpers present in the group affect parental care and how this in turn affects offspring fitness in cooperatively breeding red-winged fairy-wrens (Malurus elegans). Breeders provisioned nestlings at a higher rate than helpers, but there was no sex difference in provisioning rate. Compensation to increasing group size varied little with sex and status, but strongly depended on social environment. All group members reduced their provisioning rates in response to an increasing number of male (load-lightening), but not female helpers (additive care). As a result, nestlings received more food and grew faster in the presence of female helpers. The increased nestling growth did convey a fitness advantage due to a higher post-fledging survival to adulthood. Our study provides the first evidence that parental care can depend on social environment. This could be an important overlooked aspect to explain variation in parental care in cooperative breeders in general and in particular the enormous variation between the sexes, which we reveal in a literature overview. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2013 British Ecological Society.

  7. Design-with-Nature for Multifunctional Landscapes: Environmental Benefits and Social Barriers in Community Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bo; Li, Ming-Han; Li, Shujuan

    2013-01-01

    Since the early 1970s, Ian McHarg’s design-with-nature concept has been inspiring landscape architects, community and regional planners, and liked-minded professionals to create designs that take advantage of ecosystem services and promote environmental and public health. This study bridges the gap in the literature that has resulted from a lack of empirical examinations on the multiple performance benefits derived through design-with-nature and the under-investigated social aspect emanated from McHarg’s Ecological Determinism design approach. The Woodlands, TX, USA, an ecologically designed community development under McHarg’s approach, is compared with two adjacent communities that follow the conventional design approach. Using national environmental databases and multiple-year residents’ survey information, this study assesses three landscape performance metrics of McHarg’s approach: stormwater runoff, urban heat island effect, and social acceptance. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) was used to assess the development extent and land surface temperature distribution. Results show that McHarg’s approach demonstrates benefits in reducing runoff and urban heat island effect, whereas it confronts challenges with the general acceptance of manicured landscapes and thus results in a low safety perception level when residents interact with naturally designed landscapes. The authors argue that design-with-nature warrants multifunctionality because of its intrinsic interdisciplinary approach. Moreover, education and dissemination of successful examples can achieve a greater level of awareness among the public and further promote multifunctional design for landscape sustainability. PMID:24169408

  8. Design-with-nature for multifunctional landscapes: environmental benefits and social barriers in community development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bo; Li, Ming-Han; Li, Shujuan

    2013-10-28

    Since the early 1970s, Ian McHarg's design-with-nature concept has been inspiring landscape architects, community and regional planners, and liked-minded professionals to create designs that take advantage of ecosystem services and promote environmental and public health. This study bridges the gap in the literature that has resulted from a lack of empirical examinations on the multiple performance benefits derived through design-with-nature and the under-investigated social aspect emanated from McHarg's Ecological Determinism design approach. The Woodlands, TX, USA, an ecologically designed community development under McHarg's approach, is compared with two adjacent communities that follow the conventional design approach. Using national environmental databases and multiple-year residents' survey information, this study assesses three landscape performance metrics of McHarg's approach: stormwater runoff, urban heat island effect, and social acceptance. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) was used to assess the development extent and land surface temperature distribution. Results show that McHarg's approach demonstrates benefits in reducing runoff and urban heat island effect, whereas it confronts challenges with the general acceptance of manicured landscapes and thus results in a low safety perception level when residents interact with naturally designed landscapes. The authors argue that design-with-nature warrants multifunctionality because of its intrinsic interdisciplinary approach. Moreover, education and dissemination of successful examples can achieve a greater level of awareness among the public and further promote multifunctional design for landscape sustainability.

  9. Friendship after a friends with benefits relationship: deception, psychological functioning, and social connectedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Jesse; Fincham, Frank D; Manthos, Megan

    2013-11-01

    Friends with benefits (FWB) relationships are formed by an integration of friendship and sexual intimacy, typically without the explicit commitments characteristic of an exclusive romantic relationship. The majority of these relationships do not transition into committed romantic relationships, raising questions about what happens to the relationship after the FWB ends. In a sample of 119 men and 189 women university students, with a median age of 19 years and the majority identified as Caucasian (63.6 %), we assessed relationship adjustment, feelings of deception, perception of the FWB relationship and friendship, social connectedness, psychological distress, and loneliness. Results demonstrated that the majority of FWB relationships continued as friendships after the sexual intimacy ceased and that about 50 % of the participants reported feeling as close or closer to their FWB partner. Those who did not remain friends were more likely to report that their FWB relationship was more sex- than friendship-based; they also reported higher levels of feeling deceived by their FWB partner and higher levels of loneliness and psychological distress, but lower levels of mutual social connectedness. Higher levels of feeling deceived were related to feeling less close to the post-FWB friend; also, more sex-based FWB relationships were likely to result in post-FWB friendships that were either more or less close (as opposed to unchanged). FWB relationships, especially those that include more attention to friendship based intimacy, do not appear to negatively impact the quality of the friendship after the "with benefits" ends.

  10. Part-time work or social benefits as predictors for disability pension: a prospective study of Swedish twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ropponen, Annina; Alexanderson, Kristina; Svedberg, Pia

    2014-04-01

    To a large extent, it is unknown whether work absences other than sickness absence (SA) covered by social benefits such as parental leave, rehabilitation, or unemployment would predict disability pension (DP). We investigated whether part-time work or having received social benefits for sick leave, rehabilitation, or parental leave would be predictors for DP taking into account familial confounding (genetics and shared environment, e.g., social background) in these associations. A sample of 17,640 same-sex Swedish twin ndividuals [corrected] was followed from 2000 to 2008 via national registries for their receipt of social benefits and DP including additional baseline questionnaire data. Cox proportional hazard ratios were estimated. Full-time work was less common (47 %) among those being granted DP during the follow-up compared to those without DP (69 %). Self-reported full-time work, part-time work (≥50 %), and self-employment and registry data of caring for a child were the direct protective factors, whereas self-reported part-time work (work were the direct risk factors for DP, i.e., independent of familial confounding. Part-time work and social benefits play different roles in predicting DP. Thus, full-time work, part-time work (≥50 %), self-employment, and benefits for parental leave seem to protect from DP. In contrast, SA and part-time work (social benefits, or severity of diseases.

  11. Accounting for risk aversion, income distribution, and social welfare in cost-benefit analysis for flood risk management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kind, Jarl; Botzen, W.J.W.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/297620584; Aerts, Jeroen

    2017-01-01

    Most cost-benefit analysis (CBA) textbooks and guidelines recognize the objective of CBAs to improve social welfare—a function of well-being of all individuals, conceptualized by utility. However, today's common practice to value flood risk management benefits as the reduction of the expected annual

  12. Social context, art making processes and creative output: a qualitative study exploring how psychosocial benefits of art participation during stroke rehabilitation occur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Jacqui; Toma, Madalina; Kelly, Chris; Joice, Sara; Kroll, Thilo; Mead, Gillian; Williams, Brian

    2016-01-01

    To explore stroke survivors' and artists' beliefs about participatory visual arts programme participation during in-patient rehabilitation to identify benefits and potential mechanisms of action. Qualitative design using semi-structured in-depth interviews with stroke survivors (n = 11) and artists (n = 3). Data were audio-recorded and transcribed. Framework approach was used to identify themes and develop conceptual schemes. The non-medical, social context of art facilitated social interaction, provided enjoyment and distraction from stroke and re-established social identity thereby improving mood. The processes of art making generated confidence and self-efficacy, setting and achievement of creative, communication and physical recovery goals that provided control over survivors' situation and hope for recovery. Creative output involved completion of artwork and display for viewing. This enhanced self-esteem and improved mood, providing survivors with new identities through positive appraisal of the work by others. Self-efficacy, hope and control appeared to mediate benefits. This study provides a model of intervention components, mechanisms of action and outcome mediators to explain how art participation may work. Findings suggest that art may influence important psychosocial outcomes that other rehabilitation approaches do not typically address. The study paves the way for a future effectiveness trial. Participation in an art programme during rehabilitation appears to improve stroke survivors' mood, confidence and self-esteem and enhances perceptions of hope and control over recovery. Social interactions, the processes of art making and review and appraisal by others may be key intervention components from which benefits are derived. Benefits from art participation may enhance survivors' experiences of rehabilitation and appear to provide benefits that other rehabilitation interventions do not. Art participation should be considered as an important

  13. Childcare Providers' Use of Practices to Promote Young Children's Social-Emotional Competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steed, Elizabeth A.; Roach, Andrew T.

    2017-01-01

    Findings are presented regarding childcare providers' use of evidence-based strategies to promote preschoolers' social-emotional competence in 38 urban childcare classrooms. Descriptive results from classroom observations and childcare teachers' interviews indicated that in the absence of training, childcare teaching staff implemented few of these…

  14. Providing Social Sharing Functionalities in LearnWeb2.0

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marenzi, Ivana; Zerr, Sergej; Nejdl, Wolfgang

    2008-01-01

    Marenzi, I., Zerr, S., & Nejdl, W. (2008). Providing Social Sharing Functionalities in LearnWeb2.0. In R. Koper, K. Stefanov & D. Dicheva (Eds). Proceedings of the 5th International TENCompetence Open Workshop "Stimulating Personal Development and Knowledge Sharing" (pp. 9-14). October, 30-31, 2008,

  15. Social Media in Health Research: An Example from Childcare Provider Message Boards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Meghan

    2011-01-01

    Social media sites, such as message boards and blogs, provide innovative data sources for researchers as these sites feature people sharing advice and discussing issues in a public arena. Research has found the online context can encourage people to reveal more information than do such traditional methods as interviews or focus groups. However,…

  16. Maintaining Long-Distance Friendships: Communication Practices for Seeking and Providing Social Support across Geographic Divides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobburi, Patipan

    2012-01-01

    People seek and provide support through their personal social network, especially when they must cope with stress, deal with an emergency, or need help. Coping with a new culture or new environment is a stressful situation that sojourner students must face. Support through friendship plays an important role in facing such new situations. Focusing…

  17. A Benefit-Cost Analysis of a Long-Term Intervention on Social and Emotional Learning in Compulsory School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klapp, Alli; Belfield, Clive; Bowden, Brooks; Levin, Henry; Shand, Robert; Zander, Sabine

    2017-01-01

    There is growing evidence that social and emotional skills can be taught to students in school and teaching these skills can have a positive effect on later outcomes, such as better mental health and less drug use. This paper presents a benefit-cost analysis of a longitudinal social and emotional learning intervention in Sweden, using data for 663…

  18. Using Twitter and other social media platforms to provide situational awareness during an incident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobias, Ed

    2011-10-01

    The recent use of social media by protesters in Iran, Egypt, Yemen and elsewhere has focused new attention on this communications medium. Government agencies and businesses, as well, are using social media to push information to their stakeholders. Those who are on the front lines of this information revolution, however, realise that social media is most effective when the communication is two-way. Unlike other media, social media allows information sharing. This, in turn, provides emergency managers with new situational-awareness resources when trying to mitigate an incident. As Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) Administrator Craig Fugate told Information Week on January 19th, 2011: 'We can adjust much quicker if we can figure out how to have (a) two-way conversation and if we can look at the public as a resource. The public is putting out better situational awareness than many of our own agencies can.' This paper provides examples of how social media can be used as a situational-awareness resource and specific 'tools' that can be used to assist with this task.

  19. Application of System Dynamics to Evaluate the Social and Economic Benefits of Infrastructure Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiep Nguyen

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Cost-Benefit Analysis (CBA is often employed to inform decision makers about the desirability of transport infrastructure investment options. One of the main limitations of traditional CBA approaches is that they do not provide a dynamic view that explicitly illustrates the cost and benefit relationships between component entities over time. This paper addresses this issue by describing a System Dynamics (SD approach that can perform transport infrastructure CBA through the application of systems thinking to develop a causal-loop model that can subsequently be operationalised into an executable stock-and-flow model. Execution of this model readily enables sensitivity analysis of infrastructure investment options and visualisation of the cost-benefit behaviour of each variant over time. The utility of the approach is illustrated through a case study, the Co Chien Bridge project in Vietnam, using a model that incorporates conventional economic metrics and factors that measure indirect project benefits, such as impact on gross domestic product, unemployment rate, and total taxes gained from affected economic sectors.

  20. 29 CFR 2.33 - Responsibilities of DOL, DOL social service providers and State and local governments...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Responsibilities of DOL, DOL social service providers and... Organizations; Protection of Religious Liberty of Department of Labor Social Service Providers and Beneficiaries § 2.33 Responsibilities of DOL, DOL social service providers and State and local governments...

  1. (Too) Anxious to help? Social support provider anxiety and cardiovascular function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent de Grey, Robert G; Uchino, Bert N; Smith, Timothy W; Baucom, Brian R W

    2018-01-01

    Provider factors, such as anxiety, may be important in understanding effects of received social support (SS), which are less consistently positive than those of perceived SS. Due to the dyadic nature of support, anxiety on the part of the provider was predicted to influence the effectiveness of received SS. This laboratory study examined effects of SS provider anxiety within unacquainted dyads on cardiovascular reactivity during acute stress. 148 participants were assigned to support roles, and each dyad was randomized to low or high provider anxiety. Results include that SS provider anxiety resulted in greater blood pressure reactivity and less recovery toward baseline diastolic blood pressure within the dyad. Overall, it appears provider anxiety contributes to less effective SS for recipients and that health costs may accompany providing and receiving support under nonoptimal conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Assessing work disability for social security benefits: international models for the direct assessment of work capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiger, Ben Baumberg; Garthwaite, Kayleigh; Warren, Jon; Bambra, Clare

    2017-08-25

    judgement of skilled professionals). While it is possible to implement a direct assessment of work capacity for social security benefits, further research is necessary to understand how best to maximise validity, legitimacy, and cost-effectiveness.

  3. The benefits of chess for the intellectual and social-emotional enrichment in schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aciego, Ramón; García, Lorena; Betancort, Moisés

    2012-07-01

    This paper examines the benefits of regularly playing chess for the intellectual and social-emotional enrichment of a group of 170 schoolchildren from 6-16 years old. It is based on a quasi-experimental design, where the independent variable was the extracurricular activity of chess (n = 170) versus extracurricular activities of soccer or basketball (n = 60). The dependent variable was intellectual and socio-affective competence, which was measured by an IQ test (WISC-R), a self-report test (TAMAI) and a hetero-report questionnaire (teacher-tutor's criterion) applied at the beginning and the end of the academic year. In contrast to the comparison group, it was found that chess improves cognitive abilities, coping and problem-solving capacity, and even socioaffective development of children and adolescents who practice it. The results are modulated, particularly in the area socioaffective, by the personal profile of students who choose practice this activity.

  4. Corporate social responsibility: Benefits for youth in hydropower development in Laos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparkes, Stephen

    2014-04-01

    The role of the state as regulator combined with policies on Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) that go beyond legal requirements to establishing programmes that promote development and good international business practice is an emerging new paradigm. In this paper, the example of a state-owned company, Statkraft A.S. of Norway, and its recent hydropower investment in central Laos illustrates how policy, implementation and follow-up can lead to benefits for local communities in the impacted area of the Theun-Hinboun Expansion Project (THXP). Programmes include both support for and improvement of existing government education programmes, employment opportunities and specific programmes for youth. They have been designed to mitigate possible negative effects of the influx of workers and rapid socio-economic change in the affected area. Young people continue to have a central role in the implementation of these programmes as peer educators under the supervision of project staff and non-governmental organisations (NGOs).

  5. Benefits of Enterprise Social Networking Systems for High Energy Physics community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva de Sousa, B.; Wagner, A.; Ormancey, E.; Grzywaczewski, P.

    2015-12-01

    The emergence of social media platforms in the consumer space unlocked new ways of interaction between individuals on the Web. People develop now their social networks and relations based on common interests and activities with the choice to opt-in or opt-out on content of their interest. This kind of platforms have also an important place to fill inside large organizations and enterprises where communication and collaborators interaction are keys for development. Enterprise Social Networking Systems (ESN) add value to an organization by encouraging information sharing, capturing knowledge, enabling action and empowering people. CERN is currently rolling out an ESN which aims to unify and provide a single point of access to the multitude of information sources in the organization. It also implements social features that can be added on top of existing communication channels. While the deployment of this kind of platforms is not without risks we firmly believe that they are of the best interest for our community, opening the opportunity to evaluate a global social network for High Energy Physics (HEP).

  6. Creative benefits from well-connected leaders: leader social network ties as facilitators of employee radical creativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkataramani, Vijaya; Richter, Andreas W; Clarke, Ronald

    2014-09-01

    Employee radical creativity critically depends on substantive informational resources from others across the wider organization. We propose that the social network ties of employees' immediate leaders assume a central role in garnering these resources, thereby fostering their employees' radical creativity both independent of and interactively with employees' own network ties. Drawing on data from 214 employees working in 30 teams of a public technology and environmental services organization, we find that team leaders' betweenness centrality in the idea network within their teams as well as among their peer leaders provides creative benefits beyond employees' own internal and external ties. Further, employees' and leaders' ties within and external to the team interactively predict employee radical creativity. Implications for theory and practice are discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  7. The Utility of Social Media in Providing Information on Zika Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekaran, Neeraja; Gressick, Kimberly; Singh, Vivek; Kwal, Jaclyn; Cap, Natalia; Koru-Sengul, Tulay; Curry, Christine L

    2017-10-23

    Introduction In 2015, there was an outbreak of Zika virus in Brazil that spread throughout the Americas. The association of Zika virus with birth defects in infants born to infected pregnant women created concern for women of childbearing age. Social media is an important platform for health promotion, communication, and education on preventative methods during Zika virus outbreaks. Methods We evaluated the utility of social media on providing information regarding Zika virus. Facebook, Instagram, Twitter, and YouTube were utilized for our study. A search of the term "#Zikavirus" on Twitter and Instagram, and "Zika virus" on Facebook and YouTube was performed. The first 50 search results were analyzed from each source. Only English, Spanish, or Portuguese results were included. Results were categorized into three groups: "Useful", "Not Useful", or "Misleading". Results Search was conducted on December 17th, 2016, with 185 results. Forty (21.6%) were from Facebook, 50 (27%) from Twitter, 48 (25.9%) from YouTube, and 47 (25.4%) from Instagram. A total of 104 (56.22%) results were "Useful", 67 (36.2%) "Not Useful", and 14 (7.5%) were "Misleading". There were significantly more "Useful" results compared to "Not Useful" and "Misleading" results (Fisher's exact: p < 0.0001). Conclusion Social media is a useful resource for providing relevant information on Zika virus. Young women can utilize social media for Zika virus information. The role of social media in public health should be further investigated and established. Patient education interventions should focus on social media impact on behavior modification and education of public to recognize useful information.

  8. Providing feedback as a means to empower householders to save electricity: A social cognitive approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John; Grønhøj, Alice

    , this paper outlines a conceptual framework for understanding private consumers' (lack of) energy saving effort. The framework is tested based on a sample of Danish private electricity consumers and it is concluded that the impediments that now makes electricity saving difficult are a key action point......Studies show that the electricity consumption in private households could be substantially reduced (5 - 25%) without the loss of comfort by using best practice technology and care (Birch & Krogboe A/S, 2004). A number of reasons for the squandering of electricity have been pointed out: the force...... of habit, lack of attention towards the issue, lack of motivation due to an unfavorable cost/benefit ratio, uncertainty about the environmental consequences of the squandering of electricity and about the effects of possible conservation efforts. Based on Bandura's (1986) social cognitive theory...

  9. Alcohol and energy drinks: a pilot study exploring patterns of consumption, social contexts, benefits and harms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennay, Amy; Lubman, Dan I

    2012-07-23

    Young people around the world are increasingly combining alcohol with energy drinks (AEDs). However, as yet, limited research has been conducted examining this issue, particularly in terms of exploring patterns of consumption, social practices and the cultural contexts of AED consumption. We sought to understand how AEDs are used and socially constructed among young people. We conducted 25 hours of observation in a variety of pubs, bars and nightclubs, as well as in-depth interviews with ten young people who regularly consumed AEDs during a session of alcohol use. In this pilot study, participants were highly organised in their AED consumption practices and reported rarely altering this routine. Some young people consumed upwards of eight AEDs on a typical night, and others limited their use to between three and five AEDs to avoid unpleasant consequences, such as sleep disturbances, severe hangovers, heart palpitations and agitation. Wakefulness and increased energy were identified as the primary benefits of AEDs, with taste, reduced and increased intoxication, and sociability reported as additional benefits. Young AED users were brand sensitive and responded strongly to Red Bull imagery, as well as discounted AEDs. Finally, some young people reported substituting illicit stimulants with energy drinks. Combining energy drinks with alcohol is now a normalised phenomenon and an integral and ingrained feature of the night-time economy. Despite this, many young people are unaware of recommended daily limits or related harms. While some young people consume AEDs to feel less drunk (consistent with motivations for combining alcohol with illicit stimulants), others report using AEDs to facilitate intoxication. While preliminary, our findings have relevance for potential policy and regulatory approaches, as well as directions for future research.

  10. Alcohol and energy drinks: a pilot study exploring patterns of consumption, social contexts, benefits and harms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Young people around the world are increasingly combining alcohol with energy drinks (AEDs). However, as yet, limited research has been conducted examining this issue, particularly in terms of exploring patterns of consumption, social practices and the cultural contexts of AED consumption. We sought to understand how AEDs are used and socially constructed among young people. Methods We conducted 25 hours of observation in a variety of pubs, bars and nightclubs, as well as in-depth interviews with ten young people who regularly consumed AEDs during a session of alcohol use. Results In this pilot study, participants were highly organised in their AED consumption practices and reported rarely altering this routine. Some young people consumed upwards of eight AEDs on a typical night, and others limited their use to between three and five AEDs to avoid unpleasant consequences, such as sleep disturbances, severe hangovers, heart palpitations and agitation. Wakefulness and increased energy were identified as the primary benefits of AEDs, with taste, reduced and increased intoxication, and sociability reported as additional benefits. Young AED users were brand sensitive and responded strongly to Red Bull imagery, as well as discounted AEDs. Finally, some young people reported substituting illicit stimulants with energy drinks. Conclusions Combining energy drinks with alcohol is now a normalised phenomenon and an integral and ingrained feature of the night-time economy. Despite this, many young people are unaware of recommended daily limits or related harms. While some young people consume AEDs to feel less drunk (consistent with motivations for combining alcohol with illicit stimulants), others report using AEDs to facilitate intoxication. While preliminary, our findings have relevance for potential policy and regulatory approaches, as well as directions for future research. PMID:22824297

  11. Alcohol and energy drinks: a pilot study exploring patterns of consumption, social contexts, benefits and harms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pennay Amy

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Young people around the world are increasingly combining alcohol with energy drinks (AEDs. However, as yet, limited research has been conducted examining this issue, particularly in terms of exploring patterns of consumption, social practices and the cultural contexts of AED consumption. We sought to understand how AEDs are used and socially constructed among young people. Methods We conducted 25 hours of observation in a variety of pubs, bars and nightclubs, as well as in-depth interviews with ten young people who regularly consumed AEDs during a session of alcohol use. Results In this pilot study, participants were highly organised in their AED consumption practices and reported rarely altering this routine. Some young people consumed upwards of eight AEDs on a typical night, and others limited their use to between three and five AEDs to avoid unpleasant consequences, such as sleep disturbances, severe hangovers, heart palpitations and agitation. Wakefulness and increased energy were identified as the primary benefits of AEDs, with taste, reduced and increased intoxication, and sociability reported as additional benefits. Young AED users were brand sensitive and responded strongly to Red Bull imagery, as well as discounted AEDs. Finally, some young people reported substituting illicit stimulants with energy drinks. Conclusions Combining energy drinks with alcohol is now a normalised phenomenon and an integral and ingrained feature of the night-time economy. Despite this, many young people are unaware of recommended daily limits or related harms. While some young people consume AEDs to feel less drunk (consistent with motivations for combining alcohol with illicit stimulants, others report using AEDs to facilitate intoxication. While preliminary, our findings have relevance for potential policy and regulatory approaches, as well as directions for future research.

  12. CONCEPTUAL BASES OF FORMING THE SYSTEM OF FINANCIAL AND ECONOMIC PROVIDING SOCIAL PROTECTION INVOLUNTARILY DISPLACED PERSONS WITH CLUSTER APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svitlana Kropelnytska

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The article systematizes approaches to financial support and social adaptation of internally displaced persons (IDPs as well as their social protection, that is based on the analysis of legal framework, situation and sources of financial and social support to the EU member states of the IDPs in Ukraine and their social security. The study of the IDPs situation and the assessment of the required resources are based on a cluster approach, which defines optimal set of problem areas requiring priority social and financial support. This allowed to develop practical recommendations for the development of a comprehensive, transparent and unified policy of social protection through the development of a conceptual framework for the financial and economic provision of social protection IDPs, which will be the basic solution to the problems of social and financial provision forced migrants in Ukraine. Key words: forced migrants, internally displaced persons, cluster, social policy, social protection, social providing, financial providing.

  13. Monetizing the social benefits of landfill mining: Evidence from a Contingent Valuation survey in a rural area in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damigos, Dimitris; Menegaki, Maria; Kaliampakos, Dimitris

    2016-05-01

    Despite the emerging global attention towards promoting waste management policies that reduce environmental impacts and conserve natural resources, landfilling still remains the dominant waste management practice in many parts of the world. Owing to this situation, environmental burdens are bequeathed to and large amounts of potentially valuable materials are lost for future generations. As a means to undo these adverse effects a process known as landfill mining (LFM) could be implemented provided that economic feasibility is ensured. So far, only a few studies have focused on the economic feasibility of LFM from a private point of view and even less studies have attempted to economically justify the need for LMF projects from a social point of view. This paper, aiming to add to the limited literature in the field, presents the results of a survey conducted in a rural district in Greece, by means of the Contingent Valuation method (CVM) in order to estimate society's willingness to pay for LFM programs. According to the empirical survey, more than 95% of the respondents recognize the need for LFM programs. Nevertheless, only one-fourth of the respondents are willing to pay through increased taxes for LFM, owing mainly to economic depression and unemployment. Those who accept the increased tax are willing to pay about €50 per household per year, on average, which results in a mean willingness to pay (WTP) for the entire population under investigation of around €12 per household per year. The findings of this research work provide useful insights about the 'dollar-based' benefits of LFM in the context of social cost-benefit analysis of LFM projects. Yet, it is evident that further research is necessary. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Plant defences against ants provide a pathway to social parasitism in butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricelli, Dario; Barbero, Francesca; Occhipinti, Andrea; Bertea, Cinzia M; Bonelli, Simona; Casacci, Luca P; Zebelo, Simon A; Crocoll, Christoph; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Maffei, Massimo E; Thomas, Jeremy A; Balletto, Emilio

    2015-07-22

    Understanding the chemical cues and gene expressions that mediate herbivore-host-plant and parasite-host interactions can elucidate the ecological costs and benefits accruing to different partners in tight-knit community modules, and may reveal unexpected complexities. We investigated the exploitation of sequential hosts by the phytophagous-predaceous butterfly Maculinea arion, whose larvae initially feed on Origanum vulgare flowerheads before switching to parasitize Myrmica ant colonies for their main period of growth. Gravid female butterflies were attracted to Origanum plants that emitted high levels of the monoterpenoid volatile carvacrol, a condition that occurred when ants disturbed their roots: we also found that Origanum expressed four genes involved in monoterpene formation when ants were present, accompanied by a significant induction of jasmonates. When exposed to carvacrol, Myrmica workers upregulated five genes whose products bind and detoxify this biocide, and their colonies were more tolerant of it than other common ant genera, consistent with an observed ability to occupy the competitor-free spaces surrounding Origanum. A cost is potential colony destruction by Ma. arion, which in turn may benefit infested Origanum plants by relieving their roots of further damage. Our results suggest a new pathway, whereby social parasites can detect successive resources by employing plant volatiles to simultaneously select their initial plant food and a suitable sequential host.

  15. Plant defences against ants provide a pathway to social parasitism in butterflies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricelli, Dario; Barbero, Francesca; Occhipinti, Andrea; Bertea, Cinzia M.; Bonelli, Simona; Casacci, Luca P.; Zebelo, Simon A.; Crocoll, Christoph; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Maffei, Massimo E.; Thomas, Jeremy A.; Balletto, Emilio

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the chemical cues and gene expressions that mediate herbivore–host-plant and parasite–host interactions can elucidate the ecological costs and benefits accruing to different partners in tight-knit community modules, and may reveal unexpected complexities. We investigated the exploitation of sequential hosts by the phytophagous–predaceous butterfly Maculinea arion, whose larvae initially feed on Origanum vulgare flowerheads before switching to parasitize Myrmica ant colonies for their main period of growth. Gravid female butterflies were attracted to Origanum plants that emitted high levels of the monoterpenoid volatile carvacrol, a condition that occurred when ants disturbed their roots: we also found that Origanum expressed four genes involved in monoterpene formation when ants were present, accompanied by a significant induction of jasmonates. When exposed to carvacrol, Myrmica workers upregulated five genes whose products bind and detoxify this biocide, and their colonies were more tolerant of it than other common ant genera, consistent with an observed ability to occupy the competitor-free spaces surrounding Origanum. A cost is potential colony destruction by Ma. arion, which in turn may benefit infested Origanum plants by relieving their roots of further damage. Our results suggest a new pathway, whereby social parasites can detect successive resources by employing plant volatiles to simultaneously select their initial plant food and a suitable sequential host. PMID:26156773

  16. Peerwise Provides Significant Academic Benefits to Biological Science Students across Diverse Learning Tasks, but with Minimal Instructor Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQueen, H. A.; Shields, C.; Finnegan, D. J.; Higham, J.; Simmen, M. W.

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate that student engagement with PeerWise, an online tool that allows students to author and answer multiple-choice questions (MCQs), is associated with enhanced academic performance across diverse assessment types on a second year Genetics course. Benefits were consistent over three course deliveries, with differential benefits…

  17. Changes in Spending and Labor Supply in Response to a Social Security Benefit Cut: Evidence from Stated Choice Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delavande, Adeline; Rohwedder, Susann

    2017-12-01

    We investigate how individuals in the U.S. expect to adjust their labor force participation and savings if Social Security benefits were cut by 30 percent. Respondents were asked directly what they would do under this scenario. Using the resulting stated choice data we find that respondents would on average reduce spending by 18.2 percent before retirement and 20.4 percent after retirement. About 34.1% of respondents state they would definitely work longer and they would postpone claiming Social Security by 1.1 years. We investigate how working longer and claiming Social Security later would compensate partially for the loss in benefits among the individuals who are currently working, under the assumption that individuals retire and claim at the same time. Individuals would increase their Social Security benefits from the post-reform level due to additional earnings entering the benefit calculation and a smaller early claiming penalty (or higher delayed claiming credit). As a result, the Social Security benefit people would receive would drop on average by 21 rather than 30 percent. Still, the net financial loss, even after accounting for additional earnings, is sizeable for individuals in the lowest wealth tertile.

  18. The social costs and benefits of Smart Grids; Maatschappelijke kosten en baten van Intelligente Netten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blom, M.J.; Bles, M.; Leguijt, C.; Rooijers, F.J. [CE Delft, Delft (Netherlands); Van Gerwen, R.; Van Hameren, D.; Verheij, F. [KEMA, Arnhem (Netherlands)

    2012-01-15

    Although a reliable social cost-benefit analysis (SCBA) of large-scale introduction of Smart Grids is currently lacking, the rough-and-ready estimates available give the impression that the results of such an exercise would be positive. In the latter half of 2011 and in early 2012 a number of large-scale trials to explore Smart Grids were initiated in the Netherlands: the so-called 'Pilots Smart Grids'. To identify and quantify the social costs and benefits associated with Smart Grids and to assess whether large-scale introduction is indeed desirable, an SCBA needed to be conducted. An additional question concerned the issue to be considered when rolling out large-scale trials aimed at improving the economic impact of Smart Grids in the Netherlands. The key question posed by the commissioning party, the Dutch Ministry of Economic Affairs, Agriculture and Innovation, was to identify and quantify the costs and benefits, both direct and indirect, of a national roll-out of Smart Grids. The present report deals with Phase 1 of the SCBA. [Dutch] De aanleg van intelligente elektriciteitsnetten - ook wel smart grids genoemd - levert een positieve bijdrage aan de toekomstige energievoorziening. Het leidt tot lagere prijzen voor consumenten en bedrijfsleven. Dit wordt geconcludeerd uit een maatschappelijke kosten-batenanalyse (MKBA) die door CE Delft en KEMA is verricht in opdracht van het ministerie van Economische Zaken, Landbouw en Innovatie. In de analyse zijn verschillende energiescenario's tot 2050 doorgerekend. In vrijwel elk toekomstscenario leveren smart grids een positieve bijdrage; of het nu gaat om wel of geen klimaatbeleid, een groot of klein aandeel decentrale energieproductie en andere variaties. Dat komt vooral door de te verwachten gedragsverandering van gebruikers als gevolg van variabele energietarieven en kostenbesparing in de netaanleg en elektriciteitsproductie. Uit de recent gestarte proeftuinen voor Intelligente Netten zal duidelijk

  19. Life-Cycle Cost-Benefit (LCCB) Analysis of Bridges from a User and Social Point of View

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    2009-01-01

    During the last two decades, important progress has been made in the life-cycle cost-benefit (LCCB) analysis of structures, especially offshore platforms, bridges and nuclear installations. Due to the large uncertainties related to the deterioration, maintenance, and benefits of such structures...... is to present and discuss some of these problems from a user and social point of view. A brief presentation of a preliminary study of the importance of including benefits in life-cycle cost-benefit analysis in management systems for bridges is shown. Benefits may be positive as well as negative from the user...... point of view. In the paper, negative benefits (user costs) are discussed in relation to the maintenance of concrete bridges. A limited number of excerpts from published reports that are related to the importance of estimating user costs when repairs of bridges are planned, and when optimized strategies...

  20. Beyond health gain: the range of health system benefits expressed by social groups in Mexico and Central America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Block, M A; Sandiford, P; Ruiz, J A; Rovira, J

    2001-05-01

    Current health reform proposals in most developing countries stress health gain as the chief evaluation criterion. Essential service packages are formulated using cost-effectiveness methods for the selection of interventions without sufficient regard for other factors that are significant for successful implementation and acceptance by the needy. This paper presents the results of research undertaken in Mexico and Central America to test the hypothesis that population groups view health gain as only one among several benefits derived from health systems. The goal at this stage was two-fold: (a) to identify through qualitative methods the range of benefits that are significant for a wide cross-section of social groups and (b) to classify such benefits in types amenable to be used in the development of instruments to measure the benefits intended and actually produced by health systems. Fourteen focus groups were undertaken in Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Mexico and Nicaragua representing diverse age, gender, occupation and social conditions. Six major types of health system benefits were identified besides health gain: reassurance/uncertainty reduction, economic security, confidence in health system quality, financial benefits derived from the system, health care process utility and health system fairness. Benefits most often mentioned can be classed under health care process utility and confidence in system quality. They also have the most consensus across social groups. Other benefits mentioned have an affinity with social conditions. Human resource-derived utility stands out by its frequency in the range of benefits mentioned. Health systems and health sector reform proposals must emphasise those aspects of quality related to human resources to be in accord with population expectations.

  1. #Socialmedia: A Preliminary Report of Social Networking Use among University and College Counseling Center Mental Health Providers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reif, Carrie; Much, Kari

    2017-01-01

    The social networking use of university and college counseling center (UCCC) mental health providers has not been widely researched. Most of the 20 providers surveyed in this preliminary study reported engaging in social networking despite identifying pros and cons to its use. Participants' reported use of social media may indicate that social…

  2. Out and healthy: Being more "out" about a concealable stigmatized identity may boost the health benefits of social support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisz, Bradley M; Quinn, Diane M; Williams, Michelle K

    2016-12-01

    This research examined whether the relationship between perceived social support and health would be moderated by level of outness for people living with different concealable stigmatized identities (mental illness, substance abuse, domestic violence, rape, or childhood abuse). A total of 394 people living with a concealable stigmatized identity completed a survey. Consistent with hypotheses, at high levels of outness, social support predicted better health; at low levels of outness, social support was less predictive of health. People concealing a stigmatized identity may only be able to reap the health benefits of social support if they are "out" about the stigmatized identity. © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. Structure of the physical therapy benefit in a typical Blue Cross Blue Shield preferred provider organization plan available in the individual insurance market in 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandstrom, Robert W; Lehman, Jedd; Hahn, Lee; Ballard, Andrew

    2013-10-01

    The Affordable Care Act of 2010 establishes American Health Benefit Exchanges. The benefit design of insurance plans in state health insurance exchanges will be based on the structure of existing small-employer-sponsored plans. The purpose of this study was to describe the structure of the physical therapy benefit in a typical Blue Cross Blue Shield (BCBS) preferred provider organization (PPO) health insurance plan available in the individual insurance market in 2011. A cross-sectional survey design was used. The physical therapy benefit within 39 BCBS PPO plans in 2011 was studied for a standard consumer with a standard budget. First, whether physical therapy was a benefit in the plan was determined. If so, then the structure of the benefit was described in terms of whether the physical therapy benefit was a stand-alone benefit or part of a combined-discipline benefit and whether a visit or financial limit was placed on the physical therapy benefit. Physical therapy was included in all BCBS plans that were studied. Ninety-three percent of plans combined physical therapy with other disciplines. Two thirds of plans placed a limit on the number of visits covered. The results of the study are limited to 1 standard consumer, 1 association of insurance companies, 1 form of insurance (a PPO), and 1 PPO plan in each of the 39 states that were studied. Physical therapy is a covered benefit in a typical BCBS PPO health insurance plan. Physical therapy most often is combined with other therapy disciplines, and the number of covered visits is limited in two thirds of plans.

  4. Does Manual Therapy Provide Additional Benefit To Breathing Retraining In The Management Of Dysfunctional Breathing? A Randomised Controlled Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, MO; Troup, F; Nugus, J; Roughton, M; Hodson, ME; Rayner, C.; Bowen, F; Pryor, J

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Dysfunctional breathing (DB) is associated with an abnormal breathing pattern, unexplained breathlessness and significant patient morbidity. Treatment involves breathing retraining through respiratory physiotherapy. Recently, manual therapy (MT) has also been used, but no evidence exists to validate its use. This study sought to investigate whether MT produces additional benefit when compared with breathing retraining alone in patients with DB. Methods: Sixty subjects with primary...

  5. Potential benefits and harms of a peer support social network service on the internet for people with depressive tendencies: qualitative content analysis and social network analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Yoshimitsu; Uchida, Chiyoko; Miyaki, Koichi; Sakai, Michi; Shimbo, Takuro; Nakayama, Takeo

    2009-07-23

    Internet peer support groups for depression are becoming popular and could be affected by an increasing number of social network services (SNSs). However, little is known about participant characteristics, social relationships in SNSs, and the reasons for usage. In addition, the effects of SNS participation on people with depression are rather unknown. The aim was to explore the potential benefits and harms of an SNS for depression based on a concurrent triangulation design of mixed methods strategy, including qualitative content analysis and social network analysis. A cross-sectional Internet survey of participants, which involved the collection of SNS log files and a questionnaire, was conducted in an SNS for people with self-reported depressive tendencies in Japan in 2007. Quantitative data, which included user demographics, depressive state, and assessment of the SNS (positive vs not positive), were statistically analyzed. Descriptive contents of responses to open-ended questions concerning advantages and disadvantages of SNS participation were analyzed using the inductive approach of qualitative content analysis. Contents were organized into codes, concepts, categories, and a storyline based on the grounded theory approach. Social relationships, derived from data of "friends," were analyzed using social network analysis, in which network measures and the extent of interpersonal association were calculated based on the social network theory. Each analysis and integration of results were performed through a concurrent triangulation design of mixed methods strategy. There were 105 participants. Median age was 36 years, and 51% (36/71) were male. There were 37 valid respondents; their number of friends and frequency of accessing the SNS were significantly higher than for invalid/nonrespondents (P = .008 and P = .003). Among respondents, 90% (28/31) were mildly, moderately, or severely depressed. Assessment of the SNS was performed by determining the access

  6. Digital recovery management: Characterizing recovery-specific social network site participation and perceived benefit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, Brandon G; Kelly, Nathaniel W; Hoeppner, Bettina B; Vilsaint, Corrie L; Kelly, John F

    2017-06-01

    Research shows that digital social network sites (SNSs) may be valuable platforms to effect health behavior change. Little is known specifically about their ability to help address alcohol and other drug problems. This gap is noteworthy, given that individuals are already participating in existing, recovery-specific SNSs (hereafter referred to as recovery SNSs): online communities with the functionality of conventional SNSs (e.g., Facebook) that focus on substance use disorder (SUD) recovery. For example, InTheRooms.com (ITR) is a large, well-known recovery SNS that is available for free 24 hr/day via website and mobile smartphone applications. It offers recovery tools within a digital social milieu for over 430,000 registered users. To augment the knowledge base on recovery SNS platforms, we conducted an online survey of 123 ITR participants (M = 50.8 years old; 56.9% female; 93.5% White; M = 7.3 years of abstinence, range of 0-30 years; 65% cited alcohol as their primary substance). Respondents engaged with ITR, on average, for about 30 min/day several times each week. Daily meditation prompts and live online video meetings were the most commonly utilized resources. Participants generally endorsed ITR as a helpful platform, particularly with respect to increased abstinence/recovery motivation and self-efficacy. Compared to individuals abstinent for 1 or more years, those abstinent less than 1 year (including nonabstinent individuals) showed similar rates of engagement with ITR activities and similar levels of perceived benefit. Our findings suggest that longitudinal studies are warranted to examine the clinical utility of ITR and other recovery SNSs as SUD treatment adjuncts and/or recovery self-management tools. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Sharing a Personal Trainer: Personal and Social Benefits of Individualized, Small-Group Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayment, Heidi A; McDonald, Rachael L

    2017-11-01

    Wayment, HA and McDonald, RL. Sharing a personal trainer: personal and social benefits of individualized, small-group training. J Strength Cond Res 31(11): 3137-3145, 2017-We examined a novel personal fitness training program that combines personal training principles in a small-group training environment. In a typical training session, exercisers warm-up together but receive individualized training for 50 minutes with 1-5 other adults who range in age, exercise experience, and goals for participation. Study participants were 98 regularly exercising adult members of a fitness studio in the southwestern United States (64 women and 32 men), aged 19-78 years (mean, 46.52 years; SD = 14.15). Average membership time was 2 years (range, 1-75 months; mean, 23.54 months; SD = 20.10). In collaboration with the program directors, we developed a scale to assess satisfaction with key features of this unique training program. Participants completed an online survey in Fall 2015. Hypotheses were tested with a serial mediator model (model 6) using the SPSS PROCESS module. In support of the basic tenets of self-determination theory, satisfaction with small-group, individualized training supported basic psychological needs, which in turn were associated with greater autonomous exercise motivation and life satisfaction. Satisfaction with this unique training method was also associated with greater exercise self-efficacy. Autonomous exercise motivation was associated with both exercise self-efficacy and greater self-reported health and energy. Discussion focuses on why exercise programs that foster a sense of social belonging (in addition to motivation and efficacy) may be helpful for successful adherence to an exercise program.

  8. The provision of health and social care services for older people by respite providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, David

    2013-10-01

    Respite services have been established to support family carers by providing a break from the responsibilities of caregiving. However the literature and anecdotal evidence suggests that respite services offer carers much more than just providing a period of rest. This study was initiated to identify and describe the health and social care services that are offered to family carers and care-recipients by respite services in South Australia. The findings show that respite providers offer a service to both the family carer and care-recipient. Both groups are offered socialisation and engagement opportunities, and care-recipients have access to a diverse range of health care services. The description of respite that emerges from this study is that of a complex service offering much more than just a period of rest from caregiving duties.

  9. Cost of providing injectable contraceptives through a community-based social marketing program in Tigray, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prata, Ndola; Downing, Janelle; Bell, Suzanne; Weidert, Karen; Godefay, Hagos; Gessessew, Amanuel

    2016-06-01

    To provide a cost analysis of an injectable contraceptive program combining community-based distribution and social marketing in Tigray, Ethiopia. We conducted a cost analysis, modeling the costs and programmatic outcomes of the program's initial implementation in 3 districts of Tigray, Ethiopia. Costs were estimated from a review of program expense records, invoices, and interviews with health workers. Programmatic outcomes include number of injections and couple-year of protection (CYP) provided. We performed a sensitivity analysis on the average number of injections provided per month by community health workers (CHWs), the cost of the commodity, and the number of CHWs trained. The average programmatic CYP was US $17.91 for all districts with a substantial range from US $15.48-38.09 per CYP across districts. Direct service cost was estimated at US $2.96 per CYP. The cost per CYP was slightly sensitive to the commodity cost of the injectable contraceptives and the number of CHWs. The capacity of each CHW, measured by the number of injections sold, was a key input that drove the cost per CYP of this model. With a direct service cost of US $2.96 per CYP, this study demonstrates the potential cost of community-based social marketing programs of injectable contraceptives. The findings suggest that the cost of social marketing of contraceptives in rural communities is comparable to other delivery mechanisms with regards to CYP, but further research is needed to determine the full impact and cost-effectiveness for women and communities beyond what is measured in CYP. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. [Poverty, public transfers and health: An analysis on self-rated health of social benefit recipients in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pförtner, T-K; Schumann, N

    2016-09-01

    Prevention and reduction of poverty are key elements of social welfare policy in Germany. This study is the first analysis of self-rated health of individuals that escape poverty by benefiting form public transfers. Analyses are based on the German Socio-economic Panel (GSOEP) of 2010. Self-rated health was based on subjective assessment of general health status. Subjects were directly asked about receipt of public transfers. Income poverty was based on the equalized disposable income and is applied to a threshold of 60% of the median-based average income. We analyzed the association between self-rated health and pre- and post-transfer poverty by means of descriptive analyses and binary logistic regression. After adjusting for age, we found a significantly higher risk of poor self-rated health among those who escaped income poverty due to the receipt of social transfers compared to others (ORWomen: 1.85; 95%-CI: 1.27-2.69; ORMen: 2.57; 95%-CI: 1.63-4.05), in particular to those at risk of post-transfer poverty. These poverty-related inequalities in health were predominantly explained by nationality, occupational status, household type and long-term care within the household. This study provides first evidence that the receipt of public transfers is associated with increased risk of poor health in the light of impending income-poverty. This study adds to the current debate about the social and health implications of public transfers in the relationship between poverty and health. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. Privately Provided Accommodation Service Quality and Customer Satisfaction: The Case of Nsamizi Training Institute of Social Development

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mugambwa, Joshua; Mugerwa, George William; Mutumba, Wilson Williams; Muganzi, Claire; Namubiru, Bridget; Waswa, Yusuf; Kayongo, Isaac Newton

    2016-01-01

    .... This research took a case study of Nsamizi Training Institute of Social Development (NTISD) to determine the relationship between privately provided accommodation service quality and customer satisfaction...

  12. The role of social environment on parental care: offspring benefit more from the presence of female than male helpers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, L.; Van de Pol, M.; Cockburn, A.

    2014-01-01

    1.Investment in offspring depends on the costs and benefits to the carer, which can vary with sex and social status. Investment also depends on the effort of others by allowing for compensation (load-lightening), with biparental care studies showing that this depends on the state and type of the

  13. Knowledge Sources and Opinions of Prospective Social Studies Teachers about Possible Risk and Benefit Analysis: Nuclear Energy and Power Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazici, Hakki; Bulut, Ramazan; Yazici, Sibel

    2016-01-01

    In this study, it was aimed to determine the trust status of prospective social studies teachers regarding various knowledge sources related to nuclear energy and power stations regarded as a controversial socio-scientific issue and their perceptions on the possible risks and benefits of nuclear energy and power stations. Target population of the…

  14. Reverse Inclusion: Providing Peer Social Interaction Opportunities to Students Placed in Self-Contained Special Education Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoger, Kimberly D.

    2006-01-01

    The social and academic benefits of inclusion for students with disabilities have been well researched and well documented. Unfortunately, inclusion opportunities are limited by lack of qualified staff, logistics, scheduling and other difficulties encountered when attempting to meet students' unique needs in the general education setting. As a…

  15. The Endosymbiont Arsenophonus Provides a General Benefit to Soybean Aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) Regardless of Host Plant Resistance (Rag).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulff, Jason A; White, Jennifer A

    2015-06-01

    Soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae), invokes substantial chemical treatment and economic cost in North America. Resistant soybean genotypes hold promise as a low-impact control methodology, but soybean aphid "biotypes" capable of development on resistant soy cast doubt on the durability of soy resistance. We hypothesized that variation in soybean aphid ability to colonize resistant soy is partially attributable to a bacterial symbiont of soybean aphid, Arsenophonus. We used microinjection to manipulate Arsenophonus infection in both virulent and avirulent aphid biotypes, resulting in five pairs of infected versus uninfected isolines. These isolines were subjected to various population growth rate assays on resistant Rag versus susceptible soybean. We found that aphid virulence on Rag soybean was not dependent on Arsenophonus: virulent aphid biotypes performed well on Rag soybean, and avirulent aphid biotypes performed poorly on Rag soybean, regardless of whether Arsenophonus was present or not. However, we did find that Arsenophonus-infected clones on average performed significantly better than their paired uninfected isolines. This pattern was not consistently evident on every date for every clone, either in the population assays nor when we compared lifetime fecundity of individual aphids in a separate experiment. Nevertheless, this overall benefit for infected aphids may be sufficient to explain the high frequency of Arsenophonus infection in soybean aphids. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Social Security and divorce or death benefits storyboard (S(2)D(2)BS): an interactive participant learning exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Pamela Pitman

    2014-01-01

    Using the concept of an interactive or living storyboard, the author discusses the use of seven case narratives constructed for the sole purpose of teaching introductory gerontology or geriatric students about the distribution of Social Security benefits after spousal death. Additional information is included pertaining to Social Security benefits payable to divorced persons after the death of the former spouse, including the status of married same-sex couples. Narratives include representations of a male breadwinner model couple, a two-earner couple who have similar/dissimilar earnings prior to retirement, a divorced couple with a remarriage after a death, a gay couple with and without children, and a female primary breadwinner couple. Updated information from the Social Security Administration, as well as information on game preparation, scripts, and debriefing questions are included.

  17. 137Cs Inter-Plant Concentration Ratios Provide a Predictive Tool for Coral Atolls with Distinct Benefits Over Transfer Factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robison, W L; Hamilton, T F; Bogen, K; Corado, C L; Kehl, S R

    2007-07-17

    Inter-plant concentration ratios (IPCR), [Bq g{sup -1} {sup 137}Cs in coral atoll tree food-crops/Bq g{sup -1} {sup 137}Cs in leaves of native plant species whose roots share a common soil volume], can replace transfer factors (TF) to predict {sup 137}Cs concentration in tree food-crops in a contaminated area with an aged source term. The IPCR strategy has significant benefits relative to TF strategy for such purposes in the atoll ecosystem. IPCR strategy applied to specific assessments takes advantage of the fact tree roots naturally integrate 137Cs over large volumes of soil. Root absorption of {sup 137}Cs replaces large-scale, expensive soil sampling schemes to reduce variability in {sup 137}Cs concentration due to inhomogeneous radionuclide distribution. IPCR [drinking-coconut meat (DCM)/Scaevola (SCA) and Tournefortia (TOU) leaves (native trees growing on all atoll islands)] are log normally distributed (LND) with geometric standard deviation (GSD) = 1.85. TF for DCM from Enewetak, Eneu, Rongelap and Bikini Atolls are LND with GSD's of 3.5, 3.0, 2.7, and 2.1, respectively. TF GSD for Rongelap copra coconut meat is 2.5. IPCR of Pandanus fruit to SCA and TOU leaves are LND with GSD = 1.7 while TF GSD is 2.1. Because IPCR variability is much lower than TF variability, relative sampling error of an IPCR field sample mean is up 6- to 10-fold lower than that of a TF sample mean if sample sizes are small (10 to 20). Other IPCR advantages are that plant leaf samples are collected and processed in far less time with much less effort and cost than soil samples.

  18. Cognitive Benefits of Social Dancing and Walking in Old Age: The Dancing Mind Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merom, Dafna; Grunseit, Anne; Eramudugolla, Ranmalee; Jefferis, Barbara; Mcneill, Jade; Anstey, Kaarin J

    2016-01-01

    A physically active lifestyle has the potential to prevent cognitive decline and dementia, yet the optimal type of physical activity/exercise remains unclear. Dance is of special interest as it complex sensorimotor rhythmic activity with additional cognitive, social, and affective dimensions. To determine whether dance benefits executive function more than walking, an activity that is simple and functional. Two-arm randomized controlled trial among community-dwelling older adults. The intervention group received 1 h of ballroom dancing twice weekly over 8 months (~69 sessions) in local community dance studios. The control group received a combination of a home walking program with a pedometer and optional biweekly group-based walking in local community park to facilitate socialization. Executive function tests: processing speed and task shift by the Trail Making Tests, response inhibition by the Stroop Color-Word Test, working memory by the Digit Span Backwards test, immediate and delayed verbal recall by the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test, and visuospatial recall by the Brief Visuospatial Memory Test (BVST). One hundred and fifteen adults (mean 69.5 years, SD 6.4) completed baseline and delayed baseline (3 weeks apart) before being randomized to either dance (n = 60) or walking (n = 55). Of those randomized, 79 (68%) completed the follow-up measurements (32 weeks from baseline). In the dance group only, "non-completers" had significantly lower baseline scores on all executive function tests than those who completed the full program. Intention-to-treat analyses showed no group effect. In a random effects model including participants who completed all measurements, adjusted for baseline score and covariates (age, education, estimated verbal intelligence, and community), a between-group effect in favor of dance was noted only for BVST total learning (Cohen's D Effect size 0.29, p = 0.07) and delayed recall (Cohen's D Effect size = 0

  19. Social Responsibility and the State's Duty to provide Healthcare: An Islamic Ethico-Legal Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padela, Aasim I

    2017-12-01

    The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization's (UNESCO) Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights asserts that governments are morally obliged to promote health and to provide access to quality healthcare, essential medicines and adequate nutrition and water to all members of society. According to UNESCO, this obligation is grounded in a moral commitment to promoting fundamental human rights and emerges from the principle of social responsibility. Yet in an era of ethical pluralism and contentions over the universality of human rights conventions, the extent to which the UNESCO Declaration can motivate behaviors and policies rests, at least in part, upon accepting the moral arguments it makes. In this essay I reflect on a state's moral obligation to provide healthcare from the perspective of Islamic moral theology and law. I examine how Islamic ethico-legal conceptual analogues for human rights and communal responsibility, ḥuqūq al-'ibād and farḍ al-kifāyah and other related constructs might be used to advance a moral argument for healthcare provision by the state. Moving from theory to application, I next illustrate how notions of human rights and social responsibility were used by Muslim stakeholders to buttress moral arguments to support American healthcare reform. In this way, the paper advance discourses on a universal bioethics and common morality by bringing into view the concordances and discordances between Islamic ethico-legal constructs and moral arguments advanced by transnational health policy advocates. It also provides insight into applied Islamic bioethics by demonstrating how Islamic ethico-legal values might inform the discursive outputs of Muslim organizations. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Going for increased recycling. A social cost-benefit analysis; Inzetten op meer recycling. Een maatschappelijke kosten-batenanalyse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warringa, G.E.A.; De Bruyn, M.; Bijleveld, M.M.

    2013-05-15

    While the environmental benefits of scenarios geared to increased recycling have been convincingly demonstrated by previous studies, the question arises whether such scenarios bring economic benefits, too. This study therefore assesses the main economic effects of increased recycling in the Netherlands, providing data that can be used to advance policy development in this area. To address the main issue we performed a social cost-benefit analysis (SCBA), a welfare-theory-based tool that can be used to chart the full range of economic impacts ('welfare impacts') of a project or policy intervention. In doing so, a broad definition of welfare is adopted, encompassing not only financial and economic consequences, but also environmental and employment impacts and so on. Using SimaPro, all the environmental interventions inventoried (including energy consumption, transport and recycling process emissions) were assessed for each individual material flow, with impacts being expressed as far as possible in monetary terms to enable comparison. The main social costs of increased recycling are the higher costs for local authorities associated with separate waste collection. There is also reduced revenue for waste incinerators, because more waste will need to be imported from abroad. Finally, there are the policy costs of incentives for increased recycling and extra efforts to induce citizens to separate their waste. The latter costs were not quantified. Over and against these costs are positive welfare impacts. The main benefits are environmental, expressed monetarily in the present study in terms of avoided damage costs for society as a whole and avoided measures for securing government reduction targets. In addition, the separated waste has a value, reflected in lower processing costs. Increased recycling also creates new jobs, while recycling firms generate more profit than waste incinerators. Finally, there are the benefits accruing from greater innovation and

  1. Cognitive, emotional, and social benefits of regular musical activities in early dementia: randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Särkämö, Teppo; Tervaniemi, Mari; Laitinen, Sari; Numminen, Ava; Kurki, Merja; Johnson, Julene K; Rantanen, Pekka

    2014-08-01

    During aging, musical activities can help maintain physical and mental health and cognitive abilities, but their rehabilitative use has not been systematically explored in persons with dementia (PWDs). Our aim was to determine the efficacy of a novel music intervention based on coaching the caregivers of PWDs to use either singing or music listening regularly as a part of everyday care. Eighty-nine PWD-caregiver dyads were randomized to a 10-week singing coaching group (n = 30), a 10-week music listening coaching group (n = 29), or a usual care control group (n = 30). The coaching sessions consisted primarily of singing/listening familiar songs coupled occasionally with vocal exercises and rhythmic movements (singing group) and reminiscence and discussions (music listening group). In addition, the intervention included regular musical exercises at home. All PWDs underwent an extensive neuropsychological assessment, which included cognitive tests, as well as mood and quality of life (QOL) scales, before and after the intervention period and 6 months later. In addition, the psychological well-being of family members was repeatedly assessed with questionnaires. Compared with usual care, both singing and music listening improved mood, orientation, and remote episodic memory and to a lesser extent, also attention and executive function and general cognition. Singing also enhanced short-term and working memory and caregiver well-being, whereas music listening had a positive effect on QOL. Regular musical leisure activities can have long-term cognitive, emotional, and social benefits in mild/moderate dementia and could therefore be utilized in dementia care and rehabilitation. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Beyond behavior modification: Benefits of social-emotional/self-regulation training for preschoolers with behavior problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graziano, Paulo A; Hart, Katie

    2016-10-01

    The current study evaluated the initial efficacy of three intervention programs aimed at improving school readiness in preschool children with externalizing behavior problems (EBP). Participants for this study included 45 preschool children (76% boys; Mage=5.16years; 84% Hispanic/Latino background) with at-risk or clinically elevated levels of EBP. During the summer between preschool and kindergarten, children were randomized to receive three newly developed intervention packages. The first and most cost effective intervention package was an 8-week School Readiness Parenting Program (SRPP). Families randomized into the second and third intervention packages received not only the weekly SRPP, but children also attended two different versions of an intensive kindergarten summer readiness class (M-F, 8a.m.-5p.m.) that was part of an 8-week summer treatment program for pre-kindergarteners (STP-PreK). One version included the standard behavioral modification system and academic curriculum (STP-PreK) while the other additionally contained social-emotional and self-regulation training (STP-PreK Enhanced). Baseline, post-intervention, and 6-month follow-up data were collected on children's school readiness outcomes including parent, teacher, and objective assessment measures. Analyses using linear mixed models indicated that children's behavioral functioning significantly improved across all groups in a similar magnitude. Children in the STP-PreK Enhanced group, however, experienced greater growth across time in academic achievement, emotion knowledge, emotion regulation, and executive functioning compared to children in the other groups. These findings suggest that while parent training is sufficient to address children's behavioral difficulties, an intensive summer program that goes beyond behavioral modification and academic preparation by targeting socio-emotional and self-regulation skills can have incremental benefits across multiple aspects of school readiness

  3. Financial benefits for child health and well-being in low income or socially disadvantaged families in developed world countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, P J; McIntosh, K; Petticrew, M; Roberts, H m; Shiell, A

    2008-04-16

    A strong and consistent relationship has been observed between relative poverty and poor child health and wellbeing even among rich nations. This review set out to examine evidence that additional monies provided to poor or disadvantaged families may benefit children by reducing relative poverty and thereby improving children's health, well-being and educational attainment. To assess the effectiveness of direct provision of additional monies to socially or economically disadvantaged families in improving children's health, well-being and educational attainment In total 10 electronic databases were searched including the Cochrane library searched 2006 (Issue 1), Medline searched 1966 to May 2006 , Econlit searched 1969 to June 2006 and PsycINFO searched 1872 to June 2006, together with 3 libraries of working papers (MDRC, SSRN, SRDC). The general search strategy was [terms for income and financial benefits] and [paediatric terms] and [RCT filter] Studies selected provided money to relatively poor families (which included a child under the age of 18 or a pregnant woman), were randomised or quasi-randomised, measured outcomes related to child health or wellbeing and were conducted in a high income country. Titles and abstracts identified in the search were independently assessed for eligibility by two reviewers. Data were extracted and entered into RevMan, synthesised and presented in both written and graphical form (forest plots). Nine trials including more than 25,000 participants were included in this review. No effect was observed on child health, measures of child mental health or emotional state. Non-significant effects favouring the intervention group were seen for child cognitive development and educational achievement, and a non-significant effect favouring controls in rates of teenage pregnancy. The review set out to examine the potential of financial support to poor families to improve circumstances for children. However, on the basis of current evidence we

  4. State Design and Use of Medicaid 1915(c) Waivers and Related Benefits to Provide Services to Children and Youth With Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Nancy A; Merryman, M Beth; Eskow, Karen Goldrich; Chasson, Gregory S

    2016-07-01

    Medicaid is the most significant source of funding for medical services for individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We surveyed state Medicaid directors or their designees regarding their use of autism specific 1915(c) waivers and other Medicaid benefits to provide services to children and youth with ASD, with a response rate of 84%. Ten states used autism-specific waivers to provide services. These waivers varied in the number of children served, eligibility criteria and services provided, among other characteristics. Issues related to the number of children to serve and the specific services to provide were perceived to be the most difficult waiver design issues, while provider geographic distribution, capacity and expertise were perceived to be the most difficult implementation concerns. States used a variety of additional Medicaid state plan services (e.g., the optional rehabilitation benefit) and 1915(c) waivers (e.g., a more general waiver serving individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities) to provide services to children and youth with ASD. Thus, continuing to examine the adequacy and effectiveness of state use of a range of Medicaid benefits, including autism-specific 1915(c) waivers is critical. Expanding the evidence base for intervention effectiveness is important as well.

  5. How music and social engagement provides healthy aging and prevents behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridder, Hanne Mette Ochsner

    2018-01-01

    engagement and learning, and further affects cognitive reserve and the way we age. Music and musical elements affect listeners differently but seem to regulate our body and brain at a much deeper level than we are aware of. When music touches and engages us, a release of the neurotransmitter Norepinephrine....... In addition, through musical interaction, meaningful expression of psychosocial needs may indirectly lead to a reduction of behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia. For the person with severe dementia, with sensory and cognitive decline, this offers a healthy means of remaining active, autonomous......Music is much more than a simple stimulus bringing individual pleasure; it also facilitates interpersonal synchrony. In this chapter professor of music therapy, Hanne Mette Ridder, brings together evidence from various disciplines to provide a new perspective on how music stimulates social...

  6. A systematic review of the psychological and social benefits of participation in sport for children and adolescents: informing development of a conceptual model of health through sport

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background There are specific guidelines regarding the level of physical activity (PA) required to provide health benefits. However, the research underpinning these PA guidelines does not address the element of social health. Furthermore, there is insufficient evidence about the levels or types of PA associated specifically with psychological health. This paper first presents the results of a systematic review of the psychological and social health benefits of participation in sport by children and adolescents. Secondly, the information arising from the systematic review has been used to develop a conceptual model. Methods A systematic review of 14 electronic databases was conducted in June 2012, and studies published since 1990 were considered for inclusion. Studies that addressed mental and/or social health benefits from participation in sport were included. Results A total of 3668 publications were initially identified, of which 30 met the selection criteria. There were many different psychological and social health benefits reported, with the most commonly being improved self-esteem, social interaction followed by fewer depressive symptoms. Sport may be associated with improved psychosocial health above and beyond improvements attributable to participation in PA. Specifically, team sport seems to be associated with improved health outcomes compared to individual activities, due to the social nature of the participation. A conceptual model, Health through Sport, is proposed. The model depicts the relationship between psychological, psychosocial and social health domains, and their positive associations with sport participation, as reported in the literature. However, it is acknowledged that the capacity to determine the existence and direction of causal links between participation and health is limited by the fact that the majority of studies identified (n=21) were cross-sectional. Conclusion It is recommended that community sport participation is advocated as a

  7. A systematic review of the psychological and social benefits of participation in sport for children and adolescents: informing development of a conceptual model of health through sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eime, Rochelle M; Young, Janet A; Harvey, Jack T; Charity, Melanie J; Payne, Warren R

    2013-08-15

    There are specific guidelines regarding the level of physical activity (PA) required to provide health benefits. However, the research underpinning these PA guidelines does not address the element of social health. Furthermore, there is insufficient evidence about the levels or types of PA associated specifically with psychological health. This paper first presents the results of a systematic review of the psychological and social health benefits of participation in sport by children and adolescents. Secondly, the information arising from the systematic review has been used to develop a conceptual model. A systematic review of 14 electronic databases was conducted in June 2012, and studies published since 1990 were considered for inclusion. Studies that addressed mental and/or social health benefits from participation in sport were included. A total of 3668 publications were initially identified, of which 30 met the selection criteria. There were many different psychological and social health benefits reported, with the most commonly being improved self-esteem, social interaction followed by fewer depressive symptoms. Sport may be associated with improved psychosocial health above and beyond improvements attributable to participation in PA. Specifically, team sport seems to be associated with improved health outcomes compared to individual activities, due to the social nature of the participation. A conceptual model, Health through Sport, is proposed. The model depicts the relationship between psychological, psychosocial and social health domains, and their positive associations with sport participation, as reported in the literature. However, it is acknowledged that the capacity to determine the existence and direction of causal links between participation and health is limited by the fact that the majority of studies identified (n=21) were cross-sectional. It is recommended that community sport participation is advocated as a form of leisure time PA for children

  8. Taxation of Social Security benefits under the new income tax provisions: distributional estimates for 1994.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattison, D

    1994-01-01

    The 1993 Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act raised the proportion of benefits includable in income for the Federal personal income tax. This article presents estimates of the income-distributional effects of the new provision in 1994, the first year for which it is effective. Under the pre-1993 law, up to 50 percent of benefits were included in taxable income for certain high-income beneficiaries. Under the new law, some of these beneficiaries are required to include an even higher proportion of benefits--up to 85 percent. Only 11 percent of beneficiary families, concentrated in the top three deciles by family income, include more of their benefits in taxable income under the new law than they would have under the old law. Another 8 percent include the same amount of benefits under either. The remaining beneficiary families, more than 80 percent, include no benefits in taxable income under either the old law or the new.

  9. Awareness and utilization of social security scheme and other government benefits by the elderly – A study in rural area of district Dehradun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Kumar Srivastava

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The rapid ageing of India’s population, has highlighted the need for better economic security arrangements for the elderly. Increased longevity is making care of the elderly more expensive and traditional family ties are beginning to fray, and The Government of India have initiated an array of schemes and benefits for providing some level of social security to the elderly. Objectives:  To study the background characteristic of the elderly and extent of awareness and utilization of social security and other government benefits. Methodology: Study Design: Descriptive, observational cross sectional field based study. Statistical analysis: Percentages and proportions. Results: Three out of every five houses was headed by an elderly. No formal education was received by 35.4% of the elderly. Widowhood was as high as 49.5% among elderly women. Awareness of social security scheme (Indira Gandhi National Old Age Pension Scheme was observed in 74.6% of the elderly but only 45.4% utilized it. The proportion of elderly who were aware of concession in railway ticket and higher interest rates on deposits in Bank/Post office respectively was 34.9% and 32.9%. The utilization rate was however abysmally low with 27.8% utilizing railway ticket concession and 10.1% depositing money to get higher interest in Bank/Post office. Less than 1% elderly utilized income tax benefits. Conclusion: There is an urgent need to review the existing policy guidelines and amend them to suit and benefit the elderly. The schemes and benefits meant for the elderly needs to be more relevant and effectively implemented at the community level.

  10. Lifetime earnings patterns, the distribution of future Social Security benefits, and the impact of pension reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosworth, B; Burtless, G; Steuerle, E

    2000-01-01

    In order to assess the effect of Social Security reform on current and future workers, it is essential to accurately characterize the initial situations of representative workers affected by reform. For the purpose of analyzing typical reforms, the most important characteristic of a worker is the level and pattern of his or her preretirement earnings. Under the current system, pensions are determined largely by the level of the workers' earnings averaged over their work life. However, several reform proposals would create individual retirement accounts for which the pension would depend on the investment accumulation within the account. Thus, the pension would also depend on the timing of the contributions into the account and hence on the exact shape of the worker's lifetime earnings profile. Most analysis of the distributional impact of reform has focused, however, on calculating benefit changes among a handful of hypothetical workers whose relative earnings are constant over their work life. The earnings levels are not necessarily chosen to represent the situations of workers who have typical or truly representative earnings patterns. Consequently, the results of such analysis can be misleading, especially if reform involves introducing a fundamentally new kind of pension formula. This article presents two broad approaches to creating representative earnings profiles for policy evaluation. First, we use standard econometric methods to predict future earnings for a representative sample of workers drawn from the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP). Our statistical estimates are based on a simple representation of typical career earnings paths and a fixed-effect statistical specification. Because our estimation file contains information on each worker's annual earnings from 1951 through 1996 as reported in the Social Security Administration's earnings files, we have a record (though an incomplete one) of the actual earnings that will be used to

  11. Primary palliative care clinic pilot project demonstrates benefits of a nurse practitioner-directed clinic providing primary and palliative care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Darrell; Eby, Kerry; Burson, Sean; Green, Meghan; McGoodwin, Wendy; Isaac, Margaret

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the Primary Palliative Care Pilot Project was to determine if patients with a life-limiting illness who receive their primary care and palliative care from a consistent provider via a nurse practitioner (NP)-founded and-directed Primary Palliative Care Clinic at a public hospital would have improved symptom management and decreased emergency department utilization over time. All patients followed in the Harborview Primary Palliative Care Clinic from January to March 2010. The results of this project demonstrate that patients with a life-limiting illness who receive their primary care and palliative care in an NP-founded and -directed Primary Palliative Care Clinic have decreased utilization of the emergency department, and some experience improvement in symptom assessment scores. Palliative care providers and administrators should explore opportunities to expand outpatient palliative care clinics with an emphasis on primary care and continuity of care. NPs by experience and education are ideally suited to manage both primary and palliative care needs for people at the end of life. ©2011 The Author(s) Journal compilation ©2011 American Academy of Nurse Practitioners.

  12. Assessing the Benefits Provided by SWOT Data Towards Estimating Reservoir Residence Time in the Mekong River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnema, M.; Hossain, F.

    2016-12-01

    The Mekong River Basin is undergoing rapid hydropower development. Nine dams are planned on the main stem of the Mekong and many more on its extensive tributaries. Understanding the effects that current and future dams have on the river system and water cycle as a whole is vital for the millions of people living in the basin. reservoir residence time, the amount of time water spends stored in a reservoir, is a key parameter in investigating these impacts. The forthcoming Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) mission is poised to provide an unprecedented amount of surface water observations. SWOT, when augmented by current satellite missions, will provide the necessary information to estimate the residence time of reservoirs across the entire basin in a more comprehensive way than ever before. In this study, we first combine observations from current satellite missions (altimetry, spectral imaging, precipitation) to estimate the residence times of existing reservoirs. We then use this information to project how future reservoirs will increase the residence time of the river system. Next, we explore how SWOT observations can be used to improve residence time estimation by examining the accuracy of reservoir surface area and elevation observations as well as the accuracy of river discharge observations.

  13. Benefits of social vs. non-social feedback on learning and generosity. Results from the Tipping Game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, Matteo; Stankevicius, Aistis; Seriès, Peggy

    2014-01-01

    Although much work has recently been directed at understanding social decision-making, relatively little is known about how different types of feedback impact adaptive changes in social behavior. To address this issue quantitatively, we designed a novel associative learning task called the "Tipping Game," in which participants had to learn a social norm of tipping in restaurants. Participants were found to make more generous decisions from feedback in the form of facial expressions, in comparison to feedback in the form of symbols such as ticks and crosses. Furthermore, more participants displayed learning in the condition where they received social feedback than participants in the non-social condition. Modeling results showed that the pattern of performance displayed by participants receiving social feedback could be explained by a lower sensitivity to economic costs.

  14. Benefits of social vs. non-social feedback on learning and generosity. Results from the Tipping Game

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo eColombo

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Although much work has recently been directed at understanding social decision-making, relatively little is known about how different types of feedback impact adaptive changes in social behavior. To address this issue quantitatively, we designed a novel associative learning task called the Tipping Game, in which participants had to learn a social norm of tipping in restaurants. Participants were found to make more generous decisions from reward feedback in the form of facial expressions, in comparison to reward feedback in the form of symbols such as ticks and crosses. Furthermore, more participants displayed learning in the condition where they received social reward feedback than participants in the non-social condition. Modeling results showed that the pattern of performance displayed by participants receiving social reward feedback could be explained by a lower sensitivity to economic costs.

  15. Benefits of social vs. non-social feedback on learning and generosity. Results from the Tipping Game

    OpenAIRE

    Matteo eColombo; Aistis eStankevicius; Peggy eSeries

    2014-01-01

    Although much work has recently been directed at understanding social decision-making, relatively little is known about how different types of feedback impact adaptive changes in social behavior. To address this issue quantitatively, we designed a novel associative learning task called the Tipping Game, in which participants had to learn a social norm of tipping in restaurants. Participants were found to make more generous decisions from reward feedback in the form of facial expressions, in c...

  16. Citrus fruits as a treasure trove of active natural metabolites that potentially provide benefits for human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Xinmiao; Zhao, Siyu; Ning, Zhangchi; Zeng, Honglian; Shu, Yisong; Tao, Ou; Xiao, Cheng; Lu, Cheng; Liu, Yuanyan

    2015-01-01

    Citrus fruits, which are cultivated worldwide, have been recognized as some of the most high-consumption fruits in terms of energy, nutrients and health supplements. What is more, a number of these fruits have been used as traditional medicinal herbs to cure diseases in several Asian countries. Numerous studies have focused on Citrus secondary metabolites as well as bioactivities and have been intended to develop new chemotherapeutic or complementary medicine in recent decades. Citrus-derived secondary metabolites, including flavonoids, alkaloids, limonoids, coumarins, carotenoids, phenolic acids and essential oils, are of vital importance to human health due to their active properties. These characteristics include anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, as well as cardiovascular protective effects, neuroprotective effects, etc. This review summarizes the global distribution and taxonomy, numerous secondary metabolites and bioactivities of Citrus fruits to provide a reference for further study. Flavonoids as characteristic bioactive metabolites in Citrus fruits are mainly introduced.

  17. Benefits of family reunions : Social support in secondary greylag goose families

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheiber, Isabella B. R.; Kotrschal, Kurt; Weiss, Brigitte M.

    Social interactions are among the most potent stressors. However, social allies may diminish stress, increase success in agonistic encounters and ease access to resources. We studied the role of social support as a major mechanism for individual stress management in families of free-ranging greylag

  18. Benefits General Education Students Receive from Inclusion Classes and Social Skills Training Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Denise Marie

    2012-01-01

    Social inclusion has become an increasingly relevant issue in public school education during the past several years. Differences between social skills in students who were educated in inclusion elementary school classrooms and those who were not placed in inclusion classrooms were examined. Teachers were asked to rate the social skills of students…

  19. Social media in the health-care setting: benefits but also a minefield of compliance and other legal issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, Richard E; McNeese, Libra G; Feld, Lauren D; Feld, Andrew D

    2014-08-01

    Throughout the past 20 years, the rising use of social media has revolutionized health care as well as other businesses. It allows large groups of people to create and share information, ideas, and experiences through online communications, and develop social and professional contacts easily and inexpensively. Our Gastroenterology organizations, among others, have embraced this technology. Although the health-care benefits may be many, social media must be viewed through a legal lens, recognizing the accompanying burdens of compliance, ethical, and litigation issues. Theories of liability and risk continue to evolve as does the technology. Social media usage within the medical community is fraught with potential legal issues, requiring remedial responses to meet patients' needs and comply with current laws, while not exposing physicians to medical malpractice and other tort risks.

  20. Speech Perception in Noise in Normally Hearing Children: Does Binaural Frequency Modulated Fitting Provide More Benefit than Monaural Frequency Modulated Fitting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukari, Siti Zamratol-Mai Sarah; Umat, Cila; Razak, Ummu Athiyah Abdul

    2011-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the benefit of monaural versus binaural ear-level frequency modulated (FM) fitting on speech perception in noise in children with normal hearing. Reception threshold for sentences (RTS) was measured in no-FM, monaural FM, and binaural FM conditions in 22 normally developing children with bilateral normal hearing, aged 8 to 9 years old. Data were gathered using the Pediatric Malay Hearing in Noise Test (P-MyHINT) with speech presented from front and multi-talker babble presented from 90°, 180°, 270° azimuths in a sound treated booth. The results revealed that the use of either monaural or binaural ear level FM receivers provided significantly better mean RTSs than the no-FM condition (Pbinaural FM did not produce a significantly greater benefit in mean RTS than monaural fitting. The benefit of binaural over monaural FM varies across individuals; while binaural fitting provided better RTSs in about 50% of study subjects, there were those in whom binaural fitting resulted in either deterioration or no additional improvement compared to monaural FM fitting. The present study suggests that the use of monaural ear-level FM receivers in children with normal hearing might provide similar benefit as binaural use. Individual subjects' variations of binaural FM benefit over monaural FM suggests that the decision to employ monaural or binaural fitting should be individualized. It should be noted however, that the current study recruits typically developing normal hearing children. Future studies involving normal hearing children with high risk of having difficulty listening in noise is indicated to see if similar findings are obtained.

  1. Trends and Correlates of Consenting to Provide Social Security Numbers: Longitudinal Findings from the General Social Survey (1993-2010)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jibum; Shin, Hee-Choon; Rosen, Zohn; Kang, Jeong-han; Dykema, Jennifer; Muennig, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Privacy and confidentiality are often of great concern to respondents answering sensitive questions posed by interviewers. Using the 1993-2010 General Social Survey, we examined trends in the provision of social security numbers (SSNs) and correlates of those responses. Results indicate that the rate of SSN provision has declined over the past…

  2. Cognitive benefits of social dancing and walking in old age: the Dancing Mind randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dafna eMerom

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: A physically active lifestyle has the potential to prevent cognitive decline and dementia, yet the optimal type of physical activity/exercise remains unclear. Dance is of special interest as it complex sensorimotor rhythmic activity with additional cognitive, social and affective dimensions. Objectives: to determine whether dance benefits executive function more than walking, an activity that is simple and functional. Methods: Two-arm randomised controlled trial among community-dwelling older adults. The intervention group received 1 hour of ballroom dancing twice weekly over 8 months (~69sessions in local community dance studios. The control group received a combination of a home walking program with a pedometer and optional biweekly group-based walking in local community park to facilitate socialisation. Main outcomes: Main outcomes: executive function tests: processing speed and task shift by the Trail Making Tests (TMT, response inhibition by the Stroop Colour-Word Test (SCWT, working memory by the Digit Span Backwards (DSB test, immediate and delayed verbal recall by the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT and visuospatial recall by the Brief Visuospatial Memory Test (BVST. Results: One hundred and fifteen adults (69.5 years, SD6.4 completed baseline and delayed baseline (3 weeks apart before being randomised to either dance (n=60 or walking (n=55. Of those randomized, 79 (68% completed the follow-up measurements (32 weeks from baseline. In the dance group only, ‘non-completers’ had significant lower baseline scores on all executive function tests than those completed the full program. Intention-to-treat analyses showed no group effect. In a random effects model including participants who completed all measurements, adjusted for baseline score and covariates (age, education, estimated verbal intelligence, community, a between group effect in favour of dance was noted only for BVST total learning (Cohen’s D Effect size

  3. Social Media and the Practicing Hematologist: Twitter 101 for the Busy Healthcare Provider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Michael A; Majhail, Navneet S; Wood, William A; Perales, Miguel-Angel; Chaboissier, Mélanie

    2015-12-01

    Social media is a relatively new form of media that includes social networks for communication dissemination and interaction. Patients, physicians, and other users are active on social media including the microblogging platform Twitter. Many online resources are available to facilitate joining and adding to online conversations. Social media can be used for professional uses, therefore, we include anecdotes of physicians starting on and implementing social media successfully despite the limits of time in busy practices. Various applications demonstrating the utility of social media are explored. These include case discussions, patient groups, research collaborations, medical education, and crowdsourcing/crowdfunding. Social media is integrating into the professional workflow for some individuals and hematology/oncology societies. The potential for improving hematology care and research is just starting to be explored.

  4. A Grounded Theory Study of the Risks and Benefits Associated with the Use of Online Social Networking Applications in a Military Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, James O., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    There is a perception that there are risks and benefits associated with the use of online social networking media within a military organization. This research study explored this perception by investigating how employees use social networking applications and their perceptions of the benefits they receive. The study also assessed the measures…

  5. Satisfaction with and benefits of a psych-social club: development of a mixed method evaluation instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labun, Evelyn; Yurkovich, Eleanor; Ide, Bette A

    2012-12-01

    There are no instruments for validation or evaluation of a member's satisfaction of and benefits with psych-social clubs. This article reports on the development and testing of the mixed-method instrument entitled Benefits and Satisfaction Tool for Members of a Psych-social Club (B&ST-MPC), which evolved from findings of a qualitative research study. The alpha reliability coefficient was .92. The Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Test yielded a value of .812. The items loaded on 3 factors. Utilization of B&ST-MPC supports development of services for rural communities through feedback from consumers. Further testing of the B&ST-MPC in settings with diverse populations is recommended. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Influence of Parental Monitoring, Sensation Seeking, Expected Social Benefits, and Refusal Efficacy on Tobacco and Alcohol Use in Chinese Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Jincong; Wu, Qingfeng; Yang, Chengwu; Vrana, Kent E.; Zhou, Li; Yang, Longyu; Zhang,Hui; Yan, Dong; Li, Jiang; Teng, Shiwei; Gong, Jie; Yan, Yaqiong; Wang, Zengzhen

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The relationships between parental monitoring (PM), sensation seeking (SS), expected social benefits (ESB), refusal efficacy (RE), and tobacco and alcohol use (TAU) have been well documented among adolescents. However, the mechanisms by which these 4 determinants affect TAU remain unclear. Based on the Theory of Triadic Influence, this study aimed to explore how PM, SS, ESB, and RE simultaneously influenced TAU in Chinese adolescents. From September 2013 to June 2014, we used multist...

  7. Facebook friends with (health) benefits? Exploring social network site use and perceptions of social support, stress, and well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabi, Robin L; Prestin, Abby; So, Jiyeon

    2013-10-01

    There is clear evidence that interpersonal social support impacts stress levels and, in turn, degree of physical illness and psychological well-being. This study examines whether mediated social networks serve the same palliative function. A survey of 401 undergraduate Facebook users revealed that, as predicted, number of Facebook friends associated with stronger perceptions of social support, which in turn associated with reduced stress, and in turn less physical illness and greater well-being. This effect was minimized when interpersonal network size was taken into consideration. However, for those who have experienced many objective life stressors, the number of Facebook friends emerged as the stronger predictor of perceived social support. The "more-friends-the-better" heuristic is proposed as the most likely explanation for these findings.

  8. Community health center provider ability to identify, treat and account for the social determinants of health: a card study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Joy H; Whelihan, Kate; Navarro, Isaac; Boyle, Kimberly R

    2016-08-27

    The social determinants of health (SDH) are conditions that shape the overall health of an individual on a continuous basis. As momentum for addressing social factors in primary care settings grows, provider ability to identify, treat and assess these factors remains unknown. Community health centers care for over 20-million of America's highest risk populations. This study at three centers evaluates provider ability to identify, treat and code for the SDH. Investigators utilized a pre-study survey and a card study design to obtain evidence from the point of care. The survey assessed providers' perceptions of the SDH and their ability to address them. Then providers filled out one anonymous card per patient on four assigned days over a 4-week period, documenting social factors observed during encounters. The cards allowed providers to indicate if they were able to: provide counseling or other interventions, enter a diagnosis code and enter a billing code for identified factors. The results of the survey indicate providers were familiar with the SDH and were comfortable identifying social factors at the point of care. A total of 747 cards were completed. 1584 factors were identified and 31 % were reported as having a service provided. However, only 1.2 % of factors were associated with a billing code and 6.8 % received a diagnosis code. An obvious discrepancy exists between the number of identifiable social factors, provider ability to address them and documentation with billing and diagnosis codes. This disparity could be related to provider inability to code for social factors and bill for related time and services. Health care organizations should seek to implement procedures to document and monitor social factors and actions taken to address them. Results of this study suggest simple methods of identification may be sufficient. The addition of searchable codes and reimbursements may improve the way social factors are addressed for individuals and populations.

  9. 25 CFR 20.102 - What is the Bureau's policy in providing financial assistance and social services under this part?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE AND SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Definitions... this part to eligible Indians when comparable financial assistance or social services are either not... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What is the Bureau's policy in providing financial...

  10. Participatory action research in the studies of organizations providing social services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Varžinskienė

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of publication is to discuss the nature of participatory action research (PAR in different types of elderly care organizations – private and public sectors. Participatory action research in organization is considered as interpretative qualitative research method for empowering and emancipation of managers and employees, promoting reflection and critical consciousness. The research is aimed to initiate changes of different directions in organizations fostering humanization approach in private organizations and commercial approach in public organizations. Public elderly care sector in Lithuania is characterized by critical shortage of services. As consequence, not publicly funded and profit-oriented private providers of elderly care emerged in the sector. In the context of enhancement of neoliberal social policy these two types of organizations face challenges to meet needs of users. Private organizations are fostered to promote values based on critical humanistic theory. Public organizations are fostered to introduce neoliberal concept of empowerment. Methodology of PAR is designed implementing several stages of research in private and public elderly care organizations to meet current challenges. The first stage of research project involved explorative focus groups in four organizations (two private and two public seeking to reveal needs for change in elderly care organizations and to create scenarios for implementation of these changes. The second stage implies practical realization of scenarios in organizations what will be led by reflections and critical group discussions with managers and employees. The last stage concludes the process of research by providing methodological guidance for promoting changes in organizations of different sectors and produce knowledge on development of practice in elderly care. The paper presents results of explorative focus groups analysis that enabled researchers and research participants to build

  11. The four P's in social simulation, a perspective on how marketing could benefit from the use of social simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jager, Wander

    Marketers employ the four P's - product, price, placement and promotion - in trying to optimize the performance of their products on a market. Both researchers and practitioners in the field of marketing will benefit from increasing their understanding of how the four P's relate to market dynamics

  12. Impacts of a new insurance benefit with capitated provider payment on healthcare utilization, expenditure and quality of medication prescribing in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jing; Zhang, Xiaotian; Zhang, Zou; Wagner, Anita K; Ross-Degnan, Dennis; Hogerzeil, Hans V

    2016-02-01

    To assess a new Chinese insurance benefit with capitated provider payment for common diseases in outpatients. Longitudinal health insurance claims data, health administrative data and primary care facility data were used to assess trajectories in outpatient visits, inpatient admissions, expenditure per common disease outpatient (CD/OP) visit and prescribing indicators over time. We conducted segmented regression analyses of interrupted time series data to measure changes in level and trend overtime, and cross-sectional comparisons against external standards. The number of total outpatient visits at 46 primary care facilities (on the CD/OP benefit as of July 2012) increased by 46 895 visits/month (P = 0.004, 95% CI: 15 795-77 994); the average number of CD/OP visits reached 1.84/year/enrollee in 2012; monthly inpatient admissions dropped from 6.4 (2009) to 4.3 (2012) per 1000 enrollees; the median total expenditure per CD/OP visit dropped by CNY 15.40 (P = 0.16, 95% CI: -36.95~6.15); injectable use dropped by 7.38% (P = 0.03, 95% CI: -14.08%~-0.68%); antibiotic use was not improved. Zhuhai's new CD/OP benefit with capitated provider payment has expanded access to primary care, which may have led to a reduction in expensive specialist inpatient services for CD/OP benefit enrollees. Cost awareness was likely raised, and rapidly growing expenditures were contained. Although having been partially improved, inappropriate prescribing of antibiotics and injectables was still prevalent. More explicit incentives and specific quality of care targets must be incorporated into the capitated provider payment to promote scientifically sound and cost-effective care and treatment. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Risks, Benefits, and Importance of Collecting Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity Data in Healthcare Settings: A Multi-Method Analysis of Patient and Provider Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maragh-Bass, Allysha C; Torain, Maya; Adler, Rachel; Schneider, Eric; Ranjit, Anju; Kodadek, Lisa M; Shields, Ryan; German, Danielle; Snyder, Claire; Peterson, Susan; Schuur, Jeremiah; Lau, Brandyn; Haider, Adil H

    2017-04-01

    Research suggests that LGBT populations experience barriers to healthcare. Organizations such as the Institute of Medicine recommend routine documentation of sexual orientation (SO) and gender identity (GI) in healthcare, to reduce LGBT disparities. We explore patient views regarding the importance of SO/GI collection, and patient and provider views on risks and benefits of routine SO/GI collection in various settings. We surveyed LGBT/non-LGBT patients and providers on their views on SO/GI collection. Weighted data were analyzed with descriptive statistics; content analysis was conducted with open-ended responses. One-half of the 1516 patients and 60% of 429 providers were female; 64% of patients and 71% of providers were White. Eighty percent of providers felt that collecting SO data would offend patients, whereas only 11% of patients reported that they would be offended. Patients rated it as more important for primary care providers to know the SO of all patients compared with emergency department (ED) providers knowing the SO of all patients (41.3% vs. 31.6%; P discrimination risk most frequently (49.7%; N = 781), whereas provider comments cited patient discomfort/offense most frequently (54.5%; N = 433). Patients see the importance of SO/GI more in primary care than ED settings. However, many LGBT patients seek ED care due to factors including uninsurance; therefore, the ED may represent an initial point of contact for SO/GI collection. Therefore, patient-centered approaches to collecting SO/GI are needed. Patients and providers differed in perceived risks and benefits to routine SO/GI collection. Provider training in LGBT health may address patients' bias/discrimination concerns, and ultimately reduce LGBT health disparities.

  14. Peer Tutoring among Behaviorally Disordered Students: Academic and Social Benefits to Tutor and Tutee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franca, Vany Martins; And Others

    1990-01-01

    This study investigated effects of a same-age tutoring procedure on academic and social behavior of eight behaviorally disordered middle school tutors and tutees. Results indicated increased scores on tutors' and tutees' math worksheets, improved attitudes toward math for both groups, and significantly improved social interactions between tutors…

  15. Are there benefits of social overinclusion? Behavioral and ERP effects in the Cyberball paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael eNiedeggen

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Social participation can be examined using the Cyberball paradigm, a virtual ball-tossing game. Reducing the involvement of the participant is supposed to activate a neural alarm system, and to threaten fundamental social needs. Our previous findings indicate that the latter process can be linked to an enhancement of the centro-parietal P3 amplitude, signalling a modulation of the subjective expectancy of involvement. A preceding more frontal ERP component, the P2, does not depend of the probability of involvement, but reflects the appraisal of social reward. In this experiment, we examined whether overinclusion of participants enhances the satisfaction of social needs, reduces the P3 amplitude correspondingly, and affects central reward processing. In the control condition, participants (n = 40 were included (two co-player, ball possession 33%, and overincluded (ball possession 46% in the experimental condition. In a counterbalanced design, we also controlled for the order of conditions. As predicted, overinclusion increased the satisfaction of social needs, with exception of ‘self esteem’, and reduced the P3 amplitude. As for the frontal P2, overinclusion only enhanced the amplitudes if the less frequent involvement (condition: inclusion was experienced previously. The behavioural and P3 data suggest that the feelings of social belonging, meaningful existence, and control are related to the subjective expectancy of social involvement, and can be described in terms of a linear continuum ranging from exclusion to overinclusion. In contrast, appraisal of social rewards does not depend on the probability of involvement.

  16. Long-Term Benefits of Social Ties to Peers--Even among Adolescents with "Risky" Friendships?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sletten, Mira Aaboen

    2011-01-01

    Applying the theoretical framework of social capital, this article investigates whether adolescents' popularity among their peers during junior high school protects them against a financially marginalized position (as indicated by unemployment, social assistance reception and low educational attainment) in young adulthood. Based on a Norwegian…

  17. Persons with Drug Addiction as Knowledge Providers: Their Contribution to Social Work Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shor, Ron; Levit, Shabtay

    2012-01-01

    Social work students' stereotypical perceptions of excluded populations could be decisive in the way they treat those who are excluded. In an attempt to change such perceptions and enhance knowledge about how to work with an excluded population, a dialogue-in-class model was implemented between students of social work in Israel and persons with…

  18. A prospective population-based study of health complaints in adolescence and use of social welfare benefits in young adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homlong, Lisbeth; Rosvold, Elin O; Bruusgaard, Dag; Lien, Lars; Sagatun, Åse; Haavet, Ole R

    2015-08-01

    There is a lack of knowledge on how health problems in adolescence are connected to work marginalization in adulthood. The aim of this study was to study work marginalization in young adulthood, measured by use of long-term social welfare benefits, and its associations with self-reported health complaints, total symptom burden and self-rated general health at ages 15-16. We linked data from a youth health survey conducted during 1999-2004 to data from Norwegian registries that followed each participant through February 2010. Cox regression analysis was used to compute hazard ratios (HRs) for the use of long-term social welfare benefits in young adulthood, based on health measures in 15-16 year-olds. During the follow-up, 17% of the study population received some sort of long-term social welfare benefit. In the baseline survey, 95% of the adolescents reported one or more health complaints. The mean number of health complaints was 4.8. Girls reported a significantly higher mean number of complaints (5.7) than did boys (3.8) (p social welfare benefits. We found an increasing relative hazard of social welfare usage, depending on the number of complaints reported at baseline. Ill self-perceived general health was found to be strongly associated with the use of benefits during the follow-up: In girls, we found HRs of 1.41 (CI 1.21-1.65), 2.76 (2.29-3.31) and 2.77 (1.51-5.07) for those with good, not so good and bad health, respectively; compared to very good health. The corresponding numbers in boys were 1.41 (1.25-1.59), 1.93 (1.60-2.32) and 1.31 (0.72-2.38), respectively. Several health measures in adolescents were found to be associated with future work marginalization in young adulthood. The associations remained significant, even after correcting for such strong predictors as the parents' education and family economy. Total symptom burden and self-perceived general health can add additional knowledge onto how adolescent health is related to work marginalization, in

  19. 26 CFR 1.401(a)-15 - Requirement that plan benefits are not decreased on account of certain Social Security increases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... on account of certain Social Security increases. 1.401(a)-15 Section 1.401(a)-15 Internal Revenue... decreased on account of certain Social Security increases. (a) In general. Under section 401(a)(15), a trust...-separation social security benefit increase effective after the later of— (i) September 2, 1974, or (ii) The...

  20. Potential job facilitation benefits of "water cooler" conversations: the importance of social interactions in the workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Iris Y; Kwantes, Catherine T

    2015-01-01

    This study looked at the extent to which personality and cultural factors predicted participants' perceptions of the importance private interactions played in the workplace. The 134 participants read a vignette (where a new employee socially interacted at low or high levels with co-workers) and completed the Big Five Inventory, Social Axioms Survey, and questions concerning expected workplace experiences. Results indicated employees who engaged in high levels of private interaction with co-workers were expected to be better liked, to receive better performance evaluations, were more likely to receive co-worker assistance, and were thought to be more likely chosen for future projects. However, the personality and social axiom variables studied did not significantly interact with social interaction to influence expectations of workplace outcomes.

  1. Doing well by doing good. The 7 benefits of a meaningful corporate social responsibility program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, Deborah

    2008-08-01

    You want your medical group to be a good community player--but you need to attract new patients, retain top staff and manage your bottom line. A corporate social responsibility program may be the shrewd solution.

  2. Social Media and Health Care Professionals: Benefits, Risks, and Best Practices

    OpenAIRE

    Ventola, C. Lee

    2014-01-01

    Health care professionals can use a variety of social media tools to improve or enhance networking, education, and other activities. However, these tools also present some potential risks, such as unreliable information and violations of patients’ privacy rights.

  3. Social media and health care professionals: benefits, risks, and best practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventola, C Lee

    2014-07-01

    Health care professionals can use a variety of social media tools to improve or enhance networking, education, and other activities. However, these tools also present some potential risks, such as unreliable information and violations of patients' privacy rights.

  4. Role of GIS in social sector planning: can developing countries benefit from the examples of primary health care (PHC) planning in Britain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishfaq, Mohammad; Lodhi, Bilal Khan

    2012-04-01

    Social sector planning requires rational approaches where community needs are identified by referring to relative deprivation among localities and resources are allocated to address inequalities. Geographical information system (GIS) has been widely argued and used as a base for rational planning for equal resource allocation in social sectors around the globe. Devolution of primary health care is global strategy that needs pains taking efforts to implement it. GIS is one of the most important tools used around the world in decentralization process of primary health care. This paper examines the scope of GIS in social sector planning by concentration on primary health care delivery system in Pakistan. The work is based on example of the UK's decentralization process and further evidence from US. This paper argues that to achieve benefits of well informed decision making to meet the communities' needs GIS is an essential tool to support social sector planning and can be used without any difficulty in any environment. There is increasing trend in the use of Health Management Information System (HMIS) in Pakistan with ample internet connectivity which provides well established infrastructure in Pakistan to implement GIS for health care, however there is need for change in attitude towards empowering localities especially with reference to decentralization of decision making. This paper provides GIS as a tool for primary health care planning in Pakistan as a starting point in defining localities and preparing locality profiles for need identification that could help developing countries in implementing the change.

  5. Benefits of belonging: experimental manipulation of social inclusion to enhance psychological and physiological health parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begen, Fiona M; Turner-Cobb, Julie M

    2015-01-01

    Acute changes in social belonging are important triggers for alterations in health and well-being, yet research has emphasised the negative effects of 'exclusion' at the expense of evaluating the potentially positive effects of 'inclusion'. This study examined the impact of acute belonging on physiological and psychological outcomes. A healthy population (N = 138) were randomly allocated to 'included' or 'excluded' conditions. Condition-dependent differences in pre/during-task heart rate and pre/post-task self-reports of negative/positive mood, and social self-esteem, were assessed. Included participants showed decreased heart rate and negative mood, and increased social self-esteem. No inclusion-related change in positive mood was shown. An increase in heart rate was observed in excluded participants though no changes in negative/positive mood or social self-esteem were shown. Shifts in social self-esteem acted as a mechanism through which inclusion/exclusion impacted upon negative and positive mood alterations. Results remained significant in presence of covariates (sex, global self-esteem, rumination and social anxiety). Findings suggest that acting to enhance belonging through 'inclusion' resulted in adaptive physiological and psychological outcomes. Neutral and potentially protective responses were observed in the immediate aftermath of 'exclusion'. Self-esteem served as one route through which these effects were transmitted.

  6. Health care provider social network analysis: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Sung-Heui; Nikolaev, Alexander; Seo, Jin Young; Castner, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    Although considerable progress has been made in understanding networks, their structure, and their development, little has been known about their effectiveness in the health care setting and their contributions to quality of care and patient safety.The purpose of this study was to examine studies using social network analysis (SNA) in the health care workforce and assess factors contributing to social network and their relationships with care processes and patient outcomes. We identified all published peer-reviewed SNA articles in CINAHL, PubMed, PsycINFO, JSTOR, Medline (OVID), and Web of Science databases up to April 2013. Twenty-nine published articles met the inclusion criteria. Current evidence of the health care workforce's social networks reveals the nature of social ties are related to personal characteristics, practice setting, and types of patients. A few studies also revealed the social network effects adoption and the use of a health information system, patient outcomes, and coordination. Current studies on the social ties of health care workforce professionals include several assessments of inefficiencies. The level of technical sophistication in these studies tended to be low. Future study using enhanced sophistication in study design, analysis, and patient outcome testing are warranted to fully leverage the potential of SNA in health care studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Lo Stato come ‘fornitore’ d’investimenti sociali (State as Social Investments Provider

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Botti

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We analyze the role of the State in social investment (education, health services, etc., different from those in infrastructures. We do so because, in the current economic and social situation, this type of investment, in addition to strengthening the European social model, could be particularly effective in creating new jobs. To test the link between social investment and employment we modify the Paolo Sylos Labini’s employment equation model (MOSYL, inserting in the model social investment instead of those in infrastructures. The quantitative implementation is based on Eurostat data for the 28 EU countries, and the results are encouraging: the employment rate is strongly influenced by factors outside the labor market, which affect not only the general economic environment (represented by GDP, but also by elements linked to the social context, concerning the new forms of welfare. Text of the speech given at the conference "Paolo Sylos Labini e la politica delle riforme", held at Sapienza University of Rome on 04 December 2015, organized by the Accademia dei Lincei with Economia Civile.JEL codes: B31, B50, I31

  8. Lo Stato come ‘fornitore’ d’investimenti sociali (State as Social Investments Provider

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Botti

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We analyze the role of the State in social investment (education, health services, etc., different from those in infrastructures. We do so because, in the current economic and social situation, this type of investment, in addition to strengthening the European social model, could be particularly effective in creating new jobs. To test the link between social investment and employment we modify the Paolo Sylos Labini’s employment equation model (MOSYL, inserting in the model social investment instead of those in infrastructures. The quantitative implementation is based on Eurostat data for the 28 EU countries, and the results are encouraging: the employment rate is strongly influenced by factors outside the labor market, which affect not only the general economic environment (represented by GDP, but also by elements linked to the social context, concerning the new forms of welfare. Text of the speech given at the conference "Paolo Sylos Labini e la politica delle riforme", held at Sapienza University of Rome on 04 December 2015, organized by the Accademia dei Lincei with Economia Civile.

  9. The Role of Social Work in Providing Mental Health Services and Care Coordination in an Urban Trauma Center Emergency Department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Megan; Whiteside, Lauren K; Dotolo, Danae; Wang, Jin; Ho, Leyna; Conley, Bonnie; Forrester, Mollie; Fouts, Susan O; Vavilala, Monica S; Zatzick, Douglas F

    2016-12-01

    This study examined the role of emergency department (ED) social workers and identified predictors of receipt of social work services and length of ED stay. Comprehensive reviews were conducted of medical records of all patients (N=49,354) treated in a level 1 trauma center ED from January 1, 2012, to March 31, 2013. Content analysis of chart notes was used to categorize the types of social work services provided. Poisson regression was used to assess associations between demographic and clinical characteristics, receipt of social work services, and length of ED stay. Social work services were provided to 18,532 (38%) patients. Most were mental health services (54%), followed by care coordination (31%) and material support or other referrals (15%). Patients seen by social workers had complex presentations, involving mental disorder diagnoses (18%), substance use disorder diagnoses (29%), comorbid diagnoses (32%), and injuries (51%); a quarter of patients had multiple ED visits (26%). In adjusted regression analysis, females (relative risk [RR]=1.15), patients not discharged home (RR=1.44), and those with two or more comorbid diagnoses (RR=1.80), injuries due to assault (RR=1.37), and traumatic brain injury (RR=1.20) were more likely to receive social work services. Such services were associated with an increased length of ED stay (RR=1.34). Social workers provided services to patients with multifaceted needs resulting from complex presentations. Provision of social work services modestly increased length of ED stay. Triage algorithms are needed to target efficiencies, systematize provision of ED social work services, and improve access to services for all patients.

  10. Social media as a useful tool in food risk and benefit communication? A strategic orientation approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutsaert, P.; Pieniak, Z.; Regan, A.; McConnon, A.; Kuttschreuter, M.; Lores, M.; Lozano, N.; Guzzon, A.; Santare, D; Verbeke, W.

    2014-01-01

    Although considerable progress has been made in understanding the determinants of risk perception and in identifying the necessary components of effective food risk and benefit communication, this has not been matched with the development of efficient and appropriate communication tools. Little work

  11. Computational models of language diversity: a determination of social and individual benefits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jorna, R.J.; Faber, N.R.; Jorna, R.J.; Liu, K.; Faber, N.R.

    2011-01-01

    In studying benefits and costs of language diversity the use of computer models is rare. There may be various reasons for this situation, e.g. a) the complexity of the interpretation of language diversity, b) the difficulty in operationalizing factors and dimensions of diversity, c) the absence of

  12. Home and psycho-social benefits: The case of public housing in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study also found that, after controlling for other influences, people living in bungalow housing units derive more benefits from the home as a hearth and as a locus of autonomy than households in multi-apartment blocks of flats. These findings are pertinent to the design of more fitting and appropriate home environments.

  13. Land Value Capture and Social Benefits: Toronto and São Paulo Compared

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Friendly, Abigail

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes and compares land value capture (LVC) tools in São Paulo and Toronto. LVC refers to the public sector’s recovery of part or all of the land value increments or “windfalls” accruing to new development through taxes, fees, exactions, or improvements that benefit the wider

  14. Bread or games? Social cost-benefit analysis of the World Cup in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Nooij, M.; van den Berg, M.; Koopmans, C.

    2010-01-01

    Ex post analyses of major sporting events show that the benefits for the organizing countries are often greatly over-estimated in advance. A major portion of the proceeds (e.g., tickets, broadcasting rights, marketing) goes to the organizing sports federation, while most of the costs are borne by

  15. Evaluating Intangible Outcomes: Using Multiattribute Utility Analysis to Compare the Benefits and Costs of Social Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selameab, Tehout; Yeh, Stuart S.

    2008-01-01

    Increasingly, program managers are required to evaluate programs with multiple outcomes against costs. This is difficult when program outcomes are not easily translated into a common metric. This article compares cost benefit analysis with Multiple Attribute Utility Technology and discusses the application of judgment in both analytical…

  16. Toward a better understanding of the social benefits of outdoor recreation participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    B. L. Driver

    1976-01-01

    This paper proposes that recreation resource managers need to give more attention to the benefits that a person derives from participation in recreation activities. Behavioral information is described as one of several types of knowledge needed in recreation planning and management decisions. A model outlining the dynamics of a recreationist's behavior is...

  17. HOW CAN BRAND MANAGERS BENEFIT FROM SOCIAL MEDIA? THE SOCIAL MEDIA MANAGEMENT SCORECARD FOR BRANDS (SMMS-B)

    OpenAIRE

    Erkollar, Alptekin; Oberer, Birgit

    2013-01-01

    In an era of integrated brand management and network marketing, brand builders try to use methods and tools that are prepared by controllers for improving the position of their brand. Generally, brands are dynamic and cannot be considered separately from cost management, shareholder, and stakeholder value as well as value chain impacts, return on investment, and cash flow. Additional tools are needed in order to design a successful brand management. In this study, a social media managem...

  18. Geographic Disparities in Access to Agencies Providing Income-Related Social Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Scott R; Monuteaux, Michael C; Fleegler, Eric W

    2015-10-01

    Geographic location is an important factor in understanding disparities in access to health-care and social services. The objective of this cross-sectional study is to evaluate disparities in the geographic distribution of income-related social service agencies relative to populations in need within Boston. Agency locations were obtained from a comprehensive database of social services in Boston. Geographic information systems mapped the spatial relationship of the agencies to the population using point density estimation and was compared to census population data. A multivariate logistic regression was conducted to evaluate factors associated with categories of income-related agency density. Median agency density within census block groups ranged from 0 to 8 agencies per square mile per 100 population below the federal poverty level (FPL). Thirty percent (n = 31,810) of persons living below the FPL have no access to income-related social services within 0.5 miles, and 77 % of persons living below FPL (n = 83,022) have access to 2 or fewer agencies. 27.0 % of Blacks, 30.1 % of Hispanics, and 41.0 % of non-Hispanic Whites with incomes below FPL have zero access. In conclusion, some neighborhoods in Boston with a high concentration of low-income populations have limited access to income-related social service agencies.

  19. End-User Cost-Benefit Prioritization for Selecting Rainwater Harvesting and Greywater Reuse in Social Housing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Domínguez

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Rainwater harvesting (RWH and greywater reuse (GWR are increasingly being considered at the building-level to achieve multiple goals. Cost-benefit assessments facilitate decision-making; however, most are focused on large-scale systems with limited information available for households from developing countries. To better understand the prioritization of costs and benefits by potential end-users in this context, this paper presents an assessment of an RWH/GWR system in low income, low consumption households in a social housing development in Colombia. From an initial household consultation, preferences related to the use of RWH/GWR were identified and three alternatives were proposed and designed. In a follow-up consultation, potential end-users were engaged with the cost-benefit of the proposed alternatives. Potential end-users prioritized the selection of the system with potable water savings of 25%, a payback period of 30 years, an internal return rate of 4.7%, and a Benefit/Cost ratio of 1.3. Of the three alternatives, this system had the median payback period, highest investment, and highest maintenance cost, but also the highest volumetric water saving and highest water and sewerage bill savings. In contrast to findings from developed countries, this indicates that minimising the cost may not be the primary decision making criteria in some developing country contexts, where perhaps a greater value is placed on conserving water resources.

  20. Economic benefits of using a dose dispensing system at hospital units of the Mexican Institute of Social Security.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocío Ofelia-Uc Coyoc

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To estimate the potential economic benefits at The Mexican Institute of Social Security (IMSS per its abbreviation in spanish according to the drug expenditure of using drug dispensing system, based on literature information. Materials and methods. A systematic review was performed to identify savings from drugs and reduction of medication errors. The total and mean health expenditure by level of medical attention was calculated using the dispensed collective prescriptions at IMSS during 2009. Three savings scenarios were applied. Results. The total drug savings were in a range of 870.49 Mexican million pesos to 4050.05 Mexican million pesos. Reductions of medication errors can contribute with additional savings up to 3455.56 Mexican million pesos. Conclusion. The drug dispensing system unit generates savings opportunities at the second and third level of attention. The maximum economic benefit was observed in the last level.

  1. Tweeting about sexism: The well-being benefits of a social media collective action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Mindi D

    2015-12-01

    Although collective action has psychological benefits in non-gendered contexts (Drury et al., 2005, Br. J. Soc. Psychol., 44, 309), the benefits for women taking action against gender discrimination are unclear. This study examined how a popular, yet unexplored potential form of collective action, namely tweeting about sexism, affects women's well-being. Women read about sexism and were randomly assigned to tweet or to one of three control groups. Content analyses showed tweets exhibited collective intent and action. Analyses of linguistic markers suggested public tweeters used more cognitive complexity in their language than private tweeters. Profile analyses showed that compared to controls, only public tweeters showed decreasing negative affect and increasing psychological well-being, suggesting tweeting about sexism may serve as a collective action that can enhance women's well-being. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.

  2. Health provider responsiveness to social accountability initiatives in low- and middle-income countries: a realist review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodenstein, Elsbet; Dieleman, Marjolein; Gerretsen, Barend; Broerse, Jacqueline E W

    2017-02-01

    Social accountability in the health sector has been promoted as a strategy to improve the quality and performance of health providers in low- and middle-income countries. Whether improvements occur, however, depends on the willingness and ability of health providers to respond to societal pressure for better care. This article uses a realist approach to review cases of collective citizen action and advocacy with the aim to identify key mechanisms of provider responsiveness. Purposeful searches for cases were combined with a systematic search in four databases. To be included in the review, the initiatives needed to describe at least one outcome at the level of frontline service provision. Some 37 social accountability initiatives in 15 countries met these criteria. Using a realist approach, retroductive analysis and triangulation of methods and sources were performed to construct Context-Mechanism-Outcome configurations that explain potential pathways to provider responsiveness. The findings suggest that health provider receptivity to citizens' demands for better health care is mediated by health providers' perceptions of the legitimacy of citizen groups and by the extent to which citizen groups provide personal and professional support to health providers. Some citizen groups activated political or formal bureaucratic accountability channels but the effect on provider responsiveness of such strategies was more mixed. Favourable contexts for health provider responsiveness comprise socio-political contexts in which providers self-identify as activists, health system contexts in which health providers depend on citizens' expertise and capacities, and health system contexts where providers have the self-perceived ability to change the system in which they operate. Rather than providing recipes for successful social accountability initiatives, the synthesis proposes a programme theory that can support reflections on the theories of change underpinning social

  3. Political risk of social security: the case of the indexation of benefits in the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dušek, Libor

    -, Č. 318 (2007), s. 1-29 ISSN 1211-3298 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC542 Grant - others:GA ČR GA402/05/0711 Institutional research plan: CEZ:MSM0021620846 Keywords : social security * political risk * pension reform Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.cerge-ei.cz/pdf/wp/Wp318.pdf

  4. Corporate Social Responsibility: Benefits for Youth in Hydropower Development in Laos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparkes, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    The role of the state as regulator combined with policies on Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) that go beyond legal requirements to establishing programmes that promote development and good international business practice is an emerging new paradigm. In this paper, the example of a state-owned company, Statkraft A.S. of Norway, and its recent…

  5. The evolution of wilderness social science and future research to protect experiences, resources, and societal benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alan E. Watson; H. Ken Cordell; Robert Manning; Steven Martin

    2016-01-01

    The historic Wilderness Act celebrated its 50th anniversary in 2014, and wilderness social science shared a similar legacy. As paradoxical as it might seem, humans are an important part of wilderness, helping to define the very concept and representing an important component of wilderness use and management. Much of the past five decades of wilderness-related...

  6. Social Benefits of a Tangible User Interface for Children with Autistic Spectrum Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farr, William; Yuill, Nicola; Raffle, Hayes

    2010-01-01

    Tangible user interfaces (TUIs) embed computer technology in graspable objects. This study assessed the potential of Topobo, a construction toy with programmable movement, to support social interaction in children with Autistic Spectrum Conditions (ASC). Groups of either typically developing (TD) children or those with ASC had group play sessions…

  7. Integrating Social Media Technologies in Higher Education: Costs-Benefits Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okoro, Ephraim

    2012-01-01

    Social networking and electronic channels of communication are effective tools in the process of teaching and learning and have increasingly improved the quality of students' learning outcomes in higher education in recent years. The process encourages students' active engagement, collaboration, and participation in class activities and group…

  8. The availability and affordability of long-term care for disabled older people in China: The issues related to inequalities in social security benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Peng; Feng, Zhixin; Wu, Zhuochun

    2016-01-01

    China is experiencing increasing pressure from issues relating to an ageing population. The rationality of different eligibility criteria of the benefits within the social security system has been widely challenged; however, to date, no previous study has explored its association with the availability and affordability of long-term care (LTC). This study evaluates the availability and affordability of Long-Term Care (LTC) services for disabled older people (aged 65 and above) in China, with special attention to the differences among groups in receipt of specific social security benefits. The data of availability and affordability of LTC services for disabled older people is from a nationally representative sample Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey (CLHLS). Three different social security benefits were identified and their effects on the long-term care services for disabled older people were explored. The overall proportions of disabled older people who have only limited or no available or affordable LTC services were remarkably high, especially for those who have moderate or no social security benefits. Compared to those who are entitled to generous social security benefits, older people who have no social security benefits are 18.45 times more likely to be unable to afford health care expenses. The findings imply that policy makers in China could focus on the LTC needs for the social security and socioeconomically disadvantaged (who have limited or no social security benefits and in low household income) disabled older people which could reduce the gap between them and those who are entitled to generous social security benefits. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Ayudas Sociales y Precariedad de Condiciones de Vida: España 1995-2010 (Social Benefits and Precariousness of Living Conditions: Spain 1995-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Castelló

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to examine the impact that monetary measures had on social protection (the so-called social benefits on the living conditions of the Spaniards during the period 1995-2010. In Spain, the analysis of such aid is not new (see, for example, Adelantado and Calderon, 2005, Navarro and Reinolds 2007, Guillen et al. 2012. However, these studies have evaluated how public spending on social transfers reduces the risk of poverty, based on the relationship between income and poverty. In this paper, we go beyond the dichotomous distinction between the population that is at risk of poverty and it is not, through a measurement scale of precariousness. This is in order to observe more accurately the changes in the structural positions of various social groups. El objetivo de este trabajo es examinar la incidencia que tuvieron las ayudas monetarias en protección social (los denominados social benefits sobre las condiciones de vida de los españoles durante el periodo 1995-2010. En España, el análisis de tales ayudas no es nuevo (ver por ejemplo, Adelantado y Calderón, 2005, Navarro y Reinolds 2007, Guillén et al. 2012. No obstante, dichos trabajos han evaluado cómo el gasto público en transferencias sociales disminuye el riesgo de pobreza, partiendo de la relación entre ingresos y pobreza. En el trabajo, vamos más allá de la distinción dicotómica entre la población que está en riesgo de pobreza y la que no, a través de una medición escalar de la precariedad. Esto se realiza con el fin de observar con mayor precisión los cambios en las posiciones estructurales de diferentes grupos sociales. DOWNLOAD THIS PAPER FROM SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=2676631

  10. Increased uptake of social security benefits among long-term survivors of cancer in childhood, adolescence and young adulthood: a Norwegian population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaderi, S; Engeland, A; Moster, D; Ruud, E; Syse, A; Wesenberg, F; Bjørge, T

    2013-04-16

    As the number of cancer survivors increases, their health and welfare have come into focus. Thus, long-term medical consequences of cancer at a young age (social security benefit records, were studied. Standardised incidence ratios (SIRs) of long-term medical consequences for 5-year cancer survivors, born during 1965-1985, were explored by linking population-based registries in Norway. Among the 5-year cancer survivors (4031 individuals), 29.7% received social security benefits. The survivors had an overall 4.4 times (95% confidence interval (95% CI): 4.1-4.6) higher risk of social security benefit uptake than the cancer-free population. Survivors of malignancies of bone and connective tissues (SIR: 10.8; 95% CI: 9.1-12.9), CNS tumours (SIR: 7.7; 95% CI: 6.9-8.6) and malignancies of the haematopoietic system (SIR: 6.1; 95% CI: 5.3-7.0) had the highest risks of social security benefits uptake. The most notified causes of social security benefit uptake were diseases of the nervous system, and injury and poisoning. The uptake of social security benefits among 5-year cancer survivors increased substantially and it may represent a solid outcome measure for the burden of the most severe late effects, especially in countries with comparable social welfare systems.

  11. Service Learning: Providing the Building Blocks for a Socially Responsible Nursing Role

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Judith M.

    2013-01-01

    An explanatory correlational study was conducted to explore whether and to what extent a relationship between hours of participation in service learning and commitment to social responsibility exists for students enrolled in pre-licensure baccalaureate-nursing programs currently participating in the Nursing Licensure Compact. The convenience…

  12. Physical Characteristics. Resource Unit III, Grade 6. Providence Social Studies Curriculum Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Providence Public Schools, RI.

    GRADES OR AGES: Grade 6. SUBJECT MATTER: Social studies; physical geography of Latin America and Africa. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: The major portion of the guide, which develops the unit, is laid out in three columns, one each for topics, activities, and materials. Other sections are in list form. The guide is mimeographed and…

  13. Contemporary East Asian Civilization Resource Unit II, Grade 8. Providence Social Studies Curriculum Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Providence Public Schools, RI.

    GRADES OR AGES: Grade 8. SUBJECT MATTER: Social studies, contemporary East Asian civilization. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: The central part of the guide is divided into 11 subunits, each of which is laid out in three columns, one each for topics, activities, and materials. Other sections are in list form. The guide is mimeographed and…

  14. Social Media Providing an International Virtual Elective Experience for Student Nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula M. Procter

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The advances in social media offer many opportunities for developing understanding of different countries and cultures without any implications of travel. Nursing has a global presence and yet it appears as though students have little knowledge of the health and social care needs and provision outside their local environment. Our collaboration across three countries, New Zealand, United Kingdom, and the United States of America, brought the two themes together with the aim of senior student nurses having a communication channel to explore public health issues in each country. Using a closed Facebook™ page, third year undergraduate adult nursing students were invited to take part in a three month pilot study to test the feasibility of virtual collaboration through exchanging public health issues. Here we report upon the collaboration, operation of the social media, and main findings of the study. Three core areas will be reported upon, these being the student’s views of using social media for learning about international perspectives of health, seeing nursing as a global profession and recommendations for future development of this positively reviewed learning technique. To conclude consideration will be given to further development of this work by the collaborative team expanding the countries involved.

  15. A benefit-cost analysis of a long-term intervention on social and emotional learning in compulsory school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alli Klapp

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available There is growing evidence that social and emotional skills can be taught to students in school and teaching these skills can have a positive effect on later outcomes, such as better mental health and less drug use. This paper presents a benefit-cost analysis of a longitudinal social and emotional learning intervention in Sweden, using data for 663 students participating in the evaluation. Intervention costs are compared against treatment impact on self-reported drug use. Pre-test and post-test data are available. Since follow-up data for the participants´ drug use as adults is not available, informed projections have been made. Net present monetary values are calculated for the general public and society. The results show that students in the treatment group report decreasing use of drugs over the five year long intervention, the value of which easily outweighs the intervention costs.

  16. [Duties of institutions and heads of health care centers in the area of infection control, information, assessment, registration and financing of benefits provided to TB patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielonka, Tadeusz M

    2015-01-01

    The Act on preventing and counteracting infections and infectious diseases in humans effective in Poland requires the heads of health care outlets and institutions to counteract spreading of TB in units under their management. They are, by all means, responsible for monitoring infections in their respective units, including development, implementation and monitoring of the implementation of procedures into practice, aiming at limiting the dissemination of TB in hospitals and outpatient clinics. Medical service unit managers are also responsible for providing members of their staff with means of individual protection against infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacillus. Their duties also include reporting all of the recognized TB cases in their respective units. TB is an infectious diseases included in the occupational disease list. Assessment of TB as an occupational disease is the responsibility of provincial TB prevention clinics. The Act also provides principles of financing of individual benefits available for the insured TB patients as well as those not insured.

  17. Health promotion: the impact of beliefs of health benefits, social relations and enjoyment on exercise continuation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, G; Wikman, J M; Jensen, C J; Schmidt, J F; Gliemann, L; Andersen, T R

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to explore how and why participants in structured exercise intervention programs continue or stop exercising after the program is finished. We conducted four focus group interviews with four groups of middle-aged and elderly men (total n = 28) who had participated in exercise interventions involving playing either a team sport (football) or a more individually focused activity (spinning and crossfit). Our results show that different social, organizational and material structures inherent in the different activities shape the subjects' enjoyment of exercise participation, as well as their intention and ability to continue being active. In conclusion, team sport activities seem to be intrinsically motivating to the participants through positive social interaction and play. They are therefore more likely to result in exercise continuation than activities that rely primarily on extrinsic motivation such as the expectation of improved health and well-being. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. African Americans and genetic research, risk versus benefit: implications for the profession of social work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Norma Gray; Harris, Jesse J

    2011-01-01

    The Human Genome Project was a 13-year study with great potential for improving the health of the current generation and extending the life of future generations. Genetic research, though showing potential for good, may also result in societal problems. This article considers the implications of future genetic research for African Americans and other vulnerable groups with a retrospective view of medical research and the African Americans' experience. In light of the growing health disparity between Whites and Blacks, this article argues for minority participation in clinical trials and other studies. It addresses the role of social workers as genetic counselors and encourages, especially social workers of color, involvement in the field of genetics as advocates, teachers, and as members of research teams.

  19. Introducing a Genetically Modified Banana in Uganda : Social Benefits, Costs, and Consumer Perceptions

    OpenAIRE

    Kikulwe, E.M.; Wesseler, J.H.H.; Falck-Zepeda, J

    2008-01-01

    "Banana is a staple crop consumed by Ugandan households. The Uganda National Agricultural Research Organization has implemented conventional and biotechnology programs that seek improving bananas and address the crop's most important pest and disease problems. A major thrust is the development of genetically modified (GM) bananas. The purpose of this paper is to examine potential social welfare impacts of adopting a GM banana in Uganda. The study has three objectives. First, suggest and apply...

  20. Peer mentoring programs benefits in terms of civic engagement and social capital

    OpenAIRE

    Šedinová, Petra

    2014-01-01

    The main goal this diploma thesis is to explore the influence of peer mentoring programs as a tool of community intervention for children and adolescents from the point of view of civic engagement and social capital. The influence is assessed to the recipients of mentoring programs care- to children and adolescents exposed to risk factors or risk environment. This thesis is secondary analysis of Mentoring programs evaluating research in mentoring programs Big Brother Big Sisters- Pět P in Cze...

  1. Zunahme der inanspruchnahme von sozialleistungen bei jungen personen mit einer chronischen erkrankung bzw. Behinderung in den Niederlanden = Increasing use of social benefits by young people with chronic illness or disability in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besseling, J.J.M.; Rijkenberg, A.M.; Andriessen, S.; Vos, E.L. de

    2008-01-01

    Young handicapped citizens in the Netherlands have increasingly been receiving social benefits or special services during the last five years. Dutch governmental departments have therefore commissioned an applied social policy research. We analyzed six benefits (for example special education,

  2. External muscle heating during warm-up does not provide added performance benefit above external heating in the recovery period alone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulkner, Steve H; Ferguson, Richard A; Hodder, Simon G; Havenith, George

    2013-11-01

    Having previously shown the use of passive external heating between warm-up completion and sprint cycling to have had a positive effect on muscle temperature (T m) and maximal sprint performance, we sought to determine whether adding passive heating during active warm up was of further benefit. Ten trained male cyclists completed a standardised 15 min sprint based warm-up on a cycle ergometer, followed by 30 min passive recovery before completing a 30 s maximal sprint test. Warm up was completed either with or without additional external passive heating. During recovery, external passive leg heating was used in both standard warm-up (CONHOT) and heated warm-up (HOTHOT) conditions, for control, a standard tracksuit was worn (CON). T m declined exponentially during CON, CONHOT and HOTHOT reduced the exponential decline during recovery. Peak (11.1 %, 1561 ± 258 W and 1542 ± 223 W), relative (10.6 % 21.0 ± 2.2 W kg(-1) and 20.9 ± 1.8 W kg(-1)) and mean (4.1 %, 734 ± 126 W and 729 ± 125 W) power were all improved with CONHOT and HOTHOT, respectively compared to CON (1,397 ± 239 W; 18.9 ± 3.0 W kg(-1) and 701 ± 109 W). There was no additional benefit of HOTHOT on T m or sprint performance compared to CONHOT. External heating during an active warm up does not provide additional physiological or performance benefit. As noted previously, external heating is capable of reducing the rate of decline in T m after an active warm-up, improving subsequent sprint cycling performance.

  3. Linking functional diversity and social actor strategies in a framework for interdisciplinary analysis of nature's benefits to society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Sandra; Cáceres, Daniel M.; Trainor, Sarah F.; Pérez-Harguindeguy, Natalia; Bret-Harte, M. Syndonia; Finegan, Bryan; Peña-Claros, Marielos; Poorter, Lourens

    2011-01-01

    The crucial role of biodiversity in the links between ecosystems and societies has been repeatedly highlighted both as source of wellbeing and as a target of human actions, but not all aspects of biodiversity are equally important to different ecosystem services. Similarly, different social actors have different perceptions of and access to ecosystem services, and therefore, they have different wants and capacities to select directly or indirectly for particular biodiversity and ecosystem characteristics. Their choices feed back onto the ecosystem services provided to all parties involved and in turn, affect future decisions. Despite this recognition, the research communities addressing biodiversity, ecosystem services, and human outcomes have yet to develop frameworks that adequately treat the multiple dimensions and interactions in the relationship. Here, we present an interdisciplinary framework for the analysis of relationships between functional diversity, ecosystem services, and human actions that is applicable to specific social environmental systems at local scales. We connect the mechanistic understanding of the ecological role of diversity with its social relevance: ecosystem services. The framework permits connections between functional diversity components and priorities of social actors using land use decisions and ecosystem services as the main links between these ecological and social components. We propose a matrix-based method that provides a transparent and flexible platform for quantifying and integrating social and ecological information and negotiating potentially conflicting land uses among multiple social actors. We illustrate the applicability of our framework by way of land use examples from temperate to subtropical South America, an area of rapid social and ecological change. PMID:21220325

  4. Multidimensional cost-benefit analysis to guide evidence-based environmental enrichment: providing bedding and foraging substrate to pen-housed monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Allyson J; Corcoran, Christopher A; Hardy, Vickie A; Miller, Leslie R; Pierre, Peter J

    2010-09-01

    Refinement of animal care and housing is an important shared goal-and challenge-of the team of research, veterinary, and animal care personnel charged with ensuring the wellbeing of laboratory animals. This study addresses 2 issues central to decision-making and implementation of environmental enhancement: methods for useful and comprehensive cost analysis and evaluation of engineering, husbandry, and facilities considerations. The study was undertaken to analyze the feasibility and cost of providing wood shavings as a floor cover for pen-housed monkeys. The beneficial effects of bedding for the welfare of laboratory-housed animals have long been validated. Our study illustrates a workable team-based procedure for comprehensive cost analysis of an important environmental enhancement and demonstrates that the animal welfare benefit is accompanied by decreased husbandry costs. An engineering solution to the potential challenge that wood shavings pose in terms of clogging water pipes was successful. Another successful outcome was the reduction in water (estimated at 192,000 gal annually) and chemicals used to clean housing areas. Emphasis on rigorous evaluation and objective measures of cost and benefit, as well as inclusion of the many factors and teams involved in animal research, holds strong potential for building a better foundation from which to contribute effective changes and improvements in laboratory animal welfare. Taken together, the findings of this study demonstrate that team-based, integrative, and scientific evaluation of environmental enhancement is an effective approach to guide selection of strategies with maximal potential for improving animal welfare.

  5. Legal rights, efficiency and citizen involvement in the administration of social security cash benefits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Von Hielmcrone, Nina

    2010-01-01

    The Danish social security legislation has been distinguished in recent years by an intense growth in rules and regulations. Numerous laws and ordinances have been promulgated, which make it extremely difficult for both citizens and authorities to come to grips with the laws, much less to gain...... for the accretion of new special rules. They merely have to be coded into the system. The government’s modernisation programme has been carried out at the expense of transparency and the legal rights of the citizens. This article deals with Danish legislation; the mechanisms in question are common not only...

  6. Commanders and Cyber Chat: Should More Guidance be Provided for Social Networking Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    revealing on Facebook his heavy drinking and fascination with female breasts; a Catholic school teacher was fired after posting on Facebook that he was gay ...www.rollingstone.com/politics/news/another-runaway-general-army-deploys-psy-ops-on- u -s-senators- 20110223 24 Ibid. 25 McMichael, W. "DoD may curb...Media and the Air Force" p. 7. 43 Ibid, p. 2. 44 Porterfield, Amy. Social Media Use Among Teens, Boomers and Moms : New Studies Reveal Great Insight

  7. An approach to link water resource management with landscape art to enhance its aesthetic appeal, ecological utility and social benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Anita; Sen, Somnath; Paul, Saikat Kumar

    2017-04-01

    Landscape art or land art is the discourse of scientific application of artistic skill to integrate man-made structures with the natural landscape for planning, design, management, preservation and rehabilitation of natural and built environment. It does beautification of the landscape enhancing its utility for habitats. Availability of water with acceptable quality is crucial for economic growth, social peace and equality and of course for environmental sustainability. Development of new and growth of existing urban and suburban units are obvious. It postulates the increase of population density and percent of the impervious area in an urban unit. The demand for water is increasing with progressive concentration of population, the volume and velocity of surface runoff increase and the travel time decreases. At the same time, an increase in the volume of gray water not only contaminate water bodies, it also reduces the quantity of available freshwater transforming a portion of blue and green water to gray one and would intensify the pressure on water resources of the area. Therefore, to meet the incremental pressure of demand for and pollution of water collection, treatment and reuse of wastewater, both sewage and storm water, are on the requirement to improve urban water security. People must be concerned not to stifle urban lives with concrete; rather must provide all basic amenities for achieving a higher standard of life than the previous one with the essence of natural green spaces. The objective of the study is to propose a conceptual design and planning guidelines for developing urban and suburban drainage network and reuse of surface runoff and sewage water utilizing less used natural water bodies, such as paleo-channels or lakes or moribund channels as retention or detention basin. In addition to wastewater management, the proposal serves to promote the aesthetics of environmental engagement, ecological utility and restoration of moribund channels

  8. Friends with Social Benefits: Host-Microbe Interactions as a Driver of Brain Evolution and Development?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman M Stilling

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The tight association of the human body with trillions of colonizing microbes that we observe today is the result of a long evolutionary history. Only very recently have we started to understand how this symbiosis also affects brain function and behaviour. Here in this hypothesis and theory article, we propose how host-microbe associations potentially influenced mammalian brain evolution and development. In particular, we explore the integration of human brain development with evolution, symbiosis, and RNA biology, which together represent a ‘social triangle’ that drives human social behaviour and cognition. We argue that, in order to understand how inter-kingdom communication can affect brain adaptation and plasticity, it is inevitable to consider epigenetic mechanisms as important mediators of genome-microbiome interactions on an individual as well as a transgenerational time scale. Finally, we unite these interpretations with the hologenome theory of evolution. Taken together, we propose a tighter integration of neuroscience fields with host-associated microbiology by taking an evolutionary perspective.

  9. Combining hazard, exposure and social vulnerability to provide lessons for flood risk management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koks, E.E.; Jongman, B.; Husby, T.G.; Botzen, W.J.W.

    2015-01-01

    Flood risk assessments provide inputs for the evaluation of flood risk management (FRM) strategies. Traditionally, such risk assessments provide estimates of loss of life and economic damage. However, the effect of policy measures aimed at reducing risk also depends on the capacity of households to

  10. Vulnerability and Agency: Beyond an Irreconcilable Dichotomy for Social Service Providers Working with Young Refugees in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Higgins, Aoife

    2012-01-01

    Many young refugees face significant difficulties in securing support from social services providers. This study invited 21 young refugees aged 16 to 21 to take part in focus groups and follow-up interviews about their experiences of accessing this support. The findings reveal that young refugees may deliberately conform to expectations about…

  11. Social support in the practices of informal providers: The case of patent and proprietary medicine vendors in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieverding, Maia; Liu, Jenny; Beyeler, Naomi

    2015-10-01

    The social and institutional environments in which informal healthcare providers operate shape their health and business practices, particularly in contexts where regulatory enforcement is weak. In this study, we adopt a social capital perspective to understanding the social networks on which proprietary and patent medicine vendors (PPMVs) in Nigeria rely for support in the operation of their shops. Data are drawn from 70 in-depth interviews with PPMVs in three states, including interviews with local leaders of the PPMV professional association. We find that PPMVs primarily relied on more senior colleagues and formal healthcare professionals for informational support, including information about new medicines and advice on how to treat specific cases of illness. For instrumental support, including finance, start-up assistance, and intervention with regulatory agencies, PPMVs relied on extended family, the PPMVs with whom they apprenticed, and the leaders of their professional association. PPMVs' networks also provided continual reinforcement of what constitutes good PPMV practice through admonishments to follow scope of practice limitations. These informal reminders, as well as monitoring activities conducted by the professional association, served to reinforce PPMVs' concern with avoiding negative customer health outcomes, which were perceived to be detrimental to their business reputations. That PPMVs' networks both encouraged practices to reduce the likelihood of poor health outcomes, and provided advice regarding customers' health conditions, highlights the potential impact of informal providers' access to different forms of social capital on their delivery of health services, as well as their success as microenterprises. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The Relationship Between Gratitude and Loneliness: The Potential Benefits of Gratitude for Promoting Social Bonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caputo, Andrea

    2015-05-01

    This paper explores the potential role of gratitude on the reduction of loneliness feelings, even controlling for several variables related to social desirability, well-being (subjective happiness and life satisfaction) and socio-demographic characteristics. Through a web-based survey a convenience sample of 197 participants completed an online questionnaire including these measures. Correlation analyses and four-step hierarchical multiple regression analyses were conducted. The results show a negative correlation between gratitude and loneliness; specifically, gratitude succeeds in accounting for up to almost one-fifth of the total variability of loneliness even controlling for further variables. Being female, not having a stable and consolidated relationship and not participating in the labor force represent some risk factors affecting loneliness which should be taken into account in further research.

  13. The Relationship Between Gratitude and Loneliness: The Potential Benefits of Gratitude for Promoting Social Bonds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Caputo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the potential role of gratitude on the reduction of loneliness feelings, even controlling for several variables related to social desirability, well-being (subjective happiness and life satisfaction and socio-demographic characteristics. Through a web-based survey a convenience sample of 197 participants completed an online questionnaire including these measures. Correlation analyses and four-step hierarchical multiple regression analyses were conducted. The results show a negative correlation between gratitude and loneliness; specifically, gratitude succeeds in accounting for up to almost one-fifth of the total variability of loneliness even controlling for further variables. Being female, not having a stable and consolidated relationship and not participating in the labor force represent some risk factors affecting loneliness which should be taken into account in further research.

  14. Potential Social and Neurocognitive Benefits of Aerobic Exercise as Adjunct Treatment for Patients With ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klil-Drori, Sivan; Hechtman, Lily

    2016-06-10

    The aim of the article is to review the evidence that aerobic exercise may be a useful adjunct treatment for ADHD. Studies on physical, cognitive, and psychosocial aspects of aerobic exercise that are relevant to ADHD are reviewed and evaluated. Stimulant medication, the main pharmacotherapy for ADHD, and aerobic exercise both act on catecholamine pathways. Aerobic exercise has been shown to be beneficial in preclinical studies on spontaneous hypertensive rats, an animal model of ADHD, and in clinical trials of children with ADHD, as an adjunct treatment to medication. Social and neurocognitive function in children and adults seem to be positively affected by exercise as well. Nevertheless, no controlled clinical trials in adults with ADHD have been conducted. Aerobic exercise may be a useful non-medication adjunct therapy for ADHD. The clinical effectiveness of aerobic exercise for ADHD in children and adults warrants further clinical studies. © The Author(s) 2016.

  15. Providing care to people on social assistance: how dentists in Montreal, Canada, respond to organisational, biomedical, and financial challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedos, Christophe; Loignon, Christine; Landry, Anne; Richard, Lucie; Allison, Paul J

    2014-10-10

    Dentists report facing difficulties and experiencing frustrations with people on social assistance, one of the social groups with the most dental needs. Scientists ignore how they deal with these difficulties and whether they are able to overcome them. Our objective was to understand how dentists deal with critical issues encountered with people on social assistance. We conducted in-depth, semi-structured interviews with 33 dentists practicing in Montreal, Canada. The interview guides included questions on dentists' experiences with people on social assistance and potential strategies developed for this group of people. Analyses consisted of interview debriefing, transcript coding, and data interpretation. Dentists described strategies to resolve three critical issues: missed appointments (organisational issue); difficulty in performing non-covered treatments (biomedical issue); and low government fees (financial issue). With respect to missed appointments, dentists developed strategies to maximise attendance, such as motivating their patients, and to minimise the impact of non-attendance, like booking two people at the same time. With respect to biomedical and financial issues, dentists did not find any satisfactory solutions and considered that it was the government's duty to resolve them. Overall, dentists seem reluctant to exclude people on social assistance but develop solutions that may discriminate against them. The efforts and failures experienced by dentists with people on social assistance should encourage us to rethink how dental services are provided and financed.

  16. Recruiting adolescent girls into a follow-up study: benefits of using a social networking website.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Lindsey; Saksvig, Brit I; Grieser, Mira; Young, Deborah Rohm

    2012-03-01

    Recruitment and retention of adolescent research participants presents unique challenges and considerations when conducting epidemiological studies. To describe the use of the social networking website in the re-recruitment and tracking of adolescent girls into a follow-up study of the Trial of Activity for Adolescent Girls (TAAG) at the University of Maryland field site. 730 girls were recruited as 8th graders into TAAG. Re-recruitment efforts were conducted when they were 11th graders (TAAG 2). Traditional methods, including mailings and school visits, were conducted. A TAAG 2 Facebook site was created to search for girls not found through traditional recruitment methods. Chi-square and t-tests were conducted to identify differences in characteristics between those found and "friended" through Facebook and through traditional recruitment methods. There were 175 girls we were unable to locate using traditional recruitment methods. Of these, 78 were found on Facebook, 68 responded to our friend request, and 43 girls (6% of the girls previously recruited) participated in the study. Demographic data were similar for those who friended us on Facebook and traditional methods. 8th grade body mass index and percent body fat were lower for those recruited from Facebook (p=0.03 and 0.04, respectively). Number of daily minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity tended to be lower among the TAAG 2 Facebook friends (19 ± 11 vs 21 ± 11, p=0.06). Loss to follow-up was minimized by contacting potential participants through Facebook. Social networking websites are a promising method to recruit adolescents. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Parents' experiences of family functioning, health and social support provided by nurses--a pilot study in paediatric intensive care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakio, Nora; Rantanen, Anja; Åstedt-Kurki, Päivi; Suominen, Tarja

    2015-02-01

    The objective of this study was to describe parents' experiences of family functioning, health and social support provided by nursing personnel, while their child was in intensive care, and to determine how social support was associated with family functioning and family health. Cross-sectional study. The data were collected by a self-administered questionnaire from 31 parents of critically ill children from 2010 to 2011. The data were analysed statistically. The parents considered their family functioning, health and social support provided by the nursing personnel to be good. The sub-area of family functioning that rated the lowest was strengths of family, whereas the lowest rated sub-area of family health was ill-being. Child's previous hospital treatments were associated with family health. Parents, whose child had already been in hospital care, reported more well-being and less ill-being than parents with children hospitalised for the first time. Parents' education was associated with family functioning, family health and social support given by the nurses. Weak positive correlation was also found between social support given by nurses and family health experienced by parents. There is a need to discuss how nursing care can further support parental resources. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Social benefits of non-kin food sharing by female vampire bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Gerald G; Wilkinson, Gerald S

    2015-11-22

    Regurgitations of blood among vampire bats appear to benefit both direct and indirect fitness. To maximize inclusive fitness, reciprocal food sharing should occur among close kin. Why then do females with kin roost-mates help non-kin? We tested the hypothesis that helping non-kin increases a bat's success at obtaining future donations by expanding its network of potential donors. On six occasions, we individually fasted 14 adult females and measured donations from 28 possible donors. Each female was fasted before, during and after a treatment period, when we prevented donations from past donors (including 10 close relatives) by simultaneously fasting or removing them. This experiment was designed to detect partner switching and yielded three main results. First, females received less food when we prevented donations from a past donor versus a control bat. Donors within a group are therefore not interchangeable. Second, the treatment increased the variance in donors' contributions to food received by subjects, suggesting the possibility of alternative responses to a partner's inability to reciprocate. Finally, bats that fed more non-kin in previous years had more donors and received more food during the treatment. These results indicate that a bat can expand its network of possible donors by helping non-kin. © 2015 The Author(s).

  19. Social perception of soil conservation benefits in Kondoa eroded area of Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendra P. Shrestha

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A soil conservation project was implemented in Tanzania for over 30 years. This study applied a socio-economic approach to examine and analyse the benefits of soil conservation in the Kondoa eroded area of Tanzania by conducting a household survey of 240 households. The study findings show that 89% and 70% of respondents consider soil conservation activities have increased vegetation and soil fertility, respectively. Decreased soil erosion was perceived by 68% of respondents, increased firewood by 98%, increased fodder by 50%, high crop yields by 56%, and food sufficiency by 68%. These are the outcomes of conservation tillage, integrated farming and use of organic fertilizers, controlled stall feeding, agroforestry, construction of cut off drains, contour bunds and contour ridges cultivation, which are the main land use practices in the area. Access to extension services, household sizes, long term land ownership, crop incomes and awareness of soil conservation project were found to determine the level of participation in soil conservation. Major challenges are the lack of sustainability of those activities because of a recent policy decision to withdraw conservation investment. Despite the challenge, this study concluded that past government efforts on soil conservation activities initiated since the early 1970s through decentralization, institutional collaboration, socioeconomic support to farmers and continuous local community participation in restoring the degraded ecosystem of Kondoa have contributed to ensure environmental and socio-economic sustainability in the area.

  20. Race-specific trends in HPV vaccinations and provider recommendations: persistent disparities or social progress?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdette, Amy M; Webb, Noah S; Hill, Terrence D; Jokinen-Gordon, Hanna

    2017-01-01

    Although racial and ethnic differences in HPV vaccination initiation are well established, it is unclear whether these disparities have changed over time. The role of health provider recommendations in reducing any racial and ethnic inequalities is also uncertain. This study addresses these gaps in the literature. Repeated cross-sectional design. Using data from the National Immunization Survey-Teen (2008-2013), we estimated a series of binary logistic regressions to model race-specific trends in (1) provider recommendations to vaccinate against HPV and (2) HPV vaccine initiation for males (n = 56,632) and females (n = 77,389). Provider recommendations to vaccinate and HPV vaccination uptake have increased over time for adolescent males and females and across all racial and ethnic groups. Among girls, minority youths have seen a sharper increase in provider recommendations and HPV vaccination uptake than their White counterparts. Among boys, minority teens maintain higher overall rates of HPV vaccine uptake, however, Hispanics have lagged behind non-Hispanic Whites in the rate of increase in provider recommendations and HPV vaccinations. Our results suggest that racial and ethnic disparities in provider recommendations and HPV vaccinations have waned over time among males and females. While these trends are welcomed, additional interventions are warranted to increase overall rates of vaccination across race, ethnicity, and gender. Copyright © 2016 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Multidimensional Cost–Benefit Analysis to Guide Evidence-Based Environmental Enrichment: Providing Bedding and Foraging Substrate to Pen-Housed Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Allyson J; Corcoran, Christopher A; Hardy, Vickie A; Miller, Leslie R; Pierre, Peter J

    2010-01-01

    Refinement of animal care and housing is an important shared goal—and challenge—of the team of research, veterinary, and animal care personnel charged with ensuring the wellbeing of laboratory animals. This study addresses 2 issues central to decision-making and implementation of environmental enhancement: methods for useful and comprehensive cost analysis and evaluation of engineering, husbandry, and facilities considerations. The study was undertaken to analyze the feasibility and cost of providing wood shavings as a floor cover for pen-housed monkeys. The beneficial effects of bedding for the welfare of laboratory-housed animals have long been validated. Our study illustrates a workable team-based procedure for comprehensive cost analysis of an important environmental enhancement and demonstrates that the animal welfare benefit is accompanied by decreased husbandry costs. An engineering solution to the potential challenge that wood shavings pose in terms of clogging water pipes was successful. Another successful outcome was the reduction in water (estimated at 192,000 gal annually) and chemicals used to clean housing areas. Emphasis on rigorous evaluation and objective measures of cost and benefit, as well as inclusion of the many factors and teams involved in animal research, holds strong potential for building a better foundation from which to contribute effective changes and improvements in laboratory animal welfare. Taken together, the findings of this study demonstrate that team-based, integrative, and scientific evaluation of environmental enhancement is an effective approach to guide selection of strategies with maximal potential for improving animal welfare. PMID:20858357

  2. Predicting Receipt of Social Security Administration Disability Benefits Using Biomarkers and Other Physiological Measures: Evidence From the Health and Retirement Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blue, Laura; Gill, Lakhpreet; Faul, Jessica; Bradway, Kevin; Stapleton, David

    2017-10-01

    The objective of this study was to assess how well physiological measures, including biomarkers and genetic indicators, predict receipt of Social Security Administration (SSA) disability benefits among U.S. adults aged 51 to 65 years. We used data from the 2006 to 2012 waves of the Health and Retirement Study (HRS), linked to SSA administrative data. Using logistic regression, we predicted benefit receipt (either Social Security Disability Insurance or Supplemental Security Income) using 19 distinct physiological markers, adjusting for age, sex, race, and select medication use. We then calculated the propensity (i.e., predicted probability) that each HRS respondent received benefits and assessed how well propensity score-based classifications could identify beneficiaries and nonbeneficiaries. Thirteen percent of respondents received benefits. Using the propensity score cut point that maximized the sum of sensitivity and specificity, the model correctly predicted 75.9% of beneficiaries and 73.5% of nonbeneficiaries. Physiological measures have moderate power to predict SSA disability benefit receipt.

  3. Benefits of Distinguishing between Physical and Social-Verbal Aspects of Behavior: An Example of Generalized Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trofimova, Irina; Sulis, William

    2016-01-01

    Temperament traits and mental illness have been linked to varying degrees of imbalances in neurotransmitter systems of behavior regulation. If a temperament model has been carefully structured to reflect weak imbalances within systems of behavior regulation, then in the presence of mental illness, these profiles should exhibit distinct patterns consistent with symptoms of mental illness. In contrast to other temperament models used in studies of anxiety disorders, the Functional Ensemble of Temperament (FET) model differentiates not only between emotionality traits, but also between traits related to physical, social-verbal and mental aspects of behavior. This paper analyzed the predictions of the FET model, which maps 12 functional aspects of behavior to symptoms of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) as described in the DSM/ICD. As an example, the paper describes a study of the coupling of sex, age and temperament traits with GAD using the FET framework. The intake records of 116 clients in treatment with confirmed diagnosis of GAD in a private psychological practice were compared using ANOVA against records of 146 healthy clients using their scores on the FET-based questionnaire, in age groups 17-24, 25-45, 46-65. Patients with GAD in all age groups reported significantly lower Social Endurance, Social Tempo, Probabilistic reasoning (but not in physical aspects of behavior) and higher Neuroticism than healthy individuals, however, no effects on the scales of Motor Endurance or Tempo were found. These findings show the benefits of differentiation between motor-physical and social-verbal aspects of behavior in psychological assessment of mental disorders.

  4. Benefits of distinguishing between physical and social-verbal aspects of behaviour: an example of generalized anxiety.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina N Trofimova

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Temperament traits and mental illness have been linked to varying degrees of imbalances in neurotransmitter systems of behavior regulation. If a temperament model has been carefully structured to reflect weak imbalances within systems of behavior regulation, then in the presence of mental illness, these profiles should exhibit distinct patterns consistent with symptoms of mental illness. In contrast to other temperament models used in studies of anxiety, the Functional Ensemble of Temperament (FET model differentiates not only between emotionality traits, but also between traits related to physical, social-verbal and mental aspects of behavior. This paper analyzed the predictions of the FET model, which maps 12 functional aspects of behavior to symptoms of Generalized Anxiety Disorder as described in the DSM/ICD. As an example, the paper describes a study of the coupling of sex, age and temperament traits with Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD using the FET framework. The intake records of 116 clients in treatment with confirmed diagnosis of GAD in a private psychological practice were compared using ANOVA against records of 146 healthy clients using their scores on the FET-based questionnaire, in age groups 17-24, 25-45, 46-65. Patients with GAD in all age groups reported significantly lower Social Endurance, Social Tempo, Probabilistic reasoning (but not in physical aspects of behavior and higher Neuroticism than healthy individuals, however no effects on the scales of Motor Endurance or Tempo were found. These findings show the benefits of differentiation between motor-physical and social-verbal aspects of behavior in psychological assessment of mental disorders.

  5. Dance for Parkinson's: a new framework for research on its physical, mental, emotional, and social benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGill, Ashley; Houston, Sara; Lee, Raymond Y W

    2014-06-01

    Parkinson's is a neurodegenerative disease commonly associated with symptoms such as tremor, rigidity, bradykinesia, freezing during gait, motor control deficits and instability. These physical symptoms can cause a myriad of psychological problems including depression, feelings of loneliness, and low self-esteem. Current research suggests pharmacological interventions do not sufficiently address all symptoms and thus alternative therapies have been deemed an important part of treatment for people with Parkinson's. Dance has shown to be a beneficial activity for this population. Upon reviewing recent dance for Parkinson's studies it is clear that there are developing trends with respect to overall approach. The tendency to place more emphasis on changes to clinical signs is creating a gap whereby research neglects to look at how dance is influencing a particular individual in all aspects of their life. There is a need for a framework that allows for and encourages the analysis of the dancing experience for people with Parkinson's on a variety of levels including physically, mentally, emotionally, and socially. With such a framework it would be possible to triangulate the information gathered to draw stronger conclusions that are more meaningful to the people with Parkinson's. This paper would like to propose the use of the World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health as a possible framework for dance for Parkinson's research. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Diabetes in homeless persons: barriers and enablers to health as perceived by patients, medical, and social service providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elder, Nancy C; Tubb, Matthew R

    2014-01-01

    The ways homelessness and diabetes affect each other is not well known. The authors sought to understand barriers and enablers to health for homeless people with diabetes as perceived by homeless persons and providers. The authors performed semistructured interviews with a sample of participants (seven homeless persons, six social service providers, and five medical providers) in an urban Midwest community. Data analysis was performed with the qualitative editing method. Participants described external factors (chaotic lifestyle, diet/food availability, access to care, and medications) and internal factors (competing demands, substance abuse, stress) that directly affect health. Social service providers were seen as peripheral to diabetes care, although all saw their primary functions as valuable. These factors and relationships are appropriately modeled in a complex adaptive chronic care model, where the framework is bottom up and stresses adaptability, self-organization, and empowerment. Adapting the care of homeless persons with diabetes to include involvement of patients and medical and social service providers must be emergent and responsive to changing needs.

  7. Together, slowly but surely: the role of social interaction and feedback in the build-up of benefit in collective decision-making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahrami, Bahador; Olsen, Karsten; Bang, Dan

    2011-01-01

    in a significant collective benefit in perceptual decisions. When feedback was not available a collective benefit was not initially obtained but emerged through practice to the extent that in the second half of the experiments, collective benefits obtained with (Experiment 1) and without (Experiment 2) feedback...... were robust and statistically indistinguishable. Taken together, this work demonstrates that social interaction was necessary for build-up of reliable collaborative benefit, whereas objective reference only accelerated the process but-given enough opportunity for practice-was not necessary for building...

  8. A social marketing model for disseminating research-based treatments to addictions treatment providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, G W; Herie, M A; Turner, B J; Cunningham, J A

    1998-11-01

    Researchers must develop effective strategies for disseminating research-based treatments. This study evaluates the application of a dissemination model based on principles of social marketing and diffusion theory. A case study describes how the model was implemented. A qualitative design was employed to examine rates of adoption and adaptation of an early intervention program by a targeted system of addictions agencies. The interventions were developed at the Addiction Research Foundation in Toronto and disseminated to Assessment and Referral (A/R) Centres in Ontario, Canada. Study participants included the managers and a designated therapist for 33 participating A/R centres. Managers were asked mainly open-ended questions concerning whether their agency had made a formal decision to adopt the intervention and whether therapists in their agency were using the early intervention program. "Adoption" was operationalized as offering the complete four-session intervention to at least one client. At 12 months after the completion of training workshops, 68% of 34 agencies in the target system had adopted the program while 85% of the agencies were using some components of the intervention with clients. The dissemination model appeared to be effective although its application proved to be time-consuming and labour-intensive. The "market analysis", systems focus and field-test components of the model appeared to contribute to its success.

  9. Online social network use by health care providers in a high traffic patient care environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Erik; Light, Jennifer; Paradise Black, Nicole; Thompson, Lindsay

    2013-05-17

    The majority of workers, regardless of age or occupational status, report engaging in personal Internet use in the workplace. There is little understanding of the impact that personal Internet use may have on patient care in acute clinical settings. The objective of this study was to investigate the volume of one form of personal Internet use-online social networking (Facebook)-generated by workstations in the emergency department (ED) in contrast to measures of clinical volume and severity. The research team analyzed anonymous network utilization records for 68 workstations located in the emergency medicine department within one academic medical center for 15 consecutive days (12/29/2009 to 1/12/2010). This data was compared to ED work index (EDWIN) data derived by the hospital information systems. Health care workers spent an accumulated 4349 minutes (72.5 hours) browsing Facebook, staff cumulatively visited Facebook 9369 times and spent, on average, 12.0 minutes per hour browsing Facebook. There was a statistically significant difference in the time spent on Facebook according to time of day (19.8 minutes per hour versus 4.3 minutes per hour, P<.001). There was a significant, positive correlation between EDWIN scores and time spent on Facebook (r=.266, P<.001). Facebook use constituted a substantive percentage of staff time during the 15-day observation period. Facebook use increased with increased patient volume and severity within the ED.

  10. The early benefits of a problem-based approach to teaching social inclusion using an online virtual town.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beadle, Mary; Santy, Julie

    2008-05-01

    This article describes the delivery of a core pre-registration nursing and midwifery module centred on social inclusion. The module was previously delivered using a classroom-based problem-based learning approach. Difficulties with this approach led to changes to the module and its delivery. Logistic issues encouraged the module team to implement a blended learning approach using a virtual town to facilitate online learning and discussion activities. The paper describes and discusses the use of online learning technology to support student nurses and midwives. It highlights the benefits of this approach and outlines some of the experiences of the students including their evaluation of the virtual town. There is also an examination of some of the practical and theoretical issues related to both problem-based learning, online working and using a virtual town to support learning. This article outlines the approach taken and its implications.

  11. Social network analysis of wild chimpanzees provides insights for predicting infectious disease risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushmore, Julie; Caillaud, Damien; Matamba, Leopold; Stumpf, Rebecca M; Borgatti, Stephen P; Altizer, Sonia

    2013-09-01

    1. Heterogeneity in host association patterns can alter pathogen transmission and strategies for control. Great apes are highly social and endangered animals that have experienced substantial population declines from directly transmitted pathogens; as such, network approaches to quantify contact heterogeneity could be crucially important for predicting infection probability and outbreak size following pathogen introduction, especially owing to challenges in collecting real-time infection data for endangered wildlife. 2. We present here the first study using network analysis to quantify contact heterogeneity in wild apes, with applications for predicting community-wide infectious disease risk. Specifically, within a wild chimpanzee community, we ask how associations between individuals vary over time, and we identify traits of highly connected individuals that might contribute disproportionately to pathogen spread. 3. We used field observations of behavioural encounters in a habituated wild chimpanzee community in Kibale National Park, Uganda to construct monthly party level (i.e. subgroup) and close-contact (i.e. ≤ 5 m) association networks over a 9-month period. 4. Network analysis revealed that networks were highly dynamic over time. In particular, oestrous events significantly increased pairwise party associations, suggesting that community-wide disease outbreaks should be more likely to occur when many females are in oestrus. 5. Bayesian models and permutation tests identified traits of chimpanzees that were highly connected within the network. Individuals with large families (i.e. mothers and their juveniles) that range in the core of the community territory and to a lesser extent high-ranking males were central to association networks, and thus represent the most important individuals to target for disease intervention strategies. 6. Overall, we show striking temporal variation in network structure and traits that predict association patterns in a wild

  12. Social benefits of the RIA technique in the State of Zacatecas; Beneficio social de la tecnica de RIA en el Estado de Zacatecas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badillo R, Y.; Badillo A, V. [UAZ, Carretera a Ciudad Cuahutemoc Km. 0.5, Guadalupe, Zacatecas (Mexico)]. E-mail: yasminbadilloregis@hotmail.com

    2004-07-01

    Presently work was carried out tests of thyroid function to 159 patients with the purpose of evaluating the incidence of thyroid illnesses, being based these studies on the method of Radio immuno analysis (RIA). During this work they were studied 159 patients, men (21%) and women (79%), to which were practiced the tests of thyroid function, applying the technique of Radio immuno analysis, throwing the following results: Healthy patients (58.5%); Hyper thyroidal patients (22.6%), Hypo thyroidal patients (18.9%). The social benefit of this technique and their importance is because the patients that go to this laboratory are of scarce resources and otherwise; they would not simply be diagnose, since we have found patients that have taken until 10 years in that are diagnosed thyroid abnormalities. (Author)

  13. A next-generation social media-based relapse prevention intervention for youth depression: Qualitative data on user experience outcomes for social networking, safety, and clinical benefit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Santesteban-Echarri

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Major depressive disorder (MDD has a high prevalence and relapse rate among young people. For many individuals depression exhibits a severe course, and it is therefore critical to invest in innovative online interventions for depression that are cost-effective, acceptable and feasible. At present, there is a scarcity of research reporting on qualitative data regarding the subjective user experience of young people using social networking-based interventions for depression. This study provides in-depth qualitative insights generated from 38 semi-structured interviews, and a follow-up focus group, with young people (15–25 years after the implementation of a moderated online social therapy intervention for depression relapse prevention (“Rebound”. Exploratory analysis identified patterns of content from interview data related to three main themes: 1 preferred content compared to perceived helpfulness of the online platform, 2 interest in social networking, and 3 protective environment. Two clear groups emerged; those who perceived the social networking component of the intervention as the most helpful component; and those who preferred to engage in therapy content, receiving individualized content suggested by moderators. The Rebound intervention was shown to be acceptable for young people with major depression. Integration of social networking features appears to enhance intervention engagement for some young people recovering from depression.

  14. First in line: prioritizing receipt of Social Security disability benefits based on likelihood of death during adjudication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasch, Elizabeth K; Huynh, Minh; Ho, Pei-Shu; Heuser, Aaron; Houtenville, Andrew; Chan, Leighton

    2014-11-01

    Given the complexity of the adjudication process and volume of applications to Social Security Administration's (SSA) disability programs, many individuals with serious medical conditions die while awaiting an application decision. Limitations of traditional survival methods called for a new empirical approach to identify conditions resulting in rapid mortality. To identify health conditions associated with significantly higher mortality than a key reference group among applicants for SSA disability programs. We identified mortality patterns and generated a survival surface for a reference group using conditions already designated for expedited processing. We identified conditions associated with significantly higher mortality than the reference group and prioritized them by the expected likelihood of death during the adjudication process. Administrative records of 29 million Social Security disability applicants, who applied for benefits from 1996 to 2007, were analyzed. We computed survival spells from time of onset of disability to death, and from date of application to death. Survival data were organized by entry cohort. In our sample, we observed that approximately 42,000 applicants died before a decision was made on their disability claims. We identified 24 conditions with survival profiles comparable with the reference group. Applicants with these conditions were not likely to survive adjudication. Our approach facilitates ongoing revision of the conditions SSA designates for expedited awards and has applicability to other programs where survival profiles are a consideration.

  15. Resistance training and older adults' beliefs about psychological benefits: the importance of self-efficacy and social interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dionigi, Rylee

    2007-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the perceived psychological benefits and explore the mechanisms underlying the link between exercise and psychological well-being for a group of older adults (65-72 years; 6 women; 4 men) who participated in a 12-week program of moderate-to-high intensity resistance training. They were interviewed in-depth at 1 week preintervention, 1 month after commencement, and 1 week after completion. The participants believed that resistance training enhanced their well-being, and they gave various physical, mental, and social reasons to explain this link. In particular, self-efficacy and social interaction were found to be key mechanisms underlying this relationship. This study exposed meaningful perceived improvements in psychological wellbeing that have not been uncovered in quantitative studies of healthy older people undertaking resistance training. The findings highlight the importance of using qualitative methods to enrich understandings of the positive effect of exercise on psychological well-being. The findings also have implications for designing effective resistance training interventions for older people.

  16. Dual Blockade of HER-2 Provides a Greater Magnitude of Benefit in Patients With Hormone-Negative Versus Hormone-Positive Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramovitz, Mark; Williams, Casey; Loibl, Sibylle; Leyland-Jones, Brian

    2016-12-01

    The dual small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitor lapatinib blocks both human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER-1) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER-2) tyrosine kinase activity by binding reversibly to the ATP-binding site of the receptor's intracellular domain. Lapatinib, in combination with capecitabine, has been approved in 2007 for the treatment of patients with advanced HER-2 + breast cancer upon progressive disease following standard chemotherapy. Approval was also extended to the treatment of postmenopausal women with advanced hormone receptor (HR)-positive and HER-2-positive breast cancer in 2010. More recently, clinical trials that have investigated the efficacy of dual HER-2 blockade in both the metastatic and neoadjuvant breast cancer settings. For example, in 2013 the European Medicines Agency approved the combination of lapatinib and trastuzumab in HER-2 + /HR - patients. We review the efficacy results from dual HER-2 blockade studies and present new post hoc analysis efficacy data according to HR status. We show that dual blockade of HER-2 appears to provide a greater magnitude of benefit in the HR - versus the HR + subgroup of patients. Finally, we examine the potential of molecularly subtyping HER-2 + tumors using the PAM50 test as a predictor of response to treatment with the combination of trastuzumab and lapatinib. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Estimating the Costs and Benefits of Providing Free Public Transit Passes to Students in Los Angeles County: Lessons Learned in Applying a Health Lens to Decision-Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren N. Gase

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In spite of increased focus by public health to engage and work with non-health sector partners to improve the health of the general as well as special populations, only a paucity of studies have described and disseminated emerging lessons and promising practices that can be used to undertake this work. This article describes the process used to conduct a Health Impact Assessment of a proposal to provide free public transportation passes to students in Los Angeles County. This illustrative case example describes opportunities and challenges encountered in working with an array of cross-sector partners and highlights four important lessons learned: (1 the benefits and challenges associated with broad conceptualization of public issues; (2 the need for more comprehensive, longitudinal data systems and dynamic simulation models to inform decision-making; (3 the importance of having a comprehensive policy assessment strategy that considers health impacts as well as costs and feasibility; and (4 the need for additional efforts to delineate the interconnectivity between health and other agency priorities. As public health advances cross-sector work in the community, further development of these priorities will help advance meaningful collaboration among all partners.

  18. Judicial review of the management of assistance provided by the European Social Fund for the promotion of employment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios V. Skiadas

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This article considers the matters arising during the judicial review of the management of the assistance provided through the European Social Fund for the promotion of employment. Issues such as the direct actions for annulment, the actions for failure to act, the enforcement actions, the preliminary rulings and the actions for damages are examined in detail. The analysis focuses on topics like the identity of the reviewable acts, the standing of the applicants, the grounds of review, etc.

  19. Judicial review of the management of assistance provided by the European Social Fund for the promotion of employment

    OpenAIRE

    Dimitrios V. Skiadas

    2002-01-01

    This article considers the matters arising during the judicial review of the management of the assistance provided through the European Social Fund for the promotion of employment. Issues such as the direct actions for annulment, the actions for failure to act, the enforcement actions, the preliminary rulings and the actions for damages are examined in detail. The analysis focuses on topics like the identity of the reviewable acts, the standing of the applicants, the grounds of review, etc.

  20. Healthcare providers' perspectives on the social reintegration of patients after surgical fistula repair in the eastern Democratic Republic of Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young-Lin, Nichole; Namugunga, Esperance N; Lussy, Justin P; Benfield, Nerys

    2015-08-01

    To understand perspectives of local health providers on the social reintegration of patients who have undergone fistula repair in the eastern Democratic Republic of Congo. In a qualitative study, semi-structured individual interviews were conducted with patient-care professionals working with women with fistula at HEAL Africa Hospital (Goma) and Panzi Hospital (Bukavu) between June and August 2011. The interviews were transcribed and themes elicited through manual coding. Overall, 41 interviews were conducted. Successful surgical repair was reported to be the most important factor contributing to patients' ability to lead a normal life by all providers. Family acceptance-especially from the husband-was deemed crucial for reintegration by 39 (95%) providers, and 29 (71%) believed this acceptance was more important than the ability to work. Forty (98%) providers felt that, on the basis of African values, future childbearing was key for family acceptance. Because of poor access and the high cost of cesarean deliveries, 28 (68%) providers were concerned about fistula recurrence. Providers view postsurgical childbearing as crucial for social reintegration after fistula repair. However, cesarean deliveries are costly and often inaccessible. More work is needed to improve reproductive health access for women after fistula repair. Copyright © 2015 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Preliminary Investigation of Workplace-Provided Compressed Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction with Pediatric Medical Social Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trowbridge, Kelly; Mische Lawson, Lisa; Andrews, Stephanie; Pecora, Jodi; Boyd, Sabra

    2017-11-01

    Mindfulness practices, including mindfulness meditation, show promise for decreasing stress among health care providers. This exploratory study investigates the feasibility of a two-day compressed mindfulness-based stress reduction (cMBSR) course provided in the hospital workplace with pediatric health care social workers. The standard course of Jon Kabat-Zinn's MBSR requires a participant commitment to eight weeks of instruction consisting of one 2.5-hour-per-week class, a single day retreat, and 45 minutes of practice for six of seven days each week. Commitments to family, work, caregiving, education, and so on, as well as limitations such as distance, may prevent health care providers from participating in a standard MBSR course. Using t tests, researchers measured the effect of cMBSR on (a) positive and negative experiences in pediatric social work, (b) perceived stress, (c) mindfulness, and (d) caring self-efficacy (as a component of patient- and family-centered care). Results included significant differences between the pre- and post-intervention outcome variables on the Professional Quality of Life Secondary Traumatic Stress subscale, the Mindful Attention and Awareness Scale, and the Caring Efficacy Scale. Findings found adequate evidence for the feasibility of cMBSR design and for a need of a more rigorous study of the effects of the cMBSR intervention. © 2017 National Association of Social Workers.

  2. Stress and reproductive hormones in grizzly bears reflect nutritional benefits and social consequences of a salmon foraging niche.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather M Bryan

    Full Text Available Physiological indicators of social and nutritional stress can provide insight into the responses of species to changes in food availability. In coastal British Columbia, Canada, grizzly bears evolved with spawning salmon as an abundant but spatially and temporally constrained food source. Recent and dramatic declines in salmon might have negative consequences on bear health and ultimately fitness. To examine broadly the chronic endocrine effects of a salmon niche, we compared cortisol, progesterone, and testosterone levels in hair from salmon-eating bears from coastal BC (n = 75 with the levels in a reference population from interior BC lacking access to salmon (n = 42. As predicted, testosterone was higher in coastal bears of both sexes relative to interior bears, possibly reflecting higher social density on the coast mediated by salmon availability. We also investigated associations between the amount of salmon individual bears consumed (as measured by stable isotope analysis and cortisol and testosterone in hair. Also as predicted, cortisol decreased with increasing dietary salmon and was higher after a year of low dietary salmon than after a year of high dietary salmon. These findings at two spatial scales suggest that coastal bears might experience nutritional or social stress in response to on-going salmon declines, providing novel insights into the effects of resource availability on fitness-related physiology.

  3. Stress and reproductive hormones in grizzly bears reflect nutritional benefits and social consequences of a salmon foraging niche.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Heather M; Darimont, Chris T; Paquet, Paul C; Wynne-Edwards, Katherine E; Smits, Judit E G

    2013-01-01

    Physiological indicators of social and nutritional stress can provide insight into the responses of species to changes in food availability. In coastal British Columbia, Canada, grizzly bears evolved with spawning salmon as an abundant but spatially and temporally constrained food source. Recent and dramatic declines in salmon might have negative consequences on bear health and ultimately fitness. To examine broadly the chronic endocrine effects of a salmon niche, we compared cortisol, progesterone, and testosterone levels in hair from salmon-eating bears from coastal BC (n = 75) with the levels in a reference population from interior BC lacking access to salmon (n = 42). As predicted, testosterone was higher in coastal bears of both sexes relative to interior bears, possibly reflecting higher social density on the coast mediated by salmon availability. We also investigated associations between the amount of salmon individual bears consumed (as measured by stable isotope analysis) and cortisol and testosterone in hair. Also as predicted, cortisol decreased with increasing dietary salmon and was higher after a year of low dietary salmon than after a year of high dietary salmon. These findings at two spatial scales suggest that coastal bears might experience nutritional or social stress in response to on-going salmon declines, providing novel insights into the effects of resource availability on fitness-related physiology.

  4. Assessment of the Carbon Footprint, Social Benefit of Carbon Reduction, and Energy Payback Time of a High-Concentration Photovoltaic System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allen H. Hu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Depleting fossil fuel sources and worsening global warming are two of the most serious world problems. Many renewable energy technologies are continuously being developed to overcome these challenges. Among these technologies, high-concentration photovoltaics (HCPV is a promising technology that reduces the use of expensive photovoltaic materials to achieve highly efficient energy conversion. This reduction process is achieved by adopting concentrating and tracking technologies. This study intends to understand and assess the carbon footprint and energy payback time (EPBT of HCPV modules during their entire life cycles. The social benefit of carbon reduction is also evaluated as another indicator to assess the energy alternatives. An HCPV module and a tracker from the Institute of Nuclear Energy Research (INER were applied, and SimaPro 8.0.2 was used for the assessment. The functional unit used in this study was 1 kWh, which is produced by HCPV, and inventory data was sourced from Ecoinvent 3.0 and the Taiwan carbon footprint calculation database. The carbon footprint, EPBT, and social benefit of carbon reduction were evaluated as 107.69 g CO2eq/kWh, 2.61 years, and 0.022 USD/kWh, respectively. Direct normal irradiation (DNI, life expectancy, and the degradation rate of HCPV system were subjected to sensitivity analysis. Results show that the influence of lifetime assumption under a low DNI value is greater than those under high DNI values. Degradation rate is also another important factor when assessing the carbon footprint of HCPV under a low DNI value and a long lifetime assumption. The findings of this study can provide several insights for the development of the Taiwanese solar industry.

  5. Calcium and cholecalciferol supplementation provides no added benefit to nutritional counseling to improve bone mineral density in survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaste, S C; Qi, A; Smith, K; Surprise, H; Lovorn, E; Boyett, J; Ferry, R J; Relling, M V; Shurtleff, S A; Pui, C H; Carbone, L; Hudson, M M; Ness, K K

    2014-05-01

    We sought to improve lumbar spine bone mineral density (LS-BMD) in long-term survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) using calcium and cholecalciferol supplementation. This double-blind, placebo-controlled trial randomized 275 participants (median age, 17 [9-36.1] years) with age- and gender-specific LS-BMD Z-scores <0 to receive nutritional counseling with supplementation of 1,000 mg/day calcium and 800 International Unit cholecalciferol or placebo for 2 years. The primary outcome was change in LS-BMD assessed by quantitative computerized tomography (QCT) at 24 months. Linear regression models were employed to identify the baseline risk factors for low LS-BMD and to compare LS-BMD outcomes. Pre-randomization LS-BMD below the mean was associated with male gender (P = 0.0024), White race (P = 0.0003), lower body mass index (P < 0.0001), and cumulative glucocorticoid doses of ≥ 5,000 mg (P = 0.0012). One hundred eighty-eight (68%) participants completed the study; 77% adhered to the intervention. Mean LS-BMD change did not differ between survivors randomized to supplements (0.33 ± 0.57) or placebo (0.28 ± 0.56). Participants aged 9-13 years and those 22-35 years had the greatest mean increases in LS-BMD (0.50 ± 0.66 and 0.37 ± 0.23, respectively). Vitamin D insufficiency (serum 25[OH]D <30 ng/ml) found in 296 (75%), was not associated with LS-BMD outcomes (P = 0.78). Cholecalciferol and calcium supplementation provides no added benefit to nutritional counseling for improving LS-BMD among adolescent and young adult survivors of ALL (93% of whom had LS-BMD Z-scores above the mean at study entry). © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Non-elastic taping, but not elastic taping, provides benefits for patients with knee osteoarthritis: systemic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Jin-Han; Chang, Kwang-Hwa; Hsu, Wen-Yen; Cho, Yen-Ting; Liou, Tsan-Hon; Lin, Yen-Nung

    2017-06-01

    To determine whether therapeutic taping, which includes elastic (Kinesio tape) and non-elastic (Leukotape) taping, is superior to control taping in improving pain and functions for patients with knee arthritis. To understand whether both elastic and non-elastic taping are beneficial. We searched the PubMed and Scopus databases from their earliest record to 31 May 2017 for randomized controlled and cross-over studies that used taping to treat knee osteoarthritis. We extracted the mean differences and SD between baseline and posttreatment for selected outcomes measured in the experimental and control groups for subsequent meta-analyses. In total, 11 studies were included in the review. Of which, five Leukotaping and five Kinesio taping studies involving 379 participants were used in the meta-analysis. PEDro scores of the Leukotaping and Kinesio taping studies were 4.2 and 7.8, respectively. Overall, therapeutic taping exhibited significantly greater pain reduction than control taping with a significant weighted mean difference of 12.8 mm on a 0- to 100-mm visual analogue scale. Compared to control taping, Leukotaping produced a significant weighted mean difference of 11.6 mm regarding pain with a large effect size of 0.89 and I(2) = 0%, while Kinesio taping produced a non-significant weighted mean difference of 12.1 mm and I(2) = 93%. Leukotaping also exhibited a large and significant standard mean difference of 0.82, while Kinesio taping exhibited a non-significant standard mean difference of 1.34 regarding climbing stairs and stepping. Therapeutic taping seemed to be superior to control taping in pain control for knee osteoarthritis. Non-elastic taping, but not elastic taping, provides benefits in pain reduction and functional performance.

  7. Is ‘making work pay’ effective for the ‘unemployable’? The impact of benefit sanctions on social assistance recipients in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diop-Christensen, Anna

    2015-01-01

    In spring 2006, the Danish government introduced a policy that required married long-term social assistance recipients to work 300 hours in non-subsidised employment during a 2-year period in order to remain eligible for benefits. The intention was to ‘make work pay’ for unemployed immigrant women...... an unforeseen effect on the work effort of social welfare workers. Many moved their clients to other benefit schemes instead of applying the sanctions. This was particularly the case for the weakest among the unemployed and in municipalities, which were headed by left-wing mayors or that received extra funds...

  8. At the intersection of lay and professional social networks: how community ties shape perceptions of mental health treatment providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, B L; Pullen, E; Pescosolido, B A

    2016-01-01

    The therapeutic alliance is a critical determinant of individuals' persistence and outcomes in mental health treatment. Simultaneously, individuals' community networks shape decisions about whether, when, and what kind of treatment are used. Despite the similar focus on social relationship influence for individuals with serious mental illness, each line of research has maintained an almost exclusive focus on either 'inside' (i.e. treatment) networks or 'outside' (i.e. community) networks, respectively. For this study, we integrate these important insights by employing a network-embedded approach to understand the therapeutic alliance. Using data from the Indianapolis Network Mental Health Study (INMHS, n = 169, obs = 2206), we target patients experiencing their first major contact with the mental health treatment system. We compare patients' perceptions of support resources available through treatment providers and lay people, and ask whether evaluations of interpersonal dimensions of the therapeutic alliance are contingent on characteristics of community networks. Analyses reveal that providers make up only 9% of the whole social network, but are generally perceived positively. However, when community networks are characterized by close relationships and frequent contact, patients are significantly more likely to report that treatment providers offer useful advice and information. Conversely, when community networks are in conflict, perceptions of treatment providers are more negative. Community-based social networks are critical for understanding facilitators of and barriers to effective networks inside treatment, including the therapeutic alliance. Implications for community-based systems of care are discussed in the context of the USA and global patterns of deinstitutionalization and community reintegration.

  9. An Analytical Method for Deriving Reservoir Operation Curves to Maximize Social Benefits from Multiple Uses of Water in the Willamette River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, K. M.; Jaeger, W. K.; Jones, J. A.

    2013-12-01

    A central characteristic of large river basins in the western US is the spatial and temporal disjunction between the supply of and demand for water. Water sources are typically concentrated in forested mountain regions distant from municipal and agricultural water users, while precipitation is super-abundant in winter and deficient in summer. To cope with these disparities, systems of reservoirs have been constructed throughout the West. These reservoir systems are managed to serve two main competing purposes: to control flooding during winter and spring, and to store spring runoff and deliver it to populated, agricultural valleys during the summer. The reservoirs also provide additional benefits, including recreation, hydropower and instream flows for stream ecology. Since the storage capacity of the reservoirs cannot be used for both flood control and storage at the same time, these uses are traded-off during spring, as the most important, or dominant use of the reservoir, shifts from buffering floods to storing water for summer use. This tradeoff is expressed in the operations rule curve, which specifies the maximum level to which a reservoir can be filled throughout the year, apart from real-time flood operations. These rule curves were often established at the time a reservoir was built. However, climate change and human impacts may be altering the timing and amplitude of flood events and water scarcity is expected to intensify with anticipated changes in climate, land cover and population. These changes imply that reservoir management using current rule curves may not match future societal values for the diverse uses of water from reservoirs. Despite a broad literature on mathematical optimization for reservoir operation, these methods are not often used because they 1) simplify the hydrologic system, raising doubts about the real-world applicability of the solutions, 2) exhibit perfect foresight and assume stationarity, whereas reservoir operators face

  10. Provider Opinions and Experiences Regarding Development of a Social Support Assessment to Inform Hospital Discharge: The Going Home Toolkit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Andrea; Papke, Todd; Davisson, Erica; Spooner, Kara; Gassman, Laura

    Despite over three decades of research linking social support and optimal health outcomes, social support is not systematically assessed or addressed during clinical care. This study sought input from health care providers to inform the design of an intervention intended to facilitate assessment of social support in a way that could aid in anticipatory planning during the process of hospital discharge. Using a purposive sampling strategy, data were collected from providers in two acute care settings serving rural patients, one academic and one community based. Opinions about what an assessment of social support would seek to accomplish, what is currently done and by whom, and the preferred format for delivery were elicited during a series of individual and group interviews. During phase two, feasibility was assessed with three inpatient nurses over 3 clinical days. Field notes were analyzed throughout the project using rapid data analysis techniques. Health care providers endorsed the creation of an assessment and stated that target users would include all members of the discharge team (e.g., clinical nurses, case managers, discharge coordinators, hospitalists, and specialty care). They identified the need for a patient-family resource (vs. a traditional provider-facing assessment). Participants stated that, although both the information collected and the interview process would meet a need to increase patient engagement in inpatient settings, competing clinical demands would require a tool that was easily completed by patients and family and seen as directly informing clinical activities. To this end, although focusing on the eventual development of an electronic tool seemed valuable, a hard-copy resource was considered more feasible for patient use at the present time. The preliminary test of the resulting hard-copy "Going Home Toolkit" demonstrated potential feasibility and usefulness during clinical practice. There is need for not only assessing patients

  11. Influence of social upbringing on the activity pattern of captive lion Panthera leo cubs: Benefits of behavior enrichment

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    Sibonokuhle NCUBE, Hilton Garikai Taambuka NDAGURWA

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The influence of social upbringing on the activity pattern of lion Panthera leo cubs was investigated at three sites. In this study, stimulus objects such as sticks, grass, fresh dung (elephant Loxondota africana, zebra Equus quagga, impala Aepyceros melampus, duiker Sylvicapra grimmia, kudu Tragelaphus strepsiceros, giraffe Giraffa camelopardalis and wildebeest Connochaetes taurinus and cardboard boxes, were utilized in an enrichment program aimed at encouraging active behaviors of captive lion cubs at Antelope Park and Masuwe. Lion cubs at Chipangali were not behaviorally enriched. Activity patterns were recorded for 10 days at each site. We recorded moving, resting, playing, grooming, visual exploration and display of hunting instincts. We found that behavioral enrichment enhanced the active behaviors of captive lion cubs. Orphan-raised cubs spent more time moving, playing and displaying hunting instincts than mother-raised cubs, but the time spent grooming was similar across areas and suggests that grooming is not influenced by enrichment. Mother-raised cubs spent more time engaged in visual exploration than orphan-raised cubs and this could be a behavior acquired from mothers or a result of confidence to explore because of their presence. Activity patterns were different among time treatments across our three study sites. Based on these findings, we suggest that lion cubs raised in captivity could benefit from behavioral enrichment to encourage active behaviors essential for eventual reintroduction into the wild [Current Zoology 56 (4: 389–394, 2010].

  12. Influence of Parental Monitoring, Sensation Seeking, Expected Social Benefits, and Refusal Efficacy on Tobacco and Alcohol Use in Chinese Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jincong; Wu, Qingfeng; Yang, Chengwu; Vrana, Kent E; Zhou, Li; Yang, Longyu; Zhang, Hui; Yan, Dong; Li, Jiang; Teng, Shiwei; Gong, Jie; Yan, Yaqiong; Wang, Zengzhen

    2016-03-01

    The relationships between parental monitoring (PM), sensation seeking (SS), expected social benefits (ESB), refusal efficacy (RE), and tobacco and alcohol use (TAU) have been well documented among adolescents. However, the mechanisms by which these 4 determinants affect TAU remain unclear. Based on the Theory of Triadic Influence, this study aimed to explore how PM, SS, ESB, and RE simultaneously influenced TAU in Chinese adolescents. From September 2013 to June 2014, we used multistage cluster sampling to select 6269 students from 179 classes of 7 vocational high schools in 3 cities of China. Each student completed a battery of 5 measures: PM, SS, ESB, RE, and TAU. Then, we used structural equation modeling techniques and mediation analyses to investigate the relationships among these 5 measures, with TAU as the final dependent variable. Results demonstrated that the relationship between PM and TAU was fully mediated by ESB and RE (b = -0.18, P influenced TAU directly (b = 0.10, P influenced TAU directly (b = 0.09, P adolescents can be explained by ESB and RE. These 4 precursory determinants can play an important role in TAU prevention among adolescents in China.

  13. Social Values and Sustainability: A Survey on Drivers, Barriers and Benefits of SA8000 Certification in Italian Firms

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    Roberto Merli

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Companies are increasingly required to deal with sustainability issues through the adoption of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR practices. Among the different CSR aspects, workers securities fulfill a necessary issue. SA8000 is an internationally accepted tool that aims to guarantee decent workplace across all industrial sectors. Italian companies represent more than 30% of certified organizations on a global level. Company size is a key factor in the definition of managerial strategies. A survey that involved more than 600 SA8000 certified companies has been conducted. Company dimension has been used as a parameter to interpret survey results. The aspects analyzed mainly consisted of drivers, barriers and benefits in SA8000 certification pathway. The study showed a high level of homogeneity among firms. According to SA8000 requirements, one of the main issues is the implementation of control and awareness mechanisms addressed to suppliers. Survey results highlight that all respondents recognize the importance of suppliers’ involvement, considered as one of the most difficult phases in implementing certification. However, there were no significant differences among Micro, Small, Medium and Large companies.

  14. Transferring the financial risks of pharmaceutical benefits from a large health care provider in Argentina to a consortium of pharmaceutical companies

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    Cervellino Juan C.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The National Institute of Social Services for Retirees and Pensioners (NISSRP is a nationwide health care financing agency and service provider in Argentina. Among its services, the NISSRP provides outpatient drug coverage to more than 3.3 million beneficiaries, mainly senior citizens and disabled persons. In 1997, to help cope with its rising costs, the NISSRP agreed to transfer the risk for the cost of outpatient medications and cancer-treatment drugs to a consortium of pharmaceutical companies in exchange for a fixed monthly payment. The objective of this study was to determine the impact that this new approach had on three things: (1 the level of expenditures for the medicines that were included in the agreement, (2 the pattern of nonrational prescribing for NISSRP beneficiaries, and (3 this pattern's relationship with macroeconomic variables and the pattern of prescribing for Argentina as a whole. METHODS: We compared outpatient-medicine consumption in 1999 with consumption before the agreement went into effect. RESULTS: The actual amount that NISSRP beneficiaries spent out-of-pocket climbed from US$ 336.13 million in 1996 to US$ 473.36 million in 1999, an increase of almost 41%. The nominal amount "spent" by the NISSRP in 1999 was US$ 601.11 million, versus a real amount of US$ 374.75 million in 1996, an "increase" of 60% (that increase for the NISSRP was only theoretical since the agreement specified the fixed monthly amount that the NISSRP would have to pay to the pharmaceutical consortium. In contrast with the increased real spending by NISSRP beneficiaries, Argentina's economy remained stable over the assessed period, with the consumer price index even falling by 0.8%. We found high levels of nonrational drug use in the NISSRP system in both 1996 and 1999, indicating a serious ongoing problem. CONCLUSIONS: An agreement with pharmaceutical companies, like the one we have described, might add an element of financial

  15. Survey of social health insurance structure in selected countries; providing framework for basic health insurance in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Effat; Raissi, Ahmad Reza; Barooni, Mohsen; Ferdoosi, Massoud; Nuhi, Mojtaba

    2014-01-01

    paying the insurance premiums within 6-10% of their income and employment status, are entitled to use the services. Providing services to the insured are performed by indirect forms. Payments to the service providers for the fee of inpatient and outpatient services are conservative and the related diagnostic groups system. Paying attention to the importance of modification of the fragmented health insurance system and financing the country's healthcare can reduce much of the failure of the health system, including the access of the public to health services. The countries according to the degree of development, governmental, and private insurance companies and existing rules must use the appropriate structure, comprehensive approach to the structure, and financing of the health social insurance on the investigated basis and careful attention to the intersections and differentiation. Studied structures, using them in the proposed approach and taking advantages of the perspectives of different beneficiaries about discussed topics can be important and efficient in order to achieve the goals of the health social insurance.

  16. Corporate e-Learning: Justification for Implementation and Evaluation of Benefits. A Study Examining the Views of Training Managers and Training Providers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Robert; Doonga, Nitin

    2007-01-01

    This study examines the experience and perceptions of training managers and training suppliers with respect to provision of e-training to corporate clients--a rapidly growing area of commercial activity. In particular the study explores the justification for implementing e-training and the consequent benefits which are anticipated by training…

  17. Representación social de los prestadores de servicios de salud sobre la discapacidad motriz Social representation of health care providers on motor disability

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    Guillermo Díaz Llanes

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: El conocimiento de las representaciones sociales de los prestadores de servicios de salud constituye un insumo básico para la comprensión de la relación que éstos establecen con sus pacientes. Objetivo: caracterizar la representación social de los prestadores de servicios de salud sobre los individuos en situación de discapacidad motriz. Métodos: se realizó un estudio de caso en el que participaron 33 informantes clave del policlínico "Hermanos Ruíz Aboy", del municipio Sal Miguel del Padrón, en el período de enero a junio de 2012, escogidos por muestreo intencional. Se emplearon como técnicas de indagación la asociación libre de palabras y la entrevista a profundidad. Resultados: la representación de los prestadores de servicio sobre la discapacidad motriz estuvo influenciada por sus conocimientos generales, su estado afectivo, su formación profesional, sus vivencias personales y su entorno inmediato. Conclusiones: el estudio reveló la existencia en los prestadores de servicios de salud de una representación esperanzadora que emerge de la configuración de elementos provenientes de referentes experienciales, componentes afectivos e insumos informacionales relacionados con las personas en situación de discapacidad motriz.Background: the knowledge by social representations about the service that health care providers give in different health services constitutes a basic aid for the comprehension of the relation that they establish with their patients. Objective: to characterize the social representation of health care providers on individuals presenting motor disability. Methods: a case study with the participation of 33 key informants of "Hermanos Ruíz Aboy" Polyclinic in San Miguel del Padrón Municipality was performed during the time period from January to June 2012. The informants were selected by intentional sampling. The research techniques applied were the free word association and the deep interview

  18. Collaborating with a social housing provider supports a large cohort study of the health effects of housing conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Michael G; Zhang, Jane; Blakely, Tony; Crane, Julian; Saville-Smith, Kay; Howden-Chapman, Philippa

    2016-02-16

    Despite the importance of adequate, un-crowded housing as a prerequisite for good health, few large cohort studies have explored the health effects of housing conditions. The Social Housing Outcomes Worth (SHOW) Study was established to assess the relationship between housing conditions and health, particularly between household crowding and infectious diseases. This paper reports on the methods and feasibility of using a large administrative housing database for epidemiological research and the characteristics of the social housing population. This prospective open cohort study was established in 2003 in collaboration with Housing New Zealand Corporation which provides housing for approximately 5% of the population. The Study measures health outcomes using linked anonymised hospitalisation and mortality records provided by the New Zealand Ministry of Health. It was possible to match the majority (96%) of applicant and tenant household members with their National Health Index (NHI) number allowing linkage to anonymised coded data on their hospitalisations and mortality. By December 2011, the study population consisted of 11,196 applicants and 196,612 tenants. Half were less than 21 years of age. About two-thirds identified as Māori or Pacific ethnicity. Household incomes were low. Of tenant households, 44% containing one or more smokers compared with 33% for New Zealand as a whole. Exposure to household crowding, as measured by a deficit of one or more bedrooms, was common for applicants (52%) and tenants (38%) compared with New Zealanders as whole (10%). This project has shown that an administrative housing database can be used to form a large cohort population and successfully link cohort members to their health records in a way that meets confidentiality and ethical requirements. This study also confirms that social housing tenants are a highly deprived population with relatively low incomes and high levels of exposure to household crowding and environmental

  19. Healthcare and Social Services Providers Who Serve Sexual and Gender Minorities in a U.S.-Mexico Border City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loza, Oralia; Alvarez, Carlos R; Peralta-Torres, David

    2018-01-15

    Sexual and gender minorities, including lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) individuals, experience barriers to healthcare as a result of stigma, discrimination, and poor cultural competence by healthcare and social services providers (HCSSP). The purpose of the study is to increase access to care and services for the LGBTQ community in a U.S.-Mexico border city by identifying LGBTQ-friendly HCSSP. A survey, developed based on concerns voiced in a predominantly Hispanic LGBTQ community, was administered to HCSSP and used to create a referral list, "The Purple Pages of El Paso" (PPoEP). Overall, 77 HCSSP have responded and 43 are included in the most recent version of the PPoEP. This model for developing a referral list of providers can be adapted in areas where LGBTQ communities face similar barriers to care and services. To be effective in reducing barriers to care, PPoEP must be updatable and sustainable.

  20. Promoting Military Cultural Awareness in an Off-post Community of Behavioral Health and Social Support Service Providers

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    Christi Duette Luby

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Due to U.S. military Base Realignment and Closure (BRAC efforts and ongoing Overseas Contingency Operations, the number of military servicemembers and veterans seeking civilian-based services has increased. As the military presence grows in previously underrepresented areas, the need for culturally competent providers will also increase both on and off military installations. The purpose of this article is to promote military cultural awareness, while suggesting ways to enhance existing community behavioral health and social support services. It builds on a review of the extant literature and findings from a community assessment to introduce civilian providers to some specific issues affecting servicemembers and their families. A framework describes ways to increase military cultural competence and build community capacity to enhance civilian-based services. In addition, two appendices list some common military terminology and multiple training resources available through military organizations and websites.

  1. Research Stakeholders' Views on Benefits and Challenges for Public Health Research Data Sharing in Kenya: The Importance of Trust and Social Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jao, Irene; Kombe, Francis; Mwalukore, Salim; Bull, Susan; Parker, Michael; Kamuya, Dorcas; Molyneux, Sassy; Marsh, Vicki

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing recognition of the importance of sharing research data within the international scientific community, but also of the ethical and social challenges this presents, particularly in the context of structural inequities and varied capacity in international research. Public involvement is essential to building locally responsive research policies, including on data sharing, but little research has involved stakeholders from low-to-middle income countries. Between January and June 2014, a qualitative study was conducted in Kenya involving sixty stakeholders with varying experiences of research in a deliberative process to explore views on benefits and challenges in research data sharing. In-depth interviews and extended small group discussions based on information sharing and facilitated debate were used to collect data. Data were analysed using Framework Analysis, and charting flow and dynamics in debates. The findings highlight both the opportunities and challenges of communicating about this complex and relatively novel topic for many stakeholders. For more and less research-experienced stakeholders, ethical research data sharing is likely to rest on the development and implementation of appropriate trust-building processes, linked to local perceptions of benefits and challenges. The central nature of trust is underpinned by uncertainties around who might request what data, for what purpose and when. Key benefits perceived in this consultation were concerned with the promotion of public health through science, with legitimate beneficiaries defined differently by different groups. Important challenges were risks to the interests of study participants, communities and originating researchers through stigmatisation, loss of privacy, impacting autonomy and unfair competition, including through forms of intentional and unintentional 'misuse' of data. Risks were also seen for science. Given background structural inequities in much international research

  2. Research Stakeholders’ Views on Benefits and Challenges for Public Health Research Data Sharing in Kenya: The Importance of Trust and Social Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jao, Irene; Kombe, Francis; Mwalukore, Salim; Bull, Susan; Parker, Michael; Kamuya, Dorcas; Molyneux, Sassy; Marsh, Vicki

    2015-01-01

    Background There is increasing recognition of the importance of sharing research data within the international scientific community, but also of the ethical and social challenges this presents, particularly in the context of structural inequities and varied capacity in international research. Public involvement is essential to building locally responsive research policies, including on data sharing, but little research has involved stakeholders from low-to-middle income countries. Methods Between January and June 2014, a qualitative study was conducted in Kenya involving sixty stakeholders with varying experiences of research in a deliberative process to explore views on benefits and challenges in research data sharing. In-depth interviews and extended small group discussions based on information sharing and facilitated debate were used to collect data. Data were analysed using Framework Analysis, and charting flow and dynamics in debates. Findings The findings highlight both the opportunities and challenges of communicating about this complex and relatively novel topic for many stakeholders. For more and less research-experienced stakeholders, ethical research data sharing is likely to rest on the development and implementation of appropriate trust-building processes, linked to local perceptions of benefits and challenges. The central nature of trust is underpinned by uncertainties around who might request what data, for what purpose and when. Key benefits perceived in this consultation were concerned with the promotion of public health through science, with legitimate beneficiaries defined differently by different groups. Important challenges were risks to the interests of study participants, communities and originating researchers through stigmatisation, loss of privacy, impacting autonomy and unfair competition, including through forms of intentional and unintentional 'misuse' of data. Risks were also seen for science. Discussion Given background structural

  3. Mothers’ Use of Social Media to Inform Their Practices for Pumping and Providing Pumped Human Milk to Their Infants

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    Rei Yamada

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite U.S. mothers’ wide adoption of pumps and bottles to provide human milk (HM to their infants, mothers lack comprehensive, evidence-based guidelines for these practices. Thus, some women use online sources to seek information from each other. We aimed to characterize the information women sought online about pumping. We used data provided by ~25,000 women in an open cohort within a discussion forum about parenting. We examined 543 posts containing questions about providing pumped HM cross-sectionally and longitudinally in three time intervals: prenatal, 0 through 1.5 months postpartum, and 1.5 to 4.5 months postpartum. We used thematic analysis with Atlas.ti to analyze the content of posts. During pregnancy, women commonly asked questions about how and where to obtain pumps, both out-of-pocket and through insurance policies. Between 0–1.5 months postpartum, many mothers asked about how to handle pumped HM to ensure its safety as fed. Between 1.5–4.5 months postpartum, mothers sought strategies to overcome constraints to pumping both at home and at work and also asked about stopping pumping and providing their milk. Women’s questions related to ensuring the safety of pumped HM represent information women need from health professionals, while their questions related to obtaining pumps suggest that women may benefit from clearer guidelines from their insurance providers. The difficulties women face at home and at work identify avenues through which families and employers can support women to meet their goals for providing HM.

  4. Paternidade: responsabilidade social do homem no papel de provedor Paternidad: responsabilidad social del hombre en el papel de proveedor Paternity: social responsibility of man's role as provider

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    Waglânia de Mendonça Faustino e Freitas

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar os significados atribuídos à paternidade por homens que são pais. DELINEAMENTO DO ESTUDO: Estudo realizado em João Pessoa, PB, em 2003, desenvolvido sob abordagem qualitativa e enfoque teórico de gênero. Os participantes do estudo foram dez homens, cujos filhos eram atendidos no ambulatório de puericultura de um hospital escola. As informações analisadas foram obtidas por meio de entrevistas semi-estruturadas. Os depoimentos foram analisados pela técnica de análise crítica do discurso. ANÁLISE DOS DISCURSOS: Os sujeitos do estudo concebiam a paternidade como um novo encargo social, vinculando-a mais à provisão material da família do que ao espaço de envolvimento afetivo com o(a filho(a. Entretanto, os participantes experimentavam um processo de transição no qual o pai tradicional convivia entre aqueles cuja dimensão afetiva da paternidade apresentava-se como eixo central de preocupação do ser pai. CONCLUSÕES: O significado e o exercício concreto da paternidade situaram-se num campo de responsabilidades que predominantemente reproduzem o pai tradicional mas também recriam o papel de pai, com inclusão da dimensão afetiva.OBJETIVO: Analizar los significados atribuidos a la paternidad por hombres que son padres. DELINEAMIENTO DEL ESTUDIO: Estudio realizado en Joao Pessoa (Noreste de Brasil, en 2003, desarrollado bajo el abordaje cualitativo y enfoque teórico del género. Los participantes del estudio fueron diez hombres, cuyos hijos eran atendidos en el ambulatorio de puericultura de un hospital escuela. Las informaciones analizadas fueron obtenidas por medio de entrevistas semi-estructuradas. Los relatos fueron analizados por la técnica de análisis crítica del discurso. ANÁLISIS DE LOS DISCURSOS: Los sujetos de estudio concebían la paternidad como un nuevo encargo social, vinculándola más a la provisión material de la familia que al espacio de envolvimiento afectivo con él(la hijo(a. As

  5. Individual attitudes and perceived social norms: Reports on HIV/AIDS-related stigma among service providers in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Liang, Li-Jung; Wu, Zunyou; Lin, Chunqing; Wen, Yi

    2009-01-01

    This study examined HIV/AIDS-related stigma among Chinese service providers by comparing their personal attitudes toward people living with HIV/AIDS with their perception of social norms related to people living with HIV/AIDS. We randomly selected three provincial hospitals, four city/prefecture hospitals, 10 county hospitals, 18 township health clinics, and 54 village clinics from Yunnan, China. Doctors and nurses were randomly sampled proportionally to the doctor-nurse ratio of each hospital or clinic. Lab technicians were over-sampled in order to include an adequate representation in the analysis. A total of 1,101 service providers participated in a voluntary, anonymous survey where demographic characteristics, individual attitude and perceived social norms toward people living with HIV/AIDS, discrimination intent at work, general prejudicial attitude and knowledge on HIV/AIDS were measured. A majority of the sample demonstrated a similarity between their personal views and what they thought most people in society believe. Multiple logistic regressions revealed that participants who were younger or reported personal contact with people living with HIV/AIDS were significantly more likely to report personal attitudes toward the population that were more liberal than their perceived social norms. Holding a more liberal personal attitude toward people living with HIV/AIDS than perceived social norms was significantly and negatively related to the level of discrimination intent at work, perceived discrimination at interpersonal level and the level of general prejudicial attitude toward people living with HIV/AIDS. Results underscored the importance of understanding social norms and personal attitudes in studying HIV-related stigma and called for the incorporation of existing human capital into future HIV stigma reduction programs. Cette étude a examiné le VIH/SIDA lié à stigmatisation parmi les agences chinoises fournissant des soins en comparant leurs attitudes

  6. A systematic review of the psychological and social benefits of participation in sport for adults: informing development of a conceptual model of health through sport

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The definition of health incorporates the physical, social and mental domains, however the Physical Activity (PA) guidelines do not address social health. Furthermore, there is insufficient evidence about the levels or types of PA associated specifically with psychological health. This paper first presents the results of a systematic review of the psychological and social health benefits of participation in sport by adults. Secondly, the information arising from the systematic review has been used to develop a conceptual model of Health through Sport. Methods A systematic review of 14 electronic databases was conducted in June 2012, and studies published since 1990 were considered for inclusion. Studies that addressed mental and/or social health benefits from participation in sport were included. Results A total of 3668 publications were initially identified, of which 11 met the selection criteria. There were many different psychological and social health benefits reported, with the most commonly being wellbeing and reduced distress and stress. Sport may be associated with improved psychosocial health in addition to improvements attributable to participation in PA. Specifically, club-based or team-based sport seems to be associated with improved health outcomes compared to individual activities, due to the social nature of the participation. Notwithstanding this, individuals who prefer to participate in sport by themselves can still derive mental health benefits which can enhance the development of true-self-awareness and personal growth which is essential for social health. A conceptual model, Health through Sport, is proposed. The model depicts the relationship between psychological, psychosocial and social health domains, and their positive associations with sport participation, as reported in the literature. However, it is acknowledged that the capacity to determine the existence and direction of causal links between participation and health is

  7. A systematic review of the psychological and social benefits of participation in sport for adults: informing development of a conceptual model of health through sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eime, Rochelle M; Young, Janet A; Harvey, Jack T; Charity, Melanie J; Payne, Warren R

    2013-12-07

    The definition of health incorporates the physical, social and mental domains, however the Physical Activity (PA) guidelines do not address social health. Furthermore, there is insufficient evidence about the levels or types of PA associated specifically with psychological health. This paper first presents the results of a systematic review of the psychological and social health benefits of participation in sport by adults. Secondly, the information arising from the systematic review has been used to develop a conceptual model of Health through Sport. A systematic review of 14 electronic databases was conducted in June 2012, and studies published since 1990 were considered for inclusion. Studies that addressed mental and/or social health benefits from participation in sport were included. A total of 3668 publications were initially identified, of which 11 met the selection criteria. There were many different psychological and social health benefits reported, with the most commonly being wellbeing and reduced distress and stress. Sport may be associated with improved psychosocial health in addition to improvements attributable to participation in PA. Specifically, club-based or team-based sport seems to be associated with improved health outcomes compared to individual activities, due to the social nature of the participation. Notwithstanding this, individuals who prefer to participate in sport by themselves can still derive mental health benefits which can enhance the development of true-self-awareness and personal growth which is essential for social health. A conceptual model, Health through Sport, is proposed. The model depicts the relationship between psychological, psychosocial and social health domains, and their positive associations with sport participation, as reported in the literature. However, it is acknowledged that the capacity to determine the existence and direction of causal links between participation and health is limited by the cross

  8. A comparison of the aided performance and benefit provided by a linear and a two-channel wide dynamic range compression hearing aid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humes, L E; Christensen, L; Thomas, T; Bess, F H; Hedley-Williams, A; Bentler, R

    1999-02-01

    The aided performance and benefit achieved with linear and two-channel wide dynamic range compression (WDRC) in-the-canal (ITC) hearing aids were established in 55 individuals. Study participants had been wearing either linear or adaptive-frequency-response (Bass Increase at Low Levels, BILL) ITC hearing aids for approximately one year before participation in this study. Outcome measures included aided performance and objective benefit in quiet and noise at a variety of speech levels (50, 60, and 75 dB SPL), at various levels of babble background (quiet, signal-to-babble ratios of +5 and +10 dB), and for various types of test materials (monosyllabic words and sentences in connected speech). Several subjective measures of aided performance (sound-quality judgments and magnitude estimates of listening effort) and relative benefit (improvement in listening effort and the Hearing Aid Performance Inventory, HAPI) were also obtained. Finally, self-report measures of hearing-aid use were also obtained using daily logs. Participants completed all outcome measures for the linear ITC hearing aids first, following 2 months of usage, and then repeated all outcome measures for the WDRC instruments after a subsequent 2-month period of use. In general, although both types of hearing aids demonstrated significant benefit, the results indicated that the WDRC instruments were superior to the linear devices for many of the outcome measures. This tended to be the case most frequently when low speech levels were used. Many of the performance differences between devices most likely can be ascribed to differences in gain, and prescriptive approaches (DSL[i/o] vs. NAL-R), for the fixed volume control testing performed in this study.

  9. The Benefits of Watching Television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levinson, Paul

    The unfounded and sometimes absurd attacks on television have tended to obscure many of the medium's obvious personal, social, and aesthetic benefits. It is easy to watch, and if its content does not always provide viewers with much to think about, television does not ask much of them either: they may eat, sleep, and unwind in front of it,…

  10. Young people and drug consumption: workshops to provide tools for workers in social institutions, from a collective health perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cássia Baldini Soares

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was, through workshops, to provide tools for workers in social institutions who work with young people, so that they could understand present-day drug consumption. It started from the presupposition that approaching this topic from a collective health perspective, i.e. from understanding the structure of the production, distribution and consumption of drugs today, the work of these institutions might be improved. The aim was to investigate the effectiveness of workshops as tools in the educational process. The methodology consisted of systematically conducting workshops within a theoretical-methodological framework of historical-critical theory. The workers' participation evolved qualitatively, thereby showing that the knowledge identified, along with the common sense initially brought in, evolved into comprehension of the roots of harmful drug consumption and into surmounting reiterative practices that fed back into myths, prejudice and stereotypes regarding users, as well as gaining respect for the power and effects of drugs.

  11. Reliance on social security benefits by Swedish patients with ill-health attributed to dental fillings: a register-based cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naimi-Akbar Aron

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Some people attribute their ill health to dental filling materials, experiencing a variety of symptoms. Yet, it is not known if they continue to financially support themselves by work or become reliant on different types of social security benefits. The aim of this study was to analyse reliance on different forms of social security benefits by patients who attribute their poor health to dental filling materials. Methods A longitudinal cohort study with a 13-year follow up. The subjects included were 505 patients attributing their ill health to dental restorative materials, who applied for subsidised filling replacement. They were compared to a cohort of matched controls representing the general population (three controls per patient. Annual individual data on disability pension, sick leave, unemployment benefits, and socio-demographic factors was obtained from Statistics Sweden. Generalized estimating equations were used to test for differences between cohorts in number of days on different types of social security benefits. Results The cohort of dental filling patients had a significantly higher number of days on sick leave and disability pension than the general population. The test of an overall interaction effect between time and cohort showed a significant difference between the two cohorts regarding both sick leave and disability pension. In the replacement cohort, the highest number of sick-leave days was recorded in the year they applied for subsidised replacement of fillings. While sick leave decreased following the year of application, the number of days on disability pension increased and peaked at the end of follow-up. Conclusions Ill health related to dental materials is likely to be associated with dependence on social security benefits. Dental filling replacement does not seem to improve workforce participation.

  12. Reliance on social security benefits by Swedish patients with ill-health attributed to dental fillings: a register-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naimi-Akbar, Aron; Svedberg, Pia; Alexanderson, Kristina; Ekstrand, Jan; Sandborgh-Englund, Gunilla

    2012-08-30

    Some people attribute their ill health to dental filling materials, experiencing a variety of symptoms. Yet, it is not known if they continue to financially support themselves by work or become reliant on different types of social security benefits. The aim of this study was to analyse reliance on different forms of social security benefits by patients who attribute their poor health to dental filling materials. A longitudinal cohort study with a 13-year follow up. The subjects included were 505 patients attributing their ill health to dental restorative materials, who applied for subsidised filling replacement. They were compared to a cohort of matched controls representing the general population (three controls per patient). Annual individual data on disability pension, sick leave, unemployment benefits, and socio-demographic factors was obtained from Statistics Sweden. Generalized estimating equations were used to test for differences between cohorts in number of days on different types of social security benefits. The cohort of dental filling patients had a significantly higher number of days on sick leave and disability pension than the general population. The test of an overall interaction effect between time and cohort showed a significant difference between the two cohorts regarding both sick leave and disability pension. In the replacement cohort, the highest number of sick-leave days was recorded in the year they applied for subsidised replacement of fillings. While sick leave decreased following the year of application, the number of days on disability pension increased and peaked at the end of follow-up. Ill health related to dental materials is likely to be associated with dependence on social security benefits. Dental filling replacement does not seem to improve workforce participation.

  13. The market triumph of ecotourism: an economic investigation of the private and social benefits of competing land uses in the Peruvian Amazon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher A Kirkby

    Full Text Available Annual revenue flow to developing countries for ecotourism (or nature-based tourism could be as large as US$ 210×10(12, providing an enormous financial incentive against habitat loss and exploitation. However, is ecotourism the most privately and/or socially valuable use of rainforest land? The question is rarely answered because the relevant data, estimates of profits and fixed costs, are rarely available. We present a social cost-benefit analysis of land use in an ecotourism cluster in the Tambopata region of Amazonian Peru. The net present value of ecotourism-controlled land is given by the producer surplus (profits plus fixed costs of ecotourism lodges: US$ 1,158 ha(-1, which is higher than all currently practiced alternatives, including unsustainable logging, ranching, and agriculture. To our knowledge, this is the first sector-wide study of profitability and producer surplus in a developing-country ecotourism sector and the first to compare against equivalent measures for a spectrum of alternative uses. We also find that ecotourism-controlled land sequesters between 5.3 to 8.7 million tons of above-ground carbon, which is equivalent to between 3000-5000 years of carbon emissions from the domestic component of air and surface travel between the gateway city of Cusco and the lodges, at 2005 emission rates. Ecotourism in Tambopata has successfully monetized the hedonic value of wild nature in Amazonian Peru, and justifies the maintenance of intact rainforest over all alternative uses on narrow economic grounds alone.

  14. The market triumph of ecotourism: an economic investigation of the private and social benefits of competing land uses in the Peruvian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkby, Christopher A; Giudice-Granados, Renzo; Day, Brett; Turner, Kerry; Velarde-Andrade, Luz Marina; Dueñas-Dueñas, Agusto; Lara-Rivas, Juan Carlos; Yu, Douglas W

    2010-09-29

    Annual revenue flow to developing countries for ecotourism (or nature-based tourism) could be as large as US$ 210×10(12), providing an enormous financial incentive against habitat loss and exploitation. However, is ecotourism the most privately and/or socially valuable use of rainforest land? The question is rarely answered because the relevant data, estimates of profits and fixed costs, are rarely available. We present a social cost-benefit analysis of land use in an ecotourism cluster in the Tambopata region of Amazonian Peru. The net present value of ecotourism-controlled land is given by the producer surplus (profits plus fixed costs of ecotourism lodges): US$ 1,158 ha(-1), which is higher than all currently practiced alternatives, including unsustainable logging, ranching, and agriculture. To our knowledge, this is the first sector-wide study of profitability and producer surplus in a developing-country ecotourism sector and the first to compare against equivalent measures for a spectrum of alternative uses. We also find that ecotourism-controlled land sequesters between 5.3 to 8.7 million tons of above-ground carbon, which is equivalent to between 3000-5000 years of carbon emissions from the domestic component of air and surface travel between the gateway city of Cusco and the lodges, at 2005 emission rates. Ecotourism in Tambopata has successfully monetized the hedonic value of wild nature in Amazonian Peru, and justifies the maintenance of intact rainforest over all alternative uses on narrow economic grounds alone.

  15. Finding Citations to Social Work Literature: The Relative Benefits of Using "Web of Science," "Scopus," or "Google Scholar"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, Elaine M. Lasda

    2012-01-01

    Past studies of citation coverage of "Web of Science," "Scopus," and "Google Scholar" do not demonstrate a consistent pattern that can be applied to the interdisciplinary mix of resources used in social work research. To determine the utility of these tools to social work researchers, an analysis of citing references to well-known social work…

  16. Social media: opportunities for quality improvement and lessons for providers-a networked model for patient-centered care through digital engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornkessel, Alexandra; Furberg, Robert; Lefebvre, R Craig

    2014-07-01

    Social media brings a new dimension to health care for patients, providers, and their support networks. Increasing evidence demonstrates that patients who are more actively involved in their healthcare experience have better health outcomes and incur lower costs. In the field of cardiology, social media are proposed as innovative tools for the education and update of clinicians, physicians, nurses, and medical students. This article reviews the use of social media by healthcare providers and patients and proposes a model of "networked care" that integrates the use of digital social networks and platforms by both patients and providers and offers recommendations for providers to optimize their use and understanding of social media for quality improvement.

  17. Romidepsin for the treatment of relapsed/refractory peripheral T cell lymphoma: prolonged stable disease provides clinical benefits for patients in the pivotal trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francine Foss

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Achievement of durable responses in patients with relapsed/refractory peripheral T cell lymphoma (PTCL is challenging with current therapies, and there are few data regarding the potential benefits of continuing treatment in patients with the best response of stable disease (SD. Histone deacetylase inhibitors are a novel class of drugs with activity in T cell malignancies. Romidepsin was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of relapsed/refractory PTCL based on a pivotal trial demonstrating an objective response rate of 25 % (33/130, including 15 % with confirmed/unconfirmed complete response and a median duration of response of 28 months. Our objective was to further study the clinical benefits of romidepsin in patients that had the best response of SD. Methods Patients with PTCL relapsed/refractory to ≥1 prior therapy were treated with the approved dose of 14 mg/m2 romidepsin on days 1, 8, and 15 of six 28-day cycles; patients with SD or response after cycle 6 were allowed to continue on study until progression. By protocol amendment, patients treated for ≥12 cycles could receive maintenance dosing twice per cycle; after cycle 24, dosing could be further reduced to once per cycle in those who had received maintenance dosing for ≥6 months. Results Of the 32 patients (25 % with the best response of SD, 22 had SD for ≥90 days (SD90; cycle 4 response assessment. The longest SD was >3 years in a patient who received maintenance dosing of 14 mg/m2 on days 1 and 15 beginning in cycle 13. Patients with the best response of SD90 or partial response achieved similar overall and progression-free survival. Prolonged dosing of romidepsin was well tolerated. Conclusions We concluded that patients who achieve SD may consider continuing treatment because the clinical benefits of romidepsin may extend beyond objective responses. Trial registration NCT00426764

  18. Assessing the Role of Automation in Managing of Iranian E-banking and its Impact on Social Benefit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamidreza Salmani MOJAVERI

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Banks in the field of commercial developments have attention to create structural changes in the receiving and payment systems and also have facilities in services process to customers. In fact we can claim one of the reasons of general tendency to electronic business is the banks managers’ attention to the importance and necessity of this phenomenon, thus have led to their trend and serious attention for providing banking structure, based on electronic method. What banking services makes it different in comparing with other conventional methods for using E-Banking systems, is, quantitative and qualitative expansion in customer service. In other words, E-Banking, prepares the situation to customer till have wider and more diverse services. Furthermore, time and spatial dimension will not have effect in reducing or increasing services to customers. Also the customer can control his/her financial activities in every time and everywhere without attending in bank’s branches. The aim of this paper is to illustrate the status of banking automation, its social and organizational consequences in Iranian E-banking system, and providing appropriate recommendations.

  19. A moderately low phosphate intake may provide health benefits analogous to those conferred by UV light - a further advantage of vegan diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, M F

    2003-01-01

    Although exposure to ultraviolet light is often viewed as pathogenic owing to its role in the genesis of skin cancer and skin aging, there is growing epidemiological evidence that such exposure may decrease risk for a number of more serious cancers, may have a favorable impact on blood pressure and vascular health, and may help to prevent certain autoimmune disorders - in addition to its well-known influence on bone density. Most likely, these health benefits are reflective of improved vitamin D status. Increased synthesis or intake of vitamin D can be expected to down-regulate parathyroid hormone (PTH), and to increase autocrine synthesis of its active metabolite calcitriol in certain tissues; these effects, in turn, may impact cancer risk, vascular health, immune regulation, and bone density through a variety of mechanisms. Presumably, a truly adequate supplemental intake of vitamin D - manyfold higher than the grossly inadequate current RDA - could replicate the benefits of optimal UV exposure, without however damaging the skin. Diets moderately low in bioavailable phosphate - like many vegan diets - might be expected to have a complementary impact on disease risks, inasmuch as serum phosphate suppresses renal calcitriol synthesis while up-regulating that of PTH. A proviso is that the impact of dietary phosphorus on bone health is more equivocal than that of vitamin D. Increased intakes of calcium, on the other hand, down-regulate the production of both PTH and calcitriol - the latter effect may explain why the impact of dietary calcium on cancer risk (excepting colon cancer), hypertension, and autoimmunity is not clearly positive. An overview suggests that a vegan diet supplemented with high-dose vitamin D should increase both systemic and autocrine calcitriol production while suppressing PTH secretion, and thus should represent a highly effective way to achieve the wide-ranging health protection conferred by optimal UV exposure.

  20. Pomegranate extract and exercise provide additive benefits on improvement of immune function by inhibiting inflammation and oxidative stress in high-fat-diet-induced obesity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Fei; Pang, Wentao; Zhang, Ziyi; Zhao, Jialong; Wang, Xin; Liu, Ye; Wang, Xun; Feng, Zhihui; Zhang, Yong; Sun, Wenyan; Liu, Jiankang

    2016-06-01

    Obesity is reported to be associated with immune dysfunction and a state of low-grade, chronic inflammation. Either pomegranate extract (PomE) or exercise (Ex) has been shown to have antiobesity, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. Nevertheless, no study has addressed the additive benefits of PomE and Ex on the restoration of obesity-induced immune defects. The present work aims to study the effect of PomE and Ex as a combined intervention on immune function and the underlying mechanism involved in inflammation and oxidative stress in rats with high-fat-diet (HFD)-induced obesity. Our results demonstrate that the combination of PomE and Ex showed additive benefits on inhibition of HFD-induced body weight increase and improvement of HFD-induced immune dysfunction, including (a) attenuating the abnormality of histomorphology of the spleen, (b) increasing the ratio of the CD4+:CD8+ T cell subpopulations in splenocytes and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), (c) inhibition of apoptosis in splenocytes and PBMC, (d) normalizing peritoneal macrophage phenotypes and (e) restoring immunomodulating factors in serum. We also find that immune dysfunction in HFD-fed rats was associated with increased inflammatory cytokine secretion and oxidative stress biomarkers, and that the combination of PomE and Ex effectively inhibited the inflammatory response and decreased oxidative damage. The effect of PomE and Ex as a combined intervention is greater than the effect of either PomE or Ex alone, showing that PomE and Ex may be additively effective in improving immune function in HFD-fed rats by inhibiting inflammation and decreasing oxidative stress. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Answerers' Motivations and Strategies for Providing Information and Social Support in Social Q&A an Investigation of Health Question Answering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Sanghee

    2010-01-01

    Social Q&A allows people to ask and answer questions for each other and to solve problems in everyday life collaboratively. The purpose of the current study is to understand the motivations and strategies of answerers in social Q&A. Thus, three research questions were investigated: (1) Why do answerers participate and contribute in social Q&A? (2)…

  2. Benefit of social support for resilience-building is contingent on social context: examining cardiovascular adaptation to recurrent stress in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Siobhán; Hughes, Brian M

    2012-07-01

    Previous work on social support and stress tolerance using laboratory-based cardiovascular stress response paradigms has suggested that perceived social support may be effective in building resilience in recipients. However, such paradigms are often socially de-contextualized insofar as they fail to take account of the social aspects of stress itself. Using 90 healthy college women, the present study sought to examine the association between self-reported perceived social support and cardiovascular stress tolerance. Participants underwent two consecutive exposures to a mental arithmetic task. On second exposure to the stressor, participants completed the task under either social threat or control conditions. Social threat was manipulated using socially salient instructions, to create a high social context. Adaptation to stress was established in terms of comparisons between cardiovascular responses to successive exposures. Results showed that cardiovascular responses tended to habituate across time, with perceived social support associated with the degree of habituation, but only under certain contextual conditions; high perceived support was associated with effective habituation under control conditions only. This response pattern is consistent with the view that high perceived social support buffers against stress in healthful ways, but only in asocial contexts.

  3. Multisite musculoskeletal pain in adolescence as a predictor of medical and social welfare benefits in young adulthood: The Norwegian Arctic Adolescent Health Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckhoff, C; Straume, B; Kvernmo, S

    2017-11-01

    Pain in adolescence is associated with mental health problems, the main reason for work disability in young adults. This study explores the relationship between multisite musculoskeletal pain in adolescence and later medical (sickness and medical rehabilitation benefits) and social welfare benefits, adjusted for sociodemographic, adolescent psychosocial and mental health problems. Data were obtained by linkage between the National Insurance Registry (2003-11) and the Norwegian Arctic Adolescent Health Study, a school-based survey in North Norway (2003-05), accepted by 3987 fifteen- to sixteen-year-olds (68% of the total population). The start of the follow-up time was July 1st of the corresponding year the participants responded to the health study. Musculoskeletal pain was measured by the number of musculoskeletal pain sites. We found a positive linear relationship between adolescent musculoskeletal pain sites and the occurrence of medical and social welfare benefits in young adulthood (p ≤ 0.001). Adolescent musculoskeletal pain was a significant predictor of sickness (p adolescent psychosocial and mental health problems. The most important adolescent psychosocial predictors were externalizing problems, less parental involvement and adverse life events. Adolescent multisite musculoskeletal pain was found to be an important predictor of later sickness and social welfare benefit receipt from adolescence to young adulthood. Adolescents with multisite musculoskeletal pain are at substantially increased risk of health and social difficulties into young adulthood. Identification and interventions for these adolescent problems could alleviate this risk and be a sound socioeconomic investment. © 2017 European Pain Federation - EFIC®.

  4. Identifying family members who are likely to perceive benefits from providing care to a person with a primary malignant brain tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newberry, Alyssa; Kuo, Jean; Donovan, Heidi; Given, Barbara; Given, Charles W; Schulz, Richard; Sherwood, Paula

    2012-05-01

    To identify changes in positive aspects of care (PAC) from the time of diagnosis to four months following the diagnosis in family caregivers of care recipients with primary malignant brain tumors. Longitudinal. Dyads were recruited from neurosurgery clinics in Pittsburgh, PA, at the time of care recipients' diagnosis with a primary malignant brain tumor. A second data collection took place four months following the diagnosis. 89 caregiver and care recipient dyads. Paired t tests were used to examine change in PAC, univariate analyses were used to determine predictors of PAC at four months, Mann-Whitney U tests and t tests were used to examine associations between categorical predictor variables and PAC at four months, and univariate linear regressions were used to examine associations between continuous predictors and PAC at four months. The impact of sociodemographic factors, caregiver-perceived social support, mastery, neuroticism, and marital satisfaction on PAC. Caregivers' PAC scores during the first four months following diagnosis appeared to remain stable over time. Significant differences were found between the care recipient reasoning domain group at diagnosis and PAC score. Care recipients who scored below average were associated with caregivers with higher PAC scores. Caregiver PAC at four months following diagnosis was significantly predicted by care recipient reasoning and caregiver social support. PAC scores appear to remain stable over time, although levels of PAC may be related to care recipients' level of functioning. Future research should focus on the development of interventions for caregivers who report low levels of PAC at the time of diagnosis in an attempt to help these individuals identify PAC in their caregiving situation. Findings have clinical and research implications. Clinicians may be able to better identify caregivers who are at risk for negative outcomes by understanding the risks faced by caregivers of patients with milder symptoms

  5. Linking communities to formal health care providers through village health teams in rural Uganda: lessons from linking social capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musinguzi, Laban Kashaija; Turinawe, Emmanueil Benon; Rwemisisi, Jude T; de Vries, Daniel H; Mafigiri, David K; Muhangi, Denis; de Groot, Marije; Katamba, Achilles; Pool, Robert

    2017-01-11

    Community-based programmes, particularly community health workers (CHWs), have been portrayed as a cost-effective alternative to the shortage of health workers in low-income countries. Usually, literature emphasises how easily CHWs link and connect communities to formal health care services. There is little evidence in Uganda to support or dispute such claims. Drawing from linking social capital framework, this paper examines the claim that village health teams (VHTs), as an example of CHWs, link and connect communities with formal health care services. Data were collected through ethnographic fieldwork undertaken as part of a larger research program in Luwero District, Uganda, between 2012 and 2014. The main methods of data collection were participant observation in events organised by VHTs. In addition, a total of 91 in-depth interviews and 42 focus group discussions (FGD) were conducted with adult community members as part of the larger project. After preliminary analysis of the data, we conducted an additional six in-depth interviews and three FGD with VHTs and four FGD with community members on the role of VHTs. Key informant interviews were conducted with local government staff, health workers, local leaders, and NGO staff with health programs in Luwero. Thematic analysis was used during data analysis. The ability of VHTs to link communities with formal health care was affected by the stakeholders' perception of their roles. Community members perceive VHTs as working for and under instructions of "others", which makes them powerless in the formal health care system. One of the challenges associated with VHTs' linking roles is support from the government and formal health care providers. Formal health care providers perceived VHTs as interested in special recognition for their services yet they are not "experts". For some health workers, the introduction of VHTs is seen as a ploy by the government to control people and hide its inability to provide health

  6. Social Networking in Schools: Benefits and Risks; Review of the Research; Policy Considerations; and Current Practices. Information Capsule. Volume 1109

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blazer, Christie

    2012-01-01

    The role that social media should play in education is being hotly debated in school districts across the country. The adoption of social networking for educational purposes lags behind the public's general usage because educators fear that students will be exposed to inappropriate online content, unwanted adult interactions, and bullying from…

  7. THE SOCIAL MEDIA IMPACT ON THE STRUCTURE OF TOURISM DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM: ANALYSIS AND CLASSIFICATION OF NEW TOURIST SERVICES PROVIDERS IN THE ENVIRONMENT «ONLINE

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    José Ramón Sarmiento Guede

    2016-01-01

    .... Here, Guede identifies the new classification from a qualitative perspective of new tourist service providers in the online environment and analyzes the impact of social network on the structure...

  8. Providing Support for Non-Native Learners of English in the Social Studies Classroom: Integrating Verbal Interactive Activities and Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egbert, Joy; Simich-Dudgeon, Carmen

    2001-01-01

    Discusses using verbal interactions to foster social studies learning, the language and content needs of immigrant students, and strategies that are effective with non-native English learners. Introduces two technology-enhanced, verbal-interactive activities, using personal narratives and storytelling in social studies, for both middle and high…

  9. Making a Community Interesting to Itself: Providing a Social Education through Urban History and Neighborhood Studies. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danzer, Gerald A.

    Community studies and an urban focus are returning to the social studies. This digest reviews urban studies from a historical perspective. The first section discusses the value of studying cities, noting that city living is becoming fashionable again, and a movement called the New Urbanism has brought a new appreciation for the social, cultural,…

  10. Assessing the impact of macroeconomic variables on pension benefits in Ghana: A case of Social Security and National Insurance Trust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace Ofori-Abebrese

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: One of the most pressing phases for all economic agents is post-retirement standard of living. Irrespective of the higher returns on pension contribution and varied pension reforms, there are possible factors that can render these pension benefits inadequate, which can affect the longevity of retirees. Studies conducted in other countries have concluded that inflation deteriorates the value of pension benefits. Aim: This study, thus, sought to assess the impact of some major economic indicators in the Ghanaian environment on pension benefits. Setting: This study was carried out in Ghana by obtaining quarterly data frequencies on pension benefits and economic indicators spanning the period 2000Q1 to 2014Q4. Method: The Auto-regressive Distributed Lag Model was utilised to examine the long run and short run dynamics of some major economic indicators and pension benefits. Results: The empirical evidence indicated that inflation deteriorates total pension benefits. Increasing monetary policy rate and depreciation of the domestic currency should be an issue to contend with only in the short run rather than in the long run. The study also found the prominence of the implementation of the National Pension Reform in 2008. Conclusion: The study concluded that if policy makers target the reduction in the monetary policy rate and the appreciation of the domestic currency in an effort to stabilise the value of total pension benefits in the long run, it would not be effective in the long run because of their insignificant nature. Policy makers should rather target inflation as the prime tool for stabilising the standard of living of retirees in the long run.

  11. Kinesio Taping Does Not Provide Additional Benefits in Patients With Chronic Low Back Pain Who Receive Exercise and Manual Therapy: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Added, Marco Aurélio Nemitalla; Costa, Leonardo Oliveira Pena; de Freitas, Diego Galace; Fukuda, Thiago Yukio; Monteiro, Renan Lima; Salomão, Evelyn Cassia; de Medeiros, Flávia Cordeiro; Costa, Lucíola da Cunha Menezes

    2016-07-01

    Study Design Randomized controlled trial. Background Many clinical practice guidelines endorse both manual therapy and exercise as effective treatment options for patients with low back pain. To optimize the effects of the treatments recommended by the guidelines, a new intervention known as Kinesio Taping is being widely used in these patients. Objectives To determine the effectiveness of Kinesio Taping in patients with chronic nonspecific low back pain when added to a physical therapy program consisting of exercise and manual therapy. Methods One hundred forty-eight patients with chronic nonspecific low back pain were randomly allocated to receive 10 (twice weekly) sessions of physical therapy, consisting of exercise and manual therapy, or the same treatment with the addition of Kinesio Taping applied to the lower back. The primary outcomes were pain intensity and disability (5 weeks after randomization) and the secondary outcomes were pain intensity, disability (3 months and 6 months after randomization), global perceived effect, and satisfaction with care (5 weeks after treatment). Data were collected by a blinded assessor. Results No between-group differences were observed in the primary outcomes of pain intensity (mean difference, -0.01 points; 95% confidence interval [CI]: -0.88, 0.85) or disability (mean difference, 1.14 points; 95% CI: -0.85, 3.13) at 5 weeks' follow-up. In addition, no between-group differences were observed for any of the other outcomes evaluated, except for disability 6 months after randomization (mean difference, 2.01 points; 95% CI: 0.03, 4.00) in favor of the control group. Conclusion Patients who received a physical therapy program consisting of exercise and manual therapy did not get additional benefit from the use of Kinesio Taping. Level of Evidence Therapy, level 1b. Prospectively registered May 28, 2013 at www.ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01866332). J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2016;46(7):506-513. Epub 6 Jun 2016. doi:10.2519/jospt.2016.6590.

  12. A comparison of different regulatory approaches, analysis of the relative benefits of command and control, reflexive law and social licensing in ensuring oil industry compliance with environmentally sustainable practices and obligations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanaati, Sahar

    This paper explores the relative benefits of command and control, reflexive law and social licensing in ensuring oil industry compliance with environmentally sustainable practices and obligations. Recognizing why oil sands and their development are significant, the background and development are reviewed first, and then the focus is shifted to look at its economics including the benefits, uncertainties and environmental costs of development. This paper examines how lawmakers in Canada have failed to meet their respective obligation. Drawing on environmental provisions, case law and legal scholars’ articles, books and reports, this paper examines the very problematic issue of oil sands regulation. It proposes to provide an in depth analysis of each regulatory forms and their application to the oil sands. It concludes that in order to solve the oil sands regulation challenges, a collaborative stringent enforcement of regulation from both federal and provincial governments, oil industry and public Pressure is required.

  13. Commander’s Emergency Response Program in Laghman Province Provided Some Benefits, but Oversight Weaknesses and Sustainment Concerns Led to Questionable Outcomes and Potential Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-27

    project also provides furniture , a generator, and solar panels. The facility was constructed using a standard Ministry of Education design , according...attacks from the community against the Afghan National Security Forces or coalition forces, and the village elders have signed a contract agreeing to...is leased from a village elder . The saffron bulbs harvested under the project will be split equally among the ADT, landowner, and a local cooperative

  14. The benefit of meeting a stranger: experiences with emotional support provided by nurses among Danish-born and migrant cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristiansen, M; Tjørnhøj-Thomsen, T; Krasnik, A

    2010-07-01

    Research among cancer patients has shown that emotional support in informal relationships may be difficult to access because of a fear or lack of knowledge about cancer. Consequently, formal relationships with healthcare professionals may be important sources of support. This study explores needs for and experiences with emotional support provided by nurses as well as prerequisites for the provision of support among Danish-born and migrant cancer patients. We conducted narrative interviews with 18 adult Danish-born and migrant cancer patients. Patients were recruited from a variety of places in a purposive strategic sampling process. Analysis was inspired by phenomenological methods and Simmel's theoretical concept of "the stranger". Both Danish-born and migrant patients perceived the support delivered by healthcare professionals as available, empathic and valuable. Prerequisites for providing emotional support were 1) setting aside time for the patient to feel safe and able to verbalise emotional concerns, 2) continuity in relationships with healthcare professionals, and 3) nurses' ability to understand the patient's emotional reactions without creating additional distress. Being positioned as a stranger to the patient gives nurses a unique position from which to provide emotional support during cancer treatment. Thus, formal relationships with healthcare professionals are of great importance for many cancer patients.

  15. Resource or Hindrance? The benefits and costs of social support for functional difficulties and its implications for depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifian, Neika; O'Brien, Erica L

    2018-02-09

    The impact of social support on the relationship between stress and well-being remains somewhat inconclusive, with work suggesting either null, buffering, or amplification effects. The current study investigated the conditions in which perceived social support is likely to act as a buffer or amplifier by considering individual differences in self-perceptions of aging. Using data from two subsamples of the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study (graduates: 70-74 years, siblings: 40-92 years), we examined how perceived social support (emotional versus instrumental) and self-perceptions of aging (SPA) moderated the effect of functional limitations on depressive symptoms (DS). Although emotional support positively predicted DS, its effects did not depend on SPA. Instrumental support was associated with both increases and decreases in well-being that were dependent upon SPA. Functional limitations predicted more DS at both low and high levels of instrumental support when SPA were negative. However, when SPA were positive, low levels of social support were found to decrease depressive symptoms, and high levels were found to increase depressive symptoms. The impact of social social may enhance or deteriorate well-being, depending on how it interacts with self-evaluative beliefs. Findings offer insights as to the boundary conditions associated with the (positive) effects of social support and SPA, and highlight the need for continued research on the mechanisms associated these effects.

  16. Patient Understanding of the Risks and Benefits of Biologic Therapies in Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Insights from a Large-scale Analysis of Social Media Platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Bibiana; Dailey, Francis; Almario, Christopher V; Keller, Michelle S; Desai, Mansee; Dupuy, Taylor; Mosadeghi, Sasan; Whitman, Cynthia; Lasch, Karen; Ursos, Lyann; Spiegel, Brennan M R

    2017-07-01

    Few studies have examined inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients' knowledge and understanding of biologic therapies outside traditional surveys. Here, we used social media data to examine IBD patients' understanding of the risks and benefits associated with biologic therapies and how this affects decision-making. We collected posts from Twitter and e-forum discussions from >3000 social media sites posted between June 27, 2012 and June 27, 2015. Guided by natural language processing, we identified posts with specific IBD keywords that discussed the risks and/or benefits of biologics. We then manually coded the resulting posts and performed qualitative analysis using ATLAS.ti software. A hierarchical coding structure was developed based on the keyword list and relevant themes were identified through manual coding. We examined 1598 IBD-related posts, of which 452 (28.3%) centered on the risks and/or benefits of biologics. There were 5 main themes: negative experiences and concerns with biologics (n = 247; 54.6%), decision-making surrounding biologic use (n = 169; 37.4%), positive experiences with biologics (n = 168; 37.2%), information seeking from peers (n = 125; 27.7%), and cost (n = 38; 8.4%). Posts describing negative experiences primarily commented on side effects from biologics, concerns about potential side effects and increased cancer risk, and pregnancy safety concerns. Posts on decision-making focused on nonbiologic treatment options, hesitation to initiate biologics, and concerns about changing or discontinuing regimens. Social media reveals a wide range of themes governing patients' experience and choice with IBD biologics. The complexity of navigating their risk-benefit profiles suggests merit in creating online tailored decision tools to support IBD patients' decision-making with biologic therapies.

  17. Benefits of group living include increased feeding efficiency and lower mass loss during desiccation in the social and inbreeding spider Stegodyphus dumicola.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bram eVanthournout

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Group living carries a price: it inherently entails increased competition for resources and reproduction, and may also be associated with mating among relatives, which carries costs of inbreeding. Nonetheless, group living and sociality is found in many animals, and understanding the direct and indirect benefits of cooperation that override the inherent costs remains a challenge in evolutionary ecology. Individuals in groups may benefit from more efficient management of energy or water reserves, for example in the form of reduced water or heat loss from groups of animals huddling, or through reduced energy demands afforded by shared participation in tasks. We investigated the putative benefits of group living in the permanently social spider Stegodyphus dumicola by comparing the effect of group size on standard metabolic rate, lipid/protein content as a body condition measure, feeding efficiency, per capita web investment and weight/water loss and survival during desiccation. Because energetic expenditure is temperature sensitive, some assays were performed under varying temperature conditions. We found that feeding efficiency increased with group size, and the rate of weight loss was higher in solitary individuals than in animals in groups of various sizes during desiccation. Interestingly, this was not translated into differences in survival or in standard metabolic rate. We did not detect any group size effects for other parameters, and group size effects did not co-vary with experimental temperature in a predictive manner. Both feeding efficiency and mass loss during desiccation are relevant ecological factors as the former results in lowered predator exposure time, and the latter benefits social spiders which occupy arid, hot environments.

  18. The Effect of Social perception of environmental problems and goods on the practice of cost-benefit analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bunuel, M.; Delgado, M. L.

    2002-07-01

    When revealed, willingness to pay (WTP) is considerably lesser than willingness to accept (WTA), as economists explain. Sociological studies in Spain reveal that citizens assign a high value to the environment (high WTA), but are not ready to pay to preserve it (low WTP)because they think that it is industrial sector and the government's responsibility. This is a new factor, not studied before, that may result in underestimating environmental goods when WTP is used. The gap between WTP and WTA makes cost-benefits analysis difficult, creating the risk of environmental political judgments being replaced by pseudo scientific noise instead of by objective economic analysis.hence, it is sometimes convenient to use alternative methods to cost-benefit analysis: cost-effectiveness analysis trade-off analysis, economic-impact valuation, and risk-benefit analysis. (Author)

  19. A computational modelling approach combined with cellular electrophysiology data provides insights into the therapeutic benefit of targeting the late Na+ current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Pei-Chi; Song, Yejia; Giles, Wayne R; Horvath, Balazs; Chen-Izu, Ye; Belardinelli, Luiz; Rajamani, Sridharan; Clancy, Colleen E

    2015-01-01

    Selective inhibition of the slowly inactivating or late Na+ current (INaL) in patients with inherited or acquired arrhythmia syndrome may confer therapeutic benefit by reducing the incidence of triggers for arrhythmia and suppressing one component of arrhythmia-promoting cardiac substrates (e.g. prolonged refractoriness and spatiotemporal dispersion of action potential duration). Recently, a novel compound that preferentially and potently reduces INaL, GS-458967 (IC50 for block of INaL = 130 nm) has been studied. Experimental measurements of the effects of GS-458967 on endogenous INaL in guinea pig ventricular myocytes demonstrate a robust concentration-dependent reduction in action potential duration (APD). Using experimental data to calibrate INaL and the rapidly activating delayed rectifier K+ current, IKr, in the Faber–Rudy computationally based model of the guinea pig ventricular action potential, we simulated effects of GS-458967 on guinea pig ventricular APD. GS-458967 (0.1 μm) caused a 28.67% block of INaL and 12.57% APD shortening in experiments, while the model predicted 10.06% APD shortening with 29.33% block of INaL. An additional effect of INaL block is to reduce the time during which the membrane potential is in a high resistance state (i.e. the action potential plateau). To test the hypothesis that targeted block of INaL would make ventricular myocytes less susceptible to small electrical perturbations, we used the computational model to test the degree of APD prolongation induced by small electrical perturbations in normal cells and in cells with simulated long QT syndrome. The model predicted a substantial dose-dependent reduction in sensitivity to small electrical perturbations as evidenced by action potential duration at 90% repolarization variability in the presence of GS-458967-induced INaL block. This effect was especially potent in the ‘disease setting’ of inherited long QT syndrome. Using a combined experimental and theoretical

  20. The challenges in providing services to clients with mental illness: managed care, burnout and somatic symptoms among social workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acker, Gila M

    2010-12-01

    This study examined the relationship between social workers' experiences when interfacing with managed care organizations and burnout. A total of 591 social workers completed questionnaires that included several measures: Self-perceived competence in the context of managed care, professional involvement with clients with severe mental illness, and burnout. Results showed that self-perceived competence in the context of managed care had statistically significant correlations with burnout dimensions. The author discusses the role of social work schools in preparing students for the realistic aspects of mental health work, and recommends a partnership between managed care organizations and professionals for best care giving.

  1. An exploration of mammographers' attitudes towards the use of social media for providing breast screening information to clients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scragg, B; Shaikh, S; Shires, G; Stein Hodgins, J; Mercer, C; Robinson, L; Wray, J

    2017-08-01

    Increasingly patients and clients of health services are using social media to locate information about medical procedures and outcomes. There is increasing pressure for health professionals to engage in on-line spaces to provide clear and accurate information to their patient community. Research suggests there are some anxieties on the part of practitioners to do this. This study aimed to explore the attitudes of the NHS breast screening programme workforce towards engaging in online discussions with clients about breast screening. 78 practitioners, representing a range of professional roles within the NHS Breast Screening Programme, attended one of 4 workshops. We used a Nominal Group Technique to identify and rank responses to the question: "What are the challenges that practitioners face in using SoME as part of their role?" Responses were categorised into themes. Participants were also asked to identify solutions to these challenges. Challenges: We identified two overarching themes: (1) Working within boundaries: which was further categorised into (a) Professional/legal accountability; (b) Information accuracy and (c)Time as a boundary, and (2) Support: further categorised into (a) Employer and (b) Manager. Solutions: These included: training in technical and interactional aspects of on-line communication and a responsibility to better understand employer and professional body SoMe policies. The study participants appeared willing and motivated to engage in SoMe. However, in keeping with the literature from other disciplines, a number of challenges need to be overcome for its use to be adopted more widely by breast screening professionals. Copyright © 2017 The College of Radiographers. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Benefits for handicapped children

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    The introduction of long-term care benefits within the CERN Health Insurance Scheme requires the coordination of the benefits foreseen for handicapped children. Measures were adopted by the Management following the recommendation made by the Standing Concertation Committee on 26 March 2003. A document clarifying these measures is available on the Web at the following address: http://humanresources.web.cern.ch/humanresources/external/soc/Social_affairs/social_affairs.asp Social Affairs Service 74201

  3. Reconciling social psychology and socio-linguistics can have some benefits: language and identity among second generation British Asians

    OpenAIRE

    Jaspal, Rusi; Coyle, Adrian

    2009-01-01

    Given the pervasiveness of language in social life and the implications that language use can have for one’s individual and collective identities, attempts were made to explore the theoretical and empirical advantages in connecting social psychological theories of identity and sociolinguistics in order to explore language and identity among second generation British Asians. This paper features a brief overview of the sociological background of British Asians and a detailed consideration of tw...

  4. Benefits and Limitations of Text Messages to Stimulate Higher Learning Among Community Providers: Participants' Views of an mHealth Intervention to Support Continuing Medical Education in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabin, Lora L; Larson Williams, Anna; Le, Bao Ngoc; Herman, Augusta R; Viet Nguyen, Ha; Albanese, Rebecca R; Xiong, Wenjun; Shobiye, Hezekiah Oa; Halim, Nafisa; Tran, Lien Thi Ngoc; McNabb, Marion; Hoang, Hai; Falconer, Ariel; Nguyen, Tam Thi Thanh; Gill, Christopher J

    2017-06-27

    A randomized controlled trial was conducted in 2015 to evaluate a mobile continuing medical education (mCME) intervention that provided daily text messages to community-based physicians' assistants (CBPAs) in Thai Nguyen Province, Vietnam. Although the intervention failed to improve medical knowledge over a 6-month period, a companion qualitative study provided insights on the views and experiences of intervention participants. We conducted focus group discussions (FGDs) and in-depth interviews (IDIs) among participants randomized to receive text messages containing either simple medical facts or quiz questions. Trained interviewers collected data immediately following the conclusion of the trial in December 2015. Using semi-structured question guides, respondents were queried on their views of the intervention, positive and negative, and perceived impacts of the intervention. During analysis, after learning that the intervention had failed to increase knowledge among participants, we also examined reasons for lack of improvement in medical knowledge. All analyses were performed in NVivo using a thematic approach. A total of 70 CBPAs engaged in one of 8 FGDs or an IDI. One-half were men; average age among all respondents was 40 years. Most (81%) practiced in rural settings and most (51%) focused on general medicine. The mean length of work experience was 3 years. All respondents made positive comments about the intervention; convenience, relevance, and quick feedback (quiz format) were praised. Downsides encompassed lack of depth of information, weak interaction, technology challenges, and challenging/irrelevant messages. Respondents described perceived impacts encompassing increased motivation, knowledge, collegial discussions, Internet use to search for more information, and clinical skills. Overall, they expressed a desire for the intervention to continue and recommended expansion to other medical professionals. Overreliance on the text messages, lack of

  5. Medicaid Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Policy and Program Topics Alternative Benefit Plan Coverage Autism Services Behavioral Health Services Dental Care Early and Periodic Screening, Diagnostic, and Treatment Hospice Benefits List of Medicaid Benefits ...

  6. Hypothesizing that a Pro-Dopaminergic Regulator (KB220z(™) Liquid Variant) can Induce "Dopamine Homeostasis" and Provide Adjunctive Detoxification Benefits in Opiate/Opioid Dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Kenneth; Whitney, Debra; Fried, Lye; Febo, Marcelo; Waite, Roger L; Braverman, Eric R; Dushaj, Kristina; Li, Mona; Giordano, John; Demetrovics, Zsolt; Badgaiyan, Rajendra D

    2016-01-01

    In order to explore the initiation of detoxification of addictive patients to opiates/opioids (along with some other anti-withdrawal agents), we developed a protocol to be utilized in treatment centers particularly with heavily dependent opiate/opioid subjects. Out of 17 subjects, only three received Buprenorphine/Naloxone (Bup/nx) along with KB220Z. In this pilot, we first used a dose of KB220Z of 2 oz twice daily before meals along with clonidine and benzodiazepines and other anti-nausea and sleep aids including Gabapentin. The dose of KB220Z was maintained for 6 days in five individuals. In a second scenario, we utilized a higher dose of 4 oz every 6 hours, over a 6-day period. The higher dose was employed in another 12 patients. It is noteworthy that only 3 people have relapsed utilizing these two protocols during the first two weeks of the study, allowing for the remaining 82% to be maintained on KB220Z. The patients have been maintained without any additional Bup/nx for a minimum of 120 days and in one subject, 214 days. We are in the process of testing this hypothesis in multiple treatment centers across the United Sates utilizing data from the Clinical opiate Withdrawal Scale (COWS) pre and post KB220Z. We are in the process of testing this hypothesis in multiple treatment centers across the United Sates. While this does not constitute an acceptable controlled experiment, it does provide some preliminary evidence that agrees with an earlier study. Moreover, because of the utilization of standard detoxifying agents in this detoxification protocol, we cannot make any inference to KB220Z's effects. However, out of 17 subjects, only three required Bup/nx suggesting an interesting finding. If further confirmed in larger studies, the utilization for opiate/opioid detoxification may provide a novel way to eliminate the need for addictive opioids during withdrawal and detoxification. This paradigm shift may translate to a reduction in utilizing powerful and

  7. Who Benefits from Public Social Spending in Chad? A Benefit Incidence Analysis (A qui profitent les dépenses sociales au Tchad? Une analyse d'incidence à partir des données d'enquête

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Djindil, N.S.; Tabo Symphorien, N.; Mogota Anatole, T.

    2007-01-01

    This study examines the impact of public expenditures in the sector of education and maternal and child health in household level in Chad. The results show that there exist a very strong social selectivity in the utilisation and transfer of health and education in Chad. The analysis reveals that an

  8. Estimation of incidence and social cost of colon cancer due to nitrate in drinking water in the EU: a tentative cost-benefit assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabl Ari

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Presently, health costs associated with nitrate in drinking water are uncertain and not quantified. This limits proper evaluation of current policies and measures for solving or preventing nitrate pollution of drinking water resources. The cost for society associated with nitrate is also relevant for integrated assessment of EU nitrogen policies taking a perspective of welfare optimization. The overarching question is at which nitrogen mitigation level the social cost of measures, including their consequence for availability of food and energy, matches the social benefit of these measures for human health and biodiversity. Methods Epidemiological studies suggest colon cancer to be possibly associated with nitrate in drinking water. In this study risk increase for colon cancer is based on a case-control study for Iowa, which is extrapolated to assess the social cost for 11 EU member states by using data on cancer incidence, nitrogen leaching and drinking water supply in the EU. Health costs are provisionally compared with nitrate mitigation costs and social benefits of fertilizer use. Results For above median meat consumption the risk of colon cancer doubles when exposed to drinking water exceeding 25 mg/L of nitrate (NO3 for more than ten years. We estimate the associated increase of incidence of colon cancer from nitrate contamination of groundwater based drinking water in EU11 at 3%. This corresponds to a population-averaged health loss of 2.9 euro per capita or 0.7 euro per kg of nitrate-N leaching from fertilizer. Conclusions Our cost estimates indicate that current measures to prevent exceedance of 50 mg/L NO3 are probably beneficial for society and that a stricter nitrate limit and additional measures may be justified. The present assessment of social cost is uncertain because it considers only one type of cancer, it is based on one epidemiological study in Iowa, and involves various assumptions regarding exposure. Our

  9. Estimation of incidence and social cost of colon cancer due to nitrate in drinking water in the EU: a tentative cost-benefit assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Grinsven, Hans J M; Rabl, Ari; de Kok, Theo M

    2010-10-06

    Presently, health costs associated with nitrate in drinking water are uncertain and not quantified. This limits proper evaluation of current policies and measures for solving or preventing nitrate pollution of drinking water resources. The cost for society associated with nitrate is also relevant for integrated assessment of EU nitrogen policies taking a perspective of welfare optimization. The overarching question is at which nitrogen mitigation level the social cost of measures, including their consequence for availability of food and energy, matches the social benefit of these measures for human health and biodiversity. Epidemiological studies suggest colon cancer to be possibly associated with nitrate in drinking water. In this study risk increase for colon cancer is based on a case-control study for Iowa, which is extrapolated to assess the social cost for 11 EU member states by using data on cancer incidence, nitrogen leaching and drinking water supply in the EU. Health costs are provisionally compared with nitrate mitigation costs and social benefits of fertilizer use. For above median meat consumption the risk of colon cancer doubles when exposed to drinking water exceeding 25 mg/L of nitrate (NO3) for more than ten years. We estimate the associated increase of incidence of colon cancer from nitrate contamination of groundwater based drinking water in EU11 at 3%. This corresponds to a population-averaged health loss of 2.9 euro per capita or 0.7 euro per kg of nitrate-N leaching from fertilizer. Our cost estimates indicate that current measures to prevent exceedance of 50 mg/L NO3 are probably beneficial for society and that a stricter nitrate limit and additional measures may be justified. The present assessment of social cost is uncertain because it considers only one type of cancer, it is based on one epidemiological study in Iowa, and involves various assumptions regarding exposure. Our results highlight the need for improved epidemiological studies.

  10. Providing instrumental social support is more beneficial to reduce mortality risk among the elderly with low educational level in Taiwan: a 12-year follow-up national longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, C C; Yeh, C J; Lee, S H; Liao, W C; Liao, M Y; Lee, M C

    2015-04-01

    To evaluate whether the effects of providing or receiving social support are more beneficial to reduce mortality risk among the elderly with different educational levels. In this long-term prospective cohort study, data were retrieved from the Taiwan Longitudinal Study on Aging. This study was initiated from 1996 until 2007. The complete data from 1492 males and 1177 females aged ≥67 years were retrieved. Participants received financial, instrumental, and emotional support, and they actively provided instrumental and emotional support to others and involved in social engagement. Education attainment was divided into two levels: high and low. The low education level included illiterate and elementary school. The high education level included junior high school to senior high school and above college. Cox regression analysis was used to examine the association between providing or receiving social support on mortality with different educational levels. The average age of the participants in 1996 was 73.0 (IQR=8.0) years, and the median survival following years (1996-2007) of participants was 10.3 (IQR=6.7) years. Most participants were low educational level including illiterate (39.3%) and elementary school (41.2%). Participants with high educational level tend to be younger and more male significantly. On the contrary, participants with low educational level tend to have significant more poor income, more depression, more cognition impairment, more with IADL and ADL disability than high educational level. Most participants received instrumental support from others (95.5%) and also provided emotional support to others (97.7%). Providing instrumental support can reduce 17% of mortality risk among the elderly with a low level of education after adjusting several covariates [Hazard ratio (HR) = 0.83; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.70-0.99; p = 0.036]. Providing instrumental social support to others confer benefits to the giver and prolong life expectancy among the

  11. A peptide prime-DNA boost immunization protocol provides significant benefits as a new generation Aβ42 DNA vaccine for Alzheimer disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambracht-Washington, Doris; Qu, Bao-xi; Fu, Min; Anderson, Larry D; Eagar, Todd N; Stüve, Olaf; Rosenberg, Roger N

    2013-01-15

    Immunotherapy has the potential to provide a possible treatment therapy to prevent or delay Alzheimer disease. In a clinical trial (AN1792) in which patients received this immunotherapy and received active Aβ1-42 peptide immunizations, treatment was stopped when 6% of patients showed signs of meningoencephalitis. Follow up on these patients led to the conclusion that the antibody response was beneficial in removing Aβ1-42 from brain but an accompanying inflammatory Th1 T cell response was harmful. As a safe alternative treatment targeting the same self protein, Aβ1-42, in brain, we and others are working on a DNA Aβ1-42 immunization protocol as the immune response to DNA immunizations differs in many aspects from immunizations with peptide antigens. Because the immune response to DNA vaccination has different kinetics and has a significantly lower antibody production, we evaluated two different prime boost regimens, Aβ1-42 DNA prime/Aβ1-42 peptide boost and Aβ1-42 peptide prime/Aβ1-42 DNA boost for their effectiveness in antibody production and possible side effects due to inflammatory T cell responses. While both boost regimes significantly enhanced the specific antibody production with comparable antibody concentrations, the absence of the Aβ1-42 T cell response (no proliferation and no cytokine production) is consistent with our previous findings using this DNA Aβ1-42 trimer immunization and greatly enhances the safety aspect for possible clinical use. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Residents at the University of Maryland Medical System provide insight to learning infrapubic approach for IPP surgery: relative benefits but novel challenges exposed in first 15 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Andrew; Chason, Judd

    2010-03-01

    Emphasis should be placed on assessing resident education. At our institution, the trans-scrotal (TS) approach for inflatable penile prosthesis (IPP) surgery has been widely taught, with infrapubic (IP) approach recently introduced. Feedback and trends on learning a new implant technique is assessed. Aim. The aim is to understand the advantages and pitfalls of a surgical approach through residents in training. This will provide insight into resident education for teaching physicians and a framework for understanding how to teach the two approaches. The outcomes measured will be the residents' reflection on the ease of different steps of the infrapubic procedure upon finishing 15 sequential cases as well as feeling about the end result and time it took to complete the operation. Two senior residents with experience of over 100 TS implants recorded impressions on their first 15 infrapubic IPP cases via questionnaire. IPP was compared with TS with regard to reservoir, cylinder, pump placement, surgical exposure, and resident involvement. Scores of 1-5 were given, with 1 implying harder or more difficult, 3 the same, and 5 better or easier. Proximal dilatation and cylinder placement remained superior for the IP approach, but distal cylinder placement posed major challenges for the IP surgery. Pump placement was more difficult and remained so for the IP approach, yet reservoir placement was similar. Residents' sense of involvement was superior early on for the IP procedure. Operating room time improved steadily for the IP approach and ultimately was faster than implants placed trans-scrotally. The IP approach is quickly learned by residents. Resident placement with the IP approach offers no advantage for the experienced resident. Pump placement and distal dilatation began and remain challenging. Location of corporotomy is the most challenging component and dictates difficulty of dilatation. Residents gain early confidence with the IP approach.

  13. 20 CFR 404.1662 - What support we will provide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What support we will provide. 404.1662 Section 404.1662 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND... support we will provide. Performance support may include, but is not limited to, any or all of the...

  14. 20 CFR 416.1062 - What support we will provide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What support we will provide. 416.1062 Section 416.1062 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE... What support we will provide. Performance support may include, but is not limited to, any or all of the...

  15. Social multiplier effects: academics' and practitioners' perspective on the benefits of a tuberculosis operational research capacity-building program in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Probandari, Ari; Mahendradhata, Yodi; Widjanarko, Bagoes; Alisjahbana, Bachti

    2017-01-01

    The Tuberculosis Operational Research Group (TORG) implemented a capacity-building model involving academics and practitioners (i.e. clinicians or program staff) in an operational research (OR) team in Indonesia. This study explored academics' and practitioners' perspectives regarding the benefits of participating in a tuberculosis (TB) OR capacity-building program in Indonesia. We conducted a qualitative study involving in-depth interviews with 36 academics and 23 practitioners undertaking the TORG capacity-building program. We asked open-ended questions about their experience of the program. Data were analyzed via content analysis. The findings demonstrated the social multiplier effects of the OR capacity-building program. Both academics and practitioners reported perceived improvements in research knowledge, skills, and experience, and described additional individual- and institutional-level benefits. The individual-level benefits level included improvements in understanding of the TB program, motivation for research and self-satisfaction, the development/enhancement of individual networking, receipt of recognition, and new opportunities. The additional benefits reported at an institutional level included improvement in research curricula, in-house training, and program management and the development/enhancement of institutional partnerships. The program improved not only individuals' capacity for conducting OR but also the quality of the TB program management and public health education. OR should be included in research methodology curricula for postgraduate public health/disease control programs. The capacity-building model, in which academics and program staff collaborated within an OR team, should be promoted.

  16. Library Services to Hospital Patients and Handicapped Readers Libraries and the Deaf--The Hidden Society [and] Social Achievements of the RSFSR in Providing the Blind with Books.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, William; Zharkov, D. S.

    The first of two papers presents suggestions on library services for the deaf by a British university lecturer, and the second provides an enumeration of Russian achievements in providing the blind with books. Based on an outline of the personal and social implications of deafness and unawareness of the deaf on the part of libraries and the…

  17. Benefits and challenges of using social media in marketing strategy:investigating small- and medium-sized companies in the Oulu region

    OpenAIRE

    Orajärvi, P. (Paavo)

    2016-01-01

    This thesis explains what social media marketing is as a phenomenon and what kind of roles it can fill in a company’s overall marketing strategies. The thesis also provides very practical information on how small/medium-sized companies can use social media channels in their daily marketing activities. This has been achieved through a literature review on the topic supported by an empirical multi-case study. The motivation for doing qualitative research of social media marketing in small/mediu...

  18. Providing web-based feedback and social norms information to reduce student alcohol intake: a multisite investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bewick, Bridgette M; West, Robert; Gill, Jan; O'May, Fiona; Mulhern, Brendan; Barkham, Michael; Hill, Andrew J

    2010-12-19

    Unhealthy alcohol use among university students is cause for concern, yet the level of help seeking behavior for alcohol use is low within the student population. Electronic brief interventions delivered via the Internet present an alternative to traditional treatments and could enable the delivery of interventions on a population basis. Further evidence is needed of the effectiveness of Internet-delivered interventions and of their generalizability across educational institutions. Our objective was to evaluate the effectiveness across 4 UK universities of a Web-based intervention for student alcohol use. In total, 1112 participants took part. Participants were stratified by educational institution, gender, age group, year of study, and self-reported weekly consumption of alcohol and randomly assigned to either the control arm or to the immediate or delayed intervention arms. Intervention participants gained access to the intervention between weeks 1 to 7 or weeks 8 to 15, respectively. The intervention provided electronic personalized feedback and social norms information on drinking behavior accessed by logging on to a website. Participants registered interest by completing a brief screening questionnaire and were then asked to complete 4 further assessments across the 24 weeks of the study. Assessments included a retrospective weekly drinking diary, the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), and a readiness-to-change algorithm. The outcome variable was the number of units of alcohol consumed in the last week. The effect of treatment arm and time on units consumed last week and average units consumed per drinking occasion were investigated using repeated measures multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA). In addition, the data were modeled using a longitudinal regression with time points clustered within students. MANCOVA revealed a main effect of time on units of alcohol consumed over the last week. A longitudinal regression model showed an

  19. Social and Emotional Learning (SEL) and Student Benefits: Implications for the Safe Schools/Healthy Students Core Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collaborative for Academic, Social, and Emotional Learning (NJ1), 2008

    2008-01-01

    This brief shares the latest research on the effects of social and emotional learning (SEL) on students and includes strategies for implementing SEL. It explains how SEL works, elaborates on how SEL can be an integrative prevention framework that addresses the Safe Schools/Healthy Students (SS/HS) core elements, and spells out implications of the…

  20. The Benefits of Multidisciplinary Learning in Clinical Practice for Law, Finance, and Social Work Students: An Australian Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyams, Ross; Brown, Grace; Foster, Richard

    2013-01-01

    In July 2010, the faculties of Law, Business and Economics, and Medicine at Monash University, Australia commenced placing law, finance, and social work students in a multidisciplinary clinic at a community legal service operated by the University. Students from the three disciplines began seeing legal service clients at the same time as a team.…