WorldWideScience

Sample records for providing safer mouthpieces

  1. Quantitative analysis and design of a spray aerosol inhaler. Part 2: improvements in mouthpiece performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindle, Michael; Longest, P Worth

    2013-10-01

    The objective of this study was to utilize previously identified critical design attributes for the capillary aerosol generator as a model spray inhaler in order to develop a second-generation device that minimized aerosol drug deposition in the mouthpiece. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) predictive analysis of the critical design attributes indicated that turbulence intensity should be reduced and the effective mouthpiece diameter should be increased. Two second-generation inhaler mouthpieces meeting these specifications were manufactured and tested. The first device (Design 1) implemented a larger cross-sectional area in the mouthpiece and streamlined flow, whereas the second device (Design 2) used a perforated mouthpiece wall. An in vitro deposition study was performed to quantify the deposition of drug mass in the mouthpieces and connected induction ports, and the results were compared with the CFD predictions. The two second-generation mouthpieces reduced in vitro aerosol deposition from the original value of 7.8% to values of 2.1% (Device 1) and 4.3% (Device 2), without largely altering the induction port deposition. This was achieved by design alterations aimed at reducing turbulence intensity and increasing the effective mouthpiece diameter. CFD model predictions were in good agreement with the in vitro experimental data. A second-generation spray inhaler mouthpiece with low drug deposition was developed using a predictive CFD model and in vitro experiments. Applying this quantitative analysis and design methodology to medical devices, which is similar to the Quality by Design paradigm, could provide significant advantages compared with traditional approaches.

  2. Effects of various mouthpieces on respiratory physiology during steady-state exercise in college-aged subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, Dena P

    2015-01-01

    Protective mouthpieces have been used in a variety of sports to decrease the risk of orofacial injury. There are limited data to suggest that mouthpiece use during exercise may also provide an ergogenic effect. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of 3 different mouthpiece designs-boil-and-bite (BB) mouthpiece, ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) custom mandibular mouthpiece, and polypropylene (Poly) custom mandibular mouthpiece-on respiratory physiology parameters and compare them with results of a no-mouthpiece (NM) condition. Sixteen college-aged, recreationally fit subjects ran for 10 minutes in 4 separate trials; mouthpiece conditions were randomly assigned to each trial for all subjects. Respiratory and cardiorespiratory measures, including oxygen uptake, carbon dioxide exhalation, ventilation, heart rate, tidal volume, and respiratory rate (RR), were assessed throughout testing. A repeated-measures analysis of variance indicated that RR was significantly lower (P = 0.04) in the BB mouthpiece condition (27.92 breaths per minute [BPM]) than in the NM condition (30.63 BPM). In paired t tests between conditions, the RR demonstrated in the BB condition (27.92 BPM) was significantly lower (P = 0.04) than that of each other condition (NM, 30.63 BPM; EVA, 29.92 BPM; and Poly, 29.92 BPM). The outcomes of the present study demonstrate that the use of the BB mouthpiece decreased RR during exercise. The differences cited between conditions may be attributed to the design of the mouthpiece and its mandibular placement as well as the activity of the genioglossus muscle. However, future studies should assess these parameters to determine the plausibility of these theories.

  3. Daytime Mouthpiece for Continuous Noninvasive Ventilation in Individuals With Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bédard, Marie-Eve; McKim, Douglas A

    2016-10-01

    Noninvasive ventilation (NIV) is commonly used to provide ventilatory support for individuals with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Once 24-h ventilation is required, the decision between invasive tracheostomy ventilation and palliation is often faced. This study describes the use and outcomes of daytime mouthpiece ventilation added to nighttime mask ventilation for continuous NIV in subjects with ALS as an effective alternative. This was a retrospective study of 39 subjects with ALS using daytime mouthpiece ventilation over a 17-y period. Thirty-one subjects were successful with mouthpiece ventilation, 2 were excluded, 2 stopped because of lack of motivation, and 4 with bulbar subscores of the Revised Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Functional Rating Scale (b-ALSFRS-R) between 0 and 3 physically failed to use it consistently. No subject in the successful group had a b-ALSFRS-R score of NIV and mouthpiece ventilation were 648 (176-2,188) and 286 (41-1,769) d, respectively. Peak cough flow with lung-volume recruitment >180 L/min at initiation of mouthpiece ventilation was associated with a longer survival (637 ± 468 vs 240 ± 158 d (P = .01). Mouthpiece ventilation provides effective ventilation and prolonged survival for individuals with ALS requiring full-time ventilatory support and maintaining adequate bulbar function. Copyright © 2016 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  4. Evaluation of ventilators for mouthpiece ventilation in neuromuscular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khirani, Sonia; Ramirez, Adriana; Delord, Vincent; Leroux, Karl; Lofaso, Frédéric; Hautot, Solène; Toussaint, Michel; Orlikowski, David; Louis, Bruno; Fauroux, Brigitte

    2014-09-01

    Daytime mouthpiece ventilation is a useful adjunct to nocturnal noninvasive ventilation (NIV) in patients with neuromuscular disease. The aims of the study were to analyze the practice of mouthpiece ventilation and to evaluate the performance of ventilators for mouthpiece ventilation. Practice of mouthpiece ventilation was assessed by a questionnaire, and the performance of 6 home ventilators with mouthpiece ventilation was assessed in a bench test using 24 different conditions per ventilator: 3 mouthpieces, a child and an adult patient profile, and 4 ventilatory modes. Questionnaires were obtained from 30 subjects (mean age 33 ± 11 y) using NIV for 12 ± 7 y. Fifteen subjects used NIV for > 20 h/day, and 11 were totally ventilator-dependent. The subject-reported benefits of mouthpiece ventilation were a reduction in dyspnea (73%) and fatigue (93%) and an improvement in speech (43%) and eating (27%). The bench study showed that none of the ventilators, even those with mouthpiece ventilation software, were able to deliver mouthpiece ventilation without alarms and/or autotriggering in each condition. Alarms and/or ineffective triggering or autotriggering were observed in 135 of the 198 conditions. The occurrence of alarms was more common with a large mouthpiece without a filter compared to a small mouthpiece with a filter (P ventilator. Subjects are satisfied with mouthpiece ventilation. Alarms are common with home ventilators, although less common in those with mouthpiece ventilation software. Improvements in home ventilators are needed to facilitate the expansion of mouthpiece ventilation. Copyright © 2014 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  5. Does the real-time ultrasound guidance provide safer venipuncture in implantable venous port implantation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yıldırım, İlknur; Tütüncü, Ayşe Çiğdem; Bademler, Süleyman; Özgür, İlker; Demiray, Mukaddes; Karanlık, Hasan

    2018-03-01

    To examine whether the real-time ultrasound-guided venipuncture for implantable venous port placement is safer than the traditional venipuncture. The study analyzed the results of 2153 venous ports placed consecutively from January 2009 to January 2016. A total of 922 patients in group 1 and 1231 patients in group 2 were admitted with venous port placed using the traditional landmark subclavian approach and real-time ultrasound-guided axillary approach, respectively. Sociodemographic characteristics of patients, early (pneumothorax, pinch-off syndrome, arterial puncture, hematoma, and malposition arrhythmia) and late (deep vein thrombosis, obstruction, infection, erosion-dehiscence, and rotation of the port chamber) complications and the association of these complications with the implantation method were evaluated. There were no significant differences in the sociodemographic characteristics of the patients between the two groups. The overall and early complications in group 2 were significantly lower than those in group 1. Pinch-off syndrome only developed in group 1. Seven patients and two patients had pneumothorax in groups 1 and 2, respectively. Puncture number was significantly associated with the development of the overall complications. The ultrasound-guided axillary approach may be preferred as a method to reduce the risk of both early and late complications. Large, randomized, controlled prospective trials will be helpful in determining a safer implantable venous port implantation technique.

  6. Open circuit mouthpiece ventilation: Concise clinical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Garuti

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In 2013 new “mouthpiece ventilation” modes are being introduced to commercially available portable ventilators. Despite this, there is little knowledge of how to use noninvasive intermittent positive pressure ventilation (NIV as opposed to bi-level positive airway pressure (PAP and both have almost exclusively been reported to have been used via nasal or oro-nasal interfaces rather than via a simple mouthpiece.Non-invasive ventilation is often reported as failing because of airway secretion encumbrance, because of hypercapnia due to inadequate bi-level PAP settings, or poor interface tolerance. The latter can be caused by factors such as excessive pressure on the face from poor fit, excessive oral air leak, anxiety, claustrophobia, and patient-ventilator dys-synchrony. Thus, the interface plays a crucial role in tolerance and effectiveness. Interfaces that cover the nose and/or nose and mouth (oro-nasal are the most commonly used but are more likely to cause skin breakdown and claustrophobia. Most associated drawbacks can be avoided by using mouthpiece NIV. Open-circuit mouthpiece NIV is being used by large populations in some centers for daytime ventilatory support and complements nocturnal NIV via “mask” interfaces for nocturnal ventilatory support. Mouthpiece NIV is also being used for sleep with the mouthpiece fixed in place by a lip-covering flange. Small 15 and 22 mm angled mouthpieces and straw-type mouthpieces are the most commonly used.NIV via mouthpiece is being used as an effective alternative to ventilatory support via tracheostomy tube (TMV and is associated with a reduced risk of pneumonias and other respiratory complications. Its use facilitates “air-stacking” to improve cough, speech, and pulmonary compliance, all of which better maintain quality of life for patients with neuromuscular diseases (NMDs than the invasive alternatives. Considering these benefits and the new availability of mouthpiece

  7. Adaptation of vacuum-assisted mouthpiece head immobilization system for precision infant brain radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Kenneth; Cheng, Justine; Bowlin, Kristine; Olch, Arthur

    Our purpose was to describe an adaptation of a commercially available mouthpiece for vacuum-assisted mouthpiece immobilization for radiation therapy in infants. An infant diagnosed with a brain tumor required radiation therapy. After reviewing dental literature about obturators, we designed a modification for the smallest commercially available mouthpiece tray. The patient was simulated with the adapted mouthpiece tray. We achieved excellent immobilization and had small daily image guided treatment position shifts. Our patient tolerated treatment well without injury to oral cavity or mucosa. Head immobilization with a vacuum-assisted modified mouthpiece has not been described in infants. Our modification is a novel and safe and permits effective and accurate immobilization for infants for radiation therapy. New manufacturing technologies may allow creation of individualized mouthpieces. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Radiation Oncology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. 42 CFR 84.75 - Half-mask facepieces, full facepieces, mouthpieces; fit; minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Half-mask facepieces, full facepieces, mouthpieces... RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.75 Half-mask facepieces, full facepieces, mouthpieces; fit; minimum requirements. (a) Half-mask facepieces and full facepieces shall be...

  9. A model for precalculus students to determine the resonance frequency of a trumpet mouthpiece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Robert C.

    2004-05-01

    The trumpet mouthpiece as a Helmholtz resonator is used to show precalculus students a mathematical model for determining the approximate resonance frequency of the mouthpiece. The mathematics is limited to algebra and trigonometry. Using a system of mouthpieces that have interchangeable cups and backbores, students are introduced to the acoustics of this resonator. By gathering data on 51 different configurations of mouthpieces, the author modifies the existing Helmholtz resonator equation to account for both cup volumes and backbore configurations. Students then use this model for frequency predictions. Included are how to measure the different physical attributes of a trumpet mouthpiece at minimal cost. This includes methods for measuring cup volume, backbore volume, backbore length, throat area, etc. A portion of this phase is de-signed for students to become acquainted with some of the vocabulary of acoustics and the physics of sound.

  10. Perspectives of healthcare providers and HIV-affected individuals and couples during the development of a Safer Conception Counseling Toolkit in Kenya: stigma, fears, and recommendations for the delivery of services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mmeje, Okeoma; Njoroge, Betty; Akama, Eliud; Leddy, Anna; Breitnauer, Brooke; Darbes, Lynae; Brown, Joelle

    2016-01-01

    Reproduction is important to many HIV-affected individuals and couples and healthcare providers (HCPs) are responsible for providing resources to help them safely conceive while minimizing the risk of sexual and perinatal HIV transmission. In order to fulfill their reproductive goals, HIV-affected individuals and their partners need access to information regarding safer methods of conception. The objective of this qualitative study was to develop a Safer Conception Counseling Toolkit that can be used to train HCPs and counsel HIV-affected individuals and couples in HIV care and treatment clinics in Kenya. We conducted a two-phased qualitative study among HCPs and HIV-affected individuals and couples from eight HIV care and treatment sites in Kisumu, Kenya. We conducted in-depth interviews (IDIs) and focus group discussions (FGDs) to assess the perspectives of HCPs and HIV-affected individuals and couples in order to develop and refine the content of the Toolkit. Subsequently, IDIs were conducted among HCPs who were trained using the Toolkit and FGDs among HIV-affected individuals and couples who were counseled with the Toolkit. HIV-related stigma, fears, and recommendations for delivery of safer conception counseling were assessed during the discussions. One hundred and six individuals participated in FGDs and IDIs; 29 HCPs, 49 HIV-affected women and men, and 14 HIV-serodiscordant couples. Participants indicated that a safer conception counseling and training program for HCPs is needed and that routine provision of safer conception counseling may promote maternal and child health by enhancing reproductive autonomy among HIV-affected couples. They also reported that the Toolkit may help dispel the stigma and fears associated with reproduction in HIV-affected couples, while supporting them in achieving their reproductive goals. Additional research is needed to evaluate the Safer Conception Toolkit in order to support its implementation and use in HIV care and

  11. Shopping for a safer car

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    This brochure provides some helpful tips on what to look for when shopping for a safer car. Automakers are increasingly advertising the safety features of their cars. The problem is sorting out their claims and zeroing in on the safety features that ...

  12. Exhaled nitric oxide collected with two different mouthpieces: a study in asthmatic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.S. Leme

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Techniques for collecting exhaled nitric oxide (ENO recommend the use of antibacterial filters of 0.3 µm. The aim of the present study was to compare the measurements of ENO obtained with two different filtering devices. Air samples from 17 asthmatic and 17 non-asthmatic subjects were collected by a recommended off-line technique using two different mouthpieces: 1 the Sievers disposable tool (A under a breathing pressure of 18 cmH2O, and 2 a mouthpiece containing a HEPA filter (B under a breathing pressure of 12 cmH2O. The nitric oxide samples were collected into an impermeable reservoir bag. Values for ENO were compared using two-way repeated measures ANOVA followed by the Tukey test. Agreement was assessed by Bland-Altman analysis. ENO values obtained with mouthpieces A and B were comparable for asthmatic (mean ± SEM, 42.9 ± 6.9 vs 43.3 ± 6.6 ppb and non-asthmatic (13.3 ± 1.3 vs 13.7 ± 1.1 ppb subjects. There was a significant difference in ENO between asthmatics and non-asthmatics using either mouthpiece A (P<0.001 or B (P<0.001. There was a positive correlation between mouthpiece A and mouthpiece B for both groups. The Bland-Altman limits of agreement were considered to be acceptable. Mouthpiece B was less expensive than A, and these data show that it can be used without compromising the result. Our data confirm reports of higher ENO values in the presence of airway inflammation.

  13. SaferProducts API

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Consumer Product Safety Commission — On March 11, 2011, the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission launched SaferProducts.gov. This site hosts the agency's new Publicly Available Consumer Product...

  14. 42 CFR 84.198 - Half-mask facepieces, full facepieces, mouthpieces, hoods, and helmets; fit; minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Half-mask facepieces, full facepieces, mouthpieces... APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Chemical Cartridge Respirators § 84.198 Half-mask facepieces, full facepieces, mouthpieces, hoods, and helmets; fit; minimum requirements. (a) Half-mask facepieces...

  15. A custom-made mouthpiece incorporating tongue depressors and elevators to reduce radiation-induced tongue mucositis during carbon-ion radiation therapy for head and neck cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikawa, Hiroaki; Koto, Masashi; Ebner, Daniel K; Takagi, Ryo; Hayashi, Kazuhiko; Tsuji, Hiroshi; Kamada, Tadashi

    We introduce a custom-made mouthpiece for carbon-ion radiation therapy for head and neck malignancy. The mouthpiece incorporates either a tongue depressor or elevator depending on tumor location. The risk of tongue mucositis may be reduced without compromising therapeutic efficacy through mouthpiece shaping. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The diving mouthpiece and the conditions of the temporomandibular joints. Preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walczyńska – Dragon Karolina

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of research on the effects of a long-term exposure to non-physiological location of anatomical elements of the masticatory organ in the course of diving. The said exposure is connected with the utilisation of various types of diving mouthpieces.

  17. 42 CFR 84.118 - Half-mask facepieces, full facepieces, and mouthpieces; fit; minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Half-mask facepieces, full facepieces, and... OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Gas Masks § 84.118 Half-mask facepieces, full facepieces, and mouthpieces; fit; minimum requirements. (a) Half-mask facepieces and full facepieces shall be designed and...

  18. Towards Safer Nanomaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Rune; Baun, Anders

    2014-01-01

    As nanomaterials become more widespread in everything from industrial processes to consumer products, concerns about human and environmental safety are being taken increasingly more seriously. In our research we are working with minimizing the impact and risks of engineered nanomaterials by looking...... or the exposure and optimally both. Examples include the 5 SAFER principles (Morose, 2010) or screenings of early warning signs (Hansen et al., 2013). Taking the full life cycle of nanomaterials into account, the principles of Green chemistry and Green engineering could also prove useful to reduce...... the environmental impact of nanomaterials (Eckelman et al., 2008). Our research interests include the feasibility of “safer-­‐by-­‐design” approaches, the production of greener nanomaterials and operationalization, adaption and creation of frameworks to facilitate safety engineering. Research and insight...

  19. Safer Systems: A NextGen Aviation Safety Strategic Goal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darr, Stephen T.; Ricks, Wendell R.; Lemos, Katherine A.

    2008-01-01

    The Joint Planning and Development Office (JPDO), is charged by Congress with developing the concepts and plans for the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen). The National Aviation Safety Strategic Plan (NASSP), developed by the Safety Working Group of the JPDO, focuses on establishing the goals, objectives, and strategies needed to realize the safety objectives of the NextGen Integrated Plan. The three goal areas of the NASSP are Safer Practices, Safer Systems, and Safer Worldwide. Safer Practices emphasizes an integrated, systematic approach to safety risk management through implementation of formalized Safety Management Systems (SMS) that incorporate safety data analysis processes, and the enhancement of methods for ensuring safety is an inherent characteristic of NextGen. Safer Systems emphasizes implementation of safety-enhancing technologies, which will improve safety for human-centered interfaces and enhance the safety of airborne and ground-based systems. Safer Worldwide encourages coordinating the adoption of the safer practices and safer systems technologies, policies and procedures worldwide, such that the maximum level of safety is achieved across air transportation system boundaries. This paper introduces the NASSP and its development, and focuses on the Safer Systems elements of the NASSP, which incorporates three objectives for NextGen systems: 1) provide risk reducing system interfaces, 2) provide safety enhancements for airborne systems, and 3) provide safety enhancements for ground-based systems. The goal of this paper is to expose avionics and air traffic management system developers to NASSP objectives and Safer Systems strategies.

  20. "I don't know if this is right … but this is what I'm offering": healthcare provider knowledge, practice, and attitudes towards safer conception for HIV-affected couples in the context of Southern African guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Nora; Schwartz, Sheree; Phofa, Rebecca; Yende, Nompumelelo; Bassett, Jean; Sanne, Ian; Van Rie, Annelies

    2016-01-01

    The 2011 guidelines for safer conception for HIV-affected individuals and couples were adopted by the South African Department of Health in December 2012. We assessed implementation gaps and facilitators and barriers to delivering safer conception services through examining patient and healthcare provider (HCP) experiences. At Witkoppen Health and Welfare Centre, a primary care clinic in Johannesburg, we conducted in-depth interviews (IDIs) with nine HCPs (doctors, nurses, and counselors) and IDIs and focus group discussions with 42 HIV-affected men and women interested in having a child. Data were analyzed using a grounded theory approach. HCPs were supportive of fertility intentions of HIV-affected couples and demonstrated some knowledge of safer conception methods, especially ART initiation to suppress viral load in infected partners. Unfortunately, HCPs did not follow the key recommendation that HCPs initiate conversations on fertility intentions with HIV-affected men and women. Providers and clients reported that conversations about conception only occur when client-initiated, placing the onus on HIV-affected individuals. Important barriers underlying this were the misconception held by some HCPs that uninfected partners in serodiscordant partnerships are "latently" infected and the desire by most HCPs to protect or control knowledge around fertility and safer conception methods out of concern over what clients will do with this knowledge before they are virally suppressed or ready to conceive. Almost all participants who had conceived or attempted conception did so without safer conception methods knowledge. HCP concern over conception readiness, perception of what clients will do with safer conception knowledge, and gaps in safer conception knowledge prevent HCPs from initiating conversations with HIV-affected patients on the issue of childbearing. Examining these findings in the context of existing South African guidelines illuminates areas that need to be

  1. “I don’t know if this is right…but this is what I’m offering”: Healthcare provider knowledge, practice, and attitudes towards safer conception for HIV-affected couples in the context of Southern African guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Sheree; Phofa, Rebecca; Yende, Nompumelelo; Bassett, Jean; Sanne, Ian; Van Rie, Annelies

    2016-01-01

    The 2011 guidelines for safer conception for HIV-affected individuals and couples were adopted by the South African Department of Health in December 2012. We assessed implementation gaps and facilitators and barriers to delivering safer conception services through examining patient and healthcare provider (HCP) experiences. At Witkoppen Health and Welfare Centre, a primary care clinic in Johannesburg, we conducted in-depth interviews (IDIs) with 9 HCPs (doctors, nurses and counselors) and IDIs and focus group discussions with 42 HIV-affected men and women interested in having a child. Data were analyzed using a grounded theory approach. HCPs were supportive of fertility intentions of HIV-affected couples and demonstrated some knowledge of safer conception methods, especially ART initiation to suppress viral load in infected partners. Unfortunately, HCPs did not follow the key recommendation that HCPs initiate conversations on fertility intentions with HIV-affected men and women. Providers and clients reported that conversations about conception only occur when client-initiated, placing the onus on HIV-affected individuals. Important barriers underlying this were the misconception held by some HCPs that uninfected partners in serodiscordant partnerships are “latently” infected and the desire by most HCPs to protect or control knowledge around fertility and safer conception methods out of concern over what clients will do with this knowledge before they are virally suppressed or ready to conceive. Almost all participants who had conceived or attempted conception did so without safer conception methods knowledge. HCP concern over conception readiness, perception of what clients will do with safer conception knowledge, and gaps in safer conception knowledge prevent HCPs from initiating conversations with HIV-affected patients on the issue of childbearing. Examining these findings in the context of existing South African guidelines illuminates areas that need to be

  2. Mouthpiece ventilation in Duchenne muscular dystrophy: a rescue strategy for noncompliant patients

    OpenAIRE

    Fiorentino, Giuseppe; Annunziata, Anna; Cauteruccio, Rosa; Frega, Gianfranco Scotto di; Esquinas, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate mouthpiece ventilation (MPV) in patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) who are noncompliant with noninvasive ventilation (NIV). Methods: We evaluated four young patients with DMD who had previously refused to undergo NIV. Each patient was reassessed and encouraged to try MPV. Results: The four patients tolerated MPV well and were compliant with NIV at home. MPV proved to be preferable and more comfortable than NIV with any other type of interface. T...

  3. Multimodality cranial image fusion using external markers applied via a vacuum mouthpiece and a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sweeney, R.A.; Seydl, K.; Lukas, P.; Bale, R.J.; Trieb, T.; Moncayo, R.; Donnemiller, E.; Eisner, W.; Burtscher, J.; Stockhammer, G.

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: To present a simple and precise method of combining functional information of cranial SPECT and PET images with CT and MRI, in any combination. Material and Methods: Imaging is performed with a hockey mask-like reference frame with image modality-specific markers in precisely defined positions. This frame is reproducibly connected to the VBH vacuum mouthpiece, granting objectively identical repositioning of the frame with respect to the cranium. Using these markers, the desired 3-D imaging modalities can then be manually or automatically registered. This information can be used for diagnosis, treatment planning, and evaluation of follow-up, while the same vacuum mouthpiece allows precisely reproducible stereotactic head fixation during radiotherapy. Results: 244 CT and MR data sets of 49 patients were registered to a root square mean error (RSME) of 0.9 mm (mean). 64 SPECT-CT fusions on 18 of these patients gave an RMSE of 1.4 mm, and 40 PET-CT data sets of eight patients were registered to 1.3 mm. An example of the method is given by means of a case report of a 52-year-old patient with bilateral optic nerve meningioma. Conclusion: This technique is a simple, objective and accurate registration tool to combine diagnosis, treatment planning, treatment, and follow-up, all via an individualized vacuum mouthpiece. Especially for low-resolution PET and even more so for some very diffuse SPECT data sets, activity can now be accurately correlated to anatomic structures. (orig.)

  4. Home monitoring of daytime mouthpiece ventilation effectiveness in patients with neuromuscular disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardi, Julie; Leroux, Karl; Orlikowski, David; Prigent, Hélène

    2015-01-01

    Mouthpiece ventilation (MPV) allows patients with neuromuscular disease to receive daytime support from a portable ventilator, which they can disconnect at will, for example, for speaking, eating, swallowing, and coughing. However, MPV carries a risk of underventilation. Our purpose here was to evaluate the effectiveness of daytime MPV under real-life conditions. Eight wheelchair-bound patients who used MPV underwent daytime polygraphy at home with recordings of airflow, mouthpiece pressure, thoracic and abdominal movements, peripheral capillary oxygen saturation (SpO2), and transcutaneous partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PtcCO2). Times and durations of tasks and activities were recorded. The Apnea–Hypopnea Index (AHI) was computed. Patient–ventilator disconnections ≥3 minutes and episodes of hypoventilation defined as PtcCO2>45 mmHg were counted. Patient–ventilator asynchrony events were analyzed. The AHI was >5 hour−1 in two patients. Another patient experienced unexplained 3% drops in arterial oxygen saturations at a frequency of 70 hour−1. Patient–ventilator disconnections ≥3 minutes occurred in seven of eight patients and were consistently associated with decreases in SpO2 and ≥5-mmHg increases in PtcCO2; PtcCO2 rose above 45 mmHg in two patients during these disconnections. The most common type of patient–ventilator asynchrony was ineffective effort. This study confirms that MPV can be effective as long as the patient remains connected to the mouthpiece. However, transient arterial oxygen desaturation and hypercapnia due to disconnection from the ventilator may occur, without inducing unpleasant sensations in the patients. Therefore, an external warning system based on a minimal acceptable value of minute ventilation would probably be useful. PMID:26703922

  5. A new mask to prevent environmental contamination during radio aerosol mouth-piece inhalation procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braga, Francisco Jose Hossri Nogueira.

    1994-01-01

    Environmental contamination is frequent during labelled aerosol mouth-piece inhalation procedures. Previous personnel data showed that in 18/18 situations air background activity has increased after inhalation and this may create serious routine and economical problems. We have tested a new adherent mask made of 3 M's TEGADERM in sixty 99 m Tc-DTPA inhalation studies and the results indicates that the use of such a mask may eliminate the problem of environmental contamination. The device is useful but not entirely efficient in cases when good skin adherence cannot be obtained. 48 refs, 10 figs, 2 tabs

  6. Effects of Jaw Clenching and Jaw Alignment Mouthpiece Use on Force Production During Vertical Jump and Isometric Clean Pull.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Charles R; Fu, Yang-Chieh; Cazas-Moreno, Vanessa; Valliant, Melinda W; Gdovin, Jacob R; Williams, Charles C; Garner, John C

    2018-01-01

    Allen, CR, Fu, Y-C, Cazas-Moreno, V, Valliant, MW, Gdovin, JR, Williams, CC, and Garner, JC. Effects of jaw clenching and jaw alignment mouthpiece use on force production during vertical jump and isometric clean pull. J Strength Cond Res 32(1): 237-243, 2018-This study examined the effects of jaw clenching, a self-adapted, jaw-repositioning mouthpiece on force production during maximum countermovement vertical jump and maximum isometric midthigh clean pull assessments in an attempt to determine any ergogenic effect attributable to clenching, jaw-repositioning mouthpiece use, or the combination of both. Thirty-six male subjects performed vertical jump and isometric clean pull assessments from a force platform under various mouthpiece and clench conditions. A 3 × 2 (mouthpiece × clench) repeated-measures analysis of variance was conducted to analyze each of the following force production variables for both assessments: peak force, normalized peak force, and rate of force development. In addition, jump height was analyzed for the vertical jump. Results revealed improvements in peak force (F1,35 = 15.84, p ≤ 0.001, (Equation is included in full-text article.)= 0.31), normalized peak force (F1,35 = 16.28, p ≤ 0.001, (Equation is included in full-text article.)= 0.32), and rate of force development (F1,35 = 12.89, p = 0.001, (Equation is included in full-text article.)= 0.27) during the isometric clean pull assessment when participants maximally clenched their jaw, regardless of mouthpiece condition. There were no statistically significant differences in jump height, peak force, normalized peak force, or rate of force development during the vertical jump for any treatment condition. This study supports previous research demonstrating that the implementation of remote voluntary contractions such as jaw clenching can lead to concurrent activation potentiation and a resulting ergogenic effect during activities involving and requiring high-force production.

  7. Customized mouthpieces designed to reduce tongue mucositis in carbon-ion radiotherapy for tumors of the nasal and paranasal sinuses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi Musha

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Mouthpieces are used to fix the positions of the lower jaw and teeth during carbon-ion radiotherapy for head and neck tumors. We used a customized mouthpiece to reduce radiation mucositis by displacing the tongue. Acute radiation mucositis gradually increased for the palate and tongue after approximately six irradiation fractions (maximal mean grade: palate, 2.5 during radiation fractions 15; tongue, 0.8 during radiation fractions 12 and 13. The mean grade of mucositis was significantly lower for the tongue than for the palate from irradiation fraction six until two weeks after irradiation.

  8. Mouthpiece ventilation in Duchenne muscular dystrophy: a rescue strategy for noncompliant patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Fiorentino

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate mouthpiece ventilation (MPV in patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD who are noncompliant with noninvasive ventilation (NIV. Methods: We evaluated four young patients with DMD who had previously refused to undergo NIV. Each patient was reassessed and encouraged to try MPV. Results: The four patients tolerated MPV well and were compliant with NIV at home. MPV proved to be preferable and more comfortable than NIV with any other type of interface. Two of the patients required overnight NIV and eventually agreed to use a nasal mask during the night. Conclusions: The advantages of MPV over other types of NIV include fewer speech problems, better appearance, and less impact on the patient, eliminating the risk of skin breakdown, gastric distension, conjunctivitis, and claustrophobia. The use of a mouthpiece interface should be always considered in patients with DMD who need to start NIV, in order to promote a positive approach and a rapid acceptance of NIV. Using MPV during the daytime makes patients feel safe and more likely to use NIV at night. In addition, MPV increases treatment compliance for those who refuse to use other types of interfaces.

  9. 42 CFR 84.1135 - Half-mask facepieces, full facepieces, hoods, helmets, and mouthpieces; fit; minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Half-mask facepieces, full facepieces, hoods... Air-Purifying High Efficiency Respirators and Combination Gas Masks § 84.1135 Half-mask facepieces, full facepieces, hoods, helmets, and mouthpieces; fit; minimum requirements. (a) Half-mask facepieces...

  10. 42 CFR 84.175 - Half-mask facepieces, full facepieces, hoods, helmets, and mouthpieces; fit; minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Half-mask facepieces, full facepieces, hoods....175 Half-mask facepieces, full facepieces, hoods, helmets, and mouthpieces; fit; minimum requirements. (a) Half-mask facepieces and full facepieces shall be designed and constructed to fit persons with...

  11. SAFERE: Southern African Feminist Review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Feminism and Masculinity in an African Capitalist Context: · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Mwenda G. Ntarangwi, 19-32. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/safere.v3i1.23948 ...

  12. Support for safer behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujari, S

    1994-01-01

    Counseling persons about human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing and safe sex practices is performed in India at acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) counseling centers, such as the one in Pune. The center provides counseling to clients, primarily men, before and after HIV testing. Support groups are offered for HIV-positive persons. Clients are referred by doctors, sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics, and health care institutions. Advertising is by word of mouth. Previously, when blood banks were sending HIV-positive persons for counseling, confirmatory testing had not been performed, and 30% were actually HIV negative. Now the center, in cooperation with the blood banks, contacts all HIV-positive patients. After counseling, a confirmatory test is performed, if the patient agrees. HIV-positive persons are encouraged, but not pressured, to contact partners. Breaking confidentially is avoided. The center also counsels patients at the local government STD clinic. Again, these are mainly men. All patients have a follow up session after diagnosis to discuss sexual practices, risk reduction practices, disease prevention, and condom use. In India, culture constrains open discussion about sex. However, if counselors begin with neutral topics, such as work or children, men are more willing to speak about sexual practices and lifestyles. Counselors discuss the possible reasons for unsafe behavior and offer practical solutions. Counseling men in STD clinics also indirectly reaches their partners, the wives and sex workers who are in less of a position to protect themselves.

  13. Safer v. Estate of Pack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-07-11

    The Superior Court of New Jersey, Appellate Division, recognized "a physician's duty to warn those known to be at risk of avoidable harm from a genetically transmissible condition." During the 1950s, Dr. George Pack treated Donna Shafer's father for a cancerous blockage of the colon and multiple polyposis. In 1990, Safer was diagnosed with the same condition, which she claims is inherited, and, if not diagnosed and treated, invariably will lead to metastic colorectal cancer. Safer alleged that Dr. Pack knew the hereditary nature of the disease, yet failed to warn the immediate family, thus breaching his professional duty to warn. The court did not follow the analysis of the trial court, that a physician has no legal duty to warn the child of a patient of the genetic risk of disease because no physician and patient relationship exists between the doctor and the child.

  14. Mouthpiece ventilation in Duchenne muscular dystrophy: a rescue strategy for noncompliant patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorentino, Giuseppe; Annunziata, Anna; Cauteruccio, Rosa; Frega, Gianfranco Scotto di; Esquinas, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate mouthpiece ventilation (MPV) in patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) who are noncompliant with noninvasive ventilation (NIV). We evaluated four young patients with DMD who had previously refused to undergo NIV. Each patient was reassessed and encouraged to try MPV. The four patients tolerated MPV well and were compliant with NIV at home. MPV proved to be preferable and more comfortable than NIV with any other type of interface. Two of the patients required overnight NIV and eventually agreed to use a nasal mask during the night. The advantages of MPV over other types of NIV include fewer speech problems, better appearance, and less impact on the patient, eliminating the risk of skin breakdown, gastric distension, conjunctivitis, and claustrophobia. The use of a mouthpiece interface should be always considered in patients with DMD who need to start NIV, in order to promote a positive approach and a rapid acceptance of NIV. Using MPV during the daytime makes patients feel safe and more likely to use NIV at night. In addition, MPV increases treatment compliance for those who refuse to use other types of interfaces. Avaliar a ventilação bucal (VB) em pacientes com distrofia muscular de Duchenne (DMD) não aderentes à ventilação não invasiva (VNI). Foram avaliados quatro pacientes jovens com DMD que anteriormente recusaram-se a se submeter à VNI. Cada paciente foi reavaliado e encorajado a tentar VB. Os quatro pacientes toleraram bem a VB e aderiram ao uso de VNI em casa. O uso de VB provou ser uma alternativa preferível e mais confortável que o uso de VNI com qualquer outro tipo de interface. Dois dos pacientes necessitaram de VNI noturna e eventualmente aceitaram utilizar uma máscara nasal durante a noite. As vantagens da VB sobre outros tipos de VNI incluem menores problemas na fala, melhor aparência e menor impacto no paciente, eliminando o risco de lesões na pele, distensão gástrica, conjuntivite e claustrofobia. O uso da

  15. Accuracy of tidal volume delivered by home mechanical ventilation during mouthpiece ventilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prigent, Helene; Falaize, Line; Leroux, Karl; Santos, Dante; Vaugier, Isabelle; Orlikowski, David; Lofaso, Frederic

    2016-01-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate efficacy and reliability of currently available ventilators for mouthpiece ventilation (MPV). Five life-support home ventilators were assessed in a bench test using different settings simulating the specificities of MPV, such as intermittent circuit disconnection and presence of continuous leaks. The intermittent disconnection of the circuit caused relevant swings in the delivered tidal volume (VT), showing a VT overshoot during the disconnection periods and a VT decrease when the interface was reconnected to the test lung. The five ventilators showed substantial differences in the number of respiratory cycles necessary to reach a stable VT in the volume-controlled setting, ranging from 1.3 ± 0.6 to 7.3 ± 1.2 cycles. These differences were less accentuated in the volume-assisted setting (MPV-dedicated mode, when available). Our data show large differences in the capacity of the different ventilators to deal with the rapidly changing respiratory load features that characterize MPV, which can be further accentuated according to the used ventilator setting. The dedicated MPV modes allow improvement in the performance of ventilators only in some defined situations. This has practical consequences for the choice of the ventilator to be used for MPV in a specific patient. PMID:27146811

  16. The business case for transitioning to safer chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFadden, Roger D

    2011-01-01

    Emerging domestic and international chemical regulations and a heightened consumer awareness of chemicals of concern in products is challenging American businesses to reevaluate and reconsider their approaches to supply chain management and product design. Some of these companies recognize business opportunities and are responding proactively with innovative strategies and tactics. This article describes steps that Staples Inc., the world's largest office products provider, is taking to meet demand for products that are safer and more sustainable. In trying to meet the demand for safer products, Staples faces significant barriers, including the complexity of supply chains, data gaps, and confidential business information. New collaborations between companies, government, and advocates, and improved tools and criteria for defining safer products enhance the ability of businesses, like Staples, to meet new consumer demands.

  17. Safer electronic health records safety assurance factors for EHR resilience

    CERN Document Server

    Sittig, Dean F

    2015-01-01

    This important volume provide a one-stop resource on the SAFER Guides along with the guides themselves and information on their use, development, and evaluation. The Safety Assurance Factors for EHR Resilience (SAFER) guides, developed by the editors of this book, identify recommended practices to optimize the safety and safe use of electronic health records (EHRs). These guides are designed to help organizations self-assess the safety and effectiveness of their EHR implementations, identify specific areas of vulnerability, and change their cultures and practices to mitigate risks.This book pr

  18. CDC Vital Signs: Making Health Care Safer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Page What Can Be Done The Federal government is Implementing activities across all government agencies to ... Making Health Care Safer [PSA – 0:60 seconds] Digital Press Kit: CDC Modeling Predicts Growth of Drug- ...

  19. Feminism, Anthropology and Androcentrism | Ntarangwi | SAFERE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAFERE: Southern African Feminist Review. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 4, No 1 (2000) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  20. Creating a safer workplace to provide quality care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, J C

    2001-04-01

    In recent years, increasing interest has been placed on how health care workers can be trained and equipped to better protect them from possible workplace accidents and injuries while improving the care they deliver. Better workplace safety also means better customer and employee satisfaction, improved workforce retention and recruitment, and cost savings. Workplace safety is constantly evolving and addresses a whole host of issues ranging from needles and sharps injuries to moving patients to human factor analyses. This issue takes a cross-sectional look at how hospitals and health systems are addressing problem areas--and sharing information and best practices--to strengthen their quality of care at the workplace level.

  1. Estimating teat canal cross-sectional area to determine the effects of teat-end and mouthpiece chamber vacuum on teat congestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penry, J F; Upton, J; Mein, G A; Rasmussen, M D; Ohnstad, I; Thompson, P D; Reinemann, D J

    2017-01-01

    The primary objective of this experiment was to assess the effect of mouthpiece chamber vacuum on teat-end congestion. The secondary objective was to assess the interactive effects of mouthpiece chamber vacuum with teat-end vacuum and pulsation setting on teat-end congestion. The influence of system vacuum, pulsation settings, mouthpiece chamber vacuum, and teat-end vacuum on teat-end congestion were tested in a 2×2 factorial design. The low-risk conditions for teat-end congestion (TEL) were 40 kPa system vacuum (Vs) and 400-ms pulsation b-phase. The high-risk conditions for teat-end congestion (TEH) were 49 kPa Vs and 700-ms b-phase. The low-risk condition for teat-barrel congestion (TBL) was created by venting the liner mouthpiece chamber to atmosphere. In the high-risk condition for teat-barrel congestion (TBH) the mouthpiece chamber was connected to short milk tube vacuum. Eight cows (32 quarters) were used in the experiment conducted during 0400 h milkings. All cows received all treatments over the entire experimental period. Teatcups were removed after 150 s for all treatments to standardize the exposure period. Calculated teat canal cross-sectional area (CA) was used to assess congestion of teat tissue. The main effect of the teat-end treatment was a reduction in CA of 9.9% between TEL and TEH conditions, for both levels of teat-barrel congestion risk. The main effect of the teat-barrel treatment was remarkably similar, with a decrease of 9.7% in CA between TBL and TBH conditions for both levels of teat-end congestion risk. No interaction between treatments was detected, hence the main effects are additive. The most aggressive of the 4 treatment combinations (TEH plus TBH) had a CA estimate 20% smaller than for the most gentle treatment combination (TEL plus TBL). The conditions designed to impair circulation in the teat barrel also had a deleterious effect on circulation at the teat end. This experiment highlights the importance of elevated mouthpiece

  2. Consensus statement: Supporting Safer Conception and Pregnancy For Men And Women Living with and Affected by HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Lynn T; Beyeza-Kashesya, Jolly; Cooke, Ian; Davies, Natasha; Heffron, Renee; Kaida, Angela; Kinuthia, John; Mmeje, Okeoma; Semprini, Augusto E; Weber, Shannon

    2017-05-13

    Safer conception interventions reduce HIV incidence while supporting the reproductive goals of people living with or affected by HIV. We developed a consensus statement to address demand, summarize science, identify information gaps, outline research and policy priorities, and advocate for safer conception services. This statement emerged from a process incorporating consultation from meetings, literature, and key stakeholders. Three co-authors developed an outline which was discussed and modified with co-authors, working group members, and additional clinical, policy, and community experts in safer conception, HIV, and fertility. Co-authors and working group members developed and approved the final manuscript. Consensus across themes of demand, safer conception strategies, and implementation were identified. There is demand for safer conception services. Access is limited by stigma towards PLWH having children and limits to provider knowledge. Efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and acceptability data support a range of safer conception strategies including ART, PrEP, limiting condomless sex to peak fertility, home insemination, male circumcision, STI treatment, couples-based HIV testing, semen processing, and fertility care. Lack of guidelines and training limit implementation. Key outstanding questions within each theme are identified. Consumer demand, scientific data, and global goals to reduce HIV incidence support safer conception service implementation. We recommend that providers offer services to HIV-affected men and women, and program administrators integrate safer conception care into HIV and reproductive health programs. Answers to outstanding questions will refine services but should not hinder steps to empower people to adopt safer conception strategies to meet reproductive goals.

  3. Preliminary results of an examination of electronic cigarette user puff topography: the effect of a mouthpiece-based topography measurement device on plasma nicotine and subjective effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spindle, Tory R; Breland, Alison B; Karaoghlanian, Nareg V; Shihadeh, Alan L; Eissenberg, Thomas

    2015-02-01

    Electronic cigarettes (ECIGs) heat a nicotine-containing solution; the resulting aerosol is inhaled by the user. Nicotine delivery may be affected by users' puffing behavior (puff topography), and little is known about the puff topography of ECIG users. Puff topography can be measured using mouthpiece-based computerized systems. However, the extent to which a mouthpiece influences nicotine delivery and subjective effects in ECIG users is unknown. Plasma nicotine concentration, heart rate, and subjective effects were measured in 13 experienced ECIG users who used their preferred ECIG and liquid (≥ 12 mg/ml nicotine) during 2 sessions (with or without a mouthpiece). In both sessions, participants completed an ECIG use session in which they were instructed to take 10 puffs with 30-second inter-puff intervals. Puff topography was recorded in the mouthpiece condition. Almost all measures of the effects of ECIG use were independent of topography measurement. Collapsed across session, mean plasma nicotine concentration increased by 16.8 ng/ml, and mean heart rate increased by 8.5 bpm (ps topography measurement equipment, ECIG-using participants took larger and longer puffs with lower flow rates. In experienced ECIG users, measuring ECIG topography did not influence ECIG-associated nicotine delivery or most measures of withdrawal suppression. Topography measurement systems will need to account for the low flow rates observed for ECIG users. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Small modular reactors: Simpler, safer, cheaper?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vujić, Jasmina; Bergmann, Ryan M.; Škoda, Radek; Miletić, Marija

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear energy can play a very significant long-term role for meeting the world’s increasing energy demands, while simultaneously addressing challenges associated with global climate and environmental impact. Many nations of the world, particularly the Asia/Pacific Rim countries, are actively engaged in a major expansion of their nuclear energy complex. The degree to which nuclear energy can address long-term energy needs, either globally or regionally, will be dictated by the pace and adequacy of technical and policy solutions for waste, safety, security, and non-proliferation issues, as well as the capital cost of construction. Small Modular Reactors (SMRs) could successfully address several of these issues. SMRs offer simpler, standardized, and safer modular design by being factory built, requiring smaller initial capital investment, and having shorter construction times. The SMRs could be small enough to be transportable, could be used in isolated locations without advanced infrastructure and without power grid, or could be clustered in a single site to provide a multi-module, large capacity power plant. This paper summarizes some of the basic features of SMRs for early deployment, several advanced SMR concepts, and points out the benefits and challenges in regulatory, economical, safety and security issues. -- Highlights: ► We held a summer forum on SMR technologies at UC Berkeley in July 2010. ► Advantages and disadvantages, technical and economic, of each design were discussed. ► Further literature searches were also done and this paper summarizes prominent designs. ► We conclude SMRs have no large problems preventing their introduction into the nuclear market.

  5. A real-life example of choosing an inherently safer process option

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Study, Karen

    2007-01-01

    While choosing an inherently safer alternative may seem straightforward, sometimes what seems to be the most obvious alternative may not provide the best risk reduction. The process designer must maintain a broad perspective to be able to recognize all potential hazards when evaluating design options. All aspects of operation such as start-up, shut-down, utility failure, as well as normal operation should be considered. Choosing the inherently safer option is best accomplished early in the option selection phase of a project; however, recycle back to the option selection phase may be needed if an option is not thoroughly evaluated early in the process. In this paper, a project to supply ammonia to a catalytic reactor will be reviewed. During the course of the project, an 'inherently safer' alternative was selected and later discarded due to issues uncovered during the detail design phase. The final option chosen will be compared to (1) the original design and (2) the initial 'inherently safer' alternative. The final option was inherently safer than both the original design and the initial 'inherently safer' alternative even though the design team initially believed that it would not be

  6. Safer childbirth: a rights-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boama, Vincent; Arulkumaran, Sabaratnam

    2009-08-01

    The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) set very high targets for women's reproductive health through reductions in maternal and infant mortality, among other things. Reductions in maternal mortality and morbidity can be achieved through various different approaches, such as the confidential review of maternal deaths, use of evidence-based treatments and interventions, using a health systems approach, use of information technology, global and regional partnerships, and making pregnancy safer through initiatives that increase the focus on human rights. A combination of these and other approaches can have a synergistic impact on reductions in maternal mortality. This paper highlights some of the current global efforts on safer pregnancy with a focus on reproductive rights. We encourage readers to do more in every corner of the world to advocate for women's reproductive rights and, in this way, we may achieve the MDGs by 2015.

  7. Safer-drinking strategies used by chronically homeless individuals with alcohol dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grazioli, Véronique S; Hicks, Jennifer; Kaese, Greta; Lenert, James; Collins, Susan E

    2015-07-01

    Chronically homeless individuals with alcohol dependence experience severe alcohol-related consequences. It is therefore important to identify factors that might be associated with reduced alcohol-related harm, such as the use of safer-drinking strategies. Whereas effectiveness of safer-drinking strategies has been well-documented among young adults, no studies have explored this topic among more severely affected populations, such as chronically homeless individuals with alcohol dependence. The aims of this study were thus to qualitatively and quantitatively document safer-drinking strategies used in this population. Participants (N=31) were currently or formerly chronically homeless individuals with alcohol dependence participating in a pilot study of extended-release naltrexone and harm-reduction counseling. At weeks 0 and 8, research staff provided a list of safer-drinking strategies for participants to endorse. Implementation of endorsed safer-drinking strategies was recorded at the next appointment. At both time points, strategies to buffer the effects of alcohol on the body (e.g., eating prior to and during drinking) were most highly endorsed, followed by changing the manner in which one drinks (e.g., spacing drinks), and reducing alcohol consumption. Quantitative analyses indicated that all participants endorsed safer-drinking strategies, and nearly all strategies were implemented (80-90% at weeks 0 and 8, respectively). These preliminary findings indicate that chronically homeless people with alcohol dependence use strategies to reduce harm associated with their drinking. Larger randomized controlled trials are needed to test whether interventions that teach safer-drinking strategies may reduce overall alcohol-related harm in this population. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Safer Conception for Couples Affected by HIV: Structural and Cultural Considerations in the Delivery of Safer Conception Care in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mindry, Deborah; Wanyenze, Rhoda K; Beyeza-Kashesya, Jolly; Woldetsadik, Mahlet A; Finocchario-Kessler, Sarah; Goggin, Kathy; Wagner, Glenn

    2017-08-01

    In countries with high HIV prevalence and high fertility desires, the rights of HIV-affected couples to have children are a pressing issue. Conception among people living with HIV carries risks for both horizontal and vertical HIV transmission. In Uganda ~100,000 HIV-infected women become pregnant annually. Providers face a number of challenges to preventing HIV transmission, reducing unplanned pregnancies, and ensuring safer conception. We report findings from interviews with 27 HIV-affected couples (54 individuals) in Uganda. We explored key cultural and structural factors shaping couples' childbearing decisions. Our data reveal a complex intersection of gender norms, familial expectations, relationship dynamics, and HIV stigma influencing their decisions. Participants provided insights regarding provider bias, stigma, and the gendering of reproductive healthcare. To reduce horizontal transmission HIV and family planning clinics must address men's and women's concerns regarding childbearing with specific attention to cultural and structural challenges.

  9. Gaming for Safer Sex: Young German and Turkish People Report No Specific Culture-Related Preferences Toward Educational Games Promoting Safer Sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brüll, Phil; Ruiter, Robert A C; Wiers, Reinout W; Kok, Gerjo

    2016-12-01

    Comprehensive sex education programs specifically designed for adolescents and young adults that take into account gender norms and cultural background have shown promise as a means of countering the high sexually transmitted infection rate in young people. Recently, digital gaming interventions delivered on computers or mobile devices have emerged as another way to promote safer sex behavior in a young population. Tailoring these computer-based interventions to their target population has been recognized to increase positive behavior outcomes. In this qualitative study, we investigated whether young female and male adults from two different cultural backgrounds (all living in Germany) would have different preferences and needs in relation to an educational game promoting safer sex. We conducted four semistructured focus group interviews comprising open-ended questions with male and female participants who had either a German or a Turkish background. In total, 20 individuals, aged between 18 and 22 years, from two socially diverse and ethnically mixed vocational schools in Germany participated. Independent of cultural background and gender, participants preferred a real-world design with a first-person visual perspective over a fantasy-like third-person perspective. Furthermore, they preferred highly customizable avatars. All participants mentioned the importance of including an alcohol-intoxicated avatar and most participants wanted there to be additional information available about various safer sex approaches and about the use of different barrier protection methods. Males and females reported similar preferences for the design of an educational game promoting safer sex, with the only difference being exactly how the topic of having sexual intercourse should be addressed in the game. Males preferred a direct approach, whereas females had a preference for treating this subject more sympathetically. Educational games offer anonymity and can provide young people

  10. TNO moving forward ... to a safer, cleaner and more efficient mobility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bleijenberg, A.N.

    2008-01-01

    This book provides an impression of how we are contributing to cleaner, safer and more efficient mobility in Europe, helping our customers from concept to implementation and from engineering solutions to strategic advice. Our knowledge is derived to a significant extent from European research

  11. Are nuclear ships environmentally safer than conventionally powered ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bone, C.A.; Molgaard, C.A.; Helmkamp, J.C.; Golbeck, A.L.

    1988-01-01

    An epidemiologic analysis was conducted to determine if risk of hospitalization varied by age, ship type, or occupation between nuclear and conventional powered ship crews in the U.S. Navy. Study cohorts consisted of all male enlisted personnel who served exclusively aboard conventional or nuclear powered aircraft carriers and cruisers during the years 1975-1979; cases were those men hospitalized during this period (N = 48,242). Conventional ship personnel showed significantly elevated rates of injury and disease when compared to nuclear ship personnel. The largest relative risks by age occurred for conventional ship crewmen less than 30 years old. Seaman, logistics (supply), and healthcare personnel serving aboard conventional ships comprised the occupational groups exhibiting the highest hospitalization rate differentials. The results strongly suggest that nuclear ships provide a healthier, safer working and living environment than conventional ships

  12. The Influence of a Mouthpiece-Based Topography Measurement Device on Electronic Cigarette User's Plasma Nicotine Concentration, Heart Rate, and Subjective Effects Under Directed and Ad Libitum Use Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spindle, Tory R; Hiler, Marzena M; Breland, Alison B; Karaoghlanian, Nareg V; Shihadeh, Alan L; Eissenberg, Thomas

    2017-04-01

    Electronic cigarettes e-cigarettes aerosolize a liquid solution often containing nicotine. e-cigarette nicotine delivery may be influenced by user puffing behaviors ("puff topography"). E-cigarette puff topography can be recorded using mouthpiece-based computerized systems. The present study sought to examine the extent to which these systems influence e-cigarette nicotine delivery and other e-cigarette associated acute effects under ad libitum use conditions. Plasma nicotine concentration, heart rate, and subjective effects were assessed in 29 experienced e-cigarette users using their preferred e-cigarette battery and liquid (≥12mg/mL nicotine) in two sessions differing only by the presence of a mouthpiece-based device. In both sessions, participants completed a directed e-cigarette use bout (10 puffs, 30-s interpuff interval) and a 90-min ad libitum bout. Puff topography was recorded in the session with the topography mouthpiece. Plasma nicotine, heart rate, and subjective effects, aside from "Did the e-cigarette Taste Good?" were independent of topography measurement (higher mean taste ratings were observed in the no topography condition). Mean (SEM) plasma nicotine concentration following the ad libitum bout was 34.3ng/mL (4.9) in the no topography condition and 35.7ng/mL (4.3) in the topography condition. Longer puff durations, longer interpuff intervals, and larger puff volumes were observed in the ad libitum relative to the directed bout. E-cigarette use significantly increased plasma nicotine concentration and heart rate while suppressing abstinence symptoms. These effects did not differ when a topography mouthpiece was present. Future studies using ad libitum e-cigarette use bouts would facilitate understanding of e-cigarette toxicant yield. No prior study has examined whether mouthpiece-based topography recording devices influence e-cigarette associated nicotine delivery, heart rate, or subjective effects under ad libitum conditions or assessed ad

  13. Recommendations for safer radiotherapy: what’s the message?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunscombe, Peter, E-mail: peter.dunscombe@albertahealthservices.ca [Department of Oncology, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2012-09-28

    Radiotherapy, with close to a million courses delivered per year in North America, is a very safe and effective intervention for a devastating disease. However, although rare, several deeply regrettable incidents have occurred in radiotherapy and have rightly been the subject of considerable public interest. Partly in response to reports of these incidents a variety of authoritative organizations across the globe has harnessed the expertise amongst their members in attempts to identify the measures that will make radiotherapy safer. While the intentions of all these organizations are clearly good it is challenging for the health care providers in the clinic to know where to start with so much advice coming from so many directions. Through a mapping exercise we have identified commonalities between recommendations made in seven authoritative documents and identified those issues most frequently cited. The documents reviewed contain a total of 117 recommendations. Using the 37 recommendations in “Towards Safer Radiotherapy” as the initial base layer, recommendations in the other documents were mapped, adding to the base layer to accommodate all the recommendations from the additional six documents as necessary. This mapping exercise resulted in the distillation of the original 117 recommendations down to 61 unique recommendations. Twelve topics were identified in three or more of the documents as being pertinent to the improvement of patient safety in radiotherapy. They are, in order of most to least cited: training, staffing, documentation, incident learning, communication, check lists, quality control and preventive maintenance, dosimetric audit, accreditation, minimizing interruptions, prospective risk assessment, and safety culture. This analysis provides guidance for the selection of those activities most likely to enhance safety and quality in radiotherapy based on the frequency of citation in selected recent authoritative literature.

  14. Recommendations for safer radiotherapy: what’s the message?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunscombe, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Radiotherapy, with close to a million courses delivered per year in North America, is a very safe and effective intervention for a devastating disease. However, although rare, several deeply regrettable incidents have occurred in radiotherapy and have rightly been the subject of considerable public interest. Partly in response to reports of these incidents a variety of authoritative organizations across the globe has harnessed the expertise amongst their members in attempts to identify the measures that will make radiotherapy safer. While the intentions of all these organizations are clearly good it is challenging for the health care providers in the clinic to know where to start with so much advice coming from so many directions. Through a mapping exercise we have identified commonalities between recommendations made in seven authoritative documents and identified those issues most frequently cited. The documents reviewed contain a total of 117 recommendations. Using the 37 recommendations in “Towards Safer Radiotherapy” as the initial base layer, recommendations in the other documents were mapped, adding to the base layer to accommodate all the recommendations from the additional six documents as necessary. This mapping exercise resulted in the distillation of the original 117 recommendations down to 61 unique recommendations. Twelve topics were identified in three or more of the documents as being pertinent to the improvement of patient safety in radiotherapy. They are, in order of most to least cited: training, staffing, documentation, incident learning, communication, check lists, quality control and preventive maintenance, dosimetric audit, accreditation, minimizing interruptions, prospective risk assessment, and safety culture. This analysis provides guidance for the selection of those activities most likely to enhance safety and quality in radiotherapy based on the frequency of citation in selected recent authoritative literature.

  15. Recommendations for safer radiotherapy: what’s the message?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter eDunscombe

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Radiotherapy, with close to a million courses delivered per year in North America, is a very safe and effective intervention for a devastating disease. However, although rare, several deeply regrettable incidents have occurred in radiotherapy and have rightly been the subject of considerable public interest. Partly in response to reports of these incidents a variety of authoritative organizations across the globe has harnessed the expertise amongst their members in attempts to identify the measures that will make radiotherapy safer. While the intentions of all these organizations are clearly good it is challenging for the health care providers in the clinic to know where to start with so much advice coming from so many directions. Through a mapping exercise we have identified commonalities between recommendations made in seven authoritative documents and identified those issues most frequently cited. The documents reviewed contain a total of 117 recommendations. Using the 37 recommendations in Towards Safer Radiotherapy as the initial base layer, recommendations in the other documents were mapped, adding to the base layer to accommodate all the recommendations from the additional six documents as necessary. This mapping exercise resulted in the distillation of the original 117 recommendations down to 61 unique recommendations. Twelve topics were identified in three or more of the documents as being pertinent to the improvement of patient safety in radiotherapy. They are, in order of most to least cited: training, staffing, documentation, incident learning, communication, check lists, quality control and preventive maintenance, dosimetric audit, accreditation, minimizing interruptions, prospective risk assessment and safety culture. This analysis provides guidance for the selection of those activities most likely to enhance safety and quality in radiotherapy based on the frequency of citation in selected recent authoritative literature.

  16. A framework for safer driving in Mauritius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Bassoo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available According to the National Transport Authority (NTA, there were 493,081 registered vehicles in Mauritius in April 2016, which represents a 1.4% annual increase compared to 2015. Despite the sensitization campaigns and the series of measures setup by the Minister of Public Infrastructure and Land Transport, the number of road accidents continues to rise. The three main elements that contribute to accidents are: road infrastructure, vehicle and driver. The driver has the highest contribution in collisions. If the driver is given the right information (e.g. driving behaviour, accident-prone areas and vehicle status at the right time, he/she can make better driving decisions and react promptly to critical situations. This paper proposes a framework for safer driving in Mauritius that uses an on-board car diagnostic module (OBDII to collect data such as vehicle average speed, engine revolution and acceleration. This module relays the data to a cloud environment where an adaptive algorithm analyses the data and predicts driver behaviour in real-time. Based on driving behaviour, mobile alerts can be sent to the driver in the form of messages, voice commands or beeps. A survey was also carried out to evaluate the acceptance rate of such a framework by people of different age groups in Mauritius.

  17. Female gratification, sexual power and safer sex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skafte, Ina; Silberschmidt, Margrethe

    2014-01-01

    The gender-based response to HIV in sub-Saharan Africa has tended to reinforce normative stereotypes of women as subordinated, passive and powerless victims, in particular in sexual relations. However, based on qualitative data from Rwanda, this paper argues that such conceptualisations fail to r...... both to practice safer sex and to access decision-making power and material resources. This suggests that inherent in sexual relations is a potential for the empowerment of women and the transformation of gender relations.......The gender-based response to HIV in sub-Saharan Africa has tended to reinforce normative stereotypes of women as subordinated, passive and powerless victims, in particular in sexual relations. However, based on qualitative data from Rwanda, this paper argues that such conceptualisations fail...... to recognise that while women do comply with prevalent social norms, they also challenge these norms and sex becomes a domain in which they can exert power. Female sexuality and sexual gratification - acknowledged and valued by women as well as men - play a pivotal role in the Rwandese mode of sexual...

  18. Documentary shows how public employment is making cities safer ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-06-10

    Jun 10, 2016 ... In an engaging new documentary film, researchers from the Centre for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation share their insights of how a public employment program in South Africa is making cities safer and more inclusive.

  19. A Safer Way to Fight Malaria in Mexico | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-10-18

    supported malaria-control strategy in Mexico. The key is working together. Scientists pinpoint sources of malaria; communities destroy mosquito breeding grounds, such as algae in rivers, and spray homes with a safer pesticide.

  20. System Hardening Architecture for Safer Access to Critical Business ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    System Hardening Architecture for Safer Access to Critical Business Data. ... and the threat is growing faster than the potential victims can deal with. ... in this architecture are applied to the host, application, operating system, user, and the ...

  1. Viral Transmissions: Safer Sex Videos, Disability, and Queer Politics

    OpenAIRE

    Karisa Butler-Wall

    2016-01-01

    Bringing disability studies into conversation with queer histories of AIDS activism, this article examines the relationship between disability and queer politics in safer sex videos created by AIDS activists in the 1980s. As a form of what the author terms "guerrilla biopolitics," safer sex videos insisted on the viability of queer life and sexual expression at a historical moment of intense homophobia and sex negativity. At the same time, the vision of sexual health and identity they offered...

  2. Viral Transmissions: Safer Sex Videos, Disability, and Queer Politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karisa Butler-Wall

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Bringing disability studies into conversation with queer histories of AIDS activism, this article examines the relationship between disability and queer politics in safer sex videos created by AIDS activists in the 1980s. As a form of what the author terms "guerrilla biopolitics," safer sex videos insisted on the viability of queer life and sexual expression at a historical moment of intense homophobia and sex negativity. At the same time, the vision of sexual health and identity they offered risked reproducing racialized and classed ideologies of ableism. Seeking to "crip" our understandings of safer sex discourses and practices, this study explores how risk reduction techniques have been historically linked to imperatives of compulsory able-bodiedness, precluding alternative expressions of queer/crip life.

  3. Volume reduction, a safer and cheaper way of radwaste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mergan, L.M.; Cordier, J.P.; Storrer, J.A.

    1979-01-01

    Development of 'Volume Reduction' has demonstrated that it is a safer and cheaper radwaste management method. Safer, because of several advantages: decrease of solidified product volume, satisfactory product properties, absence of free water, better control of process parameters, increased encapsulation efficiency ... The corresponding impact on the waste management costs, results in important savings on different factors, as well as regards the operational costs as the investment expenses. Economy in the range of BF 35.000 per m 3 of incoming waste is achievable. The main volume reduction techniques readily available are briefly reviewed

  4. Making Health Care Safer PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This 60 second public service announcement is based on the March 2013 CDC Vital Signs report, which discusses lethal infections from carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae, or CRE, germs and ways health care providers can help stop CRE infections.

  5. Consumers want safer meat - but not at all costs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørkbak, Morten Raun; Christensen, Tove; Gyrd-Hansen, Dorte

    2008-01-01

    Consumers, the public authorities, and the food industry are all concerned with the safety of meat. The increasing demand for safer food from the consumers and the public authorities puts pressure on producers to identify efficient methods to reduce risks. Earlier studies have shown that consumer...

  6. AIDS in Zimbabwe: | Sibanda | SAFERE: Southern African Feminist ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAFERE: Southern African Feminist Review. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 3, No 1 (1999) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Open Access ...

  7. Military men and sexual practices: Discourses of 'othering' in safer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Military men and sexual practices: Discourses of 'othering' in safer sex in the light of HIV/AIDS. ... Military men are particularly vulnerable to HIV because of their working conditions; for example, working far from home and being among communities where they have greater economic and political power, as well as in relation ...

  8. Using a narrative to spark safer sex communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donné, Lennie; Hoeks, Jacobus; Jansen, C. J. M.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: College students are a group at risk for contracting sexually transmitted infections (STIs). While they are generally well informed about STIs, they do not consistently use condoms. An important element in preventing STIs is safer sex communication, especially with a sexual partner. This

  9. Using a Narrative to Spark Safer Sex Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donné, Lennie; Hoeks, John; Jansen, Carel

    2017-01-01

    Objective: College students are a group at risk for contracting sexually transmitted infections (STIs). While they are generally well informed about STIs, they do not consistently use condoms. An important element in preventing STIs is safer sex communication, especially with a sexual partner. This may be difficult, however, because of a lack of…

  10. Multi-level Correlates of Safer Conception Methods Awareness and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Many people living with HIV desire childbearing, but low cost safer conception methods (SCM) such as timed unprotected intercourse (TUI) and manual ... including perceived willingness to use SCM, knowledge of respondent's HIV status, HIV-seropositivity, marriage and equality in decision making within the relationship.

  11. Mass-Produced, Buffer | Masitera | SAFERE: Southern African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAFERE: Southern African Feminist Review. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 3, No 2 (1999) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Open Access ...

  12. SAFERE: Southern African Feminist Review - Vol 3, No 1 (1999)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Feminism and Masculinity in an African Capitalist Context: · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Mwenda G. Ntarangwi, 19-32. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/safere.v3i1.23948 ...

  13. Designing safer living environments support for local government

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Landman, K

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the built environment, the opportunities it presents for crime and the role city planners and urban designers have to play in the design of safer cities and towns. City planners and urban designers can play a role...

  14. One being White | Newman | SAFERE: Southern African Feminist ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAFERE: Southern African Feminist Review. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 3, No 2 (1999) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Open Access ...

  15. The urban dilemma: how to make cities safer | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2015-10-01

    Oct 1, 2015 ... ... and inequalities, and identify which programs work – and which don't – to prevent and reduce violence in cities. Read the blog post. Learn more from the baseline study, Researching the Urban Dilemma. Find out more about how IDRC supports research to make cities safer through our partnership – Safe ...

  16. Making Health Care Safer PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-03-05

    This 60 second public service announcement is based on the March 2013 CDC Vital Signs report, which discusses lethal infections from carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae, or CRE, germs and ways health care providers can help stop CRE infections.  Created: 3/5/2013 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 3/5/2013.

  17. Lighting the Way for Quicker, Safer Healing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Who's to say that a little light can t go a long way? Tiny light-emitting diode (LED) chips used to grow plants in space are lighting the way for cancer treatment, wound healing, and chronic pain alleviation on Earth. In 1993, Quantum Devices, Inc. (QDI), of Barneveld, Wisconsin, began developing the HEALS (High Emissivity Aluminiferous Light-emitting Substrate) technology to provide high-intensity, solid-state LED lighting systems for NASA Space Shuttle plant growth experiments. The company evolved out of cooperative efforts with the Wisconsin Center for Space Automation and Robotics (WCSAR) at the University of Wisconsin-Madison a NASA center for the Commercial Development of Space. Ronald W. Ignatius, QDI s president and chairman, represented one of WCSAR s industrial partners at the time. WCSAR was conducting research on light sources for promoting food growth within closed environments where humans would be present for a long duration, such as the Space Shuttle and the International Space Station. With the support of WCSAR, Ignatius experimented with LEDs, which provide high-energy efficiency and virtually no heat, despite releasing waves of light 10 times brighter than the Sun. Ignatius admits that some scientists involved in the project were skeptical at first, thinking that the idea of using LEDs to promote plant growth was far-fetched. The experiments, however, demonstrated that red LED wavelengths could boost the energy metabolism of cells to advance plant growth and photosynthesis. This finding prompted Ignatius to develop a line of LED products that emit the exact wavelength of light that plants use in photosynthesis. Our company gives credit to Dr. Ray Bula, the director of WCSAR, for having the foresight to go against the prevailing dogma of the time and design the first plant experiment using monochromatic light to grow lettuce plants, Ignatius proclaims. In 1989, Ignatius formed QDI to bring the salt grain-sized LEDs to market, and in October 1995

  18. Safer handling practice: influence of staff education on older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Christine Brown

    The purpose of this small-scale survey was to explore the level of moving and handling training undertaken by nurses within private sector continuing care environments and the potential this training had to influence the care of older people. This study uses a definition of safer handling practice derived from existing literature to examine how nurses report the application of this training and whether they observe changes to the mobility of older people within their care. The limitations of this study indicate that generalizations must be made cautiously. However, this study tentatively suggests that potential exists to influence positively the use of safer handling practice as defined within this study. Recommendations for further study are made.

  19. Experiences Using Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis for Safer Conception Among HIV Serodiscordant Heterosexual Couples in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazzi, Angela R; Leech, Ashley A; Biancarelli, Dea L; Sullivan, Meg; Drainoni, Mari-Lynn

    2017-08-01

    Antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is a promising HIV prevention strategy for HIV serodiscordant couples (HIV-infected male, uninfected female) seeking safer conception. However, most research on PrEP for safer conception has focused on couples in sub-Saharan Africa; little is known about the perspectives or experiences of heterosexual couples in the United States. We conducted qualitative interviews with six couples (six women and five of their male partners) receiving PrEP for conception services at an urban safety net hospital in the US Northeast. In-depth interview guides explored couple relationships and contextual factors and attitudes, perceptions, and decision-making processes surrounding PrEP for safer conception. Thematic analyses focused on identifying the following emergent themes. We found that couple relationships were situated within broader social and cultural contexts of immigration, family, and community that shaped their experiences with HIV and serodiscordant relationship status. Despite strong partner support within relationships, HIV stigma and disapproval of serodiscordant relationships contributed to couples' feelings of social isolation and subsequent aspirations to have "normal" families. By enabling "natural" conception through condomless sex, PrEP for safer conception provided a sense of enhanced relationship intimacy. Couples called for increasing public awareness of PrEP through positive messaging as a way to combat HIV stigma. Findings suggest that relationship dynamics and broader social contexts appear to shape HIV serodiscordant couples' fertility desires and motivations to use PrEP. However, increased public awareness of PrEP for safer conception may be needed to combat HIV stigma at the community level.

  20. Electronic cigarettes: a safer alternative or potential poison?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Janet E

    2014-10-01

    Electronic cigarettes have been marketed as a safer alternative to cigarettes, and their use is expanding exponentially. However, there is a severe lack of scientific data about the ingredients in the liquid used in the device and the health consequences of using electronic cigarettes. As technology has outpaced regulations, the production and sale of electronic cigarettes are, as yet, unregulated and do not fall under the purview of the Food and Drug Administration. This article will review the mechanism of action and what is currently known about the safety of electronic cigarettes. The risk of poisoning for children will also be identified, as well as the implications for home healthcare clinicians.

  1. Multi-level Correlates of Safer Conception Methods Awareness and Attitudes Among Ugandan HIV Clients with Fertility Intentions

    OpenAIRE

    Wagner, Glenn J.; Woldetsadik, Mahlet A.; Beyeza-Kashesya, Jolly; Goggin, Kathy; Mindry, Deborah; Finocchario-Kessler, Sarah; Khanakwa, Sarah; Wanyenze, Rhoda K.

    2016-01-01

    Many people living with HIV desire childbearing, but low cost safer conception methods (SCM) such as timed unprotected intercourse (TUI) and manual self-insemination (MSI) are rarely used. We examined awareness and attitudes towards SCM, and the correlates of these constructs among 400 HIV clients with fertility intentions in Uganda. Measures included awareness, self-efficacy, and motivation regarding SCM, as well as demographics, health management, partner and provider characteristics. Just ...

  2. A safer alternative: Cannabis substitution as harm reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Nicholas; Sales, Paloma; Averill, Sheigla; Murphy, Fiona; Sato, Sye-Ok; Murphy, Sheigla

    2015-11-01

    Substitution is operationalised as a conscious choice made by users to use one drug instead of, or in conjunction with another based on: perceived safety, level of addiction potential, effectiveness in relieving symptoms, access and level of acceptance. Harm reduction is a set of strategies that aim to minimise problems associated with drug use while recognising that for some users, abstinence may be neither a realistic nor a desirable goal. In this paper, we aim for deeper understandings of older adult cannabis users' beliefs and substitution practices as part of the harm reduction framework. We present selected findings from our qualitative study of Baby Boomer (born 1946-1964) marijuana users in the San Francisco Bay Area. Although the sample consisted of primary cannabis users, many had personal experience with other drugs throughout their lifetimes. Data collection consisted of an audio-recorded, semi-structured in-depth life history interview followed by a questionnaire and health survey. Qualitative interviews were analysed to discover users' harm reduction beliefs and cannabis substitution practices. Study participants described using cannabis as a safer alternative for alcohol, illicit drugs and pharmaceuticals based on their perceptions of less adverse side effects, low-risk for addiction and greater effectiveness at relieving symptoms, such as chronic pain. Cannabis substitution can be an effective harm reduction method for those who are unable or unwilling to stop using drugs completely. More research is needed on cannabis as a safer alternative. © 2015 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  3. SAFER vehicle inspection: a multimodal robotic sensing platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, David L.; Fougerolle, Yohan; Koschan, Andreas F.; Gribok, Andrei; Abidi, Mongi A.; Gorsich, David J.; Gerhart, Grant R.

    2004-09-01

    The current threats to U.S. security both military and civilian have led to an increased interest in the development of technologies to safeguard national facilities such as military bases, federal buildings, nuclear power plants, and national laboratories. As a result, the Imaging, Robotics, and Intelligent Systems (IRIS) Laboratory at The University of Tennessee (UT) has established a research consortium, known as SAFER (Security Automation and Future Electromotive Robotics), to develop, test, and deploy sensing and imaging systems for unmanned ground vehicles (UGV). The targeted missions for these UGV systems include -- but are not limited to --under vehicle threat assessment, stand-off check-point inspections, scout surveillance, intruder detection, obstacle-breach situations, and render-safe scenarios. This paper presents a general overview of the SAFER project. Beyond this general overview, we further focus on a specific problem where we collect 3D range scans of under vehicle carriages. These scans require appropriate segmentation and representation algorithms to facilitate the vehicle inspection process. We discuss the theory for these algorithms and present results from applying them to actual vehicle scans.

  4. Does my step look big in this? A visual illusion leads to safer stepping behaviour.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David B Elliott

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tripping is a common factor in falls and a typical safety strategy to avoid tripping on steps or stairs is to increase foot clearance over the step edge. In the present study we asked whether the perceived height of a step could be increased using a visual illusion and whether this would lead to the adoption of a safer stepping strategy, in terms of greater foot clearance over the step edge. The study also addressed the controversial question of whether motor actions are dissociated from visual perception. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: 21 young, healthy subjects perceived the step to be higher in a configuration of the horizontal-vertical illusion compared to a reverse configuration (p = 0.01. During a simple stepping task, maximum toe elevation changed by an amount corresponding to the size of the visual illusion (p<0.001. Linear regression analyses showed highly significant associations between perceived step height and maximum toe elevation for all conditions. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The perceived height of a step can be manipulated using a simple visual illusion, leading to the adoption of a safer stepping strategy in terms of greater foot clearance over a step edge. In addition, the strong link found between perception of a visual illusion and visuomotor action provides additional support to the view that the original, controversial proposal by Goodale and Milner (1992 of two separate and distinct visual streams for perception and visuomotor action should be re-evaluated.

  5. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan for Corrective Action Unit 538: Spill Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.: 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfred Wickline

    2006-04-01

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan addresses the actions necessary for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 538: Spill Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada. It has been developed in accordance with the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (FFACO) (1996) that was agreed to by the State of Nevada, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and the U.S. Department of Defense. A SAFER may be performed when the following criteria are met: (1) Conceptual corrective actions are clearly identified (although some degree of investigation may be necessary to select a specific corrective action before completion of the Corrective Action Investigation [CAI]). (2) Uncertainty of the nature, extent, and corrective action must be limited to an acceptable level of risk. (3) The SAFER Plan includes decision points and criteria for making data quality objective (DQO) decisions. The purpose of the investigation will be to document and verify the adequacy of existing information; to affirm the decision for either clean closure, closure in place, or no further action; and to provide sufficient data to implement the corrective action. The actual corrective action selected will be based on characterization activities implemented under this SAFER Plan. This SAFER Plan identifies decision points developed in cooperation with the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) and where DOE will reach consensus with NDEP before beginning the next phase of work.

  6. Multi-level Correlates of Safer Conception Methods Awareness and Attitudes Among Ugandan HIV Clients with Fertility Intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Glenn J; Woldetsadik, Mahlet A; Beyeza-Kashesya, Jolly; Goggin, Kathy; Mindry, Deborah; Finocchario-Kessler, Sarah; Khanakwa, Sarah; Wanyenze, Rhoda K

    2016-03-01

    Many people living with HIV desire childbearing, but low cost safer conception methods (SCM) such as timed unprotected intercourse (TUI) and manual self-insemination (MSI) are rarely used. We examined awareness and attitudes towards SCM, and the correlates of these constructs among 400 HIV clients with fertility intentions in Uganda. Measures included awareness, self-efficacy, and motivation regarding SCM, as well as demographics, health management, partner and provider characteristics. Just over half knew that MSI (53%) and TUI (51%) reduced transmission risk during conception, and 15% knew of sperm washing and pre-exposure prophylaxis. In separate regression models for SCM awareness, motivation, and self-efficacy, nearly all independent correlates were related to the partner, including perceived willingness to use SCM, knowledge of respondent's HIV status, HIV-seropositivity, marriage and equality in decision making within the relationship. These findings suggest the importance of partners in promoting SCM use and partner inclusion in safer conception counselling.

  7. Anger as a moderator of safer sex motivation among low-income urban women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroder, Kerstin E E; Carey, Michael P

    2005-10-01

    Theoretical models suggest that both HIV knowledge and HIV risk perception inform rational decision making and, thus, predict safer sex motivation and behavior. However, the amount of variance explained by knowledge and risk perception is typically small. In this cross-sectional study, we investigated whether the predictive power of HIV knowledge and HIV risk perception on safer sex motivation is affected by trait anger. We hypothesized that anger may disrupt rational decision making, distorting the effects of both HIV knowledge and risk perception on safer sex intentions. Data from 232 low-income, urban women at risk for HIV infection were used to test a path model with past sexual risk behavior, HIV knowledge, and HIV risk perception as predictors of safer sex intentions. Moderator effects of anger on safer sex intentions were tested by simultaneous group comparisons between high-anger and low-anger women (median split). The theoretically expected "rational pattern" was found among low-anger women only, including (a) a positive effect of knowledge on safer sex intentions, and (b) buffer (inhibitor) effects of HIV knowledge and HIV risk perception on the negative path leading from past risk behavior to safer sex intentions. Among high-anger women, an "irrational pattern" emerged, with no effects of HIV knowledge and negative effects of both past risk behavior and HIV risk perception on safer sex intentions. In sum, the results suggest that rational knowledge- and risk-based decisions regarding safer sex may be limited to low-anger women.

  8. SaferNanoDesign Summer School | 13-18 June

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    A bioHC Summer School - 13-18 June 2016 - European Scientific Institute, Archamps, Haute-Savoie.   How can industrial innovation in nanotechnologies be reconciled with the legitimate concerns of citizens regarding environmental protection and public health? Tomorrow’s researchers and engineers will require skills in risk evaluation using computational methods of modelling and simulation relevant to nanomaterials. An intensive one-week specialist school, SaferNanoDesign will examine the analytical tools and methodologies required to rise to the challenge of the ecodesign of nanomaterial-enabled technology. The School combines an intensive programme of lecture presentations, followed up by practical sessions (experiments, computer simulation and modelling) and interdisciplinary group work. Courses will be given by international experts from France, Scotland, the US, the Netherlands and Switzerland and representatives from industry and regulatory bodies. For more information: www....

  9. Towards safer surgery in patients with sickle cell disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meshikhes, Abdul-Wahed N.

    2007-01-01

    Surgery in patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) has been associated with high morbidity and mortality. In recent years, a marked improvement in the safety of surgery and anesthesia in this high-risk group of patients has been witnessed; owing to the improvements in surgical and anesthetic care, greater awareness of pathophysiology of disease, proper perioperative preparation and attention to factors predisposing to vasoocclusive crises. However, this is not paralleled by similar improvement in countries where the disease is not prevalent. Greater population mobility in recent years makes recognition of surgical manifestations of the disease and awareness of perioperative management of sickle cell patients undergoing surgical interventions of paramount importance. This article aims to summarize steps towards safer surgery in patients with SCD. (author)

  10. Goneis.gr: Training Greek Parents on ICT and Safer Internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manouselis, Nikos; Riviou, Katerina; Palavitsinis, Nikos; Giannikopoulou, Vasiliki; Tsanakas, Panayotis

    Children's use of the Internet has significantly risen in the last decade. Nevertheless, children spend a lot of time online which makes them susceptible to various threats (such as inappropriate material, offensive language, etc). Parents are the last frontier to this menace but they also need to be educated and trained in order to protect their children. Goneis.gr is an initiative launched by the Greek government that aims to educate parents on safer Internet and the use of parental control software. Parents are also entitled to distance learning courses covering basic computer skills. This paper presents the results of two separate surveys that took place in the last few months (December 2008-January 2009). The first survey targeted the parents that have completed the programme and the second one the educational providers that participate in the programme and offer the training to the beneficiaries.

  11. The SAFER Latinos Project: Addressing a Community Ecology Underlying Latino Youth Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edberg, Mark; Cleary, Sean D.; Collins, Elizabeth; Klevens, Joanne; Leiva, Rodrigo; Bazurto, Martha; Rivera, Ivonne; del Cid, Alex Taylor; Montero, Luisa; Calderon, Melba

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the intervention model, early implementation experience, and challenges for the "Seguridad, Apoyo, Familia, Educacion, y Recursos" (SAFER) Latinos project. The SAFER Latinos project is an attempt to build the evidence for a multilevel participatory youth violence prevention model tailored to the specific circumstances of…

  12. NREL, NASA, and UCL Team Up to Make Lithium-Ion Batteries Safer on Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    (NASA) and University College London (UCL) for a cutting-edge study on lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery and in Space | News | NREL NREL, NASA, and UCL Team Up to Make Lithium-Ion Batteries Safer on Earth and in Space NREL, NASA, and UCL Team Up to Make Lithium-Ion Batteries Safer on Earth and in Space

  13. Access management in Safer Transportation Network Planning : safety principles, planning framework, and library information.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hummel, T.

    2001-01-01

    This report is one in a series of publications, used in the development of the network planning tool ‘Safer Transportation Network Planning’ (Safer-TNP). The publications were used to guide the development of planning structures, diagnostic tools, planning recommendations, and research information

  14. Intersection planning in Safer Transportation Network Planning : safety principles, planning framework, and library information.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hummel, T.

    2001-01-01

    This report is one in a series of publications, used in the development of the network planning tool ‘Safer Transportation Network Planning’ (Safer-TNP). The publications were used to guide the development of planning structures, diagnostic tools, planning recommendations, and research information

  15. Route management in Safer Transportation Network Planning : safety principles, planning framework, and library information.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hummel, T.

    2001-01-01

    This report is one in a series of publications, used in the development of the network planning tool ‘Safer Transportation Network Planning’ (Safer-TNP). The publications were used to guide the development of planning structures, diagnostic tools, planning recommendations, and research information

  16. Land use planning in Safer Transportation Network Planning : safety principles, planning framework, and library information.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hummel, T.

    2001-01-01

    This report is one in a series of publications, used in the development of the network planning tool ‘Safer Transportation Network Planning’ (Safer-TNP). The publications were used to guide the development of planning structures, diagnostic tools, planning recommendations, and research information

  17. Expediting Groundwater Sampling at Hanford and Making It Safer - 13158

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connell, Carl W. Jr.; Conley, S.F.; Carr, Jennifer S.; Schatz, Aaron L.; Brown, W.L.; Hildebrand, R. Douglas

    2013-01-01

    documents, the system saves three-to-four man days each month for the field personnel taking the measurements and the scientists and administrators managing the data and the documentation. After the information has received technical review, FLEDG automatically updates the database for water-level measurements and loads the document management system with the completed sampling report. Due to safety considerations, access to wells is conditional. A spreadsheet with appropriate data not only lists the wells that are cleared for work, but also the safety personnel who must be present before work can start. This spreadsheet is used in planning daily activities. Daily plans are structured to ensure that the wells to be sampled are cleared for work and the appropriate safety personnel have been assigned and are present before the work starts. Historically, the spreadsheets have been prepared manually, and as a result, are potentially subject to human error. However, a companion database application has been developed to work with FLEDG - making the entire sampling process more efficient and safer for personnel. The Well Access List - Electronic, WAL-E, is a database that contains much the same information that was previously manually loaded into the spread sheet. In addition, WAL-E contains a managed work-flow application that shows the access requirements and allows for appropriate reviews of the compiled well. Various CHPRC organizations, including Industrial Hygiene, RADCON, and Well Maintenance and Sample Administration are able to enter and review the wells added or deleted from the WAL-E database. The FLEDG system then accesses this database information to identify appropriate support personnel and provide safety requirements to field personnel. In addition, WAL-E offers the assurance that wells have appropriate locks and are correctly labeled and electrically grounded as required, before well activities begin. This feature is an extremely important aspect of the FLEDG

  18. Expediting Groundwater Sampling at Hanford and Making It Safer - 13158

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connell, Carl W. Jr.; Conley, S.F.; Carr, Jennifer S.; Schatz, Aaron L. [CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company, P.O. Box 1600, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); Brown, W.L. [Lockheed Martin Systems Information, P.O. Box 950, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); Hildebrand, R. Douglas [Department of Energy - Richland Operations Office, 825 Jadwin Ave., Richland, WA 99352 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    eliminating the need to print out documents, the system saves three-to-four man days each month for the field personnel taking the measurements and the scientists and administrators managing the data and the documentation. After the information has received technical review, FLEDG automatically updates the database for water-level measurements and loads the document management system with the completed sampling report. Due to safety considerations, access to wells is conditional. A spreadsheet with appropriate data not only lists the wells that are cleared for work, but also the safety personnel who must be present before work can start. This spreadsheet is used in planning daily activities. Daily plans are structured to ensure that the wells to be sampled are cleared for work and the appropriate safety personnel have been assigned and are present before the work starts. Historically, the spreadsheets have been prepared manually, and as a result, are potentially subject to human error. However, a companion database application has been developed to work with FLEDG - making the entire sampling process more efficient and safer for personnel. The Well Access List - Electronic, WAL-E, is a database that contains much the same information that was previously manually loaded into the spread sheet. In addition, WAL-E contains a managed work-flow application that shows the access requirements and allows for appropriate reviews of the compiled well. Various CHPRC organizations, including Industrial Hygiene, RADCON, and Well Maintenance and Sample Administration are able to enter and review the wells added or deleted from the WAL-E database. The FLEDG system then accesses this database information to identify appropriate support personnel and provide safety requirements to field personnel. In addition, WAL-E offers the assurance that wells have appropriate locks and are correctly labeled and electrically grounded as required, before well activities begin. This feature is an extremely

  19. Seriously Mentally Ill Women’s Safer Sex Behaviors and the Theory of Reasoned Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randolph, Mary E.; Pinkerton, Steven D.; Somlai, Anton M.; Kelly, Jeffrey A.; Gibson, Richard H.; Hackl, Kristin

    2014-01-01

    Seriously mentally ill women at risk for HIV infection (n = 96) participated in structured interviews assessing sexual and substance use behavior over a 3-month period. The majority of the women (63.5%) did not use condoms. Consistent with the Theory of Reasoned Action, condom use attitudes and perceived social norms about safer sex were associated with safer sex intentions. Supplementing TRA variables with safer sex self-efficacy explained additional variance in safer sex intentions. Greater safer sex intentions were related to both greater condom use and to less frequent unprotected intercourse. In addition, less frequent sex after drug use and a less fatalistic outlook were associated with less frequent unprotected intercourse. Life circumstances specific to this population are particularly important to examine to improve the effectiveness of risk reduction interventions for seriously mentally ill women. PMID:19458268

  20. ïSCOPE: Safer care for older persons (in residential environments: A study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barnard Debbie

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The current profile of residents living in Canadian nursing homes includes elder persons with complex physical and social needs. High resident acuity can result in increased staff workload and decreased quality of work life. Aims Safer Care for Older Persons [in residential] Environments is a two year (2010 to 2012 proof-of-principle pilot study conducted in seven nursing homes in western Canada. The purpose of the study is to evaluate the feasibility of engaging front line staff to use quality improvement methods to integrate best practices into resident care. The goals of the study are to improve the quality of work life for staff, in particular healthcare aides, and to improve residents' quality of life. Methods/design The study has parallel research and quality improvement intervention arms. It includes an education and support intervention for direct caregivers to improve the safety and quality of their care delivery. We hypothesize that this intervention will improve not only the care provided to residents but also the quality of work life for healthcare aides. The study employs tools adapted from the Institute for Healthcare Improvement's Breakthrough Series: Collaborative Model and Canada's Safer Healthcare Now! improvement campaign. Local improvement teams in each nursing home (1 to 2 per facility are led by healthcare aides (non-regulated caregivers and focus on the management of specific areas of resident care. Critical elements of the program include local measurement, virtual and face-to-face learning sessions involving change management, quality improvement methods and clinical expertise, ongoing virtual and in person support, and networking. Discussion There are two sustainability challenges in this study: ongoing staff and leadership engagement, and organizational infrastructure. Addressing these challenges will require strategic planning with input from key stakeholders for sustaining quality improvement

  1. The WIPP transportation system -- ''Safer than any other''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, T.R.; Spooner, R.

    1991-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has developed an integrated transportation system to transport transuranic (TRU) waste from ten widely dispersed generator sites to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The system consists of a Type B container, a specially designed trailer, a lightweight tractor, the DOE TRANSCOM satellite-based vehicle tracking system, and uniquely qualified and highly trained drivers. The DOE has demonstrated that this system is ready to transport the TRU waste to the WIPP site efficiently and safely. Since the system was put in place in November 1988, it has been repeatedly upgraded and enhanced to incorporate additional safety measures. In June of 1989, the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) reviewed the transportation system and concluded that ''the system proposed for transportation of TRU waste to WIPP is safer than that employed for any other hazardous material in the United States today and will reduce risk to very low levels'' (emphasis added). The NAS conclusion was made before the DOE implemented the Enhanced Driver Training Course for carrier drivers. The challenge facing the DOE was to examine the transportation system objectively and determine what additional improvements could be made to further enhance safety

  2. Anger as a Moderator of Safer Sex Motivation among Low Income Urban Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Michael P.

    2005-01-01

    Theoretical models suggest that both HIV knowledge and HIV risk perception inform rational decision-making and, thus, predict safer sex motivation and behavior. However, the amount of variance explained by knowledge and risk perception is typically small. In this cross-sectional study, we investigated whether the predictive power of HIV knowledge and HIV risk perception on safer sex motivation is affected by trait anger. We hypothesized that anger may disrupt rational-decision making, distorting the effects of both HIV knowledge and risk perception on safer sex intentions. Data from 232 low-income, urban women at risk for HIV infection were used to test a path model with past sexual risk behavior, HIV knowledge, and HIV risk perception as predictors of safer sex intentions. Moderator effects of anger on safer sex intentions were tested by simultaneous group comparisons between high-anger and low-anger women (median-split). The theoretically expected “rational pattern” was found among low-anger women only, including (a) a positive effect of knowledge on safer sex intentions, and (b) buffer (inhibitor) effects of HIV knowledge and HIV risk perception on the negative path leading from past risk behavior to safer sex intentions. Among high-anger women, an “irrational pattern” emerged, with no effects of HIV knowledge and negative effects of both past risk behavior and HIV risk perception on safer sex intentions. In sum, the results suggest that rational knowledge and risk-based decisions regarding safer sex may be limited to low-anger women. PMID:16247592

  3. Streamlined approach for environmental restoration (SAFER) plan for corrective action unit 412: clean slate I plutonium dispersion (TTR) tonopah test range, Nevada, revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthews, Patrick K.

    2015-04-01

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan addresses the actions needed to achieve closure for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 412. CAU 412 is located on the Tonopah Test Range and consists of a single corrective action site (CAS), TA-23-01CS, Pu Contaminated Soil. There is sufficient information and historical documentation from previous investigations and the 1997 interim corrective action to recommend closure of CAU 412 using the SAFER process. Based on existing data, the presumed corrective action for CAU 412 is clean closure. However, additional data will be obtained during a field investigation to document and verify the adequacy of existing information and determine whether the CAU 412 closure objectives have been achieved. This SAFER Plan provides the methodology to gather the necessary information for closing the CAU.The following summarizes the SAFER activities that will support the closure of CAU 412:• Collect environmental samples from designated target populations to confirm or disprove the presence of contaminants of concern (COCs) as necessary to supplement existing information.• If no COCs are present, establish clean closure as the corrective action. • If COCs are present, the extent of contamination will be defined and further corrective actions will be evaluated with the stakeholders (NDEP, USAF).• Confirm the preferred closure option is sufficient to protect human health and the environment.

  4. Positive reinforcement to promote safer sex among clients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman, S

    1992-01-01

    The AIDS Research Foundation of India (ARFI) began an intervention program with sex workers in Madras where the women reported that they were willing to use condoms, whereas the customers were not. Accordingly, ARFI is focusing on clients using a positive reinforcement approach: repetition of the desirability of condom use by communication. First, truck drivers and dock workers have been targeted. Drivers interviewed by ARFI were familiar with the condom as a contraceptive method rather than a disease-preventing method, and used it with their wives. The ARFI program has convinced tobacco shopkeepers to stock condoms for drivers. Truckers receive key chains with a holder for a condom. At transit site tea shops songs are aired about road and roadside safety sponsored by a tire manufacturer with a message about rubber (tires and condoms). Women selling sex at transit sites are also educated about the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) while attempting to increase their level of hygiene. The typical Friday night sex-seeking behavior among dock workers consists of drinking in a wine shop and soliciting sex workers. Port management and unions have also been recruited for promoting AIDS-related education after participating in health education sessions with flip charts and flash cards. Rest rooms display posters on condom use, some men have been recruited as condom holders for distribution on Friday nights, and barber shops also feature posters with messages about safer sex. AIDS/STD prevention programs have to deal with prevailing practices, values, and beliefs. Results indicate increased condom use among clients as shown by increased sales at transit site tobacco shops and shops around the port. In the future the program will pay more attention to improving the negotiation skills of sex workers.

  5. kNOw Fear: Making rural public spaces safer for women and girls ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2018-05-01

    May 1, 2018 ... kNOw Fear: Making rural public spaces safer for women and girls ... The International Centre for Research on Women (ICRW) conducts research ... Poonam Kathuria's 17 years of experience as a women's rights advocate is ...

  6. [Sexual Behavior and Self-Efficacy for the Negotiation of Safer Sex in Heterosexual Persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Jiménez, David; Santiago-Rivas, Marimer; Serrano-García, Irma

    2009-05-01

    Self-efficacy has been defined as one of the factors that may facilitate or impede safer sex. Studies reveal that peoples in steady relationships practice safer sex less often that those in casual relationships. We conducted a study with 447 sexually active heterosexual adults. A self-administered questionnaire was designed to study the sexual behavior, the male condom use and the practice of mutual masturbation, and the self-efficacy toward these practices. Results show that most men are sexually active and that there is a low frequency of male condom use and the practice of mutual masturbation as safer sex. The majority of those who use the male condom are engage in casual relationships. However, participants have high levels of self-efficacy toward these practices. Although self-efficacy is one of the factors that influence in deciding to practice safer sex, it is not sufficient to reach this goal.

  7. Advanced and safer lithium-ion battery based on sustainable electrodes

    KAUST Repository

    Ding, Xiang; Huang, Xiaobing; Jin, Junling; Ming, Hai; Wang, Limin; Ming, Jun

    2018-01-01

    Seeking advanced and safer lithium-ion battery with sustainable characteristic is significant for the development of electronic devices and electric vehicles. Herein, a new porous TiO nanobundles (PTNBs) is synthesized though a scalable and green

  8. Toetsing van het gehalte duurzame veiligheid met Safer Transportation Network Planning : integratie van de ‘DV-gehaltemeter’ in het ontwerpprogramma ‘Safer-TNP’

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hummel, T.

    2001-01-01

    Testing the sustainable-safety contents with Safer Transportation Network Planning. In the publication entitled “Developing a sustainable-safety meter (DV-meter) for measuring the sustainable-safety contents” (Van der Kooi & Dijkstra, 2000), the development of and a pilot measurement with a

  9. Piroxicam-β-cyclodextrin: a GI safer piroxicam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarpignato, C

    2013-01-01

    more rapid onset of action after oral administration and improved GI tolerability because of minimization of the drug gastric effects. One such drug, piroxicam-β-cyclodextrin (PBC), has been used in Europe for 25 years. Preclinical and clinical pharmacology of PBC do show that the β-cyclodextrin inclusion complex of piroxicam is better tolerated from the upper GI tract than free piroxicam, while retaining all the analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties of the parent compound. In addition, the drug is endowed with a quick absorption rate, which translates into a faster onset of analgesic activity, an effect confirmed in several clinical studies. An analysis of the available trials show that PBC has a GI safety profile, which is better than that displayed by uncomplexed piroxicam. Being an inclusion complex of piroxicam, whose CV safety has been pointed out by several observational studies, PBC should be viewed as a CV safe anti-inflmmatory compound and a GI safer alternative to piroxicam. As a consequence, it should be considered as a useful addition to our therapeutic armamentarium.

  10. Why do drivers become safer over the first three months of driving? A longitudinal qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Marianne R; Thompson, Andrew R; Poulter, Damian R; Stride, Christopher B; Rowe, Richard

    2018-08-01

    Drivers are at high crash risk when they begin independent driving, with liability decreasing steeply over the first three months. Their behavioural development, and other changes underlying improved safety are not well understood. We adopted an innovative longitudinal qualitative design, with thirteen newly qualified drivers completing a total of 36 semi-structured interviews, one, two and three months after acquiring a full UK driving license. The interviews probed high-risk factors for new drivers, as well as allowing space for generating novel road safety issues. Analysis adopted a dual deductive and inductive interpretative thematic approach, identifying three super-ordinate themes: (1) Improvements in car control skills and situation awareness; (2) A reduction in the thrill of taking risks when driving against a background of generally increasing driving speed; (3) Early concerns about their social status in the eyes of other road users during the early stages of driving, which may put pressure on them to drive faster than they felt comfortable with. The study provides important new leads towards understanding how novice driving becomes safer over the first few months of driving, including how well-studied concepts of driving skill and style may change during development of independent driving, and bringing the less rigorously studied concept of social status into focus. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. The nexus of nursing leadership and a culture of safer patient care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Melanie; Sundin, Deborah; Cope, Vicki

    2018-03-01

    To explore the connection between +6 nursing leadership and enhanced patient safety. Critical reports from the Institute of Medicine in 1999 and Francis QC report of 2013 indicate that healthcare organisations, inclusive of nursing leadership, were remiss or inconsistent in fostering a culture of safety. The factors required to foster organisational safety culture include supportive leadership, effective communication, an orientation programme and ongoing training, appropriate staffing, open communication regarding errors, compliance to policy and procedure, and environmental safety and security. As nurses have the highest patient interaction, and leadership is discernible at all levels of nursing, nurse leaders are the nexus to influencing organisational culture towards safer practices. The position of this article was to explore the need to form a nexus between safety culture and leadership for the provision of safe care. Safety is crucial in health care for patient safety and patient outcomes. A culture of safety has been exposed as a major influence on patient safety practices, heavily influenced by leadership behaviours. The relationship between leadership and safety plays a pivotal role in creating positive safety outcomes for patient care. A safe culture is one nurtured by effective leadership. Patient safety is the responsibility of all healthcare workers, from the highest executive to the bedside nurse, thus effective leadership throughout all levels is essential in engaging staff to provide high quality care for the best possible patient outcomes. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Risky decisions despite counter evidence: modeling a culture of safer sexual practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Vimla L; Yoskowitz, Nicole A; Kaufman, David R; Gutnik, Lily A; Shortliffe, Edward H

    2005-01-01

    To create a culture of safe practices, we need to understand how and under what conditions the public makes risky decisions about their health. Because risky sexual behaviors are known to be common in young adults, we investigated their decision making regarding sexual activities that could incur a high risk of HIV infection. Sixty young urban adults maintained journals for two weeks and were interviewed regarding condom use and sexual history. We characterized four patterns of condom use behavior: consistent (35.0%), inconsistent (16.7%), consistent to inconsistent (35.0%), and inconsistent to consistent (13.3%). Directionality of reasoning was analyzed in the explanations provided for condom use decisions. The consistent and inconsistent patterns were associated with data-driven heuristic reasoning, where behavior becomes automated and is associated with a high level of confidence in one's judgment. In the other two patterns, the shift in behavior was due to a significant event that influenced a change in directionality to explanation-based reasoning. We discuss these results within the framework of identifying potentially high-risk groups for whom customized intervention strategies (such as computer-based educational programs) can be used to reduce risk, thereby creating a culture of safer sexual practices.

  13. An open framework for automated chemical hazard assessment based on GreenScreen for Safer Chemicals: A proof of concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehage, Kristopher; Chenhansa, Panan; Schoenung, Julie M

    2017-01-01

    GreenScreen® for Safer Chemicals is a framework for comparative chemical hazard assessment. It is the first transparent, open and publicly accessible framework of its kind, allowing manufacturers and governmental agencies to make informed decisions about the chemicals and substances used in consumer products and buildings. In the GreenScreen® benchmarking process, chemical hazards are assessed and classified based on 18 hazard endpoints from up to 30 different sources. The result is a simple numerical benchmark score and accompanying assessment report that allows users to flag chemicals of concern and identify safer alternatives. Although the screening process is straightforward, aggregating and sorting hazard data is tedious, time-consuming, and prone to human error. In light of these challenges, the present work demonstrates the usage of automation to cull chemical hazard data from publicly available internet resources, assign metadata, and perform a GreenScreen® hazard assessment using the GreenScreen® "List Translator." The automated technique, written as a module in the Python programming language, generates GreenScreen® List Translation data for over 3000 chemicals in approximately 30 s. Discussion of the potential benefits and limitations of automated techniques is provided. By embedding the library into a web-based graphical user interface, the extensibility of the library is demonstrated. The accompanying source code is made available to the hazard assessment community. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2017;13:167-176. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.

  14. Community Influences on Married Women's Safer Sex Negotiation Attitudes in Bangladesh: A Multilevel Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesmin, Syeda S; Cready, Cynthia M

    2016-02-01

    The influence of disadvantaged or deprived community on individuals' health risk-behaviors is increasingly being documented in a growing body of literature. However, little is known about the effects of community characteristics on women's sexual attitudes and behaviors. To examine community effects on married women's safer sex negotiation attitudes, we analyzed cross-sectional data from the 2011 Bangladesh Demographic and Health Surveys on a sample of 15,134 married women in 600 communities. We estimated two multilevel logistic regression models. Model 1, which included only individual-level variables, showed that women's autonomy/empowerment, age, and HIV knowledge had significant associations with their safer sex negotiation attitudes. We did not find any socioeconomic status gradient in safer sex negotiation attitudes at the individual level. Adding community-level variables in Model 2 significantly improved the fit of the model. Strikingly, we found that higher community-level poverty was associated with greater positive safer sex negotiation attitudes. Prevailing gender norms and overall women's empowerment in the community also had significant effects. While research on community influences calls for focusing on disadvantaged communities, our research highlights the importance of not underestimating the challenges that married women in economically privileged communities may face in negotiating safer sex. To have sufficient and equitable impact on married women's sexual and reproductive health, sexual and reproductive health promotion policies and programs need to be directed to women in wealthier communities as well.

  15. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan for Corrective Action Unit 553: Areas 19, 20 Mud Pits and Cellars, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No. 0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehlecke, Robert F.

    2006-01-01

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan addresses the actions necessary for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 553: Areas 19, 20 Mud Pits and Cellars, Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nevada. It has been developed in accordance with the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (FFACO) (1996) that was agreed to by the State of Nevada, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and the U.S. Department of Defense. A SAFER may be performed when the following criteria are met: (1) Conceptual corrective actions are clearly identified (although some degree of investigation may be necessary to select a specific corrective action before completion of the Corrective Action Investigation [CAI]); (2) Uncertainty of the nature, extent, and corrective action must be limited to an acceptable level of risk; (3) The SAFER Plan includes decision points and criteria for making data quality objective (DQO) decisions. The purpose of the investigation will be to document and verify the adequacy of existing information; to affirm the decision for clean closure, closure in place, or no further action; and to provide sufficient data to implement the corrective action. The actual corrective action selected will be based on characterization activities implemented under this SAFER Plan. This SAFER Plan identifies decision points developed in cooperation with the Nevada Department of Environmental Protection (NDEP), where the DOE, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) will reach consensus with the NDEP before beginning the next phase of work. Corrective Action Unit 553 is located in Areas 19 and 20 of the NTS, approximately 65 miles (mi) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada (Figure 1-1). Corrective Action Unit 553 is comprised of the four Corrective Action Sites (CASs) shown on Figure 1-1 and listed below: 19-99-01, Mud Spill; 19-99-11, Mud Spill; 20-09-09, Mud Spill; and 20-99-03, Mud Spill. There is sufficient information and process

  16. Graphene Based Ultra-Capacitors for Safer, More Efficient Energy Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberson, Luke B.; Mackey, Paul J.; Zide, Carson J.

    2016-01-01

    Current power storage methods must be continuously improved in order to keep up with the increasingly competitive electronics industry. This technological advancement is also essential for the continuation of deep space exploration. Today's energy storage industry relies heavily on the use of dangerous and corrosive chemicals such as lithium and phosphoric acid. These chemicals can prove hazardous to the user if the device is ruptured. Similarly they can damage the environment if they are disposed of improperly. A safer, more efficient alternative is needed across a wide range of NASA missions. One solution would a solid-state carbon based energy storage device. Carbon is a safer, less environmentally hazardous alternative to current energy storage materials. Using the amorphous carbon nanostructure, graphene, this idea of a safer portable energy is possible. Graphene was electrochemically produced in the lab and several coin cell devices were built this summer to create a working prototype of a solid-state graphene battery.

  17. Safer sexual practices among African American women: intersectional socialisation and sexual assertiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Danice L; Blackmon, Sha'Kema; Shiflett, Alexandra

    2018-06-01

    Scholars have posited that childhood socialisation experiences may play a key role in influencing behaviours and attitudes that contribute to the acquisition of HIV. This study examined the links between past ethnic-racial and gender socialisation, sexual assertiveness and the safe sexual practices of African American college women utilising a cluster analytic approach. After identifying separate racial-gender and ethnic-gender socialisation profiles, results indicated that ethnic-gender socialisation cluster profiles were directly associated with sexual assertiveness and safer sex behaviour. Greater levels of ethnic socialisation and low traditional gender role socialisation were found to be associated with greater sexual assertiveness and safer sex behaviour. Further analysis showed that sexual assertiveness mediated the links between the identified ethnic-gender socialisation profiles and safer sex behaviour. Implications for policy and programme development are discussed.

  18. Motivational influences on the safer sex behavior of agency-based male sex workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michael D; Seal, David W

    2008-10-01

    Although indoor male sex workers (MSWs) have been found to engage in lower rates of HIV risk behavior with clients than street-based MSWs, few studies have examined the motivations behind such practices. We interviewed 30 MSWs working for the same escort agency regarding their safer sex practices with clients and their reasons for these. As in other research, MSWs reported little risk behavior with clients. Five motivational themes related to safer sex on the job emerged: health concerns, emotional intimacy, client attractiveness, relationships, and structural work factors. Results suggest that participants engaged in rational decision-making relative to sex with clients, facilitated by reduced economic incentive for riskier behavior and a supportive social context. MSWs desired a safe sexual work place, personal integrity, and minimal negative consequences to personal relationships. Collaborating with sex work employers to study their role in encouraging a safer workplace may be important to future research.

  19. Development of a theory-guided pan-European computer-assisted safer sex intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nöstlinger, Christiana; Borms, Ruth; Dec-Pietrowska, Joanna; Dias, Sonia; Rojas, Daniela; Platteau, Tom; Vanden Berghe, Wim; Kok, Gerjo

    2016-12-01

    HIV is a growing public health problem in Europe, with men-having-sex-with-men and migrants from endemic regions as the most affected key populations. More evidence on effective behavioral interventions to reduce sexual risk is needed. This article describes the systematic development of a theory-guided computer-assisted safer sex intervention, aiming at supporting people living with HIV in sexual risk reduction. We applied the Intervention Mapping (IM) protocol to develop this counseling intervention in the framework of a European multicenter study. We conducted a needs assessment guided by the information-motivation-behavioral (IMB) skills model, formulated change objectives and selected theory-based methods and practical strategies, i.e. interactive computer-assisted modules as supporting tools for provider-delivered counseling. Theoretical foundations were the IMB skills model, social cognitive theory and the transtheoretical model, complemented by dual process models of affective decision making to account for the specifics of sexual behavior. The counseling approach for delivering three individual sessions was tailored to participants' needs and contexts, adopting elements of motivational interviewing and cognitive-behavioral therapy. We implemented and evaluated the intervention using a randomized controlled trial combined with a process evaluation. IM provided a useful framework for developing a coherent intervention for heterogeneous target groups, which was feasible and effective across the culturally diverse settings. This article responds to the need for transparent descriptions of the development and content of evidence-based behavior change interventions as potential pillars of effective combination prevention strategies. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Estudio de modificaciones geométricas en boquillas de calderas piro y acuotubulares para la combustión eficiente de crudos pesados // Study of geometric modifications in pyro and aquatubular mouthpieces of boilers for the efficient combustion of heavy oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Lincheta Mesa

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un estudio de boquillas de quemadores de calderas piro y acuotubulares. Se analizan diferentes variantes en lasdimensiones, forma y posición de los conductos de atomizador que dan paso al combustible y al fluido auxiliar en el casode quemadores con atomización por vapor.En todos los casos se evalúa el cono de pulverización y la calidad del spray, analizando la influencia de la presión deatomización y de la configuración geométrica en la eficiencia de atomización.Se determina la eficiencia de la combustión con varios tipos de boquillas, demostrándose la efectividad de lasmodificaciones introducidas cuando se queman combustibles de menor calidad.Se concluye que es posible sustituir algunas boquillas de importación y elevar la eficiencia en la combustión de crudospesados y sus mezclas, con un significativo efecto económico y como un paso más en el perfeccionamiento de las CentralesEléctricas del país para el aprovechamiento del crudo nacional.Palabras claves: quemador, atomizador, fuel oil, caldera, generación de vapor, combustibles, combustión._____________________________________________________________________Abstract :It is presented a study of mouthpieces of pyro and aquatubular burners of boilers. Different variants are analyzed indimensions, forms and position of the atomizer conduits that open the way to the fuel and auxiliary fluid in case of burnerswith steam atomization.In all cases, it is evaluated the pulverization cone and the quality of spray, analyzing the influence of atomization pressureand geometric configuration in the atomization efficiency.Estudio de modificaciones geométricas en boquillas de calderas piro y acuotubulares para la combustión eficiente decrudos pesadosThe efficiency of combustion is determined with several types of mouthpieces. The effectiveness of the introducedmodifications in connection with the import mouthpieces is demonstrated when fuels of smaller quality burns.It is

  1. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan for Corrective Action Unit 411. Double Tracks Plutonium Dispersion (Nellis), Nevada Test and Training Range, Nevada, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthews, Patrick K. [Navarro-Intera, LLC (N-I), Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2015-03-01

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan addresses the actions needed to achieve closure for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 411, Double Tracks Plutonium Dispersion (Nellis). CAU 411 is located on the Nevada Test and Training Range and consists of a single corrective action site (CAS), NAFR-23-01, Pu Contaminated Soil. There is sufficient information and historical documentation from previous investigations and the 1996 interim corrective action to recommend closure of CAU 411 using the SAFER process. Based on existing data, the presumed corrective action for CAU 411 is clean closure. However, additional data will be obtained during a field investigation to document and verify the adequacy of existing information, and to determine whether the CAU 411 closure objectives have been achieved. This SAFER Plan provides the methodology to gather the necessary information for closing the CAU. The results of the field investigation will be presented in a closure report that will be prepared and submitted to the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) for review and approval. The site will be investigated based on the data quality objectives (DQOs) developed on November 20, 2014, by representatives of NDEP, the U.S. Air Force (USAF), and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office. The DQO process was used to identify and define the type, amount, and quality of data needed to determine whether CAU 411 closure objectives have been achieved. The following text summarizes the SAFER activities that will support the closure of CAU 411; Collect environmental samples from designated target populations to confirm or disprove the presence of contaminants of concern (COCs) as necessary to supplement existing information; If COCs are no longer present, establish clean closure as the corrective action; If COCs are present, the extent of contamination will be defined and further corrective actions

  2. Vital Signs – Making Health Care Safer

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast is based on the March 2013 CDC Vital Signs report, which discusses lethal infections from carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae, or CRE, germs and ways health care providers can help stop CRE infections.

  3. Seriously Mentally Ill Women's Safer Sex Behaviors and the Theory of Reasoned Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randolph, Mary E.; Pinkerton, Steven D.; Somlai, Anton M.; Kelly, Jeffrey A.; McAuliffe, Timothy L.; Gibson, Richard H.; Hackl, Kristin

    2009-01-01

    Seriously mentally ill women at risk for HIV infection (n = 96) participated in structured interviews assessing sexual and substance-use behavior over a 3-month period. The majority of the women (63.5%) did not use condoms. Consistent with the theory of reasoned action, attitudes toward condom use and perceived social norms about safer sex were…

  4. Expanding Rational Molecular Design beyond Pharma: Metrics to Guide Safer Chemical Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    The demand for safer, healthier and sustainable products, materials and processes has been increasing over the past several years. Differentiating which chemicals are relatively less hazardous than others, often referred to as “greener” or “sustainable, demands a comprehensive, h...

  5. Married women's negotiation for safer sexual intercourse in Kenya: Does experience of female genital mutilation matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Xiangnan; Sano, Yujiro; Kansanga, Moses; Baada, Jemima; Antabe, Roger

    2017-12-01

    Married women's ability to negotiate for safer sex is important for HIV prevention in sub-Saharan Africa, including Kenya. Yet, its relationship to female genital mutilation is rarely explored, although female genital mutilation has been described as a social norm and marker of womanhood that can control women's sexuality. Drawing on the social normative influence theory, this study addressed this void in the literature. We analysed data from the 2014 Kenya Demographic and Health Survey using logistic regression. Our sample included 8,602 married women. Two indicators of safer sex, namely the ability to refuse sex and the ability to ask for condom use, were explored. We found that women who had undergone genital mutilation were significantly less likely to report that they can refuse sex (OR=0.87; p<.05) and that they can ask for condom use during sexual intercourse (OR=0.62; p<.001) than their counterparts who had not undergone genital mutilation, while controlling for theoretically relevant variables. Our findings indicate that the experience of female genital mutilation may influence married women's ability to negotiate for safer sex through gendered socialization and expectations. Based on these findings, several policy implications are suggested. For instance, culturally sensitive programmes are needed that target both married women who have undergone genital mutilation and their husbands to understand the importance of safer sexual practices within marriage. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Motives and barriers to safer sex and regular STI testing among MSM soon after HIV diagnosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijman, Titia; Zuure, Freke; Stolte, Ineke; Davidovich, Udi

    2017-01-01

    Understanding why some recently with HIV diagnosed men who have sex with men (MSM) choose for safer sex and regular STI testing, whereas others do not, is important for the development of interventions that aim to improve the sexual health of those newly infected. To gain insight into motives and

  7. Achieving Safety: Safer Sex, Communication, and Desire among Young Gay Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Anna; Bauermeister, Jose A.; Pingel, Emily; Johns, Michelle Marie; Santana, Matthew Leslie

    2011-01-01

    Conceptualizations of safer sex practices among young gay men (YGM) are frequently structured around communication between partners and the subsequent utilization or absence of condoms in a sexual encounter. Drawing on a sample of 34 in-depth interviews with YGM, ages 18 to 24, the authors explore the ways in which conceptualizations and…

  8. Understanding Barriers to Safer Sex Practice in Zimbabwean Marriages: Implications for Future HIV Prevention Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugweni, Esther; Omar, Mayeh; Pearson, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Against the backdrop of high human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevalence in stable relationships in Southern Africa, our study presents sociocultural barriers to safer sex practice in Zimbabwean marriages. We conducted 36 in-depth interviews and four focus group discussions with married men and women in Zimbabwe in 2008. Our aim was to identify…

  9. 75 FR 71123 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Safer Detergent...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-22

    ..., cleaners, airplane deicers, and fire-fighting foams. Safer surfactants are those that break down quickly to... protected through regulations.gov or e- mail. The regulations.gov Web site is an ``anonymous access'' system... technology and systems for the purposes of collecting, validating, and verifying information, processing and...

  10. A Safer and Convenient Synthesis of Sulfathiazole for Undergraduate Organic and Medicinal Chemistry Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Jeff; Otty, Sandra; Sarojini, Vijayalekshmi

    2012-01-01

    A safer method for the synthesis of the sulfonamide drug sulfathiazole, for undergraduate classes, is described. This method improves upon procedures currently followed in several undergraduate teaching laboratories for the synthesis of sulfathiazole. Key features of this procedure include the total exclusion of pyridine, which has potential…

  11. Forage grasses with lower uptake of caesium and strontium could provide 'safer' crops for radiologically contaminated areas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beth Penrose

    Full Text Available Substitution of a species or cultivar with higher uptake of an element by one with lower uptake has been proposed as a remediation strategy following accidental releases of radioactivity. However, despite the importance of pasture systems for radiological dose, species/cultivar substitution has not been thoroughly investigated for forage grasses. 397 cultivars from four forage grass species; hybrid ryegrass (Lolium perenne L. x Lolium multiflorum Lam., perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L., Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam. and tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Shreb.; were sampled from 19 field-based breeding experiments in Aberystwyth and Edinburgh (UK in spring 2013 and analysed for caesium (Cs and strontium (Sr concentrations. In order to calculate concentration ratios (CRs; the concentration of an element in a plant in relation to the concentration in the soil, soils from the experiments were also analysed to calculate extractable concentrations of Cs and Sr. To test if cultivars have consistently low Cs and Sr concentration ratios, 17 hybrid ryegrass cultivars were sampled from both sites again in summer 2013 and spring and summer 2014. Tall fescue cultivars had lower Cs and Sr CRs than the other species. Three of the selected 17 hybrid ryegrass cultivars had consistently low Cs CRs, two had consistently low Sr CRs and one had consistently low Cs and Sr CRs. Cultivar substitution could reduce Cs CRs by up to 14-fold and Sr CRs by 4-fold in hybrid ryegrass. The identification of species and cultivars with consistently low CRs suggests that species or cultivar substitution could be an effective remediation strategy for contaminated areas.

  12. Testing of tunnel support : dynamic load testing of rockbolt elements to provide data for safer support design.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ortlepp, WD

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available This research report discusses the development of a realistic and controllable method of testing support tendons dynamically, which has been achieved in this research project, offers a new and fresh opportunity for improving the design methodology...

  13. The SAFER guides: empowering organizations to improve the safety and effectiveness of electronic health records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sittig, Dean F; Ash, Joan S; Singh, Hardeep

    2014-05-01

    Electronic health records (EHRs) have potential to improve quality and safety of healthcare. However, EHR users have experienced safety concerns from EHR design and usability features that are not optimally adapted for the complex work flow of real-world practice. Few strategies exist to address unintended consequences from implementation of EHRs and other health information technologies. We propose that organizations equipped with EHRs should consider the strategy of "proactive risk assessment" of their EHR-enabled healthcare system to identify and address EHR-related safety concerns. In this paper, we describe the conceptual underpinning of an EHR-related self-assessment strategy to provide institutions a foundation upon which they could build their safety efforts. With support from the Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology (ONC), we used a rigorous, iterative process to develop a set of 9 self-assessment tools to optimize the safety and safe use of EHRs. These tools, referred to as the Safety Assurance Factors for EHR Resilience (SAFER) guides, could be used to self-assess safety and effectiveness of EHR implementations, identify specific areas of vulnerability, and create solutions and culture change to mitigate risks. A variety of audiences could conduct these assessments, including frontline clinicians or care teams in different practices, or clinical, quality, or administrative leaders within larger institutions. The guides use a multifaceted systems-based approach to assess risk and empower organizations to work with internal or external stakeholders (eg, EHR developers) on optimizing EHR functionality and using EHRs to drive improvements in the quality and safety of healthcare.

  14. Beyond HIV-serodiscordance: Partnership communication dynamics that affect engagement in safer conception care.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynn T Matthews

    Full Text Available We explored acceptability and feasibility of safer conception methods among HIV-affected couples in Uganda.We recruited HIV-positive men and women on antiretroviral therapy (ART ('index' from the Uganda Antiretroviral Rural Treatment Outcomes cohort who reported an HIV-negative or unknown-serostatus partner ('partner', HIV-serostatus disclosure to partner, and personal or partner desire for a child within two years. We conducted in-depth interviews with 40 individuals from 20 couples, using a narrative approach with tailored images to assess acceptability of five safer conception strategies: ART for the infected partner, pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP for the uninfected partner, condomless sex timed to peak fertility, manual insemination, and male circumcision. Translated and transcribed data were analyzed using thematic analysis.11/20 index participants were women, median age of 32.5 years, median of 2 living children, and 80% had HIV-RNA <400 copies/mL. Awareness of HIV prevention strategies beyond condoms and abstinence was limited and precluded opportunity to explore or validly assess acceptability or feasibility of safer conception methods. Four key partnership communication challenges emerged as primary barriers to engagement in safer conception care, including: (1 HIV-serostatus disclosure: Although disclosure was an inclusion criterion, partners commonly reported not knowing the index partner's HIV status. Similarly, the partner's HIV-serostatus, as reported by the index, was frequently inaccurate. (2 Childbearing intention: Many couples had divergent childbearing intentions and made incorrect assumptions about their partner's desires. (3 HIV risk perception: Participants had disparate understandings of HIV transmission and disagreed on the acceptable level of HIV risk to meet reproductive goals. (4 Partnership commitment: Participants revealed significant discord in perceptions of partnership commitment. All four types of partnership

  15. Short-Term Impact of Safer Choices: A Multicomponent, School-Based HIV, Other STD, and Pregnancy Prevention Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyle, Karin; Basen-Engquist, Karen; Kirby, Douglas; Parcel, Guy; Banspach, Stephen; Harrist, Ronald; Baumler, Elizabeth; Weil, Marsha

    1999-01-01

    Evaluated the effectiveness of the first year of "Safer Choices," a two-year, multicomponent HIV, STD, and pregnancy-prevention program for high school students based on social theory. Student self-report surveys indicated that "Safer Choices" succeeded in reducing selected risk behaviors and in enhancing selected protective…

  16. Vital Signs – Making Health Care Safer

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-03-05

    This podcast is based on the March 2013 CDC Vital Signs report, which discusses lethal infections from carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae, or CRE, germs and ways health care providers can help stop CRE infections.  Created: 3/5/2013 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 3/5/2013.

  17. Earthquake research for the safer siting of critical facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cluff, J.L. (ed.)

    1980-01-01

    The task of providing the necessities for living, such as adequate electrical power, water, and fuel, is becoming more complicated with time. Some of the facilities that provide these necessities would present potential hazards to the population if serious damage were to occur to them during earthquakes. Other facilities must remain operable immediately after an earthquake to provide life-support services to people who have been affected. The purpose of this report is to recommend research that will improve the information available to those who must decide where to site these critical facilities, and thereby mitigate the effects of the earthquake hazard. The term critical facility is used in this report to describe facilities that could seriously affect the public well-being through loss of life, large financial loss, or degradation of the environment if they were to fail. The term critical facility also is used to refer to facilities that, although they pose a limited hazard to the public, are considered critical because they must continue to function in the event of a disaster so that they can provide vital services.

  18. School Violence: Reported School Shootings and Making Schools Safer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duplechain, Rosalind; Morris, Robert

    2014-01-01

    This manuscript consists of three sections. Section one provides historical data on some 310 documented shootings that have taken place on school property within the United States. Section two discusses numerous risk factors associated with school shooters. Section three discusses numerous strategies for creating safe schools.

  19. Beyond HIV-serodiscordance: Partnership communication dynamics that affect engagement in safer conception care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Lynn T; Burns, Bridget F; Bajunirwe, Francis; Kabakyenga, Jerome; Bwana, Mwebesa; Ng, Courtney; Kastner, Jasmine; Kembabazi, Annet; Sanyu, Naomi; Kusasira, Adrine; Haberer, Jessica E; Bangsberg, David R; Kaida, Angela

    2017-01-01

    We explored acceptability and feasibility of safer conception methods among HIV-affected couples in Uganda. We recruited HIV-positive men and women on antiretroviral therapy (ART) ('index') from the Uganda Antiretroviral Rural Treatment Outcomes cohort who reported an HIV-negative or unknown-serostatus partner ('partner'), HIV-serostatus disclosure to partner, and personal or partner desire for a child within two years. We conducted in-depth interviews with 40 individuals from 20 couples, using a narrative approach with tailored images to assess acceptability of five safer conception strategies: ART for the infected partner, pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for the uninfected partner, condomless sex timed to peak fertility, manual insemination, and male circumcision. Translated and transcribed data were analyzed using thematic analysis. 11/20 index participants were women, median age of 32.5 years, median of 2 living children, and 80% had HIV-RNA perception: Participants had disparate understandings of HIV transmission and disagreed on the acceptable level of HIV risk to meet reproductive goals. (4) Partnership commitment: Participants revealed significant discord in perceptions of partnership commitment. All four types of partnership miscommunication introduced constraints to autonomous reproductive decision-making, particularly for women. Such miscommunication was common, as only 2 of 20 partnerships in our sample were mutually-disclosed with agreement across all four communication themes. Enthusiasm for safer conception programming is growing. Our findings highlight the importance of addressing gendered partnership communication regarding HIV disclosure, reproductive goals, acceptable HIV risk, and commitment, alongside technical safer conception advice. Failing to consider partnership dynamics across these domains risks limiting reach, uptake, adherence to, and retention in safer conception programming.

  20. Medicare Provider Data - Hospice Providers

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Hospice Utilization and Payment Public Use File provides information on services provided to Medicare beneficiaries by hospice providers. The Hospice PUF...

  1. Parent-Adolescent Sexual Communication and Adolescent Safer Sex Behavior: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widman, Laura; Choukas-Bradley, Sophia; Noar, Seth M.; Nesi, Jacqueline; Garrett, Kyla

    2016-01-01

    Importance Parent-adolescent sexual communication has received considerable attention as one factor that can positively impact safer sex among youth; however, the evidence linking communication to youth contraceptive and condom use has not been empirically synthesized. Objective This meta-analysis examined the effect of parent-adolescent sexual communication on youth safer sex behavior and explored potential moderators of this association. Data Sources A systematic search was conducted of studies published through June 2014 using Medline, PsycINFO, and Communication & Mass Media Complete databases and relevant review articles. Study Selection Studies were included if they: 1) sampled adolescents (mean sample age≤18); 2) included an adolescent report of sexual communication with parent(s); 3) measured safer sex behavior; and 4) were published in English. Data Extraction and Synthesis Correlation coefficients (r) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were computed from studies and meta-analyzed using random-effects models. Main Outcomes and Measures The primary outcome was safer sex behavior, including use of contraceptives/birth control or condoms. Results Seventy-one independent effects representing over three decades of research on 25,314 adolescents (mean age = 15.1) were synthesized. Across studies, there was a small, significant weighted mean effect (r = .10, [95% CI:0.08–0.13]) linking parent-adolescent sexual communication to safer sex behavior, which was statistically heterogeneous (Q = 203.50, p communication with girls (r = .12) than boys (r = .04), and among youth who discussed sex with mothers (r = .14) compared to fathers (r = .03). Effects did not differ for contraceptive versus condom use, or among longitudinal versus cross-sectional studies, indicating parent sexual communication had a similar impact across study designs and outcomes. Several methodological issues were identified in the literature; future studies can improve on these by measuring

  2. Parent-Adolescent Sexual Communication and Adolescent Safer Sex Behavior: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widman, Laura; Choukas-Bradley, Sophia; Noar, Seth M; Nesi, Jacqueline; Garrett, Kyla

    2016-01-01

    Parent-adolescent sexual communication has received considerable attention as a factor that can positively affect safer sex behavior among youth; however, the evidence linking such communication to youth contraceptive and condom use has not been empirically synthesized. To examine the effect of parent-adolescent sexual communication on safer sex behavior among youth and explore potential moderators of this association. A systematic search of studies published from database inception through June 30, 2014, using the MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and Communication & Mass Media Complete databases and relevant review articles yielded 5098 studies, of which 52 studies with 25,314 adolescents met the study eligibility criteria. Analysis was conducted from July 1, 2014, to July 27, 2015. Studies were included if they sampled adolescents (mean sample age ≤18 years), included an adolescent report of sexual communication with one or both parents, measured safer sex behavior, and were published in English. Correlation coefficients (r) and 95% CIs were computed from studies and meta-analyzed using random-effects models. Safer sex behavior, including use of contraceptives or condoms. Fifty-two articles, including 71 independent effects representing more than 3 decades of research on 25,314 adolescents (weighted mean age, 15.2 years) were synthesized. Across studies, there was a significant weighted mean effect (r = 0.10; 95% CI, 0.08-0.13) linking parent-adolescent sexual communication with safer sex behavior, which was statistically heterogeneous (Q = 203.50, P communication with girls (r = 0.12) than boys (r = 0.04) and among youth who discussed sex with their mothers (r = 0.14) compared with their fathers (r = 0.03). Effects did not differ for contraceptive vs condom use or among longitudinal vs cross-sectional studies, indicating that parent sexual communication had a similar effect across study designs and outcomes. Several methodological issues were

  3. Renewable energy sources - the opportunity for a safer future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prodrom, Andrei; Federenciuc, Dumitru; Ignat, Vasile; Dobre, Paul

    2004-01-01

    The researches have shown that the potential of renewable energy sources is huge as they can in principle meet many times the world's energy demand. Renewable energy sources such as biomass, wind, solar, hydropower and geothermal can provide energy services based on the use of local available resources. Starting from this fact, a transition to renewable-based energy systems is looking increasingly likely as their costs have dropped while the price of oil and gas continue to fluctuate. In the past 30 years, the sales of solar and wind energy systems continued to increase because the capital and electricity production costs decreased simultaneously with the performance enhancement. It is becoming clear that future growth in the energy sector will be primarily in the renewable energy systems and to some extent natural gas-based systems and not in conventional oil and coal sources. It is also important to have governmental assistance and popular support in developing these alternate energy sources, that among others, reduce local and global atmospheric emissions, provide commercially attractive options, particularly in developing countries and rural areas and create the transition to the energy sector of the future. This paper tries to approach the renewable energy sources currently analyzed by the experts, emphasizing their strengths and weaknesses. The conventional energy sources based on oil, coal and natural gas have proven to be highly effective drivers of economic progress but at the same time damaging to the environment and human health. Furthermore they tend to be cyclical in nature, due to the effects of oligopoly in production and distribution. These traditional fossil fuel-based energy sources are facing increasing pressure on environmental issues, among these the future reduction of greenhouse gas specified in the Kyoto Protocol. Renewable energy sources currently supply between 15 - 20% of world's total energy demand. This supply is dominated by biomass

  4. Materials at 200 mph: Making NASCAR Faster and Safer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie-Pelecky, Diandra

    2008-03-01

    You cannot win a NASCAR race without understanding science.ootnotetextDiandra Leslie-Pelecky, The Physics of NASCAR (Dutton, New York City, 2008). Materials play important roles in improving performance, as well as ensuring safety. On the performance side, NASCAR limits the materials race car scientists and engineers can use to limit ownership costs. `Exotic metals' are not allowed, so controlling microstructure and nanostructure are important tools. Compacted Graphite Iron, a cast iron in which magnesium additions produce interlocking microscale graphite reinforcements, makes engine blocks stronger and lighter. NASCAR's new car design employs a composite called Tegris^TM that has 70 percent of the strength of carbon fiber composites at about 10 percent of the cost. The most important role of materials in racing is safety. Drivers wear firesuits made of polymers that carbonize (providing thermal protection) and expand (reducing oxygen access) when heated. Catalytic materials originally developed for space-based CO2 lasers filter air for drivers during races. Although materials help cars go fast, they also help cars slow down safely---important because the kinetic energy of a race car going 180 mph is nine times greater than that of a passenger car going 60 mph. Energy-absorbing foams in the cars and on the tracks control energy dissipation during accidents. To say that most NASCAR fans (and there are estimated to be 75 million of them) are passionate about their sport is an understatement. NASCAR fans understand that science and engineering are integral to keeping their drivers safe and helping their teams win. Their passion for racing gives us a great opportunity to share our passion for science with them. NASCAR^ is a registered trademark of the National Association for Stock Car Auto Racing, Inc. Tegris^TM is a trademark of Milliken & Company.

  5. One Year After Fukushima: Lessons for a Safer Nuclear Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flory, Denis

    2012-01-01

    The accident at Fukushima Daiichi was a wake-up call for many. It reminded that nuclear accidents can happen, they do happen. Our common goal, in the Agency as well as in the wider international community, is that nuclear accidents become less and less likely. Our goal is also that, would an accident happen, all measures for minimizing its consequences would be available, exercised, effective. Every nuclear incident carries its lessons. These allow for a continuous strengthening of nuclear safety. Unfortunately, the most profound structural or cultural changes need exceptional events to make their way into our minds, into our culture, and into everyday implementation. On 11 March 2011 a huge earthquake and tsunami left more than 20,000 people dead or missing in eastern Japan. Amidst widespread destruction, the tsunami slammed into Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, disabling cooling systems and leading to fuel meltdowns in three of the six units. The accident was a jolt to the nuclear industry, regulators and governments. It was triggered by a massive force of nature, but it was existing weaknesses regarding defence against natural hazards, regulatory oversight, accident management and emergency response that allowed it to unfold as it did. The IAEA responded to the accident by activating its Incident and Emergency Centre and by organizing specialized expert missions to Japan to gain an understanding of the accident and to provide assistance and expert advice. The Ministerial Conference on Nuclear Safety organised by the IAEA in Vienna in June 2011 adopted a Ministerial Declaration which requested the Director General, inter alia, to prepare a draft IAEA Action Plan on Nuclear Safety

  6. The new color of money: safer, smarter, more secure

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiNunzio, Lisa A.; Clarke, Lenore

    2004-06-01

    Approximately 60% of U.S. currency notes circulate abroad. As the most widely used currency in the world, U.S. notes are the most likely to be counterfeited. Since 1996, the United States has been issuing currency with new security features. These features make U.S. currency easier to recognize as genuine and more secure against advancing computer technology that could be used for counterfeiting. Currency counterfeiters are increasingly turning to digital methods, as advances in technology make digital counterfeiting of currency easier and cheaper. In 1995, for example, less than one percent of counterfeit notes detected in the U.S. were digitally produced. By 2002, that number had grown to nearly 40 percent, according to the Secret Service. Yet despite the efforts of counterfeiters, U.S. currency counterfeiting has been kept at low levels. According to current estimates, between 0.01 and 0.02 percent of notes in circulation are counterfeit, or about 1-2 notes in every 10,000 genuine notes. The strategy for maintaining the security of Federal Reserve notes is to enhance the design of U.S. currency every seven to ten years. One objective of introducing the new currency is to emphasize the number of features available to the public for authenticating bills. The most-talked-about aspect of the redesigned currency is the subtle introduction of background colors to the bills. While color itself is not a security feature, the use of color provides the opportunity to add features that could assist in deterring counterfeiting. Color will also help people to better distinguish their notes. Security features for the newly designed currency include a security thread, a watermark, and a more distinct color-shifting ink. The new 20 note was issued in fall 2003, with the 50 and 100 notes scheduled to follow 12 to 18 months later. Plans to redesign the 10 and 5 are still under consideration, but there are no plans to redesign the 2 and 1 notes. As was the case with the redesigned

  7. Static fuel molten salt reactors - simpler, cheaper and safer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, Ian

    2015-01-01

    The many conceptual designs for Molten Salt Reactors (MSR's) today are all evolutions from the prototype MSR that went critical at Oak Ridge 50 years ago. Critically, they are based on pumping the molten fuel salt from a reaction chamber where the fuel achieves critical mass through a heat exchanger where the resulting heat is transferred to another working fluid. This basic concept was not the first idea that the Oak Ridge scientists considered. Their initial preference was to put the molten salt fuel into tubes, just like solid fuel pellets in their cladding, and circulate a coolant past the tubes. They concluded however that the low thermal conductivity of the salt meant that the tubes could be no wider than 2mm which would be entirely impractical. In this analysis they ignored the contribution of convection to heat transfer in fluids, probably because they were designing an aircraft engine where varying g forces would make convection unreliable. Moltex Energy has re-examined this decision using the modern tools of computational fluid dynamics to simulate convective flow in the molten salt and discovered that in fact tubes of similar diameter to those used for solid fuels are entirely practical. Power densities of 250kW/litre of fuel salt are readily attainable providing a higher overall power density than a PWR reactor. This discovery permits MSR's to be built without any of the complex pumping, passively safe drain systems, on line degassing, filtration and chemical processing needed in pumped MSR's. Their design is very simple and they have many intrinsic safety factors including low pressure operation, chemically unreactive fluids and strongly negative fuel thermal and coolant voiding reactivity coefficients. Most importantly, the highly radioactive fission products are retained in non-volatile form within the fuel tubes in the reactor core. Radioactive fuel salt never leaves the reactor vessel except in an immobile frozen form during

  8. NanoSafer vs. 1.1 - Nanomaterial risk assessment using first order modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Keld A.; Saber, Anne T.; Kristensen, Henrik V.

    2013-01-01

    Currently, there are no nanospecific safety data sheets (SDS) fo r manufactured nanomaterials (MN) and there is only limited data available on nanomaterial exposure levels. We have established an advanced control banding tool, NanoSafer, which enables alternative risk assessm ent and guidance...... in the SDS for the closest analogue bulk material for which the requested occupational exposure limit (OEL) is given as well. The emission potential is either given by a constant release rate or the dustiness level determined us ing the EN15051 rotating drum or similar. The exposure assessment is estimated...... of the nearest analogue bulk material a nd the specific surface area. The NanoSafer control banding tool is now available in Danish and English and contains help tools, including a data library with dustiness data and an inspirational nanosafety e learning tool for companies’ risk management. The ability...

  9. New research discovery may mean less radioactive contamination, safer nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murph, S. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-06-20

    Murph has now made another nanoparticle breakthrough that could benefit various work environments such as nuclear power plants. Murph and her team have created nanoparticle treated stainless steel filters that are capable to capturing radioactive vapor materials. Just like air filters capture dust and dirt, these filters are capable of capturing large amounts of radioactive vapors. The new research may one day mean that nuclear power plant workers, and other workers in related fields, will have a safer working environment.

  10. Immobilizer-assisted management of metal-contaminated agricultural soils for safer food production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kwon-Rae; Kim, Jeong-Gyu; Park, Jeong-Sik; Kim, Min-Suk; Owens, Gary; Youn, Gyu-Hoon; Lee, Jin-Su

    2012-07-15

    Production of food crops on metal contaminated agricultural soils is of concern because consumers are potentially exposed to hazardous metals via dietary intake of such crops or crop derived products. Therefore, the current study was conducted to develop management protocols for crop cultivation to allow safer food production. Metal uptake, as influenced by pH change-induced immobilizing agents (dolomite, steel slag, and agricultural lime) and sorption agents (zeolite and compost), was monitored in three common plants representative of leafy (Chinese cabbage), root (spring onion) and fruit (red pepper) vegetables, in a field experiment. The efficiency of the immobilizing agents was assessed by their ability to decrease the phytoavailability of metals (Cd, Pb, and Zn). The fruit vegetable (red pepper) showed the least accumulation of Cd (0.16-0.29 mgkg(-1) DW) and Pb (0.2-0.9 mgkg(-1) DW) in edible parts regardless of treatment, indicating selection of low metal accumulating crops was a reasonable strategy for safer food production. However, safer food production was more likely to be achievable by combining crop selection with immobilizing agent amendment of soils. Among the immobilizing agents, pH change-induced immobilizers were more effective than sorption agents, showing decreases in Cd and Pb concentrations in each plant well below standard limits. The efficiency of pH change-induced immobilizers was also comparable to reductions obtained by 'clean soil cover' where the total metal concentrations of the plow layer was reduced via capping the surface with uncontaminated soil, implying that pH change-induced immobilizers can be practically applied to metal contaminated agricultural soils for safer food production. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. On Demand Internal Short Circuit Device Enables Verification of Safer, Higher Performing Battery Designs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darcy, Eric; Keyser, Matthew

    2017-05-15

    The Internal Short Circuit (ISC) device enables critical battery safety verification. With the aluminum interstitial heat sink between the cells, normal trigger cells cannot be driven into thermal runaway without excessive temperature bias of adjacent cells. With an implantable, on-demand ISC device, thermal runaway tests show that the conductive heat sinks protected adjacent cells from propagation. High heat dissipation and structural support of Al heat sinks show high promise for safer, higher performing batteries.

  12. Designing out Crime - Voices from the Fields: Editorial for Special Edition of Safer Communities

    OpenAIRE

    Monchuk, Leanne; Clancey, Garner

    2013-01-01

    ‘Crime prevention through environmental design (CPTED)’, ‘designing out crime’, ‘safer by design’, ‘secured by design’ or any of the other ‘flavours’ of manipulating the built environment to prevent crime, invariably engender an inter-disciplinary approach. This work is frequently the domain of architects, urban planners, police, security professionals, local authority planners and community safety professionals (amongst others). Despite the real work being undertaken by these actors, the div...

  13. The e-Safer Suffolk Cybersurvey 2012-2013 Summary Report

    OpenAIRE

    Bond, E; Carter, P J; Youthworks Consulting Ltd.; Suffolk County Council; University Campus Suffolk; Suffolk Children's Trust Partnership

    2013-01-01

    This research by Dr Emma Bond and Dr Pelham Carter at UCS, funded by the Suffolk Children’s Trust and commissioned by Suffolk’s E-Safer Strategy investigated the Cyberbullying experiences by young people in Suffolk. The study undertaken between September – November in 2012 was based on an online questionnaire, administered by Youthworks Consulting Ltd, which examined the responses of 2,838 young people in Suffolk.

  14. Sexually active older Australian's knowledge of sexually transmitted infections and safer sexual practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Anthony; Heywood, Wendy; Fileborn, Bianca; Minichiello, Victor; Barrett, Catherine; Brown, Graham; Hinchliff, Sharron; Malta, Sue; Crameri, Pauline

    2017-06-01

    Rates of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are rising among older Australians. We conducted a large survey of older people's knowledge of STIs and safer sexual practices. A total of 2,137 Australians aged 60 years and older completed the survey, which included 15 questions assessing knowledge of STIs and safer sexual practices. We examined both levels of knowledge and factors associated with an overall knowledge score. In total, 1,652 respondents reported having sex in the past five years and answered all knowledge questions. This group had good general knowledge but poorer knowledge in areas such as the protection offered by condoms and potential transmission modes for specific STIs. Women had better knowledge than men. Men in their 60s, men with higher education levels, and men who thought they were at risk of STIs reported better knowledge than other men. Knowledge was also better among men and women who had been tested for STIs or reported 'other' sources of knowledge on STIs. Many older Australians lack knowledge of STIs and safer sexual practices. Implications for public health: To reverse current trends toward increasing STI diagnoses in this population, policies and education campaigns aimed at improving knowledge levels may need to be considered. © 2017 The Authors.

  15. Identifying psychosocial variables that predict safer-sex intentions in adolescents and young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phil eBrüll

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Young people are especially vulnerable to sexually transmitted infections. The triad of deliberate and effective safer-sex behavior encompasses condom use, combined with additional information about a partner’s sexual health, and the kind of sex acts usually performed. To identify psychosocial predictors of young people’s intentions to have safer sex, as related to this triad we conducted an online study with 211 sexually active participants aged between 18 and 24 years. Predictors (i.e. perceived behavioural control, subjective norms and intention taken from Fishbein and Ajzen’s Reasoned Action Approach (RAA, were combined with more distal variables (e.g. behavioral inhibition, sensation seeking, parental monitoring, and knowledge about sexually transmitted infections. Beyond the highly predictive power of RAA variables, additional variance was explained by the number of instances of unprotected sexual intercourse during the last twelve months and reasons for using barrier protection during first sexual intercourse. In particular, past condom nonuse behavior moderated perceived behavioral control related to intended condom use. Further, various distal variables showed significant univariate associations with intentions related to the three behaviors of interest. It may, therefore, be helpful to include measures of past behavior as well as certain additional distal variables in future safer-sex programs designed to promote health sustaining sexual behavior.

  16. Safer operating conditions and optimal scaling-up process for cyclohexanone peroxide reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zang, Na; Qian, Xin-Ming; Liu, Zhen-Yi; Shu, Chi-Min

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Thermal hazard of cyclohexanone peroxide reaction was measured by experimental techniques. • Levenberg–Marquardt algorithm was adopted to evaluate kinetic parameters. • Safer operating conditions at laboratory scale were acquired by BDs and TDs. • The verified safer operating conditions were used to obtain the optimal scale-up parameters applied in industrial plants. - Abstract: The cyclohexanone peroxide reaction process, one of the eighteen hazardous chemical processes identified in China, is performed in indirectly cooled semibatch reactors. The peroxide reaction is added to a mixture of hydrogen peroxide and nitric acid, which form heterogeneous liquid–liquid systems. A simple and general procedure for building boundary and temperature diagrams of peroxide process is given here to account for the overall kinetic expressions. Such a procedure has been validated by comparison with experimental data. Thermally safer operating parameters were obtained at laboratory scale, and the scaled-up procedure was performed to give the minimum dosing time in an industrial plant, which is in favor of maximizing industrial reactor productivity. The results are of great significance for governing the peroxide reaction process apart from the thermal runaway region. It also greatly aids in determining optimization on operating parameters in industrial plants.

  17. Develop and implement preconditioning techniques to control face ejection rockbursts for safer mining in seismically hazardous areas

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Toper, AZ

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available This research report discusses the development of preconditioning techniques to control face bursts, for safer mining in seismically hazardous areas. Preconditioning involves regularly setting off carefully tailored blasts in the fractured rock...

  18. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan for Corrective Action Unit 575: Area 15 Miscellaneous Sites, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthews, Patrick [Navarro-Intera, LLC (N-I), Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2014-12-01

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan addresses the actions needed to achieve closure for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 575, Area 15 Miscellaneous Sites, identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO). CAU 575 comprises the following four corrective action sites (CASs) located in Area 15 of the Nevada National Security Site: 15-19-02, Waste Burial Pit, 15-30-01, Surface Features at Borehole Sites, 15-64-01, Decontamination Area, 15-99-03, Aggregate Plant This plan provides the methodology for field activities needed to gather the necessary information for closing each CAS. There is sufficient information and process knowledge from historical documentation and investigations of similar sites regarding the expected nature and extent of potential contaminants to recommend closure of CAU 575 using the SAFER process. Additional information will be obtained by conducting a field investigation to document and verify the adequacy of existing information, to affirm the predicted corrective action decisions, and to provide sufficient data to implement the corrective actions. This will be presented in a closure report that will be prepared and submitted to the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) for review and approval.

  19. Measurement Noninvariance of Safer Sex Self-Efficacy Between Heterosexual and Sexual Minority Black Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerke, Donald; Budd, Elizabeth L; Plax, Kathryn

    2016-01-01

    Black and lesbian, gay, bisexual, or questioning (LGBQ) youth in the United States are disproportionately affected by HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Although self-efficacy is strongly, positively associated with safer sex behaviors, no studies have examined the validity of a safer sex self-efficacy scale used by many federally funded HIV/STD prevention programs. This study aims to test factor validity of the Sexual Self-Efficacy Scale by using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) to determine if scale validity varies between heterosexual and LGBQ Black youth. The study uses cross-sectional data collected through baseline surveys with 226 Black youth (15 to 24 years) enrolled in community-based HIV-prevention programs. Participants use a 4-point Likert-type scale to report their confidence in performing 6 healthy sexual behaviors. CFAs are conducted on 2 factor structures of the scale. Using the best-fitting model, the scale is tested for measurement invariance between the 2 groups. A single-factor model with correlated errors of condom-specific items fits the sample well and, when tested with the heterosexual group, the model demonstrates good fit. However, when tested with the LGBQ group, the same model yields poor fit, indicating factorial noninvariance between the groups. The Sexual Self-Efficacy Scale does not perform equally well among Black heterosexual and LGBQ youth. Study findings suggest additional research is needed to inform development of measures for safer sex self-efficacy among Black LGBQ youth to ensure validity of conceptual understanding and to accurately assess effectiveness of HIV/STD prevention interventions among this population.

  20. Steering patients to safer hospitals? The effect of a tiered hospital network on hospital admissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlon, Dennis P; Lindrooth, Richard C; Christianson, Jon B

    2008-10-01

    To determine if a tiered hospital benefit and safety incentive shifted the distribution of admissions toward safer hospitals. A large manufacturing company instituted the hospital safety incentive (HSI) for union employees. The HSI gave union patients a financial incentive to choose hospitals that met the Leapfrog Group's three patient safety "leaps." The analysis merges data from four sources: claims and enrollment data from the company, the American Hospital Association, the AHRQ HCUP-SID, and a state Office of the Insurance Commissioner. Changes in hospital admissions' patterns for union and nonunion employees using a difference-in-difference design. We estimate the probability of choosing a specific hospital from a set of available alternatives using conditional logistic regression. Patients affiliated with the engineers' union and admitted for a medical diagnosis were 2.92 times more likely to select a hospital designated as safer in the postperiod than in the preperiod, while salaried nonunion (SNU) patients (not subject to the financial incentive) were 0.64 times as likely to choose a compliant hospital in the post- versus preperiod. The difference-in-difference estimate, which is based on the predictions of the conditional logit model, is 0.20. However, the machinists' union was also exposed to the incentive and they were no more likely to choose a safer hospital than the SNU patients. The incentive did not have an effect on patients admitted for a surgical diagnosis, regardless of union status. All patients were averse to travel time, but those union patients selecting an incentive hospital were less averse to travel time. Patient price incentives and quality/safety information may influence hospital selection decisions, particularly for medical admissions, though the optimal incentive level for financial return to the plan sponsor is not clear.

  1. Cutting the cost of South African antiretroviral therapy using newer, safer drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W F Venter

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Antiretrovirals are a significant cost driver for HIV programmes. Current first-line regimens have performed well in real-life programmes, but have a low barrier to virological resistance and still carry toxicity that limits adherence. New drug developments may mean that we have access to safer, more robust and cheaper regimens, but only if the appropriate clinical trials are conducted. We briefly discuss these trials, and demonstrate the large cost savings to the South African HIV programme if these are successful.

  2. Face mask removal is safer than helmet removal for emergent airway access in American football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartz, Erik E; Mihalik, Jason P; Beltz, Nora M; Day, Molly A; Decoster, Laura C

    2014-06-01

    -camera three-dimensional motion system and a three-point one-segment marker set were used to record motion of the head. Face mask removal resulted in less motion in all three planes, required less completion time, and was easier to perform than HR. The RIQ helmet resulted in less frontal plane motion and less time to task completion, and was easier to remove than VSR4 helmets. Inflated helmets-regardless of helmet type-required less removal time but did not result in greater cervical spine motion or difficulty. It is safer to remove the face mask in the prehospital setting for the potential spine-injured American football player than to remove the helmet, based on results from both a traditional and newer football helmet designs. Deflating the air bladder inside the helmet does not provide an advantage. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Pregnancy termination in Matlab, Bangladesh: trends and correlates of use of safer and less-safe methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DaVanzo, Julie; Rahman, Mizanur

    2014-09-01

    Menstrual regulation (MR), a relatively safe form of pregnancy termination, is legal in Bangladesh during the early stages of pregnancy. However, little is known about the factors associated with whether women who terminate pregnancies choose this method or a less-safe one. Data from the Matlab Demographic Surveillance System on 122,691 pregnancies-5,221 (4.3%) of which were terminated-were used to examine trends between 1989 and 2008 in termination and in use of safer methods (MR or dilation and curettage) and less-safe (all other) methods of pregnancy termination. Logistic and multinomial logistic regressions were used to assess factors associated with whether women terminate pregnancies and whether they use safer methods. Sixty-seven percent of pregnancy terminations were by safer methods and 33% by less-safe means. The proportion of pregnancies that were terminated increased between 1989 and 2008; this increase was entirely due to increased use of safer methods. Women younger than 18 and those 25 or older were more likely than women aged 20-24 to terminate their pregnancies (odds ratios ranged from 1.5 among women aged 16-17 or 25-29 to 26.1 among those aged 45 or older). Among women who terminated their pregnancies, those aged 25-44 were more likely than those aged 20-24 to use a safer method. Compared with women who had no formal education, those with some education were more likely to terminate their pregnancies and to do so using safer methods. A growing proportion of pregnancies in Matlab are terminated, and these terminations are increasingly done using safer methods.

  4. Evaluation of a safer male circumcision training programme for traditional surgeons and nurses in the Eastern Cape, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltzer, Karl; Nqeketo, Ayanda; Petros, George; Kanta, Xola

    2008-06-18

    Training designed to improve circumcision knowledge, attitude and practice was delivered over 5 days to 34 traditional surgeons and 49 traditional nurses in the Eastern Cape, South Africa. Training included the following topics: initiation rites; statutory regulation of traditional male circumcision and initiation into Manhood (TCIM); structure and function of the male sex organs; procedure of safe circumcision, infection control; sexually transmitted infections (STIs); HIV/AIDS; infection control measures; aftercare of the initiate including after care of the circumcision wound and initiate as a whole; detection and early management of common complications of circumcision; nutrition and fluid management; code of conduct and ethics; and sexual health education. The evaluation of the training consisted of a prospective assessment of knowledge and attitude immediately prior to and after training. Significant improvement in knowledge and/or attitudes was observed in legal aspects, STI, HIV and environmental aspects, attitudes in terms of improved collaboration with biomedical health care providers, normal and abnormal anatomy and physiology, sexually transmitted infections and including HIV, circumcision practice and aftercare of initiates. We concluded that safer circumcision training can be successfully delivered to traditional surgeons and nurses.

  5. Female gratification, sexual power and safer sex: female sexuality as an empowering resource among women in Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skafte, Ina; Silberschmidt, Margrethe

    2014-01-01

    The gender-based response to HIV in sub-Saharan Africa has tended to reinforce normative stereotypes of women as subordinated, passive and powerless victims, in particular in sexual relations. However, based on qualitative data from Rwanda, this paper argues that such conceptualisations fail to recognise that while women do comply with prevalent social norms, they also challenge these norms and sex becomes a domain in which they can exert power. Female sexuality and sexual gratification - acknowledged and valued by women as well as men - play a pivotal role in the Rwandese mode of sexual intercourse. This provides women a central position in sexual relations, which affords them sexual power. Recognising their sexuality as a resource and drawing upon this 'sexual capital', women are active social agents who have the capacity to manipulate and challenge male dominance in a deliberate strategy both to practice safer sex and to access decision-making power and material resources. This suggests that inherent in sexual relations is a potential for the empowerment of women and the transformation of gender relations.

  6. Advanced and safer lithium-ion battery based on sustainable electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xiang; Huang, Xiaobing; Jin, Junling; Ming, Hai; Wang, Limin; Ming, Jun

    2018-03-01

    Seeking advanced and safer lithium-ion battery with sustainable characteristic is significant for the development of electronic devices and electric vehicles. Herein, a new porous TiO2 nanobundles (PTNBs) is synthesized though a scalable and green hydrothermal strategy from the TiO2 powders without using any high-cost and harmful organic titanium-based compounds. The PTNBs exhibits an extremely high lithium storage capacity of 296 mAh g-1 at 100 mA g-1, where the capacity can maintain over 146 mAh g-1 even after 500 cycles at 1000 mA g-1. To pursue more reliable Li-ion batteries, full batteries of PTNBs/LiNixMn1-xO4 (x = 0, 0.5) using spinel structured cathode are constructed. The batteries have the features of sustainability and deliver high capacities of 112 mAh gcathode-1 and 102 mAh gcathode-1 with stable capacity retentions of 99% and 90% over 140 cycles. Note that the energy densities can achieve as high as 267 and 270 Wh kgcathode-1 (535 and 540 Wh kganode-1) respectively, which is feasible to satisfy diverse requirements for energy storage products. We believe that the universal synthetic strategy, appealing structure and intriguing properties of PTNBs is applicable for wider applications, while the concept of sustainable strategy seeking reliable and safer Li-ion battery can attract broad interest.

  7. Using a service design model to develop the "Passport to Safer Birth" in Nigeria and Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgado, Mariana; Wendland, Melanie; Rodriguez, Damaris; Bohren, Meghan A; Oladapo, Olufemi T; Ojelade, Olubunmi A; Olalere, Adebimpe A; Luwangula, Ronald; Mugerwa, Kidza; Fawole, Bukola

    2017-12-01

    To demonstrate how a human-centered service design approach can generate practical tools for good-quality childbirth care in low-resource settings. As part of the WHO "Better Outcomes in Labour Difficulty" (BOLD) project, a service design approach was used in eight Ugandan and Nigerian health facilities and communities to develop the "Passport to Safer Birth." There are three phases: Research for Design, Concept Design, and Detail Design. These generated design principles, design archetype personas, and Passport prototypes. Data collection methods included desk research, interviews, group discussions, and journey mapping to identify touchpoints where the woman interacts with the health system. A total of 90 interviews, 12 observation hours, and 15 group discussions were undertaken. The resulting design principles were: a shared and deeper understanding of pregnancy and childbirth among family and community; family readiness for decision-making and action; and the woman's sense of being in control and being cared for. Four archetype personas of women emerged: Vulnerable; Passive; Empowered; Accepter. Subsequent development of the Passport to Safer Birth tools addressed three domains: Care Mediator; Expectation Manager; and Pregnancy Assistant. The service design approach can create innovative, human-centered service solutions to improve maternity care experiences and outcomes in low-resource settings. © 2017 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics The World Health Organization retains copyright and all other rights in the manuscript of this article as submitted for publication.

  8. Advanced and safer lithium-ion battery based on sustainable electrodes

    KAUST Repository

    Ding, Xiang

    2018-02-17

    Seeking advanced and safer lithium-ion battery with sustainable characteristic is significant for the development of electronic devices and electric vehicles. Herein, a new porous TiO nanobundles (PTNBs) is synthesized though a scalable and green hydrothermal strategy from the TiO powders without using any high-cost and harmful organic titanium-based compounds. The PTNBs exhibits an extremely high lithium storage capacity of 296 mAh g at 100 mA g, where the capacity can maintain over 146 mAh g even after 500 cycles at 1000 mA g. To pursue more reliable Li-ion batteries, full batteries of PTNBs/LiNiMnO (x = 0, 0.5) using spinel structured cathode are constructed. The batteries have the features of sustainability and deliver high capacities of 112 mAh g and 102 mAh g with stable capacity retentions of 99% and 90% over 140 cycles. Note that the energy densities can achieve as high as 267 and 270 Wh kg (535 and 540 Wh kg ) respectively, which is feasible to satisfy diverse requirements for energy storage products. We believe that the universal synthetic strategy, appealing structure and intriguing properties of PTNBs is applicable for wider applications, while the concept of sustainable strategy seeking reliable and safer Li-ion battery can attract broad interest.

  9. Understanding the resistance to creating safer ice hockey: essential points for injury prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Ryan A; Soklaridis, Sophie; Treen, Alice K; Bhalerao, Shree U; Cusimano, Michael D

    2017-11-27

    Despite the known negative health outcomes of concussions in minor level boys' hockey, there has been significant resistance to creating a safer game with less body checking. To better understand cultural barriers that prevent making the sport safer for youth and adolescents, semistructured interviews, with 20 ice hockey stakeholders, were conducted and analysed using thematic analysis. Through this analysis, two primary concepts arose from respondents. The first concept is that body checking, despite the harm it can cause, should be done in a respectful sportsmanlike fashion. The second concept is the contradiction that the game of ice hockey is both dynamic and unchangeable. Using structural functionalist theory, we propose an argument that the unfortunate perpetuation of violence and body checking in youth ice hockey serves to maintain the social order of the game and its culture. Any strategies aimed at modifying and promoting healthy behaviour in the game should take these concepts into account. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  10. Safer sex decision-making among men with haemophilia and HIV and their female partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parish, K L; Cotton, D; Huszti, H C; Parsons, J T

    2001-01-01

    An exploratory qualitative study of adult heterosexual men with haemophilia and HIV and women who were their sexual partners was conducted as formative research to better understand cognitive factors involved in behavioural intentions and practices which comprise HIV risk-reduction for sexual transmission. The study sought to generate hypotheses, uncover themes, and develop a broad perspective on possible determinants of behaviours related to HIV transmission risk reduction. Qualitative analysis of these data served as a basis for developing a subsequent quantitative, hypothesis-testing survey and an intervention. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with 23 single men and 28 married men with haemophilia and HIV infection, and 28 married women partners selected through stratified, purposeful sampling. The interviews identified beliefs, attitudes, and values underlying decisions regarding target behaviours related to preventing sexual transmission of HIV, including (1) using condoms consistently during vaginal intercourse and (2) talking to partners about risk reduction. The interviews elicited information about perceived advantages and disadvantages of performing each of the targeted behaviours, and factors that facilitate or prevent performing them. Qualitative analysis of coded responses yielded important themes regarding how choices are made about sexual activity and safer sex. Most notably, communication between partners (1) plays a direct, key role in facilitating condom use and (2) forms the basis for maintaining emotional intimacy in these relationships. The link between condom use and communicating about safer sex was viewed as pivotal in achieving HIV prevention for individuals in serodiscordant couples. Recommendations for risk reduction intervention development are discussed.

  11. Building social capital in healthcare organizations: thinking ecologically for safer care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmeyer, Anne; Marck, Patricia B

    2008-01-01

    Research on patient safety and health human resources, 2 critical issues for 21st century healthcare, converges on similar findings. Specifically, it is apparent that along with the patients, families, and communities we serve, nurses and other healthcare professionals navigate a volatile health care system where persistent restructuring, market pressures, and workforce instability present ongoing threats to the delivery of safer care. Drawing from the fields of nursing, healthcare ethics, health systems management, and ecological restoration, we outline the role of social capital for organizational integrity, healthy workplace cultures, sustainable resource management, improved nurse retention, effective knowledge translation, and safer patient care. Nursing leaders can use ecological thinking to build the vital resource of social capital by taking concrete steps to commit the necessary human and material resources to: (1) forge relations to foster bonding, bridging and linking social capital; (2) build solidarity and trust; (3) foster collective action and cooperation; (4) strengthen communication and knowledge exchange; and (5) create capacity for social cohesion and inclusion.

  12. Acceptability and preferences for safer conception HIV prevention strategies: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Sheree R; West, Nora; Phofa, Rebecca; Yende, Nompumelelo; Sanne, Ian; Bassett, Jean; Van Rie, Annelies

    2016-10-01

    Safer conception strategies to reduce the HIV transmission risk include antiretroviral therapy for HIV-positive partners, pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV-negative partners, condomless sex limited to fertile periods, and home-based self-insemination. Resistance to taking treatment or cultural concerns may limit uptake of strategies and intervention success. Understanding the acceptability and preferences between different approaches is important to optimise service delivery. Between February and July 2013, 42 adults (21 HIV-positive and 21 HIV-negative) receiving primary care at Witkoppen Health and Welfare Centre in Johannesburg, South Africa, participated in focus group discussions or in-depth interviews. Themes were analysed using a grounded theory approach. Acceptability of antiretroviral-based strategies varied. Concerns over side effects, antiretroviral treatment duration and beliefs that treatment is only for the sick were common barriers; however, desperation for a child was noted as a facilitator for uptake. HIV-negative men and HIV-positive women had favourable attitudes towards self-insemination, though paternity and safety concerns were raised. Self-insemination was generally preferred over pre-exposure prophylaxis by HIV-negative men, and antiretroviral-based strategies were preferred by couples with HIV-negative female partners, despite concerns raised about condomless sex while virally suppressed. Knowledge about the fertile window was low. A strong counselling component will be required for effective uptake and adherence to safer conception services. © The Author(s) 2016.

  13. Urban Vulnerability in Bantul District, Indonesia—Towards Safer and Sustainable Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Rijanta

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Assuring safer and sustainable development in seismic prone areas requires predictive measurements, i.e., hazard, vulnerability and risk assessment. This research aims to assess urban vulnerability due to seismic hazard through a risk based spatial plan. The idea is to indicate current and future potential losses due to specified hazards with given spatial and temporal units. Herein, urban vulnerability refers to the classic separation between social and physical vulnerability assessments. The research area covers six sub-districts in Bantul, Indonesia. It experienced 6.2 Mw earthquakes on May, 27th, 2006 and suffered a death toll of 5700, economic losses of up to 3.1 billion US$ and damage to nearly 80% of a 508 km2 area. The research area experienced the following regional issues: (1 seismic hazard; (2 rapid land conversion and (3 domination of low-income group. This research employs spatial multi criteria evaluations (SMCE for social vulnerability (SMCE-SV and for physical vulnerability (SMCE-PV. The research reveals that (1 SMCE-SV and SMCE-PV are empirically possible to indicate the urban vulnerability indices; and (2 integrating the urban vulnerability assessment into a spatial plan requires strategic, technical, substantial and procedural integration. In summary, without adequate knowledge and political support, any manifestation towards safer and sustainable development will remain meager and haphazard.

  14. The global health law trilogy: towards a safer, healthier, and fairer world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gostin, Lawrence O; DeBartolo, Mary Clare; Katz, Rebecca

    2017-10-21

    Global health advocates often turn to medicine and science for solutions to enduring health risks, but law is also a powerful tool. No state acting alone can ward off health threats that span borders, requiring international solutions. A trilogy of global health law-the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, International Health Regulations (2005), and Pandemic Influenza Preparedness Framework-strives for a safer, healthier, and fairer world. Yet, these international agreements are not well understood, and contain gaps in scope and enforceability. Moreover, major health concerns remain largely unregulated at the international level, such as non-communicable diseases, mental health, and injuries. Here, we offer reforms for this global health law trilogy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Rechargeable nickel-3D zinc batteries: An energy-dense, safer alternative to lithium-ion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Joseph F; Chervin, Christopher N; Pala, Irina R; Machler, Meinrad; Burz, Michael F; Long, Jeffrey W; Rolison, Debra R

    2017-04-28

    The next generation of high-performance batteries should include alternative chemistries that are inherently safer to operate than nonaqueous lithium-based batteries. Aqueous zinc-based batteries can answer that challenge because monolithic zinc sponge anodes can be cycled in nickel-zinc alkaline cells hundreds to thousands of times without undergoing passivation or macroscale dendrite formation. We demonstrate that the three-dimensional (3D) zinc form-factor elevates the performance of nickel-zinc alkaline cells in three fields of use: (i) >90% theoretical depth of discharge (DOD Zn ) in primary (single-use) cells, (ii) >100 high-rate cycles at 40% DOD Zn at lithium-ion-commensurate specific energy, and (iii) the tens of thousands of power-demanding duty cycles required for start-stop microhybrid vehicles. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  16. Special Aviation Fire and Explosion Reduction (SAFER) Advisory Committee. Volume IIB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-06-26

    alternates be identified collectively as the "SAFER Advisory Committee," or simply the Committee. 2. That the Committee serve as the decision-making body...iefta 10 e - Avisttln Kal £s1a~r*W. Odke Of W- rPs A..ecn~e "I t12, AdOWt(~ 0 W ae Itirea~t pgsPer110 I’o Mhet Cuxlser Attenton. Rulem LlozkCL is ira...factors, such as bur.t.it ot inha~ation of toxic gases. It is only in recent years that t-e :37 o actempted to collect such data. 4. Except for the KC

  17. SWOT analysis for safer carriage of bulk liquid chemicals in tankers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Ozcan; Er, Ismail Deha

    2008-06-15

    The application of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT) analysis to formulation of strategy concerned with the safe carriage of bulk liquid chemicals in maritime tankers was examined in this study. A qualitative investigation using SWOT analysis has been implemented successfully for ships that are designed to carry liquid chemicals in bulk. The originality of this study lies in the use of SWOT analysis as a management tool to formulate strategic action plans for ship management companies, ship masters and officers for the carriage of dangerous goods in bulk. With this transportation-based SWOT analysis, efforts were made to explore the ways and means of converting possible threats into opportunities, and changing weaknesses into strengths; and strategic plans of action were developed for safer tanker operation.

  18. Evaluating the implementation of health and safety innovations under a regulatory context: A collective case study of Ontario’s safer needle regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chambers Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Implementation effectiveness models have identified important factors that can promote the successful implementation of an innovation; however, these models have been examined within contexts where innovations are adopted voluntarily and often ignore the socio-political and environmental context. In the field of occupational health and safety, there are circumstances where organizations must adopt innovations to comply with a regulatory standard. Examining how the external environment can facilitate or challenge an organization’s change process may add to our understanding of implementation effectiveness. The objective of this study is to describe implementation facilitators and barriers in the context of a regulation designed to promote the uptake of safer engineered medical devices in healthcare. Methods The proposed study will focus on Ontario’s safer needle regulation (2007 which requires healthcare organizations to transition to the use of safer engineered medical devices for the prevention of needlestick injuries. A collective case study design will be used to learn from the experiences of three acute care hospitals in the province of Ontario, Canada. Interviews with management and front-line healthcare workers and analysis of supporting documents will be used to describe the implementation experience and examine issues associated with the integration of these devices. The data collection and analysis process will be influenced by a conceptual framework that draws from implementation science and the occupational health and safety literature. Discussion The focus of this study in addition to the methodology creates a unique opportunity to contribute to the field of implementation science. First, the study will explore implementation experiences under circumstances where regulatory pressures are influencing the organization's change process. Second, the timing of this study provides an opportunity to focus on issues

  19. Evaluating the implementation of health and safety innovations under a regulatory context: a collective case study of Ontario's safer needle regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Andrea; Mustard, Cameron A; Breslin, Curtis; Holness, Linn; Nichol, Kathryn

    2013-01-22

    Implementation effectiveness models have identified important factors that can promote the successful implementation of an innovation; however, these models have been examined within contexts where innovations are adopted voluntarily and often ignore the socio-political and environmental context. In the field of occupational health and safety, there are circumstances where organizations must adopt innovations to comply with a regulatory standard. Examining how the external environment can facilitate or challenge an organization's change process may add to our understanding of implementation effectiveness. The objective of this study is to describe implementation facilitators and barriers in the context of a regulation designed to promote the uptake of safer engineered medical devices in healthcare. The proposed study will focus on Ontario's safer needle regulation (2007) which requires healthcare organizations to transition to the use of safer engineered medical devices for the prevention of needlestick injuries. A collective case study design will be used to learn from the experiences of three acute care hospitals in the province of Ontario, Canada. Interviews with management and front-line healthcare workers and analysis of supporting documents will be used to describe the implementation experience and examine issues associated with the integration of these devices. The data collection and analysis process will be influenced by a conceptual framework that draws from implementation science and the occupational health and safety literature. The focus of this study in addition to the methodology creates a unique opportunity to contribute to the field of implementation science. First, the study will explore implementation experiences under circumstances where regulatory pressures are influencing the organization's change process. Second, the timing of this study provides an opportunity to focus on issues that arise during later stages of implementation, a phase

  20. A Randomised Controlled Trial Using Mobile Advertising to Promote Safer Sex and Sun Safety to Young People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, J.; Aitken, C. K.; Dixon, H. G.; Lim, M. S. C.; Gouillou, M.; Spelman, T.; Wakefield, M.; Hellard, M. E.

    2011-01-01

    Mobile phone text messages (SMS) are a promising method of health promotion, but a simple and low cost way to obtain phone numbers is required to reach a wide population. We conducted a randomised controlled trial with simultaneous brief interventions to (i) evaluate effectiveness of messages related to safer sex and sun safety and (ii) pilot the…

  1. SAFER, an Analysis Method of Quantitative Proteomic Data, Reveals New Interactors of the C. elegans Autophagic Protein LGG-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Zhou; Manil-Ségalen, Marion; Sago, Laila; Glatigny, Annie; Redeker, Virginie; Legouis, Renaud; Mucchielli-Giorgi, Marie-Hélène

    2016-05-06

    Affinity purifications followed by mass spectrometric analysis are used to identify protein-protein interactions. Because quantitative proteomic data are noisy, it is necessary to develop statistical methods to eliminate false-positives and identify true partners. We present here a novel approach for filtering false interactors, named "SAFER" for mass Spectrometry data Analysis by Filtering of Experimental Replicates, which is based on the reproducibility of the replicates and the fold-change of the protein intensities between bait and control. To identify regulators or targets of autophagy, we characterized the interactors of LGG1, a ubiquitin-like protein involved in autophagosome formation in C. elegans. LGG-1 partners were purified by affinity, analyzed by nanoLC-MS/MS mass spectrometry, and quantified by a label-free proteomic approach based on the mass spectrometric signal intensity of peptide precursor ions. Because the selection of confident interactions depends on the method used for statistical analysis, we compared SAFER with several statistical tests and different scoring algorithms on this set of data. We show that SAFER recovers high-confidence interactors that have been ignored by the other methods and identified new candidates involved in the autophagy process. We further validated our method on a public data set and conclude that SAFER notably improves the identification of protein interactors.

  2. Safer Prescribing and Care for the Elderly (SPACE): feasibility of audit and feedback plus practice mail-out to patients with high-risk prescribing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallis, Katharine; Tuckey, Rebecca

    2017-06-01

    INTRODUCTION High-risk prescribing in general practice is common and places patients at increased risk of adverse events. AIM The Safer Prescribing and Care for the Elderly (SPACE) intervention, comprising audit and feedback plus practice mail-out to patients with high-risk prescribing, was designed to promote medicines review and support safer prescribing. This study aims to test the SPACE intervention feasibility in general practice. METHODS This feasibility study involved an Auckland Primary Health Organisation (PHO), a clinical advisory pharmacist, two purposively sampled urban general practices, and seven GPs. The acceptability and utility of the SPACE intervention were assessed by semi- structured interviews involving study participants, including 11 patients with high-risk prescribing. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed using a general inductive approach to identify emergent themes. RESULTS The pharmacist said the SPACE intervention facilitated communication with GPs, and provided a platform for their clinical advisory role at no extra cost to the PHO. GPs said the feedback session with the pharmacist was educational but added to time pressures. GPs selected 29 patients for the mail-out. Some GPs were concerned the mail-out might upset patients, but patients said they felt cared for. Some patients intended to take the letter to their next appointment and discuss their medicines with their GP; others said there were already many things to discuss and not enough time. Some patients were confused by the medicines information brochure. DISCUSSION The SPACE intervention is feasible in general practice. The medicines information brochure needs simplification. Further research is needed to test the effect of SPACE on high-risk prescribing.

  3. Safety culture and the 5 steps to safer surgery: an intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, M R; Roberts, M J; Alderson, M L; Gale, T C E

    2015-06-01

    Improvements in safety culture have been postulated as one of the mechanisms underlying the association between the introduction of the World Health Organisation (WHO) Surgical Safety Checklist with perioperative briefings and debriefings, and enhanced patient outcomes. The 5 Steps to Safer Surgery (5SSS) incorporates pre-list briefings, the three steps of the WHO Surgical Safety Checklist (SSC) and post-list debriefings in one framework. We aimed to identify any changes in safety culture associated with the introduction of the 5SSS in orthopaedic operating theatres. We assessed the safety culture in the elective orthopaedic theatres of a large UK teaching hospital before and after introduction of the 5SSS using a modified version of the Safety Attitude Questionnaire - Operating Room (SAQ-OR). Primary outcome measures were pre-post intervention changes in the six safety culture domains of the SAQ-OR. We also analysed changes in responses to two items regarding perioperative briefings. The SAQ-OR survey response rate was 80% (60/75) at baseline and 74% (53/72) one yr later. There were significant improvements in both the reported frequency (Pculture domain scores (Working Conditions, Perceptions of Management, Job Satisfaction, Safety Climate and Teamwork Climate) of the SAQ-OR (Pculture of elective orthopaedic operating theatres. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Journal of Anaesthesia. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Should we consider steps with variable height for a safer stair negotiation in older adults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunzler, Marcos R; da Rocha, Emmanuel S; Dos Santos, Christielen S; Ceccon, Fernando G; Priario, Liver A; Carpes, Felipe P

    2018-01-01

    Effects of exercise on foot clearances are important. In older adults variations in foot clearances during walking may lead to a fall, but there is a lack of information concerning stair negotiation in older adults. Whether a condition of post exercise changes foot clearances between steps of a staircase in older adults still unknown. To determine differences in clearances when older adults negotiate different steps of a staircase before and after a session of aerobic exercise. Kinematics data from 30 older adults were acquired and the toe and heel clearances were determined for each step. Clearances were compared between the steps. Smaller clearances were found at the highest step during ascending and descending, which was not changed by exercise. Smaller clearances suggest higher risk of tripping at the top of the staircase, regardless of exercise. A smaller step at the top of a short flight of stairs could reduce chances of tripping in older adults. It suggests that steps with variable height could make stair negotiation safer in older adults. This hypothesis should be tested in further studies.

  5. Syringaresinol: A Renewable and Safer Alternative to Bisphenol A for Epoxy-Amine Resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janvier, Marine; Hollande, Louis; Jaufurally, Abdus Samad; Pernes, Miguel; Ménard, Raphaël; Grimaldi, Marina; Beaugrand, Johnny; Balaguer, Patrick; Ducrot, Paul-Henri; Allais, Florent

    2017-02-22

    A renewable bisepoxide, SYR-EPO, was prepared from syringaresinol, a naturally occurring bisphenol deriving from sinapic acid, by using a chemo-enzymatic synthetic pathway. Estrogenic activity tests revealed no endocrine disruption for syringaresinol. Its glycidylation afforded SYR-EPO with excellent yield and purity. This biobased, safe epoxy precursor was then cured with conventional and renewable diamines for the preparation of epoxy-amine resins. The resulting thermosets were thermally and mechanically characterized. Thermal analyses of these new resins showed excellent thermal stabilities (T d5 % =279-309 °C) and T g ranging from 73 to 126 °C, almost reaching the properties of those obtained with the diglycidylether of bisphenol A (DGEBA), extensively used in the polymer industry (T d5 % =319 °C and T g =150 °C for DGEBA/isophorone diamine resins). Degradation studies in NaOH and HCl aqueous solutions also highlighted the robustness of the syringaresinol-based resins, similar to bisphenol A (BPA). All these results undoubtedly confirmed the potential of syringaresinol as a greener and safer substitute for BPA. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Evaluation of the California Safer Consumer Products Regulation and the impact on consumers and product manufacturers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, Dallas M; Kingsbury, Tony; Perez, Angela L; Woods, Tyler A; Kovochich, Michael; Hill, Denise S; Madl, Amy K; Paustenbach, Dennis J

    2014-02-01

    Chemistry enables more than 95% of products in the marketplace. Over the past 20 years, various entities began to generate inventories of chemicals ("chemical watch lists") potentially associated with human or environmental health risks. Some lists included thousands of chemicals, while others listed only a few chemistries with limited properties or toxicological endpoints (e.g., neurotoxicants). Enacted on October 1, 2013, the California Safer Consumer Products Regulation (SCP) utilized data from chemical inventory lists to create one master list. This paper aims to discuss the background and requirements of this regulation. Additionally, we wanted to understand the universe of Candidate Chemicals identified by the Regulation. Data from all 23 chemical lists identified in the SCP Regulation were entered into a database. The most prevalent chemicals among the ∼2900 chemicals are identified, including the most prevalent chemical, lead, appearing on 65% of lists, followed by DEHP (52%), perchloroethylene (48%), and benzene (48%). Our results indicated that the most prevalent Candidate Chemicals were either persistent, bioaccumulative, carcinogenic, or reprotoxic. This regulation will have wide-ranging impact in California and throughout the global supply chain, which is highlighted through selected examples and case studies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Phosphoryl-rich flame-retardant ions (FRIONs): towards safer lithium-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rectenwald, Michael F; Gaffen, Joshua R; Rheingold, Arnold L; Morgan, Alexander B; Protasiewicz, John D

    2014-04-14

    The functionalized catecholate, tetraethyl (2,3-dihydroxy-1,4-phenylene)bis(phosphonate) (H2 -DPC), has been used to prepare a series of lithium salts Li[B(DPC)(oxalato)], Li[B(DPC)2], Li[B(DPC)F2], and Li[P(DPC)3]. The phosphoryl-rich character of these anions was designed to impart flame-retardant properties for their use as potential flame-retardant ions (FRIONs), additives, or replacements for other lithium salts for safer lithium-ion batteries. The new materials were fully characterized, and the single-crystal structures of Li[B(DPC)(oxalato)] and Li[P(DPC)3] have been determined. Thermogravimetric analysis of the four lithium salts show that they are thermally stable up to around 200 °C. Pyrolysis combustion flow calorimetry reveals that these salts produce high char yields upon combustion. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Water productivity using SAFER - Simple Algorithm for Evapotranspiration Retrieving in watershed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel N. Coaguila

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The Cabeceira Comprida stream’s watershed, located in Santa Fé do Sul, São Paulo state, has great environmental importance. It is essential for supplying water to the population and generating surpluses for sewage dilution. This study aimed to evaluate the annual performance of the components of water productivity from Landsat-8 images of 2015, using the Simple Algorithm for Evapotranspiration Retrieving (SAFER, calculating the actual evapotranspiration (ETa, biomass (BIO and water productivity (WP. The annual averages of ETa, BIO and WP were 1.03 mm day-1, 36.04 kg ha-1 day-1 and 3.19 kg m-3, respectively. The average annual values of ETa for land use and occupation were 1.40, 1.23, 1.05, 0.97 and 1.08 mm day-1 for the remaining forest (RF, invasive species (IS, pasture (Pa, annual crop (AC and perennial crop (PC, respectively, with BIO of 57.64, 46.10, 36.78, 32.69, 40.03 kg ha-1 day-1 for RF, IS, Pa, AC and PC, respectively, resulting in WP of 3.94, 3.59, 3.25, 3.09, 3.35 kg m-3 for RF, IS, Pa, AC and PC, respectively. The ETa, BIO and WP adjust to the seasonality of the region, and RF and IS stood out with the highest values.

  9. Safer Roads: Comparisons Between Road Assessment Program and Composite Road Safety Index Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Razelan Intan Suhana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In most countries, crash statistics have becoming very crucial in evaluating road’s safety level. In Malaysia, these data are very important in deciding crash-prone areas known as black spot where specific road improvements plan will be proposed. However due to the unavailability of reliable crash data in many developing countries, appropriate road maintenance measures are facing great troubles. In light of that, several proactive methods in defining road’s safety level such as Road Assessment Program (RAP have emerged. This research aim to compare two proactive methods that have been tested in Malaysian roads ; road assessment program and road environment risk index which was developed based on composite index theory in defining road’s safety level. Composite road environment risk index was combining several crucial environment indicators, assigning weight and aggregating the individual index together to form a single value representing the road’s safety level. Based on the results, it can be concluded that both road assessment program and composite road environment risk index are contradicted in six different ways such as type of speed used, type of analysis used and their final outcomes. However, with an aim to promote safer roads, these two methods can be used concurrently as the outcomes in both methods seems to fulfil each other’s gap very well.

  10. Toxic release consequence analysis tool (TORCAT) for inherently safer design plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shariff, Azmi Mohd; Zaini, Dzulkarnain

    2010-01-01

    Many major accidents due to toxic release in the past have caused many fatalities such as the tragedy of MIC release in Bhopal, India (1984). One of the approaches is to use inherently safer design technique that utilizes inherent safety principle to eliminate or minimize accidents rather than to control the hazard. This technique is best implemented in preliminary design stage where the consequence of toxic release can be evaluated and necessary design improvements can be implemented to eliminate or minimize the accidents to as low as reasonably practicable (ALARP) without resorting to costly protective system. However, currently there is no commercial tool available that has such capability. This paper reports on the preliminary findings on the development of a prototype tool for consequence analysis and design improvement via inherent safety principle by utilizing an integrated process design simulator with toxic release consequence analysis model. The consequence analysis based on the worst-case scenarios during process flowsheeting stage were conducted as case studies. The preliminary finding shows that toxic release consequences analysis tool (TORCAT) has capability to eliminate or minimize the potential toxic release accidents by adopting the inherent safety principle early in preliminary design stage.

  11. Motives and barriers to safer sex and regular STI testing among MSM soon after HIV diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heijman, Titia; Zuure, Freke; Stolte, Ineke; Davidovich, Udi

    2017-03-07

    Understanding why some recently with HIV diagnosed men who have sex with men (MSM) choose for safer sex and regular STI testing, whereas others do not, is important for the development of interventions that aim to improve the sexual health of those newly infected. To gain insight into motives and barriers to condom use and regular STI testing among MSM soon after HIV diagnosis, 30 HIV-positive MSM participated in semi-structured qualitative interviews on sexual health behaviours in the first year after HIV diagnosis. Typical barriers to condom use soon after diagnosis were emotions such as anger, relief, and feelings of vulnerability. Additional barriers were related to pre-diagnosis patterns of sexual-social behaviour that were difficult to change, communication difficulties, and substance use. Barriers to STI testing revolved around perceptions of low STI risk, faulty beliefs, and burdensome testing procedures. The great diversity of motives and barriers to condom use and STI testing creates a challenge to accommodate newly infected men with information, motivation, and communication skills to match their personal needs. An adaptive, tailored intervention can be a promising tool of support.

  12. A safer and flexible method for the oxygen functionalization of carbon nanotubes by nitric acid vapors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santangelo, Saveria, E-mail: saveria.santangelo@unirc.it [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Civile, dell’Energia, dell’Ambiente e dei Materiali (DICEAM), Università “Mediterranea”, 89122 Reggio Calabria (Italy); Piperopoulos, Elpida [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Eletronica, Chimica ed Ingegneria Industriale (DIECII), Università di Messina, 98166 Messina (Italy); Fazio, Enza [Dipartimento di Fisica e di Scienze della Terra (DFST), Università di Messina, 98166 Messina (Italy); Faggio, Giuliana [Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell’Informazione, delle Infrastrutture e dell’Energia Sostenibile (DIIES), Università “Mediterranea”, 89122 Reggio Calabria (Italy); Ansari, Shabana [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Eletronica, Chimica ed Ingegneria Industriale (DIECII), Università di Messina, 98166 Messina (Italy); Lanza, Maurizio [Istituto per i Processi Chimico Fisici (IPCF) del CNR, 98158 Messina (Italy); Neri, Fortunato [Dipartimento di Fisica e di Scienze della Terra (DFST), Università di Messina, 98166 Messina (Italy); Messina, Giacomo [Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell’Informazione, delle Infrastrutture e dell’Energia Sostenibile (DIIES), Università “Mediterranea”, 89122 Reggio Calabria (Italy); Milone, Candida [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Eletronica, Chimica ed Ingegneria Industriale (DIECII), Università di Messina, 98166 Messina (Italy)

    2014-06-01

    The functionalization by nitric acid vapors at azeotropic concentration has been recently proposed to eliminate drawbacks of the widely utilized liquid phase functionalization method. This work suggests to exploit the so-called “salt effect” to improve the vapor phase oxidation method in terms of safety and flexibility. Increasing the relative volatility of acid, the addition of Mg(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} salt to the HNO{sub 3} + H{sub 2}O solution allows (i) obtaining vapors with HNO{sub 3} at the azeotropic concentration from a more diluted liquid solution (i.e. operating under safer conditions), and (ii) varying the concentration of HNO{sub 3} in the vapor phase even above the azeotropic concentration limit (with improved process flexibility). High-resolution transmission electron microscopy, thermo-gravimetry, Raman spectroscopy and X-ray photoemission spectroscopy systematic analyses are carried out on pristine and oxidized nanotubes in order to assess their functionalization degree, surface chemistry and structural evolution. The most relevant finding of this preliminary study is that the nanotube functionalization extent increases linearly with the HNO{sub 3} vapor concentration.

  13. A safer and flexible method for the oxygen functionalization of carbon nanotubes by nitric acid vapors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santangelo, Saveria; Piperopoulos, Elpida; Fazio, Enza; Faggio, Giuliana; Ansari, Shabana; Lanza, Maurizio; Neri, Fortunato; Messina, Giacomo; Milone, Candida

    2014-01-01

    The functionalization by nitric acid vapors at azeotropic concentration has been recently proposed to eliminate drawbacks of the widely utilized liquid phase functionalization method. This work suggests to exploit the so-called “salt effect” to improve the vapor phase oxidation method in terms of safety and flexibility. Increasing the relative volatility of acid, the addition of Mg(NO 3 ) 2 salt to the HNO 3 + H 2 O solution allows (i) obtaining vapors with HNO 3 at the azeotropic concentration from a more diluted liquid solution (i.e. operating under safer conditions), and (ii) varying the concentration of HNO 3 in the vapor phase even above the azeotropic concentration limit (with improved process flexibility). High-resolution transmission electron microscopy, thermo-gravimetry, Raman spectroscopy and X-ray photoemission spectroscopy systematic analyses are carried out on pristine and oxidized nanotubes in order to assess their functionalization degree, surface chemistry and structural evolution. The most relevant finding of this preliminary study is that the nanotube functionalization extent increases linearly with the HNO 3 vapor concentration.

  14. Heavy Sexual Content Versus Safer Sex Content: A Content Analysis of the Entertainment Education Drama Shuga.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booker, Nancy Achieng'; Miller, Ann Neville; Ngure, Peter

    2016-12-01

    Extremely popular with Kenyan youth, the entertainment-education drama Shuga was designed with specific goals of promoting condom use, single versus multiple sexual partners, and destigmatization of HIV. Almost as soon as it aired, however, it generated controversy due to its extensive sexual themes and relatively explicit portrayal of sexual issues. To determine how safer sex, antistigma messages, and overall sexual content were integrated into Shuga, we conducted a content analysis. Results indicated that condom use and HIV destigmatization messages were frequently and clearly communicated. Negative consequences for risky sexual behavior were communicated over the course of the entire series. Messages about multiple concurrent partnerships were not evident. In addition, in terms of scenes per hour of programming, Shuga had 10.3 times the amount of sexual content overall, 8.2 times the amount of sexual talk, 17.8 times the amount of sexual behavior, and 9.4 times the amount of sexual intercourse as found in previous analysis of U.S. entertainment programming. Research is needed to determine how these factors may interact to influence adolescent viewers of entertainment education dramas.

  15. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan for Corrective Action Unit 539: Area 25 and Area 26 Railroad Tracks, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark Krauss

    2010-06-01

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan addresses the actions needed to achieve closure for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 539, Areas 25 and 26 Railroad Tracks, as identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO). A modification to the FFACOwas approved in May 2010 to transfer the two Railroad Tracks corrective action sites (CASs) from CAU 114 into CAU539. The two CASs are located in Areas 25 and 26 of the Nevada Test Site: • 25-99-21, Area 25 Railroad Tracks • 26-99-05, Area 26 Railroad Tracks This plan provides the methodology for field activities needed to gather the necessary information for closing the two CASs. There is sufficient information and process knowledge from historical documentation and investigations of similar sites regarding the expected nature and extent of potential contaminants to recommend closure of the CAU 539 Railroad Tracks CASs using the SAFER process. Additional information will be obtained by conducting a field investigation before selecting the appropriate corrective action for each CAS. The results of the field investigation should support a defensible recommendation that no further corrective action is necessary. If it is determined that complete clean closure cannot be accomplished during the SAFER, then a hold point will have been reached and the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) will be consulted to determine whether the remaining contamination will be closed under the alternative corrective action of closure in place with use restrictions. This will be presented in a closure report that will be prepared and submitted to the NDEP for review and approval. The sites will be investigated based on the data quality objectives (DQOs) developed on December 14, 2009, by representatives of U.S.Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office; Navarro Nevada Environmental Services, LLC (NNES); and National Security Technologies

  16. Gender Power Control, Sexual Experiences, Safer Sex Practices, and Potential HIV Risk Behaviors Among Young Asian-American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jieha; Rough, Kathryn; Strathdee, Steffanie A.

    2012-01-01

    We examined the prevalence of three domains of sexual behaviors among young Asian-American women: sexual experiences, safer sex practices, and potential HIV risk behaviors. We also investigated the impact of gender power control on these domains. Among sexually experienced women, 51% reported using condoms during their most recent sex act, 63% reported inconsistent condom use, and 18% reported ever having forced sex. Multiple logistic regression analyses revealed that women’s perceived lower relationship power control was not associated with vaginal sex or safer sex practices, but it was powerfully associated with forced sex and all three potential HIV risk behaviors. This study demonstrates that control within young Asian-American women’s intimate relationships exerts different associations depending on the type of sexual behavior. The application of the Theory of Gender and Power should be employed with prudence when designing HIV interventions for this population. PMID:21259042

  17. Gender power control, sexual experiences, safer sex practices, and potential HIV risk behaviors among young Asian-American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahm, Hyeouk Chris; Lee, Jieha; Rough, Kathryn; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2012-01-01

    We examined the prevalence of three domains of sexual behaviors among young Asian-American women: sexual experiences, safer sex practices, and potential HIV risk behaviors. We also investigated the impact of gender power control on these domains. Among sexually experienced women, 51% reported using condoms during their most recent sex act, 63% reported inconsistent condom use, and 18% reported ever having forced sex. Multiple logistic regression analyses revealed that women's perceived lower relationship power control was not associated with vaginal sex or safer sex practices, but it was powerfully associated with forced sex and all three potential HIV risk behaviors. This study demonstrates that control within young Asian-American women's intimate relationships exerts different associations depending on the type of sexual behavior. The application of the Theory of Gender and Power should be employed with prudence when designing HIV interventions for this population.

  18. Three-dimensional multislice spiral computed tomographic angiography: a potentially useful tool for safer free tissue transfer to complicated regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demirtas, Yener; Cifci, Mehmet; Kelahmetoglu, Osman

    2009-01-01

    Three-dimensional multislice spiral computed tomographic angiography (3D-MSCTA) is a minimally invasive method of vascular mapping. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical usefulness of this imaging technique in delineating the recipient vessels for safer free tissue transfer to compli......Three-dimensional multislice spiral computed tomographic angiography (3D-MSCTA) is a minimally invasive method of vascular mapping. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical usefulness of this imaging technique in delineating the recipient vessels for safer free tissue transfer...... be kept in mind, especially inthe patients with peripheral vascular disease. 3D-MSCTA has the potential to replace digital subtraction angiography for planning of microvascular reconstructions and newer devices with higher resolutions will probably increase the reliability of this technique. (c) 2009...

  19. HIV knowledge, risk perception, and safer sex practices among female sex workers in Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Eunice; Bauai, Ludwina; Sapuri, Mathias; Kaldor, John M; Fairley, Christopher K; Keogh, Louise A

    2011-01-01

    Sex workers are considered a high-risk group for sexually transmitted infections, including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and are often targeted by prevention interventions with safer sex messages. The purpose of this study was to explore the extent to which knowledge of HIV and perception of risk influence safer sex practices among female sex workers (FSWs) in Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea. FSWs (n = 174) were recruited from 19 sites to participate in the study. Qualitative data were collected using semistructured interviews with FSWs (n = 142) through focus group discussions and (n = 32) individual interviews. In addition, quantitative data were collected from all FSWs using a short structured, demographic questionnaire. Data were analyzed using recurring themes and calculations of confidence intervals. Despite some common misperceptions, overall, most FSWs were basically aware of the risks of HIV and informed about transmission and prevention modalities but used condoms inconsistently. Most reported using condoms ‘sometimes’, almost one-sixth ‘never’ used condoms, only a fraction used condoms ‘always’ with clients, and none used condoms ‘always’ with regular sexual partners (RSPs). Among these FSWs, being knowledgeable about the risks, transmission, and prevention of HIV did not translate into safe sex. The findings suggest that certain contextual barriers to safer sex practices exist. These barriers could heighten HIV vulnerability and possibly may be responsible for infection in FSWs. Specific interventions that focus on improving condom self-efficacy in FSWs and simultaneously target clients and RSPs with safer sex messages are recommended. PMID:21445375

  20. Safer disclosure of HIV serostatus for women living with HIV who experience or fear violence: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Kennedy, Caitlin E; Haberlen, Sabina; Amin, Avni; Baggaley, Rachel; Narasimhan, Manjulaa

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Supporting individuals as they disclose their HIV serostatus may lead to a variety of individual and public health benefits. However, many women living with HIV are hesitant to disclose their HIV status due to fear of negative outcomes such as violence, abandonment, relationship dissolution and stigma. Methods: We conducted a systematic review of studies evaluating interventions to facilitate safer disclosure of HIV status for women living with HIV who experience or fear violenc...

  1. Fertility Intentions, Pregnancy, and Use of PrEP and ART for Safer Conception Among East African HIV Serodiscordant Couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heffron, Renee; Thomson, Kerry; Celum, Connie; Haberer, Jessica; Ngure, Kenneth; Mugo, Nelly; Bukusi, Elizabeth; Katabira, Elly; Odoyo, Josephine; Bulya, Nulu; Asiimwe, Stephen; Tindimwebwa, Edna; Baeten, Jared M

    2017-09-11

    African HIV serodiscordant couples often desire pregnancy, despite sexual HIV transmission risk during pregnancy attempts. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and antiretroviral therapy (ART) reduce HIV risk and can be leveraged for safer conception but how well these strategies are used for safer conception is not known. We conducted an open-label demonstration project of the integrated delivery of PrEP and ART among 1013 HIV serodiscordant couples from Kenya and Uganda followed quarterly for 2 years. We evaluated fertility intentions, pregnancy incidence, the use of PrEP and ART during peri-conception, and peri-conception HIV incidence. At enrollment, 80% of couples indicated a desire for more children. Pregnancy incidence rates were 18.5 and 18.7 per 100 person years among HIV-uninfected and HIV-infected women, and higher among women who recently reported fertility intention (adjusted odds ratio 3.43, 95% CI 2.38-4.93) in multivariable GEE models. During the 6 months preceding pregnancy, 82.9% of couples used PrEP or ART and there were no HIV seroconversions. In this cohort with high pregnancy rates, integrated PrEP and ART was readily used by HIV serodiscordant couples, including during peri-conception periods. Widespread scale-up of safer conception counseling and services is warranted to respond to strong desires for pregnancy among HIV-affected men and women.

  2. Understanding international road safety disparities: Why is Australia so much safer than the United States?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Wesley E

    2018-02-01

    Despite similarities to the US in terms of transportation, land use, and culture, Australia kills 5.3 people per 100,000 population on the roads each year, as compared to the US rate of 12.4. Similar trends hold when accounting for distance driven and the number of registered cars. This paper seeks to understand what is behind the road safety disparities between these two countries. The results suggest that a number of inter-related factors seem to play a role in the better road safety outcomes of Australia as compared to the US. This includes Australia's strategies related to seat belt usage and impaired driving as well as their efforts to help curb vehicle speeds and reduce exposure. Design-related differences include a much greater reliance on roundabouts and narrower street cross-sections as well as guidelines that encourage self-enforcing roads. Policy-related differences include stronger and more extensive enforcement programs, restrictive licensing programs, and higher driving costs. Combined with a more urban population and multimodal infrastructure, Australia tends to discourage driving mileage and exposure while encouraging safer modes of transportation such as transit, at least more so than in most of the US. Australia also enacted their version of Vision Zero - called the Safe System Approach - more than a decade before similar policies began cropping up in US cities. While it is difficult to attribute recent road safety successes to any specific policy, Australia continues to expand their lead on the US in terms of safety outcomes and is a road safety example worthy of consideration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Determinants of facility delivery after implementation of safer mother programme in Nepal: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karkee, Rajendra; Binns, Colin W; Lee, Andy H

    2013-10-20

    There are several barriers for pregnant women to deliver in a health care facility. This prospective cohort study investigated factors affecting facility delivery and reasons for unplanned place of delivery after implementation of the safer mother programme in Nepal. Baseline interviews using a validated questionnaire were conducted on a sample of 700 pregnant women representative of the Kaski district in central Nepal. Follow-up interviews of the cohort were then conducted within 45 days postpartum. Stepwise logistic regression analysis was performed to determine factors associated with the facility delivery outcome. Of the 644 pregnant women whose delivery location had been identified, 547 (85%) gave birth in a health care facility. Women were more likely to deliver in a health facility if they were educated especially with higher secondary or above qualification (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 12.39, 95% confidence interval (CI) 5.09 to 30.17), attended 4 or more antenatal care visits (OR 2.15, 95% CI 1.25 to 3.69), and lived within 30 minutes to the facility (OR 11.61, 95% CI 5.77 to 24.04). For the 97 women who delivered at home, 72 (74.2%) were unplanned, mainly due to quick precipitation of labour making it impossible to reach a health facility. It appeared that facility delivery occurs more frequent among educated women and those who live nearby, even though maternity services are now freely available in Nepal. Because of the difficult terrain and transportation problem in rural areas, interventions that make maternity service physically accessible during antenatal period are needed to increase the utilisation of health facility for child birth.

  4. A Pilot Intervention to Promote Safer Sex in Heterosexual Puerto Rican Couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Jiménez, David; Seal, David Wyatt; Ronis, David L

    2014-09-01

    Although the sexual transmission of HIV occurs in the context of an intimate relationship, preventive interventions with couples are scarce, particularly those designed for Hispanics. In this article, we present the effect of a pilot intervention directed to prevent HIV/AIDS in heterosexual couples in Puerto Rico. The intervention was theory-based and consisted of five three-hour group sessions. Primary goals included increasing male condom use and the practice of mutual masturbation as a safer sex method, and promoting favorable attitudes toward these behaviors. Twenty-six couples participated in this study. Fifteen were randomly assigned to the intervention group and eleven to a control group. Retention rates at post-intervention and follow-up were 82% for the whole sample. Results showed that there was a significant increase in the use of male condoms with main partners in the intervention group when compared with the control group. Couples in the intervention group also had better scores on secondary outcomes, such as attitudes toward condom use and mutual masturbation, HIV information, sexual decision-making, and social support. We found that these effects persisted over the three month follow up. A significant effect was also observed for the practice of mutual masturbation, but not for sexual negotiation. These results showed that promoting male condom use in dyadic interventions among heterosexual couples in Puerto Rico is feasible. Our findings suggest that because vaginal penetration has been constructed as the sexual script endpoint among many Hispanic couples, promoting other non-penetrative practices, such as mutual masturbation, may be difficult.

  5. Transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt rice is safer to aquatic ecosystems than its non-transgenic counterpart.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangsheng Li

    Full Text Available Rice lines genetically modified with the crystal toxin genes from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt have experienced rapid development, with biosafety certificates for two Bt rice lines issued in 2009. There has still been no commercial release of these lines yet due to public concerns about human health and environmental risks. Some studies confirmed that Bt rice was as safe as conventional rice to non-target organisms when pesticides were not applied, however, pesticides are still required in Bt rice to control non-lepidopteran pests. In this study, we assessed the environmental effects of two Bt rice lines expressing either the cry1Ab/1Ac or cry2A genes, respectively, by using zooplanktons as indicator species under normal field management practices using pesticides when required. In the whole rice growing season, non-Bt rice was sprayed 5 times while Bt rice was sprayed 2 times, which ensured both rice achieved a normal yield. Field investigations showed that rice type (Bt and non-Bt significantly influenced zooplankton abundance and diversity, which were up to 95% and 80% lower in non-Bt rice fields than Bt rice fields. Laboratory rearing showed that water from non-Bt rice fields was significantly less suitable for the survival and reproduction of Daphnia magna and Paramecium caudatum in comparison with water from Bt rice fields. Higher pesticide residues were detected in the water from non-Bt than Bt rice fields, accounting for the bad performance of zooplankton in non-Bt field water. Our results demonstrate that Bt rice is safer to aquatic ecosystems than non-Bt rice, and its commercialization will be beneficial for biodiversity restoration in rice-based ecosystems.

  6. Safety in numbers in Australia: more walkers and bicyclists, safer walking and bicycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Dorothy L

    2005-04-01

    Overseas research shows that fatality and injury risks per cyclist and pedestrian are lower when there are more cyclists and pedestrians. Do Australian data follow the same exponential 'growth rule' where (Injuries)/(Amount of cycling) is proportional to ((Amount of cycling)-0.6)? Fatality and injury risks were compared using three datasets: 1) fatalities and amounts of cycling in Australian States in the 1980s; 2) fatality and injury rates over time in Western Australia as cycling levels increased; and 3) deaths, serious head injuries and other serious injuries to cyclists and pedestrians in Victoria, before and after the fall in cycling with the helmet law. In Australia, the risks of fatality and injury per cyclist are lower when cycling is more prevalent. Cycling was safest and most popular in the Australian Capital Territory (ACT), Queensland and Western Australia (WA). New South Wales residents cycled only 47% as much as residents of Queensland and WA, but had 53% more fatalities per kilometre, consistent with the growth rule prediction of 52% more for half as much cycling. Cycling also became safer in WA as more people cycled. Hospitalisation rates per 10,000 regular cyclists fell from 29 to 15, and reported deaths and serious injuries from 5.6 to 3.8 as numbers of regular cyclists increased. In Victoria, after the introduction of compulsory helmets, there was a 30% reduction in cycling and it was associated with a higher risk of death or serious injury per cyclist, outweighing any benefits of increased helmet wearing. As with overseas data, the exponential growth rule fits Australian data well. If cycling doubles, the risk per kilometre falls by about 34%; conversely, if cycling halves, the risk per kilometre will be about 52% higher. Policies that adversely influence the amount of cycling (for example, compulsory helmet legislation) should be reviewed.

  7. Listeriosis and Toxoplasmosis in Pregnancy: Essentials for Healthcare Providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaff, Nicole Franzen; Tillett, Jackie

    2016-01-01

    Listeriosis and toxoplasmosis are foodborne illnesses that can have long-term consequences when contracted during pregnancy. Listeriosis is implicated in stillbirth, preterm labor, newborn sepsis, and meningitis, among other complications. Toxoplasmosis is associated with blindness, cognitive delays, seizures, and hearing loss, among other significant disabilities. Healthcare providers who understand the fundamentals of Listeria and Toxoplasma infection will have the tools to identify symptoms and high-risk behaviors, educate women to make safer decisions, and provide anticipatory guidance if a pregnant woman would become infected with either of these foodborne illnesses.

  8. Diode laser cyclophotocoagulation paves way to a safer trabeculectomy in eyes with medically uncontrollable intraocular pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Kirti; Dangda, Sonal; Ahir, Nitasha; Mutreja, Ankush; Bhattacharyya, Mainak

    2017-04-01

    High intraocular pressure (IOP) not responding to systemic and topical anti-glaucoma medications renders the eye at risk for both intra- and post-operative complications of glaucoma filtration surgery. Laser cyclophotocoagulation is able to lower IOP in such refractory glaucoma eyes and may make the surgical event safer. This study assessed diode laser cyclophotocoagulation (DLCP) when used as a temporary measure for lowering IOP prior to performing trabeculectomy. This study is a  retrospective analysis of cases planned for trabeculectomy surgery, uncontrolled on maximally tolerable systemic anti-glaucoma medications. They were analysed for response to DLCP in terms of IOP control, vision-related complications, increased inflammation, post-trabeculectomy hypotony and chances of phthisis and ciliary shutdown. Twelve eyes of ten patients aged 35-65 years were identified and all followed up for at least 2 years. One week following DLCP, the IOP (mean ± SD) declined by 51 % from 46.8 ± 5.4 to 22.8 ± 3.3 mmHg. The IOP was further reduced to 15.4 ± 2.7 mmHg at 4 weeks after trabeculectomy; it remained in the mid-teens for a minimum of 2 years in all cases. The mean (±SD) visual acuity improved from 1.4 ± 0.4 to 0.8 ± 0.4 LogMAR equivalents following trabeculectomy. In four eyes, phacoemulsification was performed 5-7 months after trabeculectomy with improvement in best-corrected visual acuity. One patient developed transient hypotony, post-trabeculectomy, which resolved by 6 days. There were no other complications like increased inflammation, prolonged hypotony or suprachoroidal haemorrhage. DLCP is, thus, effective and safe for temporarily controlling IOP; thereby trabeculectomy can be performed in a quieter ocular milieu.

  9. A Peer-Led, Social Media-Delivered, Safer Sex Intervention for Chinese College Students: Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wai Han; Wong, Carlos King Ho; Wong, William Chi Wai

    2017-08-09

    The peer-led, social media-delivered intervention is an emerging method in sexual health promotion. However, no research has yet investigated its effectiveness as compared with other online channels or in an Asian population. The objective of this study is to compare a peer-led, social media-delivered, safer sex intervention with a sexual health website. Both conditions target Chinese college students in Hong Kong. A randomized controlled trial was conducted with a peer-led, safer sex Facebook group as the intervention and an existing online sexual health website as the control. The intervention materials were developed with peer input and followed the information-motivation-behavioral skills model; the intervention was moderated by peer educators. The participants filled out the online questionnaires before and after the 6-week intervention period. Outcome evaluations included safer sex attitudes, behavioral skills, and behaviors, while process evaluation focused on online experience, online-visiting frequency, and online engagement. The effect of online-visiting frequency and online engagement on outcome variables was investigated. Of 196 eligible participants-100 in the control group and 96 in the intervention group-who joined the study, 2 (1.0%) control participants joined the Facebook group and 24 of the remaining 194 participants (12.4%) were lost to follow-up. For the process evaluation, participants in the intervention group reported more satisfying online experiences (Psocial media-delivered, safer sex intervention was found to be feasible and effective in improving attitudes toward condom use and behavioral skills, but was not significantly more effective than a website. Future research may focus on the long-term effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of this popular method, as well as the potential cultural differences of using social media between different countries. Chinese Clinical Trial Registry (ChiCTR): ChiCTR-IOR-16009495; http

  10. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan for Corrective Action Unit 465: Hydronuclear Nevada National Security Site, Nevada, with ROTC 1, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patrick Matthews

    2011-11-01

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan addresses the actions needed to achieve closure for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 465, Hydronuclear, identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO). Corrective Action Unit 465 comprises the following four corrective action sites (CASs) located in Areas 6 and 27 of the Nevada National Security Site: (1) 00-23-01, Hydronuclear Experiment; (2) 00-23-02, Hydronuclear Experiment; (3) 00-23-03, Hydronuclear Experiment; (4) 06-99-01, Hydronuclear. The sites will be investigated based on the data quality objectives (DQOs) developed on July 6, 2011, by representatives of the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office. The DQO process was used to identify and define the type, amount, and quality of data needed to determine and implement appropriate corrective actions for each CAS in CAU 465. For CAU 465, two potential release components have been identified. The subsurface release component includes potential releases of radiological and nonradiological contaminants from the subsurface hydronuclear experiments and disposal boreholes. The surface release component consists of other potential releases of radiological and nonradiological contaminants to surface soils that may have occurred during the pre- and post-test activities. This plan provides the methodology for collection of the necessary information for closing each CAS component. There is sufficient information and process knowledge from historical documentation, contaminant characteristics, existing regional and site groundwater models, and investigations of similar sites regarding the expected nature and extent of potential contaminants to recommend closure of CAU 465 using the SAFER process. For potential subsurface releases, flow and transport models will be developed to integrate existing data into a conservative

  11. Exploring stakeholder perceptions of acceptability and feasibility of needle exchange programmes, syringe vending machines and safer injection facilities in Tijuana, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philbin, Morgan M; Mantsios, Andrea; Lozada, Remedios; Case, Patricia; Pollini, Robin A; Alvelais, Jorge; Latkin, Carl A; Magis-Rodriguez, Carlos; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2009-07-01

    Injection drug use is a growing public health crisis along the U.S.-Mexican border and rising rates of blood-borne infections highlight the pressing need for harm reduction interventions. We explored the acceptability and feasibility of such interventions in Tijuana, a city adjacent to San Diego, California. Using in-depth qualitative interviews conducted from August 2006-March 2007 with 40 key stakeholders - pharmacists, legal professionals, health officials, religious officials, drug treatment providers, and law enforcement personnel - we explored the acceptability and feasibility of interventions to reduce drug-related harm in Tijuana, Mexico. Interviews were taped with consent, transcribed verbatim, and translated. Content analysis was conducted to identify themes which included barriers, structural limitations, and suggestions for implementation. Topics included acceptance and feasibility of needle exchange programmes (NEPs), syringe vending machines, and safer injection facilities (SIFs), structural barriers and suggestions for implementation. Of these interventions, NEPs were deemed the most acceptable (75%); however, only half believed these could be feasibly implemented, citing barriers involving religion, police, and lack of political will, public awareness, and funding. Increasing HIV infection rates among injection drug users in Tijuana have prompted interest in public health responses. Our results may assist policy strategists in implementing social-structural interventions that will help create enabling environments that facilitate the scale-up and implementation of harm reduction in Tijuana.

  12. A Pilot Model for the NASA Simplified Aid for EVA Rescue (SAFER) (Single-Axis Pitch Task)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handley, Patrick Mark

    This thesis defines, tests, and validates a descriptive pilot model for a single-axis pitch control task of the Simplified Aid for EVA Rescue (SAFER). SAFER is a small propulsive jetpack used by astronauts for self-rescue. Pilot model research supports development of improved self-rescue strategies and technologies through insights into pilot behavior.This thesis defines a multi-loop pilot model. The innermost loop controls the hand controller, the middle loop controls pitch rate, and the outer loop controls pitch angle. A human-in-the-loop simulation was conducted to gather data from a human pilot. Quantitative and qualitative metrics both indicate that the model is an acceptable fit to the human data. Fuel consumption was nearly identical; time to task completion matched very well. There is some evidence that the model responds faster to initial pitch rates than the human, artificially decreasing the model's time to task completion. This pilot model is descriptive, not predictive, of the human pilot. Insights are made into pilot behavior from this research. Symmetry implies that the human responds to positive and negative initial conditions with the same strategy. The human pilot appears indifferent to pitch angles within 0.5 deg, coasts at a constant pitch rate 1.09 deg/s, and has a reaction delay of 0.1 s.

  13. Liposuction-assisted four pedicle-based breast reduction (LAFPBR): A new safer technique of breast reduction for elderly patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Padula, Simone; Hersant, Barbara; Noel, Warren; Meningaud, Jean Paul

    2018-05-01

    As older people increasingly care for their body image and remain active longer, the demand for reduction mammaplasty is increasing in this population. Only a few studies of reduction mammaplasty have specifically focussed on the outcomes in elderly women. We developed a new breast reduction technique: the Liposuction-Assisted Four Pedicle-Based Breast Reduction (LAFPBR) that is especially indicated for elderly patients. The aim of this paper was to describe the LAFPBR technique and to determine whether it could be considered a safer option for elderly patients compared to the superomedial pedicle (SMP) technique. A retrospective study included sixty-two women aged 60 years and over who underwent bilateral breast reduction mammaplasty. Thirty-one patients underwent LAFPBR and 31 patients were operated using the SMP technique. Complications and patient satisfaction in both groups were analysed. Patient satisfaction was measured using a validated questionnaire: the client satisfaction questionnaire 8 (CSQ-8). The LAFPBR technique required less operating time, and avoided significant blood loss. Six minor complications were observed in SMP patients. No LAFPBR women developed a procedure-related complication. Patient satisfaction was high with a mean score of 29.65 in LAFPBR patients and 28.68 in SMP patients. The LAFPBR is an easy procedure that appears safer than SMP and results in a high satisfaction rate in elderly women. Copyright © 2018 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan for Corrective Action Unit 544: Cellars, Mud Pits, and Oil Spills, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark Krauss

    2010-07-01

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan addresses the actions needed to achieve closure for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 544, Cellars, Mud Pits, and Oil Spills, identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO). Corrective Action Unit 544 comprises the following 20 corrective action sites (CASs) located in Areas 2, 7, 9, 10, 12, 19, and 20 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS): • 02-37-08, Cellar & Mud Pit • 02-37-09, Cellar & Mud Pit • 07-09-01, Mud Pit • 09-09-46, U-9itsx20 PS #1A Mud Pit • 10-09-01, Mud Pit • 12-09-03, Mud Pit • 19-09-01, Mud Pits (2) • 19-09-03, Mud Pit • 19-09-04, Mud Pit • 19-25-01, Oil Spill • 19-99-06, Waste Spill • 20-09-01, Mud Pits (2) • 20-09-02, Mud Pit • 20-09-03, Mud Pit • 20-09-04, Mud Pits (2) • 20-09-06, Mud Pit • 20-09-07, Mud Pit • 20-09-10, Mud Pit • 20-25-04, Oil Spills • 20-25-05, Oil Spills This plan provides the methodology for field activities needed to gather the necessary information for closing each CAS. There is sufficient information and process knowledge from historical documentation and investigations of similar sites regarding the expected nature and extent of potential contaminants to recommend closure of CAU 544 using the SAFER process. Using the approach approved for previous mud pit investigations (CAUs 530–535), 14 mud pits have been identified that • are either a single mud pit or a system of mud pits, • are not located in a radiologically posted area, and • have no evident biasing factors based on visual inspections. These 14 mud pits are recommended for no further action (NFA), and further field investigations will not be conducted. For the sites that do not meet the previously approved closure criteria, additional information will be obtained by conducting a field investigation before selecting the appropriate corrective action for each CAS. The results of the field investigation will support a defensible

  15. SAFER - Company Snapshot - SAFER - Company Snapshot

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Company Snapshot is a concise electronic record of company identification, size, commodity information, and safety record, including the safety rating (if any),...

  16. Soluble salt removal from MSWI fly ash and its stabilization for safer disposal and recovery as road basement material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colangelo, F; Cioffi, R; Montagnaro, F; Santoro, L

    2012-06-01

    Fly ash from municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWI) is classified as hazardous in the European Waste Catalogue. Proper stabilization processes should be required before any management option is put into practice. Due to the inorganic nature of MSWI fly ash, cementitious stabilization processes are worthy of consideration. However, the effectiveness of such processes can be severely compromised by the high content of soluble chlorides and sulphates. In this paper, a preliminary washing treatment has been optimized to remove as much as possible soluble salts by employing as little as possible water. Two different operating conditions (single-step and two-step) have been developed to this scope. Furthermore, it has been demonstrated that stabilized systems containing 20% of binder are suitable for safer disposal as well as for material recovery in the field of road basement (cement bound granular material layer). Three commercially available cements (pozzolanic, limestone and slag) have been employed as binders. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The highway and railroad operating environments for hazardous shipments in the United States - safer in the '90s?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saricks, C.L.; Tompkins, M.M.

    2000-01-01

    This paper seeks to illuminate the status of transportation safety and risk for large-quantity shipments of spent commercial reactor fuel and mixed and hazardous wastes by examining road and rail accident and vehicular travel data from the mid-1990s. Of special interest are the effect of speed limit changes on controlled-access expressways (chiefly the Interstate Highway System) and the possible effect of season-to-season climatic variation on road transport. We found that improvements in railroad technology and infrastructure have created a safer overall operating environment for railroad freight shipments. We also found recent evidence of an increase in accident rates of heavy combination trucks in states that have raised highway speed limits. Finally, cold weather increases road transport risk, while conditions associated with higher ambient temperatures do not. This last finding is in contrast to rail transport, for which the literature associates both hot and cold temperature extremes with higher accident rates

  18. Safer disclosure of HIV serostatus for women living with HIV who experience or fear violence: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Caitlin E; Haberlen, Sabina; Amin, Avni; Baggaley, Rachel; Narasimhan, Manjulaa

    2015-01-01

    Supporting individuals as they disclose their HIV serostatus may lead to a variety of individual and public health benefits. However, many women living with HIV are hesitant to disclose their HIV status due to fear of negative outcomes such as violence, abandonment, relationship dissolution and stigma. We conducted a systematic review of studies evaluating interventions to facilitate safer disclosure of HIV status for women living with HIV who experience or fear violence. Articles, conference abstracts and programme reports were included if they reported post-intervention evaluation results and were published before 1 April 2015. Searching was conducted through electronic databases for peer-reviewed articles and conference abstracts, reviewing websites of relevant organizations for grey literature, hand searching reference lists of included studies and contacting experts. Systematic methods were used for screening and data abstraction, which was conducted in duplicate. Study quality (rigor) was assessed with the Cochrane risk of bias tool. Two interventions met the inclusion criteria: the Safe Homes and Respect for Everyone cluster-randomized trial of combination HIV and intimate partner violence (IPV) services in Rakai, Uganda, and the South Africa HIV/AIDS Antenatal Post-Test Support study individual randomized trial of an enhanced counselling intervention for pregnant women undergoing HIV testing and counselling. Both programmes integrated screening for IPV into HIV testing services and trained counsellors to facilitate discussions about disclosure based on a woman's risk of violence. However, both were implemented as part of multiple-component interventions, making it impossible to isolate the impact of the safer disclosure components. The existing evidence base for interventions to facilitate safe HIV serostatus disclosure for women who experience or fear violence is limited. Development and implementation of new approaches and rigorous evaluation of safe

  19. Remedial technology and characterization development at the SRS F/H Retention Basins using the DOE SAFER methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miles, W.C. Jr.; Kuelske, K.J.

    1994-01-01

    The Streamlined Approach For Environmental Restoration (SAFER) is a strategy used to accelerate and improve the environmental assessment and remediation of the F/H Retention Basins at the Savannah River Site (SRS). TMs strategy combines the data quality objectives (DQO) process and the observational approach to focus on data collection and converge on a remedial action early. This approach emphasizes stakeholder involvement throughout the Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) process. The SAFER methodology is being applied to the characterization, technology development, and remediation tasks for the F/H Retention Basins. This ''approach was initiated in the scoping phase of these projects through the involvment of major stakeholders; Department of Energy (DOE)-Savannah River Field Office, DOE-Headquarters, Westinghouse Savannah River Company, United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Region IV, and the state of South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC), in the development of the Remedial Investigation (RI) workplans. A major activity that has been initiated is the development and implementation of a phase I workplan to identify preliminary contaminants of concern (pCOCs). A sampling plan was developed and approved by the major stakeholders for preliminary characterization of wastes remaining in the F/H Retention Basins. The involvement of stakeholders, development of a site conceptual model, development of remedial objectives for probable conditions, identification of the problem and reasonable deviations, and development of initial decision rules in the planning stages will ensure that preliminary data needs are identified and obtained prior to the initiation of the assessment and implementation phases of the projects resulting in the final remediation of the sites in an accelerated and more cost effective manner

  20. Therapy Provider Phase Information

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Therapy Provider Phase Information dataset is a tool for providers to search by their National Provider Identifier (NPI) number to determine their phase for...

  1. Association between 'safer sex fatigue' and rectal gonorrhea is mediated by unsafe sex with casual partners among HIV-positive homosexual men.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stolte, Ineke G; Wit, John B F de; Kolader, Marion-Eliëtte; Fennema, Johan S A; Coutinho, Roel A; Dukers, Nicole H T M

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate whether and what sexual risk behavior is a mediator of associations between rectal gonorrhea (RG) and highly active antiretroviral therapy-related beliefs, safer sex fatigue, or sexual sensation-seeking among homosexual men. STUDY DESIGN:

  2. Association between 'safer sex fatigue' and rectal gonorrhea is mediated by unsafe sex with casual partners among HIV-positive homosexual men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stolte, Ineke G.; de Wit, John B. F.; Kolader, Marion; Fennema, Han; Coutinho, Roel A.; Dukers, Nicole H. T. M.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate whether and what sexual risk behavior is a mediator of associations between rectal gonorrhea (RG) and highly active antiretroviral therapy-related beliefs, safer sex fatigue, or sexual sensation-seeking among homosexual men. STUDY DESIGN:

  3. The Polymeal: a more natural, safer, and probably tastier (than the Polypill) strategy to reduce cardiovascular disease by more than 75%

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O.H. Franco (Oscar); L.G.A. Bonneux (Luc); C.E.D. de Laet (Chris); A. Peeters (Anna); E.W. Steyerberg (Ewout); J.P. Mackenbach (Johan)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVE: Although the Polypill concept (proposed in 2003) is promising in terms of benefits for cardiovascular risk management, the potential costs and adverse effects are its main pitfalls. The objective of this study was to identify a tastier and safer

  4. Ounce of Prevention Keeps the Germs Away: Seven Keys to a Safer Healthier Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cdc.gov/getsmart 6 Be Careful With Pets Pets provide many benefits to people, including comfort and companionship. However, some animals can also pass diseases to humans. Keep these tips in mind to make sure your pet relationship is a happy and healthy one. • Pets ...

  5. Automated road segment creation process : a report on research sponsored by SaferSim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    This report provides a summary of a set of tools that can be used to automate the process : of generating roadway surfaces from alignment and texture information. The tools developed : were created in Python 3.x and rely on the availability of two da...

  6. BIOMIMETIC APPROACH TO SUSTAINABLE NANOMATERIALS AND SAFER APPLICATION IN CATALYSIS AND REMEDIATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitamins B1, B2, C, and tea polyphenols which function both as reducing and capping agents, provide extremely simple, one-pot, green synthetic methods to bulk quantities of nanomaterials in water. Shape-controlled synthesis of noble nanostructures via microwave (MW)-assisted spon...

  7. Biomimetic 'greener' approach to nanomaterials and their safer application in catalysis and remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitamins B1,1a B2, C,1b and tea polyphenols1c which function both as reducing and capping agents, provide extremely simple, one-pot, green synthetic methods to bulk quantities of nanomaterials in water. Shape-controlled synthesis of noble nanostructures via microwave (MW)-assiste...

  8. Biomimetic Approach to Nanomaterials and Their Safer Application in Catalysis and Remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitamins B1, B2, C, and tea polyphenols which function both as reducing and capping agents, provide extremely simple, one-pot, green synthetic methods to bulk quantities of nanomaterials in water. Shape-controlled synthesis of noble nanostructures via microwave (MW)-assisted spon...

  9. Electronic prescribing in pediatrics: toward safer and more effective medication management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kevin B; Lehmann, Christoph U

    2013-04-01

    This technical report discusses recent advances in electronic prescribing (e-prescribing) systems, including the evidence base supporting their limitations and potential benefits. Specifically, this report acknowledges that there are limited but positive pediatric data supporting the role of e-prescribing in mitigating medication errors, improving communication with dispensing pharmacists, and improving medication adherence. On the basis of these data and on the basis of federal statutes that provide incentives for the use of e-prescribing systems, the American Academy of Pediatrics recommends the adoption of e-prescribing systems with pediatric functionality. This report supports the accompanying policy statement from the American Academy of Pediatrics recommending the adoption of e-prescribing by pediatric health care providers.

  10. A simpler, safer, higher performance cooling system arrangement for water cooled divertors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carelli, M.D.; Kothmann, R.E.; Green, L.; Zhan, N.J.; Stefani, F.; Roidt, R.M.

    1994-01-01

    A cooling system arrangement is presented which is specifically designed for high heat flux water cooled divertors. The motivation behind the proposed open-quotes unichannelclose quotes configuration is to provide maximum safety; this design eliminates flow instabilities liable to occur in parallel channel designs, it eliminates total blockage, it promotes cross flow to counteract the effects of partial blockage and/or local hot spots, and it is much more tolerant to the effects of debonding between the beryllium armor and the copper substrate. Added degrees of freedom allow optimization of the design, including the possibility of operating at very high heat transfer coefficients associated with nucleate boiling, while at the same time providing ample margin against departure from nucleate boiling. Projected pressure drop, pumping power, and maximum operating temperatures are lower than for conventional parallel channel designs

  11. Stigma gets in my way: Factors affecting client-provider communication regarding childbearing among people living with HIV in Uganda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolly Beyeza-Kashesya

    Full Text Available Many HIV-affected couples living in sub-Saharan Africa desire to have children, but few quantitative studies have examined support for their childbearing needs. Our study explored client-provider communication about childbearing and safer conception among HIV clients in Uganda.400 Ugandan HIV clients in committed relationships and with intentions to conceive were surveyed. Knowledge, attitudes and practices related to childbearing, and use of safer conception methods were assessed, including communication with providers about childbearing needs, the correlates of which were examined with bivariate statistics and logistic multivariate analysis.75% of the sample was female; 61% were on antiretroviral therapy; and 61% had HIV-negative or unknown status partners. Nearly all (98% reported the desire to discuss childbearing intentions with their HIV provider; however, only 44% reported such discussions, the minority (28% of which was initiated by the provider. Issues discussed with HIV providers included: HIV transmission risk to partner (30%, HIV transmission risk to child (30%, and how to prevent transmission to the child (27%; only 8% discussed safer conception methods. Regression analysis showed that those who had communicated with providers about childbearing were more likely to have been diagnosed with HIV for a longer period [OR (95% CI = 1.09 (1.03, 1.15], while greater internalized childbearing stigma was associated with lower odds of this communication [OR (95% CI = 0.70 (0.49, 0.99], after controlling for all bivariate correlates and basic demographics.Communication between HIV clients and providers about childbearing needs is poor and associated with stigma. Innovations to mitigate stigma among clients as well as training to improve health worker communication and skills related to safer conception counseling is needed.

  12. Reflections on modern macroeconomics: Can we travel along a safer road?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaffeo, E.; Catalano, M.; Clementi, F.; Delli Gatti, D.; Gallegati, M.; Russo, A.

    2007-08-01

    In this paper we sketch some reflections on the pitfalls and inconsistencies of the research program-currently dominant among the profession-aimed at providing microfoundations to macroeconomics along a Walrasian perspective. We argue that such a methodological approach constitutes an unsatisfactory answer to a well-posed research question, and that alternative promising routes have been long mapped out but only recently explored. In particular, we discuss a recent agent-based, truly non-Walrasian macroeconomic model, and we use it to envisage new challenges for future research.

  13. Safer nuclear power. Strengthening training for operational safety at Paks nuclear power plant - Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    For a nuclear power plant, safety must always be paramount. There can be no compromise on safety to meet production targets or to reduce costs. For any reactor, and in particular where older type reactors are in place, their operational safety can be enhanced by upgrading the training of personnel responsible for operating and maintaining the plant. The Department of Technical Co-operation is sponsoring a programme with technical support from the Nuclear Energy and Nuclear Safety Departments to help improve facilities at the PAKS plant in Hungary and establish self sufficiency in training to the highest international standards for all levels of nuclear power plant manpower. The Model Project described will have a direct impact on the improvement of operational safety and performance at PAKS NPP. It will lead to a more efficient use of resources which in turn will result in lower electricity generation costs. The impact of the project is not expected to be limited to Hungary. WWER reactors are common in Eastern Europe and provide one third to one half of the electricity supply to the region. The training programmes and facilities at PAKS offer a possibility in the future to provide training to experts from other countries operating WWER units and serve as a model to be emulated. Slovakia and the Czech Republic have already expressed interest in using the PAKS experience

  14. Medical service provider networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mougeot, Michel; Naegelen, Florence

    2018-05-17

    In many countries, health insurers or health plans choose to contract either with any willing providers or with preferred providers. We compare these mechanisms when two medical services are imperfect substitutes in demand and are supplied by two different firms. In both cases, the reimbursement is higher when patients select the in-network provider(s). We show that these mechanisms yield lower prices, lower providers' and insurer's profits, and lower expense than in the uniform-reimbursement case. Whatever the degree of product differentiation, a not-for-profit insurer should prefer selective contracting and select a reimbursement such that the out-of-pocket expense is null. Although all providers join the network under any-willing-provider contracting in the absence of third-party payment, an asymmetric equilibrium may exist when this billing arrangement is implemented. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Promoting cleaner and safer industrial production in Central and Eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The current transition to a market economy in Central and Eastern Europe and in the Newly Independent States of the Former Soviet Union provides an unique opportunity to integrate environmental considerations into the process of economic restructuring. The use of environmental audits in industry to identify savings in energy, water, and other raw materials is a particularly cost-effective approach for promoting more efficient industrial production and improvements in environmental performance. This volume brings together the papers given at a seminar on ''Auditing to Improve Safety, Environmental Performance and Economic Efficiency'', where the chemical Industry in the Ukraine was a particular focus of discussion. The practical experiences described in these papers demonstrate how environmental and economic performance can be enhanced at little or no cost. Later on, only the article concerning the chemical industry of Ukraine has been analysed. (authors). 7 figs., 2 tabs

  16. Promising and Reversible Electrolyte with Thermal Switching Behavior for Safer Electrochemical Storage Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yunhui; Zhang, Qian; Zhang, Yan; Jia, Limin; Xu, Xinhua

    2018-02-28

    A major stumbling block in large-scale adoption of high-energy-density electrochemical devices has been safety issues. Methods to control thermal runaway are limited by providing a one-time thermal protection. Herein, we developed a simple and reversible thermoresponsive electrolyte system that is efficient to shutdown the current flow according to temperature changes. The thermal management is ascribed to the thermally activated sol-gel transition of methyl cellulose solution, associated with the concentration of ions that can move between isolated chains freely or be restricted by entangled molecular chains. We studied the effect of cellulose concentration, substituent types, and operating temperature on the electrochemical performance, demonstrating an obvious capacity loss up to 90% approximately of its initial value. Moreover, this is a cost-effective approach that has the potential for use in practical electrochemical storage devices.

  17. Designing a Safer Interactive Healthcare System - The Impact of Authentic User Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Went, Kathryn L.; Gregor, Peter; Ricketts, Ian W.

    Information technology has been widely promoted in the healthcare sector to improve current practice and patient safety. However, end users are seldom involved extensively in the design and development of healthcare systems, with lip service often paid to the idea of true user involvement. In this case study the impact of sustained authentic user participation was explored using an interdisciplinary team, consisting of experts both in interaction and healthcare design and consultant anaesthetists, nurses, and pharmacists, to create an electronic prescribing and administration system. This paper details the interface that was created and provides examples of the way in which the design evolved in response to the sustained authentic user participation methods. The working prototype both reduced the opportunity for user error and was preferred by its users to the existing manual system.

  18. Nuclear electric propulsion: A better, safer, cheaper transportation system for human exploration of Mars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, J.S.; George, J.A.; Gefert, L.P.; Doherty, M.P.; Sefcik, R.J.

    1994-03-01

    NASA has completed a preliminary mission and systems study of nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) systems for 'split-sprint' human exploration and related robotic cargo missions to Mars. This paper describes the study, the mission architecture selected, the NEP system and technology development needs, proposed development schedules, and estimated development costs. Since current administration policy makers have delayed funding for key technology development activities that could make Mars exploration missions a reality in the near future, NASA will have time to evaluate various alternate mission options, and it appears prudent to ensure that Mars mission plans focus on astronaut and mission safety, while reducing costs to acceptable levels. The split-sprint nuclear electric propulsion system offers trip times comparable to nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) systems, while providing mission abort opportunities that are not possible with 'reference' mission architectures. Thus, NEP systems offer short transit times for the astronauts, reducing the exposure of the crew to intergalactic cosmic radiation. The high specific impulse of the NEP system, which leads to very low propellant requirements, results in significantly lower 'initial mass in low earth orbit' (IMLEO). Launch vehicle packaging studies show that the NEP system can be launched, assembled, and deployed, with about one less 240-metric-ton heavy lift launch vehicle (HLLV) per mission opportunity - a very Technology development cost of the nuclear reactor for an NEP system would be shared with the proposed nuclear surface power systems, since nuclear systems will be required to provide substantial electrical power on the surface of Mars. The NEP development project plan proposed includes evolutionary technology development for nuclear electric propulsion systems that expands upon SP-100 (Space Power - 100 kw(e)) technology that has been developed for lunar and Mars surface nuclear power

  19. A randomised controlled trial using mobile advertising to promote safer sex and sun safety to young people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, J; Aitken, C K; Dixon, H G; Lim, M S C; Gouillou, M; Spelman, T; Wakefield, M; Hellard, M E

    2011-10-01

    Mobile phone text messages (SMS) are a promising method of health promotion, but a simple and low cost way to obtain phone numbers is required to reach a wide population. We conducted a randomised controlled trial with simultaneous brief interventions to (i) evaluate effectiveness of messages related to safer sex and sun safety and (ii) pilot the use of mobile advertising for health promotion. Mobile advertising subscribers aged 16-29 years residing in Victoria, Australia (n = 7606) were randomised to the 'sex' or 'sun' group and received eight messages during the 2008-2009 summer period. Changes in sex- and sun-related knowledge and behaviour were measured by questionnaires completed on mobile phones. At follow-up, the sex group had significantly higher sexual health knowledge and fewer sexual partners than the sun group. The sun group had no change in hat-wearing frequency compared with a significant decline in hat-wearing frequency in the sex group. This is the first study of mobile advertising for health promotion, which can successfully reach most young people. Challenges experienced with project implementation and evaluation should be considered as new technological approaches to health promotion continue to be expanded.

  20. Biosafety and Biosecurity: A Relative Risk-Based Framework for Safer, More Secure, and Sustainable Laboratory Capacity Building.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickmann, Petra; Sheeley, Heather; Lightfoot, Nigel

    2015-01-01

    Laboratory capacity building is characterized by a paradox between endemicity and resources: countries with high endemicity of pathogenic agents often have low and intermittent resources (water, electricity) and capacities (laboratories, trained staff, adequate regulations). Meanwhile, countries with low endemicity of pathogenic agents often have high-containment facilities with costly infrastructure and maintenance governed by regulations. The common practice of exporting high biocontainment facilities and standards is not sustainable and concerns about biosafety and biosecurity require careful consideration. A group at Chatham House developed a draft conceptual framework for safer, more secure, and sustainable laboratory capacity building. The draft generic framework is guided by the phrase "LOCAL - PEOPLE - MAKE SENSE" that represents three major principles: capacity building according to local needs (local) with an emphasis on relationship and trust building (people) and continuous outcome and impact measurement (make sense). This draft generic framework can serve as a blueprint for international policy decision-making on improving biosafety and biosecurity in laboratory capacity building, but requires more testing and detailing development.

  1. Canned bluefin tuna, an in vitro cardioprotective functional food potentially safer than commercial fish oil based pharmaceutical formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenore, Gian Carlo; Calabrese, Giorgio; Ritieni, Alberto; Campiglia, Pietro; Giannetti, Daniela; Novellino, Ettore

    2014-09-01

    Commercial canned fish species typical in the Italian market were evaluated for their lipid profile. Bluefin tuna samples showed the highest content in omega-3 fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) among the canned fish samples analyzed. Tests on H9C2 cardiomyocytes revealed that bluefin tuna n-3 PUFA may responsible for a significant cell protection against both physiological and doxorubicin-induced oxidative stress. Analogous tests performed by incubating cardiac cells with n-3 PUFA ethyl esters, of which most of fish oil pharmaceutical formulations (FOPF) are based, showed cytotoxicity at high doses. Our results highlighted that n-3 PUFA contents in a 50 g canned bluefin tuna portion would be almost equivalent to and potentially safer than those of 1 FOPF capsule (1000 mg)/die usually suggested for hyperlipidaemic subjects. Thus, Italian commercial canned bluefin tuna could be indicated as a functional food with potential health benefits for the prevention and care of cardiovascular disorders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Biosafety and Biosecurity: A relative risk-based framework for safer, more secure and sustainable laboratory capacity building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra eDickmann

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Laboratory capacity building is characterized by a paradox between endemicity and resources: Countries with high endemicity of pathogenic agents often have low and intermittent resources (water, electricity and capacities (laboratories, trained staff, adequate regulations. Meanwhile, countries with low endemicity of pathogenic agents often have high containment facilities with costly infrastructure and maintenance governed by regulations. The common practice of exporting high biocontainment facilities and standards is not sustainable and concerns about biosafety and biosecurity require careful consideration. Methods: A group at Chatham House developed a draft conceptual framework for safer, more secure and sustainable laboratory capacity building. Results: The draft generic framework is guided by the phrase ‘LOCAL – PEOPLE – MAKE SENSE’ that represents three major principles: capacity building according to local needs (local with an emphasis on relationship and trust-building (people and continuous outcome and impact measurement (make sense. Conclusions: This draft generic framework can serve as a blueprint for international policy decision-making on improving biosafety and biosecurity in laboratory capacity building, but requires more testing and detailing development.

  3. Homelessness among a cohort of women in street-based sex work: the need for safer environment interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gibson Kate

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Drawing on data from a community-based prospective cohort study in Vancouver, Canada, we examined the prevalence and individual, interpersonal and work environment correlates of homelessness among 252 women in street-based sex work. Methods Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression using generalized estimating equations (GEE was used to examine the individual, interpersonal and work environment factors that were associated with homelessness among street-based sex workers. Results Among 252 women, 43.3% reported homelessness over an 18-month follow-up period. In the multivariable GEE logistic regression analysis, younger age (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 0.93; 95%confidence interval [95%CI] 0.93-0.98, sexual violence by non-commercial partners (aOR = 2.14; 95%CI 1.06-4.34, servicing a higher number of clients (10+ per week vs Conclusions These findings indicate a critical need for safer environment interventions that mitigate the social and physical risks faced by homeless FSWs and increase access to safe, secure housing for women.

  4. Project chariot remediation - the use of DOE's observational approach for environmental restoration with elements of the new DOE safer approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopkins, A.; Stewart, C.; Cabble, K.

    1994-01-01

    The primary purpose of Project Chariot was to investigate the technical problems and assess the effect of the proposed harbor excavation using nuclear explosives in Alaska. However, no nuclear devices were brought to the Project Chariot site. Between 1959 and 1961 various environmental tests were conducted. During the course of these environmental studies, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) granted the use of up to 5 curies of radioactive material at the Chariot site in Cape Thompson, Alaska; however only 26 millicuries were ever actually used. The tests were conducted in 12 test plots which were later gathered together and were mixed with in situ-soils generating approximately 1,600 cubic feet of soil. This area was then covered with four feet of clean soil, creating a mound. In 1962, the site was abandoned. A researcher at the University of Alaska at Fairbanks obtained in formation regarding the tests conducted and the materials left at the Project Chariot site. In response to concerns raised through the publication of this information, it was decided by the Department of Energy (DOE) that total remediation of the mound be completed within the year. During the summer of 1993, IT Corporation carried out the assessment and remediation of the Project Chariot site using a streamlined approach to waste site decision making called the Observational Approach (OA), and added elements of the new DOE Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER). This remediation and remediation approach is described

  5. A participatory systems approach to design for safer integrated medicine management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Gyuchan Thomas; Canham, Aneurin; Altuna-Palacios, Ander; Ward, James R; Bhamra, Ran; Rogers, Stephen; Dutt, Amalin; Shah, Priyal

    2018-01-01

    It is recognised that whole systems approaches are required in the design and development of complex health care services. Application of a systems approach benefits from the involvement of key stakeholders. However, participation in the context of community based health care is particularly challenging due to busy and geographically distributed stakeholders. This study used action research to investigate what processes and methods were needed to successfully employ a participatory systems approach. Three participatory workshops planned and facilitated by method experts were held with 30 representative stakeholders. Various methods were used with them and evaluated through an audit of workshop outputs and a qualitative questionnaire. Findings on the method application and participation are presented and methodological challenges are discussed with reference to further research. Practitioner Summary: This study provides practical insights on how to apply a participatory systems approach to complex health care service design. Various template-based methods for systems thinking and risk-based thinking were efficiently and effectively applied with stakeholders.

  6. Towards a safer world. 16 October 2003. Op-Ed, published in The Economist

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ElBaradei, M.

    2003-01-01

    The very existence of nuclear weapons gives rise to the pursuit of them. They are seen as a source of global influence, and are valued for their perceived deterrent effect. And as long as some countries possess them (or are protected by them in alliances) and others do not, this asymmetry breeds chronic global insecurity. The present nuclear-arms-control regime is looking battered. But any reform of that regime must begin by conceiving a framework of collective security that does not rely on nuclear deterrence. The rise of terrorist groups makes this essential. A nuclear deterrent is clearly ineffective against such groups; they have no cities that can be bombed in reply, nor are they focused on self-preservation. Moreover, their constantly shifting targets and modes of attack demand a more co-operative and flexible international response. The 'war on terror' should provide an impetus to work towards a global security culture that will serve the interests of all countries equally, and will make reliance on nuclear weapons obsolete

  7. Towards Safer Seafood: What Indonesian Law Should “Say” about Mercury-Contaminated Fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaretha Quina

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Fish is a popular culinary dish in Indonesian culture and a major economic resource on which many people depend their livelihood. However, with severe pollution in Indonesian water, including uncontrolled mercury pollution which persists in the food chain and eventually gets into humans’ body as the top predator, fish safety is particularly worrying – especially taking into account the frequency of average Indonesians’ consumption of fish. In various jurisdictions, the management tool used by lawmakers and regulators with regard to this issue is information disclosure, or known as “fish advisory warning,” to cover the failure of command and control. This paper analyses whether Indonesian laws have provided the mandate or authority to issue fish advisory warning under Fishery Law, Food Law, Environmental Protection and Management Law, and Public Information Disclosure Law. It concluded that Indonesian law implies a statutory mandate for the government to issue fish advisory warning, at least in a situation involving the threat to general life – not specifically through the Fishery Law, Food Law, or EPML, but through PIDL’s immediate information mandate.  

  8. Safer@home—Simulation and training: the study protocol of a qualitative action research design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiig, Siri; Guise, Veslemøy; Anderson, Janet; Storm, Marianne; Lunde Husebø, Anne Marie; Testad, Ingelin; Søyland, Elsa; Moltu, Kirsti L

    2014-01-01

    Introduction While it is predicted that telecare and other information and communication technology (ICT)-assisted services will have an increasingly important role in future healthcare services, their implementation in practice is complex. For implementation of telecare to be successful and ensure quality of care, sufficient training for staff (healthcare professionals) and service users (patients) is fundamental. Telecare training has been found to have positive effects on attitudes to, sustained use of, and outcomes associated with telecare. However, the potential contribution of training in the adoption, quality and safety of telecare services is an under-investigated research field. The overall aim of this study is to develop and evaluate simulation-based telecare training programmes to aid the use of videophone technology in elderly home care. Research-based training programmes will be designed for healthcare professionals, service users and next of kin, and the study will explore the impact of training on adoption, quality and safety of new telecare services. Methods and analysis The study has a qualitative action research design. The research will be undertaken in close collaboration with a multidisciplinary team consisting of researchers and managers and clinical representatives from healthcare services in two Norwegian municipalities, alongside experts in clinical education and simulation, as well as service user (patient) representatives. The qualitative methods used involve focus group interviews, semistructured interviews, observation and document analysis. To ensure trustworthiness in the data analysis, we will apply member checks and analyst triangulation; in addition to providing contextual and sample description to allow for evaluation of transferability of our results to other contexts and groups. Ethics and dissemination The study is approved by the Norwegian Social Science Data Services. The study is based on voluntary participation and informed

  9. Making health care safer: What is the contribution of health psychology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Charles; Wearden, Alison; French, David P

    2015-11-01

    While health care brings great benefits, all treatments, and many investigations, carry some risk. As patients, we should be told of the risks of specific treatments but we are also at risk from failings in the health care system itself. We suggest that, while there are many examples of individual health psychologists who have made important contributions, this has not yet translated into a broader disciplinary engagement. Health psychologists have devoted much more attention to patients and devoted much less attention to the potentially huge impact of studying and intervening with staff, clinical practice, and organizations. We believe that there are considerable opportunities for health psychology to engage more closely with patient safety and, more importantly, that this would be of great benefit to both patients and staff. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? While health care brings great benefits, all treatments, and many investigations, carry some risk. Patients are also at risk from failings in the health care system itself. Studies using review of medical records in many countries have found that between 8% and 12% of patients in hospital suffer an unintended harm due to health care. What does this study add? There are many examples of individual psychologists who have made important contributions, but this has not yet translated into a broader disciplinary engagement. There are considerable opportunities for health psychology to engage more closely with patient safety. These include health behaviour change, teamwork, communication after medical error, diagnosis and decision making, organisational culture, and improving compliance with rules and standards. Psychologists providing a clinical service to specialist services in any area could expand their remit from supporting patients to a more general support and engagement with safety and quality initiatives. Health psychologists have models to understand the behaviour of people

  10. Safer and healthier reduced nitrites turkey meat sausages using lyophilized Cystoseira barbata seaweed extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellimi, Sabrine; Benslima, Abdelkarim; Ksouda, Ghada; Montero, Veronique Barragan; Hajji, Mohamed; Nasri, Moncef

    2017-10-21

    Background Nitrite salts are still common additives in the meat industry. The present study provides a first approach on the employment of the lyophilized aqueous extract (WE) of the Tunisian seaweed Cystoseira barbata for the quality enhancement of turkey meat sausage. Methods WE was supplemented as a natural antioxidant agent to investigate its effectiveness in delaying lipid oxidation turkey meat sausages containing reduced amounts of sodium nitrites. Results On storage day 5, all concentrations of WE (0.01-0.4 %) reduced the meat lipid oxidation by approximately 36 %, as compared to the negative control containing only 80 mg/kg of meat of sodium nitrites as antioxidant. It was noted that within 15 days of refrigerated storage, a meat system containing 80 mg/kg of meat of sodium nitrites and 0.02 % and 0.04 % of WE had similar Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances (TBARS) levels (19±1.32 and 17±1.12 µmol/kg of meat, respectively), which were comparable to the positive control containing sodium nitrites (150 mg/kg of meat) and 0.045 % vitamin C (18.46±1.27 µmol/kg of meat). In-depth, the metabolomic profiling using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and liquid chromatography-quadripole-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry (LC-QTOF-MS) analyses of the Tunisian seaweed C. barbata solvent extracts showed that the main active compounds were phenolic compounds, fatty acids and sterols. Conclusions Overall, the cold medium containing C. barbata lyophilized aqueous extrac, with strong antioxidant activity and antihypertensive properties, may open the way to the development of a natural quality enhancement strategy for new functional and ever healthier reduced nitrites meat sausages based on algae.

  11. Providing free autopoweroff plugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Carsten Lynge; Hansen, Lars Gårn; Fjordbak, Troels

    2012-01-01

    Experimental evidence of the effect of providing households with cheap energy saving technology is sparse. We present results from a field experiment in which autopoweroff plugs were provided free of charge to randomly selected households. We use propensity score matching to find treatment effects...

  12. Credential Service Provider (CSP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — Provides a VA operated Level 1 and Level 2 credential for individuals who require access to VA applications, yet cannot obtain a credential from another VA accepted...

  13. MAX Provider Characteristics

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The MAX Provider Characteristics (PC) File Implementation Report describes the design, implementation, and results of the MAXPC prototype, which was based on three...

  14. Right there all along. Latest IOM report lays out how to deliver safer, more effective care by using existing strategies, technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinney, Maureen

    2012-09-10

    Want to make healthcare safer and more cost-effective? You already have the necessary tools, a new IOM report says. "To Err is Human made visible the tremendous problem we had with medical errors, but back then very few systems had this kind of data infrastructure," says Paul Tang, of the Palo Alto (Calif.) Medical Foundation. said. "We're in a much different spot now."

  15. Evaluating Safer Conception Options for HIV-Serodiscordant Couples (HIV-Infected Female/HIV-Uninfected Male: A Closer Look at Vaginal Insemination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okeoma Mmeje

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available HIV serodiscordant couples represent at least half of all HIV-affected couples worldwide. Many of these couples have childbearing desires. Safer methods of conception may allow for pregnancy while minimizing the risk of sexual transmission of HIV. In serodiscordant partnerships with an HIV-infected female and HIV-uninfected male, vaginal insemination of a partner's semen during the fertile period coupled with 100% condom use may be the safest method of conception.

  16. Results from the fielding of the Bio-surveillance Analysis, Feedback, Evaluation and Response (B-SAFER) system in Albuquerque, New Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forslund, David; Umland, Edith; Brillman, Judith C; Joyce, Ed; Froman, Philip; Burr, Tom; Judd, Stephen L; Picard, Richard; Wokoun, Doug; Joner, Mike; Sewell, C Mack

    2003-01-01

    Public health authorities need a surveillance system that is sensitive enough to detect a disease outbreak early to enable a proper response. In order to meet this challenge we have deployed a pilot component-based system in Albuquerque, NM as part of the National Biodefense Initiative (BDI). B-SAFER gathers routinely collected data from healthcare institutions to monitor disease events in the community. We describe initial results from the deployment of the system for the past 6 months

  17. 'He lacks his fatherhood': safer conception technologies and the biological imperative for fatherhood among recently-diagnosed Xhosa-speaking men living with HIV in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Tonya N; Mantell, Joanne E; Nywagi, Ntobeko; Cishe, Nomazizi; Cooper, Diane

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores notions of fatherhood and their linkages to fertility desires and intentions among a treatment-naïve cohort of Xhosa-speaking male key informants living with HIV, aged 20-53 in Cape Town, South Africa. Analysis is based on an initial 27, and 20 follow-up, interviews with men who were part of a study that assessed the acceptability of safer conception and alternative parenting strategies among men and women newly diagnosed with HIV to inform an intervention. Grounded theory analysis revealed themes related to the cultural imperative of biologically-connected fatherhood. Certain safer-conception strategies aimed at minimising the risk of HIV transmission were perceived as threats to paternity. These findings suggest that understanding of social and cultural beliefs related to notions of paternity and fatherhood may inform the implementation of acceptable safer-conception options for HIV-positive men and their infected and uninfected female partners in a high-HIV prevalence, low-resource setting.

  18. A safer, urea-based in situ hybridization method improves detection of gene expression in diverse animal species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinigaglia, Chiara; Thiel, Daniel; Hejnol, Andreas; Houliston, Evelyn; Leclère, Lucas

    2018-02-01

    In situ hybridization is a widely employed technique allowing spatial visualization of gene expression in fixed specimens. It has greatly advanced our understanding of biological processes, including developmental regulation. In situ protocols are today routinely followed in numerous laboratories, and although details might change, they all include a hybridization step, where specific antisense RNA or DNA probes anneal to the target nucleic acid sequence. This step is generally carried out at high temperatures and in a denaturing solution, called hybridization buffer, commonly containing 50% (v/v) formamide - a hazardous chemical. When applied to the soft-bodied hydrozoan medusa Clytia hemisphaerica, we found that this traditional hybridization approach was not fully satisfactory, causing extensive deterioration of morphology and tissue texture which compromised our observation and interpretation of results. We thus tested alternative solutions for in situ detection of gene expression and, inspired by optimized protocols for Northern and Southern blot analysis, we substituted the 50% formamide with an equal volume of 8M urea solution in the hybridization buffer. Our new protocol not only yielded better morphologies and tissue consistency, but also notably improved the resolution of the signal, allowing more precise localization of gene expression and reducing aspecific staining associated with problematic areas. Given the improved results and reduced manipulation risks, we tested the urea protocol on other metazoans, two brachiopod species (Novocrania anomala and Terebratalia transversa) and the priapulid worm Priapulus caudatus, obtaining a similar reduction of aspecific probe binding. Overall, substitution of formamide by urea during in situ hybridization offers a safer alternative, potentially of widespread use in research, medical and teaching contexts. We encourage other workers to test this approach on their study organisms, and hope that they will also

  19. Vaccination of mice for research purpose: alum is as effective as and safer than complete Freund adjuvant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Punzi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE is an autoimmune disease involving many organ systems. Glomerulonephritis (GLN is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality in SLE. It has recently been demonstrated that adjuvants of vaccines could cause the so called ASIA syndrome. The study aimed to assess the effects of Complete Freund’s Adjuvant (CFA vs alum injections in NZB/NZWF1 mice. Mice (n=10 each group were injected with a total volume of 200 μL of: CFA in PBS (group 1, alum in PBS (group 2, PBS (group 3 as controls, PTX3/CFA (group 4, PTX3/alum (group 5, 3 times, 3 weeks apart /given in each injection, three weeks apart from ten weeks of age. Urine samples were collected weekly to evaluate proteinuria. Blood samples were collected before every injection, at 21 weeks of age, and at death to evaluate levels of anti-PTX3 and anti-dsDNA. Proteinuria free survival and survival rates were analyzed by the Kaplan-Meier method using Mantel-Cox’s test for comparisons. CFA-treated mice developed both anti-dsDNA antibodies and proteinuria earlier and at higher levels than alumtreated and PBS-injected mice, starting from 13 weeks of age. Proteinuria free survival rates (proteinuria ≥300 mg/dL and survival rates were lower in CFA-treated mice than those treated with alum or injected with PBS (P<0.001 for all. No difference was observed between the alum-treated group and PBS-injected mice. Notably, groups 4 and 5, immunized with PTX3, developed anti-PTX3 antibodies and no significant difference was observed. Alum seems to be as effective as and safer than CFA as adjuvant, since it did not affect disease progression in immunized NZB/NZWF1 mice.

  20. Importance of Women's Relative Socioeconomic Status within Sexual Relationships in Communication about Safer Sex and HIV/STI Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muchomba, Felix M; Chan, Christine; El-Bassel, Nabila

    2015-06-01

    The socioeconomic status (SES) of women is increasingly considered an important factor for HIV/STI risk. The HIV/STI literature has largely focused on women's absolute levels of SES, and therefore, the importance of their SES relative to their male sexual partners remains understudied. This paper examines the association between women's relative SES and frequency of safer sex communication among heterosexual couples. A convenience sample of 342 couples (N = 684) recruited in New York City was asked about frequency of discussions with their partner about the need to use male condoms, about HIV prevention, and about STI prevention in the previous 90 days. Differences between partners in education, income, employment, housing, and incarceration history were combined using principal component analysis to form an index of women's relative SES. Negative binomial regression models assessed associations between woman's relative SES and communication frequency controlling for age, sex, race, ethnicity, education, and relationship type using a generalized estimating equation framework. On average, participants had 2.5, 4.2, and 4.8 discussions regarding the need to use male condoms, about HIV prevention, and about STI prevention, respectively. A one standard deviation increase in a woman's relative SES score was associated with increased frequency of discussions about male condom use (adjusted rate ratio [aRR], 1.15; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03-1.29), about HIV prevention (aRR, 1.25; CI, 1.14-1.37), and about STI prevention (aRR, 1.29; CI, 1.18-1.41). Women's relative SES may be an important factor for sexual communication, and further research on its role in HIV/STI risk may uncover avenues for intervention.

  1. Provider software buyer's guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-03-01

    To help long term care providers find new ways to improve quality of care and efficiency, Provider magazine presents the fourth annual listing of software firms marketing computer programs for all areas of nursing facility operations. On the following five pages, more than 80 software firms display their wares, with programs such as minimum data set and care planning, dietary, accounting and financials, case mix, and medication administration records. The guide also charts compatible hardware, integration ability, telephone numbers, company contacts, and easy-to-use reader service numbers.

  2. SAFER - Company Snapshot

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Company Snapshot is a concise electronic record of company identification, size, commodity information, and safety record, including the safety rating (if any),...

  3. Safer Nanomaterials and Nanomanufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    objective of this work was to generate crucial ecotoxicological data of metal nanoparticles (NPs) on the environmentally ubiquitous ammonia oxidizing...Nanostructured TiO2 into the Patterned Biosilica of the Diatom Pinnularia sp. by a Two-Stage Bioreactor Cultivation Process. ACS Nano 2008, 2 (10

  4. SaferProducts.gov

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sent to your business before they are posted online. Sign up with the Business Portal to get reports quickly. Get Started Do ... Safe: Watch and Share Report an Unsafe Product Business Sign In Search Recalls/Repairs & Reports Advanced Search ... OF USE | PRIVACY | NO FEAR | OPEN GOVERNMENT ...

  5. What HERA may provide?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Hannes [DESY, Hamburg (Germany); De Roeck, Albert [CERN, Genf (Switzerland); Bartles, Jochen [Univ. Hamburg (DE). Institut fuer Theoretische Physik II] (and others)

    2008-09-15

    More than 100 people participated in a discussion session at the DIS08 workshop on the topic What HERA may provide. A summary of the discussion with a structured outlook and list of desirable measurements and theory calculations is given. (orig.)

  6. What HERA may provide?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Hannes; De Roeck, Albert; Bartles, Jochen

    2008-09-01

    More than 100 people participated in a discussion session at the DIS08 workshop on the topic What HERA may provide. A summary of the discussion with a structured outlook and list of desirable measurements and theory calculations is given. (orig.)

  7. Provider of Services File

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The POS file consists of two data files, one for CLIA labs and one for 18 other provider types. The file names are CLIA and OTHER. If downloading the file, note it...

  8. Building Service Provider Capabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandl, Kristin; Jaura, Manya; Ørberg Jensen, Peter D.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we study whether and how the interaction between clients and the service providers contributes to the development of capabilities in service provider firms. In situations where such a contribution occurs, we analyze how different types of activities in the production process...... process. We find that clients influence the development of human capital capabilities and management capabilities in reciprocally produced services. While in sequential produced services clients influence the development of organizational capital capabilities and management capital capabilities....... of the services, such as sequential or reciprocal task activities, influence the development of different types of capabilities. We study five cases of offshore-outsourced knowledge-intensive business services that are distinguished according to their reciprocal or sequential task activities in their production...

  9. Providing x-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallozzi, P.J.; Epstein, H.M.

    1985-01-01

    This invention provides an apparatus for providing x-rays to an object that may be in an ordinary environment such as air at approximately atmospheric pressure. The apparatus comprises: means (typically a laser beam) for directing energy onto a target to produce x-rays of a selected spectrum and intensity at the target; a fluid-tight enclosure around the target; means for maintaining the pressure in the first enclosure substantially below atmospheric pressure; a fluid-tight second enclosure adjoining the first enclosure, the common wall portion having an opening large enough to permit x-rays to pass through but small enough to allow the pressure reducing means to evacuate gas from the first enclosure at least as fast as it enters through the opening; the second enclosure filled with a gas that is highly transparent to x-rays; the wall of the second enclosure to which the x-rays travel having a portion that is highly transparent to x-rays (usually a beryllium or plastic foil), so that the object to which the x-rays are to be provided may be located outside the second enclosure and adjacent thereto and thus receive the x-rays substantially unimpeded by air or other intervening matter. The apparatus is particularly suited to obtaining EXAFS (extended x-ray fine structure spectroscopy) data on a material

  10. Why healthcare providers merge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postma, Jeroen; Roos, Anne-Fleur

    2016-04-01

    In many OECD countries, healthcare sectors have become increasingly concentrated as a result of mergers. However, detailed empirical insight into why healthcare providers merge is lacking. Also, we know little about the influence of national healthcare policies on mergers. We fill this gap in the literature by conducting a survey study on mergers among 848 Dutch healthcare executives, of which 35% responded (resulting in a study sample of 239 executives). A total of 65% of the respondents was involved in at least one merger between 2005 and 2012. During this period, Dutch healthcare providers faced a number of policy changes, including increasing competition, more pressure from purchasers, growing financial risks, de-institutionalisation of long-term care and decentralisation of healthcare services to municipalities. Our empirical study shows that healthcare providers predominantly merge to improve the provision of healthcare services and to strengthen their market position. Also efficiency and financial reasons are important drivers of merger activity in healthcare. We find that motives for merger are related to changes in health policies, in particular to the increasing pressure from competitors, insurers and municipalities.

  11. PROVIDING WOMEN, KEPT MEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mojola, Sanyu A

    2014-01-01

    This paper draws on ethnographic and interview based fieldwork to explore accounts of intimate relationships between widowed women and poor young men that emerged in the wake of economic crisis and a devastating HIV epidemic among the Luo ethnic group in Western Kenya. I show how the cooptation of widow inheritance practices in the wake of an overwhelming number of widows as well as economic crisis resulted in widows becoming providing women and poor young men becoming kept men. I illustrate how widows in this setting, by performing a set of practices central to what it meant to be a man in this society – pursuing and providing for their partners - were effectively doing masculinity. I will also show how young men, rather than being feminized by being kept, deployed other sets of practices to prove their masculinity and live in a manner congruent with cultural ideals. I argue that ultimately, women’s practice of masculinity in large part seemed to serve patriarchal ends. It not only facilitated the fulfillment of patriarchal expectations of femininity – to being inherited – but also served, in the end, to provide a material base for young men’s deployment of legitimizing and culturally valued sets of masculine practice. PMID:25489121

  12. Providing Compassion through Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydia Royeen

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Meg Kral, MS, OTR/L, CLT, is the cover artist for the Summer 2015 issue of The Open Journal of Occupational Therapy. Her untitled piece of art is an oil painting and is a re-creation of a photograph taken while on vacation. Meg is currently supervisor of outpatient services at Rush University Medical Center. She is lymphedema certified and has a specific interest in breast cancer lymphedema. Art and occupational therapy serve similar purposes for Meg: both provide a sense of flow. She values the outcomes, whether it is a piece of art or improved functional status

  13. Energy providers: customer expectations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pridham, N.F.

    1997-01-01

    The deregulation of the gas and electric power industries, and how it will impact on customer service and pricing rates was discussed. This paper described the present situation, reviewed core competencies, and outlined future expectations. The bottom line is that major energy consumers are very conscious of energy costs and go to great lengths to keep them under control. At the same time, solutions proposed to reduce energy costs must benefit all classes of consumers, be they industrial, commercial, institutional or residential. Deregulation and competition at an accelerated pace is the most likely answer. This may be forced by external forces such as foreign energy providers who are eager to enter the Canadian energy market. It is also likely that the competition and convergence between gas and electricity is just the beginning, and may well be overshadowed by other deregulated industries as they determine their core competencies

  14. What HERA May Provide?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Hannes; /DESY; De Roeck, Albert; /CERN; Bartels, Jochen; /Hamburg U., Inst. Theor. Phys. II; Behnke, Olaf; Blumlein, Johannes; /DESY; Brodsky, Stanley; /SLAC /Durham U., IPPP; Cooper-Sarkar, Amanda; /Oxford U.; Deak, Michal; /DESY; Devenish, Robin; /Oxford U.; Diehl, Markus; /DESY; Gehrmann, Thomas; /Zurich U.; Grindhammer, Guenter; /Munich, Max Planck Inst.; Gustafson, Gosta; /CERN /Lund U., Dept. Theor. Phys.; Khoze, Valery; /Durham U., IPPP; Knutsson, Albert; /DESY; Klein, Max; /Liverpool U.; Krauss, Frank; /Durham U., IPPP; Kutak, Krzysztof; /DESY; Laenen, Eric; /NIKHEF, Amsterdam; Lonnblad, Leif; /Lund U., Dept. Theor. Phys.; Motyka, Leszek; /Hamburg U., Inst. Theor. Phys. II /Birmingham U. /Southern Methodist U. /DESY /Piemonte Orientale U., Novara /CERN /Paris, LPTHE /Hamburg U. /Penn State U.

    2011-11-10

    More than 100 people participated in a discussion session at the DIS08 workshop on the topic What HERA may provide. A summary of the discussion with a structured outlook and list of desirable measurements and theory calculations is given. The HERA accelerator and the HERA experiments H1, HERMES and ZEUS stopped running in the end of June 2007. This was after 15 years of very successful operation since the first collisions in 1992. A total luminosity of {approx} 500 pb{sup -1} has been accumulated by each of the collider experiments H1 and ZEUS. During the years the increasingly better understood and upgraded detectors and HERA accelerator have contributed significantly to this success. The physics program remains in full swing and plenty of new results were presented at DIS08 which are approaching the anticipated final precision, fulfilling and exceeding the physics plans and the previsions of the upgrade program. Most of the analyses presented at DIS08 were still based on the so called HERA I data sample, i.e. data taken until 2000, before the shutdown for the luminosity upgrade. This sample has an integrated luminosity of {approx} 100 pb{sup -1}, and the four times larger statistics sample from HERA II is still in the process of being analyzed.

  15. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SOCIAL, POLICY AND PHYSICAL VENUE FEATURES AND SOCIAL COHESION ON CONDOM USE FOR PREGNANCY PREVENTION AMONG SEX WORKERS: A SAFER INDOOR WORK ENVIRONMENT SCALE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duff, Putu; Shoveller, Jean; Dobrer, Sabina; Ogilvie, Gina; Montaner, Julio; Chettiar, Jill; Shannon, Kate

    2015-01-01

    Background This study aims to: report on a newly developed ‘Safer Indoor Work Environmental Scale’ that characterizes the social, policy and physical features of indoor venues and social cohesion; and using this scale, longitudinally evaluate the association between these features on sex workers’ (SWs’) condom use for pregnancy prevention. Methods Drawing on a prospective open cohort of female SWs working in indoor venues, a newly-developed ‘Safer Indoor Work Environment Scale’ was used to build six multivariable models with generalized estimating equations (GEE), to determine the independent effects of social, policy and venue-based features and social cohesion on condom use. Results Of 588 indoor SWs, 63.6% used condoms for pregnancy prevention in the last month. In multivariable GEE analysis, the following venue-based features were significantly correlated with barrier contraceptive use for pregnancy prevention: managerial practices and venue safety policies (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR)=1.09; 95% Confidence Interval (95%CI) 1.01–1.17) access to sexual and reproductive health services/supplies (AOR=1.10; 95%CI 1.00–1.20) access to drug harm reduction (AOR=1.13; 95%CI 1.01–1.28), and social cohesion among workers (AOR=1.05; 95%CI 1.03–1.07). Access to security features was marginally associated with condom use (AOR=1.13; 95%CI 0.99–1.29). Conclusion The findings of the current study highlight how work environment and social cohesion among SWs are related to improved condom use. Given global calls for the decriminalization of sex work, and potential legislative reforms in Canada, this study points to the critical need for new institutional arrangements (e.g., legal and regulatory frameworks; labour standards) to support safer sex workplaces. PMID:25678713

  16. The relationship between social, policy and physical venue features and social cohesion on condom use for pregnancy prevention among sex workers: a safer indoor work environment scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duff, Putu; Shoveller, Jean; Dobrer, Sabina; Ogilvie, Gina; Montaner, Julio; Chettiar, Jill; Shannon, Kate

    2015-07-01

    This study aims to report on a newly developed Safer Indoor Work Environmental Scale that characterises the social, policy and physical features of indoor venues and social cohesion; and using this scale, longitudinally evaluate the association between these features on sex workers' (SWs') condom use for pregnancy prevention. Drawing on a prospective open cohort of female SWs working in indoor venues, a newly developed Safer Indoor Work Environment Scale was used to build six multivariable models with generalised estimating equations (GEE), to determine the independent effects of social, policy and physical venue-based features and social cohesion on condom use. Of 588 indoor SWs, 63.6% used condoms for pregnancy prevention in the last month. In multivariable GEE analysis, the following venue-based features were significantly correlated with barrier contraceptive use for pregnancy prevention: managerial practices and venue safety policies (adjusted OR (AOR)=1.09; 95% CI 1.01 to 1.17), access to sexual and reproductive health services/supplies (AOR=1.10; 95% CI 1.00 to 1.20), access to drug harm reduction (AOR=1.13; 95% CI 1.01 to 1.28) and social cohesion among workers (AOR=1.05; 95% CI 1.03 to 1.07). Access to security features was marginally associated with condom use (AOR=1.13; 95% CI 0.99 to 1.29). The findings of the current study highlight how work environment and social cohesion among SWs are related to improved condom use. Given global calls for the decriminalisation of sex work, and potential legislative reforms in Canada, this study points to the critical need for new institutional arrangements (eg, legal and regulatory frameworks; labour standards) to support safer sex workplaces. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  17. Do health care providers discuss HIV with older female patients?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-03-08

    Mar 8, 2010 ... as vaginal dryness and thinning, increase the risk of HIV infection through tears and abrasions during unprotected sex. .... size was required to obtain a two-sided 95% confidence .... patients about safer sex and disclosure?

  18. An application of safer for the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek characterization area at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutz, C.T.; Provost, C.A.

    1996-01-01

    The Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) has been applied at the US Department of Energy's Y-12 Plant in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The Y-12 Plant is an operationally and hydrogeologically complex area located within the watershed of Upper East Fork Poplar Creek (UEFPC). The plant has been in operation since 1943 and nearly 175 potentially contaminated sites resulting from past waste management practices have been identified. The need to complete Remedial Investigations (RIs) for the sites in a timely and cost-effective manner has resulted in an approach that considers the entire watershed of UEFPC, which has been designated a open-quotes Characterization Areaclose quotes (CA). This approach emphasizes the watershed rather than individual sites, focuses on key questions and issues, and maximizes the use of existing data. The goal of this approach is to focus work toward the resolution of key questions and decisions necessary to complete the remediation of the CA. An evaluation of the potentially contaminated sites, the development of key questions, and the compilation and analysis of existing data are progressing. A SAFER workshop will be held in 1996, which will allow the project team and stakeholders to discuss the status of the RI, identify additional key questions and issues, and determine the activities necessary to complete the RI. This investigation demonstrates an approach to streamlining the RI process that could be applied successfully to other complex sites

  19. Women's household decision-making autonomy and safer sex negotiation in Nigeria: An analysis of the Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, Yujiro; Sedziafa, Alice P; Vercillo, Siera; Antabe, Roger; Luginaah, Isaac

    2018-02-01

    Although married women's safer sex negotiation with their husbands is critical in reducing new HIV infections in Nigeria, its linkage to women's household decision-making autonomy is less explored in Nigeria. Drawing data from the 2013 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey and using the logistic regression technique, we examined the associations between women's household decision-making autonomy and two indicators of the ability to engage in safer sex including whether married women 1) can refuse sex and 2) ask for condom use during sexual intercourse with husbands. Findings indicate that 64% and 41% of married women can refuse sex and ask for condom use, respectively. While the impact of women's household decision-making autonomy on the ability to refuse sex remained statistically significant after controlling for theoretically relevant variables (OR = 1.15; p < 0.001), its impact on the ability to ask for condom use became weakly significant once socioeconomic variables were controlled (OR = 1.03; p < 0.1). Based on these results, we have two suggestions. First, it may be important that marital-based policies and counselling promote environments in which married women can establish equal power relations with their husbands. Second, it is also important to eliminate structural barriers that hinder married women's economic opportunities in Nigeria.

  20. Subgaleo-peritoneal shunt: An effective and safer alternative to lumboperitoneal shunt in the management of persistent or recurrent iatrogenic cranial pseudomeningoceles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiran, Narayanam Anantha Sai; Thakar, Sumit; Mohan, Dilip; Aryan, Saritha; Rao, Arun Sadashiva; Hegde, Alangar S

    2013-01-01

    Subgaleo-peritoneal (SP) shunting for pseudomeningoceles (PMCs) is an effective and safer alternative as compared to the lumboperitoneal (LP) shunt. SP shunting was done in six patients (14-60 years) with persistent or recurrent PMCs using the cranial (ventricular part) and the distal parts of a Chhabra shunt connected by a rigid connector without any intervening chamber or valve. Two patients had undergone a prior LP shunt that had failed. One patient was unsuitable for a LP shunt placement. The PMC subsided completely in all the patients following the SP shunt. In one patient, the shunt got displaced and required repositioning. None of the patients developed symptoms of over-drainage or any other complication. All patients were asymptomatic at a mean follow-up of 15 months. These results suggest that SP shunting is a safe, simple, and effective alternative to the traditional LP shunt in the management of persistent or recurrent cranial PMCs.

  1. InP/ZnS as a safer alternative to CdSe/ZnS core/shell quantum dots: in vitro and in vivo toxicity assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunetti, Virgilio; Chibli, Hicham; Fiammengo, Roberto; Galeone, Antonio; Malvindi, Maria Ada; Vecchio, Giuseppe; Cingolani, Roberto; Nadeau, Jay L.; Pompa, Pier Paolo

    2012-12-01

    We show that water soluble InP/ZnS core/shell QDs are a safer alternative to CdSe/ZnS QDs for biological applications, by comparing their toxicity in vitro (cell culture) and in vivo (animal model Drosophila). By choosing QDs with comparable physical and chemical properties, we find that cellular uptake and localization are practically identical for these two nanomaterials. Toxicity of CdSe/ZnS QDs appears to be related to the release of poisonous Cd2+ ions and indeed we show that there is leaching of Cd2+ ions from the particle core despite the two-layer ZnS shell. Since an almost identical amount of In(iii) ions is observed to leach from the core of InP/ZnS QDs, their very low toxicity as revealed in this study hints at a much lower intrinsic toxicity of indium compared to cadmium.

  2. Forthcoming Challenges in Mycotoxins Toxicology Research for Safer Food-A Need for Multi-Omics Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellafiora, Luca; Dall'Asta, Chiara

    2017-01-04

    The presence of mycotoxins in food represents a severe threat for public health and welfare, and poses relevant research challenges in the food toxicology field. Nowadays, food toxicologists have to provide answers to food-related toxicological issues, but at the same time they should provide the appropriate knowledge in background to effectively support the evidence-based decision-making in food safety. Therefore, keeping in mind that regulatory actions should be based on sound scientific findings, the present opinion addresses the main challenges in providing reliable data for supporting the risk assessment of foodborne mycotoxins.

  3. Measuring emotions in traffic : paper presented at the ESF Congress ‘Towards Safer Road Traffic in Southern Europe’, May 31st-June 2nd 2001, Ankara, Turkey.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mesken, J.

    2002-01-01

    This paper contains the text of a presentation held at the European Science Foundation Congress ‘Towards Safer Road Traffic in Southern Europe’ (May 31st – June 2nd, 2001, Ankara , Turkey). In this paper, methods to measure emotions are reviewed and possible applications for traffic research are

  4. Teaching Modules to Build HIV/AIDS Knowledge and Safer Sex Skills among African-American College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanekar, Amar; Sharma, Manoj

    2011-01-01

    The HIV/AIDS epidemic has taken a tremendous toll on the population of the United States. College students, including African-Americans aged 13-24 years, across the nation are susceptible to contracting sexually transmitted diseases including HIV/AIDS as they participate in unsafe sex practices. The purpose of this article is to provide teaching…

  5. Promoting male partner HIV testing and safer sexual decision making through secondary distribution of self-tests by HIV-negative female sex workers and women receiving antenatal and post-partum care in Kenya: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirumurthy, Harsha; Masters, Samuel H; Mavedzenge, Sue Napierala; Maman, Suzanne; Omanga, Eunice; Agot, Kawango

    2016-06-01

    Increased uptake of HIV testing by men in sub-Saharan Africa is essential for the success of combination prevention. Self-testing is an emerging approach with high acceptability, but little evidence exists on the best strategies for test distribution. We assessed an approach of providing multiple self-tests to women at high risk of HIV acquisition to promote partner HIV testing and to facilitate safer sexual decision making. In this cohort study, HIV-negative women aged 18-39 years were recruited at two sites in Kisumu, Kenya: a health facility with antenatal and post-partum clinics and a drop-in centre for female sex workers. Participants gave informed consent and were instructed on use of oral fluid based rapid HIV tests. Participants enrolled at the health facility received three self-tests and those at the drop-in centre received five self-tests. Structured interviews were conducted with participants at enrolment and over 3 months to determine how self-tests were used. Outcomes included the number of self-tests distributed by participants, the proportion of participants whose sexual partners used a self-test, couples testing, and sexual behaviour after self-testing. Between Jan 14, 2015, and March 13, 2015, 280 participants were enrolled (61 in antenatal care, 117 in post-partum care, and 102 female sex workers); follow-up interviews were completed for 265 (96%). Most participants with primary sexual partners distributed self-tests to partners: 53 (91%) of 58 participants in antenatal care, 91 (86%) of 106 in post-partum care, and 64 (75%) of 85 female sex workers. 82 (81%) of 101 female sex workers distributed more than one self-test to commercial sex clients. Among self-tests distributed to and used by primary sexual partners of participants, couples testing occurred in 27 (51%) of 53 in antenatal care, 62 (68%) of 91 from post-partum care, and 53 (83%) of 64 female sex workers. Among tests received by primary and non-primary sexual partners, two (4%) of 53

  6. Preferred Provider Organization (PPO) Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Find & compare doctors, hospitals, & other providers Preferred Provider Organization (PPO) Plans How PPO Plans Work A Medicare ... extra for these benefits. Related Resources Health Maintenance Organization (HMO) Private Fee-for-Service (PFFS) Special Needs ...

  7. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan for Corrective Action Unit 356: Mud Pits and Disposal Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada (Revision No. 0, August 2001); FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan addresses the actions necessary for the characterization and closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 356, Mud Pits and Disposal Sites, as identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO). The CAU, located on the Nevada Test Site in Nevada, consists of seven Corrective Action Sites (CASs): CAS 03-04-01, Area 3 Change House Septic System; CAS 03-09-01, Mud Pit Spill Over; CAS 03-09-03, Mud Pit; CAS 03-09-04, Mud Pit; CAS 03-09-05, Mud Pit; CAS 20-16-01, Landfill; CAS 20-22-21, Drums. Sufficient information and process knowledge from historical documentation and investigations are the basis for the development of the phased approach chosen to address the data collection activities prior to implementing the preferred closure alternative for each CAS. The Phase I investigation will determine through collection of environmental samples from targeted populations (i.e., mud/soil cuttings above textural discontinuity) if contaminants of potential concern (COPCs) are present in concentrations exceeding preliminary action levels (PALs) at each of the CASs. If COPCs are present above PALs, a Phase II investigation will be implemented to determine the extent of contamination to support the appropriate corrective action alternative to complete closure of the site. Groundwater impacts from potentially migrating contaminants are not expected due to the depths to groundwater and limiting hydrologic drivers of low precipitation and high evaporation rates. Future land-use scenarios limit future uses to industrial activities; therefore, future residential uses are not considered. Potential exposure routes to site workers from contaminants of concern in septage and soils include oral ingestion, inhalation, or dermal contact (absorption) through in-advertent disturbance of contaminated structures and/or soils. Diesel within drilling muds is expected to be the primary COPC based on process

  8. Would it provide Free Education?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Would it provide Free Education? Would it provide Free Education? Would it provide Compulsory Education? Would it guarantee education of equitable quality? Would it prevent discrimination? Would it stop schools that promote inequality & discrimination? NO! NO!

  9. Developing safer systems in a NPP environment using the operator`s comfort parameters and virtual reality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown-VanHoozer, S.A.

    1995-07-01

    The contents of this paper is based on two studies involving the design of visual displays from the operator`s point of view, and the utilization of virtual reality for operations, training and maintenance repairs. The studies involve a methodology known as Neuro-Linguistic Programming (NLP), and its use in strengthening design choices from the user`s perspective model of the environment. The contents of this paper focuses on the results which may be implemented in nuclear power plants for the purpose of providing systems which are less inherently error prone.

  10. Implementing an ally development model to promote safer schools for LGB youth: a trans-disciplinary approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zammitt, Kimberly A; Pepperell, Jennifer; Coe, Megan

    2015-01-01

    Lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) students experience ongoing bullying, harassment, and lack of safety in school. Specialized instructional support personnel (SISPs), such as school counselors, school social workers, and school psychologists, are in a unique position to advocate for LGB students and to implement an ally development model. The purpose of this article is to describe the current climate for LGB students, to discuss the current barriers facing SISPs in advocating for change, and to provide a model of ally development for use at each level of the K-12 system.

  11. Proof of safer operation of power station plant during a fire by linking in fire simulation and system technical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hensel, W.; Beyer, H.; Samman, A.

    1997-01-01

    In order to attain the basic aims of protection in power station plant, a series of systems, which must be available also in the event of a fire, are provided. The thermal loads for the systems and components which are necessary to attain the aims of protection are ascertained by means of a simulation of the cause of the fire for the specific scenario. Statements on the availability of the systems and components in the specific scenario are derived from the design values used as the basis. (orig.) [de

  12. Treating Uncertainties in A Nuclear Seismic Probabilistic Risk Assessment by Means of the Distemper-Safer Theory of Evidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lo, Chungkung; Pedroni, N.; Zio, E.

    2014-01-01

    The analyses carried out within the Seismic Probabilistic Risk Assessments (SPRAs) of Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) are affected by significant aleatory and epistemic uncertainties. These uncertainties have to be represented and quantified coherently with the data, information and knowledge available, to provide reasonable assurance that related decisions can be taken robustly and with confidence. The amount of data, information and knowledge available for seismic risk assessment is typically limited, so that the analysis must strongly rely on expert judgments. In this paper, a Dempster-Shafer Theory (DST) framework for handling uncertainties in NPP SPRAs is proposed and applied to an example case study. The main contributions of this paper are two: (i) applying the complete DST framework to SPRA models, showing how to build the Dempster-Shafer structures of the uncertainty parameters based on industry generic data, and (ii) embedding Bayesian updating based on plant specific data into the framework. The results of the application to a case study show that the approach is feasible and effective in (i) describing and jointly propagating aleatory and epistemic uncertainties in SPRA models and (ii) providing 'conservative' bounds on the safety quantities of interest (i. e. Core Damage Frequency, CDF) that reflect the (limited) state of knowledge of the experts about the system of interest

  13. Treating Uncertainties in A Nuclear Seismic Probabilistic Risk Assessment by Means of the Distemper-Safer Theory of Evidence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lo, Chungkung [Chair on Systems Science and the Energetic Challenge, Paris (France); Pedroni, N.; Zio, E. [Politecnico di Milano, Milano (Italy)

    2014-02-15

    The analyses carried out within the Seismic Probabilistic Risk Assessments (SPRAs) of Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) are affected by significant aleatory and epistemic uncertainties. These uncertainties have to be represented and quantified coherently with the data, information and knowledge available, to provide reasonable assurance that related decisions can be taken robustly and with confidence. The amount of data, information and knowledge available for seismic risk assessment is typically limited, so that the analysis must strongly rely on expert judgments. In this paper, a Dempster-Shafer Theory (DST) framework for handling uncertainties in NPP SPRAs is proposed and applied to an example case study. The main contributions of this paper are two: (i) applying the complete DST framework to SPRA models, showing how to build the Dempster-Shafer structures of the uncertainty parameters based on industry generic data, and (ii) embedding Bayesian updating based on plant specific data into the framework. The results of the application to a case study show that the approach is feasible and effective in (i) describing and jointly propagating aleatory and epistemic uncertainties in SPRA models and (ii) providing 'conservative' bounds on the safety quantities of interest (i. e. Core Damage Frequency, CDF) that reflect the (limited) state of knowledge of the experts about the system of interest.

  14. Prehospital Providers' Perceptions on Providing Patient and Family Centered Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayub, Emily M; Sampayo, Esther M; Shah, Manish I; Doughty, Cara B

    2017-01-01

    A gap exists in understanding a provider's approach to delivering care that is mutually beneficial to patients, families, and other providers in the prehospital setting. The purpose of this study was to identify attitudes, beliefs, and perceived barriers to providing patient and family centered care (PFCC) in the prehospital setting and to describe potential solutions for improving PFCC during critical pediatric events. We conducted a qualitative, cross-sectional study of a purposive sample of Emergency Medical Technicians (EMTs) and paramedics from an urban, municipal, fire-based EMS system, who participated in the Pediatric Simulation Training for Emergency Prehospital Providers (PediSTEPPS) course. Two coders reviewed transcriptions of audio recordings from participants' first simulation scenario debriefings and performed constant comparison analysis to identify unifying themes. Themes were verified through member checking with two focus groups of prehospital providers. A total of 122 EMTs and paramedics participated in 16 audiotaped debriefing sessions and two focus groups. Four overarching themes emerged regarding the experience of PFCC by prehospital providers: (1) Perceived barriers included the prehospital environment, limited manpower, multi-tasking medical care, and concern for interference with patient care; (2) Providing emotional support comprised of empathetically comforting caregivers, maintaining a calm demeanor, and empowering families to feel involved; (3) Effective communication strategies consisted of designating a family point person, narration of actions, preempting the next steps, speaking in lay terms, summarizing during downtime, and conveying a positive first impression; (4) Tactics to overcome PFCC barriers were maintaining a line of sight, removing and returning a caregiver to and from the scene, and providing situational awareness. Based on debriefings from simulated scenarios, some prehospital providers identified the provision of

  15. Safe school task force: University-community partnership to promote student development and a safer school environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Corey; Chung-Do, Jane; Ongalibang, Ophelia

    2008-01-01

    The Asian/Pacific Islander Youth Violence Prevention Center (APIYVPC) focuses its youth violence prevention efforts on community mobilization by partnering with Kailua High School and other local community groups. This paper describes the development and activities of the Safe School Task Force (SSTF) and the lessons learned. In response to concerns of school, community members, and students, the SSTF was organized to promote student leadership in raising awareness about problems related to violence. Collaboration among the school, community, and the university places students in leadership roles to reduce school violence and enhances their self-efficacy to improve their school environment. To increase SSTF effectiveness, more attention must be paid to student recruitment, consistent community partnerships, and gaining teacher buy-in. This partnership may be useful in multicultural communities to provide students the opportunities to learn about violence prevention strategies, community mobilization, and leadership skills.

  16. Submucosal chromoendoscopy: a technique that highlights epithelia and differentiates histological components, and renders colon polypectomy easier and safer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Dolz-Abadía

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Submucosal chromoendoscopy involves the injection of a solution containing a vital stain, usually indigo carmine, into the intestinal wall submucosal layer. This allows to: Better delimit and characterize the various epithelia present (colonic mucosa, adenoma, hyperplastic polyp, serrated polyp, small bowel mucosa; expose and delimit lesion implantation areas; cooperate in the lifting of resectable lesions; ensure section across the submucosal plane; identify intestinal wall structures; render complex polypectomy feasible; and facilitate the identification of perforations. The present paper offers information on the endoscopic technique for submucosal injection, solution preparation and concentration, and on the potential benefits it may provide for polypectomy or endocopic mucosal resection whether en block or piecemeal. This endoscopic technique simultaneously combines a diagnostic and a therapeutic aspect, since lesion lifting in association with better delimited contours may improve not only accuracy but also endoscopic resection safety and feasibility.

  17. Patient choice of providers in a preferred provider organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wouters, A V; Hester, J

    1988-03-01

    This article is an analysis of patient choice of providers by the employees of the Security Pacific Bank of California and their dependents who have access to the Med Network Preferred Provider Organization (PPO). The empirical results show that not only is the PPO used by individuals who require relatively little medical care (as measured by predicted office visit charges) but that the PPO is most intensively used for low-risk services such as treatment for minor illness and preventive care. Also, the most likely Security Pacific Health Care beneficiary to use a PPO provider is a recently hired employee who lives in the south urban region, has a relatively low income, does not have supplemental insurance coverage, and is without previous attachments to non-PPO primary care providers. In order to maximize their ability to reduce plan paid benefits, insurers who contract with PPOs should focus on increasing PPO utilization among poorer health risks.

  18. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan for Corrective Action Unit 415: Project 57 No. 1 Plutonium Dispersion (NTTR), Nevada, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthews, Patrick; Burmeister, Mark

    2014-04-01

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan addresses the actions needed to achieve closure for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 415, Project 57 No. 1 Plutonium Dispersion (NTTR). CAU 415 is located on Range 4808A of the Nevada Test and Training Range (NTTR) and consists of one corrective action site: NAFR-23-02, Pu Contaminated Soil. The CAU 415 site consists of the atmospheric release of radiological contaminants to surface soil from the Project 57 safety experiment conducted in 1957. The safety experiment released plutonium (Pu), uranium (U), and americium (Am) to the surface soil over an area of approximately 1.9 square miles. This area is currently fenced and posted as a radiological contamination area. Vehicles and debris contaminated by the experiment were subsequently buried in a disposal trench within the surface-contaminated, fenced area and are assumed to have released radiological contamination to subsurface soils. Potential source materials in the form of pole-mounted electrical transformers were also identified at the site and will be removed as part of closure activities.

  19. Facile consecutive solvothermal growth of highly fluorescent InP/ZnS core/shell quantum dots using a safer phosphorus source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Ho-June; Song, Woo-Seuk; Yang, Heesun

    2011-06-10

    The work presents a facile, stepwise synthetic approach for the production of highly fluorescent InP/ZnS core/shell quantum dots (QDs) by using a safer phosphorus (P) precursor. First, InP quantum dots (QDs) were solvothermally prepared at 180 °C for 24 h by using a P source of P(N(CH(3))(2))(3). The as-grown InP QDs were consecutively placed in another solvothermal condition for ZnS shell overcoating. In contrast to the almost non-fluorescent InP QDs, due to their highly defective surface states, the ZnS-coated InP QDs were highly fluorescent as a result of effective surface passivation. After the shell growth, the resulting InP/ZnS core/shell QDs were subjected to a size-sorting processing, by which red- to green-emitting QDs with quantum yields (QYs) of 24-60% were produced. Solvothermal shell growth parameters such as the reaction time and Zn/In solution concentration ratio were varied and optimized toward the highest QYs of core/shell QDs.

  20. Facile consecutive solvothermal growth of highly fluorescent InP/ZnS core/shell quantum dots using a safer phosphorus source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byun, Ho-June; Song, Woo-Seuk; Yang, Heesun

    2011-01-01

    The work presents a facile, stepwise synthetic approach for the production of highly fluorescent InP/ZnS core/shell quantum dots (QDs) by using a safer phosphorus (P) precursor. First, InP quantum dots (QDs) were solvothermally prepared at 180 deg. C for 24 h by using a P source of P(N(CH 3 ) 2 ) 3 . The as-grown InP QDs were consecutively placed in another solvothermal condition for ZnS shell overcoating. In contrast to the almost non-fluorescent InP QDs, due to their highly defective surface states, the ZnS-coated InP QDs were highly fluorescent as a result of effective surface passivation. After the shell growth, the resulting InP/ZnS core/shell QDs were subjected to a size-sorting processing, by which red- to green-emitting QDs with quantum yields (QYs) of 24-60% were produced. Solvothermal shell growth parameters such as the reaction time and Zn/In solution concentration ratio were varied and optimized toward the highest QYs of core/shell QDs.

  1. Facile consecutive solvothermal growth of highly fluorescent InP/ZnS core/shell quantum dots using a safer phosphorus source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Ho-June; Song, Woo-Seuk; Yang, Heesun

    2011-06-01

    The work presents a facile, stepwise synthetic approach for the production of highly fluorescent InP/ZnS core/shell quantum dots (QDs) by using a safer phosphorus (P) precursor. First, InP quantum dots (QDs) were solvothermally prepared at 180 °C for 24 h by using a P source of P(N(CH3)2)3. The as-grown InP QDs were consecutively placed in another solvothermal condition for ZnS shell overcoating. In contrast to the almost non-fluorescent InP QDs, due to their highly defective surface states, the ZnS-coated InP QDs were highly fluorescent as a result of effective surface passivation. After the shell growth, the resulting InP/ZnS core/shell QDs were subjected to a size-sorting processing, by which red- to green-emitting QDs with quantum yields (QYs) of 24-60% were produced. Solvothermal shell growth parameters such as the reaction time and Zn/In solution concentration ratio were varied and optimized toward the highest QYs of core/shell QDs.

  2. Facile consecutive solvothermal growth of highly fluorescent InP/ZnS core/shell quantum dots using a safer phosphorus source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byun, Ho-June; Song, Woo-Seuk; Yang, Heesun, E-mail: hyang@hongik.ac.kr [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Hongik University, Seoul 121-791 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-06-10

    The work presents a facile, stepwise synthetic approach for the production of highly fluorescent InP/ZnS core/shell quantum dots (QDs) by using a safer phosphorus (P) precursor. First, InP quantum dots (QDs) were solvothermally prepared at 180 deg. C for 24 h by using a P source of P(N(CH{sub 3}){sub 2}){sub 3}. The as-grown InP QDs were consecutively placed in another solvothermal condition for ZnS shell overcoating. In contrast to the almost non-fluorescent InP QDs, due to their highly defective surface states, the ZnS-coated InP QDs were highly fluorescent as a result of effective surface passivation. After the shell growth, the resulting InP/ZnS core/shell QDs were subjected to a size-sorting processing, by which red- to green-emitting QDs with quantum yields (QYs) of 24-60% were produced. Solvothermal shell growth parameters such as the reaction time and Zn/In solution concentration ratio were varied and optimized toward the highest QYs of core/shell QDs.

  3. The Polymeal: a more natural, safer, and probably tastier (than the Polypill) strategy to reduce cardiovascular disease by more than 75%.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Oscar H; Bonneux, Luc; de Laet, Chris; Peeters, Anna; Steyerberg, Ewout W; Mackenbach, Johan P

    2004-12-18

    Although the Polypill concept (proposed in 2003) is promising in terms of benefits for cardiovascular risk management, the potential costs and adverse effects are its main pitfalls. The objective of this study was to identify a tastier and safer alternative to the Polypill: the Polymeal. Data on the ingredients of the Polymeal were taken from the literature. The evidence based recipe included wine, fish, dark chocolate, fruits, vegetables, garlic, and almonds. Data from the Framingham heart study and the Framingham offspring study were used to build life tables to model the benefits of the Polymeal in the general population from age 50, assuming multiplicative correlations. Combining the ingredients of the Polymeal would reduce cardiovascular disease events by 76%. For men, taking the Polymeal daily represented an increase in total life expectancy of 6.6 years, an increase in life expectancy free from cardiovascular disease of 9.0 years, and a decrease in life expectancy with cardiovascular disease of 2.4 years. The corresponding differences for women were 4.8, 8.1, and 3.3 years. The Polymeal promises to be an effective, non-pharmacological, safe, cheap, and tasty alternative to reduce cardiovascular morbidity and increase life expectancy in the general population.

  4. Can a woman refuse sex if her husband has a sexually transmitted infection? Attitudes toward safer-sex negotiation among married women in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesmin, Syeda S; Cready, Cynthia M

    2014-06-01

    In developing countries, HIV, sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and unintended pregnancy take an enormous toll on women's reproductive health, yet preventive programmes are lacking as married women's risks are frequently underestimated. We examined predictors of married Bangladeshi women's attitudes towards safer-sex negotiation using data on 15,178 currently married women aged 15-49 from the 2011 Bangladesh Demographic Health Survey. Approximately 92% of women believed that a wife's refusal to have sex with her husband is justified if he has an STI. Multilevel logistic regression analysis revealed that the likelihood of a woman holding this belief increased with her autonomy, as measured by the ability to go to a health centre/hospital without another adult, participation in household decision making and rejection of wife beating (p < 0.001). Other significant predictors were knowledge/awareness of STIs (p < 0.05), living in Dhaka division (p < 0.001) and younger age (p < 0.01). Our findings suggest that sexual health education programmes may be more effective if they include strategies to address social norms and cultural practices that limit women's autonomy in society.

  5. Perspectives of addiction treatment providers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. General practitioners are referring patients with codeine-related problems to specialist treatment facilities, but little is known about the addiction treatment providers, the kinds of treatment they provide, and whether training or other interventions are needed to strengthen this sector. Objectives. To investigate the ...

  6. Babesiosis for Health Care Providers

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-04-25

    This podcast will educate health care providers on diagnosing babesiosis and providing patients at risk with tick bite prevention messages.  Created: 4/25/2012 by Center for Global Health, Division of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria.   Date Released: 4/25/2012.

  7. Incentives and provider payment methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnum, H; Kutzin, J; Saxenian, H

    1995-01-01

    The mode of payment creates powerful incentives affecting provider behavior and the efficiency, equity and quality outcomes of health finance reforms. This article examines provider incentives as well as administrative costs, and institutional conditions for successful implementation associated with provider payment alternatives. The alternatives considered are budget reforms, capitation, fee-for-service, and case-based reimbursement. We conclude that competition, whether through a regulated private sector or within a public system, has the potential to improve the performance of any payment method. All methods generate both adverse and beneficial incentives. Systems with mixed forms of provider payment can provide tradeoffs to offset the disadvantages of individual modes. Low-income countries should avoid complex payment systems requiring higher levels of institutional development.

  8. E-medicine and health care consumers: recognizing current problems and possible resolutions for a safer environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brann, Maria; Anderson, James G

    2002-01-01

    Millions of Americans access the Internet for health information, which is changing the way patients seek information about, and often treat, certain medical conditions. It is estimated that there may be as many as 100,000 health-related Web sites. The availability of so much health information permits consumers to assume more responsibility for their own health care. At the same time, it raises a number of issues that need to be addressed. The health information available to Internet users may be inaccurate or out-of-date. Potential conflicts of interest result from the blurring of the distinction between advertising and professional health information. Also, potential threats to privacy may result from data mining. Health care consumers need to be able to evaluate the quality of the information provided on the Internet. Various evaluative mechanisms such as codes of ethics, rating systems, and seals of approval have been developed to aid in this process. The effectiveness of these solutions is evaluated in this paper. Finally, the paper addresses the importance of including patients in developing standardized quality assurance systems for online health information.

  9. Beach handball is safer than indoor team handball: injury rates during the 2017 European Beach Handball Championships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achenbach, Leonard; Loose, Oliver; Laver, Lior; Zeman, Florian; Nerlich, Michael; Angele, Peter; Krutsch, Werner

    2018-03-28

    Beach handball is a relatively new type of sports, which was derived from team handball. Medical issues such as frequency and severity of injury are yet unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate the injury pattern and injury rates of this new type of sports. This study investigated the injury incidence of 30 national teams (10 senior and 20 u-17 teams, 16 men's and 14 women's teams) participating in the 2017 European Beach Handball Championships. Reports on injuries sustained during the senior and u-17 youth tournaments were provided by the medical staff of each team. Injury incidence was differentiated between age and sex, and between the five field positions (goalkeeper, wing, central defender, pivot, and specialist). During the tournaments, 87 injuries were recorded yielding an overall injury incidence of 286.1 per 1000 match hours. Time-loss due to injury was 49.3 per 1000 match hours. Senior players had a higher overall injury incidence with 395.3 injuries than u-17 players with 205.7 injuries per 1000 h match hours (p handball exposure for male players and 234.9 injuries for female players (n.s.). The most frequent injury type was sprains (21 injuries, 24.1%) followed by contusions (19 injuries, 21.8%) and skin abrasions with (15 injuries, 17.2%). Central defenders and specialists had the highest injury incidence. Thighs, ankles, as well as foot and toes (altogether 12 injuries, all 13.8%) were the three most frequently injured anatomic sites. Beach handball seems to have a lower incidence of time-loss injuries than that reported for indoor team handball. This study is an important basis for developing injury prevention strategies in this sports that should focus on thighs, ankles, feet and toes. Further research into this new type of sports is essential to identify risk factors and to develop adequate injury prevention measures. II.

  10. Detecting Slow Deformation Signals Preceding Dynamic Failure: A New Strategy For The Mitigation Of Natural Hazards (SAFER)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinciguerra, S.; Colombero, C.; Comina, C.; Umili, G.

    2015-12-01

    Rock slope monitoring is a major aim in territorial risk assessment and mitigation. The use of "site specific" microseismic monitoring systems can allow to detect pre-failure signals in unstable sectors within the rock mass and to predict the possible acceleration to the failure. To this aim multi-scale geophysical methods can provide a unique tool for an high-resolution imaging of the internal structure of the rock mass and constraints on the physical state of the medium. We present here a cross-hole seismic tomography survey coupled with laboratory ultrasonic velocity measurements and determination of physical properties on rock samples to characterize the damaged and potentially unstable granitic cliff of Madonna del Sasso (NW, Italy). Results allowed to achieve two main advances, in terms of obtaining: i) a lithological interpretation of the velocity field obtained at the site, ii) a systematic correlation of the measured velocities with physical properties (density and porosity) and macroscopic features of the granite (weathering and anisotropy) of the cliff. A microseismic monitoring system developed by the University of Turin/Compagnia San Paolo, consisting of a network of 4 triaxial geophones (4.5 Hz) connected to a 12-channel data logger, has been deployed on the unstable granitic cliff. More than 2000 events with different waveforms, duration and frequency content were recorded between November 2013 and July 2014. By inspecting the acquired events we identified the key parameters for a reliable distinction among the nature of each signal, i.e. the signal shape (in terms of amplitude, duration, kurtosis) and the frequency content (maximum frequency content and frequency distribution). Four main classes of recorded signals can be recognised: microseismic events, regional earthquakes, electrical noises and calibration signals, and unclassified events (probably grouping rockfalls, quarry blasts, other anthropic and natural sources of seismic noise).

  11. Support and Assessment for Fall Emergency Referrals (SAFER 1: cluster randomised trial of computerised clinical decision support for paramedics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Anne Snooks

    Full Text Available To evaluate effectiveness, safety and cost-effectiveness of Computerised Clinical Decision Support (CCDS for paramedics attending older people who fall.Cluster trial randomised by paramedic; modelling.13 ambulance stations in two UK emergency ambulance services.42 of 409 eligible paramedics, who attended 779 older patients for a reported fall.Intervention paramedics received CCDS on Tablet computers to guide patient care. Control paramedics provided care as usual. One service had already installed electronic data capture.Effectiveness: patients referred to falls service, patient reported quality of life and satisfaction, processes of care.Further emergency contacts or death within one month.Costs and quality of life. We used findings from published Community Falls Prevention Trial to model cost-effectiveness.17 intervention paramedics used CCDS for 54 (12.4% of 436 participants. They referred 42 (9.6% to falls services, compared with 17 (5.0% of 343 participants seen by 19 control paramedics [Odds ratio (OR 2.04, 95% CI 1.12 to 3.72]. No adverse events were related to the intervention. Non-significant differences between groups included: subsequent emergency contacts (34.6% versus 29.1%; OR 1.27, 95% CI 0.93 to 1.72; quality of life (mean SF12 differences: MCS -0.74, 95% CI -2.83 to +1.28; PCS -0.13, 95% CI -1.65 to +1.39 and non-conveyance (42.0% versus 36.7%; OR 1.13, 95% CI 0.84 to 1.52. However ambulance job cycle time was 8.9 minutes longer for intervention patients (95% CI 2.3 to 15.3. Average net cost of implementing CCDS was £208 per patient with existing electronic data capture, and £308 without. Modelling estimated cost per quality-adjusted life-year at £15,000 with existing electronic data capture; and £22,200 without.Intervention paramedics referred twice as many participants to falls services with no difference in safety. CCDS is potentially cost-effective, especially with existing electronic data capture.ISRCTN Register ISRCTN

  12. Medicare Referring Provider DMEPOS PUF

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This dataset, which is part of CMSs Medicare Provider Utilization and Payment Data, details information on Durable Medical Equipment, Prosthetics, Orthotics and...

  13. Lodging Update: Providence, Rhode Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ragel Roginsky

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Each quarter, Pinnacle Advisory Group prepares an analysis of the New England lodging industry, which provides a regional summary and then focuses in depth on a particular market. These reviews look at recent and proposed supply changes, factors affecting demand and growth rates, and the effects of interactions between such supply and demand trends. In this issue, the authors spotlight the lodging market in Providence, Rhode Island.

  14. Ancillary Services Provided from DER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, J.B.

    2005-12-21

    Distributed energy resources (DER) are quickly making their way to industry primarily as backup generation. They are effective at starting and then producing full-load power within a few seconds. The distribution system is aging and transmission system development has not kept up with the growth in load and generation. The nation's transmission system is stressed with heavy power flows over long distances, and many areas are experiencing problems in providing the power quality needed to satisfy customers. Thus, a new market for DER is beginning to emerge. DER can alleviate the burden on the distribution system by providing ancillary services while providing a cost adjustment for the DER owner. This report describes 10 types of ancillary services that distributed generation (DG) can provide to the distribution system. Of these 10 services the feasibility, control strategy, effectiveness, and cost benefits are all analyzed as in the context of a future utility-power market. In this market, services will be provided at a local level that will benefit the customer, the distribution utility, and the transmission company.

  15. Ecosystem services provided by waterbirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Andy J; Elmberg, Johan

    2014-02-01

    Ecosystem services are ecosystem processes that directly or indirectly benefit human well-being. There has been much recent literature identifying different services and the communities and species that provide them. This is a vital first step towards management and maintenance of these services. In this review, we specifically address the waterbirds, which play key functional roles in many aquatic ecosystems, including as predators, herbivores and vectors of seeds, invertebrates and nutrients, although these roles have often been overlooked. Waterbirds can maintain the diversity of other organisms, control pests, be effective bioindicators of ecological conditions, and act as sentinels of potential disease outbreaks. They also provide important provisioning (meat, feathers, eggs, etc.) and cultural services to both indigenous and westernized societies. We identify key gaps in the understanding of ecosystem services provided by waterbirds and areas for future research required to clarify their functional role in ecosystems and the services they provide. We consider how the economic value of these services could be calculated, giving some examples. Such valuation will provide powerful arguments for waterbird conservation. © 2013 The Authors. Biological Reviews © 2013 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  16. Enstore with Chimera namespace provider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litvintsev, Dmitry; Moibenko, Alexander; Oleynik, Gene; Zalokar, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Enstore is a mass storage system developed by Fermilab that provides distributed access and management of data stored on tapes. It uses a namespace service, PNFS, developed by DESY to provide a filesystem-like view of the stored data. PNFS is a legacy product and is being replaced by a new implementation, called Chimera, which is also developed by DESY. Chimera offers multiple advantages over PNFS in terms of performance and functionality. The Enstore client component, encp, has been modified to work with Chimera, as well as with any other namespace provider. We performed high load end-to-end acceptance test of Enstore with the Chimera namespace. This paper describes the modifications to Enstore, the test procedure and the results of the acceptance testing.

  17. Dangertalk: Voices of abortion providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Lisa A; Hassinger, Jane A; Debbink, Michelle; Harris, Lisa H

    2017-07-01

    Researchers have described the difficulties of doing abortion work, including the psychosocial costs to individual providers. Some have discussed the self-censorship in which providers engage in to protect themselves and the pro-choice movement. However, few have examined the costs of this self-censorship to public discourse and social movements in the US. Using qualitative data collected during abortion providers' discussions of their work, we explore the tensions between their narratives and pro-choice discourse, and examine the types of stories that are routinely silenced - narratives we name "dangertalk". Using these data, we theorize about the ways in which giving voice to these tensions might transform current abortion discourse by disrupting false dichotomies and better reflecting the complex realities of abortion. We present a conceptual model for dangertalk in abortion discourse, connecting it to functions of dangertalk in social movements more broadly. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Application of Ethics for Providing Telemedicine Services and Information Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langarizadeh, Mostafa; Moghbeli, Fatemeh; Aliabadi, Ali

    2017-10-01

    technology, access to information has become simpler than the past. This has prompted hackers to seize the opportunity. This research shows that the ethical issues in telemedicine can be investigated from several aspects like technology, doctor-patient relationship, data confidentiality and security, informed consent, patient's and family's satisfaction with telemedicine services. Following ethical issues in telemedicine is a primary aspect of high quality services. In other words, if therapists abide by ethical rules, they can provide better services for patients. Attention to ethical issues in telemedicine guarantees a safer use of the services.

  19. “He lacks his fatherhood”: Safer conception technologies and the biological imperative for fatherhood among recently-diagnosed Xhosa-speaking men living with HIV in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Tonya N.; Mantell, Joanne E.; Nywagi, Ntobeko; Cishe, Nomazizi; Cooper, Diane

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores notions of fatherhood and their linkages to fertility desires and intentions among a treatment-naïve cohort of Xhosa-speaking male key informants living with HIV aged 20-53 in Cape Town, South Africa. Analysis is based on an initial 27 and 20 follow up interviews with men who were part of a study that assessed the acceptability of safer conception and alternative parenting strategies among men and women newly diagnosed with HIV to inform an intervention. Grounded theory analysis revealed themes related to the cultural imperative of biologically-connected fatherhood. Certain safer conception strategies aimed at minimising the risk of HIV transmission were perceived as threats to paternity. These findings suggest that understanding of social and cultural beliefs related to notions of paternity and fatherhood may inform the implementation of acceptable safer conception options for HIV-positive men and their infected and uninfected female partners in a high HIV prevalence, low-resource setting. PMID:23862770

  20. EAMJ Provider April 10.indd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-04-04

    Apr 4, 2010 ... from 14 to 30 days in studies done in Europe and. North America ... to confirmatory laboratory diagnostic test was 56.2 days (n=83, range 1 to 985 days, standard .... (9,10). In a population based study in German, Volker ... risk factors for provider delays (9). ... mammographic reliability for cancer diagnosis at.

  1. Device provides controlled gas leaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kami, S. K.; King, H. J.

    1968-01-01

    Modified palladium leak device provides a controlled release /leak/ of very small quantities of gas at low or medium pressures. It has no moving parts, requires less than 5 watts to operate, and is capable of releasing the gas either continuously or in pulses at adjustable flow rates.

  2. Twitter for travel medicine providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Deborah J; Kohl, Sarah E

    2016-03-01

    Travel medicine practitioners, perhaps more so than medical practitioners working in other areas of medicine, require a constant flow of information to stay up-to-date, and provide best practice information and care to their patients. Many travel medicine providers are unaware of the popularity and potential of the Twitter platform. Twitter use among our travellers, as well as by physicians and health providers, is growing exponentially. There is a rapidly expanding body of published literature on this information tool. This review provides a brief overview of the ways Twitter is being used by health practitioners, the advantages that are peculiar to Twitter as a platform of social media, and how the interested practitioner can get started. Some key points about the dark side of Twitter are highlighted, as well as the potential benefits of using Twitter as a way to disseminate accurate medical information to the public. This article will help readers develop an increased understanding of Twitter as a tool for extracting useful facts and insights from the ever increasing volume of health information. © International Society of Travel Medicine, 2016. All rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Reducing widespread pipe sharing and risky sex among crystal methamphetamine smokers in Toronto: do safer smoking kits have a potential role to play?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hunter Charlotte

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Crystal methamphetamine smoking is associated with many negative health consequences, including the potential for transmission of hepatitis. We examined whether or not a kit for crystal methamphetamine smoking might have some potential to reduce the negative health effects of crystal methamphetamine smoking. Methods Five focus groups were conducted with crystal methamphetamine smokers recruited by community health agencies and youth shelters in Toronto, Canada. Target groups included homeless/street-involved youth, sex workers, men who have sex with men, and youth in the party scene. Participants (n = 32 were asked questions about motivations for crystal methamphetamine use, the process of smoking, health problems experienced, sharing behaviour, risky sexual practices, and the ideal contents of a harm reduction kit. Results Pipe sharing was widespread among participants and was deemed integral to the social experience of smoking crystal methamphetamine. Heated pipes were unlikely to cause direct injuries, but participants mentioned having dry, cracked lips, which may be a vector for disease transmission. Many reported having sex with multiple partners and being less likely to use condoms while on the drug. Demand for harm reduction kits was mixed. Conclusions Changing pipe sharing behaviours may be difficult because many participants considered sharing to be integral to the social experience of smoking crystal methamphetamine. Within the context of a broader health promotion and prevention program, pilot testing of safer smoking kits to initiate discussion and education on the risks associated with sharing pipes and unprotected sex for some communities (e.g., homeless/street-involved youth is worth pursuing.

  4. Impact of human papilloma virus vaccination on adolescent knowledge, perception of sexual risk and need for safer sexual behaviors in Bali, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prayudi, Pande Kadek Aditya; Permatasari, Anak Agung Istri Yulan; Winata, I Gde Sastra; Suwiyoga, Ketut

    2016-12-01

    To determine the impact of human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccination on knowledge, perception of sexual risk and need for continued safe sexual behavior among Indonesian girls. A comparative cross-sectional study was carried on in Denpasar, the capital city of Bali, Indonesia, during September 2015-February 2016. A total of 828 adolescent girls (12-16 years) were recruited to assess their knowledge on HPV/HPV vaccine, perception of sexual risks and need for continued safe sexual behavior. A total of 419 girls (50.7%) had received HPV vaccination prior to the study, 76.4% of whom (320/419) had sufficient knowledge about HPV. HPV vaccination was a strong and independent predictor of higher HPV/HPV vaccine knowledge (adjusted OR [AOR], 9.358; 95%CI: 6.816-12.849, P < 0.001). HPV vaccination (AOR, 0.107; 95%CI: 0.074-0.155, P < 0.001) and higher knowledge level (AOR, 0.667; 95%CI: 0.464-0.958, P = 0.028) were associated with lower perceived HPV risk. Despite the low risk perception, most of the vaccinated girls (408/419, 97.4%) continued to perceive higher need for safe sexual behaviors. On multivariate analysis, higher knowledge was the independent predictor for higher perceived need for safe sexual behaviors (AOR, 4.260; 95%CI: 2.016-9.001, P < 0.001). The HPV vaccination was associated with higher knowledge and appropriately lower perception of HPV risk. Despite the vaccination, most of the adolescents continued to perceive a need for safer sexual behavior. All adolescent girls should receive HPV vaccination in order to reduce cervical cancer burden in the future. © 2016 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  5. Identification of novel target genes for safer and more specific control of root-knot nematodes from a pan-genome mining.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etienne G J Danchin

    2013-10-01

    silenced, constitute promising targets for the development of more specific and safer control means.

  6. Ecosystem services provided by bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunz, Thomas H; Braun de Torrez, Elizabeth; Bauer, Dana; Lobova, Tatyana; Fleming, Theodore H

    2011-03-01

    Ecosystem services are the benefits obtained from the environment that increase human well-being. Economic valuation is conducted by measuring the human welfare gains or losses that result from changes in the provision of ecosystem services. Bats have long been postulated to play important roles in arthropod suppression, seed dispersal, and pollination; however, only recently have these ecosystem services begun to be thoroughly evaluated. Here, we review the available literature on the ecological and economic impact of ecosystem services provided by bats. We describe dietary preferences, foraging behaviors, adaptations, and phylogenetic histories of insectivorous, frugivorous, and nectarivorous bats worldwide in the context of their respective ecosystem services. For each trophic ensemble, we discuss the consequences of these ecological interactions on both natural and agricultural systems. Throughout this review, we highlight the research needed to fully determine the ecosystem services in question. Finally, we provide a comprehensive overview of economic valuation of ecosystem services. Unfortunately, few studies estimating the economic value of ecosystem services provided by bats have been conducted to date; however, we outline a framework that could be used in future studies to more fully address this question. Consumptive goods provided by bats, such as food and guano, are often exchanged in markets where the market price indicates an economic value. Nonmarket valuation methods can be used to estimate the economic value of nonconsumptive services, including inputs to agricultural production and recreational activities. Information on the ecological and economic value of ecosystem services provided by bats can be used to inform decisions regarding where and when to protect or restore bat populations and associated habitats, as well as to improve public perception of bats. © 2011 New York Academy of Sciences.

  7. Management systems for service providers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolokonya, Herbert Chiwalo

    2015-02-01

    In the field of radiation safety and protection there are a number of institutions that are involved in achieving different goals and strategies. These strategies and objectives are achieved based on a number of tools and systems, one of these tools and systems is the use of a management system. This study aimed at reviewing the management system concept for Technical Service Providers in the field of radiation safety and protection. The main focus was on personal monitoring services provided by personal dosimetry laboratories. A number of key issues were found to be prominent to make the management system efficient. These are laboratory accreditation, approval; having a customer driven operating criteria; and controlling of records and good reporting. (au)

  8. Safer food means food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steele, J.H.

    2000-01-01

    In this article the author presents the sanitary advantages that are brought by food irradiation. OMS experts state that this technique is safe and harmless for any average global dose between 10 KGy and 100 KGy. Whenever a seminar is held on the topic, it is always concluded that food irradiation should be promoted and favoured. In France food irradiation is authorized for some kinds of products and exceptionally above a 10 KGy dose. Historically food irradiation has been hampered in its development by its classification by American Authorities as food additives in 1958 (Delanay clause). The author draws a parallel between food irradiation and pasteurization or food deep-freezing in their beginnings. (A.C.)

  9. Designing Safer and Greener Antibiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Gathergood

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Since the production of the first pharmaceutically active molecules at the beginning of the 1900s, drug molecules and their metabolites have been observed in the environment in significant concentrations. In this review, the persistence of antibiotics in the environment and their associated effects on ecosystems, bacterial resistance and health effects will be examined. Solutions to these problems will also be discussed, including the pharmaceutical industries input, green chemistry, computer modeling and representative ionic liquid research.

  10. Computational design of safer nanomaterials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burello, E.

    2015-01-01

    Nanomaterials are expected to find applications in numerous consumer products, posing the challenge to guarantee their safety and environmental sustainability before they can be transferred from research labs to end-consumer products. One emerging solution, called safe design, relies on the

  11. Risk assessments ensure safer power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-02-19

    A growth industry is emerging devoted to the study and comparison of the economic, social and health risks posed by large industrial installations. Electricity generation is one area coming under particularly close scrutiny. Types of risk, ways of assessing risk and the difference between experts' analyses and the public perception of risk are given. An example of improved risk assessment helping to reduce deaths and injuries in coal mining is included.

  12. Towards safer use of opioids.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Carson, R W R

    2009-09-01

    The main aim of our work was to improve the safety of opioid use in our institution, an acute generalhospital with 620 beds. Initially, all reported opioid errors from 2001 - 2006 were audited. The findings directed a range of multidisciplinary staff educational inputs to improve opioid prescribing and administration practice, and encourage drug error reporting. 448 drug errors were reported, of which 54 (12%) involved opioids; of these, 43 (79%) involved codeine, morphine or oxycodone. 31 of the errors (57%) were associated with administration, followed by 12 (22%) with dispensing and 11 (20%) with prescribing. There were 2 reports of definite patient harm. A subsequent audit examined a 17-month period following the introduction of the above teaching: 17 errors were noted, of which 14 (83%) involved codeine, morphine or oxycodone. Again, drug administration was most error-prone, comprising 11 (65%) of reports. However, just 2 (12%) of the reported errors now involved prescribing, which was a reduction.

  13. Providing solutions to engineering problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connop, R.P.P.

    1991-01-01

    BNFL has acquired unique experience over a period of 40 years in specifying, designing and constructing spent fuel reprocessing and associated waste management plant. This experience is currently used to support a pound 5.5 billion capital investment programme. This paper reviews a number of engineering problems and their solutions to highlight BNFL experience in providing comprehensive specification, design and engineering and project management services. (author)

  14. Support Net for Frontline Providers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    learning style , as well as treatment readiness (Proudfoot et al., 2011). Several channels of delivery include audio, video, email correspondence and...Provided Resources (1) o “Self assessment, resources were good.” Coaching (2) o “During this coaching period, I had a death of a parent , I did find the...Secondary Traumatic Stress Scale. Res Soc Work Pract. 2004; 14(1):27–35. 21. Pyevich CM, Newman E, Daleiden E. The relationship among cognitive

  15. Harm reduction interventions in HIV care: a qualitative exploration of patient and provider perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne Carlberg-Racich

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background. A culture of stringent drug policy, one-size-fits-all treatment approaches, and drug-related stigma has clouded clinical HIV practice in the United States. The result is a series of missed opportunities in the HIV care environment. An approach which may address the broken relationship between patient and provider is harm reduction—which removes judgment and operates at the patient’s stage of readiness. Harm reduction is not a routine part of care; rather, it exists outside clinic walls, exacerbating the divide between compassionate, stigma-free services and the medical system. Methods. Qualitative, phenomenological, semi-structured, individual interviews with patients and providers were conducted in three publicly-funded clinics in Chicago, located in areas of high HIV prevalence and drug use and serving African-American patients (N = 38. A deductive thematic analysis guided the process, including: the creation of an index code list, transcription and verification of interviews, manual coding, notation of emerging themes and refinement of code definitions, two more rounds of coding within AtlasTi, calculation of Cohen’s Kappa for interrater reliability, queries of major codes and analysis of additional common themes. Results. Thematic analysis of findings indicated that the majority of patients felt receptive to harm reduction interventions (safer injection counseling, safer stimulant use counseling, overdose prevention information, supply provision from their provider, and expressed anticipated gratitude for harm reduction information and/or supplies within the HIV care visit, although some were reluctant to talk openly about their drug use. Provider results were mixed, with more receptivity reported by advanced practice nurses, and more barriers cited by physicians. Notable barriers included: role-perceptions, limited time, inadequate training, and the patients themselves. Discussion. Patients are willing to receive harm

  16. Providing cleaner air to Canadians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-02-01

    This booklet is designed to explain salient aspects of the Ozone Annex, negotiated and signed recently by Canada and the United States, in a joint effort to improve air quality in North America. By significantly reducing the transboundary flows of air pollutants that cause smog, the Ozone Annex will benefit some 16 million people in central and eastern Canada and provide an example for a future round of negotiations to address concerns of the millions of Canadians and Americans who live in the border area between British Columbia and Washington State. The brochure provide summaries of the Canadian and American commitments, focusing on transportation, monitoring and reporting. The Ozone Annex complements other air quality initiatives by the Government of Canada enacted under the Environmental Protection Act, 1999. These measures include regulations to reduce sulphur content to 30 parts per million by Jan 1, 2005; proposing to restrict toxic particulate matter (PM) to less than 10 microns; establishing daily smog forecasts in the Maritimes and committing to a national program built upon existing smog advisories and forecasts in Quebec, Ontario and British Columbia; and investing in more clean air research through the newly created Canadian Foundation for Climate and Atmospheric Sciences

  17. Providing Southern Perspectives on CSR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Søren; Kothuis, Bas

    The article seeks to contribute to the SMEs and CSR literature in developing countries by providing; a) a ‘Southern’ SME perspective, which includes the voices of managers and workers, b) a perspective of CSR, which opens up to informal CSR practices that SMEs undertake, and c) an analysis...... of the key institutional issues affecting the CSR practices of SMEs. It presents perceptions of CSR practices among 21 SMEs in the garment industry in South Africa, based on 40 interviews with managers and 19 interviews with workers through the use of qualitative and quantitative interview frameworks....... It highlights a high degree of similarities between managers and workers, though knowledge of (cognitive level) the concept ‘CSR’ differ considerably. Informal practices are widespread and of key importance to the SMEs, expressed by managers and workers alike. History, industry and manager-workers relations...

  18. Wind Turbine Providing Grid Support

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    changing the operation of the wind turbine to a more efficient working point.; When the rotational speed of the rotor reaches a minimum value, the wind turbine enters a recovery period to re-accelerate the rotor to the nominal rotational speed while further contributing to the stability of the electrical......A variable speed wind turbine is arranged to provide additional electrical power to counteract non-periodic disturbances in an electrical grid. A controller monitors events indicating a need to increase the electrical output power from the wind turbine to the electrical grid. The controller...... is arranged to control the wind turbine as follows: after an indicating event has been detected, the wind turbine enters an overproduction period in which the electrical output power is increased, wherein the additional electrical output power is taken from kinetic energy stored in the rotor and without...

  19. Vaccines provided by family physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos-Outcalt, Doug; Jeffcott-Pera, Michelle; Carter-Smith, Pamela; Schoof, Bellinda K; Young, Herbert F

    2010-01-01

    This study was conducted to document current immunization practices by family physicians. In 2008 the American Academy of Family Physicians (AAFP) conducted a survey among a random sample of 2,000 of its members who reported spending 80% or more of their time in direct patient care. The survey consisted of questions regarding the demographics of the practice, vaccines that are provided at the physicians' clinical site, whether the practice refers patients elsewhere for vaccines, and participation in the Vaccines for Children (VFC) program. The response rate was 38.5%, 31.8% after non-office-based respondents were deleted. A high proportion of respondents (80% or more) reported providing most routinely recommended child, adolescent, and adult vaccines at their practice sites. The exceptions were rotavirus vaccine for children and herpes zoster vaccine for adults., A significant proportion, however, reported referring elsewhere for some vaccines (44.1% for children and adolescent vaccines and 53.5% for adult vaccines), with the most frequent referral location being a public health department. A higher proportion of solo and 2-physician practices than larger practices reported referring patients. A lack of adequate payment was listed as the reason for referring patients elsewhere for vaccines by one-half of those who refer patients. One-half of responders do not participate in the VFC program. Provision of recommended vaccines by most family physicians remains an important service. Smaller practices have more difficulty offering a full array of vaccine products, and lack of adequate payment contributes to referring patients outside the medical home. The reasons behind the lack of participation in the VFC program deserve further study.

  20. Environmental standards provide competitive advantage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chynoweth, E.; Kirshner, E.

    1993-01-01

    Quality organizations are breaking new ground with the development of international standards for environmental management. These promise to provide the platform for chemical companies wanting to establish their environmental credibility with a global audience. open-quotes It will be similar to auditing our customers to ISO 9000 close-quote, says the environmental manager for a European chemical firm. open-quote We will only want to deal with people who have got their environmental act together. And we'll be in a better competitive positions close-quote. The International Organization for Standardization (ISO;Geneva) has set up a taskforce to develop an environmental management standard, which is expected to be completed by the mid-1990s. Observers think the ISO standard will draw heavily on the British Standard Institute's (BSI;London) environmental management standard, BS7750, which will likely be the first system adopted in the world. Published last year, BS7750 has been extensively piloted in the UK (CW, Sept. 30, 1992, p. 62) and is now set to be revised before being offically adopted by BSI. The UK's Chemical Industries Association (CIA;London) is anxious to prevent a proliferation of standards, and its report on BS7750 pilot projects calls for an approach integrating quality, environment, and health and safety. But standard setters, including ISO, appear to be moving in the opposite direction. In the US, the American national Standards Institute (ANSI;Washington) has started work on an environmental management standard

  1. Providing global WLCG transfer monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreeva, J; Dieguez Arias, D; Campana, S; Keeble, O; Magini, N; Molnar, Z; Ro, G; Saiz, P; Salichos, M; Tuckett, D; Flix, J; Oleynik, D; Petrosyan, A; Uzhinsky, A; Wildish, T

    2012-01-01

    The WLCG[1] Transfers Dashboard is a monitoring system which aims to provide a global view of WLCG data transfers and to reduce redundancy in monitoring tasks performed by the LHC experiments. The system is designed to work transparently across LHC experiments and across the various technologies used for data transfer. Currently each LHC experiment monitors data transfers via experiment-specific systems but the overall cross-experiment picture is missing. Even for data transfers handled by FTS, which is used by 3 LHC experiments, monitoring tasks such as aggregation of FTS transfer statistics or estimation of transfer latencies are performed by every experiment separately. These tasks could be performed once, centrally, and then served to all experiments via a well-defined set of APIs. In the design and development of the new system, experience accumulated by the LHC experiments in the data management monitoring area is taken into account and a considerable part of the code of the ATLAS DDM Dashboard is being re-used. The paper describes the architecture of the Global Transfer monitoring system, the implementation of its components and the first prototype.

  2. Computerized provider order entry systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    Computerized provider order entry (CPOE) systems are designed to replace a hospital's paper-based ordering system. They allow users to electronically write the full range of orders, maintain an online medication administration record, and review changes made to an order by successive personnel. They also offer safety alerts that are triggered when an unsafe order (such as for a duplicate drug therapy) is entered, as well as clinical decision support to guide caregivers to less expensive alternatives or to choices that better fit established hospital protocols. CPOE systems can, when correctly configured, markedly increase efficiency and improve patient safety and patient care. However, facilities need to recognize that currently available CPOE systems require a tremendous amount of time and effort to be spent in customization before their safety and clinical support features can be effectively implemented. What's more, even after they've been customized, the systems may still allow certain unsafe orders to be entered. Thus, CPOE systems are not currently a quick or easy remedy for medical errors. ECRI's Evaluation of CPOE systems--conducted in collaboration with the Institute for Safe Medication Practices (ISMP)--discusses these and other related issues. It also examines and compares CPOE systems from three suppliers: Eclipsys Corp., IDX Systems Corp., and Siemens Medical Solutions Health Services Corp. Our testing focuses primarily on the systems' interfacing capabilities, patient safeguards, and ease of use.

  3. Providing value in ambulatory anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fosnot, Caroline D; Fleisher, Lee A; Keogh, John

    2015-12-01

    colonoscopies. With this projected increase in the demand for anesthesia services nationwide comes the analysis of its financial feasibility. Some early data looking at endoscopist-administered sedation conclude that it offers higher patient satisfaction, there were less adverse effects than anesthesiologist-administered sedation, and is economically advantageous. This and future retrospective studies will help to guide healthcare policymakers and physicians to come to a conclusion about providing ambulatory services for these millions of patients. Ambulatory anesthesia's popularity continues to rise and anesthetic techniques will continue to morph and adapt to the needs of patients seeking ambulatory surgery. Alterations in already existing medications are promising as these modifications allow for quicker recovery from anesthesia or minimization of the already known undesirable side-effects. PONV, pain, obstructive sleep apnea, and chronic comorbidities (hypertension, cardiac disease, and diabetes mellitus) are perioperative concerns in ambulatory settings as more patients are safely being treated in ambulatory settings. Regional anesthesia stands out as a modality that has multiple advantages to general anesthesia, providing a minimal recovery period and a decrease in postanesthesia care unit stay. The implementation of the Affordable Healthcare Act specifically affects ambulatory settings as the demand and need for patients to have screening procedures with anesthesia. The question remains what the best strategy is to meet the needs of our future patients while preserving economically feasibility within an already strained healthcare system.

  4. Editorial: Advances in healthcare provider and patient training to improve the quality and safety of patient care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth M. Borycki

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This special issue of the Knowledge Management & E-Learning: An International Journal is dedicated to describing “Advances in Healthcare Provider and Patient Training to Improve the Quality and Safety of Patient Care.” Patient safety is an important and fundamental requirement of ensuring the quality of patient care. Training and education has been identified as a key to improving healthcare provider patient safety competencies especially when working with new technologies such as electronic health records and mobile health applications. Such technologies can be harnessed to improve patient safety; however, if not used properly they can negatively impact on patient safety. In this issue we focus on advances in training that can improve patient safety and the optimal use of new technologies in healthcare. For example, use of clinical simulations and online computer based training can be employed both to facilitate learning about new clinical discoveries as well as to integrate technology into day to day healthcare practices. In this issue we are publishing papers that describe advances in healthcare provider and patient training to improve patient safety as it relates to the use of educational technologies, health information technology and on-line health resources. In addition, in the special issue we describe new approaches to training and patient safety including, online communities, clinical simulations, on-the-job training, computer based training and health information systems that educate about and support safer patient care in real-time (i.e. when health professionals are providing care to patients. These educational and technological initiatives can be aimed at health professionals (i.e. students and those who are currently working in the field. The outcomes of this work are significant as they lead to safer care for patients and their family members. The issue has both theoretical and applied papers that describe advances in patient

  5. Use of second-generation antipsychotic agents for sleep and sedation: a provider survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermes, Eric D A; Sernyak, Michael; Rosenheck, Robert

    2013-04-01

    Anecdotal evidence suggests that second-generation antipsychotic agents are increasingly used to treat sleep problems. This study sought to quantify the proportion of new prescriptions for second-generation antipsychotic agents started for sleep/sedation and the correlates of such use. A cross-sectional survey of provider decision making at the time second-generation antipsychotic agents were prescribed, documenting the reasons for the medication, patient demographics, psychiatric and medical diagnoses, patient health characteristics, and provider background. A single Veterans Affairs Medical Center over a 20-month period. Prescribers of second-generation antipsychotic agents. N/A. Seven hundred seven (32.2%) of 2,613 surveys indicated sleep/sedation was at least one reason for using a second-generation anti-psychotic agent, whereas for 266 (12.1%) it was the only reason. Quetiapine was most frequently prescribed overall as well as for sleep/sedation (47.0% and 73.6% respectively). Second-generation antipsychotic agent use for sleep/sedation was unrelated to sociodemographic characteristics, least likely in patients with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder, and most likely as a newly started second-generation antipsychotic agent. Sleep/sedation is a common reason given for new prescriptions of second-generation antipsychotic agents. Quetiapine is most frequently used for this purpose. A greater understanding of why providers use second-generation antipsychotic agents rather than safer and less costly alternatives for sleep problems may advance the development of interventions to reduce adverse effects.

  6. Providing Limited Local Electric Service During a Major Grid Outage: A First Assessment Based on Customer Willingness to Pay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baik, Sunhee; Morgan, M Granger; Davis, Alexander L

    2018-02-01

    While they are rare, widespread blackouts of the bulk power system can result in large costs to individuals and society. If local distribution circuits remain intact, it is possible to use new technologies including smart meters, intelligent switches that can change the topology of distribution circuits, and distributed generation owned by customers and the power company, to provide limited local electric power service. Many utilities are already making investments that would make this possible. We use customers' measured willingness to pay to explore when the incremental investments needed to implement these capabilities would be justified. Under many circumstances, upgrades in advanced distribution systems could be justified for a customer charge of less than a dollar a month (plus the cost of electricity used during outages), and would be less expensive and safer than the proliferation of small portable backup generators. We also discuss issues of social equity, extreme events, and various sources of underlying uncertainty. © 2017 Society for Risk Analysis.

  7. A Shifting Shield Provides Protection Against Cosmic Rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-12-01

    The Sun plays an important role in protecting us from cosmic rays, energetic particles that pelt us from outside our solar system. But can we predict when and how it will provide the most protection, and use this to minimize the damage to both pilotedand roboticspace missions?The Challenge of Cosmic RaysSpacecraft outside of Earths atmosphere and magnetic field are at risk of damage from cosmic rays. [ESA]Galactic cosmic rays are high-energy, charged particles that originate from astrophysical processes like supernovae or even distant active galactic nuclei outside of our solar system.One reason to care about the cosmic rays arriving near Earth is because these particles can provide a significant challenge for space missions traveling above Earths protective atmosphere and magnetic field. Since impacts from cosmic rays can damage human DNA, this risk poses a major barrier to plans for interplanetary travel by crewed spacecraft. And roboticmissions arent safe either: cosmic rays can flip bits, wreaking havoc on spacecraft electronics as well.The magnetic field carried by the solar wind provides a protective shield, deflecting galactic cosmic rays from our solar system. [Walt Feimer/NASA GSFCs Conceptual Image Lab]Shielded by the SunConveniently, we do have some broader protection against galactic cosmic rays: a built-in shield provided by the Sun. The interplanetary magnetic field, which is embedded in the solar wind, deflects low-energy cosmic rays from us at the outer reaches of our solar system, decreasing the flux of these cosmic rays that reach us at Earth.This shield, however, isnt stationary; instead, it moves and changes as the strength and direction of the solar wind moves and changes. This results in a much lower cosmic-ray flux at Earth when solar activity is high i.e., at the peak of the 11-year solar cycle than when solar activity is low. This visible change in local cosmic-ray flux with solar activity is known as solar modulation of the cosmic ray flux

  8. Do Safer Sex Self-Efficacy, Attitudes toward Condoms, and HIV Transmission Risk Beliefs Differ among Men who have Sex with Men, Heterosexual Men, and Women Living with HIV?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widman, Laura; Golin, Carol E.; Grodensky, Catherine A.; Suchindran, Chirayath

    2013-01-01

    To understand sexual decision-making processes among people living with HIV, we compared safer sex self-efficacy, condom attitudes, sexual beliefs, and rates of unprotected anal or vaginal intercourse with at-risk partners (UAVI-AR) in the past 3 months among 476 people living with HIV: 185 men who have sex with men (MSM), 130 heterosexual men, and 161 heterosexual women. Participants were enrolled in SafeTalk, a randomized, controlled trial of a safer sex intervention. We found 15% of MSM, 9% of heterosexual men, and 12% of heterosexual women engaged in UAVI-AR. Groups did not differ in self-efficacy or sexual attitudes/beliefs. However, the associations between these variables and UAVI-AR varied within groups: greater self-efficacy predicted less UAVI-AR for MSM and women, whereas more positive condom attitudes – but not self-efficacy – predicted less UAVI-AR for heterosexual men. These results suggest HIV prevention programs should tailor materials to different subgroups. PMID:22252475

  9. Embracing the digital in instrument making : Towards a musician-tailored mouthpiece by 3D printing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lorenzoni, V.; Doubrovski, E.L.; Verlinden, J.C.

    2013-01-01

    At present, the manufacturing of musical instruments still strongly relies on the tacit knowledge of experienced handcrafts while is commonly based on standard machining or casting techniques. This limits the musician-tailoredness to a small group of players, while others take compromises by

  10. The effectiveness of baby books for providing pediatric anticipatory guidance to new mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, Stephanie M; Bickman, Leonard; Saville, Benjamin R; Alvarez, Joann

    2010-05-01

    To assess whether embedding pediatric anticipatory guidance into books read to infants is an effective way to educate low-income, first-time mothers about injury-prevention and health-promotion practices. Primiparous women (N = 168) were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups: an educational-book group; a noneducational-book group; or a no-book group. Knowledge of anticipatory-guidance topics regarding children from birth to 12 months of age (eg, injury prevention, parenting, nutrition) was assessed during the third trimester of pregnancy and again when infants were approximately 2, 4, 6, 9, 12, and 18 months of age. Women in the educational-book group scored consistently higher on knowledge than did those in the other 2 groups. Those in the educational-book group were found to have significantly higher knowledge scores than those in both the noneducational-book group (effect size [ES]: 0.3, P book group (ES: 0.3, P Books read by mothers to infants seem to be an effective way to provide anticipatory guidance to new mothers. However, future work is needed to determine if increased knowledge translates into safer and more developmentally appropriate parenting practices.

  11. Applicable technology. Chapter 3. Status report on the safety of operating US nuclear power plants (why experts believe that today's operating nuclear power reactors are much safer than they were 20 years ago)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budnitz, R.J.

    2010-01-01

    The main emphasis of this presentation and paper is to address why experts believe that today's operating nuclear power reactors are much safer than they were 10 or 20 years ago. There is strong evidence to support this belief for the power reactors now operating in all of the advanced countries, and in many of the less developed countries too, although in a few of these latter countries there are continuing safety concerns. The paper will present recent and historical data from the U.S., a discussion of what the data mean and why, and a perspective about what events and trends have been the causes for the major safety improvements that have occurred. The extension of the conclusion to other countries will also be discussed. Finally, the reasons why safety-improvement programs must continue in some of the less-developed countries are described

  12. Steamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan For Corrective Action Unit 394: Areas 12, 18, and 29, Spill/Release Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada (November 2001, Rev. 0)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office (NNSA/NV)

    2001-09-24

    This plan addresses the actions necessary for the characterization and closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 394: Areas 12, 18, and 29, Spill/Release Sites, identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO). The CAU, located on the Nevada Test Site, consists of six Corrective Action Sites (CASs): CAS 12-25-04, UST 12-16-2 Waste Oil Release; CAS 18-25-02, Oil Spills; CAS 18-25-02, Oil Spills; CAS 18-25-03, Oil Spill; CAS 18-25-04, Spill (Diesel Fuel); CAS 29-44-01, Fuel Spill (a & b). Process knowledge is the basis for the development of the conceptual site models (CSMs). The CSMs describe the most probable scenario for current conditions at each site, and define the assumptions that are the basis for the SAFER plan. The assumptions are formulated from historical information and process knowledge. Vertical migration of contaminant(s) of potential concern (COPCs) is expected to be predominant over lateral migration in the absence of any barrier (with asphalt /concrete being the exception at least two of the CASs). Soil is the impacted or potentially impacted media at all the sites, with asphalt and/or concrete potentially impacted at two of the CASs. Radionuclides are not expected at any CAS; hydrocarbons are the primary COPC at each CAS, and can be used to guide the investigation; future land-use scenarios limit use to various nonresidential uses; and exposure scenarios are limited by future land-use scenarios to site workers. There is sufficient information and process knowledge from historical documentation regarding the expected nature and extent of potential contaminants to recommend closure of CAU 394 using the SAFER process. On completion of the field activities, a Closure Report will be prepared and submitted to the NDEP for review and approval.

  13. Steamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan For Corrective Action Unit 394: Areas 12, 18, and 29, Spill/Release Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada (November 2001, Rev. 0); FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This plan addresses the actions necessary for the characterization and closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 394: Areas 12, 18, and 29, Spill/Release Sites, identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO). The CAU, located on the Nevada Test Site, consists of six Corrective Action Sites (CASs): CAS 12-25-04, UST 12-16-2 Waste Oil Release; CAS 18-25-02, Oil Spills; CAS 18-25-02, Oil Spills; CAS 18-25-03, Oil Spill; CAS 18-25-04, Spill (Diesel Fuel); CAS 29-44-01, Fuel Spill (a and b). Process knowledge is the basis for the development of the conceptual site models (CSMs). The CSMs describe the most probable scenario for current conditions at each site, and define the assumptions that are the basis for the SAFER plan. The assumptions are formulated from historical information and process knowledge. Vertical migration of contaminant(s) of potential concern (COPCs) is expected to be predominant over lateral migration in the absence of any barrier (with asphalt /concrete being the exception at least two of the CASs). Soil is the impacted or potentially impacted media at all the sites, with asphalt and/or concrete potentially impacted at two of the CASs. Radionuclides are not expected at any CAS; hydrocarbons are the primary COPC at each CAS, and can be used to guide the investigation; future land-use scenarios limit use to various nonresidential uses; and exposure scenarios are limited by future land-use scenarios to site workers. There is sufficient information and process knowledge from historical documentation regarding the expected nature and extent of potential contaminants to recommend closure of CAU 394 using the SAFER process. On completion of the field activities, a Closure Report will be prepared and submitted to the NDEP for review and approval

  14. Insure Kids Now (IKN) (Dental Care Providers)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Insure Kids Now (IKN) Dental Care Providers in Your State locator provides profile information for oral health providers participating in Medicaid and Children's...

  15. Discussing Diabetes with Your Healthcare Provider

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Diabetes Discussing Diabetes with Your Healthcare Provider Past Issues / Fall 2009 Table of Contents Diabetes Medicines—Always Discuss Them with Your Healthcare Provider ...

  16. Identifiable Data Files - Medicare Provider Analysis and ...

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Medicare Provider Analysis and Review (MEDPAR) File contains data from claims for services provided to beneficiaries admitted to Medicare certified inpatient...

  17. Institutional Provider and Beneficiary Summary PUF

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The CMS IPBS PUFs are aggregated files in which each record summarizes information for a particular institutional provider. An institutional provider refers to a...

  18. Medicare Provider Payment Data - Skilled Nursing Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Skilled Nursing Facility Utilization and Payment Public Use File (Skilled Nursing Facility PUF) provides information on services provided to Medicare...

  19. Medicare Provider Data - Part D Prescriber

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Part D Prescriber Public Use File (PUF) provides information on prescription drugs prescribed by individual physicians and other health care providers and paid...

  20. Factors Influencing Self Employment Media Service Providers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors Influencing Self Employment Media Service Providers among Tertiary ... role stereotype and common business practices on media self employment in ... Sex, Psycho-social Characteristics, self Employment, Providing Media Services.

  1. Medicare Provider Data - Physician and Other Supplier

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Physician and Other Supplier Public Use File (Physician and Other Supplier PUF) provides information on services and procedures provided to Medicare...

  2. Safer roads in Chad : recommendations for low-cost road safety measures in Chad. On behalf of The World Bank, International Bank for Reconstruction and Development.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluis, J. van der

    2002-01-01

    In the framework of the National Transport Support Project, SWOV provided local experts in Chad with technical assistance on road safety. The assistance focused on the development of a comprehensive road safety strategy and physical road safety improvements on urban and inter-urban roads. The

  3. Co-providing: understanding the logistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickerson, Pamela S

    2011-11-01

    Continuing nursing education providers have sometimes said that they don't want to co-provide because "it's too much trouble" or they "won't be able to control what happens" or because they don't understand the process. This column clarifies the logistics of the co-provider relationship. Copyright 2011, SLACK Incorporated.

  4. Piezoelectric pump and pressurised circuit provided therewith

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Es, Johannes; Wits, Wessel Willems

    2015-01-01

    A piezoelectric pump for use in a pressurised circuit is provided, comprising a pump chamber (5) with an inlet (6) provided with a one way inlet valve (7), for connection to a feeding line (8) of the pressurised circuit and an outlet (9) provided with a one way outlet valve (10), for connection to a

  5. Provider-Independent Use of the Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmer, Terence; Wright, Peter; Cunningham, Christina; Perrott, Ron

    Utility computing offers researchers and businesses the potential of significant cost-savings, making it possible for them to match the cost of their computing and storage to their demand for such resources. A utility compute provider enables the purchase of compute infrastructures on-demand; when a user requires computing resources a provider will provision a resource for them and charge them only for their period of use of that resource. There has been a significant growth in the number of cloud computing resource providers and each has a different resource usage model, application process and application programming interface (API)-developing generic multi-resource provider applications is thus difficult and time consuming. We have developed an abstraction layer that provides a single resource usage model, user authentication model and API for compute providers that enables cloud-provider neutral applications to be developed. In this paper we outline the issues in using external resource providers, give examples of using a number of the most popular cloud providers and provide examples of developing provider neutral applications. In addition, we discuss the development of the API to create a generic provisioning model based on a common architecture for cloud computing providers.

  6. 5 CFR 890.910 - Provider information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Provider information. 890.910 Section 890.910 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS..., and FEHB Benefit Payments § 890.910 Provider information. The hospital provider information used to...

  7. Home care providers to the rescue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Steen Møller; Brøndum, Stig; Thomas, Grethe

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To describe the implementation of a novel first-responder programme in which home care providers equipped with automated external defibrillators (AEDs) were dispatched in parallel with existing emergency medical services in the event of a suspected out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA......). METHODS: We evaluated a one-year prospective study that trained home care providers in performing cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and using an AED in cases of suspected OHCA. Data were collected from cardiac arrest case files, case files from each provider dispatch and a survey among dispatched...... providers. The study was conducted in a rural district in Denmark. RESULTS: Home care providers were dispatched to 28 of the 60 OHCAs that occurred in the study period. In ten cases the providers arrived before the ambulance service and subsequently performed CPR. AED analysis was executed in three cases...

  8. Enabling Wireless Cooperation in User Provided Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Rolla, Vitor Guerra

    2015-01-01

    Tese de doutoramento em Ciências e Tecnologias da Informação, apresentada ao Departamento de Engenharia Informática da Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia da Universidade de Coimbra This doctoral thesis investigates user provided networks. Such networks have become important research subjects in the field of informatics engineering due to the recent popularity of smart phones. User provided networks are independent from traditional Internet service providers. Communication and informati...

  9. Using information to deliver safer care: a mixed-methods study exploring general practitioners’ information needs in North West London primary care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaos Mastellos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background The National Health Service in England has given increasing priority to improving inter-professional communication, enabling better management of patients with chronic conditions and reducing medical errors through effective use of information. Despite considerable efforts to reduce patient harm through better information usage, medical errors continue to occur, posing a serious threat to patient safety.Objectives This study explores the range, quality and sophistication of existing information systems in primary care with the aim to capture what information practitioners need to provide a safe service and identify barriers to its effective use in care pathways.Method Data were collected through semi-structured interviews with general practitioners from surgeries in North West London and a survey evaluating their experience with information systems in care pathways.Results Important information is still missing, specifically discharge summaries detailing medication changes and changes in the diagnosis and management of patients, blood results ordered by hospital specialists and findings from clinical investigations. Participants identified numerous barriers, including the communication gap between primary and secondary care, the variable quality and consistency of clinical correspondence and the inadequate technological integration.Conclusion Despite attempts to improve integration and information flow in care pathways, existing systems provide practitioners with only partial access to information, hindering their ability to take informed decisions. This study offers a framework for understanding what tools should be in place to enable effective use of information in primary care. 

  10. Browsing for the Best Internet Access Provider?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weil, Marty

    1996-01-01

    Highlights points to consider when choosing an Internet Service Provider. Serial Line Internet Protocol (SLIP) and Point to Point Protocol (PPP) are compared regarding price, performance, bandwidth, speed, and technical support. Obtaining access via local, national, consumer online, and telephone-company providers is discussed. A pricing chart and…

  11. a qualitative study of providers' perspectives

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Glaucoma management is challenging to patients as well as to the eye care providers.The study is aimed at describing the challenges faced by providers using qualitative methods. Methods: In-depth interviews were conducted with selected Ophthalmologists and resident doctors in ophthalmology at centres ...

  12. Medicaid provider reimbursement policy for adult immunizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Alexandra M; Lindley, Megan C; Cox, Marisa A

    2015-10-26

    State Medicaid programs establish provider reimbursement policy for adult immunizations based on: costs, private insurance payments, and percentage of Medicare payments for equivalent services. Each program determines provider eligibility, payment amount, and permissible settings for administration. Total reimbursement consists of different combinations of Current Procedural Terminology codes: vaccine, vaccine administration, and visit. Determine how Medicaid programs in the 50 states and the District of Columbia approach provider reimbursement for adult immunizations. Observational analysis using document review and a survey. Medicaid administrators in 50 states and the District of Columbia. Whether fee-for-service programs reimburse providers for: vaccines; their administration; and/or office visits when provided to adult enrollees. We assessed whether adult vaccination services are reimbursed when administered by a wide range of providers in a wide range of settings. Medicaid programs use one of 4 payment methods for adults: (1) a vaccine and an administration code; (2) a vaccine and visit code; (3) a vaccine code; and (4) a vaccine, visit, and administration code. Study results do not reflect any changes related to implementation of national health reform. Nine of fifty one programs did not respond to the survey or declined to participate, limiting the information available to researchers. Medicaid reimbursement policy for adult vaccines impacts provider participation and enrollee access and uptake. While programs have generally increased reimbursement levels since 2003, each program could assess whether current policies reflect the most effective approach to encourage providers to increase vaccination services. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Piezo pump and pressurized circuit provided therewith

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Es, Johannes; Wits, Wessel Willems

    2015-01-01

    A piezo pump for use in a pressurized circuit includes a pump chamber with an inlet provided with a one way inlet valve, for connection to a feeding line of the pressurized circuit and an outlet provided with a one way outlet valve, for connection to a discharge line of the pressurized circuit and a

  14. Bronchial lumen is the safer route for an airway exchange catheter in double-lumen tube replacement: preventable complication in airway management for thoracic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hsiang-Ling; Tai, Ying-Hsuan; Wei, Ling-Fang; Cheng, Hung-Wei; Ho, Chiu-Ming

    2017-10-01

    There is no current consensus on which lumen an airway exchange catheter (AEC) should be passed through in double-lumen endotracheal tube (DLT) to exchange for a single-lumen endotracheal tube (SLT) after thoracic surgery. We report an unusual case to provide possible solution on this issue. A 71-year-old man with lung adenocarcinoma had an event of a broken exchange catheter used during a DLT replacement with a SLT, after a video-assisted thoracic surgery. The exchange catheter was impinged at the distal tracheal lumen and snapped during manipulation. All three segments of the catheter were retrieved without further airway compromises. Placement of airway tube exchanger into the tracheal lumen of double-lumen tube is a potential contributing factor of the unusual complication. We suggest an exchange catheter be inserted into the bronchial lumen in optimal depth with the adjunct of video laryngoscope, as the safe method for double-lumen tube exchange.

  15. Accelerating progress on the road to safer sports: based on remarks of NFL Commissioner Roger Goodell in the Neurosurgical Society of America (NSA) medal lecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodell, Roger; Batjer, H Hunt; Ellenbogen, Richard G

    2014-10-01

    Roger Goodell was invited by the Neurosurgical Society of America (NSA) to give the keynote speech as the NSA Medalist 2013. As President of the NSA, and Co-Chairs of the National Football league's Head Neck and Spine Committee, we provided the introduction for Goodell. He was cited for his tireless advocacy on behalf of professional and student athletes. We noted that the National Football League has been a world leader in funding traumatic brain injury research and a catalyst for safety in youth and professional sports. Mr Goodell's national leadership in thinking and acting boldly on the subject of traumatic brain injury prevention and treatment was the primary motivation for awarding him the NSA medal. What follows is a transcript of his NSA Medal Lecture to the Neurosurgical Society of America.

  16. NASN membership survey: Developing and providing leadership to advance the school nursing practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monsalve, Lina

    2010-07-01

    The NASN membership is fairly consistent. The majority of NASN members are female; NASN members share a common interest in the specialty of school nursing. The majority of members are involved in one of the following areas: school nurse services, school nurse administration or supervision, and regional or state nurse consultant within the educational system. School nursing practice varies among survey participants; there are school nurses who have spent as little as one year specifically practicing school nursing and those who have spent as much as 36 years or more. Eighty-three percent (83%) of NASN members are employed by public school districts, salaries among members vary between $19,000 or less per year and $129,999 or more per year. NASN members serve students in different geographical areas; school nurses may care for students in urban, suburban, rural, reservations, and overseas (DOD, military) areas. Nonetheless, some school nurses may care for students in more than one geographical area. Twenty-eight percent (28%) of NASN members provide school nursing services to students in elementary school. Student-to-school nurse ratios vary among members; in some areas school nurses may care for 125 students or fewer to as many as 5,100 students or more. NASN members spend most of their time caring for episodic minor illness and injury (headache, pain, hay fever, pm medication, etc.), acute injury and illness, health screenings (vision, hearing, body mass index), and chronic health (case management, care plans, emergency plans, and 504). In addition, there is a consensus on the resources that would most allow school nurses to deliver safer care to their students to include assistance with administrative tasks, lowering student-to-school nurse ratios, and funding for projects. NASN members place a high priority in continuing education programs, especially in topics pertaining to direct student services, such as mental health, chronic health care, and acute illness

  17. Organizational culture associated with provider satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scammon, Debra L; Tabler, Jennifer; Brunisholz, Kimberly; Gren, Lisa H; Kim, Jaewhan; Tomoaia-Cotisel, Andrada; Day, Julie; Farrell, Timothy W; Waitzman, Norman J; Magill, Michael K

    2014-01-01

    Organizational culture is key to the successful implementation of major improvement strategies. Transformation to a patient-centered medical home (PCHM) is such an improvement strategy, requiring a shift from provider-centric care to team-based care. Because this shift may impact provider satisfaction, it is important to understand the relationship between provider satisfaction and organizational culture, specifically in the context of practices that have transformed to a PCMH model. This was a cross-sectional study of surveys conducted in 2011 among providers and staff in 10 primary care clinics implementing their version of a PCMH: Care by Design. Measures included the Organizational Culture Assessment Instrument and the American Medical Group Association provider satisfaction survey. Providers were most satisfied with quality of care (mean, 4.14; scale of 1-5) and interactions with patients (mean, 4.12) and were least satisfied with time spent working (mean, 3.47), paperwork (mean, 3.45), and compensation (mean, 3.35). Culture profiles differed across clinics, with family/clan and hierarchical cultures the most common. Significant correlations (P ≤ .05) between provider satisfaction and clinic culture archetypes included family/clan culture negatively correlated with administrative work; entrepreneurial culture positively correlated with the Time Spent Working dimension; market/rational culture positively correlated with how practices were facing economic and strategic challenges; and hierarchical culture negatively correlated with the Relationships with Staff and Resource dimensions. Provider satisfaction is an important metric for assessing experiences with features of a PCMH model. Identification of clinic-specific culture archetypes and archetype associations with provider satisfaction can help inform practice redesign. Attention to effective methods for changing organizational culture is recommended.

  18. Effective communication with primary care providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Karen

    2014-08-01

    Effective communication requires direct interaction between the hospitalist and the primary care provider using a standardized method of information exchange with the opportunity to ask questions and assign accountability for follow-up roles. The discharge summary is part of the process but does not provide the important aspects of handoff, such as closed loop communication and role assignments. Hospital discharge is a significant safety risk for patients, with more than half of discharged patients experiencing at least one error. Hospitalist and primary care providers need to collaborate to develop a standardized system to communicate about shared patients that meets handoff requirements. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Re-establishing safer medical-circumcision-integrated initiation ceremonies for HIV prevention in a rural setting in Papua New Guinea. A multi-method acceptability study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clement Morris Manineng

    Full Text Available Efforts to stem the spread of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV in Papua New Guinea (PNG are hampered by multiple interrelated factors including limited health services, extreme diversities in culture and language and highly prevalent gender inequity, domestic violence and poverty. In the rural district of Yangoru-Saussia, a revival of previously ceased male initiation ceremonies (MICs is being considered for a comprehensive approach to HIV prevention. In this study, we explore the local acceptability of this undertaking including replacing traditional penile cutting practices with medical male circumcision (MMC.A multi-method study comprising three phases. Phase one, focus group discussions with male elders to explore locally appropriate approaches to HIV prevention; Phase two, interviews and a cross-sectional survey with community men and women to assess views on MICs that include MMC for HIV prevention; Phase three, interviews with cultural leaders and a cross sectional survey to assess the acceptability of replacing traditional penile bleeding with MMC.Cultural leaders expressed that re-establishing MICs was locally appropriate for HIV prevention given the focus on character building and cultural preservation. Most surveyed participants (81.5% supported re-establishing MICs and 92.2% supported adapting MICs with MMC. Changes to penile bleeding emerged as a contentious and contested issue given its cultural significance in symbolizing initiates' transition from childhood to adulthood. Participants were concerned about potential clash with modern education, introduced religious beliefs and limited government support in leadership and funding.Most people in this study in Yangoru-Saussia support re-establishing MICs and replacing traditional penile bleeding with MMC. This culturally-sensitive alignment of MMC (and HIV prevention with revived MICs responds to a national health priority in PNG and acts as an example of providing culturally

  20. Non-invasive prenatal diagnosis of achondroplasia and thanatophoric dysplasia: next-generation sequencing allows for a safer, more accurate, and comprehensive approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitty, Lyn S; Mason, Sarah; Barrett, Angela N; McKay, Fiona; Lench, Nicholas; Daley, Rebecca; Jenkins, Lucy A

    2015-07-01

    Accurate prenatal diagnosis of genetic conditions can be challenging and usually requires invasive testing. Here, we demonstrate the potential of next-generation sequencing (NGS) for the analysis of cell-free DNA in maternal blood to transform prenatal diagnosis of monogenic disorders. Analysis of cell-free DNA using a PCR and restriction enzyme digest (PCR-RED) was compared with a novel NGS assay in pregnancies at risk of achondroplasia and thanatophoric dysplasia. PCR-RED was performed in 72 cases and was correct in 88.6%, inconclusive in 7% with one false negative. NGS was performed in 47 cases and was accurate in 96.2% with no inconclusives. Both approaches were used in 27 cases, with NGS giving the correct result in the two cases inconclusive with PCR-RED. NGS provides an accurate, flexible approach to non-invasive prenatal diagnosis of de novo and paternally inherited mutations. It is more sensitive than PCR-RED and is ideal when screening a gene with multiple potential pathogenic mutations. These findings highlight the value of NGS in the development of non-invasive prenatal diagnosis for other monogenic disorders. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Healthcare providers' attitudes and perceptions in infection ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EB

    Objectives: To assess the attitudes and perceptions of healthcare providers ... antibiotics and only 32% always send a sample for culture sensitivity ..... resistance - A global issue of concern. Asian J. Pharma Clin Res. 2009; 2(2): 34 - 39. 4.

  2. Medicare Provider Utilization and Payment Data - Outpatient

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Outpatient Utilization and Payment Public Use File (Outpatient PUF) presents information on common outpatient services provided to Medicare fee-for-service...

  3. Medicare Referring Provider (DMEPOS) Data CY2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) released a new dataset, the Referring Provider Durable Medical Equipment, Prosthetics, Orthotics and Supplies...

  4. Medicare Provider Utilization and Payment Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — CMS has released a series of publicly available data files that summarize the utilization and payments for procedures, services, and prescription drugs provided to...

  5. Medicare Provider Analysis and Review (MEDPAR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — MEDPAR files contain information on Medicare beneficiaries using hospital inpatient services. The data is provided by the state and the Diagnosis Related Groups...

  6. Ecolo Watt. Ecologic comparison of electricity providers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-09-01

    As consumers now can choose their electricity provider, Greenpeace proposes Ecolo Watt, a system which assesses the different providers, more particularly in terms of protection of the environment. This document first describes the electricity market liberalisation (principle, market opening process, a shake-up of the French electric landscape, obligations for the providers). It presents the green electricity market (original guarantees, the questionable system of green certificates, and the Eve label). It describes the methodology adopted for the Ecolo Watt comparative assessment: assessment criteria, final mark. It presents the ranking of electricity providers while analysing their energy mix, their energy policy, their energy service and sales policy, the quality and transparency of information). Detailed results are presented for each operator

  7. VT Wireless Internet Service Providers 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The VT Wireless Internet Service Provider (ISP) dataset (WISP2006) includes polygons depicting the extent of Vermont's WISP broadband system as of...

  8. Provider Customer Service Program - Performance Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — CMS is continuously analyzing performance and quality of the Provider Customer Service Programs (PCSPs) of the contractors and will be identifying trends and making...

  9. National Provider Identifier Standard - Data Dissemination

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Plan and Provider Enumeration System, NPPES, downloadable file, also referred to as the NPI Downloadable File, contains FOIA disclosable NPPES health...

  10. Medicare Referring Provider DMEPOS PUF CY2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This dataset, which is part of CMSs Medicare Provider Utilization and Payment Data, details information on Durable Medical Equipment, Prosthetics, Orthotics and...

  11. Medicare Provider Utilization and Payment Data - Inpatient

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The data provided here include hospital-specific charges for the more than 3,000 U.S. hospitals that receive Medicare Inpatient Prospective Payment System (IPPS)...

  12. parents' and healthcare providers perspectives about hospitalised

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-04-04

    Apr 4, 2013 ... and the parents and healthcare providers' views on hospitalised children being visited ... because it promotes healing, gives the sick child psychological satisfaction and ..... Mental Health in Early Post-Second World War.

  13. Parents' and healthcare providers perspectives about hospitalised ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Parents' and healthcare providers perspectives about hospitalised children being visited by other ... Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... children should be visited by other children has been accorded minimal attention.

  14. CARAVAN: Providing Location Privacy for VANET

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sampigethaya, Krishna; Huang, Leping; Li, Mingyan; Poovendran, Radha; Matsuura, Kanta; Sezaki, Kaoru

    2005-01-01

    .... This type of tracking leads to threats on the location privacy of the vehicle's user. In this paper, we study the problem of providing location privacy in VANET by allowing vehicles to prevent tracking of their broadcast communications...

  15. VT Wireless Internet Service Providers 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The VT Wireless Internet Service Provider (ISP) dataset (WISP2007) includes polygons depicting the extent of Vermont's WISP broadband system as of...

  16. Mental Health Insurance Parity and Provider Wages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golberstein, Ezra; Busch, Susan H

    2017-06-01

    Policymakers frequently mandate that employers or insurers provide insurance benefits deemed to be critical to individuals' well-being. However, in the presence of private market imperfections, mandates that increase demand for a service can lead to price increases for that service, without necessarily affecting the quantity being supplied. We test this idea empirically by looking at mental health parity mandates. This study evaluated whether implementation of parity laws was associated with changes in mental health provider wages. Quasi-experimental analysis of average wages by state and year for six mental health care-related occupations were considered: Clinical, Counseling, and School Psychologists; Substance Abuse and Behavioral Disorder Counselors; Marriage and Family Therapists; Mental Health Counselors; Mental Health and Substance Abuse Social Workers; and Psychiatrists. Data from 1999-2013 were used to estimate the association between the implementation of state mental health parity laws and the Paul Wellstone and Pete Domenici Mental Health Parity and Addiction Equity Act and average mental health provider wages. Mental health parity laws were associated with a significant increase in mental health care provider wages controlling for changes in mental health provider wages in states not exposed to parity (3.5 percent [95% CI: 0.3%, 6.6%]; pwages. Health insurance benefit expansions may lead to increased prices for health services when the private market that supplies the service is imperfect or constrained. In the context of mental health parity, this work suggests that part of the value of expanding insurance benefits for mental health coverage was captured by providers. Given historically low wage levels of mental health providers, this increase may be a first step in bringing mental health provider wages in line with parallel health professions, potentially reducing turnover rates and improving treatment quality.

  17. Medicaid provider reimbursement policy for adult immunizations☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Alexandra M.; Lindley, Megan C.; Cox, Marisa A.

    2015-01-01

    Background State Medicaid programs establish provider reimbursement policy for adult immunizations based on: costs, private insurance payments, and percentage of Medicare payments for equivalent services. Each program determines provider eligibility, payment amount, and permissible settings for administration. Total reimbursement consists of different combinations of Current Procedural Terminology codes: vaccine, vaccine administration, and visit. Objective Determine how Medicaid programs in the 50 states and the District of Columbia approach provider reimbursement for adult immunizations. Design Observational analysis using document review and a survey. Setting and participants Medicaid administrators in 50 states and the District of Columbia. Measurements Whether fee-for-service programs reimburse providers for: vaccines; their administration; and/or office visits when provided to adult enrollees. We assessed whether adult vaccination services are reimbursed when administered by a wide range of providers in a wide range of settings. Results Medicaid programs use one of 4 payment methods for adults: (1) a vaccine and an administration code; (2) a vaccine and visit code; (3) a vaccine code; and (4) a vaccine, visit, and administration code. Limitations Study results do not reflect any changes related to implementation of national health reform. Nine of fifty one programs did not respond to the survey or declined to participate, limiting the information available to researchers. Conclusions Medicaid reimbursement policy for adult vaccines impacts provider participation and enrollee access and uptake. While programs have generally increased reimbursement levels since 2003, each program could assess whether current policies reflect the most effective approach to encourage providers to increase vaccination services. PMID:26403369

  18. Arkansas community pharmacists' opinions on providing immunizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pace, Anne C; Flowers, Schwanda K; Hastings, Jan K

    2010-10-01

    To determine community pharmacists' attitudes and knowledge on providing immunizations including perceived barriers to immunizing. The study also examined the percentage of Arkansas pharmacists providing immunizations and the utilization of student pharmacists. Survey. Arkansas community pharmacies from February to March 2009. Community pharmacists. Mailed survey. Perceived barriers to providing immunizations, pharmacists' attitudes regarding immunizations, number of immunization-certified pharmacists, immunization administration rates within the last year, and senior student pharmacists utilization. A total of 350 surveys were mailed, and 129 were returned. In all, 79% of the respondents believed administering immunizations has advanced or significantly advanced the profession. Being certified and attitude toward providing immunizations were correlated; 37% of the respondents held certification to immunize, of which 77% reported immunizing within the last year. Commonly reported barriers included time (76%) followed by reimbursement and legal liability. Only half the respondents realized fourth year student pharmacists could immunize and only 33% of certified pharmacists utilized student pharmacists to immunize. Pharmacists perceive many barriers to providing immunizations. Training student pharmacists to give immunizations may not result in them providing immunizations upon graduation. Additional education on overcoming potential barriers and using senior student pharmacists to administer immunizations is needed.

  19. Is eating organic a healthy or safer option? Health claims for organic food consumption, food quality and safety – A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sneha Ghai

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Universally, there has been an increased awareness about the harmful effects of chemical inputs used for production of food on soil composition, environment and human health. This has triggered the consumption level of organic food products. India has witnessed a tremendous growth in domestic as well as export market. The demand is mainly driven by consumer perceptions that organic farming is more sustainable, produces healthy food, pesticide-free and safeguards the environment & biodiversity. Organic food producers also manifests the quality and safety of food. These claims which are perceived and professed as beneficial can only be accepted if they are tested and validated. Therefore, the foremost objective of this review paper is to provide an update on set of studies related to scientific evidence for nutritional composition marking the quality of organic foods vis-à-vis conventional foods and its impact on human health. Secondly, the paper examines the comparison of the sensory quality of the organic food, and thirdly the food safety aspect of organically as compared with conventionally grown foods. Past few controlled studies have proved that there is no such evidence of differences in concentration of various nutrients amongst organic and conventional foods. Furthermore, there are certain issues related to the impact and assessment of these nutrients in organic food which requires some future directives. Owing to the heterogeneity in results observed related to nutritional quality and safety of organic foods, technological aspects together with sensory parameters are the best for future comparative studies. To safeguard the public health and to avoid the difference in sampling and sample results, testing laboratories should also be adhering to uniform standards. Organic food business in India lack standard guidelines for quality, policy framework for domestic and export market. Also, traceability is another factor which should be given

  20. Provider self-disclosure during contraceptive counseling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Merritt; Steinauer, Jody; Schmittdiel, Julie; Chan, Pamela; Dehlendorf, Christine

    2017-02-01

    Provider self-disclosure (PSD) - defined as providers making statements regarding personal information to patients - has not been well characterized in the context of contraceptive counseling. In this study, we describe the incidence, content and context of contraceptive PSD. This mixed methods analysis used data from the Provider-Patient Contraceptive Counseling study, for which 349 family planning patients were recruited from 2009 to 2012 from six clinics in the San Francisco Bay Area. Audio-recordings from their visits were analyzed for the presence or absence of PSD, and those visits with evidence of PSD were analyzed using qualitative methods. The associations of patient and provider demographics and patient satisfaction measures, obtained from survey data, with PSD were analyzed using bivariable and multivariable analyses. Thirty-seven percent of providers showed evidence of PSD during at least one visit, and PSD occurred in 9% of clinic visits. Fifty-four percent of PSD statements were about intrauterine devices. About half of PSD statements occurred prior to the final selection of the contraceptive method and appeared to influence the choice of method. In post-visit surveys, all patients who reported receiving PSD considered it to be appropriate, and patient-reported PSD was not statistically associated with measures of patient satisfaction. This study provides some support for the appropriateness of PSD during family planning encounters, at least as practiced during the sampled visits. Further research could explore whether this counseling strategy has an impact on patients' ability to identify the best contraceptive methods for them. In this study, PSD did not have a demonstrated negative effect on the provider-patient relationship. In almost half of visits, PSD appeared to influence patients' choice of a method; whether this influence is beneficial needs further research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Logistic service providers and sustainable physical distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stef Weijers

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Logistic Service Providers main concern was to ensure reliability for a low price (Christopher, 2005. Dutch Logistic Service Providers still have these two aspects at the top of their list, but also have to take in a new aspect: sustainability. 88% Of the investigated Logistic Service Providers have included sustainability in the company's goals. These Logistic Service Providers have developed different strategies to achieve a higher level of sustainability. This paper presents the results of a study into what Logistic Service Providers say what they are doing, or intend to do, to improve sustainability for their transport services. In this way insight is given in the attitude of Dutch Logistic Service Providers towards sustainability and how they intend to translate this into business practise: internal solutions or new methods incorporating external partners. Methods: Various methods of the investigations were used, among which the analysis of the statements about the sustainabilityon the websites of various companies as well as the questionnaire per Internet. The research covered 50 largest logistics companies operating in the Netherlands and 60 companies that competed for the award "Lean and Green" advertised in the Netherlands. In addition, the Internet survey was answered by 41 companies that belong to the network of our university. Results: The investigation has shown that sustainability is handled by the logistics company as an integral part of the corporate strategy. In contrast, shippers depend in the choice of logistics services primarily on such classical aspects as the reliability or the price and the sustainability play a minor role. Conclusions: Trying to find methods to improve the sustainability, Dutch logistics service providers, in the first place, look for solutions that increase the efficiency and therefore the cost reduction potential. Solutions, which require the involvement of clients, were less often

  2. Engaging service providers in improving industry performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oberth, R.

    2012-01-01

    Effective task leadership is the key to achieving results in the nuclear industry and in most other industries. One of the themes of this conference is to discuss how the nuclear industry can undertake Issue-Identification and Definition as a means of 'identifying what needs attention' and then 'defining what needs to be done to make that happen'. I will explore this theme from the perspective of the 'Service Provider' - which by the definition of this conference includes everyone not within an operating utility - meaning 'those involved in everything from inspection and repair to research and plant architecture' - basically the member companies of my association, OCI. Our members take the definition of the roles and responsibilities of the 'Service Provider' community very seriously. In the context of this discussion a key utility function is the early definition of requirements and expectations of Service Providers in supplying to these requirements. Let's explore for a moment the Service Provider role and perspective. Service Providers are by nature pro-active - they seek ways to engage with utilities (and tier one vendors) to solve problems and achieve good outcomes. They come to industry conferences like this one to learn about upcoming utility programs and supply opportunities and how they can improve performance. Service Providers particularly want to hear senior utility people comment on emerging issues even those at the very early identification stage. Some Clarification of Roles is in Order - as that is the focus of this conference: 'Issue-Identification and Definition'. 'Issue-Identification' is the utility's job - it is the utility's role to identify as early as possible 'what needs attention and what their needs and expectations are'. This takes place before service provider engagement. 'Issue-Definition' is more challenging. It means 'determining and prioritizing what needs to be done to deal with the situation at hand'. This typically involves

  3. Parent-provider communication during hospitalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Mark J; Broome, Marion E

    2011-02-01

    Parents and health care providers interact and communicate with each other during a child's hospitalization. The purpose of this study was to compare communication experiences of parents, nurses, and physicians. A unique aspect of this study involved combining three individual data sources into a collective unit of study (triad). Triads involved in the care of three children in the inpatient setting of an urban children's hospital served as the sample for this study (n = 10). Participants were asked semistructured questions during face-to-face interviews. Findings included (a) the importance of providing information by health care providers using a caring and inclusive approach, (b) the benefits of establishing interpersonal connections and nurturing relationships, and (c) the identification of specific behaviors in all members of the triad that contribute to and sustain positively perceived communication. Future research directions examining triadic interactions, communication, and relationships among parents, nurses, and physicians are recommended. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. 5th Annual Provider Software Buyer's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-03-01

    To help long term care providers find new ways to improve quality of care and efficiency, PROVIDER presents the fifth annual listing of software firms marketing computer programs for all areas of long term care operations. On the following five pages, more than 70 software firms display their wares, with programs such as minimum data set and care planning, dietary, accounting and financials, case mix, and medication administration records. The guide also charts compatible hardware, integration ability, telephone numbers, company contacts, and easy-to-use reader service numbers.

  5. Accountability Requirements in the Cloud Provider Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Gilje Jaatun

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to be responsible stewards of other people’s data, cloud providers must be accountable for their data handling practices. The potential long provider chains in cloud computing introduce additional accountability challenges, with many stakeholders involved. Symmetry is very important in any requirements’ elicitation activity, since input from diverse stakeholders needs to be balanced. This article ventures to answer the question “How can one create an accountable cloud service?” by examining requirements which must be fulfilled to achieve an accountability-based approach, based on interaction with over 300 stakeholders.

  6. Providing Feedback: Practical Skills and Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkany, David; Deitte, Lori

    2017-06-01

    Feedback is an essential component of education. It is designed to influence, reinforce, and change behaviors, concepts, and attitudes in learners. Although providing constructive feedback can be challenging, it is a learnable skill. The negative consequences of destructive feedback or lack of feedback all together are far-reaching. This article summarizes the components of constructive feedback and provides readers with tangible skills to enhance their ability to give effective feedback to learners and peers. Copyright © 2017 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Association of Risk Perception and Information Provided on the Labels of Over-the-Counter Drugs: Role of Race, Education, Age and Income

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Mathur

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The use of over-the-counter (OTC drugs has increased tremendously, however, information on risk perception regarding the use of OTC drugs and their potential toxicity is scarce. Hence, the purpose of this study was to investigate the perception of OTC drug safety and efficacy based on reading product packaging and the effect of race, education, age and income. Methods: We used the HINTS 2012 data set with total sample size of 2,554. Results: OTC drug users having some high school education had a lower chance of frequently reading information included in the product labeling with the OTC medication. OTC drug users less than 50 years of age were always likely to read drug information on the OTC drug labeling. Also, Non-Hispanic blacks were more likely to read OTC drug labeling than Non-Hispanic whites.  OTC drug users less than 50 years of age consider OTC drugs safer than prescription drugs.  Conversely, OTC drug users with a high school, some college or bachelor’s degree consider OTC drugs less safe than prescription drugs.  Non-Hispanic blacks, non-Hispanic whites, and subjects of lower income were less likely to consider OTC drugs safer than prescription drugs.  OTC drug users with a high school education and some college perceive OTC drugs to be less effective than prescription drugs.Conclusion: To conclude, age, education, race, and income affect risk perception on OTC drugs.  Consumer information programs need to be designed so that meaningful results can be incorporated into public policy. Providing information on the labeling of OTC drugs and likelihood of patients reading this information require further study.

  8. Outpatient provider concentration and commercial colonoscopy prices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozen, Alexis

    2015-01-01

    The objective was to evaluate the magnitude of various contributors to outpatient commercial colonoscopy prices, including market- and provider-level factors, especially market share. We used adjudicated fee-for-service facility claims from a large commercial insurer for colonoscopies occurring in hospital outpatient department or ambulatory surgery center from October 2005 to December 2012. Claims were matched to provider- and market-level data. Linear fixed effects regressions of negotiated colonoscopy price were run on provider, system, and market characteristics. Markets were defined as counties. There were 178,433 claims from 169 providers (104 systems). The mean system market share was 76% (SD = 0.34) and the mean real (deflated) price was US$1363 (SD = 374), ranging from US$169 to US$2748. For every percentage point increase in a system or individual facility's bed share, relative price increased by 2 to 4 percentage points; this result was stable across a number of specifications. Market population and price were also consistently positively related, though this relation was small in magnitude. No other factor explained price as strongly as market share. Price variation for colonoscopy was driven primarily by market share, of particular concern as the number of mergers increases in wake of the recession and the Affordable Care Act. Whether variation is justified by better quality care requires further research to determine whether quality is subsumed in prices. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. SYSTEM ORGANIZATION OF MATERIAL PROVIDING OF BUILDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Rаdkеvich

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Development of scientific-methodical bases to the design of rational management of material streams in the field of building providing taking into account intersystem connections with the enterprises of building industry. Methodology. The analysis of last few years of functioning of building industry in Ukraine allows distinguishing a number of problems that negatively influence the steady development of building, as the component of the state economics system. Therefore the research of existent organization methods of the system of building objects providing with material resources is extremely necessary. In connection with this the article justifies the use of method of hierarchies analysis (Saati method for finding the optimal task solution of fixing the enterprises of building industry after building objects. Findings. Results give an opportunity to guidance of building organization to estimate and choose advantageous suppliers - enterprises of building industry, to conduct their rating, estimation taking into account basic descriptions, such as: quality, price, reliability of deliveries, specialization, financial status etc. Originality. On the basis of Saati method the methodologies of organization are improved, planning and managements of the reliable system of providing of building necessary material resources that meet the technological requirements of implementation of building and installation works. Practical value. Contribution to the decisions of many intricate organizational problems that are accompanied by the problems of development of building, provided due to organization of the reliable system of purchase of material resources.

  10. Provider-associated factors in obstetric interventions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pel, M.; Heres, M. H.; Hart, A. A.; van der Veen, F.; Treffers, P. E.

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess which factors influence provider-associated differences in obstetric interventions. STUDY DESIGN: A survey of obstetricians and co-workers in a sample consisting of 38 Dutch hospitals was taken, using a questionnaire that contained questions about personal and hospital-policy

  11. Providence Sponsors Diocesan Teacher Recruiting Campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dygert, William

    2001-01-01

    Addresses the issue of teacher recruitment in Providence, Rhode Island. Explains that the Catholic education staff designed a campaign that involved creating marketing materials, advertising in daily newspapers, and holding job fairs and open houses. Stresses the importance of promoting teaching at Catholic schools as both rewarding and…

  12. Intentional Planning to Provide Technology to Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flagg-Williams, Joan B.; Rey, Janice M.

    2016-01-01

    Mobile technology plays a prominent role in teaching and learning. To address this vital component of teacher preparation, the education department of a small college provided the freshman class with iPads. iPads were selected because they are common in public schools, lightweight, portable, touch-screen controlled and have an abundance of…

  13. Provider expectations and father involvement: learning from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-12-17

    Dec 17, 2013 ... in Gauteng's poor and black communities with fathers that did not ... affect fathers' ability to live up to provider expectations. ... On the contrary, father absence can exacerbate household poverty and “can ... socio-emotional development of the children, although such effects are not uniformly .... explanation.

  14. Providing anesthesia in resource-limited settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohlman, Lena E

    2017-08-01

    The article reviews the reality of anesthetic resource constraints in low and middle-income countries (LMICs). Understanding these limitations is important to volunteers from high-income countries who desire to teach or safely provide anesthesia services in these countries. Recently published information on the state of anesthetic resources in LMICs is helping to guide humanitarian outreach efforts from high-income countries. The importance of using context-appropriate anesthesia standards and equipment is now emphasized. Global health experts are encouraging equal partnerships between anesthesia health care providers working together from different countries. The key roles that ketamine and regional anesthesia play in providing well tolerated anesthesia for cesarean sections and other common procedures is increasingly recognized. Anesthesia can be safely given in LMICs with basic supplies and equipment, if the anesthesia provider is trained and vigilant. Neuraxial and regional anesthesia and the use of ketamine as a general anesthetic appear to be the safest alternatives in low-resource countries. Environmentally appropriate equipment should be encouraged and pulse oximeters should be in every anesthetizing location. LMICs will continue to need support from outside sources until capacity building has made more progress.

  15. Experiences of healthcare providers managing sexual assault ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Experiences of healthcare providers managing sexual assault victims in the emergency unit Part 2: Discussion of results and literature control. ... It was recommended that members of the multidisciplinary team engage in community activities and that the community participate in matters pertaining to sexual assault.

  16. Providing Career Guidance for Young Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colby, Pamela G.

    This module is directed at personnel working or planning to work in the areas of guidance, counseling, placement and follow-through in junior and senior high school settings, grades 7-12. The module topic is career guidance for young women of junior and senior high school age, aand the focus will be on providing nonbiased career guidance which…

  17. 78 FR 14034 - Health Insurance Providers Fee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-04

    ... Health Insurance Providers Fee AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice of... insurance for United States health risks. This fee is imposed by section 9010 of the Patient Protection and... insurance for United States health risks. DATES: Written or electronic comments must be received by June 3...

  18. 42 CFR 410.134 - Provider qualifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... after December 22, 2000: (a) Holds a bachelor's or higher degree granted by a regionally accredited college or university in the United States (or an equivalent foreign degree) with completion of the... PROGRAM SUPPLEMENTARY MEDICAL INSURANCE (SMI) BENEFITS Medical Nutrition Therapy § 410.134 Provider...

  19. Utilization of Smartphone Applications by Anesthesia Providers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael S. Green

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Health care-related apps provide valuable facts and have added a new dimension to knowledge sharing. The purpose of this study is to understand the pattern of utilization of mobile apps specifically created for anesthesia providers. Smartphone app stores were searched, and a survey was sent to 416 anesthesia providers at 136 anesthesiology residency programs querying specific facets of application use. Among respondents, 11.4% never used, 12.4% used less than once per month, 6.0% used once per month, 12.1% used 2-3 times per month, 13.6% used once per week, 21% used 2-3 times per week, and 23.5% used daily. Dosage/pharmaceutical apps were rated the highest as most useful. 24.6% of the participants would pay less than $2.00, 25.1% would pay $5.00, 30.3% would pay $5–$10.00, 9.6% would pay $10–$25.00, 5.1% would pay $25–$50.00, and 5.1% would pay more than $50.00 if an app saves 5–10 minutes per day or 30 minutes/week. The use of mobile phone apps is not limited to reiterating information from textbooks but provides opportunities to further the ever-changing field of anesthesiology. Our survey illustrates the convenience of apps for health care professionals. Providers must exercise caution when selecting apps to ensure best evidence-based medicine.

  20. SPACEWAY: Providing affordable and versatile communication solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, E. J.

    1995-08-01

    By the end of this decade, Hughes' SPACEWAY network will provide the first interactive 'bandwidth on demand' communication services for a variety of applications. High quality digital voice, interactive video, global access to multimedia databases, and transborder workgroup computing will make SPACEWAY an essential component of the computer-based workplace of the 21st century. With relatively few satellites to construct, insure, and launch -- plus extensive use of cost-effective, tightly focused spot beams on the world's most populated areas -- the high capacity SPACEWAY system can pass its significant cost savings onto its customers. The SPACEWAY network is different from other proposed global networks in that its geostationary orbit location makes it a truly market driven system: each satellite will make available extensive telecom services to hundreds of millions of people within the continuous view of that satellite, providing immediate capacity within a specific region of the world.

  1. The EU as an international security provider

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodt, Annemarie Peen; Wolff, Stefan; Whitman, Richard

    2015-01-01

    This contribution develops a framework of analysis that covers the actors involved in the policy making process of international security provision, the dynamics of this process itself, its outcomes (concrete strategies and policies) and their impact. Our efforts to establish such a framework...... of analysis, which could serve as the foundation for a mid-range theory of the EU as an international security provider, will examine the relevance of, and apply, existing theories of international relations/international security and foreign policy analysis to the specific case of the EU. The framework...... that will emerge from this analysis will then be tested and applied empirically in the following contributions that focus on how particular policies are formulated and implemented, and that analyse, in single and comparative case studies, the impact and effectiveness of the EU as an international security provider....

  2. Informed consent - Providing information about prenatal examinations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Katja; Kesmodel, Ulrik; Hvidman, Lone

    as well.The review is based on systematic search strategy in the electronic databases Medline and Science Citation. Additional studies were identified through reference lists of individual papers obtained. Improving knowledge scores and reducing decisional conflict can be obtained by group counselling...... pregnant women about prenatal examinations. Women's knowledge, decisional conflict, satisfaction and anxiety will be explored as compared with different ways and different groups of health professionals providing information. To what extent information empowers informed decision making will be explored...

  3. Providing Device Independence to Mobile Services

    OpenAIRE

    Nylander, Stina; Bylund, Markus

    2002-01-01

    People want user interfaces to services that are functional and well suited to the device they choose for access. To provide this, services must be able to offer device specific user interfaces for the wide range of devices available today. We propose to combine the two dominant approaches to platform independence, "Write Once, Run Every-where™" and "different version for each device", to create multiple device specific user interfaces for mobile services. This gives possibilities to minimize...

  4. Research utilization among children's mental health providers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferguson H Bruce

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Children with emotional and behavioural disorders should be able to count on receiving care that meets their needs and is based on the best scientific evidence available, however, many do not receive these services. Implementation of evidence-based practice (EBP relies, in part, on the research utilization practices of mental health care providers. This study reports on a survey of research utilization practices among 80 children's mental health (CMH service provider organizations in Ontario, Canada. Methods A web-based survey was distributed to 80 CMH service provider organizations, to which 51 executive directors and 483 children's mental health practitioners responded. Research utilization was assessed using questions with Likert-type responses based on the Canadian Health Services Research Foundation's Four-A's approach: access, assess, adapt, apply. Results There was general agreement among executive directors and practitioners regarding the capacity of their organizations to use – access, assess, adapt, and apply – research evidence. Overall, both groups rated their organizations as using research information 'somewhat well.' The low response rate to the practitioner survey should be noted. Conclusion These findings provide a useful benchmark from which changes in reported research utilization in the Ontario CMH sector can be tracked over time, as a function of EBP training and implementation initiatives, for instance. The need to improve access to research evidence should be addressed because it relates to the eventual implementation and uptake of evidence-based practices. Communities of practice are recommended as a strategy that would enable practitioners to build capacity in their adaptation and application of research evidence.

  5. Research utilization among children's mental health providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barwick, Melanie A; Boydell, Katherine M; Stasiulis, Elaine; Ferguson, H Bruce; Blase, Karen; Fixsen, Dean

    2008-04-09

    Children with emotional and behavioural disorders should be able to count on receiving care that meets their needs and is based on the best scientific evidence available, however, many do not receive these services. Implementation of evidence-based practice (EBP) relies, in part, on the research utilization practices of mental health care providers. This study reports on a survey of research utilization practices among 80 children's mental health (CMH) service provider organizations in Ontario, Canada. A web-based survey was distributed to 80 CMH service provider organizations, to which 51 executive directors and 483 children's mental health practitioners responded. Research utilization was assessed using questions with Likert-type responses based on the Canadian Health Services Research Foundation's Four-A's approach: access, assess, adapt, apply. There was general agreement among executive directors and practitioners regarding the capacity of their organizations to use - access, assess, adapt, and apply - research evidence. Overall, both groups rated their organizations as using research information 'somewhat well.' The low response rate to the practitioner survey should be noted. These findings provide a useful benchmark from which changes in reported research utilization in the Ontario CMH sector can be tracked over time, as a function of EBP training and implementation initiatives, for instance. The need to improve access to research evidence should be addressed because it relates to the eventual implementation and uptake of evidence-based practices. Communities of practice are recommended as a strategy that would enable practitioners to build capacity in their adaptation and application of research evidence.

  6. PROVIDING QUALITY – A KEY TO SUCCESS

    OpenAIRE

    Oana Staiculescu; Angel-Cristian Staiculescu

    2012-01-01

    Providing a high quality products and services is a key to business success. That is because high quality promotes customer satisfaction and customer satisfaction has a direct link to business revenue. Clients want quality products and services in order to feel they are getting value for money, especially in these hard economic times. Although it is well known that advertising may win new customers, quality can be the reason to keep them. A good manager is aware that the costs of winning mark...

  7. Outsourcing gets providers back to the basics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, S

    1995-05-01

    Information technology is advancing so quickly that many organizations can't keep up. That's why demand for the outsourcing of data processing functions is growing as providers and payers attempt to implement the latest technology while holding costs down. Those investigating outsourcing must carefully scrutinize whether an arrangement actually will cut costs, experts advise. And clients should review contract terms to ensure all expectations are spelled out.

  8. Providing Real Research Opoportunities to Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragozzine, Darin

    2016-01-01

    The current approach to undergraduate education focuses on teaching classes which provide the foundational knowledge for more applied experiences such as scientific research. Like most programs, Florida Institute of Technology (Florida Tech or FIT) strongly encourages undergraduate research, but is dominated by content-focused courses (e.g., "Physical Mechanics"). Research-like experiences are generally offered through "lab" classes, but these are almost always reproductions of past experiments: contrived, formulaic, and lacking the "heart" of real (i.e., potentially publishable) scientific research. Real research opportunities 1) provide students with realistic insight into the actual scientific process; 2) excite students far more than end-of-chapter problems; 3) provide context for the importance of learning math, physics, and astrophysics concepts; and 4) allow unique research progress for well-chosen problems. I have provided real research opportunities as an "Exoplanet Lab" component of my Introduction to Space Science (SPS1020) class at Florida Tech, generally taken by first-year majors in our Physics, Astronomy & Astrophysics, Planetary Science, and Astrobiology degree programs. These labs are a hybrid between citizen science (e.g., PlanetHunters) and simultaneously mentoring ~60 undergraduates in similar small research projects. These projects focus on problems that can be understood in the context of the course, but which benefit from "crowdsourcing". Examples include: dividing up the known planetary systems and developing a classification scheme and organizing them into populations (Fall 2013); searching through folded light curves to discover new exoplanets missed by previous pipelines (Fall 2014); and fitting n-body models to all exoplanets with known Transit Timing Variations to estimate planet masses (Fall 2015). The students love the fact that they are doing real potentially publishable research: not many undergraduates can claim to have discovered

  9. Offshore Outsourcing Induced by Domestic Providers

    OpenAIRE

    Yutian Chen; Pradeep Dubey; Debapriya Sen

    2005-01-01

    We show that offshore outsourcing can occur even when there are no economies of scale or cost advantages for the foreign firms. What drives the phenomenon is that domestic firms, by accepting orders for intermediate goods, incur the disadvantage of becoming Stackelberg followers in the ensuing competition to sell the final good. Thus they have incentive to quote high provider prices to ward off future competitors, compelling them to outsource offshore.

  10. Providing Music Notation Services over Internet

    OpenAIRE

    Solomon , Mike; Fober , Dominique; Orlarey , Yann; Letz , Stéphane

    2014-01-01

    International audience; The GUIDO project gathers a textual format for music representation, a rendering engine operating on this format, and a library providing a high level support for all the services related to the GUIDO format and it's graphic rendering. The project includes now an HTTP server that allows users to access the musical-score-related functions in the API of the GUIDOEngine library via uniform resource identifiers (URIs). This article resumes the core tenants of the REST arch...

  11. ACCOUNTING TREATMENTS USED FOR ACCOUNTING SERVICES PROVIDERS

    OpenAIRE

    ŢOGOE GRETI DANIELA; AVRAM MARIOARA; AVRAM COSTIN DANIEL

    2014-01-01

    The theme of our research is the ways of keeping accounting entities that are the object of the provision of services in the accounting profession. This paper aims to achieve a parallel between the ways of organizing financial records - accounting provided by freelancers and companies with activity in the financial - accounting. The first step in our scientific research is to establish objectives chosen area of scientific knowledge. Our scientific approach seeks to explain thr...

  12. Providing Technical assistance on corruption control

    OpenAIRE

    Serge, Lortie

    2012-01-01

    The phenomenon referred to as corruption has now been generating a high degree of interest for over twenty years. It has in fact spawned not only an abundant literature but also a monitoring and advisory industry whose specific outlook heavily shapes the debate on integrity issues. This industry is widely supported by aid providers, be it the international financing institutions or national development agencies. At this juncture, it therefore seemed worthwhile to examine more critically an ar...

  13. ACCOUNTING TREATMENTS USED FOR ACCOUNTING SERVICES PROVIDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ŢOGOE GRETI DANIELA

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The theme of our research is the ways of keeping accounting entities that are the object of the provision of services in the accounting profession. This paper aims to achieve a parallel between the ways of organizing financial records - accounting provided by freelancers and companies with activity in the financial - accounting. The first step in our scientific research is to establish objectives chosen area of scientific knowledge. Our scientific approach seeks to explain through a thorough and detailed approach as different sides (conceptual and practical looking projections of accounting issues related to regulatory developments and practices in the field. This paper addresses various concepts, accounting treatments, and books and accounting documents used both freelancers in providing accounting services and legal persons authorized accounting profession. In terms of methodology and research perspective, the whole scientific approach combined with quantitative and qualitative research theoretical perspective (descriptive-conceptual with practice perspective (empirical analyzing the main contributions of various authors (Romanian and foreign to knowledge in the field. Following the survey believe that the amendments to the national legislation will support entities providing accounting services, by cutting red tape on Administrative Burdens, and consequently will increase profitability and increase service quality.

  14. Patients Provide Recommendations for Improving Patient Satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Angelo D; Hamilton, Jill B; Krusel, Jessica L; Moore, LeeAntoinette G; Pierre-Louis, Bosny J

    2016-04-01

    National Committee for Quality Assurance recommends patient-centered medical homes incorporate input from patient populations; however, many health care organizations do not. This qualitative study used two open-ended questions from 148 active duty Army Soldiers and their family members to illicit recommendations for primary care providers and clinic leadership that would improve their health care experiences. Content analysis and descriptive statistics were used to analyze responses. Participant responses were related to four major themes: Access to Care, Interpersonal Interaction, Satisfaction of Care, and Quality of Care. Participants were overall satisfied with their care; however, spending less time waiting for appointments and to see the provider or specialist were the most frequently requested improvements related to Access to Care. For Interpersonal Interaction, 82% of the responses recommended that providers be more attentive listeners, courteous, patient, caring, and respectful. Decreasing wait times and improving interpersonal skills would improve health care experiences and patient satisfaction. Reprint & Copyright © 2016 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  15. Mitigating Provider Uncertainty in Service Provision Contracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Chris; van Moorsel, Aad

    Uncertainty is an inherent property of open, distributed and multiparty systems. The viability of the mutually beneficial relationships which motivate these systems relies on rational decision-making by each constituent party under uncertainty. Service provision in distributed systems is one such relationship. Uncertainty is experienced by the service provider in his ability to deliver a service with selected quality level guarantees due to inherent non-determinism, such as load fluctuations and hardware failures. Statistical estimators utilized to model this non-determinism introduce additional uncertainty through sampling error. Inability of the provider to accurately model and analyze uncertainty in the quality level guarantees can result in the formation of sub-optimal service provision contracts. Emblematic consequences include loss of revenue, inefficient resource utilization and erosion of reputation and consumer trust. We propose a utility model for contract-based service provision to provide a systematic approach to optimal service provision contract formation under uncertainty. Performance prediction methods to enable the derivation of statistical estimators for quality level are introduced, with analysis of their resultant accuracy and cost.

  16. Do burn centers provide juvenile firesetter intervention?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrns-Klas, Karla S; Wahl, Wendy L; Hemmila, Mark R; Wang, Stewart C

    2012-01-01

    Juvenile firesetting activity accounts for a significant number of annual injuries and property damage, yet there is sparse information on intervention in the burn literature. To quantify juvenile firesetting intervention (JFSI) in burn centers, a 23-question survey was sent to all directors listed in the American Burn Association Burn Care Facilities Directory.Sixty-four out of 112 (57%) surveys were returned. This represents responses from 79% of currently verified burn centers. When queried on interventions provided to a juvenile firesetter admitted to their unit, 38% report having their own JFSI program and 38% refer the child to fire services. Two thirds of units without a JFSI program treat pediatric patients. Units that previously had a JFSI program report lack of staffing and funding as most common reasons for program discontinuation. Almost all (95%) stated that a visual tool demonstrating legal, financial, social, future, and career ramifications associated with juvenile firesetting would be beneficial to their unit. Many burn units that treat pediatric patients do not have JFSI and rely on external programs operated by fire services. Existing JFSI programs vary greatly in structure and method of delivery. Burn centers should be involved in JFSI, and most units would benefit from a new video toolkit to assist in providing appropriate JFSI. Study results highlight a need for burn centers to collaborate on evaluating effectiveness of JFSI programs and providing consistent intervention materials based on outcomes research.

  17. Supercapacitor to Provide Ancillary Services: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muljadi, Eduard [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gevorgian, Vahan [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Luo, Yusheng [Idaho National Laboratory; Mohanpurkar, M. [Idaho National Laboratory; Hovsapian, R. [Idaho National Laboratory; Koritarov, V. [Argonne National Laboratory

    2017-10-09

    Supercapacitor technology has reached a level of maturity as a viable energy storage option available to support a modern electric power system grid; however, its application is still limited because of its energy capacity and the cost of the commercial product. In this paper, we demonstrate transient models of supercapacitor energy storage plants operating in coordination with run-of-the-river (ROR), doubly-fed induction generator hydropower plants (HPP) using a system control concept and architecture developed. A detailed transient model of a supercapacitor energy storage device is coupled with the grid via a three-phase inverter/rectifier and bidirectional DC-DC converter. In addition, we use a version of a 14-bus IEEE test case that includes the models of the supercapacitor energy storage device, ROR HPPs, and synchronous condensers that use the rotating synchronous generators of retired coal-powered plants. The purpose of the synchronous condensers is to enhance the system stability by providing voltage and reactive power control, provide power system oscillations damping, and maintain system inertia at secure levels. The control layer provides coordinated, decentralized operation of distributed ROR HPPs and energy storage as aggregate support to power system operations.

  18. Provider volume and outcomes for oncological procedures.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Killeen, S D

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND: Oncological procedures may have better outcomes if performed by high-volume providers. METHODS: A review of the English language literature incorporating searches of the Medline, Embase and Cochrane collaboration databases was performed. Studies were included if they involved a patient cohort from 1984 onwards, were community or population based, and assessed health outcome as a dependent variable and volume as an independent variable. The studies were also scored quantifiably to assess generalizability with respect to any observed volume-outcome relationship and analysed according to organ system; numbers needed to treat were estimated where possible. RESULTS: Sixty-eight relevant studies were identified and a total of 41 were included, of which 13 were based on clinical data. All showed either an inverse relationship, of variable magnitude, between provider volume and mortality, or no volume-outcome effect. All but two clinical reports revealed a statistically significant positive relationship between volume and outcome; none demonstrated the opposite. CONCLUSION: High-volume providers have a significantly better outcome for complex cancer surgery, specifically for pancreatectomy, oesphagectomy, gastrectomy and rectal resection.

  19. Journey of a cystinuric patient with a long-term follow-up from a medical stone clinic: necessity to be SaFER (stone and fragments entirely removed).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Sacha L; Somani, Bhaskar K; Cook, Paul

    2018-04-25

    There is a lack of studies looking at the longitudinal follow-up of patients with cystine stones. We wanted to assess the journey of cystinuric patients through our specialist metabolic stone clinic to improve the understanding of episodes, interventions and current outcomes in this patient cohort. After ethical approval, all patients who attended our metabolic stone clinic from 1994 to 2014 with at least one cystine stone episode were included in our study. Data were retrospectively analysed for patient demographics, stone episodes or intervention, clinical parameters and patient compliance. Over a period of 21 years, 16 patients with a median age of 15.5 years underwent a mean follow-up of 8.6 years (1-21 years). The mean number of surgical interventions was 3.1 (1-8/patient), but patients who were stone free after their first treatment had lower recurrences (p = 0.91) and lower number of interventions during their follow-up (2.7/patient, compared to those who were not stone free at 4/patient). During their follow-up period, patients with stone episodes (r 2  = 0.169). It was also noted that patients who began early medical management remained stone free during follow-up compared to those who had medical management after ≥ 2 stone episodes, of whom all had a recurrent episode. Our long-term longitudinal study of cystine stone formers highlights that patients who are stone free and receive early metabolic stone screening and medical management after their initial presentation have the lowest recurrence rates and tend to preserve their renal function. Hence, prompt referral for metabolic assessment, and the stone and fragments entirely removed (SaFER) principles are key to preventing stone episodes and improving long-term function.

  20. Threatened corals provide underexplored microbial habitats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinichi Sunagawa

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary in-depth sequencing of environmental samples has provided novel insights into microbial community structures, revealing that their diversity had been previously underestimated. Communities in marine environments are commonly composed of a few dominant taxa and a high number of taxonomically diverse, low-abundance organisms. However, studying the roles and genomic information of these "rare" organisms remains challenging, because little is known about their ecological niches and the environmental conditions to which they respond. Given the current threat to coral reef ecosystems, we investigated the potential of corals to provide highly specialized habitats for bacterial taxa including those that are rarely detected or absent in surrounding reef waters. The analysis of more than 350,000 small subunit ribosomal RNA (16S rRNA sequence tags and almost 2,000 nearly full-length 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that rare seawater biosphere members are highly abundant or even dominant in diverse Caribbean corals. Closely related corals (in the same genus/family harbored similar bacterial communities. At higher taxonomic levels, however, the similarities of these communities did not correlate with the phylogenetic relationships among corals, opening novel questions about the evolutionary stability of coral-microbial associations. Large proportions of OTUs (28.7-49.1% were unique to the coral species of origin. Analysis of the most dominant ribotypes suggests that many uncovered bacterial taxa exist in coral habitats and await future exploration. Our results indicate that coral species, and by extension other animal hosts, act as specialized habitats of otherwise rare microbes in marine ecosystems. Here, deep sequencing provided insights into coral microbiota at an unparalleled resolution and revealed that corals harbor many bacterial taxa previously not known. Given that two of the coral species investigated are listed as threatened under

  1. Consumer Behavior towards Safer Car Purchasing Decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khairil Anwar Abu Kassim

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In Malaysia, the car safety level has been elevated through regulations and a consumer-based approach, i.e. the New Car Assessment Program in Southeast Asian Countries (ASEAN NCAP. Nevertheless, the availability of information on consumers’ car purchasing decisions towards safety is still limited in Malaysia. Thus, this study was aimed at evaluating consumers’ purchasing decisions of their present cars and investigating their awareness of ASEAN NCAP. Self-administered questionnaires were distributed among consumers visiting different car showrooms and dealer shops. The findings suggest that safety was considered as one of the top three factors by the respondents when purchasing their present cars. Awareness of ASEAN NCAP has increased as compared to a previous study. This information is essential for policy makers, manufacturers and other stakeholders to assist in setting priorities with regard to the promotion of car safety in the country.

  2. Safer caesarean sections at Juba Teaching Hospital

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-05-02

    May 2, 2012 ... spinal anaesthesia, lack of drugs/equipment, Category ... safest option o The AMAs work unsupervised and many had not had any ... o Due to the lack of staff and monitoring equipment ... with further information, to take home.

  3. IMCO: Making the seas safer and cleaner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    Since 1959, when the IMCO Assembly met for the first time, the Organization has had two main objectives: the introduction of measures designed to improve safety at sea and to prevent pollution of the sea from ships. But during its twenty-year history IMCO has also adopted a number of Conventions and other measures which are aimed specifically at tankers and the problem of pollution. The 1954 Oil Pollution Convention (for which IMCO became depositary in 1959) was the first major attempt by the maritime nations to curb the impact of oil pollution, but since then the problem has become even more serious today The amount of oil carried by sea has risen by 700 per cent in 20 years - to around 1,700 million tons. The world tanker fleet has increased from 37 million deadweight tons in 1954 to around 340 million deadweight tons today, and the size of the tankers themselves has also grown amazingly. The second Convention deals with liability of the ship or cargo owner for damage suffered as a result of an oil pollution casualty. The Convention is intended to ensure that adequate compensation is available to victims and places the liability for the damage on the shipowner. As a result, another Conference was convened by IMCO in 1971 which resulted in the adoption of a Convention establishing the International Fund for Compensation for Oil Pollution Damage The Convention came into force in 1978 and the Fund has now been established with its headquarters in London These three Conventions all deal with what one might call the legal aspects of oil pollution. But the continuing boom in the transportation of oil showed that more work needed to be done on the technical side as well: the scale of oil pollution was so great in some areas that there was serious concern for the marine environment, not only as a result of accidents but through normal tanker operations, notably the cleaning of cargo tanks. In 1973 a major conference was called to discuss the whole problem of marine pollution from ships and resulted in the adoption of the most ambitious anti-pollution Convention ever adopted. The Marine Pollution Convention dealt not only with oil but other forms of pollution, including that from garbage, sewage, chemicals and other harmful substances

  4. Consumer Behavior towards Safer Car Purchasing Decisions

    OpenAIRE

    Khairil Anwar Abu Kassim; Mohd Hafzi Md Isa; Yahaya Ahmad; Intan Osman; Lawrence Arokiasamy

    2016-01-01

    In Malaysia, the car safety level has been elevated through regulations and a consumer-based approach, i.e. the New Car Assessment Program in Southeast Asian Countries (ASEAN NCAP). Nevertheless, the availability of information on consumers' car purchasing decisions towards safety is still limited in Malaysia. Thus, this study was aimed at evaluating consumers' purchasing decisions of their present cars and investigating their awareness of ASEAN NCAP. Self-administered questionnaires were dis...

  5. Automatic-Control System for Safer Brazing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, J. A.; Vanasse, M. A.

    1986-01-01

    Automatic-control system for radio-frequency (RF) induction brazing of metal tubing reduces probability of operator errors, increases safety, and ensures high-quality brazed joints. Unit combines functions of gas control and electric-power control. Minimizes unnecessary flow of argon gas into work area and prevents electrical shocks from RF terminals. Controller will not allow power to flow from RF generator to brazing head unless work has been firmly attached to head and has actuated micro-switch. Potential shock hazard eliminated. Flow of argon for purging and cooling must be turned on and adjusted before brazing power applied. Provision ensures power not applied prematurely, causing damaged work or poor-quality joints. Controller automatically turns off argon flow at conclusion of brazing so potentially suffocating gas does not accumulate in confined areas.

  6. Irradiation: a safe measure for safer food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henkel, J.

    1998-01-01

    Beef is one of the U.S. food industry's hottest sellers--to the tune of 8 billion pounds a year, according to trade figures. Whether at a fast-food meal, a dinner on the town, or a backyard barbecue, beef is often front and center on America's tables. But in recent years, beef, especially ground beef, has shown a dark side: It can harbor the bacterium E. coli O157:H7, a pathogen that threatens the safety of the domestic food supply. If not properly prepared, beef tainted with E. coli O157:H7 can make people ill, and in rare instances, kill them. In 1993, E. coli O157:H7-contaminated hamburgers sold by a fast-food chain were linked to the deaths of four children and hundreds of illnesses in the Pacific Northwest. In 1997, the potential extent of E. coli O157:H7 contamination came to light when Arkansas-based Hudson Foods Inc. voluntarily recalled 25 million pounds of hamburger suspected of containing E. coli O157:H7. It was the largest recall of meat products in U.S. history. Nationally, E. coli O157:H7 causes about 20,000 illnesses and 500 deaths a year, according to the federal Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Scientists have only known since 1982 that this form of E. coli causes human illness. To help combat this public health problem, the Food and Drug Administration, in December 1997, approved treating red meat products with a measured dose of radiation. This process, commonly called irradiation, has drawn praise from many food industry and health organizations because it can control E. coli O157:H7 and several other disease-causing microorganisms. As with other regulations governing meat and poultry products, irradiation will be authorized when the U.S. Department of Agriculture completes its implementing regulations. Though irradiation is the latest step toward curbing food-borne illness, the federal government also is implementing other measures, which include developing new technologies and expanding the use of current technologies

  7. Making Medical Devices Safer at Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... things found in a home environment, such as pet hair, well water or temperature variations. Other challenges include the user's and the caregiver's physical and emotional health. People taking medications that affect their alertness or ...

  8. Towards Safer Lithium-Ion Batteries

    OpenAIRE

    Herstedt, Marie

    2003-01-01

    Surface film formation at the electrode/electrolyte interface in lithium-ion batteries has a crucial impact on battery performance and safety. This thesis describes the characterisation and treatment of electrode interfaces in lithium-ion batteries. The focus is on interface modification to improve battery safety, in particular to enhance the onset temperature for thermally activated reactions, which also can have a negative influence on battery performance. Photoelectron Spectroscopy (PES) ...

  9. Learning how to make cities safer

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    At the midpoint of a five-year program of research, experts working through the Safe and Inclusive Cities initiative are shedding light on what works — and what doesn't ... and schools are no longer safe or easy to reach, and new environments.

  10. Safer Food Saves Lives PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-11-03

    This 60 second PSA is based on the November 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. Contaminated food sent to several states can cause multistate outbreaks of foodborne illness and make a lot of people seriously ill. Learn what can be done to prevent and stop outbreaks.  Created: 11/3/2015 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 11/3/2015.

  11. Safer Soldering Guidelines and Instructional Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Tyler S.; Tomlinson, Joel

    2018-01-01

    Soldering is a useful and necessary process for many classroom, makerspace, Fab Lab, technology and engineering lab, and science lab activities. As described in this article, soldering can pose many safety risks without proper engineering controls, standard operating procedures, and direct instructor supervision. There are many safety hazards…

  12. CDC Vital Signs: Safer Food Saves Lives

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... depend on sick people to remember what they ate several weeks earlier. If the problem is a ... germ. Interview sick people promptly about what they ate, using standard questions. Test suspect foods, if available. ...

  13. Safer environment makes sense for all.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frith, Sue

    2011-06-01

    Sue Frith, deputy head of the NHS Security Management Service (NHS SMS), explains the organisation's important role in advising, and supporting, security staff at NHS hospitals in dealing with incidents ranging from verbal abuse to serious violence and aggression. Arguing that security in the NHS is "everyone's business", she explains both a range of processes and initiatives,already in place to safeguard people and assets, and discusses recent developments, such as a new incident reporting website, designed to help keep patients, staff, visitors, and property, at healthcare facilities safe and secure.

  14. Making cities safer through work and wages

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    South Africa's Community Work Programme targets poverty, not crime. But some ... five times the global average. ... IMPACT STORIES | SAFE AND INCLUSIVE CITIES. PHO. TO ... a long way to reaching those most involved in violent crime. ... This means family life is more stable and nurturing. ... parents to care for children.

  15. Parental Influence, Gay Youths, and Safer Sex

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaSala, Michael C.

    2007-01-01

    To begin to understand the role that family relationships and interactions play in young gay men's decisions to avoid unsafe sexual practices, parents and sons (ages 16 to 25) in 30 families were qualitatively interviewed about issues and concerns related to HIV risk. Most of the youths reported feeling obliged to their parents to stay healthy,…

  16. Predictive Analytics for Safer Food Supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Science based risk analysis improves the USDA Food Safety Inspection Service’s ability to combat threats to public health from food-borne illness by allowing the Agency to focus resources on hazards that pose the greatest risk. Innovative algorithms enable detection and containment of threat by an...

  17. Safer Food Saves Lives PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This 60 second PSA is based on the November 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. Contaminated food sent to several states can cause multistate outbreaks of foodborne illness and make a lot of people seriously ill. Learn what can be done to prevent and stop outbreaks.

  18. Progressively safer, cheaper demolition of Fernald

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nichols, Robert; Pennington, Norman

    2000-01-01

    Fluor Fernald, Inc. has been progressively improving Decontamination and Dismantlement (D and D) at the Department of Energy's Fernald Environmental Management Project by applying new technologies and better methodologies to the work. Demolition issues existed in the past that necessitated new or improved solutions to maintain worker safety, protect the environment and accomplish the work in a cost effective manner. Lessons learned from D and D of 80 structures has led to a systematic approach, which can be implemented in various D and D arenas. When facility production was halted, hold-up material and process residues remained in the process piping and components. Over 500,000 pounds of material was removed by workers who completed the tasks two years ahead of schedule, $7 million under budget and with an excellent safety record. This success was the result of detailed planning and irdision of lessons learned as work progressed from facility to facility. Work sequences were developed that reduced airborne contamination. Demolition of structures has been performed at Fernald by carefully selected and qualified subcontractors. Asbestos and lead abatement, equipment, piping and conduit removal, and structural demolition have been completed to progressively higher performance specifications developed by Fluor Fernald based on lessons learned during execution. Safety continues to be the primary consideration in performing potentially hazardous work. Technologies such as hydraulic shears have been developed and used to keep workers away from danger. A new technology, ''Cool Suits,'' has been demonstrated to help prevent heat stress when anti-contamination clothing is required in elevated temperature working conditions. For tall structures, implosion technologies have been employed with progressively improved results, Several other new technologies have been evaluated by Fluor Fernald and applied by subcontractors. The improved technologies included the oxy-gas torch, which uses gasoline instead of acetylene gas, and a vacuum system for asbestos removal of wall insulation. These new methods proved effective and beneficial. Fluor Fernald has integrated demolition activities with waste disposal requirements to enhance overall efficiency. The relatively straight steel configurations required for recycling, and waste acceptance criteria that dictate waste sizes are typically included in the subcontract specifications The progressive improvements by Fluor Fernald have led to cost savings and schedule acceleration without increased risk to workers or the environment. When Fluor Fernald came to the site in 1992, the remediation baseline reflected a completion schedule of 2020 and a cost of $7.2 billion. The current projection is 2008 and $4.2 billion

  19. Library security better communication, safer facilities

    CERN Document Server

    Albrecht, Steve

    2015-01-01

    Through the methods outlined in this book, Albrecht demonstrates that effective communication not only makes library users feel more comfortable but also increases staff morale, ensuring the library is place where everyone feels welcome.

  20. [Safer operating theatre: easier said than done].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkman, C J

    2008-10-18

    The Netherlands Health Care Inspectorate recently changed its approach to quality of care and patient safety from a reactive to a firmly proactive style. In two reports, the current perioperative processes in Dutch hospitals were scrutinised. Despite a highly-motivated workforce, the inspectorate detected a lack of standardisation, incomplete or inaccessible patient data, poor adherence to hygiene standards and gaps during transfer of care in both the preoperative and intraoperative stages ofsurgery. The inspectorate mandates rapid implementation of various new patient safety approaches, including the use of checklists, 'time-outs' before the start of surgery, double checking of intravenous drugs and improved compliance with hygiene standards, as well as a strict definition of roles and responsibilities of team members. Implementation will require major changes within the processes and culture of operating theatres in Dutch hospitals. Such a change is unlikely to be completed within the short timeframe allowed by the inspectorate.

  1. Safer sex: Passionate escapism versus rational thought

    OpenAIRE

    Bird, S.

    2010-01-01

    Current social marketing practice emphasises the use of theory, this being one of the benchmark criteria used by the UK’s National Social Marketing Centre to define good social marketing practice. Such theories include the Theory of Planned Behaviour (Ajzen, 1991), the Health Belief Model (Hochbaum et al., 1952; Rosenstock, 1966; Rosenstock et al. 1988) or the Transtheoretical Model of Change (Prochaska et al., 1991). These first two theories suggest that man acts as Homo economicus, using ra...

  2. Safer energetic materials by a nanotechnological approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegert, Benny; Comet, Marc; Spitzer, Denis

    2011-09-01

    Energetic materials - explosives, thermites, populsive powders - are used in a variety of military and civilian applications. Their mechanical and electrostatic sensitivity is high in many cases, which can lead to accidents during handling and transport. These considerations limit the practical use of some energetic materials despite their good performance. For industrial applications, safety is one of the main criteria for selecting energetic materials. The sensitivity has been regarded as an intrinsic property of a substance for a long time. However, in recent years, several approaches to lower the sensitivity of a given substance, using nanotechnology and materials engineering, have been described. This feature article gives an overview over ways to prepare energetic (nano-)materials with a lower sensitivity.Energetic materials - explosives, thermites, populsive powders - are used in a variety of military and civilian applications. Their mechanical and electrostatic sensitivity is high in many cases, which can lead to accidents during handling and transport. These considerations limit the practical use of some energetic materials despite their good performance. For industrial applications, safety is one of the main criteria for selecting energetic materials. The sensitivity has been regarded as an intrinsic property of a substance for a long time. However, in recent years, several approaches to lower the sensitivity of a given substance, using nanotechnology and materials engineering, have been described. This feature article gives an overview over ways to prepare energetic (nano-)materials with a lower sensitivity. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental details for the preparation of the V2O5@CNF/Al nanothermite; X-ray diffractogram of the V2O5@CNF/Al combustion residue; installation instructions and source code for the nt-timeline program. See DOI: 10.1039/c1nr10292c

  3. SAFERE: Southern African Feminist Review: Advanced Search

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Search tips: Search terms are case-insensitive; Common words are ignored; By default only articles containing all terms in the query are returned (i.e., AND is implied); Combine multiple words with OR to find articles containing either term; e.g., education OR research; Use parentheses to create more complex queries; e.g., ...

  4. Does Industrial Ecology provide any new Perspectives?

    OpenAIRE

    Røine, Kjetil

    2000-01-01

    The research question in this report was, as the title alludes: Does industrial ecology provide any new perspectives? If yes, what are the new aspects? To answer these questions, a literature study has been conducted. The answer to the first question is yes. We claim that what is new about industrial ecology is the expansion of the system borders within which the actors operate. Bearing this in mind, it is proposed that the most important issue in industrial ecology is to unite the two m...

  5. Providing hedging protection for the transaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richardson, D.W.

    1999-01-01

    This presentation dealt with methods for assessing commodity price risk in an asset transaction; the setting of risk management objectives; building hedging into the financing; and internal reporting and accounting to mitigate trading risks. It also provided some recent examples of successful hedging in gas asset transactions. The objectives of risk management and the nature of hedging and speculation were explored. An approach to price risk management was proposed. The development of price risk management tools, and techniques for managing risks involving interest rates, foreign exchange, and commodities were examined. figs

  6. Sensors Provide Early Warning of Biological Threats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Early Warning Inc. of Troy, New York, licensed powerful biosensor technology from Ames Research Center. Incorporating carbon nanotubes tipped with single strands of nucleic acid from waterborne pathogens, the sensor can detect even minute amounts of targeted, disease causing bacteria, viruses, and parasites. Early Warning features the NASA biosensor in its water analyzer, which can provide advance alert of potential biological hazards in water used for agriculture, food and beverages, showers, and at beaches and lakes -- within hours instead of the days required by conventional laboratory methods.

  7. Zika Virus: Critical Information for Emergency Providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shastry, Siri; Koenig, Kristi L; Hirshon, Jon Mark

    2016-08-01

    Zika virus is an arbovirus of the Flaviviridae family. It is primarily a minimally symptomatic mosquito-borne infection. However, with Zika's 2015 to 2016 introduction into the Western Hemisphere and its dramatic and rapid spread, it has become a public health concern, in large part due to congenital abnormalities associated with infection in pregnant women. In early 2016, the World Health Organization declared the microcephaly and other neurologic conditions associated with Zika virus infection a public health emergency of international concern. This article discusses the current epidemiologic and clinical understanding of Zika virus, focusing on critical information needed by emergency providers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Power beaming providing a space power infrastructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bamberger, J.A.; Coomes, E.P.

    1992-01-01

    This paper, based on two levels of technology maturity, applied the power beaming concept to four panned satellite constellations. The analysis shows that with currently available technology, power beaming can provide mass savings to constellations in orbits ranging from low-Earth orbit to geosynchronous orbit. Two constellations, space surveillance and tracking system and space-based radar, can be supported with current technology. The other two constellations, space-based laser array and boost surveillance and tracking system, will require power and transmission system improvements before their breakeven specific mass is achieved. A doubling of SP-100 conversion efficiency from 10 to 20% would meet or exceed breakeven for these constellations

  9. Ancillary services provided by PV power plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio PIERNO

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Renewable energy sources are widely utilized in distributed generation systems, and, recently, they are also considered for providing ancillary services. The paper is focused on PV plants, a survey of the most interesting papers published in the literature in the last decade is reported and the main characteristics of the technical proposals, with their advantages and limits, are evidenced. The results are schematically shown in a table that immediately gives the opportunity to be aware of what was already done, representing a reference tool.

  10. Social capital and trust in providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahern, Melissa M; Hendryx, Michael S

    2003-10-01

    Trust in providers has been in decline in recent decades. This study attempts to identify sources of trust in characteristics of health care systems and the wider community. The design is cross-sectional. Data are from (1) the 1996 Household Survey of the Community Tracking Study, drawn from 24 Metropolitan Statistical Areas; (2) a 1996 multi-city broadcast media marketing database including key social capital indicators; (3) Interstudy; (4) the American Hospital Association; and (5) the American Medical Association. Independent variables include individual socio-demographic variables, HMO enrollment, community-level health sector variables, and social capital. The dependent variable is self-reported trust in physicians. Data are merged from the various sources and analyzed using SUDAAN. Subjects include adults in the Household Survey who responded to the items on trust in physicians (N=17,653). Trust in physicians is independently predicted by community social capital (pSocial capital plays a role in how health care is perceived by citizens, and how health care is delivered by providers. Efforts to build trust and collaboration in a community may improve trust in physicians, health care quality, access, and preserve local health care control.

  11. Will British weather provide reliable electricity?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oswald, James; Raine, Mike; Ashraf-Ball, Hezlin

    2008-01-01

    There has been much academic debate on the ability of wind to provide a reliable electricity supply. The model presented here calculates the hourly power delivery of 25 GW of wind turbines distributed across Britain's grid, and assesses power delivery volatility and the implications for individual generators on the system. Met Office hourly wind speed data are used to determine power output and are calibrated using Ofgem's published wind output records. There are two main results. First, the model suggests that power swings of 70% within 12 h are to be expected in winter, and will require individual generators to go on or off line frequently, thereby reducing the utilisation and reliability of large centralised plants. These reductions will lead to increases in the cost of electricity and reductions in potential carbon savings. Secondly, it is shown that electricity demand in Britain can reach its annual peak with a simultaneous demise of wind power in Britain and neighbouring countries to very low levels. This significantly undermines the case for connecting the UK transmission grid to neighbouring grids. Recommendations are made for improving 'cost of wind' calculations. The authors are grateful for the sponsorship provided by The Renewable Energy Foundation

  12. Green roofs provide habitat for urban bats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.L. Parkins

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Understanding bat use of human-altered habitat is critical for developing effective conservation plans for this ecologically important taxon. Green roofs, building rooftops covered in growing medium and vegetation, are increasingly important conservation tools that make use of underutilized space to provide breeding and foraging grounds for urban wildlife. Green roofs are especially important in highly urbanized areas such as New York City (NYC, which has more rooftops (34% than green space (13%. To date, no studies have examined the extent to which North American bats utilize urban green roofs. To investigate the role of green roofs in supporting urban bats, we monitored bat activity using ultrasonic recorders on four green and four conventional roofs located in highly developed areas of NYC, which were paired to control for location, height, and local variability in surrounding habitat and species diversity. We then identified bat vocalizations on these recordings to the species level. We documented the presence of five of nine possible bat species over both roof types: Lasiurus borealis, L. cinereus, L. noctivagans, P. subflavus,andE. fuscus. Of the bat calls that could be identified to the species level, 66% were from L. borealis. Overall levels of bat activity were higher over green roofs than over conventional roofs. This study provides evidence that, in addition to well documented ecosystem benefits, urban green roofs contribute to urban habitat availability for several North American bat species.

  13. Topical isoflavones provide effective photoprotection to skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jing-Yi; Tournas, Joshua A; Burch, James A; Monteiro-Riviere, Nancy A; Zielinski, Jan

    2008-04-01

    Isoflavones, one main group of phytoestrogens, have antioxidative and photoprotective effects in cellular and mouse studies. The aim of this study is to obtain a more comprehensive understanding of the isoflavone-mediated photoprotection with the pig skin model, a more human-resembling model. The pig skin was treated with five well-known isoflavone compounds (genistein, equol, daidzein, biochanin A, and formononetin) and one antioxidant combination solution of 15% vitamin C and 1% vitamin E and 0.5% ferulic acid (CEF) daily for 4 days. Skin was irradiated with solar-simulated UV irradiation, 1 to 5 minimal erythema dose (MED) at 1-MED intervals. Evaluation was carried out 24 h later by colorimeter-measured erythema and sunburn cell numbers. Topical application of 0.5% solutions of three individual phytoestrogens - genistein, daidzein, biochanin A - are better than similar solutions of equol or formononetin in protecting pig skin from solar-simulated ultraviolet (SSUV)-induced photodamage, as measured by sunburn cell formation and/or erythema. However, the protection was less than that provided by a topical combination antioxidant standard containing 15% L-ascorbic acid, 1%alpha-tocopherol, and 0.5% ferulic acid. Isoflavones provide effective photoprotection and are good candidate ingredients for protection against ultraviolet (UV) photodamage.

  14. Cost Calculation Model for Logistics Service Providers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoltán Bokor

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The exact calculation of logistics costs has become a real challenge in logistics and supply chain management. It is essential to gain reliable and accurate costing information to attain efficient resource allocation within the logistics service provider companies. Traditional costing approaches, however, may not be sufficient to reach this aim in case of complex and heterogeneous logistics service structures. So this paper intends to explore the ways of improving the cost calculation regimes of logistics service providers and show how to adopt the multi-level full cost allocation technique in logistics practice. After determining the methodological framework, a sample cost calculation scheme is developed and tested by using estimated input data. Based on the theoretical findings and the experiences of the pilot project it can be concluded that the improved costing model contributes to making logistics costing more accurate and transparent. Moreover, the relations between costs and performances also become more visible, which enhances the effectiveness of logistics planning and controlling significantly

  15. EPR, a GEN 3 Reactor providing a competitive electricity cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salhi, Othman

    2006-01-01

    Since the very beginning of the development of what was to become the EPR, several European entities were involved. The French and German safety authorities expressed that reinforced safety was compulsory. Additional measures were then included to prevent the occurrence of events likely to damage the core, and reduce the possibility of exposure of operating and maintenance personnel. However, not with standing these safety related features resulting from the requirements of the safety authorities, we will focus today on another group of entities that were key players in EPR development: the Utilities. The Utilities voiced their need for a competitive electricity produced and a competitive nuclear reactor. The tradeoff was then to reach both targets in a unique product: a safer and more competitive NPP. Today, the EPR presents features that enable our clients to compete with the cheapest fossil-based electricity production plants. Increased thermal efficiency is obtained both through a higher steam pressure and through careful optimization of the secondary system thermal cycle

  16. Optical fiber head for providing lateral viewing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everett, Matthew J.; Colston, Billy W.; James, Dale L.; Brown, Steve; Da Silva, Luiz

    2002-01-01

    The head of an optical fiber comprising the sensing probe of an optical heterodyne sensing device includes a planar surface that intersects the perpendicular to axial centerline of the fiber at a polishing angle .theta.. The planar surface is coated with a reflective material so that light traveling axially through the fiber is reflected transverse to the fiber's axial centerline, and is emitted laterally through the side of the fiber. Alternatively, the planar surface can be left uncoated. The polishing angle .theta. must be no greater than 39.degree. or must be at least 51.degree.. The emitted light is reflected from adjacent biological tissue, collected by the head, and then processed to provide real-time images of the tissue. The method for forming the planar surface includes shearing the end of the optical fiber and applying the reflective material before removing the buffer that circumscribes the cladding and the core.

  17. Development of Model for Providing Feasible Scholarship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harry Dhika

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The current work focuses on the development of a model to determine a feasible scholarship recipient on the basis of the naiv¨e Bayes’ method using very simple and limited attributes. Those attributes are the applicants academic year, represented by their semester, academic performance, represented by their GPa, socioeconomic ability, which represented the economic capability to attend a higher education institution, and their level of social involvement. To establish and evaluate the model performance, empirical data are collected, and the data of 100 students are divided into 80 student data for the model training and the remaining of 20 student data are for the model testing. The results suggest that the model is capable to provide recommendations for the potential scholarship recipient at the level of accuracy of 95%.

  18. Data governance for health care providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andronis, Katerina; Moysey, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    Data governance is characterised from broader definitions of governance. These characteristics are then mapped to a framework that provides a practical representation of the concepts. This representation is further developed with operating models and roles. Several information related scenarios covering both clinical and non-clinical domains are considered in information terms and then related back to the data governance framework. This assists the reader in understanding how data governance would help address the issues or achieve a better outcome. These elements together enable the reader to gain an understanding of the data governance framework and how it applies in practice. Finally, some practical advice is offered for establishing and operating data governance as well as approaches for justifying the investment.

  19. Providing Universal Health Insurance Coverage in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okebukola, Peter O; Brieger, William R

    2016-07-07

    Despite a stated goal of achieving universal coverage, the National Health Insurance Scheme of Nigeria had achieved only 4% coverage 12 years after it was launched. This study assessed the plans of the National Health Insurance Scheme to achieve universal health insurance coverage in Nigeria by 2015 and discusses the challenges facing the scheme in achieving insurance coverage. In-depth interviews from various levels of the health-care system in the country, including providers, were conducted. The results of the analysis suggest that challenges to extending coverage include the difficulty in convincing autonomous state governments to buy into the scheme and an inadequate health workforce that might not be able to meet increased demand. Recommendations for increasing the scheme's coverage include increasing decentralization and strengthening human resources for health in the service delivery systems. Strong political will is needed as a catalyst to achieving these goals. © The Author(s) 2016.

  20. Providing Virtual Execution Environments: A Twofold Illustration

    CERN Document Server

    Grehant, Xavier

    2008-01-01

    Platform virtualization helps solving major grid computing challenges: share resource with flexible, user-controlled and custom execution environments and in the meanwhile, isolate failures and malicious code. Grid resource management tools will evolve to embrace support for virtual resource. We present two open source projects that transparently supply virtual execution environments. Tycoon has been developed at HP Labs to optimise resource usage in creating an economy where users bid to access virtual machines and compete for CPU cycles. SmartDomains provides a peer-to-peer layer that automates virtual machines deployment using a description language and deployment engine from HP Labs. These projects demonstrate both client-server and peer-to-peer approaches to virtual resource management. The first case makes extensive use of virtual machines features for dynamic resource allocation. The second translates virtual machines capabilities into a sophisticated language where resource management components can b...

  1. Multicultural Nursing: Providing Better Employee Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rittle, Chad

    2015-12-01

    Living in an increasingly multicultural society, nurses are regularly required to care for employees from a variety of cultural backgrounds. An awareness of cultural differences focuses occupational health nurses on those differences and results in better employee care. This article explores the concept of culturally competent employee care, some of the non-verbal communication cues among cultural groups, models associated with completing a cultural assessment, and how health disparities in the workplace can affect delivery of employee care. Self-evaluation of the occupational health nurse for personal preferences and biases is also discussed. Development of cultural competency is a process, and occupational health nurses must develop these skills. By developing cultural competence, occupational health nurses can conduct complete cultural assessments, facilitate better communication with employees from a variety of cultural backgrounds, and improve employee health and compliance with care regimens. Tips and guidelines for facilitating communication between occupational health nurses and employees are also provided. © 2015 The Author(s).

  2. Supercomputing Centers and Electricity Service Providers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patki, Tapasya; Bates, Natalie; Ghatikar, Girish

    2016-01-01

    from a detailed, quantitative survey-based analysis and compare the perspectives of the European grid and SCs to the ones of the United States (US). We then show that contrary to the expectation, SCs in the US are more open toward cooperating and developing demand-management strategies with their ESPs......Supercomputing Centers (SCs) have high and variable power demands, which increase the challenges of the Electricity Service Providers (ESPs) with regards to efficient electricity distribution and reliable grid operation. High penetration of renewable energy generation further exacerbates...... this problem. In order to develop a symbiotic relationship between the SCs and their ESPs and to support effective power management at all levels, it is critical to understand and analyze how the existing relationships were formed and how these are expected to evolve. In this paper, we first present results...

  3. New consumer services provided by smart metering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daminov Ildar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the issues of smart metering market and considers different services provided by smart metering from consumer point of view. Firstly, smart metering deployment challenges emerging and conventional tariffs, which modify a consumer behavior and thus, the entire electric energy market can be optimized since the customer is motivated to consume less energy. Secondly, the authors illustrate changes in electricity quality, which have an impact on consumer relations with utility. Additionally, two main indices of grid resilience – SAIDI and SAIFI – are exemplified to reveal the improvement potential of smart metering implementation in certain regions of Russia that also influence the consumer. Finally, in-home display and privacy problem directly reflect the consumer’s behavior, thus the private life rights should not be violated as they are guaranteed by law.

  4. Fallout radiation protection provided by transportation vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burson, Z.G.

    1972-10-20

    Fallout radiation protection factors (PF's) were estimated for a variety of civilian transportation vehicles using measurements of the natural terrain radiation as a source. The PF values are below 2 in light vehicles, truck beds, or trailers; from 2.5 to 3 in the cabs of heavy trucks and in a railway guard car; and from 3.0 to 3.5 in the engineer's seat of heavy locomotives. This information can be useful in planning the possible movement of personnel from or through areas contaminated either by a wartime incident or a peacetime accident. The information may also be useful for studying the reduction of exposure to the natural terrestrial radiation environment provided by vehicles.

  5. Providing better indoor environmental quality brings economicbenefits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisk, William; Seppanen, Olli

    2007-06-01

    This paper summarizes the current scientific evidence that improved indoor environmental quality can improve work performance and health. The review indicates that work and school work performance is affected by indoor temperature and ventilation rate. Pollutant source removal can sometimes improve work performance. Based on formal statistical analyses of existing research results, quantitative relationships are provided for the linkages of work performance with indoor temperature and outdoor air ventilation rate. The review also indicates that improved health and related financial savings are obtainable from reduced indoor tobacco smoking, prevention and remediation of building dampness, and increased ventilation. Example cost-benefit analyses indicate that many measures to improve indoor temperature control and increase ventilation rates will be highly cost effective, with benefit-cost ratios as high as 80 and annual economic benefits as high as $700 per person.

  6. Multiagency Initiative to Provide Greenhouse Gas Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boland, Stacey W.; Duren, Riley M.

    2009-11-01

    Global Greenhouse Gas Information System Workshop; Albuquerque, New Mexico, 20-22 May 2009; The second Greenhouse Gas Information System (GHGIS) workshop brought together 74 representatives from 28 organizations including U.S. government agencies, national laboratories, and members of the academic community to address issues related to the understanding, operational monitoring, and tracking of greenhouse gas emissions and carbon offsets. The workshop was held at Sandia National Laboratories and organized by an interagency collaboration among NASA centers, Department of Energy laboratories, and the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. It was motivated by the perceived need for an integrated interagency, community-wide initiative to provide information about greenhouse gas sources and sinks at policy-relevant temporal and spatial scales. Such an initiative could significantly enhance the ability of national and regional governments, industry, and private citizens to implement and evaluate effective climate change mitigation policies.

  7. INTEGRATED INFORMATION SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE PROVIDING BEHAVIORAL FEATURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir N. Shvedenko

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with creation of integrated information system architecture capable of supporting management decisions using behavioral features. The paper considers the architecture of information decision support system for production system management. The behavioral feature is given to an information system, and it ensures extraction, processing of information, management decision-making with both automated and automatic modes of decision-making subsystem being permitted. Practical implementation of information system with behavior is based on service-oriented architecture: there is a set of independent services in the information system that provides data of its subsystems or data processing by separate application under the chosen variant of the problematic situation settlement. For creation of integrated information system with behavior we propose architecture including the following subsystems: data bus, subsystem for interaction with the integrated applications based on metadata, business process management subsystem, subsystem for the current state analysis of the enterprise and management decision-making, behavior training subsystem. For each problematic situation a separate logical layer service is created in Unified Service Bus handling problematic situations. This architecture reduces system information complexity due to the fact that with a constant amount of system elements the number of links decreases, since each layer provides communication center of responsibility for the resource with the services of corresponding applications. If a similar problematic situation occurs, its resolution is automatically removed from problem situation metamodel repository and business process metamodel of its settlement. In the business process performance commands are generated to the corresponding centers of responsibility to settle a problematic situation.

  8. Reimbursement issues facing patients, providers, and payers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antman, K

    1993-11-01

    and decisions by the insurance industry have a direct impact on physicians, facilitating, or often impeding, the care physicians are able to provide. Who makes health policy decisions? Increasingly, these decisions are being made not by physicians, but by public health experts, economists, and, more recently, large industries grappling with the cost of providing insurance coverage (and its effects on competitive pricing in a world market). Therefore, physicians need to position themselves to influence the development of medical policy, particularly as it relates to the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of patients with cancer.

  9. PROVIDING R-TREE SUPPORT FOR MONGODB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Xiang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Supporting large amounts of spatial data is a significant characteristic of modern databases. However, unlike some mature relational databases, such as Oracle and PostgreSQL, most of current burgeoning NoSQL databases are not well designed for storing geospatial data, which is becoming increasingly important in various fields. In this paper, we propose a novel method to provide R-tree index, as well as corresponding spatial range query and nearest neighbour query functions, for MongoDB, one of the most prevalent NoSQL databases. First, after in-depth analysis of MongoDB’s features, we devise an efficient tabular document structure which flattens R-tree index into MongoDB collections. Further, relevant mechanisms of R-tree operations are issued, and then we discuss in detail how to integrate R-tree into MongoDB. Finally, we present the experimental results which show that our proposed method out-performs the built-in spatial index of MongoDB. Our research will greatly facilitate big data management issues with MongoDB in a variety of geospatial information applications.

  10. Providing R-Tree Support for Mongodb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Longgang; Shao, Xiaotian; Wang, Dehao

    2016-06-01

    Supporting large amounts of spatial data is a significant characteristic of modern databases. However, unlike some mature relational databases, such as Oracle and PostgreSQL, most of current burgeoning NoSQL databases are not well designed for storing geospatial data, which is becoming increasingly important in various fields. In this paper, we propose a novel method to provide R-tree index, as well as corresponding spatial range query and nearest neighbour query functions, for MongoDB, one of the most prevalent NoSQL databases. First, after in-depth analysis of MongoDB's features, we devise an efficient tabular document structure which flattens R-tree index into MongoDB collections. Further, relevant mechanisms of R-tree operations are issued, and then we discuss in detail how to integrate R-tree into MongoDB. Finally, we present the experimental results which show that our proposed method out-performs the built-in spatial index of MongoDB. Our research will greatly facilitate big data management issues with MongoDB in a variety of geospatial information applications.

  11. The ethics of providing hope in psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dembo, Justine Sarah; Clemens, Norman A

    2013-07-01

    The instillation of hope is a common factor in most psychotherapies. A considerable literature exists on the ethics of providing false or positively biased hope in non-psychiatric medical settings, and ethicists have generally concluded that this practice is unethical. However, the literature on the ethics of encouraging hope in psychotherapy, especially in the case of treatment-resistant mental illness, is sparse. The author explores two clinical cases with the intention of examining the nature of hope, false hope, positive illusions, and denial, as they relate to our definitions of mental health and psychotherapy. The cases highlight the ethics of balancing an acknowledgment of likely treatment futility with a desire to hope. Clinical psychological studies on depressive realism and optimistic bias indicate that some degree of positive bias, referred to by some authors as "the optimal margin of illusion," is in fact necessary to promote what we define as "good mental health;" conversely, stark realism is correlated with mild to moderate depression. An examination of the existential literature, including Ernest Becker's work, The Denial of Death, indicates that without the defense mechanism of denial, human beings tend to experience paralytic despair as a result of being fallible, mortal creatures in a frightening world. The combination of these diverse bodies of literature, along with the surprising outcomes of our case examples, leads to an unexpected conclusion: it may occasionally be ethical to encourage some degree of optimistic bias, and perhaps even positive illusion, when treating patients in psychotherapy.

  12. Providing primary standard calibrations beyond 20 MHz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bickley, C J; Zeqiri, B; Robinson, S P

    2004-01-01

    The number of applications of medical ultrasound utilising frequencies in excess of 20 MHz has shown a consistent increase over recent years. Coupled with the commercial availability of wide-bandwidth hydrophones whose response extends beyond 40 MHz, this has driven a growing need to develop hydrophone calibration techniques at elevated frequencies. The current National Physical Laboratory primary standard method of calibrating hydrophones is based on an optical interferometer. This has been in operation for around 20 years and provides traceability over the frequency range of 0.3 to 20 MHz. More recently, calibrations carried out using the interferometer have been extended to 60 MHz, although the uncertainties associated with these calibrations are poor, being in excess of ±20% at high frequencies. Major contributions to the degraded calibration uncertainties arise from poor signal-to-noise at higher frequencies, the frequency response of the photodiodes used and the noise floor of the instrument. To improve the uncertainty of hydrophone calibrations above 20 MHz, it has been necessary to build and commission a new interferometer. Important features of the new primary standard are its use of a higher power laser to improve the signal-to-noise ratio, along with photodiodes whose greater bandwidth to improve the overall frequency response. This paper describes the design of key aspects of the new interferometer. It also presents some initial results of the performance assessment, including a detailed comparison of calibrations of NPL reference membrane hydrophones, undertaken using old and new interferometers for calibration up to 40 MHz

  13. Can Economics Provide Insights into Trust Infrastructure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishik, Claire

    Many security technologies require infrastructure for authentication, verification, and other processes. In many cases, viable and innovative security technologies are never adopted on a large scale because the necessary infrastructure is slow to emerge. Analyses of such technologies typically focus on their technical flaws, and research emphasizes innovative approaches to stronger implementation of the core features. However, an observation can be made that in many cases the success of adoption pattern depends on non-technical issues rather than technology-lack of economic incentives, difficulties in finding initial investment, inadequate government support. While a growing body of research is dedicated to economics of security and privacy in general, few theoretical studies in this area have been completed, and even fewer that look at the economics of “trust infrastructure” beyond simple “cost of ownership” models. This exploratory paper takes a look at some approaches in theoretical economics to determine if they can provide useful insights into security infrastructure technologies and architectures that have the best chance to be adopted. We attempt to discover if models used in theoretical economics can help inform technology developers of the optimal business models that offer a better chance for quick infrastructure deployment.

  14. Waste gas could provide power for ships

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1970-07-18

    Dual-fuel engines are not new, but a version has been produced which, when used on ships carrying liquefied natural gas (LNG) could operate almost completely on waste gas. In its gas-operating mode, an engine can use the waste gas boiled off an LNG cargo. This wastage, normally allowed to escape to atmosphere, is about 0.25% of the cargo per day. Calculations have shown that this is enough to provide almost all the propulsion needs of a tanker under full cargo. This design is important in that it is suitable for the larger vessels now being required to carry LNG from N. Africa to North America, a journey where the costs of fuel are very considerable. Tests on the engine have indicated that power output is reduced to something like 80% of power under diesel fuel. However, additional advantages, such as cleaner engines with reduced maintenance costs, will help to tip the economic balance even further in favor of the dual purpose unit. This system also is applicable to stationary generating plant, again particularly on LNG tankage units where the same degree of gas boil-off applies.

  15. Family benefits - Obligation to provide information

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2015-01-01

    Pursuant to Article R V 1.38 of the Staff Regulations, members of the personnel are reminded that they are required to inform the Organization in writing, within 30 calendar days, of any change in their family situation (marriage, partnership, birth of a child, etc.) and of the amount of any financial benefit of a similar nature to those provided for in the Staff Regulations (e.g. family allowance, child allowance, infant allowance, non-resident allowance or international indemnity) to which they or a member of their family may be entitled from a source other than CERN.   The procedures to be followed are available in the Admin e-guide: https://admin-eguide.web.cern.ch/en/procedure/change-family-situation Members of the personnel are also reminded that any false declaration or failure to make a declaration with a view to deceiving others or achieving a gain resulting in a loss of funds or reputation for CERN constitutes fraud and may lead to disciplinary action in accordance with Article S ...

  16. Dental practice satisfaction with preferred provider organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schilling Elizabeth A

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite their increasing share of the dental insurance market, little is known about dental practices' satisfaction with preferred provider organizations (PPOs. This analysis examined practice satisfaction with dental PPOs and the extent to which satisfaction was a function of communications from the plan, claims handling and compensation. Methods Data were collected through telephone surveys with dental practices affiliated with MetLife between January 2002 and December 2004. Each respondent was asked a series of questions related to their satisfaction with a systematically selected PPO with which they were affiliated. Six different PPO plans had sufficient observations to allow for comparative analysis (total n = 4582. Multiple imputation procedures were used to adjust for item non-response. Results While the average level of overall satisfaction with the target plan fell between "very satisfied" and "satisfied," regression models revealed substantial differences in overall satisfaction across the 6 PPOs (p Conclusion Results demonstrate the importance of compensation to dental practice satisfaction with PPOs. However, these results also highlight the critical role of service-related factors in differentiating plans and suggest that there are important non-monetary dimensions of PPO performance that can be used to recruit and retain practices.

  17. Contingency management: perspectives of Australian service providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Jacqui; Ritter, Alison

    2007-03-01

    Given the very positive and extensive research evidence demonstrating efficacy and effectiveness of contingency management, it is important that Australia explore whether contingency management has a role to play in our own treatment context. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 30 experienced alcohol and drug practitioners, service managers and policy-makers in Victoria. Interviewees were selected to represent the range of drug treatment services types and included rural representation. A semi-structured interview schedule, covering their perceptions and practices of contingency management was used. All interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed using N2 qualitative data analysis program. The majority of key informants were positively inclined toward contingency management, notwithstanding some concerns about the philosophical underpinnings. Concerns were raised in relation to the use of monetary rewards. Examples of the use of contingency management provided by key informants demonstrated an over-inclusive definition: all the examples did not adhere to the key principles of contingency management. This may create problems if a structured contingency management were to be introduced in Australia. Contingency management is an important adjunctive treatment intervention and its use in Australia has the potential to enhance treatment outcomes. No unmanageable barriers were identified in this study.

  18. Providing effective supervision in clinical neuropsychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stucky, Kirk J; Bush, Shane; Donders, Jacobus

    2010-01-01

    A specialty like clinical neuropsychology is shaped by its selection of trainees, educational standards, expected competencies, and the structure of its training programs. The development of individual competency in this specialty is dependent to a considerable degree on the provision of competent supervision to its trainees. In clinical neuropsychology, as in other areas of professional health-service psychology, supervision is the most frequently used method for teaching a variety of skills, including assessment, report writing, differential diagnosis, and treatment. Although much has been written about the provision of quality supervision in clinical and counseling psychology, very little published guidance is available regarding the teaching and provision of supervision in clinical neuropsychology. The primary focus of this article is to provide a framework and guidance for the development of suggested competency standards for training of neuropsychological supervisors, particularly at the residency level. In this paper we outline important components of supervision for neuropsychology trainees and suggest ways in which clinicians can prepare for supervisory roles. Similar to Falender and Shafranske (2004), we propose a competency-based approach to supervision that advocates for a science-informed, formalized, and objective process that clearly delineates the competencies required for good supervisory practice. As much as possible, supervisory competencies are related to foundational and functional competencies in professional psychology, as well as recent legislative initiatives mandating training in supervision. It is our hope that this article will foster further discussion regarding this complex topic, and eventually enhance training in clinical neuropsychology.

  19. Attitudes of Healthcare Providers towards Providing Contraceptives for Unmarried Adolescents in Ibadan, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Ahanonu, Ezihe Loretta

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study sought to assess the attitude of Healthcare Providers towards providing contraceptives for unmarried adolescents in four Local Government Areas in Ibadan, Nigeria. Materials and methods A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted among 490 Healthcare Providers in 24 randomly selected healthcare facilities using self-administered, pre-tested questionnaires. Results More than half (57.5%) of the respondents perceived the provision of contraceptives for unmarried adole...

  20. Are Anesthesia Providers Ready for Hypnosis? Anesthesia Providers' Attitudes Toward Hypnotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Alexander B; Sheinberg, Rosanne; Bertram, Amanda; Seymour, Anastasia Rowland

    2016-04-01

    This study sought to measure current attitudes toward hypnosis among anesthesia providers using an in-person survey distributed at a single grand rounds at a single academic teaching hospital. One hundred twenty-six anesthesia providers (anesthesiologists and nurse anesthetists) were included in this study. A 10-question Institutional Review Board (IRB)-approved questionnaire was developed. One hundred twenty-six (73% of providers at the meeting) anesthesia providers completed the survey. Of the respondents, 54 (43%) were anesthesiologists, 42 (33%) were trainees (interns/residents/fellows) in anesthesia, and 30 (24%) were nurse anesthetists. Over 70% of providers, at each level of training, rated their knowledge of hypnosis as either below average or having no knowledge. Fifty-two (42%) providers agreed or strongly agreed that hypnotherapy has a place in the clinical practice of anesthesia, while 103 (83%) believed that positive suggestion has a place in the clinical practice of anesthesia (p hypnosis were that it is too time consuming (41%) and requires special training (34%). Only three respondents (2%) believed that there were no reasons for using hypnosis in their practice. These data suggest that there is a self-reported lack of knowledge about hypnosis among anesthesia providers, although many anesthesia providers are open to the use of hypnosis in their clinical practice. Anesthesia providers are more likely to support the use of positive suggestion in their practice than hypnosis. Practical concerns should be addressed if hypnosis and therapeutic verbal techniques are to gain more widespread use.