В. В. Степко
Full Text Available The article highlights information resources of the scientific library of the Kiev National University of Culture and Arts and characterizes its use in the system of providing librarian and informational services for users. It is proved that the important information resource of the library is website, which provides additional opportunities for users, forming a positive image of the library in the virtual space. The site contains information on various directions of the library’s activities, librarian services, projects and media products. One of the main tasks of the library is formation and presentation on the website of the electronic catalog as a multifunctional bibliographic resource, which is the basis for informational services and the basic information product of the library. The creation of an electronic library continues as the essential element of providing qualitative and effective services to users. The article discusses the functioning of the “Virtual Help” service as an effective form of working with remote users. The authors also consider such an actual direction of the library’s activity as the presentation of the scientific and creative heritage of the university with help of “12 + books of the year” project. The aim of the project is to inform about new editions of university’s teachers published this year and presented in the library fund. The implementation of the patriotic innovation and educational project “Treasures of the Nation”, whose purpose is to study and popularize the elements of the intangible cultural heritage ofUkraine, is analyzed. The booktrails and flash presentations are considered as a means of presenting books prepared by the library staff. The preparation of longreed, a new format for submitting information on the Internet, is also considered. Thanks to the use of Tilda Publishing and ThingLink services, innovative products were created: a complex multimedia story that combined photos
Huber, Sigbert; Baumgarten, Andreas; Birli, Barbara; Englisch, Michael; Tulipan, Monika; Zechmeister-Boltenstern, Sophie
The Austrian Soil Science Society (ASSS), founded in 1954, is a non-profit organisation aiming at furthering all branches of soil science in Austria. The ASSS provides information on the current state of soil research in Austria and abroad. It organizes annual conferences for scientists from soil and related sciences to exchange their recent studies and offers a journal for scientific publications. Annually, ASSS awards the Kubiena Research Prize for excellent scientific studies provided by young scientists. In order to conserve and improve soil science in the field, excursions are organized, also in cooperation with other scientific organisations. Due to well-established contacts with soil scientists and soil science societies in many countries, the ASSS is able to provide its members with information about the most recent developments in the field of soil science. This contributes to a broadening of the current scientific knowledge on soils. The ASSS also co-operates in the organisation of excursions and meetings with neighbouring countries. Several members of the ASSS teach soil science at various Austrian universities. More detail on said conferences, excursions, publications and awards will be given in the presentation. Beside its own scientific journal, published once or twice a year, and special editions such as guidebooks for soil classification, the ASSS runs a website providing information on the Society, its activities, meetings, publications, awards and projects. Together with the Environment Agency Austria the ASSS runs a soil platform on the internet. It is accessible for the public and thus informs society about soil issues. This platform offers a calendar with national and international soil events, contacts of soil related organisations and networks, information on national projects and publications. The society has access to products, information material and information on educational courses. Last but not least information on specific soil
van Wyk, Ernita; Roux, Dirk J; Drackner, Mikael; McCool, Stephen F
Scientific information is not always effectively incorporated into decision-making processes. This phenomenon seems to hold even when the information is aligned with an articulated need, is generated according to sound scientific procedures, and is packaged with end-user preferences in mind. We propose that contextual or cultural differences contribute significantly to the misalignment in communication between those who generate information and those who seek information for improved management of natural resources. The solution is to cultivate shared understanding, which in turn relies on acknowledgment and sharing of diverse values and attitudes. This constitutes a difficult challenge in a culturally diverse environment. Whereas cultural diversity represents wealth in experiences, knowledge and perspectives it can constrain the potential to develop the shared understandings necessary for effective integration of new information. This article illustrates how a lack of shared understanding among participants engaged in a resource-management process can produce and perpetuate divergent views of the world, to the extent that information and knowledge flows are ineffective and scientific information, even when requested, cannot be used effectively. Four themes were distilled from interviews with management and scientific staff of a natural resource-management agency in South Africa. The themes are used to illustrate how divergent views embedded in different cultures can discourage alignment of effort toward a common purpose. The article then presents a sense-making framework to illustrate the potential for developing shared understandings in a culturally diverse world.
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Therapy Provider Phase Information dataset is a tool for providers to search by their National Provider Identifier (NPI) number to determine their phase for...
Cardin, C. William; Campbell, J.T.
The Water Resources Scientific Information Center (WRSIC) acquires, abstracts and indexes the major water resources related literature of the world, and makes information available to the water resources community and the public. A component of the Water Resources Division of the US Geological Survey, the Center maintains a searchable computerized bibliographic data base, and publishers a monthly journal of abstracts. Through its services, the Center is able to provide reliable scientific and technical information about the most recent water resources developments, as well as long-term trends and changes. WRSIC was established in 1966 by the Secretary of the Interior to further the objectives of the Water Resources Research Act of 1964--legislation that encouraged research in water resources and the prevention of needless duplication of research efforts. It was determined the WRSIC should be the national center for information on water resources, covering research reports, scientific journals, and other water resources literature of the world. WRSIC would evaluate all water resources literature, catalog selected articles, and make the information available in publications or by computer access. In this way WRSIC would increase the availability and awareness of water related scientific and technical information. (Lantz-PTT)
Dissemination of information is an essential part of CERN's mission. It brings people together from all around the world and trains the scientists of tomorrow. CERN scientific output is documented and made available for the scientific community and the general public through the CERN Document Server, INSPIRE-HEP and Wikipedia. This report presents the work done in the Scientific Information Service during the summer student program.
Innovative technologies are changing the way research is performed, preserved, and communicated. Managing Scientific Information and Research Data explores how these technologies are used and provides detailed analysis of the approaches and tools developed to manage scientific information and data. Following an introduction, the book is then divided into 15 chapters discussing the changes in scientific communication; new models of publishing and peer review; ethics in scientific communication; preservation of data; discovery tools; discipline-specific practices of researchers for gathering and using scientific information; academic social networks; bibliographic management tools; information literacy and the information needs of students and researchers; the involvement of academic libraries in eScience and the new opportunities it presents to librarians; and interviews with experts in scientific information and publishing.
Roosendaal, Hans E.; Kurek, Kasia
Any business model for scientific information should create: - value in the scientific process, - commercial value. In this breakout session we will discuss business models from these two values, the emphasis being on the value in the scientific process. This leads to the following questions for discussion: 1. An important characteristic of scientific information is that it is not an end product in the scientific process but an intermediate product accepted by the scientific co...
Dahl, Katja; Kesmodel, Ulrik; Hvidman, Lone
to empower women making an informed consent. Information on Down syndrome is often confined and limitations of screenings tests rarely mentioned. Understanding is better achieved by presenting the risk estimate as a numerical probability compared to a verbal explanation. Rates are better understood than......Prenatal care has gradually moved away from paternalism, to a state where patient autonomy and information is vital. It is known from other health care settings that the way information is presented affects understanding.The objective is to summarize current knowledge on aspects of informing...... pregnant women about prenatal examinations. Women's knowledge, decisional conflict, satisfaction and anxiety will be explored as compared with different ways and different groups of health professionals providing information. To what extent information empowers informed decision making will be explored...
Scientists can and should inform public policy decisions in the Arctic. But the pace of climate change in the polar world has been occurring far more quickly than most scientists have been able to predict. This creates problems for decision-makers who recognize that difficult management decisions have to be made in matters pertaining to wildlife management, cultural integrity and economic development. With sea ice melting, glaciers receding, permafrost thawing, forest fires intensifying, and disease and invasive species rapidly moving north, the challenge for scientists to provide climate policy makers with a strong scientific base has been daunting. Clashing as this data sometimes does with the “traditional knowledge” of indigenous peoples in the north, it can also become very political. As a result the need to effectively communicate complex data is more imperative now than ever before. Here, the author describes how the work of scientists can often be misinterpreted or exploited in ways that were not intended. Examples include the inappropriate use of scientific data in decision-making on polar bears, caribou and other wildlife populations; the use of scientific data to debunk the fact that greenhouse gases are driving climate change, and the use of scientific data to position one scientist against another when there is no inherent conflict. This work will highlight the need for climate policy makers to increase support for scientists working in the Arctic, as well as illustrate why it is important to find new and more effective ways of communicating scientific data. Strategies that might be considered by granting agencies, scientists and climate policy decision-makers will also be discussed.
Kubaszewski, Łukasz; Kaczmarczyk, Jacek; Nowakowski, Andrzej
The amount and diversity of scientific publications requires a modern management system. By "management" we mean the process of gathering interesting information for the purpose of reading and archiving for quick access in future clinical practice and research activity. In the past, such system required physical existence of a library, either institutional or private. Nowadays in an era dominated by electronic information, it is natural to migrate entire systems to a digital form. In the following paper we describe the structure and functions of an individual electronic library system (IELiS) for the management of scientific publications based on the Google Drive service. Architecture of the system. Architecture system consists of a central element and peripheral devices. Central element of the system is virtual Google Drive provided by Google Inc. Physical elements of the system include: tablet with Android operating system and a personal computer, both with internet access. Required software includes a program to view and edit files in PDF format for mobile devices and another to synchronize the files. Functioning of the system. The first step in creating a system is collection of scientific papers in PDF format and their analysis. This step is performed most frequently on a tablet. At this stage, after being read, the papers are cataloged in a system of folders and subfolders, according to individual demands. During this stage, but not exclusively, the PDF files are annotated by the reader. This allows the user to quickly track down interesting information in review or research process. Modification of the document title is performed at this stage, as well. Second element of the system is creation of a mirror database in the Google Drive virtual memory. Modified and cataloged papers are synchronized with Google Drive. At this stage, a fully functional scientific information electronic library becomes available online. The third element of the system is a
Reich, Lou; Sawyer, Don; Davis, Randy
This paper presents an overview of an Information Interchange Reference Model (IIRM) currently being developed by individuals participating in the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) Panel 2, the Planetary Data Systems (PDS), and the Committee on Earth Observing Satellites (CEOS). This is an ongoing research activity and is not an official position by these bodies. This reference model provides a framework for describing and assessing current and proposed methodologies for information interchange within and among the space agencies. It is hoped that this model will improve interoperability between the various methodologies. As such, this model attempts to address key information interchange issues as seen by the producers and users of space-related data and to put them into a coherent framework. Information is understood as the knowledge (e.g., the scientific content) represented by data. Therefore, concern is not primarily on mechanisms for transferring data from user to user (e.g., compact disk read-only memory (CD-ROM), wide-area networks, optical tape, and so forth) but on how information is encoded as data and how the information content is maintained with minimal loss or distortion during transmittal. The model assumes open systems, which means that the protocols or methods used should be fully described and the descriptions publicly available. Ideally these protocols are promoted by recognized standards organizations using processes that permit involvement by those most likely to be affected, thereby enhancing the protocol's stability and the likelihood of wide support.
Shamaev, V. G.; Gorshkov, A. B.
This paper reports on the creation of the open access Akustika portal (AKDATA.RU) designed to provide Russian-language easy-to-read and search information on acoustics and related topics. The absence of a Russian-language publication in foreign databases means that it is effectively lost for much of the scientific community. The portal has three interrelated sections: the Akustika information search system (ISS) (Acoustics), full-text archive of the Akusticheskii Zhurnal (Acoustic Journal), and 'Signal'naya informatsiya' ('Signaling information') on acoustics. The paper presents a description of the Akustika ISS, including its structure, content, interface, and information search capabilities for basic and applied research in diverse areas of science, engineering, biology, medicine, etc. The intended users of the portal are physicists, engineers, and engineering technologists interested in expanding their research activities and seeking to increase their knowledge base. Those studying current trends in the Russian-language contribution to international science may also find the portal useful.
T. O. Kolesnykova
Full Text Available Purpose. Problem of representation lack of scientists’ publications, including transport scientists, in the international scientometric databases is the urgent one for Ukrainian science. To solve the problem one should study the structure and quality of the information flow of scientific periodicals of railway universities in Ukraine and to determine the integration algorithm of scientific publications of Ukrainian scientists into the world scientific information space. Methodology. Applying the methods of scientific analysis, synthesis, analogy, comparison and prediction the author has investigated the problem of scientific knowledge distribution using formal communications. The readiness of Ukrainian railway periodicals to registration procedure in the international scientometric systems was analyzed. The level of representation of articles and authors of Ukrainian railway universities in scientometric database Scopus was studied. Findings. Monitoring of the portals of railway industry universities of Ukraine and the sites of their scientific periodicals and analysis of obtained data prove insufficient readiness of most scientific publications for submission to scientometric database. The ways providing sufficient "visibility" of industry periodicals of Ukrainian universities in the global scientific information space were proposed. Originality. The structure and quality of documentary flow of scientific periodicals in railway transport universities of Ukraine and its reflection in scientometric DB Scopus were first investigated. The basic directions of university activities to integrate the results of transport scientists research into the global scientific digital environment were outlined. It was determined the leading role of university libraries in the integration processes of scientific documentary resources of universities into the global scientific and information communicative space. Practical value. Implementation of the proposed
Gigi Rolandi, sitting in the middle, chairing his last meeting of the Scientific Information Policy Board before his retirement. Rolandi was the chairman of the board from March 2006 until April 2017, a period that has seen lots of dynamics within the field of authoring, publishing and librarianship - both at CERN and beyond. In the first row from left to right: Eckhard Elsen (Director of Research), Jens Vigen (Head Librarian) Gigi Rolandi (SIPB Chair), Anita Hollier (Archivist) and Urs Wiedemann (Theory). In the second row from left to right: Nikos Kasioumis (Invited speaker), Alexander Kohls (Invited speaker), Stella Christodoulaki (Invited speaker), Nick Ellis (Chair CREB), Clara Troncon (ACCU), Annette Holtkamp (Scientific Information Service), Tim Smith (IT) Brigitte Bloch-Devaux (non-LHC experiments), Constantinos Loizides (ALICE), Thierry Stora (Engineering), John Jowett (Beams), Arjan Verweij (Technology), Anne Gentil-Beccot (Scientific Information Service), Fergus Wilson (LHCb), Ludmila Marian (Invit...
Full Text Available Dogs are particularly skilful during communicative interactions with humans. Dogs' abilities to use human communicative cues in cooperative contexts outcompete those of other species, and might be the result of selection pressures during domestication. Dogs also produce signals to direct the attention of humans towards outside entities, a behaviour often referred to as showing behaviour. This showing behaviour in dogs is thought to be something dogs use intentionally and referentially. However, there is currently no evidence that dogs communicate helpfully, i.e. to inform an ignorant human about a target that is of interest to the human but not to the dog. Communicating with a helpful motive is particularly interesting because it might suggest that dogs understand the human's goals and need for information. In study 1, we assessed whether dogs would abandon an object that they find interesting in favour of an object useful for their human partner, a random novel distractor, or an empty container. Results showed that it was mainly self-interest that was driving the dogs' behaviour. The dogs mainly directed their behaviour towards the object they had an interest in, but dogs were more persistent when showing the object relevant to the human, suggesting that to some extent they took the humans interest into account. Another possibility is that dogs' behaviour was driven by an egocentric motivation to interact with novel targets and that the dogs' neophila might have masked their helpful tendencies. Therefore, in study 2 the dogs had initial access to both objects, and were expected to indicate only one (relevant or distractor. The human partner interacted with the dog using vocal communication in half of the trials, and remaining silent in the other half. Dogs from both experimental groups, i.e. indicating the relevant object or indicating the distractor, established joint attention with the human. However, the human's vocal communication and the
Piotti, Patrizia; Kaminski, Juliane
Dogs are particularly skilful during communicative interactions with humans. Dogs' abilities to use human communicative cues in cooperative contexts outcompete those of other species, and might be the result of selection pressures during domestication. Dogs also produce signals to direct the attention of humans towards outside entities, a behaviour often referred to as showing behaviour. This showing behaviour in dogs is thought to be something dogs use intentionally and referentially. However, there is currently no evidence that dogs communicate helpfully, i.e. to inform an ignorant human about a target that is of interest to the human but not to the dog. Communicating with a helpful motive is particularly interesting because it might suggest that dogs understand the human's goals and need for information. In study 1, we assessed whether dogs would abandon an object that they find interesting in favour of an object useful for their human partner, a random novel distractor, or an empty container. Results showed that it was mainly self-interest that was driving the dogs' behaviour. The dogs mainly directed their behaviour towards the object they had an interest in, but dogs were more persistent when showing the object relevant to the human, suggesting that to some extent they took the humans interest into account. Another possibility is that dogs' behaviour was driven by an egocentric motivation to interact with novel targets and that the dogs' neophila might have masked their helpful tendencies. Therefore, in study 2 the dogs had initial access to both objects, and were expected to indicate only one (relevant or distractor). The human partner interacted with the dog using vocal communication in half of the trials, and remaining silent in the other half. Dogs from both experimental groups, i.e. indicating the relevant object or indicating the distractor, established joint attention with the human. However, the human's vocal communication and the presence of the
Control of scientific information is increasingly at the center of legal and administrative disputes, raising questions of sovereignty and secrecy, of proprietary rights over research. Disputes originate from efforts to extend the right of access to data at an early stage of research, from demands for information that threaten confidentiality, from proprietary interests in competitive areas of research, and from government restrictions on the free exchange of scientific ideas. They reflect policy changes with respect to information disclosure, university-industry collaboration, patent rights, and national security. A review of diverse situations that have led to disputes and of efforts to negotiate principles for controlling intellectual property suggests the problems of establishing such principles in the context of the changing role of science.
This document presents general recommended standards for documenting scientific and technical information (STI) from a number of scientific and engineering disciplines. It is a companion publication to NASA SP-7084, "Grammar, Punctuation, and Capitalization: A Handbook for Technical Writers and Editors," and is intended primarily for STI personnel and publishing personnel within NASA and who support NASA STI publishing. Section 1 gives an overview of NASA STI publications. Section 2 discusses figure preparation considerations. Section 3 covers table design, and Section 4 gives information about symbols and math related to STI publishing. Section 5 covers units of measure. Section 6 discusses References, and Section 7 discusses electronic documents. Section 8 covers information related to the review of STI prior to publication; this covers both technical and dissemination review and approval, including data quality. Section 9 discusses printing and dissemination related to STI, and Section 10 gives abbreviations and acronyms used in the document.
Porter, Jason A; Wolbach, Kevin C; Purzycki, Catherine B; Bowman, Leslie A; Agbada, Eva; Mostrom, Alison M
The Association of College and Research Libraries recommends incorporating information literacy (IL) skills across university and college curricula, for the goal of developing information literate graduates. Congruent with this goal, the Departments of Biological Sciences and Information Science developed an integrated IL and scientific literacy (SL) exercise for use in a first-year biology course. Students were provided the opportunity to access, retrieve, analyze, and evaluate primary scientific literature. By the completion of this project, student responses improved concerning knowledge and relevance of IL and SL skills. This project exposes students to IL and SL early in their undergraduate experience, preparing them for future academic advancement.
Wolbach, Kevin C.; Purzycki, Catherine B.; Bowman, Leslie A.; Agbada, Eva; Mostrom, Alison M.
The Association of College and Research Libraries recommends incorporating information literacy (IL) skills across university and college curricula, for the goal of developing information literate graduates. Congruent with this goal, the Departments of Biological Sciences and Information Science developed an integrated IL and scientific literacy (SL) exercise for use in a first-year biology course. Students were provided the opportunity to access, retrieve, analyze, and evaluate primary scientific literature. By the completion of this project, student responses improved concerning knowledge and relevance of IL and SL skills. This project exposes students to IL and SL early in their undergraduate experience, preparing them for future academic advancement. PMID:21123700
The objective of this Joint Research Interchange with NASA-Ames was to investigate how the Tsimmis technology could be used to represent and integrate scientific information. The funding allowed us to work with researchers within NAS at the NASA Ames Research Center, to understand their information needs, and to work with them on integration strategies. Most organizations have a need to access and integrate information from multiple, disparate information sources that may include both structured as well as semi-structured information. At Stanford we have been working on an information integration project called Tsimmis, supported by DARPA. The main goal of the Tsimmis project is to allow a decision maker to find information of interest from such sources, fuse it, and process it (e.g., summarize it, visualize it, discover trends). Another important goal is the easy incorporation of new sources, as well the ability of deal with sources whose structure or services evolve. During the Interchange we had research meetings approximately every month or two. The participants from NASA included Michael Cox and Peter Vanderbilt. The Stanford PI, and various students and Stanford staff members also participated. NASA researchers also participated in some of our regular Tsimmis meetings. As planned, our meetings discussed problems and solutions to various information integration problems.
... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Provider information. 890.910 Section 890.910 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS..., and FEHB Benefit Payments § 890.910 Provider information. The hospital provider information used to...
Bankole A. Falade
Full Text Available The Ebola virus disease outbreak in West Africa (2013–2016 claimed over 10 000 lives in less than 18 months. Low levels of familiarity with the disease, ease of transmission, scale of infection, gruesomeness of symptoms, lack of cure and high fatality rate created a global panic. From the perspective of the social psychology of communication and content analysis, this study examines media coverage of the crisis in Africa with a view to unpacking the scientific and non-scientific information that may have framed public understanding of the disease. Findings show that accepting scientific advice was not unproblematic, because of the similarity of early symptoms with known diseases such as Lassa, dengue and malaria fevers. Cultural and religious actors and beliefs posed a paradox for believers as the public assimilated disease prevention information into existing norms and practices. Rumours and conspiracy theories about Western governments and pharmaceuticals also contributed to the rejection of the scientific explanation of its origin. Fear of the devastating effects of the disease and the lack of a cure led to the stigmatisation of the infected and treatment centres and ultimately to public revolts. Findings show the importance of non-scientific information and actors in matters of health and illness in Africa. Significance: Scientific knowledge is not enough to change health behaviour. Non-scientific knowledge and actors, traditional and religious practices, rumours and conspiracy theories must all be factored into efforts to address behavioural change.
Gage-Bouchard, Elizabeth A; LaValley, Susan; Warunek, Molli; Beaupin, Lynda Kwon; Mollica, Michelle
Cancer patients and their caregivers are increasingly using social media as a platform to share cancer experiences, connect with support, and exchange cancer-related information. Yet, little is known about the nature and scientific accuracy of cancer-related information exchanged on social media. We conducted a content analysis of 12 months of data from 18 publically available Facebook Pages hosted by parents of children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (N = 15,852 posts) and extracted all exchanges of medically-oriented cancer information. We systematically coded for themes in the nature of cancer-related information exchanged on personal Facebook Pages and two oncology experts independently evaluated the scientific accuracy of each post. Of the 15,852 total posts, 171 posts contained medically-oriented cancer information. The most frequent type of cancer information exchanged was information related to treatment protocols and health services use (35%) followed by information related to side effects and late effects (26%), medication (16%), medical caregiving strategies (13%), alternative and complementary therapies (8%), and other (2%). Overall, 67% of all cancer information exchanged was deemed medically/scientifically accurate, 19% was not medically/scientifically accurate, and 14% described unproven treatment modalities. These findings highlight the potential utility of social media as a cancer-related resource, but also indicate that providers should focus on recommending reliable, evidence-based sources to patients and caregivers.
Esler, Sandra; Nelson, Michael L.
World Wide Web (WWW) and related information technologies are transforming the distribution of scientific and technical information (STI). We examine 11 recent, functioning digital libraries focusing on the distribution of STI publications, including journal articles, conference papers, and technical reports. We introduce 4 main categories of digital library projects: based on the architecture (distributed vs. centralized) and the contributor (traditional publisher vs. authoring individual/organization). Many digital library prototypes merely automate existing publishing practices or focus solely on the digitization of the publishing cycle output, not sampling and capturing elements of the input. Still others do not consider for distribution the large body of "gray literature." We address these deficiencies in the current model of STI exchange by suggesting methods for expanding the scope and target of digital libraries by focusing on a greater source of technical publications and using "buckets," an object-oriented construct for grouping logically related information objects, to include holdings other than technical publications.
Bankole A. Falade; Clare J. Coultas
The Ebola virus disease outbreak in West Africa (2013–2016) claimed over 10 000 lives in less than 18 months. Low levels of familiarity with the disease, ease of transmission, scale of infection, gruesomeness of symptoms, lack of cure and high fatality rate created a global panic. From the perspective of the social psychology of communication and content analysis, this study examines media coverage of the crisis in Africa with a view to unpacking the scientific and non-scientific information ...
Sekeres, Melanie; Gold, Jennifer L; Chan, An-Wen; Lexchin, Joel; Moher, David; Van Laethem, Marleen L P; Maskalyk, James; Ferris, Lorraine; Taback, Nathan; Rochon, Paula A
In September 2004, the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) issued a Statement requiring that all clinical trials be registered at inception in a public register in order to be considered for publication. The World Health Organization (WHO) and ICMJE have identified 20 items that should be provided before a trial is considered registered, including contact information. Identifying those scientifically responsible for trial conduct increases accountability. The objective is to examine the proportion of registered clinical trials providing valid scientific leadership information. We reviewed clinical trial entries listing Canadian investigators in the two largest international and public trial registers, the International Standard Randomized Controlled Trial Number (ISRCTN) register, and ClinicalTrials.gov. The main outcome measures were the proportion of clinical trials reporting valid contact information for the trials' Principal Investigator (PI)/Co-ordinating Investigator/Study Chair/Site PI, and trial e-mail contact address, stratified by funding source, recruiting status, and register. A total of 1388 entries (142 from ISRCTN and 1246 from ClinicalTrials.gov) comprised our sample. We found non-compliance with mandatory registration requirements regarding scientific leadership and trial contact information. Non-industry and partial industry funded trials were significantly more likely to identify the individual responsible for scientific leadership (OR = 259, 95% CI: 95-701) and to provide a contact e-mail address (OR = 9.6, 95% CI: 6.6-14) than were solely industry funded trials. Despite the requirements set by WHO and ICMJE, data on scientific leadership and contact e-mail addresses are frequently omitted from clinical trials registered in the two leading public clinical trial registers. To promote accountability and transparency in clinical trials research, public clinical trials registers should ensure adequate monitoring of trial
Reddy, Michael M.; Reddy, Micaela B.; Reddy, Carol F.
The health consequences of contaminants in the environment, with respect to the health of children and infants, recently have been dramatically brought to public attention by the motion pictures Erin Brockovich and A Civil Action. These productions focused public attention on the potential link between water contaminants and pediatric health, a continuing subject of public concern. As a consequence of the increasing production of new commercial chemicals, many chemicals have appeared in the scientific and public awareness as potential threats to health. These new or novel compounds eventually distribute in the environment and often are termed emerging contaminants. Gitterman and Bearer stated, "Children may serve as unwitting sentinels for society; they are often the youngest exposed to many environmental toxicants and may become the youngest in age to manifest adverse responses." The discipline of pediatric environmental health is still in its adolescence, but it will be increasingly important as new chemicals are generated and as more is learned about the health effects of chemicals already in commerce. Here, we provide an overview of recent advances in biomonitoring and environmental monitoring of environmental contaminants including emerging contaminants. Our purpose in writing this commentary is to make pediatricians aware of the current resources available for learning about pediatric environmental health and of ongoing research initiatives that provide opportunities to improve pediatric environmental health.
Mastroianni, Patrícia C; Noto, Ana Regina; Galduróz, José Carlos F
According to the World Health Organization, medicinal drug promotion should be reliable, accurate, truthful, informative, balanced, up-to-date and capable of substantiation. The objective of the present study was to review psychoactive drug advertisements to physicians as for information consistency with the related references and accessibility of the cited references. Data was collected in the city of Araraquara, Southeastern Brazil, in 2005. There were collected and reviewed 152 drug advertisements, a total of 304 references. References were requested directly from pharmaceutical companies' customer services and searched in UNESP (Ibict, Athenas) and BIREME (SciELO, PubMed, free-access indexed journals) library network and CAPES journals. Advertisement statements were checked against references using content analysis. Of all references cited in the advertisements studied, 66.7% were accessed. Of 639 promotional statements identified, 346 (54%) were analyzed. The analysis showed that 67.7% of promotional statements in the advertisements were consistent with their references, while the remaining was either partially consistent or inconsistent. Of the material analyzed, an average 2.5 (1-28) references was cited per advertisement. In the text body, there were identified 639 pieces of information clearly associated with at least one cited reference (average 3.5 pieces of information per advertisement). The study results evidenced difficult access to the references. Messages on efficacy, safety and cost, among others, are not always supported by scientific studies. There is a need for regulation changes and effective monitoring of drug promotional materials.
Nelson, Michael L.; Rocker, JoAnne; Harrison, Terry L.
The Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting (OAI-PMH) is an evolving protocol and philosophy regarding interoperability for digital libraries (DLs). Previously, "distributed searching" models were popular for DL interoperability. However, experience has shown distributed searching systems across large numbers of DLs to be difficult to maintain in an Internet environment. The OAI-PMH is a move away from distributed searching, focusing on the arguably simpler model of "metadata harvesting". We detail NASA s involvement in defining and testing the OAI-PMH and experience to date with adapting existing NASA distributed searching DLs (such as the NASA Technical Report Server) to use the OAI-PMH and metadata harvesting. We discuss some of the entirely new DL projects that the OAI-PMH has made possible, such as the Technical Report Interchange project. We explain the strategic importance of the OAI-PMH to the mission of NASA s Scientific and Technical Information Program.
Full Text Available Review of works on creating the educational segment of National Grid infrastructure for the use in educational and scientific goals, in particular, for Grid users training, is given.
... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false National Standard 2-Scientific Information... Standards § 600.315 National Standard 2—Scientific Information. (a) Standard 2. Conservation and management measures shall be based upon the best scientific information available. (b) FMP development. The fact that...
Eagan, Gerald D.; Grier, Robert S.
The Medical Information System (MIS) at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory automates the acquisition, storage and retrieval of medical information concerning the nine thousand project-connected personnel.
The international acquisitions functions and activities of the Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) are described. There are four mechanisms for obtaining foreign information related to energy and nuclear science: The Energy Technology Data Exchange consisting of 14 member countries and 2 associate members; the International Nuclear Information System consisting of 86 countries and 17 international organizations; the Nuclear Energy Agency's 19 member countries provide reports for departmental scientists' use; bilateral agreements with countries such as Germany, the Nordic Consortium, and Australia result in records of foreign research in progress.
The collection, storage, processing, and dissemination of scientific and technical information make an important basis for economic and social development as well as for scientific development. A nation has to develop the right mechanisms and modalities to collect, store, process, and disseminate scientific and technical information tailored to…
Rhodes, Rebecca E.; Rodriguez, Fernando; Shah, Priti
Previous studies have investigated the influence of neuroscience information or images on ratings of scientific evidence quality but have yielded mixed results. We examined the influence of neuroscience information on evaluations of flawed scientific studies after taking into account individual differences in scientific reasoning skills, thinking…
Introduction: We examine how residents and citizens of The Netherlands perceive open access to acquire preliminary insight into the role it might play in cultivating civic scientific literacy. Open access refers to scientific or scholarly research literature available on the Web to scholars and the general public in free online journals and…
The Scientific Information Service in the Education and Technology Transfer division is responsible for maintaining and updating the CERN Library and Scientific Archives. The members of the group are pictured here in CERN's central library.
Arattano, Massimo; Gatti, Albertina; Eusebio, Elisa
The commitment to communicate and divulge the knowledge acquired during his/her professional activity is certainly one of the ethical duties of the geologist. However nowadays, in the Internet era, the spreading of knowledge involves potential risks that the geologist should be aware of. These risks require a careful analysis aimed to mitigate their effects. The Internet may in fact contribute to spread (e.g. through websites like Wikipedia) information badly or even incorrectly presented. The final result could be an impediment to the diffusion of knowledge and a reduction of its effectiveness, which is precisely the opposite of the goal that a geologist should pursue. Specific criteria aimed to recognize incorrect or inadequate information would be, therefore, extremely useful. Their development and application might avoid, or at least reduce, the above mentioned risk. Ideally, such criteria could be also used to develop specific algorithms to automatically verify the quality of information available all over the Internet. A possible criterion will be here presented for the quality control of knowledge and scientific information. An example of its application in the field of geology will be provided, to verify and correct a piece of information available on the Internet. The proposed criterion could be also used for the simplification of the scientific information and the increase of its informative efficacy.
Vladimir N. Shvedenko
Full Text Available The paper deals with creation of integrated information system architecture capable of supporting management decisions using behavioral features. The paper considers the architecture of information decision support system for production system management. The behavioral feature is given to an information system, and it ensures extraction, processing of information, management decision-making with both automated and automatic modes of decision-making subsystem being permitted. Practical implementation of information system with behavior is based on service-oriented architecture: there is a set of independent services in the information system that provides data of its subsystems or data processing by separate application under the chosen variant of the problematic situation settlement. For creation of integrated information system with behavior we propose architecture including the following subsystems: data bus, subsystem for interaction with the integrated applications based on metadata, business process management subsystem, subsystem for the current state analysis of the enterprise and management decision-making, behavior training subsystem. For each problematic situation a separate logical layer service is created in Unified Service Bus handling problematic situations. This architecture reduces system information complexity due to the fact that with a constant amount of system elements the number of links decreases, since each layer provides communication center of responsibility for the resource with the services of corresponding applications. If a similar problematic situation occurs, its resolution is automatically removed from problem situation metamodel repository and business process metamodel of its settlement. In the business process performance commands are generated to the corresponding centers of responsibility to settle a problematic situation.
The 10 EPA Regional laboratories provide maximum flexibility to support Agency response to natural disasters and emergencies by developing effective approaches for a wide range of analytical challenges.
Boland, Stacey W.; Duren, Riley M.
Global Greenhouse Gas Information System Workshop; Albuquerque, New Mexico, 20-22 May 2009; The second Greenhouse Gas Information System (GHGIS) workshop brought together 74 representatives from 28 organizations including U.S. government agencies, national laboratories, and members of the academic community to address issues related to the understanding, operational monitoring, and tracking of greenhouse gas emissions and carbon offsets. The workshop was held at Sandia National Laboratories and organized by an interagency collaboration among NASA centers, Department of Energy laboratories, and the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. It was motivated by the perceived need for an integrated interagency, community-wide initiative to provide information about greenhouse gas sources and sinks at policy-relevant temporal and spatial scales. Such an initiative could significantly enhance the ability of national and regional governments, industry, and private citizens to implement and evaluate effective climate change mitigation policies.
Ivanov, R.; Raae, L.
The status of high-energy physics (HEP) information systems has been jointly analyzed by the libraries of CERN, DESY, Fermilab and SLAC. As a result, the four laboratories have started the INSPIRE project - a new platform built by moving the successful SPIRES features and content, curated at DESY, Fermilab and SLAC, into the open-source CDS Invenio digital library software that was developed at CERN. INSPIRE will integrate current acquisition workflows and databases to host the entire body of the HEP literature (about one million records), aiming to become the reference HEP scientific information platform worldwide. It will provide users with fast access to full text journal articles and preprints, but also material such as conference slides and multimedia. INSPIRE will empower scientists with new tools to discover and access the results most relevant to their research, enable novel text- and data-mining applications, and deploy new metrics to assess the impact of articles and authors. In addition, it will introduce the "Web 2.0" paradigm of user-enriched content in the domain of sciences, with community-based approaches to scientific publishing. INSPIRE represents a natural evolution of scholarly communication built on successful community-based information systems, and it provides a vision for information management in other fields of science. Inspired by the needs of HEP, we hope that the INSPIRE project will be inspiring for other communities.
Roosendaal, Hans E.; Geurts, Petrus A.T.M.; Hilf, E.R.; Hauke, P.
In this article we will discuss some broader developments in the field of scientific information with the aim to determine and analyse some of the pertinent strategic issues that the stakeholders will face at present time. The stakeholders in the value chain of scientific information are: the user
Gloeckner, M R; Starling, J R
Forty patients with a permanent colostomy, ileostomy, or ileal conduit were interviewed. Besides changes in sexual performance postoperatively, the authors specifically attempted to determine answers to other sexual variables such as attractiveness, appliance problems, and partner reactions. The extent of information provided to patients on sexuality prior to the permanent ostomy was also examined. There was a significant but predictable incidence of male impotence and female dyspareunia after surgery. Despite innumerable sexual variables, other than performance, which these patients faced postoperatively, 42 per cent received no information regarding sexuality at the time of ostomy surgery. most patients (97.5 per cent) stated that sexuality, including variables other than performance, should be discussed primarily by the surgeon prior to permanent ostomy surgery. The enterostomal therapist has an important role in the total patient adjustment in the long-term postoperative period.
G. S. Pearson
Full Text Available The article gives an idea of the scope of professional activity of scientists working in the field of biosafety in terms of providing timely and effective advice for politicians and diplomats in the government. It should be acknowledged that politicians and diplomats are also involved in a varying degree with biosafety issues such as toxicological and biological weapons, formulated in the relevant Convention: Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention. However taking into account their professional interests, they mightn’t have appropriate information on relevant events in these and other activities. The value of these activities of qualified scientists knowing the latest information in the field of biosafety is difficult to overestimate, as they have the possibility to analyze any situation on the range of relevant activities and use their knowledge to make informed proposals which could be acceptable for their co-worker scientists in other areas of biological science. For highly qualified scientists such activities appeared to be effective, it is a vital aspect of their professional activity, because such scientists are able to provide scientific advice, analyze and summarize relevant scientific aspects on a specific topic of interest for politicians and diplomats. Such an analysis should include identification of key elements that are relevant to a given scientific problem and should be formulated so as the consequences of the various elements of the Convention were clearly appreciated and understood by politicians and diplomats. In other words, the rele vant scientific aspects should be analyzed, summarized and presented in the context of the Convention, together with suggestions on what steps in this direction should be taken by politicians and diplomats.
Stimson, G V
In this study of advertisements appearing in medical periodicals and by direct mail advertising to general practitioners, Dr. Stimson, a sociologist, concludes that from what is intended to provide therapeutic information hardly any therapeutic information is provided. He reminds the reader of the safeguards which surround all drug advertising by law and by the code of practice of the Association of the British Pharmaceutical Industry but these safeguards do not appear to control real or potential sins of omission. Frequently in these advertisements the literature relating to the drug is quoted but Dr. Stimson found that it was difficult to trace all the papers quoted in different types of medical library. (Some references quoted were to unpublished papers but surely the blame should be shared in this situation?) Dr. Stimson also gives a vivid and fascinating glimpse of what he calls the 'images and stereotypes' of the patients who, it is claimed, would benefit from the drug being advertised. Certainly most general practitioners must be aware that when they prescribe that image is displaced by an individual but the portrait gallery is indeed depressing. However, to balance these advertisements drug companies issue data sheets which must be more informative than advertisements and conform to regulations in their format. Unfortunately data sheets are only issued every 15 months whereas the 'average general practitioner is potentially exposed to 1,300 advertisements every month'. In other words, the data sheet and not the advertisement should be the guideline but it arrives too infrequently to offset the lack of therapeutic information contained in advertisements. PMID:870694
Full Text Available The phenomenon of pseudo-scientific information, the reasons of its spread and premises of its vitality are discussed in the paper. Pseudo-scientific information is understandable as an attempt to suit a demand, which exists in society, while providing a simple answer to a question, which an individual or society is concerned about, and that answer is not sustained by scientific research. It is showed that the rise and spread of pseudo-scientific information in society are conditioned by objective reasons. Firstly, the lack of information concerning a subject which is significant for society. Secondly, the lack of information for a particular individual (social group concerning a substantial subject. Thirdly, fast spread of scientific and technical inventions and penetration of technological innovations into various spheres of life the understanding of which demands an appropriate informal “processing”, i e it demands provision in an appropriate form, which is partly provided by pseudo-scientific knowledge.The existence of pseudo-scientific information is determined by the fact that it performs important social functions in society. The existence of pseudo-scientific information by official certified scientific information and the fact, that all social groups are affected to a larger or lesser extent, show its ambivalent power and vitality. On the one part, the roots of its vitality lie in the duality of this phenomenon, where opposite things coexist in a strange way – the truth (scientifically verified propositions and speculations which are based on intuition rather than on scientifically verified facts. On the other part, it is maintained by our permanent wish to get an additional and fresher information, though not totally reliable, while seeking to know universally and better the world around us and its phenomena. While meeting this requirement, a pseudo-scientific information stimulates researchers both to enhance their attempts to
During this presentation the topics that will touched upon include various ways in which wikis are being used in scientific research and publishing, currently, as well as some that are more speculative. Many of the examples are drawn from the biological sciences, and the talk is intended to stimulate debate as to how the physics community - and CERN in particular - can enhance its interaction with the Wikimedia community, or via Wikimedia with the public at large. For instance: PLOS Computational Biology Topic Pages Wodak SJ, Mietchen D, Collings AM, Russell RB, Bourne PE (2012) "Topic Pages: PLoS Computational Biology Meets Wikipedia". PLoS Comput Biol 8(3): e1002446 Open Access Media Importer A proposed Wiki Journal, a peer-review journal to encourage academics to contribute Wikipedia articles Encyclopedia of Original Research and JATS-to-MediaWiki The Gene Wiki Wikigenes Wikis in Scholarly Publishing The Journal of the Future His talk is being draft...
Ana M. B. Pavani
Full Text Available This article addresses the access to information from a point of view that relates the evolution of technology to the methods of treating information and to the desire for knowledge. The first part introduces some important events in ancient times, the end of the middle ages/beginning of the modern age and the XIX century. Then, it presents an overview of the current situation of traditional libraries and compares some characteristics with the corresponding ones for digital libraries. It ends by mentioning the international efforts towards open archives and open access to information; it shows examples of positive results.
Full Text Available This paper proposes new methodological approaches in the study of development problems of scientific and technical activities in the information society. The essence and economic nature of development scientific and technical activities' from the standpoint of methodological collectivism are disclosed, a new phenomenon intensification of development scientific and technical activities by forming the global networks of scientific and technical knowledge users that provides sharing of the burden of transformation and transaction costs as generation as well as economic implementation of research and technical knowledge across the globe are showed. This study outlines the complementary effects in intensify development of scientific and technological activities components: research and development (RD, training of scientific personnel, provision of scientific and technical services, which generates of world market's complementary goods, being world market of educational services of scientific and technical information, industrial properties, high technology products, venture capital investments and stock market.
V. V. Lyubenok; S. M. Dyachenko
The possibilities that exist in the National Technical University of Ukraine "Kyiv Polytechnic Institute" for access to scientific and technical information in the fields of radio engineering and electronics are considered. The existent print and electronic professional editions of Ukraine and abroad are characterized. The main opportunities for Ukrainian scientific periodicals, and abstract journals through official resources are investigated. The list of foreign scientific periodicals and t...
Arwa 'Isa al-Yasiry
Full Text Available This research aims at evaluating the quality of scientific information culture that introduce it the Arabic mass media in the internet and how it covering the reality of Arabic scientific information by using analysis content method for these websites then we most be know how these websites treating with information culture considering information systems has input, output and mutual relations between the elements of this system that include the following three components: 1- External relations that connecting between the culture and the reality. 2- Internal elements for this system. 3- Infrastructures for this system that represented in the cultural policy, informational , information resources and human resources
Gormally, Cara; Brickman, Peggy; Lutz, Mary
Life sciences faculty agree that developing scientific literacy is an integral part of undergraduate education and report that they teach these skills. However, few measures of scientific literacy are available to assess students' proficiency in using scientific literacy skills to solve scenarios in and beyond the undergraduate biology classroom. In this paper, we describe the development, validation, and testing of the Test of Scientific Literacy Skills (TOSLS) in five general education biology classes at three undergraduate institutions. The test measures skills related to major aspects of scientific literacy: recognizing and analyzing the use of methods of inquiry that lead to scientific knowledge and the ability to organize, analyze, and interpret quantitative data and scientific information. Measures of validity included correspondence between items and scientific literacy goals of the National Research Council and Project 2061, findings from a survey of biology faculty, expert biology educator reviews, student interviews, and statistical analyses. Classroom testing contexts varied both in terms of student demographics and pedagogical approaches. We propose that biology instructors can use the TOSLS to evaluate their students' proficiencies in using scientific literacy skills and to document the impacts of curricular reform on students' scientific literacy.
... HUMAN SERVICES Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Scientific Information Request on Treatment of... Scientific Information Submissions. SUMMARY: The Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) is seeking scientific information submissions from manufacturers of atrial fibrillation medical devices. Scientific...
Pursuant to Article R V 1.38 of the Staff Regulations, members of the personnel are reminded that they are required to inform the Organization in writing, within 30 calendar days, of any change in their family situation (marriage, partnership, birth of a child, etc.) and of the amount of any financial benefit of a similar nature to those provided for in the Staff Regulations (e.g. family allowance, child allowance, infant allowance, non-resident allowance or international indemnity) to which they or a member of their family may be entitled from a source other than CERN. The procedures to be followed are available in the Admin e-guide: https://admin-eguide.web.cern.ch/en/procedure/change-family-situation Members of the personnel are also reminded that any false declaration or failure to make a declaration with a view to deceiving others or achieving a gain resulting in a loss of funds or reputation for CERN constitutes fraud and may lead to disciplinary action in accordance with Article S ...
Roosendaal, Hans E.
The values in scientific information relevant for the individual researcher can be represented in the value chain for this process. IT is a strong engine for change, in particular as IT has the potential not only to innovate the research information system but also the educational information system
Skonieczny, Lukasz; Rybiński, Henryk; Niezgodka, Marek
This book is a selection of results obtained within one year of research performed under SYNAT - a nation-wide scientific project aiming to create an infrastructure for scientific content storage and sharing for academia, education and open knowledge society in Poland. The selection refers to the research in artificial intelligence, knowledge discovery and data mining, information retrieval and natural language processing, addressing the problems of implementing intelligent tools for building a scientific information platform. The idea of this book is based on the very successful SYNAT Project Conference and the SYNAT Workshop accompanying the 19th International Symposium on Methodologies for Intelligent Systems (ISMIS 2011). The papers included in this book present an overview and insight into such topics as architecture of scientific information platforms, semantic clustering, ontology-based systems, as well as, multimedia data processing.
Full Text Available Scientific information from the moment it is produced by the scientific community until it reaches the non- expert audience through the newspapers is submitted to a complex process of adaptation. In this paper, we investigate the process of accommodating the scientific information provided by a primary scientific source (a peer-review journal into journalistic discourse (a newspaper. As case studies we analyzed four scientific papers published by the peer-reviewed scientific journals Nature and Science, which were simultaneously used as primary scientific sources by Latin American newspapers. We observed that the process of accommodation into a new space, journalistic space, represents a significant shift in the content of the texts, including information that appears, disappears and is transformed in the process; transformations in the lexica, the style and the argumentation; a change in the hierarchy of the information; a shift in the information emphasized and in the social impact it might have.
Full Text Available Scientific information from the moment it is produced by the scientific community until it reaches the non- expert audience through the newspapers is submitted to a complex process of adaptation. In this paper, we investigate the process of accommodating the scientific information provided by a primary scientific source (a peer-review journal into journalistic discourse (a newspaper. As case studies we analyzed four scientific papers published by the peer-reviewed scientific journals Nature and Science, which were simultaneously used as primary scientific sources by Latin American newspapers. We observed that the process of accommodation into a new space, journalistic space, represents a significant shift in the content of the texts, including information that appears, disappears and is transformed in the process; transformations in the lexica, the style and the argumentation; a change in the hierarchy of the information; a shift in the information emphasized and in the social impact it might have.
Forni, L.; Galaitsi, S.; Mehta, V. K.; Escobar, M.; Purkey, D. R.; Depsky, N. J.; Lima, N. A.
Each actor evaluating potential management strategies brings her/his own distinct set of objectives to a complex decision space of system uncertainties. The diversity of these objectives require detailed and rigorous analyses that responds to multifaceted challenges. However, the utility of this information depends on the accessibility of scientific information to decision makers. This paper demonstrates data visualization tools for presenting scientific results to decision makers in two case studies, La Paz/ El Alto, Bolivia, and Yuba County,California. Visualization output from the case studies combines spatiotemporal, multivariate and multirun/multiscenario information to produce information corresponding to the objectives defined by key actors and stakeholders. These tools can manage complex data and distill scientific information into accessible formats. Using the visualizations, scientists and decision makers can navigate the decision space and potential objective trade-offs to facilitate discussion and consensus building. These efforts can support identifying stable negotiatedagreements between different stakeholders.
Hey, Tony [eScience Institute, University of Washington; Agarwal, Deborah [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory; Borgman, Christine [University of California, Los Angeles; Cartaro, Concetta [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory; Crivelli, Silvia [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory; Van Dam, Kerstin Kleese [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory; Luce, Richard [University of Oklahoma; Arjun, Shankar [CADES, Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Trefethen, Anne [University of Oxford; Wade, Alex [Microsoft Research, Microsoft Corporation; Williams, Dean [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory
The Advanced Scientific Computing Advisory Committee (ASCAC) was charged to form a standing subcommittee to review the Department of Energy’s Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) and to begin by assessing the quality and effectiveness of OSTI’s recent and current products and services and to comment on its mission and future directions in the rapidly changing environment for scientific publication and data. The Committee met with OSTI staff and reviewed available products, services and other materials. This report summaries their initial findings and recommendations.
A. V. Kіlchenko
Full Text Available This paper are presented the principles of construction of conceptual model of the information system «Scientific researches» for automation of management of scientific researches in NAPS of Ukraine. Research results are described in relation to forming of the fields and automation of treatment of documents in the integrated environment of MS Sharepoint, which was conducted within the limits of implementation of R&D «Scientifically methodical providing of the information system of planning of scientific researches in Academy of pedagogical sciences of Ukraine on the base of network the Internet»
Barnes, Erica M.; Oliveira, Alandeom W.
Elementary students are expected to use various features of informational texts to build knowledge in the content areas. In science informational texts, scientific metaphors are commonly used to make sense of complex and invisible processes. Although elementary students may be familiar with literary metaphors as used in narratives, they may be…
Toms, Elaine G.
Discussion of information architecture focuses on a model of information interaction that bridges the gap between human and computer and between information behavior and information retrieval. Illustrates how the process of information interaction is affected by the user, the system, and the content. (Contains 93 references.) (LRW)
Pursuant to Article R V 1.38 of the Staff Regulations, members of the personnel are reminded that they are required to inform the Organization in writing, within 30 calendar days, of any change in their family situation (marriage, partnership, birth of a child, etc.) and of the amount of any financial benefit of a similar nature to those stipulated in the Staff Regulations (e.g. family allowance, child allowance, infant allowance, non-resident allowance or international indemnity) to which they or a member of their family may be entitled from a source other than CERN. The procedures to be followed are available in the admin e-guide: https://admin-eguide.web.cern.ch/en/procedure/change-family-situation Members of the personnel are also reminded that any false declaration or failure to make a declaration with a view to deceiving others or achieving a gain resulting in a loss of funds or reputation for CERN constitutes fraud and may lead to disciplinary action in accordance with Article S VI 2.01 of ...
Pursuant to Article R V 1.38 of the Staff Regulations, members of the personnel are reminded that they are required to inform the Organization in writing, within 30 calendar days, of any change in their family situation (marriage, partnership, birth of a child, etc.) and of the amount of any financial benefit of a similar nature to those stipulated in the Staff Regulations (e.g. family allowance, child allowance, infant allowance, non-resident allowance or international indemnity) to which they or a member of their family may be entitled from a source other than CERN. The procedures to be followed are available in the Admin e-guide: https://admin-eguide.web.cern.ch/en/procedure/change-family-situation Members of the personnel are also reminded that any false declaration or failure to make a declaration with a view to deceiving others or achieving a gain resulting in a loss of funds or reputation for CERN constitutes fraud and may lead to disciplinary action in accordance with Article S VI 2.01 of ...
Scientific journals are the most credible and updated information resources for valid information in the various fields of science and technology. The present study investigates the status of Iranian scientific journals in disseminating medical information to the world of science. Total 163 Iranian medical journals accredited by national medical journals commission of Iranian ministry of health and medical education were evaluated through a cross-sectional study. The results were represented in descriptive statistics in the form of table and chart. The study showed that 89.6% of Iranian medical journals were covered by regional information databases. Web of Science database indexed 22 (13.5%) Iranian journals in the field of medical science. Only six (6.7%) journals were indexed by Medline. Fifty-eight (35.6%) journals were in English, 102 (62.6%) in Persian, and three (1.8%) were bilingual which published their articles both in Persian and English languages. The highest Impact factor belonged to Iranian Journal of Allergy Asthma and Immunology. Improving scientific credibility of Iranian scholarly journals and their influence in disseminating medical information calls for a precise scientific and executive administration in publishing standards and also in the quality of content.
The status of high-energy physics (HEP) information systems has been jointly analyzed by the libraries of CERN, DESY, Fermilab and SLAC. As a result, the four laboratories have started the INSPIRE project – a new platform built by moving the successful SPIRES features and content, curated at DESY, Fermilab and SLAC, into the open-source CDS Invenio digital library software that was developed at CERN. INSPIRE will integrate present acquisition workflows and databases to host the entire body of the HEP literature (about one million records), aiming to become the reference HEP scientific information platform worldwide. It will provide users with fast access to full-text journal articles and preprints, but also material such as conference slides and multimedia. INSPIRE will empower scientists with new tools to discover and access the results most relevant to their research, enable novel text- and data-mining applications, and deploy new metrics to assess the impact of articles and authors. In addition, it will ...
Ivanov, R; CERN. Geneva. IT Department
The status of high-energy physics (HEP) information systems has been jointly analyzed by the libraries of CERN, DESY, Fermilab and SLAC. As a result, the four laboratories have started the INSPIRE project – a new platform built by moving the successful SPIRES features and content, curated at DESY, Fermilab and SLAC, into the open-source CDS Invenio digital library software that was developed at CERN. INSPIRE will integrate current acquisition workflows and databases to host the entire body of the HEP literature (about one million records), aiming to become the reference HEP scientific information platform worldwide. It will provide users with fast access to full text journal articles and preprints, but also material such as conference slides and multimedia. INSPIRE will empower scientists with new tools to discover and access the results most relevant to their research, enable novel text- and data-mining applications, and deploy new metrics to assess the impact of articles and authors. In addition, it will ...
The author reviews his participation in the development of scientific medical information in the former Czechoslovakia, beginning with the classical methods using the Universal Decimal Classification, through the development of the method of manual peek-a-boo punched cards, till the experimental and routine use of the first commercially available National Elliott 8O3B and Minsk-22 computers (Index Radiohygienicus with a KWIC index). Simultaneously he founded and managed the Information Center for Radiation Protection, and later the Information Center of the Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology. Then he was charged with the projection and methodological guidance of the system of libraries and information centers in the Czech health institutions. In his theoretical and experimental research the author was interested in the feasibility of algorithms for the selection of keywords from scientific texts, in the modelling of the communication of medical scientific information in Czechoslovak conditions, and in extensive statistical studies of the relation between information supply to authors and their citation behavior and citedness. Practical measures for overcoming information barriers were suggested. All results of these activities were published in more than 100 papers and research reports, half of which are cited in References.
Strengthen scientific evidence and its use to inform policy, negotiations and climate implementation in Africa. The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) has become the major international body searching for ways of building international climate agreements between developing and ...
This article sets out to make an analysis of Tanzania's efforts at establishing a network for scientific and technological information. The paper discusses the Tanzania National System for Science and Technology (TANISSAT) under the Tanzania Commission for Science and Technology (COSTECH). TANISSAT which began ...
Belikov, A.; Boxhoorn, D.; Begeman, K.; Valentijn, E.; Vriend, W.-j.; Williams, O. R.
The data processing of a number of current astronomical projects require an intelligent data handling system which can satisfy the requirements both from users processing the data and users exploring the result. We present the WISE Concept of Scientific Information Systems which has been used in a
The paper examines the importance of knowledge as a prerequisite for sustainable development which is contingent on information, its value and ability to be produced, used, reused, and shared. The paper explains the opportunities of Open Access Initiatives (OA) as a tool for infusing and diffusing African scientific ...
Stewart, Susan H. (Compiler)
This document is a compilation of the scientific and technical information that the Langley Research Center has produced during the 2001 calendar year. Included are citations for Technical Publications, Conference Publications, Technical Memorandums, Contractor Reports, Journal Articles and Book Publications, Meeting Presentations, Technical Talks, and Patents.
Stewart, Susan H. (Compiler); Machie, Harriet (Compiler)
This document is a compilation of the scientific and technical information that the Langley Research Center has produced during the calendar year 1999. Included are citations for Special Publications, Technical Publications, Conference Publications, Technical Memorandums, Contractor Reports, Journal Articles and Book Publications, Meeting Presentations, Technical Talks, Tech Briefs, and Patents.
Machie, Harriet B. (Compiler); Stewart, Susan H. (Compiler)
This document is a compilation of the scientific and technical information that the Langley Research Center has produced during the calendar year 1998. Included are citations for Technical Publications, Conference Publications, Technical Memorandums, Contractor Reports, Journal Articles and Book Publications, Meeting Presentations, Technical Talks, and Patents.
This article describes a strategic approach for reading and comprehending scientific information from a middle school science textbook. First, the word-reading skills of children with and without reading difficulties are compared. Second, studies investigating the effectiveness of a syllable-based reading approach on the word-reading skills of…
Stewart, Susan H. (Compiler)
This document is a compilation of the scientific and technical information that the Langley Research Center has produced during the calendar year 2002. Included are citations for Technical Publications, Conference Publications, Technical Memorandums, Contractor Reports, Journal Articles and Book Publications, Meeting Presentations, Technical Talks, and Patents.
Stewart, Susan H. (Compiler); Machie, Harriet B. (Compiler)
This document is a compilation of the scientific and technical information that the Langley Research Center has produced during the calendar year 1997. Included are citations for Formal Reports, Conference Publications, High-Numbered Technical Memorandums, Contractor Reports, Journal Articles and Book Publications, Meeting Presentations, Technical Talks, and Patents.
Phillips, Marilou S. (Compiler); Stewart, Susan H. (Compiler)
This document is a compilation of the scientific and technical information that the Langley Research Center has produced during the calendar year 1994. Included are citations for Formal Reports, High-Numbered Conference Publications, High-Numbered Technical Memorandums, Contractor Reports, Journal Articles and Other Publications, Meeting Presentations, Computer Programs, Tech Briefs, and Patents.
Stewart, Susan H. (Compiler)
This document is a compilation of the scientific and technical information that the Langley Research Center has produced during the calendar year 2003. Included are citations for Special Publications, Technical Publications, Conference Publications, Technical Memorandums, Contractor Reports, Journal Articles and Book Publications, Meeting Presentations, Technical Talks, and Patents.
Machie, Harriet B. (Compiler); Stewart, Susan H. (Compiler)
This document is a compilation of the scientific and technical information that the Langley Research Center has produced during the calendar year 2000. Included are citations for Special Publications, Technical Publications, Conference Publications, Technical Memorandum, Contractor Reports, Journal Articles and Book Publications, Meeting Presentations, Technical Talks, Tech Briefs, and Patents.
Stewart, Susan H. (Compiler); Phillips, Marilou S. (Compiler)
This document is a compilation of the scientific and technical information that the Langley Research Center has produced during the calendar year 1996. Included are citations for Formal Reports, High-Numbered Conference Publications, High-Numbered Technical Memorandums, Contractor Reports, Journal Articles and Other Publications, Meeting Presentations, Technical Talks, Computer Programs, Tech Briefs, and Patents.
Stewart, Susan H. (Compiler); Phillips, Marilou S. (Compiler)
This document is a compilation of the scientific and technical information that the Langley Research Center has produced during the calendar year 1995. Included are citations for formal reports, high-numbered conference publications, high-numbered technical memorandums, contractor reports, journal articles and other publications, meeting presentations, technical talks, computer programs, tech briefs, and patents.
A. I. Afonin
Full Text Available In accordance with the new version of the “Information Security Doctrine of the Russian Federation (adopted in December 2016, in information security agenda its information-psychological component was selected for further study. Attention is drawn to the need to ensure the information-psychological security of certain categories of citizens, social groups and society in general, taking into account a differentiated approach to assessing threats that arise in the course of their life. The article briefly considers the science rank among the forms of the human activities and notes that when involving in science-based and science-applied activities the near-scientific activity, which is often briefly referred to as pseudoscience, shows up as one of the threats.The article presents main forms to show of the near-scientific (pseudoscientific activity, namely parascience, quasi-science, pseudoscience, and monetary scientism.Drawing on the example of one of the near-scientific activity products, called "psychotronic weapon", the article clearly shows the emergence and evolution of this pseudoscientific product, the attempts of its implementation in practice, and the subsequent negative consequences of these attempts for society.Taking into account the survivability of the near-scientific activity, it is proposed to include lectures in the curricula of technical universities to introduce threats from pseudoscience to graduates of higher educational institutions who may face them both in their employment activity and in everyday life.
Shapiro, C. D.
Data democracy is a concept that has great relevance to the use and value of geospatial data and scientific information. Data democracy describes a world in which data and information are widely and broadly accessible, understandable, and useable. The concept operationalizes the public good nature of scientific information and provides a framework for increasing benefits from its use. Data democracy encompasses efforts to increase accessibility to geospatial data and to expand participation in its collection, analysis, and application. These two pillars are analogous to demand and supply relationships. Improved accessibility, or demand, includes increased knowledge about geospatial data and low barriers to retrieval and use. Expanded participation, or supply, encompasses a broader community involved in developing geospatial data and scientific information. This pillar of data democracy is characterized by methods such as citizen science or crowd sourcing.A framework is developed for advancing the use of data democracy. This includes efforts to assess the societal benefits (economic and social) of scientific information. This knowledge is critical to continued monitoring of the effectiveness of data democracy implementation and of potential impact on the use and value of scientific information. The framework also includes an assessment of opportunities for advancing data democracy both on the supply and demand sides. These opportunities include relatively inexpensive efforts to reduce barriers to use as well as the identification of situations in which participation can be expanded in scientific efforts to enhance the breadth of involvement as well as expanding participation to non-traditional communities. This framework provides an initial perspective on ways to expand the "scientific community" of data users and providers. It also describes a way forward for enhancing the societal benefits from geospatial data and scientific information. As a result, data
Throughout 2005 and beyond, NASA will be faced with great challenges and even greater opportunities. Following a period of reevaluation, reinvention, and transformation, we will move rapidly forward to leverage new partnerships, approaches, and technologies that will enhance the way we do business. NASA's Scientific and Technical Information (STI) Program, which functions under the auspices of the Agency's Chief Information Officer (CIO), is an integral part of NASA's future. The program supports the Agency's missions to communicate scientific knowledge and understanding and to help transfer NASA's research and development (R&D) information to the aerospace and academic communities and to the public. The STI Program helps ensure that the Agency will remain at the leading edge of R&D by quickly and efficiently capturing and sharing NASA and worldwide STI to use for problem solving, awareness, and knowledge management and transfer.
Belikov, Andrey N.; Vriend, Willem-Jan; Sikkema, Gert
From a simple text interface to a graphical user interfaces-Astro-WISE provides the user with a wide range of possibilities to interact with the information system according to the user's tasks and use cases. We describe a general approach to the interfacing of a scientific information system. We
Full Text Available This report aims to present the researcher in Psychology techniques for search and retrieval of information for academic and science research. Is based on my experiences as university librarian and as a doctoral student in Psychology, in a project on scientometry of the Social Skills field. This goal is to obtain information reliable and with quality to develop research, from sources of online information. Are recommended and described steps to the process of searching for scientific information, with examples from the Social Skills field: defining research topic; applying appropriate search tactics; selecting reliable sources of information and experts on the topic; translating research into the language of the information source; developing an effective search strategy; evaluating the quality and reliability of the obtained items. It is expected that by following these steps, the researcher obtain a coherent corpus with the subject, time saving and quality bibliographic.
... its major survey programs. Validation is the requirement to test scientific methodology and is also... Provisions; National Standard 2--Scientific Information AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... and Management Act (MSA) regarding scientific information. Consistent with the President's memo on...
Bettencourt, L. M. A. (LANL); Castillo-Chavez, C. (Arizona State University); Kaiser, D. (MIT); Wojick, D. E. (IIA)
The accelerated development of digital libraries and archives, in tandem with efficient search engines and the computational ability to retrieve and parse massive amounts of information, are making it possible to quantify the time evolution of scientific literatures. These data are but one piece of the tangible recorded evidence of the processes whereby scientists create and exchange information in their journeys towards the generation of knowledge. As such, these tools provide a proxy with which to study our ability to innovate. Innovation has often been linked with prosperity and growth and, consequently, trying to understand what drives scientific innovation is of extreme interest. Identifying sets of population characteristics, factors, and mechanisms that enable scientific communities to remain at the cutting edge, accelerate their growth, or increase their ability to re-organize around new themes or research topics is therefore of special significance. Yet generating a quantitative understanding of the factors that make scientific fields arise and/or become more or less productive is still in its infancy. This is precisely the type of knowledge most needed for promoting and sustaining innovation. Ideally, the efficient and strategic allocation of resources on the part of funding agencies and corporations would be driven primarily by knowledge of this type. Early steps have been taken toward such a quantitative understanding of scientific innovation. Some have focused on characterizing the broad properties of relevant time series, such as numbers of publications and authors in a given field. Others have focused on the structure and evolution of networks of coauthorship and citation. Together these types of studies provide much needed statistical analyses of the structure and evolution of scientific communities. Despite these efforts, however, crucial elements of prediction have remained elusive. Building on many of these earlier insights, we provide here a
Building of the System of biomedical scientific information of Yugoslavia (SBMSI YU) began, by the end of 1980, and the system became operative officially in 1986. After the political disintegration of former Yugoslavia SBMSI of Serbia was formed. SBMSI is developed according to the policy of developing of the System of scientific technologic information of Serbia (SSTI S), and with technical support of SSTI S. Reconstruction of the System is done by using former SBMSI YU as a model. Unlike the former SBMSI YU, SBMSI S owns besides the database Biomedicina Serbica, three important databases: database of doctoral dissertations promoted at University Medical School in Belgrade in the period from 1955-1993, database of Master's theses promoted at the University School of Medicine in Belgrade from 1965-1993; A database of foreign biomedical periodicals in libraries of Serbia.
Climate science regularly makes headlines in the media, usually after an extreme weather event or a disaster, or in the wake of campaigns by think tanks about the science of climate change. In this presentation, I discuss four specific challenges that are posed to climate scientist when communicating with the public: (i) The widening gap between the scientific literacy of the public and the communication literacy of the scientists; (ii), the multiplicity of scientific information conduits; (iii), information of, and under, uncertainty; and (iv), the requirement to be precise without using technical language. It turns out that these challenges are quite generic to science communication. Climate scientists have learned from the regular international assessments they perform under the auspices of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change and have accumulated a collective experience of more than 20 years. In this presentation I discuss the most important lessons learned from this experience and their relevant...
Kosanović Biljana P.
Full Text Available Most of the acquisition of foreign scientific and technical information in Serbia is carried out through KoBSON (Consortium for Coordinated Acquisition. The main goal of this article was to make a survey of all the subscribed resources and to present some statistical data about their usage. Special attention was paid to the availability of information on chemistry (SciFinder: Chemical Abstracts from 1906. to the present day and similar disciplines. Recent activities within KoBSON as well as activities that will be launched in order to improve the efficiency of usage of the subscribed resources, are reviewed.
Full Text Available This paper deals with a description of activities in the Czech Republic related to digital archiving. First of all the general situation in the field is described in order to give insight in the state of art in the field in the Czech Republic. The key part of this paper deals with a description of the design and implementation of a pilot system that should serve for digital archiving of scientific information of certain kind – MSc and PhD theses at Czech Technical University in Prague. One of the reasons for archiving of this type of information was the fact that these theses contain information about scientific and technological developments in a given period of time. Such information might be widely appreciated in future by historians who will investigate the history of science and technology of a certain period of time. The research is oriented towards robust archiving systems that can be used in small-scale applications. These small systems do not offer universal solutions in the field of digital archiving – they solve problems that become urgent in various applications: to save current digital documents in the form that could be transferable to general archiving systems developed later. The described implementation is a pilot practical solution to this problem. The approach described in the paper will allow the user to archive also documents that contain non-textual information.
The most common means of remote scientific collaboration today includes the trio of e-mail for electronic communication, FTP for file sharing, and personalized Web sites for dissemination of papers and research results. With the growth of broadband Internet, there has been a desire to share large files (movies, files, scientific data files) over the Internet. Email has limits on the size of files that can be attached and transmitted. FTP is often used to share large files, but this requires the user to set up an FTP site for which it is hard to set group privileges, it is not straightforward for everyone, and the content is not searchable. Peer-to-peer technology (P2P), which has been overwhelmingly successful in popular content distribution, is the basis for development of a scientific collaboratory called Scientific Peer Network (SciPerNet). This technology combines social networking with P2P file sharing. SciPerNet will be a standalone application, written in Java and Swing, thus insuring portability to a number of different platforms. Some of the features include user authentication, search capability, seamless integration with a data center, the ability to create groups and social networks, and on-line chat. In contrast to P2P networks such as Gnutella, Bit Torrent, and others, SciPerNet incorporates three design elements that are critical to application of P2P for scientific purposes: User authentication, Data integrity validation, Reliable searching SciPerNet also provides a complementary solution to virtual observatories by enabling distributed collaboration and sharing of downloaded and/or processed data among scientists. This will, in turn, increase scientific returns from NASA missions. As such, SciPerNet can serve a two-fold purpose for NASA: a cost-savings software as well as a productivity tool for scientists working with data from NASA missions.
Kantor, M.; Joslyn, C.; Kantor, M.
It is vital for Los Alamos to respond to the challenge presented by the ongoing revolution in Information Science and Technology. Distributed Information Systems (DIS) are having a profound affect not only in science, but in society in general. In view of their increasing role in the management of scientific information, in national security and intelligence, and certainly as objects of scientific inquiry themselves, these DIS need to be designed and studied from a scientific perspective. The technological developments over the last ten years, the Internet and the World-Wide Web (www) in particular, have been breakthroughs, allowing for the construction of non-linear, hypertextually based, DIS. And yet most of these DIS are still constructed by hand, and have the properties and architectures of the prior paradigm based on books and libraries, with strictly hierarchical categorization designed with many hours of human effort. Our broader vision is based on an organismal model where DIS are adaptable and evolutionary, scalable, highly connected, high dimensional, resilient, and admitting to many complementary views and orderings. The key development necessary to support this view is the representation of semantic information in DIS. We propose a set of software developments and experiments which will both construct novel DIS with explicit semantic representations, and measure the semantic properties of existing DIS. For DIS design, we propose an architecture called Semantic Webs, where a binary multigraph representation relates a number of nodes according to a variety of semantic categories, each partially ordered. The ontological relations among the semantic categories allows a dynamic among them, and thus for the DIS to be self-modifying and adaptive, suggesting new links as a form of inference. These structures will be implemented as Java add-ons in existing browsers. Semantic categories will be represented as hypertext links, with type indicated by anchor color.
Major topics studied were on communicable diseases (22%), environmental health (11%), demography/family planning (10%), nutrition (9%), pharmacy & drug testing (8%) using quantitative methods (86%). Conclusion: Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences served its primary purpose providing scientific and technological ...
Full Text Available : Concept maps of chemistry can be obtained from thesaurus of chemistry. Analysis of information in the field of chemistry is done at graduate level, based on comparing and analyzing chemistry dissertations by using these maps. Therefore, the use of thesaurus for analyzing scientific information is recommended. Major advantage of using this method, is that it is possible to obtain a detailed map of all academic researches across all branches of science. The researches analysis results in chemical science can play a key role in developing strategic research policies, educational programming, linking universities to industries and postgraduate educational programming. This paper will first introduce the concept maps of chemistry. Then, emerging patterns from the concept maps of chemistry will be used to analyze the trend in the academic dissertations in chemistry, using the data collected and stored in our database at Iranian Research Institute for Information Science and Technology (IranDoc over the past 10 years (1998-2009.
Tetiana L. Novytska
Full Text Available The article deals with the basic elements of an electronic library, digital library of research institutions, digital library processes, the functional requirements for a model of digital library of research institution. It is considered the concept of information and communication support of research activities, information systems, metadata, interoperability, models, information resources management. Specified the concept of resource management and proposed resource management functions. Given different approaches to the definition of the concept of metadata and presented the model building of scientific digital libraries. Highlighted aspects of interoperability. Presented by the level of interoperability. Approaches to interoperability of digital libraries are considered, as well as described their key characteristics. Emphesized the structural components of resource management for digital library of research institution and the model of resource management for digital library of research institution is proposed.
... Venous Ulcers Treatments AGENCY: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), HHS. ACTION: Request...) is seeking scientific information submissions from manufacturers of chronic venous ulcer treatment medical devices. Scientific information is being solicited to inform our Chronic Venous Ulcers: A...
Techniques de l'Ingénieur has been part of the selection of databases offered by the Scientific Information Service for the last five years. Unfortunately, as a consequence of budget reductions, and after careful consideration of all available options, we have to end this subscription. It will be still possible to purchase access to individual chapters via the Library services. Furthermore, we are considering ending our subscriptions to Web of Science and Springer Materials (the Landolt-Börnstein database) during the course of 2015. We thank you for your understanding and welcome your feedback to email@example.com
Thomm, Eva; Bromme, Rainer
The Internet is a convenient source of information about science-based topics (e.g., health matters). Whereas experts are familiar with the conventions of "true" scientific discourse and the assessment of scientific information, laypeople may have great difficulty choosing among, evaluating, and deciding on the vast amount of information…
... LIBRARIES AND INFORMATION SCIENCE GOVERNMENT IN THE SUNSHINE ACT Procedures Governing Decisions About Meetings § 1703.206 Providing information to the public. Individuals or organizations interested in... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Providing information to the public. 1703.206...
... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Providing information to the public. 1206.8 Section 1206.8 Administrative Personnel MERIT SYSTEMS PROTECTION BOARD ORGANIZATION AND PROCEDURES OPEN MEETINGS Procedures § 1206.8 Providing information to the public. Information available to the...
Casado-Mejía, Rosa; Ruiz-Arias, Esperanza; Solano-Parés, Ana
To quantify and characterize the scientific production on the family care provided by immigrant women. A literature search was performed in April 2008 with no date limits in the main national and international databases: Web of Science, Current Contents Connect, ISI Proceedings, MedLine, CINAHL, PsycoInfo, EMBASE, IME, ISOC and CUIDEN. Summaries were reviewed by excluding those that did not relate to the subject of this study and those that were not in English, French or Spanish. The references of all included articles were also reviewed to detect other relevant publications. Several variables were identified and analyzed: type of article, main topic, country of the first author, and year of publication. A content analysis was performed, using the topics as categories. A total of 191 articles were retrieved and 178 were excluded. The 13 included articles analyzed differences in formal and informal care (2), determinant factors (4), epistemological needs (3), the benefits of this kind of care (5), the need for health education/training (4), the need for political/institutional support (2), immigration and health (6), and the carer/cared for relationship (4). There were five non-systematic reviews, six descriptive studies, one qualitative study and one experience. Two articles were published before 2002, eight between 2003-2005, and three between 2006-2008. Most of the studies were performed in Spain (9/13). The scarcity of articles confirms that recruitment of immigrants as caregivers is a new and invisible reality. Most of these studies highlight the benefits of this type of care. There is no dominant pattern of topics and the methodology varies widely. The few analytical studies may indicate that this topic is only beginning to be researched. Investigation into this form of care should be stimulated.
Ross, Lone; Petersen, Morten Aagaard; Johnsen, Anna Thit
To validate five items (CPWQ-inf) regarding satisfaction with information provided to cancer patients from health care staff, assess the prevalence of dissatisfaction with this information, and identify factors predicting dissatisfaction.......To validate five items (CPWQ-inf) regarding satisfaction with information provided to cancer patients from health care staff, assess the prevalence of dissatisfaction with this information, and identify factors predicting dissatisfaction....
Bastl, Katharina; Berger, Markus; Bergmann, Karl-Christian; Kmenta, Maximilian; Berger, Uwe
Pollen information as such is highly valuable and was considered so far as a self-evident good free for the public. The foundation for reliable and serious pollen information is the careful, scientific evaluation of pollen content in the air. However, it is essential to state and define now the requirements for pollen data and qualifications needed for institutions working with pollen data in the light of technical developments such as automated pollen counting and various political interests in aerobiology including attempts to finally acknowledge pollen and spores as relevant biological particles in the air worth being considered for pollution and health directives. It has to be emphasized that inadequate pollen forecasts are a considerable health risk for pollen allergy sufferers. Therefore, the responsibility of institutions involved in pollen monitoring and forecasting is high and should be substantiated with respective qualifications and know-how. We suggest here for the first time a portfolio of quality criteria and demand rigorous scientific monitoring and certification of such institutions in the interest and for the protection of persons affected by a pollen allergy.
Belenki, Liudmila; Sterzik, Vera; Bohnert, Michael; Zimmermann, Klaus; Liehr, Andreas W
Reflectance spectrometry is a fast and reliable method for the characterization of human skin if the spectra are analyzed with respect to a physical model describing the optical properties of human skin. For a field study performed at the Institute of Legal Medicine and the Freiburg Materials Research Center of the University of Freiburg, a scientific information repository has been developed, which is a variant of an electronic laboratory notebook and assists in the acquisition, management, and high-throughput analysis of reflectance spectra in heterogeneous research environments. At the core of the repository is a database management system hosting the master data. It is filled with primary data via a graphical user interface (GUI) programmed in Java, which also enables the user to browse the database and access the results of data analysis. The latter is carried out via Matlab, Python, and C programs, which retrieve the primary data from the scientific information repository, perform the analysis, and store the results in the database for further usage.
Borrelli, G.; Marchetti, A. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente; Belli, M. [WWF, Fondo Mondiale per la Natura, Rome (Italy)
Among ENEA (Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy, and the Environment) activities, one deals with analysis and strategies of environmental and scientific information. A questionnaire, created in collaboration with AIGA (Italian Environmental Journalist Association) and UGIS (Italian Scientific Journalist Association) and WWF has been realized. Purpose of the work was to check the level of sensitivity of the Italian journalists on environmental and scientific issues and to investigate the main obstacle facing to their professional activity.Environmental and scientific problems are usually not correctly perceived by the public. These problems, in fact, undergo a `closeness/distance` perception syndrome despite the fact that they are often presented and discussed in the media. The dichotomy may be explained according to the following phenomenology: 1. the existence of the problem is well known but the scientific and technological contest results to be of hard comprehension; 2. better and prolonged debating about the problem increments the attendance echo but simultaneously decrements the real understanding of it. The public opinion response to the diffusion of news related to environmental and scientific themes of no immediate understanding is of great concern; 3. media organizations are not always suited for dealing with the advanced matter of environmental and scientific information.
Gormally, Cara; Brickman, Peggy; Lutz, Mary
Life sciences faculty agree that developing scientific literacy is an integral part of undergraduate education and report that they teach these skills. However, few measures of scientific literacy are available to assess students' proficiency in using scientific literacy skills to solve scenarios in and beyond the undergraduate biology classroom.…
Chatterley, Trish; Storie, Dale; Chambers, Thane; Buckingham, Jeanette; Shiri, Ali; Dorgan, Marlene
Healthcare practitioners in Alberta and across Canada have varying levels of access to information resources depending on their institutional and professional affiliations, yet access to current health information is critical for all. To determine what information resources and services are provided by Albertan and Canadian professional health associations to their members. Representatives of professional colleges and associations were interviewed regarding information resources and services offered to members and perceptions of their members' information needs. National-level associations are more likely to provide resources than provincial ones. There is a clear distinction between colleges and associations in terms of information offered: colleges provide regulatory information, while associations are responsible for provision of clinical information resources. Only half of the associations interviewed provide members with access to licensed databases, with cost being a major barrier. There is considerable variation in the number of electronic resources and the levels of information support provided by professional health associations in Alberta and Canada. Access and usage vary among the health professions. National licensing of resources or creation of a portal linking to freely available alternatives are potential options for increasing access and awareness. © 2012 The authors. Health Information and Libraries Journal © 2012 Health Libraries Group.
Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to analyze and to present the most frequent conceptual mechanisms in observing and describing scientific phenomena which allow a successful and efficient exchange of information on the level of communication between the scientific community and the “audience”, and also on the level of communication within the scientific community itself, within the field of information science. Application of conceptual mechanisms in the language of information science is presented through the examples of often, almost daily used terms, such as database, gadget race, information architecture, intellectual property, print revolution, computer virus, artificial life, etc. The observing and describing of these terms has been followed, both in popular discourse (such as on various web pages, as well as in available scientific and professional literature. The work is comprised of four parts. After the basic introductory part on the language of scientific communication, follows the presentation of the conceptual metaphor theory, conceptual integration theory and scientific model. Each conceptual mechanism is followed by the analysis of specific examples from the language of the information science. Taking into consideration that the area of information science is under a constant influence of technological changes and development of modern information – communication technology, new and different phenomena are often observed, and they require a new thinking framework in the process of observation, as well as the new ways of language articulation during the process of their description and communication to the scientific and non – scientific audience. The fundamental contribution of the paper is the display and analysis of few examples of the observed new thought patterns and new ways of language articulation in popular and scientific discourse of the information science language.
Ribeiro, Patrícia; Sophia, Daniela Carvalho; Grigório, Deise de Araújo
The complexity of government tasks today suggests that virtual interaction processes that could streamline flows and exchanges of information between governments and society in public policymaking may contribute to more effective intervention that is more closely attuned to the heterogeneity and diversity of social problems. Innovative participatory government administration initiatives have proliferated, together with the extension of public control over government actions, handled through by information technologies. Exploring this field, this paper identifies some key issues for better demarcation and qualification of such initiatives in public sector management, based on the authors' own experience in leading an institutional project designed to empower the political, technical, and communicative participation of society in discussions of the implementation of the Unified National Health System in Brazil. Based on a review of the literature analyzing the links among information, technology, development, and democracy, and particularly with regard to social management, this paper systematizes aspects for consideration drawn from in experiences of interactions between government and society, mediated by scientific knowledge, fostering greater transparency and plurality of views in government management.
... HUMAN SERVICES Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Scientific Information Request on Chronic...: Request for scientific information submissions. SUMMARY: The Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) is seeking scientific information submissions from the public on medical devices to treat chronic...
... HUMAN SERVICES Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Scientific Information Request on CYP2C19.... ACTION: Request for Scientific Information Submissions. SUMMARY: The Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) is seeking scientific information submissions from manufacturers of CYP2C19 variants and...
The 2008 MS 8.0 Wenchuan earthquake is one of the deadliest in recent human history. This earthquake has not just united the whole world to help local people to lead their life through the difficult time, it has also fostered significant global cooperation to study this event from various aspects: including pre-seismic events (such as the seismicity, gravity, electro-magnetic fields, well water level, radon level in water etc), co-seismic events (fault slipping, landslides, man-made structure damages etc) and post-seismic events (such as aftershocks, well water level changing etc) as well as the disaster relief efforts. In the last four years, more than 300 scientific articles have been published on peer-reviewed journals, among them about 50% are published in Chinese, 30% in English, and about 20% in both languages. These researches have advanced our understanding of earthquake science in general. It has also sparked open debates in many aspects. Notably, the role of the Zipingpu reservoir (built not long ago before the earthquake) in the triggering of this monstrous earthquake is still one of many continuing debates. Given that all these articles are ssporadically spread out on different journals and numerous issues and in different languages, it can be very inefficient, sometimes impossible, to dig out the information that are in need. The Earthquake Research Group in the Chengdu University of Technology (ERGCDUT) has initiated an effort to develop an information platform to collect and analyze scientific research on or related to this earthquake, the hosting faults and the surrounding tectonic regions. A preliminary website has been setup for this purpose: http://www.wenchuaneqresearch.org. Up to this point (July 2012), articles published in 6 Chinese journals and 7 international journals have been collected. Articles are listed journal by journal, and also grouped by contents into four major categories, including pre-seismic events, co-seismic events, post
Ranney, Michael Andrew; Clark, Dav
Of this article's seven experiments, the first five demonstrate that virtually no Americans know the basic global warming mechanism. Fortunately, Experiments 2-5 found that 2-45 min of physical-chemical climate instruction durably increased such understandings. This mechanistic learning, or merely receiving seven highly germane statistical facts (Experiment 6), also increased climate-change acceptance-across the liberal-conservative spectrum. However, Experiment 7's misleading statistics decreased such acceptance (and dramatically, knowledge-confidence). These readily available attitudinal and conceptual changes through scientific information disconfirm what we term "stasis theory"--which some researchers and many laypeople varyingly maintain. Stasis theory subsumes the claim that informing people (particularly Americans) about climate science may be largely futile or even counterproductive--a view that appears historically naïve, suffers from range restrictions (e.g., near-zero mechanistic knowledge), and/or misinterprets some polarization and (noncausal) correlational data. Our studies evidenced no polarizations. Finally, we introduce HowGlobalWarmingWorks.org--a website designed to directly enhance public "climate-change cognition." Copyright © 2016 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.
Conze, R.; Su, D.
project management, which is used for internal controlling and decision making. 2. The CCSD-DIS is the specifically designed on-site Drilling Information System, which is used for documentation and archiving of all kinds of scientific and technical information. Both are used in a local Intranet within the field lab, but they also provide certain information via secured Internet services. The CCSD-DIS feeds day-by-day the current reports and new recordings to the CCSD Web portal within the ICDP Information Network (http://www.icdp-online.org/html/sites/donghai/news/news.html). This portal provides chinese and english news and information for the public as well as scientific and technical stuff which is only available for the international CCSD Science Team. Using the example of the CCSD project, a poster and an on-line presentation will show the main components and value-added services of the ICDP Information Network like: ú the common portal for and dissemination of project information by the ICDP Clearinghouse, ú capture of scientific drilling data using individual On-Site Drilling Information Systems (DIS), ú virtual global field laboratories based on eXtended DIS, ú integrated evaluation and analysis of data supported by the ICDP Data Webhouse.
Brey, J. A.; Geer, I. W.; Moran, J. M.; Weinbeck, R. S.; Mills, E. W.; Lambert, J.; Blair, B. A.; Hopkins, E. J.; O'Neill, K. L.; Hyre, H. R.; Nugnes, K. A.; Moses, M. N.
students use real-world data and up-to-the-minute information regarding recent climate events. AMS Climate Studies can be presented in traditional, online, or blended environments, as best suites the instructor, student, and institution. By exploring the Earth’s climate as part of a larger Earth system, AMS Climate Studies will serve as a great primer in preparing students to become responsible, scientifically-literate participants in discussions of climate science and climate change. It maintains a strong focus on the fundamental science while still addressing many of the societal impacts that draw the attention of today’s students. AMS Climate Studies is available for full implementation at institutions nationwide.
Banwell, Linda; Ray, Kathryn; Coulson, Graham; Urquhart, Christine; Lonsdale, Ray; Armstrong, Chris; Thomas, Rhian; Spink, Sin; Yeoman, Alison; Fenton, Roger; Rowley, Jennifer
This article aims to provide a baseline for future studies on the provision and support for the use of digital or electronic information services (EIS) in further education. The analysis presented is based on a multi-level model of access, which encompasses access to and availability of information and communication technology (ICT) resources,…
Scholarly publishing is no longer about simply producing and packaging articles and sending out to subscribers. To be successful, as well as being global and digital, Publishers and their journals need to be fully engaged with their stakeholders (authors, readers, funders, libraries etc), and constantly developing new products and services to support their needs in the ever-changing environment that we work in.Astronomy & Astrophysics (A&A) is a high quality, major international Journal that belongs to the astronomical communities of a consortium of European and South American countries supported by ESO who sponsor the journal. EDP Sciences is a non-profit publisher belonging to several learned societies and is appointed by ESO to publish the journal.Over the last decade, as well as publishing the results of worldwide astronomical and astrophysical research, A&A and EDP Sciences have worked in partnership to develop a wide range of services for the authors and readers of A&A:- A specialist language editing service: to provide a clear and excellent level of English ensuring full understanding of the high-quality science.- A flexible and progressive Open Access Policy including Gold and Green options and strong links with arXiv.- Enriched articles: authors are able to enhance their articles using a wide range of rich media such as 3D models, videos and animations.Multiple publishing formats: allowing readers to browse articles on multiple devices including eReaders and Kindles.- “Scientific Writing for Young Astronomers”: In 2008 EDP Sciences and A&A set up the Scientific Writing for Young Astronomers (SWYA) School with the objective to teach early PhD Students how write correct and efficient scientific papers for different mediums (journals, proceedings, thesis manuscripts, etc.).
Mustafa A. Alssageer
Full Text Available Objective: To examine the opinions of Libyan doctors regarding the quality of drug information provided by pharmaceutical company representatives (PCRs during detailing visits. Method: An anonymous survey was conducted among 1,000 doctors from selected institutes in Tripoli, Benghazi and Sebha. Doctors were asked questions regarding the quality of information provided during drug-detailing visits. Results: A questionnaire return rate of 61% (608 returned questionnaires out of 1,000 was achieved. The majority (n=463, 76% of surveyed participants graded the quality of information provided as average. Approximately, 40% of respondents indicated that contraindications, precautions, interactions and adverse effects of products promoted by PCRs were never or rarely mentioned during promotional visits, and 65% of respondents indicated that an alternative drug to the promoted product was never or rarely mentioned by the representatives. More than 50% of respondents (n=310, 51% reported that PCRs were not always able to answer all questions about their products. Only seven respondents (1% believed that PCRs never exaggerated the uniqueness, efficacy or safety of their product. The majority of respondents (n=342, 56% indicated that verbal information was not always consistent with written information provided. Seven per cent of respondents (n=43 admitted that they did not know whether or not the verbal information provided by PCRs was consistent with written information. Conclusion: Doctors believe that the provision of drug information by PCRs in Libya is incomplete and often exaggerated. Pharmaceutical companies should ensure that their representatives are trained to a standard to provide reliable information regarding the products they promote.
Britt, M. Anne; Richter, Tobias; Rouet, Jean-François
In this article, we examine the mental processes and representations that are required of laypersons when learning about science issues from texts. We begin by defining scientific literacy as the ability to understand and critically evaluate scientific content in order to achieve one's goals. We then present 3 challenges of learning from…
Horban', A Ie; Zakrut'ko, L I; Uvarenko, S V; Prysiazhniuk, L V
The article made a retrospective analysis of the scientific medical forums (congresses, symposia and scientific conferences) in the healthcare sector of Ukraine in 2008-2012, planned by higher medical schools and post-graduate medical education schools, scientific institutions of Ministry of Healthcare of Ukraine, National Academy of Medical Science of Ukraine, medical associations and scientific and medical societies. Quantitative and qualitative assessment was carried out of the effectiveness of their implementation, provided suggestions for improving the planning and conducting of medical research forums.
Hernon, Peter (Editor); Mcclure, Charles R. (Editor); Pinelli, Thomas E. (Editor)
NASA scientific and technical information (STI) programs are discussed. Topics include management of information in a research and development agency, the new space and Earth science information systems at NASA's archive, scientific and technical information management, and technology transfer of NASA aerospace technology to other industries.
Danielly Oliveira Inomata
Full Text Available Objective. This paper presents and discuss the concepts, contexts and applications involving information flows in organizations. Method. Systematic review, followed by a bibliometric analysis and system analysis. The systematic review aimed to search for, evaluate and review evidence about the research topic. The systematic review process comprised the following steps: 1 definition of keywords, 2 systematic review, 3 exploration and analysis of articles and 4 comparison and consolidation of results. Results. A bibliometric analysis aimed to provide a statement of the relevance of articles where the authors, dates of publications, citation index, and periodic keywords with higher occurrence. Conclusions. As survey results confirms the emphasis on information featured in the knowledge management process, and advancing years, it seems that the emphasis is on networks, ie, studies are turning to the operationalization and analysis of flows information networks. The literature produced demonstrates the relationship of information flow with its management, applied to different organizational contexts, including showing new trends in information science as the study and analysis of information flow in networks.
Kim, Sunghwan; Thiessen, Paul A; Cheng, Tiejun; Yu, Bo; Shoemaker, Benjamin A; Wang, Jiyao; Bolton, Evan E; Wang, Yanli; Bryant, Stephen H
PubChem is an open archive consisting of a set of three primary public databases (BioAssay, Compound, and Substance). It contains information on a broad range of chemical entities, including small molecules, lipids, carbohydrates, and (chemically modified) amino acid and nucleic acid sequences (including siRNA and miRNA). Currently (as of Nov. 2015), PubChem contains more than 150 million depositor-provided chemical substance descriptions, 60 million unique chemical structures, and 225 million biological activity test results provided from over 1 million biological assay records. Many PubChem records (substances, compounds, and assays) include depositor-provided cross-references to scientific articles in PubMed. Some PubChem contributors provide bioactivity data extracted from scientific articles. Literature-derived bioactivity data complement high-throughput screening (HTS) data from the concluded NIH Molecular Libraries Program and other HTS projects. Some journals provide PubChem with information on chemicals that appear in their newly published articles, enabling concurrent publication of scientific articles in journals and associated data in public databases. In addition, PubChem links records to PubMed articles indexed with the Medical Subject Heading (MeSH) controlled vocabulary thesaurus. Literature information, both provided by depositors and derived from MeSH annotations, can be accessed using PubChem's web interfaces, enabling users to explore information available in literature related to PubChem records beyond typical web search results. Graphical abstractLiterature information for PubChem records is derived from various sources.
... HUMAN SERVICES Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Scientific Information Request on Local... Scientific Information Submissions. SUMMARY: The Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) is seeking scientific information submissions from manufacturers of Conventional Two-Dimensional External Beam...
Desai, Tejas; Fang, Xiangming; Ferris, Maria
An increasing number of healthcare providers author medical blogs (bloggers) to educate the public and fellow physicians. Traditionally, many bloggers have assumed that readers are most interested in information presented at prestigious and popular scientific meetings. As a result, the readers and bloggers often ignore blogs of local scientific meetings. We hypothesize that blog readers will utilize blogs about local scientific meetings less than those about national meetings. We examined nephrology-pertinent blogs from 2010-2012. Blogs were categorized as "local/regional" or "national/international" based on the majority of the audience that attended the live scientific meeting. We tracked the number of pageviews, reading time, and location of use per blog for the first 90-days after its first availability on the website. Wilcoxon testing was performed on all data. There were 9 local/regional and 11 national/international scientific meetings for which blogs were available. The mean number of page views was significantly lower in blogs from local/regional than national/international conferences (84.7 versus 160.3, respectively; p readers utilized local/regional blogs less than national/international blogs. Although local/regional blogs attracted fewer readers (lower pageviews), the content in these blogs was compelling enough to keep the reader equally engaged as with national/international blogs.
This study assessed the information services provided in special collections unit in federal and state University libraries in Nigeria. One research question was formulated to guide the study. Descriptive survey design was adopted in carrying out the study. A purposive sampling procedure was used to obtain a sample of 178 ...
Boggs, Sharon A. C.; And Others
A survey of 130 rural community pharmacists in Washington State found 70% in towns with five or fewer pharmacies; almost all provided nutrition information to their communities though only 20% had taken a nutrition course during pharmacy training. Most common questions concerned supplements and weight loss. Respondents relied on pharmacy journals,…
Student support is a major factor in distance education. This study was concerned with the use of ICT as a medium for providing student support at the University of Zambia. It was necessary to study the factors that would affect the application of ICT, in order to inform policy makers and managers of distance education which ...
Kawamoto, Shishin; Nakayama, Minoru; Saijo, Miki
There are various definitions and survey methods for scientific literacy. Taking into consideration the contemporary significance of scientific literacy, we have defined it with an emphasis on its social aspects. To acquire the insights needed to design a form of science communication that will enhance the scientific literacy of each individual, we conducted a large-scale random survey within Japan of individuals older than 18 years, using a printed questionnaire. The data thus acquired were analyzed using factor analysis and cluster analysis to create a 3-factor/4-cluster model of people's interest and attitude toward science, technology and society and their resulting tendencies. Differences were found among the four clusters in terms of the three factors: scientific factor, social factor, and science-appreciating factor. We propose a plan for designing a form of science communication that is appropriate to this current status of scientific literacy in Japan.
Sazonets Olga M.
Full Text Available The aim of the article is to study the peculiarities of the innovative activity in the context of providing the enterprise information security. By analyzing, systematizing and summarizing the scientific works of many scientists the essence of the concept of «information security» has been considered and components of the innovation development process from the standpoint of providing information security have been identified. The article discusses issues of providing information security on the basis of introducing innovations, which will allow achieving a state in which there would be realized a sustainable, protected from threats, development of the enterprise. It has been proved that the formation of the innovative enterprise policy should include measures to ensure information security. As a result of the study the types of threats to the enterprise information security have been identified. It has been determined that the innovation process in the field of information security is provided by means of research, administrative, industrial, technological and commercial activities leading to the emergence and commercialization of innovations. The prospect for further research in this area is determining a system of indicators for forecasting the integral innovation indicator of economic information security. The system of indicators for diagnostics of the enterprise information security level enables monitoring the indicators of the state of the enterprise innovation and information activity in order to prevent the emergence of threats.
Alla V. Kilchenko
Full Text Available A construction and introduction of the information systems in a management education is the actual task of forming of modern information society. In the article the results of research of automation of treatment of financial documents, which was conducted within the project «Scientific-methodical providing of the informative system of programming of scientific researches in Academy of Pedagogical Sciences of Ukraine based on the Internet» № 0109U002139 are represented. The article contains methodical principles of automation of treatment programming and financial documents as well as requirements to the information system, which will be the base to next project stages.
Lucchetti, Giancarlo; Daher, Jorge C; Iandoli, Decio; Gonçalves, Juliane P B; Lucchetti, Alessandra L G
Significance has been attached to the pineal gland in numerous different cultures and beliefs. One religion that has advanced the role of the pineal gland is Spiritism. The objective of the present study was to compile information on the pineal gland drawing on the books of Francisco Cândido Xavier written through psychography and to carry out a critical analysis of their scientific bases by comparing against evidence in the current scientific literature. A systematic search using the terms "pineal gland" and "epiphysis" was conducted of 12 works allegedly dictated by the spirit "André Luiz". All information on the pineal having potential correlation with the field of medicine and current studies was included. Specialists in the area were recruited to compile the information and draw parallels with the scientific literature. The themes related to the pineal gland were: mental health, reproductive function, endocrinology, relationship with physical activity, spiritual connection, criticism of the theory that the organ exerts no function, and description of a hormone secreted by the gland (reference alluding to melatonin, isolated 13 years later). The historical background for each theme was outlined, together with the theories present in the Spiritist books and in the relevant scientific literature. The present article provides an analysis of the knowledge the scientific community can acquire from the history of humanity and from science itself. The process of formulating hypotheses and scientific theories can benefit by drawing on the cultural aspects of civilization, taking into account so-called non-traditional reports and theories.
Langarizadeh, Mostafa; Moghbeli, Fatemeh; Aliabadi, Ali
Advanced technology has increased the use of telemedicine and Information Technology (IT) in treating or rehabilitating diseases. An increased use of technology increases the importance of the ethical issues involved. The need for keeping patients' information confidential and secure, controlling a number of therapists' inefficiency as well as raising the quality of healthcare services necessitates adequate heed to ethical issues in telemedicine provision. The goal of this review is gathering all articles that are published through 5 years until now (2012-2017) for detecting ethical issues for providing telemedicine services and Information technology. The reason of this time is improvement of telemedicine and technology through these years. This article is important for clinical practice and also to world, because of knowing ethical issues in telemedicine and technology are always important factors for physician and health providers. the required data in this research were derived from published electronic sources and credible academic articles published in such databases as PubMed, Scopus and Science Direct. The following key words were searched for in separation and combination: tele-health, telemedicine, ethical issues in telemedicine. A total of 503 articles were found. After excluding the duplicates (n= 93), the titles and abstracts of 410 articles were skimmed according to the inclusion criteria. Finally, 64 articles remained. They were reviewed in full text and 36 articles were excluded. At the end, 28 articles were chosen which met our eligibility criteria and were included in this study. Ethics has been of a great significance in IT and telemedicine especially the Internet since there are more chances provided for accessing information. It is, however, accompanied by a threat to patients' personal information. Therefore, suggestions are made to investigate ethics in technology, to offer standards and guidelines to therapists. Due to the advancement in
Poltronieri, Elisabetta; Barbaro, Annarita; Gentili, Donatella; Napolitani, Federica
The market of mobile applications (apps) and wireless technology infrastructures is rapidly widening and diversifying to better meet users' needs. Over the last few years, the use of mobile technologies and applications has been increasingly expanding in many professional fields. Research and academic institutions, hospitals, and drug companies are heavily investing in this sector, also in Italy, even though the offer seems to be still limited at the moment. As far as the industry of scientific publishing is concerned, the main Italian publishing groups show an increasing interest in developing apps aiming at spreading their own products, following the example of international publishing companies. The purpose of this paper is to provide a general overview of the mobile applications and services available in the domain of scientific information relating to health disciplines and medical practice, especially within the Italian context. This study intends to inform professionals and users in the health sector about the benefits offered by the mobile technology, and to help them to become familiar with these tools. The two main online markets (iTunes and Google Play) have been analysed; search engines for apps and Italian STM publishers' websites have also been considered. Within this fast moving scenery, innovation is supported by the pressing demand for mobile access technology which has increased enormously. Not surprisingly, the most promising target of mobile technology is represented by scientific information tools relating to health.
Muzumdar, Jagannath M; Pantaleo, Nicholas L
This study compared the following effects of two vaccine information flyers-one developed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) versus one adapted from this information to a comic medium (comic)-on adults: (a) attitude toward the flyer; (b) perceived informativeness of the flyer; (c) intention to seek more information about adult immunizations after viewing the flyer; and (d) intention to get immunized after viewing the flyer. A between-group, randomized trial was used to randomly assign adults (age 18 years or older) at an ambulatory care center to review the CDC or comic flyer. Participants were asked to complete a survey to measure several outcome variables. Items were measured using a 7-point semantic differential scale. Independent-samples t-test was used for comparisons. A total of 265 surveys (CDC n = 132 vs comic n = 133) were analyzed. The comic flyer had a statistically significant effect on participants' attitudes and their perception of the flyer's informativeness compared to the CDC flyer. Flyer type did not have a statistically significant effect on intention-related variables. The study findings showed that the comic flyer was positively evaluated compared to the CDC flyer. These findings could provide a new direction for developing adult educational materials.
Iding, Marie; Klemm, E. Barbara
The present study addresses the need for teachers to critically evaluate the credibility, validity, and cognitive load associated with scientific information on Web sites, in order to effectively teach students to evaluate scientific information on the World Wide Web. A line of prior research investigating high school and university students'…
People with disabilities use various assistance devices to improve their capacity to lead independent and fulfilling lives. Service dogs can be crucial lifesaving companions for their owners. As the use of service dogs increases, nurses are more likely to encounter them in healthcare settings. Service dogs are often confused with therapy or emotional support dogs. While some of their roles overlap, service dogs have distinct protection under the American Disabilities Act (ADA). Knowing the laws and proper procedures regarding service dogs strengthens the abilities of healthcare providers to deliver holistic, patient-centered care. This article provides background information about use of dogs, and discusses benefits to patients and access challenges for providers. The author reviews ADA laws applicable to service dog use and potential challenges and risks in acute care settings. The role of the healthcare professional is illustrated with an exemplar, along with recommendations for future research and nursing implications related to care of patients with service dogs.
Grobe, M. [Alberta Geological Survey, Edmonton, AB (Canada). Earth Systems Section
The mission of the Alberta Geological Survey (AGS) is to provide, data, information, knowledge, and advice about the geology of Alberta needed by government, industry, and the public for earth-resource stewardship and sustainable development in Alberta. This presentation discussed the provision of geoscience information for geoexchange technology implementation in Alberta. Surficial and bedrock geology influences the selection, installation cost and performance of geoexchange systems. The AGS is currently examining the feasibility of transforming geological maps to geothermal property maps for geoexchange design purposes and decision making by policy makers and industry. Shallow or ground-source geothermal energy in Alberta and the role of geoscience information were presented. The role of the AGS and its activities were outlined. The presentation also identified a project approach to two studies, notably a geoscience needs and utilities assessment as well as a pilot study in the Edmonton area. Data compilation and maps of the pilot study were presented. Last, the presentation discussed drilling, sampling and thermal testing in an area of thick drift over bedrock. It was determined that quality geoscience information is an important factor for site assessment and proper geoexchange design and decision making. The sharing data and experience for better decision making was found to be an important benefit. tabs., figs.
Hay, L.; Knapp, L.
Investigating natural, potential, and man-induced impacts on hydrological systems commonly requires complex modelling with overlapping data requirements, and massive amounts of one- to four-dimensional data at multiple scales and formats. Given the complexity of most hydrological studies, the requisite software infrastructure must incorporate many components including simulation modelling, spatial analysis and flexible, intuitive displays. There is a general requirement for a set of capabilities to support scientific analysis which, at this time, can only come from an integration of several software components. Integration of geographic information systems (GISs) and scientific visualization systems (SVSs) is a powerful technique for developing and analysing complex models. This paper describes the integration of an orographic precipitation model, a GIS and a SVS. The combination of these individual components provides a robust infrastructure which allows the scientist to work with the full dimensionality of the data and to examine the data in a more intuitive manner.
Holliday, Gary M.; Lederman, Norman G.
Publications such as "Surrounded by science: Learning science in informal environments" [Fenichel, M., & Schweingruber, H. A. (2010). Washington, DC: The National Academies Press] and "Learning science in informal environments: People, places, and pursuits" [National Research Council. (2009). Washington, DC: National…
This two and a half year study examines how non-native English-speaking Burmese refugee students from first to third grades made meaning of scientific informational texts. The study is framed by sociocultural theory and transactional theory. Primary data were drawn from 160 student retellings of scientific informational texts. Secondary data…
V. I. Brichkovskij
Full Text Available The current state of the generation, use and dissemination of electronic information resources is analyzed. The integration of information resources and services through the application of advanced technologies of metadata have been considered. An approach aimed at creating a single information space of research and educational resources of open access is offered.
Yuon, Egor; Soukhanov, Mikhail; Markov, Kirill
One of the Russian Federal аgency of mineral resources problems is to provide the geological information which was delivered during the field operation for the means of federal budget. This information should be present in the current, conditional form. Before, the leading way of presenting geological information were paper geological maps, slices, borehole diagrams reports etc. Technologies of database construction, including distributed databases, technologies of construction of distributed information-analytical systems and Internet-technologies are intensively developing nowadays. Most of geological organizations create their own information systems without any possibility of integration into other systems of the same orientation. In 2012, specialists of VNIIgeosystem together with specialists of VSEGEI started the large project - creating the system of providing digital geological materials with using modern and perspective internet-technologies. The system is based on the web-server and the set of special programs, which allows users to efficiently get rasterized and vectorised geological materials. These materials are: geological maps of scale 1:1M, geological maps of scale 1:200 000 and 1:2 500 000, the fragments of seamless geological 1:1M maps, structural zoning maps inside the seamless fragments, the legends for State geological maps 1:200 000 and 1:1 000 000, full author's set of maps and also current materials for international projects «Atlas of geological maps for Circumpolar Arctic scale 1:5 000 000» and «Atlas of Geologic maps of central Asia and adjacent areas scale 1:2 500 000». The most interesting and functional block of the system - is the block of providing structured and well-formalized geological vector materials, based on Gosgeolkart database (NGKIS), managed by Oracle and the Internet-access is supported by web-subsystem NGKIS, which is currently based on MGS-Framework platform, developed by VNIIgeosystem. One of the leading elements
Dr Jason Cooper
Full Text Available As developers of the open source LORLS Resource/Reading List Management System we have developed a dashboard to better support academic staffs’ understanding of how their students use reading lists. This dashboard provides both graphical and tabulated information drawn from LORLS and the Aleph Integrated Library System. Development of the dashboard required changes to back-end functionality of LORLS such as logging views of reading lists and caching of loan data. Changes to the front end included the use of HTML5 canvas elements to generate pie charts and line graphs. Recently launched to academic staff at Loughborough University, the dashboard has already garnered much praise. It is hoped that further development of the dashboard will provide even more support for academics in the compilation of their reading lists.
Wieringa, N.F.; Swart, J.A.A.; Maples, T.; Witmondt, L.; Tobi, H.; Windt, v.d. H.J.
Science theatre is recognised as a method for teaching socio-scientific issues (SSI), but is largely under-researched. The essence of science theatre at school is to shape a contextualisation for science and technology and its relationships to individuals and society at large, with the aim to
Full Text Available Alternative health practices have become increasingly popular in recent years. Many patients visit specific complementary practitioners, while others attempt to educate themselves, trusting advice from employees at local health food stores or the Internet. Thirty-two retail health food stores were surveyed on the nature of the information provided by their staff. A research assistant visited the stores and presented as the mother of a child in whom Crohn’s disease had been diagnosed. Seventy-two per cent (23 of 32 of store employees offered advice, such as to take nutritional and herbal supplements. Of the 23 stores where recommendations were made, 15 (65% based their recommendation on a source of information. Fourteen of the 15 stores using information sources used the same reference book. This had a significant impact on the recommendations; the use of nutritional supplements was favoured. In conclusion, retail health food stores are not as inconsistent as hypothesized, although there are many variances in the types of supplements recommended for the same chronic disease.
Zoya V. Savchenko
Full Text Available The article presents the results of scientific research components of digital libraries, the main ones being the collection of electronic scientific information resources. An important specific characteristics of collections of scientific information resources, resources of their formation, structure collections, methods of their organization, technology creation, support and use of scientific collections, the role and function of metadata in collections and metadata management technology are represented. On the stage of planning and introduction of scientific e-libraries there can be used results of researches presented in the article, namely: chart of forming of collections of scientific informative resources; stages of planning and development of metadescriptions, and similarly the use of standard the Dublin kernel, creation of metadescriptions.
Thibideau, Philip A.
The early NASA international scientific and technical information exchange arrangements were usually detailed in correspondence with the librarians of the institutions involved. While this type of exchange grew to include some 200 organizations in 43 countries, NASA's main focus shifted to the relationship with the European Space Agency (ESA), which began in 1964. The NASA/ESA Tripartite Exchange Program provides more than 4000 technical reports from the NASA-produced Aerospace Database. The experience in the evolving cooperation between NASA and ESA has established the model for more recent exchange agreements with Israel, Australia, and Canada. The results of these agreements are made available to participating European organizations through the NASA File.
Green, Eva G T; Clémence, Alain
The purpose of this paper is to study the diffusion and transformation of scientific information in everyday discussions. Based on rumour models and social representations theory, the impact of interpersonal communication and pre-existing beliefs on transmission of the content of a scientific discovery was analysed. In three experiments, a communication chain was simulated to investigate how laypeople make sense of a genetic discovery first published in a scientific outlet, then reported in a mainstream newspaper and finally discussed in groups. Study 1 (N=40) demonstrated a transformation of information when the scientific discovery moved along the communication chain. During successive narratives, scientific expert terminology disappeared while scientific information associated with lay terminology persisted. Moreover, the idea of a discovery of a faithfulness gene emerged. Study 2 (N=70) revealed that transmission of the scientific message varied as a function of attitudes towards genetic explanations of behaviour (pro-genetics vs. anti-genetics). Pro-genetics employed more scientific terminology than anti-genetics. Study 3 (N=75) showed that endorsement of genetic explanations was related to descriptive accounts of the scientific information, whereas rejection of genetic explanations was related to evaluative accounts of the information.
Uncertainty in clinical encounters is inevitable and despite this uncertainty clinicians must still work with patients to make diagnostic and treatment decisions. Explicit diagnostic reasoning based on probabilities will optimise information in relation to uncertainty. In clinical diagnostic encounters, there is often pre-existing information that reflects the probability any particular patient has a disease. Diagnostic testing provides extra information that refines diagnostic probabilities. However, in general diagnostic tests will be positive in most, but not all cases of disease (sensitivity) and may not be negative in all cases of disease absence (specificity). Bayes rule is an arithmetic method of using diagnostic testing information to refine diagnostic probabilities. In this method, when probabilities are converted to odds, multiplication of the odds of disease before diagnostic testing, by the positive likelihood ratio (LR+), the sensitivity of a test divided by 1 minus the specificity refines the probability of a particular diagnosis. Similar arithmetic applies to the probability of not having a disease, where the negative likelihood ratio is the specificity divided by 1 minus the sensitivity. A useful diagnostic test is one where the LR+ is greater than 5-10. This can be clarified by creating a contingency table for hypothetical groups of patients in relation to true disease prevalence and test performance predicted by sensitivity and specificity. Most screening tests in populations with a low prevalence of disease have a very high ratio of false positive results to true positive results, which can also be illustrated by contingency tables. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Ol’ga Valentinovna Tret’yakova
Full Text Available Currently, scientists have to cope with the tasks of integration into the global scientific community. These tasks require not only specific measures aimed at improving the quality and efficiency of scientific research, but also significant efforts to create a system of Russian scientific journals of international level. The article summarizes the experience of development of the scientific journal “Economic and Social Changes: Facts, Trends, Forecast” issued by the Institute of Socio-Economic Development of Territories of Russian Academy of Science. The author identifies significant competitive advantages of the title, which include the English version of the Journal and open access to the Journal’s full-text materials, which allows it to widen its readership, to provide a publishing opportunity for writers of the world level, and to raise the level of citation. The article highlights important tasks in the development of the Journal, which have been solved by bringing the Journal in accordance with the requirements of global citation indices. The author presents the results of the analysis of the Journal’s bibliometric indicators in the Russian Science Citation Index, which indicate that the title has good prospects for integration and advancement in the international information space. The results of assessing the level and quality of publications show that experts give positive assessments concerning the changes that the Journal has undergone; and its development strategy meets expectations of the readership. The results achieved in the field of promotion of the Journal at the international level are described in relation to the criteria used to assess the level of all scientific periodicals by global citation indices and world’s leading publishers. In conclusion the author sets out priorities in the field of promotion of the economic journal on the international level, primarily those that help ensure a high quality of published
Empirical studies persistently indicate that the usual explanatory strategies used in quantum mechanics (QM) instruction fail, in general, to yield understanding. In this study, we propose an instructional intervention, which: (a) incorporates into its subject matter a critical comparison of QM scientific content with the fundamental epistemological and ontological commitments of the prominent philosophical theories of explanation, a weak form of which we meet in QM teaching; (b) illuminates the reasons of their failure in the quantum domain; and (c) implements an explanatory strategy highly inspired by the epistemological pathways through which, during the birth-process of QM, science has gradually reached understanding. This strategy, an inherent element of which is the meta-cognitive and meta-scientific thinking, aims at leading learners not only to an essential understanding of QM worldview, but to a deep insight into the ‘Nature of Science’ as well.
Full Text Available The wetland has a strategic role in national development. The potential uses of the wetland are varied such as for agriculture, fisheries, industries, and forestry. The intensive use of the wetland for agricultural development in Sumatera, Kalimantan, Sulawesi, and Papua through transmigration projects has been run since in 1973. Unfortunately, not all the projects were well developed, causing the social, economic, and physical environmental problems. These problems resulted in the negative impact for the life of the transmigration people. For that reason, the community empowerment for the unlucky transmigration people by handling the physical and non physical aspects is very important. This paper will describe the importance of providing spatial data and information biophysical wetland as an initial step in empowering people who live in the wetland resource.
Vladimir D. Secerin
Full Text Available The thesis of importance of informative constituent Comes into question as non-material assets in a postindustrial economy. Importance of limitations is shown in realization of technological processes to want of authenticity, objectivity and timeliness of actualization of knowledge of specialists. As recommendations on providing of accordance of actuality of on-line tutorial to the level of technological development on a production at the limitations determined by the system requirements of educational standard “From a teacher to a student”, the chart of forming of the creative thinking of student is offered as nooswear technologies are in organization of feed-back “From a student to a teacher “.
Weberschock, T; Valipour, A; Ochsendorf, F
Involuntary childlessness is a common problem. In about 50% of cases, inadequate semen quality plays a relevant role. A semen analysis provides information regarding exocrine function of the male reproductive organs of the testes, epidydimis, seminal vesicles, prostate gland, and vas deferens. These parameters can only be interpreted in conjunction with medical history and physical examination. Then they can be useful to identify relevant disorders or the causes of these disturbances. The fundamental principles for the interpretation of a semen analysis are easily learned and traditionally belong to the field of dermatology. This article explains the variables which are examined in a routine semen analysis as well as the reference values. Furthermore, common causes for deviations from the normal values are discussed to allow decision-making for further diagnostic workup. The interpretation of these values must always take into account the situation of the couple.
Jacquiod, Samuel Jehan Auguste; Stenbæk, Jonas; Santos, Susana S.
Despite the critical ecological roles of microeukaryotes in terrestrial ecosystems, most descriptive studies of soil microbes published so far focused only on specific groups. Meanwhile, the fast development of metagenome sequencing leads to considerable data accumulation in public repositories......, providing microbiologists with substantial amounts of accessible information. We took advantage of public metagenomes in order to investigate microeukaryote communities in a well characterized grassland soil. The data gathered allowed the evaluation of several factors impacting the community structure...... on metagenomic microeukaryote DNA. Choosing the correct annotation procedure and reference database has proven to be crucial, as it considerably limits the risk of wrong assignments. In addition, a significant and pronounced effect of the DNA extraction method on the taxonomical structure of soil microeukaryotes...
Full Text Available Treating morphologically complex words (MCWs as atomic units in translation would not yield a desirable result. Such words are complicated constituents with meaningful subunits. A complex word in a morphologically rich language (MRL could be associated with a number of words or even a full sentence in a simpler language, which means the surface form of complex words should be accompanied with auxiliary morphological information in order to provide a precise translation and a better alignment. In this paper we follow this idea and propose two different methods to convey such information for statistical machine translation (SMT models. In the first model we enrich factored SMT engines by introducing a new morphological factor which relies on subword-aware word embeddings. In the second model we focus on the language-modeling component. We explore a subword-level neural language model (NLM to capture sequence-, word- and subword-level dependencies. Our NLM is able to approximate better scores for conditional word probabilities, so the decoder generates more fluent translations. We studied two languages Farsi and German in our experiments and observed significant improvements for both of them.
Arkhangel' skij, I.A.; Sokolov, D.D.; Kalinin, V.F.; Nikiforov, V.S.
The main tasks are considered in the scope of the Central Scientific-Research Institute for Information and Technological and Economic Studies on Nuclear Science and Technology. (TsNIIAtominform). The institute coordinates scientific research and information activity of information agencies of all the USSR organizations engaged in nuclear science and technology, excercises a centralized completion of their libraries, develops and puts into practice the most progressive methods for the information servicing. The institute is a national INIS center of the USSR. Here a system for the automatic information dissemination has been successfully elaborated and employed. Much of the institute activity is given to the estimation and analysis of information and to the determination of tendencies in the nuclear science and technology development. A conclusion is drawn to the effect that TsNIIAtominform, within 15 years of its existence, has formed as a center ensuring functioning of the system of scientific and technical information on nuclear science and technology.
Churi, Shobha; Abraham, Lovin; Ramesh, M; Narahari, M G
The aim of this study is to assess the nature and quality of services provided by poison information center established at a tertiary-care teaching hospital, Mysore. This was a prospective observational study. The poison information center was officially established in September 2010 and began its functioning thereafter. The center is equipped with required resources and facility (e.g., text books, Poisindex, Drugdex, toll free telephone service, internet and online services) to provide poison information services. The poison information services provided by the center were recorded in documentation forms. The documentation form consists of numerous sections to collect information on: (a) Type of population (children, adult, elderly or pregnant) (b) poisoning agents (c) route of exposure (d) type of poisoning (intentional, accidental or environmental) (e) demographic details of patient (age, gender and bodyweight) (f) enquirer details (background, place of call and mode of request) (g) category and purpose of query and (h) details of provided service (information provided, mode of provision, time taken to provide information and references consulted). The nature and quality of poison information services provided was assessed using a quality assessment checklist developed in accordance with DSE/World Health Organization guidelines. Chi-Square test (χ(2)). A total of 419 queries were received by the center. A majority (n = 333; 79.5%) of the queries were asked by the doctors to provide optimal care (n = 400; 95.5%). Most of the queries were received during ward rounds (n = 201; 48.0%), followed by direct access (n = 147; 35.1%). The poison information services were predominantly provided through verbal communication (n = 352; 84.0%). Upon receipt of queries, the required service was provided immediately (n = 103; 24.6%) or within 10-20 min (n = 296; 70.6%). The queries were mainly related to intentional poisoning (n = 258; 64.5%), followed by accidental poisoning
Hämäläinen, Liisa; Rowland, Hannah M; Mappes, Johanna; Thorogood, Rose
Video playback is becoming a common method for manipulating social stimuli in experiments. Parid tits are one of the most commonly studied groups of wild birds. However, it is not yet clear if tits respond to video playback or how their behavioural responses should be measured. Behaviours may also differ depending on what they observe demonstrators encountering. Here we present blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus) videos of demonstrators discovering palatable or aversive prey (injected with bitter-tasting Bitrex) from coloured feeding cups. First we quantify variation in demonstrators' responses to the prey items: aversive prey provoked high rates of beak wiping and head shaking. We then show that focal blue tits respond differently to the presence of a demonstrator on a video screen, depending on whether demonstrators discover palatable or aversive prey. Focal birds faced the video screen more during aversive prey presentations, and made more head turns. Regardless of prey type, focal birds also hopped more frequently during the presence of a demonstrator (compared to a control video of a different coloured feeding cup in an empty cage). Finally, we tested if demonstrators' behaviour affected focal birds' food preferences by giving individuals a choice to forage from the same cup as a demonstrator, or from the cup in the control video. We found that only half of the individuals made their choice in accordance to social information in the videos, i.e., their foraging choices were not different from random. Individuals that chose in accordance with a demonstrator, however, made their choice faster than individuals that chose an alternative cup. Together, our results suggest that video playback can provide social cues to blue tits, but individuals vary greatly in how they use this information in their foraging decisions.
Full Text Available Video playback is becoming a common method for manipulating social stimuli in experiments. Parid tits are one of the most commonly studied groups of wild birds. However, it is not yet clear if tits respond to video playback or how their behavioural responses should be measured. Behaviours may also differ depending on what they observe demonstrators encountering. Here we present blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus videos of demonstrators discovering palatable or aversive prey (injected with bitter-tasting Bitrex from coloured feeding cups. First we quantify variation in demonstrators’ responses to the prey items: aversive prey provoked high rates of beak wiping and head shaking. We then show that focal blue tits respond differently to the presence of a demonstrator on a video screen, depending on whether demonstrators discover palatable or aversive prey. Focal birds faced the video screen more during aversive prey presentations, and made more head turns. Regardless of prey type, focal birds also hopped more frequently during the presence of a demonstrator (compared to a control video of a different coloured feeding cup in an empty cage. Finally, we tested if demonstrators’ behaviour affected focal birds’ food preferences by giving individuals a choice to forage from the same cup as a demonstrator, or from the cup in the control video. We found that only half of the individuals made their choice in accordance to social information in the videos, i.e., their foraging choices were not different from random. Individuals that chose in accordance with a demonstrator, however, made their choice faster than individuals that chose an alternative cup. Together, our results suggest that video playback can provide social cues to blue tits, but individuals vary greatly in how they use this information in their foraging decisions.
Harris, Mary Elizabeth
This annotated bibliography lists 203 special features or special issues of science and technology periodicals with emphasis on compilations of information that appear in periodicals on a regular basis. Subjects covered in the guide include aeronautics, air-conditioning and refrigeration engineering, astronomy, automobiles, biology, botany,…
This study investigated how policy makers in Nigerian public agencies that have mandates for policy making and implementation in the science and technology sector access and use information sources in their activities. A questionnaire was used to collect data from 121 of the policy makers to find out the sources and ...
Wolff, Manfred E.
The subject of the content of medicinal chemical journals is briefly discussed as an aid for medicinal chemists who require information from clinical, health science, pharmaceutical science and chemical science areas to carry out their work. Some future changes in the present journal concept are considered. (Author/AB)
Aeronautlques" (Technical Information Service, Aircraft Manufacture Directo - rate) established In 1944 prior to becoming a multi-branch oriented agency...34non-organizatlon"(6). 10-18 B) RESEARCH COORDINATION (7) Within DRET, the Defense research and study organization tooks as a pattern in Its methodo
organizations as the producers and distributors of the information itself. The NSTIS is expected to complement these organizations, assist in the...user requirements and NSTIS objectives. NATO UA ASSIFIED ,m, m m mmm mlm lmlm m40mm NATO UNCLASSIFIED 18.104.22.168 Define NSTIS Database Record Structures
International Business Machines Corp., Yorktown Heights, NY.
The development of a large scale selective dissemination of information program, its experimental operation, and program evaluation is reported. An IBM 7090/94 computer program compared user interest profiles with the subject indexes of reports announced in "Scientific and Technical Aerospace Reports." Users were provided with selected…
Luu, King; Freeman, John G.
Despite the lack of substantial evidence for improvement in the quality of teaching and learning with information and communication technology (ICT), governmental organizations have pushed ICT as a means of providing broad-scale training to meet the demand for a skilled workforce, centred upon a hypothesized ICT-scientific literacy relationship.…
Zewge, Amanuel; Dittrich, Yvonne; Bekele, Rahel
In a developing country like Ethiopia, marketing of agricultural products is influenced by local, socioeconomic, cultural and IT infrastructure characteristics. ICT-based agriculture information systems have been proposed to support farmers with market information. However, such initiatives have...
Bodemer, Nicolai; Müller, Stephanie M; Okan, Yasmina; Garcia-Retamero, Rocio; Neumeyer-Gromen, Angela
The media is a powerful tool for informing the public about health treatments. In particular, the Internet has gained importance as a widely valued source for health information for parents and adolescents. Nonetheless, traditional sources, such as newspapers, continue to report on health innovations. But do websites and newspaper reports provide balanced information? We performed a systematic media analysis to evaluate and compare media coverage of the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine on websites and in newspapers in Germany and Spain. We assessed to what extent the media provide complete (pros and cons), transparent (absolute instead of relative numbers), and correct information about the epidemiology and etiology of cervical cancer as well as the effectiveness and costs of the HPV vaccine. As a basis for comparison, a facts box containing current scientific evidence about cervical cancer and the HPV vaccine was developed. The media analysis included 61 websites and 141 newspaper articles in Germany, and 41 websites and 293 newspaper articles in Spain. Results show that 57% of German websites and 43% of German newspaper reports communicated correct estimates of epidemiological data, whereas in Spain 39% of the websites and 20% of the newspaper did so. While two thirds of Spanish websites explicitly mentioned causes of cervical cancer as well as spontaneous recovery, German websites communicated etiological information less frequently. Findings reveal that correct estimates about the vaccine's effectiveness were mentioned in 10% of German websites and 6% of German newspaper reports; none of the Spanish newspaper reports and 2% of Spanish websites reported effectiveness correctly. Only German websites (13%) explicitly referred to scientific uncertainty regarding the vaccine's evaluation. We conclude that the media lack balanced reporting on the dimensions completeness, transparency, and correctness. We propose standards for more balanced reporting on websites and
Stoskopf, M K
The identification of serendipitous findings in field-based animal research is challenging in part because investigators are reluctant to declare a discovery accidental. Investigators recognize that many factors must be considered. For example, the impact of using carefully ordered observational search patterns in ecologic, pathologic, and epidemiologic investigations could result in findings being categorized as "sought" versus "unsought." Team collaborations are common in these types of investigations and have advantages related to the application of multiple paradigms, paradigm mixing, and paradigm shifting. This approach reduces the perception of serendipity. Issues of search image refinement and the co-discovery of sought and unsought discoveries additionally cloud the identification of a truly serendipitous finding. Nevertheless, basic curiosity and observation are necessary precursors to scientific discovery. It should be recognized that serendipitous discoveries are of significant value in the advancement of science and often present the foundation for important intellectual leaps of understanding.
Tetyana V. Kuznetsova
Full Text Available Relevance of the material stated in article is caused by urgent needs of society in creation of administrative information systems, in particular Information system of planning of scientific researches in National Academy of Pedagogical Sciences of Ukraine on Internet basis (ІС "Planning". Information and technological support of processes of planning of scientific researches which are carried out in scientific institutions of NAPS of Ukraine is the purpose of creation of this system. The parameters of the functional maintenance of the informative system are pointed in the article, technology of treatment of documents on planning of scientific researches, scheme of routes of working of separate documents, and proper diagrams of their business-processes, on the basis of which using programmatic facilities of Microsoft Sharepoint the functions of programming are automatized, is examined.
...: The State of the Art and Practice (Carroll & Hodge 1999). ICSTI and CENDI remain interested in digital preservation as they represent large repositories, publishers, and libraries of scientific and technical information...
Skonieczny, Lukasz; Rybinski, Henryk; Kryszkiewicz, Marzena; Niezgodka, Marek
This book is a selection of results obtained within two years of research per- formed under SYNAT - a nation-wide scientific project aiming at creating an infrastructure for scientific content storage and sharing for academia, education and open knowledge society in Poland. The selection refers to the research in artificial intelligence, knowledge discovery and data mining, information retrieval and natural language processing, addressing the problems of implementing intelligent tools for building a scientific information platform.This book is a continuation and extension of the ideas presented in “Intelligent Tools for Building a Scientific Information Platform” published as volume 390 in the same series in 2012. It is based on the SYNAT 2012 Workshop held in Warsaw. The papers included in this volume present an overview and insight into information retrieval, repository systems, text processing, ontology-based systems, text mining, multimedia data processing and advanced software engineering.
Comptroller General of the U.S., Washington, DC.
This report discusses the management of scientific and technical bibliographic data bases by the Federal Government, the existence of overlapping and duplicative bibliographic information services, the application of cost recovery principles to bibliographic information services, and the need to manage information as a resource. Questionnaires…
include Security Classification) Instrumentation for scientific computing in neural networks, information science, artificial intelligence, and...instrumentation grant to purchase equipment for support of research in neural networks, information science, artificail intellignece , and applied mathematics...in Neural Networks, Information Science, Artificial Intelligence, and Applied Mathematics Contract AFOSR 86-0282 Principal Investigator: Stephen
Jin, Seung-Hyun; Kwon, Yong-Ju; Jeong, Jin-Su; Kwon, Suk-Won; Shin, Dong-Hoon
The purpose of the present study was to investigate differences in neural information transmission between gifted and normal children involved in scientific hypothesis generation. To investigate changes in the amount of information transmission, the children's averaged-cross mutual information (A-CMI) of EEGs was estimated during their generation…
Hay, L.E.; Knapp, L.K.
Investigating natural, potential, and human-induced impacts on hydrologic systems commonly requires complex modeling with overlapping data requirements, plus massive amounts of one- to four-dimensional data at multiple scales and formats. Given the complexity of most hydrologic studies, the requisite software infrastructure must incorporate many components including simulation modeling and spatial analysis with a flexible, intuitive display. Integrating geographic information systems (GIS) and scientific visualization systems (SVS) provides such an infrastructure. This paper describes an integrated system consisting of an orographic precipitation model, a GIS, and an SVS. The results of this study provide a basis for improving the understanding of hydro-climatic processes in mountainous regions. An additional benefit of the integrated system, the value of which is often underestimated, is the improved ability to communicate model results, leading to a broader understanding of the model assumptions, sensitivities, and conclusions at a management level.Investigating natural, potential, and human-induced impacts on hydrologic systems commonly requires complex modeling with overlapping data requirements, plus massive amounts of one- to four-dimensional data at multiple scales and formats. Given the complexity of most hydrologic studies, the requisite software infrastructure must incorporate many components including simulation modeling and spatial analysis with a flexible, intuitive display. Integrating geographic information systems (GIS) and scientific visualization systems (SVS) provides such an infrastructure. This paper describes an integrated system consisting of an orographic precipitation model, a GIS, and an SVS. The results of this study provide a basis for improving the understanding of hydro-climatic processes in mountainous regions. An additional benefit of the integrated system, the value of which is often underestimated, is the improved ability to
Georgii A. Ball
Full Text Available The authors outline vital methodological questions which concern: (a value guidelines of scientific cognition and scientific communication; b theoretical bases (corresponding to task approach of building of scientific activity; c rational using of modern information and communication technologies in that activity. Among the most important steps towards the improvement of scientific communication the following were stressed: a awareness by scientists of their responsibility not only for adequate knowledge of the objects, but also for creating backgrounds so that the results of this knowledge might become the property of the consumers of scientific products, b development, to form such backgrounds, the ways based on adequate theoretical tools (in particular, on the task theory and on modern information and communication technologies, c coverage and discussion of the results of such development.
Kolthoff, Sie Karen; Hestbech, Mie Sara; Jørgensen, Karsten Juhl
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether invitations for publicly funded cervical screening provide sufficient information to enable an informed choice about participation. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study using a checklist of 23 information items on benefits and harms from cervical screening and the risks...... OUTCOME MEASURES: Number of information items presented in invitations for cervical screening. RESULTS: We contacted 21 coordinating units from 11 countries and 20 (95%) responded. Of these, four units did not issue invitations, but the remaining 16 coordinating units in 10 different countries supplied...... a sample. The invitations for cervical screening were generally information poor and contained a median of only four out of 23 information items possible (17%), ranging from 0 to 12 (0-52%). The most important harms of cancer screening, overdiagnosis and overtreatment, were typically downplayed...
O. S. Solovjov
Full Text Available The controversial questions of the pharmaceutical market informatization are considered. The main principles and legal frameworks to manage population ensure with medicines based on use of information technology are proposed. The logic and conception framework of related information automatization for hospitals and population under the current legislation are discussed.
Brewster, Liz; Sen, Barbara
Information prescriptions (IPs) are part of a Department of Health (DH) initiative to improve patient care. IPs aim to meet health information needs by providing personalised, high quality patient information about conditions and treatment. This paper identifies current online IP provision and evaluates a sample of IP websites against the original DH aims of IP provision; British Medical Association usability criteria; and information seeking vignettes. Five UK and one international IP website were randomly selected as a sample. Two checklists designed to appraise the websites were used to review each IP provider. Two patient information seeking vignettes were developed to enable the websites to be assessed from a patient-centred perspective. Information prescriptions currently vary in content, accessibility and quality. National IP websites score more highly than local IP websites, which are often weak on content for specific conditions and poorly designed but strong on signposting to local services. Guidelines for IP provision need to be improved to ensure higher quality, more easily accessible information is available. A synthesis of expertise included in national and local websites would improve usability for patients. IP websites should conform to standards of web design and accessibility. © 2010 The authors. Health Information and Libraries Journal © 2010 Health Libraries Group.
Swain, Matthew C; Cole, Jacqueline M
The emergence of "big data" initiatives has led to the need for tools that can automatically extract valuable chemical information from large volumes of unstructured data, such as the scientific literature. Since chemical information can be present in figures, tables, and textual paragraphs, successful information extraction often depends on the ability to interpret all of these domains simultaneously. We present a complete toolkit for the automated extraction of chemical entities and their associated properties, measurements, and relationships from scientific documents that can be used to populate structured chemical databases. Our system provides an extensible, chemistry-aware, natural language processing pipeline for tokenization, part-of-speech tagging, named entity recognition, and phrase parsing. Within this scope, we report improved performance for chemical named entity recognition through the use of unsupervised word clustering based on a massive corpus of chemistry articles. For phrase parsing and information extraction, we present the novel use of multiple rule-based grammars that are tailored for interpreting specific document domains such as textual paragraphs, captions, and tables. We also describe document-level processing to resolve data interdependencies and show that this is particularly necessary for the autogeneration of chemical databases since captions and tables commonly contain chemical identifiers and references that are defined elsewhere in the text. The performance of the toolkit to correctly extract various types of data was evaluated, affording an F-score of 93.4%, 86.8%, and 91.5% for extracting chemical identifiers, spectroscopic attributes, and chemical property attributes, respectively; set against the CHEMDNER chemical name extraction challenge, ChemDataExtractor yields a competitive F-score of 87.8%. All tools have been released under the MIT license and are available to download from http://www.chemdataextractor.org .
Belcher, Claire; Hudpsith, Victoria; Doerr, Stefan; Santin, Cristina
Building an understanding of the impact of a wildfire is critical to the management of ecosystems. Aspects of fire severity such as the amount of soil heating, can relate to post-fire ecosystem recovery. Yet, there is no quantitative measure of this in current post-burn fire severity assessments, which are mostly qualitative ground-based visual assessments of organic matter loss, and as such can be subjective and variable between ecosystems. In order to develop a unifying fire severity assessment we explore the use of charcoal produced during a wildfire, as a tool. Charcoal has been suggested to retain some information about the nature of the fire in which it was created and one such physical property of charcoal that can be measured post-fire is its ability to reflect light when studied under oil using reflectance microscopy. The amount of light reflected varies between charcoals and is thought to be explained by the differential ordering of graphite-like phases within the char however, to what aspects of a fire's nature this alteration pertains is unknown. We have explored the formation of charcoal reflectance in 1) laboratory-based experiments using an iCone calorimeter and in 2) experimental forest scale and natural wildland fires occurring in Canada in spring 2015. In our laboratory experiments we assessed the formation and evolution of charcoal reflectance during pre-ignition heating, peak fire intensity through to the end of flaming and the transition to oxidative/smoldering heating regimes. In the prescribed and natural wildland fires we positioned the same woods used in our laboratory experiments, rigged with thermocouples in the path of oncoming fires in order to assess the resulting charcoal reflectance in response to the heating regime imposed by the fire on the samples. In this presentation we will outline our approach, findings and discuss the potential for charcoal reflectance to provide a tool in post-fire assessments seeking to determine levels of
Skonieczny, Łukasz; Rybiński, Henryk; Kryszkiewicz, Marzena; Niezgódka, Marek
This book is a selection of results obtained within three years of research performed under SYNAT—a nation-wide scientific project aiming at creating an infrastructure for scientific content storage and sharing for academia, education and open knowledge society in Poland. The book is intended to be the last of the series related to the SYNAT project. The previous books, titled “Intelligent Tools for Building a Scientific Information Platform” and “Intelligent Tools for Building a Scientific Information Platform: Advanced Architectures and Solutions”, were published as volumes 390 and 467 in Springer's Studies in Computational Intelligence. Its contents is based on the SYNAT 2013 Workshop held in Warsaw. The papers included in this volume present an overview and insight into information retrieval, repository systems, text processing, ontology-based systems, text mining, multimedia data processing and advanced software engineering, addressing the problems of implementing intelligent tools for building...
Churi, Shobha; Abraham, Lovin; Ramesh, M.; Narahari, M. G.
Aim: The aim of this study is to assess the nature and quality of services provided by poison information center established at a tertiary-care teaching hospital, Mysore. Settings and Design: This was a prospective observational study. Materials and Methods: The poison information center was officially established in September 2010 and began its functioning thereafter. The center is equipped with required resources and facility (e.g., text books, Poisindex, Drugdex, toll free telephon...
Ma, Xiaogang; Fox, Peter; Tilmes, Curt; Jacobs, Katherine; Waple, Anne
Global change information demands access to data sources and well-documented provenance to provide evidence needed to build confidence in scientific conclusions and, in specific applications, to ensure the information's suitability for use in decision-making. A new generation of Web technology, the Semantic Web, provides tools for that purpose. The topic of global change covers changes in the global environment (including alterations in climate, land productivity, oceans or other water resources, atmospheric composition and or chemistry, and ecological systems) that may alter the capacity of the Earth to sustain life and support human systems. Data and findings associated with global change research are of great public, government, and academic concern and are used in policy and decision-making, which makes the provenance of global change information especially important. In addition, since different types of decisions benefit from different types of information, understanding how to capture and present the provenance of global change information is becoming more of an imperative in adaptive planning.
Beshears, John; Choi, James J.; Laibson, David; Madrian, Brigitte C.; Milkman, Katherine L.
Using a field experiment in a 401(k) plan, we measure the effect of disseminating information about peer behavior on savings. Low-saving employees received simplified plan enrollment or contribution increase forms. A randomized subset of forms stated the fraction of age-matched coworkers participating in the plan or age-matched participants contributing at least 6% of pay to the plan. We document an oppositional reaction: the presence of peer information decreased the savings of nonparticipants who were ineligible for 401(k) automatic enrollment, and higher observed peer savings rates also decreased savings. Discouragement from upward social comparisons seems to drive this reaction. PMID:26045629
... part to participants by making it available on the TSP Web site. A participant can request paper copies of that information from the TSP by calling the ThriftLine, submitting a request through the TSP Web site, or by writing to the TSP record keeper. ...
Peter, Johannes; Leichner, Nikolas; Mayer, Anne-Kathrin; Krampen, Günter
This paper presents an approach to information literacy instruction in colleges and universities that combines online and classroom learning (Blended Learning). The concept includes only one classroom seminar, so the approach presented here can replace existing one-shot sessions at colleges and universities without changes to the current workflow.…
The main purpose of establishing library in any academic environment is to serve as the information centre to the community of users. But many have failed to serve this purpose after spending lots of money due to some reason and the other. This survey study is aimed at assessing Effectiveness of Reference Services in ...
Nataliia S. Prilutska
Full Text Available The article deals with the main principles of electronic libraries. It analyzes primary types of digital scientific and educational resources, presented in electronic libraries and defines the techniques of effective structuring of the learning content by means of informational technologies in the conditions of the informational processes intensification. The scientific fundamentals of choice of educational material are determined and the structure of the educational subject ''Informational Systems and Technologies'' under the credit and module system are designated. The declared structure of educational subject is taught for the students of the social-pedagogical department, referral courses ''Management''.
Dunning, R.J.; Grayson, A.
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to renew a research agenda considering the impact that information providers’ processes are having on the housing market; in particular to develop a research agenda around the role of the Internet in shaping households’ perceptions of the spatial nature of housing markets. Design/methodology/approach – This paper reviews the existing literature. It uses preliminary extensive survey findings about the role of the Internet in housing search to hypothesise ...
Podgornik, Bojana Boh; Dolnicar, Danica; Glažar, Saša Aleksej
Information literate students with a good understanding of science are regarded as an important pool of future successful professionals. The study explored correlations between the information literacy (IL) and scientific literacy (SL) of university students and analysed their achievements according to Bloom's cognitive categories of remembering,…
Roosendaal, Hans E.; Huibers, Theo W.C.; Geurts, Petrus A.T.M.; van der Vet, P.E.
The economic impact of information and communication technology (ICT) on the academic library and on the academic institution are discussed in terms of changes in the value chain of scientific information induced by the use of ICT. Argues that ICT is a very strong engine for change as it has the
Poelmans, J.; Ignatov, D.I.; Viaene, S.; Dedene, G.; Kuznetsov, S.O.
Formal Concept Analysis (FCA) is an unsupervised clustering technique and many scientific papers are devoted to applying FCA in Information Retrieval (IR) research. We collected 103 papers published between 2003-2009 which mention FCA and information retrieval in the abstract, title or keywords.
Stenvinkel, Peter; Johnson, Richard J
Most studies on kidney disease have relied on classic experimental studies in mice and rats or clinical studies in humans. From such studies much understanding of the physiology and pathophysiology of kidney disease has been obtained. However, breakthroughs in the prevention and treatment of kidney diseases have been relatively few, and new approaches to fight kidney disease are needed. Here we discuss kidney biomimicry as a new approach to understand kidney disease. Examples are given of how various animals have developed ways to prevent or respond to kidney failure, how to protect themselves from hypoxia or oxidative stress and from the scourge of hyperglycemia. We suggest that investigation of evolutionary biology and comparative physiology might provide new insights for the prevention and treatment of kidney disease. Copyright © 2013 IMSS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Paul Smith’s College provides library hours and workstation availability using SMS Text Messages. The service was implemented using an easy and affordable web-based API for SMS sending and receiving, from twilio.com. A new class of ‘cloud-based‘ SMS vendors make simple SMS-based services efficient and cost-effective to implement, and have many possible applications in the library environment. A simple PHP example is provided which supplies workstation availability over SMS based on a database of computer availability from a previous Code4Lib Journal Article.
From the parent population of micro and small business enterprises, seven municipal areas of the geopolitical zone were randomly sampled. Research instrument used for collecting data was the questionnaire which was constructed along the theoretical frame of the study. Hypotheses were formulated to provide basis for ...
Villanueva-Felez, Africa; Woolley, Richard; Cañibano, Carolina
Women are underrepresented in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics fields, particularly at higher levels of organizations. This article investigates the impact of this underrepresentation on the processes of interpersonal collaboration in nanotechnology. Analyses are conducted to assess: (I) the comparative tie strength of women's and men's collaborations, (2) whether women and men gain equal access to scientific information through collaborators, (3) which tie characteristics are associated with access to information for women and men, and (4) whether women and men acquire equivalent amounts of information by strengthening ties. Our results show that the overall tie strength is less for women's collaborations and that women acquire less strategic information through collaborators. Women and men rely on different tie characteristics in accessing information, but are equally effective in acquiring additional information resources by strengthening ties. This article demonstrates that the underrepresentation of women in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics has an impact on the interpersonal processes of scientific collaboration, to the disadvantage of women scientists.
Анна Илясовна Готская
Full Text Available In article specificity of information interaction in a network the Internet is considered. The consideration purpose is specification of the concept «information interaction» with reference to interaction in a network the Internet. And also definition of its features for the subsequent designing of educational programs of additional preparation of teachers. Thus information interaction in the Internet is considered as object of scientific and pedagogical researches.
Swain, Matthew C; Cole, Jacqueline Manina
The emergence of "big data" initiatives has led to the need for tools that can automatically extract valuable chemical information from large volumes of unstructured data, such as the scientific literature. Since chemical information can be present in figures, tables, and textual paragraphs, successful information extraction often depends on the ability to interpret all of these domains simultaneously. We present a complete toolkit for the automated extraction of chemical entities and their a...
Tolnai, Sandra; Dolležal, Lena-Vanessa; Klump, Georg M
Informational masking (IM) describes the insensitivity of detecting a change in sound features in a complex acoustical environment when such a change could easily be detected in the absence of distracting sounds. IM occurs because of the similarity between deviant sound and distracting sounds (so-called similarity-based IM) and/or stimulus uncertainty stemming from trial-to-trial variability (so-called uncertainty-based IM). IM can be abolished if similarity-based or uncertainty-based IM are minimized. Here, we modulated similarity-based IM using binaural cues. Standard/deviant tones and distracting tones were presented sequentially, and level-increment thresholds were measured. Deviant tones differed from standard tones by a higher sound level. Distracting tones covered a wide range of levels. Standard/deviant tones and distracting tones were characterized by their interaural time difference (ITD), interaural level difference (ILD), or both ITD and ILD. The larger the ITD or ILD was, the better similarity-based IM was overcome. If both interaural differences were applied to standard/deviant tones, the release from IM was larger than when either interaural difference was used. The results show that binaural cues are potent cues to abolish similarity-based IM and that the auditory system makes use of multiple available cues. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
R. N. Sukhorukova
Full Text Available The problems of creation and forming information resources on science and technology, the impact of information on the process of providing enterprises and organizations of Belarus with scientific and technical information are considered. Specific examples are given. Actual problems and tasks are identified.
Full Text Available Students who can meet the demands of academic discourse develop cognitive and metacognitive skills with which to understand the information they get from reading scientific texts, and thus establish their learning. In this work, a group of university students were evaluated concerning their competencies and deficiencies in the reading comprehension of a fragment of a scientific text used in one of their courses. The results allowed us to assess the most frequent difficulties in processing information and in understanding what they read. The group was made up of a few students skilled in reading comprehension skills, plus several inexpert readers with little capacity to monitor and assess their own understanding.
Saavedra-Duarte, L. A.; Angarita-Jerardino, A.; Ruiz, P. A.; Dulce-Moreno, H. J.; Vera-Rivera, F. H.; V-Niño, E. D.
Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) are essential in the transfer of knowledge, and the Web tools, as part of ICT, are important for institutions seeking greater visibility of the products developed by their researchers. For this reason, we implemented an application that allows the information management of the FORISTOM Foundation (Foundation of Researchers in Science and Technology of Materials). The application shows a detailed description, not only of all its members also of all the scientific production that they carry out, such as technological developments, research projects, articles, presentations, among others. This application can be implemented by other entities committed to the scientific dissemination and transfer of technology and knowledge.
Nilsson, R; Tasheva, M; Jaeger, B
The main objective of this analysis has been to characterize the role of science, in a broad sense, in relation to social, economical, political, and other factors in explaining why regulatory decisions vary in different countries, although they are based on more or less identical scientific data. Eleven countries from different geographical areas and with varying cultural background have provided information in response to an extensive questionnaire aimed at identifying procedures for registration, restricting, or banning registration for certain selected pesticides. Although many of these responses lacked sufficient detail in certain aspects, together with other documentary sources they nonetheless provided insight with respect to some of the main concerns among and between nations regarding decisions in pesticide management. Among the main conclusions presented in this analysis, the following deserves particular emphasis: The underlying reasons for introducing restrictions on pesticide use on the national level will have to be more explicitly stated and openly declared by regulatory bodies of all nations. Although more pronounced in some countries, there is a strong influence of nonscientific considerations in pesticide management, that is not always based on rational considerations. In the field of hazard and risk assessment differences in scientific opinion have primarily, but not exclusively been identified regarding the evaluation of carcinogenic effects in experimental animals. In this area debated issues are the interpretation of the significance for man of certain types of tumors, methods for dose-response extrapolation, genotoxic versus nongenotoxic carcinogens, the use of MTD in long-term studies, mechanistic approaches to interpret cancer induction, and others. Another area identified to cause divergence is exposure assessment. Evaluation of pesticides on the national level for the purpose of regulation involves a tremendous duplication of efforts that
Carolina Luisa dos Santos Vieira
Full Text Available With the growth in the supply of logistics services, and the increase of competition, the use of information and communication technologies (ICT is now considered by logistics service providers (LSP, a source of competitive advantage. Through a literature review, this paper seeks to identify which technologies have been used by the PSL. Analyzing 47 articles on the subject, published in international journal that has the largest number of works on PSL, applications of technologies by PSL were analyzed according to a taxonomy suggested based on literature - software, hardware and networks. Among the results highlight the technologies cited by categories and greater scientific interest, such as EDI, RFID, TTS, WMS and Internet.
Víctor CORCOBA MAGAÑA
Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a solution to reduce the stress level of the driver, minimize fuel consumption and improve safety. The system analyzes the driving style and the driver’s workload during the trip while driving. If it discovers an area where the stress increases and the driving style is not appropriate from the point of view of energy efficiency and safety for a particular driver, the location of this area is saved in a shared database. On the other hand, the implemented solution warns a particular user when approaching a region where the driving is difficult (high fuel consumption and stress using the shared database based on previous recorded knowledge of similar drivers in that area. In this case, the proposal provides an optimal deceleration profile if the vehicle speed is not adequate. Therefore, he or she may adjust the vehicle speed with both a positive impact on the driver workload and fuel consumption. The Data Envelopment Analysis algorithm is used to estimate the efficiency of driving and the driver’s workload in in each area. We employ this method because there is no preconceived form on the data in order to calculate the efficiency and stress level. A validation experiment has been conducted using both a driving simulator and a real environment with 12 participants who made 168 driving tests. The system reduced the slowdowns (38%, heart rate (4.70%, and fuel consumption (12.41% in the real environment. The proposed solution is implemented on Android mobile devices and does not require the installation of infrastructure on the road. It can be installed on any model of vehicle.
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Human health is determined by the interplay of genetic factors and the environment. In this context the recent advances in human genomics are expected to play a central role in medicine and public health by providing genetic information for disease prediction and prevention.
After the completion of the human genome sequencing, a fundamental step will be represented by the translation of these discoveries into meaningful actions to improve health and prevent diseases, and the field of epidemiology plays a central role in this effort. These are some of the issues addressed by Human Genome Epidemiology –A scientific foundation for using genetic information to improve health and prevent disease, a volume edited by Prof. M. Khoury, Prof. J. Little, Prof.W. Burke and published by Oxford university Press 2004.
This book describes the important role that epidemiological methods play in the continuum from gene discovery to the development and application of genetic tests. The Authors calls this continuum human genome epidemiology (HuGE to denote an evolving field of inquiry that uses systematic applications of epidemiological methods to assess the impact of human genetic variation on health and disease.
The book is divided into four sections and it is structured to allow readers to proceed systematically from the fundamentals of genome technology and discovery, to the epidemiological approaches, to gene characterisation, to the evaluation of genetic tests and their use in health services and public health.
Allen, Lauren Brooks
Informal learning is an important venue for educating the general public about complex socio-scientific issues: intersections of scientific understanding and society. My dissertation is a multi-tiered analysis of how informal education, and particularly informal educators, can leverage learning to respond to one particular socio-scientific issue: climate change. Life-long, life-wide, and life-deep learning not only about the science of climate change, but how communities and society as a whole can respond to it in ways that are commensurate with its scale are necessary. In my three-article dissertation, I investigated the changes in practice and learning that informal educators from a natural history museum underwent in the process of implementing a new type of field trip about climate change. This study focused on inquiry-based learning principles taken on by the museum educators, albeit in different ways: learner autonomy, conversation, and deep investigation. My second article, a short literature review, makes the argument that climate change education must have goals beyond simply increasing learners' knowledge of climate science, and proposes three research-based principles for such learning: participation, relevance, and interconnectedness. These principles are argued to promote learning to respond to climate change as well as increased collective efficacy, necessary for responding. Finally, my third article is an in-depth examination of a heterogeneous network of informal educators and environmental professionals who worked together to design and implement a city-wide platform for informal climate change learning. By conceptualizing climate change learning at the level of the learning ecology, educators and learners are able to see how it can be responded to at the community level, and understand how climate change is interconnected with other scientific, natural, and social systems. I briefly discuss a different socio-scientific issue to which these
Felin, Elina; Jukola, Elias; Raulo, Saara; Heinonen, Jaakko; Fredriksson-Ahomaa, Maria
Meat inspection now incorporates a more risk-based approach for protecting human health against meat-borne biological hazards. Official post-mortem meat inspection of pigs has shifted to visual meat inspection. The official veterinarian decides on additional post-mortem inspection procedures, such as incisions and palpations. The decision is based on declarations in the food chain information (FCI), ante-mortem inspection and post-mortem inspection. However, a smooth slaughter and inspection process is essential. Therefore, one should be able to assess prior to slaughter which pigs are suitable for visual meat inspection only, and which need more profound inspection procedures. This study evaluates the usability of the FCI provided by pig producers and considered the possibility for risk ranking of incoming slaughter batches according to the previous meat inspection data and the current FCI. Eighty-five slaughter batches comprising 8954 fattening pigs were randomly selected at a slaughterhouse that receives animals from across Finland. The mortality rate, the FCI and the meat inspection results for each batch were obtained. The current FCI alone provided insufficient and inaccurate information for risk ranking purposes for meat inspection. The partial condemnation rate for a batch was best predicted by the partial condemnation rate calculated for all the pigs sent for slaughter from the same holding in the previous year (p<0.001) and by prior information on cough declared in the current FCI (p=0.02) statement. Training and information to producers are needed to make the FCI reporting procedures more accurate. Historical meat inspection data on pigs slaughtered from the same holdings and well-chosen symptoms/signs for reporting, should be included in the FCI to facilitate the allocation of pigs for visual inspection. The introduced simple scoring system can be easily used for additional information for directing batches to appropriate meat inspection procedures. To
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Correction--Scientific Information Request on Medication Therapy Management The original date of publication for this Federal Register notice was September...
Melo, Luiza Baptista; Pires, Cesaltina Pacheco
This article has three main objectives: i) to describe the use patterns of electronic and traditional resources in Portuguese academic libraries; ii) to estimate the value of the Portuguese electronic scientific information consortium b-on by using two alternative valuation methodologies; iii) to relate the use patterns with the valuation of b-on.…
... Ulcer Treatment Medical Devices AGENCY: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), HHS. ACTION... (AHRQ) is seeking scientific information submissions from manufacturers of pressure ulcer treatment medical devices, such as (but not limited to): Ultrasonic wound care systems, negative pressure therapy...
Smirnov, Eugeny; Bogun, Vitali
New methodologies in science (or mathematics) learning process and scientific thinking in the classroom activity of engineer students with ICT (information and communication technology), including graphic calculator are presented: visual modelling with ICT, action research with graphic calculator, insight in classroom and communications and…
... for Treatment of Chronic Plaque Psoriasis AGENCY: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ... Phototherapy medical devices for treatment of chronic plaque psoriasis. Scientific information is being... Phototherapy for Treatment of Chronic Plaque Psoriasis, which is currently being conducted by the Evidence...
Marty, Paul F.; Alemanne, Nicole D.; Mendenhall, Anne; Maurya, Manisha; Southerland, Sherry A.; Sampson, Victor; Douglas, Ian; Kazmer, Michelle M.; Clark, Amanda; Schellinger, Jennifer
Understanding the connections between scientific inquiry and digital literacy in informal learning environments is essential to furthering students' critical thinking and technology skills. The Habitat Tracker project combines a standards-based curriculum focused on the nature of science with an integrated system of online and mobile computing…
... HUMAN SERVICES Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Scientific Information Request on... summary that includes the following elements: Study number, study period, design, methodology, indication... compared to angiography alone--on the diagnostic thinking and therapeutic decision making, short-term...
Engage students in constructing scientific practices is a critical component of science instruction. Therefore a number of researchers have developed software programs to help students and teachers in this hard task. The Zydeco group, designed a mobile application called Zydeco, which enables students to collect data inside and outside the classroom, and then use the data to create scientific explanations by using claim-evidence-reasoning framework. Previous technologies designed to support scientific explanations focused on how these programs improve students' scientific explanations, but these programs ignored how scientific explanation technologies can support teacher practices. Thus, to increase our knowledge how different scaffolds can work together, this study aimed to portray the synergy between a teacher's instructional practices (part 1) and using supports within a mobile devices (part 2) to support students in constructing explanations. Synergy can be thought of as generic and content-specific scaffolds working together to enable students to accomplish challenging tasks, such as creating explanations that they would not normally be able to do without the scaffolds working together. Providing instruction (part 1) focused on understanding how the teacher scaffolds students' initial understanding of the claim-evidence-reasoning (CER) framework. The second component of examining synergy (part 2: using mobile devices) investigated how this teacher used mobile devices to provide feedback when students created explanations. The synergy between providing instruction and using mobile devices was investigated by analyzing a middle school teacher's practices in two different units (plants and water quality). Next, this study focused on describing how the level of synergy influenced the quality of students' scientific explanations. Finally, I investigated the role of focused teaching intervention sessions to inform teacher in relation to students' performance. In
Full Text Available The Internet transforms the scholarly communication world-wide. Electronic preprint archives, electronic journals, discussion groups are some of the new ways to get acccss to information. This paper discusses some of these new developments from the perspective of scholarly communication. Among the topics covered are quality control of scientif ic publications in the electronic world, information overload, the impact of electronic publishing on librai'ies and publishers, and the economics of electronic publishing.
Packer, Abel Laerte; Tardelli, Adalberto Otranto; Castro, Regina Célia Figueiredo
This study explores the distribution of international, regional and national scientific output in health information and communication, indexed in the MEDLINE and LILACS databases, between 1996 and 2005. A selection of articles was based on the hierarchical structure of Information Science in MeSH vocabulary. Four specific domains were determined: health information, medical informatics, scientific communications on healthcare and healthcare communications. The variables analyzed were: most-covered subjects and journals, author affiliation and publication countries and languages, in both databases. The Information Science category is represented in nearly 5% of MEDLINE and LILACS articles. The four domains under analysis showed a relative annual increase in MEDLINE. The Medical Informatics domain showed the highest number of records in MEDLINE, representing about half of all indexed articles. The importance of Information Science as a whole is more visible in publications from developed countries and the findings indicate the predominance of the United States, with significant growth in scientific output from China and South Korea and, to a lesser extent, Brazil.
... TECHNOLOGY POLICY Request for Information: Public Access to Digital Data Resulting From Federally Funded... Information (RFI) offers the opportunity for interested individuals and organizations to provide... Science and Technology Council (NSTC). SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Purpose In accordance with Section 103(b...
Langenau, David M; Sweet-Cordero, Alejandro; Wechsler-Reya, Robert; Dyer, Michael A
Despite improvements in survival rates for children with cancer since the 1960s, progress for many pediatric malignancies has slowed over the past two decades. With the recent advances in our understanding of the genomic landscape of pediatric cancer, there is now enthusiasm for individualized cancer therapy based on genomic profiling of patients' tumors. However, several obstacles to effective personalized cancer therapy remain. For example, relatively little data from prospective clinical trials demonstrate the selective efficacy of molecular-targeted therapeutics based on somatic mutations in the patient's tumor. In this commentary, we discuss recent advances in preclinical testing for pediatric cancer and provide recommendations for providing scientific justification and translational relevance for novel therapeutic combinations for childhood cancer. Establishing rigorous criteria for defining and validating druggable mutations will be essential for the success of ongoing and future clinical genomic trials for pediatric malignancies. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.
Glynn, P. D.; Voinov, A. A.; Shapiro, C. D.
Post-normal science requires public engagement and adaptive corrections in addressing issues with high complexity and uncertainty. An adaptive management framework is presented for the improved management of natural resources and environments through a public participation process. The framework solicits the gathering and transformation and/or modeling of scientific information but also explicitly solicits the expression of participant beliefs. Beliefs and information are compared, explicitly discussed for alignments or misalignments, and ultimately melded back together as a "knowledge" basis for making decisions. An effort is made to recognize the human or participant biases that may affect the information base and the potential decisions. In a separate step, an attempt is made to recognize and predict the potential "winners" and "losers" (perceived or real) of any decision or action. These "winners" and "losers" include present human communities with different spatial, demographic or socio-economic characteristics as well as more dispersed or more diffusely characterized regional or global communities. "Winners" and "losers" may also include future human communities as well as communities of other biotic species. As in any adaptive management framework, assessment of predictions, iterative follow-through and adaptation of policies or actions is essential, and commonly very difficult or impossible to achieve. Recognizing beforehand the limits of adaptive management is essential. More generally, knowledge of the behavioral and economic sciences and of ethics and sociology will be key to a successful implementation of this adaptive management framework. Knowledge of biogeophysical processes will also be essential, but by definition of the issues being addressed, will always be incomplete and highly uncertain. The human dimensions of the issues addressed and the participatory processes used carry their own complexities and uncertainties. Some ideas and principles are
Full Text Available Abstract Background To date, many of the methods for information extraction of biological information from scientific articles are restricted to the abstract of the article. However, full text articles in electronic version, which offer larger sources of data, are currently available. Several questions arise as to whether the effort of scanning full text articles is worthy, or whether the information that can be extracted from the different sections of an article can be relevant. Results In this work we addressed those questions showing that the keyword content of the different sections of a standard scientific article (abstract, introduction, methods, results, and discussion is very heterogeneous. Conclusions Although the abstract contains the best ratio of keywords per total of words, other sections of the article may be a better source of biologically relevant data.
Myneni, Sahiti; Patel, Vimla L
Biomedical researchers often work with massive, detailed and heterogeneous datasets. These datasets raise new challenges of information organization and management for scientific interpretation, as they demand much of the researchers' time and attention. The current study investigated the nature of the problems that researchers face when dealing with such data. Four major problems identified with existing biomedical scientific information management methods were related to data organization, data sharing, collaboration, and publications. Therefore, there is a compelling need to develop an efficient and user-friendly information management system to handle the biomedical research data. This study evaluated the implementation of an information management system, which was introduced as part of the collaborative research to increase scientific productivity in a research laboratory. Laboratory members seemed to exhibit frustration during the implementation process. However, empirical findings revealed that they gained new knowledge and completed specified tasks while working together with the new system. Hence, researchers are urged to persist and persevere when dealing with any new technology, including an information management system in a research laboratory environment.
Tiffany, Melissa E.; Nelson, Michael L.
The purpose of this paper is to describe the new subject classification system for the NCSTRL+ project. NCSTRL+ is a canonical digital library (DL) based on the Networked Computer Science Technical Report Library (NCSTRL). The current NCSTRL+ classification system uses the NASA Scientific and Technical (STI) subject classifications, which has a bias towards the aerospace, aeronautics, and engineering disciplines. Examination of other scientific and technical information classification systems showed similar discipline-centric weaknesses. Traditional, library-oriented classification systems represented all disciplines, but were too generalized to serve the needs of a scientific and technically oriented digital library. Lack of a suitable existing classification system led to the creation of a lightweight, balanced, general classification system that allows the mapping of more specialized classification schemes into the new framework. We have developed the following classification system to give equal weight to all STI disciplines, while being compact and lightweight.
González de Dios, J; Aleixandre Benavent, R
The international bibliographic databases (Medline, Embase, Current Contents, etc.) are one of the main sources of information in medicine. Because only some Spanish journals are included in these databases, knowledge and use of the Indice Médico Español (IME) is also important because this database includes almost all Spanish biomedical and scientific journals (basic, experimental and clinical), which provides certain well known advantages for authors and editors in Spain. Of the journals indexed at any given time in the IME (461 journals), those related to pediatrics constitute 5.2 % of the total (24 journals) with a total of 21,006 documents. Only 34 % of all the pediatrics documents in the IME are included in PubMed. The most productive pediatrics journals in the IME are Anales Españoles de Pediatría (8,639, plus 912 registered from 2002 as Anales de Pediatría), Revista Española de Pediatría (2,564), Acta Pediátrica Española (2,189), Archivos de Pediatría (1,365), Pediatrika (1,314), and Cirugía Pediátrica (685). Anales de Pediatría is the third most productive journal in the IME, after Medicina Clínica (13,323) and Revista Clínica Española (9,603). Overall, pediatrics is the second most productive field of research in medicine in Spain after internal medicine. A complementary tool of the IME is the hypothetical study of the national and international impact factor (IF) of Spanish biomedical journals. The hypothetical national IF of Anales de Pediatría (0.334) is noteworthy among Spanish medical journals overall and is much higher than those of Acta Pediátrica Española (0.134), Pediatrika (0.119), Cirugía Pediátrica (0.099) and Revista Española de Pediatría (0.079). The international IF of Anales de Pediatría (0.372) is higher than that of some pediatrics journals included in the Science Citation Index. The IME should be included in bibliographic search strategies for scientific information in pediatrics as a complement to international
Sepic, Ronald P.
The NASA Scientific and Technical Information (STI) Program offers researchers access to the world's largest collection of aerospace information. An overview of Program activities, products and services, and new directions is presented. The R&D information cycle is outlined and specific examples of the NASA STI Program in practice are given. Domestic and international operations and technology transfer activities are reviewed and an agenda for the STI Program NASA-wide is presented. Finally, the incorporation of Total Quality Management and evaluation metrics into the STI Program is discussed.
The Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) assists the scientific community in the discovery of and linkage to Earth Science data and provides data holders a means to advertise their data to the community through its portals, i.e. online customized subset metadata directories. These directories are effectively serving communities like the Joint Committee on Antarctic Data Management (JCADM), the Global Observing System Information Center (GOSIC), and the Global Ocean Ecosystems Dynamic Program (GLOBEC) by increasing the visibility of their data holding. The purpose of the Gulf of Maine Ocean Data Partnership (GoMODP) is to "promote and coordinate the sharing, linking, electronic dissemination, and use of data on the Gulf of Maine region". The participants have decided that a "coordinated effort is needed to enable users throughout the Gulf of Maine region and beyond to discover and put to use the vast and growing quantities of data in their respective databases". GoMODP members have invited the GCMD to discuss potential collaborations associated with this effort. The presentation will focus on the use of the GCMD s metadata directory as a powerful tool for data discovery and sharing. An overview of the directory and its metadata authoring tools will be given.
Vincent, E. M.; Matlock, T.; Westerling, A. L.
While most scientists recognize climate change as a major societal and environmental issue, social and political will to tackle the problem is still lacking. One of the biggest obstacles is inaccurate reporting or even outright misinformation in climate change coverage that result in the confusion of the general public on the issue.In today's era of instant access to information, what we read online usually falls outside our field of expertise and it is a real challenge to evaluate what is credible. The emerging technology of web annotation could be a game changer as it allows knowledgeable individuals to attach notes to any piece of text of a webpage and to share them with readers who will be able to see the annotations in-context -like comments on a pdf.Here we present the Climate Feedback initiative that is bringing together a community of climate scientists who collectively evaluate the scientific accuracy of influential climate change media coverage. Scientists annotate articles sentence by sentence and assess whether they are consistent with scientific knowledge allowing readers to see where and why the coverage is -or is not- based on science. Scientists also summarize the essence of their critical commentary in the form of a simple article-level overall credibility rating that quickly informs readers about the credibility of the entire piece.Web-annotation allows readers to 'hear' directly from the experts and to sense the consensus in a personal way as one can literaly see how many scientists agree with a given statement. It also allows a broad population of scientists to interact with the media, notably early career scientists.In this talk, we will present results on the impacts annotations have on readers -regarding their evaluation of the trustworthiness of the information they read- and on journalists -regarding their reception of scientists comments.Several dozen scientists have contributed to this effort to date and the system offers potential to
Irwin, Richard S
We have come to appreciate that scientific misconduct is often not intuitively obvious to those who perpetrate it. Therefore, this commentary has been written to review what we know about the role of conflict of interest (COI) in the reporting of scientific information and to challenge those of us in educator roles to do a better job in mentoring our trainees, junior faculty, and associates on what is right and wrong; what is ethical and unethical. The review addresses the following questions: (1) Why has the public trust in the clinical research industry been eroded? (2) How often is the ethical concept of equipoise violated in industry-sponsored randomized controlled clinical trials? (3) How often are negative trials underreported and favorable trials selectively or redundantly over-reported in industry-sponsored randomized controlled clinical trials? (4) What is being done to restore the public trust? While there are multiple strategies to mitigate COI in the reporting of scientific information, we have come to appreciate that the disclosure of potential conflicts of interest is not enough. It is our hope that this article and its contents can serve as a stimulus for the development and incorporation of an educational series in all training programs on what is ethical and unethical in the conducting and reporting of scientific studies.
Feinkohl, Insa; Flemming, Danny; Cress, Ulrike; Kimmerle, Joachim
Scientific research findings are frequently picked up by the mainstream media, but it is largely unclear which factors have an impact on laypeople's processing of the presented scientific information. In this study, we investigated the influence of cognitive and metacognitive inter-individual differences on recall and on critical evaluation of new scientific information that was presented in a journalistic article. Sixty-three participants (80 % female; mean age 24.1 ± 3.3 years) read a newspaper article reporting research findings on a recently developed and yet unproven treatment for depression. We found that more sophisticated, domain-specific epistemological beliefs and a higher cognitive ability were independently associated with better recall of content from the article. Additionally, participants with more sophisticated epistemological beliefs displayed a more critical evaluation of the article. Cognitive ability was unrelated to critical evaluation and to epistemological beliefs. There were also no interaction effects of cognitive ability and epistemological beliefs on recall or on critical evaluation. Based on our preliminary findings and previous evidence of epistemological beliefs as a modifiable feature, we discuss this inter-individual characteristic as a potential target for the promotion of better understanding of scientific topics by the general public.
Communications media -- newspapers, television, magazines, etc. -- may be the most powerful single influence on modern life. Certainly they are the most important source of information citizens use to form opinions about such complex scientific questions as global warming or nuclear waste cleanup. But commercial news media have built-in limitations on their effectiveness as information sources. Reliance on advertising for revenue means the media are limited in the volume of material they can cover. In addition, the need to attract the largest possible, or the most select, audience for advertisers limits the complexity of information that the media can present. Finally, existing media organizations offer few, if any, ways for users to retrieve past information. These limitations deprive citizens of needed information, increase pressure on political leaders, and create the gridlock over scientific and public policy questions caused by the Not in My Backyard'' snydrome. Fortunately, modern communications technology is changing in ways that allow public policy makers to address these shortenings. Companies now barred from the information business are seeking to enter, existing media companies are looking for new sources of revenue, and new information products are seeking markets. Several changes to existing media and communications policy will be suggested and general principles for building a better overall communications system will be discussed. 18 refs.
Oleg M. Spirin
Full Text Available The article deals with the foreign and domestic experience of using the Open Journal Systems (OJS software platform for informational support of scientific and educational activities, in particular: a as a means of publicizing and disseminating the results of scientific research; b for creating and maintaining repositories of libraries of higher educational establishments; c for developing the scientific and educational space of an educational establishments; d as a cloud-based service for the preservation and access to scientific resources; e for information support in organization of student training; and f for deployment of student journals. As a result of the analysis of scientific periodicals of Ukraine in the field of psychological and pedagogical sciences, the scientific journals on the basis of Open Journal Systems are identified. The experience of support the electronic scientific journal «Information Technologies and Learning Tools» (http://journal.iitta.gov.ua is presented separately.
Using a socio-psycholinguistic perspective of literacy and a social-semiotic analysis of texts, this study investigates how six students made meaning of informational texts. The students came to school from a variety of English and Spanish language backgrounds. The research question being asked was 'How do Latino(a) fourth and fifth grade students make meaning of English informational texts?' Miscue analysis was used as a tool to investigate how students who have been labeled non-struggling readers by their classroom teacher and are from various language backgrounds approached five informational texts. In order to investigate students' responses to the nature of informational texts, this dissertation draws on commonly occurring structures within texts. Primary data collected included read alouds and retellings of five texts, retrospective miscue analysis, and interviews with six participant students. Two of these participants are discussed within this dissertation. Secondary data included classroom observations and teacher interviews. This study proposes that non-native speakers may use scientific concept placeholders as they transact with informational texts. The use of scientific concept placeholders by a reader indicates that the reader is engaged in the meaning making process and possesses evolving scientific knowledge about a phenomenon. The findings suggest that Latino(a) students' understandings of English informational texts is influenced not only by a student's language development but also (1) the nature of the text; (2) the reading strategies that a student uses, such as the use of placeholders; (3) the influence of the researcher during the aided retelling. This study contributes methodological tools to assess English language learners' reading. The conclusions presented within this study also support the idea that students from a variety of language backgrounds slightly altered their reliance on certain cuing systems as they encountered various sub
María Soledad Bravo-Marchant
Full Text Available The design and implementation of public policies to grant access to scientific information is now a marked trend among numerous countries of Latin America. The creation of specific instruments, the allocation of an ongoing budget and the accumulation of experience in negotiation and contracting of national licences have all been clear signs of the achievements resulting from recent initiatives in these countries. This article reviews the experience of the Consorcio para el Acceso a la Información Cientifíca Electrónica (CINCEL Corporation, a Chilean consortium created in 2002, the public policy that made it possible and the evaluation experience of its main programme, the Electronic Library of Scientific Information (BEIC.
Full Text Available Since 1994 Croatian university and special libraries are working together in a project called Croatian Scientific Information System. Its intention is to develop various information services and to provide access to electronic resources for their patrons. Recently two internet portals have been developed. ZIND is a portal for electronic resources and EJOL serves as a portal for e-journals. Both feature subject oriented web interfaces with numerous search and browse options. ZIND uses LibData from the University of Minnesota to create a database with Dublin Core metadata. LibData integrates easy-to-use web authoring tools with a large database of information resources and produces dynamically generated library web pages. Designed as single access gateway ZIND provides easy access to a multidisciplinary mixture of scientific information products and services. Thirty-four libraries participate in EJOL. It uses an in-house made database (6830 journals in which every journal title is described according to UNIMARC cataloguing rules. Besides managing access to commercial e-journals EJOL serves as a gateway to open access e-journals (433 titles and Croatian journals (70 titles. Librarians administrate the level of accessibility for their local institute.
marketing research , relationship between expertise, source credibility, and information sharing behaviors have been studied. Thomas-Hunt et al. [9...intention depends on the situation. In marketing research , the correlation between trustworthy source and information credibility is commonly assumed... Marketing Research , vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 255-260, May 1982  Numerical Recipes in C. The Art of Scientific Computing, 2nd Edition, 1992, ISBN 0-521-43108
Maman, Shimrit; Isaacson, Sivan; Blumberg, Dan G.
In recent years, a decline in the rates of examinees in the academic track that were entitled to an enhanced matriculation certificate in scientific-technological education was reported in Israel. To confront this problem the Earth and Planetary Image Facility (EPIF) at Ben-Gurion University of the Negev fosters interdisciplinary exploration through educational programs that make use of the facility and its equipment and enable the empowerment of the community by understanding and appreciating science and technology. This is achieved by using Geographic Information Technologies (GIT) such as remote sensing and Geographical Information Systems (GIS) for geo-physical sciences in activities that combine theoretical background with hands-on activities. Monitoring Earth from space by satellites, digital atlases and virtual-based positioning applications are examples for fusion of spatial information (geographic) and technology that the activity is based on. GIT opens a new chapter and a recent history of Cartography starting from the collection of spatial data to its presentation and analysis. GIS have replaced the use of classical atlas books and offer a variety of Web-based applications that provide maps and display up-to-date imagery. The purpose of this workshop is to expose teachers and students to GITs which are applicable in every classroom. The activity imparts free geographic information systems that exist in cyberspace and accessible to single users as the Israeli national GIS and Google earth, which are based on a spatial data and long term local and global satellite imagery coverage. In this paper, our "Think global-Map Local" activity is presented. The activity uses GIS and change detection technologies as means to encourage students to explore environmental issues both around the globe and close to their surroundings. The students detect changes by comparing multi temporal images of a chosen site and learn how to map the alterations and produce change
Full Text Available It has been proved that the use of qualitative approach is one of the ways to further development of the accounting. The features of the concept of «quality of accounting information» in the Ukrainian legislation have been analyzed in the article. The author grounds the necessity of development of the normative document where the further ways of accounting on the basis of qualitative approach should be formulated. The article singles out two main groups of scientists who raised the issue of the need to improve the quality of accounting information. Points of view of each group of scientists have been grounded. The relationship between the quality of accounting information and the efficiency of management decisions have been analyzed. The article proves that the generation of quality information by accounting system creates the necessary preconditions for effective management decisions. General scientific and methodological reasons for research aimed at improving the quality of accounting information have been showen.
Henkel, Heather S.
In March 2006, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) held the first Scientific Information Management (SIM) Workshop in Reston, Virginia. The workshop brought together more than 150 SIM professionals from across the organization to discuss the range and importance of SIM problems, identify common challenges and solutions, and investigate the use and value of “communities of practice” (CoP) as mechanisms to address these issues. The 3-day workshop began with presentations of SIM challenges faced by the Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) network and two USGS programs from geology and hydrology. These presentations were followed by a keynote address and discussion of CoP by Dr. Etienne Wenger, a pioneer and leading expert in CoP, who defined them as "groups of people who share a passion for something that they know how to do and who interact regularly to learn how to do it better." Wenger addressed the roles and characteristics of CoP, how they complement formal organizational structures, and how they can be fostered. Following this motivating overview, five panelists (including Dr. Wenger) with CoP experience in different institutional settings provided their perspectives and lessons learned. The first day closed with an open discussion on the potential intersection of SIM at the USGS with SIM challenges and the potential for CoP. The second session began the process of developing a common vocabulary for both scientific data management and CoP, and a list of eight guiding principles for information management were proposed for discussion and constructive criticism. Following this discussion, 20 live demonstrations and posters of SIM tools developed by various USGS programs and projects were presented. Two community-building sessions were held to explore the next steps in 12 specific areas: Archiving of Scientific Data and Information; Database Networks; Digital Libraries; Emerging Workforce; Field Data for Small Research Projects; Knowledge Capture; Knowledge
McLachlan, J. S.
The distribution of tree species is largely determined by climate, with important consequences for ecosystem function, biodiversity, and the human economy. In the past, conflicts about priority among these various goods have produced persistent debate about forest policy and management. Despite this history of conflict, there has been general agreement on the framework for the debate: Our benchmark for assessing human impact is generally some historical condition (in the New World, this is often pre-European settlement). Wilderness is to be managed with minimal human intervention. Native species are preferred over non-natives. And regional landscapes can be effectively partitioned into independent jurisdictions with different management priorities. Each of these principles was always somewhat mythical, but the dynamics of broad scale species range shifts under climate change make all of them untenable in the future. Managed relocation (MR, or assisted migration) is a controversial proposal partly because it demands scientific answers that we do not have: Are trees naturally capable of shifting their ranges as fast as climate will force them? Will deliberate introductions of species beyond their native ranges have adverse impacts on the receiving ecosystem? What are appropriate targets for hydrologic or fire management under novel no-analog climates? However, these demands on science mask a more fundamental concern: the ethical framework underlying existing forest policy is unsupported in the context of long-term non-stationary environmental trends. Whether or not we conclude that MR is a useful policy option, debate about MR is useful because it forces us to place the global change ecology agenda in a larger ethical debate about our goals when managing novel ecosystems.
Moghissi, A Alan; Pei, Shiqian; Liu, Yinzuo
Historically, agricultural development evolved in three phases. During the first phase the plants were selected on the basis of the availability of a plant with desirable properties at a specific location. The second phase provided the agricultural community with crossbreeding plants to achieve improvement in agricultural production. The evolution of biological knowledge has provided the ability to genetically engineer (GE) crops, one of the key processes within genetically modified organisms (GMO). This article uses golden rice, a species of transgenic Asian rice which contains a precursor of vitamin A in the edible part of the plant as an example of GE/GMO emphasizing Chinese experience in agricultural evolution. It includes a brief review of agricultural evolution to be followed by a description of golden rice development. Golden rice was created as a humanitarian project and has received positive comments by the scientific community and negative voices from certain environmental groups. In this article, we use the Best Available Science (BAS) Concept and Metrics for Evaluation of Scientific Claims (MESC) derived from it to evaluate claims and counter claims on scientific aspects of golden rice. This article concludes that opposition to golden rice is based on belief rather than any of its scientifically derived nutritional, safety or environmental properties.
Nataliia V. Morze
Full Text Available In the article it was analyzed one of the basic conditions of providing the quality of higher education according to the system of internal quality assurance standards ESG (European quality assurance standards and guidelines to increase the ICT competence of scientific-pedagogical staff of the University. It was described the modular system of training for scientific and pedagogical staff of the Borys Grinchenko Kyiv University. Special attention is paid to the description of the system of raising the level of formation the ICT competence as one of the key competences of the modern teacher. The system of professional development, which is based on creating mixed studying and technology of "flipped classroom", formative assessment, innovative educational and ICT technologies according to the specially designed informative module "Informational and communication technologies", which allows scientific-pedagogical staff to use modern ICT and educational technologies effectively for their further applying in the provision of educational services and the development of quality of open educational content and open educational e-environment available to the student at any convenient time, which will significantly improve the quality of the educational process.
Full Text Available We examined in two empirical studies how situational and personal aspects of uncertainty influence laypeople’s understanding of the uncertainty of scientific information, with focus on the detection of tentativeness and perception of scientific credibility. In the first study (N = 48, we investigated the impact of a perceived conflict due to contradicting information as a situational, text-inherent aspect of uncertainty. The aim of the second study (N = 61 was to explore the role of general self-efficacy as an intra-personal uncertainty factor. In Study 1, participants read one of two versions of an introductory text in a between-group design. This text provided them with an overview about the neurosurgical procedure of deep brain stimulation (DBS. The text expressed a positive attitude toward DBS in one experimental condition or focused on the negative aspects of this method in the other condition. Then participants in both conditions read the same text that dealt with a study about DBS as experimental treatment in a small sample of patients with major depression. Perceived conflict between the two texts was found to increase the perception of tentativeness and to decrease the perception of scientific credibility, implicating that text-inherent aspects have significant effects on critical appraisal. The results of Study 2 demonstrated that participants with higher general self-efficacy detected the tentativeness to a lesser degree and assumed a higher level of scientific credibility, indicating a more naïve understanding of scientific information. This appears to be contradictory to large parts of previous findings that showed positive effects of high self-efficacy on learning. Both studies showed that perceived tentativeness and perceived scientific credibility of medical information contradicted each other. We conclude that there is a need for supporting laypeople in understanding the uncertainty of scientific information and that
Flemming, Danny; Feinkohl, Insa; Cress, Ulrike; Kimmerle, Joachim
We examined in two empirical studies how situational and personal aspects of uncertainty influence laypeople's understanding of the uncertainty of scientific information, with focus on the detection of tentativeness and perception of scientific credibility. In the first study (N = 48), we investigated the impact of a perceived conflict due to contradicting information as a situational, text-inherent aspect of uncertainty. The aim of the second study (N = 61) was to explore the role of general self-efficacy as an intra-personal uncertainty factor. In Study 1, participants read one of two versions of an introductory text in a between-group design. This text provided them with an overview about the neurosurgical procedure of deep brain stimulation (DBS). The text expressed a positive attitude toward DBS in one experimental condition or focused on the negative aspects of this method in the other condition. Then participants in both conditions read the same text that dealt with a study about DBS as experimental treatment in a small sample of patients with major depression. Perceived conflict between the two texts was found to increase the perception of tentativeness and to decrease the perception of scientific credibility, implicating that text-inherent aspects have significant effects on critical appraisal. The results of Study 2 demonstrated that participants with higher general self-efficacy detected the tentativeness to a lesser degree and assumed a higher level of scientific credibility, indicating a more naïve understanding of scientific information. This appears to be contradictory to large parts of previous findings that showed positive effects of high self-efficacy on learning. Both studies showed that perceived tentativeness and perceived scientific credibility of medical information contradicted each other. We conclude that there is a need for supporting laypeople in understanding the uncertainty of scientific information and that scientific writers should
Bearth, Angela; Cousin, Marie-Eve; Siegrist, Michael
Intensive risk assessment is required before the approval of food additives. During this process, based on the toxicological principle of "the dose makes the poison,ˮ maximum usage doses are assessed. However, most consumers are not aware of these efforts to ensure the safety of food additives and are therefore sceptical, even though food additives bring certain benefits to consumers. This study investigated the effect of a short video, which explains the scientific risk assessment and regulation of food additives, on consumers' perceptions and acceptance of food additives. The primary goal of this study was to inform consumers and enable them to construct their own risk-benefit assessment and make informed decisions about food additives. The secondary goal was to investigate whether people have different perceptions of food additives of artificial (i.e., aspartame) or natural origin (i.e., steviolglycoside). To attain these research goals, an online experiment was conducted on 185 Swiss consumers. Participants were randomly assigned to either the experimental group, which was shown a video about the scientific risk assessment of food additives, or the control group, which was shown a video about a topic irrelevant to the study. After watching the video, the respondents knew significantly more, expressed more positive thoughts and feelings, had less risk perception, and more acceptance than prior to watching the video. Thus, it appears that informing consumers about complex food safety topics, such as the scientific risk assessment of food additives, is possible, and using a carefully developed information video is a successful strategy for informing consumers. © 2015 Society for Risk Analysis.
Hamilton, C W
The principles of writing and publishing scientific papers are outlined. Scientific writing can be both professionally and financially rewarding, but many pharmacists hesitate to write for publication. A primary obstacle is not knowing how to begin. Thoughtful planning is the first and most important step. Before writing a word, the writer should identify the main message, audience, target journal, resource materials, type of manuscript, and authorship. The sections of a paper reporting original research include the title, abstract, introduction, methods, results, discussion, conclusion, references, and tables and figures. Some of these elements also appear in review papers and columns. In general, information given in one section should not duplicate information in another. The writer typically drafts the methods section first, followed by the results, the discussion, and the introduction. Along with intellectual responsibility for the paper, an author must assume various ethical responsibilities, such as ensuring that it contains no plagiarism, that all sources of funding have been acknowledged, and that the paper has not been simultaneously submitted to other journals. To enhance the likelihood of publication, the writer should edit the manuscript carefully and follow the target journal's instructions to contributors. Once the writer has submitted a paper, it must pass the muster of editors and, for peer-reviewed journals, outside experts. Several revisions may be requested before final acceptance. Pharmacists who adhere to the established pattern for writing and submitting scientific papers have the best chance of seeing their work in print.
Science can reinforce the healthy aspects of the politics of the policy process, to identify and further the public interest by discrediting policy options serving only special interests and helping to select among "science-confident" and "hedging" options. To do so, scientists must learn how to manage and communicate the degree of uncertainty in scientific understanding and prediction, lest uncertainty be manipulated to discredit science or to justify inaction. For natural resource and environmental policy, the institutional interests of government agencies, as well as private interests, pose challenges of suppression, over-simplification, or distortion of scientific information. Scientists can combat these maneuvers, but must also look inward to ensure that their own special interests do not undermine the usefulness of science.
This paper examines the role of the news media in transnational flows of knowledge. Its focus is on salmon aquaculture, an industry operating in Europe, Canada, and elsewhere. To examine the movement of knowledge from Europe to Canada, a sample of 323 news stories mentioning European aquaculture was drawn from 1261 stories about aquaculture published in Canadian newspapers between 1982 and 2007. Their analysis demonstrates the role of the media in selectively moving and shaping scientific knowledge. This role has been influenced by numerous factors, including journalistic norms, source strategies, and the assertion of trust, relevance and scientific credibility. This analysis corrects the common assumption in the internet era that information flows freely: new technology has not obviated the role of social factors. The media's role in the movement of knowledge also has implications for the geography of science, and for the status of science as a situated practice.
Anzhelika G. GERASYMENKO
Full Text Available This paper investigates the role of informative advertising in creation and augment of market power as well as the ability of an advertiser to maximize the value of its economic rent. Informative advertising is considered to be a merit good unlike a persuasive one that is mostly associated with a bad. But analysis of the advertisement breakdown in Ukraine shows that the share of price advertisements, which are the most beneficial for the public, is negligible today. Further still those advertisements are mostly situated in the sectors, where price competition is the least strong. Another kind of informative advertising – differentiating advertising – turns from an instrument of informing consumers into the vehicle of manipulation of consumer choice. Using the blind tests the author has compared the quality and the prices of the range of advertised goods and has found out a low level of correlation between the variables. That means that informative advertising serves a function of informing consumers inefficiently. At the same time phantom differentiation and misleading advertising proliferation as well as informative advertising concentration on experience and credible goods instead search ones testify to effective serving a function of maximizing advertiser welfare.
Full Text Available The new scientific landscape requires fuller and wider access to scientific information and research data as an important means to accelerate innovation and improve transparency of the scientific process. In this emerging environment, the new publication model of data journals will play a key role by establishing high standards for dataset publication and promoting the deserved credit and recognition to authors. Biomedical Data Journal (BMDJ is an open access journal aiming to facilitate the presentation, validation, use, and re-use of datasets with focus on publishing biomedical datasets that can serve as a source for simulation and computational modelling of diseases and biological processes. The rise of computational science could lead to exciting developments in the field of biomedical research. BMDJ has the ambition to pave the way in this direction through meeting the existing need for high-quality, well structured, open-access, biomedical datasets. BMDJ has established a new approach that includes a number of initiatives to potentiate the use of data papers as a source of new scientific creation, to maximize reach and visibility of data publications and to introduce formal citation of data papers. Sufficient motivation for researchers to release high quality experimental biomedical data goes through providing the respective credit and recognition to authors of data papers.
Le Bras, I.; Rosengard, S.; Estefania, M.; Jinich, A.
Clubes de Ciencia, which translates to "Science Clubs" is an initiative started by a group of graduate students at Harvard University in 2014 to encourage scientific exchange between the US and Mexico. These science clubs are one-week long intensive workshops taught by graduate students and/or postdocs on a subject of their choice in six Mexican cities. Instructors apply to teach a workshop by sending a proposal to the organizing committee, who is looking for workshops that emphasize hands-on, practical ideas. The instructors, primarily graduate students in the US, are paired with local co-instructors who assist and often co-teach the workshop. Local student participants, who are in their last two years of high school and the first two years of college, are selected based on their interest and enthusiasm. Each class has about 15-20 students, so that the classroom setting is intimate and interactive Sponsors, who fund instructor stipends, class supplies and program development, include the Mexican department of energy (SENER), the Mexican national science foundation (CONACYT), Harvard and MIT. Host universities also provide space and resources. In this presentation we focus on clubs that were taught in January 2015 on ocean physics and July 2015 on ocean chemistry, both taught in Ensenada, Baja California at the national autonomous university. Both workshops included a combination of data analysis, lectures, experiments and computational modeling. The ocean physics class was also recorded intermittently and is being used as a test case for an online course. The format provided an intensive teaching and networking experience and could be interesting to implement in other contexts.
Vatenmacher, Michael; Isaac, Shabtai; Svoray, Tal
This study seeks to attain a better understanding of the information that is required by governments to prepare for earthquakes, and of the constraints they face in obtaining this information. The contributions of the study are two-fold. A survey that was conducted among those responsible for earthquake preparedness actions in different governmental agencies and at different levels revealed on the one hand a desire for information on a broad range of topics, but on the other hand that no resources were allocated in practice to gather this information. A Geographic Information System-based process that was developed following the survey, allowed the required information on seismic hazards and loss and damage risks to be rapidly collected, mapped and integrated. This supported the identification of high-priority areas, for which a more detailed analysis could be initiated. An implementation of the process showed promise, and confirmed its feasibility. Its relative simplicity may ensure that an earthquake preparedness process is initiated by governments that are otherwise reluctant to allocate resources for this purpose.
Ballermann, Mark; Shaw, Nicola T; Mayes, Damon C; Gibney, R T Noel
Electronic documentation methods may assist critical care providers with information management tasks in Intensive Care Units (ICUs). We conducted a quasi-experimental observational study to investigate patterns of information tool use by ICU physicians, nurses, and respiratory therapists during verbal communication tasks. Critical care providers used tools less at 3 months after the CCIS introduction. At 12 months, care providers referred to paper and permanent records, especially during shift changes. The results suggest potential areas of improvement for clinical information systems in assisting critical care providers in ensuring informational continuity around their patients.
Pilegaard, Kirsten; Eriksen, Folmer Damsted; Sørensen, Marten
This paper presents the plant information included in the eBASIS (BioActive Substances in Foods Information System) database on composition and biological activity of selected bioactive compounds from European plant/mushroom foods with putative beneficial and/or toxic effects. The European Food...... Information Resource (EuroFIR)-NETTOX Plant List (2007) presents scientific and vernacular names in 15 European languages for around 325 major European plant/mushroom foods and also for different parts of these foods. This list and its predecessor, the NETTOX List of Food Plants, have been used by national...... food authorities and within the European Union for consideration of plants and mushrooms that have been used to a significant degree up to 1997 and are therefore not covered by the novel food regulation (European Parliament and Council of the European Union, 1997). The species and the plant part...
The aim of the paper is to overview the leading information processing domain in Russia and Eastern Europe, namely All Russian Institute for Scientific and Technical Information (VINITI ) of the Russian Academy of Sciences. Russian science structure is different from that in the Western Europe and the US. The main aim of VINITI is to collect, process and disseminate scientific information on various fields of science and technology, published in 70 countries in 40 languages, selected from books, journals, conference proceedings, and patents. A special attention is given to the journal selection and depositing manuscripts (a kind of grey literature), an important source for Russian research. VINITI has created the largest database containing about 30 million records dating back to 1980. About 80,000-100,000 new records are added monthly. VINITI publishes the Journal Abstract (JA) on 19 fields of science, including medicine, containing about a million publications annually. Two thirds of these records are foreign and 36.7% - Russian sources.
Vandeweerd, Jean-Michel; Clegg, Peter; Hougardy, V; Buczinski, Sébastien
Bovine veterinarians need to base their clinical decisions on the best scientific evidence. Due to lack of time, the relevant information should be available in a structured and summarized publication, such as systematic reviews. The results and the discussion should be reported in a practical and useful way. A structured abstract helps the busy practitioner to have a quick look on the evidence gained by this approach. There is a lack of studies in many areas of ruminant health compared with human health. Although this can be perceived as a limitation, veterinarians and scientists should design strategies to develop more systematic reviews.
Moghissi, A Alan; Gerraa, Vikrham Kumar; McBride, Dennis K; Swetnam, Michael
This paper starts by describing the historical evolution of assessment of biologic effects of ionizing radiation leading to the linear non-threshold (LNT) system currently used to regulate exposure to ionizing radiation. The paper describes briefly the concept of Best Available Science (BAS) and Metrics for Evaluation of Scientific Claims (MESC) derived for BAS. It identifies three phases of regulatory science consisting of the initial phase, when the regulators had to develop regulations without having the needed scientific information; the exploratory phase, when relevant tools were developed; and the standard operating phase, when the tools were applied to regulations. Subsequently, an attempt is made to apply the BAS/MESC system to various stages of LNT. This paper then compares the exposure limits imposed by regulatory agencies and also compares them with naturally occurring radiation at several cities. Controversies about LNT are addressed, including judgments of the U.S. National Academies and their French counterpart. The paper concludes that, based on the BAS/MESC system, there is no disagreement between the two academies on the scientific foundation of LNT; instead, the disagreement is based on their judgment or speculation.
Othman, Noordin; Vitry, Agnes I; Roughead, Elizabeth E; Ismail, Shaiful B; Omar, Khairani
.... However, studies have shown that the quality of this information is often low. No study has assessed the medicines information provided by pharmaceutical representatives to doctors in Malaysia and no recent evidence in Australia is present...
Stein, Bradley D; Kogan, Jane N; Essock, Susan; Fudurich, Stephanie
This qualitative study examined consumer preferences regarding the content and use of provider performance data and other provider information to aid in consumers' decision making. Focus groups were conducted with 41 adults who were consumers of mental health care, and discussions were transcribed and analyzed with standard qualitative research methods. Consumers supported trends toward enhancing information about providers and its availability. Several key themes emerged, including the need for easily accessible information and the most and least useful types of information. Current efforts to share provider performance information do not meet consumer preferences. Modest changes in the types of information being shared and the manner in which it is shared may substantially enhance use of such information. Such changes may help consumers to be more informed and empowered in making decisions about care, improve the quality of the care delivered, and support the movement toward a more recovery-focused system of care.
Ismail Shaiful B; Roughead Elizabeth E; Vitry Agnes I; Othman Noordin; Omar Khairani
Abstract Background Pharmaceutical representatives provide medicines information on their promoted products to doctors. However, studies have shown that the quality of this information is often low. No study has assessed the medicines information provided by pharmaceutical representatives to doctors in Malaysia and no recent evidence in Australia is present. We aimed to compare the provision of medicines information by pharmaceutical representatives to doctors in Australia and Malaysia. Metho...
Hanoch, Yaniv; Pachur, Thorsten
Nurses are increasingly being called upon to be the conveyers of important statistical information to patients. This trend is particularly evident in the domains of genetics and cancer screening. These new roles, however, demand new competencies, such as the ability to solve statistical problems, and the skill to communicate the answers effectively, as effective communication is an important ingredient in shared decision making. Genetic testing, perhaps more than other medical domains, relies heavily on the use of statistics. Being able to convey statistical information effectively is vital. In this paper, we illustrate the problems health care professionals have had in tackling and communicating statistical information. We introduce the natural frequencies method of solving Bayesian inference problems and review empirical evidence that shows the superiority of this format. Being able to transform probabilities into natural frequencies facilitates correct Bayesian inferences. It is argued that the conventional approach to educating nurses in Bayesian problem solving should be reconsidered and their statistical curriculum should be supplemented with instruction in using the natural frequency format.
Larsen, Peder Olesen; von Ins, Markus
The growth rate of scientific publication has been studied from 1907 to 2007 using available data from a number of literature databases, including Science Citation Index (SCI) and Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI). Traditional scientific publishing, that is publication in peer-reviewed journals, is still increasing although there are big differences between fields. There are no indications that the growth rate has decreased in the last 50 years. At the same time publication using new channels, for example conference proceedings, open archives and home pages, is growing fast. The growth rate for SCI up to 2007 is smaller than for comparable databases. This means that SCI was covering a decreasing part of the traditional scientific literature. There are also clear indications that the coverage by SCI is especially low in some of the scientific areas with the highest growth rate, including computer science and engineering sciences. The role of conference proceedings, open access archives and publications published on the net is increasing, especially in scientific fields with high growth rates, but this has only partially been reflected in the databases. The new publication channels challenge the use of the big databases in measurements of scientific productivity or output and of the growth rate of science. Because of the declining coverage and this challenge it is problematic that SCI has been used and is used as the dominant source for science indicators based on publication and citation numbers. The limited data available for social sciences show that the growth rate in SSCI was remarkably low and indicate that the coverage by SSCI was declining over time. National Science Indicators from Thomson Reuters is based solely on SCI, SSCI and Arts and Humanities Citation Index (AHCI). Therefore the declining coverage of the citation databases problematizes the use of this source.
sport of countries of Ukraine, Belarus, RF, Moldova, Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan, in spite of general specific of preparation of skilled specialists, carry out different informative support of educational process. Ukraine is oriented on the European system of the informative providing, forms electronic repository are archives of storage, accumulation and providing of open access to the results of the scientific researches conducted in educational establishment. The institutes of higher of physical culture and sport of Byelorussia, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan and RF are used by the so-called electronic-library systems on the base of state educational standard, and the informative providing carries out the sporting institute of higher of Moldova by the traditional forms of informing, not giving the users of the opened access to the electronic informative resources.
Freda, Carmela; Atakan, Kuvvet; Cocco, Massimo
EPOS, the European Plate Observing System, is an ESFRI infrastructure serving the needs of the solid Earth science community as a whole. EPOS promotes the use of multidisciplinary solid Earth data to improve the understanding of physical and chemical processes controlling earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, tsunamis as well as those driving tectonics and surface dynamics. The EPOS mission is to create a single, sustainable, and distributed infrastructure that integrates the diverse European research infrastructures for solid Earth science under a common framework with the final goal of delivering a suite of domain-specific and multidisciplinary data, products, and services in one single and integrated platform. Addressing ethics issues is a relevant challenge for any initiative, program or project dealing with scientific data and products provision, access to services for scientific purposes and communication with different stakeholders, including industry and society at large. In examining the role of EPOS on openly and freely delivering scientific data and products to diverse stakeholders including but not limited to scientists, we are looking at ethical issues associated with the use and re-use of these data and products possibly leading to a malevolent use and/or misuse of the data with implications on, for example, national security, environmental protection and risk communication. Moreover, EPOS is aware that the research promoted by the use of data delivered through its platform can have a profound influence on the environment, human health and wellbeing, economic development, and other facets of societies. We know there is nothing intrinsically bad about openly and freely delivering scientific data, as it serves as a tool for leveraging researches leading to solutions for a responsible management of Earth's resources and mitigation of natural hazards. However, we must evaluate the effects of such a data provision and feel the obligation to adopt a responsible
Hübner, A.; Horsfield, B.; Kapp, I.
With the Shale Gas Information Platform SHIP, the GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences engages in the public discussion of technical and environmental issues related to shale gas exploration and production. Unconventional fossil fuels, already on stream in the USA, and now under rapid development globally, have brought about a fundamental change in energy resource distribution and energy politics. Among these resources, shale gas is currently most discussed, with the public perspective focusing on putative environmental risk rather than on potential benefits. As far as Europe's own shale gas resources are concerned, scientific and technological innovations will play key roles in defining the dimension of future shale gas production, but it is especially the public's perception and level of acceptance that will make or break shale gas in the near-term. However, opinions on environmental risks diverge strongly: risks are minor and controllable according to industry, while environmental groups often claim the opposite. The Shale Gas Information Platform SHIP brings the perspective of science to the discussion on technical and environmental issues related to shale gas exploration and production. SHIP will not only showcase but discuss what is known and what is not yet know about environmental challenges and potential risks. SHIP features current scientific results and best practice approaches and builds on a network of international experts. The project is interactive and aims to spark discussion among all stakeholders. The Shale Gas Information Platform SHIP covers basic information and news on shale gas, but at the heart of SHIP is the Knowledge Base, a collection of scientific reviews from international experts. The articles give an overview on the current state of knowledge on a certain topic including knowledge gaps, and put this into context of past experiences, current best practices, and opinions expressed by different stakeholders. The articles are open
Segev, Elad; Sharon, Aviv J
In response to the news coverage of scientific events and to science education, people increasingly go online to get more information. This study investigates how patterns of science and technology information-seeking on Google and Wikipedia change over time, in ways that differ between "ad hoc" terms that correspond to news coverage and "cyclic" terms that correspond to the academic period. Findings show that the science and technology activity in Google and Wikipedia was significantly associated with ad hoc and cyclic patterns. While the peak activity in Google and Wikipedia largely overlapped for ad hoc terms, it mismatched for cyclic terms. The findings indicate the importance of external cues such as news media and education, and also of the online engagement process, and particularly the crucial but different role played by Google and Wikipedia in gaining science and technology knowledge. Educators and policy makers could benefit from taking into account those different patterns.
Full Text Available The arguments for and against genetically modified (GM food focus on the characteristics of the scientific uncertainty and asymmetric information for the GM food. How do these two factors affect the competition and pricing strategy of food firms that separate GM food and conventional food conforming to consumer’s right to know? We explore the issue of pricing strategies between two firms producing horizontally and vertically differentiated foods in the context of asymmetric information and scientific uncertainty. The theoretical results show that there are two separating perfect Bayesian equilibria in which the prices of the conventional food and GM food are strategic complements and the profits of two types of firms are both increasing in the price of GM food. The numerical example shows that a decrease of the expected potential net damage as the most sensitive parameter leads to an increase of the profits of the two firms. Additionally, an increase in product differentiation helps to increase the two firms’ profits. Finally, the decrease in risk aversion as the second sensitive parameter helps to increase both products’ prices and quantities and both firms’ profits. This paper contributes by combining food safety regulation with market mechanisms and competition.
Soyyılmaz, Demet; Griffin, Laura M.; Martín, Miguel H.; Kucharský, Šimon; Peycheva, Ekaterina D.; Vaupotič, Nina; Edelsbrunner, Peter A.
Scientific thinking is a predicate for scientific inquiry, and thus important to develop early in psychology students as potential future researchers. The present research is aimed at fathoming the contributions of formal and informal learning experiences to psychology students’ development of scientific thinking during their 1st-year of study. We hypothesize that informal experiences are relevant beyond formal experiences. First-year psychology student cohorts from various European countries will be assessed at the beginning and again at the end of the second semester. Assessments of scientific thinking will include scientific reasoning skills, the understanding of basic statistics concepts, and epistemic cognition. Formal learning experiences will include engagement in academic activities which are guided by university authorities. Informal learning experiences will include non-compulsory, self-guided learning experiences. Formal and informal experiences will be assessed with a newly developed survey. As dispositional predictors, students’ need for cognition and self-efficacy in psychological science will be assessed. In a structural equation model, students’ learning experiences and personal dispositions will be examined as predictors of their development of scientific thinking. Commonalities and differences in predictive weights across universities will be tested. The project is aimed at contributing information for designing university environments to optimize the development of students’ scientific thinking. PMID:28239363
Soyyılmaz, Demet; Griffin, Laura M; Martín, Miguel H; Kucharský, Šimon; Peycheva, Ekaterina D; Vaupotič, Nina; Edelsbrunner, Peter A
Scientific thinking is a predicate for scientific inquiry, and thus important to develop early in psychology students as potential future researchers. The present research is aimed at fathoming the contributions of formal and informal learning experiences to psychology students' development of scientific thinking during their 1st-year of study. We hypothesize that informal experiences are relevant beyond formal experiences. First-year psychology student cohorts from various European countries will be assessed at the beginning and again at the end of the second semester. Assessments of scientific thinking will include scientific reasoning skills, the understanding of basic statistics concepts, and epistemic cognition. Formal learning experiences will include engagement in academic activities which are guided by university authorities. Informal learning experiences will include non-compulsory, self-guided learning experiences. Formal and informal experiences will be assessed with a newly developed survey. As dispositional predictors, students' need for cognition and self-efficacy in psychological science will be assessed. In a structural equation model, students' learning experiences and personal dispositions will be examined as predictors of their development of scientific thinking. Commonalities and differences in predictive weights across universities will be tested. The project is aimed at contributing information for designing university environments to optimize the development of students' scientific thinking.
Fang-Ying Yang; Yu-Hsin Chen; Meng-Jung Tsai
The purpose of the study was to explore the judgment criteria used by university students for evaluating online information about a socio-scientific issue and the associations, if any, with their epistemic beliefs...
Havik, Else M.; Kooijman, Aart C.; Steyvers, Frank J. J. M.
The effectiveness of different types of verbal information provided by electronic travel aids was studied in a real-life setting. Assessments included wayfinding performance and the preferences of 24 visually impaired users. The participants preferred a combination of route information and environmental information, even though this information…
Garoufallou, Emmanouel; Balatsoukas, Panos; Siatri, Rania; Zafeiriou, Georgia; Asderi, S.; Ekizoglou; P.
The increased popularity of Google search engine in the daily routine in one's workplace and in the academic information seeking process is undeniable. "Googling" challenges the traditional skills of librarians as information providers and the role of library and information service provision in the digital era. This paper reports on the…
Full Text Available The article presents a historical reconstruction of Ukrainian-Polish scientific relations in the field of humanities in 1955-1960, conducted on the basis of archival sources study. Scientific information exchange of humanitarian institutions of the AS of the Ukrainian SSR with Polish research institutions was quite diversified. It included mutual visits of the scientists from research institutes as delegations members, individual scientific missions to research institutions in order to acquaint with scientific developments, participation in international workshops, congresses and conferences, international book exchange, joint publishing, mutual reviewing of scientific publications. From the second half of the 50s of the 20th century there was an intensification of joint research projects conducted for the development of certain scientific issues, which were of interest for both Ukrainian and Polish scientists, who endeavored to solve them
Sakai, Hitomi; Katsumata, Noriyuki; Takahashi, Miyako
The Institute of Medicine (IOM) of the United States recommends that all cancer survivors be provided with a survivorship care plan (SCP), which includes a patient treatment summary and a follow-up care plan. However, SCPs have not been widely adopted in Japan. To provide basic data necessary for implementing SCPs in Japan, we aimed to investigate the forms of clinical and survivorship-related information that Japanese cancer survivors receive from their healthcare providers, and to examine whether written information increases their satisfaction. We performed a cross-sectional online survey of cancer survivors who underwent acute cancer treatment and had at least one follow-up with a physician in the past year. Cancer survivors provided the elements and forms (verbally and/or written) of information they received, as well as the degree of satisfaction with the information provided. Responses were obtained from 545 cancer survivors. Information elements such as surgical procedure (98.3%), surgical outcome (98.1%), and names of administered chemotherapy agents (97.8%) were commonly provided, whereas mental care resources and providers (29.7%), effects on marital relationship and sexual health (35.7%), and effects on fertility (43.4%) were less common. A large proportion of cancer survivors received verbal information only. For 18 of 20 elements, except for effects on fertility and duration of hormonal therapy, satisfaction was significantly higher when both forms of information were provided (P information can better meet the needs of Japanese cancer survivors.
Kurimoto, Fuki; Hori, Satoko; Satoh, Hiroki; Miki, Akiko; Sawada, Yasufumi
For drug fostering and evolution, it is important to collect information directly from patients on the efficacy and safety of drugs as well as patient needs. At present, however, information gathered by healthcare professionals, pharmaceutical companies, or governments is not sufficient. There is concern that patients may fail to recognize the importance of providing information voluntarily. The present study was conducted to provide drug information to patients/consumers, to enlighten them on the importance of providing drug information by themselves, and to develop an Internet website, called "Minkusu," for collecting drug information from patients. This website is based on a registration system (free of charge). It is designed to provide information on proper drug use, and to collect opinions about drugs. As of May 31, 2012, a total of 1149 people had been registered. The male/female ratio of registered members was approximately 1:1, and patients/consumers accounted for 23%. According to the results of a questionnaire survey, several patient/consumer members appreciated the usefulness of the information service, and they took an opportunity to know of the concepts of drug development and evolution (Ikuyaku, in Japanese) through the information services provided by this site. In conclusion, the developed information system would contribute to the proper use of drugs by patients/consumers and to the promotion of drug development and evolution.
Buxner, Sanlyn; Impey, Chris; Romine, James; Nieberding, Megan
Using 25 years of data, we have been conducting a long-term study of undergraduate students’ science literacy. Based on questions developed for the National Science Board’s survey of the US public, we have gathered data from students enrolled in astronomy courses to help us understand their basic science knowledge as well as attitudes towards and beliefs about science. Science literacy of students in this study has remained relatively unchanged over a quarter of a century. Additionally, students’ beliefs and attitudes were associated with their overall knowledge in science. Less predictive were their self-reported majors, year in school, and number of college science courses taken. Students in this study consistently outperformed the general public surveyed by the NSB.Three years ago we broadened to our study to include an investigation of where students get their information about science and what sources they believe are the most and least reliable for that information. This past year, we have collected parallel data from lifelong learners from around the globe enrolled in a Massively Open Online Course (MOOC) in astronomy, 70% of this audience lives outside the US and represent 170 countries. We will present results of these new studies of almost 700 undergraduate students and over 2500 lifelong learners. Overall, the lifelong learners possess a greater interest in science and better knowledge in science despite less overall college science course experience. Using online sources of scientific information were prevalent for both traditional college students and lifelong learners, although there were distinct differences between how different groups of learners perceived the reliability of online information. We will discuss the implications of teaching science in both traditional in-person college classes and in online learning environments as sources of scientific information and information literacy.This material is based upon work supported by the
Pinelli, Thomas E.; Glassman, Myron
A pilot study was conducted to evaluate selected NASA scientific and technical information (STI) products. The study, which utilized survey research in the form of a self-administered mail questionnaire, had a two-fold purpose -- to gather baseline data regarding the use and perceived usefulness of selected NASA STI products and to develop/validate questions that could be used in a future study concerned with the role of the U.S. government technical report in aeronautics. The sample frame consisted of 25,000 members of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics in the U.S. with academic, government or industrial affiliation. Simple random sampling was used to select 2000 individuals to participate in the study. Three hundred fifty-three usable questionnaires (17 percent response rate) were received by the established cutoff date. The findings indicate that: (1) NASA STI is used and is generally perceived as being important; (2) the use rate for NASA-authored conference/meeting papers, journal articles, and technical reports is fairly uniform; (3) a considerable number of respondents are unfamiliar with STAR (Scientific and Technical Aerospace Reports), IAA (International Aerospace Abstracts), SCAN (Selected Current Aerospace Notices), and the RECON on-line retrieval system; (4) a considerable number of respondents who are familiar with these media do not use them; and (5) the perceived quality of NASA-authored journal articles and technical reports is very good.
Oliveras, B.; Márquez, C.; Sanmartí, N.
This research analyses what happens when a critical reading activity based on a press article dealing with an energy-related problem is implemented with two groups of students of 13-14 years old and 16-17 years old in the same school (a total of 117 students). Specifically, the research analyses the students' profiles from the standpoint of their attitudes to the information given in the news story and the use they make of it when writing an argumentative text. It also analyses the difficulties the students have when it comes to applying their knowledge about energy in a real-life context. Lastly, some strategies are suggested for helping students to critically analyse the scientific content of a newspaper article. Three reader profiles were identified (the credulous reader, the ideological reader and the critical reader). No significant differences were found in reading profiles in terms of age or scientific knowledge. The findings show that the activity helped to link science learning in school with facts relating to an actual context, particularly in the case of students with more science knowledge.
Cacace, Mirella; Ettelt, Stefanie; Brereton, Laura; Pedersen, Janice S; Nolte, Ellen
This article provides details on a report that reviews and discusses information systems reporting on the quality or performance of providers of healthcare ("quality information systems") in seven countries: Denmark, England, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Sweden and the United States. Data collection involves a review of the published and grey literature and is complemented by information provided by key informants in the selected countries using a detailed questionnaire. Quality information systems typically address a number of audiences, including patients (or respectively the general public before receiving services and becoming patients), commissioners, purchasers and regulators. We observe that as the policy context for quality reporting in countries varies, so also does the nature and scope of quality information systems within and between countries. Systems often pursue multiple aims and objectives, which typically are (a) to support patient choice (b) to influence provider behaviour to enhance the quality of care (c) to strengthen transparency of the provider-commissioner relationship and the healthcare system as a whole and (d) to hold healthcare providers and commissioners to account for the quality of care they provide and the purchasing decisions they make. We emphasise that the main users of information systems are the providers themselves as the publication of information provides an incentive for improving the quality of care. Finally, based on the evidence reviewed, we identify a number of considerations for the design of successful quality information systems, such as the clear definition of objectives, ensuring users' accessibility and stakeholder involvement, as well as the need to provide valid, reliable and consistent data.
Ismail Shaiful B
Full Text Available Abstract Background Pharmaceutical representatives provide medicines information on their promoted products to doctors. However, studies have shown that the quality of this information is often low. No study has assessed the medicines information provided by pharmaceutical representatives to doctors in Malaysia and no recent evidence in Australia is present. We aimed to compare the provision of medicines information by pharmaceutical representatives to doctors in Australia and Malaysia. Methods Following a pharmaceutical representative's visit, general practitioners in Australia and Malaysia who had agreed to participate, were asked to fill out a questionnaire on the main product and claims discussed during the encounter. The questionnaire focused on provision of product information including indications, adverse effects, precautions, contraindications and the provision of information on the Pharmaceutical Benefit Scheme (PBS listings and restrictions (in Australia only. Descriptive statistics were produced. Chi-square analysis and clustered linear regression were used to assess differences in Australia and Malaysia. Results Significantly more approved product information sheets were provided in Malaysia (78% than in Australia (53% (P Conclusions Information on indications and dosages were usually provided by pharmaceutical representatives in Australia and Malaysia. However, risk and harmful effects of medicines were often missing in their presentations. Effective control of medicines information provided by pharmaceutical representatives is needed.
Treinish, L. A.
The development and use of NASA's Pilot Climate Data System (PCDS) are discussed. The PCDS is used as a focal point for managing and providing access to a large collection of actively used data for the Earth, ocean and atmospheric sciences. The PCDS provides uniform data catalogs, inventories, and access methods for selected NASA and non-NASA data sets. Scientific users can preview the data sets using graphical and statistical methods. The system has evolved from its original purpose as a climate data base management system in response to a national climate program, into an extensive package of capabilities to support many types of data sets from both spaceborne and surface based measurements with flexible data selection and analysis functions.
Fitch, Rebecca C; Harnack, Lisa J; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne R; Story, Mary T; French, Simone A; Oakes, J Michael; Rydell, Sarah A
To gather consumer input about approaches to providing energy composition information for foods on fast-food restaurant menus. We asked a subset of individuals (n = 150) in an experimental study about the influence of nutrition labeling on fast-food meal choices to evaluate calorie information on mock fast-food menus in various formats. Three community sites in the Minneapolis-St. Paul, Minnesota, metropolitan area. Adolescents and adults who ate fast food at least once per week were recruited. Via a series of open- and close-ended questions, participants gave feedback about several formats for providing energy composition information for foods on fast-food restaurant menus. Means and frequencies were calculated, and chi2 tests were conducted. When asked to compare a menu that provided calorie information for each menu item with a menu that provided the number of minutes of running that would be required to burn the calories contained in each menu item, 71.0% of participants preferred the calorie information over the physical activity information. Participants also compared two approaches to providing caloric reference information on the menu (average daily calorie needs per day vs. per meal), and 61.3% preferred the calorie needs-per-meal format. Our results may be useful in designing approaches to providing energy composition information for foods on fast-food restaurant menus.
Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kennedy, John M.
In fiscal year 1994, the United States government spent about $68 billion for science and technology. Although there is general agreement among policy makers that the results of this expenditure can be used to enhance technological innovation and improve economic competitiveness, there is no coherent scientific and technical information (STI) policy. The absence of a cohesive policy and STI policy framework means that the transfer and utilization of STI goes uncoordinated. This chapter examines the U.S. government's role in funding science and technology, reviews Federal STI activities and involvement in the transfer and use of STI resulting from federally-funded science and technology, presents issues surrounding the use of federally-funded STI, and offers recommendations for improving the transfer and use of STI.
Nataliia V. Morze
Full Text Available The article is devoted to a systematic approach to the formation of the masters’ ICT competence in the modern university: development and approval of corporate standard, identification of necessary and sufficient conditions for its software, development of tools for the evaluation of the masters’ ICT competence and mechanisms for the integration of ICT in education system. There is presented the example of one of the ways of forming the masters’ ICT competence in the process of scientific activity by training on a specially designed course of study, which can serve as an example of open course in informal learning, and evaluation system of their formation through the use of the University e-learning resources.
Areeda, J. S.; Smith, J. R.; Lundgren, A. P.; Maros, E.; Macleod, D. M.; Zweizig, J.
Eby, David W; Molnar, Lisa J; Kostyniuk, Lidia P; St Louis, Renée M; Zanier, Nicole
The study aim was to gain a better understanding of the characteristics of informal caregivers who provide transportation assistance and to explore the types and frequency of this assistance. A telephone survey was administered to a representative sample of 268 informal caregivers (age 45-80) who provide transportation assistance to older adults (age 70 and older) in Michigan. Responses were analyzed overall and by the caregiver sex and care recipient age. Informal transportation caregivers were: most often women; on average 61 years old; generally college educated; employed full- or part-time jobs; relatively healthy; providing care to a parent/family member 1-4 times per week, living close to the care recipient; and providing assistance by giving rides. Less than one-half of caregivers sought information to help them provide assistance. No significant burden was reported and there were few differences by sex of the caregiver of the age group of the care recipient.
David W Eby
Full Text Available The study aim was to gain a better understanding of the characteristics of informal caregivers who provide transportation assistance and to explore the types and frequency of this assistance. A telephone survey was administered to a representative sample of 268 informal caregivers (age 45-80 who provide transportation assistance to older adults (age 70 and older in Michigan. Responses were analyzed overall and by the caregiver sex and care recipient age. Informal transportation caregivers were: most often women; on average 61 years old; generally college educated; employed full- or part-time jobs; relatively healthy; providing care to a parent/family member 1-4 times per week, living close to the care recipient; and providing assistance by giving rides. Less than one-half of caregivers sought information to help them provide assistance. No significant burden was reported and there were few differences by sex of the caregiver of the age group of the care recipient.
Risks for patients and consumers can be minimized depending on how they are provided appropriate drug information. Therefore, from the viewpoint of hospital pharmacists, I would like to report on how information should be provided in order to minimize patient risk. For example, there is an ongoing opinion that the provision of easy-to-understand drug information to patients and consumers "does not appear necessary". The reasons for this include the following: Because the level of understanding varies greatly among patients, it is difficult to define what "easy-to-understand" information entails; rather, it may cause misunderstanding. These problems occur repeatedly if they are resolved by individual institutions. Therefore, it is essential to standardize the drug information provided to patients, that is, to establish a system to transmit drug information to patients and consumers. Regardless of whether the development of a hospital information system is in progress or not, it can be said that the development of such information systems is gradually spreading outside of hospitals and the situation is changing. From the viewpoint of patients, medical services are not limited to those from hospitals. Patient-centered collaboration between hospitals/clinics and pharmacies (but not the collaboration between hospital pharmacists and community pharmacists (why not?)) can provide good medical services only if patient information is shared. It is essential to establish a system for providing a drug guide for patients, in order to have patients understand drug information. The preparation of Drug Information for Patients would provide health care specialists a communication tool that helps minimize patient risk.
Grispen, Janaica E J; Ickenroth, Martine H P; de Vries, Nanne K; van der Weijden, Trudy; Ronda, Gaby
Diagnostic self-tests (tests on body materials that are initiated by consumers with the aim of diagnosing a disorder or risk factor) are becoming increasingly available. Although the pros and cons of self-testing are currently not clear, it is an existing phenomenon that is likely to gain further popularity. To examine consumers' use of and needs for information about self-testing, and to assess the quality of consumer information provided with home test kits, as perceived by consumers and as assessed using a checklist of quality criteria. A cross-sectional Internet survey among 305 self-testers assessed their use of and needs for information and their perception of the quality of consumer information provided with self-test kits. A meta-search engine was used to identify Dutch and English consumer information for home diagnostic tests available online at the time of the study. The quality of this consumer information was evaluated using a checklist of quality criteria. The consumers' information needs were in line with the most frequently used information, and the information was perceived as being of moderate to good quality. The information was mostly in agreement with clinical practice guidelines, although information on reliability and follow-up behaviour was limited. Approximately half of the instruction leaflets did not include information on the target group of the test. Although generally of moderate to good quality, some aspects of the information provided were in many cases insufficient. European legislation concerning self-tests and accompanying information needs to be adapted and adhered to more closely. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Dingman, Deirdre A; Schulz, Mark R; Wyrick, David L; Bibeau, Daniel L; Gupta, Sat N
In 2010, the United States (US) enacted a restaurant menu labeling law. The law also applied to vending machine companies selling food. Research suggested that providing nutrition information on menus in restaurants might reduce the number of calories purchased. We tested the effect of providing nutrition information and 'healthy' designations to consumers where vending machines were located in college residence halls. We conducted our study at one university in Southeast US (October-November 2012). We randomly assigned 18 vending machines locations (residence halls) to an intervention or control group. For the intervention we posted nutrition information, interpretive signage, and sent a promotional email to residents of the hall. For the control group we did nothing. We tracked sales over 4 weeks before and 4 weeks after we introduced the intervention. Our intervention did not change what the residents bought. We recommend additional research about providing nutrition information where vending machines are located, including testing formats used to present information.
Cohen, Jonathan B.; Erwin, R. Michael; French, John B.; Marion, Jeffrey L.; Meyers, J. Michael
The U.S. Geological Survey's Patuxent Wildlife Research Center (PWRC) conducted a study for the National Park Service (NPS) Southeast Region, Atlanta, GA, and Cape Hatteras National Seashore (CAHA) in North Carolina to review, evaluate, and summarize the available scientific information for selected species of concern at CAHA (piping plovers, sea turtles, seabeach amaranth, American oystercatchers, and colonial waterbirds). This work consisted of reviewing the scientific literature and evaluating the results of studies that examined critical life history stages of each species, and focused on the scientific findings reported that are relevant to the management of these species and their habitats at CAHA. The chapters that follow provide the results of that review separately for each species and present scientifically based options for resource management at CAHA. Although no new original research or experimental work was conducted, this synthesis of the existing information was peer reviewed by over 15 experts with familiarity with these species. This report does not establish NPS management protocols but does highlight scientific information on the biology of these species to be considered by NPS managers who make resource management decisions at CAHA. To ensure that the best available information is considered when assessing each species of interest at CAHA, this review included published research as well as practical experience of scientists and wildlife managers who were consulted in 2005. PWRC scientists evaluated the literature, consulted wildlife managers, and produced an initial draft that was sent to experts for scientific review. Revisions based on those comments were incorporated into the document. The final draft of the document was reviewed by NPS personnel to ensure that the description of the recent status and management of these species at CAHA was accurately represented and that the report was consistent with our work agreement. The following
.... Whereas expansion of a water utility typically involves the replacement of informal providers, the experience in Manila demonstrates that the rapid connection of low-income areas actually hinges...
Stewart, J.; Hackathorn, E. J.; Joyce, J.; Smith, J. S.
Within our community data volume is rapidly expanding. These data have limited value if one cannot interact or visualize the data in a timely manner. The scientific community needs the ability to dynamically visualize, analyze, and interact with these data along with other environmental data in real-time regardless of the physical location or data format. Within the National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA's), the Earth System Research Laboratory (ESRL) is actively developing the NOAA Earth Information System (NEIS). Previously, the NEIS team investigated methods of data discovery and interoperability. The recent focus shifted to high performance real-time visualization allowing NEIS to bring massive amounts of 4-D data, including output from weather forecast models as well as data from different observations (surface obs, upper air, etc...) in one place. Our server side architecture provides a real-time stream processing system which utilizes server based NVIDIA Graphical Processing Units (GPU's) for data processing, wavelet based compression, and other preparation techniques for visualization, allows NEIS to minimize the bandwidth and latency for data delivery to end-users. Client side, users interact with NEIS services through the visualization application developed at ESRL called TerraViz. Terraviz is developed using the Unity game engine and takes advantage of the GPU's allowing a user to interact with large data sets in real time that might not have been possible before. Through these technologies, the NEIS team has improved accessibility to 'Big Data' along with providing tools allowing novel visualization and seamless integration of data across time and space regardless of data size, physical location, or data format. These capabilities provide the ability to see the global interactions and their importance for weather prediction. Additionally, they allow greater access than currently exists helping to foster scientific collaboration and new
花岡, 智恵; Hanaoka, Chie
In this paper, we investigate whether expected bequests from elderly parents affects the probability of children providing informal care, using Japanese micro data. We found that elderly parents with home equity were more likely to receive informal care from their children compared to those without. The results imply that the assets of the elderly may affect the probability of receiving informal care from their children.
Havik, Else M.; Kooijman, Aart C.; Steyvers, Frank J. J. M.
The effectiveness of different types of verbal information provided by electronic travel aids was studied in a real-life setting. Assessments included wayfinding performance and the preferences of 24 visually impaired users. The participants preferred a combination of route information and
Demetriades, Andreas K; Alg, Varinder Singh; Hardwidge, Carl
Trigeminal neuralgia has a variety of treatments with variable efficacy. Sufferers present to a spectrum of disciplines. While traditional delivery of medical information has been by oral/printed communication, up to 50-80% patients access the internet for information. Confusion, therefore, may arise when seeking treatment for trigeminal neuralgia. We evaluated the quality of information on the internet for trigeminal neuralgia using the DISCERN© instrument. Only 54% websites had clear objectives; 42% delivered on these. A total of 71% provided relevant information on trigeminal neuralgia, 54% being biased/unbalanced; 71% not providing clear sources of information. No website detailed the side-effect profile of treatments; 79% did not inform patients of the consequences/natural history if no treatment was undertaken; it was unclear if patients could anticipate symptoms settling or when treatment would be indicated. Internet information on trigeminal neuralgia is of variable quality; 83% of sites assessed were of low-to-moderate quality, 29% having 'serious shortcomings.' Only two sites scored highly, only one being in the top 10 search results. Websites on trigeminal neuralgia need to appreciate areas highlighted in the DISCERN© instrument, in order to provide balanced, reliable, evidence-based information. To advise patients who may be misguided from such sources, neurosurgeons should be aware of the quality of information on the internet.
Full Text Available Background: This study analyzed differences between transparency of information disclosure and related demands from the health service consumer’s perspective. It also compared how health service providers and consumers are associated by different levels of mandatory information disclosure. Methods: We obtained our research data using a questionnaire survey (health services providers, n = 201; health service consumers, n = 384. Results: Health service consumers do not have major concerns regarding mandatory information disclosure. However, they are concerned about complaint channels and settlement results, results of patient satisfaction surveys, and disclosure of hospital financial statements (p < 0.001. We identified significant differences in health service providers’ and consumers’ awareness regarding the transparency of information disclosure (p < 0.001. Conclusions: It may not be possible for outsiders to properly interpret the information provided by hospitals. Thus, when a hospital discloses information, it is necessary for the government to consider the information’s applicability. Toward improving medical expertise and information asymmetry, the government has to reduce the burden among health service consumers in dealing with this information, and it has to use the information effectively.
Despite the lack of substantial evidence for improvement in the quality of teaching and learning with information and communication technology (ICT), governmental organizations, including those of Canada and Australia, have made large investments into ICT. This investment has been largely predicated on the hypothesized relationship between ICT and science achievement, and the need for ICT as a means of providing broad-scale training to meet the demand for a skilled workforce. To better understand this possible relationship, this study used data from the 2006 administration of the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA 2006) to determine the extent to which scientific literacy is predicted by student- and school-level variables related to ICT, after adjusting for student demographic characteristics and school characteristics. The findings suggest that, once student demographic characteristics and school characteristics have been accounted for, students with prior experience with ICT, who browse the Internet more frequently, and who are confident with basic ICT tasks earned higher scientific literacy scores. Gender differences existed with respect to types of productivity and entertainment software used; this difference may be attributed to personal choice and initiative to learn ICT. Finally, differences in ICT use between Canada and Australia, particularly with school use, may be due to initiatives in Australia (e.g., National Goals of Schooling for the Twenty-first Century) that promote the increased use of ICT in classrooms.
Portnova, Tatiana V.
The paper deals with various practices and methods for actualization of the scientific information in art excursions. The modern society is characterized by commitment to information richness. The range of cultural and historical materials used as the basis for art excursions is really immense. However if to consider the number of excursions with…
Othman, Noordin; Vitry, Agnes I; Roughead, Elizabeth E; Ismail, Shaiful B; Omar, Khairani
Pharmaceutical representatives provide medicines information on their promoted products to doctors. However, studies have shown that the quality of this information is often low. No study has assessed the medicines information provided by pharmaceutical representatives to doctors in Malaysia and no recent evidence in Australia is present. We aimed to compare the provision of medicines information by pharmaceutical representatives to doctors in Australia and Malaysia. Following a pharmaceutical representative's visit, general practitioners in Australia and Malaysia who had agreed to participate, were asked to fill out a questionnaire on the main product and claims discussed during the encounter. The questionnaire focused on provision of product information including indications, adverse effects, precautions, contraindications and the provision of information on the Pharmaceutical Benefit Scheme (PBS) listings and restrictions (in Australia only). Descriptive statistics were produced. Chi-square analysis and clustered linear regression were used to assess differences in Australia and Malaysia. Significantly more approved product information sheets were provided in Malaysia (78%) than in Australia (53%) (P pharmaceutical representatives. Contraindications, precautions, drug interactions and adverse effects were often omitted in the presentations (range 25% - 41%). General practitioners in Australia and Malaysia indicated that in more than 90% of presentations, pharmaceutical representatives partly or fully answered their questions on contraindications, precautions, drug interactions and adverse effects. More general practitioners in Malaysia (85%) than in Australia (60%) reported that pharmaceutical representatives should have mentioned contraindications, precautions for use, drug interaction or adverse effects spontaneously (P presentations, general practitioners reported the pharmaceutical representatives failed to mention information on PBS listings to general
van Veen, Merel Rebecca; Beijer, Sandra; Adriaans, Anika Maria Alberdina; Vogel-Boezeman, Jeanne; Kampman, Ellen
Although widely available, the general public, cancer patients, and cancer survivors have difficulties accessing evidence-based information on nutrition and cancer. It is challenging to distinguish myths from facts, and sometimes conflicting information can be found in different places. The public and patients would benefit from evidence-based, correct, and clear information from an easily recognizable source. The aim of this project is to make scientific information available for the general public, cancer patients, and cancer survivors through a website. The aim of this paper is to describe and evaluate the development of the website as well as related statistics 1st year after its launch. To develop the initial content for the website, the website was filled with answers to frequently asked questions provided by cancer organizations and the Dutch Dietetic Oncology Group, and by responding to various fiction and facts published in the media. The website was organized into 3 parts, namely, nutrition before (prevention), during, and after cancer therapy; an opportunity for visitors to submit specific questions regarding nutrition and cancer was included. The website was pretested by patients, health care professionals, and communication experts. After launching the website, visitors' questions were answered by nutritional scientists and dieticians with evidence- or eminence-based information on nutrition and cancer. Once the website was live, question categories and website statistics were recorded. Before launch, the key areas for improvement, such as navigation, categorization, and missing information, were identified and adjusted. In the 1st year after the launch, 90,111 individuals visited the website, and 404 questions were submitted on nutrition and cancer. Most of the questions were on cancer prevention and nutrition during the treatment of cancer. The website provides access to evidence- and eminence-based information on nutrition and cancer. As can be
Beijer, Sandra; Adriaans, Anika Maria Alberdina; Vogel-Boezeman, Jeanne; Kampman, Ellen
Background Although widely available, the general public, cancer patients, and cancer survivors have difficulties accessing evidence-based information on nutrition and cancer. It is challenging to distinguish myths from facts, and sometimes conflicting information can be found in different places. The public and patients would benefit from evidence-based, correct, and clear information from an easily recognizable source. Objective The aim of this project is to make scientific information available for the general public, cancer patients, and cancer survivors through a website. The aim of this paper is to describe and evaluate the development of the website as well as related statistics 1st year after its launch. Methods To develop the initial content for the website, the website was filled with answers to frequently asked questions provided by cancer organizations and the Dutch Dietetic Oncology Group, and by responding to various fiction and facts published in the media. The website was organized into 3 parts, namely, nutrition before (prevention), during, and after cancer therapy; an opportunity for visitors to submit specific questions regarding nutrition and cancer was included. The website was pretested by patients, health care professionals, and communication experts. After launching the website, visitors’ questions were answered by nutritional scientists and dieticians with evidence- or eminence-based information on nutrition and cancer. Once the website was live, question categories and website statistics were recorded. Results Before launch, the key areas for improvement, such as navigation, categorization, and missing information, were identified and adjusted. In the 1st year after the launch, 90,111 individuals visited the website, and 404 questions were submitted on nutrition and cancer. Most of the questions were on cancer prevention and nutrition during the treatment of cancer. Conclusions The website provides access to evidence- and eminence
Harold M. Rauscher
The Numerical Information Manipulation System extends the versatility provided by word processing systems for textual data manipulation to mathematical or statistical data in numeric matrix form. Numeric data, stored and processed in the matrix form, may be manipulated in a wide variety of ways. The system allows operations on single elements, entire rows, or columns...
Sushko, O. P.; Kaznin, A. A.; Babkin, A. V.; Bogdanov, D. A.
The study we are conducting involves the analysis of information security levels achieved by energy providers operating in the North Arctic Region. We look into whether the energy providers’ current information security levels meet reliability standards and determine what further actions may be needed for upgrading information security in the context of the digital transformation that the world community is undergoing. When developing the information security systems for electric energy providers or selecting the protection means for them, we are governed by the fact that the assets to be protected are process technologies. While information security risk can be assessed using different methods, the evaluation of the economic damage from these risks appears to be a difficult task. The most probable and harmful risks we have identified when evaluating the electric energy providers’ information security will be used by us as variables. To provide the evaluation, it is necessary to calculate the costs relating to elimination of the risks identified. The final stage of the study will involve the development of an operation algorithm for the North Arctic Region’s energy provider’s business information protection security system – a set of information security services, and security software and hardware.
Lewandowsky, S.; Brown, G. D.; Cook, J.
Improved communication of scientific findings requires knowledge not only of how people process information, but also how such information spreads through society and how people's opinions are shaped by those of others. Recent advances in cognitive science have yielded mathematical modeling techniques that permit the detailed analysis of individuals' cognition as well as the behavior of communities in the aggregate. We present two case studies that highlight the insights that can be derived from mathematical models of cognition: We show how rational processing of information (i.e., Bayesian hypothesis revision) can nonetheless give rise to seemingly 'irrational' belief updating, as for example when acceptance of human-caused global warming decreases among conservatives in response to evidence for human-caused global warming. We also show in an agent-based simulation how social norms can lead to polarization of societies. The model assumes that agents located within a social network observe the behavior of neighbours and infer from their behavior the social distribution of particular attitudes (e.g. towards climate change). Agents are assumed to dislike behaviours that are extreme within their neighbourhood (social extremeness aversion), and hence have a tendency to conform. However, agents are also assumed to prefer choices that are consistent with their own true beliefs (authenticity preference). Expression of attitudes reflects a compromise between these opposing principles. The model sheds light on the role of perceived rather than actual social consensus on attitudes to climate change. This is particularly relevant given the widespread perception among those who reject climate science that the percentage of the public that is sharing their beliefs is much higher than it actually is.
... mental health services. 51.46 Section 51.46 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... a provider of mental health services. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, if a... of mental health services, it may not disclose information from such records to the individual who is...
.../or per diem for programs to assist homeless veterans' transition to independent living and to... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Homeless Providers Grant and Per Diem Program) Activity; Comment.... Titles a. Homeless Providers Grant and Per Diem Program, Capital Grant. Application, VA Form 10-0361-CG...
Cohen, Fred; Rogers, Deanna T.; Neagoe, Vicentiu
A method and/or system and/or apparatus providing deception and/or execution alteration in an information system. In specific embodiments, deceptions and/or protections are provided by intercepting and/or modifying operation of one or more system calls of an operating system.
Goldberg, Holly Bianca; Shorten, Allison
The objective of this study was to determine whether differences exist between patient and provider perceptions regarding the decision-making process around use of epidural analgesia during childbirth. The dyadic patient-provider Decisional Conflict Scale was modified to measure first-time mother (n = 35) and maternity care provider (n = 52) perceptions. Providers perceived a greater degree of informed decision making than patients (84.97 vs. 79.41, p = .04) and were more likely to recall they upheld patients' rights to make informed choices than patients were to perceive their rights had been upheld (85.95 vs. 71.73, p < .01). This incongruity highlights the need to align legal principles with practice to create mutual agreement between stakeholder perceptions of informed decision making.
Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica; Grunert, Klaus G
to explore to what extent health claims presented in the context of (thus framed) scientific phrasing of health information impacts health inferences and attitudes towards a product when compared to ‘soft’ health-related information framing. Different versions of mock resveratrol food supplement descriptions...
Kumar, Manish; Mostafa, Javed; Ramaswamy, Rohit
Health information systems (HIS) in India, as in most other developing countries, support public health management but fail to enable healthcare providers to use data for delivering quality services. Such a failure is surprising, given that the population healthcare data that the system collects are aggregated from patient records. An important reason for this failure is that the health information architecture (HIA) of the HIS is designed primarily to serve the information needs of policymakers and program managers. India has recognised the architectural gaps in its HIS and proposes to develop an integrated HIA. An enabling HIA that attempts to balance the autonomy of local systems with the requirements of a centralised monitoring agency could meet the diverse information needs of various stakeholders. Given the lack of in-country knowledge and experience in designing such an HIA, this case study was undertaken to analyse HIS in the Bihar state of India and to understand whether it would enable healthcare providers, program managers and policymakers to use data for decision-making. Based on a literature review and data collected from interviews with key informants, this article proposes a federated HIA, which has the potential to improve HIS efficiency; provide flexibility for local innovation; cater to the diverse information needs of healthcare providers, program managers and policymakers; and encourage data-based decision-making.
Maria Cristina Cereser Pezzella
Full Text Available The present study aims to analyze the protection provided personal data, voluntarely given by people and collected in files without their consent, an affront to their confidentiality, confidentiality and privacy rights, affecting the right of personality, also fail to materialize the right to privacy in the Information Society. The Information Society, backed the rule of knowledge, creation, circulation and encumbrance information, is embodied in the current form of promotion of personal interrelationships, and the targeting of economic, political, legal and social, causing significant changes in daily life. Indeed, in the information society, the person is primarily represented by information, therefore known for data, numbers, shopping routines and spending, in the form of text, images, sounds and recorded data. This new perception of the individual, as an informational being, shall claim the protection of privacy, especially because it is a fundamental right of first magnitude, recognized as personality right, unavailability of characters, intransferable, inalienable and imprescriptible. The research was mainly based literature, using the national and international doctrine pondering the various branches of legal science, beyond the historical perspective - key to better understanding the complexity in the contemporary context.
Liu, Jian-Ming; Xu, Ru-Xiang; Hu, Yong-Sheng; Ren, Lian-Kun; Qiao, Hui; Ding, Hu; Liu, Zhi-Liang
Most patients with epilepsy want to learn as much as possible about the disease, and many have turned to the internet for information. Patients are likely to use information obtained from the internet to control their epilepsy, but little is known about the accuracy of this information. In this survey, we have assessed the feasibility and usability of internet-based interventions for the treatment of epilepsy. Data were collected from an internet search. Different search terms were used to obtain general information on epilepsy together with information about medication, types of epilepsy, treatment, women's health, and other information. The accuracy of the information was evaluated by a group of experts. A total of 1320 web pages were assessed. The majority were websites related to health. A large number (80.2%) of web pages contained content related to the search term. A significant number of web pages 450/1058 (42.5%) claimed to provide information from a credible source; however, only 206/1058 (19.5%) of the information was accurate and complete; 326/1058 (30.8%) was accurate but incomplete; 328/1058 (31.0%) was correct but nonstandard, and 198/1058 (18.8%) was inaccurate. The authenticity of the information was not significantly different between the two search engines (χ2 = 0.009, P = 0.924). No significant difference was observed in the information obtained from a specialist or nonspecialist source (χ2 = 7.538, P = 0.057). There was also no correlation between the quality of the information and the priority (χ2 = 6.880, P = 0.076). Searching for information about epilepsy on the internet is convenient, but the information provided is not reliable. Too much information is inaccurate or for advertisement purposes, and it is difficult for patients to find the useful information. Turning to the internet for medical knowledge may be harmful. Physicians should be aware that their patients may search for information on the internet and guide them to safe
Full Text Available Background: Most patients with epilepsy want to learn as much as possible about the disease, and many have turned to the internet for information. Patients are likely to use information obtained from the internet to control their epilepsy, but little is known about the accuracy of this information. In this survey, we have assessed the feasibility and usability of internet-based interventions for the treatment of epilepsy. Methods: Data were collected from an internet search. Different search terms were used to obtain general information on epilepsy together with information about medication, types of epilepsy, treatment, women′s health, and other information. The accuracy of the information was evaluated by a group of experts. Results: A total of 1320 web pages were assessed. The majority were websites related to health. A large number (80.2% of web pages contained content related to the search term. A significant number of web pages 450/1058 (42.5% claimed to provide information from a credible source; however, only 206/1058 (19.5% of the information was accurate and complete; 326/1058 (30.8% was accurate but incomplete; 328/1058 (31.0% was correct but nonstandard, and 198/1058 (18.8% was inaccurate. The authenticity of the information was not significantly different between the two search engines (χ2 = 0.009, P = 0.924. No significant difference was observed in the information obtained from a specialist or nonspecialist source (χ2 = 7.538, P = 0.057. There was also no correlation between the quality of the information and the priority (χ2 = 6.880, P = 0.076. Conclusions: Searching for information about epilepsy on the internet is convenient, but the information provided is not reliable. Too much information is inaccurate or for advertisement purposes, and it is difficult for patients to find the useful information. Turning to the internet for medical knowledge may be harmful. Physicians should be aware that their patients may search for
Full Text Available Introduction. A formal graphical model of the scientific communication process is presented in this paper. Purpose. The purpose of the model is to act as a road map for policy discussions and research concerning the process. In comparison to earlier models found in the literature this model is more detailed, hierarchical and includes more modelling constructs (activities, inputs, outputs, controls, mechanisms. Method. logy. The modelling methodology used is IDEF0, a process modelling method, which previously has mainly been used for business process reengineering in the manufacturing industry. The current version of the model consists of thirty-three diagrams, with 113 different activities and over 200 different inputs, outputs, controls and mechanisms. Scope. The scope of the model is the whole communication value chain, from initial research to the assimilation of research results to improve every-day life. The model treats both informal and formal communication, as well as the publishing of data, but the major focus is on modelling the publishing and indexing of traditional peer reviewed journal articles, as well as the activities of readers to find out about them and access them. The new business models and parallel functions enabled by the Internet, such as open access journals and e-print repositories, are also in focus.
Bencze, Larry; Sperling, Erin; Carter, Lyn
In many educational contexts throughout the world, increasing focus has been placed on socio-scientific issues; that is, disagreements about potential personal, social and/or environmental problems associated with fields of science and technology. Some suggest (as do we) that many of these potential problems, such as those associated with climate change, are so serious that education needs to be oriented towards encouraging and enabling students to become citizen activists, ready and willing to take personal and social actions to reduce risks associated with the issues. Towards this outcome, teachers we studied encouraged and enabled students to direct open-ended primary (e.g., correlational studies), as well as secondary (e.g., internet searches), research as sources of motivation and direction for their activist projects. In this paper, we concluded, based on constant comparative analyses of qualitative data, that school students' tendencies towards socio-political activism appeared to depend on myriad, possibly interacting, factors. We focused, though, on curriculum policy statements, school culture, teacher characteristics and student-generated research findings. Our conclusions may be useful to those promoting education for sustainability, generally, and, more specifically, to those encouraging activism on such issues informed by student-led research.
Price, C. Aaron; Lee, H.-S.; Malatesta, K.
Stereoscopic technology (3D) is rapidly becoming ubiquitous across research, entertainment and informal educational settings. Children of today may grow up never knowing a time when movies, television and video games were not available stereoscopically. Despite this rapid expansion, the field's understanding of the impact of stereoscopic visualizations on learning is rather limited. Much of the excitement of stereoscopic technology could be due to a novelty effect, which will wear off over time. This study controlled for the novelty factor using a variety of techniques. On the floor of an urban science center, 261 children were shown 12 photographs and visualizations of highly spatial scientific objects and scenes. The images were randomly shown in either traditional (2D) format or in stereoscopic format. The children were asked two questions of each image—one about a spatial property of the image and one about a real-world application of that property. At the end of the test, the child was asked to draw from memory the last image they saw. Results showed no overall significant difference in response to the questions associated with 2D or 3D images. However, children who saw the final slide only in 3D drew more complex representations of the slide than those who did not. Results are discussed through the lenses of cognitive load theory and the effect of novelty on engagement.
Krumhansl, R. A.; Foster, J.; Peach, C. L.; Busey, A.; Baker, I.
The practice of science and engineering is being revolutionized by the development of cyberinfrastructure for accessing near real-time and archived observatory data. Large cyberinfrastructure projects have the potential to transform the way science is taught in high school classrooms, making enormous quantities of scientific data available, giving students opportunities to analyze and draw conclusions from many kinds of complex data, and providing students with experiences using state-of-the-art resources and techniques for scientific investigations. However, online interfaces to scientific data are built by scientists for scientists, and their design can significantly impede broad use by novices. Knowledge relevant to the design of student interfaces to complex scientific databases is broadly dispersed among disciplines ranging from cognitive science to computer science and cartography and is not easily accessible to designers of educational interfaces. To inform efforts at bridging scientific cyberinfrastructure to the high school classroom, Education Development Center, Inc. and the Scripps Institution of Oceanography conducted an NSF-funded 2-year interdisciplinary review of literature and expert opinion pertinent to making interfaces to large scientific databases accessible to and usable by precollege learners and their teachers. Project findings are grounded in the fundamentals of Cognitive Load Theory, Visual Perception, Schemata formation and Universal Design for Learning. The Knowledge Status Report (KSR) presents cross-cutting and visualization-specific guidelines that highlight how interface design features can address/ ameliorate challenges novice high school students face as they navigate complex databases to find data, and construct and look for patterns in maps, graphs, animations and other data visualizations. The guidelines present ways to make scientific databases more broadly accessible by: 1) adjusting the cognitive load imposed by the user
Buys, Laurie; Aird, Rosemary; van Megen, Kimberley; Miller, Evonne; Sommerfeld, Jeffrey
Disagreement within the global science community about the certainty and causes of climate change has led the general public to question what to believe and whom to trust on matters related to this issue. This paper reports on qualitative research undertaken with Australian residents from two rural areas to explore their perceptions of climate change and trust in information providers. While overall, residents tended to agree that climate change is a reality, perceptions varied in terms of its causes and how best to address it. Politicians, government, and the media were described as untrustworthy sources of information about climate change, with independent scientists being the most trusted. The vested interests of information providers appeared to be a key reason for their distrust. The findings highlight the importance of improved transparency and consultation with the public when communicating information about climate change and related policies.
Aarts, J W M; van Oers, A M; Faber, M J; Cohlen, B J; Nelen, W L D M; Kremer, J A M; van Dulmen, A M
Online patient-provider communication has become increasingly popular in fertility care. However, it is not known to what extent patients express cues or concerns and how providers respond. In this study, we investigated cues and responses that occur in online patient-provider communication at an infertility-specific expert forum. We extracted 106 threads from the multidisciplinary expert forum of two Dutch IVF clinics. We performed the following analyses: (1) thematic analysis of patients' questions; and (2) rating patients' emotional and informational cues and subsequent professionals' responses using an adaptation of the validated Medical Interview Aural Rating Scale. Frequencies of themes, frequencies of cues and responses, and sequences (what cue is followed by what response) were extracted. Sixty-five infertile patients and 19 providers participated. The most common themes included medication and lifestyle. Patients gave more informational than emotional cues (106 versus 64). Responses to informational cues were mostly adequate (61%). The most common response to emotional cues was empathic acknowledgment (72%). Results indicate that an online expert forum could have a positive effect on patient outcomes, which should guide future research. Offering infertile patients an expert forum to communicate with providers can be a promising supplement to usual care in both providing information and addressing patients' concerns.
Pylypiv, Nadiia; Motyl, Vasyl
This article explores the impact of organization of managerial accounting on formation of informational base on the local (level of the individual enterprise), regional, disciplinary and national levels in the context of providing stable economic development for building enterprises. Based on our findings, we built a cognitive map of such an influence, which shows itself through different spheres, such as: economic, ecological and social, and will enjoy informational requests of management fo...
The Department of Energy (DOE) and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) provide consumers with web-based information on the environmental effects of automobiles so that individuals can make informed choices about the vehicles they use or may purchase. DOE and EPA maintain a web site (www.fueleconomy.gov) that provides users with information about fuel economy [as well as greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and air pollution emissions] for the cars and trucks they use or may consider purchasing. EPA also maintains a separate web site (www.epa.gov/greenvehicles) that offers similar information, with the focus on air pollution emissions rather than fuel economy. The American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy (ACEEE) (www.greenercars.com) and the California Air Resources Board (CARB) (www.arb.ca.gov/msprog/ccbg/ccbg.htm) also maintain web sites that provide consumers with information on the environmental effects of automobiles. Through the National Transportation Research Center (NTRC) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, DOE has supported some initial qualitative research with people who are interested in purchasing a new or used vehicle and whose actions identify them as at least somewhat concerned about the environment. The purpose of this research was to explore and understand how these people respond to the different ratings and measurements of environmental effects provided by the four web sites. The goal of the research is to optimize the communication of information provided on the DOE/EPA web site (www.fueleconomy.gov). Working with a private marketing research firm (The Looking Glass Group of Knoxville, Tennessee), NTRC staff initiated this research by meeting with two focus groups in Knoxville on February 27, 2001. To obtain information for comparison, staff from the NTRC and the Looking Glass Group also met with two focus groups in Los Angeles, California, on August 13, 2001.
Patients have to acquire information to support their decision on choosing a suitable healthcare provider. But in developing countries like Vietnam, accessibility issues remain an obstacle, thus adversely affect both quality and costliness of healthcare information. Vietnamese use both sources from health professionals and friends/relatives, especially when quality of the Internet-based cheaper sources appear to be still questionable. The search of information from both professionals and friends/relatives incurs some cost, which can be viewed as low or high depending low or high accessibility to the sources. These views potentially affect their choices. To investigate the effects that medical/health services information on perceived expensiveness of patients' labor costs. Two related objectives are a) establishing empirical relations between accessibility to sources and expensiveness; and, b) probabilistic trends of probabilities for perceived expensiveness. There is evidence for established relations among the variables "Convexp" and "Convrel" (all p's information sources (experts and friends/relatives) have influence on patients perception of information expensiveness. The use of experts source tends to increase the probability of perceived expensiveness. a) Probabilistic trends show Vietnamese patients have propensity to value healthcare information highly and do not see it as "expensive"; b) The majority of Vietnamese households still take non-professional advices at their own risks; c) There is more for the public healthcare information system to do to reduce costliness and risk of information. The Internet-based health service users communities cannot replace this system.
Acharya, Amit; Shimpi, Neel; Mahnke, Andrea; Mathias, Richard; Ye, Zhan
The authors conducted this study to identify the most relevant patient dental information in a medical-dental integrated electronic health record (iEHR) necessary for medical care providers to inform holistic treatment. The authors collected input from a diverse sample of 65 participants from a large, regional health system representing 13 medical specialties and administrative units. The authors collected feedback from participants through 11 focus group sessions. Two independent reviewers analyzed focus group transcripts to identify major and minor themes. The authors identified 336 of 385 annotations that most medical care providers coded as relevant. Annotations strongly supporting relevancy to clinical practice aligned with 18 major thematic categories, with the top 6 categories being communication, appointments, system design, medications, treatment plan, and dental alerts. Study participants identified dental data of highest relevance to medical care providers and recommended implementation of user-friendly access to dental data in iEHRs as crucial to holistic care delivery. Identification of the patients' dental information most relevant to medical care providers will inform strategies for improving the integration of that information into the medical-dental iEHR. Copyright © 2017 American Dental Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Sabel, Jaime L.; Vo, Tina; Alred, Ashley; Dauer, Jenny M.; Forbes, Cory T.
Although knowledge of disciplinary concepts and epistemic understanding of science are foundations of scientific literacy, students must learn to apply their knowledge to real-world situations. To engage effectively with contemporary water-related challenges with scientific and social dimensions, students need to understand the properties of water…
This study aims to provide information on the preparation of the scientific movies as a part of Information and Communications Technology. The preparation stages of the scientific movies and their visualizations on computer screens were described. For preparing movies, the unit on the "acid-base reactions" on 11th grade French chemistry curriculum was used, and the knowledge presented in the movies was determined by an analysis of the 11th grade chemistry curriculum and the chemistry books. A...
Kaufmann, J O; Smit, J W; Huisman, W; Idema, R N; Bakker, E; Giordano, P C
After a first survey in 2001, the Dutch Association of Hematological Laboratory Research (VHL) advised its members to adopt a basic protocol for haemoglobinopathy carrier detection and to provide genetic information with all positive results to allow health-care professionals to inform carriers about potential genetic risks. This article reports on the compliance with these recommendations and their consequences. Clinical chemists of all 106 Dutch laboratories were invited to answer a survey on patient population, diagnostic techniques used, (self-reported) knowledge, use and effect of the additional information. The average increase in diagnostic output was over 60% and the recommended basic protocol was applied by 65% of the laboratories. Over 84% of the laboratories reported to be aware of the additional recommendations and 77% to be using them. Most laboratories with limited diagnostic requests were still sending their cases to other laboratories and included the genetic information received from these laboratories in their diagnostic reports. The effect of information on subsequent 'family analysis' was estimated to be between 26 and 50%. The present study shows an increase in diagnostic potential for haemoglobinopathy over the last decade, especially in the larger cities. Low 'family testing' rates were mostly found in areas with lower carrier prevalence or associated with local reluctance to pass the information to carriers. In spite of a dramatic improvement, too many carriers are still not informed because of lack of awareness among health-care providers and more education is needed. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
This study investigated research meteorologists' current usage and evaluation of information and communication technologies (ICT) in performing research tasks and the current relationship between meteorologists' ICT use and content characteristics of their research outputs. It surveyed research meteorologists working in three NOAA funded research institutes based at universities. Follow-up interviews with two selective samples of the survey participants were conducted to provide additional evidence to survey results and make suggestions for future measurement development work. Multiple regression analysis was performed to test the hypothesized relationships between meteorologists' ICT use and two substantive characteristics of their research---data integration and intra-/interdisciplinarity. Descriptive statistics were calculated to discern inferences of the scientists' current state of use and their degree of satisfaction with ICT tools. Follow-up interviews were transcribed and analyzed qualitatively with open coding and axial coding. The study findings contradicted the two assumptions of ICT effects on meteorological research by showing that the greater frequency of networked ICT use is not significantly associated with either greater data integration in research analysis, or greater intra- or interdisciplinary research. The major ICT barrier is the lack of a data and information infrastructure and support system for integrated, standardized, specialized, and easily accessible data and information from distributed servers. Suggestions were provided on the improvements of technical, social, political, and educational settings to promote large-scale date integration and intra-/interdisciplinary research. By moving further from theoretical assumptions to practical examinations, the research findings provide empirical evidence of Bowker's theories on the social shaping and social impact of infrastructure in sciences and affirmed some of Bowker's arguments regarding
WORK EXPERIENCE OF THE OPERA TIVE INFORMATION SUPPORT SERVICE FOR SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH A T THE MEDICAL RADIOLOGICAL RESEARCH CENTER NAMED AFTER A.F . TSYB – BRANCH OF THE FEDERAL STATE BUDGET INSTITUTION "NATIONAL MEDICAL RESEARCH RADIOLOGICAL CENTER” OF T
N. P. Savina; V. A. Maznev; V. N. Galkin
Abstract:The Operative Information Support Service for Scientific Research of the Medical Radiological Research Center named after A. F. Tsyb — Branch of the FSBI «National Medical Research Radiological Center” of the RF Health Ministry presented a report on providing off-budget support for scientific activities over the period from 1993 to 2014 using domestic and foreign information resources. The dynamics of employee activities in institutional sectors with aim to receive financial support ...
Piero C. Giordano
Full Text Available The aims of this study are: i to enquire whether informing healthy hemoglobinopathy carriers about their condition is a welcome initiative in The Netherlands; ii to study whether using information letters and thorough explanation is associated with presence or absence of undesired feelings or emotions. We have approached 100 multi-ethnic carriers previously diagnosed in our lab. All subjects had previously received our information letter through their physician who was supposed to have provided an explanation of the letter if required. We have enquired whether the subjects had experienced negative or positive emotions after receiving our diagnosis and explanation and to which degree, if they were sufficiently informed and satisfied and if they would have considered prevention in case of risk. The rate negative versus positive feelings was calculated using a numerical distribution. We have registered negative feelings in a rate that was directly proportional to the lack of information. While the number of registered negative feelings in well-informed carriers was very low it was more present in badly informed. Nevertheless, all participants found carrier information a welcome initiative and over 80% of them declared to be in favor of prenatal diagnosis in case of risk.
Pearson, Steven D; Moreno, Ricardo; Trnka, Yvona
OBJECTIVE To study the process, outcomes, and time spent on informal consultations provided by gastroenterologists to the primary care general internists of an HMO. DESIGN Observational study. SETTING A large, urban staff-model HMO. PATIENTS/PARTICIPANTS Seven gastroenterologists constituting the total workforce of the gastroenterology department of the HMO. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS Data on 91 informal consultations were obtained, of which 55 (60%) involved the acute management of a patient with new symptoms or test results, and 36 (40%) were for questions related to nonacute diagnostic test selection or medical therapy. Questions regarding patients previously unknown to the gastroenterology department accounted for 74 (81%) of the consultations. Formal referral was recommended in only 16 (22%) of these cases. As judged by the time data gathered on the 91 consultations, the gastroenterologists spent approximately 7.2 hours per week to provide informal consultation for the entire HMO. CONCLUSIONS Gastroenterologists spend a significant amount of time providing informal consultation to their general internist colleagues in this HMO. The role informal consultation plays in the workload of physicians and in the clinical care of populations is an important question for health care system design, policy, and research. PMID:9686708
Manojlovich, Milisa; Adler-Milstein, Julia; Harrod, Molly; Sales, Anne; Hofer, Timothy P; Saint, Sanjay; Krein, Sarah L
Communication failures between physicians and nurses are one of the most common causes of adverse events for hospitalized patients, as well as a major root cause of all sentinel events. Communication technology (ie, the electronic medical record, computerized provider order entry, email, and pagers), which is a component of health information technology (HIT), may help reduce some communication failures but increase others because of an inadequate understanding of how communication technology is used. Increasing use of health information and communication technologies is likely to affect communication between nurses and physicians. The purpose of this study is to describe, in detail, how health information and communication technologies facilitate or hinder communication between nurses and physicians with the ultimate goal of identifying how we can optimize the use of these technologies to support effective communication. Effective communication is the process of developing shared understanding between communicators by establishing, testing, and maintaining relationships. Our theoretical model, based in communication and sociology theories, describes how health information and communication technologies affect communication through communication practices (ie, use of rich media; the location and availability of computers) and work relationships (ie, hierarchies and team stability). Therefore we seek to (1) identify the range of health information and communication technologies used in a national sample of medical-surgical acute care units, (2) describe communication practices and work relationships that may be influenced by health information and communication technologies in these same settings, and (3) explore how differences in health information and communication technologies, communication practices, and work relationships between physicians and nurses influence communication. This 4-year study uses a sequential mixed-methods design, beginning with a
Jantz, Ronald C.
Discussion of digital library projects at Rutgers University focuses on publishing bibliographic databases on the Web to provide access to information sources not likely to be published elsewhere. Describes the reusable technology platform concept, bibliographic platform architecture, metadata approach, data entry, and managing the process.…
... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration... Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice... entitled ``Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff: Providing Information About...
Nazari, Behzad; Ninknejad, Sahar
The present study highly supported the effective role of providing background information via email by the teacher to write e-mail by the students in learners' writing ability. A total number of 50 EFL advanced male students aged between 25 and 40 at different branches of Iran Language Institute in Tehran, Tehran. Through the placement test of…
... clients? 377.31 Section 377.31 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education... PROJECTS TO INCREASE CLIENT CHOICE PROGRAM What Post-Award Conditions Must Be Met by a Grantee? § 377.31 What information must a grantee provide to eligible clients? Each grantee shall advise all clients and...
Timmers, Caroline; Veldkamp, Bernard
Three studies are presented on attention paid to feedback provided by a computer-based assessment for learning on information literacy. Results show that the attention paid to feedback varies greatly. In general the attention focuses on feedback of incorrectly answered questions. In each study approximately fifty percent of the respondents paid…
Buffer, Janet; Kendall, Patricia; Medeiros, Lydia; Schroeder, Mary; Sofos, John
Objective: To determine content, education channels, and motivational factors that influence what health professionals teach about safe food handling to populations who are highly susceptible for foodborne illnesses. To assess the differences in information provided by health professionals to highly susceptible populations. Design: Descriptive,…
Sales, Luana Farias, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Sayao, Luis Fernando, E-mail: email@example.com [Centro de Informacoes Nucleares (CIN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)
In the context of the data-oriented science (eScience), a considerable part of the results of research activities has been created in digital formats. This means that the memory of the scientific institutions involved in this new scientific paradigm may be at risk of being lost by rapid technological obsolescence, the known fragility of digital media and also by the fragmentation of information and knowledge scattered across multiples repositories. Thus, management of research data in a digital networked and distributed environment becomes an increasing challenge for the research world and the whole area of information: information science, librarianship, knowledge management, archival science and information technology; moreover, in the dynamic environment featuring eScience, there is a need for novel concepts of documents establishing a linkage between traditional documents - printed or digital - stored in repositories, with the data sets stored in data repositories. In this new research environment, an important issue is how to preserve these new complex documents so that they maintain their structure, meaning and authenticity and also its ability to be retrieved, accessed and reused through time and space. In this sense, this paper proposes an information model focused on the curation of scientific memory of the Institute of Nuclear Engineering of the Brazilian Commission of Nuclear Energy (CNEN/IEN). The model considers the traditional scientific documents (theses, articles, books, etc.) in digital formats and all other relevant data and information related to them, such as: scientific data, software, simulations, photos, videos, historical facts, news, etc., compounding an enhanced publication type oriented to the nuclear area. (author)
Full Text Available The ability to choose freely is captured under the umbrella concept of “free will,” which designates an ability that plays a crucial role in most understandings of autonomy and responsibility and, thus, bears significance for moral practice and moral theory. Some claim that neuroscience research challenges the existence of free will/voluntary action while some who adopt stronger eliminativist stances have gone as far as describing free will as an illusion. Contrary to that, those relying on realist stances have restated the foundational value and role of folk psychological concepts of voluntary action and free will in, for example, the domains of ethics and law. An emerging body of research in cognitive science and social psychology has generated results suggesting that the phenomena captured by the concepts describing free will and voluntary action are dynamic and responsive to priming and framing effects. We propose that this body of research suggests the existence of dynamic and consequential properties of free will better captured following pragmatist theory and instrumentalist epistemology. This contrasts the simpler static concept of free will and the related metaphysics that was at the basis of earlier debates and structured around the poles of realism and eliminativism. This paper contextualizes ontological and epistemological debates about free will, describes a scientifically-informed and instrumentalist account of the concept of free will and voluntary action consistent with recent research in cognitive science, and discusses its implications for research (e.g., theoretical assumptions of research paradigms, interdisciplinary research and practice (e.g., impact on self-image and social behavior.
The ability to choose freely is captured under the umbrella concept of "free will," which designates an ability that plays a crucial role in most understandings of autonomy and responsibility and, thus, bears significance for moral practice and moral theory. Some claim that neuroscience research challenges the existence of free will/voluntary action while some who adopt stronger eliminativist stances have gone as far as describing free will as an illusion. Contrary to that, those relying on realist stances have restated the foundational value and role of folk psychological concepts of voluntary action and free will in, for example, the domains of ethics and law. An emerging body of research in cognitive science and social psychology has generated results suggesting that the phenomena captured by the concepts describing free will and voluntary action are dynamic and responsive to priming and framing effects. We propose that this body of research suggests the existence of dynamic and consequential properties of free will better captured following pragmatist theory and instrumentalist epistemology. This contrasts the simpler static concept of free will and the related metaphysics that was at the basis of earlier debates and structured around the poles of realism and eliminativism. This paper contextualizes ontological and epistemological debates about free will, describes a scientifically-informed and instrumentalist account of the concept of free will and voluntary action consistent with recent research in cognitive science, and discusses its implications for research (e.g., theoretical assumptions of research paradigms, interdisciplinary research) and practice (e.g., impact on self-image and social behavior).
The ability to choose freely is captured under the umbrella concept of “free will,” which designates an ability that plays a crucial role in most understandings of autonomy and responsibility and, thus, bears significance for moral practice and moral theory. Some claim that neuroscience research challenges the existence of free will/voluntary action while some who adopt stronger eliminativist stances have gone as far as describing free will as an illusion. Contrary to that, those relying on realist stances have restated the foundational value and role of folk psychological concepts of voluntary action and free will in, for example, the domains of ethics and law. An emerging body of research in cognitive science and social psychology has generated results suggesting that the phenomena captured by the concepts describing free will and voluntary action are dynamic and responsive to priming and framing effects. We propose that this body of research suggests the existence of dynamic and consequential properties of free will better captured following pragmatist theory and instrumentalist epistemology. This contrasts the simpler static concept of free will and the related metaphysics that was at the basis of earlier debates and structured around the poles of realism and eliminativism. This paper contextualizes ontological and epistemological debates about free will, describes a scientifically-informed and instrumentalist account of the concept of free will and voluntary action consistent with recent research in cognitive science, and discusses its implications for research (e.g., theoretical assumptions of research paradigms, interdisciplinary research) and practice (e.g., impact on self-image and social behavior). PMID:28567025
Gary L. Cochran
Full Text Available BackgroundHealth information exchange (HIE systems are implemented nationwide to integrate health information and facilitate communication among providers. The Nebraska Health Information Initiative is a state-wide HIE launched in 2009. Objective The purpose of this study was to conduct a comprehensive assessment of health care providers’ perspectives on a query-based HIE, including barriers to adoption and important functionality for continued utilization. MethodsWe surveyed 5618 Nebraska health care providers in 2013. Reminder letters were sent 30 days after the initial mailing. ResultsA total of 615 questionnaires (11% were completed. Of the 100 current users, 63 (63% indicated satisfaction with HIE. The most common reasons for adoption among current or previous users of an HIE (N = 198 were improvement in patient care (N = 111, 56% as well as receiving (N = 95, 48% and sending information (N = 80, 40% in the referral network. Cost (N = 233, 38% and loss of productivity (N = 220, 36% were indicated as the ‘major barriers’ to adoption by all respondents. Accessing a comprehensive patient medication list was identified as the most important feature of the HIE (N = 422, 69%. ConclusionsThe cost of HIE access and workflow integration are significant concerns of health care providers. Additional resources to assist practices plan the integration of the HIE into a sustainable workflow may be required before widespread adoption occurs. The clinical information sought by providers must also be readily available for continued utilization. Query-based HIEs must ensure that medication history, laboratory results and other desired clinical information be present, or long-term utilization of the HIE is unlikely.
Pauer, Frédéric; Göbel, Jens; Storf, Holger; Litzkendorf, Svenja; Babac, Ana; Frank, Martin; Lührs, Verena; Schauer, Franziska; Schmidtke, Jörg; Biehl, Lisa; Wagner, Thomas Of; Ückert, Frank; Graf von der Schulenburg, Johann-Matthias; Hartz, Tobias
The European Union considers diseases to be rare when they affect less than 5 in 10,000 people. It is estimated that there are between 5000 and 8000 different rare diseases. Consistent with this diversity, the quality of information available on the Web varies considerably. Thus, quality criteria for websites about rare diseases are needed. The objective of this study was to generate a catalog of quality criteria suitable for rare diseases. First, relevant certificates and quality recommendations for health information websites were identified through a comprehensive Web search. Second, all considered quality criteria of each certification program and catalog were examined, extracted into an overview table, and analyzed by thematic content. Finally, an interdisciplinary expert group verified the relevant quality criteria. We identified 9 quality certificates and criteria catalogs for health information websites with 304 single criteria items. Through this, we aggregated 163 various quality criteria, each assigned to one of the following categories: thematic, technical, service, content, and legal. Finally, a consensus about 13 quality criteria for websites offering medical information on rare diseases was determined. Of these categories, 4 (data protection concept, imprint, creation and updating date, and possibility to contact the website provider) were identified as being the most important for publishing medical information about rare diseases. The large number of different quality criteria appearing within a relatively small number of criteria catalogs shows that the opinion of what is important in the quality of health information differs. In addition, to define useful quality criteria for websites about rare diseases, which are an essential source of information for many patients, a trade-off is necessary between the high standard of quality criteria for health information websites in general and the limited provision of information about some rare diseases
Presentation at the 41st Annual Winter Meeting of The Toxicology Forum - From Assay to Assessment: Incorporating High Throughput Strategies into Health and Safety Evaluations on Building Scientific Confidence in Read-Across: Progress in using HT Data to inform Read-Across Perfor...
Full Text Available The interpretation of distance education notion by Ukrainian and foreign scientists is considered in the article. The main stages of the development (analysis, planning and design of the distance course "Databases and Information Systems" taking into account scientific basis of selection of educational material content are highlighted.
...: Scientific Information Packet Coordinator, 3710 SW U.S. Veterans Hospital Road, Mail Code: R&D 71, Portland... evaluated, including general hospitals, academic medical centers, and ambulatory surgical centers, among... excluded studies carried out in women at high risk of breast cancer; however, magnetic resonance imaging...
James M. Guldin; David Cawrse; Russell Graham; Miles Hemstrom; Linda Joyce; Steve Kessler; Ranotta McNair; George Peterson; Charles G. Shaw; Peter Stine; Mark Twery; Jeffrey Walter
The paper outlines a process called the science consistency review, which can be used to evaluate the use of scientific information in land management decisions. Developed with specific reference to land management decisions in the U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service, the process involves assembling a team of reviewers under a review administrator to...
Oltmann, Shannon M.
Scientific information, used by the U.S. federal government to formulate public policy in many arenas, is frequently contested and sometimes altered, blocked from publication, deleted from reports, or restricted in some way. This dissertation examines how and why restricted access to science policy (RASP) occurs through a comparative case study.…
Duda, Jeffrey J.; Wieferich, Daniel J.; Bristol, R. Sky; Bellmore, J. Ryan; Hutchison, Vivian B.; Vittum, Katherine M.; Craig, Laura; Warrick, Jonathan A.
The removal of dams has recently increased over historical levels due to aging infrastructure, changing societal needs, and modern safety standards rendering some dams obsolete. Where possibilities for river restoration, or improved safety, exceed the benefits of retaining a dam, removal is more often being considered as a viable option. Yet, as this is a relatively new development in the history of river management, science is just beginning to guide our understanding of the physical and ecological implications of dam removal. Ultimately, the “lessons learned” from previous scientific studies on the outcomes dam removal could inform future scientific understanding of ecosystem outcomes, as well as aid in decision-making by stakeholders. We created a database visualization tool, the Dam Removal Information Portal (DRIP), to display map-based, interactive information about the scientific studies associated with dam removals. Serving both as a bibliographic source as well as a link to other existing databases like the National Hydrography Dataset, the derived National Dam Removal Science Database serves as the foundation for a Web-based application that synthesizes the existing scientific studies associated with dam removals. Thus, using the DRIP application, users can explore information about completed dam removal projects (for example, their location, height, and date removed), as well as discover sources and details of associated of scientific studies. As such, DRIP is intended to be a dynamic collection of scientific information related to dams that have been removed in the United States and elsewhere. This report describes the architecture and concepts of this “metaknowledge” database and the DRIP visualization tool.
... U.S. economy and improve the productivity of the American scientific enterprise? (2) What specific... and existing markets and industries to create jobs and grow the economy? (9) What mechanisms could be...
Lau, Denys T; Joyce, Brian; Clayman, Marla L; Dy, Sydney; Ehrlich-Jones, Linda; Emanuel, Linda; Hauser, Joshua; Paice, Judith; Shega, Joseph W
Managing and administering medications to relieve pain and symptoms are common, important responsibilities for informal caregivers of patients receiving end-of-life care at home. However, little is known about how hospice providers prepare and support caregivers with medication-related tasks. This qualitative study explores the key approaches that hospice providers use to facilitate medication management for caregivers. Semistructured, open-ended interviews were conducted with 22 providers (14 nurses, four physicians, and four social workers) from four hospice organizations around an urban setting in the midwestern U.S. Based on the interviews, the following five key approaches emerged, constituting how the hospice team collectively helped caregivers manage medications: 1) establishing trust; 2) providing information; 3) promoting self-confidence; 4) offering relief (e.g., provided in-home medication assistance, mobilized supportive resources, and simplified prescriptions); and 5) assessing understanding and performance. Each hospice discipline used multiple approaches. Nurses emphasized tailoring information to individual caregivers and patients, providing in-home assistance to help relieve caregivers, and assessing caregivers' understanding and performance of medication management during home visits. Physicians simplified medication prescriptions to alleviate burden and reassured caregivers using their perceived medical authority. Social workers facilitated medication management by providing emotional support to promote self-confidence and mobilizing resources in caregivers' support networks and the community at large. Hospice nurses, physicians, and social workers identified distinct, yet overlapping, approaches in aiding caregivers with medication management. These findings emphasize the importance of interdisciplinary teamwork among hospice providers. Future research should investigate how common, standardized, effective, and efficient these approaches are in
Full Text Available The present work analises the main questions and hurdles involved in the adoption of a electronic scientific publication system, those related to the scientific community practices and rules of conduct. We emphasize the quality certification through peer review, interity and legitimiy maintenance and privacity preservation in the digital environment. Furthermore, we analise the academic community own perception of electronic journals available in Internet and its impacts in tenure and prommotion processes.
Faucompré, Pascal; Quoniam, Luc; Rostaing, Hervé; Dou, Henri
International audience; The aim of this poster is to present a software that will automatically introduce a new field in scientific bibliographic references and which is an application of a conceptual research that has been presented in a previous conference. The used algorithm is largely linked to the bibliometrics field, using distributional properties of the suggested links between scientific keywords and the International Patent Classification Catchwords. In a previous paper (I), we had ...
Black, Betty S; Brandt, Jason; Rabins, Peter V; Samus, Quincy M; Steele, Cynthia D; Lyketsos, Constantine G; Rosenblatt, Adam
This study's goal was to identify factors associated with providing either informed consent or assent for research in individuals at high risk for cognitive impairment. Cross-sectional baseline data were used to identify predictors of consent or assent status. The study was conducted at 22 assisted living facilities in Maryland. A stratified random sample of 198 assisted living residents participated in the study. Residents' consent or assent status was documented as providing informed consent, written assent, or verbal assent/no objection. Potential predictors included residents' demographic characteristics, measures of physical and mental health status, and neuropsychological test performance. Most participants provided written assent (32.8%) or verbal assent/no objection (30.3%) rather than informed consent (36.9%). Although many resident characteristics correlated with consent or assent status based on bivariate analyses, few variables distinguished those who provided written assent from those in the verbal assent/no objection group. On the basis of multiple discriminant analysis, the best predictors of consent or assent status were Mini-Mental State Exam scores, impairments in instrumental activities of daily living, and dementia diagnosis, which together classified correctly 63.6% of residents. The relatively small proportion of participants who could provide informed consent highlights the importance of assessing decisional capacity for research in a high-risk population and identifying an appropriate surrogate decision maker to provide proxy consent if needed. Consensus on how to define assent is lacking, and specific measures of assent capabilities are needed to better characterize the assent capacity continuum.
Sutula, Martha; Kudela, Raphael; Hagy, James D.; Harding, Lawrence W.; Senn, David; Cloern, James E.; Bricker, Suzanne B.; Beck, Marcus W.; Berg, Gry Mine
San Francisco Bay (SFB), USA, is highly enriched in nitrogen and phosphorus, but has been resistant to the classic symptoms of eutrophication associated with over-production of phytoplankton. Observations in recent years suggest that this resistance may be weakening, shown by: significant increases of chlorophyll-a (chl-a) and decreases of dissolved oxygen (DO), common occurrences of phytoplankton taxa that can form Harmful Algal Blooms (HAB), and algal toxins in water and mussels reaching levels of concern. As a result, managers now ask: what levels of chl-a in SFB constitute tipping points of phytoplankton biomass beyond which water quality will become degraded, requiring significant nutrient reductions to avoid impairments? We analyzed data for DO, phytoplankton species composition, chl-a, and algal toxins to derive quantitative relationships between three indicators (HAB abundance, toxin concentrations, DO) and chl-a. Quantile regressions relating HAB abundance and DO to chl-a were significant, indicating SFB is at increased risk of adverse HAB and low DO levels if chl-a continues to increase. Conditional probability analysis (CPA) showed chl-a of 13 mg m−3 as a “protective” threshold below which probabilities for exceeding alert levels for HAB abundance and toxins were reduced. This threshold was similar to chl-a of 13–16 mg m−3 that would meet a SFB-wide 80% saturation Water Quality Criterion (WQC) for DO. Higher “at risk” chl-a thresholds from 25 to 40 mg m−3 corresponded to 0.5 probability of exceeding alert levels for HAB abundance, and for DO below a WQC of 5.0 mg L−1 designated for lower South Bay (LSB) and South Bay (SB). We submit these thresholds as a basis to assess eutrophication status of SFB and to inform nutrient management actions. This approach is transferrable to other estuaries to derive chl-a thresholds protective against eutrophication.
Klein, Gudrun E; Guethlin, Corina
Among cancer care providers (CCPs), lack of knowledge constitutes an important barrier to the discussion of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use with patients. This study assessed CCPs' needs and preferences regarding CAM information and training (I&T). An online survey was completed by 209 general practitioners, 437 medical specialists, 159 oncology nurses and medical assistants, and 244 psychologists and social workers engaged in cancer care. Latent class analysis (LCA) was used to identify subgroups of individuals with distinct preference patterns regarding I&T content. CCPs prefer CAM I&T to be provided as lectures, information platforms on the internet, workshops, and e-mail newsletters. Concerning subject matters, many CCPs considered CAM therapy options for the treatment of a variety of cancer disease- and therapy-related symptoms to be very important (75%-72% of the sample); the same applies to an "overview of different CAM therapies" (74%). LCA identified 5 latent classes (LCs) of CCPs. All of them attached considerable importance to "medical indication," "potential side effects," and "tips for usage." LCs differed, however, in terms of overall importance ratings, the perceived importance of "patients' reasons" for using specific CAM therapies, "case examples," and "scientific evidence." Notably, the 5 LCs were clearly present in all 4 occupational groups. CAM I&T should provide CCPs with an overview of different CAM therapies and show how CAM might help in treating symptoms cancer patients frequently demonstrate (eg, fatigue). Moreover, I&T programs should be flexible and take into account that individual information needs vary even within the same occupational group. © The Author(s) 2016.
Dekens, C; Fontaine, C; Carpentier, E; Barcat, L; Gondry, J; Tourneux, P
Women hospitalized for preterm labor require clear information about prematurity. This study assessed whether or not specific written information about prematurity delivered at admission to the unit combined with an oral explanation from a pediatrician would decrease women's anxiety compared to an oral explanation alone. This was a prospective, single-center observational study. Women were included in the high-risk pregnancies department and distributed into two groups: receiving "only oral" information for a prenatal clinical consultation with a senior pediatrician or receiving "combined" oral information+a booklet about prematurity given to the women at admission. The primary endpoint was the change in anxiety-state (before and after the information procedure) evaluated by the State Trait Anxiety Inventory-Y (STAI-Y). The anxiety score before receiving information did not differ between the two groups (STAI-Y-A "combined" group: 46.7±3.0 vs. "only oral" group: 42.7±2.74; P=0.55). After consultation with a pediatrician, the acute anxiety-state score STAI-Y-A decreased significantly in the "combined" group (-6.7±1.9) compared to the "only oral" group (-2.5±4.6; Pinformation from a pediatrician reduced patients' anxiety more than oral information alone. Given that the psychology of the mother interacts with the pregnancy, it is necessary to provide clear and adapted information. Giving a booklet appears to be one of the modalities to improve information. Other modalities such as video documents have to be studied. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Concentration-response curves of isometric tension studies on isolated blood vessels are obtained traditionally. Although parameters such as Imax, EC50 and pA2 may be readily calculated, this method does not provide information on the temporal profile of the responses or the actual nature of the reaction curves. Computerized data acquisition systems can be used to obtain average data that represent a new source of otherwise inaccessible information, since early and late responses may be observed separately in detail
Burger, Joanna; Nakata, Kimi; Liang, Laura; Pittfield, Taryn; Jeitner, Christian
Governmental agencies, regulators, health professionals, and the public are faced with understanding and responding to new development practices and conditions in their local and regional environment. While hydraulic fracking (fracking) for shale gas has been practiced for over 50 years in some states, it is a relatively recent event in the northeastern United States. Providing environmental health information to the public about fracking requires understanding both the knowledge base and the perceptions of the public. The knowledge, perceptions, and concerns of college students about fracking were examined. Students were interviewed at Rutgers University in New Jersey, a state without any fracking, although fracking occurs in nearby Pennsylvania. Objectives were to determine (1) knowledge about fracking, (2) rating of concerns, (3) trusted information sources, (4) importance of fracking relative to other energy sources, and (5) the effect of a 15-min lecture and discussion on these aspects. On the second survey, students improved on their knowledge (except the components used for fracking), and their ratings changed for some concerns, perceived benefits, and trusted information sources. There was no change in support for further development of natural gas, but support for solar, wind, and wave energy decreased. Data suggest that students’ knowledge and perceptions change with exposure to information, but many of these changes were due to students using the Internet to look up information immediately after the initial survey and lecture. Class discussions indicated a general lack of trust for several information sources available on the Web. PMID:25965194
Burger, Joanna; Nakata, Kimi; Liang, Laura; Pittfield, Taryn; Jeitner, Christian
Governmental agencies, regulators, health professionals, and the public are faced with understanding and responding to new development practices and conditions in their local and regional environment. While hydraulic fracking (fracking) for shale gas has been practiced for over 50 years in some states, it is a relatively recent event in the northeastern United States. Providing environmental health information to the public about fracking requires understanding both the knowledge base and the perceptions of the public. The knowledge, perceptions, and concerns of college students about fracking were examined. Students were interviewed at Rutgers University in New Jersey, a state without any fracking, although fracking occurs in nearby Pennsylvania. Objectives were to determine (1) knowledge about fracking, (2) rating of concerns, (3) trusted information sources, (4) importance of fracking relative to other energy sources, and (5) the effect of a 15-min lecture and discussion on these aspects. On the second survey, students improved on their knowledge (except the components used for fracking), and their ratings changed for some concerns, perceived benefits, and trusted information sources. There was no change in support for further development of natural gas, but support for solar, wind, and wave energy decreased. Data suggest that students' knowledge and perceptions change with exposure to information, but many of these changes were due to students using the Internet to look up information immediately after the initial survey and lecture. Class discussions indicated a general lack of trust for several information sources available on the Web.
Islam, Qazi S; Ahmed, Syed M; Islam, Mohammad A; Chowdhury, Anita S; Siddiquea, Bodrun N; Husain, Mohammad A
BRAC (formerly Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee), in collaboration with the National Tuberculosis Control Programme, provides one full-day training on TB to make informal allopathic providers knowledgeable for managing TB in rural Bangladesh. This study explored the knowledge and practices of the providers receiving the above training in the control and prevention of TB. The study was conducted in 30 subdistricts, with 30 trained and 30 untrained providers randomly selected from each subdistrict. Approximately 3% (49/1800) did not provide complete information. Pre-tested structured and semi-structured questionnaires were used. TB was commonly perceived as a disease of only males (66.1%, 1157/1751). Only one-quarter knew about the bacterial cause of TB. Very few providers (2.1%, 36) had adequate knowledge regarding prevention of TB. They also lacked knowledge about TB treatment duration (71.6%, 1253), the meaning of DOTS (directly observed treatment, short course) (26.0%, 455) and multidrug resistance (20.6%, 360). Antibiotics (79.7%, 1396) and cough syrup (75.0%, 1313) were commonly prescribed by providers despite symptoms suggestive of TB. However, 70.2% (613) and 74.5% (650) of trained providers' knowledge and practice scores were equal to or more than the mean scores (≥6.97 and ≥6.6, respectively), whereas they were only 49.5% (435) and 64.2% (563), respectively, among untrained providers (ppreventing TB efficiently. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
This issue of Methods of Information in Medicine celebrates the journal's first 50 years. As the oldest journal in biomedical and health informatics and, being broader in its scope, as the journal dealing with the methodology and scientific fundamentals of organizing, representing and analysing data, information and knowledge in biomedicine and health care, the journal publications during the last five decades also reflect the formation of a scientific field that deals with information in biomedicine and health care. Five papers that arose from a scientific symposium on "biomedical informatics: confluence of multiple disciplines" held in Heidelberg, Germany, in June 2011 are included in this volume. The papers reflect not only the broad interdisciplinary scope of the journal, but also the broad and evolving scope of the field itself. We can also recognise that there is an ongoing need for original and relevant research. As a discipline that has an impact on many other fields and is also influenced by them, scientific exchange and collaborative research continues to be needed.
Hinds, Richard M; Klifto, Christopher S; Naik, Amish A; Sapienza, Anthony; Capo, John T
The Internet is a common resource for applicants of hand surgery fellowships, however, the quality and accessibility of fellowship online information is unknown. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the accessibility of hand surgery fellowship Web sites and to assess the quality of information provided via program Web sites. Hand fellowship Web site accessibility was evaluated by reviewing the American Society for Surgery of the Hand (ASSH) on November 16, 2014 and the National Resident Matching Program (NRMP) fellowship directories on February 12, 2015, and performing an independent Google search on November 25, 2014. Accessible Web sites were then assessed for quality of the presented information. A total of 81 programs were identified with the ASSH directory featuring direct links to 32% of program Web sites and the NRMP directory directly linking to 0%. A Google search yielded direct links to 86% of program Web sites. The quality of presented information varied greatly among the 72 accessible Web sites. Program description (100%), fellowship application requirements (97%), program contact email address (85%), and research requirements (75%) were the most commonly presented components of fellowship information. Hand fellowship program Web sites can be accessed from the ASSH directory and, to a lesser extent, the NRMP directory. However, a Google search is the most reliable method to access online fellowship information. Of assessable programs, all featured a program description though the quality of the remaining information was variable. Hand surgery fellowship applicants may face some difficulties when attempting to gather program information online. Future efforts should focus on improving the accessibility and content quality on hand surgery fellowship program Web sites.
Full Text Available Background. The 7th Framework Programme for Research and Technological Development is helping the European to prepare for an integrative system for intelligent management of biodiversity knowledge. The infrastructure that is envisaged and that will be further developed within the Programme “Horizon 2020” aims to provide open and free access to taxonomic information to anyone with a requirement for biodiversity data, without the need for individual consent of other persons or institutions. Open and free access to information will foster the re-use and improve the quality of data, will accelerate research, and will promote new types of research. Progress towards the goal of free and open access to content is hampered by numerous technical, economic, sociological, legal, and other factors. The present article addresses barriers to the open exchange of biodiversity knowledge that arise from European laws, in particular European legislation on copyright and database protection rights.We present a legal point of view as to what will be needed to bring distributed information together and facilitate its re-use by data mining, integration into semantic knowledge systems, and similar techniques. We address exceptions and limitations of copyright or database protection within Europe, and we point to the importance of data use agreements. We illustrate how exceptions and limitations have been transformed into national legislations within some European states to create inconsistencies that impede access to biodiversity information.Conclusions. The legal situation within the EU is unsatisfactory because there are inconsistencies among states that hamper the deployment of an open biodiversity knowledge management system. Scientists within the EU who work with copyright protected works or with protected databases have to be aware of regulations that vary from country to country. This is a major stumbling block to international collaboration and is an
de Rubeis, Valerio; Sbarra, Paola; Sebaste, Beppe; Tosi, Patrizia
The experience of collection of data on earthquake effects and diffusion of information to people, carried on through the site "haisentitoilterremoto.it" (didyoufeelit) managed by the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV), has evidenced a constantly growing interest by Italian citizens. Started in 2007, the site has collected more than 520,000 compiled intensity questionnaires, producing intensity maps of almost 6,000 earthquakes. One of the most peculiar feature of this experience is constituted by a bi-directional information exchange. Every person can record observed effects of the earthquake and, at the same time, look at the generated maps. Seismologists, on the other side, can find each earthquake described in real time through its effects on the whole territory. In this way people, giving punctual information, receive global information from the community, mediated and interpreted by seismological knowledge. The relationship amongst seismologists, mass media and civil society is, thus, deep and rich. The presence of almost 20,000 permanent subscribers distributed on the whole Italian territory, alerted in case of earthquake, has reinforced the participation: the subscriber is constantly informed by the seismologists, through e-mail, about events occurred in his-her area, even if with very small magnitude. The "alert" service provides the possibility to remember that earthquakes are a phenomenon continuously present, on the other hand it shows that high magnitude events are very rare. This kind of information is helpful as it is fully complementary to that one given by media. We analyze the effects of our activity on society and mass media. The knowledge of seismic phenomena is present in each person, having roots on fear, idea of death and destruction, often with the deep belief of very rare occurrence. This position feeds refusal and repression. When a strong earthquake occurs, surprise immediately changes into shock and desperation. A
manufacturer on both the container and pack of the drug} were mentioned in 65.6% and 50% adverts, respectively. The product and package descriptions were provided in 57 (72.2% Nigerian medical journals, which was significantly higher than in other African medical journals 39 (37.9% (P<0.001.Conclusions: None of the drug advertisements in the journals adequately provided the basic information required by the WHO for appropriate prescribing. More guidance and regulation is needed to ensure adequate information is provided.
Bobb, Morgan R.; Van Heukelom, Paul G.; Faine, Brett A.; Ahmed, Azeemuddin; Messerly, Jeffrey T.; Bell, Gregory; Harland, Karisa K.; Simon, Christian; Mohr, Nicholas M.
Objective Telemedicine networks are beginning to provide an avenue for conducting emergency medicine research, but using telemedicine to recruit participants for clinical trials has not been validated. The goal of this consent study is to determine whether patient comprehension of telemedicine-enabled research informed consent is non-inferior to standard face-to-face research informed consent. Methods A prospective, open-label randomized controlled trial was performed in a 60,000-visit Midwestern academic Emergency Department (ED) to test whether telemedicine-enabled research informed consent provided non-inferior comprehension compared with standard consent. This study was conducted as part of a parent clinical trial evaluating the effectiveness of oral chlorhexidine gluconate 0.12% in preventing hospital-acquired pneumonia among adult ED patients with expected hospital admission. Prior to being recruited into the study, potential participants were randomized in a 1:1 allocation ratio to consent by telemedicine versus standard face-to-face consent. Telemedicine connectivity was provided using a commercially available interface (REACH platform, Vidyo Inc., Hackensack, NJ) to an emergency physician located in another part of the ED. Comprehension of research consent (primary outcome) was measured using the modified Quality of Informed Consent (QuIC) instrument, a validated tool for measuring research informed consent comprehension. Parent trial accrual rate and qualitative survey data were secondary outcomes. Results One-hundred thirty-one patients were randomized (n = 64, telemedicine), and 101 QuIC surveys were completed. Comprehension of research informed consent using telemedicine was not inferior to face-to-face consent (QuIC scores 74.4 ± 8.1 vs. 74.4 ± 6.9 on a 100-point scale, p = 0.999). Subjective understanding of consent (p=0.194) and parent trial study accrual rates (56% vs. 69%, p = 0.142) were similar. Conclusion Telemedicine is non-inferior to face
Bobb, Morgan R; Van Heukelom, Paul G; Faine, Brett A; Ahmed, Azeemuddin; Messerly, Jeffrey T; Bell, Gregory; Harland, Karisa K; Simon, Christian; Mohr, Nicholas M
Telemedicine networks are beginning to provide an avenue for conducting emergency medicine research, but using telemedicine to recruit participants for clinical trials has not been validated. The goal of this consent study was to determine whether patient comprehension of telemedicine-enabled research informed consent is noninferior to standard face-to-face (F2F) research informed consent. A prospective, open-label randomized controlled trial was performed in a 60,000-visit Midwestern academic emergency department (ED) to test whether telemedicine-enabled research informed consent provided noninferior comprehension compared with standard consent. This study was conducted as part of a parent clinical trial evaluating the effectiveness of 0.12% oral chlorhexidine gluconate in preventing hospital-acquired pneumonia among adult ED patients with expected hospital admission. Prior to being recruited into the study, potential participants were randomized in a 1:1 allocation ratio to consent by telemedicine versus standard F2F consent. Telemedicine connectivity was provided using a commercially available interface (REACH platform, Vidyo Inc.) to an emergency physician located in another part of the ED. Comprehension of research consent (primary outcome) was measured using the modified quality of informed consent (QuIC) instrument, a validated tool for measuring research informed consent comprehension. Parent trial accrual rate and qualitative survey data were secondary outcomes. A total of 131 patients were randomized (n = 64, telemedicine), and 101 QuIC surveys were completed. Comprehension of research informed consent using telemedicine was not inferior to F2F consent (QuIC scores 74.4 ± 8.1 vs. 74.4 ± 6.9 on a 100-point scale, p = 0.999). Subjective understanding of consent (p = 0.194) and parent trial study accrual rates (56% vs. 69%, p = 0.142) were similar. Telemedicine is noninferior to F2F consent for delivering research informed consent, with no detected
Full Text Available Reporting on performance was legislatively established in South Africa in terms of the Public Finance Management Act, Act 1 of 1999, section 40 (3(a. The auditing of the reported information was legislated in the Public Audit Act, Act 25 of 2004, section 20(2 (c. The objectives of the article are firstly to provide an overview of the development and application of the reporting and secondly providing assurance on service delivery information and thirdly to reflect on challenges to the implementation thereof in South Africa. The aim through deploying these set objectives is to formulate possible future considerations for improved governance. As central part of the methodology, review of literature on reporting and audit of non-financialwas conducted. The research included scrutiny of the different philosophies and approaches adopted by different countries to the reporting and providing assurance on service delivery information. In this respect, the research reflects a comparative element. In South Africa the Auditor-General adopted a phasing-in approach. The development of the audit approach and audit procedures has reached a stable stage, nine years after the initial process started. The audit of performance information now forms an integral part of the regularity audit process. The analysis of audit findings of the period under study indicates a considerable improvement once initiated, but stagnation persists in subsequent years. Numerous challenges remain around the application of performance reporting in South Africa including non-compliance, the lack of sufficient and appropriate audit evidence, inconsistencies between the various strategic documents and the need to improve the usefulness of performance information. In conclusion the article proposes some steps to address the challenges.
... will provide scientific and technical expertise from the following disciplines: Statistical sciences, demography, economics, geography, psychology, survey methodology, social and behavioral sciences, information...
Modern information systems designed to service a wide range of users, regardless of their subject area, are increasingly based on Web technologies and are available to users via Internet. The article discusses the issues of providing the fault-tolerant operation of such information systems, based on free and open source content management systems. The toolkit available to administrators of similar systems is shown; the scenarios for using these tools are described. Options for organizing backups and restoring the operability of systems after failures are suggested. Application of the proposed methods and approaches allows providing continuous monitoring of the state of systems, timely response to the emergence of possible problems and their prompt solution.
Slater, Penelope J; Fielden, Philippa E; Bradford, Natalie K
The Oncology Family App supports families across the vast state of Queensland, Australia, with easy access to vital information, including management plans for a deteriorating child, patient specific information and other resources. This article describes the development and evaluation of this mobile app. The app was developed and tested in collaboration with parents, caregivers, and clinicians and released in November 2015. This first version featured "Statewide Hospital Contacts," including phone numbers, links to Google maps, and 24-hour emergency contacts with click to call functionality; "When to Call" describing symptoms to look out for in a deteriorating child; "Blood Results Table"; and "Information" listing recommended websites, health care team contacts, appointments, and notes. The app was evaluated through interviews with parents, caregivers and patients and download metrics. Six months after the app release, 68% of the 38 parents and caregivers surveyed had downloaded the app. The most used modules were "Blood Results Table," "When to Call," and "Statewide Hospital Contacts," but families reported using all features available. Families were enthusiastic about the support the app provided and gave useful feedback to direct future development. Using mobile health technology to support families is a novel, but rapidly growing concept. Family and caregiver feedback showed that the Oncology Family App was an efficient and convenient way to provide much needed information. A new version of the app is under development and evaluation of outcomes will be ongoing.
Full Text Available Genetic interactions help map biological processes and their functional relationships. A genetic interaction is defined as a deviation from the expected phenotype when combining multiple genetic mutations. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, most genetic interactions are measured under a single phenotype - growth rate in standard laboratory conditions. Recently genetic interactions have been collected under different phenotypic readouts and experimental conditions. How different are these networks and what can we learn from their differences? We conducted a systematic analysis of quantitative genetic interaction networks in yeast performed under different experimental conditions. We find that networks obtained using different phenotypic readouts, in different conditions and from different laboratories overlap less than expected and provide significant unique information. To exploit this information, we develop a novel method to combine individual genetic interaction data sets and show that the resulting network improves gene function prediction performance, demonstrating that individual networks provide complementary information. Our results support the notion that using diverse phenotypic readouts and experimental conditions will substantially increase the amount of gene function information produced by genetic interaction screens.
CyberPsychology and Behavior 8, 3 (2005), 187-211.  T. Parsons & A.A. Rizzo, Affective Outcomes of Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy for Anxiety...VH System for Providing Healthcare Information and Support508  G. Riva, Virtual Reality in Psychotherapy: Review, CyberPsychology and Behavior 8...3 (2005), 220- 230.  F.D. Rose, B.M. Brooks & A.A. Rizzo, Virtual Reality in Brain Damage Rehabilitation: Review, CyberPsychology and Behavior
Tertoolen, G.; Verstraten, E.C.H. [Section of Social and Organizational Psychology, University of Utrecht, Utrecht (Netherlands)
In a field experiment the authors attempted to stimulate car users to come to a more selective use of their vehicle by means of providing information and feedback about different negative consequences of their car use. Attitude change was observed but the experimental treatments did not lead to behavioural changes. Attempts to influence car use arouse psychological resistance. Therefore, effects opposite to those intended occurred. We discuss the possible implications of the results for policy-making. 1 fig., 2 refs.
Kim, Bong-Hee; Kang, Hee-Young; Choi, Eun-Young
This study evaluated the effects of handholding and spoken information provided on the anxiety of patients undergoing percutaneous vertebroplasty under local anaesthesia. A surgical intervention usually entails physical discomfort and psychological burden. Furthermore, patients under local anaesthesia are conscious during the surgical intervention, which leads to more anxiety, as patients are aware of their surroundings in the operating theatre. A quasi-experimental design with a nonequivalent control group was utilised. Amsterdam preoperative anxiety scale assessed psychological anxiety, while blood pressure and pulse were measured to evaluate physiological anxiety. Participants were 94 patients undergoing percutaneous vertebroplasty in a spine hospital in Gwangju Metropolitan City, South Korea. Thirty patients were assigned to Experimental Group I, 34 to the Experimental Group II and 30 to the control group. During a surgical intervention, nurses held the hands of those in Experimental Group I and provided them with spoken information. Patients in Experimental Group II experienced only handholding. Psychological anxiety in Experimental Group I was low compared to those in Experimental Group II and the control group. In addition, there were significant decreases in systolic blood pressure in both Experimental Groups compared to the control group. Handholding and spoken information provided during a surgical intervention to mitigate psychological anxiety, and handholding to mitigate physiological anxiety can be used in nursing interventions with patients undergoing percutaneous vertebroplasty. Handholding and providing nursing information are possibly very useful interventions that are easily implemented by circulating nurses during a surgical intervention. In particular, handholding is a simple, economical and appropriate way to help patient in the operating theatre. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
In the 12 years since the Kyoto Protocol was signed setting forth targets for greenhouse gas emissions from several nations, the number of policies, voluntary programs and commercial enterprises that have developed to manage carbon has grown exponentially. Many of these programs have occurred in a voluntary context, such as carbon trading, carbon offset programs, and climate registries . To date, no single, common system for accrediting, verifying and recording carbon credits has developed. Moreover, as the international community continues to negotiate the dimensions of an international agreement for the post-Kyoto time period, discussions still center on targets for fossil fuel emissions, biospheric carbon protection, and appropriate distribution of the burden of compliance globally. If carbon still remains the currency for discussion in a climate agreement, some type of effective measurement and verification system will be needed to ensure that commitments are being met. While entire volumes over the past decade have been written on what it is possible to observe about the carbon cycle and how to do so-- these tend to describe observations from the perspective of studying the carbon cycle to discover fundamental new knowledge. I will argue, however, that for the application under consideration in this session, i.e. a global greenhouse gas information system, it is essential to bring in the perspective of the policy and regulatory community. The needs of the scientific community for measuring the uncertainties in the global carbon cycle are not necessarily the same as those for the policy community. To ensure that such a system can serve a policy-relevant function, the scientific community must engage with policy makers, entrepreneurs, those who must comply, and others involved in constructing the policy framework. This paper will examine some of the key fundamentals that the policy community may be considering in designing a greenhouse gas monitoring system. I
Dani, Francesca R; Foster, Kevin R; Zacchi, Francesca; Seppä, Perttu; Massolo, Alessandro; Carelli, Annalisa; Arévalo, Elisabeth; Queller, David C; Strassmann, Joan E; Turillazzi, Stefano
Inclusive fitness theory predicts that members of non-clonal societies will gain by directing altruistic acts towards their closest relatives. Multiple mating by queens and multiple queens creates distinct full-sister groups in many hymenopteran societies within which nepotism might occur. However, the weight of empirical data suggests that nepotism within full-sister groups is absent. It has been suggested that a lack of reliable recognition markers is responsible. In this paper, we investigated whether epicuticular lipids could provide reliable cues for intracolony kin recognition in two species of social wasps, the paper wasp Polistes dominulus and the hornet Vespa crabro. Epicuticular lipids have previously been shown to be central to kin recognition at the nest level, making them excellent candidates for within-nest discrimination. We genotyped individuals using DNA microsatellites and analysed surface chemistry by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. We find that in both species epicuticular lipids typically could provide enough information to distinguish related nest-mates from unrelated nest-mates, a difference that occurs in colonies with multiple queens. However, in V. crabro, where colonies may be composed by different patrilines, information for discrimination between full sisters and half-sisters is weaker and prone to errors. Our data suggest that epicuticular lipids at best provide reliable information for intracolony nepotistic discrimination in multiple-queen colonies composed of unrelated lines.
Gupta, Monica; Chauhan, Kriti; Singhvi, Tanvi; Kumari, Manisha; Grover, Rajesh Kumar
Automated cell counters have become more and more sophisticated with passing years. The numerical and graphic data both provide useful clues for suspecting a diagnosis especially when the workload is very high. We present our experience of useful information provided by graphic displays of an automated cell counter in hematological malignancies in a cancer hospital where a large number of complete blood count (CBC) requests are received either before or during chemotherapy. This study was conducted to assess the usefulness of hematology cell counter, viz. WBC-Diff (WBC differential), WBC/BASO (WBC basophil) and IMI (immature myeloid information) channel scatter plots, and the flaggings generated in various hematological malignancies. The graphic displays have been compiled over a period of 1 year (October 2015-September 2016) from blood samples of various solid and hematological malignancies (approximately 400 per day) received for routine CBC in the laboratory. Approximately 50 000 scattergrams have been analyzed during the study period. The findings were confirmed by peripheral blood smear examination. The scattergram analysis on XE-2100 is very sensitive as well as specific for diagnosing acute leukemia, viz. acute myeloid leukemia, acute lymphoblastic leukemia; chronic myeloproliferative disorders, viz. chronic myeloid leukemia; and chronic lymphoproliferative disorder especially chronic lymphocytic leukemia. It is suggested that the laboratories using the hematology analyzers be aware of graphic display patterns in addition to flaggings generated which provide additional information and give clue toward the diagnosis even before peripheral smear examination. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Maria Fernanda Sarmento e Souza; Miriam Celí Pimentel Porto Foresti; Silvana Aparecida Borsetti Gregorio Vidotti
.... Information Architecture elements were investigated for consideration in a scientific journal web site, describing the quality criteria and variables which must be maintained to ensure the permanence...
Scientific Medical Journal: an official journal of Egyptian Medical Education provides a forum for dissemination of knowledge, exchange of ideas, inform of exchange of ideas, information and experience among workers, investigators and clinicians in all disciplines of medicine with emphasis on its treatment and prevention.
Long, Suzanna Maupin
Examines the major producers of U.S. federal government scientific technical information, principal data categories, and the role of the National Archives in documenting scientific data. Discusses appraisal, accessioning, and preservation of scientific data by the National Archives and Records Administration. (Author/AEF)
Gries, C.; Vanderbilt, K.; Reid, D.; Melendez-Colom, E.; San Gil, I.
Over the last five years several Long-Term Ecological Research (LTER) sites have collaboratively developed a standardized yet flexible approach to ecological information management based on the open source Drupal content management system. These LTER sites adopted a common data model for basic metadata necessary to describe data sets, but also used for site management and web presence. Drupal core functionality provides web forms for easy management of information stored in this data model. Custom Drupal extensions were developed to generate XML files conforming to the Ecological Metadata Language (EML) for contribution to the LTER Network Information System (NIS) and other data archives. Each LTER site then took advantage of the flexibility Drupal provides to develop its unique web presence, choosing different themes and adding additional content to the websites. By nature, information presented is highly interlinked which can easily be modeled in Drupal entities and is further supported by a sophisticated tagging system (Fig. 1). Therefore, it is possible to provide the visitor with many different entry points to the site specific information presented. For example, publications and datasets may be grouped for each scientist, for each research project, for each major research theme at the site, making the information presented more accessible for different visitors. Experience gained during the early years was recently used to launch a complete re-write for upgrading to Drupal 7. LTER sites from multiple academic institutions pooled resources in order to partner with professional Drupal developers. Highlights of the new developments are streamlined data entry, improved EML output and integrity, support of IM workflows, a faceted data set search, a highly configurable data exploration tool with intelligent filtering and data download, and, for the mobile age, a responsive web design theme. Seven custom modules and a specific installation profile were developed
Scientific Center for Aerospace Research of the Earth GSI NASU (CASRE) has developed methods of satellite observation of the earth surface for assessment of separate anthropogenic and natural safety parameters. 1. Space audit of greenhouse gases balance It was created space technology of forecasting and monitoring of emissions changes and carbon dioxide absorption by vegetation over the territory of Ukraine with the aim to make recommendations on efficient correction of climate-protective measures. The results of these investigations became a part of the Proposal of NASU to Cabinet of Ministries of Ukraine as for execution of its Decree from 05.03.2009 "Development of the strategic forecasting of climate change, consequences of such change for sectors of economics. . . " Recently scientists of NASU establishments, especially collaborating with international scientific community, obtained significant results in assessment and forecast not only of climate change but also geosystems condition not only of Ukraine but the whole Eastern Europe. According to obtained materials maps and diagrams of emissions' distribution and carbon dioxide absorption by vegetation at administrative regions were firstly built for Ukraine. According to this it's possible to make administrative decisions on rational management of nature and greenhouse gases' quotas trading according to Kyoto Protocol. Obtained results allow making next decisions: — Predominance of industrial CO2 emissions over its absorption by vegetation canopy almost twice is characteristic for the territory of Ukraine; — It's traced a certain regularity of zones' localization of the most intensive increase of CO2 concentration over industrially developed regions; — Negative biotic compensation of anthropogenic influence is observed on the considerable territory of Ukraine. It means that nat-ural environment has not time to renew those resources which human being uses in the process of his vital activity. As a rule
Alex Serrano Almeida
Full Text Available This study has the purpose to check how the social inclusion has been approached at Information Science area, from the scientific production area published at the area national periodicals. Over there, to verify which inclusion forms are recurrently approached at Information Science area; to show the use tendencies of social inclusion concept at the Science Information area scientific articles; to find how it presents the social inclusion concept connected to the information professional and analyze if it there is any association to other themes. It was realized searches in six periodicals at the period between 2001 and 2010. We used how analysis method the Bardin content analysis reference. The analysis corpus was constituted of 30 articles which approached the social inclusion theme. As the results, it was showed that the social inclusion on Information Science area publications, in general, is turned to digital inclusion and to the Information Science area publications uses. Besides, it was still identified connections with the information professionals, which one must serve as mediator between the information and the environment where information and users are inserted.
Raja, Sheela; Hoersch, Michelle; Rajagopalan, Chelsea F; Chang, Priscilla
and Overview Dentists frequently treat patients who have a history of traumatic events. These traumatic events (including childhood sexual abuse, domestic violence, elder abuse and combat history) may influence how patients experience oral health care and may interfere with patients' engagement in preventive care. The purpose of this article is to provide a framework for how dentists can interact sensitively with patients who have survived traumatic events. The authors propose the trauma-informed care pyramid to help engage traumatized patients in oral health care. Evidence indicates that all of the following play an important role in treating traumatized patients: demonstrating strong behavioral and communication skills, understanding the health effects of trauma, engaging in interprofessional collaboration, understanding the provider's own trauma-related experiences and understanding when trauma screening should be used in oral health practice. Dental patients with a history of traumatic experiences are more likely to engage in negative health habits and to display fear of routine dental care. Although not all patients disclose a trauma history to their dentists, some patients might. The trauma-informed care pyramid provides a framework to guide dental care providers in interactions with many types of traumatized patients, including those who choose not to disclose their trauma history in the context of oral health care.
Rule, Audrey C.; Meyer, Mary A.
Curriculum materials designed to provide students with practice interpreting plotted evidence of global climate change were developed using graphs from the scientific literature and tested with one hundred urban high school students from a high-poverty school in a major northern city in the US. The graph interpretation lessons followed a…
The NASA STI Program offers researchers an infrastructure of people and systems that facilitates access to STI; worldwide. The Program is also NASA's institutional mechanism for disseminating the results of its research and developing activities. Through discussions in 1991, the STI Program formulated its Strategic Plan. The plan gives the Program a renewed sense of direction by focusing on future opportunities, customer requirements and Program goals, along with the changes needed to achieve those goals. The Program provides users access to a massive flow of STI which, in fact, represents the largest collection of aeronautical and space science information in the world. The STI Program products and services are outlined, along with the NASA centers, international operations, and the fact that total quality management drives NASA wide program developments. As is detailed, the NASA STI Program is using its resources as effectively as possible to meet the missing needs of NASA.
Noll. Carey E.
Since 1982. the Crustal Dynamics Data Information System (CDDIS) has supported the archive and distribution of geodetic data products acquired by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) as well as national and international programs. The CDDIS provides easy, timely, and reliable access to a variety of data sets, products, and information about these data. These measurements. obtained from a global network of nearly 650 instruments at more than 400 distinct sites, include DORIS (Doppler Orbitography and Radiopositioning Integrated by Satellite), GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System), SLR and LLR (Satellite and Lunar Laser Ranging), and VLBI (Very Long Baseline Interferometry). The CDDIS data system and its archive have become increasingly important to many national and international science communities, particularly several of the operational services within the International Association of Geodesy (IAG) and its observing system the Global Geodetic Observing System (GGOS), including the International DORIS Service (IDS), the International GNSS Service (IGS). the International Laser Ranging Service (ILRS), the International VLBI Service for Geodesy and Astrometry (IVS). and the International Earth rotation and Reference frame Service (IERS), Investigations resulting from the data and products available through the CDDIS support research in many aspects of Earth system science and global change. Each month, the CDDIS archives more than one million data and derived product files totaling over 90 Gbytes in volume. In turn. the global user community downloads nearly 1.2 TBytes (over 10.5 million files) of data and products from the CDDIS each month. The requirements of analysts have evolved since the start of the CDDIS; the specialized nature of the system accommodates the enhancements required to support diverse data sets and user needs. This paper discusses the CDDIS. including background information about the system and its. user communities
Low, Chinyao; Hsueh Chen, Ya
As cloud computing technology has proliferated rapidly worldwide, there has been a trend toward adopting cloud-based hospital information systems (CHISs). This study examines the critical criteria for selecting the CHISs outsourcing provider. The fuzzy Delphi method (FDM) is used to evaluate the primary indicator collected from 188 useable responses at a working hospital in Taiwan. Moreover, the fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (FAHP) is employed to calculate the weights of these criteria and establish a fuzzy multi-criteria model of CHISs outsourcing provider selection from 42 experts. The results indicate that the five most critical criteria related to CHISs outsourcing provider selection are (1) system function, (2) service quality, (3) integration, (4) professionalism, and (5) economics. This study may contribute to understanding how cloud-based hospital systems can reinforce content design and offer a way to compete in the field by developing more appropriate systems.
Zuidervaart, Huib J.
This paper discusses the scientific instruments made and used by the microscopist Antony van Leeuwenhoek (1632–1723). The immediate cause of our study was the discovery of an overlooked document from the Delft archive: an inventory of the possessions that were left in 1745 after the death of
... and Technology Council's Interagency Working Group on Digital Data. Background The multi-agency... research, the status of agency policies for public access to digital data resulting from federally funded...,'' recommended that agencies lay the foundations for digital scientific data policy and make their policies...
Bentley, Jane F.; Cooney, Leo J.
The design, implementation, and operation of an integrated on-line automated system in a scientific and technical library. The system handles book ordering and receiving, cataloging, circulation, language control, and bibliographic retrieval; serials ordering and renewal, receiving and routing, holding records and binding data; patron and…
Hartwell, Laura M.; Jacques, Marie-Paule
Both reading and writing abstracts require specific language skills and conceptual capacities, which may challenge advanced learners. This paper draws explicitly upon the "Emergence" and "Scientext" research projects which focused on the lexis of scientific texts in French and English. The teaching objective of the project…
Vaquero Ortiz, E. M.; Cascante Díaz, E.; González Pineda, L. M.
The precise knowledge of the available Resources in an Organization, regardless the work it carries out, is an essential strategic enabler to achieve its goals. Material Resources are part of the resources in an organization, The “Material Resources” expression includes a wide span of elements, because a Material Resource, as a generic concept, is each and every specific physical mean, utilized to get any of the Organization objectives. In CIEMAT, as Public Research Agency, its Material Resources consist of its scientific and technological facilities. These resources are the basis of this Agency numerous amount of technical capabilities, allowing it to carry out its research, development and innovation activity to transfer its results to the society later. This report is a summary on CIEMAT scientific and technological facilities, whose spread can help to show its scientific and technological capabilities, to enable the execution of a wide variety of projects and to open new external cooperation channels. Outstanding among these facilities are two “Unique Scientific and Technological Infrastructures” (ICTS) and the Ionizing Radiations Metrology Laboratory (LMRI) which is the Spanish National Standards Laboratory for ionising radiations.
... Climate Change Impacts on Freshwater Resources of the United States AGENCY: United States Geological... draft report to Congress titled ``Strengthening the Scientific Understanding of Climate Change Impacts... freshwater resource data and climate change and identifies next steps to improve the Nation's capacity to...
Patricia Castellanos Pineda
Full Text Available Nowadays, governments, universities, research centers and other institutions, like museums, invest its resources, human and financial, in public understanding of science. However, the abyss and indifference towards science seem not decrease or doing it slowly. This article looks at theoretical framework of scientific consumption from cultural consumption perspective and discusses some examples of it.
...; Application and Reports for Scientific Research and Enhancement Permits Under the Endangered Species Act... longline fishery. II. Method of Collection Paper logbooks and electronic reports are required from.... Estimated Number of Respondents: 756. Estimated Time per Response: Logbook reports, 1 hour; vessel...
van Eijck, Michiel; Roth, Wolff-Michael
Given the central place IT-based research tools take in scientific research, the marginal role such tools currently play in science curricula is dissatisfying from the perspective of making students scientifically literate. To appropriately frame the role of IT-based research tools in science curricula, we propose a framework that is developed to understand the use of tools in human activity, namely cultural-historical activity theory (CHAT). Accordingly, IT-based research tools constitute central moments of scientific research activity and neither can be seen apart from its objectives, nor can it be considered apart from the cultural-historical determined forms of activity (praxis) in which human subjects participate. Based on empirical data involving students participating in research activity, we point out how an appropriate account of IT-based research tools involves subjects' use of tools with respect to the objectives of research activity and the contribution to the praxis of research. We propose to reconceptualize the role of IT-based research tools as contributing to scientific literacy if students apply these tools with respect to the objectives of the research activity and contribute to praxis of research by evaluating and modifying the application of these tools. We conclude this paper by sketching the educational implications of this reconceptualized role of IT-based research tools.
Koller, Ulrich; Waldstein, Wenzel; Schatz, Klaus-Dieter; Windhager, Reinhard
YouTube is increasingly becoming a key source for people to satisfy the need for additional information concerning their medical condition. This study analyses the completeness of accurate information found on YouTube pertaining to hip arthritis. The present study analyzed 133 YouTube videos using the search terms: hip arthritis, hip arthritis symptoms, hip arthritis diagnosis, hip arthritis treatment and hip replacement. Two quality assessment checklists with a scale of 0 to 12 points were developed to evaluate available video content for the diagnosis and the treatment of hip arthritis. Videos were grouped into poor quality (grade 0-3), moderate quality (grade 4-7) and excellent quality (grade 8-12), respectively. Three independent observers assessed all videos using the new grading system and independently scored all videos. Discrepancies regarding the categories were clarified by consensus discussion. For intra-observer reliabilities, grading was performed at two occasions separated by four weeks. Eighty-four percent (n = 112) had a poor diagnostic information quality, 14% (n = 19) a moderate quality and only 2% (n = 2) an excellent quality, respectively. In 86% (n = 114), videos provided poor treatment information quality. Eleven percent (n = 15) of videos had a moderate quality and only 3% (n = 4) an excellent quality, respectively. The present study demonstrates that YouTube is a poor source for accurate information pertaining to the diagnosis and treatment of hip arthritis. These finding are of high relevance for clinicians as videos are going to become the primary source of information for patients. Therefore, high quality educational videos are needed to further guide patients on the way from the diagnosis of hip arthritis to its proper treatment.
Lindvall, Agneta; Kristensson, Jimmie; Willman, Ania; Holst, Göran
HOW TO OBTAIN CONTACT HOURS BY READING THIS ARTICLE INSTRUCTIONS 1.3 contact hours will be awarded by Villanova University College of Nursing upon successful completion of this activity. A contact hour is a unit of measurement that denotes 60 minutes of an organized learning activity. This is a learner-based activity. Villanova University College of Nursing does not require submission of your answers to the quiz. A contact hour certificate will be awarded once you register, pay the registration fee, and complete the evaluation form online at http://goo.gl/gMfXaf. To obtain contact hours you must: 1. Read the article, "Informal Care Provided by Family Caregivers: Experiences of Older Adults With Multimorbidity" found on pages 24-31, carefully noting any tables and other illustrative materials that are included to enhance your knowledge and understanding of the content. Be sure to keep track of the amount of time (number of minutes) you spend reading the article and completing the quiz. 2. Read and answer each question on the quiz. After completing all of the questions, compare your answers to those provided within this issue. If you have incorrect answers, return to the article for further study. 3. Go to the Villanova website listed above to register for contact hour credit. You will be asked to provide your name; contact information; and a VISA, MasterCard, or Discover card number for payment of the $20.00 fee. Once you complete the online evaluation, a certificate will be automatically generated. This activity is valid for continuing education credit until July 31, 2019. CONTACT HOURS This activity is co-provided by Villanova University College of Nursing and SLACK Incorporated. Villanova University College of Nursing is accredited as a provider of continuing nursing education by the American Nurses Credentialing Center's Commission on Accreditation. ACTIVITY OBJECTIVES 1. Describe how older adults with multimorbidity experience care provided from informal
Kwag, Koren Hyogene; González-Lorenzo, Marien; Banzi, Rita; Bonovas, Stefanos; Moja, Lorenzo
The complexity of modern practice requires health professionals to be active information-seekers. Our aim was to review the quality and progress of point-of-care information summaries-Web-based medical compendia that are specifically designed to deliver pre-digested, rapidly accessible, comprehensive, and periodically updated information to health care providers. We aimed to evaluate product claims of being evidence-based. We updated our previous evaluations by searching Medline, Google, librarian association websites, and conference proceedings from August 2012 to December 2014. We included Web-based, regularly updated point-of-care information summaries with claims of being evidence-based. We extracted data on the general characteristics and content presentation of products, and we quantitatively assessed their breadth of disease coverage, editorial quality, and evidence-based methodology. We assessed potential relationships between these dimensions and compared them with our 2008 assessment. We screened 58 products; 26 met our inclusion criteria. Nearly a quarter (6/26, 23%) were newly identified in 2014. We accessed and analyzed 23 products for content presentation and quantitative dimensions. Most summaries were developed by major publishers in the United States and the United Kingdom; no products derived from low- and middle-income countries. The main target audience remained physicians, although nurses and physiotherapists were increasingly represented. Best Practice, Dynamed, and UptoDate scored the highest across all dimensions. The majority of products did not excel across all dimensions: we found only a moderate positive correlation between editorial quality and evidence-based methodology (r=.41, P=.0496). However, all dimensions improved from 2008: editorial quality (P=.01), evidence-based methodology (P=.015), and volume of diseases and medical conditions (PUptoDate scored the highest across all dimensions, while others that were marketed as evidence
Chandrasekaran, Neeraja; Gressick, Kimberly; Singh, Vivek; Kwal, Jaclyn; Cap, Natalia; Koru-Sengul, Tulay; Curry, Christine L
Introduction In 2015, there was an outbreak of Zika virus in Brazil that spread throughout the Americas. The association of Zika virus with birth defects in infants born to infected pregnant women created concern for women of childbearing age. Social media is an important platform for health promotion, communication, and education on preventative methods during Zika virus outbreaks. Methods We evaluated the utility of social media on providing information regarding Zika virus. Facebook, Instagram, Twitter, and YouTube were utilized for our study. A search of the term "#Zikavirus" on Twitter and Instagram, and "Zika virus" on Facebook and YouTube was performed. The first 50 search results were analyzed from each source. Only English, Spanish, or Portuguese results were included. Results were categorized into three groups: "Useful", "Not Useful", or "Misleading". Results Search was conducted on December 17th, 2016, with 185 results. Forty (21.6%) were from Facebook, 50 (27%) from Twitter, 48 (25.9%) from YouTube, and 47 (25.4%) from Instagram. A total of 104 (56.22%) results were "Useful", 67 (36.2%) "Not Useful", and 14 (7.5%) were "Misleading". There were significantly more "Useful" results compared to "Not Useful" and "Misleading" results (Fisher's exact: p < 0.0001). Conclusion Social media is a useful resource for providing relevant information on Zika virus. Young women can utilize social media for Zika virus information. The role of social media in public health should be further investigated and established. Patient education interventions should focus on social media impact on behavior modification and education of public to recognize useful information.
Learmonth, Yvonne C; Adamson, Brynn C; Balto, Julia M; Chiu, Chung-Yi; Molina-Guzman, Isabel; Finlayson, Marcia; Riskin, Barry J; Motl, Robert W
There is growing recognition of the benefits and safety of exercise and its importance in the comprehensive care of persons with multiple sclerosis (MS), yet uptake is low. We explored the needs and wants of patients with MS regarding exercise promotion through healthcare providers. Participants were adults with MS who had mild-or-moderate disability and a range of exercise levels. All participants lived in the Midwest of the United States. Fifty semi-structured interviews were conducted and analysed using thematic analysis. Two themes emerged, namely interactions between patients and healthcare providers and needs and wants of patients. Analysis of participant accounts illustrate that current exercise promotion by healthcare providers does not meet patient needs and wants. The identified needs and wants of persons with MS involved (i) information and knowledge on the benefits of exercise and exercise prescription, (ii) materials to allow home and community exercise and (iii) tools for initiating and maintaining exercise behaviour. Patients with MS frequently interact with healthcare providers and are generally unsatisfied with exercise promotion during interactions. Healthcare providers can address the low uptake of exercise among persons with MS by acting upon the identified unmet needs involving materials, knowledge and behaviour change strategies for exercise. © 2016 The Authors Health Expectations Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Lopez, Wallace H.
The focus of this program, was to address those scientific, technical, market, and policy activities which are supported/conducted by Japanese and other relevant Asian organizations pursing research, development and/or manufacturing in high performance computing and communications (HPC), networking, and related sectors, as well as, relevant specialized end applications. The scope of the programs and activities were focused on establishing direct and timely analyses of relevant scientific and technical trend and developments.
Carla I. Maturano
Full Text Available This paper descrie the prepatarion and application of an instrument designed to assess the strategies students use to control comprehension when they read a short scientific text. It was applied to two groups of students from different school levels. A contradiction was introduced in the text generating two versions of it differing in order of appearance of the right information. Research findings are presented and interpreted according to findings of other studies on this subject.
Jiménez, Felipe; Naranjo, Jose Eugenio; Serradilla, Francisco; Pérez, Elisa; Hernández, María Jose; Ruiz, Trinidad; Anaya, José Javier; Díaz, Alberto
Inappropriate speed is a relevant concurrent factor in many traffic accidents. Moreover, in recent years, traffic accidents numbers in Spain have fallen sharply, but this reduction has not been so significant on single carriageway roads. These infrastructures have less equipment than high-capacity roads, therefore measures to reduce accidents on them should be implemented in vehicles. This article describes the development and analysis of the impact on the driver of a warning system for the safe speed on each road section in terms of geometry, the presence of traffic jams, weather conditions, type of vehicle and actual driving conditions. This system is based on an application for smartphones and includes knowledge of the vehicle position via Ground Positioning System (GPS), access to intravehicular information from onboard sensors through the Controller Area Network (CAN) bus, vehicle data entry by the driver, access to roadside information (short-range communications) and access to a centralized server with information about the road in the current and following sections of the route (long-range communications). Using this information, the system calculates the safe speed, recommends the appropriate speed in advance in the following sections and provides warnings to the driver. Finally, data are sent from vehicles to a server to generate new information to disseminate to other users or to supervise drivers’ behaviour. Tests in a driving simulator have been used to define the system warnings and Human Machine Interface (HMI) and final tests have been performed on real roads in order to analyze the effect of the system on driver behavior. PMID:26805839
Full Text Available Inappropriate speed is a relevant concurrent factor in many traffic accidents. Moreover, in recent years, traffic accidents numbers in Spain have fallen sharply, but this reduction has not been so significant on single carriageway roads. These infrastructures have less equipment than high-capacity roads, therefore measures to reduce accidents on them should be implemented in vehicles. This article describes the development and analysis of the impact on the driver of a warning system for the safe speed on each road section in terms of geometry, the presence of traffic jams, weather conditions, type of vehicle and actual driving conditions. This system is based on an application for smartphones and includes knowledge of the vehicle position via Ground Positioning System (GPS, access to intravehicular information from onboard sensors through the Controller Area Network (CAN bus, vehicle data entry by the driver, access to roadside information (short-range communications and access to a centralized server with information about the road in the current and following sections of the route (long-range communications. Using this information, the system calculates the safe speed, recommends the appropriate speed in advance in the following sections and provides warnings to the driver. Finally, data are sent from vehicles to a server to generate new information to disseminate to other users or to supervise drivers’ behaviour. Tests in a driving simulator have been used to define the system warnings and Human Machine Interface (HMI and final tests have been performed on real roads in order to analyze the effect of the system on driver behavior.
Jiménez, Felipe; Naranjo, Jose Eugenio; Serradilla, Francisco; Pérez, Elisa; Hernández, María Jose; Ruiz, Trinidad; Anaya, José Javier; Díaz, Alberto
Inappropriate speed is a relevant concurrent factor in many traffic accidents. Moreover, in recent years, traffic accidents numbers in Spain have fallen sharply, but this reduction has not been so significant on single carriageway roads. These infrastructures have less equipment than high-capacity roads, therefore measures to reduce accidents on them should be implemented in vehicles. This article describes the development and analysis of the impact on the driver of a warning system for the safe speed on each road section in terms of geometry, the presence of traffic jams, weather conditions, type of vehicle and actual driving conditions. This system is based on an application for smartphones and includes knowledge of the vehicle position via Ground Positioning System (GPS), access to intravehicular information from onboard sensors through the Controller Area Network (CAN) bus, vehicle data entry by the driver, access to roadside information (short-range communications) and access to a centralized server with information about the road in the current and following sections of the route (long-range communications). Using this information, the system calculates the safe speed, recommends the appropriate speed in advance in the following sections and provides warnings to the driver. Finally, data are sent from vehicles to a server to generate new information to disseminate to other users or to supervise drivers' behaviour. Tests in a driving simulator have been used to define the system warnings and Human Machine Interface (HMI) and final tests have been performed on real roads in order to analyze the effect of the system on driver behavior.
More than two-thirds of NHS psychotherapy departments now use questionnaires in assessment of new patients. Their content is described for the first time. Most are primarily designed to gather biographical information but salient questions are frequently omitted. These questionnaires have suffered from being designed and used in isolation. Psychotherapy service providers need to consider how collaboration will enable questionnaires to be more effective during their assessments and to assist research into which historical factors are of greatest prognostic significance among newly referred patients.
Meo, Mark; James, Thomas E.; Deyle, Robert E.
Natural hazards, such as acute storm events, often exacerbate chronic change processes and heighten public awareness of overt and latent risks to society. This paper reports the results of a study of the development of coastal erosion management policies from 1960 to 1990 in Florida, Massachusetts, and North Carolina, all of which have been subject to marked chronic and acute environmental changes. The case studies were guided by a conceptual framework that links acute and chronic environmental changes with state and federal policity initiatives as well as the scientific community. We traced the evolution of policies and programs and the policy innovation process in these states that were designed to mitigate the risks associated with coastal erosion, and documented the role that scientific and technical information played. From information drawn from published and unpublished literature as well as personal interviews, the case studies reveal a wide variation in policy responses to coastal erosion phenomena and exhibit differing degrees of program success. Although the case studies preclude broad generalizations, they illustrate clearly the importance of institution to enable policy enterpreneurs and other key individuals a base for acquiring and using scientific and technical information for policy development and implementation.
... provide other information and granting immunity. 1025.39 Section 1025.39 Commercial Practices CONSUMER... Process § 1025.39 Orders requiring witnesses to testify or provide other information and granting immunity... witness or deponent to testify or provide other information upon being granted immunity from prosecution...
te Moller, N C R; Brommer, H; Liukkonen, J; Virén, T; Timonen, M; Puhakka, P H; Jurvelin, J S; van Weeren, P R; Töyräs, J
Arthroscopy enables direct inspection of the articular surface, but provides no information on deeper cartilage layers. Optical coherence tomography (OCT), based on measurement of reflection and backscattering of light, is a diagnostic technique used in cardiovascular surgery and ophthalmology. It provides cross-sectional images at resolutions comparable to that of low-power microscopy. The aim of this study was to determine if OCT is feasible for advanced clinical assessment of lesions in equine articular cartilage during diagnostic arthroscopy. Diagnostic arthroscopy of 36 metacarpophalangeal joints was carried out ex vivo. Of these, 18 joints with varying degrees of cartilage damage were selected, wherein OCT arthroscopy was conducted using an OCT catheter (diameter 0.9 mm) inserted through standard instrument portals. Five sites of interest, occasionally supplemented with other locations where defects were encountered, were arthroscopically graded according to the International Cartilage Repair Society (ICRS) classification system. The same sites were evaluated qualitatively (ICRS classification and morphological description of the lesions) and quantitatively (measurement of cartilage thickness) on OCT images. OCT provided high resolution images of cartilage enabling determination of cartilage thickness. Comparing ICRS grades determined by both arthroscopy and OCT revealed poor agreement. Furthermore, OCT visualised a spectrum of lesions, including cavitation, fibrillation, superficial and deep clefts, erosion, ulceration and fragmentation. In addition, with OCT the arthroscopically inaccessible area between the dorsal MC3 and P1 was reachable in some cases. Arthroscopically-guided OCT provided more detailed and quantitative information on the morphology of articular cartilage lesions than conventional arthroscopy. OCT could therefore improve the diagnostic value of arthroscopy in equine orthopaedic surgery. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Gilmanshina, Suriya I.; Gilmanshin, Iskander R.; Sagitova, Rimma N.; Galeeva, Asiya I.
The aim of this article is to disclose features of scientific explanation in teaching of chemistry in the environment of new information of school students' developmental education. The leading approach to the study of this problem is the information and environmental approach that comprehensively address the problem of scientific explanation in…
Alvarez-Bermejo, J A; Hernández-Capel, D M; Belmonte-Ureña, L J; Roca-Piera, J
Ensuring the quality of services provided in centres where dependent persons are seen by specialist services, by improving and enhancing how information -salary, control of tasks, patients' records, etc.- is shared between staff and carers. A web information system has been developed and experimentally deployed to accomplish this. The accuracy of the system was evaluated by assessing how confident the employees were with it rather than relying on statistical data. It was experimentally deployed since January 2009 in Asociación de Personas con Discapacidad "El Saliente" that manages several day centres in Almeria, for dependent persons over 65 years old, particularly those affected by Alzheimer' disease. Incidence data was collected during the experimental period. A total of 84% of the employees thought that the system helped to manage documents, administrative duties, etc., and 92.4% said they could attend to really important tasks because the system was responsible for alerting them of every task, such as medication timetables, checking all patients were present (to prevent an Alzheimer affected person leaving the centre) etc. During this period the incidences reported were reduced by about a 30%, although data is still partially representative. As the life expectancy of the population gets longer, these centres will increase. Providing systems such as the one presented here would be of great help for administrative duties (sensitive data protection...) as well as ensuring high quality care and attention.
Dittus Robert S
Full Text Available Abstract Background Physicians reading the medical literature attempt to determine whether research studies are valid. However, articles with negative results may not provide sufficient information to allow physicians to properly assess validity. Methods We analyzed all original research articles with negative results published in 1997 in the weekly journals BMJ, JAMA, Lancet, and New England Journal of Medicine as well as those published in the 1997 and 1998 issues of the bimonthly Annals of Internal Medicine (N = 234. Our primary objective was to quantify the proportion of studies with negative results that comment on power and present confidence intervals. Secondary outcomes were to quantify the proportion of these studies with a specified effect size and a defined primary outcome. Stratified analyses by study design were also performed. Results Only 30% of the articles with negative results comment on power. The reporting of power (range: 15%-52% and confidence intervals (range: 55–81% varied significantly among journals. Observational studies of etiology/risk factors addressed power less frequently (15%, 95% CI, 8–21% than did clinical trials (56%, 95% CI, 46–67%, p Conclusion Prominent medical journals often provide insufficient information to assess the validity of studies with negative results.
Wu, D.; Torres, E.; Nguyen, J.; Mistry, S.; Whyatt, C.; Kalampratsidou, V.; Kolevzon, A.; Jose, J.
Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) are known to have deficits in language and social skills. They also have deficits on how they move. Why individuals get ASD? It is not generally known. There is, however, one particular group of children with a SHANK3 gene deficiency (Phelan-McDermid Syndrome (PMDS)) that present symptoms similar to ASD. We have been searching for universal mechanism in ASD going beyond the usual heterogeneous ASD symptoms. We studied motions in gaits for both PMDS patients and idiopathic ASD. We have examined their motions continuously at milliseconds time scale, away from naked eye detection. Gait is a complex process, requiring a complex integration and coordination of different joints' motions. Significant information about the development and/or deficits in the sensory system is hidden in our gaits. We discovered that the speed smoothness in feet motion during gaits is a critical feature that provides a significant distinction between subjects with ASD and typical controls. The differences in appearance of the speed fluctuations suggested a different coordination mechanism in subjects with disorders. Our work provides a very important feature in gait motion that has significant physiological information.
Passfield, Louis; Hopker, James G
This paper explores the notion that the availability and analysis of large data sets have the capacity to improve practice and change the nature of science in the sport and exercise setting. The increasing use of data and information technology in sport is giving rise to this change. Web sites hold large data repositories, and the development of wearable technology, mobile phone applications, and related instruments for monitoring physical activity, training, and competition provide large data sets of extensive and detailed measurements. Innovative approaches conceived to more fully exploit these large data sets could provide a basis for more objective evaluation of coaching strategies and new approaches to how science is conducted. An emerging discipline, sports analytics, could help overcome some of the challenges involved in obtaining knowledge and wisdom from these large data sets. Examples of where large data sets have been analyzed, to evaluate the career development of elite cyclists and to characterize and optimize the training load of well-trained runners, are discussed. Careful verification of large data sets is time consuming and imperative before useful conclusions can be drawn. Consequently, it is recommended that prospective studies be preferred over retrospective analyses of data. It is concluded that rigorous analysis of large data sets could enhance our knowledge in the sport and exercise sciences, inform competitive strategies, and allow innovative new research and findings.
Homma, Keiichi; Suzuki, Koji; Sugawara, Hideaki
Autophagy is a process of self-digestion generally observed in eukaryotes and has been shown to play crucial roles for survival under starvation and removal of deleterious substances. Despite great advances that have been made, many problems in mechanisms of autophagy remain unsolved. As a large number of autophagy-related proteins are identified in each species, a database that collects data, identifies their homologs in other species and makes them available will contribute to research advancement. As no such resources exist, we built the Autophagy database (http://tp-apg.genes.nig.ac.jp/autophagy) to provide basics, up-to-date information on relevant literature, and a list of autophagy-related proteins and their homologs in 41 eukaryotes. From the database, the user can search for proteins by keywords or sequences to obtain a wealth of data including functional and structural information and find possible functional homologs of proteins whose functions have been demonstrated in other species. As proteins that bind the phospholipid, phosphatidyl inositol 3-phosphate (PI3P) are essential for autophagy to proceed, we carried out an original analysis to identify probable PI3P-binding proteins, and made the list available from the database. The database is expected to give impetus to further research on autophagy by providing basic and specialized data on the subject.
A. A. Kuzkin
Full Text Available Subject of research. The paper presents research and instructional tools for assessment of providing with the development strategy for information technologies in an organization. Method. The corresponding assessment model is developed which takes into consideration IT-processes equilibrium according to selected efficiency factors of information technologies application. Basic results. The model peculiarity resides in applying neuro-fuzzy approximators where the conclusion is drawn upon fuzzy logic, and membership functions are adjusted through the use of neural networks. For the adequacy testing of the suggested model, due diligence result analysis has been carried out for the IT-strategy executed in the “Navigator” group of companies at the stage of implementation and support of new technologies and production methods. Data visualization with a circle diagram is applied for the comparative evaluation of the analysis results. The chosen model adequacy is proved by the agreement between predictive assessments for IT-strategy performance targets derived by means of the fuzzy cognitive model over 12 months planning horizon and the real values of these targets upon the expiry of the given planning term. Practical significance. The developed model application gives the possibility to solve the problem of sustainability assessment for the process of providing the required IT-strategy realization level based upon the fuzzy cognitive map analysis and to reveal IT-objectives changing tendencies for an organization over the stated planning interval.
Klucevsek, Kristin M.; Brungard, Allison B.
For undergraduate students to achieve science literacy, they must first develop information literacy skils. These skills align with Information Literacy Standards and include determining appropriate databases, distinguishing among resource types, and citing resources ethically. To effectively improve information literacy and science literacy, we…
Tolzman, Jean M.
The potential for expanded communication among researchers, scholars, and students is supported by growth in the capabilities for electronic communication as well as expanding access to various forms of electronic interchange and computing capabilities. Research supported by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration points to a future where workstations with audio and video monitors and screen-sharing protocols are used to support collaborations with colleagues located throughout the world. Instruments and sensors all over the world will produce data streams that will be brought together and analyzed to produce new findings, which in turn can be distributed electronically. New forms of electronic journals will emerge and provide opportunities for researchers and scientists to electronically and interactively exchange information in a wide range of structures and formats. Ultimately, the wide-scale use of these technologies in the dissemination of research results and the stimulation of collegial dialogue will change the way we represent and express our knowledge of the world. A new paradigm will evolve-perhaps a truly worldwide 'invisible college'.
López-Picazo, J J; de Dios Cánovas-García, J; Antúnez, C; Marín, J; Antequera, M M; Vivancos, L; Martínez, B; Legaz, A; Navarro, D; Leal, M
Dementia units (DU) provide comprehensive and specialised care to patients with dementia. However, assessment in these units normally focuses on patient management. The aim of this study was to determine satisfaction of the caregivers of patients managed in a DU and how they rated DU care. We created a self-administered questionnaire which was completed by 236 caregivers visiting the DU in 2015. The questionnaire included 6 dimensions (accessibility, organisation, professionalism, relationship with staff, information, and facilities); data were analysed using problem rates. A total of 53.4% caregivers completed the questionnaire; most were women, patients' spouses, or first-degree relatives. The overall problem rates was 15.0% (95% CI, 13.9-16.1), with sizeable differences between dimensions: from 0.1% (95% CI, 0.0-0.4) for 'relationship with staff' and 'professionalism' to 49.3% (95% CI, 45.4-53.2) for 'information'. Waiting times over 30minutes were perceived as excessive. Information problems were not directly related to patient management. Satisfaction was scored 8.29/10 (median 8; SD 1.45); 77.3% (95% CI, 69.8-74.8) of respondents were highly satisfied. Ninety-nine percent of the caregivers stated that they would recommend the DU. This questionnaire provides interesting data on care quality as perceived by patients' caregivers. Our results have allowed us to identify problems and implement corrective actions. Our questionnaire has proved to be a useful tool for evaluating and improving care quality in DUs. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Christoph Keinn; Goran Stahl
Current research in forest inventory focuses very much on technical-statistical problems geared mainly to the optimization of data collection and information generation. The basic assumption is that better information leads to better decisions and, therefore, to better forest management and forest policy. Not many studies, however, strive to explicitly establish the...
French, N. H.; Erickson, T.; McKenzie, D.
A major goal of the North American Carbon Program is to resolve uncertainties in understanding and managing the carbon cycle of North America. As carbon modeling tools become more comprehensive and spatially oriented, accurate datasets to spatially quantify carbon emissions from fire are needed, and these data resources need to be accessible to users for decision-making. Under a new NASA Carbon Cycle Science project, Drs. Nancy French and Tyler Erickson, of the Michigan Technological University, Michigan Tech Research Institute (MTRI), are teaming with specialists with the USDA Forest Service Fire and Environmental Research Applications (FERA) team to provide information for mapping fire-derived carbon emissions to users. The project focus includes development of a web-based system to provide spatially resolved fire emissions estimates for North America in a user-friendly environment. The web-based Decision Support System will be based on a variety of open source technologies. The Fuel Characteristic Classification System (FCCS) raster map of fuels and MODIS-derived burned area vector maps will be processed using the Geographic Data Abstraction Library (GDAL) and OGR Simple Features Library. Tabular and spatial project data will be stored in a PostgreSQL/PostGIS, a spatially enabled relational database server. The browser-based user interface will be created using the Django web page framework to allow user input for the decision support system. The OpenLayers mapping framework will be used to provide users with interactive maps within the browser. In addition, the data products will be made available in standard open data formats such as KML, to allow for easy integration into other spatial models and data systems.
Hopkins, Emily J; Weisberg, Deena Skolnick; Taylor, Jordan C V
Previous work has found that people feel significantly more satisfied with explanations of psychological phenomena when those explanations contain neuroscience information-even when this information is entirely irrelevant to the logic of the explanations. This seductive allure effect was first demonstrated by Weisberg, Keil, Goodstein, Rawson, and Gray (2008), and has since been replicated several times (Fernandez-Duque, Evans, Christian, & Hodges, 2015; Minahan & Siedlecki, 2016; Rhodes, Rodriguez, & Shah, 2014; Weisberg, Taylor, & Hopkins, 2015). However, these studies only examined psychological phenomena. The current study thus investigated the generality of this effect and found that it occurs across several scientific disciplines whenever the explanations include reductive information: reference to smaller components or more fundamental processes. These data suggest that people have a general preference for reductive information, even when it is irrelevant to the logic of an explanation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Yousefy, Alireza; Malekahmadi, Parisa
Research is essential for development. In other words, scientific development of each country can be evaluated by researchers' scientific production. Understanding and assessing the activities of researchers for planning and policy making is essential. The significance of collaboration in the production of scientific publications in today's complex world where technology is everything is very apparent. Scientists realized that in order to get their work wildly used and cited to by experts, they must collaborate. The collaboration among researchers results in the development of scientific knowledge and hence, attainment of wider information. The main objective of this research is to survey scientific production and collaboration rate in philosophy and theoretical bases of medical library and information sciences in ISI, SCOPUS, and Pubmed databases during 2001-2010. This is a descriptive survey and scientometrics methods were used for this research. Then data gathered via check list and analyzed by the SPSS software. Collaboration rate was calculated according to the formula. Among the 294 related abstracts about philosophy, and theoretical bases of medical library and information science in ISI, SCOPUS, and Pubmed databases during 2001-2010, the year 2007 with 45 articles has the most and the year 2003 with 16 articles has the least number of related collaborative articles in this scope. "B. Hjorland" with eight collaborative articles had the most one among Library and Information Sciences (LIS) professionals in ISI, SCOPUS, and Pubmed. Journal of Documentation with 29 articles and 12 collaborative articles had the most related articles. Medical library and information science challenges with 150 articles had first place in number of articles. Results also show that the most elaborative country in terms of collaboration point of view and number of articles was US. "University of Washington" and "University Western Ontario" are the most elaborative affiliation from
Ana Maria Mattos
Full Text Available This paper identifies the set of journals cited in PhD theses about Management at the Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul completed from 1997 until 2007, and distinguish the journals in which the authors of these theses published his scientific and technical papers one year after obtaining the doctoral degree up to 2010. The authors used a set of 1,131 titles in their theses and published their articles in another set of 187 journals. The two sets had in common only 31 journals, or about 2% of the titles.
Koenig, Kristi L; Shastry, Siri; Mzahim, Bandr; Almadhyan, Abdulmajeed; Burns, Michael J
Mumps is a highly contagious viral infection that became rare in most industrialized countries following the introduction of measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine in 1967. The disease, however, has been re-emerging with several outbreaks over the past decade. Many clinicians have never seen a case of mumps. To assist frontline healthcare providers with detecting potential cases and initiating critical actions, investigators modified the "Identify-Isolate-Inform" tool for mumps infection. The tool is applicable to regions with rare incidences or local outbreaks, especially seen in college students, as well as globally in areas where vaccination is less common. Mumps begins with a prodrome of low-grade fever, myalgias and malaise/anorexia, followed by development of nonsuppurative parotitis, which is the pathognomonic finding associated with acute mumps infection. Orchitis and meningitis are the two most common serious complications, with hearing loss and infertility occurring rarely. Providers should consider mumps in patients with exposure to a known case or international travel to endemic regions who present with consistent signs and symptoms. If mumps is suspected, healthcare providers must immediately implement standard and droplet precautions and notify the local health department and hospital infection control personnel.
This study has demonstrated that although an information need could trigger off an information activity, the subsequent information processes could only be sustained by the value of information. The value of information is therefore the core category, while the moderation of constraints and interaction with sources for latent ...
E. V. Golubev
Full Text Available The article presents the approaches to the creation of cloud information system for automation of business processes related to the preparation and publication of periodic scientific and educational publications (publishing. The aim of the research is the development of concepts, models, patterns, architecture of such a system, the choice of software implementation. The urgency of development based on the results of a study of existing and used in practice technologies for creating electronic versions of scientific journals and other types of scientific and educational resources. It is expected that the use of cloud-based systems will reduce the time and cost of publishing houses, as well as improve the quality of published material (for example, through the use of their interactive and multimedia elements, add comments and assessment opportunities articles and so forth..Description is given on an example of cloud Redactor.Online system developed by small innovative enterprises of Petrozavodsk State University «Internet-business-system». As a means of implementation chosen freelydistributed products, such as PostgreSQL, PHP, Yii Framework.Logically, the cloud structure of the system is a set of components, based on common data sources and interacting with each other. The main components of the system are the basic (general part of promo-site system, editorial offices of periodicals created in the system, media sites, mobile applications editions, complex control system as a whole.The central element of the system architecture is the editorial offices. It provides a set of features related to the preparation for release and publication of the magazine, including the management of the lifecycle of the article (step preparation of the article the author, its review, proofreading, typesetting, translation, publication, and export to external citation indexes. Available functionality of this component is determined by the role assigned to the user
Hernon, Peter; Pinelli, Thomas E.
With its contribution to trade, its coupling with national security, and its symbolism of U.S. technological strength, the U.S. aerospace industry holds a unique position in the Nation's industrial structure. Federal science and technology policy and Federal scientific and technical information (STI) policy loom important as strategic contributions to the U.S. aerospace industry's leading competitive position. However, three fundamental policy problems exist. First, the United States lacks a coherent STI policy and a unified approach to the development of such a policy. Second, policymakers fail to understand the relationship of STI to science and technology policy. Third, STI is treated as a part of general information policy, without any recognition of its uniqueness. This paper provides an overview of the Federal information policy structure as it relates to STI and frames the policy issues that require resolution.
Hernon, Peter; Pinelli, Thomas E.
With its contribution to trade, its coupling with national security, and its symbolism of U.S. technological strength, the U.S. aerospace industry holds a unique position in the Nation's industrial structure. Federal science and technology policy and Federal scientific and technical information (STI) policy loom important as strategic contributions to the U.S. aerospace industry's leading competitive position. However, three fundamental policy problems exist. First, the United States lacks a coherent STI policy and a unified approach to the development of such a policy. Second, policymakers fail to understand the relationship of STI to science and technology policy. Third, STI is treated as a part of general information policy, without any recognition of its uniqueness. This paper provides an overview of the Federal information policy structure as it relates to STI and frames the policy issues that require resolution.
The gist and the background of “Specialized Information Program 1985-1988”, which was decided by the Federal government of Germany in June 1985, were outlined in comparison with the interim report of the fiscal year 1986. In the previous program “I & D” from 1974 to 1977, the establishment of GID (Association for Information and Documentation) and the consolidation of Specialized Information Centers (FIZ) were main object. However, in the new program, the role sharing between government and private enterprises was emphasized with a view to stimulate information demand in the circumstance of cooperation and competition of the world market.
Kennedy, John M.; Pinelli, Thomas E.; Hecht, Laura F.; Barclay, Rebecca O.
The U.S. aerospace industry has a long history of federal support for research related to its needs. Since the establishment of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) in 1915, the federal government has provided continuous research support related to flight and aircraft design. This research has contributed to the international preeminence of the U.S. aerospace industry. In this paper, we present a sociological analysis of aerospace engineers and scientists and how their attitudes and behaviors impact the flow of scientific and technical information (STI). We use a constructivist framework to explain the spotty dissemination of federally funded aerospace research. Our research is aimed towards providing federal policymakers with a clearer understanding of how and when federally funded aerospace research is used. This understanding will help policymakers design improved information transfer systems that will aid the competitiveness of the U.S. aerospace industry.
Full Text Available This paper presents OnRoute, a framework for developing and running ubiquitous software that provides information services to passengers of public transportation, including payment systems and on-route guidance services. To achieve a high level of interoperability, accessibility and context awareness, OnRoute uses the ubiquitous computing paradigm. To guarantee the quality of the software produced, the reliable software principles used in critical contexts, such as automotive systems, are also considered by the framework. The main components of its architecture (run-time, system services, software components and development discipline and how they are deployed in the transportation network (stations and vehicles are described in this paper. Finally, to illustrate the use of OnRoute, the development of a guidance service for travellers is explained.
Виктор Семенович Корнилов
Full Text Available In article attention that when training in the inverse problems for differential equations at students scientific and cognitive potential develops is paid. Students realize that mathematical models of the inverse problems for differential equations find the application in economy, the industries, ecology, sociology, biology, chemistry, mathematician, physics, in researches of the processes and the phenomena occurring in water and earth’s environment, air and space.Attention of the reader that in training activity to the inverse problems for differential equations at students the scientific outlook, logical, algorithmic, information thinking, creative activity, independence and ingenuity develop is focused. Students acquire skills to apply knowledge of many physical and mathematical disciplines, to carry out the analysis of the received decision of the reverse task and to formulate logical outputs of application-oriented character. Solving the inverse problems for differential equations, students acquire new knowledge in the field of applied and calculus mathematics, informatics, natural sciences and other knowledge.
Akcay Yasemin D
Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent findings suggest a role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of Behcet's disease (BD, but the utility of oxidative stress-associated assays in offering diagnostic information or in the monitoring of disease activity is largely unassessed. Objective and methods We aimed to measure oxidative and inflammatory markers, along with the markers of reactive nitrogen species, S-nitrosothiols and 3-nitrotyrosine, in BD patients (n = 100 and healthy volunteers (n = 50. These markers were evaluated in regard to their role in the pathogenesis of BD as well as their relation to clinical presentation, disease activity and duration. Results Median values for erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR, C-reactive protein, leukocyte count, and IL-18 levels, as well as myeloperoxidase (MPO activity, were statistically higher in the patient group compared to controls. Some inflammation markers (ESR, neutrophil and leukocyte counts were statistically higher (p 0.05 in all statistical comparisons, nor was there any difference in median levels of these oxidative stress markers in active disease versus disease remission. S-nitrosothiols and 3-nitrotyrosine were undetectable in BD plasma. Conclusions The application of oxidative stress-associated measures to BD blood samples offered no supplemental diagnostic or disease activity information to that provided by standard laboratory measures of inflammation. S-nitrosothiols and 3-nitrotyrosine appeared not to be markers for active BD; thus the search for biochemical markers that will indicate the active period should be continued with larger studies.
Shinkai, Soya; Nozaki, Tadasu; Maeshima, Kazuhiro; Togashi, Yuichi
The mammalian genome is organized into submegabase-sized chromatin domains (CDs) including topologically associating domains, which have been identified using chromosome conformation capture-based methods. Single-nucleosome imaging in living mammalian cells has revealed subdiffusively dynamic nucleosome movement. It is unclear how single nucleosomes within CDs fluctuate and how the CD structure reflects the nucleosome movement. Here, we present a polymer model wherein CDs are characterized by fractal dimensions and the nucleosome fibers fluctuate in a viscoelastic medium with memory. We analytically show that the mean-squared displacement (MSD) of nucleosome fluctuations within CDs is subdiffusive. The diffusion coefficient and the subdiffusive exponent depend on the structural information of CDs. This analytical result enabled us to extract information from the single-nucleosome imaging data for HeLa cells. Our observation that the MSD is lower at the nuclear periphery region than the interior region indicates that CDs in the heterochromatin-rich nuclear periphery region are more compact than those in the euchromatin-rich interior region with respect to the fractal dimensions as well as the size. Finally, we evaluated that the average size of CDs is in the range of 100-500 nm and that the relaxation time of nucleosome movement within CDs is a few seconds. Our results provide physical and dynamic insights into the genome architecture in living cells.
Liu, Xiao; Liu, Anfeng; Huang, Changqin
Applications running on the Internet of Things, such as the Wireless Sensor and Actuator Networks (WSANs) platform, generally have different quality of service (QoS) requirements. For urgent events, it is crucial that information be reported to the actuator quickly, and the communication cost is the second factor. However, for interesting events, communication costs, network lifetime and time all become important factors. In most situations, these different requirements cannot be satisfied simultaneously. In this paper, an adaptive communication control based on a differentiated delay (ACCDS) scheme is proposed to resolve this conflict. In an ACCDS, source nodes of events adaptively send various searching actuators routings (SARs) based on the degree of sensitivity to delay while maintaining the network lifetime. For a delay-sensitive event, the source node sends a large number of SARs to actuators to identify and inform the actuators in an extremely short time; thus, action can be taken quickly but at higher communication costs. For delay-insensitive events, the source node sends fewer SARs to reduce communication costs and improve network lifetime. Therefore, an ACCDS can meet the QoS requirements of different events using a differentiated delay framework. Theoretical analysis simulation results indicate that an ACCDS provides delay and communication costs and differentiated services; an ACCDS scheme can reduce the network delay by 11.111%-53.684% for a delay-sensitive event and reduce the communication costs by 5%-22.308% for interesting events, and reduce the network lifetime by about 28.713%.
Arya, Bhawna; Glickstein, Julie S; Levasseur, Stéphanie M; Williams, Ismeé A
To determine whether pediatric cardiologists and parents of older children with congenital heart disease (CHD) share similar expectations regarding the education and counseling that should be provided to parents of children with CHD in both the prenatal and neonatal period. Consenting parents of older children with CHD (age >3 years) and cardiologists ranked the importance of education topics on a scale of 1 (unimportant) to 10 (very important). The rankings of parents and cardiologists were compared using Student's t-test. We had 38 cardiologists and 41 parents complete the questionnaire. There was a statistically significant difference in rankings between cardiologist and parents of children with CHD (PParents consistently ranked topics as more important than cardiologists with a mean difference in rank score of 0.85 ±0.3. In the prenatal period, the most significant differences between parents and cardiologists were noted for information related to the child's quality of life. For neonatal counseling, the most significant differences were noted for information regarding follow-up care and the parent's ability to describe the child's CHD to medical personnel. Parents of older children with CHD would prefer to receive more counseling and education in the prenatal and newborn period than cardiologists perceive is wanted. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Ysunza, Pablo Antonio; Bloom, David; Chaiyasate, Kongkrit; Rontal, Matthew; VanHulle, Rachel; Shaheen, Kenneth; Gibson, Donald
The state of the art for correcting velopharyngeal insufficiency (VPI) is a surgical procedure which is customized according to findings on imaging procedures: multiplanar videofluoroscopy (MPVF) and flexible videonasopharyngoscopy (FVNP). Recently, the use of MPVF has been challenged because of the potential risk of using ionizing radiation, especially in children. To study whether using a protocol for performing MPVF can effectively decrease radiation dose in patients with VPI while providing useful information for planning surgical correction of VPI in combination with FVNP. The methodology used for performing the imaging procedures is described as well as the effectiveness of the surgical procedure. Eighty - nine patients (Age range = 3-17 years; median = 5.5 years) with VPI resulting from multiple etiologies were studied. All patients underwent MPVF and FVNP for planning surgical correction of VPI. Radiation dosage data in each case was recorded. Forty of the 89 patients also completed a postoperative evaluation. Eleven out of the remaining 49 patients have not completed a postoperative evaluation and 38 patients are still pending surgical correction. Radiation dosage ranged from 1.00 to 8.75 miliSieverts (mSv); Mean = 2.88 mSv; SD = 1.575 mSv. Preoperative nasometry demonstrated mean nasalance ranging from 41%-95%; Mean = 72.30; SD = 4.54. Postoperatively mean nasalance was within normal limits in 36 (90%) out of 40 cases, ranging from 21% to 35%; Mean = 28.10; SD = 5.40. Nasal emission was eliminated postoperatively in all cases. MPVF provides useful information for planning the surgical procedure aimed at correcting VPI. The combination of MPVF and FVNP is a reliable procedure for assessing velopharyngeal closure and to surgically correcting VPI with a highly successful outcome. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Jeevan, R; Birch, J; Armstrong, A P
Travelling abroad for surgery is a phenomenon reported internationally. It is particularly likely for aesthetic procedures not undertaken routinely by national health services. We assessed the impact of these patients presenting to the UK National Health Service (NHS) with concerns or complications on their return. All 326 UK consultant members of the British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons (BAPRAS) were asked to complete a short questionnaire about patients that had presented to the NHS with complications or concerns following surgery abroad. The results were subsequently presented to the Department of Health (DH). 203 (62%) UK consultant plastic surgeons responded. 76 (37%) of the 203 respondents had seen such patients in their NHS practice, most commonly following breast or abdominal procedures. A quarter underwent emergency surgery, a third out-patient treatment and a third elective surgical revision. In response to these findings, the DH clarified that NHS teams should provide emergency care to such patients but should not undertake any elective revision procedures. Travelling abroad for aesthetic surgery may reduce its cost. However, aesthetic procedures have high minor complication rates, and peri-operative travel is associated with increased risks. Fully informed consent is unlikely when patients do not meet their surgeon prior to paying and travelling for surgery, and national health services are used to provide a free safety net on their return. To help minimise the potential risks, BAPRAS has clarified the responsibilities of the NHS and is acting to better inform UK patients considering travelling abroad. Copyright © 2010 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hernández-Del Amo, Elena; Menció, Anna; Gich, Frederic; Mas-Pla, Josep; Bañeras, Lluís
Natural attenuation processes alleviate the impact of fertilization practices on groundwater resources. Therefore, identifying the occurrence of denitrification has become a requirement for water quality management. Several approaches are useful for this purpose, such as isotopic and microbiological methods, each of them providing distinct but complementary information about denitrification reactions, attenuation rates and their occurrence in the aquifer. In this paper, we investigate the contribution of both approaches to describe denitrification in a consolidated rock aquifer (limestone and marls), with a porosity related to fracture networks located in the northeastern sector of the Osona basin (NE Spain). Isotopic methods indicated the origin of nitrate (fertilization using manure) and that denitrification occurred, reaching a reduction of near 25% of the nitrate mass in groundwater. The studied area could be divided in two zones with distinct agricultural pressures and, consequently, nitrate concentrations in groundwater. Denitrification occurred in both zones and at different levels, indicating that attenuation processes took place all along the whole hydrogeological unit, and that the observed levels could be attributed to a larger flow path or, in a minor extent, to mixing processes that mask the actual denitrification rates. Microbiological data showed a correlation between denitrifier genes and the isotopic composition. However, the groundwater microbiome and the distribution of denitrifying bacteria did not reveal a major influence on the denitrification level observed by isotopic methods. This focuses the interest of microbiological analysis to identify functional genes within the bacteria present in the aquifer. Results indicated that isotopic methods provide information of the overall denitrification ability of the hydrogeological unit, and that genomic data represent the processes actually acting nearby the well. A combination of both approaches is
... other information and granting immunity. 511.39 Section 511.39 Transportation Other Regulations Relating... testify or provide other information and granting immunity. (a) A party who desires the issuance of an order requiring a witness to testify or provide other information upon being granted immunity from...
Giannakopoulos, Christos; Kotroni, Vasso; Lagouvardos, Kostas; Korakaki, Evi; Hatzaki, Maria; Tenentes, Vassilis; Roussos, Anargyros; Karali, Anna; Goodess, Clare
In EU project CLIMRUN, there has been a continuous interaction with stakeholders and end-users to develop new and improved tools to extract useful and useable information tailored to the needs of specific sectors. In this work, we review the provision of climate information services required in the Mediterranean country of Greece where forest fires represent a major hazard. Intense terrain, sparsely vegetated with typical Mediterranean flora makes Greece a fire prone environment. That, in addition to the abandonment of rural lands and extreme weather conditions due to climate change the last few decades, constitutes an issue of an annual cycle of catastrophe from forest fires. An iterative and bottom-up (i.e. stakeholder led) approach for optimizing the two-way information transfer between climate experts and stakeholders has been adopted from the start of the project with a workshop in Athens helping to define the framework for the forest fires case study. The main objectives of this workshop were to better understand who the wildfires stakeholders are and what they need from climate services. After the first workshop three main categories of stakeholders were identified: short term fire planners, long term policy makers and education stakeholders. To address the needs of these stakeholders' categories the following actions were taken: 1. In collaboration with the forecasting team at the National Observatory of Athens, an application providing fire risk forecasts for the following 3 days (http://cirrus.meteo.noa.gr/forecast/bolam/index.htm) was developed, to address the needs of short term fire planners. 2. A web-based application providing long term fire risk and other fire related indices changes due to climate change (time horizon up to 2050 and up to 2100) was developed in collaboration with the Greek WWF office, to address the needs of long term fire policy makers (http://www.oikoskopio.gr/map/). 3. Finally, an educational tool was built in order to
Full Text Available In this article, which reports the second part of a two-part study of the use of electronic journals by researchers in two French research institutions, we attempt to explain the integration of the use of electronic journals in the scientists' information habits, going beyond usage analysis. First, we describe how the development of electronic journals use follows a three-phase innovation process - research-development, first uses, and technical acculturation. Then, we attempt to find more significant explanatory factors, and emphasis is placed on the wider context of information activity. Three main information activity types are outlined - marginal, parallel, and integrated. Each of these types corresponds to a particular attitude towards scientific information and to different levels of electronic journal use.
Verneau, Fabio; Caracciolo, Francesco; Coppola, Adele; Lombardi, Pasquale
Food choice and consumption behaviour are influenced by many interacting factors. In this paper we present an empirical effort to enhance understanding of the neophobia-neophilia forces affecting food choice. Starting from the analysis of consumer preferences for some of the most familiar highly processed foods, namely fat-reduced, functional (enriched drinks and yogurt) and ready-to-eat frozen food, our study investigates the role of traditional demographic variables vs attitudes to new food technologies in predicting the consumption behaviour of a sample of Italians buying such products. Consumer attitudes toward food technologies were collected by means of the Food Technology Neophobia Scale (FTNS). Moreover, this paper explicitly analyses the value of the information provided by the FTNS. Underlying the research is the hypothesis that the FTNS may contribute to provide a comprehensive picture of the driving forces behind consumers' behavioural responses towards processed foods which are the end-result of mature technologies. The four FTNS components, once measured and used independently, help clarify the influence on food choices of each neophobia-neophilia force (risk perception and novelty seeking, media influence, own health and environmental concerns) into a single, comprehensive framework. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Katz, Mira L; Broder-Oldach, Ben; Fisher, James L; King, Justin; Eubanks, Kathy; Fleming, Kelly; Paskett, Electra D
Colorectal cancer (CRC) screening rates remain low among low-income minority populations. To evaluate informed decision making (IDM) elements about CRC screening among low-income minority patients. Observational data were collected as part of a patient-level randomized controlled trial to improve CRC screening rates. Medical visits (November 2007 to May 2010) were audio-taped and coded for IDM elements about CRC screening. Near the end of the study one provider refused recording of patients' visits (33 of 270 patients). Among all patients in the trial, agreement to be audio taped was 43.5 % (103/237). Evaluable patient (n = 100) visits were assessed for CRC screening discussion occurrence, IDM elements, and who initiated discussion of each IDM element. Patients were African American (72.2 %), female (63.7 %), with annual household incomes IDM elements was five; however, only two visits included five elements. The most common IDM element discussed in addition to the nature of the decision was the assessment of the patient's understanding in 16 (33.3 %) of the visits that included a CRC discussion. A patient activation intervention initiated CRC screening discussions with health care providers; however, limited IDM occurred about CRC screening during medical visits of minority and low-income patients.
Montané, Eva; Duran, Marta; Capellà, Dolors; Figueras, Albert
We aimed to analyse the quality of newspaper articles (NAs) concerning the therapeutic use of cannabis published in Spanish newspapers. A preliminary questionnaire of the Index of Scientific Quality was used [scores ranged from 0 (no misleading) to 14 (misinformation in each item)]. Of the 29 NAs analysed, 16 (55.2%) were scored as 4 or lower, and 6 (20.7%) scored 7 or higher. Up to 23 NAs (79.3%) did not manage the knowledge related to cannabinoids; 20 (69%) gave a sensationalist message; 11 (37.9%) were able to wrongly influence clinical decision taking; and 8 (27.6%) misled medical concepts. The leading medical journals could play an especially relevant role while preparing their press releases if they specify study limitations and context.
Benedict, J. L.; McGuinness, D. L.; Fox, P.
We have designed, developed, and deployed a number of applications that leverage ontologies in interdisciplinary scientific applications. As our work has evolved, we have developed a methodology for leveraging semantic technologies as kind of methodology for building and deploying semantically-enhanced science community applications. We will present our semantic web methodology that has been used in science applications covering Solar Terrestrial Physics, Atmospheric Research, Volcanology, and Plate Tectonics applications, among others. The methodology includes use case generation, carefully chosen mixed skill-set teams, use case analysis, development of a conceptual model, semantic tool usage, expert review and iteration, leveraging of technological infrastructure, rapid prototyping, and open world evolution, iteration, redesign, and redeployment. In this presentation, we will show how the methodology has been used in our projects and highlight benefits including quick deployment and rapid community buy-in.
... and information in languages other than English? 37.35 Section 37.35 Labor Office of the Secretary of... Communication § 37.35 What are a recipient's responsibilities to provide services and information in languages... services or information in a language other than English in order to be effectively informed about, or able...
Azami, Mohammad; Khajouei, Reza; Rakhshani, Safiyeh
The significance and validity of web-based scientific databases are increasing dramatically in the scientific community. Moreover, a great number of students use these resources without having sufficient and accurate knowledge and understanding. In order for students to use these databases and electronic resources optimally, identifying the factors that affect the understanding and acceptance of these resources seems necessary. The aim of this study was to determine postgraduate medical students' acceptance and understanding of these resources. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 311 postgraduate medical students from Kerman University of Medical Science (KMU) in 2013. Data were collected using a researcher-made questionnaire, and the data were analyzed using SPSS. In order to design the model (i.e., the interaction between study variables and to determine the relationships between them in an integrated pattern), LISREL version 8.7 and a structural equation model were used. Descriptive statistics and t-tests also were used in data analysis. The results showed that the average components of the perception of usefulness, perception of ease of use, attitude towards use, decision to use, using to perform duties, and using to increase knowledge were 4.31, 4.14, 4.24, 16.27, 20.85, and 16.13 respectively. Accordingly, the average of all these indicators was significantly higher than the assumed amount (p < 0.01). Moreover, the results obtained from factor analysis and the structural equation model indicated that the model of the present study fit the data perfectly. Based on the findings of this study, the more these databases are considered useful and easy to use, the more they are used. Therefore, designers of databases and electronic resources can design systems that are both useful and easy to learn by considering the components of the research model.
Ferguson, Caleb; Inglis, Sally C; Newton, Phillip J; Cripps, Peter J S; MacDonald, Peter S; Davidson, Patricia M
The World Wide Web has changed the way in which people communicate and consume information. More importantly, this innovation has increased the speed and spread of information. There has been recent increase in the percentage of cardiovascular professionals, including journals and associations using Twitter to engage with others and exchange ideas. Evaluating the reach and impact in scientific meetings is important in promoting the use of social media. This study evaluated Twitter use during the recent 61st Annual Scientific Meeting at the Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand. During the Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand 2013 61st Annual Scientific Meeting Symplur was used to curate conversations that were publicly posted with the hashtag #CSANZ2013. The hashtag was monitored with analysis focused on the influencers, latest tweets, tweet statistics, activity comparisons, and tweet activity during the conference. Additionally, Radian6 social media listening software was used to collect data. A summary is provided. There were 669 total tweets sent from 107 unique Twitter accounts during 8th August 9 a.m. to 11th August 1 p.m. This averaged nine tweets per hour and six tweets per participant. This assisted in the sharing of ideas and disseminating the findings and conclusions from presenters at the conference with a total 1,432,573 potential impressions in Twitter users tweet streams. This analysis of Twitter conversations during a recent scientific meeting highlights the significance and place of social media within research dissemination and collaboration. Researchers and clinicians should consider using this technology to enhance timely communication of findings. The potential to engage with consumers and enhance shared decision-making should be explored further.
... to the disadvantage of such endangered species, and (3) will be consistent with the purposes and... of automated collection techniques or other forms of information technology. Comments submitted in...
Organize national guidelines for emergency management information methodology and exchange B.2 Organize a universal lexicography for an emergency...national guidelines for emergency manage- ment information methodology and exchange B.2 Organize a universal lexicography for an emergency management...organization of a universal lexicography for hazards and emergency management usage. The standard key words in the dictionary are to be used in indexing the
Liu, Xiao; Liu, Anfeng; Huang, Changqin
Applications running on the Internet of Things, such as the Wireless Sensor and Actuator Networks (WSANs) platform, generally have different quality of service (QoS) requirements. For urgent events, it is crucial that information be reported to the actuator quickly, and the communication cost is the second factor. However, for interesting events, communication costs, network lifetime and time all become important factors. In most situations, these different requirements cannot be satisfied simultaneously. In this paper, an adaptive communication control based on a differentiated delay (ACCDS) scheme is proposed to resolve this conflict. In an ACCDS, source nodes of events adaptively send various searching actuators routings (SARs) based on the degree of sensitivity to delay while maintaining the network lifetime. For a delay-sensitive event, the source node sends a large number of SARs to actuators to identify and inform the actuators in an extremely short time; thus, action can be taken quickly but at higher communication costs. For delay-insensitive events, the source node sends fewer SARs to reduce communication costs and improve network lifetime. Therefore, an ACCDS can meet the QoS requirements of different events using a differentiated delay framework. Theoretical analysis simulation results indicate that an ACCDS provides delay and communication costs and differentiated services; an ACCDS scheme can reduce the network delay by 11.111%–53.684% for a delay-sensitive event and reduce the communication costs by 5%–22.308% for interesting events, and reduce the network lifetime by about 28.713%. PMID:28085097
Full Text Available Nowadays, economic development is characterized by increasing of contradictions between ecological and economic systems. As a result, the necessity of unity achievement is growing in the existence of ecological and economic values as one of the main conditions of the concept of sustainable development. For this purpose it is important to implement and create an ecological and economic management system at the enterprise to ensure ecological and economic efficiency. There is a need to improve accounting as a system of measuring economic phenomena and processes for a high level of ecological and economic management. The research is aimed at the development of theoretical and methodological approaches to accounting management for ecological quality of products based on the definition of the essence of the concept as an object of management under conditions of sustainable development, identification and systematization of factors of increasing the ecological quality of products and their management features, accounting identification of costs for ecological quality of products. According to the results of the research, it is established that the ecological quality of products is a combination of properties, which ensure excellent performance of assigned functions and the presence in products of those properties and characteristics that promote the maximum satisfaction of consumer needs and inquiries. The existing order of organization of accounting in Ukraine does not provide the provision of necessary information for the management of the ecological quality of products. The proposed directions of development of elements of the expense accounting method for the ecological quality of products will promote the expansion of information support for the adoption of substantiated and effective management decisions regarding the activities of business entities in accordance with the provisions of the concept of sustainable development.
Full Text Available Applications running on the Internet of Things, such as the Wireless Sensor and Actuator Networks (WSANs platform, generally have different quality of service (QoS requirements. For urgent events, it is crucial that information be reported to the actuator quickly, and the communication cost is the second factor. However, for interesting events, communication costs, network lifetime and time all become important factors. In most situations, these different requirements cannot be satisfied simultaneously. In this paper, an adaptive communication control based on a differentiated delay (ACCDS scheme is proposed to resolve this conflict. In an ACCDS, source nodes of events adaptively send various searching actuators routings (SARs based on the degree of sensitivity to delay while maintaining the network lifetime. For a delay-sensitive event, the source node sends a large number of SARs to actuators to identify and inform the actuators in an extremely short time; thus, action can be taken quickly but at higher communication costs. For delay-insensitive events, the source node sends fewer SARs to reduce communication costs and improve network lifetime. Therefore, an ACCDS can meet the QoS requirements of different events using a differentiated delay framework. Theoretical analysis simulation results indicate that an ACCDS provides delay and communication costs and differentiated services; an ACCDS scheme can reduce the network delay by 11.111%–53.684% for a delay-sensitive event and reduce the communication costs by 5%–22.308% for interesting events, and reduce the network lifetime by about 28.713%.
Epstein, R H; Dexter, F
Perioperative interruptions generated electronically from anaesthesia information management systems (AIMS) can provide useful feedback, but may adversely affect task performance if distractions occur at inopportune moments. Ideally such interruptions would occur only at times when their impact would be minimal. In this study of AIMS data, we evaluated the times of comments, drugs, fluids and periodic assessments (e.g. electrocardiogram diagnosis and train-of-four) to develop recommendations for the timing of interruptions during the intraoperative period. The 39,707 cases studied were divided into intervals between: 1) enter operating room; 2) induction; 3) intubation; 4) surgical incision; and 5) end surgery. Five-minute intervals of no documentation were determined for each case. The offsets from the start of each interval when >50% of ongoing cases had completed initial documentation were calculated (MIN50). The primary endpoint for each interval was the percentage of all cases still ongoing at MIN50. Results were that the intervals from entering the operating room to induction and from induction to intubation were unsuitable for interruptions confirming prior observational studies of anaesthesia workload. At least 13 minutes after surgical incision was the most suitable time for interruptions with 92% of cases still ongoing. Timing was minimally affected by the type of anaesthesia, surgical facility, surgical service, prone positioning or scheduled case duration. The implication of our results is that for mediated interruptions, waiting at least 13 minutes after the start of surgery is appropriate. Although we used AIMS data, operating room information system data is also suitable.
Sindik, Joško; Miljanović, Maja
The article deals with the issue of research methodology, illustrating the use of known research methods for new purposes. Questionnaires that originally do not have metric characteristics can be called “handy questionnaires”. In this article, the author is trying to consider the possibilities of their improved scientific usability, which can be primarily ensured by improving their metric characteristics, consequently using multivariate instead of univariate statistical methods. In order to e...
Gendron, Marie-Pierre; Martin, Brigitte; Oraichi, Driss; Bérard, Anick
Medication use during pregnancy and lactation is prevalent. However, current knowledge of the risks and benefits of medication use during pregnancy and lactation is incomplete as the best available evidence has been obtained from cohort studies of inadvertent exposures and registries. This situation may partly explain health care providers' (HCP) risk perceptions and thus the increasing number of calls to Teratogen Information Services (TIS). The objectives of this study were (1) to identify the medication classes for which HCP are seeking counseling from the IMAGe center, a Quebec TIS; (2) to identify the medical conditions for which medication classes were used during pregnancy and lactation; (3) to identify and quantify predictors of medication information requests during pregnancy and lactation. A retrospective analysis of data was conducted within the population served by the IMAGe center, a TIS based at CHU Ste-Justine in Montreal, Quebec, Canada, that serves the French population of Canada. To be included, calls had to be received between January 1, 2004 and April 30, 2007, and the subject of the call had to be directly associated with the exposure, or not, of a pregnant or breastfeeding woman to medication. Multivariate generalized estimating equation (GEE) regression models were performed to identify the predictors of medication requests. A total of 11, 076 requests regarding medication exposure during pregnancy, 12 055 requests regarding pregnant women before the exposure took place, and 13, 364 requests regarding lactation were included for analyses. Pregnant women were most frequently exposed to antidepressants (17.3), antibiotics (6.3%), and benzodiazepines (5.3%). Prior to drug exposure, the most frequent inquiries by HCP were on antibiotics (11.0%), anti-inflammatory drugs (6.0%), and antiemetics (5.1%). Inquiries concerning lactating women most frequently requested information on the drug classes of antidepressants (10.8%), antibiotics (9.1%), and
In a document issued by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, a Department of Energy affiliated national laboratory, in “F.A.Q. Mozart ,” at [http...www.pnl.gov/isrc / mozart /faq.html]. 2 Greg Griffin, “Program Management Perspective: Sensitive Unclassified Information,” The Dragon’s Breath...still in effect , as stated in a letter from the National Security Advisor to the Center for Strategic and International Studies (Issued by National
. To develop a more adequate way of capturing what is at stake in interdisciplinarity, I suggest drawing inspiration from the contemporary philosophical literature on scientific representation. The development of a representation based approach to the analysis of interdisciplinarity, and the discussion...... of the concept of “scientific discipline” and disciplinary difference. This chapter provides reasons to assume that conventional scientific taxonomies do not provide a good basis for analysing epistemic aspects of interdisciplinary science. On this background it is argued that the concept of “approaches...... accepted arguments against the relevance of philosophy to understanding scientific activities (in general). In chapter 5 and onwards I argue in favour of construing interdisciplinarity and interdisciplinary activities in light of the philosophy of scientific represen- tation. I go through discussions...
Lee, Eun Young; Lee, Chang-Keun; Lee, Tae Hoon; Chung, Son Mi; Kim, Seong Ho; Cho, You Sook; Yoo, Bin; Moon, Hee-Bom
To investigate whether the anti-beta(2)-glycoprotein I (anti-beta(2)GPI) antibody may provide additional information in patients with thrombosis in conjunction with the lupus anticoagulant (LAC) or anticardiolipin (aCL) antibody. We selected 235 patients whose plasma were tested for the presence of all three antiphospholipid (aPL) antibodies (LAC, aCL, and anti-beta(2)GPI) and were positive for at least one aPL antibody from January 2000 to December 2001. The LAC test was performed using dilute activated thromboplastin time reagent (dAPTT) and dilute Russell viper venom time reagent (dRVVT). ACL (IgG/IgM) and anti-beta(2)GPI (IgG/IgM) were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Clinical data were collected and analysed in all patients with aPL antibody. Of the 235 patients with aPL, thrombosis was detected in 76 patients (28.0%). Of the 76 patients with thrombosis, 29 were positive for LAC, 9 for aCL, 7 for anti-beta(2)GPI, 3 for LAC+aCL, 9 for aCL+anti-beta(2)GPI, 11 for LAC+anti-beta(2)GPI, and 8 for LAC+aCL+anti-beta(2)GPI. The rate of thrombosis was significantly different (p=0.01) among single positive patients (45/163, 27.6%), double positive patients (23/60, 38.3%), and triple positive patients (8/12, 66.7%). In single positive patients, the rate of thrombosis was highest in LAC positive patients (29/85, 34.1%). In double positive patients, the LAC+anti-beta(2)GPI positive group (11/24, 45.8%) and aCL+anti-beta(2)GPI positive group (9/22, 40.9%) had higher rates of thrombosis than the LAC+aCL positive group (3/14, 21.4%). Single positivity for anti-beta(2)GPI explained 9.2% of thrombotic events in the absence of LAC or aCL. Double or triple positivity for aPLs were associated with a higher rate of thrombosis than single positivity for aPL. Our results suggest that anti-beta(2)GPI provides additional information in patients with thrombosis in conjunction with LAC or aCL.
Sudhinaraset, May; Briegleb, Christina; Aung, Moe; Khin, Hnin Su Su; Aung, Tin
Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) for malaria enable proper diagnosis and have been shown to reduce overuse of artemisinin combination therapy. Few studies have evaluated the feasibility and use of RDTs in the private sector in Myanmar. The objectives of the study were to: 1) understand the acceptability of using RDTs in the informal sector in Myanmar; 2) examine motivations for use among informal providers; and, 3) highlight decision-making and knowledge of providers for diagnostic testing and treatment. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 30 informal providers. Purposeful sampling was used to enrol study participants in the Mon and Shan State in Myanmar. All interviews were conducted in Burmese, translated into English, and two researchers coded all interviews using Atlas ti. Major themes identified included: 1) informal provider and outlet characteristics, including demographic and background characteristics; 2) the benefits and challenges of using RDTs according to providers; 3) provider experiences with using RDTs, including motivations for using the RDT; 4) adherence to test results, either positive or negative; and, 5) recommendations from informal providers to promote increased use of RDTs in their communities. This study found that introducing RDTs to informal providers in Myanmar was feasible, resulting in improved provider empowerment and patient-provider relationships. Specific challenges included facility infrastructure to use and dispose RDTs and provider knowledge. This varied across the type of informal provider, with itinerant drug vendors more comfortable and knowledgeable about RDTs compared to general retail sellers and medical drug representatives. This study found informal providers in Myanmar found the introduction of RDTs to be highly acceptable. Providers discussed improvement in service quality including provider empowerment and patient-provider relationships. The study also highlighted a number of challenges that informal providers
Kovalev, Sergey; Tarassov, Valery; Snášel, Václav
This volume of Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing contains papers presented in the main track of IITI 2016, the First International Conference on Intelligent Information Technologies for Industry held in May 16-21 in Sochi, Russia. The conference was jointly co-organized by Rostov State Transport University (Russia) and VŠB – Technical University of Ostrava (Czech Republic) with the participation of Russian Association for Artificial Intelligence (RAAI) and Russian Association for Fuzzy Systems and Soft Computing (RAFSSC). The volume is devoted to practical models and industrial applications related to intelligent information systems. The conference has been a meeting point for researchers and practitioners to enable the implementation of advanced information technologies into various industries. Nevertheless, some theoretical talks concerning the-state-of-the-art in intelligent systems and soft computing are included in the proceedings as well.
Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård; Ronit, Karsten
Information asymmetries between producers and consumers exist with respect to nutritional characteristics of foods and beverages. This paper aims to analyze firms’ methods to supply nutritional information, focusing on three specific food industries: breakfast cereals, snacks and soft drinks...
Advanced traveler information systems (ATIS) analyze and communicate information that can enhance travel efficiency, alleviate congestion, and increase safety. In Texas, tourists (i.e., tripmakers unacquainted with the state) constitute an important ...
Hoetker, Glenn P.; Lahr, Thomas F.
With Japan's growing R&D strength in aerospace-related fields, it is increasingly important for U.S. researchers to be aware of Japanese advances. However, several factors make it difficult to do so. After reviewing the diffusion of aerospace STI in Japan, four factors which make it difficult for U.S. researchers to gather this information are discussed: language, the human network, information scatter, and document acquisition. NASA activities to alleviate these difficulties are described, beginning with a general overview of the NASA STI Program. The effects of the new National Level Agreement between NASA and NASDA are discussed.
Peskin,A.M.; Shimamoto, Y.
The topic of computer graphics serves well to illustrate that AEC affiliated scientific computing installations are well represented in the forefront of computing science activities. The participant response to the technical program was overwhelming--both in number of contributions and quality of the work described. Session I, entitled Advanced Systems, contains presentations describing systems that contain features not generally found in graphics facilities. These features can be roughly classified as extensions of standard two-dimensional monochromatic imaging to higher dimensions including color and time as well as multidimensional metrics. Session II presents seven diverse applications ranging from high energy physics to medicine. Session III describes a number of important developments in establishing facilities, techniques and enhancements in the computer graphics area. Although an attempt was made to schedule as many of these worthwhile presentations as possible, it appeared impossible to do so given the scheduling constraints of the meeting. A number of prospective presenters 'came to the rescue' by graciously withdrawing from the sessions. Some of their abstracts have been included in the Proceedings.
Full Text Available Usability, most often defined as the ease of use and acceptability of a system, affects the users' performance and their job satisfaction when working with a machine. Therefore, usability is a very important aspect which must be considered in the process of a system development. The paper presents several numerical data related to the history of the scientific research of the usability of information systems, as it is viewed in the information provided by three important scientific databases, Science Direct, ACM Digital Library and IEEE Xplore Digital Library, at different queries related to this field.
Minna M Boström
Full Text Available Inflammation is an important feature of carcinogenesis. Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs can be associated with either poor or improved prognosis, depending on their properties and polarization. Current knowledge of the prognostic significance of TAMs in bladder cancer is limited and was investigated in this study. We analyzed 184 urothelial bladder cancer patients undergoing transurethral resection of a bladder tumor or radical cystectomy. CD68 (pan-macrophage marker, MAC387 (polarized towards type 1 macrophages, and CLEVER-1/Stabilin-1 (type 2 macrophages and lymphatic/blood vessels were detected immunohistochemically. The median follow-up time was 6.0 years. High macrophage counts associated with a higher pT category and grade. Among patients undergoing transurethral resection, all studied markers apart from CLEVER-1/Stabilin-1 were associated with increased risk of progression and poorer disease-specific and overall survival in univariate analyses. High levels of two macrophage markers (CD68/MAC387+/+ or CD68/CLEVER-1+/+ groups had an independent prognostic role after transurethral resection in multivariate analyses. In the cystectomy cohort, MAC387, alone and in combination with CD68, was associated with poorer survival in univariate analyses, but none of the markers were independent predictors of outcome in multivariate analyses. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that macrophage phenotypes provide significant independent prognostic information, particularly in bladder cancers undergoing transurethral resection.
Haering, Ed; Plotkin, Ken
Supersonic aircraft generate shock waves that move outward and extend to the ground. As a cone of pressurized air spreads across the landscape along the flight path, it creates a continuous sonic boom along the flight track. Several factors can influence sonic booms: weight, size, and shape of the aircraft; its altitude and flight path; and weather and atmospheric conditions. This technology allows pilots to control the impact of sonic booms. A software system displays the location and intensity of shock waves caused by supersonic aircraft. This technology can be integrated into cockpits or flight control rooms to help pilots minimize sonic boom impact in populated areas. The system processes vehicle and flight parameters as well as data regarding current atmospheric conditions. The display provides real-time information regarding sonic boom location and intensity, enabling pilots to make the necessary flight adjustments to control the timing and location of sonic booms. This technology can be used on current-generation supersonic aircraft, which generate loud sonic booms, as well as future- generation, low-boom aircraft, anticipated to be quiet enough for populated areas.
Zullig, Leah L; Sanders, Linda L; Shaw, Ryan J; McCant, Felicia; Danus, Susanne; Bosworth, Hayden B
We conducted a feasibility study of a web-based intervention, which provided personalized cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk information, behavioural risk reduction strategies and educational resources. Participants were block-randomized to the 3-month intervention (n = 47) or to usual care (n = 49). Participants in the intervention group were presented with their CVD risk based on the Framingham risk score, and in three subsequent online encounters could select two behavioural/lifestyle modules, giving them an opportunity to complete six modules over the course of the study. Because it was self-guided, participants had differing levels of engagement with intervention materials. Most intervention group participants (77%, n = 36) completed all modules. After 3 months there were no significant differences between the intervention and usual care groups for systolic blood pressure, body-mass index, CVD risk, smoking cessation or medication non-adherence. The study suggests that modest clinical improvements can be achieved by interventions that are entirely web-administered. However, web-based interventions do not replace the need for human interaction to communicate CVD risk and assist with decision-making.
... conducted) from medical device industry stakeholders through public information requests, including via the...-GUIDESreviews-and-reports/?PAGEaction=displayproduct&productid=948#4546 . This notice is a request for industry.... What is the comparative effectiveness of aspirin and other antiplatelet agents in reducing the risk of...
Ceci, Flávio; Pietrobon, Ricardo; Gonçalves, Alexandre Leopoldo
Web-based, free-text documents on science and technology have been increasing growing on the web. However, most of these documents are not immediately processable by computers slowing down the acquisition of useful information. Computational ontologies might represent a possible solution by enabling semantically machine readable data sets. But, the process of ontology creation, instantiation and maintenance is still based on manual methodologies and thus time and cost intensive. We focused on a large corpus containing information on researchers, research fields, and institutions. We based our strategy on traditional entity recognition, social computing and correlation. We devised a semi automatic approach for the recognition, correlation and extraction of named entities and relations from textual documents which are then used to create, instantiate, and maintain an ontology. We present a prototype demonstrating the applicability of the proposed strategy, along with a case study describing how direct and indirect relations can be extracted from academic and professional activities registered in a database of curriculum vitae in free-text format. We present evidence that this system can identify entities to assist in the process of knowledge extraction and representation to support ontology maintenance. We also demonstrate the extraction of relationships among ontology classes and their instances. We have demonstrated that our system can be used for the conversion of research information in free text format into database with a semantic structure. Future studies should test this system using the growing number of free-text information available at the institutional and national levels.
Giulietti, Giovanni; Bozzali, Marco; Figura, Viviana; Spanò, Barbara; Perri, Roberta; Marra, Camillo; Lacidogna, Giordano; Giubilei, Franco; Caltagirone, Carlo; Cercignani, Mara
Preliminary studies, based on a region-of-interest approach, suggest that quantitative magnetization transfer (qMT), an extension of magnetization transfer imaging, provides complementary information to conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the characterisation of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The aim of this study was to extend these findings to the whole brain, using a voxel-wise approach. We recruited 19AD patients and 11 healthy subjects (HS). All subjects had an MRI acquisition at 3.0T including a T(1)-weighted volume, 12 MT-weighted volumes for qMT, and data for computing T(1) and B(1) maps. The T(1)-weighted volumes were processed to yield grey matter (GM) volumetric maps, while the other sequences were used to compute qMT parametric maps of the whole brain. qMT maps were warped to standard space and smoothed, and subsequently compared between groups. Of all the qMT parameters considered, only the forward exchange rate, RM(0)(B), showed significant group differences. These images were therefore retained for the multimodal statistical analysis, designed to locate brain regions of RM(0)(B) differences between AD and HS groups, adjusting for local GM atrophy. Widespread areas of reduced RM(0)(B) were found in AD patients, mainly located in the hippocampus, in the temporal lobe, in the posterior cingulate and in the parietal cortex. These results indicate that, among qMT parameters, RM(0)(B) is the most sensitive to AD pathology. This quantity is altered in the hippocampus of patients with AD (as found by previous works) but also in other brain areas, that PET studies have highlighted as involved with both, reduced glucose metabolism and amyloid β deposition. RM(0)(B) might reflect, through the measurement of the efficiency of MT exchange, some information with a specific pathological counterpart. Given previous evidence of a strict relationship between RM(0)(B) and intracellular pH, an intriguing speculation is that our findings might reflect metabolic
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Web-based, free-text documents on science and technology have been increasing growing on the web. However, most of these documents are not immediately processable by computers slowing down the acquisition of useful information. Computational ontologies might represent a possible solution by enabling semantically machine readable data sets. But, the process of ontology creation, instantiation and maintenance is still based on manual methodologies and thus time and cost intensive. METHOD: We focused on a large corpus containing information on researchers, research fields, and institutions. We based our strategy on traditional entity recognition, social computing and correlation. We devised a semi automatic approach for the recognition, correlation and extraction of named entities and relations from textual documents which are then used to create, instantiate, and maintain an ontology. RESULTS: We present a prototype demonstrating the applicability of the proposed strategy, along with a case study describing how direct and indirect relations can be extracted from academic and professional activities registered in a database of curriculum vitae in free-text format. We present evidence that this system can identify entities to assist in the process of knowledge extraction and representation to support ontology maintenance. We also demonstrate the extraction of relationships among ontology classes and their instances. CONCLUSION: We have demonstrated that our system can be used for the conversion of research information in free text format into database with a semantic structure. Future studies should test this system using the growing number of free-text information available at the institutional and national levels.
prawns, snails, and sea urchins are An English translation of this book is due to also being propagated. The young animals appear this year. are...deep sea organisms under high Research (RIKEN) pressures and at different temperatures. Thus a viable research project becomes self-evident * Nano...chemical and morphological modification principles and the information available on studies in order to optimize their properties. the reaction kinetics
Rocker, JoAnne; Roncaglia, George J.; Heimerl, Lynn N.; Nelson, Michael L.
Interoperability and data-exchange are critical for the survival of government information management programs. E-government initiatives are transforming the way the government interacts with the public. More information is to be made available through web-enabled technologies. Programs such as the NASA's Scientific and Technical Information (STI) Program Office are tasked to find more effective ways to disseminate information to the public. The NASA STI Program is an agency-wide program charged with gathering, organizing, storing, and disseminating NASA-produced information for research and public use. The program is investigating the use of a new protocol called the Open Archives Initiative (OAI) as a means to improve data interoperability and data collection. OAI promotes the use of the OAI harvesting protocol as a simple way for data sharing among repositories. In two separate initiatives, the STI Program is implementing OAI In collaboration with the Air Force, Department of Energy, and Old Dominion University, the NASA STI Program has funded research on implementing the OAI to exchange data between the three organizations. The second initiative is the deployment of OAI for the NASA technical report server (TRS) environment. The NASA TRS environment is comprised of distributed technical report servers with a centralized search interface. This paper focuses on the implementation of OAI to promote interoperability among diverse data repositories.
Schroeder, J.V.; Mayer, G.
In the last 20 years, federal, state and local regulations have provided regulatory incentives for industry to better manage environmental, health and safety (EHS) practices. In order for voluntary EHS management practices to move beyond compliance and continue improving, specific, quantifiable benefits must result. That is, companies must achieve some competitive advantage from implementing EHS improvements that are considered voluntary. Recently, many private companies and public agencies have been giving significant consideration toward the implementation of an EHS management information system (EMIS). Currently considered voluntary, the automation of EHS data collection, storage, retrieval and reporting is subject to the same benefit expectations that other EHS improvements are subject to. The benefits resulting from an EMIS typically result from a reduction in either direct or indirect costs. Direct costs, consisting primarily of labor hours, permit fees, disposal costs, etc., are definable and easily to quantify. Indirect costs, which are comprised of reduced risks and liabilities, are less easily quantifiable. In fact, many have abandoned hope of ever quantifying expected benefits from indirect costs, and simply lump all indirect benefits into a qualitative, catch-all category called intangible benefits. However, by statistically analyzing individual risk events over an expected project life, anticipated benefits can be objectively and accurately quantified. Through the use of a case study, this paper will describe the process of quantifying direct and indirect benefits resulting from the implementation of an EMIS. The paper will describe the application of a statistical model to estimate indirect benefits and will demonstrate how the results of the benefit quantification can be used to make sound, business based decisions based on a required rate of return/return on investment.
Bruce, Jordan G; Tucholka, Jennifer L; Steffens, Nicole M; Mahoney, Jane E; Neuman, Heather B
Patients facing decisions for breast cancer surgery commonly search the internet. Directing patients to high-quality websites prior to the surgeon consultation may be one way of supporting patients' informational needs. The objective was to test an approach for delivering web-based information to breast cancer patients. The implementation strategy was developed using the Replicating Effective Programs framework. Pilot testing measured the proportion that accepted the web-based information. A pre-consultation survey assessed whether the information was reviewed and the acceptability to stakeholders. Reasons for declining guided refinement to the implementation package. Eighty-two percent (309/377) accepted the web-based information. Of the 309 that accepted, 244 completed the pre-consultation survey. Participants were a median 59 years, white (98%), and highly educated (>50% with a college degree). Most patients who completed the questionnaire reported reviewing the website (85%), and nearly all found it helpful. Surgeons thought implementation increased visit efficiency (5/6) and would result in patients making more informed decisions (6/6). The most common reasons patients declined information were limited internet comfort or access (n = 36), emotional distress (n = 14), and preference to receive information directly from the surgeon (n = 7). Routine delivery of web-based information to breast cancer patients prior to the surgeon consultation is feasible. High stakeholder acceptability combined with the low implementation burden means that these findings have immediate relevance for improving care quality.
... provide other information and granting immunity. 2.15 Section 2.15 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE... and granting immunity. (a) The Bureau Director, Deputy Directors, and Assistant Directors in the... issuance of an order requiring a witness to testify or provide other information granting immunity under...
... provide other information and granting immunity. 3.39 Section 3.39 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE... granting immunity. (a) Where Commission complaint counsel desire the issuance of an order requiring a witness or deponent to testify or provide other information and granting immunity under 18 U.S.C. 6002...
Lukosch, S.G.; Lukosch, H.K.; Datcu, D.; Cidota, M.A.
For operational units in the security domain that work together in teams, it is important to quickly and adequately exchange context-related information to ensure well-working collaboration. Currently, most information exchange is based on oral communication. This paper reports on different
Lukosch, S.G.; Lukosch, H.K.; Datcu, D.; Cidota, M.A.
For operational units in the security domain that work together in teams, it is important to quickly and adequately exchange context-related information to ensure well-working collaboration. Currently, most information exchange is based on oral communication. This paper reports on different