WorldWideScience

Sample records for providing safe transportation

  1. Safe transport of radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    Recently the Agency redefined its policy for education and training in radiation safety. The emphasis is now on long-term strategic planning of general education and training programmes. In line with this general policy the Agency's Standing Advisory Group for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material (SAGSTRAM) in its 7th meeting (April 1989) agreed that increased training activity should be deployed in the area of transport. SAGSTRAM specifically recommended the development of a standard training programme on this subject area, including audio-visual aids, in order to assist Member States in the implementation of the Agency's Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material. This training programme should be substantiated by a biennial training course which is thought to be held either as an Interregional or a Regional Course depending on demand. This training manual, issued as a first publication in the Training Course Series, represents the basic text material for future training courses in transport safety. The topic areas covered by this training manual and most of the texts have been developed from the course material used for the 1987 Bristol Interregional Course on Transport Safety. The training manual is intended to give guidance to the lecturers of a course and will be provided to the participants for retention. Refs, figs and tabs

  2. Safe transport of radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    Delivering radioactive material to where it is needed is a vital service to industry and medicine. Millions of packages are shipped all over the world by all modes of transport. The shipments pass through public places and must meet stringent safety requirements. This video explains how radioactive material is safely transported and describes the rules that carriers and handlers must follow

  3. Safe transport of radioactive material. 3. ed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The IAEA has developed a standardized approach to transport safety training as a means of helping Member States to implement the Transport Regulations. The training manual is an anchor of this standardized approach to training: it contains all the topics presented in the sequential order recommended by the IAEA for the student to gain a thorough understanding of the body of knowledge that is needed to ensure that radioactive material ranked as Class 7 in the United Nations' nomenclature for dangerous goods - is transported safely. The explanations in the text refer, where needed, to the appropriate requirements in the IAEA's Transport Regulations; additional useful information is also provided. Thus, the training manual in addition to the Transport Regulations and their supporting documents is used by the IAEA as the basis for delivering all of its training courses on the safe transport of radioactive material. Enclosed with the training manual is a CD-ROM that contains the text of the manual as well as the visual aids that are used at the IAEA's training courses. The following topics are covered: review of radioactivity and radiation; review of radiation protection principles; regulatory terminology; basic safety concepts: materials and packages; activity limits and material restrictions; selection of optimal package type; test procedures: material and packages; requirements for transport; control of material in transport; fissile material: regulatory requirements and operational aspects; quality assurance; national competent authority; additional regulatory constraints for transport; international liability and insurance; emergency planning and preparedness; training; services provided by the IAEA

  4. Safe transport of radioactive material. 3. ed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-12-01

    The IAEA has developed a standardized approach to transport safety training as a means of helping Member States to implement the Transport Regulations. The training manual is an anchor of this standardized approach to training: it contains all the topics presented in the sequential order recommended by the IAEA for the student to gain a thorough understanding of the body of knowledge that is needed to ensure that radioactive material ranked as Class 7 in the United Nations' nomenclature for dangerous goods - is transported safely. The explanations in the text refer, where needed, to the appropriate requirements in the IAEA's Transport Regulations; additional useful information is also provided. Thus, the training manual in addition to the Transport Regulations and their supporting documents is used by the IAEA as the basis for delivering all of its training courses on the safe transport of radioactive material. Enclosed with the training manual is a CD-ROM that contains the text of the manual as well as the visual aids that are used at the IAEA's training courses. The following topics are covered: review of radioactivity and radiation; review of radiation protection principles; regulatory terminology; basic safety concepts: materials and packages; activity limits and material restrictions; selection of optimal package type; test procedures: material and packages; requirements for transport; control of material in transport; fissile material: regulatory requirements and operational aspects; quality assurance; national competent authority; additional regulatory constraints for transport; international liability and insurance; emergency planning and preparedness; training; services provided by the IAEA.

  5. The safe transport of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Messenger, W. de L.M.

    1979-02-01

    The hazards of radioactive materials in transport are surveyed. The system whereby they are safely transported between nuclear establishments in the United Kingdom and overseas is outlined. Several popular misconceptions are dealt with. (author)

  6. The safe transport of radioactive materials

    CERN Document Server

    Gibson, R

    1966-01-01

    The Safe Transport of Radioactive Materials is a handbook that details the safety guidelines in transporting radioactive materials. The title covers the various regulations and policies, along with the safety measures and procedures of radioactive material transport. The text first details the 1963 version of the IAEA regulation for the safe transport of radioactive materials; the regulation covers the classification of radionuclides for transport purposes and the control of external radiation hazards during the transport of radioactive materials. The next chapter deals with concerns in the im

  7. Safe and secure: transportation of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howe, D.

    2015-01-01

    Western Waste Management Facility is Central Transportation Facility for Low and Intermediate waste materials. Transportation support for Stations: Reactor inspection tools and heavy water between stations and reactor components and single bundles of irradiated fuel to AECL-Chalk River for examination. Safety Track Record: 3.2 million kilometres safely travelled and no transportation accident - resulting in a radioactive release.

  8. Safe transport of radioactive materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1977-12-31

    The film shows the widespread use of radioactive materials in industry, medicine and research and explains the need for transporting nuclear material from producer to user. It shows the way in which packages containing radioactive materials are handled during transport and explains the most important provisions of the IAEA transport regulations, safety series no. 6, such as packaging design criteria and testing requirements, illustrated by various tests carried out, specimen packages and package and freight container labelling. Also illustrated are practical measures to be taken in case of an accident

  9. Happy Trails: Transporting Children Safely.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Nancy P.

    1995-01-01

    Given that state laws requiring child passenger restraints are often weak or poorly enforced and that misuse of child restraint systems is common among many adults, offers advice for educating parents, children, and caregivers about transportation safety. Discusses the selection and proper use of car seats, and stresses the importance of…

  10. Safe transport of radioactive material. Second edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    In 1991, the International Atomic Energy Agency published Training Course Series No. 1 (TCS-1), a training manual that provides in 20 chapters a detailed discussion of the background, philosophy, technical bases and requirements and implementation aspects of the Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material. The Transport Regulations are widely implemented by the IAEA's Member States and are also used as the bases for radioactive material transport requirements of modal organisations such as the International Maritime Organization and the International Civil Aviation Organization. This document is a supplement of TCS-1 to provide additional material in the form of learning aids and new exercises, that have been developed with the use of TCS-1 at succeeding IAEA training courses. The learning aids in the first part of the supplement are hitherto unpublished material that provide detailed guidance useful in solving the exercises presented in the second part. Solutions to the exercises are on field at the IAEA Secretariat and are available by arrangement to lectures presenting IAEA training courses. 4 refs, 1 fig., 6 tabs

  11. The Safe Transportation of Radioactive Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Megrahi, Abdulhafeed; Abu-Ali, Giuma; Enhaba; Ahmed

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we present the essential conditions that should be required for transporting the radioactive materials. We demonstrate the procedure for transporting the radioactive iodine-131 from the Centre of Renewable Energies and Desalination of Water in Tajoura, Libya to Tripoli Medical Center. The safe measures were taken during the process of the transportation of the isotope produced in the centre including dosimetry analysis and the thickness of the container. (author)

  12. Safe transport of radioactive materials in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Shinawy, R.M.K.

    1994-01-01

    In Egypt the national regulations for safe transport of radioactive materials (RAM) are based on the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) regulations. In addition, regulations for the safe transport of these materials through the Suez Canal (SC) were laid down by the Egyptian Atomic Energy Authority (EAEA) and the Suez Canal Authority (SCA). They are continuously updated to meet the increased knowledge and the gained experience. The technical and protective measures taken during transport of RAM through SC are mentioned. Assessment of the impact of transporting radioactive materials through the Suez Canal using the INTERTRAN computer code was carried out in cooperation with IAEA. The transported activities and empty containers, the number of vessels carrying RAM through the canal from 1963 and 1991 and their nationalities are also discussed. The protective measures are mentioned. A review of the present situation of the radioactive wastes storage facilities at the Atomic Energy site at Inshas is given along with the regulation for safe transportation and disposal of radioactive wastes. (Author)

  13. Safe transport of radioactive material. Second edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The transport of radioactive material embraces the carriage of radioisotopes for industrial, medical and research uses, and the movement of waste, in addition to consignments of nuclear fuel cycle material. It has been estimated that between eighteen and thirty-eight million package shipments take place each year. On the recommendation of the Standing Advisory Group on the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material (SAGSTRAM), which enjoys wide representations from the Agency's Member States and international organizations, the Secretariat is preparing a training kit comprising this training manual and complementary visual aids. The kit is intended to be the basis for an extensive course on the subject and can be used in whole or in part for inter-regional, regional and even national training purposes. Member States can thus benefit from the material either through training courses sponsored by the Agency, or, alternatively, organized by themselves. As a step towards achieving that goal, the current training manual was compiled using material from the first Inter-Regional Training Course on the Safe Transport of Radioactive material that was held in co-operation with the Nuclear Power Training Centre of the then Central Electricity Generating Board at Bristol, United Kingdom. This Manual was initially published in 1990. On the recommendation of the Agency's Standing Advisory Group on the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material (SAGSTRAM), the Manual has since been expanded and updated in time for the second Inter-Regional Training Course, that will in 1991 similarly be held in Bristol. Refs, figs, tabs

  14. Safe transport of irradiated fuel by sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, M.L.

    1997-01-01

    The development is described of a transport system dedicated to the sea transport of irradiated nuclear fuel. The background is reviewed of why shipments were required and the establishment of a specialist shipping company, Pacific Nuclear Transport Limited. A description of the ships, flasks and other equipment utilised is provided, together with details of key procedures implemented to ensure safety and customer satisfaction. (Author)

  15. Quality assurance for the safe transport of radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    All activities related to the safe transport of radioactive material should be covered by a quality assurance programme. This publication recognizes that a single transport operation often involves several different organizations, each having specific responsibilities. Hence, it is unlikely that the operation will be covered by a single quality assurance programme. Each quality assurance programme should be tailored to the specific organizational structure for which the programme is prepared, with account taken of the particular transport activities of that organization and the interfaces with other organizations. The aim of this publication is to give a detailed interpretation of what must be done by whom to produce a quality assurance programme for radioactive material transport. This publication provides guidance on methods and practical examples to develop QA programmes for the safe transport of radioactive material. It provides information on how to develop the programme, the standards and the common features of a QA programme

  16. Safe transport of radioactive material. 4. ed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The IAEA has been publishing Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material since 1961. Meeting its statutory obligation to foster the exchange and training of scientists and experts in the field of peaceful uses of atomic energy, the IAEA has developed a standardized approach to transport safety training. This training manual is an anchor of the standardized approach to training. It is a compendium of training modules for courses related to the different aspects of safety of transport of radioactive material. Keeping in view the specific needs of the potential users, the manual includes material that can be used for a variety of training programmes of duration ranging from half-a-day to ten days, for specific audiences such as competent authority personnel, public authorities, emergency response personnel and cargo handlers

  17. Regulations for the safe transport of radioactive material. 1996 ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This publication is the revised version of the IAEA's Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Materials as approved by the Board of Governors in September 1996. It establishes standards of safety which provide an acceptable level of control of the radiation, criticality and thermal hazards to persons, property and the environment that are associated with the transport of radioactive material. After an introductory section, the publication is structured as follows: Section 2 defines the terms that are required for the purposes of the Regulations; Section 3 provides general provisions; Section 4 gives the activity limits and material restrictions used throughout these Regulations; Section 5 provides requirements and controls for transport; Section 6 provides requirements for radioactive materials and for packagings and packages; Section 7 provides requirements for test procedures; Section 8 provides approval and administrative requirements. The requirements for the transport of specified types of consignments are included in an abbreviated form as Schedules. Refs, figs, tabs

  18. The safe road transport system approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vollpracht Hans-Joachim

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available More than 1,24 million people die each year on the worlds roads and between 20 to 50 million suffer from nonfatal injuries. The UN Road Safety Collaboration Meetings under the leadership of WHO developed the Programme for the Decade of Actions for road safety taking nations into the responsibility of improving their accident figures by the five pillars of a national Road Safety Policy, safer Roads, safer Vehicles, safer Road Users and Post Crash Care. It is this Safe System Approach that takes into consideration the land use, infrastructure and transport planning, road user’s abilities and limitations and the close cooperation of all governmental and none governmental stakeholders involved.

  19. Regulations for the safe transport of radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    Regulations and rules for the safe transport of radioactive materials by all kinds of conveyance are offered. Different types of packages and the conditions associated with the methods of safe packaging are given

  20. Health Providers' Perception towards Safe Abortion Service at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Ethiopia, unsafe abortion accounts up to 32% of maternal deaths. The perception of health providers towards safe abortion provision at selected health facilities in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia was assessed. A stratified random sampling was used to select 431 health providers. A cross-sectional study was conducted from ...

  1. Interim guidance on the safe transport of uranium hexafluoride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-06-01

    Uranium hexafluoride (UF 6 ) is a radioactive material that has significant non-radiological hazardous properties. In conformity with international regulatory practice for dangerous goods transport, these properties are classed as ''subsidiary risks'', although they predominate in the cases of depleted and natural UF 6 . UF 6 is transported as a solid material below atmospheric pressure. The IAEA Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material, 1985 Edition, Safety Series No. 6, make recommendations that aimed to provide an adequate level of safety against radiological and criticality hazards. The basis for these is that the stringency of package performance requirements, operational procedures and approval and administrative procedures is graded relative to the severity of the hazard. The cylinders used for transporting UF 6 are also used in the production, storage and use of the material and that the fraction of their life cycle in which transport is involved is small. Consideration must also be given to the large number of existing cylinders (estimated to be between 60,000 and 70,000). Specific recommendations provided for UF 6 transport, listed in Section II, are additional to the requirements of the Regulations. The intent of these additional recommendations is to restrict contamination and to provide protection to workers and to the general public against the chemical hazard possibly resulting from a severe accident involving the transport of UF 6 , and in addition against the consequences of explosive rupture of small bare cylinders of UF 6 . 20 refs, figs and tabs

  2. Safe Transport of Radioactive Material, Philosophy and Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    EL-Shinawy, R M.K. [Radiation Protection Dept., Nuclear Rasearch Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt)

    2008-07-01

    Safe transport of radioactive material regulations issued by IAEA since 1961, provide standards for insuring a high level of safety of people,transport workers, property and environment against radiation, contamination and criticality hazards as well as thermal effects associated with the transport of the radioactive wastes and material. The history ,development, philosophy and scope of these international and national regulations were mentioned as well as the different supporting documents to the regulations for safe transport of radioactive material were identified.The first supporting document , namely TS - G-1.1(ST-2) ,Advisory material is also issued by the IAEA.It contains both the advisory and explanatory materials previously published in safety series Nos 7and 37 and therefore TS-G-1.1 (ST-2) will supersede safety series Nos 7 and 37. The second supporting document namely TS-G-1.2 (ST-3), planning and preparing for emergency response to transport accidents involving radioactive material ,which will supersede safety series No 87. In addition to quality assurance (SS no.113), compliance assurance (SS no. 112), the training manual and others.

  3. Safe Transport of Radioactive Material, Philosophy and Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EL-Shinawy, R.M.K.

    2008-01-01

    Safe transport of radioactive material regulations issued by IAEA since 1961, provide standards for insuring a high level of safety of people,transport workers, property and environment against radiation, contamination and criticality hazards as well as thermal effects associated with the transport of the radioactive wastes and material. The history ,development, philosophy and scope of these international and national regulations were mentioned as well as the different supporting documents to the regulations for safe transport of radioactive material were identified.The first supporting document , namely TS - G-1.1(ST-2) ,Advisory material is also issued by the IAEA.It contains both the advisory and explanatory materials previously published in safety series Nos 7and 37 and therefore TS-G-1.1 (ST-2) will supersede safety series Nos 7 and 37. The second supporting document namely TS-G-1.2 (ST-3), planning and preparing for emergency response to transport accidents involving radioactive material ,which will supersede safety series No 87. In addition to quality assurance (SS no.113), compliance assurance (SS no. 112), the training manual and others

  4. Procedures for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jang Lyul; Chung, K. K.; Lee, J. I.; Chang, S. Y.; Lee, T. Y

    2007-11-15

    This technical report describes the procedure and work responsibility along with the regulation and standard necessary for the safe transport of radioactive or contaminated materials. This report, therefore, can be effectively used to secure the public safety as well as to prevent the disastrous event which might be resulted from the transport process of radioactive materials by establishing a procedure and method on the safe packing, handling and transport of radioactive materials.

  5. 75 FR 38168 - Hazardous Materials: International Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material (TS...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... may also provide contact information, such as a telephone number and/or e-mail address. PHMSA and the.... PHMSA-2010-0130 (Notice No.10-2)] Hazardous Materials: International Regulations for the Safe Transport... (IAEA) ``Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material'' (TS-R-1), which is scheduled for...

  6. Pipelines, inexpensive and safe mode of transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grover, D D

    1979-01-01

    Pipelines are the leading bulk commodity transporter and should play an even more important role in the future of energy transportation and distribution. As fossil fuel and low-cost uranium resources become depleted, it will be economical to produce hydrogen by electrolysis and transport it through underground pipelines to points of consumption. The cost would be only two to three times that of transporting natural gas per unit of heat energy and substantially less than the cost of transporting electric energy in overhead, extra-high-voltage transmission lines. Pipeline design, including economic pipe diameter; pipe material; operation by remote control and automation; cathodic protection; pipeline construction; and pipeline maintenance, particularly as regards the 1157 km long Oil India Pipeline, are discussed.

  7. The safe transport of radioactive material in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jutle, K.K.

    1997-01-01

    An overview is presented of the activities related to the transport of radioactive material in South Africa. In particular, the applicable legislation, the scope of authority and regulatory functions of the Competent Authority are discussed. The categories of radioactive materials transported and the packaging requirements for the safe transport of these radioactive materials are also described. (Author)

  8. The safe transport of radioactive material in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jutle, K.K.

    2000-01-01

    An overview is presented of the activities related to the transport of radioactive material in South Africa. In particular, the applicable legislation, the scope of authority and the regulatory functions of the Competent Authority are discussed. The categories of radioactive materials transported and the packaging requirements for the safe transport of these radioactive materials are also described. (author)

  9. The safe transport of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swindell, G.E.

    1975-01-01

    In the course of transport by road, rail, sea and air, consignments of radioactive material are in close proximity to ordinary members of the public and in most cases they are loaded and unloaded by transport workers who have no special training or experience in the handling of radioactive substances. The materials being transported cover a wide variety - ranging from small batches of short-lived radionuclides used in medical practice which can be transported in small sealed lead pots in cardboard boxes, to large, extremely radioactive consignments of irradiated nuclear fuel in flasks weighing many tons. With the growing development of nuclear power programmes the transport of irradiated fuel is likely to increase markedly. It is clear that unless adequate regulations concerning the design and assembly of the packages containing these materials are precisely set down and strictly carried out, there would be a high probability that some of the radioactive contents would be released, leading to contamination of other transported goods and the general environment, and to the delivery of a radiation dose to the transport workers and the public. An additional requirement is that the transport should proceed smoothly and without delay. This is particularly important for radioactive materials of short half-life, which would lose significant amounts of their total activity in unnecessary delays at international boundaries. Therefore, it is essential that the regulations are also enforced, to ensure that the radioactive material is contained and the surrounding radiation level reduced to a value which poses no threat to other sensitive goods such as photographic film, or to transport workers and other passengers. These regulations should be as uniform as possible on an international basis, so that consignments can move freely from one country to another with as little delay as possible at the frontiers. (author)

  10. Regulations of safe transport of radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, R.J.; Sumathi, E.

    2017-01-01

    BARC is a multi-disciplinary nuclear research organisation with facilities located at various parts of the country. The nuclear and radiological facilities in BARC include fuel fabrication facilities, nuclear research reactors, radiological laboratories, nuclear recycle facilities, waste management facilities and other associated facilities. RAdioactive Material (RAM) such as fresh nuclear fuel, irradiated fuel, radioactive sources, vitrified high level wastes, special nuclear material etc., are transported between these facilities either within the controlled premises or in public domain. In BARC the regulatory approval for the packages used for transport of RAM is issued by BARC Safety Council (BSC). Competent Authority for issuing the design approval for the BARC packages in public domain is Director, BARC. In this aspect BSC is assisted by Safety Review Committee-Transport of Radioactive Material (SRC-TRM) constituted by BSC entrusted with the mandate to ensure the packages are designed, manufactured and transported in accordance with the current regulations. This article summarizes the regulatory requirements for transport of RAM and experience in BARC facilities

  11. Instructions for safe transport of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This entrance includes 5 chapters and tables and supplement. Chapter I contains the definitions and general provisions contained 5 materials. Chapter II contains radioactive materials packaging and permissible limits and it contains 8 materials. The provisions of Chapter III contains descriptions Missionaries. Chapter IV describes shipping instructions. As for the separation of V It contains Final provisions. The entrance contains number of tables speaks of the basic values of radioactive isotopes and radiation also limits activity and the requirements of industrial parcels and limits transactions to transport freight containers, as well as the International Classification of hazardous materials. This also includes entrance to the Supplement to some forms and Alohat

  12. Providing safe surgery for neonates in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameh, Emmanuel A; Ameh, Nkeiruka

    2003-07-01

    Advances in neonatal intensive care, total parenteral nutrition and improvements in technology have led to a greatly improved outcome of neonatal surgery in developed countries. In many parts of sub-Saharan Africa, however, neonatal surgery continues to pose wide-ranging challenges. Delivery outside hospital, delayed referral, poor transportation, and lack of appropriate personnel and facilities continue to contribute to increased morbidity and mortality in neonates, particularly under emergency situations. Antenatal supervision and hospital delivery needs to be encouraged in our communities. Adequate attention needs to be paid to providing appropriate facilities for neonatal transport and support and training of appropriate staff for neonatal surgery. Neonates with surgical problems should be adequately resuscitated before referral where necessary but surgery should not be unduly delayed. Major neonatal surgery should as much as possible be performed by those trained to operate on neonates. Appropriate research and international collaboration is necessary to improve neonatal surgical care in the environment.

  13. Calculations on safe storage and transportation of radioactive materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hathout, A M; El-Messiry, A M; Amin, E [National Center for Nuclear Safety and Radiation Control and AEA, Cairo (Egypt)

    1997-12-31

    In this work the safe storage and transportation of fresh fuel as a radioactive material studied. Egypt planned ET RR 2 reactor which is of relatively high power and would require adequate handling and transportation. Therefore, the present work is initiated to develop a procedure for safe handling and transportation of radioactive materials. The possibility of reducing the magnitude of radiation transmitted on the exterior of the packages is investigated. Neutron absorbers are used to decrease the neutron flux. Criticality calculations are carried out to ensure the achievement of subcriticality so that the inherent safety can be verified. The discrete ordinate transport code ANISN was used. The results show good agreement with other techniques. 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. 30 years of experience in safe transportation of nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaneko, K.

    2004-01-01

    In April 2003, Nuclear Fuel Transport Co., Ltd. (NFT) marked the 30 th anniversary of its founding. NFT was established in 1973 and in 1978, commenced SF transport to the reprocessing plant in Tokai-mura. And then, after making preparations to transport nuclear materials to the various facilities at the Nuclear Fuel Cycle Center in Rokkasho-mura, NFT successfully started transportation of LLW (low level waste) to Rokksho-mura's LLW disposal center in 1992, domestic land transportation of HLW returned from overseas to the HLW storage center in 1995, domestic land transportation of natural hexafluoride delivered from overseas to the uranium enrichment plant in 1996, and transportation of SF to the reprocessing plant in 2000. NFT has realized an annual SF transportation capacity of 300 MTU and is currently making great company wide efforts to meet the Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant's future SF annual reprocessing capacity of 800MTU. At the end of FY2003, NFT had successfully transported 560 casks (about 1,730 MTU) of SF in more than 200 voyages in total, about 160,000 drums of LLW in around 100 voyages in total. This paper introduces the record of safe transport and its experience over the past 30 years and prospect for future transport business

  15. 30 years of experience in safe transportation of nuclear materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaneko, K. [Nuclear Fuel Transport Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    2004-07-01

    In April 2003, Nuclear Fuel Transport Co., Ltd. (NFT) marked the 30{sup th} anniversary of its founding. NFT was established in 1973 and in 1978, commenced SF transport to the reprocessing plant in Tokai-mura. And then, after making preparations to transport nuclear materials to the various facilities at the Nuclear Fuel Cycle Center in Rokkasho-mura, NFT successfully started transportation of LLW (low level waste) to Rokksho-mura's LLW disposal center in 1992, domestic land transportation of HLW returned from overseas to the HLW storage center in 1995, domestic land transportation of natural hexafluoride delivered from overseas to the uranium enrichment plant in 1996, and transportation of SF to the reprocessing plant in 2000. NFT has realized an annual SF transportation capacity of 300 MTU and is currently making great company wide efforts to meet the Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant's future SF annual reprocessing capacity of 800MTU. At the end of FY2003, NFT had successfully transported 560 casks (about 1,730 MTU) of SF in more than 200 voyages in total, about 160,000 drums of LLW in around 100 voyages in total. This paper introduces the record of safe transport and its experience over the past 30 years and prospect for future transport business.

  16. Role IAEA implementation of ICRP-60 on regulations the safe transport of radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elshinawy, R.K.M.; Gomaa, M.A.

    1994-01-01

    In november 1990, the (ICRP) adopted its 1990 recommendations (ICRP-60) ( 1). These recommendations will significantly influence not only IAEA's basic safety standards (safety series 9) ( 2), but also the IAEA regulations for the safe transport of radioactive material ( 3) and its supporting documents ( 4-6). IAEA experts are currently engaged in the revision of the transport regulations. This revision process led to the publication of the revised transport regulations of 1966. The transport regulations are developed to ensure safety during movement of radioactive materials, and to provide reasonable assurance that the transport activities comply with the basic safety standards for radiation protection

  17. Relevant documents to IAEA regulations for the safe transport of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Shinawy, R.M.K.; Sabek, M.G.; Gomma, M.

    1998-01-01

    IAEA regulations for the safe transport of radioactive materials provide standards for insuring a high level of safety of people, property, and environment against radiation, contamination, and criticality hazards as well as thermal effects associated with the transport of radioactive materials. IAEA routinely publishes technical reports which are relevant to radioactive material transportation such as INTERTRAN, directory of transport packaging test facilities, and others. A case study was performed to assess the impact of transporting radioactive materials through the suez canal using the two computer codes namely INTERTRAN and RADTRAN-4 which are part of IAEA technical documents. A comparison of the results of these two codes is given

  18. Advances in the safe transport of irradiated Magnox fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, C.N.

    1997-01-01

    This paper reviews the significant advances that have been made by Magnox Electric plc in ensuring that the Mk M2 Magnox flasks maintain the highest level of safety during transport and are used in the most efficient manner in meeting Company objectives. These advances have been achieved by improvement to the seal design, introduction of modern, state-of-the-art leak test equipment and optimisation of the generic Safety Case underpinning the UK Competent Authority (the Department of Transport, DoT) Approval Certificates. A step-by-step approach has been adopted in implementing these advances, consulting the DoT at each stage, to ensure that the safe transport of spent Magnox fuel, achieved over the past 35 years, with its enviable track record, continues into the next century. (Author)

  19. Regulatory Framework and Current Practices of the Radioactive Material Safe and Secure Transport in Albania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dollani, K.; Grillo, B.; Telhaj, E.

    2016-01-01

    Attempts for the establishing of a safe and secure radioactive material transport in Albania began a decade ago with formulation of the different regulation in the field of safe and secure handling of the radioactive materials. In 2004 a special regulation for the safe transport of radioactive material was prepared and approved by the National Radiation Protection Commission). This regulation has been based in the IAEA standards for the radioactive material transport and was reviewed periodically. The last regulation of the radioactive material transport was approved by Albanian government through a governmental ordinance. The transport of the radioactive material in Albania is performed by licensed subjects, which fulfill all requirements of the mentioned governmental ordinance. Based in the existing regulation, for each transport of radioactive material, a special permission is issued by NRPC. The issuing of permission allows competent authority to provide necessary information on transport regularity and to have under survey all transports of the radioactive material carried out inside the country. Last year were issued more than 80 permissions for the transport of the different types and categories of the radioactive sources. (author)

  20. Regulations for the safe transport of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kgogo, Obonye

    2016-04-01

    The report provides insight and investigates whether Transport Regulations in Botswana follow international standards for transport of radioactive material. Radioactive materials are very useful in most of our activities and are manufactured in different countries, therefore end up traversing from one country to another and being transported in national roads .The IAEA regulation for the Transport of radioactive material is used as the reference guideline in this study. The current Regulations for Transport of radioactive material in Botswana do not cover all factors which need to be considered when transporting radioactive although they refer to IAEA regulations. Basing on an inadequacy of the regulations and category of radioactive materials in the country recommendations were made concerning security, packaging and worker training's. The regulations for the Transport of radioactive material in Botswana need to be reviewed and updated so that they can relate to international standard. (au)

  1. Development of a National System to Regulate Safe Transport of Radioactive Materials in Ukraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gashev, M.; Kutuzova, T.; Sakalo, V.

    2016-01-01

    The paper provides brief information on development of the legislative framework and regulatory requirements in transport of radioactive materials in Ukraine. The application of IAEA documents is demonstrated and their contribution to the improvement of the national regulatory control system and processes of its harmonization with international safety requirements is underlined. Proposals for coordination and interaction enhancement in order to improve safety in safe transport of radioactive materials are defined in the conclusion. (author)

  2. Interim guidance for the safe transport of reprocessed uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-06-01

    Increasingly reprocessed uranium is being used for the fabrication of nuclear fuel elements. Different intermediate reprocessing steps are carried out at different locations. Therefore, transportation of uranium material is necessary. Due to the difference in isotope composition of reprocessed uranium then unirradiated uranium a doubt is casted on the presumption that packages used for the transport of unirradiated uranium are automatically suitable for reprocessed uranium compounds. The Standing Advisory Group on the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material (SAGSTRAM) recommended that the issue be reviewed by consultants and that a document be developed that would give guidance to users of the Regulations. This TECDOC is the result of the endeavors of the experts convened at two Consultants Services meetings. It contains guidance on the provisions in the current Regulations as well as proposals for changes to the new Revised Edition whose publication is planned for 1996. This document demonstrates that under the present Transport Regulations it is possible in most cases to ship reprocessed uranium compounds in the same packages as unirradiated uranium compounds. In few cases a more stringent package type is required. 8 refs, 22 figs, 19 tabs

  3. Regulations for the safe transport of radioactive materials. 1973 revised edition (as amended).

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    On the basis of a comprehensive review carried out by a panel of experts, a revised version of the International Atomic Energy Agency's Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Materials was approved by the Board of Governors in September 1972 and published in April 1973 as Safety Series No.6 - 1973 Revised Edition. Minor amendments, together with a number of changes of detail were promulgated by the Director General in 1975 and 1977. In October 1978, the Standing Advisory Group on the Safe Transport of Radioactive Materials, established by the Director General in 1977, reviewed and recommended a small number of additional amendments. The recommendations of SAGSTRAM were subsequently accepted by the Director General. All these minor amendments and changes of detail are incorporated in the present text of the Regulations. The purpose of these Regulations is to establish standards of safety which provide an acceptable level of control of the radiation hazards to persons, property and the environment that are associated with the transport of radioactive material. They apply to the transport by land, water or air, including transport on own account, of radioactive material other than that which is an integral part of the means of transport. Transport includes any operation incidental to the whole course of carriage, such as loading, unloading and storage in transit. The term includes both normal transport and that under accident conditions

  4. Advisory material for the IAEA regulations for the safe transport of radioactive material. Safety guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    Since the first edition in 1961, the Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material of the IAEA (IAEA Regulations) have served as the basis of safety for the transport of radioactive material worldwide. In the discussions leading to the first edition of the IAEA Regulations, it was realized that there was need for a publication to supplement the Regulations which could give information of individual provisions as to their purpose, their scientific background and how to apply them in practice. In response, the Agency published Safety Series No. 7, entitled, in its first edition in 1961, 'Notes on Certain Aspects of the Regulations'. An additional source of information on the Regulations, providing advice on 'how' the user should comply with them which could be augmented from time to time in the light of latest experience, was provided by the Agency, initially in relation to the 1973 edition of the Regulations. This was entitled 'Advisory Material for the IAEA Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material' and designated Safety Series No. 37. This document is the result of combining the two Safety Series in a single publication. Thus the primary purpose of this publication is to provide guidance to users on proven and acceptable ways of complying with the Regulations. This Advisory Material is not a stand-alone text and it only has significance when used as a companion to the IAEA Safety Standards Series No. ST-1, Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material (1996 edition)

  5. Safe transport of spent fuels after long-term storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aritomi, M.; Takeda, T.; Ozaki, S.

    2004-01-01

    Considering the scarcity of energy resources in Japan, a nuclear energy policy pertaining to the spent fuel storage has been adopted. The nuclear energy policy sets the rules that spent fuels generated from LWRs shall be reprocessed and that plutonium and unburnt uranium shall be recovered and reused. For this purpose, a reprocessing plant, which has a reprocessing capability of 800 ton/yr, is under construction at Rokkasho Village. However, it is anticipated that the start of its operation will be delayed. In addition, the amount of spent fuels generated from nuclear power plants exceeds its reprocessing capability. Therefore, the establishment of storage technology for spent fuels becomes an urgent problem in Japan in order to continue smoothly the LWR operations. In this paper, the background of nuclear power generation in Japan is introduced at first. Next, the policy of spent fuel storage in Japan and circumstances surrounding the spent fuels in Japan are mentioned. Furthermore, the major subjects for discussions to settle and improve 'Standard for Safety Design and Inspection of Metal Casks for Spent Fuel Interim Storage Facility' in Atomic Energy Society of Japan are discussed, such as the integrity of fuel cladding, basket, shielding material and metal gasket for the long term storage for achieving safe transport of spent fuels after the storage. Finally, solutions to the unsolved subject in establishing the spent fuel interim storage technologies ase introduced accordingly

  6. Fallout radiation protection provided by transportation vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burson, Z.G.

    1972-10-20

    Fallout radiation protection factors (PF's) were estimated for a variety of civilian transportation vehicles using measurements of the natural terrain radiation as a source. The PF values are below 2 in light vehicles, truck beds, or trailers; from 2.5 to 3 in the cabs of heavy trucks and in a railway guard car; and from 3.0 to 3.5 in the engineer's seat of heavy locomotives. This information can be useful in planning the possible movement of personnel from or through areas contaminated either by a wartime incident or a peacetime accident. The information may also be useful for studying the reduction of exposure to the natural terrestrial radiation environment provided by vehicles.

  7. Compliance assurance for the safe transport of radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this book is to assist competent authorities in the development and maintenance of compliance assurance programmes in connection with the transport of radioactive material, and to assist applicants, licensees and organizations in their interactions, with competent authorities. In order to increase co-operation between competent authorities and to promote uniform application of international regulations and recommendations it is desirable to adopt a common approach to regulatory activities. This book is intended to assist in accomplishing such uniform application by laying down most of the actions that competent authorities need to provide for in their programmes for ensuring regulatory compliance. 23 refs, figs and tabs

  8. Safe Transport of Radioactive Material, International Regulations and its Supporting Documents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Shinawy, R.M.K.

    2005-01-01

    Safe transport of radioactive material regulations issued by IAEA since 1961, provide standards for insuring a high level of safety of people,transport workers, property and environment against radiation, contamination and criticality hazards as well as thermal effects associated with the transport of the radioactive wastes and material. The history ,development, philosophy and scope of these international regulations were mentioned as well as the different supporting documents to the regulations for safe transport of radioactive material were identified.The first supporting document , namely TS - G-1.1 ( ST-2) ,Advisory material is also issued by the IAEA.It contains both the advisory and explanatory materials previously published in safety series No 7 and 37 and therefore TS-G-1.1 (ST-2) will supersede safety series No 7 and 37. The second supporting document namely TS-G-1.2 (ST-3), planning and preparing for emergency response to transport accidents involving radioactive material ,which will supersede safety series No 87. In addition to quality assurance (SS=113), compliance assurance (SS=112), the training manual and other

  9. Safe Transport of Radioactive Material, International Regulations and its Supporting Documents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Shinawy, R M.K. [Radiation Protection Dept., NRC, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt)

    2005-04-01

    Safe transport of radioactive material regulations issued by IAEA since 1961, provide standards for insuring a high level of safety of people,transport workers, property and environment against radiation, contamination and criticality hazards as well as thermal effects associated with the transport of the radioactive wastes and material. The history ,development, philosophy and scope of these international regulations were mentioned as well as the different supporting documents to the regulations for safe transport of radioactive material were identified.The first supporting document , namely TS - G-1.1 ( ST-2) ,Advisory material is also issued by the IAEA.It contains both the advisory and explanatory materials previously published in safety series No 7 and 37 and therefore TS-G-1.1 (ST-2) will supersede safety series No 7 and 37. The second supporting document namely TS-G-1.2 (ST-3), planning and preparing for emergency response to transport accidents involving radioactive material ,which will supersede safety series No 87. In addition to quality assurance (SS=113), compliance assurance (SS=112), the training manual and other.

  10. A Survey of Restraint Methods for the Safe Transport of Children in Ground Ambulances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Rashida H; Shah, Manish; Doughty, Cara; Gilchrest, Anthony

    2018-03-01

    The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) released draft recommendations in 2010 on the safe transport of children in ground ambulances. The purpose of this study was to assess awareness of these guidelines among emergency medical service (EMS) agencies and to identify implementation barriers. We conducted a cross-sectional, anonymous online survey of 911-responding, ground transport EMS agencies in Texas. Demographics, modes of transport based on case scenarios, and barriers to implementation were assessed. Of 62 eligible EMS agencies that took the survey, 35.7% were aware of the NHTSA guidelines, 62.5% agreed they would improve safety, and 41.1% planned to implement them. Seventy-five percent of EMS agencies used the ideal or acceptable alternative to transport children requiring continuous monitoring, and 69.5% chose ideal or acceptable alternatives for children requiring spinal immobilization. The ideal or acceptable alternative was not chosen for children who were not injured or ill (93.2%), ill or injured but not requiring continuous monitoring (53.3%), and situations when multiple patients required transport (57.6%). The main requirements for implementation were provider education, ambulance interior modifications, new guidelines in the EMS agency, and purchase of new equipment. Few EMS agencies are aware of the NHTSA guidelines on safe transport of children in ground ambulances. Although most agencies appropriately transport children who require monitoring, interventions, or spinal immobilization, they use inappropriate means to transport children in situations with multiple patients, lack of injury or illness, or lack of need for monitoring.

  11. The impact of the new IAEA transport regulations for the safe transport of radioactive materials on package design and transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, K.

    1989-01-01

    In April 1985 the 1985 Edition of the IAEA Safety Series No. 6, Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Materials, was issued. This is a completely revised edition which shall come into force internationally in the late eighties. This edition will supersede the 1973 (As Amended, 1979) edition. A paragraph by paragraph comparison is carried through, followed by a consideration on the impact on general requirements for packaging and transport. A detailed estimate on packaging design and transport is performed for typical products of the nuclear fuel cycle. The major practical consequences likely to be encountered are presented

  12. Financial assistance to States and tribes to support emergency preparedness and response and the safe transportation of hazardous shipments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradbury, J.A.; Jones, M.L.

    1995-01-01

    This report identifies and summarizes existing sources of financial assistance to States and Indian tribes in preparing and responding to transportation emergencies and ensuring the safe transportation of hazardous shipments through their jurisdictions. The report has been prepared as an information resource for the US Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management, Office of Transportation, Emergency Management and Analytical Services. The report discusses funding programs administered by the following Federal agencies: Federal Emergency Management Agency; Department of Transportation; the Environmental Protection Agency; and the Department of Energy. Also included is a summary of fees assessed by some States on carriers of hazardous materials and hazardous waste. The discussion of programs is supplemented by an Appendix that provides a series of tables summarizing funding sources and amounts. The report includes several conclusions concerning the level of funding provided to Indian tribes, the relative ranking of funding sources and the variation among States in overall revenues for emergency response and safe transportation

  13. Providing safe drinking water to 1.2 billion unserved people

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gadgil, Ashok J.; Derby, Elisabeth A.

    2003-06-01

    Despite substantial advances in the past 100 years in public health, technology and medicine, 20% of the world population, mostly comprised of the poor population segments in developing countries (DCs), still does not have access to safe drinking water. To reach the United Nations (UN) Millennium Goal of halving the number of people without access to safe water by 2015, the global community will need to provide an additional one billion urban residents and 600 million rural residents with safe water within the next twelve years. This paper examines current water treatment measures and implementation methods for delivery of safe drinking water, and offers suggestions for making progress towards the goal of providing a timely and equitable solution for safe water provision. For water treatment, based on the serious limitations of boiling water and chlorination, we suggest an approach based on filtration coupled with ultraviolet (UV) disinfection, combined with public education. Additionally, owing to the capacity limitations for non-governmental organizations (NGOs) to take on this task primarily on their own, we suggest a strategy based on financially sustainable models that include the private sector as well as NGOs.

  14. Code of Practice for the safe transport of radioactive substances 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This Federal Code revises an earlier Code on the same subject issued in 1982 and was formulated under the Environment Protection (Nuclear Codes) Act 1978. The purpose of the Code is to establish uniform safety standards, applicable throughout the Commonwealth of Australia, to provide for the protection of persons and the environment, against any dangers associated with the transport of radioactive substances. The Code uses as a basis the IAEA Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Materials. This new edition takes into account the 1985 Edition of the Regulations incorporating the 1988 Supplement and provides, furthermore, that radiation protection standards will also be subject to recommendations of the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council [fr

  15. Quality performance-based training enhances safe and effective transport operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCall, D.L.

    1993-01-01

    If the hazardous materials transportation industry is to reduce human error, reduce accidents, and improve its public image, there must be assurance that transportation personnel are properly trained and qualified to perform their jobs in a safe and efficient manner. This training must make them intimately aware of the hazards and risks associated with transport activities, ensure understanding of responsibilities and liabilities unique to their job, and ensure that they can competently perform functional duties vital to safety. To ensure that trained and qualified personnel are on the job, it is essential that the training be performance-based and require trainees to demonstrate functional proficiency. Performance-based training has proven to be a highly effective means of ensuring personnel are qualified to conduct their assignments safely and efficiently. This training is designed around the basic premise that training must be provided that supplies the information necessary for each worker to perform their assigned duties at a predetermined and acceptable level of expertise and skill. (J.P.N.)

  16. Helicopter emergency medical service patient transport safe at night?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, J.H.; Wageningen, B. van; Hoogerwerf, N.; Biert, J.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Dutch helicopter emergency medical services are available 24/7. Working without daylight brings additional challenges, both in patient care and in-flight operation. We retrospectively evaluated the safety of this nighttime helicopter transportation of patients. METHODS: Our helicopter

  17. The amended regulations for the safe transport of radioactive materials in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takemura, Yoshio

    1978-01-01

    To cope with the inadequacies of the laws and regulations including the Law Concerning Prevention of Radiation Injuries Due to Radioisotopes, Etc., the Amended Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Materials in Japan has been issued. It is based on the Regulations of IAEA for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Materials and the Technical Standards for the Transport of Radioactive Materials decided by the AEC of Japan. In the amended regulations, emphasis is placed on the safety design of transporting goods. They are classified in Types L, A and B according to shock resistance and fire resistance, and the quantities of radioisotopes allowed to be contained in respective types are specified. The following matters are described: basic ideas concerning the types of transporting goods, test standards for the goods, transport standards for the goods, and nondestructive test apparatuses in transport. (Mori, K.)

  18. High-flow, low-head pumps provide safe passage for Pacific salmon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2004-01-01

    The installation of 29 ultra-low head, high capacity submersible pump and auxiliary equipment at the Rocky Reach Dam in Washington State to allow juvenile salmon safe passage on their journey down the Columbia River to the Pacific Ocean is described. The reputed cost of the project is US$160 million; its purpose is to get juvenile salmon safely around the Rocky Reach Dam without interfering with the dam's original mission of generating electric power. The project is the most expensive fish bypass on any Columbia River dam. Getting the salmon safely around the dam is intended to reduce the impact of hydroelectric power projects on the basin's salmon stocks which are now estimated at less than 10 per cent of their historic size, despite major hatchery programs. The Columbia River has the second largest volume flow of any river in the United States, and millions of people depend on it for employment in water-related industries, and for transportation. The new horizontally installed propeller pump was developed by ITT Flygt; it utilizes planetary gear reduced to match the motor speed with the propeller rpm. Each 90 kW propeller pump has a flow rate of seven cubic meters per second at a head of 0.55 metres. The auxiliary equipment includes 10 racks of flap gates to prevent reverse flow, electric controls, remote supervision, testing, installation and maintenance facilities. It is anticipated that the new bypass will allow the Chelan County Public Utility Department, owners of the facility, to phase out all current spills, except for a 16 per cent spill for 40 days each spring for Sockeye salmon which tend to travel too deep to use the bypass. Prior to installation of this new facility, 60 to 70 per cent of average daily flow in the spring and summer had to be sacrificed to accommodate all species of salmon and steelhead, with corresponding losses of power generating capacity

  19. Development of Self-Remediating Packaging for Safe and Secure Transport of Infectious Substances.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guilinger, Terry Rae; Gaudioso, Jennifer M; Aceto, Donato Gonzalo; Lowe, Kathleen M.; Tucker, Mark D; Salerno, Reynolds Mathewson; Souza, Caroline Ann

    2006-11-01

    As George W. Bush recognized in November 2001, "Infectious diseases make no distinctions among people and recognize no borders." By their very nature, infectious diseases of natural or intentional (bioterrorist) origins are capable of threatening regional health systems and economies. The best mechanism for minimizing the spread and impact of infectious disease is rapid disease detection and diagnosis. For rapid diagnosis to occur, infectious substances (IS) must be transported very quickly to appropriate laboratories, sometimes located across the world. Shipment of IS is problematic since many carriers, concerned about leaking packages, refuse to ship this material. The current packaging does not have any ability to neutralize or kill leaking IS. The technology described here was developed by Sandia National Laboratories to provide a fail-safe packaging system for shipment of IS that will increase the likelihood that critical material can be shipped to appropriate laboratories following a bioterrorism event or the outbreak of an infectious disease. This safe and secure packaging method contains a novel decontaminating material that will kill or neutralize any leaking infectious organisms; this feature will decrease the risk associated with shipping IS, making transport more efficient. 3 DRAFT4

  20. The ICRP 60 and the agency's regulations for the safe transport of radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biaggio, A.L.; Novo, R.G.

    1993-01-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has adopted its new '1990 Recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection' in November 1990, they were published in 1991 as 'ICRP Publication 60.' Two main scenarios are considered by the new ICRP's recommendations: a) Protection in proposed and continuing practices (further subdivided as protection against actual exposures and protection against potential exposures); and b) Protection by intervention. Although intervention means any activity in order to decrease the overall exposure, removing existing sources, modifying pathways or reducing the number of exposed individuals, in relation to the transport of radioactive materials, protection by intervention is related mainly to emergency planning, while protection against actual and potential exposures can be considered as the subject of most of the requirements of the 'Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material', of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The on-going revision of the IAEA Safety Series No. 9, which is aimed at putting this publication in line with the new ICRP recommendations will, for the first time, provide a convalidated radiological framework for the 1996 revision of the Agency Transport Regulations. However, to adapt to the transport area the radiological principles and criteria will require a significant effort and a carefully evaluation of the overall impact of each change proposed. (J.P.N.)

  1. Do nurses provide a safe sleep environment for infants in the hospital setting? An integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, Carla; Stiltner, Denise; Wright, Kelly Barnhardt; Kautz, Donald D

    2015-02-01

    Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) may be the most preventable cause of death for infants 0 to 6 months of age. The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) first published safe sleep recommendations for parents and healthcare professionals in 1992. In 1994, new guidelines were published and they became known as the "Back to Sleep" campaign. After this, a noticeable decline occurred in infant deaths from SIDS. However, this number seems to have plateaued with no continuing significant improvements in infant deaths. The objective of this review was to determine whether nurses provide a safe sleep environment for infants in the hospital setting. Research studies that dealt with nursing behaviors and nursing knowledge in the hospital setting were included in the review. A search was conducted of Google Scholar, CINAHL, PubMed, and Cochrane, using the key words "NICU," "newborn," "SIDS," "safe sleep environment," "nurse," "education," "supine sleep," "prone sleep," "safe sleep," "special care nursery," "hospital policy for safe sleep," "research," "premature," "knowledge," "practice," "health care professionals," and "parents." The review included research reports on nursing knowledge and behaviors as well as parental knowledge obtained through education and role modeling of nursing staff. Only research studies were included to ensure that our analysis was based on rigorous research-based findings. Several international studies were included because they mirrored findings noted in the United States. All studies were published between 1999 and 2012. Healthcare professionals and parents were included in the studies. They were primarily self-report surveys, designed to determine what nurses, other healthcare professionals, and parents knew or had been taught about SIDS. Integrative review. Thirteen of the 16 studies included in the review found that some nurses and some mothers continued to use nonsupine positioning. Four of the 16 studies discussed nursing knowledge and

  2. The Challenge of Providing Safe Water with an Intermittently Supplied Piped Water Distribution System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumpel, E.; Nelson, K. L.

    2012-12-01

    An increasing number of urban residents in low- and middle-income countries have access to piped water; however, this water is often not available continuously. 84% of reporting utilities in low-income countries provide piped water for fewer than 24 hours per day (van den Berg and Danilenko, 2010), while no major city in India has continuous piped water supply. Intermittent water supply leaves pipes vulnerable to contamination and forces households to store water or rely on alternative unsafe sources, posing a health threat to consumers. In these systems, pipes are empty for long periods of time and experience low or negative pressure even when water is being supplied, leaving them susceptible to intrusion from sewage, soil, or groundwater. Households with a non-continuous supply must collect and store water, presenting more opportunities for recontamination. Upgrading to a continuous water supply, while an obvious solution to these challenges, is currently out of reach for many resource-constrained utilities. Despite its widespread prevalence, there are few data on the mechanisms causing contamination in an intermittent supply and the frequency with which it occurs. Understanding the impact of intermittent operation on water quality can lead to strategies to improve access to safe piped water for the millions of people currently served by these systems. We collected over 100 hours of continuous measurements of pressure and physico-chemical water quality indicators and tested over 1,000 grab samples for indicator bacteria over 14 months throughout the distribution system in Hubli-Dharwad, India. This data set is used to explore and explain the mechanisms influencing water quality when piped water is provided for a few hours every 3-5 days. These data indicate that contamination occurs along the distribution system as water travels from the treatment plant to reservoirs and through intermittently supplied pipes to household storage containers, while real

  3. Advisory Material for the IAEA Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material (2012 Ed.). Specific Safety Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-06-15

    This Safety Guide provides recommendations and guidance on achieving and demonstrating compliance with IAEA Safety Standards Series No. SSR-6, Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material (2012 Edition), which establishes the requirements to be applied to the national and international transport of radioactive material. Transport is deemed to comprise all operations and conditions associated with and involved in the movement of radioactive material, including the design, fabrication and maintenance of packaging, and the preparation, consigning, handling, carriage, storage in transit and receipt at the final destination of packages. This publication supersedes IAEA Safety Standards Series No. TS-G-1.1 Rev. 1, which was issued in 2008.

  4. Advisory Material for the IAEA Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material. Safety Guide (Spanish Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    This Safety Guide provides recommendations on achieving and demonstrating compliance with IAEA Safety Standards Series No. TS-R-1, Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material, 2005 Edition, establishing safety requirements to be applied to the national and international transport of radioactive material. Transport is deemed to comprise all operations and conditions associated with and involved in the movement of radioactive material; these include the design, fabrication and maintenance of packaging, and the preparation, consigning, handling, carriage, storage in transit and receipt at the final destination of packages. This publication supersedes IAEA Safety Series No. TS-G-1.1, 2002 Edition

  5. General guidelines for safe and expeditious international transport of samples subjected to biological dosimetry assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Giorgio, Marina; Radl, Analía; Taja, María R; Bubniak, Ruth; Deminge, Mayra; Sapienza, Carla; Vázquez, Marina; Baciu, Florian; Kenny, Pat

    2014-06-01

    It has been observed that victims of accidental overexposures show better chance of survival if they receive medical treatment early. The increased risk of scenarios involving mass casualties has stimulated the scientific community to develop tools that would help the medical doctors to treat victims. The biological dosimetry has become a routine test to estimate the dose, supplementing physical and clinical dosimetry. In case of radiation emergencies, in order to provide timely and effectively biological dosimetry assistance it is essential to guarantee an adequate transport of blood samples in principal, for providing support to countries that do not have biodosimetry laboratories. The objective of the present paper is to provide general guidelines, summarised in 10 points, for timely and proper receiving and sending of blood samples under National and International regulations, for safe and expeditious international transport. These guidelines cover the classification, packaging, marking, labelling, refrigeration and documentation requirements for the international shipping of blood samples and pellets, to provide assistance missions with a tool that would contribute with the preparedness for an effective biodosimetric response in cases of radiological or nuclear emergencies. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. VegeSafe: A community science program measuring soil-metal contamination, evaluating risk and providing advice for safe gardening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouillon, Marek; Harvey, Paul J; Kristensen, Louise J; George, Steven G; Taylor, Mark P

    2017-03-01

    The extent of metal contamination in Sydney residential garden soils was evaluated using data collected during a three-year Macquarie University community science program called VegeSafe. Despite knowledge of industrial and urban contamination amongst scientists, the general public remains under-informed about the potential risks of exposure from legacy contaminants in their home garden environment. The community was offered free soil metal screening, allowing access to soil samples for research purposes. Participants followed specific soil sampling instructions and posted samples to the University for analysis with a field portable X-ray Fluorescence (pXRF) spectrometer. Over the three-year study period, >5200 soil samples, primarily from vegetable gardens, were collected from >1200 Australian homes. As anticipated, the primary soil metal of concern was lead; mean concentrations were 413 mg/kg (front yard), 707 mg/kg (drip line), 226 mg/kg (back yard) and 301 mg/kg (vegetable garden). The Australian soil lead guideline of 300 mg/kg for residential gardens was exceeded at 40% of Sydney homes, while concentrations >1000 mg/kg were identified at 15% of homes. The incidence of highest soil lead contamination was greatest in the inner city area with concentrations declining towards background values of 20-30 mg/kg at 30-40 km distance from the city. Community engagement with VegeSafe participants has resulted in useful outcomes: dissemination of knowledge related to contamination legacies and health risks; owners building raised beds containing uncontaminated soil and in numerous cases, owners replacing all of their contaminated soil. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Uranium hexafluoride: Safe handling, processing, and transporting: Conference proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strunk, W.D.; Thornton, S.G. (eds.)

    1988-01-01

    This conference seeks to provide a forum for the exchange of information and ideas of the safety aspects and technical issue related to the handling of uranium hexafluoride. By allowing operators, engineers, scientists, managers, educators, and others to meet and share experiences of mutual concern, the conference is also intended to provide the participants with a more complete knowledge of technical and operational issues. The topics for the papers in the proceedings are widely varied and include the results of chemical, metallurgical, mechanical, thermal, and analytical investigations, as well as the developed philosophies of operational, managerial, and regulatory guidelines. Papers have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. (LTN)

  8. Uranium hexafluoride: Safe handling, processing, and transporting: Conference proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strunk, W.D.; Thornton, S.G.

    1988-01-01

    This conference seeks to provide a forum for the exchange of information and ideas of the safety aspects and technical issue related to the handling of uranium hexafluoride. By allowing operators, engineers, scientists, managers, educators, and others to meet and share experiences of mutual concern, the conference is also intended to provide the participants with a more complete knowledge of technical and operational issues. The topics for the papers in the proceedings are widely varied and include the results of chemical, metallurgical, mechanical, thermal, and analytical investigations, as well as the developed philosophies of operational, managerial, and regulatory guidelines. Papers have been entered individually into EDB and ERA

  9. 28 CFR 36.310 - Transportation provided by public accommodations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Transportation provided by public... BASIS OF DISABILITY BY PUBLIC ACCOMMODATIONS AND IN COMMERCIAL FACILITIES Specific Requirements § 36.310 Transportation provided by public accommodations. (a) General. (1) A public accommodation that provides...

  10. The management system for the safe transport of radioactive material. Safety guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this Safety Guide is to provide information to organizations that are developing, implementing or assessing a management system for activities relating to the transport of radioactive material. Such activities include, but are not limited to, design, fabrication, inspection and testing, maintenance, transport and disposal of radioactive material packaging. This publication is intended to assist those establishing or improving a management system to integrate safety, health, environmental, security, quality and economic elements to ensure that safety is properly taken into account in all activities of the organization. Contents: 1. Introduction; 2. Management system; 3. Management responsibility; 4. Resource management; 5. Process implementation; 6. Measurement, assessment and improvement; Appendix: Graded approach for management systems for the safe transport of radioactive materials; Annex I: Two examples of management systems; Annex II: Examples of management system standards; Annex III: Example of a documented management system (or quality assurance programme) for an infrequent consignor; Annex IV: Example of a documented management system (or quality assurance programme) description for an infrequent carrier; Annex V: Example of a procedure for control of records; Annex VI: Example of a procedure for handling packages containing radioactive materials, including receipt and dispatch; Annex VII: Example of a packaging maintenance procedure in a complex organization; Annex VIII: Example of an internal audit procedure in a small organization; Annex IX: Example of a corrective and preventive action procedure

  11. Assessment of the application of the IAEA regulations for the safe transport of radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-12-01

    The IAEA, working with the individual Member States, undertook to examine the manner in which domestic, import, export and through-country shipments of radioactive materials are controlled and regulated worldwide. The information to be examined was collected by a questionnaire, which was sent to Member States in July 1984. Copies of the letter and the questionnaire are in Appendix I of this document. The follow-up letters, repeating the request to provide the IAEA with data and asking authorization to publish the data obtained through the questionnaire, were sent in February 1985 (Appendix II and III). By the end of June 1986 completed questionnaires had been received from 53 Member States. These Member States are listed in Appendix IV. The results of the examination are summarized in this report. The results indicate the important role the international organizations play in the transport of radioactive material. All the Member States involved in this examination regulate the transport of radioactive material within their country on the basis of international agreements, regulations and recommendations. The IAEA Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material, Safety Series No. 6, is the ultimately controlling document since it serves as the basis for the radioactive material portions of other international transport documents (Appendix V) and since it is made directly binding in the regulations of many countries. In addition to the questions concerning the adoption of the regulations, some questions on the implementation of the transport regulations, e.g. on competent authorities and other regulatory bodies as well as quality assurance, were presented in the questionnaire. This report concerns only the adoption of the regulations

  12. Regulatory requirements on management of radioactive material safe transport in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, C.

    2016-01-01

    Since 1980s, the IAEA Regulation for safe transport of radioactive material was introduced into China; the regulatory system of China began with international standards, and walked towards the institutionalized. In 2003 the National People’s Congress (NPC) promulgated “the Act on the Prevention of Radioactive Pollution of the People's Republic of China”. In 2009 “Regulation for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material” (Referred to “Regulation”) was promulgated by the State Council. Subsequently, the National Nuclear Safety Administration (NNSA) began to formulate executive detailed department rules, regulations guidelines and standards. The present system of acts, regulations and standards on management of safe transport of radioactive material in China and future planning were introduced in this paper. Meanwhile, the paper described the specific administration requirements of the Regulation on classification management of radioactive materials, license management of transport packaging including design, manufacture and use, licensing management of transport activities and the provisions of illegal behaviors arising in safe transport of radioactive material. (author)

  13. Experiences for the Safe and Secure transport of Radioactive Material in Islamic Republic of Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajizadeh, B.; Eshraghi, A.; Deevband, M.R.; Kardan, M.R.

    2016-01-01

    The Iranian Nuclear Regulatory Authority (INRA) has been addressed the actions to be taken in respect of the safe and secure transport of radioactive material. Firstly, INRA translated TS-R-1 and approved it as national standard and imparted it to all entities that engage in transport of radioactive material. Training course was provided for the designers, consignors, carriers and consignees based on their actions in transport of radioactive material. All radioactive material carrier companies were enforced to observe all aspects of national standard and receive an authorized license of National Radiation Protection Department (NRPD). The NRPD has written procedures to regain control of the radiation sources together with the National Waste Management Department. Transport arrangements are in place for imported and exported sources. According to the Code of Conduct on safety and security, the sources category I, II and III have been registered in data bases carefully so far. All the licensees are obligated to inform the Regulatory Authority for any changes in position, application, possession, transfer or waste of radiation sources. There is a formal agreement with the National Security Council to permit the import of scrap metal at major entry points on the borders. Scrap metal importers are required to use these points of entry which are monitored by officers of the NRPD and portal gate monitors which are installed at the main entry points and be controlled from unique centre. If required, the NRPD will supply staff to other border entry points. Presently some portal gate monitors are in progress at the borderline customs also. All the major metal recycling facilities in IRAN have installed portal gate monitors to recheck their scrap metal imports. (author)

  14. Experiences for the Safe and Secure Transport of Radioactive Material in Islamic Republic of Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajizadeh, B.; Eshraghi, A.; Deevband, M.R.; Kardan, M.R.

    2011-01-01

    The Iranian Nuclear Regulatory Authority (INRA) has been addressed the actions to be taken in respect of the safe and secure transport of radioactive material. Firstly, INRA translated TS-R-1 and approved it as national standard and imparted it to all entities that engage in transport of radioactive material. Training course was provided for the designers, consignors, carriers and consignees based on their actions in transport of radioactive material. All radioactive material carrier companies were enforced to observe all aspects of national standard and receive an authorized license of National Radiation Protection Department (NRPD). The NRPD has written procedures to regain control of the radiation sources together with the National Waste Management Department. Transport arrangements are in place for imported and exported sources. According to the Code of Conduct on safety and security, the sources category I, II and III have been registered in data bases carefully so far. All the licensees are obligated to inform the Regulatory Authority for any changes in position, application, possession, transfer or waste of radiation sources. There is a formal agreement with the National Security Council to permit the import of scrap metal at major entry points on the borders. Scrap metal importers are required to use these points of entry which are monitored by officers of the NRPD and portal gate monitors which are installed at the main entry points and be controlled from unique centre. If required, the NRPD will supply staff to other border entry points. Presently some portal gate monitors are in progress at the borderline customs also. All the major metal recycling facilities in IRAN have installed portal gate monitors to recheck their scrap metal imports. (author)

  15. Regulations for the safe transport of radioactive material. 1996 edition (revised)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    Following a comprehensive review by panels of experts convened by the IAEA starting in 1991, a revised version of the IAEA Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material (formerly Safety Series No. 6) was approved by the Board of Governors in September 1996. This publication supersedes all editions of the Regulations issued under Safety Series No. 6. By 1969, the Regulations had been adopted by almost all international organizations concerned with transport and used by many Member States for their own regulations. Through the worldwide adoption of the IAEA Regulations for all modes of transport, a very high standard of safety in transport has been achieved. In the revisions since the first edition, attempts have been made to find a balance between the need to take account of technical advances and operational experience, and the desirability of providing a stable framework of regulatory requirements. One of the aims of this approach is to allow packages designed to previous versions of the Regulations to continue to be used for a reasonable period of time. It is recognized that not all regulatory changes can be implemented simultaneously; Member States and international organizations are therefore invited, in adopting this revision, to provide for use of both the 'old' requirements and the 'new' ones during a period of transition that may last for a few years. It is further recommended that adoption of these revised Regulations occur within a period of five years from publication to achieve worldwide harmonization of their application. In implementing the provisions of these Regulations, it may be necessary for Member States to issue complementary national regulations. Except as necessary for solely domestic purposes, such national regulations should not conflict with these Regulations. For convenience, the requirements to be met for the transport of specified types of consignments are included in an abbreviated form as Schedules in this publication

  16. Regulations for the safe transport of radioactive material. 1996 edition (revised)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    Following a comprehensive review by panels of experts convened by the IAEA starting in 1991, a revised version of the IAEA Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material (formerly Safety Series No. 6) was approved by the Board of Governors in September 1996. This publication supersedes all editions of the Regulations issued under Safety Series No. 6. By 1969, the Regulations had been adopted by almost all international organizations concerned with transport and used by many Member States for their own regulations. Through the worldwide adoption of the IAEA Regulations for all modes of transport, a very high standard of safety in transport has been achieved. In the revisions since the first edition, attempts have been made to find a balance between the need to take account of technical advances and operational experience, and the desirability of providing a stable framework of regulatory requirements. One of the aims of this approach is to allow packages designed to previous versions of the Regulations to continue to be used for a reasonable period of time. It is recognized that not all regulatory changes can be implemented simultaneously. Member States and international organizations are therefore invited, in adopting this revision, to provide for use of both the 'old' requirements and the 'new' ones during a period of transition that may last for a few years. It is further recommended that adoption of these revised Regulations occur within a period of five years from publication to achieve worldwide harmonization of their application. In implementing the provisions of these Regulations, it may be necessary for Member States to issue complementary national regulations. Except as necessary for solely domestic purposes, such national regulations should not conflict with these Regulations. For convenience, the requirements to be met for the transport of specified types of consignments are included in an abbreviated form as Schedules in this publication

  17. International Conference on the Safe and Secure Transport of Radioactive Material: The Next Fifty Years of Transport - Creating a Safe, Secure and Sustainable Framework. Papers and Presentations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the conference is to encourage application of appropriate levels of safety and security during transport by: Promoting international discussion on the safety and security of radioactive material transport; Identifying and sharing best practices; Identifying issues and problems; Identifying opportunities, such as providing assistance, to support national adoption of comprehensive transport safety and security frameworks; Developing ideas for coordinating and enhancing transport safety and security. Scope of the Conference: Nuclear and other radioactive material in legal regulated transport (not illicit trafficking, smuggling, etc.); All modes of transport; Safety; Security; Domestic and international movements, including transit; Response to accidents and security events; Legislative and regulatory requirements and approaches; Practical issues such as transport logistics; Regional networks; and Information security and the need for transparency. The conference is not intended to cover the technical topics covered in the PATRAM conference (package design and analysis).

  18. The IAEA recommendations for providing protection during the transport of uranium hexafluoride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, I.; Wieser, K.

    1988-01-01

    The Regulations for the safe transport of radioactive materials, are the basis of national and international regulations concerning this subject throughout the world. These regulations require that subsidiary hazards associated with radioactive materials should also be considered. Other national and international regulations concerning the transport of dangerous materials consider that a radioactive material having other dangerous properties should be classified as class 7. Following this line and acting upon the recommendations of SAGSTRAM (Standing Advisory Committee on the Safe Transport of Radioactive Materials) that the Agency should take the lead in providing guidance to Member States with respect to UF 6 packaging and transport, the Agency convened two expert meetings during 1986 and 1987 in order to look into the special problems associated with the transport of uranium hexafluoride. The experts identified several areas in which additional safety measures should be considered if the transport of UF 6 is to have a non-radiological safety level consistent with that of its radiological risks. In this presentation the new recommendations are described. The main safety issues to be discussed are fire resistance, valve protection and compatibility with service and structural equipment. Another aspect of importance is the interface between the process and the transport phases, bearing in mind that the same containers are used in both. This paper also reveals how far the new recommendations concerning UF 6 have already been endorsed in the forthcoming European Transport Regulations (ADR/RID) together with the 1985 revised Edition of IAEA Safety Series No. 6

  19. Recommendations for providing protection during the transport of uranium hexafluoride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-06-01

    In July 1986 a group of consultants was convened by the IAEA to provide initial guidance on the transport of UF 6 and the regulations for it considering the hazards posed by this material. A Technical Committee meeting was held in November 1986 to finalize the development of the recommendations for providing protection during the transport of UF 6 . This report provides the recommendations resulting from the meetings of these experts. The IAEA recommends that national competent authorities and other relevant national regulatory and standards-related organizations, and appropriate international organizations seriously consider all of the information provided in this report especially the additional requirements set forth in Section III.3 concerning design, manufacturing and testing requirements, design approval requirements, requirements on loading for transport, and requirements for quality assurance and maintenance. This report also deals with United Nations' Recommendations of the Transport of Dangerous Goods, International Modal Regulatory Documents, ANSIN14.1-1982 and ISO/DIS/7195 Standards

  20. Safe transport of tritium-producing burnable absorber rods: Intergovernmental regulations perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinhoff, R.L.; Patterson, J.; Helvey, E.

    2000-01-01

    The state, tribal, and local governments along the shipment corridors share the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) goal of safe and uneventful radioactive materials transportation. The various governmental bodies involved can have different interpretations of a safe and uneventful shipping campaign. However, that gap has narrowed in recent years, due in part to improved coordination among DOE and the affected states, tribes, and municipal governments. This paper describes how the interactions between a new DOE radioactive materials transportation program and the corridor governments bridged that gap to create a shipping campaign that most of those involved viewed as safer and more publicly acceptable than had the process not occurred. It also describes the successful interaction between two DOE shipment campaigns transporting along much of the same route during the same time period

  1. Assessing the management system to demonstrate the safe of transport of radioactive material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruno, Natanael C.; Mattar, Patricia M.; Pontes, Andre T., E-mail: nbruno@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: pmattar@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: atpontes@id.uff.br [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-11-01

    Radioactive materials are used for medical purposes, to avoid greenhouse gas effect in energy production plants, food and other products sterilization, research and sophisticated measurement technologies. Transport of radioactive material involves a range of actors each one having specific responsibilities for safety. Through Management System, consignors and carriers fulfil objective evidences that safety requirements are met in practice, while compliance assurance programs allow regulatory bodies and/or competent authorities to demonstrate to society that public, workers and environment are protected. According to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), safety has to be achieved and maintained through an effective management system. This system should integrate all elements of management so that requirements for safety are established and applied consistently with other requirements, including those related to human performance, quality and security, and that safety is not compromised by other requirements or demands. Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), the Brazilian Regulatory Body for the safe transport of radioactive materials, adopt international standards to establish safety requirements deemed relevant for protection of health and minimization of danger to life and property, and to provide for the application of these standards. Seeking for continuous improvement, the adherence of the practices adopted by CNEN's Transport Safety Unit (TSU) against the recommendations from the IAEA was assessed. This assessment led to the elaboration of proposals for improvement as well as the identification of good practices. The methodology used to perform this assessment was the SARIS methodology, developed by the IAEA. This paper will describe the most relevant findings of this study. (author)

  2. Assessing the management system to demonstrate the safe of transport of radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruno, Natanael C.; Mattar, Patricia M.; Pontes, Andre T.

    2017-01-01

    Radioactive materials are used for medical purposes, to avoid greenhouse gas effect in energy production plants, food and other products sterilization, research and sophisticated measurement technologies. Transport of radioactive material involves a range of actors each one having specific responsibilities for safety. Through Management System, consignors and carriers fulfil objective evidences that safety requirements are met in practice, while compliance assurance programs allow regulatory bodies and/or competent authorities to demonstrate to society that public, workers and environment are protected. According to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), safety has to be achieved and maintained through an effective management system. This system should integrate all elements of management so that requirements for safety are established and applied consistently with other requirements, including those related to human performance, quality and security, and that safety is not compromised by other requirements or demands. Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), the Brazilian Regulatory Body for the safe transport of radioactive materials, adopt international standards to establish safety requirements deemed relevant for protection of health and minimization of danger to life and property, and to provide for the application of these standards. Seeking for continuous improvement, the adherence of the practices adopted by CNEN's Transport Safety Unit (TSU) against the recommendations from the IAEA was assessed. This assessment led to the elaboration of proposals for improvement as well as the identification of good practices. The methodology used to perform this assessment was the SARIS methodology, developed by the IAEA. This paper will describe the most relevant findings of this study. (author)

  3. The human factor: the critical importance of effective teamwork and communication in providing safe care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, M; Graham, S; Bonacum, D

    2004-10-01

    Effective communication and teamwork is essential for the delivery of high quality, safe patient care. Communication failures are an extremely common cause of inadvertent patient harm. The complexity of medical care, coupled with the inherent limitations of human performance, make it critically important that clinicians have standardised communication tools, create an environment in which individuals can speak up and express concerns, and share common "critical language" to alert team members to unsafe situations. All too frequently, effective communication is situation or personality dependent. Other high reliability domains, such as commercial aviation, have shown that the adoption of standardised tools and behaviours is a very effective strategy in enhancing teamwork and reducing risk. We describe our ongoing patient safety implementation using this approach within Kaiser Permanente, a non-profit American healthcare system providing care for 8.3 million patients. We describe specific clinical experience in the application of surgical briefings, properties of high reliability perinatal care, the value of critical event training and simulation, and benefits of a standardised communication process in the care of patients transferred from hospitals to skilled nursing facilities. Additionally, lessons learned as to effective techniques in achieving cultural change, evidence of improving the quality of the work environment, practice transfer strategies, critical success factors, and the evolving methods of demonstrating the benefit of such work are described.

  4. Regulations for safe transport of spent fuels from nuclear power plants in CMEA member countries. Part III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zizka, B.

    1978-11-01

    The regulations for safe transport of spent fuel from nuclear power plants in the CMEA member countries consist of general provisions, technical requirements for spent fuel transport, transport conditions, procedures for submitting reports on transport, regulations for transport and protection of radioactive material to be transported, procedures for customs clearance, technical and organizational measures for the prevention of hypothetical accidents and the elimination of their consequences. The bodies responsible for spent fuel transport in the CMEA member countries are listed. (J.B.)

  5. Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material. 2012 Edition. Specific Safety Requirements (Arabic Edition)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    The IAEA's Statute authorizes the Agency to 'establish or adopt' standards of safety for protection of health and minimization of danger to life and property' - standards that the IAEA must use in its own operations, and which States can apply by means of their regulatory provisions for nuclear and radiation safety. The IAEA does this in consultation with the competent organs of the United Nations and with the specialized agencies concerned. A comprehensive set of high quality standards under regular review is a key element of a stable and sustainable global safety regime, as is the IAEA's assistance in their application. The IAEA commenced its safety standards programme in 1958. The emphasis placed on quality, fitness for purpose and continuous improvement has led to the widespread use of the IAEA standards throughout the world. The Safety Standards Series now includes unified Fundamental Safety Principles, which represent an international consensus on what must constitute a high level of protection and safety. With the strong support of the Commission on Safety Standards, the IAEA is working to promote the global acceptance and use of its standards. Standards are only effective if they are properly applied in practice. The IAEA's safety services encompass design, siting and engineering safety, operational safety, radiation safety, safe transport of radioactive material and safe management of radioactive waste, as well as governmental organization, regulatory matters and safety culture in organizations. These safety services assist Member States in the application of the standards and enable valuable experience and insights to be shared. Regulating safety is a national responsibility, and many States have decided to adopt the IAEA's standards for use in their national regulations. For parties to the various international safety conventions, IAEA standards provide a consistent, reliable means of ensuring the effective fulfilment of obligations under the conventions

  6. Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material. 2012 Edition. Specific Safety Requirements (Chinese Edition)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-03-01

    The IAEA's Statute authorizes the Agency to 'establish or adopt' standards of safety for protection of health and minimization of danger to life and property' - standards that the IAEA must use in its own operations, and which States can apply by means of their regulatory provisions for nuclear and radiation safety. The IAEA does this in consultation with the competent organs of the United Nations and with the specialized agencies concerned. A comprehensive set of high quality standards under regular review is a key element of a stable and sustainable global safety regime, as is the IAEA's assistance in their application. The IAEA commenced its safety standards programme in 1958. The emphasis placed on quality, fitness for purpose and continuous improvement has led to the widespread use of the IAEA standards throughout the world. The Safety Standards Series now includes unified Fundamental Safety Principles, which represent an international consensus on what must constitute a high level of protection and safety. With the strong support of the Commission on Safety Standards, the IAEA is working to promote the global acceptance and use of its standards. Standards are only effective if they are properly applied in practice. The IAEA's safety services encompass design, siting and engineering safety, operational safety, radiation safety, safe transport of radioactive material and safe management of radioactive waste, as well as governmental organization, regulatory matters and safety culture in organizations. These safety services assist Member States in the application of the standards and enable valuable experience and insights to be shared. Regulating safety is a national responsibility, and many States have decided to adopt the IAEA's standards for use in their national regulations. For parties to the various international safety conventions, IAEA standards provide a consistent, reliable means of ensuring the effective fulfilment of obligations under the conventions

  7. Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material. 2012 Edition. Specific Safety Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-10-15

    The IAEA's Statute authorizes the Agency to 'establish or adopt... standards of safety for protection of health and minimization of danger to life and property' - standards that the IAEA must use in its own operations, and which States can apply by means of their regulatory provisions for nuclear and radiation safety. The IAEA does this in consultation with the competent organs of the United Nations and with the specialized agencies concerned. A comprehensive set of high quality standards under regular review is a key element of a stable and sustainable global safety regime, as is the IAEA's assistance in their application. The IAEA commenced its safety standards programme in 1958. The emphasis placed on quality, fitness for purpose and continuous improvement has led to the widespread use of the IAEA standards throughout the world. The Safety Standards Series now includes unified Fundamental Safety Principles, which represent an international consensus on what must constitute a high level of protection and safety. With the strong support of the Commission on Safety Standards, the IAEA is working to promote the global acceptance and use of its standards. Standards are only effective if they are properly applied in practice. The IAEA's safety services encompass design, siting and engineering safety, operational safety, radiation safety, safe transport of radioactive material and safe management of radioactive waste, as well as governmental organization, regulatory matters and safety culture in organizations. These safety services assist Member States in the application of the standards and enable valuable experience and insights to be shared. Regulating safety is a national responsibility, and many States have decided to adopt the IAEA's standards for use in their national regulations. For parties to the various international safety conventions, IAEA standards provide a consistent, reliable means of ensuring the effective fulfilment of obligations under the

  8. Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material. 2012 Edition. Specific Safety Requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The IAEA's Statute authorizes the Agency to 'establish or adopt... standards of safety for protection of health and minimization of danger to life and property' - standards that the IAEA must use in its own operations, and which States can apply by means of their regulatory provisions for nuclear and radiation safety. The IAEA does this in consultation with the competent organs of the United Nations and with the specialized agencies concerned. A comprehensive set of high quality standards under regular review is a key element of a stable and sustainable global safety regime, as is the IAEA's assistance in their application. The IAEA commenced its safety standards programme in 1958. The emphasis placed on quality, fitness for purpose and continuous improvement has led to the widespread use of the IAEA standards throughout the world. The Safety Standards Series now includes unified Fundamental Safety Principles, which represent an international consensus on what must constitute a high level of protection and safety. With the strong support of the Commission on Safety Standards, the IAEA is working to promote the global acceptance and use of its standards. Standards are only effective if they are properly applied in practice. The IAEA's safety services encompass design, siting and engineering safety, operational safety, radiation safety, safe transport of radioactive material and safe management of radioactive waste, as well as governmental organization, regulatory matters and safety culture in organizations. These safety services assist Member States in the application of the standards and enable valuable experience and insights to be shared. Regulating safety is a national responsibility, and many States have decided to adopt the IAEA's standards for use in their national regulations. For parties to the various international safety conventions, IAEA standards provide a consistent, reliable means of ensuring the effective fulfilment of obligations under the

  9. Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material. 2012 Edition. Specific Safety Requirements (French Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The IAEA's Statute authorizes the Agency to ''establish or adopt standards of safety for protection of health and minimization of danger to life and property'' - standards that the IAEA must use in its own operations, and which States can apply by means of their regulatory provisions for nuclear and radiation safety. The IAEA does this in consultation with the competent organs of the United Nations and with the specialized agencies concerned. A comprehensive set of high quality standards under regular review is a key element of a stable and sustainable global safety regime, as is the IAEA's assistance in their application. The IAEA commenced its safety standards programme in 1958. The emphasis placed on quality, fitness for purpose and continuous improvement has led to the widespread use of the IAEA standards throughout the world. The Safety Standards Series now includes unified Fundamental Safety Principles, which represent an international consensus on what must constitute a high level of protection and safety. With the strong support of the Commission on Safety Standards, the IAEA is working to promote the global acceptance and use of its standards. Standards are only effective if they are properly applied in practice. The IAEA's safety services encompass design, siting and engineering safety, operational safety, radiation safety, safe transport of radioactive material and safe management of radioactive waste, as well as governmental organization, regulatory matters and safety culture in organizations. These safety services assist Member States in the application of the standards and enable valuable experience and insights to be shared. Regulating safety is a national responsibility, and many States have decided to adopt the IAEA's standards for use in their national regulations. For parties to the various international safety conventions, IAEA standards provide a consistent, reliable means of ensuring the effective fulfilment of obligations under the

  10. Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material. 2012 Edition. Specific Safety Requirements (Chinese Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The IAEA's Statute authorizes the Agency to 'establish or adopt' standards of safety for protection of health and minimization of danger to life and property' - standards that the IAEA must use in its own operations, and which States can apply by means of their regulatory provisions for nuclear and radiation safety. The IAEA does this in consultation with the competent organs of the United Nations and with the specialized agencies concerned. A comprehensive set of high quality standards under regular review is a key element of a stable and sustainable global safety regime, as is the IAEA's assistance in their application. The IAEA commenced its safety standards programme in 1958. The emphasis placed on quality, fitness for purpose and continuous improvement has led to the widespread use of the IAEA standards throughout the world. The Safety Standards Series now includes unified Fundamental Safety Principles, which represent an international consensus on what must constitute a high level of protection and safety. With the strong support of the Commission on Safety Standards, the IAEA is working to promote the global acceptance and use of its standards. Standards are only effective if they are properly applied in practice. The IAEA's safety services encompass design, siting and engineering safety, operational safety, radiation safety, safe transport of radioactive material and safe management of radioactive waste, as well as governmental organization, regulatory matters and safety culture in organizations. These safety services assist Member States in the application of the standards and enable valuable experience and insights to be shared. Regulating safety is a national responsibility, and many States have decided to adopt the IAEA's standards for use in their national regulations. For parties to the various international safety conventions, IAEA standards provide a consistent, reliable means of ensuring the effective fulfilment of obligations under the conventions

  11. Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material. 2012 Edition. Specific Safety Requirements (Arabic Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The IAEA's Statute authorizes the Agency to 'establish or adopt' standards of safety for protection of health and minimization of danger to life and property' - standards that the IAEA must use in its own operations, and which States can apply by means of their regulatory provisions for nuclear and radiation safety. The IAEA does this in consultation with the competent organs of the United Nations and with the specialized agencies concerned. A comprehensive set of high quality standards under regular review is a key element of a stable and sustainable global safety regime, as is the IAEA's assistance in their application. The IAEA commenced its safety standards programme in 1958. The emphasis placed on quality, fitness for purpose and continuous improvement has led to the widespread use of the IAEA standards throughout the world. The Safety Standards Series now includes unified Fundamental Safety Principles, which represent an international consensus on what must constitute a high level of protection and safety. With the strong support of the Commission on Safety Standards, the IAEA is working to promote the global acceptance and use of its standards. Standards are only effective if they are properly applied in practice. The IAEA's safety services encompass design, siting and engineering safety, operational safety, radiation safety, safe transport of radioactive material and safe management of radioactive waste, as well as governmental organization, regulatory matters and safety culture in organizations. These safety services assist Member States in the application of the standards and enable valuable experience and insights to be shared. Regulating safety is a national responsibility, and many States have decided to adopt the IAEA's standards for use in their national regulations. For parties to the various international safety conventions, IAEA standards provide a consistent, reliable means of ensuring the effective fulfilment of obligations under the conventions

  12. Regulations for the safe transport of radioactive material. 1985 ed. Supplement 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    A major revision of the Agency's Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material, Safety Series No. 6, was undertaken during a period of several years, culminating in the publication of the 1985 Edition. In order to consider minor problems in the new edition, the Agency convened a panel of experts in January 1986. This panel recommended some amendments which were subsequently published as Supplement 1986 to the Regulations. A further review panel meeting took place in June 1987. The amendments which were recommended for early adoption were themselves divided into two kinds. The first of these are designated as minor changes. The second kind of amendment recommended for early adoption comprises actual changes to regulatory provisions. Several changes of this second type were recommended by the panel and are included in this Supplement. The Supplement also contains the amended texts of the supporting documents, Safety Series Nos 7, 37 and 80, which are necessary to correct minor errors as well as to provide complementary information for the changes introduced to the Regulations themselves. In addition, the Supplement embodies the contents of Supplement 1986, which is consequently superseded.

  13. Changes in the regulations for the safe transport of radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez Vietri, Jorge R.; Vidal, Dora N.; Piumetti, Elsa H.; Capadona, Nancy M.

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to describe and to analyze the relevant changes, dealing with the design, operation and administrative requirements, to be introduced in the Revision 1 of the AR 10.16.1 standard 'Transport of radioactive material' that will be put into force on July, 1st 2001 by the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (competent authority of Argentina). In that way, the Revision 1 of the mentioned standard will be coincident with the 1996 edition (revised) of the 'Regulations for the safe transport of radioactive material', Safety Standards Series No. TS-R-1 (ST-1, revised) issued by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). (author)

  14. Guide to the design, testing and use of packaging for the safe transport of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    This guide gives to designers, manufacturers and users of packaging, advice supplementary to, or in amplification of, the recommendations made by the International Atomic Energy Agency for the safe transport of radioactive materials as given in IAEA Safety Series No. 6 (1973) and the advisory material given in IAEA Safety Series No. 37 (1973). This guide should be read and used in conjunction with these recommendations, the appropriate national regulations and any applicable regulations or requirements of the carriers concerned. (author)

  15. Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Materials. Vietnam Standard (TCVN 4985-89)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The regulations were prepared in line with the Safety Regulation for Ionizing Radiations 1988 of Vietnam. Its purpose is to provide requirements in transport of radioactive materials. The exposure levels of transport personnel are determined. The package for different types of materials is regulated. The orders and procedures in transport are defined. In addition, specific requirements for each mean of transport are given. (N.H.A)

  16. Schedules of Provisions of the IAEA Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material (2009 Ed.). Safety Guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    This Safety Guide is issued in support of Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material (IAEA Safety Standards Series No. TS-R-1, 2009 Edition). It lists the paragraph numbers of the Transport Regulations that are relevant for specified types of consignment, classified according to their UN numbers. It does not provide additional recommendations. The intended users are consignors and consignees, carriers, shippers, regulators, and end users involved in the transport of radioactive material. A person or organization intending to transport a particular type of consignment of radioactive material must meet requirements in all sections of the Transport Regulations. This Safety Guide aids users by providing a listing of the relevant requirements of the Transport Regulations for each type of radioactive material, package or shipment. Once a consignor has classified the radioactive material to be shipped, the appropriate UN number can be assigned and the paragraph numbers of the requirements that apply for the shipment can be found in the corresponding schedule

  17. Advisory material for the IAEA regulations for the safe transport of radioactive material (1985 edition). 3. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The IAEA Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material provide standards for ensuring a high level of safety of people, property and the environment against radiation and criticality hazards as well as thermal effects associated with the transport of radioactive material. The basic requirements to be met are: Effective containment of radioactive material; Effective control of radiation emitted from the package; A subcritical condition for any fissile material; and Adequate dissipation of any heat generated within the package. Effective quality assurance and compliance assurance programmes are required, for example: (a) Appropriate and sound packages are used; (b) The activity of radioactive material in each package does not exceed the regulatory activity limit for that material and that package type; (c) The radiation levels external to, and the contamination levels on, surfaces of packages do not exceed the appropriate limits; (d) Packages are properly marked and labelled and transport documents are completed; (e) the number of packages containing radioactive material in a conveyance is within the regulatory limits; (f) Packages of radioactive material are stowed in conveyances and are stored at a safe distance from persons and photosensitive materials; (g) Only those transport and lifting devices which have been tested are used in loading, conveying and unloading packages of radioactive material; and (h) Packages of radioactive material are properly secured for transport. The control of the transport of radioactive materials may be necessary also for other reasons, e.g. safeguards control and physical protection of nuclear materials and control of a property. For radioactive materials having other dangerous properties, the regulations of Member States, modal conventions and agreements, and other relevant documents of international organizations need to be applied. A Member State may require in its national regulations that an additional approval be

  18. Safe and Secure Transportation of Radioactive Materials in Pakistan and Future Challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muneer, Muhammad; Ejaz, Asad

    2016-01-01

    PNRA is the sole organization in the country responsible to regulate all matters pertaining to ionizing radiations. For the safety of transport of radioactive material in the country, PNRA has adopted IAEA TS-R-1 as a national regulation. To cover the security aspects and emergency situations, if any, during the transportation of radioactive material, PNRA has issued the regulatory guide on ‘Transportation of Radioactive Material by Road in Pakistan’. In Pakistan, low to medium activity radioactive sources are transported from one place to another by road for the purpose of industrial radiography, well logging, medical application, etc. According to national policy, sealed radioactive sources of half life greater than 1 year and with initial activity of 100 GBq or more imported in the country are required to be returned to country of origin (exported) after its use. Although the activities related to transport of radioactive material remained safe and secure and no major accident/incident has been reported so far, however, the improvement/enhancement in the regulatory infrastructure is a continuous process. In future, more challenges are expected to be faced in the safety of transport packages. This paper will describe the steps taken by PNRA for the safety and security of transport of radioactive material in the country and future challenges. (author)

  19. Regional training course on safe transport of radioactive material. Folder documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Folder including documentation distributed to the participants to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Regional Training Course on Safe Transport of Radioactive Material organised by the IAEA in co-operation with the Government of Argentina through the Nuclear Regulatory Authority, held in Buenos Aires, Argentina, 13 September -1 October 1999. The course was intended to people from IAEA Member States in the Latin American and Caribbean region. The instruction language was spanish and some lectures was delivered in english. The documentation was Spanish and some lectures was delivered in English. The documentation was in Spanish and included: copies of transparencies used during lectures, exercises of application, main training document (introduction; shipments of radioactive material; applicable regulations; basic principles; scope and objective of the IAEA Transport Regulations; package design requirements; type of packages and their contents limits; Q system; special form radioactive material requirements; radiation protection requirements; fissile material transport requirements; controls, contamination, radiation level, transport index; operational and administrative requirements; consignors' responsibilities; approval certificates, transport under special arrangements; emergency planning and procedures; physical protection aspects during transport. Guidelines for consignors, radiation detectors, complement to the training manual on main changes included in the 1996 Edition of IAEA Transport Regulations

  20. Status of Philippine regulatory infrastructure for the safe transport of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parami, V.K.; De Jesus, T.G.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents some regulatory practices and experiences of the Philippine Nuclear Research Institute (PNRI) in ensuring safe transport of radioactive materials. The regulation and licensing the use of radioactive materials started in 1958. The number of packages containing radioactive materials transported into and within the country has increased with the increase number of licensees. During the period 2000-2002, the total number of licensees is 293, 311 and 311 respectively. The PNRI issues certificates of release and certificate of transport/authority to transport. Based on the data of certificates, the topmost sealed source shipments from abroad, mostly in type A package, are 192 Ir and 125 I for brachytherapy. For unsealed sources, also mostly in type A package, the topmost radioactive materials are 99m Tc (generators), 131 I, 201 Tl mainly for medical diagnosis. From the data on certificates of transport, the total number of packages inspected for the period 2000-2002 is 464, 577 and 747 respectively. The experiences in the enforcement of the transport regulations and the implication of issuing certificates of release and transport are discussed and recommendations are presented. (Authors)

  1. Behind the wheel: community consultation informs adaptation of safe-transport program for older drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coxon, Kristy; Keay, Lisa

    2015-12-09

    Safe-transport is important to well-being in later life but balancing safety and independence for older drivers can be challenging. While self-regulation is a promising tool to promote road safety, more research is required to optimise programs. Qualitative research was used to inform the choice and adaptation of a safe-transport education program for older drivers. Three focus groups were conducted with older drivers living in northwest Sydney to explore four key areas related to driving in later life including aged-based licensing, stopping or limiting driving, barriers to driving cessation and alternative modes of transportation. Data were analysed using content analysis. Four categories emerged from the data; bad press for older drivers, COMPETENCE not age, call for fairness in licensing regulations, and hanging up the keys: It's complicated! Two key issues being (1) older drivers wanted to drive for as long as possible but (2) were not prepared for driving cessation; guided the choice and adaption of the Knowledge Enhances Your Safety (KEYS) program. This program was adapted for the Australian context and focus group findings raised the need for practical solutions, including transport alternatives, to be added. Targeted messages were developed from the data using the Precaution Adoption Process Model (PAPM), allowing the education to be tailored to the individual's stage of behaviour change. Adapting our program based on insights gained from community consultation should ensure the program is sensitive to the needs, skills and preferences of older drivers.

  2. Comprehensive training structure for the safe transport of radioactive materials in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfeiffer, H.J.; Smith, L.

    1993-01-01

    The introduction of the 1985 IAEA Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Materials into Swiss national dangerous goods transport regulations has induced significant changes to the national radiation protection regulations. The combination of these two sets of regulatory requirements has in turn given rise to a major expansion in the national training infrastructure for the safe transport of RAM material. The established nationally recognized courses for vehicle drivers in accordance with national and regional regulations is now supplemented by an IAEA level 2 course for managers and responsible persons with consignors and shippers. A new IAEA level 3 course specifically for inspectors carrying out inspections during shipment is planned to commence in 1993. National one day general information seminars on RAM transportation are now an established part of the training scenario in Switzerland. Commencing in 1992, annual two day seminars for supervising authority inspectors involved in organizational compliance assurance are planned. Experience to date for this significantly increased activity in training has been that of enthusiastic cooperation between all parties concerned. (J.P.N.)

  3. Improved Collaborative Transport Planning at Dutch Logistics Service Provider Fritom

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijs, Paul; Lopez Alvarez, Jose Alejandro; Veenstra, Marjolein; Roodbergen, Kees Jan

    2016-01-01

    We study the collaborative transport planning for two autonomous business units of Fritom, a Dutch logistics service provider. This difficult planning problem does not fit any existing type of vehicle routing problem proposed in the academic literature; therefore, we define a new problem class, the

  4. The human factor: the critical importance of effective teamwork and communication in providing safe care

    OpenAIRE

    Leonard, M; Graham, S; Bonacum, D

    2004-01-01

    Effective communication and teamwork is essential for the delivery of high quality, safe patient care. Communication failures are an extremely common cause of inadvertent patient harm. The complexity of medical care, coupled with the inherent limitations of human performance, make it critically important that clinicians have standardised communication tools, create an environment in which individuals can speak up and express concerns, and share common "critical language" to alert team members...

  5. How safe is deep sedation or general anesthesia while providing dental care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Jeffrey D; Kramer, Kyle J; Bosack, Robert C

    2015-09-01

    Deep sedation and general anesthesia are administered daily in dental offices, most commonly by oral and maxillofacial surgeons and dentist anesthesiologists. The goal of deep sedation or general anesthesia is to establish a safe environment in which the patient is comfortable and cooperative. This requires meticulous care in which the practitioner balances the patient's depth of sedation and level of responsiveness while maintaining airway integrity, ventilation, and cardiovascular hemodynamics. Using the available data and informational reports, the authors estimate that the incidence of death and brain injury associated with deep sedation or general anesthesia administered by all dentists most likely exceeds 1 per month. Airway compromise is a significant contributing factor to anesthetic complications. The American Society of Anesthesiology closed claim analysis also concluded that human error contributed highly to anesthetic mishaps. The establishment of a patient safety database for anesthetic management in dentistry would allow for a more complete assessment of morbidity and mortality that could direct efforts to further increase safe anesthetic care. Deep sedation and general anesthesia can be safely administered in the dental office. Optimization of patient care requires appropriate patient selection, selection of appropriate anesthetic agents, utilization of appropriate monitoring, and a highly trained anesthetic team. Achieving a highly trained anesthetic team requires emergency management preparation that can foster decision making, leadership, communication, and task management. Copyright © 2015 American Dental Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Alternatives for providing a safe passage for non-motorized traffic across an existing highway bridge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-31

    Non-motorized transportation increases mobility choices, relieves congestion, promotes local economy, reduces greenhouse gas emission, promotes a healthy lifestyle, and improves quality of life. Recently, there is an emphasis on developing integrated...

  7. Advisory material for the IAEA Regulations for the safe transport of radioactive material (1985 Edition). 3. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide advice on the application of the provisions of the 1985 Edition of Safety Series No. 6 (concerning the IAEA Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material) in order to help achieve compliance with the regulatory standards. This document also reflects the corrections and changes implemented by the 1986 Supplement to the Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material. Its intent is to describe methods, techniques and practices (citing any appropriate national and international standards) which can be considered a means of satisfying certain requirements. It should always be read as offering 'a way' or 'ways' rather than 'the unique way' of achieving compliance. The information provided is to be considered purely advisory and never mandatory, except where a competent authority may require use of any part or parts of the text. This document provides information about the technical requirements of the Regulations and about the methods and technology which may be employed to satisfy them, for the benefit of designers and manufacturers of packagings, consignors, carriers, competent authorities and others, i.e. it provides 'how' information

  8. The IAEA regulations for the safe transport of radioactive material; new strategies for the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selling, H.A.; Brittinger, M.T.M.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents a historic review of 30 years experience with the IAEA's Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material as the basis for regulatory control of those materials worldwide. It is demonstrated that the underlying principles and fundamental philosophy have proven their validity and have been the main reason for the excellent safety record of transport operations. The IAEA Regulations are currently halfway a comprehensive revision process aiming at the publication of a new edition by 1996. Although the main principles are likely to be maintained in the next edition of the Regulations, some developments in this area will undoubtedly have an effect on their structure. The main new developments are: the air transport of large quantities of radioactive material, requiring that a risk basis be established which is comparable with other modes of transport, transport of uranium hexafluoride requiring provisions which include the associated chemical hazards, the transport of large volumes of radioactive waste originating from decommissioning of nuclear power stations, and the influence of the new risk estimates for exposure to ionizing radiation and consequently the lower dose limits as recommended by ICRP. This paper will make an attempt to identify the problems associated with those developments, to outline its programme of activities intended to address the problems and to suggest possible solutions as recommended by the IAEA senior advisory group in this subject area. (J.P.N.)

  9. The Dutch secret: how to provide safe drinking water without chlorine in the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. J. Medema

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The Netherlands is one of the few countries where chlorine is not used at all, neither for primary disinfection nor to maintain a residual disinfectant in the distribution network. The Dutch approach that allows production and distribution of drinking water without the use of chlorine while not compromising microbial safety at the tap, can be summarized as follows:
    1. Use the best source available, in order of preference:
        – microbiologically safe groundwater,
        – surface water with soil passage such as artificial recharge or bank filtration,
        – direct treatment of surface water in a multiple barrier treatment;
    2. Use a preferred physical process treatment such as sedimentation, filtration and UV-disinfection. If absolutely necessary, also oxidation by means of ozone or peroxide can be used, but chlorine is avoided;
    3. Prevent ingress of contamination during distribution;
    4. Prevent microbial growth in the distribution system by production and distribution of biologically stable (biostable water and the use of biostable materials;
    5. Monitor for timely detection of any failure of the system to prevent significant health consequences.

    New developments in safe drinking water in the Netherlands include the adaptation of the Dutch drinking water decree, implementation of quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA by water companies and research into source water quality, drinking water treatment efficacy, safe distribution and biostability of drinking water during distribution and Legionella. This paper summarizes how the Dutch water companies warrant the safety of the drinking water without chlorine.

  10. Percutaneous Revision of a Testicular Prosthesis is Safe, Cost-effective, and Provides Good Patient Satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene B. Cone

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Office-based percutaneous revision of a testicular prosthesis has never been reported. A patient received a testicular prosthesis but was dissatisfied with the firmness of the implant. In an office setting, the prosthesis was inflated with additional fluid via a percutaneous approach. Evaluated outcomes included patient satisfaction, prosthesis size, recovery time, and cost savings. The patient was satisfied, with no infection, leak, or complication after more than 1 year of follow-up, at significantly less cost than revision surgery. Percutaneous adjustment of testicular prosthesis fill-volume can be safe, inexpensive, and result in good patient satisfaction.

  11. Selection of exception limits for all actinide nuclides based on revised criteria for safe international transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavarenne, C.; Rouyer, V.; Sert, G.; Mennerdahl, D.; Dean, C.; Barton, N.; Jean, F.

    2003-01-01

    Since 1998, there have been some speculations about future transport of significant quantities and concentrations of other actinide nuclides than the four currently listed in the regulation for the safe transport of the radioactive material. Therefore, it raised a need to specify exception limits for such actinides. Additionally, the total fissile nuclide mass per consignment of excepted packages was limited in the 1996 edition of the regulations (a conveyance limit is preliminary supported in the 2003 revision). The proposed changes of the rules have to take this new control into account. The European Community (DGTREN) decided to fund a project related to this subject. In order to define credible exception limits, it was necessary to have reasonably accurate data for all actinide nuclides. Then the authors of the study decided to perform calculations with different codes (MONK, MCNP, CRISTAL, SCALE) and different cross-section libraries (JEF2.2, ENDFB, JENDL, etc.). This article presents the work achieved and gives propositions of modification for the IAEA requirements for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material related to, firstly, the list of the fissile materials, and secondly, the rule to determine the quantities of actinide nuclides that can be excepted from the requirements for the packages containing fissile materials. The participants acknowledge the DGTREN who made this work possible due to its support. (author)

  12. Regulations for the safe transport of radioactive material. 1985 ed. Supplement 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    Following a six-year effort, a major revision to the Agency's Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material (Safety Series No. 6) was issued in 1985. In order to address minor problems with the 1985 Edition of Safety Series No. 6, a panel of experts convened by the International Atomic Energy Agency met from 13 to 17 January 1986. This panel considered minor inconsistencies, omissions or errors that had occurred in the course of preparing the 1985 Edition of Safety Series No. 6, and recommended that two types of change be made. First, changes which will correct errors in the presentation of the text, translation errors (in the French, Russian and Spanish versions of the 1985 Edition), and drafting which failed to express the intent of the panels which reviewed the previous edition of the Regulations; these minor changes are promulgated herewith by the authority of the Director General. Secondly, changes of detail which can only be introduced in accordance with the procedure approved by the Board of Governors on 22 September 1972, which authorizes the Director General to promulgate such changes after giving Governments not less than ninety days' notice and taking into account any comments that they make. Three changes of this second type were recommended by the panel, and were circulated according to the 'ninety-day rule' amendment procedure on 3 February 1986. Those changes which received unanimous support by Member States are included in this Supplement. Corrected text to the 1985 Edition of Safety Series No. 6 (paragraphs, tables, etc.) is provided in this Supplement, and this corrected text supersedes the corresponding portions of the 1985 Edition of Safety Series No. 6.

  13. The transports of nuclear fuel cycle: An essential activity, safely managed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenail, B.; Savornin, B.; Curtis, H.W.

    1989-01-01

    Transports associated with the nuclear fuel cycle normally use public means of transport by rail, road, sea and air and it might therefore be expected that they would be the Achilles heel of the cycle from a safety point of view. In fact, despite a few minor accidents, no radioactive releases resulting in a significant exposure of the public or the environment have occurred. On the other hand, during the last quarter, the news media have reported major spillages of crude oil and chemicals of high toxicity which have jeopardized the environment, the explosion of gas tankers with dozens of fatalities, and even the sinking of a nuclear submarine. All reports show that the radiation exposure to the public resulting from transports is negligible, i.e., far below 1% of that due to the whole nuclear industry. Similarly, the radiation exposure of transport workers has been lower than anticipated over several decades. The demonstrations and attacks by opponents of the nuclear industry against transports have been limited and have been used as an attempt to freeze the activity of different plants or disposal sites, and to focus public attention on the nuclear issue, rather than to question the fuel cycle transports themselves or the safety principles ruling them. When looking for explanations of such a favorable situation, which they should endeavour to perpetuate, without being surprised if any incident occurs, one finds two major reasons: First, the awareness by the fuel cycle operators, of the vital importance of a safe and reliable implementation of the necessary transports. Secondly, the results of assessments of safety conducted by international organizations and most countries, which have resulted in detailed international recommendations, as well as uniform national and modal regulations, thus establishing the necessary link between the basic rules for radioprotection and the needs of the Transport Industry

  14. Should bus commuting be subsidized for providing quality transport ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Technology, Hauz Khas, New Delhi 110 016 ... of public transport demand with respect to the price of private transport is .... If public transport companies ..... prices, quantities and regulations for all transport modes together with information on ...

  15. Report of consultants to the IAEA on requirements for the safe transport of low hazard radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collin, W.; Grenier, M.; Hopkins, D.

    1982-01-01

    In the present paper changes are recommmended to certain definitions given in the 2nd draft revision of the IAEA 'regulations for the safe transport of radioactive materials (safety series no. 6)'. (orig./RW)

  16. Regulations for the safe transport of radioactive materials. 1973 rev. ed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1973-01-01

    The purpose of these Regulations is to establish standards of safety which provide an acceptable level of control of the radiation hazards to persons, property and the environment that are associated with the transport of radioactive material. These Regulations shall apply to the transport by land, water or air, including transport on own account, of radioactive material other than that which is an integral part of the means of transport. Transport shall be deemed to include any operation incidental to the whole course of carriage, such as loading, unloading and storage in transit. The term includes both normal transport and that under accident conditions. These Regulations do not apply within establishments where the radioactive material is produced, used or stored, other than in the course of transport, and in respect of which other appropriate safety regulations are in force. In the transport of radioactive materials, any other hazardous characteristics of these materials such as explosiveness, inflammability, pyrophoricity, chemical toxicity, and corrosiveness must be taken into account in such a manner as to be in compliance with the relevant transport regulations for dangerous goods of each of the countries through or into which the materials will be transported, as well as in compliance with these Regulations.

  17. Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Materials. 1964 Revised Edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1965-01-01

    In 1961 the International Atomic Energy Agency, within the framework of its statutory functions and in accordance with recommendations made by its Preparatory Commission and by the Economic and Social Council of the United Nations, published safety regulations which could be applied to the national and international transport of radio active materials by all means of transport. At the same time, the Director General of the Agency indicated that these regulations would be revised at appropriate intervals in consultation with Member States and the organizations concerned and invited suggestions for their improvement in the light of experience and increased knowledge. In preparing the revised regulations presented in this document, the Agency has received considerable support from its Member States and the organizations concerned, which have made extensive studies and suggestions in order to assist in its work. The Agency also convened several meetings of experts from its Member States and of representatives of a number of international organizations, and has been represented in several meetings convened by those organizations. In publishing the revised transport regulations which result from that co-ordinated effort, the Agency aims at proposing a lasting framework of principles and rules, complemented by appropriate technical data, acceptable for the safe transport of radio active materials by air, land and water. In particular, the developments which have been introduced concerning the packaging requirements, the nuclear safety criteria for the transport of fissile materials and the methods for testing packages should facilitate the international acceptance of packages by the authorities concerned. The Board of Governors of the Agency approved the revised regulations in June and September 1964. It authorized the Director General to apply them, as appropriate, to Agency operations and Agency assisted operations and to recommend to Member States and to the

  18. Status of the Regulation for safe and secure transport of radioactive materials in Madagascar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raoelina Andriambololona; Zafimanjato, J.L.R.; Solofoarisina, W.C.; Randriantseheno, H.F.

    2011-01-01

    Radioactive sources are widely used in medicine, in industrial exploration and development, as well as in basic scientific research and education in Madagascar. The ability to use such radioactive materials in these sectors depends on their safe and secure transport both within and between countries. Transport safety of radioactive materials within the country is regulated. The law No. 97-041 on radiation protection and radioactive waste management in Madagascar promulgated in January 1998 and the decree No.2735/94 dealing the transport of radioactive materials promulgated in June 1994 govern all activities related to the transport of radioactive material. This law was established to meet the requirements of the International Basic Safety Standards (BSS, IAEA Safety Series 115). It is not fully consistent with current international standards (GS-R-1). Indeed, in order to enhance the security of radioactive sources, Madagascar has implemented the Code of Conduct and the Guidance on the Import and Export of Radioactive Sources. Faced with delays and denials of shipment of radioactive materials issues, the National Focal Point has been appointed to work with ISC members and the regional networks on the global basis.

  19. Safety And Promotion in the Federal Aviation Administration- Enabling Safe and Successful Commercial Space Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repcheck, Randall J.

    2010-09-01

    The United States Federal Aviation Administration’s Office of Commercial Space Transportation(AST) authorizes the launch and reentry of expendable and reusable launch vehicles and the operation of launch and reentry sites by United States citizens or within the United States. It authorizes these activities consistent with public health and safety, the safety of property, and the national security and foreign policy interests of the United States. In addition to its safety role, AST has the role to encourage, facilitate, and promote commercial space launches and reentries by the private sector. AST’s promotional role includes, among other things, the development of information of interest to industry, the sharing of information of interest through a variety of methods, and serving as an advocate for Commercial Space Transportation within the United States government. This dual safety and promotion role is viewed by some as conflicting. AST views these two roles as complementary, and important for the current state of commercial space transportation. This paper discusses how maintaining a sound safety decision-making process, maintaining a strong safety culture, and taking steps to avoid complacency can together enable safe and successful commercial space transportation.

  20. Status of the regulation for safe and secure transport of radioactive materials in Madagascar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andriambololona, Raoelina; Zafimanjato, J.L.R.; Solofoarisina, W.C.; Randriantseheno, H.F.

    2016-01-01

    Radioactive sources are widely used in medicine, in industrial exploration and development, as well as in basic scientific research and education in Madagascar. The ability to use such radioactive materials in these sectors depends on their safe and secure transport both within and between countries. Transport safety of radioactive materials within the country is regulated. The law n° 97-041 on radiation protection and radioactive waste management in Madagascar promulgated in January 1998 and the decree n° 2735/94 dealing the transport of radioactive materials promulgated in June 1994 govern all activities related to the transport of radioactive material. This law was established to meet the requirements of the International Basic Safety Standards (BSS, IAEA Safety Series 115). It is not fully consistent with current international standards (GS-R-1). Indeed, in order to enhance the security of radioactive sources, Madagascar has implemented the Code of Conduct and the Guidance on the Import and Export of Radioactive Sources. Faced with delays and denials of shipment of radioactive materials issues, the National Focal Point has been appointed to work with ISC members and the regional networks on the global basis. (author)

  1. Compliance assurance for the safe transport of radioactive material. Safety guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The objectives of this Safety Guide are to assist competent authorities in the development and maintenance of compliance assurance programmes in connection with the transport of radioactive material, and to assist applicants, licensees and organizations in their interactions with competent authorities. In order to increase cooperation between competent authorities and to promote the uniform application of international regulations and recommendations, it is desirable to adopt a common approach to regulatory activities. This Safety Guide is intended to assist in accomplishing such a uniform application by recommending most of the actions for which competent authorities need to provide in their programmes for ensuring compliance with the Transport Regulations. This Safety Guide addresses radiation safety aspects of the transport of radioactive material; that is, the subjects that are covered by the Transport Regulations. Radioactive material may have other dangerous properties, however, such as explosiveness, flammability, pyrophoricity, chemical toxicity and corrosiveness; these properties are required to be taken into account in the regulatory control of the design and transport of packages. Physical protection and systems for accounting for and control of nuclear material are also discussed in this Safety Guide. These subjects are not within the scope of the Transport Regulations, but information on them is included here because they must be taken into account in the overall regulatory control of transport, especially when the regulatory framework is being established. Section 1 informs about the background, the objective, the scope and the structure of this publication. Section 2 provides recommendations on the responsibilities and functions of the competent authority. Section 3 provides information on the various national and international regulations and guides for the transport of radioactive material. Section 4 provides recommendations on carrying out

  2. A Vascular Anastomosis Simulation Can Provide a Safe and Effective Environment for Resident Skills Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heelan Gladden, Alicia A; Conzen, Kendra D; Benge, Michael J; Gralla, Jane; Kennealey, Peter T

    2018-04-09

    Vascular anastomoses are complex surgical procedures, performed in time-sensitive circumstances, making intraoperative teaching more challenging. We sought to evaluate whether a vascular anastomosis simulation was effective in developing resident skills. General surgery residents participated in a vascular anastomosis simulation for 1 to 2hours during their transplant rotation. An attending transplant surgeon at the University of Colorado guided the resident through end-to-end and end-to-side anastomoses using bovine carotid artery (Artegraft). The residents completed a presimulation and postsimulation survey which quantitated their confidence. They also completed the MiSSES scale, which assessed the validity of the simulation. Twenty residents participated in the simulation and completed the surveys. The residents reported increased understanding in how to set up an end-to-end anastomosis and an end-to-side anastomosis (p = 0.001 and p = 0.009, respectively). They reported increased ability to suture, forehand and backhand with a Castro-Viejo needle driver (both p < 0.001). The residents reported increased ability to manipulate the needle (p = 0.006), and increased ability to manipulate tissue without causing trauma (p = 0.021). They reported increased confidence in tying a surgical knot with 6-0 Prolene and in operating while wearing loupes (p = 0.002, and p < 0.001, respectively). Overall, the residents reported increased confidence when asked to perform part of a vascular anastomosis in the operating room (p < 0.001). Seventeen residents completed the MiSSES scale with median scores of "somewhat agree" to "strongly agree" on all domains of the scale. The use of a simple, inexpensive vascular anastomosis simulation is an effective and safe environment to improve residents' surgical skills and the residents felt that the simulation was valid. Copyright © 2018 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. IAEA mode-related research in the safe transport of radioactive material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blalock, L.G.; Rawl, R.R. [International Atomic Energy Agency, IAEA, Vienna (Austria)

    1998-07-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency sponsors Co-ordinated Research Programmes (CRP) in the safe transport of radioactive material. The CRPs are intended to encourage research by Member States in identified areas and to facilitate co-ordination of exchange of information and resources to reach a common understanding of the problem and alternative solutions. Two of these programmes are: Accident Severity at Sea During the Transport of Radioactive Material and Accident Severity During the Air Transport of Radioactive Material. This paper will discuss these two programmes and their relationship to the continuing regulatory revision process and interfaces with the International Maritime Organization (IMO) and the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO). Some Member States and non-governmental organizations in IMO meetings expressed concerns that accidents on board ships may be more severe than the IAEA regulatory tests account for, and that package failure with subsequent release of radioactive material may occur. The CRP on accident severity at sea was established to develop further quantitative information on potential accident severities during the transport of radioactive material by ships. The primary objective of this programme is to collect and evaluate statistical data of marine accidents, perform analyses of potential accident conditions and evaluate the risks resulting from such shipments. The CRP on air transport was established to make a major international effort to collect relevant frequency and severity data and to analyze it so the accident forces to which a packages of radioactive material might be subjected to in a severe air accident can be more confidently quantified. Several countries have ongoing data collection activities related to aircraft accidents and severity and other sources of statistics for in-flight aircraft accidents will be explored. The International Civil Aviation Organization informed the IAEA of their plans to improve

  4. IAEA mode-related research in the safe transport of radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blalock, L.G.; Rawl, R.R.

    1998-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency sponsors Co-ordinated Research Programmes (CRP) in the safe transport of radioactive material. The CRPs are intended to encourage research by Member States in identified areas and to facilitate co-ordination of exchange of information and resources to reach a common understanding of the problem and alternative solutions. Two of these programmes are: Accident Severity at Sea During the Transport of Radioactive Material and Accident Severity During the Air Transport of Radioactive Material. This paper will discuss these two programmes and their relationship to the continuing regulatory revision process and interfaces with the International Maritime Organization (IMO) and the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO). Some Member States and non-governmental organizations in IMO meetings expressed concerns that accidents on board ships may be more severe than the IAEA regulatory tests account for, and that package failure with subsequent release of radioactive material may occur. The CRP on accident severity at sea was established to develop further quantitative information on potential accident severities during the transport of radioactive material by ships. The primary objective of this programme is to collect and evaluate statistical data of marine accidents, perform analyses of potential accident conditions and evaluate the risks resulting from such shipments. The CRP on air transport was established to make a major international effort to collect relevant frequency and severity data and to analyze it so the accident forces to which a packages of radioactive material might be subjected to in a severe air accident can be more confidently quantified. Several countries have ongoing data collection activities related to aircraft accidents and severity and other sources of statistics for in-flight aircraft accidents will be explored. The International Civil Aviation Organization informed the IAEA of their plans to improve

  5. Implementation of the 1996 edition of the IAEA regulations for the safe transport of radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rawl, R.R.; Kervella, O.

    1998-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) completed a 10 year and revision of its 'Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material' with approval of the amendments by its Board of Governors in September 1996. The revised edition contains some important changes in the regulations, including: type C package requirements; provisions for low dispersible material; uranium hexafluoride packaging; exemption value specifications; operational requirements, including the creation of a criticality safety index and new proper shipping names/UN numbers. The 1996 edition of the IAEA regulations has been published and corresponding revisions now being considered by the international transport safety organizations and Member States. In particular, the United Nations Committee of Experts on the Transport of Dangerous Goods, International Civil Aviation Organization and International Maritime Organization and preparing revisions to take into account the revised Class 7 requirements. An effective date of 1 January 2001 has been recommended so that international and domestic requirements might come into force simultaneously, thereby avoiding disruptive out-of-phase implementation. (authors)

  6. Safe Harbor for Service Providers Under the Digital Millennium Copyright Act

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yeh, Brian; Jeweler, Robin

    2004-01-01

    .... Title II of the DMCA amended chapter 5 of the Copyright Act, 17 U.S.C. 501 et seq., and created a new 512 to limit the liability of service providers for claims of copyright infringement relating to materials on-line...

  7. Hormone therapy in transgender adults is safe with provider supervision; A review of hormone therapy sequelae for transgender individuals

    OpenAIRE

    Weinand, Jamie D.; Safer, Joshua D.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Some providers report concern for the safety of transgender hormone therapy (HT). Methods: This is a systematic literature review of HT safety for transgender adults. Results: Current literature suggests HT is safe when followed carefully for certain risks. The greatest health concern for HT in transgender women is venous thromboembolism. HT among transgender men appears to cause polycythemia. Both groups experienced elevated fasting glucose. There is no increase in cancer...

  8. Do clinical examination gloves provide adequate electrical insulation for safe hands-on defibrillation? I: Resistive properties of nitrile gloves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deakin, Charles D; Lee-Shrewsbury, Victoria; Hogg, Kitwani; Petley, Graham W

    2013-07-01

    Uninterrupted chest compressions are a key factor in determining resuscitation success. Interruptions to chest compression are often associated with defibrillation, particularly the need to stand clear from the patient during defibrillation. It has been suggested that clinical examination gloves may provide adequate electrical resistance to enable safe hands-on defibrillation in order to minimise interruptions. We therefore examined whether commonly used nitrile clinical examination gloves provide adequate resistance to current flow to enable safe hands-on defibrillation. Clinical examination gloves (Kimberly Clark KC300 Sterling nitrile) worn by members of hospital cardiac arrest teams were collected immediately following termination of resuscitation. To determine the level of protection afforded by visually intact gloves, electrical resistance across the glove was measured by applying a DC voltage across the glove and measuring subsequent resistance. Forty new unused gloves (control) were compared with 28 clinical (non-CPR) gloves and 128 clinical (CPR) gloves. One glove in each group had a visible tear and was excluded from analysis. Control gloves had a minimum resistance of 120 kΩ (median 190 kΩ) compared with 60 kΩ in clinical gloves (both CPR (median 140 kΩ) and non-CPR groups (median 160 kΩ)). Nitrile clinical examination gloves do not provide adequate electrical insulation for the rescuer to safely undertake 'hands-on' defibrillation and when exposed to the physical forces of external chest compression, even greater resistive degradation occurs. Further work is required to identify gloves suitable for safe use for 'hands-on' defibrillation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Transportation and Aging: An Updated Research Agenda for Advancing Safe Mobility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickerson, Anne E; Molnar, Lisa; Bedard, Michel; Eby, David W; Classen, Sherrilene; Polgar, Janice

    2017-10-01

    This article discusses what is currently known about three important topics related to older driver safety and mobility: screening and evaluation, education and training interventions, and in-vehicle technology. Progress is being made to improve the safe mobility of older adults in these key areas; however, significant research gaps remain. This article advances the state of knowledge by identifying these gaps, and proposing further research topics will improve the lives of older adults. In addition, we discuss several themes that emerged from the review, including the need for multidisciplinary, community-wide solutions; large-scale, longitudinal studies; improved education/training for both older adults themselves and the variety of stakeholders involved in older adult transportation; and programs and interventions that are flexible and responsive to individual needs and differences.

  10. Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material, 2009 ed. Safety Requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    This publication establishes the regulations that are applied to the transport of radioactive material by all modes of transport on land, water or in the air, including transport that is incidental to the use of the radioactive material. The objective and scope of the regulations are described in detail as well as the range of their application. The publication provides requirements useful to governments, regulators, operators of nuclear and radiation facilities, carriers, users of radiation sources and cargo handling personnel. Contents: 1. Introduction; 2. Definitions; 3. General provisions; 4. Activity limits and classification; 5. Requirements and controls for transport; 6. Requirements for radioactive materials and for packagings and packages; 7. Test procedures; 8. Approval and administrative requirements; Annex I: Summary of approval and prior notification requirements; Annex II: Conversion factors and prefixes.

  11. The use of economic criteria in providing a basis for safe reactor operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graham, J.

    1989-01-01

    Probabilistic criteria based upon an acceptance measure of protection for owner investment can complete the range of design probabilistic criteria between those set by acceptance public safety and those set by acceptable reliability in plant operation. Criteria which address the protection of owner investment have the benefit of lowering risk in adjacent risk regions by providing greater reliability in operation as well as less risk to the safety of the public and the environment. Such investment protection criteria are currently being used to extend plant life but they could also be used very beneficially as part of the initial design process. In this paper trial criteria are suggested which address the risk of extended plant shutdown with the resultant necessity to purchase replacement power, and the risk of replacement of expensive plant components. Additional financial assessment is required to ensure that there is a proper correlation between acceptable measures of owner-investment protection and the levels of probabilistic defence suggested, but the trial criteria proposed can be used as important practical design criteria

  12. Synchromodal Transport Planning at a Logistics Service Provider

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mes, Martijn R.K.; Iacob, Maria Eugenia; Zijm, Henk; Klumpp, Matthias; Clausen, Uwe; ten Hompel, Michael

    2016-01-01

    In this chapter, we consider synchromodal planning of transport orders with the objective to minimize costs, delays, and CO2 emissions. Synchromodal planning is a form of multimodal planning in which the best possible combination of transport modes is selected for every transport order. The

  13. Does Endoscopic Piriformis Tenotomy Provide Safe and Complete Tendon Release? A Cadaver Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulomb, Rémy; Khelifi, Anis; Bertrand, Martin; Mares, Olivier; May, Olivier; Marchand, Philippe; Kouyoumdjian, Pascal

    2018-05-28

    Endoscopic piriformis release (EPR) is among the available treatments for piriformis syndrome. This procedure typically involves dividing the muscle near the sciatic nerve in the sub-gluteal space, which contains numerous blood vessels and nerves. The objectives of this prospective cadaver study were: 1) to assess the reproducibility and quality of endoscopic piriformis tenotomy near the greater trochanter; 2) to detect iatrogenic injuries to the lateral hip rotators, nerves, and vessels; 3) and to define the surgical safety margins relative to the sciatic nerve and inferior gluteal bundle. EPR at the greater trochanter ensures full release of the muscle with a limited risk of neuro-vascular injury. EPR was performed via two portals on 10 cadaver hips preserved in zinc chloride and placed in the prone position. A third, ancillary portal was required in 7 cases. The area was then dissected with the Kocher-Langenbeck approach to allow an assessment of the tenotomy, detect iatrogenic injuries, and measure the distances separating the tenotomy site from the sciatic nerve and inferior gluteal artery. Complete tenotomy was achieved in 9 (90%) cases. The tendon adhered to the capsule in 2 (20%) cases and showed acquired avulsion in 1 case. No injuries to the sciatic nerve or inferior gluteal artery occurred. Mean distances from the tenotomy site were 5.21±0.59cm (range, 4.5-6.6cm) for the sciatic nerve and 7.1±0.89cm (range, 5.4-8.5cm) for the inferior gluteal artery. EPR by a tenotomy at the greater trochanter without sciatic nerve release provides full release of the muscle with satisfactory safety margins and a short learning curve. III, prospective cadaver case-control study. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  14. Regulations for the safe transport of radioactive materials. Notes on certain aspects of the regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1961-01-01

    The notes attempt to provide some broad general guidance to users as to the purpose of the regulations and their working out in practice. They contain also the scientific background to the classification of radioisotopes for transport purposes given in the regulations. Furthermore, an approach was made to the difficult question of design of containers in relation to the factors that have to be taken into account by competent authorities in approving Type B containers, with a view both to helping those concerned on both sides of this transport problem, and to stimulating further thought on the subject, in order to build up a corpus of practical experience in this field.

  15. Manual on safe production, transport, handling and storage of uranium hexafluoride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-11-01

    This document includes a description of the physical, chemical and radiological properties of UF 6 and related products, including information concerning their production, handling, storage and transportation and the management of the wastes which result. All the operations of UF 6 management are considered form a safety point of view. The IAEA organized a series of meetings to consider the hazards of UF 6 transport since considerable quantities of depleted, natural and enriched UF 6 are transported between nuclear fuel sites. Storage of depleted UF 6 is another important issue. Factors affecting long term storage are presented, especially site choice and cylinder corrosion. Other topics such as waste management, quality assurance and emergency preparedness which contribute to the overall safety of UF 6 handling, are included. The intention of this document is to provide analysis of the safety implications of all stages of UF 6 operations and to draw attention to specific features and properties of importance. 38 refs, figs, tabs

  16. Synthetic torpor: A method for safely and practically transporting experimental animals aboard spaceflight missions to deep space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griko, Yuri; Regan, Matthew D.

    2018-02-01

    Animal research aboard the Space Shuttle and International Space Station has provided vital information on the physiological, cellular, and molecular effects of spaceflight. The relevance of this information to human spaceflight is enhanced when it is coupled with information gleaned from human-based research. As NASA and other space agencies initiate plans for human exploration missions beyond low Earth orbit (LEO), incorporating animal research into these missions is vitally important to understanding the biological impacts of deep space. However, new technologies will be required to integrate experimental animals into spacecraft design and transport them beyond LEO in a safe and practical way. In this communication, we propose the use of metabolic control technologies to reversibly depress the metabolic rates of experimental animals while in transit aboard the spacecraft. Compared to holding experimental animals in active metabolic states, the advantages of artificially inducing regulated, depressed metabolic states (called synthetic torpor) include significantly reduced mass, volume, and power requirements within the spacecraft owing to reduced life support requirements, and mitigated radiation- and microgravity-induced negative health effects on the animals owing to intrinsic physiological properties of torpor. In addition to directly benefitting animal research, synthetic torpor-inducing systems will also serve as test beds for systems that may eventually hold human crewmembers in similar metabolic states on long-duration missions. The technologies for inducing synthetic torpor, which we discuss, are at relatively early stages of development, but there is ample evidence to show that this is a viable idea and one with very real benefits to spaceflight programs. The increasingly ambitious goals of world's many spaceflight programs will be most quickly and safely achieved with the help of animal research systems transported beyond LEO; synthetic torpor may

  17. Royal Decree 1749/1984 of 1 August approving the national regulations on the safe transport of dangerous goods by air together with technical instructions for the safe transport of dangerous goods by air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    This Royal Decree approves the national Regulations on the safe transport of dangerous goods by air. The Regulations as well as the attached detailed technical instructions are based on the 1981 revised text of the Annex concerning dangerous goods of the Chicago Convention on International Civil Aviation. It also covers radioactive materials. (NEA) [fr

  18. Order No. 20558 of 6 May 1964 - Adoption of the IAEA rules for the safe transport of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1964-01-01

    This Order adopts the IAEA Regulations for the Safe Transport of radioactive Materials in Portugal, together with any subsequent modifications made to the Regulations pending the publication of regulations to be elaborated by the Commission for protection against ionizing radiation. (NEA) [fr

  19. Quality assurance requirements in the testing of packages to be used for safe transportation of RAM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieru, Gheorghe; Nistor, Viorica; Mihaiu, Ramona

    2010-01-01

    The quality of the Type A, B or C packages used for transport and storage of Radioactive Material (RAM) has to be proved by performing qualification tests in accordance with the Transport Regulations, within the Reliability and Testing Laboratory, Institute for Nuclear Research (INR) Pitesti, where has designed and developed a new Romanian Testing Facility. The qualifications testing are performed under a strict quality assurance programme based on the specific procedures prior approved by the Romanian Nuclear Regulatory Body CNCAN (National Commission for Nuclear Activity Control). This paper describe the quality assurance programme in accordance with the quality management system developed in order to meet the requirements provided by the national regulations as well as to the requirements of the IAEA's safety standard TS-R-1 related to testing of packages to be used for transport of RAM and also provides an overview of the new Romanian Testing Facilities for RAM Packages, developed by the INR's Reliability and Testing Laboratory within an Excellence Scientific Contract. (authors)

  20. Analysis Of Provided Service Quality In Flowers And Living Plants Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poliaková, Adela

    2015-06-01

    This paper analyses quality of the living flowers and plants transportation. A part of this paper compares the demands for a particular transport mode and a practical demonstration of these transport modes within a specific transport mode. The paper presents a survey of quality of services provided by individual transport modes.

  1. Manual on safe production, transport, handling and storage of uranium hexafluoride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-11-01

    This document includes a description of the physical, chemical and radiological properties of UF{sub 6} and related products, including information concerning their production, handling, storage and transportation and the management of the wastes which result. All the operations of UF{sub 6} management are considered form a safety point of view. The IAEA organized a series of meetings to consider the hazards of UF{sub 6} transport since considerable quantities of depleted, natural and enriched UF{sub 6} are transported between nuclear fuel sites. Storage of depleted UF{sub 6} is another important issue. Factors affecting long term storage are presented, especially site choice and cylinder corrosion. Other topics such as waste management, quality assurance and emergency preparedness which contribute to the overall safety of UF{sub 6} handling, are included. The intention of this document is to provide analysis of the safety implications of all stages of UF{sub 6} operations and to draw attention to specific features and properties of importance. 38 refs, figs, tabs.

  2. Intensive medical student involvement in short-term surgical trips provides safe and effective patient care: a case review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macleod Jana B

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The hierarchical nature of medical education has been thought necessary for the safe care of patients. In this setting, medical students in particular have limited opportunities for experiential learning. We report on a student-faculty collaboration that has successfully operated an annual, short-term surgical intervention in Haiti for the last three years. Medical students were responsible for logistics and were overseen by faculty members for patient care. Substantial planning with local partners ensured that trip activities supplemented existing surgical services. A case review was performed hypothesizing that such trips could provide effective surgical care while also providing a suitable educational experience. Findings Over three week-long trips, 64 cases were performed without any reported complications, and no immediate perioperative morbidity or mortality. A plurality of cases were complex urological procedures that required surgical skills that were locally unavailable (43%. Surgical productivity was twice that of comparable peer institutions in the region. Student roles in patient care were greatly expanded in comparison to those at U.S. academic medical centers and appropriate supervision was maintained. Discussion This demonstration project suggests that a properly designed surgical trip model can effectively balance the surgical needs of the community with an opportunity to expose young trainees to a clinical and cross-cultural experience rarely provided at this early stage of medical education. Few formalized programs currently exist although the experience above suggests the rewarding potential for broad-based adoption.

  3. Explanatory material for the IAEA regulations for the safe transport of radioactive material (1985 edition). 2. ed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    This document pertains to Safety Series No. 7 of the IAEA, which is to explain the provisions of the IAEA Safety Series No. 6 in order to help comprehension of the regulatory standards and to promote compliance, public acceptance and further development of the Regulations. The document also reflects corrections and changes implemented by the 1986 Supplement to the Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material. The intent of the document is to show why certain provisions of Safety Series No. 6 exist, why they are so formed (including any relevant history) and the rationale behind the provisions. Definitions are presented, basic principles established, activity and fissile material limits as well as computational techniques are presented. The detailed requirements (the latter sections are built on this information) concern: shipping and storage, material packagings and packages which govern design. Test requirements are provided. Approval and administrative requirements are stated. Heavy emphasis is placed on providing safety through design. It contains the cornerstone of the basic requirements for packagings, packages and material-related aspects.

  4. A report on the on-going researches on safe transport of radioactive materials as collected by the IAEA in 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    Presented are brief reports made by Member States on research in progress in the area of safe transport of radioactive materials. Most of the research reported deals with some aspect of packaging or container design. The research contracts within the IAEA's coordinated research programme on safe transport are also outlined

  5. Explanatory material for the IAEA regulations for the safe transport of radioactive material (1985 edition). 2. ed. (as amended 1990)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This publication is an updated version of the Second Edition of the Explanatory Material for the IAEA Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material (1985 Edition) and replaces all previous versions of Safety Series No. 7. This publication includes the changes to Safety Series No. 7 contained in the Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material, 1985 Edition, Supplement 1988, as well as modifications adopted by the Review Panel that was convened in Vienna, 10-14 July 1989. For the convenience of the user, the old Safety Series style adopted in the original publication has been retained, although the old style has now been superseded by a new one, affecting the structure, the format and the cover of the Safety Series. It should be noted, however, that future editions will be published in the new style.

  6. Written advice can provide a safe and acceptable alternative to new patient assessment for selected referrals to haematologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganly, Peter S; Keeman, Helen; Spearing, Ruth L; Smith, Mark P; Patton, Nigel; Merriman, Eileen G; Gibbons, Steve S

    2008-01-07

    To measure the safety and acceptability of providing written advice (WA) for selected patients referred to a haematology service, as an alternative to inpatient or outpatient assessment. Review of the initial management and subsequent course of patients newly referred to a tertiary referral hospital in Christchurch, New Zealand, between 16 October 2003 and 8 June 2006. Structured questionnaires were sent to all referring doctors and patients recently managed with WA. Numbers and diagnoses of patients managed with WA, early assessment or delayed assessment; re-referral and treatment details; characteristics of WA letters; and opinions of referring doctors and their patients on the WA process. 26% of new referrals (714/2785) were managed with prompt WA, while 16% (455/2785) received the alternative of delayed assessment. After a median follow-up of 23 months (range, 8-40 months), 13% of those managed with WA (91/714) were re-referred back to the same haematologists; 7% (52/714) were assessed in hospital and 2% (15/714) eventually required treatment. There were no deaths due to haematological causes. Over 90% of responding referring doctors said the WA process was rapid and effective, and 77% of recently managed patients were pleased to be treated by their own doctors. Using WA to manage a substantial minority of patients referred to haematologists can be rapid and safe. It is widely accepted by referring doctors.

  7. The experience of the Republic of Belarus in the field of safe and secure transport of radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Astashka, R.; Kronava, Z.; Prykhodzka, A.; Tkachonak, I.

    2016-01-01

    The experience of the safe and secure transport of radioactive material of the Republic of Belarus includes domestic and international movements. Transit is a substantial part of international movements taking into account the location of the country. Legislative and regulatory requirements on safety and security of radioactive material transport being in force in the country include the demands making by such state structures as the Department on Nuclear and Radiation Safety, the Department on supervision for the safe industrial activities, the Ministry of Health of the Republic of Belarus. At the same time response to accidents and security events belongs to the scope of activity of special subdivisions of the Ministry for Emergency Situations and the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Republic of Belarus. For safety purposes all the above-mentioned structures are executing their duties in close collaboration with each other and are following the IAEA safety and security recommendations. The regulatory infrastructure concerning the safe and secure transport of radioactive material of the Republic of Belarus is the subject of the contributed paper. (author)

  8. Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material. 2012 Edition. Specific Safety Requirements (French Edition); Reglement de transport des matieres radioactives. Edition de 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-03-15

    The IAEA's Statute authorizes the Agency to ''establish or adopt standards of safety for protection of health and minimization of danger to life and property'' - standards that the IAEA must use in its own operations, and which States can apply by means of their regulatory provisions for nuclear and radiation safety. The IAEA does this in consultation with the competent organs of the United Nations and with the specialized agencies concerned. A comprehensive set of high quality standards under regular review is a key element of a stable and sustainable global safety regime, as is the IAEA's assistance in their application. The IAEA commenced its safety standards programme in 1958. The emphasis placed on quality, fitness for purpose and continuous improvement has led to the widespread use of the IAEA standards throughout the world. The Safety Standards Series now includes unified Fundamental Safety Principles, which represent an international consensus on what must constitute a high level of protection and safety. With the strong support of the Commission on Safety Standards, the IAEA is working to promote the global acceptance and use of its standards. Standards are only effective if they are properly applied in practice. The IAEA's safety services encompass design, siting and engineering safety, operational safety, radiation safety, safe transport of radioactive material and safe management of radioactive waste, as well as governmental organization, regulatory matters and safety culture in organizations. These safety services assist Member States in the application of the standards and enable valuable experience and insights to be shared. Regulating safety is a national responsibility, and many States have decided to adopt the IAEA's standards for use in their national regulations. For parties to the various international safety conventions, IAEA standards provide a consistent, reliable means of ensuring the effective fulfilment of obligations under the

  9. Development of a safe TRU transportation system (STRUTS) for DOE's TRU waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edling, D.A.; Hopkins, D.R.; Walls, H.C.

    1978-01-01

    Transportation, the link between TRU waste generation and WIPP (Waste Isolation Pilot Project) and a vital link in the overall TRU waste management program, must be addressed. The program must have many facets: ensuring public and carrier acceptance, formation of a functional and current transportation data base, systems integration, maximum utilization of existing technology, and effective implementation and integration of the transport system into current and planned operational systems

  10. Regulatory Framework for the Safe and Secure Transport of Nuclear Material in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konnai, A.; Shibasaki, N.; Ikoma, Y.; Kato, M.; Yamauchi, T.; Iwasa, T.

    2016-01-01

    Regulations for nuclear material transport in Japan are based on international regulations. Safety and security regulations, however, have sometime different aspects which have caused a conflict of operations. This paper aims to introduce framework of safety and security regulations for nuclear material transport in Japan, and shows some issues in cooperation of these regulations. (author)

  11. 77 FR 17394 - Hazardous Materials: Approval and Communication Requirements for the Safe Transportation of Air...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-26

    ... seat-belt pretensioner devices to a capacity not greater than fifty (50) percent of the drum's total... transported; transportation operations conducted under a special permit; the potential for broad application... utilized by 31 grantees with no known safety problems. A review of the Hazardous Materials Incident Data...

  12. Selection of exception limits for all actinide nuclides based on revised criteria for safe international transport and including storage delay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavarenne, C.; Rouyer, V.; Mennerdahl, D.; Dean, C.; Barton, N.; Jean, F.

    2004-01-01

    Since 1998, there have been some speculations about future transport of significant quantities and concentrations of other actinide nuclides than the four currently listed in the regulation for the safe transport of the radioactive material. Therefore, it raised a need to specify exception limits for such actinides. In order to define credible exception limits, it was necessary to have reasonably accurate data for all actinide nuclides. Then the DGTREN/participants decided to perform calculations with different codes (MONK, MCNP, CRISTAL and SCALE) and different cross-section libraries (JEF2.2, ENDFB, etc.). The parameters of interest (such as k-infinite, critical masses) were determined. This article presents the work achieved and the questions raised, e.g. related to the effect of the radioactive decay of the isotopes on the criticality risks. It also points out the need for an evolution of the regulation of the safe transport of radioactive materials and gives a proposition of modification for the IAEA requirements related to, firstly, the list of the fissile materials, secondly, the rule to determine the quantities of actinide nuclides that can be excepted from the requirements for the packages containing fissile materials

  13. Rational and Safe Design of Concrete Transportation Structures for Size Effect and Multi-Decade Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    The overall goal of this project was to improve the safety and sustainability in the design of large : prestressed concrete bridges and other transportation structures. The safety of large concrete : structures, including bridges, has been insufficie...

  14. Earth sciences contribution to the safe development of ground transportation systems in Central Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panza, G.F.; Kouteva, M.

    2002-08-01

    This paper looks at land transport safety aspects paying main attention to natural disaster analysis in the context of the Central European Initiative. It highlights mainly seismicity issues and proposes to build a geodynamic model as a crucial necessity. This model combined with credible hazard scenarios, and with seismic microzonation studies represent the base for the realistic definition, including the energetic aspects, of the peak perturbations that can be experienced by different transportation systems

  15. TECHNICAL EVALUATION OF THE SAFE TRANSPORTATION OF WASTE CONTAINERS COATED WITH POLYUREA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    VAIL, T.S.

    2007-03-30

    This technical report is to evaluate and establish that the transportation of waste containers (e.g. drums, wooden boxes, fiberglass-reinforced plywood (FRP) or metal boxes, tanks, casks, or other containers) that have an external application of polyurea coating between facilities on the Hanford Site can be achieved with a level of onsite safety equivalent to that achieved offsite. Utilizing the parameters, requirements, limitations, and controls described in the DOE/RL-2001-36, ''Hanford Sitewide Transportation Safety Document'' (TSD) and the Department of Energy Richland Operations (DOE-RL) approved package specific authorizations (e.g. Package Specific Safety Documents (PSSDs), One-Time Requests for Shipment (OTRSs), and Special Packaging Authorizations (SPAS)), this evaluation concludes that polyurea coatings on packages does not impose an undue hazard for normal and accident conditions. The transportation of all packages on the Hanford Site must comply with the transportation safety basis documents for that packaging system. Compliance with the requirements, limitations, or controls described in the safety basis for a package system will not be relaxed or modified because of the application of polyurea. The inspection criteria described in facility/projects procedures and work packages that ensure compliance with Container Management Programs and transportation safety basis documentation dictate the need to overpack a package without consideration for polyurea. This technical report reviews the transportation of waste packages coated with polyurea and does not credit the polyurea with enhancing the structural, thermal, containment, shielding, criticality, or gas generating posture of a package. Facilities/Projects Container Management Programs must determine if a container requires an overpack prior to the polyurea application recognizing that circumstances newly discovered surface contamination or loss of integrity may require a previously

  16. TECHNICAL EVALUATION OF THE SAFE TRANSPORTATION OF WASTE CONTAINERS COATED WITH POLYUREA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    VAIL, T.S.

    2007-01-01

    This technical report is to evaluate and establish that the transportation of waste containers (e.g. drums, wooden boxes, fiberglass-reinforced plywood (FRP) or metal boxes, tanks, casks, or other containers) that have an external application of polyurea coating between facilities on the Hanford Site can be achieved with a level of onsite safety equivalent to that achieved offsite. Utilizing the parameters, requirements, limitations, and controls described in the DOE/RL-2001-36, ''Hanford Sitewide Transportation Safety Document'' (TSD) and the Department of Energy Richland Operations (DOE-RL) approved package specific authorizations (e.g. Package Specific Safety Documents (PSSDs), One-Time Requests for Shipment (OTRSs), and Special Packaging Authorizations (SPAS)), this evaluation concludes that polyurea coatings on packages does not impose an undue hazard for normal and accident conditions. The transportation of all packages on the Hanford Site must comply with the transportation safety basis documents for that packaging system. Compliance with the requirements, limitations, or controls described in the safety basis for a package system will not be relaxed or modified because of the application of polyurea. The inspection criteria described in facility/projects procedures and work packages that ensure compliance with Container Management Programs and transportation safety basis documentation dictate the need to overpack a package without consideration for polyurea. This technical report reviews the transportation of waste packages coated with polyurea and does not credit the polyurea with enhancing the structural, thermal, containment, shielding, criticality, or gas generating posture of a package. Facilities/Projects Container Management Programs must determine if a container requires an overpack prior to the polyurea application recognizing that circumstances newly discovered surface contamination or loss of integrity may require a previously un

  17. Compliance assurance in the safe transport of radioactive materials in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, L.

    1994-01-01

    Quality Assurance in the transport of radioactive materials (RAM) has been a legal requirement in Switzerland since 1 January 1990. Some four years later, Switzerland is well on the way to having a comprehensive system of Compliance Assurance covering the transport of RAM. By the end of 1994 Compliance Assurance will be fully operational with regard to nuclear fuel cycle shipments which account for over 90% of all radioactivity transported in Switzerland. Compliance Assurance has been delayed in Switzerland for non-fuel-cycle radioactive material shipments. This has been due to the need to modify the legal infrastructure for the relevant supervisory authorities. Nevertheless, it is hoped to have Compliance Assurance related to Radiation Units (large sources in Type B packages) operational before the end of 1994. Systematic progress is being made regarding Compliance Assurance relating to the movement of smaller sources. This involves a very large number of smaller organisations and will take some time to become routine. (author)

  18. CERCA 01: a new safe multi-design MTR transport cask

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faure-Geors, B.S. [Framatome ANP Nuclear Fuel, CERCA, F-26104 Romans (France); Doucet, M.E. [Framatome ANP Nuclear Fuel, F-69006 Lyon (France)

    2001-07-01

    CERCA, a subsidiary company of FRAMATOME ANP, manufactures fuel for research reactors all over the world. To comply with customer requirements, fabrication of material testing reactors elements is a mixed of various parameters. Worldwide transportation of elements requires a flexible cask, which accommodates different designs and meets international transportation regulations. To be able to deliver most of fuel elements, and to cope with non-validation of casks used previously, CERCA decided to design its own cask. All regulatory tests were successfully performed. They completely validated and qualified the safety of this new cask concept. No matter the accidental conditions are, a 5 % {delta}K subcriticality margin is always met.

  19. Application of the regulations for the safe transport of radioactive material to bulk shipments of materials in minerals industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsurikov, Nick; Hinrichsen, Paul John; Omar, M.; Fernandes, R.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: The following discussion is based on the IAEA Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material (T S -R-1,2005)[1] and Advisory Material for these Regulations (T S -G-1.1,2003)[2]. There were many amendments to the first issue of T S -R-1 (1996-2000) [3], several changes were also made when the Regulations were adopted in Australia [4]. The marks [->] or [->?] have been used in the text to indicate where a change has occurred between the references [1, 2, 3 and 4]. The mark [->] indicates that there is a difference in wording between 2000 and 2005 editions, the mark indicates that if in a particular jurisdiction 1996-2000 Transport Regulations are in force, additional consultation with an appropriate regulatory authority is required.

  20. The application of probabilistic safety techniques to the safe transport of radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ericsson, A.M.

    1997-01-01

    Information is presented about the various parts which make up the computer code system for the assessment of the radiological consequences and risks involved in the transport of radioactive materials and which is known as the INTERTRAN 2 package. The INTERTRAN 2 package has been developed over the past seven years under a Coordinated Research Programme of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). (Author)

  1. The safe control of the transport of radioactive material in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaumette, L.

    2000-01-01

    The regulation of the transport of radioactive and fissile material for civil use concerns the protection of human beings and the environment against the radiological risk which can occur by these conveyed material. That's why this regulation particularly calls upon the law of the protection of the environment, upon the law of the transport of dangerous goods and upon the nuclear law. According to the International Atomic Energy Agency [I.A.E.A.], the implementation of this regulation gives the transport a high level of safety. It comes from I.A.E.A's recommendations which have taken into account lessons from the scientific research and from technical experiences. These recommendations are implemented in international binding modal regulations so that they can be adapted to the ways of transport. Their acceptance in the inner law goes with some national specific laws, mainly connected with the operator's missions and responsibilities. So this technical and administrative regulation is rather complex, and its codification would make it clearer. Nevertheless the whole regulation meets the double aim of the law in transport of dangerous goods which is to insure the safety of this transport of dangerous goods without prejudicing exchanges. In order to apply the regulation, the operators use supervision procedure to check their activities are in conformity with the law. In addition to these procedures, the Authorities supervise this conformity from time to time, by making boring. Operators and the Authorities involve their responsibility which is dependent either on the system of civil responsibility in case of damage, or on the system of administrative responsibility in case of error or risk, or on the system of penal responsibility in case of infraction of the law. So the operators have to apply the regulation and the Administration has to enforce this regulation they have built up. However, the self-control of the safety of the transport of radioactive

  2. Regulations for the safe transport of radioactive material. 1985 ed. (As amended 1990)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This publication is an updated version of the 1985 Edition of the Transport Regulations and replaces all previous publications of IAEA Safety Series No. 6. It includes the Supplements 1986 and 1988 to the Regulations, the minor changes adopted by the Review Panel meeting which convened in Vienna, 10-14 July 1989, and also the changes of detail which survived the ''ninety day rule'' procedure which authorizes the Director General of the IAEA to promulgate such changes after giving Member States not less than ninety days notice and taking into account any comments they make. Since this publication is an updated version of the 1985 Edition of the Transport Regulations, the old IAEA Safety Series style is maintained for the convenience of the user, although the old style has now generally been superseded by a new one. It should be noted that subsequent editions of the Regulations will be published in the new style.

  3. Regulations for the safe transport of radioactive material, 2005 edition. Safety requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This publication includes amendments to the 1996 Edition (As Amended 2003) arising from the second cycle of the biennial review and revision process, as agreed by the Transport Safety Standards Committee (TRANSSC) at its ninth meeting in March 2004, as endorsed by the Commission on Safety Standards at its meeting in June 2004 and as approved by the IAEA Board of Governors in November 2004. Although this publication is identified as a new edition, there are no changes that affect the administrative and approval requirements in Section VIII. The fields covered are General Provisions (radiation protection; emergency response; quality assurance; compliance assurance; non-compliance; special arrangement and training); Activity Limits and Materials Restrictions, Requirement and Controls for Transport , Requirements for Radioactive Materials and for Packagings and Packages, Test Procedures, Approval and Administrative Requirements

  4. A Historical Review of the Safe Transport of Spent Nuclear Fuel, Rev. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connolly, Kevin J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Pope, Ronald [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-09-01

    This report is a revision to M3 milestone M3FT-16OR090402028 for the former Nuclear Fuels Storage and Transportation Planning Project (NFST), “Safety Record of SNF Shipments.” The US Department of Energy (DOE) has since established the Office of Integrated Waste Management (IWM), which builds on the work begun by NFST, to develop an integrated waste management system for spent nuclear fuel (SNF), including the developm

  5. Harmonisation at EU level: a way to increase confidence in the safe transport of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waeterloos, C.

    2004-01-01

    In the European Union, about one third of the electricity is produced by nuclear power stations. This involves numerous transports of materials to and from the various installations of the nuclear fuel cycle. But also and in particular outside the nuclear industry there is a high number of transports of radioactive materials in the medical, industrial or research area. As we live in a global market, many of these are trans-border operations. Of course, major accidents in Three Mile Island and Chernobyl made it more difficult in the last twenty years to look at nuclear as a major source of energy supply in an objective and not passionate way and gave the floor only to anti-nuclear lobbies. Some of the nuclear transport attracted in the past years, the media and public attention, in particular here in Germany, which is a clear indicator concerning the one sided approach. To reverse the trend and ensure a fair and constructive debate on the merits, but also on the drawbacks of nuclear energy, is a challenge that the European Commission has accepted to meet. The framework will be the Euratom Treaty maintained by the last Inter Governmental Conference, as a separate Treaty but alongside the Constitution

  6. The regulatory framework concerning the safe transport of radioactive material in the European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarz, G.; Ridder, K.

    2002-01-01

    Radioactive materials of natural and manmade origins are employed worldwide in many areas, such as medicine, research, energy generation, and industry. As a consequence of the special nature and the properties of radioactive substances, irregular handling and use of such materials entails hazards. This is why special safety and protection provisions have been made in the interest of protecting health, life, property, and the environment from such hazards. The development and use of harmonized goals of protection and standards of safety is essential to free trade and the exchange of goods and services within the European Union and worldwide. The national and international institutions and organizations responsible for the protection and safety of transports of radioactive materials, including the European Union and its member countries, early on recognized the need for harmonized safety standards and criteria for transports of dangerous goods and developed an appropriate system of standards of safety and protection and a comprehensive set of tools for monitoring and checking observance of these standards. These tools have been laid down in a system of legally binding agreements, regulations, directives etc., or in recommendations, for the fifteen EU member states. The article presents this system of legally binding agreements, regulations, and recommendations, respectively, which covers the protection and safety of national and international transports of radioactive materials. (orig.) [de

  7. Recommended nuclear criticality safety experiments in support of the safe transportation of fissile material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tollefson, D.A.; Elliott, E.P.; Dyer, H.R.; Thompson, S.A.

    1993-01-01

    Validation of computer codes and nuclear data (cross-section) libraries using benchmark quality critical (or certain subcritical) experiments is an essential part of a nuclear criticality safety evaluation. The validation results establish the credibility of the calculational tools for use in evaluating a particular application. Validation of the calculational tools is addressed in several American National Standards Institute/American Nuclear Society (ANSI/ANS) standards, with ANSI/ANS-8.1 being the most relevant. Documentation of the validation is a required part of all safety analyses involving significant quantities of fissile materials. In the case of transportation of fissile materials, the safety analysis report for packaging (SARP) must contain a thorough discussion of benchmark experiments, detailing how the experiments relate to the significant packaging and contents materials (fissile, moderating, neutron absorbing) within the package. The experiments recommended in this paper are needed to address certain areas related to transportation of unirradiated fissile materials in drum-type containers (packagings) for which current data are inadequate or are lacking

  8. A regulatory approach to the safe transport of plutonium by air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devillers, C.; Ringot, C.; Tomachewsky, E.G.

    1989-01-01

    The main objective of a modification of AIEA safety standards is to limit the radiological consequences of accidents involving airplanes carrying radioactive packages with a high level of potential danger, priority being placed on packages containing plutonium. The second objective is to facilitate emergency planning and package recovery. These objectives can be met through an appropriate upgrading of package designs with respect to additional requirements relevant to air transport accident conditions including specific mechanical and thermal tests. These requirements can be formulated in terms of: amount of radioactive material above which an upgraded package shall be used, additional tests and acceptance criteria for the qualification of upgraded packages. A review of relevant safety objectives: protection of the public, protection of the environment, and protection of surviving persons has been made

  9. Invariant NKT cells with chimeric antigen receptor provide a novel platform for safe and effective cancer immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heczey, Andras; Liu, Daofeng; Tian, Gengwen; Courtney, Amy N; Wei, Jie; Marinova, Ekaterina; Gao, Xiuhua; Guo, Linjie; Yvon, Eric; Hicks, John; Liu, Hao; Dotti, Gianpietro; Metelitsa, Leonid S

    2014-10-30

    Advances in the design of chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) have improved the antitumor efficacy of redirected T cells. However, functional heterogeneity of CAR T cells limits their therapeutic potential and is associated with toxicity. We proposed that CAR expression in Vα24-invariant natural killer T (NKT) cells can build on the natural antitumor properties of these cells while their restriction by monomorphic CD1d limits toxicity. Primary human NKT cells were engineered to express a CAR against the GD2 ganglioside (CAR.GD2), which is highly expressed by neuroblastoma (NB). We compared CAR.GD2 constructs that encoded the CD3ζ chain alone, with CD28, 4-1BB, or CD28 and 4-1BB costimulatory endodomains. CAR.GD2 expression rendered NKT cells highly cytotoxic against NB cells without affecting their CD1d-dependent reactivity. We observed a striking T helper 1-like polarization of NKT cells by 4-1BB-containing CARs. Importantly, expression of both CD28 and 4-1BB endodomains in the CAR.GD2 enhanced in vivo persistence of NKT cells. These CAR.GD2 NKT cells effectively localized to the tumor site had potent antitumor activity, and repeat injections significantly improved the long-term survival of mice with metastatic NB. Unlike T cells, CAR.GD2 NKT cells did not induce graft-versus-host disease. These results establish the potential of NKT cells to serve as a safe and effective platform for CAR-directed cancer immunotherapy. © 2014 by The American Society of Hematology.

  10. Improving the United States airline industry's capacity to provide safe and dignified services to travelers with disabilities: focus group findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Michael J

    2011-01-01

    As a component of a training development project for intercity air travel providers, we investigated the capacity of the airline industry to meet the needs of travelers with disabilities by exploring: (1) the level of sensitivity among personnel to travelers' needs, (2) training currently provided, (3) areas in which additional training might be beneficial, and (4) organisational/systems-level commitment to dignified assistance to all travelers. Forty-four airline/vendor employees participated in nine focus groups in four US cities. Groups were audio recorded and transcribed. A grounded-theory approach was used to develop a coding system which was then applied to transcripts to identify themes. Factors influencing capacity grouped broadly into four areas: characteristics of the job/system, characteristics of current training, characteristics of providers themselves, and characteristics of travelers. At an interpersonal level, providers were empathetic and desired to provide dignified services. They lacked training and adequate equipment in some cases, however, and organisational commitment varied between companies. Traveler characteristics were also shown to impact service delivery. Results are promising but additional regulatory and organisational policies are needed to ensure quality services. Providers and consumers of intercity air travel services may benefit from the findings and recommendations of this study.

  11. Sustainability of arsenic mitigation interventions – an evaluation of different alternative safe drinking water options provided in Matlab, an arsenic hot spot in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MOHAMMED eHOSSAIN

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The wide spread occurrence of geogenic arsenic (As in Bangladesh groundwater drastically reduced the safe water access across the country. Since its discovery in 1993, different mitigation options tested at household and community scale have resulted in limited success. In an arsenic hotspot of southeastern Bangladesh, 841 arsenic removal filter (ARF, 190 surface water filter membrane, 23 pond sand filter (PSF, 147 rain water harvester (RWH and 59 As-safe tubewell were distributed among the severely exposed population by AsMat, a Sida supported project. After three-four years of providing these safe water options, this study was carried out during 2010-2011 for performance analysis of these options, in terms of technical viability and effectiveness and thus to evaluate the preference of different options to the end users. Household and community based surveys were done to make an assessment of the current water use pattern as impact of the distributed options, overall condition of the options provided and to identify the reasons why these options are in use and/or abandoned. In total, 284 households were surveyed and information was collected for 23 PSF, 147 RWH and 59 tubewells. None of the filters was found in use. Among other options distributed, 13% of PSF, 40% RWH and 93% of tubewell were found functioning. In all cases, tubewells were found As-safe. About 89% of households are currently using tubewell water which was 58% before. Filter was abandoned for high cost and complicated maintenance. The use of RWH and PSF was not found user friendly and ensuring year round water quality is a big challenge. Arsenic-safe tubewell was found as a widely accepted option mainly because of its easy operation and availability of water, good water quality and negligible maintenance. This study validated tubewell as the most feasible option and holds significance for planning water supply projects, improving mitigation policy as well as developing awareness

  12. Experimental Investigation of Burnup Credit for Safe Transport, Storage, and Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harms, Gary A.; Helmick, Paul H.; Ford, John T.; Walker, Sharon A.; Berry, Donald T.; Pickard, Paul S.

    2004-01-01

    This report describes criticality benchmark experiments containing rhodium that were conducted as part of a Department of Energy Nuclear Energy Research Initiative project. Rhodium is an important fission product absorber. A capability to perform critical experiments with low-enriched uranium fuel was established as part of the project. Ten critical experiments, some containing rhodium and others without, were conducted. The experiments were performed in such a way that the effects of the rhodium could be accurately isolated. The use of the experimental results to test neutronics codes is demonstrated by example for two Monte Carlo codes. These comparisons indicate that the codes predict the behavior of the rhodium in the critical systems within the experimental uncertainties. The results from this project, coupled with the results of follow-on experiments that investigate other fission products, can be used to quantify and reduce the conservatism of spent nuclear fuel safety analyses while still providing the necessary level of safety

  13. Safe transport of radioactive materials - Leakage testing on packages. 1. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This International Standard describes a method for relating permissible activity release rates of the radioactive contents carried within a containment system to equivalent gas leakage rates under specified test conditions. This approach is called gas leakage test methodology. However, in this International Standard it is recognized that other methodologies might be acceptable. When other methodologies are to be used, it shall be shown that the methodology demonstrates that any release of the radioactive contents will not exceed the regulatory requirements. The use of any alternative methodology shall be by agreement with the competent authority. This International Standard provides both overall and detailed guidance on the complex relationships between an equivalent gas leakage test and a permissible activity release rate. Whereas the overall guidance is universally agreed upon, the use of the detailed guidance shall be agreed upon with the competent authority during the Type B package certification process. It should be noted that, for a given package, demonstration of compliance is not limited to a single methodology. While this International Standard does not require particular gas leakage test procedures, it does present minimum requirements for any test that is to be used. It is the responsibility of the package designer or consignor to estimate or determine the maximum permissible release rate of radioactivity to the environment and to select appropriate leakage test procedures that have adequate sensitivity. This International Standard pertains specifically to Type B packages for which the regulatory containment requirements are specified explicitly

  14. Safe sex

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sex; Sexually transmitted - safe sex; GC - safe sex; Gonorrhea - safe sex; Herpes - safe sex; HIV - safe sex; ... contact. STIs include: Chlamydia Genital herpes Genital warts Gonorrhea Hepatitis HIV HPV Syphilis STIs are also called ...

  15. Advisory group for the comprehensive review of the Agency's regulations for the safe transport of radioactive materials. Vienna, 1-12 September 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rawl, R.R.

    1981-05-01

    The discussions and recommendations for the revision of the IAEA regulations for the safe transport of radioactive materials are reported. The last revision of the regulations was published in 1973. The regulations have been adopted by all international bodies concerned with transport and by almost all individual Member States. In view of the developments in the means of transport, the volume of traffic and the nature of materials transported, Member States and international organizations rely on the Agency for advice and guidance. Hence the regulations are to be reviewed by 1983

  16. Transport and Reactivity of Decontaminants to Provide Hazard Mitigation of Chemical Warfare Agents from Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Transport and Reactivity of Decontaminants to Provide Hazard Mitigation of Chemical Warfare Agents from Materials 5a...directions for future decontamination formulation approaches. 15. SUBJECT TERMS GD HD Decontamination Hazard mitigation VX Chemical warfare agent... DECONTAMINANTS TO PROVIDE HAZARD MITIGATION OF CHEMICAL WARFARE AGENTS FROM MATERIALS 1. INTRODUCTION Decontamination of materials is the

  17. Changing the culture of neurodisability through language and sensitivity of providers: Creating a safe place for LGBTQIA+ people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Alexander; Laoch, Ari; Zasler, Nathan D

    2017-01-01

    There is an increasing interest in sexual and gender diversity in neurorehabilitation. Healthcare professionals wanting to improve their practice know the importance of understanding the needs and expectations of specific communities. To critically review the literature about neurological disorders in people who identify as lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, intersex, asexual, and people with other sexual orientations and forms of gender expression (LGBTQIA+). Systematic search in electronic databases (CINAHL, EMBASE, Medline, PsycINFO, Scopus, and Web of Science) and identification of relevant studies. Quantitative and qualitative findings are summarized and reported by neurological disorders: a) neurodisability/epilepsy (17.7%), b) intellectual disability/autism spectrum disorders (19.6%), c) dementia/HIV-related dementia (39.2%), d) spinal cord injury (7.8%), and e) traumatic brain injury/stroke (15.7%). LGBTQIA+ people with neurodisabilities and their partners/families of choice can conceal their sexual orientation or gender identity for fear of diminished quality of care. Their invisibility translates into health disparities, lack of policies and services that meet their unique needs. Dementia is the most common neurodisability documented in LGBTQIA+ people. We provide recommendations to increase LGBTQIA+ cultural competency for clinical practice, research, and policy to help different stakeholders to promote a positive change in the culture of neurodisability.

  18. A randomized trial to evaluate the effectiveness of an individual, education-based safe transport program for drivers aged 75 years and older

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keay Lisa

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are concerns over safety of older drivers due to increased crash involvement and vulnerability to injury. However, loss of driving privileges can dramatically reduce independence and quality of life for older members of the community. The aim of this trial is to examine the effectiveness of a safe transport program for drivers aged 75 years and older at reducing driving exposure but maintaining mobility. Methods and design A randomised trial will be conducted, involving 380 drivers aged 75 years and older, resident in urban and semi-rural areas of North-West Sydney. The intervention is an education program based on the Knowledge Enhances Your Safety (KEYS program, adapted for the Australian context. Driving experience will be measured objectively using an in-vehicle monitoring device which includes a global positioning system (GPS to assess driving exposure and an accelerometer to detect rapid deceleration events. Participation will be assessed using the Keele Assessment of Participation (KAP. Data will be analysed on an intention-to-treat basis; the primary outcomes include driving exposure, rapid deceleration events and scores for KAP. Secondary outcomes include self-reported measures of driving, socialisation, uptake of alternative forms of transport, depressive symptoms and mood. A detailed process evaluation will be conducted, including examination of the delivery of the program and uptake of alternative forms of transport. A subgroup analysis is planned for drivers with reduced function as characterized by established cut-off scores on the Drivesafe assessment tool. Discussion This randomised trial is powered to provide an objective assessment of the efficacy of an individually tailored education and alternative transportation program to promote safety of older drivers but maintain mobility. Trial registration: Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12612000543886.

  19. Financial assistance to states and tribes to support emergency preparedness and response and the safe transportation of hazardous shipments: 1996 Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradbury, J.A.; Leyson, J.; Lester, M.K.

    1996-07-01

    This report revises and updates the 1995 report Financial Assistance to States and Tribes to Support Emergency Preparedness and Response and the Safe Transportation of Hazardous Shipments, PNL-10260 (UC-620). The presentation of data and some of the data reported have been changed; these data supersede those presented in the earlier publication. All data have been updated to fiscal year 1995, with the exception of FEMA data that are updated to fiscal year 1994 only. The report identifies and summarizes existing sources of financial assistance to States and Tribes in preparing and responding to transportation emergencies and ensuring the safe transportation of hazardous shipments through their jurisdictions. It is intended for use as an information resource for the U.S. Department of Energy`s Office of Environmental Management (EM), Office of Transportation, Emergency Management, and Analytical Services (EM-76).

  20. Financial assistance to states and tribes to support emergency preparedness and response and the safe transportation of hazardous shipments: 1996 Update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradbury, J.A.; Leyson, J.; Lester, M.K.

    1996-07-01

    This report revises and updates the 1995 report Financial Assistance to States and Tribes to Support Emergency Preparedness and Response and the Safe Transportation of Hazardous Shipments, PNL-10260 (UC-620). The presentation of data and some of the data reported have been changed; these data supersede those presented in the earlier publication. All data have been updated to fiscal year 1995, with the exception of FEMA data that are updated to fiscal year 1994 only. The report identifies and summarizes existing sources of financial assistance to States and Tribes in preparing and responding to transportation emergencies and ensuring the safe transportation of hazardous shipments through their jurisdictions. It is intended for use as an information resource for the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Management (EM), Office of Transportation, Emergency Management, and Analytical Services (EM-76)

  1. Public announcement of guidelines for the packing and safe stowing of cargo in freight containers and vehicles for ocean transport (Container Stowage Guidelines)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The IMO and ILO guidelines are given, which help to meet the requirements of the Maritime Safety Ordinance and the Ordinance on Ocean Transport of Dangerous Goods. The guidelines explain the principles of safe packing and stowing of cargo in freight containers and vehicles for ocean transports. Further information and practical hints are given in international publications referred to in the annex. The guidelines are also meant for training purposes. (orig./HSCH) [de

  2. 41 CFR 102-118.195 - What documents must a transportation service provider (TSP) send to receive payment for a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... transportation service provider (TSP) send to receive payment for a transportation billing? 102-118.195 Section... must a transportation service provider (TSP) send to receive payment for a transportation billing? For... Government Billing Documents Terms and Conditions Governing Acceptance and Use of A Government Bill of Lading...

  3. The Structure of a Sugar Transporter of the Glucose EIIC Superfamily Provides Insight into the Elevator Mechanism of Membrane Transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Jason G; Ren, Zhenning; Stanevich, Vitali; Lee, Jumin; Mitra, Sharmistha; Levin, Elena J; Poget, Sebastien; Quick, Matthias; Im, Wonpil; Zhou, Ming

    2016-06-07

    The phosphoenolpyruvate:carbohydrate phosphotransferase systems are found in bacteria, where they play central roles in sugar uptake and regulation of cellular uptake processes. Little is known about how the membrane-embedded components (EIICs) selectively mediate the passage of carbohydrates across the membrane. Here we report the functional characterization and 2.55-Å resolution structure of a maltose transporter, bcMalT, belonging to the glucose superfamily of EIIC transporters. bcMalT crystallized in an outward-facing occluded conformation, in contrast to the structure of another glucose superfamily EIIC, bcChbC, which crystallized in an inward-facing occluded conformation. The structures differ in the position of a structurally conserved substrate-binding domain that is suggested to play a central role in sugar transport. In addition, molecular dynamics simulations suggest a potential pathway for substrate entry from the periplasm into the bcMalT substrate-binding site. These results provide a mechanistic framework for understanding substrate recognition and translocation for the glucose superfamily EIIC transporters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. New data from Virginia Tech Transportation Institute provides insight into cell phone use and driving distraction

    OpenAIRE

    Box, Sherri

    2009-01-01

    Several large-scale, naturalistic driving studies -- using sophisticated cameras and instrumentation in participants' personal vehicles -- conducted by the Virginia Tech Transportation Institute (VTTI), provide a clear picture of driver distraction and cell phone use under real-world driving conditions, according to the institute.

  5. Design and construction of a Type B overpack container for the safe transportation of enriched uranium hexafluoride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gablin, K.A.

    1976-01-01

    The Paducah Tiger is an overpack designed for the international shipment of ten-ton cylinders of uranium hexafluoride in enriched form above the level of low specific acitivity. This container is designed as a Type B Package and has undergone all the tests and analyses required for a U.S. Department of Transportation Permit No. 6553. The Paducah Tiger is currently being used to ship fuel material in the USA on both truck and rail modes of transportation. In many ways, the design resembles the Super Tigersup(R), but incorporates features such as ISO corners, quick opening fasteners, and interior shock isolators that provide a system approach to the high volume of fuel shipment required in the last half of the 20th century. (author)

  6. Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material. 2012 Edition. Specific Safety Requirements. (Russian Edition); Pravila bezopasnoj perevozki radioaktivnykh materialov. Izdanie 2012 goda. Konkretnye trebovaniya bezopasnosti

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-03-15

    The IAEA's Statute authorizes the Agency to 'establish or adopt' standards of safety for protection of health and minimization of danger to life and property' - standards that the IAEA must use in its own operations, and which States can apply by means of their regulatory provisions for nuclear and radiation safety. The IAEA does this in consultation with the competent organs of the United Nations and with the specialized agencies concerned. A comprehensive set of high quality standards under regular review is a key element of a stable and sustainable global safety regime, as is the IAEA's assistance in their application. The IAEA commenced its safety standards programme in 1958. The emphasis placed on quality, fitness for purpose and continuous improvement has led to the widespread use of the IAEA standards throughout the world. The Safety Standards Series now includes unified Fundamental Safety Principles, which represent an international consensus on what must constitute a high level of protection and safety. With the strong support of the Commission on Safety Standards, the IAEA is working to promote the global acceptance and use of its standards. Standards are only effective if they are properly applied in practice. The IAEA's safety services encompass design, siting and engineering safety, operational safety, radiation safety, safe transport of radioactive material and safe management of radioactive waste, as well as governmental organization, regulatory matters and safety culture in organizations. These safety services assist Member States in the application of the standards and enable valuable experience and insights to be shared. Regulating safety is a national responsibility, and many States have decided to adopt the IAEA's standards for use in their national regulations. For parties to the various international safety conventions, IAEA standards provide a consistent, reliable means of ensuring the effective fulfilment of obligations under the conventions

  7. The integrated evaluation of the macro environment of companies providing transport services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Žvirblis

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the main principles of the integrated evaluation of macro environment components and factors influencing the performance of transport companies as well as providing the validated quantitative evaluation models and results obtained in evaluating the macro environment of Lithuanian companies providing transport services. Since quantitative evaluation is growing in importance, the process of developing the principles and methods of business macro environment quantitative evaluation is becoming relevant from both theoretical and practical perspectives. The created methodology is based on the concept of macro environment as an integrated whole of components, formalization and the principle of three-stage quantitative evaluation. The methodology suggested involves the quantitative evaluation of primary factors and macro environment components as an integral dimension (expressed in points. On the basis of this principle, an integrated macro environment evaluation parameter is established as its level index. The methodology integrates the identification of significant factors, building scenarios, a primary analysis of factors, expert evaluation, the quantitative evaluation of macro environment components and their whole. The application of the multi-criteria Simple Additive Weighting (SAW method is validated. The integrated evaluation of the macro environment of Lithuanian freight transportation companies was conducted. As a result, the level indices of all components as well as the level index of macro environment considered as a whole of components were identified. The latter reflects the extent of deviation from an average level of a favourable macro environment. This is important for developing strategic marketing decisions and expanding a strategic area.

  8. MELTER: A model of the thermal response of cargos transported in the Safe-Secure Trailer subject to fire environments for risk assessment applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsen, M.E.

    1994-08-01

    MELTER is an analysis of cargo responses inside a fire-threatened Safe-Secure Trailer (SST) developed for the Defense Program Transportation Risk Assessment (DPTRA). Many simplifying assumptions are required to make the subject problem tractable. MELTER incorporates modeling which balances the competing requirements of execution speed, generality, completeness of essential physics, and robustness. Input parameters affecting the analysis include those defining the fire scenario, those defining the cargo loaded in the SST, and those defining properties of the SST. For a specified fire, SST, and cargo geometry MELTER predicts the critical fire duration that will lead to a failure. The principal features of the analysis include: (a) Geometric considerations to interpret fire-scenario descriptors in terms of a thermal radiation boundary condition, (b) a simple model of the SST's wall combining the diffusion model for radiation through optically-thick media with an endothermic reaction front to describe the charring of dimensional, rigid foam in the SST wall, (c) a transient radiation enclosure model, (d) a one-dimensional, spherical idealization of the shipped cargos providing modularity so that cargos of interest can be inserted into the model, and (e) associated numerical methods to integrate coupled, differential equations and find roots

  9. Third meeting of the advisory group for the comprehensive review of the IAEA regulations for the safe transport of radioactive materials, Vienna, 7-11 November 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rawl, R.R.

    This meeting was the third and final planned stage in the process to revise the Agency's Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Materials, Safety Series No. 6. Its task was to consider comments which had been submitted in response to the Agency's circulation of the third draft revision of Safety Series No. 6 and to make any necessary changes to the draft that the Advisory Group felt were necessary

  10. Architecture of a Framework for Providing Information Services for Public Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabino Padrón

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents OnRoute, a framework for developing and running ubiquitous software that provides information services to passengers of public transportation, including payment systems and on-route guidance services. To achieve a high level of interoperability, accessibility and context awareness, OnRoute uses the ubiquitous computing paradigm. To guarantee the quality of the software produced, the reliable software principles used in critical contexts, such as automotive systems, are also considered by the framework. The main components of its architecture (run-time, system services, software components and development discipline and how they are deployed in the transportation network (stations and vehicles are described in this paper. Finally, to illustrate the use of OnRoute, the development of a guidance service for travellers is explained.

  11. Evaluation of the acceptability and usability of a decision support system to encourage safe and effective use of opioid therapy for chronic, noncancer pain by primary care providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trafton, Jodie; Martins, Susana; Michel, Martha; Lewis, Eleanor; Wang, Dan; Combs, Ann; Scates, Naquell; Tu, Samson; Goldstein, Mary K

    2010-04-01

    To develop and evaluate a clinical decision support system (CDSS) named Assessment and Treatment in Healthcare: Evidenced-Based Automation (ATHENA)-Opioid Therapy, which encourages safe and effective use of opioid therapy for chronic, noncancer pain. CDSS development and iterative evaluation using the analysis, design, development, implementation, and evaluation process including simulation-based and in-clinic assessments of usability for providers followed by targeted system revisions. Volunteers provided detailed feedback to guide improvements in the graphical user interface, and content and design changes to increase clinical usefulness, understandability, clinical workflow fit, and ease of completing guideline recommended practices. Revisions based on feedback increased CDSS usability ratings over time. Practice concerns outside the scope of the CDSS were also identified. Usability testing optimized the CDSS to better address barriers such as lack of provider education, confusion in dosing calculations and titration schedules, access to relevant patient information, provider discontinuity, documentation, and access to validated assessment tools. It also highlighted barriers to good clinical practice that are difficult to address with CDSS technology in its current conceptualization. For example, clinicians indicated that constraints on time and competing priorities in primary care, discomfort in patient-provider communications, and lack of evidence to guide opioid prescribing decisions impeded their ability to provide effective, guideline-adherent pain management. Iterative testing was essential for designing a highly usable and acceptable CDSS; however, identified barriers may limit the impact of the ATHENA-Opioid Therapy system and other CDSS on clinical practices and outcomes unless CDSS are paired with parallel initiatives to address these issues.

  12. Safe Grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Edward T.; Stewart, Helen; Korsmeyer, David (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    The biggest users of GRID technologies came from the science and technology communities. These consist of government, industry and academia (national and international). The NASA GRID is moving into a higher technology readiness level (TRL) today; and as a joint effort among these leaders within government, academia, and industry, the NASA GRID plans to extend availability to enable scientists and engineers across these geographical boundaries collaborate to solve important problems facing the world in the 21 st century. In order to enable NASA programs and missions to use IPG resources for program and mission design, the IPG capabilities needs to be accessible from inside the NASA center networks. However, because different NASA centers maintain different security domains, the GRID penetration across different firewalls is a concern for center security people. This is the reason why some IPG resources are been separated from the NASA center network. Also, because of the center network security and ITAR concerns, the NASA IPG resource owner may not have full control over who can access remotely from outside the NASA center. In order to obtain organizational approval for secured remote access, the IPG infrastructure needs to be adapted to work with the NASA business process. Improvements need to be made before the IPG can be used for NASA program and mission development. The Secured Advanced Federated Environment (SAFE) technology is designed to provide federated security across NASA center and NASA partner's security domains. Instead of one giant center firewall which can be difficult to modify for different GRID applications, the SAFE "micro security domain" provide large number of professionally managed "micro firewalls" that can allow NASA centers to accept remote IPG access without the worry of damaging other center resources. The SAFE policy-driven capability-based federated security mechanism can enable joint organizational and resource owner approved remote

  13. How safe is safe enough?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desnoyers, B.; Chanzy, Y.

    2004-01-01

    The IAEA Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material, were historically established with the objective to reduce the probability that persons be exposed to unacceptable doses due to normal operation or accident situations during transport of radioactive material. Based on the International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation (BSS), the definition, which was adopted for an unacceptable dose for an accident situation, is the excess of the maximum dose limits permissible in a single year for the occupational exposure of a worker in the BSS. Concerning the severity of accident situations, it has always be clearly stated that the objective of the tests for demonstrating ability to withstand accident conditions of transport was not to cover every accident condition, but solely most of them. The last available evaluations regarding the rate of accidents which are covered by the standardised accident conditions of transport defined in the IAEA Regulations give a range of about 80%, plus or minus 15% which depends on transport mode and studies. Consequently, slight variations in the capabilities of the packages to meet the specified performance would probably not have significant consequences on the protection level in case of accident. In the assessment of the compliance with the regulations, the tendency of experts, taking advantage of the enhanced performances of computer calculation codes, is to ask more and more calculations, with more and more accuracy, leading to more and more restrictions. Consequently, cost and delay are considerably increased without any evidence of an equivalent effect on the level of protection. This paper will initiate a reflection on the general objectives and principles when implementing the Regulations, in such a way that demonstrations remain cost effective, taking into account evolution of the techniques and a high level of safety

  14. New Potentiometric Wireless Chloride Sensors Provide High Resolution Information on Chemical Transport Processes in Streams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith Smettem

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Quantifying the travel times, pathways, and dispersion of solutes moving through stream environments is critical for understanding the biogeochemical cycling processes that control ecosystem functioning. Validation of stream solute transport and exchange process models requires data obtained from in-stream measurement of chemical concentration changes through time. This can be expensive and time consuming, leading to a need for cheap distributed sensor arrays that respond instantly and record chemical transport at points of interest on timescales of seconds. To meet this need we apply new, low-cost (in the order of a euro per sensor potentiometric chloride sensors used in a distributed array to obtain data with high spatial and temporal resolution. The application here is to monitoring in-stream hydrodynamic transport and dispersive mixing of an injected chemical, in this case NaCl. We present data obtained from the distributed sensor array under baseflow conditions for stream reaches in Luxembourg and Western Australia. The reaches were selected to provide a range of increasingly complex in-channel flow patterns. Mid-channel sensor results are comparable to data obtained from more expensive electrical conductivity meters, but simultaneous acquisition of tracer data at several positions across the channel allows far greater spatial resolution of hydrodynamic mixing processes and identification of chemical ‘dead zones’ in the study reaches.

  15. TRANSIT: model for providing generic transportation input for preliminary siting analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNair, G.W.; Cashwell, J.W.

    1985-02-01

    To assist the US Department of Energy's efforts in potential facility site screening in the nuclear waste management program, a computerized model, TRANSIT, is being developed. Utilizing existing data on the location and inventory characteristics of spent nuclear fuel at reactor sites, TRANSIT derives isopleths of transportation mileage, costs, risks and fleet requirements for shipments to storage sites and/or repository sites. This technique provides a graphic, first-order method for use by the Department in future site screening efforts. 2 refs

  16. RATIONALIZING TRANSPORTATIONS SERVICE: A CASE STUDY ON THE STANDARDIZATION OF LOGISTICS SERVICE PROVIDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clayton de Oliveira Pires

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Due to high competitiveness on supply chains, small economies tend to become very important to overall costs reduction and represent marketing gains. The aim of this study is to analyze if the rationalization in low value deliveries, lower than R$ 2,000.00, will be able to generate a considerable cut of costs. To perform this exploratory study, company historic was analyzed and surveys were performed with several suppliers. The studies showed it is possible to reduce freight average impact in relation to the sold value at 44.03%. This result points to the advantages in coordinating more rationally the process of hiring transportation providers.

  17. Safe society safe mobility

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Holtmann, B

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available . Journal of research in crime and delinquency, 21, 233-50. Metropolitan Transportation Authority, 2007. What is Bus Rapid Transit? [O]. Available: http://www.mta.info/mta/planning/brt/whatis.htm Accessed on 28/05/2007 Mijanovich, T., and Weitzman..., 2006. South African Police Service Statistics. [O]. Available: http://www.saps.gov.za/statistics/reports/crimestats/2006/crime_stats.htm Accessed on 29/03/2007 Security.co.za., 2007. Window washers beat up motorist. [O]. Available: http...

  18. Methods of assessment of individual and collective doses to transport workers and members of the public during the transport of radioactive materials. Part of a coordinated programme on safe transport of radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vohra, K.G.

    1983-12-01

    A study in India, partially supported by an IAEA research contract, provided measurements of exposure to transport workers associated with the transport of radioisotopes for medical, industry and research purposes. A survey showed this to be the single most significant source of transport worker exposure in India. The largest exposures were found with transport workers at the Bombay airport through which these packages are ''funnelled''. The maximum occupational doses were found to be between 1.8 and 2.0 mSv/y assuming only four men handle all of the packages throughout the year. Furthermore, it was found that the surface transport of these materials in the Bombay area results in an estimated maximum annual collective dose to the public of only 0.1 man Sv/y. It was further noted that this collective dose results not from high radiation levels but from the high population density involved in the Bombay area. The model provides reasonable correlation with the measured data, but it was indicated that additional testing of the model needed to be performed. The data indicate a correlation between persons preparing the packages and persons handling the packages in transport. It was not possible to derive a simple empirical model based solely on Transport Index

  19. How safe is safe?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, C.F.; Flood, M.

    1996-01-01

    60 and 70 degree convexo-concave valve. Nine hundred and one valves were implanted in Australia. Twelve strut fractures were reported. Two other patients have been explanted and have demonstrated 'single leg separation'. This particular problem was only investigated when two patients died of a fractured valve in the same hospital on the same day. A retrospective study of all known patients in Australia has shown poor follow up, lack of knowledge and indeed lack of interest in device failure modes. Consequently, the Australian and New Zealand Heart Valve Registry was established to track all implanted valves and to notify physicians of any new information. This is perhaps the first device-specific register in Australia. The safety of individual devices is often not known by manufacturers, regulators and clinicians alike. No follow up is available and large volume long term studies are yet to be implemented for the majority of devices. Without such studies and without mandatory problem reporting, the relative safety of medical devices will continue to be measured by banner headlines, sensational TV 'grabs' and protracted law suits. At present, only schemes such as the Problem Reporting Scheme can tell us (albeit vaguely) 'how safe is safe'

  20. Nature's Notebook Provides Phenology Observations for NASA Juniper Phenology and Pollen Transport Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luval, J. C.; Crimmins, T. M.; Sprigg, W. A.; Levetin, E.; Huete, A.; Nickovic, S.; Prasad, A.; Vukovic, A.; VandeWater, P. K.; Budge, A. M.; hide

    2014-01-01

    Phenology Network has been established to provide national wide observations of vegetation phenology. However, as the Network is still in the early phases of establishment and growth, the density of observers is not yet adequate to sufficiently document the phenology variability over large regions. Hence a combination of satellite data and ground observations can provide optimal information regarding juniperus spp. pollen phenology. MODIS data was to observe Juniperus supp. pollen phenology. The MODIS surface reflectance product provided information on the Juniper supp. cone formation and cone density. Ground based observational records of pollen release timing and quantities were used as verification. Approximately 10, 818 records of juniper phenology for male cone formation Juniperus ashei., J. monosperma, J. scopulorum, and J. pinchotti were reported by Nature's Notebook observers in 2013 These observations provided valuable information for the analysis of satellite images for developing the pollen concentration masks for input into the PREAM (Pollen REgional Atmospheric Model) pollen transport model. The combination of satellite data and ground observations allowed us to improve our confidence in predicting pollen release and spread, thereby improving asthma and allergy alerts.

  1. Development of a selection tool for use in the identification, recruitment & retention of safe intermodal transportation workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    A total of 486 transportation employees employed by a major railroad completed a series of : tests constructed for this project. These tests or instruments included the Denver Lifestyle : Questionnaire, a performance rating scale called the Employees...

  2. Business process integration between European manufacturers and transport and logistics service providers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Ole; Lemoine, W

    2005-01-01

    The goal of the Supply Chain Management process is to create value for customers, stakeholders and all supply chain members, through the integration of disparate processes like manufacturing flow management, customer service and order fulfillment. However, many firms fail in the path of achieving...... a total integration. This study illustrates, from an empirical point of view, the problems associated to SC integration among European firms operating in global/international markets. The focus is on the relationship between two echelons in the supply chain: manufacturers and their transport and logistics...... service providers (TLSPs). The paper examines (1) the characteristics of the collaborative partnerships established between manufacturers and their TLSPs; (2) to what extent manufacturers and their TLSPs have integrated SC business processes; (3) the IT used to support the SC cooperation and integration...

  3. Some views on the two-year review/revision cycle of the IAEA ''regulations for the safe transport of radioactive material''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fasten, C.; Nitsche, F.

    2004-01-01

    The ''Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material'' of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Vienna were last issued as a complete revised edition in 1996 as Safety Standards Series No. ST-1 [1]. A modification to this edition was made in 2000 - only in English - incorporating minor editorial corrections published as Safety Standards Series No. TS-R-1 (ST-1, Revised). Issues in French, Russian and Spanish followed shortly. A continuos review/revision process of the transport regulations was initiated in 2000 to publish an amended or a revised edition every two years. This two-year review cycle has been established to harmonise it with the review cycles of the other United Nations dangerous goods regulatory bodies, namely - the UN Committee of Experts on the Transport of Dangerous Goods, Geneva - the International Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO), Montreal - the International Maritime Organisation (IMO), London and - the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UN-ECE) - Inland Transport Committee, Geneva. - Intergovernmental Organisation for International Carriage by rail (OTIF), Bern. These bodies are responsible to issue the regulations for the transport of all classes of dangerous goods (where the class 7 is ''Radioactive Material''), for the international air transport (ICAO), for the international maritime transport (IMO) and the European road, rail and inland waterway transport (UN-ECE, OTIF). The regulations of the above mentioned bodies have been published for many years within a two year period with good experience. Since 2000 the IAEA has been using the two-year cycle also. Based on this relative short time of application first experiences with this two-year cycle will be discussed

  4. Creatine salts provide neuroprotection even after partial impairment of the creatine transporter

    OpenAIRE

    Adriano, E.; Garbati, P.; Salis, A.; Damonte, G.; Millo, E.; Balestrino, M.

    2017-01-01

    Creatine, a compound that is critical for energy metabolism of nervous cells, crosses the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and the neuronal plasma membrane with difficulty, and only using its specific transporter. In the hereditary condition where the creatine transporter is defective (creatine transporter deficiency) there is no creatine in the brain, and administration of creatine is useless lacking the transporter. The disease is severe and incurable. Creatine-derived molecules that could cross B...

  5. Intra-articular Autologous Conditioned Plasma Injections Provide Safe and Efficacious Treatment for Knee Osteoarthritis: An FDA-Sanctioned, Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Patrick A

    2016-04-01

    Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) injections have become an intriguing treatment option for osteoarthritis (OA), particularly OA of the knee. Despite the plethora of PRP-related citations, there is a paucity of high-level evidence that is comparable, cohort specific, dose controlled, injection protocol controlled, and double-blinded. To determine the safety and efficacy of leukocyte-poor PRP autologous conditioned plasma (ACP) for knee OA treatment through a feasibility trial regulated by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Randomized controlled trial; Level of evidence, 1. In accordance with FDA protocol, patient selection was based on strict inclusion/exclusion criteria; 114 patients were screened, and 30 were ultimately included in the study. These patients were randomized to receive either ACP (n = 15) or saline placebo (n = 15) for a series of 3 weekly injections. Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) scores served as the primary efficacy outcome measure. Patients were followed for 1 year. No adverse events were reported for ACP administration. Furthermore, the results demonstrated no statistically significant difference in baseline WOMAC scores between the 2 groups. However, in the ACP group, WOMAC scores at 1 week were significantly decreased compared with baseline scores, and the scores for this group remained significantly lower throughout the study duration. At the study conclusion (12 months), subjects in the ACP group had improved their overall WOMAC scores by 78% from their baseline score, compared with 7% for the placebo group. ACP is safe and provides quantifiable benefits for pain relief and functional improvement with regard to knee OA. No adverse events were reported for ACP administration. After 1 year, WOMAC scores for the ACP subjects had improved by 78% from their baseline score, whereas scores for the placebo control group had improved by only 7%. Other joints affected with OA may also benefit from this

  6. How Safe Is Safe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razwick, Jeff

    2010-01-01

    According to the U.S. Census Bureau, more than 130,000 elementary and secondary schools, and about 4,200 higher-education institutions operate across the country. These learning centers educate an estimated 75 million children and adults each year. From a numbers standpoint alone, it is obvious that providing adequate fire- and life-safety…

  7. Creatine salts provide neuroprotection even after partial impairment of the creatine transporter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adriano, E; Garbati, P; Salis, A; Damonte, G; Millo, E; Balestrino, M

    2017-01-06

    Creatine, a compound that is critical for energy metabolism of nervous cells, crosses the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and the neuronal plasma membrane with difficulty, and only using its specific transporter. In the hereditary condition where the creatine transporter is defective (creatine transporter deficiency) there is no creatine in the brain, and administration of creatine is useless lacking the transporter. The disease is severe and incurable. Creatine-derived molecules that could cross BBB and plasma membrane independently of the transporter might be useful to cure this condition. Moreover, such molecules could be useful also in stroke and other brain ischemic conditions. In this paper, we investigated three creatine salts, creatine ascorbate, creatine gluconate and creatine glucose. Of these, creatine glucose was ineffective after transporter block with guanidine acetic acid (GPA) administration. Creatine ascorbate was not superior to creatine in increasing tissue creatine and phosphocreatine content after transporter impairment, however even after such impairment it delayed synaptic failure during anoxia. Finally, creatine gluconate was superior to creatine in increasing tissue content of creatine after transporter block and slowed down PS disappearance during anoxia, an effect that creatine did not have. These findings suggest that coupling creatine to molecules having a specific transporter may be a useful strategy in creatine transporter deficiency. In particular, creatine ascorbate has effects comparable to those of creatine in normal conditions, while being superior to it under conditions of missing or impaired creatine transporter. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. A newly developed container for safe, easy, and cost-effective overnight transportation of tissues and organs by electrically keeping tissue or organ temperature at 3 to 6°C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohkawara, H; Kitagawa, T; Fukushima, N; Ito, T; Sawa, Y; Yoshimine, T

    2012-05-01

    As there is only one skin procurement organization in Japan the Japan Skin Bank Network (JSBN), all skin grafts procured in Japan are sent by a commercialized delivery system. Preliminarily, bottles containing saline were transported in a cardboard box using a so-called "cooled home delivery service" using a truck with a refrigerated cargo container. During transportation the temperature in the cardboard box increased to 18°C in summer and decreased to -5°C in winter. For these reasons, we investigated whether a newly developed container "Medi Cube" would be useful to transport skin grafts. Four bottles with a capacity of 300 mL containing 150 mL of saline in a Medi Cube container were transported from Osaka to the JSBN in Tokyo between 4 PM and 10 AM using a commercialized cooled home delivery service. Two bottles were transported in a Medi Cube container without phase change materials (PCM) in winter and summer, respectively. Another two bottles were transported in the Medi Cube with PCMs in winter. The temperatures inside saline, inside a transportation container, and outside the container, and air temperature were monitored continuously with a recordable thermometer. The temperatures inside saline and inside a Medi Cube container were maintained between 3 and 6°C, even when the temperature outside the container increased during parking. The temperature inside a Medi Cube container without PCM decreased to -3°C when the inside of the cargo container was overcooled in winter. However, the temperatures inside saline and inside a Medi Cube container with PCM were between 3 and 6°C, even when the temperature outside the container decreased to below 0°C in winter. A Medi Cube container with PCM provided a safe, easy, and cost-effective method for overnight transportation of skin grafts. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. National competent authorities. List no. 17. Regulations for the safe transport of radioactive material. 1985 edition (Safety series no.6 )

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1985-12-01

    Any national or international authority designated or otherwise recognised as such for any purpose in connection with the transport Regulations is known as a competent authority. In the Member States such a body has the responsibility for establishing national legislation to bring the Agency's transport Regulations into effect and for assuring compliance with its requirements. Depending on the national regulatory or institutional framework the functions of the competent authority may be assigned to one or more bodies. To assist Member States in implementing the transport Regulations and carrying out responsibility for compliance assurance, the IAEA continues to maintain this updated list of designated national competent authorities. Member States are annually requested to verify the list for correctness and completeness.

  10. National competent authorities. List no. 1. Regulations for the safe transport of radioactive materials. 1967 edition (Safety series no. 6)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1967-04-01

    Any national or international authority designated or otherwise recognised as such for any purpose in connection with the transport Regulations is known as a competent authority. In the Member States such a body has the responsibility for establishing national legislation to bring the Agency's transport Regulations into effect and for assuring compliance with its requirements. Depending on the national regulatory or institutional framework the functions of the competent authority may be assigned to one or more bodies. To assist Member States in implementing the transport Regulations and carrying out responsibility for compliance assurance, the IAEA continues to maintain this updated list of designated national competent authorities. Member States are annually requested to verify the list for correctness and completeness

  11. National competent authorities. List no. 2. Regulations for the safe transport of radioactive materials. 1967 edition (Safety series no. 6)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1968-08-01

    Any national or international authority designated or otherwise recognised as such for any purpose in connection with the transport Regulations is known as a competent authority. In the Member States such a body has the responsibility for establishing national legislation to bring the Agency's transport Regulations into effect and for assuring compliance with its requirements. Depending on the national regulatory or institutional framework the functions of the competent authority may be assigned to one or more bodies. To assist Member States in implementing the transport Regulations and carrying out responsibility for compliance assurance, the IAEA continues to maintain this updated list of designated national competent authorities. Member States are annually requested to verify the list for correctness and completeness

  12. National competent authorities. List no. 3. Regulations for the safe transport of radioactive materials. 1967 edition (Safety series no. 6)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1970-06-01

    Any national or international authority designated or otherwise recognised as such for any purpose in connection with the transport Regulations is known as a competent authority. In the Member States such a body has the responsibility for establishing national legislation to bring the Agency's transport Regulations into effect and for assuring compliance with its requirements. Depending on the national regulatory or institutional framework the functions of the competent authority may be assigned to one or more bodies. To assist Member States in implementing the transport Regulations and carrying out responsibility for compliance assurance, the IAEA continues to maintain this updated list of designated national competent authorities. Member States are annually requested to verify the list for correctness and completeness

  13. National competent authorities. List no. 5. Regulations for the safe transport of radioactive materials. 1967 edition (Safety series no. 6)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1972-09-01

    Any national or international authority designated or otherwise recognised as such for any purpose in connection with the transport Regulations is known as a competent authority. In the Member States such a body has the responsibility for establishing national legislation to bring the Agency's transport Regulations into effect and for assuring compliance with its requirements. Depending on the national regulatory or institutional framework the functions of the competent authority may be assigned to one or more bodies. To assist Member States in implementing the transport Regulations and carrying out responsibility for compliance assurance, the IAEA continues to maintain this updated list of designated national competent authorities. Member States are annually requested to verify the list for correctness and completeness.

  14. National competent authorities. List no. 4. Regulations for the safe transport of radioactive materials. 1967 edition (Safety series no. 6)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1971-06-01

    Any national or international authority designated or otherwise recognised as such for any purpose in connection with the transport Regulations is known as a competent authority. In the Member States such a body has the responsibility for establishing national legislation to bring the Agency's transport Regulations into effect and for assuring compliance with its requirements. Depending on the national regulatory or institutional framework the functions of the competent authority may be assigned to one or more bodies. To assist Member States in implementing the transport Regulations and carrying out responsibility for compliance assurance, the IAEA continues to maintain this updated list of designated national competent authorities. Member States are annually requested to verify the list for correctness and completeness.

  15. National competent authorities. List no. 4. Regulations for the safe transport of radioactive materials. 1967 edition (Safety series no. 6)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1971-06-01

    Any national or international authority designated or otherwise recognised as such for any purpose in connection with the transport Regulations is known as a competent authority. In the Member States such a body has the responsibility for establishing national legislation to bring the Agency's transport Regulations into effect and for assuring compliance with its requirements. Depending on the national regulatory or institutional framework the functions of the competent authority may be assigned to one or more bodies. To assist Member States in implementing the transport Regulations and carrying out responsibility for compliance assurance, the IAEA continues to maintain this updated list of designated national competent authorities. Member States are annually requested to verify the list for correctness and completeness

  16. National competent authorities. List no. 5. Regulations for the safe transport of radioactive materials. 1967 edition (Safety series no. 6)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1972-09-01

    Any national or international authority designated or otherwise recognised as such for any purpose in connection with the transport Regulations is known as a competent authority. In the Member States such a body has the responsibility for establishing national legislation to bring the Agency's transport Regulations into effect and for assuring compliance with its requirements. Depending on the national regulatory or institutional framework the functions of the competent authority may be assigned to one or more bodies. To assist Member States in implementing the transport Regulations and carrying out responsibility for compliance assurance, the IAEA continues to maintain this updated list of designated national competent authorities. Member States are annually requested to verify the list for correctness and completeness

  17. National competent authorities. List no. 17. Regulations for the safe transport of radioactive material. 1985 edition (Safety series no.6 )

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-12-01

    Any national or international authority designated or otherwise recognised as such for any purpose in connection with the transport Regulations is known as a competent authority. In the Member States such a body has the responsibility for establishing national legislation to bring the Agency's transport Regulations into effect and for assuring compliance with its requirements. Depending on the national regulatory or institutional framework the functions of the competent authority may be assigned to one or more bodies. To assist Member States in implementing the transport Regulations and carrying out responsibility for compliance assurance, the IAEA continues to maintain this updated list of designated national competent authorities. Member States are annually requested to verify the list for correctness and completeness

  18. National competent authorities. List no. 3. Regulations for the safe transport of radioactive materials. 1967 edition (Safety series no. 6)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1970-06-01

    Any national or international authority designated or otherwise recognised as such for any purpose in connection with the transport Regulations is known as a competent authority. In the Member States such a body has the responsibility for establishing national legislation to bring the Agency's transport Regulations into effect and for assuring compliance with its requirements. Depending on the national regulatory or institutional framework the functions of the competent authority may be assigned to one or more bodies. To assist Member States in implementing the transport Regulations and carrying out responsibility for compliance assurance, the IAEA continues to maintain this updated list of designated national competent authorities. Member States are annually requested to verify the list for correctness and completeness.

  19. National competent authorities. List no. 2. Regulations for the safe transport of radioactive materials. 1967 edition (Safety series no. 6)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1968-08-01

    Any national or international authority designated or otherwise recognised as such for any purpose in connection with the transport Regulations is known as a competent authority. In the Member States such a body has the responsibility for establishing national legislation to bring the Agency's transport Regulations into effect and for assuring compliance with its requirements. Depending on the national regulatory or institutional framework the functions of the competent authority may be assigned to one or more bodies. To assist Member States in implementing the transport Regulations and carrying out responsibility for compliance assurance, the IAEA continues to maintain this updated list of designated national competent authorities. Member States are annually requested to verify the list for correctness and completeness.

  20. National competent authorities. List no. 1. Regulations for the safe transport of radioactive materials. 1967 edition (Safety series no. 6)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1967-04-01

    Any national or international authority designated or otherwise recognised as such for any purpose in connection with the transport Regulations is known as a competent authority. In the Member States such a body has the responsibility for establishing national legislation to bring the Agency's transport Regulations into effect and for assuring compliance with its requirements. Depending on the national regulatory or institutional framework the functions of the competent authority may be assigned to one or more bodies. To assist Member States in implementing the transport Regulations and carrying out responsibility for compliance assurance, the IAEA continues to maintain this updated list of designated national competent authorities. Member States are annually requested to verify the list for correctness and completeness.

  1. Experimental and theoretical approach to the assessment of stability criteria for safe transport of ammonium nitrate based emulsions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fabiano, B.; Kersten, R.J.A.; Barbucci, A.; Boers, M.N.

    2013-01-01

    The safety issues connected to storage and transportation of ammonium nitrate and ammonium nitrate emulsions are to be considered of primary importance, as demonstrated by the Tolouse explosion and various handling and storage accidents in different countries. This paper is focused on the assessment

  2. Resolution 2/2004 Guidelines for the implementation of regulations for the safe transport of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This guide is intended to supplement the provisions of Resolution no. 121/2000 of the Ministry of Science Technology and Environment Regulations the Security of Radioactive Materials Transport, hereinafter Regulation, Regarding the administrative requirements for the application process Certificates of Approval for the shipments of radioactive material and for Special arrangements.

  3. Safe handling, transport and storage of plutonium. Proceedings of a technical committee meeting held in Vienna, 18-21 October 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-10-01

    Plutonium inventories and utilization rates worldwide are growing. It is important for nuclear power programmes everywhere that no incidents or accidents with plutonium occur. It is therefore important that all who deal with plutonium, do so safely. All those who deal with plutonium should have available the best information on safety handling and storage. Several countries have mature plutonium programmes. However, information exchange on plutonium has been limited. This has precluded the development until now of consensus documentation on safe handling and storage of plutonium. The Technical Committee has been established to address these problems and this Technical Document is the first product in this process. The purpose of the meeting was to bring together experts with significant experience in handling, transporting and storing plutonium; to exchange information and experiences dealing with plutonium at their facilities; to describe their practices (guidelines, procedures, regulations, etc.) for safely dealing with plutonium; to assess the need to develop and publish a consensus plutonium safety practices document(s), and to recommend possible future IAEA activities in this technical area. Refs, figs and tabs

  4. Safe handling of radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd Nasir Ibrahim; Azali Muhammad; Ab Razak Hamzah; Abd Aziz Mohamed; Mohammad Pauzi Ismail

    2004-01-01

    This chapter discussed the subjects related to the safe handling of radiation sources: type of radiation sources, method of use: transport within premises, transport outside premises; Disposal of Gamma Sources

  5. CHANGING THE LANDSCAPE--LOW-TECH SOLUTIONS TO THE PADUCAH SCRAP METAL REMOVAL PROJECT ARE PROVIDING SAFE, COST-EFFECTIVE REMEDIATION OF CONTAMINATED SCRAP YARDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, Dan; Eyman, Jeff

    2003-01-01

    Between 1974 and 1983, contaminated equipment was removed from the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) process buildings as part of an enrichment process upgrade program. The upgrades consisted of the dismantlement, removal, and on-site storage of contaminated equipment, cell components, and scrap material (e.g., metal) from the cascade facilities. Scrap metal including other materials (e.g., drums, obsolete equipment) not related to this upgrade program have thus far accumulated in nine contiguous radiologically-contaminated and non-contaminated scrap yards covering 1.05E5 m2 (26 acres) located in the northwestern portion of the PGDP. This paper presents the sequencing of field operations and methods used to achieve the safe removal and disposition of over 47,000 tonnes (53,000 tons) of metal and miscellaneous items contained in these yards. The methods of accomplishment consist of mobilization, performing nuclear criticality safety evaluations, moving scrap metal to ground level, inspection and segregation, sampling and characterization, scrap metal sizing, packaging and disposal, and finally demobilization. Preventing the intermingling of characteristically hazardous and non-hazardous wastes promotes waste minimization, allowing for the metal and materials to be segregated into 13 separate waste streams. Low-tech solutions such as using heavy equipment to retrieve, size, and package scrap materials in conjunction with thorough planning that integrates safe work practices, commitment to teamwork, and incorporating lessons learned ensures that field operations will be conducted efficiently and safely

  6. OCT2 and MATE1 Provide Bi-directional Agmatine Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Tate N.; Elmquist, William F.; Fairbanks, Carolyn A.

    2015-01-01

    Agmatine is a biogenic amine (l-arginine metabolite) of potential relevance to several central nervous system (CNS) conditions. The identities of transporters underlying agmatine and polyamine disposition in mammalian systems are not well defined. The SLC-family organic cation transporters (OCT) OCT1 and OCT2 and multidrug and toxin extrusion transporter-1 (MATE1) are transport systems that may be of importance for the cellular disposition of agmatine and putrescine. We investigated the transport of [3H]-agmatine and [3H]-putrescine in human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cells stably-transfected with hOCT1-, hOCT2-, and hMATE1. Agmatine transport by hOCT1 and hOCT2 was concentration-dependent, whereas only hOCT2 demonstrated pH-dependent transport. hOCT2 exhibited a greater affinity for agmatine (Km = 1.84 ± 0.38 mM) than did hOCT1 (Km = 18.73 ± 4.86 mM). Putrescine accumulation was pH- and concentration-dependent in hOCT2-HEK cells (Km = 11.29 ± 4.26 mM) but not hOCT1-HEK cells. Agmatine accumulation, in contrast to putrescine, was significantly enhanced by hMATE1 over-expression, and was saturable (Km = 240 ± 31 μM; Vmax = 192 ± 10 pmol/min/mg protein). Intracellular agmatine was also trans-stimulated (effluxed) from hMATE1-HEK cells in the presence of an inward proton-gradient. The hMATE1-mediated transport of agmatine was inhibited by polyamines, the prototypical substrates MPP+ and paraquat, as well as guanidine and arcaine, but not l-arginine. These results suggest that agmatine disposition may be influenced by hOCT2 and hMATE1, two transporters critical in the renal elimination of xenobiotic compounds. PMID:21128598

  7. PTC test bed upgrades to provide ACSES testing support capabilities at transportation technology center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    FRA Task Order 314 upgraded the Positive Train Control (PTC) Test Bed at the Transportation Technology Center to support : testing of PTC systems, components, and related equipment associated with the Advanced Civil Speed Enforcement System : (ACSES)...

  8. Exploring new health markets: experiences from informal providers of transport for maternal health services in Eastern Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bloom Gerald

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although a number of intermediate transport initiatives have been used in some developing countries, available evidence reveals a dearth of local knowledge on the effect of these rural informal transport mechanisms on access to maternal health care services, the cost of implementing such schemes and their scalability. This paper, attempts to provide insights into the functioning of the informal transport markets in facilitating access to maternal health care. It also demonstrates the role that higher institutions of learning can play in designing projects that can increase the utilization of maternal health services. Objectives To explore the use of intermediate transport mechanisms to improve access to maternal health services, with emphasis on the benefits and unintended consequences of the transport scheme, as well as challenges in the implementation of the scheme. Methods This paper is based on the pilot phase to inform a quasi experimental study aimed at increasing access to maternal health services using demand and supply side incentives. The data collection for this paper included qualitative and quantitative methods that included focus group interviews, review of project documents and facility level data. Results There was a marked increase in attendance of antenatal, and delivery care services, with the contracted transporters playing a leading role in mobilizing mothers to attend services. The project also had economic spill-over effects to the transport providers, their families and community generally. However, some challenges were faced including difficulty in setting prices for paying transporters, and poor enforcement of existing traffic regulations. Conclusions and implications The findings indicate that locally existing resources such as motorcycle riders, also known as “boda boda” can be used innovatively to reduce challenges caused by geographical inaccessibility and a poor transport network with

  9. Topological interlocking provides stiffness to stochastically micro-cracked materials beyond the transport percolation limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Anirban; Picu, Catalin; Lupulescu, Marian V.

    We study the mechanical behavior of two-dimensional, stochastically microcracked continua in the range of crack densities close to, and above the transport percolation threshold. We show that these materials retain stiffness up to crack densities much larger than the transport percolation threshold, due to topological interlocking of sample sub-domains. Even with a linear constitutive law for the continuum, the mechanical behavior becomes non-linear in the range of crack densities bounded by the transport and stiffness percolation thresholds. The effect is due to the fractal nature of the fragmentation process and is not linked to the roughness of individual cracks. We associate this behavior to that of itacolumite, a sandstone that exhibits unusual flexibility.

  10. Use of car crashes resulting in fatal and serious injuries to analyze a safe road transport system model and to identify system weaknesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stigson, Helena; Hill, Julian

    2009-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate a model for a safe road transport system, based on some safety performance indicators regarding the road user, the vehicle, and the road, by using crashes with fatally and seriously injured car occupants. The study also aimed to evaluate whether the model could be used to identify system weaknesses and components (road user, vehicles, and road) where improvements would yield the highest potential for further reductions in serious injuries. Real-life car crashes with serious injury outcomes (Maximum Abbreviated Injury Scale 2+) were classified according to the vehicle's safety rating by Euro NCAP (European New Car Assessment Programme) and whether the vehicle was fitted with ESC (Electronic Stability Control). For each crash, the road was also classified according to EuroRAP (European Road Assessment Programme) criteria, and human behavior in terms of speeding, seat belt use, and driving under the influence of alcohol/drugs. Each crash was compared and classified according to the model criteria. Crashes where the safety criteria were not met in more than one of the 3 components were reclassified to identify whether all the components were correlated to the injury outcome. In-depth crash injury data collected by the UK On The Spot (OTS) accident investigation project was used in this study. All crashes in the OTS database occurring between 2000 and 2005 with a car occupant with injury rated MAIS2+ were included, for a total of 101 crashes with 120 occupants. It was possible to classify 90 percent of the crashes according to the model. Eighty-six percent of the occupants were injured when more than one of the 3 components were noncompliant with the safety criteria. These cases were reclassified to identify whether all of the components were correlated to the injury outcome. In 39 of the total 108 cases, at least two components were still seen to interact. The remaining cases were only related to one of the safety criteria

  11. Transport Mechanisms for CO2-CH4 Exchange and Safe CO2 Storage in Hydrate-Bearing Sandstone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knut Arne Birkedal

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available CO2 injection in hydrate-bearing sediments induces methane (CH4 production while benefitting from CO2 storage, as demonstrated in both core and field scale studies. CH4 hydrates have been formed repeatedly in partially water saturated Bentheim sandstones. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI and CH4 consumption from pump logs have been used to verify final CH4 hydrate saturation. Gas Chromatography (GC in combination with a Mass Flow Meter was used to quantify CH4 recovery during CO2 injection. The overall aim has been to study the impact of CO2 in fractured and non-fractured samples to determine the performance of CO2-induced CH4 hydrate production. Previous efforts focused on diffusion-driven exchange from a fracture volume. This approach was limited by gas dilution, where free and produced CH4 reduced the CO2 concentration and subsequent driving force for both diffusion and exchange. This limitation was targeted by performing experiments where CO2 was injected continuously into the spacer volume to maintain a high driving force. To evaluate the effect of diffusion length multi-fractured core samples were used, which demonstrated that length was not the dominating effect on core scale. An additional set of experiments is presented on non-fractured samples, where diffusion-limited transportation was assisted by continuous CO2 injection and CH4 displacement. Loss of permeability was addressed through binary gas (N2/CO2 injection, which regained injectivity and sustained CO2-CH4 exchange.

  12. SAFE Newsletter

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The Center of Excellence SAFE – “Sustainable Architecture for Finance in Europe” – is a cooperation of the Center for Financial Studies and Goethe University Frankfurt. It is funded by the LOEWE initiative of the State of Hessen (Landes-Offensive zur Entwicklung wissenschaftlich-ökonomischer Exzellenz). SAFE brings together more than 40 professors and just as many junior researchers who are all dedicated to conducting research in support of a sustainable financial architecture. The Center has...

  13. Is It Safe to Provide Abortion Pills over the Counter? A Study on Outcome Following Self-Medication with Abortion Pills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nivedita, K; Shanthini, Fatima

    2015-01-01

    Medical abortion is a safe method of termination of pregnancy when performed as per guidelines with a success rate of 92-97 %. But self-administration of abortion pills is rampant throughout the country due to over the counter availability of these drugs and complications are not uncommon due to this practice. The society perceives unsupervised medical abortion as a very safe method of termination and women use this as a method of spacing. The aim of this study was to study the implications of self-administration of abortion pills by pregnant women. Retrospective observational study done in Sri Manakula Vinayagar Medical College & Hospital between the period of July 2013 to June2014. Case sheets were analysed to obtain data regarding self-administration of abortion pills and complications secondary to its administration. The following data were collected. Age, marital status, parity, duration of pregnancy as perceived by the women, confirmation of pregnancy, duration between pill intake and visit to hospital, whether any intervention done elsewhere, any known medical or surgical complications, Hb level on admission, whether patient was in shock, USG findings, evidence of sepsis, blood transfusion, treatment given and duration of hospital stay. Descriptive analysis of the collected data was done. Among the 128 cases of abortion in the study period, 40 (31.25%) patients had self-administered abortion pills. Among these 40 patients 27.5% had consumed abortion pills after the approved time period of 63 days of which 17.5% had consumed pills after 12 weeks of gestation. The most common presentation was excessive bleeding (77.5%) Severe anaemia was found in 12.5% of the patients and 5% of patients presented with shock. The outcome was as follows : 62.5% of the patients were found to have incomplete abortion, 22.5% had failed abortion and 7.5% of patients had incomplete abortion with sepsis. Surgical evacuation was performed in 67.5% of the patients whereas 12.5% of the

  14. Safe havens in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paldam, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Eleven safe havens exist in Europe providing offshore banking and low taxes. Ten of these states are very small while Switzerland is moderately small. All 11 countries are richer than their large neighbors. It is shown that causality is from small to safe haven to wealth, and that theoretically...... equilibriums are likely to exist where a certain regulation is substantially lower in a small country than in its big neighbor. This generates a large capital inflow to the safe havens. The pool of funds that may reach the safe havens is shown to be huge. It is far in excess of the absorptive capacity...... of the safe havens, but it still explains, why they are rich. Microstates offer a veil of anonymity to funds passing through, and Switzerland offers safe storage of funds....

  15. European model code of safe practice for the prevention of ground and surface water pollution by oil from storage tanks and during the transport of oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1974-01-01

    The code outlines general requirements for pollution prevention and provides guidelines for corrosion protection of mild steel tanks, pipe and fitting assemblies, and for storage tank installations. The transportation and delivery of petroleum fuels are discussed, and operating procedures are suggested.

  16. The continuous review and periodic revision process for the International Atomic Energy Agencies regulations for the safe transport of radioactive materials - A status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Sullivan, R.A.; Pettersson, B.G.; Pope, R.B.

    1989-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agencies (IAEA) Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material, Safety Series No.6 (hereinafter denoted as the Regulations) have developed into the model for international modal organization and individual country regulations (and other regulatory-related documentation) controlling the packaging and transportation of radioactive materials. The Regulations were initially developed in 1961 and have been periodically revised since then. Revised editions of the Regulations, accounting for developments in technology and shipping practices, were issued in 1965, 1967, 1973 (also, an amended 1973 Edition was issued in 1979), and in 1985. The process of developing these documents has been performed on a cooperative basis utilizing inputs from various member states of the IAEA and from other interested international organizations. The latest comprehensive revision of the Regulations and its supportive documents was initiated in 1979, and culminated in the 1985 Edition of the Regulations. This was the first complete revision to be published since 1973 (except for the amended Edition thereto being issued in 1979). During the process which led to the 1985 Edition of the Regulations and its supportive documents, it became apparent that changes needed to be made in this process. Not addressing issues related to transportation regulations on a continuing basis created many difficulties in trying to efficiently and acceptably review and revise these documents in a short period of time. The purpose of this paper is to outline the review/revision process which was established, to summarize the results from that process so far (in terms of changes that have been made to the 1985 Edition through supplements thereto), and to discuss current plans for carrying on with the review/revision process with slight modifications

  17. Performance and first results of fission product release and transport provided by the VERDON facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallais-During, A., E-mail: annelise.gallais-during@cea.fr [CEA, DEN, DEC, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Bonnin, J.; Malgouyres, P.-P. [CEA, DEN, DEC, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Morin, S. [IRSN, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Bernard, S.; Gleizes, B.; Pontillon, Y.; Hanus, E.; Ducros, G. [CEA, DEN, DEC, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    2014-10-01

    Highlights: • A new facility to perform experimental LWR severe accidents sequences is evaluated. • In the furnace a fuel sample is heated up to 2600 °C under a controlled gas atmosphere. • Innovative thermal gradient tubes are used to study fission product transport. • The new VERDON facility shows an excellent consistency with results from VERCORS. • Fission product re-vapourization results confirm the correct functioning of the gradient tubes. - Abstract: One of the most important areas of research concerning a hypothetical severe accident in a light water reactor (LWR) is determining the source term, i.e. quantifying the nature, release kinetics and global released fraction of the fission products (FPs) and other radioactive materials. In line with the former VERCORS programme to improve source term estimates, the new VERDON laboratory has recently been implemented at the CEA Cadarache Centre in the LECA-STAR facility. The present paper deals with the evaluation of the experimental equipment of this new VERDON laboratory (furnace, release and transport loops) and demonstrates its capability to perform experimental sequences representative of LWR severe accidents and to supply the databases necessary for source term assessments and FP behaviour modelling.

  18. Safe Haven.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Gail

    2003-01-01

    Discusses school libraries as safe havens for teenagers and considers elements that foster that atmosphere, including the physical environment, lack of judgments, familiarity, leisure, and a welcoming nature. Focuses on the importance of relationships, and taking the time to listen to teens and encourage them. (LRW)

  19. Schedules of Provisions of the IAEA Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material (2005 Ed.). Safety Guide (Spanish Edition); Listas de disposiciones del reglamento del OIEA para el transporte seguro de materiales radiactivos (Edicion de 2005 corregida)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-12-15

    The IAEA's Statute authorizes the Agency to establish safety standards to protect health and minimize danger to life and property - standards which the IAEA must use in its own operations, and which a State can apply by means of its regulatory provisions for nuclear and radiation safety. A comprehensive body of safety standards under regular review, together with the IAEA's assistance in their application, has become a key element in a global safety regime. In the mid-1990s, a major overhaul of the IAEA's safety standards programme was initiated, with a revised oversight committee structure and a systematic approach to updating the entire corpus of standards. The new standards that have resulted are of a high calibre and reflect best practices in Member States. With the assistance of the Commission on Safety Standards, the IAEA is working to promote the global acceptance and use of its safety standards. Safety standards are only effective, however, if they are properly applied in practice. The IAEA's safety services - which range in scope from engineering safety, operational safety, and radiation, transport and waste safety to regulatory matters and safety culture in organizations - assist Member States in applying the standards and appraise their effectiveness. These safety services enable valuable insights to be shared and I continue to urge all Member States to make use of them. Regulating nuclear and radiation safety is a national responsibility, and many Member States have decided to adopt the IAEA's safety standards for use in their national regulations. For the contracting parties to the various international safety conventions, IAEA standards provide a consistent, reliable means of ensuring the effective fulfilment of obligations under the conventions. The standards are also applied by designers, manufacturers and operators around the world to enhance nuclear and radiation safety in power generation, medicine, industry, agriculture, research and education

  20. Karate: Keep It Safe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, David

    1981-01-01

    Safety guidelines for each phase of a karate practice session are presented to provide an accident-free and safe environment for teaching karate in a physical education or traditional karate training program. (JMF)

  1. Use of polyethylene pellets in the design and construction of a storage safe, a transport vessel and a portable shield for californium-252

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, S.

    1986-01-01

    A storage and shielding facility for 300 μg of Californium-252 sources was designed and constructed. Though the safe was in a permanent location, the fact that it consisted of a lead bucket surrounded by polyethylene pellets made it simple, movable and inexpensive. If need be, more quantities of Cf-252 could be added without altering the basic design and sacrificing the radiation protection guidelines. The measured radiation levels from 300 μg of stored Cf-252 in and around the storage vault were lower than the expected dose rates by a factor of 5. The measured radiation levels around the occupied environs of the facility were below the maximum permissible yearly dose of 500mrem for non-occupational workers. A transport vessel was designed and constructed to carry up to 50 μg of Californium-252 sources. It consisted of a standard 55 gallon steel drum on casters containing cylindrical lead shield surrounded by polyethylene pellets. The measured maximum surface dose rates on the drum and at one meter away were within the radiation protection guidelines and were less than the expected dose rates. A portable shield was designed and constructed to protect the body in afterloading operations and handling of the sources. It consisted of polyethylene pellets in an aluminum box and an attached 10 cm thick plexiglass eye shield. The simple design, with the ease of using polyethylene pellets can be extended to construct bedside shields

  2. Etanercept provides an effective, safe and flexible short- and long-term treatment regimen for moderate-to-severe psoriasis: a systematic review of current evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strohal, Robert; Chimenti, Sergio; Vena, Gino Antonio; Girolomoni, Giampiero

    2013-06-01

    The treatment of psoriasis requires long-lasting intervention. Conventional treatments for psoriasis comprise topical, phototherapeutic and systemic modalities, such as methotrexate or cyclosporine. Biological therapies are advocated by treatment guidelines for the use in moderate-to-severe psoriasis, when conventional treatments have failed, are contraindicated or are associated with severe adverse events. Etanercept is an anti-TNF recombinant fusion protein that has emerged as a standard biologic treatment option for moderate-to-severe psoriasis. The present review summarizes data from pivotal and post-marketing randomized controlled etanercept trials to treat moderate-to-severe psoriasis for 24 weeks and longer. During the first 12 weeks, etanercept can be administered in different dosing regimens: 50 mg twice weekly (BIW) and 50 mg once weekly. Although both regimens are effective, it has been shown that the 50 mg BIW dosage leads to higher response rates at week 24. In addition, after 24 weeks' treatment etanercept provides the unique possibility of continuous or intermittent long-term treatment programmes. The medium- to long-term efficacy of etanercept was consistent, regardless of whether etanercept therapy was interrupted or continuous. Taking the chronic nature of psoriasis into account, this flexibility in dosing regimen bestows a key advantage in facilitating individualisation of long-term treatment according to patient needs.

  3. Providing Web Interfaces to the NSF EarthScope USArray Transportable Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernon, Frank; Newman, Robert; Lindquist, Kent

    2010-05-01

    Since April 2004 the EarthScope USArray seismic network has grown to over 850 broadband stations that stream multi-channel data in near real-time to the Array Network Facility in San Diego. Providing secure, yet open, access to real-time and archived data for a broad range of audiences is best served by a series of platform agnostic low-latency web-based applications. We present a framework of tools that mediate between the world wide web and Boulder Real Time Technologies Antelope Environmental Monitoring System data acquisition and archival software. These tools provide comprehensive information to audiences ranging from network operators and geoscience researchers, to funding agencies and the general public. This ranges from network-wide to station-specific metadata, state-of-health metrics, event detection rates, archival data and dynamic report generation over a station's two year life span. Leveraging open source web-site development frameworks for both the server side (Perl, Python and PHP) and client-side (Flickr, Google Maps/Earth and jQuery) facilitates the development of a robust extensible architecture that can be tailored on a per-user basis, with rapid prototyping and development that adheres to web-standards. Typical seismic data warehouses allow online users to query and download data collected from regional networks, without the scientist directly visually assessing data coverage and/or quality. Using a suite of web-based protocols, we have recently developed an online seismic waveform interface that directly queries and displays data from a relational database through a web-browser. Using the Python interface to Datascope and the Python-based Twisted network package on the server side, and the jQuery Javascript framework on the client side to send and receive asynchronous waveform queries, we display broadband seismic data using the HTML Canvas element that is globally accessible by anyone using a modern web-browser. We are currently creating

  4. Providing Flood Risk Science for Resilient Transportation Infrastructure Decisions in Connecticut

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, R.; Cifuentes-Lorenzen, A.; Kooris, D.; O'Donnell, J.

    2017-12-01

    The Connecticut Institute for Resilience and Climate Adaptation (CIRCA) provides actionable science to accelerate adaptation and resilience strategies for Connecticut's inland and coastal waterways communities. Connecticut's coastal area has some of the most valuable real estate in the United States due to the Metro North and Shoreline East commuter rail line that connects all 24 coastal municipalities through transit hubs to the New York City metropolitan region. On its way to NY, the rail runs through neighborhoods and coastal marshes and crosses local and state roads. During coastal storms and increasingly at high tides as the sea level rises, the rail line may act like a berm, but also cuts off coastal neighborhoods from the upland. When it crosses a road in a marsh setting, the clearance restriction also severely limits communities' options for moving or elevating the roadway. These flooded roadways and vulnerable transit hubs are already a challenge for municipalities and will continue to be in the future. However, given scarce resources, it is not sufficient to simply know that they are vulnerable using existing low resolution mapping tools. Communities need site-specific, exact estimates of frequency of flooding, incorporating future sea level rise, to make cost determinations and accurately project the useful life of their investment. To address this need CIRCA developed high-resolution dynamic coastal flood risk models and partnered with municipal staff, regional planning bodies and the state to apply them to infrastructure decision-making. We will present three case studies of this approach: 1) the implementation of the US HUD National Disaster Resilience Competition pilot project of road elevation and berm construction in partnership with the Department of Housing and the City of Bridgeport; 2) the City of New London's first rail and ferry transit hub vulnerability assessment for sea level rise and storms and 3) the flooding frequency of a state road

  5. Proposed UK legislation to provide radiological protection for workers, with emphasis on its application to the transport of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holyoak, B.; Shaw, K.B.

    1983-01-01

    In terms of the standards for packaging and labelling the proposed Regulations are consistent with IAEA SS No. 6 and continue the existing UK statutory requirements; they will provide statutory controls for those modes of transport presently subject to non-statutory conventions and by-laws. There are new requirements in the administrative arrangements for the provision of radiological protection. These requirements reflect the procedures presently used by responsible organizations and are compatible with IAEA SS No. 9(10). Thus our proposals will be compatible with the various International Transport Conventions when these are brought into line with IAEA SS No. 6 (1984). The proposals should secure a system of working which is sufficiently flexible that it will not impede legitimate carriage but will ensure that everyone involved, either directly or indirectly, is provided with a satisfactory and uniform standard of radiological protection. As a consequence of the extensive consulation during the preparation of the proposals it is anticipated that the transport industry will be well disposed towards compliance; however should there be deviations from accepted standards enforcement action can be applied. 10 references

  6. Efficiency and CO[sub 2] emission analysis of pathways by which methane can provide transportation services

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crane, P; Scott, D S [Victoria Univ., BC (Canada). Inst. for Integrated Energy Systems Victoria Univ., BC (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1992-07-01

    Methane is expected to have an increasingly important role as an energy source in the future. As a result, methane will become a major energy source for the transportation sector. Future energy systems will also be selected for efficiency and environmental gentility. Six candidate pathways by which the energy for service transportation can be provided, using methane as the sole energy source, are proposed and are compared with the use of gasoline from petroleum. These pathways involve methanol, methane and hydrogen used in spark ignition engines and solid polymer fuel cells. The energy conversion processes in each pathway are analysed based on the second law of thermodynamics. Two performance criteria are used: total exergy input to the pathway and total carbon dioxide produced along the pathway. All results are normalized to a unit of transportation service, in this case 1 km of city driving. A surprising result is that the methanol spark ignition engine pathway is the least efficient and produces the greatest amount of carbon dioxide, of the pathways examined. Hydrogen and fuel cell pathways are found to be optimal using the criteria of this paper. (author)

  7. Safe cycling!

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2012-01-01

    The HSE Unit will be running a cycling safety campaign at the entrances to CERN's restaurants on 14, 15 and 16 May. Pop along to see if they can persuade you to get back in the saddle!   With summer on its way, you might feel like getting your bike out of winter storage. Well, the HSE Unit has come up with some original ideas to remind you of some of the most basic safety rules. This year, the prevention campaign will be focussing on three themes: "Cyclists and their equipment", "The bicycle on the road", and "Other road users". This is an opportunity to think about the condition of your bike as well as how you ride it. From 14 to 16 May, representatives of the Swiss Office of Accident Prevention and the Touring Club Suisse will join members of the HSE Unit at the entrances to CERN's restaurants to give you advice on safe cycling (see box). They will also be organising three activity stands where you can test your knowle...

  8. Use of fatal real-life crashes to analyze a safe road transport system model, including the road user, the vehicle, and the road.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stigson, Helena; Krafft, Maria; Tingvall, Claes

    2008-10-01

    To evaluate if the Swedish Road Administration (SRA) model for a safe road transport system, which includes the interaction between the road user, the vehicle, and the road, could be used to classify fatal car crashes according to some safety indicators. Also, to present a development of the model to better identify system weakness. Real-life crashes with a fatal outcome were classified according to the vehicle's safety rating by Euro NCAP (European Road Assessment Programme) and fitment of ESC (Electronic Stability Control). For each crash, the road was also classified according to EuroRAP (European Road Assessment Programme) criteria, and human behavior in terms of speeding, seat belt use, and driving under the influence of alcohol. Each crash was compared with the model criteria, to identify components that might have contributed to fatal outcome. All fatal crashes where a car occupant was killed that occurred in Sweden during 2004 were included: in all, 215 crashes with 248 fatalities. The data were collected from the in-depth fatal crash data of the Swedish Road Administration (SRA). It was possible to classify 93% of the fatal car crashes according to the SRA model. A number of shortcomings in the criteria were identified since the model did not address rear-end or animal collisions or collisions with stationary/parked vehicles or trailers (18 out of 248 cases). Using the further developed model, it was possible to identify that most of the crashes occurred when two or all three components interacted (in 85 of the total 230 cases). Noncompliance with safety criteria for the road user, the vehicle, and the road led to fatal outcome in 43, 27, and 75 cases, respectively. The SRA model was found to be useful for classifying fatal crashes but needs to be further developed to identify how the components interact and thereby identify weaknesses in the road traffic system. This developed model might be a tool to systematically identify which of the components are

  9. The Innovations, Technology and Waste Management Approaches to Safely Package and Transport the World's First Radioactive Fusion Research Reactor for Burial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keith Rule; Erik Perry; Jim Chrzanowski; Mike Viola; Ron Strykowsky

    2003-01-01

    Original estimates stated that the amount of radioactive waste that will be generated during the dismantling of the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor will approach two million kilograms with an associated volume of 2,500 cubic meters. The materials were activated by 14 MeV neutrons and were highly contaminated with tritium, which present unique challenges to maintain integrity during packaging and transportation. In addition, the majority of this material is stainless steel and copper structural metal that were specifically designed and manufactured for this one-of-a-kind fusion research reactor. This provided further complexity in planning and managing the waste. We will discuss the engineering concepts, innovative practices, and technologies that were utilized to size reduce, stabilize, and package the many unique and complex components of this reactor. This waste was packaged and shipped in many different configurations and methods according to the transportation regulations and disposal facility requirements. For this particular project, we were able to utilize two separate disposal facilities for burial. This paper will conclude with a complete summary of the actual results of the waste management costs, volumes, and best practices that were developed from this groundbreaking and successful project

  10. Providing Pressurized Gasses to the International Space Station (ISS): Developing a Composite Overwrapped Pressure Vessel (COPV) for the Safe Transport of Oxygen and Nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kezirian, Michael; Cook, Anthony; Dick, Brandon; Phoenix, S. Leigh

    2012-01-01

    To supply oxygen and nitrogen to the International Space Station, a COPV tank is being developed to meet requirements beyond that which have been flown. In order to "Ship Full' and support compatibility with a range of launch site operations, the vessel was designed for certification to International Standards (ISO) that have a different approach than current NASA certification approaches. These requirements were in addition to existing NASA certification standards had to be met. Initial risk-reduction development tests have been successful. Qualification is in progress.

  11. Closed-flow column experiments—Insights into solute transport provided by a damped oscillating breakthrough behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritschel, Thomas; Totsche, Kai Uwe

    2016-03-01

    Transport studies that employ column experiments in closed-flow mode complement classical approaches by providing new characteristic features observed in the solute breakthrough and equilibrium between liquid and solid phase. Specific to the closed-flow mode is the recirculation of the effluent to the inflow via a mixing vessel. Depending on the ratio of volumes of mixing vessel and water-filled pore space, a damped oscillating solute concentration emerges in the effluent and mixing vessel. The oscillation characteristics, e.g., frequency, amplitude, and damping, allow for the investigation of solute transport in a similar fashion as known for classical open-flow column experiments. However, the closed loop conserves substances released during transport within the system. In this way, solute and porous medium can equilibrate with respect to physicochemical conditions. With this paper, the features emerging in the breakthrough curves of saturated column experiments run in closed-flow mode and methods of evaluation are illustrated under experimental boundary conditions forcing the appearance of oscillations. We demonstrate that the effective pore water volume and the pumping rate can be determined from a conservative tracer breakthrough curve uniquely. In this way, external preconditioning of the material, e.g., drying, can be avoided. A reactive breakthrough experiment revealed a significant increase in the pore water pH value as a consequence of the closed loop. These results highlight the specific impact of the closed mass balance. Furthermore, the basis for the modeling of closed-flow experiments is given by the derivation of constitutive equations and numerical implementation, validated with the presented experiments.

  12. Historical background of the development of various requirements in the international regulations for the safe packaging and transport of radioactive material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pope, R.B.

    2004-07-01

    Questions are frequently asked regarding the source of some of the package test requirements in the Transport Regulations, the philosophy behind them and the basis for selecting them. This paper summarizes the results of a review of early historical documents and elaborates on the early philosophy behind the regulatory requirements. To the extent possible, the paper compares the early philosophy with the current structure of the Transport Regulations in key topic areas with a focus on the test requirements for packages that are designed to withstand accident conditions of transport.

  13. Historical background of the development of various requirements in the international regulations for the safe packaging and transport of radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pope, R.B.

    2004-01-01

    Questions are frequently asked regarding the source of some of the package test requirements in the Transport Regulations, the philosophy behind them and the basis for selecting them. This paper summarizes the results of a review of early historical documents and elaborates on the early philosophy behind the regulatory requirements. To the extent possible, the paper compares the early philosophy with the current structure of the Transport Regulations in key topic areas with a focus on the test requirements for packages that are designed to withstand accident conditions of transport

  14. National competent authorities. List no. 16. Regulations for the safe transport of radioactive materials. 1973 revised edition (as amended) (Safety series no. 6)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1984-10-01

    Any national or international authority designated or otherwise recognised as such for any purpose in connection with the transport Regulations is known as a competent authority. In the Member States such a body has the responsibility for establishing national legislation to bring the Agency's transport Regulations into effect and for assuring compliance with its requirements. Depending on the national regulatory or institutional framework the functions of the competent authority may be assigned to one or more bodies. To assist Member States in implementing the transport Regulations and carrying out responsibility for compliance assurance, the IAEA continues to maintain this updated list of designated national competent authorities. Member States are annually requested to verify the list for correctness and completeness.

  15. National competent authorities. List no. 11. Regulations for the safe transport of radioactive materials. 1973 revised edition (Safety series no. 6)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1979-04-01

    Any national or international authority designated or otherwise recognised as such for any purpose in connection with the transport Regulations is known as a competent authority. In the Member States such a body has the responsibility for establishing national legislation to bring the Agency's transport Regulations into effect and for assuring compliance with its requirements. Depending on the national regulatory or institutional framework the functions of the competent authority may be assigned to one or more bodies. To assist Member States in implementing the transport Regulations and carrying out responsibility for compliance assurance, the IAEA continues to maintain this updated list of designated national competent authorities. Member States are annually requested to verify the list for correctness and completeness.

  16. National competent authorities. List no. 13. Regulations for the safe transport of radioactive materials. 1973 revised edition (as amended) (Safety series no. 6)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1981-10-01

    Any national or international authority designated or otherwise recognised as such for any purpose in connection with the transport Regulations is known as a competent authority. In the Member States such a body has the responsibility for establishing national legislation to bring the Agency's transport Regulations into effect and for assuring compliance with its requirements. Depending on the national regulatory or institutional framework the functions of the competent authority may be assigned to one or more bodies. To assist Member States in implementing the transport Regulations and carrying out responsibility for compliance assurance, the IAEA continues to maintain this updated list of designated national competent authorities. Member States are annually requested to verify the list for correctness and completeness.

  17. National competent authorities. List no. 12. Regulations for the safe transport of radioactive materials. 1973 revised edition (as amended) (Safety series no. 6)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1980-07-01

    Any national or international authority designated or otherwise recognised as such for any purpose in connection with the transport Regulations is known as a competent authority. In the Member States such a body has the responsibility for establishing national legislation to bring the Agency's transport Regulations into effect and for assuring compliance with its requirements. Depending on the national regulatory or institutional framework the functions of the competent authority may be assigned to one or more bodies. To assist Member States in implementing the transport Regulations and carrying out responsibility for compliance assurance, the IAEA continues to maintain this updated list of designated national competent authorities. Member States are annually requested to verify the list for correctness and completeness.

  18. National competent authorities. List no. 10. Regulations for the safe transport of radioactive materials. 1973 revised edition (Safety series no. 6)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1978-04-01

    Any national or international authority designated or otherwise recognised as such for any purpose in connection with the transport Regulations is known as a competent authority. In the Member States such a body has the responsibility for establishing national legislation to bring the Agency's transport Regulations into effect and for assuring compliance with its requirements. Depending on the national regulatory or institutional framework the functions of the competent authority may be assigned to one or more bodies. To assist Member States in implementing the transport Regulations and carrying out responsibility for compliance assurance, the IAEA continues to maintain this updated list of designated national competent authorities. Member States are annually requested to verify the list for correctness and completeness.

  19. National competent authorities. List no. 9. Regulations for the safe transport of radioactive materials. 1973 revised edition (Safety series no. 6)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1977-08-01

    Any national or international authority designated or otherwise recognised as such for any purpose in connection with the transport Regulations is known as a competent authority. In the Member States such a body has the responsibility for establishing national legislation to bring the Agency's transport Regulations into effect and for assuring compliance with its requirements. Depending on the national regulatory or institutional framework the functions of the competent authority may be assigned to one or more bodies. To assist Member States in implementing the transport Regulations and carrying out responsibility for compliance assurance, the IAEA continues to maintain this updated list of designated national competent authorities. Member States are annually requested to verify the list for correctness and completeness.

  20. National competent authorities. List no. 15. Regulations for the safe transport of radioactive materials. 1973 revised edition (as amended) (Safety series no. 6)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1983-10-01

    Any national or international authority designated or otherwise recognised as such for any purpose in connection with the transport Regulations is known as a competent authority. In the Member States such a body has the responsibility for establishing national legislation to bring the Agency's transport Regulations into effect and for assuring compliance with its requirements. Depending on the national regulatory or institutional framework the functions of the competent authority may be assigned to one or more bodies. To assist Member States in implementing the transport Regulations and carrying out responsibility for compliance assurance, the IAEA continues to maintain this updated list of designated national competent authorities. Member States are annually requested to verify the list for correctness and completeness.

  1. National competent authorities. List no. 14. Regulations for the safe transport of radioactive materials. 1973 revised edition (as amended) (Safety series no. 6)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1982-10-01

    Any national or international authority designated or otherwise recognised as such for any purpose in connection with the transport Regulations is known as a competent authority. In the Member States such a body has the responsibility for establishing national legislation to bring the Agency's transport Regulations into effect and for assuring compliance with its requirements. Depending on the national regulatory or institutional framework the functions of the competent authority may be assigned to one or more bodies. To assist Member States in implementing the transport Regulations and carrying out responsibility for compliance assurance, the IAEA continues to maintain this updated list of designated national competent authorities. Member States are annually requested to verify the list for correctness and completeness.

  2. National competent authorities. List no. 13. Regulations for the safe transport of radioactive materials. 1973 revised edition (as amended) (Safety series no. 6)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-10-01

    Any national or international authority designated or otherwise recognised as such for any purpose in connection with the transport Regulations is known as a competent authority. In the Member States such a body has the responsibility for establishing national legislation to bring the Agency's transport Regulations into effect and for assuring compliance with its requirements. Depending on the national regulatory or institutional framework the functions of the competent authority may be assigned to one or more bodies. To assist Member States in implementing the transport Regulations and carrying out responsibility for compliance assurance, the IAEA continues to maintain this updated list of designated national competent authorities. Member States are annually requested to verify the list for correctness and completeness

  3. National competent authorities. List no. 7. Regulations for the safe transport of radioactive materials. 1973 revised edition (Safety series no. 6)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1975-01-01

    Any national or international authority designated or otherwise recognised as such for any purpose in connection with the transport Regulations is known as a competent authority. In the Member States such a body has the responsibility for establishing national legislation to bring the Agency's transport Regulations into effect and for assuring compliance with its requirements. Depending on the national regulatory or institutional framework the functions of the competent authority may be assigned to one or more bodies. To assist Member States in implementing the transport Regulations and carrying out responsibility for compliance assurance, the IAEA continues to maintain this updated list of designated national competent authorities. Member States are annually requested to verify the list for correctness and completeness.

  4. National competent authorities. List no. 6. Regulations for the safe transport of radioactive materials. 1973 revised edition (Safety series no. 6)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1974-01-01

    Any national or international authority designated or otherwise recognised as such for any purpose in connection with the transport Regulations is known as a competent authority. In the Member States such a body has the responsibility for establishing national legislation to bring the Agency's transport Regulations into effect and for assuring compliance with its requirements. Depending on the national regulatory or institutional framework the functions of the competent authority may be assigned to one or more bodies. To assist Member States in implementing the transport Regulations and carrying out responsibility for compliance assurance, the IAEA continues to maintain this updated list of designated national competent authorities. Member States are annually requested to verify the list for correctness and completeness.

  5. National competent authorities. List no. 11. Regulations for the safe transport of radioactive materials. 1973 revised edition (Safety series no. 6)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-04-01

    Any national or international authority designated or otherwise recognised as such for any purpose in connection with the transport Regulations is known as a competent authority. In the Member States such a body has the responsibility for establishing national legislation to bring the Agency's transport Regulations into effect and for assuring compliance with its requirements. Depending on the national regulatory or institutional framework the functions of the competent authority may be assigned to one or more bodies. To assist Member States in implementing the transport Regulations and carrying out responsibility for compliance assurance, the IAEA continues to maintain this updated list of designated national competent authorities. Member States are annually requested to verify the list for correctness and completeness

  6. National competent authorities. List no. 8. Regulations for the safe transport of radioactive materials. 1973 revised edition (Safety series no. 6)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    Any national or international authority designated or otherwise recognised as such for any purpose in connection with the transport Regulations is known as a competent authority. In the Member States such a body has the responsibility for establishing national legislation to bring the Agency's transport Regulations into effect and for assuring compliance with its requirements. Depending on the national regulatory or institutional framework the functions of the competent authority may be assigned to one or more bodies. To assist Member States in implementing the transport Regulations and carrying out responsibility for compliance assurance, the IAEA continues to maintain this updated list of designated national competent authorities. Member States are annually requested to verify the list for correctness and completeness

  7. National competent authorities. List no. 10. Regulations for the safe transport of radioactive materials. 1973 revised edition (Safety series no. 6)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-04-01

    Any national or international authority designated or otherwise recognised as such for any purpose in connection with the transport Regulations is known as a competent authority. In the Member States such a body has the responsibility for establishing national legislation to bring the Agency's transport Regulations into effect and for assuring compliance with its requirements. Depending on the national regulatory or institutional framework the functions of the competent authority may be assigned to one or more bodies. To assist Member States in implementing the transport Regulations and carrying out responsibility for compliance assurance, the IAEA continues to maintain this updated list of designated national competent authorities. Member States are annually requested to verify the list for correctness and completeness

  8. National competent authorities. List no. 7. Regulations for the safe transport of radioactive materials. 1973 revised edition (Safety series no. 6)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    Any national or international authority designated or otherwise recognised as such for any purpose in connection with the transport Regulations is known as a competent authority. In the Member States such a body has the responsibility for establishing national legislation to bring the Agency's transport Regulations into effect and for assuring compliance with its requirements. Depending on the national regulatory or institutional framework the functions of the competent authority may be assigned to one or more bodies. To assist Member States in implementing the transport Regulations and carrying out responsibility for compliance assurance, the IAEA continues to maintain this updated list of designated national competent authorities. Member States are annually requested to verify the list for correctness and completeness

  9. National competent authorities. List no. 9. Regulations for the safe transport of radioactive materials. 1973 revised edition (Safety series no. 6)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-08-01

    Any national or international authority designated or otherwise recognised as such for any purpose in connection with the transport Regulations is known as a competent authority. In the Member States such a body has the responsibility for establishing national legislation to bring the Agency's transport Regulations into effect and for assuring compliance with its requirements. Depending on the national regulatory or institutional framework the functions of the competent authority may be assigned to one or more bodies. To assist Member States in implementing the transport Regulations and carrying out responsibility for compliance assurance, the IAEA continues to maintain this updated list of designated national competent authorities. Member States are annually requested to verify the list for correctness and completeness

  10. National competent authorities. List no. 6. Regulations for the safe transport of radioactive materials. 1973 revised edition (Safety series no. 6)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    Any national or international authority designated or otherwise recognised as such for any purpose in connection with the transport Regulations is known as a competent authority. In the Member States such a body has the responsibility for establishing national legislation to bring the Agency's transport Regulations into effect and for assuring compliance with its requirements. Depending on the national regulatory or institutional framework the functions of the competent authority may be assigned to one or more bodies. To assist Member States in implementing the transport Regulations and carrying out responsibility for compliance assurance, the IAEA continues to maintain this updated list of designated national competent authorities. Member States are annually requested to verify the list for correctness and completeness

  11. National competent authorities. List no. 14. Regulations for the safe transport of radioactive materials. 1973 revised edition (as amended) (Safety series no. 6)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-10-01

    Any national or international authority designated or otherwise recognised as such for any purpose in connection with the transport Regulations is known as a competent authority. In the Member States such a body has the responsibility for establishing national legislation to bring the Agency's transport Regulations into effect and for assuring compliance with its requirements. Depending on the national regulatory or institutional framework the functions of the competent authority may be assigned to one or more bodies. To assist Member States in implementing the transport Regulations and carrying out responsibility for compliance assurance, the IAEA continues to maintain this updated list of designated national competent authorities. Member States are annually requested to verify the list for correctness and completeness

  12. National competent authorities. List no. 16. Regulations for the safe transport of radioactive materials. 1973 revised edition (as amended) (Safety series no. 6)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-10-01

    Any national or international authority designated or otherwise recognised as such for any purpose in connection with the transport Regulations is known as a competent authority. In the Member States such a body has the responsibility for establishing national legislation to bring the Agency's transport Regulations into effect and for assuring compliance with its requirements. Depending on the national regulatory or institutional framework the functions of the competent authority may be assigned to one or more bodies. To assist Member States in implementing the transport Regulations and carrying out responsibility for compliance assurance, the IAEA continues to maintain this updated list of designated national competent authorities. Member States are annually requested to verify the list for correctness and completeness

  13. National competent authorities. List no. 15. Regulations for the safe transport of radioactive materials. 1973 revised edition (as amended) (Safety series no. 6)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-10-01

    Any national or international authority designated or otherwise recognised as such for any purpose in connection with the transport Regulations is known as a competent authority. In the Member States such a body has the responsibility for establishing national legislation to bring the Agency's transport Regulations into effect and for assuring compliance with its requirements. Depending on the national regulatory or institutional framework the functions of the competent authority may be assigned to one or more bodies. To assist Member States in implementing the transport Regulations and carrying out responsibility for compliance assurance, the IAEA continues to maintain this updated list of designated national competent authorities. Member States are annually requested to verify the list for correctness and completeness

  14. National competent authorities. List no. 12. Regulations for the safe transport of radioactive materials. 1973 revised edition (as amended) (Safety series no. 6)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-07-01

    Any national or international authority designated or otherwise recognised as such for any purpose in connection with the transport Regulations is known as a competent authority. In the Member States such a body has the responsibility for establishing national legislation to bring the Agency's transport Regulations into effect and for assuring compliance with its requirements. Depending on the national regulatory or institutional framework the functions of the competent authority may be assigned to one or more bodies. To assist Member States in implementing the transport Regulations and carrying out responsibility for compliance assurance, the IAEA continues to maintain this updated list of designated national competent authorities. Member States are annually requested to verify the list for correctness and completeness

  15. National competent authorities. List no. 8. Regulations for the safe transport of radioactive materials. 1973 revised edition (Safety series no. 6)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1976-01-01

    Any national or international authority designated or otherwise recognised as such for any purpose in connection with the transport Regulations is known as a competent authority. In the Member States such a body has the responsibility for establishing national legislation to bring the Agency's transport Regulations into effect and for assuring compliance with its requirements. Depending on the national regulatory or institutional framework the functions of the competent authority may be assigned to one or more bodies. To assist Member States in implementing the transport Regulations and carrying out responsibility for compliance assurance, the IAEA continues to maintain this updated list of designated national competent authorities. Member States are annually requested to verify the list for correctness and completeness.

  16. [EDRP public local inquiry] Statement by the Department of Transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    The safety responsibilities of the UK Secretary of State for Transport, in relation to radioactive materials under normal and accident conditions of transport, are outlined. The basic regulatory requirements necessitated by the IAEA regulations for safe transport of radioactive materials are summarised. A list of national and international regulations concerning the safe transport of radioactive materials to, from, or within the UK is provided. (U.K.)

  17. Traveling Safely with Medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Medications Safely My Medicine List How to Administer Traveling Safely with Medicines Planes, trains, cars – even boats ... your trip, ask your pharmacist about how to travel safely with your medicines. Make sure that you ...

  18. Safe use of nanomaterials

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    The use of nanomaterials  is on the increase worldwide, including at CERN. The HSE Unit has established a safety guideline to inform you of the main requirements for the safe handling and disposal of nanomaterials at CERN.   A risk assessment tool has also been developed which guides the user through the process of evaluating the risk for his or her activity. Based on the calculated risk level, the tool provides a list of recommended control measures.   We would therefore like to draw your attention to: Safety Guideline C-0-0-5 - Safe handling and disposal of nanomaterials; and Safety Form C-0-0-2 - Nanomaterial Risk Assessment   You can consult all of CERN’s safety rules and guidelines here. Please contact the HSE Unit for any questions you may have.   The HSE Unit

  19. Plutonium safe handling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tvehlov, Yu.

    2000-01-01

    The abstract, prepared on the basis of materials of the IAEA new leadership on the plutonium safe handling and its storage (the publication no. 9 in the Safety Reports Series), aimed at presenting internationally acknowledged criteria on the radiation danger evaluation and summarizing the experience in the safe management of great quantities of plutonium, accumulated in the nuclear states, is presented. The data on the weapon-class and civil plutonium, the degree of its danger, the measures for provision of its safety, including the data on accident radiation consequences with the fission number 10 18 , are presented. The recommendations, making it possible to eliminate the super- criticality danger, as well as ignition and explosion, to maintain the tightness of the facility, aimed at excluding the radioactive contamination and the possibility of internal irradiation, to provide for the plutonium security, physical protection and to reduce irradiation are given [ru

  20. Safe Anesthesia For Every Tot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weiss, Markus; Vutskits, Laszlo; Hansen, Tom G

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The term 'safe use of anesthesia in children is ill-defined and requires definition of and focus on the 'safe conduct of pediatric anesthesia'. RECENT FINDINGS: The Safe Anesthesia For Every Tot initiative (www.safetots.org) has been set up during the last year to focus...... on the safe conduct of pediatric anesthesia. This initiative aims to provide guidance on markers of quality anesthesia care. The introduction and implementation of national regulations of 'who, where, when and how' are required and will result in an improved perioperative outcome in vulnerable children....... The improvement of teaching, training, education and supervision of the safe conduct of pediatric anesthesia are the main goals of the safetots.org initiative. SUMMARY: This initiative addresses the well known perioperative risks in young children, perioperative causes for cerebral morbidity as well as gaps...

  1. Safe Ride Standards for Casualty Evacuation Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (Normes de transport sans danger pour l’evacuation des blesses par vehicules aeriens sans pilote)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    September 2008. 11.2 CLINICAL AND OPERATIONAL DOCUMENTS Aerospace Medical Association Air Transport Committee, “Medical Guidelines for Airline ...RTO-MP-HFM-157////MP-HFM-157-19.doc. Turner, S., Ruth, M.J. and Bruce, D.L., “In Flight Catering : Feeding Critical Care Patients During Aeromedical...feet. 8 Turner, S., Ruth, M.J. and Bruce, D.L. “In flight catering : Feeding critical care patients during aeromedical evacuation”. 9 Renz, E.M

  2. Building a sustainable GIS framework for supporting a tribal transportation problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    Due to the recent oil boom, the Fort Berthold Reservation has experienced a dramatic increase in highway and local traffic. To support energy transportation and provide safe roads, the reservation needs cost-efficient and effective transportation pla...

  3. Methodical approaches to providing sustainable development of the transport industry management system based on self-organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belyantseva, Oksana; Panenkov, Andrey; Safonova, Nataliya

    2017-10-01

    Current conditions of the cognitive economy formation demand to take into account the leading role of information, knowledge and human capital in the development of the transport industry management system. The article substantiates the conceptual approach to the self-organization of a management system on the basis of innovative changes. Human capital is the key aspect of self-organization, so the directions of improving the workforce quality are justified. Basing on the information-innovative genesis of the process of self-organization, the authors justified the necessity of preventing asymmetric information. For this pupose the actions against the resistance to innovations were proposed. The implementation of certain measures contributes to the effective development of the transport management system.

  4. Transportation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Adams, James; Carr, Ron; Chebl, Maroun; Coleman, Robert; Costantini, William; Cox, Robert; Dial, William; Jenkins, Robert; McGovern, James; Mueller, Peter

    2006-01-01

    ...., trains, ships, etc.) and maximizing intermodal efficiency. A healthy balance must be achieved between the flow of international commerce and security requirements regardless of transportation mode...

  5. Molecular docking simulations provide insights in the substrate binding sites and possible substrates of the ABCC6 transporter.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Jakir Hosen

    Full Text Available The human ATP-binding cassette family C member 6 (ABCC6 gene encodes an ABC transporter protein (ABCC6, primarily expressed in liver and kidney. Mutations in the ABCC6 gene cause pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE, an autosomal recessive connective tissue disease characterized by ectopic mineralization of the elastic fibers. The pathophysiology underlying PXE is incompletely understood, which can at least partly be explained by the undetermined nature of the ABCC6 substrates as well as the unknown substrate recognition and binding sites. Several compounds, including anionic glutathione conjugates (N-ethylmaleimide; NEM-GS and leukotriene C4 (LTC4 were shown to be modestly transported in vitro; conversely, vitamin K3 (VK3 was demonstrated not to be transported by ABCC6. To predict the possible substrate binding pockets of the ABCC6 transporter, we generated a 3D homology model of ABCC6 in both open and closed conformation, qualified for molecular docking and virtual screening approaches. By docking 10 reported in vitro substrates in our ABCC6 3D homology models, we were able to predict the substrate binding residues of ABCC6. Further, virtual screening of 4651 metabolites from the Human Serum Metabolome Database against our open conformation model disclosed possible substrates for ABCC6, which are mostly lipid and biliary secretion compounds, some of which are found to be involved in mineralization. Docking of these possible substrates in the closed conformation model also showed high affinity. Virtual screening expands this possibility to explore more compounds that can interact with ABCC6, and may aid in understanding the mechanisms leading to PXE.

  6. Managing in-country transportation risks in humanitarian supply chains by logistics service providers: Insights from the 2015 Nepal earthquake

    OpenAIRE

    Baharmand, Hossein; Comes, Tina; Lauras, Matthieu

    2017-01-01

    Humanitarian supply chains (HSCs) play a central role in effective and efficient disaster relief operations. Transportation has a critical share in HSCs and managing its risks helps to avoid further disruptions in relief operations. However, there is no common approach to or culture of risk management that its applicability has been studied through recent cases. This paper incorporates an empirical research design and makes a threefold contribution: first, it identifies in-country transportat...

  7. Transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1998-01-01

    Here is the decree of the thirtieth of July 1998 relative to road transportation, to trade and brokerage of wastes. It requires to firms which carry out a road transportation as well as to traders and to brokers of wastes to declare their operations to the prefect. The declaration has to be renewed every five years. (O.M.)

  8. Exclusions, exemptions and low specific activity material in the 1996 edition of the IAEA regulations for the safe transport of radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baekelandt, L.

    1997-01-01

    Exclusions and exemptions, total as well as partial, have always been part of the IAEA transport regulations, but these provisions were dispersed over various sections. In the 1996 edition of these regulations, some of these exclusions and exemptions have been kept unchanged, others have been changed and also, new ones have been added. This paper gives an overview of the exclusions and exemptions in the 1996 edition, the most important change with respect to the previous edition being the departure from the single exemption value of 70 Bq/g for all radionuclides to the radionuclide specific exemption values as specified in the IAEA Basic Safety Standards. As a consequence of this change, a new category of Low Specific Activity (LSA) material has been introduced. This paper also discusses the rationale of these changes to the regulations. (author)

  9. Technical committee meeting 'to produce draft topical documents on provisions for the application of the regulations for the safe transport of radioactive material'. Chairman's report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baekelandt, Luc

    2000-01-01

    In 1996 a new Edition of the IAEA Transport Regulations was published as ST-1. These Regulations have been re-issued in 2000 as TS-R-1 (ST-1, Revised) with only minor editorial changes. These Regulations have not entered into force yet (at the time of this publication) through their incorporation in the legally binding modal regulations; currently it is foreseen that the modal requirements will enter into force during 2001, with transitional periods ranging from zero to twelve months. Nevertheless, a revision process has been started that must lead to a new edition of the regulations in 2003, becoming actually effective in 2005. This document contains the conclusions and recommendations made by the Technical Committee at the meeting. It also contains the reports of the working groups, outlines of draft TECDOCs on radiation protection programmes and on transition from SS 6 to TS-R-1

  10. Leucine and its transporter provide protection against cigarette smoke-induced cell death: A potential therapy for emphysema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bannhi Das

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cigarette smoke (CS is a major risk factor for emphysematous changes in the lungs and the underlying mechanism involves CS-induced cell death. In the present study we investigated the ability of nutrients to rescue CS-induced cell death. We observed that pre-treatment with excess leucine can partially rescue CS extract-induced cell death in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and alveolar epithelial A549 cells. Excess dietary leucine was also effective in alleviating effects of CS in guinea pig lungs. Further investigation to understand the underlying mechanism showed that CS exposure causes downregulation of leucine transporter that results in inactivation of mTOR, which is a positive regulator of protein synthesis and cell proliferation. Notably, leucine supplemented diet ameliorated even existing CS-induced emphysematous changes in guinea pig lung, a condition hitherto thought to be irreversible. Thus the current study documents a new mechanism by which CS affects cellular physiology wherein leucine transporter is a key target.

  11. Transportation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Allshouse, Michael; Armstrong, Frederick Henry; Burns, Stephen; Courts, Michael; Denn, Douglas; Fortunato, Paul; Gettings, Daniel; Hansen, David; Hoffman, D. W; Jones, Robert

    2007-01-01

    .... The ability of the global transportation industry to rapidly move passengers and products from one corner of the globe to another continues to amaze even those wise to the dynamics of such operations...

  12. Safe motherhood at risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, A

    1996-12-01

    Health professionals' negative attitudes toward clients often exacerbate the problems women face in terms of health status and access to health care. Thus, the health professionals can themselves be obstacles to women seeking the health care they need. A key challenge to midwives, in addition to providing technically competent services, is gaining insight into the people for whom they are responsible so that childbirth traditions are treated with respect and women are offered dignity. Safe motherhood requires intersectoral collaboration. Many innovative approaches to safe motherhood are based on the community's participation in planning services that meet the needs of women. Other approaches are based on decentralization of services. For example, a large university teaching hospital in Lusaka, Zambia, set up birthing centers around the city to take the pressure off the hospital. Midwives head up these centers, which are close to the women's homes. Decentralization of delivery services has improved the physical and emotional outcomes for mothers and newborns. Midwives must be prepared to articulate concerns about inequalities and deficiencies in the health care system in order to persuade the government to change. Women, including midwives, need to form multidisciplinary alliances to work together to effect change. The front-line workers in maternity care are midwives. They should adopt the following strategies to become even more effective in their efforts to make motherhood safer. They should listen to what women say about their needs. They should scale services to a manageable, human scale. They should learn the skills to become politically active advocates. They should work with other midwives, women, leaders, and other professional groups. Motherhood can be safe when women have more control over their own decision making, the education to liberate themselves to make their own decisions, and access to skilled care.

  13. Safe Kids Worldwide

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Blog Videos Newsletter facebook twitter instagram pinterest gplus youtube Search Menu Why It Matters Who We Are What We Do Find Your Safe Kids Safe Kids Day Main menu Keeping All Kids Safe Safety Tips Get Involved 4 Star Charity Donate Text Burns and Scalds 4 tips ...

  14. Safe handling of tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The main objective of this publication is to provide practical guidance and recommendations on operational radiation protection aspects related to the safe handling of tritium in laboratories, industrial-scale nuclear facilities such as heavy-water reactors, tritium removal plants and fission fuel reprocessing plants, and facilities for manufacturing commercial tritium-containing devices and radiochemicals. The requirements of nuclear fusion reactors are not addressed specifically, since there is as yet no tritium handling experience with them. However, much of the material covered is expected to be relevant to them as well. Annex III briefly addresses problems in the comparatively small-scale use of tritium at universities, medical research centres and similar establishments. However, the main subject of this publication is the handling of larger quantities of tritium. Operational aspects include designing for tritium safety, safe handling practice, the selection of tritium-compatible materials and equipment, exposure assessment, monitoring, contamination control and the design and use of personal protective equipment. This publication does not address the technologies involved in tritium control and cleanup of effluents, tritium removal, or immobilization and disposal of tritium wastes, nor does it address the environmental behaviour of tritium. Refs, figs and tabs

  15. "Same Room, Safe Place".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keene Woods, Nikki

    2017-04-01

    There are many different professional stances on safe sleep and then there is the reality of caring for a newborn. There is a debate among professionals regarding safe sleep recommendations. The continum of recommendations vary from the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) Safe Sleep Guidelines to the bed-sharing recommendations from the Mother-Baby Behavioral Sleep Laboratory. The lack of consistent and uniform safe sleep recommendations from health professionals has been confusing for families but has more recently raised a real professional ethical dilemma. Despite years of focused safe sleep community education and interventions, sleep-related infant deaths are on the rise in many communities. This commentary calls for a united safe sleep message from all health professionals to improve health for mothers and infants most at-risk, "Same Room, Safe Place."

  16. Security in transport, storage and disposal of radioactive materials, providing to the department of nuclear medicine in hospitals Rafael Angel Calderon Guardia, San Juan de Dios and Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elizondo Valle, Alejandro; Jimenez Mendez, Christian; Leiton Araya, Christopher; Villalobos Rodriguez, Geovanny; Leal Vega, Olga Maritza; Lopez Gatjens, Santiago

    2010-01-01

    The security is analysed for the transport and storage of radioactive sources and the management of radioactive waste product of practices and interventions in nuclear medicine services in hospitals Calderon Guardia, San Juan de Dios and Mexico. The objective is to assess the compliance with current regulations, the effectiveness and efficiency of the same. The security and compliance with current regulations were considered related to the transport of radioactive sources by the two private companies that provide this service, from the Juan Santamaria airport customs to three hospitals evaluated. Compliance with national and international rules on storage of radioactive sources and waste materials were analyzed. For this has been studied Costa Rican law and the recommendations of international organizations related to the subject matter, in the three nuclear medicine services valued. The national and international background related to radiological accidents occurred with radioactive sources during transport, storage and waste were revised, where highlights that in most cases, these accidents occurred for breach of the regulations established. Studies in Costa Rica on radioactive waste management were analysed, and the current status of nuclear medicine services in terms of radiation safety, which helped with the investigation. The compliance and regulations were analyzed by the result of observation and interviews during development, to finally make a series of findings and provide recommendations that are considered relevant. Various variants and indicators that are defined in the theoretical framework were used; also, the strategy of methodology is described. The purpose of the work has been to provide a scientific nature, and that methodology met the objectives, offering an approach from different angles and the actors involved, and a critical and objective analysis strictly in order to contribute to public health. The research is a valuable tool that provides

  17. Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Faculty ii INDUSTRY TRAVEL Domestic Assistant Deputy Under Secretary of Defense (Transportation Policy), Washington, DC Department of...developed between the railroad and trucking industries. Railroads: Today’s seven Class I freight railroad systems move 42% of the nation’s intercity ...has been successfully employed in London to reduce congestion and observed by this industry study during its travels . It is currently being

  18. Safe Handling of Radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1958-01-01

    Under its Statute the International Atomic Energy Agency is empowered to provide for the application of standards of safety for protection against radiation to its own operations and to operations making use of assistance provided by it or with which it is otherwise directly associated. To this end authorities receiving such assistance are required to observe relevant health and safety measures prescribed by the Agency. As a first step, it has been considered an urgent task to provide users of radioisotopes with a manual of practice for the safe handling of these substances. Such a manual is presented here and represents the first of a series of manuals and codes to be issued by the Agency. It has been prepared after careful consideration of existing national and international codes of radiation safety, by a group of international experts and in consultation with other international bodies. At the same time it is recommended that the manual be taken into account as a basic reference document by Member States of the Agency in the preparation of national health and safety documents covering the use of radioisotopes.

  19. Strategies for safe motherhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, A

    1995-02-01

    The Safe Motherhood Initiative was launched in 1988 as a global effort to halve maternal mortality and morbidity by the year 2000. The program uses a combination of health and nonhealth strategies to emphasize the need for maternal health services, extend family planning services, and improve the status of women. The maternal mortality rate (per 100,000 live births) is 390 for the world, 20-30 for developed countries, 450 for developing countries, and 420 for Asia. This translates into 308,000 maternal deaths in Asia, of which 100,000 occur in India. The direct causes of maternal mortality include sepsis, hemorrhage, eclampsia, and ruptured uterus. Indirect causes occur when associated medical conditions, such as anemia and jaundice, are exacerbated by pregnancy. Underlying causes are ineffective health services, inadequate obstetric care, unregulated fertility, infections, illiteracy, early marriage, poverty, malnutrition, and ignorance. India's Child Survival and Safe Motherhood Program seeks to achieve immediate improvements by improving health care. Longterm improvements will occur as nutrition, income, education, and the status of women improve. Improvements in health care will occur in through the provision of 1) essential obstetric care for all women (which will be essentially designed for low-risk women), 2) early detection of complications during pregnancy and labor, and 3) emergency services. Services will be provided to pregnant women at their door by field staff, at a first referral hospital, perhaps at maternity villages where high risk cases can be housed in the latter part of their pregnancies, and through the continual accessibility of government vehicles. In addition, family planning services will be improved so that fertility regulation can have its expected beneficial effect on the maternal mortality rate. The professional health organizations in India will also play a vital role in the success of this effort to reduce maternal mortality.

  20. Working safely with ionising radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDowell, D.J.

    1990-01-01

    A small leaflet provides information on working safely with ionizing radiation. Topics covered include the types of radiation, radiological units, external radiation, contamination and internal radiation, methods of protection form radiation, radiation monitors, protective clothing for contamination, personal dosemeters, radiation dose limits for classified workers and finally the Ionising Radiations Regulations 1985. (UK)

  1. Safe and Liquid Mortgage Bonds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dick-Nielsen, Jens; Gyntelberg, Jacob; Lund, Jesper

    This paper shows that strict match pass-through funding of covered bonds provides safe and liquid mortgage bonds. Despite a 30% drop in house prices during the 2008 global crisis Danish mortgage bonds remained as liquid as most European government bonds. The Danish pass-through system effectively...... eliminates credit risk from the investor's perspective. Similar to other safe bonds, funding liquidity becomes the main driver of mortgage bond liquidity and this creates commonality in liquidity across markets and countries. These findings have implications for how to design a robust mortgage bond system...

  2. Are Detox Diets Safe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Are Detox Diets Safe? KidsHealth / For Teens / Are Detox Diets ... seguras las dietas de desintoxicación? What Is a Detox Diet? The name sounds reassuring — everyone knows that ...

  3. Chernobyl new safe confinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodd, L.

    2011-01-01

    The author presents the new safe confinement that will be commissioned at Unit 4 of the Chernobyl NPP in 2015. The confinement will ensure that Chernobyl Unit 4 will be placed in an environmentally safe condition for at least next 100 years. The article highlights the current work status, future perspectives and the feasibility of confinement concept [ru

  4. Asymptotically Safe Dark Matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sannino, Francesco; Shoemaker, Ian M.

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a new paradigm for dark matter (DM) interactions in which the interaction strength is asymptotically safe. In models of this type, the coupling strength is small at low energies but increases at higher energies, and asymptotically approaches a finite constant value. The resulting...... searches are the primary ways to constrain or discover asymptotically safe dark matter....

  5. Making Our Food Safe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madsen, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Full text: As civilization has progressed societies have strived to make food safer; from using fire to cook our food, and boiling our water to make it safe to drink, advances in technology have helped kill microorganisms that can make food unsafe. The FAO/IAEA Joint Division helps provide technical assistance to Member States that want to implement irradiation technology in making their food safer. Food and waterborne diarrhoeal diseases are estimated to kill roughly 2.2 million people annually, of which 1.9 million are children. Irradiating some of the foods we eat can save many of these lives by reducing the risk of food poisoning and killing the organisms that cause disease. Irradiation works by treating food with a small dose of ionizing radiation, this radiation disrupts the bacteria’s DNA and cell membranes structure stopping the organism from reproducing or functioning, but does not make the food radioactive. It can be applied to a variety of foods from spices and seasonings, to fruits and vegetables and is similar to pasteurization, but without the need for high temperatures that might impair food quality. (author)

  6. Safe Sleep for Babies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 5 MB] Read the MMWR Science Clips Safe Sleep for Babies Eliminating hazards Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... Page Problem Every year, there are thousands of sleep-related deaths among babies. View large image and ...

  7. Safe operating envelope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliva, N [Ontario Hydro, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    1997-12-01

    Safe Operating Envelope is described representing: The outer bound of plant conditions within which day-to-day plant operation must be maintained in order to comply with regulatory requirements, associated safety design criteria and corporate nuclear safety goals. Figs.

  8. The first safe country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaela Puggioni

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The Dublin II Regulation makes the first safe country of refuge solelyresponsible for refugees and asylum seekers. In the case of Italy, thefirst responsible country has not been acting responsibly.

  9. Buying & Using Medicine Safely

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Reducers Safe Daily Use of Aspirin Medication Health Fraud Resources for You FDA Consumer Updates (Drugs) Page ... feeds Follow FDA on Twitter Follow FDA on Facebook View FDA videos on YouTube View FDA photos ...

  10. Safe operating envelope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliva, N.

    1997-01-01

    Safe Operating Envelope is described representing: The outer bound of plant conditions within which day-to-day plant operation must be maintained in order to comply with regulatory requirements, associated safety design criteria and corporate nuclear safety goals. Figs

  11. Safe driving for teens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driving and teenagers; Teens and safe driving; Automobile safety - teenage drivers ... months before taking friends as passengers. Teenage-related driving deaths occur more often in certain conditions. OTHER SAFETY TIPS FOR TEENS Reckless driving is still a ...

  12. Removing Hair Safely

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Removing Hair Safely Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... related to common methods of hair removal. Laser Hair Removal In this method, a laser destroys hair ...

  13. Medications: Using Them Safely

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Safely Give Ibuprofen Childproofing and Preventing Household Accidents Medicines for Diabetes Complementary and Alternative Medicine How Do Pain Relievers Work? What Medicines Are and What They Do Medicines ...

  14. DroidSafe

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Massachusetts Avenue, Build E19-750 Cambridge , MA 02139-4307 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS...Activity objects illustrating the challenges of points-to and information flow analysis...measure how many malicious flows Droid- Safe was able to detect). As these results illustrate , DroidSafe implements an analysis of unprece- dented

  15. Safe biodegradable fluorescent particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Sue I [Berkeley, CA; Fergenson, David P [Alamo, CA; Srivastava, Abneesh [Santa Clara, CA; Bogan, Michael J [Dublin, CA; Riot, Vincent J [Oakland, CA; Frank, Matthias [Oakland, CA

    2010-08-24

    A human-safe fluorescence particle that can be used for fluorescence detection instruments or act as a safe simulant for mimicking the fluorescence properties of microorganisms. The particle comprises a non-biological carrier and natural fluorophores encapsulated in the non-biological carrier. By doping biodegradable-polymer drug delivery microspheres with natural or synthetic fluorophores, the desired fluorescence can be attained or biological organisms can be simulated without the associated risks and logistical difficulties of live microorganisms.

  16. Transportability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-25

    and dump trucks are exceptions and may be tested at a curb weight or weight less than the gross weight. Consult with SDDCTEA for these types of...will be provided by a hydraulic actuator system. Accomplish the provision loading for the durations specified in MIL-STD-209K. Measure the loads...to flight testing. (b) Once rigged, attach the sling set apex to the cargo hook of a mobile or overhead crane and hoist the item from the ground

  17. SAFE/SNAP application to shipboard security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grady, L.M.; Walker, J.L.; Polito, J.

    1981-11-01

    An application of the combined Safeguards Automated Facility Evaluation/Safeguards Network Analysis Procedure (SAFE/SNAP) modeling technique to a physical protection system (PPS) aboard a generic ship is described. This application was performed as an example of how the SAFE and SNAP techniques could be used. Estimates of probability of interruption and neutralization for the example shipboard PPS are provided by SAFE as well as an adversary scenario, which serves as input to SNAP. This adversary scenario is analyzed by SNAP through four cases which incorporate increasingly detailed security force tactics. Comparisons between the results of the SAFE and SNAP analyses are made and conclusions drawn on the validity of each technique. Feedback from SNAP to SAFE is described, and recommendations for upgrading the ship based on the results of the SAFE/SNAP application are also discussed

  18. The safe use of radiation sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    As a means of promoting safety in the use of radiation sources, as well as encouraging consistency in regulatory control, the IAEA has from time to time organized training courses with the co-operation of Member State governments and organizations, to inform individuals from developing countries with appropriate responsibilities on the provisions for the safe use and regulation of radiation sources. Three such courses on the safe use of radiation sources have been held in both the USA, with the co-operation of the United States Government, and in Dublin, Ireland, with the co-operation of the Irish Government. The Training Course on the Safe Use and Regulation of Radiation Sources has been successfully given to over 77 participants from over 30 countries during the last years. The course is aimed at providing a basis of radiation protection knowledge in all aspects of the uses of radiation and of radiation sources that are used today. It is the intention of this course to provide a systematic enhancement of radioisotope safety in countries with developing radiological programmes through a core group of national authorities. The IAEA's training programmes provide an excellent opportunity for direct contact with lecturers that have extensive experience in resolving issues faced by developing countries and in providing guidance documents useful in addressing their problems. This document uses this collective experience and provides valuable technical information regarding the safety aspects of the uses not only of sealed and unsealed sources of radiation, but also for those machines that produce ionizing radiation. The first of these training courses, 'Safety and Regulation of Unsealed Sources' was held in Dublin, Ireland, June through July 1989 with the co-operation of the Nuclear Energy Board and Trinity College. This was an interregional training course, the participants came from all over the world. The second and third interregional courses, 'Safety and Regulation

  19. The safe use of radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    As a means of promoting safety in the use of radiation sources, as well as encouraging consistency in regulatory control, the IAEA has from time to time organized training courses with the co-operation of Member State governments and organizations, to inform individuals from developing countries with appropriate responsibilities on the provisions for the safe use and regulation of radiation sources. Three such courses on the safe use of radiation sources have been held in both the USA, with the co-operation of the United States Government, and in Dublin, Ireland, with the co-operation of the Irish Government. The Training Course on the Safe Use and Regulation of Radiation Sources has been successfully given to over 77 participants from over 30 countries during the last years. The course is aimed at providing a basis of radiation protection knowledge in all aspects of the uses of radiation and of radiation sources that are used today. It is the intention of this course to provide a systematic enhancement of radioisotope safety in countries with developing radiological programmes through a core group of national authorities. The IAEA's training programmes provide an excellent opportunity for direct contact with lecturers that have extensive experience in resolving issues faced by developing countries and in providing guidance documents useful in addressing their problems. This document uses this collective experience and provides valuable technical information regarding the safety aspects of the uses not only of sealed and unsealed sources of radiation, but also for those machines that produce ionizing radiation. The first of these training courses, 'Safety and Regulation of Unsealed Sources' was held in Dublin, Ireland, June through July 1989 with the co-operation of the Nuclear Energy Board and Trinity College. This was an interregional training course, the participants came from all over the world. The second and third interregional courses, 'Safety and Regulation

  20. Safeness of radiological machinery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokoyama, Shun

    1979-01-01

    The human factors affecting the safeness of radiological machinery, which are often very big and complicated machines, are described from the stand point of handling. 20 to 50% of the troubles on equipments seem to be caused by men. This percentage will become even higher in highly developed equipments. Human factors have a great influence on the safeness of radiological equipments. As the human factors, there are sensory factors and knowledge factors as well as psychological factors, and the combination of these factors causes mishandling and danger. Medical services at present are divided in various areas, and consist of the teamwork of the people in various professions. Good human relationship, education and control are highly required to secure the safeness. (Kobatake, H.)

  1. Keeping Food Safe

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-05-27

    This CDC Kidtastics podcast discusses things kids and parents can do to help prevent illness by keeping food safe.  Created: 5/27/2009 by National Center for Zoonotic, Vector-Borne, and Enteric Diseases (NCZVED).   Date Released: 5/27/2009.

  2. Effective and Safe Ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup; Amdahl, Jørgen; Rutgersson, Olle

    1996-01-01

    A Joint Nordic Research project "Effecive and Safe Ships" is presented. The project is aiming to develop methods and tools for quantitative evaluation fo ship safety. This report is the report of the preliminary phase where the plan for the main project is developed. The objectives of the project...

  3. Are EU Banks Safe?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.J. Theissen (Roel)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ What exactly are the rules banks are subject to, and are they fit for purpose? These are the two questions addressed in this book ‘Are EU banks safe?’ and its descriptive companion book ‘EU banking supervision’. The full rulebook on banks is difficult to find

  4. The safe home project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arphorn, Sara; Jiraniratisai, Sopaphan; Rungtakul, Rungsri; Phutta, Nikom

    2011-12-01

    The Thai Health Promotion Foundation supported the Improvement of Quality of Life of Informal Workers project in Ban Luang District, Amphur Photaram, Ratchaburi Province. There were many informal workers in Ban Luang District. Sweet-crispy fish producers in Ban Luang were the largest group among the sweet-crispy fish producers in Thailand. This project was aimed at improving living and working conditions of informal workers, with a focus on the sweet-crispy fish group. Good practices of improved living and working conditions were used to help informal workers build safe, healthy and productive work environments. These informal workers often worked in substandard conditions and were exposed to various hazards in the working area. These hazards included risk of exposure to hot work environment, ergonomics-related injuries, chemical hazards, electrical hazards etc. Ergonomics problems were commonly in the sweet-crispy fish group. Unnatural postures such as prolonged sitting were performed dominantly. One hundred and fifty informal workers participated in this project. Occupational health volunteers were selected to encourage occupational health and safety in four groups of informal workers in 2009. The occupational health volunteers trained in 2008 were farmers, beauty salon workers and doll makers. The occupational health and safety knowledge is extended to a new informal worker group: sweet-crispy fish producer, in 2009. The occupational health and safety training for sweet-crispy fish group is conducted by occupational health volunteers. The occupational health volunteers increased their skills and knowledge assist in to make safe home and safe community through participatory oriented training. The improvement of living and working condition is conducted by using a modified WISH, Work Improvement for Safe Home, checklist. The plans of improvement were recorded. The informal workers showed improvement mostly on material handling and storage. The safe uses and safe

  5. SAFE users manual. Volume 4. Computer programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grady, L.M.

    1983-06-01

    Documentation for the Safeguards Automated Facility Evaluation (SAFE) computer programs is presented. The documentation is in the form of subprogram trees, program abstracts, flowcharts, and listings. Listings are provided on microfiche

  6. 23 CFR 450.320 - Congestion management process in transportation management areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Congestion management process in transportation... Programming § 450.320 Congestion management process in transportation management areas. (a) The transportation planning process in a TMA shall address congestion management through a process that provides for safe and...

  7. Providing a Safe Environment for Students with Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverstein, Janet H.; Jackson, Crystal C.; Bobo, Nichole; Kaufman, Francine R.; Butler, Sarah; Marschilok, Katie

    2009-01-01

    Current diabetes regimens require more effort than ever before. The level of diabetes control students are able to maintain is affected greatly by their ability to care for their diabetes during the school day. This article reviews use of School Health Plans and Diabetes Medical Management Plans in schools. Students with diabetes, their families,…

  8. Providing safe medicines for children in Nigeria: The impediments ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    clinical medicine trials and repeated victims of use of fake and adulterated ... comprehensive national pediatric drug research network in collaborations with ... present at the International Paediatric Pharmacology .... Drugs,[33] Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology[34] ..... Nigerian Medical and Dental Council, Paediatric.

  9. Mifrenz: Safe email for children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Hunt

    Full Text Available Products currently available for monitoring children\\'s email usage are either considered to encourage dubious ethical behaviour or are time consuming for parents to administer. This paper describes the development of a new email client application for children called Mifrenz. This new application gives parents the ability to let their children safely use email, with the minimum of intervention. It was developed using mostly free software and also with the desire to provide real first hand programming examples to demonstrate to students.

  10. Transport Nuclear Liability Insurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Folens, M.

    2006-01-01

    Although transport of nuclear substances represents only a very small part of the global transport of dangerous goods, it takes place every day all over the world and it is part of our daily life. Transport of nuclear material takes also place at every stage of the nuclear fuel cycle; radioactive materials are carried out all over the world by all major modes of transport: sea, air, road and rail. Despite the large number of nuclear transports, they are not considered as posing a serious risk. A major nuclear incident is almost always associated with the operating of fixed installations such as nuclear power plants; just think about Three Mile Island and Chernobyl. This perception is strengthened by the absence so far of serious accidents in the nuclear transport sector and this finding is in fact proof of the very safe conditions of nuclear transport. But accidents can never be excluded entirely and in some cases damages could be as large as those caused by fixed installations. This means that protection of the interests of possible victims should also be covered in a correct way. That is why the special nuclear liability regime has also been developed to cover damage caused by a nuclear transport accident. As stated by Patrick Reyners, the prime motivation for originally adopting a special nuclear regime was the harmonisation of national legislation and that nowhere more than in the field of international transport operations is such harmonisation felt desirable . The international legal regime has been developed along two tracks, one based on the mode of transport and the other based on the notion of dangerous goods. The linkage between those two tracks is of permanent concern and the mode of transport is the key element to determine which international instrument should be applicable. The purpose of this paper is to briefly introduce the financial security provided by the insurance industry to cover the international nuclear liability regime for nuclear

  11. Emergency Response to Radioactive Material Transport Accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EL-shinawy, R.M.K.

    2009-01-01

    Although transport regulations issued by IAEA is providing a high degree of safety during transport opertions,transport accidents involving packages containing radioactive material have occurred and will occur at any time. Whenever a transport accident involving radioactive material accurs, and many will pose no radiation safety problems, emergency respnose actioms are meeded to ensure that radiation safety is maintained. In case of transport accident that result in a significant relesae of radioactive material , loss of shielding or loss of criticality control , that consequences should be controlled or mitigated by proper emergency response actions safety guide, Emergency Response Plamming and Prepardness for transport accidents involving radioactive material, was published by IAEA. This guide reflected all requirememts of IAEA, regulations for safe transport of radioactive material this guide provide guidance to the publicauthorites and other interested organziation who are responsible for establishing such emergency arrangements

  12. Safe Configuration of TLS Connections

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-16

    comparison with observed flows to flag inconsistencies. Keywords: Transport Layer Security ( TLS ), Secure Socket Layer ( SSL ), configuration, secure...servers. SSL / TLS has evolved over 18 years from SSL 1.0 to TLS 1.2 and has been widely deployed and accepted across Internet servers. This has made...and provides a large-scale view of TLS properties across Internet web sites. The guidance provided in [10] describes best practices for SSL / TLS

  13. Preparing regulations for radioactive waste transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robles, Fernando

    2002-01-01

    The article describes the diferent stages in preparing the regulation on safe transport of radioactive materials. The first stage was the support given by the International Atomic Energy Agency in to provide expertise in drafting the national regulation on this matter. The draft is based on the publication from IAEA Regulation on the safe transport of radioactive materials. Also a description of activities made by the Radiation Protection Department of the Energy Directorate of Guatemala is made by the Chief of the Department Dr. Fernando Robles

  14. Escola segura Safe school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Ferreira Liberal

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Revisão das estratégias para tornar o ambiente escolar seguro. Inicialmente os autores contextualizam a violência e os acidentes no ambiente escolar e fazem recomendações, baseadas em dados da literatura, para a implantação de escolas seguras. FONTE DE DADOS: Artigos publicados entre 1993 e 2005 na base de dados MEDLINE. Dados nacionais epidemiológicos e da literatura também foram pesquisados. SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: Há evidência crescente de que a intervenção tem múltiplos componentes. O foco político é a prática em educação em saúde com o envolvimento de toda a comunidade. O norte dessas intervenções é ajudar estudantes e toda a comunidade a adotar um comportamento seguro e saudável. As escolas estão assumindo um envolvimento crescente na promoção da saúde, prevenção de doenças e prevenção de trauma. Nesse contexto de prevenção de causas externas de morbimortalidade, é importante reconhecer o risco ambiental, locais e comportamentos de risco como favoráveis ao trauma e à violência, além de um novo conceito de acidentes como algo que possa ser evitado. CONCLUSÃO: A implementação da escola segura representa uma nova direção promissora para o trabalho preventivo baseado na escola. É importante notar que uma escola segura deve intervir não meramente na sua estrutura física, mas também torná-la tão segura quanto possível, trabalhando com a comunidade escolar por meio de educação em saúde, discutindo principalmente o comportamento saudável.OBJECTIVE: To review the strategies to make school a safe environment. The paper first addresses the social context of accidents and violence in the school environment, and makes recommendations, based on the literature data, for the implementation of safe schools. SOURCE OF DATA: Articles published between 1993 and 2005 in the MEDLINE database. Brazilian epidemiological and literature data have also been searched. SUMMARY OF THE FINDINGS: There is

  15. The transportation institutional plan: Cooperative planning for NWPA transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denny, S.H.; Livingston-Behan, E.A.

    1987-01-01

    The Transportation Institutional Plan, published in 1986 by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM), defines a process for effective interaction among those who may be affected by transportation activities conducted under provisions of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (NWPA). The Plan describes formal mechanisms for identifying, addressing, and resolving specific transportation issues. An appendix to the Plan includes detailed discussion of the following transportation issues: (1) the transportation of defense waste; (2) prenotification; (3) physical and rail shipments; (4) highway routing; (5) rail routing; (6) inspection and enforcement for highway and rail shipments; (7) emergency response; (8) liability coverage for transportation to NWPA facilities; (9) cask design and testing; (10) overweight truck shipments; (11) rail service analysis; (12) mixture of transportation modes; (13) transportation infrastructure improvements; (14) OCRWM training standards; (15) transportation operational procedures; and (16) State, Tribal, and local regulation of transportation. The OCRWM's intent is to provide an open accounting of planning, to identify opportunities for public involvement in program activities, and to foster communication and negotiation in the cooperative development of a safe, efficient, and cost-effective NWPA transportation program

  16. Prepare to protect: Operating and maintaining a tornado safe room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herseth, Andrew; Goldsmith-Grinspoon, Jennifer; Scott, Pataya

    2017-06-01

    Operating and maintaining a tornado safe room can be critical to the effective continuity of business operations because a firm's most valuable asset is its people. This paper describes aspects of operations and maintenance (O&M) for existing tornado safe rooms as well as a few planning and design aspects that affect the ultimate operation of a safe room for situations where a safe room is planned, but not yet constructed. The information is based on several Federal Emergency Management Agency safe room publications that provide guidance on emergency management and operations, as well as the design and construction of tornado safe rooms.

  17. Inherently safe reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maartensson, Anders

    1992-01-01

    A rethinking of nuclear reactor safety has created proposals for new designs based on inherent and passive safety principles. Diverging interpretations of these concepts can be found. This article reviews the key features of proposed advanced power reactors. An evaluation is made of the degree of inherent safety for four different designs: the AP-600, the PIUS, the MHTGR and the PRISM. The inherent hazards of today's most common reactor principles are used as reference for the evaluation. It is concluded that claims for the new designs being inherently, naturally or passively safe are not substantiated by experience. (author)

  18. Vitamins, Are They Safe?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Hamishehkar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The consumption of a daily multivitamin among people all over the world is dramatically increasing in recent years. Most of the people believe that if vitamins are not effective, at least they are safe. However, the long term health consequences of vitamins consumption are unknown. This study aimed to assess the side effects and possible harmful and detrimental properties of vitamins and to discuss whether vitamins can be used as safe health products or dietary supplements. We performed a MEDLINE/PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus and Google Scholar search and assessed reference lists of the included studies which were published from 1993 through 2015. The studies, with an emphasis on RCTs (randomized controlled clinical trials, were reviewed. As some vitamins such as fat-soluble vitamins (vitamin A, vitamin D, vitamin E, and also some of the water-soluble vitamins like folic acid may cause adverse events and some like vitamin C is widely taken assuming that it has so many benefits and no harm, we included relevant studies with negative or undesired results regarding the effect of these vitamins on health. Our recommendation is that taking high-dose supplements of vitamins A, E, D, C, and folic acid is not always effective for prevention of disease, and it can even be harmful to the health.

  19. InaSAFE applications in disaster preparedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pranantyo, Ignatius Ryan; Fadmastuti, Mahardika; Chandra, Fredy

    2015-04-01

    Disaster preparedness activities aim to reduce the impact of disasters by being better prepared to respond when a disaster occurs. In order to better anticipate requirements during a disaster, contingency planning activities can be undertaken prior to a disaster based on a realistic disaster scenario. InaSAFE is a tool that can inform this process. InaSAFE is a free and open source software that estimates the impact to people and infrastructure from potential hazard scenarios. By using InaSAFE, disaster managers can develop scenarios of disaster impacts (people and infrastructures affected) to inform their contingency plan and emergency response operation plan. While InaSAFE provides the software framework exposure data and hazard data are needed as inputs to run this software. Then InaSAFE can be used to forecast the impact of the hazard scenario to the exposure data. InaSAFE outputs include estimates of the number of people, buildings and roads are affected, list of minimum needs (rice and clean water), and response checklist. InaSAFE is developed by Indonesia's National Disaster Management Agency (BNPB) and the Australian Government, through the Australia-Indonesia Facility for Disaster Reduction (AIFDR), in partnership with the World Bank - Global Facility for Disaster Reduction and Recovery (GFDRR). This software has been used in many parts of Indonesia, including Padang, Maumere, Jakarta, and Slamet Mountain for emergency response and contingency planning.

  20. Cool and Safe: Multiplicity in Safe Innovation at Unilever

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penders, Bart

    2011-01-01

    This article presents the making of a safe innovation: the application of ice structuring protein (ISP) in edible ices. It argues that safety is not the absence of risk but is an active accomplishment; innovations are not "made safe afterward" but "safe innovations are made". Furthermore, there are multiple safeties to be accomplished in the…

  1. Safe pill-dispensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testa, Massimiliano; Pollard, John

    2007-01-01

    Each patient is supplied with a smart-card containing a Radio Frequency IDentification (RFID) chip storing a unique identification code. The patient places the Smart-card on a pill-dispenser unit containing an RFID reader. The RFID chip is read and the code sent to a Base-station via a wireless Bluetooth link. A database containing both patient details and treatment information is queried at the Base-station using the RFID as the search key. The patient's treatment data (i.e., drug names, quantities, time, etc.) are retrieved and sent back to the pill-dispenser unit via Bluetooth. Appropriate quantities of the required medications are automatically dispensed, unless the patient has already taken his/her daily dose. Safe, confidential communication and operation is ensured.

  2. A safe workplace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rittsel, Hans; Andersson, Bengt A.

    1993-01-01

    Full text: The video 'A safe workplace' has been produced by ABB Atom in order to create a tool for showing different target audiences that ABB Atom Nuclear Fuel Production Plant is a safe workplace and to 'de-mystify' nuclear fuel production. The main target audiences are visitor groups and employees of the company, but the video also qualifies for use as an information tool for other target groups who ask for a proper explanation of the way nuclear fuel is produced. The summarized content of the video is as follows: All individual steps of the production process are described with focus on the safety, quality and environmental requirements. The first part shows the delivery of UF 6 (uranium hexafluoride) to the plant and the following process for the conversion to UO 2 (uranium dioxide). The conversion method used is wet conversion that includes evaporation, precipitation, filtration, washing, reduction and stabilization. The next part is a description of the fuel pellet manufacture including uranium oxide blending, pellet pressing, sintering, grinding and a final visual inspection. A separate part, describing the manufacture of fuel pellets with a burnable neutron absorber, is included. The third part shows how to produce fuel rods and complete assemblies. Some of the moments of quality supervision that support the entire manufacturing process are also shown. The last part of the video comprises a brief description of the manufacture of fuel channels and other reactor core components like control rods. The video is produced with a Swedish spoken narrative. The playing time is 15 minutes. The video will be delivered with a text printed in English and copies reproduced in the PAL/VHS system may be ordered from ABB Atom Communication Dept. telefax no +4621-11 41 90, at the price of USD 100.- or SEK 750.- each. (author)

  3. The design, manufacture, and testing of a new generation of ISO freight container for certification as an IP-2 package in compliance with the IAEA Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material, 1985 edition (as amended 1990)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urch, K.C.

    1997-01-01

    Solid low level radioactive waste (LLW) which arises at nuclear power stations and other nuclear facilities in the UK, is routinely transported to British Nuclear Fuels' site at Drigg in Cumbria for disposal. A requirement was identified for the use of a refurbished ISO freight container of the full-height design, to transport drummed LLW to the site of a supercompaction facility prior to disposal at Drigg. This paper describes the reasoned technical justification employed for certifying the refurbished ISO freight container, Design No. 2912B, as an IP-2 package under Paragraph 523 of the IAEA Transport Regulations and the development of a new generation of ISO Freight container, Design No. 2044. It was recognised that the use of a refurbished container was only an interim measure and because of significant changes in the acceptance criteria for disposal, the increased use of high force compaction techniques and the proposed amendments to the IAEA Transport Regulations, Nuclear Electric embarked upon the development of a new generation of ISO freight containers. The new container design (Design No. 2044) incorporates a readily decontaminable stainless steel interior, a comprehensive load restraint system designed for the transport of single and multiple packages, and is lined with a polyurethane foam between the inner and outer skins. It is designed to transport 70 off, 200 litre drums of LLW (stacked in two layers) and other payloads of size not greater than 4 m long x 2 m wide and 20 tonnes in weight. The container was subjected to a range of tests to prove compliance with the ISO standard and the IAEA Transport Regulations. Following the preparation of the required documentation, in particular a Safety Case and comprehensive Operating and Maintenance Instructions, a Certificate of Regulatory Compliance was issued by the appropriate authority certifying the container as an Industrial Package Type 2 (IP-2) suitable for the transport of drummed LLW and other

  4. Keeping you safe by making machine tools safe

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    CERN’s third safety objective for 2012 concerns the safety of equipment - and machine tools in particular.   There are three prerequisites for ensuring that a machine tool can be used safely: ·      the machine tool must comply with Directive 2009/104/EC, ·      the layout of the workshop must be compliant, and ·      everyone who uses the machine tool must be trained. Provided these conditions are met, the workshop head can grant authorisation to use the machine tool. To fulfil this objective, an inventory of the machine tools must be drawn up and the people responsible for them identified. The HSE Unit's Safety Inspection Service produces compliance reports for the machine tools. In order to meet the third objective set by the Director-General, the section has doubled its capacity to carry out inspections: ...

  5. Safe percutaneous suprapubic catheterisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, N K; Goel, A; Sankhwar, S N

    2012-11-01

    We describe our technique of percutaneous suprapubic catheter insertion with special reference to steps that help to avoid common complications of haematuria and catheter misplacement. The procedure is performed using a stainless steel reusable trocar under local infiltrative anaesthesia, usually at the bedside. After clinical confirmation of a full bladder, the trocar is advanced into the bladder through a skin incision. Once the bladder is entered, the obturator is removed and the assistant inserts a Foley catheter followed by rapid balloon inflation. Slight traction is applied to the catheter for about five minutes. Patients with previous lower abdominal surgery, an inadequately distended bladder or acute pelvic trauma do not undergo suprapubic catheterisation using this method. The procedure was performed in 72 men (mean age: 42.4 years, range: 18-78 years) with urinary retention with a palpable bladder. The average duration of the procedure was less than five minutes. No complications were noted in any of the patients. Trocar suprapubic catheter insertion is a safe and effective bedside procedure for emergency bladder drainage and can be performed by resident surgeons. The common complications associated with the procedure can be avoided with a few careful steps.

  6. OPINION: Safe exponential manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phoenix, Chris; Drexler, Eric

    2004-08-01

    In 1959, Richard Feynman pointed out that nanometre-scale machines could be built and operated, and that the precision inherent in molecular construction would make it easy to build multiple identical copies. This raised the possibility of exponential manufacturing, in which production systems could rapidly and cheaply increase their productive capacity, which in turn suggested the possibility of destructive runaway self-replication. Early proposals for artificial nanomachinery focused on small self-replicating machines, discussing their potential productivity and their potential destructiveness if abused. In the light of controversy regarding scenarios based on runaway replication (so-called 'grey goo'), a review of current thinking regarding nanotechnology-based manufacturing is in order. Nanotechnology-based fabrication can be thoroughly non-biological and inherently safe: such systems need have no ability to move about, use natural resources, or undergo incremental mutation. Moreover, self-replication is unnecessary: the development and use of highly productive systems of nanomachinery (nanofactories) need not involve the construction of autonomous self-replicating nanomachines. Accordingly, the construction of anything resembling a dangerous self-replicating nanomachine can and should be prohibited. Although advanced nanotechnologies could (with great difficulty and little incentive) be used to build such devices, other concerns present greater problems. Since weapon systems will be both easier to build and more likely to draw investment, the potential for dangerous systems is best considered in the context of military competition and arms control.

  7. Aflatoxins & Safe Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe eVillers

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines both field experience and research on the prevention of the exponential growth of aflatoxins during multi-month post harvest storage in hot, humid countries. The approach described is the application of modern safe storage methods using flexible, Ultra Hermetic™ structures that create an unbreatheable atmosphere through insect and microorganism respiration alone, without use of chemicals, fumigants, or pumps. Laboratory and field data are cited and specific examples are given describing the uses of Ultra Hermetic storage to prevent the growth of aflatoxins with their significant public health consequences. Also discussed is the presently limited quantitative information on the relative occurrence of excessive levels of aflatoxin (>20 ppb before versus after multi-month storage of such crops as maize, rice and peanuts when under high humidity, high temperature conditions and, consequently, the need for further research to determine the frequency at which excessive aflatoxin levels are reached in the field versus after months of post-harvest storage. The significant work being done to reduce aflatoxin levels in the field is mentioned, as well as its probable implications on post harvest storage. Also described is why, with some crops such as peanuts, using Ultra Hermetic storage may require injection of carbon dioxide or use of an oxygen absorber as an accelerant. The case of peanuts is discussed and experimental data is described.

  8. The high affinity K+ transporter AtHAK5 plays a physiological role in planta at very low K+ concentrations and provides a caesium uptake pathway in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Zhi; Hampton, Corrina R; Shin, Ryoung; Barkla, Bronwyn J; White, Philip J; Schachtman, Daniel P

    2008-01-01

    Caesium (Cs(+)) is a potentially toxic mineral element that is released into the environment and taken up by plants. Although Cs(+) is chemically similar to potassium (K(+)), and much is known about K(+) transport mechanisms, it is not clear through which K(+) transport mechanisms Cs(+) is taken up by plant roots. In this study, the role of AtHAK5 in high affinity K(+) and Cs(+) uptake was characterized. It is demonstrated that AtHAK5 is localized to the plasma membrane under conditions of K(+) deprivation, when it is expressed. Growth analysis showed that AtHAK5 plays a role during severe K(+) deprivation. Under K(+)-deficient conditions in the presence of Cs(+), Arabidopsis seedlings lacking AtHAK5 had increased inhibition of root growth and lower Cs(+) accumulation, and significantly higher leaf chlorophyll concentrations than wild type. These data indicate that, in addition to transporting K(+) in planta, AtHAK5 also transports Cs(+). Further experiments showed that AtHAK5 mediated Cs(+) uptake into yeast cells and that, although the K(+) deficiency-induced expression of AtHAK5 was inhibited by low concentrations of NH(4)(+) in planta, Cs(+) uptake by yeast was stimulated by low concentrations of NH(4)(+). Interestingly, the growth of the Arabidopsis atakt1-1 mutant was more sensitive to Cs(+) than the wild type. This may be explained, in part, by increased expression of AtHAK5 in the atakt1-1 mutant. It is concluded that AtHAK5 is a root plasma membrane uptake mechanism for K(+) and Cs(+) under conditions of low K(+) availability.

  9. Using pore-scale imaging and modeling to provide new insights in multi-phase flow, transport and reaction phenomena in porous media (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijeljic, B.; Andrew, M. G.; Menke, H. P.; Blunt, M. J.

    2013-12-01

    Advances in X ray imaging techniques made it possible not only to accurately describe solid and fluid(s) distributions in the pore space but also to study dynamics of multi-phase flow and reactive transport in-situ. This has opened up a range of new opportunities to better understand fundamental physics at the pore scale by experiment, and test and validate theoretical models in order to develop predictive tools at the pore scale and use it for upscaling. Firstly, we illustrate this concept by describing a new methodology for predicting non-Fickian transport in millimeter-sized three-dimensional micro-CT images of a beadpack, a sandstone, and a carbonate, representing porous media with an increasing degree of pore-scale complexity. The key strategy is to retain the full information on flow and transport signature of a porous medium by using probability distribution functions (PDFs) of voxel velocities for flow, and both PDFs of particle displacements and PDFs of particle transit times between voxels for transport. For this purpose, direct-simulation flow and transport model is used to analyse the relationship between pore structure, velocity, and the dynamics of the evolving plume. The model predictions for PDFs of particle displacements obtained by the model are in excellent agreement with those measured on similar cores in nuclear magnetic resonance experiments. A key determinant for non-Fickian transport is the spread in velocity distribution in the pore space. Further, we present micro-CT imaging of capillary trapping of scCO2 at reservoir conditions in a range of carbonates and sandstones having different pore structure and demonstrate that substantial quantities of scCO2 can be trapped in the pore space. Higher residual scCO2 saturations are found in sandstones compared to carbonates. The trapped ganglia exhibit different distribution of size, related to the inherent structure of pore space. Pore structures with large, open pores that are well connected lead

  10. A sustainable safe traffic and transport system : déjà-vu in urban planning ? Contribution to the conference `Traffic safety on two continents', Lisbon, Portugal, September 22-24, 1997.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, A.

    1997-01-01

    This paper deals with the question of how to reconcile urban development with traffic structure, traffic flows and transport modes. A distinction is drawn between the so-called `pan-urban' projects and those within individual residential areas. A sketch of developments and trends is given, designed

  11. Photo-Crosslinking of Pendent Uracil Units Provides Supramolecular Hole Injection/Transport Conducting Polymers for Highly Efficient Light-Emitting Diodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsi-Kang Shih

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A new process for modifying a polymeric material for use as a hole injection transport layer in organic light-emitting diodes has been studied, which is through 2π + 2π photodimerization of a DNA-mimetic π-conjugated poly(triphenylamine-carbazole presenting pendent uracil groups (PTC-U under 1 h of UV irradiation. Multilayer florescence OLED (Organic light-emitting diodes device with the PTC-U-1hr as a hole injection/transport layer (ITO (Indium tin oxide/HITL (hole-injection/transport layer (15 nm/N,N'-di(1-naphthyl- N,N'-diphenyl-(1,1'-biphenyl-4,4'-diamine (NPB (15 nm/Tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline aluminum (Alq3 (60 nm/LiF (1 nm/Al (100 nm is fabricated, a remarkable improvement in performance (Qmax (external quantum efficiency = 2.65%, Bmax (maximum brightness = 56,704 cd/m2, and LE (luminance efficiencymax = 8.9 cd/A relative to the control PTC-U (Qmax = 2.40%, Bmax = 40,490 cd/m2, and LEmax = 8.0 cd/A. Multilayer phosphorescence OLED device with the PTC-U-1hr as a hole injection/transport layer (ITO/HITL (15 nm/Ir(ppy3:PVK (40 nm/BCP (10nm/Alq3 (40 nm/LiF (1 nm/Al (100 nm is fabricated by successive spin-coating processes, a remarkable improvement in performance (Qmax = 9.68%, Bmax = 41,466 cd/m2, and LEmax = 36.6 cd/A relative to the control PTC-U (Qmax = 8.35%, Bmax = 34,978 cd/m2, and LEmax = 30.8 cd/A and the commercial product (poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene:polystyrenesulfonate PEDOT:PSS (Qmax = 4.29%, Bmax = 15,678 cd/m2, and LEmax = 16.2 cd/A has been achieved.

  12. Feeling safe during an inpatient hospitalization: a concept analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollon, Deene

    2014-08-01

    This paper aims to explore the critical attributes of the concept feeling safe. The safe delivery of care is a high priority; however; it is not really known what it means to the patient to 'feel safe' during an inpatient hospitalization. This analysis explores the topic of safety from the patient's perspective. Concept analysis. The data bases of CINAHL, Medline, PsychInfo and Google Scholar for the years 1995-2012 were searched using the terms safe and feeling safe. The eight-step concept analysis method of Walker and Avant was used to analyse the concept of feeling safe. Uses and defining attributes, as well as identified antecedents, consequences and empirical referents, are presented. Case examples are provided to assist in the understanding of defining attributes. Feeling safe is defined as an emotional state where perceptions of care contribute to a sense of security and freedom from harm. Four attributes were identified: trust, cared for, presence and knowledge. Relationship, environment and suffering are the antecedents of feeling safe, while control, hope and relaxed or calm are the consequences. Empirical referents and early development of a theory of feeling safe are explored. This analysis begins the work of synthesizing qualitative research already completed around the concept of feeling safe by defining the key attributes of the concept. Support for the importance of developing patient-centred models of care and creating positive environments where patients receive high-quality care and feel safe is provided. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Nuclear transport - The regulatory dimension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, L.

    2002-01-01

    The benefits that the peaceful applications of nuclear energy have brought to society are due in no small part to industry's capacity to transport radioactive materials safely, efficiently and reliably. The nuclear transport industry has a vital role in realising a fundamental objective of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) as stated in its statute to accelerate and enlarge the contribution of atomic energy to peace, health and prosperity throughout the world. The context in which transports currently take place is complex, and rapidly changing. In many respects transport is being viewed as an integral market issue and not a subsidiary concern. The availability of carriers drives routing decisions and changes in material flows necessitate new approaches to packaging and transport scenarios. Pressures on the transport sector are not without serious consequences; they can cause delays and in some cases cancellation of planned movements. Complex routings and the necessary use of chartered carriers can push up costs and work against cost efficiency. Since the events of 11 September 2001 the security of nuclear transports has contributed an added dimension to how transports take place. Transports of radioactive material have an outstanding safety record, indeed the transport of such materials could be regarded as a model for the transport of other classes of dangerous goods. This safety record is achieved by two inter-related factors. It is due primarily to well founded regulations developed by such key intergovernmental organisations as the IAEA, with the essential contributions of the member states who participate in the implementation of regulations and the review process. It is due also to the professionalism of those in the industry. There is a necessary synergy between the two - between the regulators whose task it is to make and to enforce the rules for safe, efficient and reliable transport and those whose job it is to transport within the rules. It

  14. Safe Detection System for Hydrogen Leaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lieberman, Robert A. [Intelligent Optical Systems, Inc., Torrance, CA (United States); Beshay, Manal [Intelligent Optical Systems, Inc., Torrance, CA (United States)

    2012-02-29

    Hydrogen is an "environmentally friendly" fuel for future transportation and other applications, since it produces only pure ("distilled") water when it is consumed. Thus, hydrogen-powered vehicles are beginning to proliferate, with the total number of such vehicles expected to rise to nearly 100,000 within the next few years. However, hydrogen is also an odorless, colorless, highly flammable gas. Because of this, there is an important need for hydrogen safety monitors that can warn of hazardous conditions in vehicles, storage facilities, and hydrogen production plants. To address this need, IOS has developed a unique intrinsically safe optical hydrogen sensing technology, and has embodied it in detector systems specifically developed for safety applications. The challenge of using light to detect a colorless substance was met by creating chemically-sensitized optical materials whose color changes in the presence of hydrogen. This reversible reaction provides a sensitive, reliable, way of detecting hydrogen and measuring its concentration using light from low-cost LEDs. Hydrogen sensors based on this material were developed in three completely different optical formats: point sensors ("optrodes"), integrated optic sensors ("optical chips"), and optical fibers ("distributed sensors") whose entire length responds to hydrogen. After comparing performance, cost, time-to-market, and relative market need for these sensor types, the project focused on designing a compact optrode-based single-point hydrogen safety monitor. The project ended with the fabrication of fifteen prototype units, and the selection of two specific markets: fuel cell enclosure monitoring, and refueling/storage safety. Final testing and development of control software for these markets await future support.

  15. Safe management of waste from health-care activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pruess, A.; Giroult, E.; Rushbrook, P.

    1999-01-01

    The waste produced in the course of health-care activities, from contaminated needles to radioactive isotopes, carries a greater potential for causing infection and injury than any other type of waste, and inadequate or inappropriate management is likely to have serious public health consequences and deleterious effects on the environment. This handbook - the result of extensive international consultation and collaboration - provides comprehensive guidance on safe, efficient, and environmentally sound methods for the handling and disposal of health-care wastes. The various categories of waste are clearly defined and the particular hazards that each poses are described. Considerable prominence is given to the careful planning that is essential for the success of waste management; workable means of minimizing waste production are outlined and the role of reuse and recycling of waste is discussed. Most of the text, however, is devoted to the collection, segregation, storage, transport, and disposal of wastes. Details of containers for each category of waste, labelling of waste packages, and storage conditions are provided, and the various technologies for treatment of waste and disposal of final residues are discussed at length. Advice is given on occupational safety for all personnel involved with waste handling, and a separate chapter is devoted to the closely related topic of hospital hygiene and infection control. The handbook pays particular attention to basic processes and technologies that are not only safe but also affordable, sustainable, and culturally appropriate. For health-care settings in which resources are severely limited there is a separate chapter on minimal programmes; this summarizes all the simplest and least costly techniques that can be employed for the safe management of health-care wastes. The guide is aimed at public health managers and policy-makers, hospital managers, environmental health professionals, and all administrators with an

  16. Transportation programs : challenges facing the department of transportation and congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    A safe, efficient, and convenient : transportation system is integral to : the health of our economy and : quality of life. Our nations vast : transportation system of airways, : railways, roads, transit systems, : and waterways has served this : ...

  17. Safe Minimum Internal Temperature Chart

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Internal Temperature Chart Safe steps in food handling, cooking, and storage are essential in preventing foodborne illness. You can't see, smell, or taste harmful bacteria that may cause illness. In every step of food preparation, follow the four guidelines to keep food safe: ...

  18. More than a Safe Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadowski, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Over the past three decades, much of the conversation about LGBTQ students in schools has centered on safety--anti-bullying policies, the "safe space" of gay-straight alliances, and "safe zones" marked by rainbow-colored stickers on classroom doors. In this article, Michael Sadowski argues that it's time to move beyond safety…

  19. Staying Safe in the Water

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    In this podcast, Dr. Julie Gilchrist, a pediatrician and medical epidemiologist from CDC’s Injury Center, talks about staying safe in the water. Tips are for all audiences, with a focus on preventing drownings and keeping children safe in and around the pool, lake, or ocean.

  20. THE CONSEQUENCES OF GLOBALIZATION UPON SAFE TOURISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Mihić

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Globalization, a phenomenon on the rise, is characterized by the free cross-bor- der movement of individuals, technologies, and capital. It has far- reaching consequen- ces for tourism, too, as it implies travel for leisure and business, and correspondingly, financial transfers between various nation states. Startinf from the status quo in the field, the current paper sets out to analyze the consequences and implications of globalization upon safe tourism and conduct a marketing research into the perceptions of consumers upon Serbia as a safe vacation destination for the purpose of safe tourism. Finally the research results will be presented and several solutions will be provided for improving security in tourism zones

  1. Materials for passively safe reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simnad, T.

    1993-01-01

    Future nuclear power capacity will be based on reactor designs that include passive safety features if recent progress in advanced nuclear power developments is realized. There is a high potential for nuclear systems that are smaller and easier to operate than the current generation of reactors, especially when passive or intrinsic characteristics are applied to provide inherent stability of the chain reaction and to minimize the burden on equipment and operating personnel. Taylor, has listed the following common generic technical features as the most important goals for the principal reactor development systems: passive stability, simplification, ruggedness, case of operation, and modularity. Economic competitiveness also depends on standardization and assurance of licensing. The performance of passively safe reactors will be greatly influenced by the successful development of advanced fuels and materials that will provide lower fuel-cycle costs. A dozen new designs of advanced power reactors have been described recently, covering a wide spectrum of reactor types, including pressurized water reactors, boiling water reactors, heavy-water reactors, modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactors (MHTGRs), and fast breeder reactors. These new designs address the need for passive safety features as well as the requirement of economic competitiveness

  2. Nanosized Linde Type A Zeolites Providing Water-Selective Transport Pathways Through Chlorine Tolerant Polymers in Molecular Sieve Nanocomposite (MoSIN) Membranes for Reclamation of Impaired Waters

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — One of the challenges currently faced by NASA is providing clean water from the limited supplies available in the isolated environment of a space shuttle or station....

  3. Safe Handover : Safe Patients - The Electronic Handover System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Till, Alex; Sall, Hanish; Wilkinson, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Failure of effective handover is a major preventable cause of patient harm. We aimed to promote accurate recording of high-quality clinical information using an Electronic Handover System (EHS) that would contribute to a sustainable improvement in effective patient care and safety. Within our hospital the human factors associated with poor communication were compromising patient care and unnecessarily increasing the workload of staff due to the poor quality of handovers. Only half of handovers were understood by the doctors expected to complete them, and more than half of our medical staff felt it posed a risk to patient safety. We created a standardised proforma for handovers that contained specific sub-headings, re-classified patient risk assessments, and aided escalation of care by adding prompts for verbal handover. Sources of miscommunication were removed, accountability for handovers provided, and tasks were re-organised to reduce the workload of staff. Long-term, three-month data showed that each sub-heading achieved at least 80% compliance (an average improvement of approximately 40% for the overall quality of handovers). This translated into 91% of handovers being subjectively clear to junior doctors. 87% of medical staff felt we had reduced a risk to patient safety and 80% felt it increased continuity of care. Without guidance, doctors omit key information required for effective handover. All organisations should consider implementing an electronic handover system as a viable, sustainable and safe solution to handover of care that allows patient safety to remain at the heart of the NHS.

  4. Shielded Canister Transporter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eidem, G.G. Jr.; Fages, R.

    1993-01-01

    The Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) will produce canisters filled with high-level radioactive waste immobilized in borosilicate glass. This report discusses a Shielded Canister Transporter (SCT) which will provide the means for safe transportation and handling of the canisters from the Vitrification Building to the Canister Storage Building (CSB). The stainless steel canisters are 0.61 meters in diameter, 3.0 meters tall, and weigh approximately 2,135 kilograms, with a maximum exterior surface dose rate of 90,000 R/hr. The canisters are placed into storage tubes to a maximum of three tall (two for overpack canisters) with an impact limiter placed at the tube bottom and between each canister. A floor plug seals the top of the storage tube at the operating floor level of the CSB

  5. Final report : UAB transportation workforce development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Transportation engineering supports safe and efficient movement of people and goods through : planning, design, operation and management of transportation systems. As needs for : transportation continue to grow, the future needs for qualified transpo...

  6. The transport of radioactive materials - Future challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkinson, W.L.

    2008-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Materials, TS-R-1, set the standards for the packages used in the transport of radioactive materials under both normal and accident conditions. Transport organisations are also required to implement Radiation Protection Programmes to control radiation dose exposure to both workers and the public. The industry has now operated under this regulatory regime safely and efficiently for nearly 50 years. It is vital that this record be maintained in the future when the demands on the transport industry are increasing. Nuclear power is being called upon more and more to satisfy the world's growing need for sustainable, clean and affordable electricity and there will be a corresponding demand for nuclear fuel cycle services. There will also be a growing need for other radioactive materials, notably large sources such as Cobalt 60 sources for a range of important medical and industrial uses, as well as radio-pharmaceuticals. A reliable transport infrastructure is essential to support all these industry sectors and the challenge will be to ensure that this can be maintained safely and securely in a changing world where public and political concerns are increasing. This paper will discuss the main issues which need to be addressed. The demand for uranium has led to increased exploration and the development of mines in new locations far removed from the demand centres. This inevitably leads to more transport, sometimes from areas potentially lacking in transport infrastructure, service providers, and experience. The demand for sources for medical applications will also increase, particularly from the rapidly developing regions and this will also involve new transport routes and increased traffic. This raises a variety of issues concerning the ability of the transport infrastructure to meet the future challenge, particularly in an environment where there already exists reluctance on

  7. Accident resistant transport container

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, J.A.; Cole, K.K.

    The invention relates to a container for the safe air transport of plutonium having several intermediate wood layers and a load spreader intermediate an inner container and an outer shell for mitigation of shock during a hypothetical accident.

  8. Accident resistant transport container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, J.A.; Cole, J.K.

    1980-01-01

    The invention relates to a container for the safe air transport of plutonium having several intermediate wood layers and a load spreader intermediate an inner container and an outer shell for mitigation of shock during a hypothetical accident

  9. Safe genetically engineered plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosellini, D; Veronesi, F [Dipartimento di Biologia Vegetale e Biotecnologie Agroambientali e Zootecniche, Universita degli Studi di Perugia, Borgo XX giugno 74, 06121 Perugia (Italy)

    2007-10-03

    The application of genetic engineering to plants has provided genetically modified plants (GMPs, or transgenic plants) that are cultivated worldwide on increasing areas. The most widespread GMPs are herbicide-resistant soybean and canola and insect-resistant corn and cotton. New GMPs that produce vaccines, pharmaceutical or industrial proteins, and fortified food are approaching the market. The techniques employed to introduce foreign genes into plants allow a quite good degree of predictability of the results, and their genome is minimally modified. However, some aspects of GMPs have raised concern: (a) control of the insertion site of the introduced DNA sequences into the plant genome and of its mutagenic effect; (b) presence of selectable marker genes conferring resistance to an antibiotic or an herbicide, linked to the useful gene; (c) insertion of undesired bacterial plasmid sequences; and (d) gene flow from transgenic plants to non-transgenic crops or wild plants. In response to public concerns, genetic engineering techniques are continuously being improved. Techniques to direct foreign gene integration into chosen genomic sites, to avoid the use of selectable genes or to remove them from the cultivated plants, to reduce the transfer of undesired bacterial sequences, and make use of alternative, safer selectable genes, are all fields of active research. In our laboratory, some of these new techniques are applied to alfalfa, an important forage plant. These emerging methods for plant genetic engineering are briefly reviewed in this work.

  10. Safe genetically engineered plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosellini, D; Veronesi, F

    2007-01-01

    The application of genetic engineering to plants has provided genetically modified plants (GMPs, or transgenic plants) that are cultivated worldwide on increasing areas. The most widespread GMPs are herbicide-resistant soybean and canola and insect-resistant corn and cotton. New GMPs that produce vaccines, pharmaceutical or industrial proteins, and fortified food are approaching the market. The techniques employed to introduce foreign genes into plants allow a quite good degree of predictability of the results, and their genome is minimally modified. However, some aspects of GMPs have raised concern: (a) control of the insertion site of the introduced DNA sequences into the plant genome and of its mutagenic effect; (b) presence of selectable marker genes conferring resistance to an antibiotic or an herbicide, linked to the useful gene; (c) insertion of undesired bacterial plasmid sequences; and (d) gene flow from transgenic plants to non-transgenic crops or wild plants. In response to public concerns, genetic engineering techniques are continuously being improved. Techniques to direct foreign gene integration into chosen genomic sites, to avoid the use of selectable genes or to remove them from the cultivated plants, to reduce the transfer of undesired bacterial sequences, and make use of alternative, safer selectable genes, are all fields of active research. In our laboratory, some of these new techniques are applied to alfalfa, an important forage plant. These emerging methods for plant genetic engineering are briefly reviewed in this work

  11. Medicare Provider Data - Hospice Providers

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Hospice Utilization and Payment Public Use File provides information on services provided to Medicare beneficiaries by hospice providers. The Hospice PUF...

  12. Indoor Tanning Is Not Safe

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the sun is by using these tips for skin cancer prevention. Indoor tanning is not a safe way to get vitamin ... to previous findings on the association between indoor tanning and skin cancer. Only a small number of people reported ...

  13. Alcohol use and safe drinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001944.htm Alcohol use and safe drinking To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Alcohol use involves drinking beer, wine, or hard liquor. ...

  14. Dukovany NPP - Safely 16 TERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlcek, J.

    2008-01-01

    In this presentation increasing of power output of the Dukovany NPP is reviewed. To operate all Dukovany Units safely with the perspective of long-term operation (LTO) of 50 - 60 years it is proposed.

  15. Safe drinking during cancer treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ency/patientinstructions/000060.htm Drinking water safely during cancer treatment To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. During and right after your cancer treatment, your body may not be able to protect ...

  16. Neurotransmitter transporters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gether, Ulrik; Andersen, Peter H; Larsson, Orla M

    2006-01-01

    The concentration of neurotransmitters in the extracellular space is tightly controlled by distinct classes of membrane transport proteins. This review focuses on the molecular function of two major classes of neurotransmitter transporter that are present in the cell membrane of neurons and....... Recent research has provided substantial insight into the structure and function of these transporters. In particular, the recent crystallizations of bacterial homologs are of the utmost importance, enabling the first reliable structural models of the mammalian neurotransmitter transporters...

  17. Towards Safe Robotic Surgical Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sloth, Christoffer; Wisniewski, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    a controller for motion compensation in beating-heart surgery, and prove that it is safe, i.e., the surgical tool is kept within an allowable distance and orientation of the heart. We solve the problem by simultaneously finding a control law and a barrier function. The motion compensation system is simulated...... from several initial conditions to demonstrate that the designed control system is safe for every admissible initial condition....

  18. Safe use of ionizing radiations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1973-01-01

    Based on the ''Code of Practice for the protection of persons against ionizing radiations arising from medical and dental use'' (CIS 74-423), this handbook shows how hospital staff can avoid exposing themselves and others to these hazards. It is designed particularly for junior and student nurses. Contents: ionizing radiations, their types and characteristics; their uses and dangers; basic principles in their safe use; safe use in practice; explanation of terms.

  19. Staying Safe in the Water

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-05-15

    In this podcast, Dr. Julie Gilchrist, a pediatrician and medical epidemiologist from CDC’s Injury Center, talks about staying safe in the water. Tips are for all audiences, with a focus on preventing drownings and keeping children safe in and around the pool, lake, or ocean.  Created: 5/15/2008 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC).   Date Released: 5/19/2008.

  20. The eyes, ears and collective voice for nuclear transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, L.

    2000-01-01

    Transport is a vital part of the nuclear industry and the safety record of radioactive materials transport across the world is excellent. This record is due primarily to well-founded regulations developed by such intergovernmental organisations as the International Atomic Energy Agency and the International Maritime Organisation. It is due, also, to the professionalism of those in the industry. Attitudes to nuclear transport are important. They have the potential, if not heeded, and not responded to sensitively and convincingly to make life very much more difficult for those committed to the safe, reliable and efficient transport of nuclear materials. What is required is a balanced situation, which takes account both of the public's attitudes and industry's need for an efficient operation. The voices of the nuclear transport industry and those who value the industry need to be heard. The World Nuclear Transport Institute was established to provide the nuclear transport industry with the collective eyes, ears and voice in the key intergovernmental organisations which are so important to it. The nuclear transport industry has a safety record which could be regarded as a model for the transport of dangerous goods of all kinds. The industry is situated within a comprehensive and strict regime of national and international standards and regulations. That is the message to be disseminated, and that is the commitment of the World Nuclear Transport Institute as it works to protect and to promote the safe, efficient and reliable transport of radioactive materials. (author)

  1. Active and safe transportation of elementary-school students: comparative analysis of the risks of injury associated with children travelling by car, walking and cycling between home and school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavoie, M; Burigusa, G; Maurice, P; Hamel, D; Turmel, E

    2014-11-01

    Elementary school active transportation programs aim to address physical inactivity in children by prompting a modal shift from travel by car to walking or cycling among children living a distance from school conducive to walking or cycling. The objectives of this study are to evaluate the risk of injury related to walking, cycling and travelling by car between home and school among elementary-school students in the Montréal area and to evaluate the impact on number of injuries of a modal shift from travel by car to walking or cycling. The risk of injury was estimated for the 2003-2007 period by calculating the average annual rate of injury in children aged 5 to 12 years walking, cycling or being driven in a car, per 100 million kms travelled during the normal hours of travel between home and school. The impact of a modal shift from travel by car was evaluated for children living a distance from school conducive to walking and cycling (under 1.6 km), that is, the targets of active transportation programs. This evaluation was done using the regional rate of injury calculated for each travel mode. Between 2003 and 2007, an average of 168 children aged 5 to 12 years were injured each year while walking (n = 64), cycling (n = 28) and being driven in a car (n = 76) during the normal hours of travel between home and school in the Montréal area. The rate of injury was 69 children injured per 100 million kms for travel by car (reference group), 314 pedestrians (relative risk [RR] = 4.6; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 4.3-5.1) and 1519 cyclists (RR = 22.2; 95% CI: 14.3-30.0). A shift of 20% in the distance travelled by car to walking by children living less than 1.6 km from their school is estimated to result in an increase of 2.2% (n = 3.7) in the number of children injured each year in the area. In the case of a shift to cycling, the number of resulting injuries is estimated to be 24.4, an increase of 14.5%. The risk of injury among elementary-school students during the

  2. Safe Handover : Safe Patients – The Electronic Handover System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Till, Alex; Sall, Hanish; Wilkinson, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Failure of effective handover is a major preventable cause of patient harm. We aimed to promote accurate recording of high-quality clinical information using an Electronic Handover System (EHS) that would contribute to a sustainable improvement in effective patient care and safety. Within our hospital the human factors associated with poor communication were compromising patient care and unnecessarily increasing the workload of staff due to the poor quality of handovers. Only half of handovers were understood by the doctors expected to complete them, and more than half of our medical staff felt it posed a risk to patient safety. We created a standardised proforma for handovers that contained specific sub-headings, re-classified patient risk assessments, and aided escalation of care by adding prompts for verbal handover. Sources of miscommunication were removed, accountability for handovers provided, and tasks were re-organised to reduce the workload of staff. Long-term, three-month data showed that each sub-heading achieved at least 80% compliance (an average improvement of approximately 40% for the overall quality of handovers). This translated into 91% of handovers being subjectively clear to junior doctors. 87% of medical staff felt we had reduced a risk to patient safety and 80% felt it increased continuity of care. Without guidance, doctors omit key information required for effective handover. All organisations should consider implementing an electronic handover system as a viable, sustainable and safe solution to handover of care that allows patient safety to remain at the heart of the NHS. PMID:26734244

  3. Safe havens in Europe: Switzerland and the ten dwarfs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Paldam

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Eleven safe havens exist in Europe providing offshore banking and low taxes. Ten of these states are very small while Switzerland is moderately small. All 11countries are richer than their large neighbors. It is shown that causality is from small to safe haven towealth, and that theoretically equilibriums are likely to exist where a certain regulation is substantially lower in a small country than in its big neighbor. This generates a large capital inflow to the safe havens. The pool of funds that may reach the safe havens is shown to be huge. It is far in excess of the absorptive capacity of the safe havens, but it still explains, why they are rich. Microstates offer a veil of anonymity to funds passing through, and Switzerland offers safe storage of funds.

  4. An Integrated Safety Analysis Methodology for Emerging Air Transport Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostiuk, Peter F.; Adams, Milton B.; Allinger, Deborah F.; Rosch, Gene; Kuchar, James

    1998-01-01

    The continuing growth of air traffic will place demands on NASA's Air Traffic Management (ATM) system that cannot be accommodated without the creation of significant delays and economic impacts. To deal with this situation, work has begun to develop new approaches to providing a safe and economical air transportation infrastructure. Many of these emerging air transport technologies will represent radically new approaches to ATM, both for ground and air operations.

  5. Transportation: Design, Build, and Manage the Future for America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertini, Robert

    2011-01-01

    A safe, efficient, and effective transportation system is critical to the growth and stability of the U.S. economy, America's ability as a nation to compete in increasingly competitive global markets, and as a commuter network that provides access to jobs and recreational facilities that are important to quality of life for all Americans. The…

  6. Advising Your Elderly Patients Concerning Safe Exercising

    OpenAIRE

    Myers, Anita

    1987-01-01

    With the emergence of physical activity programs geared specifically to senior citizens, family physicians will increasingly be called on to provide advice or approval concerning their patients' suitability for participation. In addition, family physicians have been identified as having a key role to play in the promotion of exercise for sedentary older adults. To assist the family practitioner in advising elderly patients concerning safe exercise patterns, this article discusses the document...

  7. 14 CFR 91.119 - Minimum safe altitudes: General.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... than 500 feet to any person, vessel, vehicle, or structure. (d) Helicopters. Helicopters may be... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minimum safe altitudes: General. 91.119 Section 91.119 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION...

  8. Scanning ion-selective electrode technique and X-ray microanalysis provide direct evidence of contrasting Na+ transport ability from root to shoot in salt-sensitive cucumber and salt-tolerant pumpkin under NaCl stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Bo; Huang, Yuan; Sun, Jingyu; Xie, Junjun; Niu, Mengliang; Liu, Zhixiong; Fan, Molin; Bie, Zhilong

    2014-12-01

    Grafting onto salt-tolerant pumpkin rootstock can increase cucumber salt tolerance. Previous studies have suggested that this can be attributed to pumpkin roots with higher capacity to limit the transport of Na(+) to the shoot than cucumber roots. However, the mechanism remains unclear. This study investigated the transport of Na(+) in salt-tolerant pumpkin and salt-sensitive cucumber plants under high (200 mM) or moderate (90 mM) NaCl stress. Scanning ion-selective electrode technique showed that pumpkin roots exhibited a higher capacity to extrude Na(+), and a correspondingly increased H(+) influx under 200 or 90 mM NaCl stress. The 200 mM NaCl induced Na(+)/H(+) exchange in the root was inhibited by amiloride (a Na(+)/H(+) antiporter inhibitor) or vanadate [a plasma membrane (PM) H(+) -ATPase inhibitor], indicating that Na(+) exclusion in salt stressed pumpkin and cucumber roots was the result of an active Na(+)/H(+) antiporter across the PM, and the Na(+)/H(+) antiporter system in salt stressed pumpkin roots was sufficient to exclude Na(+) X-ray microanalysis showed higher Na(+) in the cortex, but lower Na(+) in the stele of pumpkin roots than that in cucumber roots under 90 mM NaCl stress, suggesting that the highly vacuolated root cortical cells of pumpkin roots could sequester more Na(+), limit the radial transport of Na(+) to the stele and thus restrict the transport of Na(+) to the shoot. These results provide direct evidence for pumpkin roots with higher capacity to limit the transport of Na(+) to the shoot than cucumber roots. © 2014 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  9. Inherently safe light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ise, Takeharu

    1987-01-01

    Today's large nuclear power reactors of world-wise use have been designed based on the philosophy. It seems that recent less electricity demand rates, higher capital cost and the TMI accident let us acknowledge relative small and simplified nuclear plants with safer features, and that Chernobyl accident in 1983 underlines the needs of intrinsic and passive safety characteristics. In such background, several inherently safe reactor concepts have been presented abroad and domestically. First describing 'Can inherently safe reactors be designed,' then I introduce representative reactor concepts of inherently safe LWRs advocated abroad so far. All of these innovative reactors employ intrinsic and passive features in their design, as follows: (1) PIUS, an acronym for Process Inherent Ultimate Safety, or an integral PWR with passive heat sink and passive shutdown mechanism, advocated by ASEA-ATOM of Sweden. (2) MAP(Minimum Attention Plant), or a self-pressurized, natural circulation integral PWR, promoted by CE Inc. of the U.S. (3) TPS(TRIGA Power System), or a compact PWR with passive heat sink and inherent fuel characteristics of large prompt temperature coefficient, prompted by GA Technologies Inc. of the U.S. (4) PIUS-BWR, or an inherently safe BWR employing passively actuated fluid valves, in competition with PIUS, prompted by ORNL of the U.S. Then, I will describe the domestic trends in Japan and the innovative inherently safe LWRs presented domestically so far. (author)

  10. Regulations and classification advice: transport safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, M.; Owen, K.

    1990-01-01

    The packaging of radioactive material for transport must conform with the regulations of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). These regulations are extensive and complex and require specialist interpretation. Packaging must be designed to contain the material, to limit radiation to safe levels, and to maintain the material in a safe state under both normal and accident conditions. British Nuclear Fuels Ltd. (BNFL) developed the TRANAID expert system to provide automated expert advice on the subject. It is used at BNFL and by other users internationally. The system was produced to meet an internal BNFL emphasis on accurate consistent and reliable interpretation of the complex IAEA regulations; and to provide a commercial product which would meet an external need. TRANAID provides reliable and consistent advice on safe transport procedures which reduce the workload on scarce skilled personnel, and allows them to concentrate on their primary task of packaging design. TRANAID also avoids overclassifying radioactive shipments, which would lead to the use of more expensive packaging than strictly is required. The IAEA regulations are applied internationally, and so there is a large potential worldwide market. The indications from the initial response are that future sales and use are expected to more than cover the investment. Other non-quantifiable benefits include the provision of consistent advice within a uniform approach, the safe-guarding of knowledge of the IAEA regulations, training and improvement in the expertise of users, improved management control, and enhancement of the professional image of BNFL. (author)

  11. Prospects for inherently safe reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barkenbus, J.N.

    1988-01-01

    Public fears over nuclear safety have led some within the nuclear community to investigate the possibility of producing inherently safe nuclear reactors; that is, reactors that are transparently incapable of producing a core melt. While several promising designs of such reactors have been produced, support for large-scale research and development efforts has not been forthcoming. The prospects for commercialization of inherently safe reactors, therefore, are problematic; possible events such as further nuclear reactor accidents and superpower summits, could alter the present situation significantly. (author)

  12. Is nuclear power safe enough

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andresen, A F [Institutt for Atomenergi, Kjeller (Norway)

    1979-01-01

    The lecture formed a commentary on the report of the Norwegian Government's Commission on Nuclear power Safety which was published in October 1978. It was introductorily pointed out that 'safe' and 'safety' are not in themselves meaningful terms and that the probability of an occurrence is the real measure. The main items in the Commission's report have been core meltdown, releases during reprocessing, waste disposal, plutonium diversion and environmental impacts. The 21 members of the Commission were unanimous in 7 of the 8 chapters. In chapter 2, 'Summary and Conclusions', 3 members dissented from the majority opinion, that, subject to certain conditions, nuclear power was a safe and acceptable source of energy.

  13. US Department of Energy automated transportation management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, T.M.; Frost, D.M.; Lopez, C.A.

    1996-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has approximately 80 facilities throughout the United States that specialize in either scientific research, engineering, technology, production, and/or waste management activities. These facilities can best be described as Government Owned, Contractor Operated (GOCO) sites, and vary in size from very small laboratories to large industrial plant type facilities. Each of these GOCO's have varying needs for transportation of materials into and/or out of their facility. Therefore, Traffic Management operations will differ from site to site due to size and the internal or site specific mission. The DOE Transportation Management Division (TMD) has the corporate responsibility to provide a well managed transportation management program for the safe, efficient, and economical transportation of all DOE-owned materials. To achieve this mission, TMD provides oversight, and when necessary, resources to assist in ensuring regulatory compliance in the packaging and shipment of DOE-owned materials. A large part of TMD's responsibility is to develop, administer, and provide policies and guidance concerning department-wide transportation and packaging operations. This responsibility includes overall Transportation Management policies and programs for the packaging and movement of all DOE materials, including radioactive materials, other hazardous materials/substances, and hazardous wastes. TMD formulates policies and guidance that assist the DOE Field Elements and GOCO's in meeting TMD's goal for safe, efficient and economical transportation. Considering there are at least 80 shipping and receiving sites, the challenge encountered by TMD has been the difficulty in managing such a diverse transportation community

  14. Current issues in the transport of radioactive waste and spent fuel: work by the World Nuclear Transport Institute

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neau, H-J.; Bonnardel-Azzarelli, B. [World Nuclear Transport Inst., London (United Kingdom)

    2014-07-01

    Various kinds of radioactive waste are generated from nuclear power and fuel cycle facilities. These materials have to be treated, stored and eventually sent to a repository site. Transport of wastes between these various stages is crucial for the sustainable utilization of nuclear energy. The IAEA Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material (SSR-6) have, for many decades, provided a safe and efficient framework for radioactive materials transport and continue to do so. However, some shippers have experienced that in the transport of certain specific radioactive wastes, difficulties can be encountered. For example, some materials produced in the decommissioning of nuclear facilities are unique in terms of composition or size and can be difficult to characterize as surface contaminated objects (SCO) or homogeneous. One way WNTI (World Nuclear Transport Institute) helps develop transport methodologies is through the use of Industry Working Groups, bringing together WNTI members with common interests, issues and experiences. The Back-End Transport Industry Working Group focuses on the following issues currently. - Characterization of Waste: techniques and methods to classify wastes - Large Objects: slightly contaminated large objects (ex. spent steam generators) transport - Dual Use Casks: transportable storage casks for spent nuclear fuels, including the very long term storage of spent fuel - Fissile Exceptions: new fissile exceptions provisions of revised TS-R-1 (SSR-6) The paper gives a broad overview of current issues for the packaging and transport of radioactive wastes and the associated work of the WNTI. (author)

  15. Inherently safe in situ uranium recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krumhansl, James Lee; Beauheim, Richard Louis; Brady, Patrick Vane; Arnold, Bill Walter; Kanney, Joseph F.; McKenna, Sean Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Expansion of uranium mining in the United States is a concern to some environmental groups and sovereign Native American Nations. An approach which may alleviate some problems is to develop inherently safe in situ uranium recovery ('ISR') technologies. Current ISR technology relies on chemical extraction of trace levels of uranium from aquifers that, once mined, can still contain dissolved uranium and other trace metals that are a health concern. Existing ISR operations are few in number; however, high uranium prices are driving the industry to consider expanding operations nation-wide. Environmental concerns and enforcement of the new 30 ppb uranium drinking water standard may make opening new mining operations more difficult and costly. Here we propose a technological fix: the development of inherently safe in situ recovery (ISISR) methods. The four central features of an ISISR approach are: (1) New 'green' leachants that break down predictably in the subsurface, leaving uranium, and associated trace metals, in an immobile form; (2) Post-leachant uranium/metals-immobilizing washes that provide a backup decontamination process; (3) An optimized well-field design that increases uranium recovery efficiency and minimizes excursions of contaminated water; and (4) A combined hydrologic/geochemical protocol for designing low-cost post-extraction long-term monitoring. ISISR would bring larger amounts of uranium to the surface, leave fewer toxic metals in the aquifer, and cost less to monitor safely - thus providing a 'win-win-win' solution to all stakeholders.

  16. Providing an efficient intelligent transportation system through ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    present view point, analysis of traffic signs are first considered via intelligence based ... colour information has been only used in segmentation, once detection .... Because number of road sign shapes is more than two classes, multi-class ...

  17. Safeguards Automated Facility Evaluation (SAFE) methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, L.D.; Grady, L.M.; Bennett, H.A.; Sasser, D.W.; Engi, D.

    1978-08-01

    An automated approach to facility safeguards effectiveness evaluation has been developed. This automated process, called Safeguards Automated Facility Evaluation (SAFE), consists of a collection of a continuous stream of operational modules for facility characterization, the selection of critical paths, and the evaluation of safeguards effectiveness along these paths. The technique has been implemented on an interactive computer time-sharing system and makes use of computer graphics for the processing and presentation of information. Using this technique, a comprehensive evaluation of a safeguards system can be provided by systematically varying the parameters that characterize the physical protection components of a facility to reflect the perceived adversary attributes and strategy, environmental conditions, and site operational conditions. The SAFE procedure has broad applications in the nuclear facility safeguards field as well as in the security field in general. Any fixed facility containing valuable materials or components to be protected from theft or sabotage could be analyzed using this same automated evaluation technique

  18. Method of safely operating nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ochiai, Kanehiro.

    1976-01-01

    Purpose: To provide a method of safely operating an nuclear reactor, comprising supporting a load applied to a reactor container partly with secondary container facilities thereby reducing the load borne by the reactor container when water is injected into the core to submerge the core in an emergency. Method: In a reactor emergency, water is injected into the reactor core thereby to submerge the core. Further, water is injected into a gap between the reactor container and the secondary container facilities. By the injection of water into the gap between the reactor container and the secondary container facilities a large apparent mass is applied to the reactor container, as a result of which the reactor container undergoes the same vibration as that of the secondary container facilities. Therefore, the load borne by the reactor container itself is reduced and stress at the bottom part of the reactor container is released. This permits the reactor to be operated more safely. (Moriyama, K.)

  19. Safe-haven CDS Premia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klingler, Sven; Lando, David

    We argue that Credit Default Swap (CDS) premia for safe-haven sovereigns, like Germany and the United States, are driven to a large extent by regulatory requirements under which derivatives dealing banks have an incentive to buy CDS to hedge counterparty credit risk of their counterparties. We...

  20. Thermodynamics of asymptotically safe theories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rischke, Dirk H.; Sannino, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the thermodynamic properties of a novel class of gauge-Yukawa theories that have recently been shown to be completely asymptotically safe, because their short-distance behaviour is determined by the presence of an interacting fixed point. Not only do all the coupling constants freeze...

  1. How Safe Are Our Libraries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    St. Lifer, Evan

    1994-01-01

    Addresses issues of safety and security in libraries. Topics discussed include keeping library collections safe; patron behavioral problems; factoring loss into the budget; staff theft; access versus security; apathy regarding library crime; a need for a unified security apparatus; preventive measures; staff and patron safety; and a…

  2. Safe disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hooker, P.; Metcalfe, R.; Milodowski, T.; Holliday, D.

    1997-01-01

    A high degree of international cooperation has characterized the two studies reported here which aim to address whether radioactive waste can be disposed of safely. Using hydrogeochemical and mineralogical surveying techniques earth scientists from the British Geological Survey have sought to identify and characterise suitable disposal sites. Aspects of the studies are explored emphasising their cooperative nature. (UK)

  3. Staying Safe on the Water

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-06-05

    In this podcast for all audiences, Dr. Julie Gilchrist from CDC's Injury Center outlines tips for safe boating.  Created: 6/5/2008 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC).   Date Released: 6/8/2008.

  4. Safe-geometry pneumatic nuclear fuel powder blender

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyon, W.L.

    1979-01-01

    The object of this invention is to provide a nuclear fuel powder mixing tank in which the powder can be rapidly and safely mixed and in which accumulation of critical amounts of fuel is prevented. (UK)

  5. Radiation protection programmes for the transport of radioactive material. Safety guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    This Safety Guide provides guidance on meeting the requirements for the establishment of radiation protection programmes (RPPs) for the transport of radioactive material, to optimize radiation protection in order to meet the requirements for radiation protection that underlie the Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material. This Guide covers general aspects of meeting the requirements for radiation protection, but does not cover criticality safety or other possible hazardous properties of radioactive material. The annexes of this Guide include examples of RPPs, relevant excerpts from the Transport Regulations, examples of total dose per transport index handled, a checklist for road transport, specific segregation distances and emergency instructions for vehicle operators

  6. ANALYISIS OF TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS AND TRANSPORTATION POLICIES IN TURKEY

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Payıdar AKGÜNGÖR; Abdulmuttalip DEMİREL

    2004-01-01

    Transportation systems have to be considered and analysed as a whole while transportation demand, becoming as a natural outcome of socioeconomic and socio-cultural structure, is being evaluated. It is desired that transportation system, which will be selected for both passenger and freight transport, should be rapid, economic, safe, causing least harm to environment and appropriate for the conditions of a country. However, it is difficult for a transportation system to have all these properti...

  7. Blood Sample Transportation by Pneumatic Transportation Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nybo, Mads; Lund, Merete E; Titlestad, Kjell

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pneumatic transportation systems (PTSs) are increasingly used for transportation of blood samples to the core laboratory. Many studies have investigated the impact of these systems on different types of analyses, but to elucidate whether PTSs in general are safe for transportation...... analysis, and the hemolysis index). CONCLUSIONS: Owing to their high degree of heterogeneity, the retrieved studies were unable to supply evidence for the safety of using PTSs for blood sample transportation. In consequence, laboratories need to measure and document the actual acceleration forces...

  8. USING THE SAFE SYSTEM APPROACH TO KEEP OLDER DRIVERS SAFELY MOBILE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim LANGFORD

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2003, Australian road transport jurisdictions collectively accepted that the greatest road safety gains would be achieved through adopting a Safe System approach, derived from Sweden's Vision Zero and the Netherlands' Sustainable Safety strategies. A key objective of all three approaches is to manage vehicles, the road infrastructure, speeds, road users and the interactions between these components, to ensure that in the event of crashes, crash energies will remain at levels that minimize the probability of death and serious injury. Older drivers pose a particular challenge to the Safe System approach, given particularly their greater physical frailty, their driving patterns and for some at least, their reduced fitness to drive. This paper has analyzed the so-called ‘older driver problem’ and identified a number of key factors underpinning their crash levels, for which countermeasures can be identified and implemented within a Safe System framework. The recommended countermeasures consist of: (1 safer roads, through a series of design improvements particularly governing urban intersections; (2 safer vehicles, through both the promotion of crashworthiness as a critical consideration when purchasing a vehicle and the wide use of developed and developing ITS technologies; (3 safer speeds especially at intersections; and (4 safer road users, through both improved assessment procedures to identify the minority of older drivers with reduced fitness to drive and educational efforts to encourage safer driving habits particularly but not only through self-regulation.

  9. Nuclear fuel transport and particularly spent fuel transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenail, B.

    1986-01-01

    Nuclear material transport is an essential activity for COGEMA linking the different steps of the fuel cycle transport systems have to be safe and reliable. Spent fuel transport is more particularly examined in this paper because the development of reprocessing plant. Industrial, techmical and economical aspects are reviewed [fr

  10. Transendothelial Transport and Its Role in Therapeutics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyay, Ravi Kant

    2014-01-01

    Present review paper highlights role of BBB in endothelial transport of various substances into the brain. More specifically, permeability functions of BBB in transendothelial transport of various substances such as metabolic fuels, ethanol, amino acids, proteins, peptides, lipids, vitamins, neurotransmitters, monocarbxylic acids, gases, water, and minerals in the peripheral circulation and into the brain have been widely explained. In addition, roles of various receptors, ATP powered pumps, channels, and transporters in transport of vital molecules in maintenance of homeostasis and normal body functions have been described in detail. Major role of integral membrane proteins, carriers, or transporters in drug transport is highlighted. Both diffusion and carrier mediated transport mechanisms which facilitate molecular trafficking through transcellular route to maintain influx and outflux of important nutrients and metabolic substances are elucidated. Present review paper aims to emphasize role of important transport systems with their recent advancements in CNS protection mainly for providing a rapid clinical aid to patients. This review also suggests requirement of new well-designed therapeutic strategies mainly potential techniques, appropriate drug formulations, and new transport systems for quick, easy, and safe delivery of drugs across blood brain barrier to save the life of tumor and virus infected patients. PMID:27355037

  11. Procedure of safe handling with cytostatic drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kodžo Dragan

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Working group for safe handling with cytostatic drugs has been formed by the Ministry of Health, and it consists of professionals from IORS, Federal Bureau of Weights and Measures, Industrial Medicine, Institute of Hematology, Military Medical Academy, and Crown Agents. The aim of this working group is to prepare procedures for safe handling with cytostatic drugs, as well as program for educational seminar for nurses, medical technicians, and pharmaceutical technicians. The procedures will serve as a guide of good practice of oncology health care, and will refer to all actions that health care professionals carry out from the moment of drugs arrival to the pharmacy to the moment of their application. In the first segment of this procedure, general rules are given for working with cytotoxic agents, control for risky exposures, safe system of work, control of working environment, monitoring of the employees' health condition adequate protection in the working environment, protective equipment of the employees (gloves, mask, cap, eyeglasses, shoe covers, coats and chambers for vertical laminary air stream. Storing of cytostatics, procedure in case of accident, and waste handling and removal are also described in this segment. Fifty-three standard operational procedures are described in detail in the second segment. Training scheme for preparation of chemotherapy is given in the third segment - education related to various fields and practical part, which would be carried out through workshops, and at the end of the course participants would pass a test and obtain certificate. After the procedures for safe handling with cytostatics are legally regulated employer will have to provide minimum of protective equipment, special rooms for the drugs dissolving, chambers with laminar airflow, 6 hours working time, rotation of the staff working with drugs dissolving in intervals of every five years, higher efficiency, better health control. In conclusion

  12. Strategies and challenges for safe injection practice in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyawali, Sudesh; Rathore, Devendra Singh; Shankar, P Ravi; Kumar, Kc Vikash

    2013-01-01

    Injection is one of the important health care procedures used globally to administer drugs. Its unsafe use can transmit various blood borne pathogens. This article aims to review the history and status of injection practices, its importance, interventions and the challenges for safe injection practice in developing countries. The history of injections started with the discovery of syringe in the early nineteenth century. Safe injection practice in developed countries was initiated in the early twentieth century but has not received adequate attention in developing countries. The establishment of "Safe Injection Global Network (SIGN)" was an milestone towards safe injection practice globally. In developing countries, people perceive injection as a powerful healing tool and do not hesitate to pay more for injections. Unsafe disposal and reuse of contaminated syringe is common. Ensuring safe injection practice is one of the greatest challenges for healthcare system in developing countries. To address the problem, interventions with active involvement of a number of stakeholders is essential. A combination of educational, managerial and regulatory strategies is found to be effective and economically viable. Rational and safe use of injections can save many lives but unsafe practice threatens life. Safe injection practice is crucial in developing countries. Evidence based interventions, with honest commitment and participation from the service provider, recipient and community with aid of policy makers are required to ensure safe injection practice.

  13. SenSafe: A Smartphone-Based Traffic Safety Framework by Sensing Vehicle and Pedestrian Behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenyu Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Traffic accident involving vehicles is one of the most serious problems in the transportation system nowadays. How to detect dangerous steering and then alarm drivers in real time is a problem. What is more, walking while using smartphones makes pedestrian more susceptible to various risks. Although dedicated short range communication (DSRC provides the way for safety communications, most of vehicles have not been deployed with DSRC components. Even worse, DSRC is not supported by the smartphones for vehicle-to-pedestrian (V2P communication. In this paper, a smartphone-based framework named SenSafe is developed to improve the traffic safety. SenSafe is a framework which only utilizes the smartphone to sense the surrounding events and provides alerts to drivers. Smartphone-based driving behaviors detection mechanism is developed inside the framework to discover various steering behaviors. Besides, the Wi-Fi association and authentication overhead is reduced to broadcast the compressed sensing data using the Wi-Fi beacon to inform the drivers of the surroundings. Furthermore, a collision estimation algorithm is designed to issue appropriate warnings. Finally, an Android-based implementation of SenSafe framework has been achieved to demonstrate the application reliability in real environments.

  14. Ensuring a Safe Technological Revolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    much lower, and the performance gained can dramatically reduce life -cycle costs. Validated cost data are scarce, and accurate AM cost models need to be...reduce costs, minimize obsolescence issues and improve both capability and readi- ness across the entire life cycle of naval systems—including both the...of naval weapon systems. The Navy is actively engaging its various communi- ties to align needs and ensure that AM can be safely acceler- ated and

  15. Transfer pricing and safe harbours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Solilová

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Transfer prices are significant for both taxpayers and tax administrations because they determine in large part taxable profits of associated enterprises in different tax jurisdictions. Moreover, in the context of taxation, transfer prices must be complied with the arm’s length principle. However, Multinational Enterprises have been faced daily by conflicting rules and approaches to applying the arm’s length principle, burdensome documentation requirements, inconsistent audit standards and unpredictable competent authority outcomes. Therefore, the Committee on Fiscal Affairs launched another project on the administrative aspects of transfer pricing in 2010. On 16 May 2013 as a partial solution of this project was approved by the OECD Council the Revised Section E on Safe Harbours in Chapter IV of the Transfer Pricing Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises and Tax Authorities. The paper is focused on significant changes of newly approved chapter IV of the Transfer Pricing Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises and Tax Authorities, further on analysis of practice in this area, on advantages and disadvantages of safe harbours for taxpayers and competent authorities with aim to suggest recommendations on use of safe harbours in the Czech Republic.

  16. Guidelines for safe design of shipping packages against brittle fracture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-08-01

    In 1992, the ninth meeting of the Standing Advisory Group on the Safe Transport of Radioactive Materials recommended the publication of this TECDOC in an effort to promote the widest debate on the criteria for the brittle fracture safe design of transport packages. The published IAEA advice on the influence of brittle fracture on material integrity is contained in Appendix IX of the Advisory Material for the IAEA Regulations for the Safety Transport of Radioactive Material (1985 Edition, as amended 1990), Safety Series No. 37. This guidance is limited in scope, dealing only with ferritic steels in general terms. It is becoming more common for designers to specify materials other than austenitic stainless steel for packaging components. The data on ferritic steels cannot be assumed to apply to other metals, hence the need for further guidance on the development of relationships describing material properties at low temperatures. The methods described in this TECDOC will be considered by the Revision Panel for inclusion in the 1996 Edition of the IAEA Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material and the supporting documents. If accepted by the Revision Panel, this advice will be a candidate for upgrading to a Safety Practice. In the interim period, this TECDOC offers provisional advice on brittle fracture evaluation. It is acknowledged that, at this stage, the views expressed do not necessarily reflect those of the governments of Member States or organizations under whose auspices this manuscript was produced. Refs and figs

  17. Trans Ocean Gas CNG transportation development plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-11-01

    Liquefied natural gas (LNG) transportation is on the rise due to increased global demand for natural gas. However, the challenge of transporting LNG lies in finding suitable locations for import terminals. Compressed natural gas (CNG) transportation offers an alternative method for transporting stranded natural gas to existing markets and for creating new natural gas markets not practical for LNG or pipelines. The founder of Trans Ocean Gas Inc. (TOG) modified an existing fibre reinforced plastic (FRP) pressure vessel technology to safely store CNG on a ship. The newly developed containment system has proven to overcome all the deficiencies of steel-based systems. TOG patented the containment system and will license its use to owners of stranded gas and shipping service providers around the world. Financial support is needed to perform verification testing and for regulatory approval. The CNG systems will be built and assembled throughout facilities in Atlantic Canada. 2 tabs., 3 figs.

  18. French experience in research reactor fuel transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raisonnier, Daniele

    1996-01-01

    Since 1963 Transnucleaire has safely performed a large number of national and international transports of radioactive material. Transnucleaire has also designed and supplied suitable packaging for all types of nuclear fuel cycle radioactive material from front-end and back-end products and for power or for research reactors. Transportation of spent fuel from power reactors are made on a regular and industrial basis, but this is not yet the case for the transport of spent fuel coming from research reactors. Each shipment is a permanent challenge and requires a reactive organization dealing with all the transportation issues. This presentation will explain the choices made by Transnucleaire and its associates to provide and optimize the corresponding services while remaining in full compliance with the applicable regulations and customer requirements. (author)

  19. Railroad infrastructure adequacy for safe transportation of spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, A.C.; Furber, C.P.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss the railroad industry's concerns on the movement of spent nuclear fuel including the magnitude of thermal and mechanical forces in train accidents, emergency response capability, railroad's liability for non-breach-of-cask accidents, and the importance of using dedicated trains to improve public perception of these movements; summarize the current status of the condition of the American railroads' equipment, facilities, track structure, and right-of-way; outline the continuing efforts of the railroad industry to improve customer service and profitability through downsizing and shifting of branch lines to more customer-oriented and efficient short-line carriers; and discuss potential problems of government subsidization of private railroads to enable upgrading of tracks and structures to handle rights-of-way in the future

  20. Transportation and Aging: A Research Agenda for Advancing Safe Mobility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickerson, Anne E.; Molnar, Lisa J.; Eby, David W.; Adler, Geri; Bedard, Michel; Berg-Weger, Marla; Classen, Sherrilene; Foley, Daniel; Horowitz, Amy; Kerschner, Helen; Page, Oliver; Silverstein, Nina M.; Staplin, Loren; Trujillo, Leonard

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: We review what we currently know about older driver safety and mobility, and we highlight important research needs in a number of key areas that hold promise for achieving the safety and mobility goals for the aging baby boomers and future generations of older drivers. Design and Methods: Through the use of a framework for transportation…

  1. Transport Statistics - Transport - UNECE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sustainable Energy Statistics Trade Transport Themes UNECE and the SDGs Climate Change Gender Ideas 4 Change UNECE Weekly Videos UNECE Transport Areas of Work Transport Statistics Transport Transport Statistics About us Terms of Reference Meetings and Events Meetings Working Party on Transport Statistics (WP.6

  2. A guide to environmental best practice for company transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-11-01

    Companies have a significant influence on the car fleet sector. The transport sector is a growing source of CO[sub 2] emissions. Companies should: nominate a manager to take responsibility for the company's overall environmental policy; purchase the most fuel-efficient vehicle for the purpose; arrange proper maintenance of all vehicles; set an energy target to reduce fuel consumption; measure the performance of company cars and provide training in safe and economical driving techniques; encourage the use of public transport or car sharing; and consider alternatives to distribution of products by road transport. 5 refs.

  3. Innovative Technologies in Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-12-01

    An historical overview of the transportation infrastructure of the United States and Texas is provided. Data for trends in transportation is analyzed and projections for the future are postulated. A survey of current technologies in transportation is...

  4. How safe are nuclear plants? How safe should they be?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kouts, H.

    1988-01-01

    It has become customary to think about safety of nuclear plants in terms of risk as defined by the WASH-1400 study that some of the implications for the non-specialist escape our attention. Yet it is known that a rational program to understand safety, to identify unsafe events, and to use this kind of information or analysis to improve safety, requires us to use the methods of quantitative risk assessment. How this process can be made more understandable to a broader group of nontechnical people and how can a wider acceptance of the results of the process be developed have been questions under study and are addressed in this report. These are questions that have been struggled with for some time in the world of nuclear plant safety. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission examined them for several years as it moved toward developing a position on safety goals for nuclear plants, a requirement that had been assigned it by Congress. Opinion was sought from a broad spectrum of individuals, within the field of nuclear power and outside it, on the topic that was popularly called, ''How safe is safe enough?'' Views were solicited on the answer to the question and also on the way the answer should be framed when it was adopted. This report discusses the public policy and its implementation

  5. Strategija marketing-miksa u obezbeđivanju kadrova saobraćajne službe vojske / The marketing mix strategy within army transportation service personnel providing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srđan Ljubojević

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Aktuelni reformski procesi u Vojsci Srbije prilika su za postavljanje novih principa, kada je u pitanju spoj marketinga i vojne organizacije. U ovom radu prikazan je mogući izgled instrumenata marketing-miksa u funkciji obezbeđivanja kadrovskih resursa saobraćajne službe Vojske Srbije, sa namerom da se definiše opšti izgled instrumenata u marketing-aktivnostima. / The presently relevant reform processes in the Military of Serbia are an opportunity for setting new principles when we are talking about marketing - military organization joint. In this work a possible look of marketing mix instruments is presented which purpose is to provide meaning resources of transportation service in the Military of Serbia, with intention to define a general look of the instruments in marketing activities.

  6. Small intrinsically safe reactor implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakabayashi, Hiroaki

    1985-01-01

    Reviewing the history of nuclear power, it is found that peaceful uses of nuclear power are children of the war-like atom. Importance of special growth in a shielded environment is emphasized to exploit fully the advantages of nuclear power. Nuclear power reactors must be safe for their assimilation into society from the points of view of both technology and social psychology. ISR/ISER is identified as a missing link in the development of nuclear power reactors from this perspective and advocated for international development and utilization, being unleashed from the concerns of politicization, safety, and proliferation

  7. Type-safe pattern combinators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rhiger, Morten

    2009-01-01

    Macros still haven't made their way into typed higher-order programming languages such as Haskell and Standard ML. Therefore, to extend the expressiveness of Haskell or Standard ML, one must express new linguistic features in terms of functions that fit within the static type systems of these lan...... of these languages. This is particularly challenging when introducing features that span across multiple types and that bind variables. We address this challenge by developing, in a step by step manner, mechanisms for encoding patterns and pattern matching in Haskell in a type-safe way....

  8. Safe Driving After Propofol Sedation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summerlin-Grady, Lee; Austin, Paul N; Gabaldon, Dion A

    2017-10-01

    Propofol is a short-acting medication with fast cognitive and psychomotor recovery. However, patients are usually instructed not to drive a motor vehicle for 24 hours after receiving propofol. The purpose of this article was to review the evidence examining when it is safe to drive after receiving propofol for sedation for diagnostic and surgical procedures. This is a systematic review of the literature. A search of the literature was conducted using Google Scholar, PubMed, and the Cochrane Library for the time period 1990 to 2015. Two randomized controlled trials and two observational studies met the inclusion criteria. Using a simulator, investigators examined driving ability of subjects who received modest doses (about 100 mg) of propofol for endoscopic procedures and surveyed subjects who drove immediately after discharge. There were methodological concerns with the studies such as small sample sizes, modest doses of propofol, and three of the four studies were done in Japan by the same group of investigators limiting generalizability. This limited research suggests that it may be safe for patients to drive sooner than 24 hours after receiving propofol. However, large multicenter trials using heterogenous samples using a range of propofol doses are needed to support an evidence-based revision to the current discharge guidelines for patients receiving propofol. Copyright © 2016 American Society of PeriAnesthesia Nurses. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Risk management for assuring safe drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrudey, Steve E; Hrudey, Elizabeth J; Pollard, Simon J T

    2006-12-01

    Millions of people die every year around the world from diarrheal diseases much of which is caused by contaminated drinking water. By contrast, drinking water safety is largely taken for granted by many citizens of affluent nations. The ability to drink water that is delivered into households without fear of becoming ill may be one of the key defining characteristics of developed nations in relation to the majority of the world. Yet there is well-documented evidence that disease outbreaks remain a risk that could be better managed and prevented even in affluent nations. A detailed retrospective analysis of more than 70 case studies of disease outbreaks in 15 affluent nations over the past 30 years provides the basis for much of our discussion [Hrudey, S.E. and Hrudey, E.J. Safe Drinking Water--Lessons from Recent Outbreaks in Affluent Nations. London, UK: IWA Publishing; 2004.]. The insights provided can assist in developing a better understanding within the water industry of the causes of drinking water disease outbreaks, so that more effective preventive measures can be adopted by water systems that are vulnerable. This preventive feature lies at the core of risk management for the provision of safe drinking water.

  10. Safe and healthy school environments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Frumkin, Howard

    2006-01-01

    ...-being, their education, their transportation from place to place, their food and shelter, and their health care. These adults need to be advocates for children. This book is the first to address the school setting utilizing the principles of environmental health. Written by leading experts in topics from noise to crowding, from indoor air quality to saf...

  11. How safe is nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-02-01

    The subject is discussed, with particular reference to nuclear power in the UK, as follows: ionising radiations; components of the radiation dose to which on average each person in the UK is exposed; regulation and control; mining; reactor operations - accidents, safety; transport of spent fuel; radioactive wastes; fast reactors and plutonium; insurance. (U.K.)

  12. Comparison of the Transportation Risks Resulting from Accidents during the Transportation of the Spent Fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong Jong Tae; Cho, Dong Kuen; Choi, Heui Joo; Choi, Jong Won

    2007-01-01

    The safe, environmentally sound and publicly acceptable disposal of high level wastes and spent fuels is becoming a very important issue. The operational safety assessment of a repository including a transportation safety assessment is a fundamental part in order to achieve this goal. According to the long term management strategy for spent fuels in Korea, they will be transported from the spent fuel pools in each nuclear power plant to the central interim storage facility (CISF) which is to start operation in 2016. Therefore, we have to determine the safe and economical logistics for the transportation of these spent fuels by considering their transportation risks and costs. In this study, we developed four transportation scenarios by considering the type of transportation casks and transport means in order to suggest safe and economical transportation logistics for spent fuels. Also, we estimated and compared the transportation risks resulting from the accidents during the transportation of spent fuels for these four transportation scenarios

  13. A concept of a nonfissile uranium hexafluoride overpack for storage, transport, and processing of corroded cylinders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pope, R.B.; Cash, J.M.; Singletary, B.H.

    1996-01-01

    There is a need to develop a means of safely transporting breached 48-in. cylinders containing depleted uranium hexafluoride (UF 6 ) from current storage locations to locations where the contents can be safely removed. There is also a need to provide a method of safely and easily transporting degraded cylinders that no longer meet the US Department of Transportation (DOT) and American National Standards Institute, Inc., (ANSI) requirements for shipments of depleted UF 6 . A study has shown that an overpack can be designed and fabricated to satisfy these needs. The envisioned overpack will handle cylinder models 48G, 48X, and 48Y and will also comply with the ANSI N14.1 and the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Sect. 8 requirements

  14. Dementia - keeping safe in the home

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000031.htm Dementia - keeping safe in the home To use the ... make sure the homes of people who have dementia are safe for them. Safety Tips for the ...

  15. Breastfeeding FAQs: Safely Storing Breast Milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search English Español Breastfeeding FAQs: Safely Storing Breast Milk KidsHealth / For Parents / Breastfeeding FAQs: Safely Storing Breast ... may have. How do I store my breast milk? You can freeze and/or refrigerate your pumped ( ...

  16. The transport of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appleton, P.R.; Poulter, D.R.

    1989-01-01

    Regulations have been developed to ensure the safe transport of all radioactive materials by all modes (road, rail, sea and air). There are no features of radioactive waste which set it aside from other radioactive materials for transport, and the same regulations control all radioactive material transport. These regulations and their underlying basis are described in this paper, and their application to waste transport is outlined. (author)

  17. Working safely with electronics racks

    CERN Document Server

    Simon Baird, HSE Unit Head

    2016-01-01

    Think of CERN and you’ll probably think of particle accelerators and detectors. These are the tools of the trade in particle physics, but behind them are the racks of electronics that include power supplies, control systems and data acquisition networks.   Inside an electronics rack: danger could be lurking if the rack is not powered off. In routine operation, these are no more harmful than the home entertainment system in your living room. But unscrew the cover and it’s a different matter. Even after following appropriate training, and with formal authorisation from your group leader or equivalent to carry out electrical work or any work in the vicinity of electrical hazards, and even with extensive experience of carrying out such operations, it’s important to incorporate safe working practices into your routine. At CERN, before the racks of electronics reach their operational configurations for the accelerators and detectors, they play a vital role in test set-ups ...

  18. Workshop on Developing Safe Software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrence, J.D.

    1994-11-01

    The Workshop on Developing Safe Software was held July 22--23, 1992, at the Hotel del Coronado, San Diego, California. The purpose of the workshop was to have four world experts discuss among themselves software safety issues which are of interest to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. These issues concern the development of software systems for use in nuclear power plant protection systems. The workshop comprised four sessions. Wednesday morning, July 22, consisted of presentations from each of the four panel members. On Wednesday afternoon, the panel members went through a list of possible software development techniques and commented on them. The Thursday morning, July 23, session consisted of an extended discussion among the panel members and the observers from the NRC. A final session on Thursday afternoon consisted of a discussion among the NRC observers as to what was learned from the workshop

  19. Workshop on developing safe software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrence, J.D.

    1992-01-01

    The Workshop on Developing Safe Software was held July 22--23 at the Hotel del Coronado, San Diego, California. The purpose of the workshop was to have four world experts discuss among themselves software safety issues which are of interest to the U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). These issues concern the development of software systems for use in nuclear power plant protection systems. The workshop comprised four sessions. Wednesday morning, July 22, consisted of presentations from each of the four panel members. On Wednesday afternoon, the panel members went through a list of possible software development techniques and commented on them. The Thursday morning, July 23, session consisted of an extended discussion among the panel members and the observers from the NRC. A final session on Thursday afternoon consisted of a discussion among the NRC observers as to what was teamed from the workshop

  20. The Difference Safe Spaces Make

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kendric Coleman

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade, lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT students have become very visible at Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs, but this visibility is not reflected in some colleges’ student programs and activities. Only a few notable HBCUs, such as Howard University and Spelman College, have made a concerted effort. Acknowledging that the LGBT community is significant and exists, and fostering such support, comes up against a steep wall of religious tradition and doctrines, and conservative administrations. It is imperative that HBCUs address LGBT issues and create and support a safe space for students to articulate their identity. Meanwhile, many LGBT students on these campuses find voice and understanding in Black scholars and writers such as Audre Lorde’s Zami: A New Spelling of My Name and Charles Michael Smith’s Fighting Words: Personal Essays by Black Gay Men.

  1. Safe Distribution of Declarative Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hildebrandt, Thomas; Mukkamala, Raghava Rao; Slaats, Tijs

    2011-01-01

    of projections that covers a DCR Graph that the network of synchronously communicating DCR Graphs given by the projections is bisimilar to the original global process graph. We exemplify the distribution technique on a process identified in a case study of an cross-organizational case management system carried...... process model generalizing labelled prime event structures to a systems model able to finitely represent ω-regular languages. An operational semantics given as a transition semantics between markings of the graph allows DCR Graphs to be conveniently used as both specification and execution model....... The technique for distribution is based on a new general notion of projection of DCR Graphs relative to a subset of labels and events identifying the set of external events that must be communicated from the other processes in the network in order for the distribution to be safe.We prove that for any vector...

  2. Spark-safe power source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mester, I M; Konushkin, N A; Nevozinskiy, A K; Rubinshteyn, B Sh; Serov, V I; Vasnev, M A

    1981-01-01

    A shortcoming of the known power sources is their low reliability. The purpose of the invention is to improve the reliability of the device. This is achieved because the spark-safe power source is equipped with a by-passing transistor and potentiometer, and also a generator of control interruptions in the circuit, an I-element, first separating transformer, control block, second separating transformer whose secondary winding has a relay winding whose contacts are connected to the load circuit are connected in series. The generator of control separations of the circuit is connected to the base of the by-passing transistor and to the power source outlet, the potentiometer is connected in series to the main thyristor. The middle point of the potentiometer is connected to the second inlet of the I-element.

  3. Experiences in certification of packages for transportation of fresh nuclear fuel in the context of new safety requirements established by IAEA regulations (IAEA-96 regulations, ST-1) for air transportation of nuclear materials (requirements to C-type packages)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dudai, V.I.; Kovtun, A.D.; Matveev, V.Z.; Morenko, A.I.; Nilulin, V.M.; Shapovalov, V.I.; Yakushev, V.A.; Bobrovsky, V.S.; Rozhkov, V.V.; Agapov, A.M.; Kolesnikov, A.S. [Russian Federal Nuclear Centre - All-Russian Research Inst. of Experimental Physics, Sarov (Russian Federation)]|[JSC ' ' MSZ' ' , Electrostal (Russian Federation)]|[JSC ' ' NPCC' ' , Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)]|[Minatom of Russia, Moscow (Russian Federation)]|[Gosatomnadzor of Russia, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2004-07-01

    Every year in Russia, a large amount of domestic and international transportation of fresh nuclear fuel (FNF) used in Russian and foreign energy and research atomic reactors and referred to fissile materials based on IAEA Regulations is performed. Here, bulk transportation is performed by air, and it concerns international transportation in particular. According to national ''Main Regulations for Safe Transport and physical Protection of Nuclear Materials (OPBZ- 83)'' and ''Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Materials'' of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA Regulations), nuclear and radiation security under normal (accident free) and accident conditions of transport must be completely provided by the package design. In this context, high requirements to fissile packages exposed to heat and mechanical loads in transport accidents are imposed. A long-standing experience in accident free transportation of FM has shown that such approach to provide nuclear and radiation security pays for itself completely. Nevertheless, once in 10 years the International Atomic Energy Agency on every revision of the ''Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Materials'' places more stringent requirements upon the FM and transportation thereof, resulting from the objectively increasing risk associated with constant rise in volume and density of transportation, and also strained social and economical situation in a number of regions in the world. In the new edition of the IAEA Regulations (ST-1), published in 1996 and brought into force in 2001 (IAEA-96 Regulations), the requirements to FM packages conveyed by aircraft were radically changed. These requirements are completely presented in new Russian ''Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Materials'' (PBTRM- 2004) which will be brought into force in the time ahead.

  4. The transport of civil plutonium by air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The paper presents the review entitled ''The Transport of Civil Plutonium by Air'' reported by the Advisory Committee on the Safe Transport of Radioactive Materials (ACTRAM) 1988. The contents contain chapters on the following topics:- the reasons for air transport, the various regulations, packagings for plutonium transport, testing of the packagings, accidents, the consequences of a release, and emergency arrangements. (U.K.)

  5. Safe injection procedures, injection practices, and needlestick ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: Safe injection procedures regarding final waste disposal were sufficiently adopted, while measures regarding disposable injection equipment, waste containers, hand hygiene, as well as injection practices were inadequately carried out. Lack of job aid posters that promote safe injection and safe disposal of ...

  6. Developing Safe Schools Partnerships with Law Enforcement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosiak, John

    2009-01-01

    Safe schools are the concern of communities throughout the world. If a school is safe, and if children feel safe, students "are better able to learn. But what are the steps to make" this happen? First, it is important to understand the problem: What are the threats to school safety? These include crime-related behaviors that find their way to…

  7. LNG TERMINAL SAFE OPERATION MANAGEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Andrzej ADAMKIEWICZ; Włodzimierz KAMIŃSKI

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the significance of LNG terminal safety issues in natural gas sea transport. It shows particular requirements for LNG transmission installations resulting from the specific properties of LNG. Out of the multi‐layer critical safety areas comprising structural elements of the terminal safety system, possibilities to decrease the risk of emergency occurrence on LNG terminals have been selected. Tasks performed by the LNG terminal, together with its own personnel and the out...

  8. The Transport of Radioactive Materials under special arrangement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biaggio, A.L.; Vietri, J.R.L.

    1993-01-01

    The Agency's Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material rule the international transport of these materials and provide the basis of national and regional regulations. The Regulations establish the technical, operational and administrative requirements which shall be accomplished to carry out the transport of radioactive materials (RAM). They also allow the transport in different conditions of those currently applicable and, in such cases, establish that the transport shall be made under special arrangement. To approve a transport under special arrangement the involved Competent Authority shall be satisfied that the alternative provisions are adequate to ensure that the overall level of safety in transport and in-transit storage is at least equivalent to that which would be provided if all the applicable requirements had been met (para. 2ll of the International Atomic Energy Agency Safety Series No. 6). This paper explains some difficulties the Argentine Competent. Authority has experienced trying by comparing the equivalence between the level of safety resulting from the compliance with current requirements and the overall level of safety which is provided by the application of alternative provisions. As most of the experience gained come from the transport of RAM by road, only this mode of transport is considered. (J.P.N.)

  9. Light water ultra-safe plant concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klevans, E.

    1989-01-01

    Since the accident at Three Mile Island (TMI), Penn State Nuclear Engineering Department Faculty and Staff have considered various methods to improve already safe reactor designs and public perception of the safety of Nuclear Power. During 1987 and 1988, the Department of Energy provided funds to the Nuclear Engineering Department at Penn State to investigate a plant reconfiguration originated by M.A. Schultz called ''The Light Water Ultra-Safe Plant Concept''. This report presents a final summary of the project with references to several masters' theses and addendum reports for further detail. The two year research effort included design verification with detailed computer simulation of: (a) normal operation characteristics of the unique pressurizing concept, (b) severe transients without loss of coolant, (c) combined primary and secondary system modeling, and (d) small break and large break loss of coolant accidents. Other studies included safety analysis, low power density core design, and control system design to greatly simplify the control room and required operator responses to plant upset conditions. The overall conclusion is that a reconfigured pressurized water reactor can achieve real and perceived safety improvements. Additionally, control system research to produce greatly simplified control rooms and operator requirements should be continued in future projects

  10. Nuclear hydrogen production and its safe handling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Hongsuk; Paek, Seungwoo; Kim, Kwang-Rag; Ahn, Do-Hee; Lee, Minsoo; Chang, Jong Hwa

    2003-01-01

    An overview of the hydrogen related research presently undertaken at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute are presented. These encompass nuclear hydrogen production, hydrogen storage, and the safe handling of hydrogen, High temperature gas-cooled reactors can play a significant role, with respect to large-scale hydrogen production, if used as the provider of high temperature heat in fossil fuel conversion or thermochemical cycles. A variety of potential hydrogen production methods for high temperature gas-cooled reactors were analyzed. They are steam reforming of natural gas, thermochemical cycles, etc. The produced hydrogen should be stored safely. Titanium metal was tested primarily because its hydride has very low dissociation pressures at normal storage temperatures and a high capacity for hydrogen, it is easy to prepare and is non-reactive with air in the expected storage conditions. There could be a number of potential sources of hydrogen evolution risk in a nuclear hydrogen production facility. In order to reduce the deflagration detonation it is necessary to develop hydrogen control methods that are capable of dealing with the hydrogen release rate. A series of experiments were conducted to assess the catalytic recombination characteristics of hydrogen in an air stream using palladium catalysts. (author)

  11. Is irradiation of food stuffs safe?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maheshwari, Raaz K.; Yadav, Rajesh K.

    2014-01-01

    Many advanced and several developing countries have abundant supplies of fresh, safe and nutritious food stuffs. Yet, despite the many precautions and processes in place to ensure safe food supply, microbial contamination is still a concern. There are a number of food processing tools available that provide additional protection for the food we consume. One very promising tool is food irradiation, which is a process of imparting ionizing energy to food to kill microorganisms. Food irradiation is the process of exposing food to a controlled source of ionising radiation for the purposes of reduction of microbial Ioad, destruction of pathogens, extension of product shelf life, and/or disinfection of produce. The term irradiation often evokes fears of nuclear radioactivity and cancer among consumers. The process seems frightening because it is powerful and invisible. Consequently questions and concerns exist particularly about the safety or wholesomeness of irradiated food. The paper highlights food irradiation as a food safety measure and the issues of concerns for consumers. (author)

  12. SGLT2 inhibitors: are they safe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippas-Ntekouan, Sebastian; Filippatos, Theodosios D; Elisaf, Moses S

    2018-01-01

    Sodium-glucose linked transporter type 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are a relatively new class of antidiabetic drugs with positive cardiovascular and kidney effects. The aim of this review is to present the safety issues associated with SGLT2 inhibitors. Urogenital infections are the most frequently encountered adverse events, although tend to be mild to moderate and are easily manageable with standard treatment. Although no increased acute kidney injury risk was evident in the major trials, the mechanism of action of these drugs requires caution when they are administered in patients with extracellular volume depletion or with drugs affecting renal hemodynamics. Canagliflozin raised the risk of amputations and the rate of fractures in the CANVAS trial, although more data are necessary before drawing definite conclusions. The risk of euglycemic diabetic ketoacidosis seems to be minimal when the drugs are prescribed properly. Regarding other adverse events, SGLT2 inhibitors do not increase the risk of hypoglycemia even when co-administered with insulin, but a decrease in the dose of sulphonylureas may be needed. The available data do not point to a causative role of SGLT2 inhibitors on malignancy risk, however, these drugs should be used with caution in patients with known hematuria or history of bladder cancer. SGLT2 inhibitors seem to be safe and effective in the treatment of diabetes but more studies are required to assess their long-term safety.

  13. 76 FR 11554 - Fiscal Year 2010 Public Transportation on Indian Reservations Program Project Selections

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-02

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Transit Administration Fiscal Year 2010 Public Transportation... Interior for public transportation capital projects, operating costs and planning activities that are... authorized by the Safe, Accountable, Flexible, Efficient Transportation Equity Act: A Legacy for Users...

  14. Identifying transportation solutions that promote healthy aging for Texas : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    As the population of Texans who are aging continues to grow, the role that transportation plays in the promotion of healthy aging is useful information for policy makers to plan and provide for the safe and healthy aging of Texass population. Tran...

  15. Safe and Secure Services Based on NGN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukazawa, Tomoo; Nisase, Takemi; Kawashima, Masahisa; Hariu, Takeo; Oshima, Yoshihito

    Next Generation Network (NGN), which has been undergoing standardization as it has developed, is expected to create new services that converge the fixed and mobile networks. This paper introduces the basic requirements for NGN in terms of security and explains the standardization activities, in particular, the requirements for the security function described in Y.2701 discussed in ITU-T SG-13. In addition to the basic NGN security function, requirements for NGN authentication are also described from three aspects: security, deployability, and service. As examples of authentication implementation, three profiles-namely, fixed, nomadic, and mobile-are defined in this paper. That is, the “fixed profile” is typically for fixed-line subscribers, the “nomadic profile” basically utilizes WiFi access points, and the “mobile profile” provides ideal NGN mobility for mobile subscribers. All three of these profiles satisfy the requirements from security aspects. The three profiles are compared from the viewpoint of requirements for deployability and service. After showing that none of the three profiles can fulfill all of the requirements, we propose that multiple profiles should be used by NGN providers. As service and application examples, two promising NGN applications are proposed. The first is a strong authentication mechanism that makes Web applications more safe and secure even against password theft. It is based on NGN ID federation function. The second provides an easy peer-to-peer broadband virtual private network service aimed at safe and secure communication for personal/SOHO (small office, home office) users, based on NGN SIP (session initiation protocol) session control.

  16. Intra-site Secure Transport Vehicle test and evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, S.

    1995-01-01

    In the past many DOE and DoD facilities involved in handling nuclear material realized a need to enhance the safely and security for movement of sensitive materials within their facility, or ''intra-site''. There have been prior efforts to improve on-site transportation; however, there remains a requirement for enhanced on-site transportation at a number of facilities. The requirements for on-site transportation are driven by security, safety, and operational concerns. The Intra-site Secure Transport Vehicle (ISTV) was designed to address these concerns specifically for DOE site applications with a standardized vehicle design. This paper briefly reviews the ISTV design features providing significant enhancement of onsite transportation safety and security, and also describes the test and evaluation activities either complete of underway to validate the vehicle design and operation

  17. BNFL's new spent fuel transport flask - Excellox 8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McWilliam, D.S.

    2002-01-01

    Since British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) was formed in 1971 its transport service has safely moved spent light water reactor fuel from many locations abroad to its fuel handling plants at Sellafield in the UK. To support this business a number of types of flasks have been designed and used. One of the types used has been the Excellox family of water-filled flasks. To support future business opportunities a new flask, designed to meet the requirements of the new IAEA transport regulations TS-R-1 (ST-1, Revised), has been developed. The flask will be a type B(U)F. This new flask design will maximise fuel carrying capacity to minimise transport costs. The design capacity of the new Excellox 8 flask is to be 12 pressurised water reactor or 32 boiling water reactor fuel assemblies. The objective of this BNFL project is to provide another economic spent nuclear fuel transport system, in support of BNFL transport business. (author)

  18. Evaluation of intelligent transport systems impact on school transport safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jankowska-Karpa Dagmara

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The integrated system of safe transport of children to school using Intelligent Transport Systems was developed and implemented in four locations across Europe under the Safeway2School (SW2S project, funded by the EU. The SW2S system evaluation included speed measurements and an eye-tracking experiment carried out among drivers who used the school bus route, where selected elements of the system were tested. The subject of the evaluation were the following system elements: pedestrian safety system at the bus stop (Intelligent Bus Stop and tags for children, Driver Support System, applications for parents’ and students’ mobile phones, bus stop inventory tool and data server. A new sign designed for buses and bus stops to inform about child transportation/children waiting at the bus stop was added to the system. Training schemes for system users were also provided. The article presents evaluation results of the impact of selected elements of the SW2S system on school transport safety in Poland.

  19. An analysis of severe air transport accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McClure, J.D.; Luna, R.E.

    1989-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to analyze the severity of aircraft accidents that may involve the air transport of radioactive materials (RAM). One of the basic aims of this paper is to provide a numerical description of the severity of aircraft transport accidents so that the accident severity can be compared with the accident performance standards that are specified in IAEA Safety Series 6, the international packaging standards for the safe movement of RAM. The existing packaging regulations in most countries embrace the packaging standards developed by the IAEA. Historically, the packaging standards for Type B packages have been independent of the transport mode. That is, if the shipment occurs in a certified packaging, then the shipment can take place by any transport mode. In 1975, a legislative action occurred in the US Congress which led to the development of a package designed specifically for the air transport of plutonium. Changes were subsequently made to the US packaging regulations in 10CFR71 to incorporate the plutonium air transport performance standards. These standards were used to certify the air transport package for plutonium which is commonly referred to as PAT-1 (US NRC). The PAT-1 was certified by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission in September 1978

  20. New developments in transportation for research reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mondanel, J.L. [Transnucleaire, F-75008 Paris (France)

    1998-07-01

    For more than 30 years, Transnucleaire has been performing safely a large number of national and international transports of radioactive material. Transnucleaire has also designed and supplied numerous packagings for all types of nuclear fuel cycle radioactive materials: for front-end and back-end products and for power and research reactors. Since the last meeting held in Bruges, Transnucleaire has been continuously involved in transportation activities for fresh and irradiated materials for research reactors. We are pleased to take the opportunity in this meeting to share with reactor operators, official bodies and other partners, the on-going developments in transportation and associated services. Special attention will be paid to the starting of transports of MTR spent fuel elements to the La Hague reprocessing plant where COGEMA offers reprocessing services on a long-term basis to reactors operators. Detailed information is provided on regulatory issues, which may affect transport activities: evolution of the regulations, real experiences of recent transportation and development of new packaging designs. Options and solutions will be proposed by Transnucleaire to improve the situation for continuation of national and international transports at an acceptable price whilst maintaining an ultimate level of safety (author)

  1. Strategic planning for transportation under the NWPA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, D.; Miernyk, J.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that the western states have found strategic planning to be an effective approach for identifying activities, and the appropriate sequencing of activities, that should be undertaken in the development of a transportation system for shipping high-level waste and spent nuclear fuel to a repository or monitored retrievable storage (MRS) facility. The Western Interstate Energy Board's High-Level Radioactive Waste Committee works with the U.S. Department of Energy pursuant to a cooperative agreement on the development of a safe, publicly-acceptable transportation system. The Committee has developed a Strategic Plan and Schedule which: guides the scheduling and prioritization of the Committee's work; enhances understanding of the complex and interrelated activities that states believe should be undertaken in developing a transportation system for high-level radioactive materials; and provides states with an appropriate structure for evaluating DOE's responsiveness to state needs

  2. LNG TERMINAL SAFE OPERATION MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej ADAMKIEWICZ

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the significance of LNG terminal safety issues in natural gas sea transport. It shows particular requirements for LNG transmission installations resulting from the specific properties of LNG. Out of the multi‐layer critical safety areas comprising structural elements of the terminal safety system, possibilities to decrease the risk of emergency occurrence on LNG terminals have been selected. Tasks performed by the LNG terminal, together with its own personnel and the outside one, have been defined. General theses for LNG terminal safety have been formulated.

  3. Eye safe laser range finders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snir, M.; Margaliot, M.; Amitzi, A.

    2004-01-01

    During the 1970's, Ruby (Q switched) laser based range finders with a wavelength of 694nm were first used. These lasers operated in a pulse mode within the visible light range and produced a risk for the eye retina. The laser beam striking the macula could damage the eye and might cause blindness. Over the years, Nd:YAG (Q switched) lasers were developed (operating at 1064nm) for range finding and designation uses. The wavelength of these lasers, operating in the near Infra-Red range (invisible), is also focused tightly on the retina. The human eye does not respond to the invisible light so there is no natural protection (eye blink reflex) as in the visible light. The operation of these lasers worldwide, especially when the laser beam is exposed, causes occasional eye accidents. Another risk is stemming from the use of observation systems with a high optical gain, in the laser operation areas, which enlarge the range of risk quite significantly. Therefore, research and development efforts were invested in order to introduce eye safe lasers. One of the solutions for this problem is presented in following document

  4. Working safely with radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, Wynne

    1993-01-01

    In common with exposure to many other laboratory chemicals, exposure to ionising radiations and to radioactive materials carries a small risk of causing harm. Because of this, there are legal limits to the amount of exposure to ionising radiations at work and special rules for working with radioactive materials. Although radiation protection is a complex subject it is possible to simplify to 10 basic things you should do -the Golden Rules. They are: 1) understand the nature of the hazard and get practical training; 2) plan ahead to minimise time spent handling radioactivity; 3) distance yourself appropriately from sources of radiation; 4) use appropriate shielding for the radiation; 5) contain radioactive materials in defined work areas; 6) wear appropriate protective clothing and dosimeters; 7) monitor the work area frequently for contamination control; 8) follow the local rules and safe ways of working; 9) minimise accumulation of waste and dispose of it by appropriate routes, and 10) after completion of work, monitor, wash, and monitor yourself again. These rules are expanded in this article. (author)

  5. Safe and green nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kushwaha, H.S.

    2010-01-01

    Energy development plays an important role in the national economic growth. Presently the per capita consumption of energy in our country is about 750 kWh including captive power generation which is low in comparison to that in the developed countries like USA where it is about 12,000 kWh. As of now the total installed capacity of electricity generation is about 152,148 MW(e) which is drawn from Thermal (65%), Hydel (24%), Nuclear (3%) power plants and Renewables (8%). It is expected that by the end of year 2020, the required installed capacity would be more than 3,00,000 MW(e), if we assume per capita consumption of about 800-1000 kWh for Indian population of well over one billion. To meet the projected power requirement in India, suitable options need to be identified and explored for generation of electricity. For choosing better alternatives various factors such as availability of resources, potential to generate commercial power, economic viability, etc. need to be considered. Besides these factors, an important factor which must be taken into consideration is protection of environment around the operating power stations. This paper attempts to demonstrate that the nuclear power generation is an environmentally benign option for meeting the future requirement of electricity in India. It also discusses the need for creating the public awareness about the safe operations of the nuclear power plants and ionising radiation. (author)

  6. SAFE testing nuclear rockets economically

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howe, Steven D.; Travis, Bryan; Zerkle, David K.

    2003-01-01

    Several studies over the past few decades have recognized the need for advanced propulsion to explore the solar system. As early as the 1960s, Werner Von Braun and others recognized the need for a nuclear rocket for sending humans to Mars. The great distances, the intense radiation levels, and the physiological response to zero-gravity all supported the concept of using a nuclear rocket to decrease mission time. These same needs have been recognized in later studies, especially in the Space Exploration Initiative in 1989. One of the key questions that has arisen in later studies, however, is the ability to test a nuclear rocket engine in the current societal environment. Unlike the Rover/NERVA programs in the 1960s, the rocket exhaust can no longer be vented to the open atmosphere. As a consequence, previous studies have examined the feasibility of building a large-scale version of the Nuclear Furnace Scrubber that was demonstrated in 1971. We have investigated an alternative that would deposit the rocket exhaust along with any entrained fission products directly into the ground. The Subsurface Active Filtering of Exhaust, or SAFE, concept would allow variable sized engines to be tested for long times at a modest expense. A system overview, results of preliminary calculations, and cost estimates of proof of concept demonstrations are presented. The results indicate that a nuclear rocket could be tested at the Nevada Test Site for under $20 M

  7. Inherently safe in situ uranium recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumhansl, James L; Brady, Patrick V

    2014-04-29

    An in situ recovery of uranium operation involves circulating reactive fluids through an underground uranium deposit. These fluids contain chemicals that dissolve the uranium ore. Uranium is recovered from the fluids after they are pumped back to the surface. Chemicals used to accomplish this include complexing agents that are organic, readily degradable, and/or have a predictable lifetime in an aquifer. Efficiency is increased through development of organic agents targeted to complexing tetravalent uranium rather than hexavalent uranium. The operation provides for in situ immobilization of some oxy-anion pollutants under oxidizing conditions as well as reducing conditions. The operation also artificially reestablishes reducing conditions on the aquifer after uranium recovery is completed. With the ability to have the impacted aquifer reliably remediated, the uranium recovery operation can be considered inherently safe.

  8. An inherently safe power reactor module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salerno, L.N.

    1985-01-01

    General Electric's long participation in liquid metal reactor technology has led to a Power Reactor Inherently Safe Module (PRISM) concept supported by DOE contract DE-AC06-85NE37937. The reactor module is sized to maximize inherent safety features. The small size allows factory fabrication, reducing field construction and field QA/QC labor, and allows safety to be demonstrated in full scale, to support a pre-licensed standard commercial product. The module is small enough to be placed underground, and can be combined with steam and electrical generating equipment to provide a complete electrical power producing plant in the range of 400-1200 MWe. Initial assessments are that the concept has the potential to be economically competitive with existing methods of power production used by the utility industry

  9. Safe management of radioactive waste in Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glover, E.T.; Fletcher, J.J.

    2000-01-01

    The Ghana Atomic Energy Commission was established in 1963 by an Act of Parliament, Act 204 for the Promotion, Development and Peaceful Application of Nuclear Techniques for the Benefit of Ghana. As in many developing countries the use of nuclear application is growing considerably in importance within the national economy. The Radiation Protection Board was established as the national regulatory authority and empowered by the Radiation Protection Instrument LI 1559 (1993). The above regulations, Act 204 and LI 1559 provided a minimum legal basis for regulatory control of radioactive waste management as it deals with waste management issues in a very general way and is of limited practical use to the waste producer. Hence the National Radioactive Waste Management Centre was established in July 1995 to carry out waste safety operations in Ghana. This paper highlights steps that have been taken to develop a systemic approach for the safe management of radioactive waste in the future and those already in existence. (author)

  10. Microbes safely, effectively bioremediate oil field pits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, B.; Block, C.S.; Mills, C.H.

    1995-01-01

    Natural and augmented bioremediation provides a safe, environmental, fast, and effective solution for removing hydrocarbon stains from soil. In 1992, Amoco sponsored a study with six bioremediation companies, which evaluated 14 different techniques. From this study, Amoco continued using Environmental Protection Co.'s (EPC) microbes for bioremediating more than 145 sites near Farmington, NM. EPC's microbes proved effective on various types of hydrocarbon molecules found in petroleum stained soils from heavy crude and paraffin to volatiles such as BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene) compounds. Controlled laboratory tests have shown that these microbes can digest the hydrocarbon molecules with or without free oxygen present. It is believed that this adaptation gives these microbes their resilience. The paper describes the bioremediation process, environmental advantages, in situ and ex situ bioremediation, goals of bioremediation, temperature effects, time, cost, and example sites that were treated

  11. Emergency preparedness and response in transport of radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takani, Michio

    2008-01-01

    Nuclear power has been providing clean, affordable electricity in many parts of the world for nearly half a century. The national and international transport of nuclear fuel cycle materials is essential to support this activity. To sustain the nuclear power industry, fuel cycle materials have to be transported safely and efficiently. The nature of the industry is such that most countries with large-scale nuclear power industries cannot provide all the necessary fuel services themselves and consequently nuclear fuel cycle transport activities are international. The radioactive material transport industry has an outstanding safety record spanning over 45 years; however the transport of radioactive materials cannot and most not be taken for granted. Efficient emergency preparedness and response in the transport of radioactive material is an important element to ensure the maximum safety in accident conditions. The World Nuclear Transport Institute (WNTI), founded by International Nuclear Services (INS) of the United Kingdom, AREVA of France an the Federation of Electric Power Companies (FEPC) of Japan, represents the collective interest of the radioactive material transport sector, and those who rely on safe, effective and reliable transport. As part of its activities, WNTI has conducted two surveys through its members on emergency preparedness and response in the transport of radioactive material and emergency exercises. After recalling the International Atomic Energy Agency approach on emergency response, this paper will be discussing the main conclusion of surveys, in particular the national variations in emergency response and preparedness on the national and local levels of regulations, the emergency preparedness in place, the emergency response organisation (who and how), communication and exercises. (author)

  12. Transport of radioactive materials by post

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-11-01

    The objective of the Seminar was to encourage safe and efficient carriage of radioactive material by post. Adequate, up-to-date regulations for international and domestic shipment of radioactive material by all modes of transport, including by mail, have been published by the IAEA. UPU, ICAO, IATA and other international organizations as well as a majority of the countries of the world have adopted most sections of the Agency's Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material. Although there is an apparent need for shipping radioactive material by mail, some countries allow only domestic shipments and the postal regulations applied in these countries often differs from the international regulations. Only about 25 countries are known to allow international (as well as domestic) shipments. From the discussions and comments at the Seminar, it appears that the option of shipment by post would be advantageous to enhance both the safety and economy of transporting, as well as to increase availability of, radioactive materials. The Agency's Regulations for transport by post as adopted by the UPU and ICAO are considered to provide a high level of safety and ensure a negligible element of risk. A more uniform application of these regulations within UPU Member States should be encouraged. The competent authority for implementation of the other parts of the Agency's Regulations in each of the Member States should be invited to advise the Postal Administrators and assist in applying the requirements to national as well as international postal shipments

  13. Sustainable transport practices in Latin America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogat, J.; Hinostroza, M. [UNEP Risoe Centre (Denmark)

    2007-05-15

    The rapid growth of Latin American cities beginning in the 70s has led to, among other things, growing mobility and demand for transportation. The lack of efficient, reliable and safe public transport systems has promoted the switch away from buses and trains towards private cars. Some of the impacts of a steadily increasing car fleet have been increased congestion, number of accidents and environmental deterioration. Recognising the potential implications of such a development, policy makers and officials found it necessary and went ahead to reformulate transport policies with the aim of providing safe, cost-effective and environmental-friendly public transport systems. Bus rapid transit (BRT) became the answer in a number of Latin American cities. The successful experiences of Curitiba in Brazil and Bogota in Colombia have served as the source of inspiration for other cities in Latin America, Asia, Europe and the USA. Thus, the BRT represents a unique example of South-South, South-North technology transfer. This paper presents some of the Latin American experiences and discusses their achievement and drawbacks. (au)

  14. The SafeCOP ECSEL Project: Safe Cooperating Cyber-Physical Systems Using Wireless Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pop, Paul; Scholle, Detlef; Hansson, Hans

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the ECSEL project entitled "Safe Cooperating Cyber-Physical Systems using Wireless Communication" (SafeCOP), which runs during the period 2016 -- 2019. SafeCOP targets safety-related Cooperating Cyber-Physical Systems (CO-CPS) characterised by use of wireless...... detection of abnormal behaviour, triggering if needed a safe degraded mode. SafeCOP will also develop methods and tools, which will be used to produce safety assurance evidence needed to certify cooperative functions. SafeCOP will extend current wireless technologies to ensure safe and secure cooperation...

  15. Two rice plasma membrane intrinsic proteins, OsPIP2;4 and OsPIP2;7, are involved in transport and providing tolerance to boron toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Kundan; Mosa, Kareem A; Chhikara, Sudesh; Musante, Craig; White, Jason C; Dhankher, Om Parkash

    2014-01-01

    Boron (B) toxicity is responsible for low cereal crop production in a number of regions worldwide. In this report, we characterized two rice genes, OsPIP2;4 and OsPIP2;7, for their involvement in B permeability and tolerance. Transcript analysis demonstrated that the expression of OsPIP2;4 and OsPIP2;7 were downregulated in shoots and strongly upregulated in rice roots by high B treatment. Expression of both OsPIP2;4 and OsPIP2;7 in yeast HD9 strain lacking Fps1, ACR3, and Ycf1 resulted in an increased B sensitivity. Furthermore, yeast HD9 strain expressing OsPIP2;4 and OsPIP2;7 accumulated significantly higher B as compared to empty vector control, which suggests their involvement in B transport. Overexpression of OsPIP2;4 and OsPIP2;7 in Arabidopsis imparted higher tolerance under B toxicity. Arabidopsis lines overexpressing OsPIP2;4 and OsPIP2;7 showed significantly higher biomass production and greater root length, however there was no difference in B accumulation in long term uptake assay. Short-term uptake assay using tracer B (¹⁰B) in shoots and roots demonstrated increased ¹⁰B accumulation in Arabidopsis lines expressing OsPIP2;4 and OsPIP2;7, compare to wild type control plants. Efflux assay of B in the roots showed that ¹⁰B was effluxed from the Arabidopsis transgenic plants overexpressing OsPIP2;4 or OsPIP2;7 during the initial 1-h of assay. These data indicate that OsPIP2;4 and OsPIP2;7 are involved in mediating B transport in rice and provide tolerance via efflux of excess B from roots and shoot tissues. These genes will be highly useful in developing B tolerant crops for enhanced yield in the areas affected by high B toxicity.

  16. Pocket Guide to Transportation 2018

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    The 2018 BTS Pocket Guide to Transportation is a quick reference guide that provides transportation statistics at your fingertips. It provides key information and highlights major trends on the U.S. transportation system. This year features a new and...

  17. Regulatory control for safe usage of radiation sources in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, P.K.; Sonawane, A.U.

    1998-01-01

    The widespread applications of radioactive materials and radiation generating equipment in the field of industry, medicine agriculture and research in India necessitated the establishment of an efficient regulatory framework and consequently the Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB) was constituted to exercise regulatory control over the safe usage of the radioactive materials and the radiation generating equipment. The Atomic Energy Act, 1962 and the Radiation Protection Rules, 1971 promulgated under the Act forms the basis of radiation safety in India and Chairman, AERB is the Competent Authority to enforce the regulatory provisions of the Radiation Protection Rules, 1971, for safe use of radiation source in the country. AERB has published a number of documents such as Radiation Surveillance Procedures, Standards, Codes, Guides and Manuals for safe use and handling of radioactive materials and radiation generating equipment. Apart from nuclear fuel cycle documents, these publications pertain to industrial radiography, medical application of radiation, transport of radioactive material, industrial gamma irradiators, X-ray units etc. AERB safety related publications are based on international standards e.g. BSS, IAEA, ICRP, ISO etc. This paper outlines the methodology of regulatory control exercised by AERB for safe use of the radioactive materials and the radiation generating equipment in the country. (author)

  18. Planning and Preparing for Emergency Response to Transport Accidents Involving Radioactive Material. Safety Guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    This Safety Guide provides guidance on various aspects of emergency planning and preparedness for dealing effectively and safely with transport accidents involving radioactive material, including the assignment of responsibilities. It reflects the requirements specified in Safety Standards Series No. TS-R-1, Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material, and those of Safety Series No. 115, International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources. Contents: 1. Introduction; 2. Framework for planning and preparing for response to accidents in the transport of radioactive material; 3. Responsibilities for planning and preparing for response to accidents in the transport of radioactive material; 4. Planning for response to accidents in the transport of radioactive material; 5. Preparing for response to accidents in the transport of radioactive material; Appendix I: Features of the transport regulations influencing emergency response to transport accidents; Appendix II: Preliminary emergency response reference matrix; Appendix III: Guide to suitable instrumentation; Appendix IV: Overview of emergency management for a transport accident involving radioactive material; Appendix V: Examples of response to transport accidents; Appendix VI: Example equipment kit for a radiation protection team; Annex I: Example of guidance on emergency response to carriers; Annex II: Emergency response guide.

  19. Safe prescribing: a titanic challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Routledge, Philip A

    2012-10-01

    The challenge to achieve safe prescribing merits the adjective 'titanic'. The organisational and human errors leading to poor prescribing (e.g. underprescribing, overprescribing, misprescribing or medication errors) have parallels in the organisational and human errors that led to the loss of the Titanic 100 years ago this year. Prescribing can be adversely affected by communication failures, critical conditions, complacency, corner cutting, callowness and a lack of courage of conviction, all of which were also factors leading to the Titanic tragedy. These issues need to be addressed by a commitment to excellence, the final component of the 'Seven C's'. Optimal prescribing is dependent upon close communication and collaborative working between highly trained health professionals, whose role is to ensure maximum clinical effectiveness, whilst also protecting their patients from avoidable harm. Since humans are prone to error, and the environments in which they work are imperfect, it is not surprising that medication errors are common, occurring more often during the prescribing stage than during dispensing or administration. A commitment to excellence in prescribing includes a continued focus on lifelong learning (including interprofessional learning) in pharmacology and therapeutics. This should be accompanied by improvements in the clinical working environment of prescribers, and the encouragement of a strong safety culture (including reporting of adverse incidents as well as suspected adverse drug reactions whenever appropriate). Finally, members of the clinical team must be prepared to challenge each other, when necessary, to ensure that prescribing combines the highest likelihood of benefit with the lowest potential for harm. © 2012 The Author. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology © 2012 The British Pharmacological Society.

  20. Safe prescribing: a titanic challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Routledge, Philip A

    2012-01-01

    The challenge to achieve safe prescribing merits the adjective ‘titanic’. The organisational and human errors leading to poor prescribing (e.g. underprescribing, overprescribing, misprescribing or medication errors) have parallels in the organisational and human errors that led to the loss of the Titanic 100 years ago this year. Prescribing can be adversely affected by communication failures, critical conditions, complacency, corner cutting, callowness and a lack of courage of conviction, all of which were also factors leading to the Titanic tragedy. These issues need to be addressed by a commitment to excellence, the final component of the ‘Seven C's’. Optimal prescribing is dependent upon close communication and collaborative working between highly trained health professionals, whose role is to ensure maximum clinical effectiveness, whilst also protecting their patients from avoidable harm. Since humans are prone to error, and the environments in which they work are imperfect, it is not surprising that medication errors are common, occurring more often during the prescribing stage than during dispensing or administration. A commitment to excellence in prescribing includes a continued focus on lifelong learning (including interprofessional learning) in pharmacology and therapeutics. This should be accompanied by improvements in the clinical working environment of prescribers, and the encouragement of a strong safety culture (including reporting of adverse incidents as well as suspected adverse drug reactions whenever appropriate). Finally, members of the clinical team must be prepared to challenge each other, when necessary, to ensure that prescribing combines the highest likelihood of benefit with the lowest potential for harm. PMID:22738396

  1. Modelling freight transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tavasszy, L.A.; Jong, G. de

    2014-01-01

    Freight Transport Modelling is a unique new reference book that provides insight into the state-of-the-art of freight modelling. Focusing on models used to support public transport policy analysis, Freight Transport Modelling systematically introduces the latest freight transport modelling

  2. Safe Injection Practices in Primary Health Care Settings of Naxalbari Block, Darjeeling District, West Bengal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhuri, Sudip Banik; Ray, Kuntala

    2016-01-01

    Unsafe injection can transmit many diseases to patients, injection providers and healthy people of community. To find out critical steps whether executed according to recommended best practice methods, availability of equipments in health facilities for safe injection practices and some important steps of waste disposal methods. This facility-based cross-sectional observational study was conducted among 30 Auxiliary nurse midwives (ANM) & 27 nursing staffs (NS) to assess certain aspects of their practice while administrating injection and disposal of the disposables. Health facilities were also observed to asses necessary equipments of safe injection and waste disposal methods. Among the health workers 93.3% ANM and 100% NS took sterile syringe from sterile unopened packet, all of the study subjects washed hand before giving injection, 13.3% of ANMs and 8% of NS are fully vaccinated against Hep B, 53.3% of ANM and all NS are practices non recapping. Only 13.33% sub centres along with PHC & BPHC had at least one puncture resistant leak proof container, 86.7% sub centres, PHC are free from loose needles. Transport for off side treatment is the method of waste disposal in case of 73.3% cases sub centres, PHC & BPHC. There is need to educate, train and motivate service providers in proper methods of giving injection along with improve the adequacy of supply of required equipments.

  3. Sometimes, economic arguments provide better conditions for achieving energy efficiency in transport (A remarkable new market based approach on Commuter Mobility Management makes accessibility and energy efficiency go hand in hand)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elburg, Henk van

    2003-01-01

    Commuter Mobility Management (CMM) is broadly regarded as one of the most potential instruments to reduce the negative effects of mass commuting on the environment and energy demand. Until now, only 4% of private enterprise implemented CMM in the Netherlands. Business community turned out to be very reluctant in embracing CMM as a workable method. National employers' federations, representing more than 90% of employment in private sector, pictured CMM as a laborious and not effective instrument. Novem realised that the real issue was not so much about the practicability of the instrument, but more about the environmental and energy related arguments being used by the government. Novem took the initiative and invited the employers federations to participate in a unique project: the development of a Standard Set of CMM-incentives. In this project, environmental and energy related arguments were tactically avoided. The target scenario was to convince business community strictly with economic arguments. The project showed remarkable results. The influential employers' federations became more co-operative and accepted a 'Standard Set of incentives'. While not emphasising it, the 'hidden' positive effect on energy conservation is still substantial: 5% reduction of single occupant vehicle-trips during rush hours, each 'switcher' saving an average of 7,200 single occupant car kilometres each year. By 2010 this could nation wide result in a reduction of approximately 3PJ, about 4,3% of all energy used by private car travel in mass commuting. This explains the title: 'Sometimes, economic arguments provide better conditions for achieving energy efficiency in transport'

  4. Safe Handling of Radioisotopes. 1973 Edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1973-01-01

    Under its Statute the International Atomic Energy Agency is empowered to provide for the application of standards of safety for protection against radiation to its own operations and to operations making use of assistance provided by it or with which it is otherwise directly associated. To this end authorities receiving such assistance are required to observe relevant health and safety measures prescribed by the Agency. As a first step, it was considered an urgent task to provide users of radionuclides with a manual of practice for the safe handling of these substances. The first edition of such a manual was published in 1958 and represented the first of the ''Safety Series'', a series of manuals and codes on health and safety published by the Agency. It was prepared after careful consideration of existing national and international codes of radiation safety by a group of international experts and in consultation with other international bodies. This edition presents the second revision. In response to the suggestion made by some Member States, the term 'radioisotopes' has been changed to 'radionuclides' in the title and, as appropriate, in the text because the term 'radionuclides' includes the radioactive element itself as well as the isotopes. The series of manuals and codes published in the Safety Series and the Technical Reports Series give more complete advice to the user on specialized topics.

  5. Safe motherhood -- from advocacy to action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinker, A

    1991-12-01

    Every minute a woman dies from complications related to pregnancy or childbirth. That translates to 500,000 annually, of which, 99% live in developing countries. A woman in Africa has a 1:18 lifetime chance of dying from pregnancy-related causes, compared with a northern European woman who has a 1:10,000 chance. Thus, in 1987 international and regional agencies and national governments started a global program titled the Safe Motherhood Initiative. Its goal is to reduce maternal morbidity and mortality 50% by 2000. The death of a woman during pregnancy or child birth means that her surviving children are much more likely to die. In a bangladesh study it was found that the death of the mother was associated with a 200% increase in mortality for her sons and 350% for her daughters for children up to 10. Family planning is the key, since it is the single best tool of preventing these deaths, by reducing the number of times a woman gets pregnant. Family planning also reduces the number of abortions which are estimated to kill 200,000 women annually in developing countries. Trained midwives who can provide obstetrical emergency assistance will also make a large impact. Risk assessment was once considered very important, but studies have shown that the majority of pregnancy complications develop without being detected. Further, the number of women with risk factors that develop complications is much lower than the number of women who develop complications during pregnancy. So monitoring women with risk factors misses most complications. Regular monitoring and medical examinations are much more effective for preventing complications. Safe motherhood can only be achieved if each program is tailored to the needs of the community. Donor nations are necessary for this program to succeed, but ultimate success rests in the hands of each country. National priorities must be set, resources must be allocated, and programs must be designed to be effective.

  6. Meet Seymour Safely. Seymour Safely Activity Book I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Optometric Association, St. Louis, MO.

    This activity book teaches elementary school students about good vision and eye safety through a combination of puppet plays, stories, songs, and games. Nine games are provided to help children develop vision skills including visual memory, visual perception, directionality, spatial orientation, and visual-motor responses. Master Plans for making…

  7. Can basic life support personnel safely determine that advanced life support is not needed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cone, D C; Wydro, G C

    2001-01-01

    To determine whether firefighter/emergency medical technicians-basic (FF/EMT-Bs) staffing basic life support (BLS) ambulances in a two-tiered emergency medical services (EMS) system can safely determine when advanced life support (ALS) is not needed. This was a prospective, observational study conducted in two academic emergency departments (EDs) receiving patients from a large urban fire-based EMS system. Runs were studied to which ALS and BLS ambulances were simultaneously dispatched, with the patient transported by the BLS unit. Prospectively established criteria for potential need for ALS were used to determine whether the FF/EMT-B's decision to cancel the ALS unit was safe, and simple outcomes (admission rate, length of stay, mortality) were examined. In the system studied, BLS crews may cancel responding ALS units at their discretion; there are no protocols or medical criteria for cancellation. A convenience sample of 69 cases was collected. In 52 cases (75%), the BLS providers indicated that they cancelled the responding ALS unit because they did not feel ALS was needed. Of these, 40 (77%) met study criteria for ALS: 39 had potentially serious chief complaints, nine had abnormal vital signs, and ten had physical exam findings that warranted ALS. Forty-five (87%) received an intervention immediately upon ED arrival that could have been provided in the field by an ALS unit, and 16 (31%) were admitted, with a median length of stay of 3.3 days (range 1.1-73.4 days). One patient died. Firefighter/EMT-Bs, working without protocols or medical criteria, cannot always safely determine which patients may require ALS intervention.

  8. Fracture mechanics aspects in the safe design of ductile iron shipping and storage containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sappok, M.; Bounin, D.

    1996-01-01

    Containers made of ductile cast iron provide a safe method for transport of radioactive material. Contrary to widespread opinion ductile cast iron is a very tough material and can be manufactured in heavy sections. The containers are designed to withstand the very high impact loads of accidents like free drops onto unyielding targets. The design is based on postulated undetected crack-like flaws at the highest stressed location. Design must show that applied stress intensities are smaller than fracture toughness and no crack initiation and therefore also no crack propagation can occur. The design procedure followed in this paper is given in a new guideline still being drafted by the International Atomic Energy Agency

  9. Modified hydraulic braking system limits angular deceleration to safe values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, R. S.; Council, M.; Green, P. M.

    1966-01-01

    Conventional spring actuated, hydraulically released, fail-safe disk braking system is modified to control the angular deceleration of a massive antenna. The hydraulic system provides an immediate preset pressure to the spring-loaded brake shoes and holds it at this value to decelerate the antenna at the desired rate.

  10. Achievements of the EC network of excellence HySafe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jordan, T.; Adams, P.; Azkarate, I.; Baraldi, D.; Barthelemy, H.; Bauwens, L.; Bengaouer, A.; Brennan, S.; Carcassi, M.; Dahoe, A.; Eisenreich, N.; Engebo, A.; Funnemark, E.; Gallego, E.; Gavrikov, A.; Haland, E.; Hansen, A.M.; Haugom, G.P.; Hawksworth, S.; Jedicke, O.; Kessler, A.; Kotchourko, A.; Kumar, S.; Langer, G.; Ledin, S.; Makarov, D.; Marangon, A.; Markert, F.; Middha, P.; Molkov, V.; Nilsen, S.; Papanikolaou, E.; Perrette, L.; Reinecke, E.-A.; Schmidtchen, U.; Serre-Combe, P.; Stöcklin, M.; Sully, A.; Teodorczyk, A.; Tigreat, D.; Venetsanos, A.; Verfondern, K.; Versloot, N.A.H.; Vetere, A.; Wilms, M.; Zaretskiy, N.

    2009-01-01

    In many areas European research has been largely fragmented. To support the required integration and to focus and coordinate related research efforts the European Commission created a new instrument, the Networks of Excellences (NoEs). The goal of the NoE HySafe has been to provide the basis to

  11. ISAT promises fail-safe computer-based reactor protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    AEA Technology's ISAT system is a multiplexed microprocessor-based reactor protection system which has very extensive self-monitoring capabilities and is inherently fail safe. It provides a way of addressing software reliability problems that have tended to hamper widespread introduction of computer-based reactor protection. (author)

  12. Keeping Children Safe: Afterschool Staff and Mandated Child Maltreatment Reporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandarilla, Maria; O'Donnell, Julie

    2014-01-01

    With 8.4 million children in the U.S. spending an average of eight hours a week in afterschool programs, afterschool providers are an important part of the network of caring adults who can help to keep children safe. In addition, afterschool staff are "mandated reporters." Whether or not the laws specifically mention afterschool staff,…

  13. Relations Between Transport and Tourism- Croatia's Possibilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinko Jurčević

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Relations between tourism and transport industries are importantfor the entire Croatian economy and are expected togrow in the future. The most important thing from the aspect oftransport is definitely the infrastructure of all branches of transport(primarily road traffic, followed by the development ofship and ferry lines, both along the Adriatic coast and betweenthe islands. The construction of transport access and infrastructureof our tourist destinations, as well as transport linksbetween them, is crucial for the development of tourism. Morethan 70 per cent of foreign tourists and 70 per cent of touristboats (up to 7 m come to Croatia by roads. They all expecttransport infrastructure on a European level, providing fast,safe and comfortable transport from their homes to tourist destinations.Therefore, our transport lines and their quality, roadfeatures, traffic capability and equipment are what the developmentof our tourism depends on, especially in central andsouthern Adriatic, considering the wider economic goals ofCroatia and the growing interest of the European Union in ourcountry, its economy and tourism.

  14. SafeDroid: A Distributed Malware Detection Service for Android

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goyal, Rohit; Spognardi, Angelo; Dragoni, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    Android platform has become a primary target for malware. In this paper we present SafeDroid, an open source distributed service to detect malicious apps on Android by combining static analysis and machine learning techniques. It is composed by three micro-services, working together, combining...... static analysis and machine learning techniques. SafeDroid has been designed as a user friendly service, providing detailed feedback in case of malware detection. The detection service is optimized to be lightweight and easily updated. The feature set on which the micro-service of detection relies...

  15. Intrinsically safe moisture blending system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallman Jr., Russell L.; Vanatta, Paul D.

    2012-09-11

    A system for providing an adjustable blend of fluids to an application process is disclosed. The system uses a source of a first fluid flowing through at least one tube that is permeable to a second fluid and that is disposed in a source of the second fluid to provide the adjustable blend. The temperature of the second fluid is not regulated, and at least one calibration curve is used to predict the volumetric mixture ratio of the second fluid with the first fluid from the permeable tube. The system typically includes a differential pressure valve and a backpressure control valve to set the flow rate through the system.

  16. Virus Alert: Ten Steps to Safe Computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunter, Glenda A.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses computer viruses and explains how to detect them; discusses virus protection and the need to update antivirus software; and offers 10 safe computing tips, including scanning floppy disks and commercial software, how to safely download files from the Internet, avoiding pirated software copies, and backing up files. (LRW)

  17. Implementation of an Improved Safe Operating Envelope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prime, Robyn; McIntyre, Mark; Reeves, David

    2008-01-01

    This paper is a continuation of the paper presented at IYNC 2004 on 'The Definition of a Safe Operating Envelope'. The current paper concentrates on the implementation process of the Safe Operating Envelope employed at the Point Lepreau Generating Station. (authors)

  18. Creating Safe Spaces for Music Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, Karin S.; Smith, Tawnya D.; Stanuch, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    This article offers a practical model for fostering emotionally safe learning environments that instill in music students a positive sense of self-belief, freedom, and purpose. The authors examine the implications for music educators of creating effective learning environments and present recommendations for creating a safe space for learning,…

  19. Implementation of an Improved Safe Operating Envelope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prime, Robyn; McIntyre, Mark [NB Power Nuclear, P.O. Box 600, Lepreau, NB (Canada); Reeves, David [Atlantic Nuclear Services Ltd., PO Box 1268 Fredericton, NB (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    This paper is a continuation of the paper presented at IYNC 2004 on 'The Definition of a Safe Operating Envelope'. The current paper concentrates on the implementation process of the Safe Operating Envelope employed at the Point Lepreau Generating Station. (authors)

  20. Safe physical human robot interaction- past, present and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pervez, Aslam; Ryu, Jeha

    2008-01-01

    When a robot physically interacts with a human user, the requirements should be drastically changed. The most important requirement is the safety of the human user in the sense that robot should not harm the human in any situation. During the last few years, research has been focused on various aspects of safe physical human robot interaction. This paper provides a review of the work on safe physical interaction of robotic systems sharing their workspace with human users (especially elderly people). Three distinct areas of research are identified: interaction safety assessment, interaction safety through design, and interaction safety through planning and control. The paper then highlights the current challenges and available technologies and points out future research directions for realization of a safe and dependable robotic system for human users