WorldWideScience

Sample records for providing safe playground

  1. How Can We Provide Safe Playgrounds? = Como podemos proveer lugares con juegos infantiles que no sean peligrosos para los ninos?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ACCESS ERIC, Rockville, MD.

    Outdoor playgrounds can be exciting places where children explore their environment and develop motor and social skills; however, they can also pose serious safety hazards. With the exception of California, no mandatory state or federal standards currently exist regarding manufacture or installation of playground equipment or surfaces. The…

  2. Playground

    OpenAIRE

    Putney, Jenni

    2012-01-01

    When I would play pretend as a kid, I always liked to have some sort of structure to play on. Whether it was the jungle gym at school, a fort I had built with my brother, or the local Chuck E. Cheese, I had the most fun, and my imagination was the most free when there were more tubes to slide in or trampolines to jump on. Over the past three years at U.C. San Diego I feel like I have built my actor playground. I have gained a structure that has allowed me to freely play wherever I need to ...

  3. Developing a Playground Injury Prevention Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Heather M.; Hudson, Susan D.; Thompson, Donna

    2008-01-01

    Playgrounds are a major source of unintentional injuries in the school environment. In fact, 80% of all injuries on public playground equipment happen at school. Thus, the need for developing a playground injury prevention plan is critical to provide safe educational outdoor environments for children. The S.A.F.E.[TM] framework for injury…

  4. Adventure Playgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Robert F.

    1971-01-01

    At the Milpitas City-School Recreation Department's "adventure playground," piles of scrap wood, cardboard, and other building materials are provided for building at the youngsters' inclinations. (MB)

  5. Socially Aware Interactive Playgrounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moreno Celleri, Alejandro Manuel; van Delden, Robertus Wilhelmus; Poppe, Ronald Walter; Reidsma, Dennis

    Interactive playgrounds are technology-enhanced installations that aim to provide rich game experiences for children by combining the benefits of traditional playgrounds with those of digital games. These game experiences could be attained by addressing three design considerations:

  6. Soil intervention as a strategy for lead exposure prevention: The New Orleans lead-safe childcare playground project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mielke, Howard W., E-mail: howard.mielke@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Tulane University, New Orleans, LA 70118 (United States); Center for Bioenvironmental Research at Tulane and Xavier Universities, 1430 Tulane Avenue SL-3, New Orleans, LA 70112 (United States); Covington, Tina P. [Charity School of Nursing, Delgado Community College, New Orleans, LA 70112-1397 (United States); College of Nursing, University of South Alabama, Doctor of Nursing Practice Program (student), Mobile AL 36688-0002 (United States); Mielke, Paul W. [Department of Statistics, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523-1877 (United States); Wolman, Fredericka J. [Director of Pediatrics, Department of Children and Families, State of Connecticut, Hartford, CT 06473 (United States); Powell, Eric T.; Gonzales, Chris R. [Lead Lab, Inc., New Orleans, LA 70179-1125 (United States)

    2011-08-15

    The feasibility of reducing children's exposure to lead (Pb) polluted soil in New Orleans is tested. Childcare centers (median = 48 children) are often located in former residences. The extent of soil Pb was determined by selecting centers in both the core and outlying areas. The initial 558 mg/kg median soil Pb (range 14-3692 mg/kg) decreased to median 4.1 mg/kg (range 2.2-26.1 mg/kg) after intervention with geotextile covered by 15 cm of river alluvium. Pb loading decreased from a median of 4887 {mu}g/m{sup 2} (454 {mu}g/ft{sup 2}) range 603-56650 {mu}g/m{sup 2} (56-5263 {mu}g/ft{sup 2}) to a median of 398 {mu}g/m{sup 2} (37 {mu}g/ft{sup 2}) range 86-980 {mu}g/m{sup 2} (8-91 {mu}g/ft{sup 2}). Multi-Response Permutation Procedures indicate similar (P-values = 0.160-0.231) soil Pb at childcare centers compared to soil Pb of nearby residential communities. At {approx}$100 per child, soil Pb and surface loading were reduced within hours, advancing an upstream intervention conceptualization about Pb exposure prevention. - Highlights: > Upstream thinking refers to attending to causative agents that affect outcomes. > New Orleans has a high density soil Pb map of all residential communities. > Many childcare centers are located in Pb polluted residential communities. > Evaluation of childcare center playground soils substantiated severe Pb pollution. > Pursuing upstream thinking, low Pb soil was put on playgrounds to protect children. - Within hours, at a cost of about U.S. $100 (2010) per child, it is feasible to transform exterior play areas at childcare centers from Pb contaminated to Pb-safe with a large margin of safety.

  7. Playground Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipes, James L.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the issues of risk, liability, and fun when landscaping playgrounds with safety in mind. The importance of playground surfaces and several preventive measures landscapers can use to reduce the risk of injury are discussed. Concluding comments address playground design features and liability. (GR)

  8. Perioperative Care of Prisoners: Providing Safe Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Francis Duval

    2016-03-01

    Correctional nurses are trained to care for prisoners in a controlled security environment; however, when a convict is transferred to a noncorrectional health care facility, the nurses there are often unfamiliar with custody requirements or how to safely care for these patients. The care of prisoners outside of prison has not been adequately investigated, and a gap exists between research and nursing education and practice. Nurses rarely have to consider how providing care for a prisoner in custody affects their practice, the potential dissonance between routine nursing care and the requirements to maintain security, or that care of prisoners in unsecured clinical areas places the nurse and other personnel at risk for physical assault or prisoner escape. Educating perioperative nurses in the care of prisoners in a public hospital environment is important for the provision of safe care and prevention of physical and emotional repercussions to personnel. Copyright © 2016 AORN, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Evidence-based playground design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Refshauge, Anne Dahl; Stigsdotter, Ulrika K.; Lamm, Bettina

    2015-01-01

    This paper develops, explores and evaluates an evidence-based approach to playground design, with a public park playground (playlab Cph) in Copenhagen as a case study. In the increasingly urbanised world, park playgrounds are valuable places that support healthy child development by providing...... opportunities for play, nature exploration and sensory stimulation. As it is increasingly expected that designers base their decisions on research evidence, there is a need to develop approaches to facilitate this, which also applies to playground design. The design of PlayLab Cph was based on relevant evidence...

  10. Health Providers' Perception towards Safe Abortion Service at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Ethiopia, unsafe abortion accounts up to 32% of maternal deaths. The perception of health providers towards safe abortion provision at selected health facilities in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia was assessed. A stratified random sampling was used to select 431 health providers. A cross-sectional study was conducted from ...

  11. Why don?t humanitarian organizations provide safe abortion services?

    OpenAIRE

    McGinn, Therese; Casey, Sara E

    2016-01-01

    Background Although sexual and reproductive health services have become more available in humanitarian settings over the last decade, safe abortion services are still rarely provided. The authors? observations suggest that four reasons are typically given for this gap: ?There?s no need?; ?Abortion is too complicated to provide in crises?; ?Donors don?t fund abortion services?; and ?Abortion is illegal?. Discussion However, each of these reasons is based on false premises. Unsafe abortion is a...

  12. Burn Safety Awareness on Playgrounds: Thermal Burns from Playground Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safety Awareness on Playgrounds Thermal Burns from Playground Equipment The U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission CPSC wants ... of the risk of thermal burns from playground equipment. You may remember the metal slides of your ...

  13. Using Playground Maps for Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colvin, A. Vonnie

    2016-01-01

    Many schools now decorate their outside hard surface areas with maps. These maps provide color and excitement to a playground and are a terrific teaching tool for geography. But these maps can easily be integrated into physical education as well to promote both physical activity as well as knowledge of geography. The purpose of this article is to…

  14. Playtesting The Digital Playground

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Majgaard, Gunver; Jessen, Carsten

    2009-01-01

    Being able to be absorbed in play in the digital playground is motivating for children who are used digital computer games. The children can play and exercise outdoors while using the same literacy as in indoor digital games. This paper presents a new playground product where an outdoor playground...... has been combined with digital games. The playground was tested in natural surroundings in a school yard and the findings about the interplay between digital and analog play are described here. Finally balancing in digital and analog games is discussed....

  15. Safe Implementation of Computerized Provider Order Entry for Adult Oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, D B; Kaemingk, D; Frieze, D; Hendrie, P; Payne, T H

    2015-01-01

    Oncology has lagged in CPOE adoption due to the narrow therapeutic index of chemotherapy drugs, individualized dosing based on weight and height, regimen complexity, and workflows that include hard stops where safety checks are performed and documented. We sought to establish CPOE for chemotherapy ordering and administration in an academic teaching institution using a commercially available CPOE system. A commercially available CPOE system was implemented throughout the hospital. A multidisciplinary team identified key safety gaps that required the development of a customized complex order display and a verification documentation workflow. Staff reported safety events were monitored for two years and compared to the year prior to go live. A workflow was enabled to capture real-time provider verification status during the time from ordering to the administration of chemotherapy. A customized display system was embedded in the EMR to provide a single screen view of the relevant parameters of chemotherapy doses including current and previous patient measurements of height and weight, dose adjustments, provider verifications, prior chemotherapy regimens, and a synopsis of the standard regimen for reference. Our system went live with 127 chemotherapy plans and has been expanded to 189. Staff reported safety events decreased following implementation, particularly in the area of prescribing and transcribing by the second year of use. We observed reduced staff reported safety events following implementation of CPOE for inpatient chemotherapy using an electronic verification workflow and an embedded custom clinical decision support page. This implementation demonstrates that CPOE can be safely used for inpatient chemotherapy, even in an extremely complex environment.

  16. Playground Safety is Associated With Playground, Park, and Neighborhood Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suminski, Richard; Presley, Terry; Wasserman, Jason A; Mayfield, Carlene A; McClain, Elizabeth; Johnson, Mariah

    2015-03-01

    More than 200,000 children each year are treated at emergency departments for injuries occurring on playgrounds. Empirically derived data are needed to elucidate factors associated with playground safety and reduce injury rates. Determine if neighborhood, park and playground characteristics are significantly associated with playground safety. A 24-item report card developed by the National Program for Playground Safety was used to assess playground safety at 41 public parks in a small to midsized, Midwestern city. Trained assessors evaluated the parks and playgrounds in June/July and used a standardized method to count the numbers of users. Data from the 2010 U.S. Census were used to describe the neighborhoods surrounding the parks. The average safety score for all playgrounds was 77.4% which denotes acceptable safety levels. However, 17.1% of the playgrounds were potentially hazardous and in need of corrective measures. Playgrounds were safer in neighborhoods with more youth (safety levels need to be improved to reduce the risk of physical injuries. Future studies examining cause-effect associations between environmental features and playground safety are warranted.

  17. Approaches to psycho-pedagogical examination of game playgrounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotliar I.A.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the problem of the game environment - playgrounds. The article discusses the history of children's playgrounds, analyses the different methodological approaches to their expertise: an ecological approach, socio-cognitive approach, subjective or personal approach, activity approach. Taking into account the latest contemporary foreign researches, the article discusses the facts concerning the link between the types of playgrounds, their equipment and the nature of child behavior. The article provides basic criteria for expertize of game environment: game value of plating objects or game environment in general, landscape features of playgrounds, the elements that trigger risky behavior, etc. The conclusion states that playgrounds must be assessed in terms of their compliance to the needs of children and the age related challenges of their development.

  18. Keeping Kids Safe: A Guide for Safe Food Handling & Sanitation for Child Care Providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Food Safety and Inspection Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    Because children under age 5 are susceptible to food-borne illnesses and children in diapers present special sanitation and health problems, food safety and sanitation are emerging as important issues for child care providers. This booklet is designed to give providers and parents a quick and easy reference for food safety and sanitation. The…

  19. Adventure Playgrounds: The American Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vance, Bill

    1982-01-01

    The concept of Adventure Playgrounds, adult-supervised spaces with raw materials which children can use to design their own play areas, is explained. California Adventure Playgrounds at Huntington Beach and Irvine are described. Costs, equipment requirements, and the need for community participation are discussed. (PP)

  20. Providing safe drinking water to 1.2 billion unserved people

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gadgil, Ashok J.; Derby, Elisabeth A.

    2003-06-01

    Despite substantial advances in the past 100 years in public health, technology and medicine, 20% of the world population, mostly comprised of the poor population segments in developing countries (DCs), still does not have access to safe drinking water. To reach the United Nations (UN) Millennium Goal of halving the number of people without access to safe water by 2015, the global community will need to provide an additional one billion urban residents and 600 million rural residents with safe water within the next twelve years. This paper examines current water treatment measures and implementation methods for delivery of safe drinking water, and offers suggestions for making progress towards the goal of providing a timely and equitable solution for safe water provision. For water treatment, based on the serious limitations of boiling water and chlorination, we suggest an approach based on filtration coupled with ultraviolet (UV) disinfection, combined with public education. Additionally, owing to the capacity limitations for non-governmental organizations (NGOs) to take on this task primarily on their own, we suggest a strategy based on financially sustainable models that include the private sector as well as NGOs.

  1. EMS providers' perceptions of safety climate and adherence to safe work practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliseo, Laura J; Murray, Kate A; White, Laura F; Dyer, Sophia; Mitchell, Patricia A; Fernandez, William G

    2012-01-01

    Occupational injuries are an important source of morbidity for emergency medical services (EMS) providers. Previous work has shown that employee perceptions of an organization's commitment to safety (i.e., safety climate) correlate with adherence to safe practices. To assess the association between perceived safety climate and compliance with safety procedures in an urban EMS system with >100,000 calls/year. EMS providers were issued a self-administered survey that included questions on demographics, years of experience, perceived safety climate, and adherence to safety procedures. Safety climate was assessed with a 20-item validated instrument. Adherence to safety procedures was assessed with a nine-item list of safety behaviors. Strict adherence to safety procedures was defined as endorsing "agree" or "strongly agree" on 80% of items. The effect of safety climate on compliance with safe practices was estimated using multiple logistic regression. One hundred ninety-six of 221 providers (89%) completed surveys; 74% were male; the median age was 36-40 years; and the median amount of experience was 8 years. One hundred twenty-seven of 196 respondents (65%) reported strict adherence to safe work practice. Factor analysis confirmed the original six-factor grouping of questions; frequent safety-related feedback/training was significantly associated with safe practices (odds ratio [OR] = 2.14, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.01-4.51). EMS workers perceiving a high degree of perceived safety climate was associated with twofold greater odds of self-reported level of strict adherence to safe work practices. Frequent safety-related feedback/training was the one dimension of safety climate that had the strongest association with adherence to safe workplace behaviors.

  2. Translating the PLAYgrounds program into practice: A process evaluation using the RE-AIM framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, M.; Toussaint, H.M.; van Mechelen, W.; Verhagen, E.A.L.M.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To present the results of the process evaluation of the PLAYgrounds program, using the RE-AIM framework. Design: This study provides information regarding Reach, Adoption, Implementation and Maintenance. Methods: The PLAYgrounds program promotes increasing levels of physical activity in

  3. The value of (pre)school playgrounds for children's physical activity level: A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekhuizen, K.; Scholten, A.M.; Vries, S.I. de

    2014-01-01

    The (pre)school environment is an important setting to improve children's health. Especially, the (pre)school playground provides a major opportunity to intervene. This review presents an overview of the existing evidence on the value of both school and preschool playgrounds on children's health in

  4. More than standards and regulations are needed to provide safe and effective devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, M

    2001-01-01

    Medical devices that met standards have been recalled. Quality systems that were said by internal audits to be in compliance with FDA regulations or ISO quality standards received serious questions after external auditing. Devices meeting standards or produced by quality systems felt to be in compliance have put patients at risk by failing at critical moments. Something more than just meeting standards and regulations is needed to provide safe and effective medical devices.

  5. The Art of Playground Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammatt, Heather

    2002-01-01

    Makes the case for integrating artistic expression into park and playground landscape design to create recreational areas with a more holistic look. The Foothills Community Park in Boulder, Colorado, is used to illustrate the use of artistic expression that preserves and celebrates the natural elements while creating a sense of community identity…

  6. Model playground for autistic children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castro, Thais; Castro, Alberto; Lima, David

    2017-01-01

    Children with autism often have difficulties in learning the social skills and norms of peer social interaction, which severely affect and limit their social lives. Aiming at addressing this issue, through design, we developed a digital-analogue model playground to help them understand and cope w...

  7. The Challenge of Providing Safe Water with an Intermittently Supplied Piped Water Distribution System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumpel, E.; Nelson, K. L.

    2012-12-01

    An increasing number of urban residents in low- and middle-income countries have access to piped water; however, this water is often not available continuously. 84% of reporting utilities in low-income countries provide piped water for fewer than 24 hours per day (van den Berg and Danilenko, 2010), while no major city in India has continuous piped water supply. Intermittent water supply leaves pipes vulnerable to contamination and forces households to store water or rely on alternative unsafe sources, posing a health threat to consumers. In these systems, pipes are empty for long periods of time and experience low or negative pressure even when water is being supplied, leaving them susceptible to intrusion from sewage, soil, or groundwater. Households with a non-continuous supply must collect and store water, presenting more opportunities for recontamination. Upgrading to a continuous water supply, while an obvious solution to these challenges, is currently out of reach for many resource-constrained utilities. Despite its widespread prevalence, there are few data on the mechanisms causing contamination in an intermittent supply and the frequency with which it occurs. Understanding the impact of intermittent operation on water quality can lead to strategies to improve access to safe piped water for the millions of people currently served by these systems. We collected over 100 hours of continuous measurements of pressure and physico-chemical water quality indicators and tested over 1,000 grab samples for indicator bacteria over 14 months throughout the distribution system in Hubli-Dharwad, India. This data set is used to explore and explain the mechanisms influencing water quality when piped water is provided for a few hours every 3-5 days. These data indicate that contamination occurs along the distribution system as water travels from the treatment plant to reservoirs and through intermittently supplied pipes to household storage containers, while real

  8. VegeSafe: A community science program measuring soil-metal contamination, evaluating risk and providing advice for safe gardening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouillon, Marek; Harvey, Paul J; Kristensen, Louise J; George, Steven G; Taylor, Mark P

    2017-03-01

    The extent of metal contamination in Sydney residential garden soils was evaluated using data collected during a three-year Macquarie University community science program called VegeSafe. Despite knowledge of industrial and urban contamination amongst scientists, the general public remains under-informed about the potential risks of exposure from legacy contaminants in their home garden environment. The community was offered free soil metal screening, allowing access to soil samples for research purposes. Participants followed specific soil sampling instructions and posted samples to the University for analysis with a field portable X-ray Fluorescence (pXRF) spectrometer. Over the three-year study period, >5200 soil samples, primarily from vegetable gardens, were collected from >1200 Australian homes. As anticipated, the primary soil metal of concern was lead; mean concentrations were 413 mg/kg (front yard), 707 mg/kg (drip line), 226 mg/kg (back yard) and 301 mg/kg (vegetable garden). The Australian soil lead guideline of 300 mg/kg for residential gardens was exceeded at 40% of Sydney homes, while concentrations >1000 mg/kg were identified at 15% of homes. The incidence of highest soil lead contamination was greatest in the inner city area with concentrations declining towards background values of 20-30 mg/kg at 30-40 km distance from the city. Community engagement with VegeSafe participants has resulted in useful outcomes: dissemination of knowledge related to contamination legacies and health risks; owners building raised beds containing uncontaminated soil and in numerous cases, owners replacing all of their contaminated soil. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Subcutaneous placement of lap band port without fascial fixation provides safe and durable access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkary, Ehab; Olgers, Forrest

    2014-11-01

    Laparoscopic adjustable gastric band access port has been routinely sutured to the anterior fascia of the abdominal wall using nonabsorbable sutures. We present our technique demonstrating that nonfascial fixation with using a mesh allows for a safe and durable placement of the port in the superficial subcutaneous tissue. Retrospective chart review included 102 consecutive patients who had Lap band surgery performed by single surgeon (EA) from June 2011 until April 2013. The port was sutured to a piece of polypropylene mesh and tunneled in the subcutaneous tissue away from the incision. Patients' demographics were analyzed as well as the following parameters: OR time for port placement, follow-up, port complications requiring revision, difficult access facilitated by fluoroscopy imaging, port infection, and skin erosion. The study included 102 consecutive patients (23 males and 79 females), mean age was 49 years old, mean weight was 284.7 lb, mean height was 66.2 in., and mean body mass index (BMI) was 46.3 kg/m(2). The average operative time for port placement was 4 min, mean follow-up was 12 months, port complications occurred in 2 % of the patients while fluoroscopy for difficult port access was required in 3 %. No cases of port infections or skin erosions occurred. Superficial subcutaneous placement of Lap Band Port using mesh fixation without anchoring the port to the fascia provides safe and durable access. Deep incisions to secure the port directly to the fascia might not be necessary.

  10. Adventure Playground as an Example of the Child’s Right to Play

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotlyar (Korepanova I.A.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We analyze the history of creation, structure and psychological foundations of adventure playgrounds, which appeared and became widespread in Europe during the second half of the XX century. Adventure playground is an example of realization of children’s rights enshrined in the Convention on the Rights of the Child, especially in Article 31. Adventure playgrounds are designed by experts, parents, teachers, sharing the ideas of civil society and seeking new ways to support the initiative, independence of children and adolescents. At an adventure playground, modern urban children and adolescents have the opportunity to realize their intentions, and try to explore their capabilities in a joint productive activity with peers. In this article, adventure playgrounds are considered as one of the ways to facilitate public urban space to play and socialize. Adventure playground serves as a social-psychological-pedagogical center and has great potential for all age groups. We provide specific examples of the structure and activity on adventure playgrounds existing in the UK and Germany. Separately we discuss the contribution of professionals working at these sites (playworker.

  11. The value of (pre)school playgrounds for children’s physical activity level : a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.I. (Sanne) de Vries; Karen Broekhuizen; Anne-Marie Scholten

    2014-01-01

    The (pre)school environment is an important setting to improve children’s health. Especially, the (pre)school playground provides a major opportunity to intervene. This review presents an overview of the existing evidence on the value of both school and preschool playgrounds on children’s health in

  12. Intravehicular, Short- and Long-Range Communication Information Fusion for Providing Safe Speed Warnings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Felipe; Naranjo, Jose Eugenio; Serradilla, Francisco; Pérez, Elisa; Hernández, María Jose; Ruiz, Trinidad; Anaya, José Javier; Díaz, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Inappropriate speed is a relevant concurrent factor in many traffic accidents. Moreover, in recent years, traffic accidents numbers in Spain have fallen sharply, but this reduction has not been so significant on single carriageway roads. These infrastructures have less equipment than high-capacity roads, therefore measures to reduce accidents on them should be implemented in vehicles. This article describes the development and analysis of the impact on the driver of a warning system for the safe speed on each road section in terms of geometry, the presence of traffic jams, weather conditions, type of vehicle and actual driving conditions. This system is based on an application for smartphones and includes knowledge of the vehicle position via Ground Positioning System (GPS), access to intravehicular information from onboard sensors through the Controller Area Network (CAN) bus, vehicle data entry by the driver, access to roadside information (short-range communications) and access to a centralized server with information about the road in the current and following sections of the route (long-range communications). Using this information, the system calculates the safe speed, recommends the appropriate speed in advance in the following sections and provides warnings to the driver. Finally, data are sent from vehicles to a server to generate new information to disseminate to other users or to supervise drivers’ behaviour. Tests in a driving simulator have been used to define the system warnings and Human Machine Interface (HMI) and final tests have been performed on real roads in order to analyze the effect of the system on driver behavior. PMID:26805839

  13. Intravehicular, Short- and Long-Range Communication Information Fusion for Providing Safe Speed Warnings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Jiménez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Inappropriate speed is a relevant concurrent factor in many traffic accidents. Moreover, in recent years, traffic accidents numbers in Spain have fallen sharply, but this reduction has not been so significant on single carriageway roads. These infrastructures have less equipment than high-capacity roads, therefore measures to reduce accidents on them should be implemented in vehicles. This article describes the development and analysis of the impact on the driver of a warning system for the safe speed on each road section in terms of geometry, the presence of traffic jams, weather conditions, type of vehicle and actual driving conditions. This system is based on an application for smartphones and includes knowledge of the vehicle position via Ground Positioning System (GPS, access to intravehicular information from onboard sensors through the Controller Area Network (CAN bus, vehicle data entry by the driver, access to roadside information (short-range communications and access to a centralized server with information about the road in the current and following sections of the route (long-range communications. Using this information, the system calculates the safe speed, recommends the appropriate speed in advance in the following sections and provides warnings to the driver. Finally, data are sent from vehicles to a server to generate new information to disseminate to other users or to supervise drivers’ behaviour. Tests in a driving simulator have been used to define the system warnings and Human Machine Interface (HMI and final tests have been performed on real roads in order to analyze the effect of the system on driver behavior.

  14. Intravehicular, Short- and Long-Range Communication Information Fusion for Providing Safe Speed Warnings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Felipe; Naranjo, Jose Eugenio; Serradilla, Francisco; Pérez, Elisa; Hernández, María Jose; Ruiz, Trinidad; Anaya, José Javier; Díaz, Alberto

    2016-01-21

    Inappropriate speed is a relevant concurrent factor in many traffic accidents. Moreover, in recent years, traffic accidents numbers in Spain have fallen sharply, but this reduction has not been so significant on single carriageway roads. These infrastructures have less equipment than high-capacity roads, therefore measures to reduce accidents on them should be implemented in vehicles. This article describes the development and analysis of the impact on the driver of a warning system for the safe speed on each road section in terms of geometry, the presence of traffic jams, weather conditions, type of vehicle and actual driving conditions. This system is based on an application for smartphones and includes knowledge of the vehicle position via Ground Positioning System (GPS), access to intravehicular information from onboard sensors through the Controller Area Network (CAN) bus, vehicle data entry by the driver, access to roadside information (short-range communications) and access to a centralized server with information about the road in the current and following sections of the route (long-range communications). Using this information, the system calculates the safe speed, recommends the appropriate speed in advance in the following sections and provides warnings to the driver. Finally, data are sent from vehicles to a server to generate new information to disseminate to other users or to supervise drivers' behaviour. Tests in a driving simulator have been used to define the system warnings and Human Machine Interface (HMI) and final tests have been performed on real roads in order to analyze the effect of the system on driver behavior.

  15. Special Education Professionals' Perceptions toward Accessible Playgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton-Chapman, Tina L.; Schmidt, Eric L.

    2016-01-01

    The perceptions and beliefs of 303 special education professionals toward currently available playgrounds in their school or community were examined. Survey respondents (a) indicated that their students with a disability could not fully participate in their school or community's playground offerings, (b) discussed the need for a peer buddy program…

  16. Interactive Playgrounds for Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poppe, Ronald Walter; van Delden, Robertus Wilhelmus; Moreno Celleri, Alejandro Manuel; Reidsma, Dennis; Nijholt, A.; Nijholt, Antinus

    Play is an important factor in the life of children. It plays a role in their cognitive, social, and physical development, and provides entertaining and fulfilling activities in itself. As with any field of human endeavor, interactive technology has a huge potential for transforming and enhancing

  17. Nitrous oxide provides safe and effective analgesia for minor paediatric procedures--a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Rie S; Bayat, Allan; Steen, Nick Phaff; Jacobsson, Marie-Laure Bouchy

    2013-06-01

    Pain and distress during minor hospital-related procedures is a familiar problem in many children. Inadequate relief of children's procedural pain and distress not only affects the experience of the children and their parents, but also adversely impacts procedural success. We aimed to review the safety and efficacy of nitrous oxide during brief, but painful paediatric procedures and to compare nitrous oxide with some of the commonly used pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments for relieving anxiety and mild to moderate pain in Denmark. We searched MEDLINE (PubMed) and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews with the MeSH term nitrous oxide combined with midazolam, surgical procedures minor, analgesia or conscious sedation. The references in the articles acquired that were not found in the MEDLINE search were further investigated. Only articles written in English and published after 1980 were included to ensure optimal data collection. Nitrous oxide is an effective sedative/analgesic for mildly to moderately painful paediatric procedures. Furthermore, it is safely administrated, particularly for short procedures (Nitrous oxide is a safe and effective method to achieve analgesia and sedation during minor, but painful procedures. It can be safely administered by a dedicated staff member. This helpful method is still underused in Denmark, and we believe that it could be an alternative or the first choice of treatment in emergency and paediatric departments.

  18. Enhancing Middle School Science Lessons with Playground Activities: A Study of the Impact of Playground Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Lawrence B.; Margolin, Jonathan; Swanlund, Andrew; Dhillon, Sonica; Liu, Feng

    2017-01-01

    Playground Physics is a technology-based application and accompanying curriculum designed by New York Hall of Science (NYSCI) to support middle school students' science engagement and learning of force, energy, and motion. The program includes professional development, the Playground Physics app, and a curriculum aligned with New York State…

  19. Providing a Safe Learning Environment for Queer Students in Canadian Schools: A Legal Analysis of Homophobic Bullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, James

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews Canadian administrative law regarding homophobic bullying and school board decision making. Depending on the provincial legislation, school boards either have a mandatory or a discretionary duty to provide queer students with a safe learning environment. However, Canadian case law has arguably limited that discretion. Recent…

  20. Safe Delivery Posts: an intervention to provide equitable childbirth care services to vulnerable groups in Zahedan, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moudi, Zahra; Ghazi Tabatabaie, Mahmood; Mahdi Tabatabaei, Seyed; Vedadhir, AbouAli

    2014-10-01

    Recently, there has been a shift towards alternative childbirth services to increase access to skilled care during childbirth. This study aims to assess the past 10 years of experience of the first Safe Delivery Posts (SDPs) established in Zahedan, Iran to determine the number of deliveries and the intrapartum transfer rates, and to examine the reasons why women choose to give birth at a Safe Delivery Post and not in one of the four large hospitals in Zahedan. A mixed-methods research strategy was used for this study. In the quantitative phase, an analysis was performed on the existing data that are routinely collected in the health-care sector. In the qualitative phase, a grounded theory approach was used to collect and analyse narrative data from in-depth interviews with women who had given birth to their children at the Safe Delivery Posts. Women were selected from two Safe Delivery Posts in Zahedan city in southeast Iran. Nineteen mothers who had given birth in the Safe Delivery Posts were interviewed. During the 10-year period, 22,753 low-risk women gave birth in the Safe Delivery Posts, according to the records. Of all the women who were admitted to the Safe Delivery Posts, on average 2.1% were transferred to the hospital during labour or the postpartum period. Three key categories emerged from the analysis: barriers to hospital use, opposition to home birth and finally, reasons for choosing the childbirth care provided by the SDPs. Implementing a model of midwifery care that offers the benefits of modern medical care and meets the needs of the local population is feasible and sustainable. This model of care reduces the cost of giving birth and ensures equitable access to care among vulnerable groups in Zahedan. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Accessibility and usability of parks and playgrounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Meredith A; Devan, Hemakumar; Fitzgerald, Harry; Han, Karen; Liu, Li-Ting; Rouse, Jack

    2017-09-08

    Public parks and playgrounds are an environment for leisure activity, which all generations can enjoy at low or no financial cost. Evaluating the accessibility and usability of parks and playgrounds is crucial because their design, environment (natural and built) and safety could restrict participation of persons with disabilities. To evaluate the accessibility and usability of 21 public parks and playgrounds in three metropolitan cities of New Zealand. Secondary aims were to compare the accessibility and usability by park type (destination or neighborhood) and deprivation level (high and low). Twenty-one parks were evaluated. A stratified random sampling was used to select 18 parks (six from each city). Three additional parks were purposely selected (one from each city) at the request of each respective city council. The parks and playgrounds were evaluated using a customized tool. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. None of the parks we evaluated met the national standards and/or international guidelines for park and playground design. We identified potential accessibility and usability issues with car parking spaces, path surfaces and play equipment as well as lack of lighting and fencing. The presence of amenities (e.g. toilets and drinking fountains) was more common in destination parks. Fewer parks in areas of higher deprivation had accessible car parking spaces and main paths wider than 1.5 m. Our evaluation identified potential design, environmental and safety barriers to park and playground based participation for persons with disabilities across the lifespan. A larger, more comprehensive evaluation of parks and playgrounds is required. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. School playground facilities as a determinant of children's daily activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Glen; Bugge, Anna; Hermansen, Bianca

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the influence of school playground facilities on children's daily physical activity.......This study investigates the influence of school playground facilities on children's daily physical activity....

  3. Jungle Gym or Brain Gym. Playgrounds Can Improve Academic Readiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendy, Teresa B.

    2000-01-01

    A well-developed playground in a park or school setting can greatly enhance childen's overall development, making playgrounds more than just fun. Playgrounds offer children opportunities to develop physically, mentally, and socially, improving academic readiness as well as overall health. The paper discusses the importance of movement, how…

  4. Effect of a Smart Start Playground Improvement Grant on Child Care Playground Hazards. Smart Start Evaluation Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotch, Jonathan; Guthrie, Christine

    Smart Start (North Carolina) playground improvement grants were awarded to cover playground safety assessment, planning and evaluation, quality enhancements (such as fencing, surfacing, and new equipment), and safety programs. Visual inspections were conducted of the safety of child care home and center playgrounds after Smart Start-sponsored…

  5. Do clinical examination gloves provide adequate electrical insulation for safe hands-on defibrillation? I: Resistive properties of nitrile gloves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deakin, Charles D; Lee-Shrewsbury, Victoria; Hogg, Kitwani; Petley, Graham W

    2013-07-01

    Uninterrupted chest compressions are a key factor in determining resuscitation success. Interruptions to chest compression are often associated with defibrillation, particularly the need to stand clear from the patient during defibrillation. It has been suggested that clinical examination gloves may provide adequate electrical resistance to enable safe hands-on defibrillation in order to minimise interruptions. We therefore examined whether commonly used nitrile clinical examination gloves provide adequate resistance to current flow to enable safe hands-on defibrillation. Clinical examination gloves (Kimberly Clark KC300 Sterling nitrile) worn by members of hospital cardiac arrest teams were collected immediately following termination of resuscitation. To determine the level of protection afforded by visually intact gloves, electrical resistance across the glove was measured by applying a DC voltage across the glove and measuring subsequent resistance. Forty new unused gloves (control) were compared with 28 clinical (non-CPR) gloves and 128 clinical (CPR) gloves. One glove in each group had a visible tear and was excluded from analysis. Control gloves had a minimum resistance of 120 kΩ (median 190 kΩ) compared with 60 kΩ in clinical gloves (both CPR (median 140 kΩ) and non-CPR groups (median 160 kΩ)). Nitrile clinical examination gloves do not provide adequate electrical insulation for the rescuer to safely undertake 'hands-on' defibrillation and when exposed to the physical forces of external chest compression, even greater resistive degradation occurs. Further work is required to identify gloves suitable for safe use for 'hands-on' defibrillation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. High stakes and high emotions: providing safe care in Canadian emergency departments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali S

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Samina Ali,1,2 Denise Thomson,3 Timothy A D Graham,4 Sean E Rickard,3 Antonia S Stang5 1Women and Children’s Health Research Institute, 2Department of Pediatrics, 3Cochrane Child Health Field, Department of Pediatrics, University of Alberta, Edmonton, 4Department of Emergency Medicine, 5Section of Emergency Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada Background: The high-paced, unpredictable environment of the emergency department (ED contributes to errors in patient safety. The ED setting becomes even more challenging when dealing with critically ill patients, particularly with children, where variations in size, weight, and form present practical difficulties in many aspects of care. In this commentary, we will explore the impact of the health care providers’ emotional reactions while caring for critically ill patients, and how this can be interpreted and addressed as a patient safety issue. Discussion: ED health care providers encounter high-stakes, high-stress clinical scenarios, such as pediatric cardiac arrest or resuscitation. This health care providers’ stress, and at times, distress, and its potential contribution to medical error, is underrepresented in the current medical literature. Most patient safety research is limited to error reporting systems, especially medication-related ones, an approach that ignores the effects of health care provider stress as a source of error, and limits our ability to learn from the event. Ways to mitigate this stress and avoid this type of patient safety concern might include simulation training for rare, high-acuity events, use of pre-determined clinical order sets, and post-event debriefing. Conclusion: While there are physiologic and anatomic differences that contribute to patient safety, we believe that they are insufficient to explain the need to address critical life-threatening event-related patient safety issues for both adults and, especially, children

  7. Prophage Provide a Safe Haven for Adaptive Exploration in Temperate Viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl, Lindi M; Pattenden, Tyler

    2017-05-01

    Prophage sequences constitute a substantial fraction of the temperate virus gene pool. Although subject to mutational decay, prophage sequences can also be an important source of adaptive mutations for these viral populations. Here we develop a life-history model for temperate viruses, including both the virulent (lytic) and the temperate phases of the life cycle. We then examine the survival of mutations that increase fitness during the lytic phase (attachment rate, burst size), increase fitness in the temperate phase (increasing host survival), or affect transitions between the two phases (integration or induction probability). We find that beneficial mutations are much more likely to survive, ultimately, if they first occur in the prophage state. This conclusion applies even to traits that are only expressed during the lytic phase, and arises due to the substantially lower variance in the offspring distribution during the temperate cycle. This observation, however, is balanced by the fact that many more mutations can be generated during lytic replication. Overall we predict that the prophage state provides a refuge, relatively shielded from genetic drift, in which temperate viruses can explore possible adaptive steps. Copyright © 2017 by the Genetics Society of America.

  8. Informal Nature Experience on the School Playground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raith, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    In Germany, all-day care and all-day schooling are currently increasing on a large-scale. The extended time children spend in educational institutions could potentially result in limited access to nature experience for children. On the other hand, it could equally create opportunities for informal nature experience if school playgrounds have a…

  9. A decade of progress providing safe abortion services in Ethiopia: results of national assessments in 2008 and 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dibaba, Yohannes; Dijkerman, Sally; Fetters, Tamara; Moore, Ann; Gebreselassie, Hailemichael; Gebrehiwot, Yirgu; Benson, Janie

    2017-03-04

    Ethiopia has one of the highest maternal mortality ratios in the world (420 per 100,000 live births in 2013), and unsafe abortion continues to be one of the major causes. To reduce deaths and disabilities from unsafe abortion, Ethiopia liberalized its abortion law in 2005 to allow safe abortion under certain conditions. This study aimed to measure how availability and utilization of safe abortion services has changed in the last decade in Ethiopia. This paper draws on results from nationally representative health facility studies conducted in Ethiopia in 2008 and 2014. The data come from three sources at two points in time: 1) interviews with 335 health providers in 2008 and 822 health care providers in 2014, 2) review of facility logbooks, and 3) prospective data on 3092 women in 2008 and 5604 women in 2014 seeking treatment for abortion complications or induced abortion over a one month period. The Safe Abortion Care Model was used as a framework of analysis. There has been a rapid expansion of health facilities eligible to provide legal abortion services in Ethiopia since 2008. Between 2008 and 2014, the number of facilities reporting basic and comprehensive signal functions for abortion care increased. In 2014, access to basic abortion care services exceeded the recommended level of available facilities providing the service, increasing from 25 to 117%, with more than half of regions meeting the recommended level. Comprehensive abortion services increased from 20% of the recommended level in 2008 to 38% in 2014. Smaller regions and city administrations achieved or exceeded the recommended level of comprehensive service facilities, yet larger regions fall short. Between 2008 and 2014, the use of appropriate technology for conducting first and second trimester abortion and the provision of post abortion family planning has increased at the same time that abortion-related obstetric complications have decreased. Ten years after the change in abortion law, service

  10. No “Obstacles” In Playgrounds That Are Not Only Accessible But Also Inclusive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatice Ayataç

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the current century, the importance of play for children is a major issue addressed in the literature. Play enables the physical, mental and social development of children. According to the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child, engaging in play is a fundamental right for children. This article of the convention covers all children below the age of 18 and does not exclude the children with disabilities. Like their peers, children with disabilities should also enjoy the right to engage in play, and societies should use every means available in order to help children play whether indoors or outdoors.According to the 2011 Population and Housing Research, 6.6% of the population in Turkey has one or more disabilities. The target group of this study is ‘children with disabilities’ who live in İstanbul. In this group, speech disorders (21.9%, and mental disabilities (17.1% prove to be the most dominant disabilities. However, the number of playgrounds where disabled children can play are scarce in number.This study provides an analysis of children’s playgrounds, which are essential for the development of children, and evaluates the design features of these playgrounds based on inclusive design principles. The study also addresses the requirements of inclusive playgrounds by referring to the examples of inclusive playgrounds around the world as well as those few examples in Turkey.  The design principles of inclusive playgrounds were also evaluated for three parks in İstanbul which were designed and are currently in use - namely Kadıköy Göztepe 60. Yıl Park, Beşiktaş Dilek Sabancı Park and Kadıköy Selamiçeşme Özgürlük Park.

  11. Is Your Child's School Really Safe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monk, James

    2002-01-01

    Presents a brief quiz for parents to see if their child's school building is taking basic steps to ensure a safe learning environment (e.g., Is the building locked? Are strict guidelines in place when students participate in field trips? Is adult supervision always maintained on playgrounds?). Suggested action plans are included. A sidebar offers…

  12. Intensive medical student involvement in short-term surgical trips provides safe and effective patient care: a case review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macleod Jana B

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The hierarchical nature of medical education has been thought necessary for the safe care of patients. In this setting, medical students in particular have limited opportunities for experiential learning. We report on a student-faculty collaboration that has successfully operated an annual, short-term surgical intervention in Haiti for the last three years. Medical students were responsible for logistics and were overseen by faculty members for patient care. Substantial planning with local partners ensured that trip activities supplemented existing surgical services. A case review was performed hypothesizing that such trips could provide effective surgical care while also providing a suitable educational experience. Findings Over three week-long trips, 64 cases were performed without any reported complications, and no immediate perioperative morbidity or mortality. A plurality of cases were complex urological procedures that required surgical skills that were locally unavailable (43%. Surgical productivity was twice that of comparable peer institutions in the region. Student roles in patient care were greatly expanded in comparison to those at U.S. academic medical centers and appropriate supervision was maintained. Discussion This demonstration project suggests that a properly designed surgical trip model can effectively balance the surgical needs of the community with an opportunity to expose young trainees to a clinical and cross-cultural experience rarely provided at this early stage of medical education. Few formalized programs currently exist although the experience above suggests the rewarding potential for broad-based adoption.

  13. The responsibility of gynecologists and obstetricians in providing safe abortion services within the limits of the law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faúndes, Anibal

    2017-10-01

    Approximately 47 000 women die each year worldwide as a result of the complications of unsafe abortion, almost exclusively in low- and middle-income countries with restrictive abortion laws. In these countries, very few women who comply with the conditions imposed by the law can access safe abortion services in the public health system. The main obstacle is the unwillingness of gynecologists and obstetricians to provide abortion services by claiming conscientious objection, which is often used to hide their fear of the stigma associated with abortion. This happens because many colleagues are unaware that without access to legal services these women will resort to an unsafe abortion and its consequences. This violates the statement from FIGO's Committee for the Ethical Aspects of Human Reproduction and Women's Health, which asserts that: "The primary conscientious duty of obstetrician-gynecologists is at all times to treat, or provide benefit and prevent harm, to the patients for whose care they are responsible. Any conscientious objection to treating a patient is secondary to this primary duty." © 2017 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.

  14. Aldo van Eyck's Playgrounds : Aesthetics, Affordances, and Creativity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Withagen, Rob; Caljouw, Simone R.

    2017-01-01

    After World War II, the Dutch architect Aldo van Eyck developed hundreds of playgrounds in the city of Amsterdam. These public playgrounds were located in parks, squares, and derelict sites, and consisted of minimalistic aesthetic play equipment that was supposed to stimulate the creativity of

  15. Playground Accessibility and Neighbourhood Social Interaction among Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennet, Scott A.; Yiannakoulias, Nikolaos; Williams, Allison M.; Kitchen, Peter

    2012-01-01

    While the positive association between social interaction and access to green space is well accepted, little research has sought to understand the role of children's playgrounds in facilitating social interaction within a community. Playgrounds are spaces designed to facilitate play and the interaction of children, but may also be important places…

  16. 200 injuries caused by playground equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illingworth, C; Brennan, P; Jay, A; Al-Rawi, F; Collick, M

    1975-11-08

    Two-hundred children with injuries caused by playground equipment were studied. Whereas only about 9% of the total casualty attendances are for fractures, 26-5% (53) of these children had fractures. The climbing frame and the slide seemed to be associated with more severe injuries than the swing or other equipment, but more cases need to be studied to confirm this. The youngest children were at particular risk on equipment such as the wooden rocking horse or roundabout, when the speed of operation could be controlled by older children. Many of the injuries to the very youngest children occurred when they were walking behind a moving swing. Faulty equipment did not seem to be a major factor in causing accidents, but the use by older children of apparatus designed for young ones led to accidents. There was supervision, either at home, in a school playground, or in a park, in 62% of the cases. Many of the accidents were the result of the normal desire of children for experimentation and adventure.

  17. Arsenic on the Hands of Children after Playing in Playgrounds

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Elena Kwon; Hongquan Zhang; Zhongwen Wang; Gian S. Jhangri; Xiufen Lu; Nelson Fok; Stephan Gabos; Xing-Fang Li; X. Chris Le

    2004-01-01

    .... Limited data from previous studies analyzing arsenic levels in sand samples collected from CCA playgrounds are inconsistent and cannot be directly translated to the amount of children's exposure to arsenic...

  18. Lead-based paint on playground equipment in public children's ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lead levels in paint on playground equipment were measured in situ using a hand-held Thermo Scientific NITON XLP 700 Series X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analyser. Results. Playground lead levels ranged from 'too low to detect' to 10.4 mg/cm2. The mean and median lead concentrations were 1.9 mg/cm2 and 0.9 mg/cm2 ...

  19. Solving Real World Problems with Alternate Reality Gaming: Student Experiences in the Global Village Playground Capstone Course Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dondlinger, Mary Jo; McLeod, Julie K.

    2015-01-01

    The Global Village Playground (GVP) was a capstone learning experience designed to address institutional assessment needs while providing an integrated and authentic learning experience for students aimed at fostering complex problem solving, as well as critical and creative thinking. In the GVP, students work on simulated and real-world problems…

  20. Creating an Alternate Reality: Critical, Creative, and Empathic Thinking Generated in the "Global Village Playground" Capstone Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dondlinger, Mary Jo; Wilson, Douglas A.

    2012-01-01

    The "Global Village Playground" ("GVP") was a capstone learning experience designed to address institutional assessment needs while providing an integrated and authentic learning experience for students aimed at fostering critical and creative thinking. In the "GVP", students work on simulated and real-world problems as a design team tasked with…

  1. Safe Swimming (A Minute of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-06-01

    Most outbreaks linked to pools and water playgrounds are caused by Cryptosporidium. This podcast discusses ways to keep you healthy and safe while swimming.  Created: 6/1/2017 by MMWR.   Date Released: 6/1/2017.

  2. Sustainability of arsenic mitigation interventions – an evaluation of different alternative safe drinking water options provided in Matlab, an arsenic hot spot in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MOHAMMED eHOSSAIN

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The wide spread occurrence of geogenic arsenic (As in Bangladesh groundwater drastically reduced the safe water access across the country. Since its discovery in 1993, different mitigation options tested at household and community scale have resulted in limited success. In an arsenic hotspot of southeastern Bangladesh, 841 arsenic removal filter (ARF, 190 surface water filter membrane, 23 pond sand filter (PSF, 147 rain water harvester (RWH and 59 As-safe tubewell were distributed among the severely exposed population by AsMat, a Sida supported project. After three-four years of providing these safe water options, this study was carried out during 2010-2011 for performance analysis of these options, in terms of technical viability and effectiveness and thus to evaluate the preference of different options to the end users. Household and community based surveys were done to make an assessment of the current water use pattern as impact of the distributed options, overall condition of the options provided and to identify the reasons why these options are in use and/or abandoned. In total, 284 households were surveyed and information was collected for 23 PSF, 147 RWH and 59 tubewells. None of the filters was found in use. Among other options distributed, 13% of PSF, 40% RWH and 93% of tubewell were found functioning. In all cases, tubewells were found As-safe. About 89% of households are currently using tubewell water which was 58% before. Filter was abandoned for high cost and complicated maintenance. The use of RWH and PSF was not found user friendly and ensuring year round water quality is a big challenge. Arsenic-safe tubewell was found as a widely accepted option mainly because of its easy operation and availability of water, good water quality and negligible maintenance. This study validated tubewell as the most feasible option and holds significance for planning water supply projects, improving mitigation policy as well as developing awareness

  3. Low-Cost energy contraption design using playground seesaw

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banlawe, I. A. P.; Acosta, N. J. E. L.

    2017-05-01

    The study was conducted at Western Philippines University, San Juan, Aborlan, Palawan. The study used the mechanical motion of playground seesaw as a means to produce electrical energy. The study aimed to design a low-cost prototype energy contraption using playground seesaw using locally available and recycled materials, to measure the voltage, current and power outputs produced at different situations and estimate the cost of the prototype. Using principle of pneumatics, two hand air pumps were employed on the two end sides of the playground seesaw and the mechanical motion of the seesaw up and down produces air that is used to rotate a DC motor to produce electrical energy. This electricity can be utilized for powering basic or low-power appliances. There were two trials of testing, each trial tests the different pressure level of the air tank and tests the opening of on-off valve (Full open and half open) when the compressed air was released. Results showed that all pressure level at full open produced significantly higher voltage, than the half open. However, the mean values of the current and power produced in all pressure level at full and half open have negligible variation. These results signify that the energy contraption using playground seesaw is an alternative viable source of electrical energy in the playgrounds, parks and other places and can be used as an auxiliary or back-up source for electricity.

  4. Improving the United States airline industry's capacity to provide safe and dignified services to travelers with disabilities: focus group findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Michael J

    2011-01-01

    As a component of a training development project for intercity air travel providers, we investigated the capacity of the airline industry to meet the needs of travelers with disabilities by exploring: (1) the level of sensitivity among personnel to travelers' needs, (2) training currently provided, (3) areas in which additional training might be beneficial, and (4) organisational/systems-level commitment to dignified assistance to all travelers. Forty-four airline/vendor employees participated in nine focus groups in four US cities. Groups were audio recorded and transcribed. A grounded-theory approach was used to develop a coding system which was then applied to transcripts to identify themes. Factors influencing capacity grouped broadly into four areas: characteristics of the job/system, characteristics of current training, characteristics of providers themselves, and characteristics of travelers. At an interpersonal level, providers were empathetic and desired to provide dignified services. They lacked training and adequate equipment in some cases, however, and organisational commitment varied between companies. Traveler characteristics were also shown to impact service delivery. Results are promising but additional regulatory and organisational policies are needed to ensure quality services. Providers and consumers of intercity air travel services may benefit from the findings and recommendations of this study.

  5. Still Separate, Still Unequal: Social Determinants of Playground Safety and Proximity Disparities in St. Louis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo-Johnson, Cassandra; Woodward, Krista; Milam, Laurel; Ackermann, Nicole; Komaie, Goldie; Goodman, Melody S; Hipp, J Aaron

    2016-08-01

    Physical activity among youth is shaped by the natural and built environment within which they live; however, few studies have focused on assessing playground safety and proximity in detail as part of the built environment for youth physical activity. We analyzed data on 100 publicly accessible playgrounds from Play Across St. Louis, a community-partnered study of the built environment for youth physical activity. Outcomes included overall playground safety, maintenance, and construction scores; distance to nearest playground; and distance to nearest top playground. Independent variables included neighborhood % youth, % black residents, % owner-occupied units, and % vacant units. Playgrounds in the city have varying degrees of safety and proximity. Mean overall playground safety score was 67.0 % (CI = 63.5, 70.4). Neighborhood % youth and % black residents were inversely associated with overall playground safety (p = 0.03 and p safety scores were found in the northern and central areas while all high safety score clusters were found in the southern part of St. Louis. Public playground safety and proximity vary across St. Louis neighborhoods, especially by neighborhood demographics. Disparities in playground safety and proximity reveal an opportunity to develop community-wide interventions focused on playgrounds for youth activity. Further work is needed to examine the association between playground safety, proximity, and use and youth physical activity and weight.

  6. Safe sex

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sex; Sexually transmitted - safe sex; GC - safe sex; Gonorrhea - safe sex; Herpes - safe sex; HIV - safe sex; ... contact. STIs include: Chlamydia Genital herpes Genital warts Gonorrhea Hepatitis HIV HPV Syphilis STIs are also called ...

  7. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 228 - Guidelines for Clean, Safe, and Sanitary Railroad Provided Camp Cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... should be equipped with a tap. (3) Open containers such as barrels, pails, or tanks for drinking water... meets the quality standards prescribed in the U.S. Public Health Service Drinking Water Standards... service rooms where such facilities are provided. (2) Potable drinking water dispensers should be designed...

  8. Use and activity levels on newly built bicycle playgrounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schipperijn, Jasper; Hansen, Christine Kier; Rask, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Increasing the use of urban green space (UGS) as well as increasing cycling could potentially help address the growing inactivity problem. Three bicycle playgrounds were designed based on a participatory process and afterwards constructed in the UGS along a cycle-route on the historic outer defence...... circle around the City of Copenhagen, the Copenhagen Fortifications. The concept of a bicycle playground is new, and to examine how the three areas were used, and explore how users experience the areas, this study was designed as a combination of systematic observations, using the System for Observing...... Play and Recreation in Communities (SOPARC), and short on-site interviews with ‘typical users’. Based on the structural observations and 12 short interviews it became clear that 63% of the users were active during their use. The bicycle playgrounds main users were teenagers and children, especially...

  9. Entertainment Capture through Heart Rate Activity in Physical Interactive Playgrounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yannakakis, Georgios; Hallam, John; Lund, Henrik Hautop

    2008-01-01

    An approach for capturing and modeling individual entertainment (“fun”) preferences is applied to users of the innovative Playware playground, an interactive physical playground inspired by computer games, in this study. The goal is to construct, using representative statistics computed from...... that predict reported entertainment preferences given HR features. These models are expressed as artificial neural networks and are demonstrated and evaluated on two Playware games and two control tasks requiring physical activity. The best network is able to correctly match expressed preferences in 64...

  10. Safe greywater reuse to augment water supply and provide sanitation in semi-arid areas of rural India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfrey, S; Labhasetwar, P; Wate, S; Jimenez, B

    2010-01-01

    Water reuse is recognized as a tool to increase water supply in peri-urban areas of semi-arid and arid regions of the world. However, it is an option rarely explored for rural areas in developing countries, and has not been documented extensively in the scientific literature. This paper presents results from 6 greywater reuse systems which were built with the objective to augment water supply and to provide sanitation in rural low income areas of Madhya Pradesh, India. The systems are based on reclaiming greywater from bathing for the use in toilet flushing and kitchen garden irrigation. The reuse systems were implemented based on the scientific rationale presented in the WHO (2006) guidelines. The paper presents evidence from the operation and evaluation of the greywater treatment plants under field conditions between 2005 and 2008. The paper concludes that greywater is a highly cost effective solution for water scarcity. In this study, reusing greywater resulted in a 60% increase in water availability, a reduction in open defecation and a fourfold increase in food availability.

  11. Children's Playgrounds and Everyday City Life of Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipova, Alexandra Gennadyevna; Syroed, Nadezhda Savvovna; Goncharova, Svetlana Vladimirovna

    2016-01-01

    Play areas of entertainment and development are new recourses for modern city children, but at the same time, they produce risks of road traffic accidents, deviation, social inequality and social exclusion. Playgrounds in city/town yards are free zones of children's pastime, where children communicate and play together. The aim of this article is…

  12. Social Competence at the Playground: Preschoolers during Recess

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiga, Guida; de Leng, Wendy; Cachucho, Ricardo; Ketelaar, Lizet; Kok, Joost N.; Knobbe, Arno; Neto, Carlos; Rieffe, Carolien

    2017-01-01

    Social interactions at the playground have been represented as a rich learning opportunity to hone and master social skills at preschool years. Specifically, all forms of social play (fantasy, role, exercise or rough-and-tumble) have been related to children's social competence. The main goal of this study was to examine whether it is a certain…

  13. An Annotation Scheme for Social Interaction in Digital Playgrounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moreno Celleri, Alejandro Manuel; van Delden, Robertus Wilhelmus; Reidsma, Dennis; Poppe, Ronald Walter; Heylen, Dirk K.J.; Herrlich, Marc; Malaka, Rainer; Masuch, Maic

    This paper introduces a new annotation scheme, designed specifically to study children's social interactions during play in digital playgrounds. The scheme is motivated by analyzing relevant literature, combined with observations from recordings of play sessions. The scheme allows us to analyze how

  14. Automatic detection of social signals in digital playgrounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moreno Celleri, Alejandro Manuel

    2012-01-01

    Play is a vital activity in which children observe the world, learn new concepts and experiment with them. Even though the social aspect of play is very important, the computer science community has struggled to address it. Digital playgrounds have been built in which children can play in

  15. Assessment and Learning of Qualitative Physics in Newton's Playground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shute, Valerie J.; Ventura, Matthew; Kim, Yoon Jeon

    2013-01-01

    Digital games are very popular in modern culture. The authors are examining ways to leverage these engaging environments to assess and support student competencies. The authors examine gameplay and learning using a physics game they developed called Newton's Playground. The sample consisted of 167 eighth- and ninth-grade students who played…

  16. "Playground Pals" and Peer Mediation at Benarty Primary School, Scotland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallacher, Karen

    2011-01-01

    Benarty Primary School is situated in Lochore, Fife, Scotland. The school is proactive in developing self regulation; restorative and nurturing approaches. It aims to build resilience in all of its children, staff and families. Playground Pals have been established at Benarty Primary School since 2009 and as part of that programme, there have been…

  17. Active Play: Exploring the Influences on Children's School Playground Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyndman, Brendon; Benson, Amanda; Telford, Amanda

    2016-01-01

    Because children spend so much of their time in schools, their playgrounds offer a good setting for promoting active play in young lives. Teachers, instead of considering active play a taxing demand on their busy day, have begun to develop an informal curriculum for it. The authors review the research on children's active play and explores its…

  18. Provision of medical abortion by midlevel healthcare providers in Kyrgyzstan: testing an intervention to expand safe abortion services to underserved rural and periurban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Brooke Ronald; Maksutova, Elmira; Boobekova, Aigul; Davletova, Ainura; Kazakbaeva, Chinara; Kondrateva, Yelena; Landoulsi, Sihem; Lazdane, Gunta; Monolbaev, Kubanychbek; Seuc Jo, Armando H

    2017-11-10

    To demonstrate the feasibility and safety of training midlevel healthcare providers (midwives and family nurses) to provide medical abortion and postabortion contraception in underserved areas in Kyrgyzstan. This was an implementation study at four referral facilities and 28 Felsher Obstetric Points in two districts to train their midwives and family nurses to deliver safe and effective abortion care with co-packaged mifepristone-misoprostol and provide contraceptives postabortion. The outcome of abortion - complete abortion, incomplete abortion or o-going pregnancy - was the primary end point measured. An international consultant trained 18 midwives and 14 family nurses (with midwifery diplomas) to provide medical abortion care. Supervising gynecologists based in the referral centers and study investigators based in Bishkek provided monthly monitoring of services and collection of patient management forms. A voluntary self-administered questionnaire at the follow-up visit documented women's acceptability of medical abortion services. All study data were cross-checked and entered into an online data management system for descriptive analysis. Between August 2014 and September 2015, midwives provided medical abortion to 554 women with a complete abortion rate of 97.8%, of whom 62% chose to use misoprostol at home. No women were lost to follow-up. Nearly all women (99.5%) chose a contraceptive method postabortion; 61% of women receiving services completed the acceptability form, of whom more than 99% indicated a high level of satisfaction with the service and would recommend it to a friend. This study demonstrates that trained Kyrgyz midwives and nurses can provide medical abortion safely and effectively. This locally generated evidence can be used by the Kyrgyz Ministry of Health to reduce unintended pregnancy and expand safe abortion care to women in underserved periurban and rural settings. Success in scaling up midwife/nurse provision of medical abortion in

  19. Effect of major school playground reconstruction on physical activity and sedentary behaviour: Camden active spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamer, Mark; Aggio, Daniel; Knock, Georgina; Kipps, Courtney; Shankar, Aparna; Smith, Lee

    2017-06-07

    The physical school environment is a promising setting to increase children's physical activity although robust evidence is sparse. We examined the effects of major playground reconstruction on physical activity and sedentary time in primary schools using a quasi-experimental design (comparison group pre-test/post-test design). Five experimental and two control schools from deprived areas of inner city London were recruited at baseline. Main outcome was physical activity and sedentary time measured from objective monitoring (Actigraph accelerometer) at one year follow up. Pupils' impressions of the new playground were qualitatively assessed post construction. A total of 347 pupils (mean age = 8 years, 55% boys; 36% Caucasian) were recruited into the study at baseline; 303 provided valid baseline Actigraph data. Of those, 231 (76%) completed follow-up (n = 169 intervention; n = 62 control) and 77.4% of the sample recorded at least 4 days of Actigraph wear. In mixed models adjusted for age, sex, ethnicity, ratio activity or sedentary/wear time at baseline, wear time at follow up, and school, no differences were observed in total moderate - vigorous activity (B = -1.4, 95% CI, -7.1, 4.2 min/d), light activity (B = 4.1, 95% CI, -17.9, 26.1), or sedentary time (B = -3.8, 95% CI, -29.2, 21.6 min/d) between groups. There were significant age interactions for sedentary (p = 0.002) and light intensity physical activity (p = 0.008). We observed significant reductions in total sedentary (-28.0, 95% CI, -1.9, -54.1 min/d, p = 0.037) and increases in total light intensity activity (24.6, 95% CI, 0.3, 48.9 min/d, p = 0.047) for children aged under 9 yrs. old in the intervention. Major playground reconstruction had limited effects on physical activity, but reduced sedentary time was observed in younger children. Qualitative data suggested that the children enjoyed the new playgrounds and experienced a perceived positive change in well-being and social

  20. Safe, timely, convenient, and cost-effective: a single-center experience with bedside placement of enteral feeding tubes by midlevel providers using fluoroscopic guidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauschild, Tricia B; Fu, Katy Y; Hipwell, Randall C; Baraghoshi, Gabriele; Mone, Mary C; Nirula, Raminder; Kimball, Edward J; Barton, Richard G

    2012-12-01

    Enteral feeding tube placement has been performed by nurses, gastroenterologists using endoscopy, and interventional radiologists. We hypothesized that midlevel providers placed feeding tubes at bedside using fluoroscopy safely, rapidly, and cost-effectively. We retrospectively analyzed bedside feeding tube placement under fluoroscopy by trained nurse practitioners. We compared charges for this method with charges for placement by other practitioners. Nurse practitioners placed 632 feeding tubes in 462 patients. Three hundred seventy-nine placements took place in mechanically ventilated placements. Ninety-seven percent of tubes were positioned past the pylorus. The mean fluoroscopy time was 0.7 ± 1.2 minutes. The mean procedure time was 7.0 ± 5.1 minutes. All tubes were placed within 24 hours of the request. There were no complications. Institutional charges for tube placement were $149 for nurse practitioners, $226 for gastroenterologists, and $328 for interventional radiologists. The placement of feeding tubes under fluoroscopy by nurse practitioners is safe, timely, and cost-effective. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. The Particle Physics Playground website: tutorials and activities using real experimental data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellis, Matthew; CMS Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    The CERN Open Data Portal provides access to data from the LHC experiments to anyone with the time and inclination to learn the analysis procedures. The CMS experiment has made a significant amount of data availible in basically the same format the collaboration itself uses, along with software tools and a virtual enviroment in which to run those tools. These same data have also been mined for educational exercises that range from very simple .csv files that can be analyzed in a spreadsheet to more sophisticated formats that use ROOT, a dominant software package in experimental particle physics but not used as much in the general computing community. This talk will present the Particle Physics Playground website (http://particle-physics-playground.github.io/), a project that uses data from the CMS experiment, as well as the older CLEO experiment, in tutorials and exercises aimed at high school and undergraduate students and other science enthusiasts. The data are stored as text files and the users are provided with starter Python/Jupyter notebook programs and accessor functions which can be modified to perform fairly high-level analyses. The status of the project, success stories, and future plans for the website will be presented. This work was supported in part by NSF Grant PHY-1307562.

  2. Case study of PM pollution in playgrounds in Istanbul

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdemir, Huseyin; Mertoglu, Bulent; Demir, Goksel; Deniz, Ali; Toros, Hüseyin

    2012-05-01

    In a world where at least 50% of the population is living in urban environments, air pollution and specifically particulate matter (PM) have become one of the most critical issues for human health. Children are more susceptible than adults to air pollution and its adverse effects because they inhale and retain larger amounts of air pollutants per unit of body weight. In this study, PM pollution, particularly PM10 and PM2.5, at selected playgrounds were investigated in Istanbul city. Istanbul is a megacity of over 15 million inhabitants, and on-road traffic is increasing rapidly (over 3 million vehicles on the road). To estimate the effect of traffic emissions on children, the location of the playgrounds were selected according to traffic density. Measurements were carried out at five different playgrounds throughout the city in 2009. Field results show that the values of PM10 and PM2.5 have reached critical limits at the playgrounds close to the main roads, especially at P-1. Thus, we focused on this location and investigated a source other than traffic emissions. One of the episode days has been observed on 5-7 March 2009. Evaluations of meteorological events are very important to determine air pollution sources and their long-range transport. Therefore, the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF) was used to simulate and forecast meteorological parameters and the hybrid single-particle Lagrangian integrated trajectory (HYSPLIT) applied to investigate long-range transport. According to the WRF model outputs, there was a low-pressure system over Geneva gulf on the 500-hPa level, and its core had been located over Britain on 5 March 2009 00UTC. The system had been sweeping dust from the Sahara Desert and carrying the air particles over Istanbul. Similarly, backward HYSPLIT analysis showed that air particles had moved through Istanbul from Northern Africa.

  3. Accessibility and usability of playground environments for children under 12: A scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Alice; Lynch, Helen

    2015-01-01

    Playgrounds are important outdoor environments in many communities during childhood. However, playground spaces often do not meet the needs of typically developing children or children with disabilities, resulting in social exclusion for many children. This study explored the evidence regarding accessibility and usability of playgrounds for children of all abilities, to identify factors that enable or constrain social inclusion in community playgrounds. A scoping method was used as little research in this area has been collated and synthesized. Scoping reviews are effective for exploring and synthesizing broad and varied methods of inquiry around a phenomenon of interest. A total of 14 key articles were identified and two major themes emerged: (i) accessible playground environments--features and factors; (ii) from excluding to including--making playground environments usable. Findings indicate that numerous environmental barriers contribute to making playground environments inaccessible and unusable for many children, particularly children with disabilities. However, playground design is identified as a significant factor in enabling inclusion. Occupational therapists are in an ideal position to advocate for children's occupational right to play, by combining knowledge of environmental barriers with an understanding of disability and specific knowledge of occupation. Through focusing on advocacy and change at policy and community levels, therapists can work to maximize social inclusion in playground settings.

  4. Newcastle Disease Virus-Vectored Rabies Vaccine Is Safe, Highly Immunogenic, and Provides Long-Lasting Protection in Dogs and Cats ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Jinying; Wang, Xijun; Tao, Lihong; Wen, Zhiyuan; Feng, Na; Yang, Songtao; Xia, Xianzhu; Yang, Chinglai; Chen, Hualan; Bu, Zhigao

    2011-01-01

    Effective, safe, and affordable rabies vaccines are still being sought. Newcastle disease virus (NDV), an avian paramyxovirus, has shown promise as a vaccine vector for mammals. Here, we generated a recombinant avirulent NDV La Sota strain expressing the rabies virus glycoprotein (RVG) and evaluated its potential to serve as a vaccine against rabies. The recombinant virus, rL-RVG, retained its high-growth property in chicken eggs, with titers of up to 109.8 50% egg infective doses (EID50)/ml of allantoic fluid. RVG expression enabled rL-RVG to spread from cell to cell in a rabies virus-like manner, and RVG was incorporated on the surface of the rL-RVG viral particle. RVG incorporation did not alter the trypsin-dependent infectivity of the NDV vector in mammalian cells. rL-RVG and La Sota NDV showed similar levels of sensitivity to a neutralization antibody against NDV and similar levels of resistance to a neutralization antibody against rabies virus. Animal studies demonstrated that rL-RVG is safe in several species, including cats and dogs, when administered as multiple high doses of recombinant vaccine. Intramuscular vaccination with rL-RVG induced a substantial rabies virus neutralization antibody response and provided complete protection from challenge with circulating rabies virus strains. Most importantly, rL-RVG induced strong and long-lasting protective neutralization antibody responses to rabies virus in dogs and cats. A low vaccine dose of 108.3 EID50 completely protected dogs from challenge with a circulating strain of rabies virus for more than a year. This is the first study to demonstrate that immunization with an NDV-vectored vaccine can induce long-lasting, systemic protective immunity against rabies. PMID:21632762

  5. Safe sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, G; Ghosh, T K

    1994-01-01

    The main objectives of health care for people with AIDS are to help them adjust to changing sexual status and to provide them with information on safe sex. Sections consider the risks of various types of sexual activity and safe sex education. With regard to the risk of transmitting or contracting HIV, sexual activities may be high risk, medium risk, low risk, or no risk. High-risk activities include unprotected anal or vaginal intercourse, oral-anal sexual contact, sharing sex toys, and traumatic sexual activity. Medium-risk activities include anal and vaginal intercourse using a latex condom with or without spermicide, and sex using a vaginal diaphragm or contraceptive vaginal sponge. Oral sex on a woman or oral sex on a man without ejaculation into the mouth are low-risk activities. Mutual masturbation, erotic touching, caressing and massage, kissing and non-genital licking pose no risk of infection. All general practitioners and family physicians should teach about safe sex. Prevention messages may be conveyed through individual and social counseling as well as with printed media and other forms of mass media. Messages should definitely reach prostitutes and brothel owners, as well as pre-pubertal children and older youths.

  6. School Playground Facilities as a Determinant of Children's Daily Activity: A Cross-Sectional Study of Danish Primary School Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Glen; Bugge, Anna; El-Naaman, Bianca

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the influence of school playground facilities on children's daily physical activity.......This study investigates the influence of school playground facilities on children's daily physical activity....

  7. Does video-assisted thoracic surgery provide a safe alternative to conventional techniques in patients with limited pulmonary function who are otherwise suitable for lung resection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oparka, Jonathan; Yan, Tristan D; Ryan, Eilise; Dunning, Joel

    2013-07-01

    A best evidence topic in thoracic surgery was written according to a structured protocol. The question addressed was: does video-assisted thoracic surgery provide a safe alternative to conventional techniques in patients with limited pulmonary function who are otherwise suitable for lung resection? Altogether, more than 280 papers were found using the reported search, of which 7 represented the best evidence to answer the clinical question. The authors, journal, date and country of publication, patient group studied, study type, relevant outcomes and results of these papers are tabulated. One of the largest studies reviewed was a retrospective review of the Society of Thoracic Surgeons database. The authors compared 4531 patients who underwent lobectomy by video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) with 8431 patients who had thoracotomy. In patients with a predicted postoperative forced expiratory volume in 1 s (ppoFEV1%) of surgery is performed via VATS compared with traditional open techniques. The literature also suggests that patients in whom pulmonary function is poor have similar perioperative outcomes to those with normal function when a VATS approach to resection is adopted.

  8. Advanced care nurse practitioners can safely provide sole resident cover for level three patients: impact on outcomes, cost and work patterns in a cardiac surgery programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Henry; Skoyles, Julian; Redfearn, Sue; Jutley, Raj; Mitchell, Ian; Richens, David

    2013-01-01

    There are significant pressures on resident medical rotas on intensive care. We have evaluated the safety and feasibility of nurse practitioners (NPs) delivering first-line care on an intensive care unit with all doctors becoming non-resident. Previously, resident doctors on a 1:8 full-shift rota supported by NPs delivered first-line care to patients after cardiac surgery. Subsequently, junior doctors changed to a 1:5 non-resident rota and NPs onto a 1:7 full-shift rota provided first-line care. A single centre before-and-after service evaluation on cardiac intensive care. mortality rates, surgical trainee attendance in theatre and cost before and after the change. After-hour calls by NPs to doctors and subsequent actions were also audited after the change. The overall mortality rates in the 12 months before the change were 2.8 and 2.2% in the 12 months after (P = 0.43). The median [range] logistic EuroSCORE was 5.3 [0.9-84] before and 5.0 [0.9-85] after the change (P = 0.16). After accounting for the risk profile, the odds ratio for death after the change relative to before was 0.83, 95% confidence interval 0.41-1.69. Before the change, a surgical trainee attended theatre 467 of 702 (68%) cases. This increased to 539 of 677 (80%) cases after the change (P cost of staffing the junior doctor and NP programme before the change was £933 344 and £764 691 after. In the year after the change, 192 after-hour calls were made to doctors. In 57% of cases telephone advice sufficed and doctors attended in 43%. With adequate training and appropriate support, resident NPs can provide a safe, sustainable alternative to traditional staffing models of cardiac intensive care. Training opportunities for junior surgeons increased and costs were reduced.

  9. "Why Can't Girls Play Football?" Gender Dynamics and the Playground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Sheryl; Paechter, Carrie

    2007-01-01

    This article focuses on the involvement of boys and girls in playground football. It is based on research conducted with 10- to 11-year-old pupils at two state primary schools in London. Boys and girls were found to draw on gender constructs that impacted variously on their involvement in playground football. The performance of masculinity through…

  10. Do children create standardized playgrounds? A study on the gap-crossing affordances of jumping stones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongeneel, Douwe; Withagen, Rob; Zaal, Frank T. J. M.

    2015-01-01

    One point of critique on playgrounds is their omnipresent standardization the distances between, for example, jumping stones or the ropes in a climbing net tend to be equal. Although current psychological literature suggests that nonstandardized playgrounds are beneficial for the children's motor

  11. Children's Activity Levels in Different Playground Environments: An Observational Study in Four Canadian Preschools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Engaging in moderate to vigorous amounts of physical activity is needed for young children to grow and develop to their full potential and the playground environment can help play a role. The purpose of this study was to determine the physical activity levels of children in preschool settings during outdoor playground activity time. Four…

  12. Can Ambu self-inflating bag and Neopuff infant resuscitator provide adequate and safe manual inflations for infants up to 10 kg weight?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracy, Mark; Maheshwari, Rajesh; Shah, Dharmesh; Hinder, Murray

    2017-07-01

    Manual resuscitation devices for infants and newborns must be able to provide adequate ventilation in a safe and consistent manner across a wide range of patient sizes (0.5-10 kg) and differing clinical states. There are little comparative data assessing biomechanical performance of common infant manual resuscitation devices across the manufacturers' recommended operating weight ranges. We aimed to compare performance of the Ambu self-inflating bag (SIB) with the Neopuff T-piece resuscitator in three resuscitation models. Five experienced clinicians delivered targeted ventilation to three lung models differing in compliance, delivery pressures and inflation rates; Preterm (0.5 mL/cmH2O, 25/5 cmH2O, 60 per minute), Term (3 mL/cmH2O, 30/5 cmH2O, 40 per minute) and Infant (9 mL/cmH2O, 35/5 cmH2O, 30 per minute). The Neopuff was examined with three gas inflow rates (5 litres per minute (LPM), 10 LPM and 15 LPM) and the Ambu with no gas inflow. 3309 inflations were collected and analysed with analysis of variance for repeated measures. The Neopuff was unable to reach set peak inflation pressures and exhibited seriously elevated positive end expiratory pressure (PEEP) with all inflow gas rates (p<0.001) in this infant model. The Ambu SIB accurately delivered targeted pressures in all three models. The Ambu SIB was able to accurately deliver targeted pressures across all three models from preterm to infant. The Neopuff infant resuscitator was unable to deliver the targeted pressures in the infant model developing clinically significant levels of inadvertent PEEP which may pose risk during infant resuscitation. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  13. Montessori Special Education and Nature's Playground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz, Nimal

    2013-01-01

    Nimal Vaz takes us to the essentials of Montessori as an aid to life for all children, particularly children with special needs. She challenges teachers to truly provide experiences in nature: observing anthills, identifying bird nests, or taking an olfactory walk with a legally blind classmate. Finally, she demonstrates how a child's interest in…

  14. The costs and cost effectiveness of providing first-trimester, medical and surgical safe abortion services in KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomi Lince-Deroche

    Full Text Available Despite a liberal abortion law, access to safe abortion services in South Africa is challenging for many women. Medication abortion was introduced in 2013, but its reach remains limited. We aimed to estimate the costs and cost effectiveness of providing first-trimester medication abortion and manual vacuum aspiration (MVA services to inform planning for first-trimester service provision in South Africa and similar settings.We obtained data on service provision and outcomes from an operations research study where medication abortion was introduced alongside existing MVA services in public hospitals in KwaZulu-Natal province. Clinical data were collected through interviews with first-trimester abortion clients and summaries completed by nurses performing the procedures. In parallel, we performed micro-costing at three of the study hospitals. Using a model built in Excel, we estimated the average cost per medical and surgical procedure and determined the cost per complete abortion performed. Results are presented in 2015 US dollars.A total of 1,129 women were eligible for a first trimester abortion at the three study sites. The majority (886, 78.5% were eligible to choose their abortion procedure; 94.1% (n = 834 chose medication abortion. The total average cost per medication abortion was $63.91 (52.32-75.51. The total average cost per MVA was higher at $69.60 (52.62-86.57; though the cost ranges for the two procedures overlapped. Given average costs, the cost per complete medication abortion was lower than the cost per complete MVA despite three (0.4% medication abortion women being hospitalized and two (0.3% having ongoing pregnancies at study exit. Personnel costs were the largest component of the total average cost of both abortion methods.This analysis supports the scale-up of medication abortion alongside existing MVA services in South Africa. Women can be offered a choice of methods, including medication abortion with MVA as a back

  15. Il Playground come laboratorio di creatività e inclusione

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Lauria

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In general, play areas are highly standardised place that include a set of standardised equipments alien to the reference context, poor in stimuli and incapable of triggering fruitful social relationships. Playing activities are often repetitive, boring and mechanical, contributing in a somewhat limited extent (and ever counterproductive to the development of the child and nurturing a passive and poor approach to play. Adequate play facilities for disabled children are not common. This article highlights the strategic role of the play for the well-being of children and analyses playground in ethical, social and architectural terms. It claims that playgrounds should be genuine ‘work of architecture’ well-grounded within the reference socio-cultural, environmental and architectural context and in ‘dialogue’ with nature. They should be able to encourage encounters and mutual enrichment between children that come from different walks of life through solutions able to fun, ease tensions and stimulate creativity, expression and self-knowledge.

  16. Science Understanding through Playground Physics: Organized Recess Teaching (SUPPORT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kincaid, Russell

    2010-03-01

    From 1995-2007, U.S. science students in grade four scored higher than the scaled TIMSS average, but their scores did not improve over this time. Moreover, in the area of physical science, the U.S. scored significantly lower than several Asian countries, as well as Russia, England, and Latvia (TIMSS). Methods to enhance student achievement in science are still being sought. An approach to utilizing playground equipment as a teaching tool for a variety of physics concepts was developed as a physical science teaching method. This program established an appropriate set of experiments, coordinated the effort with local school districts, and implemented a brief pilot study to test the teaching methodology. The program assigned undergraduate middle school science education majors to teach small groups of fourth grade students. The experimental group used the newly developed ``Playground Physics'' methodology while the control group used traditional approaches. Follow up activities will include an expansion of the duration and the scope of the program.

  17. Science Outreach for the Thousands: Coe College's Playground of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, D. E.; Franke, M.; Affatigato, M.; Feller, S.

    2011-12-01

    Coe College is a private liberal arts college nestled in the northeast quadrant of Cedar Rapids, IA. Coe takes pride in the outreach it does in the local community. The sciences at Coe find enjoyment in educating the children and families of this community through a diverse set of venues; from performing science demonstrations for children at Cedar Rapids' Fourth of July Freedom Festival to hosting summer forums and talks to invigorate the minds of its more mature audiences. Among these events, the signature event of the year is the Coe Playground of Science. On the last Thursday of October, before Halloween, the science departments at Coe invite nearly two thousand children from pre elementary to high school ages, along with their parents to participate in a night filled with science demos, haunted halls, and trick-or-treating for more than just candy. The demonstrations are performed by professors and students alike from a raft of cooperative departments including physics, chemistry, biology, math, computer science, nursing, ROTC, and psychology. This event greatly strengthens the relationships between institution members and community members. The sciences at Coe understand the importance of imparting the thrill and hunger for exploration and discovery into the future generations. More importantly they recognize that this cannot start and end at the collegiate level, but the American public must be reached at younger ages and continue to be encouraged beyond the college experience. The Playground of Science unites these two groups under the common goal of elevating scientific interest in the American people.

  18. Instituting a Smoke-Free Policy for City Recreation Centers and Playgrounds, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallya, Giridhar; Dean, Lorraine T.; Rizvi, Amna; Dignam, Leo; Schwarz, Donald F.

    2013-01-01

    Background In the United States, more than 600 municipalities have smoke-free parks, and more than 100 have smoke-free beaches. Nevertheless, adoption of outdoor smoke-free policies has been slow in certain regions. Critical to widespread adoption is the sharing of knowledge about the policy development and implementation process. In this article, we describe our experience in making City of Philadelphia recreation centers and playgrounds smoke-free. Community Context Of the 10 largest US cities, Philadelphia has among the highest rates of adult and youth smoking. Our objectives for an outdoor smoke-free policy included protecting against secondhand smoke, supporting a normative message that smoking is harmful, motivating smokers to quit, and mitigating tobacco-related sanitation costs. Methods The Philadelphia Department of Public Health and the Department of Parks and Recreation engaged civic leaders, agency staff, and community stakeholders in the following steps: 1) making the policy case, 2) vetting policy options and engaging stakeholders, and 3) implementing policy. Near-term policy impacts were assessed through available data sources. Outcome More than 220 recreation centers, playgrounds, and outdoor pools became smoke-free through a combined mayoral executive order and agency regulation. Support for the policy was high. Estimates suggest a policy reach of 3.6 million annual visitors and almost 850 acres of new smoke-free municipal property. Interpretation Localities can successfully implement outdoor smoke-free policies with careful planning and execution. Such policies hold great potential for reducing exposure to secondhand smoke, promoting nonsmoking norms, and providing additional motivation for residents to quit smoking. PMID:23845177

  19. Instituting a smoke-free policy for city recreation centers and playgrounds, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Raymond; Mallya, Giridhar; Dean, Lorraine T; Rizvi, Amna; Dignam, Leo; Schwarz, Donald F

    2013-07-11

    In the United States, more than 600 municipalities have smoke-free parks, and more than 100 have smoke-free beaches. Nevertheless, adoption of outdoor smoke-free policies has been slow in certain regions. Critical to widespread adoption is the sharing of knowledge about the policy development and implementation process. In this article, we describe our experience in making City of Philadelphia recreation centers and playgrounds smoke-free. Of the 10 largest US cities, Philadelphia has among the highest rates of adult and youth smoking. Our objectives for an outdoor smoke-free policy included protecting against secondhand smoke, supporting a normative message that smoking is harmful, motivating smokers to quit, and mitigating tobacco-related sanitation costs. The Philadelphia Department of Public Health and the Department of Parks and Recreation engaged civic leaders, agency staff, and community stakeholders in the following steps: 1) making the policy case, 2) vetting policy options and engaging stakeholders, and 3) implementing policy. Near-term policy impacts were assessed through available data sources. More than 220 recreation centers, playgrounds, and outdoor pools became smoke-free through a combined mayoral executive order and agency regulation. Support for the policy was high. Estimates suggest a policy reach of 3.6 million annual visitors and almost 850 acres of new smoke-free municipal property. Localities can successfully implement outdoor smoke-free policies with careful planning and execution. Such policies hold great potential for reducing exposure to secondhand smoke, promoting nonsmoking norms, and providing additional motivation for residents to quit smoking.

  20. Load Absorption Characteristics of Tyre Production Waste Rubber for Playground Floor Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Ghani A.N.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The floor surfaces where slides and swings are placed in parks and playrooms should be soft and thick to ensure that whenever a child falls, the surface can withstand the impact and minimize injuries to the child. Shredded tyres from waste tyres or waste rubber from tyre manufacturing could become beneficial as shock absorber material which can be used as a playground floor. In this study, rubber cubes and rubber pads with 5%, 8% and 10% SBR mixes were prepared for mechanical testing. Two types of floor design surfaces with and without plywood on the surface were assembled for the shock test. Gmax and HIC of this waste rubber flooring system were investigated using the compression test for the rubber cube and the drop test for the rubber pad. The criteria of general protection standards are 200g for optimum acceleration and 1000 for HIC. The Gmax and HIC results indicated that the material and system could ensure a safe fall from up to 1.0m height.

  1. "Einstein's Playground": An Interactive Planetarium Show on Special Relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherin, Zachary; Tan, Philip; Fairweather, Heather; Kortemeyer, Gerd

    2017-12-01

    The understanding of many aspects of astronomy is closely linked with relativity and the finite speed of light, yet relativity is generally not discussed in great detail during planetarium shows for the general public. One reason may be the difficulty to visualize these phenomena in a way that is appropriate for planetariums; another may be their distance from everyday experiences that makes it hard for audiences to connect with the presentation. In this paper, we describe an effort to visualize special relativity phenomena in an immersive "everyday" scenario. In order to bring special relativity to human scale, we simulate a universe in which the speed of light is slower, so that "everyday" speeds become relativistic. We describe the physics and the technical details of our first planetarium show, "Einstein's Playground," which premiered at the Museum of Science, Boston.

  2. The inner-city Skater Facility - playground or control mechanism?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gravesen, David Thore

    2016-01-01

    local children and young people an opportunity to use their leisure time stimulating their bodies, having a great time with friends and other urban dwellers. The gift is accompanied by a number of (more or less camouflaged) crime prevention- and social education agendas, carried out by the SSP (a......The inner-city Skater Facility - playground or control mechanism? In 2013, the municipality in Horsens, a medium-sized provincial town in Denmark, bestowed the city's children and young people a skater facility at the city's central squares. Officially, the municipality donated the facility to give...... in educational leisure clubs instead. In that perspective, seemingly some groups of adolescents are more entitled to use the facility, whereas groups that confront, interpret and exploit the facility in other ways than the municipality intended, are constructed as less authorized users. In my presentation I...

  3. Maternal and paternal disciplinary styles: relations with preschoolers' playground behavioral orientations and peer status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, C H; DeWolf, D M; Wozniak, P; Burts, D C

    1992-08-01

    To explore relations among parents' self-reported disciplinary styles, preschoolers' playground behavioral orientations, and peer status, 106 mothers and fathers of preschool-age children (age range = 40-71 months) participated in home disciplinary style interviews. Observations of their children's playground behavior in preschool settings and measures of sociometric status were also obtained. Results indicated that children of more inductive mothers and fathers (i.e., less power assertive) exhibited fewer disruptive playground behaviors. In addition, daughters and older preschoolers of inductive mothers exhibited more prosocial behavior. Children of inductive mothers were also more preferred by peers. Few significant relations were found between paternal discipline and child behavior/peer status. Age-related patterns of behavior also indicated that older preschoolers who engaged in more prosocial and less antisocial and disruptive playground behavior were more preferred by peers. In addition, child behaviors were found to mediate maternal discipline and peer status.

  4. SAFE Newsletter

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The Center of Excellence SAFE – “Sustainable Architecture for Finance in Europe” – is a cooperation of the Center for Financial Studies and Goethe University Frankfurt. It is funded by the LOEWE initiative of the State of Hessen (Landes-Offensive zur Entwicklung wissenschaftlich-ökonomischer Exzellenz). SAFE brings together more than 40 professors and just as many junior researchers who are all dedicated to conducting research in support of a sustainable financial architecture. The Center has...

  5. Review of dissertation «A Comparison of Cognitive Play Skills Within a Natural and Manufactured Preschool Playground» by Kelly Groeber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florova N.B.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the structure of the game space as a factor, providing formation of creativity which in its turn is regarded as personal competence in preschool children. The data obtained by the author contribute to the general knowledge about age dynamics and typology of skills that are gained by children in the process of shaping of their playing competences. They also demonstrate the deficit of child development in conditions of artificial gaming environment, lacking natural components. The article also contains a big number of pictures, showing the functional capacities of different playgrounds, tabular figures, and volumetric methodical applicationы. The present comparative qualitative analysis is aimed at mapping cognitive skills, formed in preschool children in case they spend more time on the playgrounds, equipped with the elements of natural origin (natural or artificial ( metal elements.

  6. Safe havens in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paldam, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Eleven safe havens exist in Europe providing offshore banking and low taxes. Ten of these states are very small while Switzerland is moderately small. All 11 countries are richer than their large neighbors. It is shown that causality is from small to safe haven to wealth, and that theoretically...... equilibriums are likely to exist where a certain regulation is substantially lower in a small country than in its big neighbor. This generates a large capital inflow to the safe havens. The pool of funds that may reach the safe havens is shown to be huge. It is far in excess of the absorptive capacity...... of the safe havens, but it still explains, why they are rich. Microstates offer a veil of anonymity to funds passing through, and Switzerland offers safe storage of funds....

  7. Smokefree signage at children's playgrounds: Field observations and comparison with Google Street View.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, George; Wilson, Nick

    2017-01-01

    Although there is global growth in outdoor smokefree areas, little is known about the associated smokefree signage. We aimed to study smokefree signage at playgrounds and to compare field observations with images from Google Street View (GSV). We randomly selected playgrounds in 21 contiguous local government areas in the lower North Island of New Zealand, all of which had smokefree playground policies. Field data were collected on smokefree signage along with dog control signage to allow for comparisons. The sensitivity and specificity of using GSV for data collection were calculated. Out of the 63 playgrounds studied, only 44% (95% CI: 33%-57%) had any smokefree signage within 10 m of the playground equipment. The mean number of such signs was 0.8 per playground (range: 0 to 6). Sign size varied greatly from 42 cm2 up to 2880 cm2; but was typically fairly small (median = 600 cm2; ie, as per a 20 × 30 cm rectangle). Qualitatively the dog signs appeared to use clearer images and were less wordy than the smokefree signs. Most playground equipment (82%), could be seen on GSV, but for these settings the sensitivity for identifying smokefree signs was poor at 16%. Yet specificity was reasonable at 96%. The presence and quality of smokefree signage was poor in this sample of children's playgrounds in this developed country setting. There appears to be value in comparing smokefree signage with other types of signage (eg, dog control signage). Google Street View was not a sensitive tool for studying such signage.

  8. Child safety in parks' playgrounds (a case study in Tehran’s sub-district parks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.H. Mirlouhi Falavarjani

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and aimsSafety is a complex concept and multidisciplinary science which is included some difference areas from industrial sectors to urban public arenas. Parks and playgrounds as important public places should be considered in terms of health and safety, especially for kids as prominent social vulnerable citizens. According to CPSC, 147 deaths havebeen reported for under 15 year old child during Jan 1990 to Aug 2000. Every 2.5 minute, kid suffers playground related accident. The main objective in this study is safety assessment ofplaygrounds among the selected parks.MethodsIn this case study, deductive approach and cross-sectional survey was followed, and some parks and playgrounds were selected among five urban counties in Tehran. Our volunteered samples were 160 parents. Playgrounds and related equipment were assessed in terms of safety, as well.ResultsOur findings show that more than 68% of playground equipment might create hazardous condition for kids. Lack of sustain maintenance for both of equipment and playground surface make some risky area for the mentioned group. Statistical analysis by SPSSWin 13 showed that more than 78 % of parents are worry about their child in terms of playground safetyproblems. Safety assessment of swings and slides showed that there are safety based problems in 89% of cases. Due to statistical reports of Tehran Emergency center, 10-12 and 8-10 year old kids suffer play based accident more than others. Reported traumas showed that face and skull and then feet suffered mechanical injury more than other limbs.ConclusionSurely, safety and health considerations are known as Municipality responsibilities, so for safety improvement in parks an integration safety system should be happened. HSE_MS seems a reliable approach for the mention goal. For improvement of exist parks and playground some related standard should be follows such as CPSC standards, EN 1176, and EN 1177. Also anthropometric data development

  9. Feasibility of Providing Safe Mouth Care and Collecting Oral and Fecal Microbiome Samples from Nursing Home Residents with Dysphagia: Proof of Concept Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jablonski, Rita A; Winstead, Vicki; Azuero, Andres; Ptacek, Travis; Jones-Townsend, Corteza; Byrd, Elizabeth; Geisinger, Maria L; Morrow, Casey

    2017-09-01

    Individuals with dysphagia who reside in nursing homes often receive inadequate mouth care and experience poor oral health. From a policy perspective, the combination of absent evidence-based mouth care protocols coupled with insufficient dental coverage create a pool of individuals at great risk for preventable infectious illnesses that contribute to high health care costs. The purpose of the current study was to determine (a) the safety of a mouth care protocol tailored for individuals with dysphagia residing in nursing homes without access to suction equipment, and (b) the feasibility of collecting oral and fecal samples for microbiota analyses. The mouth care protocol resulted in improved oral hygiene without aspiration, and oral and fecal samples were safely collected from participants. Policies supporting ongoing testing of evidence-based mouth care protocols for individuals with dysphagia are important to improve quality, demonstrate efficacy, and save health care costs. [Journal of Gerontological Nursing, 43(9), 9-15.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  10. Dutch Primary Schoolchildren’s Perspectives of Activity-Friendly School Playgrounds: A Participatory Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Elisabeth (Elsje Caro

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available School playgrounds are important physical activity (PA environments for children, yet only a small number of children reaches the target of 40% of moderate-to-vigorous PA time during recess. The aim of this study was to explore children’s perspectives (i.e., child-identified determinants of activity-friendly school playgrounds. We conducted participatory research with children as co-researchers, framed as a project to give children the opportunity to discuss their views and ideas about their school playgrounds. At three schools, six children (9–12 years old met over five to seven group meetings. Data analysis included children’s conclusions obtained during the project and the researcher’s analysis of written reports of all meetings. Children indicated a strong desire for fun and active play, with physical playground characteristics and safety, rules and supervision, peer-interactions, and variation in equipment/games as important determinants. Our results indicate that improving activity-friendliness of playgrounds requires an integrated and multi-faceted approach. It also indicates that children, as primary users, are able to identify barriers for active play that are easily overlooked, unknown or differently perceived by adults. Hence, we believe that structural involvement of children in designing, developing and improving playgrounds may increase children’s’ active play and consequently PA levels during recess.

  11. Xenon-enhanced cerebral blood flow at 28% xenon provides uniquely safe access to quantitative, clinically useful cerebral blood flow information: a multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, A P; Brown, A M; Zager, E; Uchino, K; Marks, M P; Robertson, C; Sinson, G P; Marmarou, A; Yonas, H

    2011-08-01

    Xe-CT measures CBF and can be used to make clinical treatment decisions. Availability has been limited, in part due to safety concerns. Due to improvements in CT technology, the concentration of inhaled xenon gas has been decreased from 32% to 28%. To our knowledge, no data exist regarding the safety profile of this concentration. We sought to better determine the safety profile of this lower concentration through a multicenter evaluation of adverse events reported by all centers currently performing xenon/CT studies in the US. Patients were prospectively recruited at 7 centers to obtain safety and efficacy information. All studies were performed to answer a clinical question. All centers used the same xenon delivery system. CT imaging was used during a 4.3-minute inhalation of 28% xenon gas. Vital signs were monitored on all patients throughout each procedure. Occurrence and severity of adverse events were recorded by the principal investigator at each site. At 7 centers, 2003 studies were performed, 1486 (74.2%) in nonventilated patients. The most common indications were occlusive vascular disease and ischemic stroke; 93% of studies were considered clinically useful. Thirty-nine studies (1.9%) caused respiratory suppression of >20 seconds, all of which resolved spontaneously. Shorter respiratory pauses occurred in 119 (5.9%), and hyperventilation, in 34 (1.7%). There were 53 additional adverse events (2.9%), 7 of which were classified as severe. No adverse event resulted in any persistent neurologic change or other sequelae. Xe-CT CBF can be performed safely, with a very low risk of adverse events and, to date, no risk of permanent morbidity or sequelae. On the basis of the importance of the clinical information gained, Xe-CT should be made widely available.

  12. Karate: Keep It Safe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, David

    1981-01-01

    Safety guidelines for each phase of a karate practice session are presented to provide an accident-free and safe environment for teaching karate in a physical education or traditional karate training program. (JMF)

  13. Should Educators Be "Wrapping School Playgrounds in Cotton Wool" to Encourage Physical Activity? Exploring Primary and Secondary Students' Voices from the School Playground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyndman, Brendon P.; Telford, Amanda

    2015-01-01

    Physical activity in school playgrounds has changed considerably over recent decades to reflect a climate of "surplus safety". A growing culture of surplus safety can be attributed to a desire of parents and teachers responsible for children to protect school students from danger. The aim of this research was to examine students'…

  14. Lead-based paint on playground equipment in public children's parks in Johannesburg, Tshwane and Ekurhuleni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathee, Angela; Singh, Elvira; Mogotsi, Mirriam; Timothy, Geraldine; Maduka, Bryne; Olivier, Jan; Ing, Dennis

    2009-11-01

    To determine the use of lead-based paint in public playgrounds in the municipalities of Johannesburg, Tshwane and Ekurhuleni. Forty-nine public parks were selected from the municipalities of Johannesburg, Tshwane and Ekurhuleni. Lead levels in paint on playground equipment were measured in situ using a hand-held Thermo Scientific NITON XLP 700 Series X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analyser. Playground lead levels ranged from 'too low to detect' to 10.4 mg/cm2. The mean and median lead concentrations were 1.9 mg/cm2 and 0.9 mg/cm2 respectively. Forty-eight per cent of lead paint measurements exceeded the internationally accepted reference level of 1 mg/cm2. The study shows that lead-based paint is widely used in public playgrounds in the three study municipalities, and most likely throughout South Africa. We suggest key actions to ensure that children's playgrounds in South Africa are lead-free zones, and that childhood lead exposure in these settings is prevented.

  15. Effectiveness of the PLAYgrounds programme on PA levels during recess in 6-year-old to 12-year-old children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, M.; Twisk, J.W.R.; Toussaint, H.M.; van Mechelen, W.; Verhagen, E.A.L.M.

    2015-01-01

    Aims: Worldwide levels of daily physical activity (PA) in children are low. This has negative health consequences. Schools have been recognised as key settings to promote PA. This study evaluates the effectiveness of the playground programme PLAYgrounds on increasing PA. Methods: PLAYgrounds was

  16. The Untidy Playground: An Irish Congolese Case Study in Sonic Encounters with the Sacred Stranger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Phelan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the proposal that music, and particularly singing, has unique properties that render it amenable to encounters with “the other” or the sacred stranger. Drawing on the deconstructionist works of Kristeva and Derrida, as well as the postmodern hermeneutics of Kearney and Caputo, it explores current debate concerning the nature of “the sacred” in contemporary life and the erosion of the theistic/atheistic divide, while proposing a deepening of the debate through the inclusion of the performative. As philosophical and theological discourses embrace this aporia, it does so against the backdrop of unprecedented human migration. The concomitant cultural and social disruption throws up new questions around the nature and experience of religion, spirituality and the sacred. This paper explores these questions in the context of a Congolese choir called Elikya, which was established by a group of asylum seekers in Limerick city, Ireland, in 2001. In tracking the musical life of this choir over the last decade and a half, including two musical recordings and numerous liturgical, religious and secular performances, it suggests that the sonic world of the choir both performs and transcends these descriptors. Using a three-fold model of context, content and intent, the paper concludes that musical experiences such as those created by Elikya erode any easy divisions between the religious and the secular or the liturgical and the non-liturgical and provide sonic opportunities to encounter the sacred stranger in the untidy playground of creative chaos.

  17. A Randomized Trial Testing the Impact of Narrative Vignettes vs. Guideline Summaries on Provider Response to a Professional Organization Clinical Policy for Safe Opioid Prescribing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisel, Zachary F.; Metlay, Joshua P.; Sinnenberg, Lauren; Kilaru, Austin S.; Grossestreuer, Anne; Barg, Frances K.; Shofer, Frances S.; Rhodes, Karin V.; Perrone, Jeanmarie

    2016-01-01

    Background Clinical guidelines are known to be underused by practitioners. In response to the challenges of treating pain amidst a prescription opioid epidemic, the American College of Emergency Physicians published an evidence-based clinical policy for opioid prescribing in 2012. Evidence-based narratives, an effective method of communicating health information in a variety of settings, offer a novel strategy for disseminating guidelines to physicians and engaging providers with clinical evidence. Objectives To compare whether narrative vignettes embedded in the American College of Emergency Physician (ACEP) daily e-newsletter improved dissemination of the clinical policy to ACEP members, and engagement of members with the clinical policy, compared to traditional summary text. Methods A prospective randomized controlled study, entitled Stories to Promote Information using Narrative (SPIN) trial, was performed. Derived from qualitative interviews with 61 ACEP physicians, 4 narrative vignettes were selected and refined, using a consensus panel of clinical and implementation experts. All ACEP members were then block randomized by state of residence to receive alternative versions of a daily emailed newsletter for a total of 24 days during a 9 week period. Narrative newsletters contained a selection of vignettes that referenced opioid prescription dilemmas. Control newsletters contained a selection of descriptive text about the clinical policy using similar length and appearance to the narrative vignettes. Embedded in the newsletters were web links to the complete vignette or traditional summary text, as well as additional links to the full ACEP clinical policy and a website providing assistance with prescription drug monitoring program enrollment. The newsletters were otherwise identical. Outcomes measured were the percentage of subjects who visited any of the web pages that contained additional guideline related information and the odds of any unique physician

  18. "Where could paul street boys play?" child psychotherapy as co-construction of a playground.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonella, Vittorio

    2014-03-01

    In this clinical paper, I present the development of the foundation of a child psychoanalytic treatment to explain in clinical terms what it means to build a "playground," a place where a child could go to play. The aim of the paper, with references to Paul Street Boys, a famous novel by Ferenc Molnár, a Hungarian contemporary of Sándor Ferenczi, is to use the metaphor of the "playground" for describing how, thanks to his personal use of the setting, and thanks to the development of the relationship with the therapist, a traumatized child could gradually begin to build, together with the therapist, a place unknown in his past.

  19. Safe cycling!

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2012-01-01

    The HSE Unit will be running a cycling safety campaign at the entrances to CERN's restaurants on 14, 15 and 16 May. Pop along to see if they can persuade you to get back in the saddle!   With summer on its way, you might feel like getting your bike out of winter storage. Well, the HSE Unit has come up with some original ideas to remind you of some of the most basic safety rules. This year, the prevention campaign will be focussing on three themes: "Cyclists and their equipment", "The bicycle on the road", and "Other road users". This is an opportunity to think about the condition of your bike as well as how you ride it. From 14 to 16 May, representatives of the Swiss Office of Accident Prevention and the Touring Club Suisse will join members of the HSE Unit at the entrances to CERN's restaurants to give you advice on safe cycling (see box). They will also be organising three activity stands where you can test your knowle...

  20. Digital labor: The Internet as playground and factory, edited by Trebor Scholz [book review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Anne Brown

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Book review, Trebor Scholz, ed., Digital labor: The Internet as playground and factory. New York: Routledge, 2013, paper, $37.95 (258p ISBN 978-0-415-89695-5; hardcover $150 (258p ISBN 978-0-415-89694-8.

  1. Automatic behavior analysis in tag games: from traditional spaces to interactive playgrounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moreno Celleri, Alejandro Manuel; Martin, J-C.; Poppe, Ronald Walter

    Tag is a popular children’s playground game. It revolves around taggers that chase and then tag runners, upon which their roles switch. There are many variations of the game that aim to keep children engaged by presenting them with challenges and different types of gameplay. We argue that the

  2. Effectiveness of a Playground Intervention for Antisocial, Prosocial, and Physical Activity Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayfield, Carlene A.; Child, Stephanie; Weaver, Robert G.; Zarrett, Nicole; Beets, Michael W.; Moore, Justin B.

    2017-01-01

    Background: We examined the effectiveness of Peaceful Playgrounds™ (P2) to decrease antisocial behaviors (ASB) while increasing physical activity (PA) and prosocial behaviors (PSB) in elementary school children. Methods: A longitudinal, cluster-randomized design was employed in 4 elementary school playgrounds where students (third to fifth) from 2…

  3. Creative and Playful Learning on Technology-Enriched Playgrounds: An International Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randolph, Justus J.; Kangas, Marjaana; Ruokamo, Heli; Hyvönen, Pirkko

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this quasi-experimental study was to determine the degree that creative and playful learning (CPL) in a technology-enriched playground influences academic achievement of students and what factors are responsible for successes. The participants were 276 students from 12 elementary classrooms in the Netherlands and Finland. The…

  4. The Children’s Playground in the Context of Cultural-Historical Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smirnova E.O.,

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the possible application of the principles of cultural-historical approach and activity theory to the inspection of toys and play environments. A children’s playground is treated as cultural means or artifact created by adults for starting a child’s activity. In terms of cultural and historical psychology, psycho-pedagogical analysis of a playground is based on the identification of the play value level and the compliance with the objectives peculiar to the age. Analysis and design are based on the understanding of the playground as a single space, where each element has the potential for any children’s development activity — games, communication, experimentation, etc. The following criteria of psychological and pedagogical inspection are identified and well-grounded: the principle of orientation to age-related peculiarities, the principle of high play value, the principle of transparency of objects, the principle of supporting acceptable risk, the principle of taking account of visitors’ activity levels, invitation to dialogue — the principle of dialogueness. The use of these principles in the course of designing playgrounds is illustrated by examples. These show that the conceptual apparatus of cultural and historical psychology may be used not only to explain the mechanisms and forms of mental development, but also for the analysis of particular conditions of a child’s mental development and design of play environments.

  5. School playgrounds and physical activity policies as predictors of school and home time activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams Sheila M

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous work has suggested that the number of permanent play facilities in school playgrounds and school-based policies on physical activity can influence physical activity in children. However, few comparable studies have used objective measures of physical activity or have had little adjustment for multiple confounders. Methods Physical activity was measured by accelerometry over 5 recess periods and 3 full school days in 441 children from 16 primary schools in Dunedin, New Zealand. The number of permanent play facilities (swing, fort, slide, obstacle course, climbing wall etc in each school playground was counted on three occasions by three researchers following a standardized protocol. Information on school policies pertaining to physical activity and participation in organized sport was collected by questionnaire. Results Measurement of school playgrounds proved to be reliable (ICC 0.89 and consistent over time. Boys were significantly more active than girls (P Conclusion The number of permanent play facilities in school playgrounds is associated with higher physical activity in children, whereas no relationship was observed for school policies relating to physical activity. Increasing the number of permanent play facilities may offer a cost-effective long-term approach to increasing activity levels in children.

  6. Dutch primary schoolchildren’s perspectives of activity-friendly school playgrounds : A participatory study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caro, Helena Elisabeth Elsje; Altenburg, Teatske Maria; Dedding, Christine; Chinapaw, Mai Jeanette Maidy

    2016-01-01

    School playgrounds are important physical activity (PA) environments for children, yet only a small number of children reaches the target of 40% of moderate-to-vigorous PA time during recess. The aim of this study was to explore children’s perspectives (i.e., child-identified determinants) of

  7. Influence of School Playground Size and Equipment on the Physical Activity of Students during Recess

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delidou, Eleni; Matsouka, Ourania; Nikolaidis, Christos

    2016-01-01

    Children's physical activity (PA) is increasingly restricted by the fast pace of modern life. Schools are the opportune setting in which to increase PA during daily recess. The purpose of this study was to record the degree of PA of 6th grade primary school students during recess and determine whether the playground size and available equipment…

  8. School playground surfacing and arm fractures in children: a cluster randomized trial comparing sand to wood chip surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Andrew W; Macarthur, Colin; Rothman, Linda; Willan, Andrew; Macpherson, Alison K

    2009-12-01

    The risk of playground injuries, especially fractures, is prevalent in children, and can result in emergency room treatment and hospital admissions. Fall height and surface area are major determinants of playground fall injury risk. The primary objective was to determine if there was a difference in playground upper extremity fracture rates in school playgrounds with wood fibre surfacing versus granite sand surfacing. Secondary objectives were to determine if there were differences in overall playground injury rates or in head injury rates in school playgrounds with wood fibre surfacing compared to school playgrounds with granite sand surfacing. The cluster randomized trial comprised 37 elementary schools in the Toronto District School Board in Toronto, Canada with a total of 15,074 students. Each school received qualified funding for installation of new playground equipment and surfacing. The risk of arm fracture from playground falls onto granitic sand versus onto engineered wood fibre surfaces was compared, with an outcome measure of estimated arm fracture rate per 100,000 student-months. Schools were randomly assigned by computer generated list to receive either a granitic sand or an engineered wood fibre playground surface (Fibar), and were not blinded. Schools were visited to ascertain details of the playground and surface actually installed and to observe the exposure to play and to periodically monitor the depth of the surfacing material. Injury data, including details of circumstance and diagnosis, were collected at each school by a prospective surveillance system with confirmation of injury details through a validated telephone interview with parents and also through collection (with consent) of medical reports regarding treated injuries. All schools were recruited together at the beginning of the trial, which is now closed after 2.5 years of injury data collection. Compliant schools included 12 schools randomized to Fibar that installed Fibar and seven

  9. Heavy metal exposure and risk charaterization of topsoils in urban playgrounds and parks (Hungary)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puskás, Irén; Farsang, Andrea; Csépe, Zoltán; Bartus, Máté

    2014-05-01

    Contamination in urban soils can directly pose significant human risks through oral ingestion, particle inhalation and dermal contact, especially in public spaces. Parks and playgrounds are green areas in cities where dwellers (mainly children and seniors) can spend their outside freetime, thus the highest possibility of the human and soil interaction can be presumed here. Therefore, in 2013, composite surface samples (0-5 cm, from 10-15 subsoil samples) were collected from 96 public parks and 89 playgrounds (around playing equipment) of main functional zones (downtown, housing estates, industrial, prestigious, commuting areas) of three Hungarian cities (Budapest, Szeged, Gyula) representing capital, regional city and local town. Pseudo total metal content (Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ba, Co) and physical, chemical soil properties influencing metal mobility (artefact, mechanical soil type, carbonate, humus, pH(H2O), salt) were determined to evaluate impacts of various anthropogenic activities in functional zones on the studied soils; to give the environmental buffering capacity and to model human health risk of exposure pathways (by RISC 4.0 ) in the case of contaminated soils. Insignificant amount of artefact, neutral pH, high humus and carbonate content, mainly loamy and loamy-clay texture, low salt content can provide suitable buffering capacity for the studied soils. The type and spatial location of functional zones have not exerted considerable impact on variability of soil properties. Out of 189 analyzed areas, 36 have exceeded the threshold values regulated by Hungarian government (6/2009. (IV. 14) KvVM-EüM-FVM collective decree). Based on quantitative and qualitative evaluation of results, the identification of spatial patterns and the possible source of metal pollution have been carried out. In accordance with statistical analysis (correlation, cluster, factor analysis), we can explore relationship between metal concentrations and features of sample

  10. Motor Skill Development in Italian Pre-School Children Induced by Structured Activities in a Specific Playground

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tortella, Patrizia; Haga, Monika; Loras, Håvard; Sigmundsson, Hermundur; Fumagalli, Guido

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effects and specificity of structured and unstructured activities played at the playground Primo Sport 0246 in Northern Italy on motor skill competence in five years old children...

  11. Features and amenities of school playgrounds: A direct observation study of utilization and physical activity levels outside of school time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swayampakala Kamala

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A significant amount of research has examined whether park or playground availability is associated with physical activity. However, little research has examined whether specific features or amenities of parks or playgrounds, such as the number of unique types of playground equipment or the safety of the equipment is associated with utilization of the facility or physical activity levels while at the facility. There are no studies that use direct observation and a detailed park assessment to examine these associations. Methods Twenty urban schoolyards in the Midwest, ten of which were renovated, were included in this study. Using a detailed environmental assessment tool (i.e., Environmental Assessment of Public Recreation Spaces, information on a variety of playground attributes was collected. Using direct observation (i.e., System for Observing Play and Leisure Activity in Youth, the number of adults, girls and boys attending each schoolyard and their physical activity levels were recorded. Each schoolyard was observed ten times for 90 minutes each time outside of school hours. Clustered multivariable negative binomial regressions and linear regressions were completed to examine the association between playground attributes and utilization of the schoolyard and the proportion active on the playground, respectively. Effect modification by renovation status was also examined. Results At renovated schoolyards, the total number of play features was significantly associated with greater utilization in adults and girls; overall cleanliness was significantly associated with less utilization in girls and boys; and coverage/shade for resting features was significantly associated with greater utilization in adults and boys. At unrenovated schoolyards, overall safety was significantly associated with greater utilization in boys. No playground attribute was associated with the proportion active on the playground after adjusting for all

  12. Chromium on the hands of children after playing in playgrounds built from chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-treated wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamula, Camille; Wang, Zhongwen; Zhang, Hongquan; Kwon, Elena; Li, Xing-Fang; Gabos, Stephan; Le, X Chris

    2006-03-01

    Children's exposure to arsenic and chromium from playground equipment constructed with chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-treated wood is a potential concern because of children's hand-to-mouth activity. However, there exists no direct measure of Cr levels on the hands of children after playing in such playgrounds. In this study we measured both soluble and total Cr on the hands of 139 children playing in playgrounds, eight of which were constructed with CCA-treated wood and eight of which were not. Children's age and duration of play were recorded. The hands of each child were washed after play with 150 mL deionized water, which was collected in a bag and subsequently underwent analysis of Cr and 20 other elements, using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Total average Cr on the hands of 63 children who played in CCA playgrounds was 1,112 +/- 1,089 ng (median, 688; range 78-5,875). Total average Cr on the hands of 64 children who played in non-CCA playgrounds was 652 +/- 586 ng (median, 492; range 61-3,377). The difference between the two groups is statistically significant (p CCA playgrounds (p CCA playgrounds (r = 0.252 and 0.486 for Cu and As, respectively). Principal-component analysis indicates that Cr, Cu, and As are more closely grouped together in CCA than in non-CCA playgrounds. These results suggest that the elevated levels of Cr and As on children's hands are due to direct contact with CCA wood.

  13. Childhood obesity and parks and playgrounds: A review of issues of equality, gender and social support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qazi, Hammad Ali

    2011-04-01

    The childhood obesity has been a growing concern over the last decade all over the world. Built environmental characteristics such as parks and playgrounds serves as a reference point for physical activity in children. The equality issues related to ethnicity, Social Economic Status (SES), gender and social support have been related with both physical activity and presence and quality of parks and playgrounds. However, only limited studies have addressed these issues in children. The current paper is a general enumerative review that would discusses the above issues with respect to obesity in all age groups, giving particular emphasis to childhood obesity. The importance of this review is to further explore the importance and highlight the findings related to these issues, so that future original studies could be planned keeping these associations in mind.

  14. Sex difference in choice of concealed or exposed refuge sites by preschool children viewing a model leopard in a playground simulation of antipredator behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard G. Coss

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The current study of preschool children characterizes a semi-natural extension of experimental questions on how human ancestors evaded predation when encountering dangerous felids. In a pretend game on a playground, we presented full-size leopard and deer models to children (N = 39 in a repeatedmeasures experimental design. Prior to viewing the model presented 15-m away, each child was instructed by the experimenter to go where she or he would feel safe. The rationale for this study was based on the anthropological construct of “sexual dinichism,” positing that, during the Pliocene, smaller-bodied hominin females engaged in more arboreal behavior than larger-bodied males. Consistent with this construct, our previous simulation research using images of an African rock outcrop showed that, after viewing a lion, girls preferred a tree as refuge rather than a crevice or large boulder whereas boys did not differentiate these refuge sites. In this follow-up study, we predicted that, after viewing the model leopard, the preschool girls would differ from the boys by not choosing enclosed refuge sites analogous to the crevice. Analyses of a contingency table for the leopard model supported this hypothesis by yielding a significant interaction of sex and refuge location (p = .031, d = .76, the source of which was a reliably larger percentage of girls not choosing concealed refuge (p = .005, d = 2.3. The interaction of sex and refuge location for the model deer was not significant (p > .5. Our findings suggest that, in contrast to the deer, the girls selected exposed playground refuge sites rather than concealing ones to maintain visual contact with the leopard as a contingency for future action

  15. School playgrounds and physical activity policies as predictors of school and home time activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Rachael W; Farmer, Victoria L; Cameron, Sonya L; Meredith-Jones, Kim; Williams, Sheila M; Mann, Jim I

    2011-04-27

    Previous work has suggested that the number of permanent play facilities in school playgrounds and school-based policies on physical activity can influence physical activity in children. However, few comparable studies have used objective measures of physical activity or have had little adjustment for multiple confounders. Physical activity was measured by accelerometry over 5 recess periods and 3 full school days in 441 children from 16 primary schools in Dunedin, New Zealand. The number of permanent play facilities (swing, fort, slide, obstacle course, climbing wall etc) in each school playground was counted on three occasions by three researchers following a standardized protocol. Information on school policies pertaining to physical activity and participation in organized sport was collected by questionnaire. Measurement of school playgrounds proved to be reliable (ICC 0.89) and consistent over time. Boys were significantly more active than girls (P day of which 17 (10) took place at school compared with 23 (14) and 11 (7) minutes respectively in girls. Each additional 10-unit increase in play facilities was associated with 3.2% (95% CI 0.0-6.4%) more total activity and 8.3% (0.8-16.3%) more MVPA during recess. By contrast, school policy score was not associated with physical activity in children. The number of permanent play facilities in school playgrounds is associated with higher physical activity in children, whereas no relationship was observed for school policies relating to physical activity. Increasing the number of permanent play facilities may offer a cost-effective long-term approach to increasing activity levels in children.

  16. IMPACT OF THE ABSENCE OR LIMITEDNESS OF CHILDREN’S PLAYGROUND ON CHILDREN PLAY ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parmonangan Manurung

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Statistics shows that more than 25% of Indonesia's population in 2015 is comprised of children. For children, play is a very important activity in the process of their physical growth and social development. Play is also a right of children that is reinforced and protected by the constitution. But the rapid urban growth has resulted to the reduction of open spaces for children’s playground and this has limited their movement. Therefore, this paper assessed the impact of playground limitations on the playing activity of children in various places in the city of Yogyakarta, Indonesia. Qualitative research method was primarily used by which the data were collected through questionnaires, personal interviews, field observation, and literature review. The results showed how limited the spaces for children’s playground in the city of Yogyakarta which made children to utilize the road, the space around riverbank, the space around railroad tracks, and vacant land for playing and bicycling. These are spaces which are intended for other purposes but are perceived by children as available for them to play. They may be not aware that this is a very risky condition which they may have not fully realized particularly when no adults had intervened.

  17. School playground surfacing and arm fractures in children: a cluster randomized trial comparing sand to wood chip surfaces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew W Howard

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The risk of playground injuries, especially fractures, is prevalent in children, and can result in emergency room treatment and hospital admissions. Fall height and surface area are major determinants of playground fall injury risk. The primary objective was to determine if there was a difference in playground upper extremity fracture rates in school playgrounds with wood fibre surfacing versus granite sand surfacing. Secondary objectives were to determine if there were differences in overall playground injury rates or in head injury rates in school playgrounds with wood fibre surfacing compared to school playgrounds with granite sand surfacing.The cluster randomized trial comprised 37 elementary schools in the Toronto District School Board in Toronto, Canada with a total of 15,074 students. Each school received qualified funding for installation of new playground equipment and surfacing. The risk of arm fracture from playground falls onto granitic sand versus onto engineered wood fibre surfaces was compared, with an outcome measure of estimated arm fracture rate per 100,000 student-months. Schools were randomly assigned by computer generated list to receive either a granitic sand or an engineered wood fibre playground surface (Fibar, and were not blinded. Schools were visited to ascertain details of the playground and surface actually installed and to observe the exposure to play and to periodically monitor the depth of the surfacing material. Injury data, including details of circumstance and diagnosis, were collected at each school by a prospective surveillance system with confirmation of injury details through a validated telephone interview with parents and also through collection (with consent of medical reports regarding treated injuries. All schools were recruited together at the beginning of the trial, which is now closed after 2.5 years of injury data collection. Compliant schools included 12 schools randomized to Fibar that installed

  18. Safe use of nanomaterials

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    The use of nanomaterials  is on the increase worldwide, including at CERN. The HSE Unit has established a safety guideline to inform you of the main requirements for the safe handling and disposal of nanomaterials at CERN.   A risk assessment tool has also been developed which guides the user through the process of evaluating the risk for his or her activity. Based on the calculated risk level, the tool provides a list of recommended control measures.   We would therefore like to draw your attention to: Safety Guideline C-0-0-5 - Safe handling and disposal of nanomaterials; and Safety Form C-0-0-2 - Nanomaterial Risk Assessment   You can consult all of CERN’s safety rules and guidelines here. Please contact the HSE Unit for any questions you may have.   The HSE Unit

  19. Microelectromechanical safe arm device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roesler, Alexander W [Tijeras, NM

    2012-06-05

    Microelectromechanical (MEM) apparatus and methods for operating, for preventing unintentional detonation of energetic components comprising pyrotechnic and explosive materials, such as air bag deployment systems, munitions and pyrotechnics. The MEM apparatus comprises an interrupting member that can be moved to block (interrupt) or complete (uninterrupt) an explosive train that is part of an energetic component. One or more latching members are provided that engage and prevent the movement of the interrupting member, until the one or more latching members are disengaged from the interrupting member. The MEM apparatus can be utilized as a safe and arm device (SAD) and electronic safe and arm device (ESAD) in preventing unintentional detonations. Methods for operating the MEM apparatus include independently applying drive signals to the actuators coupled to the latching members, and an actuator coupled to the interrupting member.

  20. Safe Anesthesia For Every Tot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weiss, Markus; Vutskits, Laszlo; Hansen, Tom G

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The term 'safe use of anesthesia in children is ill-defined and requires definition of and focus on the 'safe conduct of pediatric anesthesia'. RECENT FINDINGS: The Safe Anesthesia For Every Tot initiative (www.safetots.org) has been set up during the last year to focus...... on the safe conduct of pediatric anesthesia. This initiative aims to provide guidance on markers of quality anesthesia care. The introduction and implementation of national regulations of 'who, where, when and how' are required and will result in an improved perioperative outcome in vulnerable children....... The improvement of teaching, training, education and supervision of the safe conduct of pediatric anesthesia are the main goals of the safetots.org initiative. SUMMARY: This initiative addresses the well known perioperative risks in young children, perioperative causes for cerebral morbidity as well as gaps...

  1. Important roles of public playgrounds in the transmission of hand, foot, and mouth disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Y H; Chongsuvivatwong, V; Tan, Y; Tang, Zh-Zh; Sornsrivichai, V; McNeil, E B

    2015-05-01

    Intra-home and kindergarten transmissions were the reported major modes of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) transmission in preschool children. However, infection at home is not common and 65-80% of cases do not attend preschool. We conducted a matched case-control study to explore the role of public playgrounds in the transmission of HFMD in addition to direct and indirect exposure to HFMD patients. We used 156 hospital source cases and 156 community source controls. Univariate analysis was followed by conditional logistic regression with attributable fraction computed. Adjusted odds ratios were 11·70 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1·26-109·40] for having HFMD cases in the same class, 14·19 (95% CI 3·55-56·74) for having HFMD cases within the 20 nearest neighbourhoods, 6·03 (95% CI 2·84-12·80) for exposure to public playgrounds, 2·13 (95% CI 1·05-4·32) for finger sucking and 0·29 (95% CI 0·11-0·78) for hand washing with soap before meals. The attributable fractions for the first four risk factors were 6·4%, 20·9%, 57·2% and 27·5%, respectively, while the population prevented fraction for hand washing with soap before meals was 18·7%. Based on our findings, hand washing with soap should be advocated. Health education could include topics which underline the precautions which need to be taken and the advice given regarding avoiding the use of public playgrounds during epidemic periods, especially when children have been getting sick.

  2. Intelligent Playgrounds: Measuring and Affecting Social Inclusion in Schools

    OpenAIRE

    Lyra, Olga; Karapanos, Evangelos; Kostakos, Vassilis

    2011-01-01

    Part 1: Long and Short Papers; International audience; Equal access to education has recently been declared by the United Nations a basic human right [14]. However, despite the substantial attention given to inclusive education in recent years, researchers have criticized a lack of empirical evidence on how exclusion is manifested in student behavior. Recent development in sensor technology and social network analysis techniques can provide a new perspective to the impact of educational pract...

  3. Contributions of Playground Singing Games to the Social Inclusion of Refugee and Newly Arrived Immigrant Children in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Kathryn; Dieckmann, Samantha

    2017-01-01

    In recent decades, researchers from the fields of music education, ethnomusicology, folklore and sociology have developed an increasing interest in children's musical play traditions and the ways in which children teach and learn, perform, create and transform playground games and songs. Such repertoire is drawn both from oral traditions and from…

  4. Mothers' Reports of Play Dates and Observation of School Playground Behavior of Children Having High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankel, Frederick D.; Gorospe, Clarissa M.; Chang, Ya-Chih; Sugar, Catherine A.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Children with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are generally included with typically developing peers at school. They have difficulties interacting with peers on the school playground. Previous literature suggests that having play dates in the home may be related to better peer acceptance at school. Methods: This study…

  5. The Effects of Playground Markings on the Physical Self-Perceptions of 10-11-Year-Old School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crust, Lee; McKenna, Jim; Spence, Jon; Thomas, Catherine; Evans, Donna; Bishop, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Background: Significant proportions of school children in the UK do not meet the minimum recommended daily requirements of 60-min moderate-intensity physical activity. Beyond taught classes, playtimes offer the opportunity for children to play and be physically active. Painted markings are one recent addition to school playgrounds that are…

  6. Caregiver Perceptions of Inclusive Playgrounds Targeting Toddlers and Preschoolers with Disabilities: Has Recent International and National Policy Improved Overall Satisfaction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton-Chapman, Tina L.; Schmidt, Eric L.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to survey and interview caregivers of children with disabilities (ages 2-5 years) to obtain their input as to whether current playground equipment meets their child's needs. A total of 149 participants agreed to participate. Caregivers (i) indicated that their child with a disability could not fully participate…

  7. The Natural Environment as a Playground for Children: The Impact of Outdoor Play Activities in Pre-Primary School Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fjortoft, Ingunn

    2001-01-01

    Investigated how play in the natural environment of three Norwegian kindergartens might stimulate 5- to 7-year-olds' motor fitness, focusing on the affordances of the landscape for versatile play. Found that children using the forest as a playscape performed better in motor skills than children on a traditional playground. Play activities related…

  8. A genetic playground for enhancing grain number in cereals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreenivasulu, Nese; Schnurbusch, Thorsten

    2012-02-01

    Improving the yield stability of cereal crops with a view to bolstering global food security is an important priority. The components of final grain number per plant at harvest are determined by fertile spikes per plant, number of fertile spikelets per spike and number of grains per spikelet. In this review article, we focus on the genetic factors of floral development and inflorescence architecture known to influence grain number and provide a broad overview of genes and genetic pathways that potentially can be manipulated to increase the yield of cereal crops, in particular wheat (Triticum aestivum) and barley (Hordeum vulgare). In addition, we discuss the outcome of multidisciplinary genomics knowledge to identify potential gene targets to develop conceptual ideotypes to meet the future demand. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Safe and Liquid Mortgage Bonds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dick-Nielsen, Jens; Gyntelberg, Jacob; Lund, Jesper

    eliminates credit risk from the investor's perspective. Similar to other safe bonds, funding liquidity becomes the main driver of mortgage bond liquidity and this creates commonality in liquidity across markets and countries. These findings have implications for how to design a robust mortgage bond system......This paper shows that strict match pass-through funding of covered bonds provides safe and liquid mortgage bonds. Despite a 30% drop in house prices during the 2008 global crisis Danish mortgage bonds remained as liquid as most European government bonds. The Danish pass-through system effectively...... and for the treatment of covered bonds in capital regulation....

  10. Intelligent playgrounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lasse Juel

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines play, gaming and learning in regard to intelligent playware developed for outdoor use. The key questions are how does these novel artefacts influence the concept of play, gaming and learning. Up until now play and game have been understood as different activities. This paper...... examines if the sharp differentiation between the two can be uphold in regard to intelligent playware for outdoor use. Play and game activities will be analysed and viewed in conjunction with learning contexts. This paper will stipulate that intelligent playware facilitates rapid shifts in contexts...

  11. Asymptotically Safe Dark Matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sannino, Francesco; Shoemaker, Ian M.

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a new paradigm for dark matter (DM) interactions in which the interaction strength is asymptotically safe. In models of this type, the coupling strength is small at low energies but increases at higher energies, and asymptotically approaches a finite constant value. The resulting...... searches are the primary ways to constrain or discover asymptotically safe dark matter....

  12. Review of dissertation «A Comparison of Cognitive Play Skills Within a Natural and Manufactured Preschool Playground» by Kelly Groeber

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Florova N.B

    2016-01-01

    .... The present comparative qualitative analysis is aimed at mapping cognitive skills, formed in preschool children in case they spend more time on the playgrounds, equipped with the elements of natural origin (natural) or artificial ( metal) elements.

  13. Injury and frequency of use of playground equipment in public schools and parks in Brisbane, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, J; Acton, C; Wallis, B; Ballesteros, M; Battistutta, D

    2003-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency of use of play equipment in public schools and parks in Brisbane, Australia, and to estimate an annual rate of injury per use of equipment, overall and for particular types of equipment. Methods: Injury data on all children injured from playground equipment and seeking medical attention at the emergency department of either of the two children's hospitals in the City of Brisbane were obtained for the years 1996 and 1997. Children were observed at play on five different pieces of play equipment in a random sample of 16 parks and 16 schools in the City of Brisbane. Children injured in the 16 parks and schools were counted, and rates of injury and use were calculated. Results: The ranked order for equipment use in the 16 schools was climbing equipment (3762 uses), horizontal ladders (2309 uses), and slides (856 uses). Each horizontal ladder was used 2.6 times more often than each piece of climbing equipment. Each horizontal ladder was used 7.8 times more than each piece of climbing equipment in the sample of public parks. Slides were used 4.6 times more than climbing equipment in parks and 1.2 times more in public schools. The annual injury rate for the 16 schools and 16 parks under observation was 0.59/100 000 and 0.26/100 000 uses of equipment, respectively. Conclusions: This study shows that annual number of injuries per standardized number of uses could be used to determine the relative risk of particular pieces of playground equipment. The low overall rate of injuries/100 000 uses of equipment in this study suggests that the benefit of further reduction of injury in this community may be marginal and outweigh the economic costs in addition to reducing challenging play opportunities. PMID:12966007

  14. Energy Expenditure in Playground Games in Primary School Children Measured by Accelerometer and Heart Rate Monitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Prieto, Jorge Cañete; Martinez-Vizcaino, Vicente; García-Hermoso, Antonio; Sánchez-López, Mairena; Arias-Palencia, Natalia; Fonseca, Juan Fernando Ortega; Mora-Rodriguez, Ricardo

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the energy expenditure (EE) measured using indirect calorimetry (IC) during playground games and to assess the validity of heart rate (HR) and accelerometry counts as indirect indicators of EE in children´s physical activity games. 32 primary school children (9.9 ± 0.6 years old, 19.8 ± 4.9 kg · m -2 BMI and 37.6 ± 7.2 ml · kg -1 · min -1 VO 2max ). Indirect calorimetry (IC), accelerometry and HR data were simultaneously collected for each child during a 90 min session of 30 playground games. Thirty-eight sessions were recorded in 32 different children. Each game was recorded at least in three occasions in other three children. The intersubject coefficient of variation within a game was 27% for IC, 37% for accelerometry and 13% for HR. The overall mean EE in the games was 4.2 ± 1.4 kcals · min -1 per game, totaling to 375 ± 122 kcals/per 90 min/session. The correlation coefficient between indirect calorimetry and accelerometer counts was 0.48 (p = .026) for endurance games and 0.21 (p = .574) for strength games. The correlation coefficient between indirect calorimetry and HR was 0.71 (p = .032) for endurance games and 0.48 (p = .026) for strength games. Our data indicate that both accelerometer and HR monitors are useful devices for estimating EE during endurance games, but only HR monitors estimates are accurate for endurance games.

  15. Rationale and protocol paper for the Healthy Active Peaceful Playgrounds for Youth (HAPPY study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayne Cotton

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A growing body of evidence suggest an association between physical activity levels and students psychological well-being. A number of research studies have evaluated playground interventions that aim to increase physical activity levels, decrease conflict and bullying, and improve students behaviour. The HAPPY Study will evaluate the success of an intervention combining environmental modifications, teacher development, and peer support that can culminate in an easy to implement, low cost and effective model for increasing physical activity, and improving psychological well-being for children. Methods/Design Data will be collected at six New South Wales (NSW primary schools, on physical activity levels, on-task time during classes, and social support for physical activity during a 12 month Cluster Controlled Trial (CT. Three quantitative data collection tools will be used to capture student’s physical activity levels during lunch and recess breaks (the SOPARC tool, student’s on-task behaviour during classes following recess and lunch breaks (the BOSS tool and where students receive the most encouragement to be physically active from (the Physical Activity Social Support Scale survey. Baseline data will be analysed against follow-up data, collected after an intervention that is rolled out in all schools as part of a stepped wedge CT design. Discussion A review of relevant Australian and New Zealand literature suggests that playground interventions can be successful at increasing physical activity levels, increasing social and conflict resolution skills in students, and decreasing incidences of bullying. This study will investigate any correlation between physical activity levels, and student behaviour during classes following breaks. Trial Registration Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Register ACTRN12616000575437 , registered May 2016.

  16. Safe Streets in Tacoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nebgen, Mary

    1990-01-01

    In Tacoma, Washington, the Safe Street Campaign united the schools, government agencies, labor groups, community and religious organizations, businesses, youth, and substance abuse agencies in responding to gangs and drugs. (MLF)

  17. Safe Sleep for Babies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... serve mothers and babies to deliver culturally appropriate messaging about safe sleep for babies. Monitoring and evaluating ... RSS ABOUT About CDC Jobs Funding LEGAL Policies Privacy FOIA No Fear Act OIG 1600 Clifton Road ...

  18. The first safe country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaela Puggioni

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The Dublin II Regulation makes the first safe country of refuge solelyresponsible for refugees and asylum seekers. In the case of Italy, thefirst responsible country has not been acting responsibly.

  19. Vitamins, Are They Safe?

    OpenAIRE

    Hadi Hamishehkar; Farhad Ranjdoost; Parina Asgharian; Ata Mahmoodpoor; Sarvin Sanaie

    2016-01-01

    The consumption of a daily multivitamin among people all over the world is dramatically increasing in recent years. Most of the people believe that if vitamins are not effective, at least they are safe. However, the long term health consequences of vitamins consumption are unknown. This study aimed to assess the side effects and possible harmful and detrimental properties of vitamins and to discuss whether vitamins can be used as safe health products or dietary supplements. We performed a MED...

  20. Unspoken Playground Rules Discourage Adolescent Physical Activity in School: A Focus Group Study of Constructs in the Prototype Willingness Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheatley, Catherine M; Davies, Emma L; Dawes, Helen

    2018-03-01

    The health benefits of exercise in school are recognized, yet physical activity continues to decline during early adolescence despite numerous interventions. In this study, we investigated whether the prototype willingness model, an account of adolescent decision making that includes both reasoned behavioral choices and unplanned responses to social environments, might improve understanding of physical activity in school. We conducted focus groups with British pupils aged 12 to 13 years and used deductive thematic analysis to search for themes relating to the model. Participants described reasoned decisions about physical activity outside school and unplanned choices to be inactive during break, in response to social contexts described as more "judgmental" than in primary school. Social contexts appeared characterized by anxiety about competence, negative peer evaluation, and inactive playground norms. The prototype willingness model might more fully explain physical activity in school than reasoned behavioral models alone, indicating potential for interventions targeting anxieties about playground social environments.

  1. A survey on environmental contamination of suburban parks and playgrounds in Harare, Zimbabwe, with canine helminths of zoonotic significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mukaratirwa

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available In an attempt to assess the possible risk to humans of soil-transmitted canine helminths of of zoonotic significance, 161 faecal samples and 81 soil samples were collected from 6 public parks and playgrounds in Harare between March and June 1998 and examined for nematode ova. Of the 161 faecal samples collected, 17.4 % were positive for Ancylostoma sp. ova and 5.6 % were positive for T. canis ova. No other nematode species ova were found. Over 50 % of the faecal samples positive for Ancylostoma sp. ova were 'moist', and this suggests that the moisture content of faeces contributes to the development and survival of this parasite in the environment. Only 3 of the 81 soil samples collected were positive for T. canis. The low levels of contamination of public playgrounds and parks with T. canis ova suggests that environmental contamination might not be important in the aetiology of human toxocarosis in Harare.

  2. Motor Skill Development in Italian Pre-School Children Induced by Structured Activities in a Specific Playground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tortella, Patrizia; Haga, Monika; Loras, Håvard

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effects and specificity of structured and unstructured activities played at the playground Primo Sport 0246 in Northern Italy on motor skill competence in five years old children. The playground was specifically designed to promote gross motor skills in preschool children; in this study 71 children from local kindergartens came to the park once a week for ten consecutive weeks and were exposed to 30 minutes of free play and 30 minutes of structured activities. Before and after the ten visits, each child completed nine tests to assess levels of motor skills, three for fine-motor skills and six for gross-motor skills. As control, motor skills were also assessed on 39 children from different kindergartens who did not come to the park. The results show that the experimental group who practiced gross-motor activities in the playground for 1 hour a week for 10 weeks improved significantly in 4 out of the 6 gross motor tasks and in none of the fine motor tasks. The data indicate that limited transfer occurred between tasks referring to different domains of motor competences while suggesting cross feeding for improvement of gross-motor skills between different exercises when domains related to physical fitness and strength of specific muscle groups are involved. These results are relevant to the issue of condition(s) appropriate for maintaining and developing motor skills in this age group as well as for the planning, organization and implementation of play and physical activities in kindergartens. PMID:27462985

  3. Zoo Playgrounds: A Source of Enrichment or Stress for a Group of Nearby Cockatoos? A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Courtney K; Marples, Nicola M

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that in some circumstances, zoo visitors may be aversive stimuli to nonhuman animals housed in zoos. Yet, most previous research has focused on primates with little attention given to numerous other species who are housed in zoos. The focus animal of this project was the cockatoo, a species who has received minimal attention in zoo-based research. Furthermore, although the influence of the zoo setting has become increasingly important in visitor effect studies, this is the 1st study to quantify the effect of activity at a children's playground on zoo animals. There was an investigation on the effect of a zoo playground on the behavior of citron-crested and Moluccan cockatoos (Cacatua sulphurea citrinocristata and Cacatua moluccensis), as well as the effect of children standing in front of the birds' aviaries. The results showed that in some circumstances, the Moluccan cockatoos retreated from visitors, while the citron-crested cockatoos did not retreat from visitors and became more social in the presence of visitors. These findings highlight the importance of careful selection of species and individual animals to be housed near zoo playgrounds.

  4. Soil pollution fingerprints of children playgrounds in Sarajevo city, Bosnia and Herzegovina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapcanin, Aida; Cakal, Mirsada; Jacimovic, Zeljko; Pehlic, Ekrem; Jancan, Gordan

    2017-04-01

    This is the first study, 10 years after the war activities, to report about the content of heavy metals and metalloids, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) found in samples of soils from selected playgrounds in Sarajevo. Due to the fact that children are in direct contact with surface soils, it has been recommended that children's playgrounds should be given special consideration in this respect. Basic properties (pH in H2O, pH in 1 mol dm-3 KCl, humus, and CaCO3) of the examined soils were determined. Samples for the determination of heavy metals and metalloids were prepared by microwave-assisted acid digestion and determined by using an inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer. Fluorine was determined potentiometrically. Gas chromatography with mass spectrometry was used for determination of PAHs and PCBs. Determined contents (mg kg-1) for Cd, Pb, Hg, Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, Co, Mo, Fe, Se, As, B, and F were in the ranges from: 0.031 ± 0.03 to 0.52 ± 0.05; 26.1 ± 2.5 to 47.7 ± 4.5; 0.07 ± 0.01 to 0.50 ± 0.08; 26.2 to 50; 19.5 ± 1.6 to 33.3 ± 2.7; 12.8 ± 1.8 to 31.9 ± 4.5; 56.0 ± 4.0 to 89.0 ± 6.5; 6.7 ± 0.6 to10.6 ± 1.0; soils, and may be included in projects planning children's health risk assessments and adopting environmental legislation which has not been sufficiently regulated in Bosnia and Herzegovina so far.

  5. The relationship between soil geochemistry and the bioaccessibility of trace elements in playground soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Miguel, Eduardo; Mingot, Juan; Chacón, Enrique; Charlesworth, Susanne

    2012-12-01

    A total of 32 samples of surficial soil were collected from 16 playground areas in Madrid (Spain), in order to investigate the importance of the geochemistry of the soil on subsequent bioaccessibility of trace elements. The in vitro bioaccessibility of As, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn was evaluated by means of two extraction processes that simulate the gastric environment and one that reproduces a gastric + intestinal digestion sequence. The results of the in vitro bioaccessibility were compared against aqua regia extractions ("total" concentration), and it was found that total concentrations of As, Cu, Pb and Zn were double those of bioaccessible values, whilst that of Cr was ten times higher. Whereas the results of the gastric + intestinal extraction were affected by a high uncertainty, both gastric methods offered very similar and consistent results, with bioaccessibilities following the order: As = Cu = Pb = Zn > Co > Ni > Cr, and ranging from 63 to 7 %. Selected soil properties including pH, organic matter, Fe and CaCO(3) content were determined to assess their influence on trace element bioaccessibility, and it was found that Cu, Pb and Zn were predominantly bound to organic matter and, to a lesser extent, Fe oxides. The former fraction was readily accessible in the gastric solution, whereas Fe oxides seemed to recapture negatively charged chloride complexes of these elements in the gastric solution, lowering their bioaccessibility. The homogeneous pH of the playground soils included in the study does not influence trace element bioaccessibility to any significant extent except for Cr, where the very low gastric accessibility seems to be related to the strongly pH-dependent formation of complexes with organic matter. The results for As, which have been previously described and discussed in detail in Mingot et al. (Chemosphere 84: 1386-1391, 2011), indicate a high gastric bioaccessibility for this element as a consequence of its strong association with calcium

  6. Safe Surgery Trainer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-15

    CDRL A001 For: Safe Surgery Trainer Prime Contract: N00014-14-C-0066 For the Period July 1, 2015 to July 31, 2015 Submitted: 15 Aug 2015...DATE 15 AUG 2015 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 01-07-2015 to 31-07-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Safe Surgery Trainer 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b... Surgery Trainer ONR N00014-14-C-0066 Unclassified Unclassified Use or disclosure of the data contained on this page is subject to the restriction

  7. Safe Halloween Thrills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuersten, Joan

    1998-01-01

    Two PTAs sponsored events that capitalized on Halloween themes, engaged their communities in fall celebrations, and were safe, wholesome, and fun. With help from local volunteers, one school turned its gymnasium into a 19th-century British town with a fall/Halloween theme. Another PTA hosted a carnival, Spooktacular, that involved community…

  8. Safe Motherhood in Malawi

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    very important that midwives be available for the well being of these women. However, mere presence of ... nurse-midwives in working towards safe motherhood in Malawi and some recommendations in an attempt ... hospitals, the working conditions worsen for the remaining nurs- es and as a result they are also tempted to ...

  9. Keeping Food Safe

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-05-27

    This CDC Kidtastics podcast discusses things kids and parents can do to help prevent illness by keeping food safe.  Created: 5/27/2009 by National Center for Zoonotic, Vector-Borne, and Enteric Diseases (NCZVED).   Date Released: 5/27/2009.

  10. The safe spinal anaesthetic

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and complications. To perform a safe procedure, the anaesthetist must have adequate knowledge of the indications and contra-indications, and of the relevant anatomy, physiology and pharmacology of spinal anaesthesia. The patient must be assessed before administration of the spinal anaesthetic and the theatre must be.

  11. Building a Playground: General Guidelines for Creating Educational Web Sites for Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meloncon, Lisa; Haynes, Erin; Varelmann, Megan; Groh, Lisa

    2010-11-01

    Since 2004, the number of children online has increased 18%, compared with a 10% increase in total users. Not only do children represent a growing segment of Internet users, much of what they do online has a specific purpose: education. To help technical communicators create educational Web sites for children, we offer a set of guidelines to direct the design process. Nine children participated in a usability test of the CARES Playground, an educational Web site geared toward 7- to 9-year-olds. The site was designed by a group of graduate students in professional writing based on a review of the (admittedly limited) literature dealing with designing Web sites for children. This paper matches common themes from existing literature to the results of the usability tests. Since all the information on designing Web sites for children emerged from the literature of designing Web sites for adults, the themes of navigation, appearance, and content are not unfamiliar. However, the interpretation of those common issues for children-as well as the children's reaction to them-may be surprising. Technical communicators need to be conscious and deliberate when designing Web sites for children. To ensure that educational Web sites are able to meet their learning goals, careful consideration of children's developmental abilities and Web preferences must be considered. We present several guidelines as a starting point, though further research is needed to confirm and expand upon them.

  12. The Arctic Playground of Europe: Sir Martin Conway’s Svalbard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anka Ryall

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The development of tourism is a significant aspect of the processes of modernity in the High Arctic. This article discusses the British art historian and mountaineer Sir William Martin Conway's two travelogues, The First Crossing of Spitsbergen (1897 and With Ski and Sledge over Arctic Glaciers (1898, in terms of a pioneering tourist approach to the archipelago of Svalbard. Unlike earlier yachting tourists, Conway described a journey into the uncharted interior of the main island, Spitsbergen. His books are therefore narrated as exploration accounts and following many of the demands of that genre, such as an emphasis on mapping, natural science and being the first. However, they may also be read as guidebooks for other discerning and undaunted British gentleman travellers. Inspired by the art critic John Ruskin’s “science of aspects”, which combined accurate scientific observations and practical knowledge with an imaginative and aesthetic response to the landscape, Conway attempts to give his readers a positive sense of the qualities of the Arctic. At the same time, he promotes Svalbard as an Arctic “Playground of Europe”, where adventurous Alpinists in addition to climbing unknown mountains and glaciers could find fraternal domesticity far away from home around the hearth of the campfire. In this way Conway locates natural beauty, life and recreational opportunities where travellers before him had only described desolation and death.

  13. A Randomized Trial Testing the Effect of Narrative Vignettes Versus Guideline Summaries on Provider Response to a Professional Organization Clinical Policy for Safe Opioid Prescribing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisel, Zachary F; Metlay, Joshua P; Sinnenberg, Lauren; Kilaru, Austin S; Grossestreuer, Anne; Barg, Frances K; Shofer, Frances S; Rhodes, Karin V; Perrone, Jeanmarie

    2016-12-01

    Clinical guidelines are known to be underused by practitioners. In response to the challenges of treating pain amid a prescription opioid epidemic, the American College of Emergency Physicians (ACEP) published an evidence-based clinical policy for opioid prescribing in 2012. Evidence-based narratives, an effective method of communicating health information in a variety of settings, offer a novel strategy for disseminating guidelines to physicians and engaging providers with clinical evidence. We compare whether narrative vignettes embedded in the ACEP daily e-newsletter improved dissemination of the clinical policy to ACEP members, and engagement of members with the clinical policy, compared with traditional summary text. A prospective randomized controlled study, titled Stories to Promote Information Using Narrative trial, was performed. Derived from qualitative interviews with 61 ACEP physicians, 4 narrative vignettes were selected and refined, using a consensus panel of clinical and implementation experts. All ACEP members were then block randomized by state of residence to receive alternative versions of a daily e-mailed newsletter for a total of 24 days during a 9-week period. Narrative newsletters contained a selection of vignettes that referenced opioid prescription dilemmas. Control newsletters contained a selection of descriptive text about the clinical policy, using length and appearance similar to that of the narrative vignettes. Embedded in the newsletters were Web links to the complete vignette or traditional summary text, as well as additional links to the full ACEP clinical policy and a Web site providing assistance with prescription drug monitoring program enrollment. The newsletters were otherwise identical. Outcomes measured were the percentage of subjects who visited any of the Web pages that contained additional guideline-related information and the odds of any unique physician visiting these Web pages during the study. There were 27

  14. A peripherally inserted central catheter line, inserted the day before surgery, decreases the time from induction to incision for spinal deformity surgery and safely provides central venous access during surgery: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuedemann, Anne E; Schwend, Richard M; Thomas, Valorie K; Leamon, Julia M; Lightner, Tammy S

    2018-03-01

    Pediatric patients undergoing surgery for spinal deformity may benefit from central venous access to provide intraoperative monitoring and fluid resuscitation. For pediatric surgical patients requiring central access, we hypothesized that placing a peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC) line preoperatively should decrease time from induction of anesthesia to incision and result in improved patient safety and decreased operating room charges. This was a retrospective, nonrandomized, and case comparison study. Clinical records of all children with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis or neuromuscular scoliosis treated surgically by the senior author between December 2007 and April 2012 were reviewed. Control group patients had a central venous catheter (CVC) placed by the anesthesiologist after induction of anesthesia. The trial group had a PICC placed under local anesthesia the day before surgery by an experienced vascular access team. The time from induction of anesthesia to the time for the surgical incision was determined for each study group. The CVC line placement charges were determined by the operating room time charges at $214/min. Charges saved were the mean time difference multiplied by the operating room time charge, less the charge for PICC line insertion ($1282). There were 29 neuromuscular patients, the mean age was 13 years (SD: 4 years). The mean time from induction to incision for the PICC group was 91 min [95% confidence interval (CI): 67-115 min] and for the CVC group 113 min (95% CI: 99-127 min, P=0.083). For this mean time difference of 22 min, the estimated cost savings would be $3426 per patient. There were 59 patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis, the mean age was 14 years (SD: 2 years). The mean time from induction to incision for the PICC group was 78 min (95% CI: 74-82 min) and for the CVC group 106 min (95% CI: 96-116  min, P≤0.001). For this mean time difference of 28 min, the estimated cost savings would

  15. Providing safe medicines for children in Nigeria: The impediments ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... research network in collaborations with developed countries, reviewing the undergraduate and postgraduate curriculum in pediatric to include teaching of basic elements of rational prescribing, drug dose calculations, adverse drug reactions and pharmacovigilance, increasing access to essential medicines for children, ...

  16. Health Providers' Perception towards Safe Abortion Service at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    unhygienic condition1. Death due to unsafe abortion accounts a significant proportion (13%) of global maternal mortality. Each year an estimated 36 million to. 53 million abortions are performed worldwide. Of this figure, around 20 million are considered unsafe 1. In ..... Knowledge, Attitude and practice in six Latin America.

  17. Providing safe medicines for children in Nigeria: The impediments ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    that development and provision of a pediatric national drug formulary for health professionals in Nigeria, creating a comprehensive national ... undergraduate and postgraduate curriculum in pediatrics to include teaching of basic elements of rational prescribing, drug dose ..... Nigerian Medical and Dental Council, Paediatric.

  18. Providing a Safe Environment for Students with Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverstein, Janet H.; Jackson, Crystal C.; Bobo, Nichole; Kaufman, Francine R.; Butler, Sarah; Marschilok, Katie

    2009-01-01

    Current diabetes regimens require more effort than ever before. The level of diabetes control students are able to maintain is affected greatly by their ability to care for their diabetes during the school day. This article reviews use of School Health Plans and Diabetes Medical Management Plans in schools. Students with diabetes, their families,…

  19. Neutralizing blood-borne polyphosphate in vivo provides safe thromboprotection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Labberton, Linda; Kenne, Ellinor; Long, Andy T; Nickel, Katrin F; Di Gennaro, Antonio; Rigg, Rachel A; Hernandez, James S; Butler, Lynn; Maas, Coen; Stavrou, Evi X; Renné, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Polyphosphate is an inorganic procoagulant polymer. Here we develop specific inhibitors of polyphosphate and show that this strategy confers thromboprotection in a factor XII-dependent manner. Recombinant Escherichia coli exopolyphosphatase (PPX) specifically degrades polyphosphate, while a PPX

  20. Critical thinking at the bedside: providing safe passage to patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, Ruth R; Petersen, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    The critical thinking ability of health care professionals can affect patient safety directly (Buerhaus, Donelan, Ulrich, Norman, & Dittus, 2005). The National League for Nursing (NLN, 2006) expects nursing graduates to be able to demonstrate critical thinking. Nursing programs are required to measure critical thinking as an outcome criterion for accreditation. This process of program accreditation is considered an indicator that a professional program offers a quality product. Based on NLN expectations, health care disciplines should diligently seek opportunities to enhance critical thinking by promoting qualitative and quantitative research that focuses on curriculum evaluation, enhancing educators' and faculty knowledge, and improving patient care outcomes.

  1. Caring for Cattle to Provide Safe and Wholesome Meat

    OpenAIRE

    Larson, Stephanie; Barry, Sheila; Bush, Lisa; Sweet, Darrel

    2015-01-01

    The care and feeding of livestock has a cyclic rhythm tied to the animals' reproductive cycle and seasonal health needs. Ranchers must perform numerous tasks to keep their animals healthy and reproducing. This publication covers a variety of common tasks and their typical timing; referred to by ranchers as “working” cattle or sheep.

  2. The SafeCOP ECSEL Project: Safe Cooperating Cyber-Physical Systems Using Wireless Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pop, Paul; Scholle, Detlef; Hansson, Hans

    2016-01-01

    communication, multiple stakeholders, dynamic system definitions (openness), and unpredictable operating environments. SafeCOP will provide an approach to the safety assurance of CO-CPS, enabling thus their certification and development. The project will define a runtime manager architecture for runtime......This paper presents an overview of the ECSEL project entitled "Safe Cooperating Cyber-Physical Systems using Wireless Communication" (SafeCOP), which runs during the period 2016 -- 2019. SafeCOP targets safety-related Cooperating Cyber-Physical Systems (CO-CPS) characterised by use of wireless...

  3. Change of School Playground Environment on Bullying: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Victoria L; Williams, Sheila M; Mann, Jim I; Schofield, Grant; McPhee, Julia C; Taylor, Rachael W

    2017-05-01

    To investigate whether increasing risk and challenge in primary school playgrounds influences interactions between children. In a 2-year cluster-randomized controlled trial, 8 control schools were asked to not change their play environment, whereas 8 intervention schools increased opportunities for risk and challenge (eg, rough-and-tumble play), reduced rules, and added loose parts (eg, tires). Children ( n = 840), parents ( n = 635), and teachers ( n = 90) completed bullying questionnaires at baseline, 1 (postintervention), and 2 (follow-up) years. Intervention children reported higher odds of being happy at school (at 2 years, odds ratio [OR]: 1.64; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.20-2.25) and playing with more children (at 1 year, OR: 1.66; 95% CI: 1.29-2.15) than control children. Although intervention children indicated they were pushed/shoved more (OR: 1.33; 95% CI: 1.03-1.71), they were less likely to tell a teacher (OR: 0.69; 95% CI: 0.52-0.92) at 2 years. No significant group differences were observed in parents reporting whether children had "ever" been bullied at school (1 year: P = .23; 2 years: P = .07). Intervention school teachers noticed more bullying in break time at 1 year (difference in scores: 0.20; 95% CI: 0.06-0.34; P = .009), with no corresponding increase in children reporting bullying to teachers (both time points, P ≥ .26). Few negative outcomes were reported by children or parents, except for greater pushing/shoving in intervention schools. Whether this indicates increased resilience as indicated by lower reporting of bullying to teachers may be an unanticipated benefit. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  4. Internet-of-things as a Playground for Participatory Innovation and Business Potentials in Complex Modern Economies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sahlertz, Karoline; Bloch Rasmussen, Leif; Nielsen, Janni

    -up approach, self-organizing and co-creation. In this paper we will unfold how it is possible to use the IoT as a playground in a digital and social development, where the traditional simple dichotomy between state and market description of economies is challenged by the complexity of new institutional...... economies, transaction cost theories, commons based peer-production and governance of common pool resources. By using these new economies we envision that Participatory Innovation and Business Opportunity should take place in polycentric units of relations, where production, exchange and consumption of Io...

  5. Urban geochemistry of lead in gardens, playgrounds and schoolyards of Lisbon, Portugal: assessing exposure and risk to human health

    OpenAIRE

    Reis,A.P.; Patinha, C.; Wragg, J.; Dias, A.C.; Cave, M.; Sousa, A.J.; BATISTA, M. J.; Prazeres, C; Costa, C.; Ferreira da Silva, E.; Rocha, F.

    2014-01-01

    To assess the impact of potentially harmful elements in soil/dust on the health of children that use urban recreational areas to play outdoors, an urban survey of Lisbon, the largest city in Portugal was carried out, collecting soils and dusts from public gardens, parks, playgrounds and schoolyards. An exposure and risk assessment study for the incidental soil/dust ingestion of lead was carried out based on US EPA guidelines using a sub-set of 19 topsoil and 8 outdoor dusts, out o...

  6. Prepare to protect: Operating and maintaining a tornado safe room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herseth, Andrew; Goldsmith-Grinspoon, Jennifer; Scott, Pataya

    2017-06-01

    Operating and maintaining a tornado safe room can be critical to the effective continuity of business operations because a firm's most valuable asset is its people. This paper describes aspects of operations and maintenance (O&M) for existing tornado safe rooms as well as a few planning and design aspects that affect the ultimate operation of a safe room for situations where a safe room is planned, but not yet constructed. The information is based on several Federal Emergency Management Agency safe room publications that provide guidance on emergency management and operations, as well as the design and construction of tornado safe rooms.

  7. Escola segura Safe school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Ferreira Liberal

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Revisão das estratégias para tornar o ambiente escolar seguro. Inicialmente os autores contextualizam a violência e os acidentes no ambiente escolar e fazem recomendações, baseadas em dados da literatura, para a implantação de escolas seguras. FONTE DE DADOS: Artigos publicados entre 1993 e 2005 na base de dados MEDLINE. Dados nacionais epidemiológicos e da literatura também foram pesquisados. SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: Há evidência crescente de que a intervenção tem múltiplos componentes. O foco político é a prática em educação em saúde com o envolvimento de toda a comunidade. O norte dessas intervenções é ajudar estudantes e toda a comunidade a adotar um comportamento seguro e saudável. As escolas estão assumindo um envolvimento crescente na promoção da saúde, prevenção de doenças e prevenção de trauma. Nesse contexto de prevenção de causas externas de morbimortalidade, é importante reconhecer o risco ambiental, locais e comportamentos de risco como favoráveis ao trauma e à violência, além de um novo conceito de acidentes como algo que possa ser evitado. CONCLUSÃO: A implementação da escola segura representa uma nova direção promissora para o trabalho preventivo baseado na escola. É importante notar que uma escola segura deve intervir não meramente na sua estrutura física, mas também torná-la tão segura quanto possível, trabalhando com a comunidade escolar por meio de educação em saúde, discutindo principalmente o comportamento saudável.OBJECTIVE: To review the strategies to make school a safe environment. The paper first addresses the social context of accidents and violence in the school environment, and makes recommendations, based on the literature data, for the implementation of safe schools. SOURCE OF DATA: Articles published between 1993 and 2005 in the MEDLINE database. Brazilian epidemiological and literature data have also been searched. SUMMARY OF THE FINDINGS: There is

  8. Safe venting of hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, W.F.; Dewart, J.M.; Edeskuty, F.J.

    1990-01-01

    The disposal of hydrogen is often required in the operation of an experimental facility that contains hydrogen. Whether the vented hydrogen can be discharged to the atmosphere safely depends upon a number of factors such as the flow rate and atmospheric conditions. Calculations have been made that predict the distance a combustible mixture can extend from the point of release under some specified atmospheric conditions. Also the quantity of hydrogen in the combustible cloud is estimated. These results can be helpful in deciding of the hydrogen can be released directly to the atmosphere, or if it must be intentionally ignited. 15 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Introducing new technology safely.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mytton, Oliver T; Velazquez, Adriana; Banken, Reiner; Mathew, Joseph L; Ikonen, Tuija S; Taylor, Kevin; Painter, Frank; Jean-Baptiste, Rachel; Poon, Albert; Ruelas, Enrique

    2010-08-01

    This report considers the introduction of new technology and the implications for patient safety. A distinction is made between 'conceptually' new and 'contextually' new technology. The life cycle of technology from development to routine use is discussed and the key role for regulation, health technology assessment, clinical engineering and surveillance in this life cycle considered. The limitations of each of these disciplines are also discussed. Special consideration is given to the needs of developing countries. Case study examples of particular challenges in the safe introduction of technology are presented.

  10. Household water treatment and safe storage-effectiveness and economics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stubbé, Stefanie M L; Pelgrim-Adams, Alida; Szántó, Gabor L.; van Halem, D.

    2016-01-01

    Household Water Treatment and safe Storage (HWTS) systems aim to provide safe drinking water in an affordable manner to users where safe piped water supply is either not feasible or not reliable. In this study the effectiveness, economic parameters and costs of three selected HWTS systems were

  11. Is Daycare Tonsillectomy Safe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Hui Tong; Sien Hui, Tan; Chong, Aun Wee

    2016-05-01

    Tonsillectomy is one of the most common procedures performed by Ear, Nose, and Throat surgeon. Usually, the procedure is carried out as an inpatient surgery. With the increasing need to reduce healthcare costs, spare precious hospital beds, and shorten elective surgery lists, there is currently a trend towards performing tonsillectomy on a daycare basis. A prospective review of all tonsillectomies performed at the University Malaya Medical Center was undertaken for the year 2013. Demographic details, qualifying indications, and complication rates were evaluated. There was no incidence of primary hemorrhage among the 96 tonsillectomies performed. There was no significant correlation in terms of secondary hemorrhage between inpatient and day-case tonsillectomy (P=0.54). Only two patients required revision surgery to stop post-tonsillectomy bleeding. None of the patients required blood transfusion, and there were no mortalities. Daycare tonsillectomy is safe as long as the patient is carefully selected. Both medical and social aspects should be taken into consideration. A post-operative observation period of at least 6 to 8 hours is important. The surgeon should personally review the patient post-operatively and decides if he or she should be hospitalized for observation, or safe for discharge.

  12. Vitamins, Are They Safe?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Hamishehkar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The consumption of a daily multivitamin among people all over the world is dramatically increasing in recent years. Most of the people believe that if vitamins are not effective, at least they are safe. However, the long term health consequences of vitamins consumption are unknown. This study aimed to assess the side effects and possible harmful and detrimental properties of vitamins and to discuss whether vitamins can be used as safe health products or dietary supplements. We performed a MEDLINE/PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus and Google Scholar search and assessed reference lists of the included studies which were published from 1993 through 2015. The studies, with an emphasis on RCTs (randomized controlled clinical trials, were reviewed. As some vitamins such as fat-soluble vitamins (vitamin A, vitamin D, vitamin E, and also some of the water-soluble vitamins like folic acid may cause adverse events and some like vitamin C is widely taken assuming that it has so many benefits and no harm, we included relevant studies with negative or undesired results regarding the effect of these vitamins on health. Our recommendation is that taking high-dose supplements of vitamins A, E, D, C, and folic acid is not always effective for prevention of disease, and it can even be harmful to the health.

  13. Safe Minimum Internal Temperature Chart

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... Safe Minimum Internal Temperature Chart Safe steps in food handling, cooking, and ... from other foods. Cook —Cook to the right temperature. Chill —Refrigerate food promptly. Cook all food to ...

  14. How to Safely Give Acetaminophen

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Term Complications of Diabetes How to Safely Give Acetaminophen KidsHealth > For Parents > How to Safely Give Acetaminophen ... without getting a doctor's OK first. What Is Acetaminophen Also Called? Acetaminophen is the generic name of ...

  15. Sex differences in the structure and stability of children's playground social networks and their overlap with friendship relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baines, Ed; Blatchford, Peter

    2009-09-01

    Gender segregated peer networks during middle childhood have been highlighted as important for explaining later sex differences in behaviour, yet few studies have examined the structural composition of these networks and their implications. This short-term longitudinal study of 119 children (7-8 years) examined the size and internal structure of boys' and girls' social networks, their overlap with friendship relations, and their stability over time. Data collection at the start and end of the year involved systematic playground observations of pupils' play networks during team and non-team activities and measures of friendship from peer nomination interviews. Social networks were identified by aggregating play network data at each time point. Findings showed that the size of boy's play networks on the playground, but not their social networks, varied according to activity type. Social network cores consisted mainly of friends. Girl's social networks were more likely to be composed of friends and boys' networks contained friends and non-friends. Girls had more friends outside of the social network than boys. Stability of social network membership and internal network relations were higher for boys than girls. These patterns have implications for the nature of social experiences within these network contexts.

  16. Effective and Safe Ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup; Amdahl, Jørgen; Rutgersson, Olle

    1996-01-01

    is given in the appendices. The project is planned to take three years from the start. There are 28 tasks and the total volume is 18 personyears, or 6.3 MFIM. A scientific approach will be used in performing the tasks and some of them may be subjects for post graduate studies. A close co-operation between......A Joint Nordic Research project "Effecive and Safe Ships" is presented. The project is aiming to develop methods and tools for quantitative evaluation fo ship safety. This report is the report of the preliminary phase where the plan for the main project is developed. The objectives of the project...... are described. The areas of safety that are presented are collisions, groundings, cargo shifting and ship fire. The areas of lack of knowledge are identified and the tasks within each subproject suggested. The proposal for the main project is presented in the summary. Background material of the state-of-the art...

  17. A Short-Term Longitudinal Study of Children's Playground Games across the First Year of School: Implications for Social Competence and Adjustment to School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrini, Anthony D.; Kato, Kentaro; Blatchford, Peter; Baines, Ed

    2002-01-01

    Studied the playground games of children in their first year of schooling. Findings for 77 urban first graders show that facility with games forecast the social competence of boys and the adjustment to first grade of both boys and girls. (SLD)

  18. A Short-Term Longitudinal Study of Children's Playground Games in Primary School: Implications for Adjustment to School and Social Adjustment in the USA and the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrini, Anthony D.; Blatchford, Peter; Kato, Kentaro; Baines, Ed

    2004-01-01

    In this study we described development of boys' and girls' games on the school playground at recess as they progressed across the first year of primary school in London (UK) and Minneapolis (USA) in order to document age-related trends in games during this period and to examine the predictive role of games in children's adjustment to school and…

  19. Keeping you safe by making machine tools safe

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    CERN’s third safety objective for 2012 concerns the safety of equipment - and machine tools in particular.   There are three prerequisites for ensuring that a machine tool can be used safely: ·      the machine tool must comply with Directive 2009/104/EC, ·      the layout of the workshop must be compliant, and ·      everyone who uses the machine tool must be trained. Provided these conditions are met, the workshop head can grant authorisation to use the machine tool. To fulfil this objective, an inventory of the machine tools must be drawn up and the people responsible for them identified. The HSE Unit's Safety Inspection Service produces compliance reports for the machine tools. In order to meet the third objective set by the Director-General, the section has doubled its capacity to carry out inspections: ...

  20. The dimensionality reduction at surfaces as a playground for many-body and correlation effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejeda, A.; Michel, E. G.; Mascaraque, A.

    2013-03-01

    Low-dimensional systems have always deserved attention due to the peculiarity of their physics, which is different from or even at odds with three-dimensional expectations. This is precisely the case for many-body effects, as electron-electron correlation or electron-phonon coupling are behind many intriguing problems in condensed matter physics. These interesting phenomena at low dimensions can be studied in one of the paradigms of two dimensionality—the surface of crystals. The maturity of today's surface science techniques allows us to perform thorough experimental studies that can be complemented by the current strength of state-of-the-art calculations. Surfaces are thus a natural two-dimensional playground for studying correlation and many-body effects, which is precisely the object of this special section. This special section presents a collection of eight invited articles, giving an overview of the current status of selected systems, promising techniques and theoretical approaches for studying many-body effects at surfaces and low-dimensional systems. The first article by Hofmann investigates electron-phonon coupling in quasi-free-standing graphene by decoupling graphene from two different substrates with different intercalating materials. The following article by Kirschner deals with the study of NiO films by electron pair emission, a technique particularly well-adapted for studying high electron correlation. Bovensiepen investigates electron-phonon coupling via the femtosecond time- and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy technique. The next article by Malterre analyses the phase diagram of alkalis on Si(111):B and studies the role of many-body physics. Biermann proposes an extended Hubbard model for the series of C, Si, Sn and Pb adatoms on Si(111) and obtains the inter-electronic interaction parameters by first principles. Continuing with the theoretical studies, Bechstedt analyses the influence of on-site electron correlation in insulating

  1. The Sydney playground project: popping the bubblewrap--unleashing the power of play: a cluster randomized controlled trial of a primary school playground-based intervention aiming to increase children's physical activity and social skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bundy, Anita C; Naughton, Geraldine; Tranter, Paul; Wyver, Shirley; Baur, Louise; Schiller, Wendy; Bauman, Adrian; Engelen, Lina; Ragen, Jo; Luckett, Tim; Niehues, Anita; Stewart, Gabrielle; Jessup, Glenda; Brentnall, Jennie

    2011-09-01

    In the Westernised world, numerous children are overweight and have problems with bullying and mental health. One of the underlying causes for all three is postulated to be a decrease in outdoor free play. The aim of the Sydney Playground Project is to demonstrate the effectiveness of two simple interventions aimed to increase children's physical activity and social skills. This study protocol describes the design of a 3-year cluster randomised controlled trial (CRCT), in which schools are the clusters. The study consists of a 13-week intervention and 1 week each of pre-and post-testing. We are recruiting 12 schools (6 control; 6 intervention), with 18 randomly chosen participants aged 5 to 7 years in each school. The two intervention strategies are: (1) Child-based intervention: Unstructured materials with no obvious play value introduced to the playground; and (2) Adult-based intervention: Risk reframing sessions held with parents and teachers with the aim of exploring the benefits of allowing children to engage in activities with uncertain outcomes. The primary outcome of the study, physical activity as measured by accelerometer counts, is assessed at baseline and post-intervention. Additional assessments include social skills and interactions, self-concept, after school time use and anthropometric data. Qualitative data (i.e., transcriptions of audio recordings from the risk reframing sessions and of interviews with selected teacher and parent volunteers) are analysed to understand their perceptions of risk in play. The control schools have recess as usual. In addition to outcome evaluation, regular process evaluation sessions are held to monitor fidelity to the treatment. These simple interventions, which could be adopted in every primary school, have the potential of initiating a self-sustaining cycle of prevention for childhood obesity, bullying and mental ill health. Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registration Number ACTRN12611000089932.

  2. The sydney playground project: popping the bubblewrap - unleashing the power of play: a cluster randomized controlled trial of a primary school playground-based intervention aiming to increase children's physical activity and social skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luckett Tim

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the Westernised world, numerous children are overweight and have problems with bullying and mental health. One of the underlying causes for all three is postulated to be a decrease in outdoor free play. The aim of the Sydney Playground Project is to demonstrate the effectiveness of two simple interventions aimed to increase children's physical activity and social skills. Methods/Design This study protocol describes the design of a 3-year cluster randomised controlled trial (CRCT, in which schools are the clusters. The study consists of a 13-week intervention and 1 week each of pre-and post-testing. We are recruiting 12 schools (6 control; 6 intervention, with 18 randomly chosen participants aged 5 to 7 years in each school. The two intervention strategies are: (1 Child-based intervention: Unstructured materials with no obvious play value introduced to the playground; and (2 Adult-based intervention: Risk reframing sessions held with parents and teachers with the aim of exploring the benefits of allowing children to engage in activities with uncertain outcomes. The primary outcome of the study, physical activity as measured by accelerometer counts, is assessed at baseline and post-intervention. Additional assessments include social skills and interactions, self-concept, after school time use and anthropometric data. Qualitative data (i.e., transcriptions of audio recordings from the risk reframing sessions and of interviews with selected teacher and parent volunteers are analysed to understand their perceptions of risk in play. The control schools have recess as usual. In addition to outcome evaluation, regular process evaluation sessions are held to monitor fidelity to the treatment. Discussion These simple interventions, which could be adopted in every primary school, have the potential of initiating a self-sustaining cycle of prevention for childhood obesity, bullying and mental ill health. Trial registration Australian

  3. ABCD of Safe Dental Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Babu, K Sunil; Reddy B, V Thimma; Reddy, C Pujita; Lalita, Sree

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT Dental practice is the integral component of the oral health. Though the dental practice is in close relation with that of the medical practice, it has its own distinctiveness in relation to safe practice. The safe dental practice should not only assure good oral and general health but also improve social interaction by enhancing physical appearance, esthetics, etc. For the safe dental practice, dentists must excel in patient care and standard of treatment. The interlocking missions ...

  4. Creating Safe Neighborhoods, Safe Streets, Safe Schools, [and] Safe Workplaces: Using Illinois' Drug Laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illinois Criminal Justice Information Authority, Chicago.

    This handbook provides renters, homeowners, teachers, parents, and workers with tools for ridding their communities of illegal drugs. The booklet describes relevant anti-drug laws, and provides examples of how they are being used successfully in one state. The case studies cited almost always involve individuals and community groups working…

  5. Safe Zones: Creating LGBT Safe Space Ally Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poynter, Kerry John; Tubbs, Nancy Jean

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses model LGBT Safe Space Ally programs. These programs, often called "Safe Zones," include self selected students, faculty, and employees who publicly show support by displaying stickers, signs, and other identifiable items. Issues covered in the article include history, development, training, membership, assessment, and…

  6. A Safe Ride to School; A Safe Ride Home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illinois State Board of Education, Springfield.

    Text and illustrations are used to teach safe school bus riding practices. The guide begins with instructions to parents or guardians to set a good example of safe behavior, and to help children learn safety rules and be on time. Instructions to children concern obeying the bus driver, boarding the bus, riding the bus, crossing the road, and using…

  7. Safe motherhood: the FIGO initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benagiano, G; Thomas, B

    2003-09-01

    Over the last twenty years the international community-realizing that the tragedy of women dying during pregnancy and in childbirth could no longer be tolerated-launched a series of initiatives aimed at making safe motherhood a cornerstone of health services in all countries. Making pregnancy and delivery safe events is particularly complex, as it involves infrastructural and logistic, as well as technical, issues. Women die because they have no access to skilled personnel during pregnancy and at the time of delivery and because--if an emergency situation arises--they cannot reach a facility where emergency obstetric services are available. FIGO, the International Federation of Obstetrics and Gynecology-as the only global organization representing the Obstetricians of the world-decided some time ago that it could not limit its activities to proposing technical guidelines and debating scientific issues. It had to move into the field and, through its affiliated societies, help change the ability of the multitude of women in the developing world to obtain skilled attendance at birth. In 1997, plans were made to launch activities in five areas where maternal mortality was particularly high: Central America (Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua and El Salvador), Ethiopia, Mozambique, Pakistan, and Uganda. Five member societies from the developed world (the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, the Society of Obstetricians and Gynecologists of Canada, the Italian Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology, the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists of the United Kingdom; and the Swedish Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology) agreed to provide support to their counterparts in these five selected areas. The project is now in its final stage. Results are, by and large, positive, demonstrating that, by motivating health professionals in the field and for a relatively modest financial outlay, more efficient use of existing services could be made in a sustainable

  8. Children’s Caregivers and Public Playgrounds: Potential Reservoirs of Infection of Hand-foot-and-mouth Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pengyuan; Li, Tao; Gu, Qiuyun; Chen, Xiaomin; Li, Jiahui; Chen, Xiashi; Chen, Yan; Zhang, Danwei; Gao, Rong; He, Zhenjian; Zhu, Xun; Zhang, Wangjian; Hao, Yuantao; Zhang, Dingmei

    2016-11-01

    Hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD) is a common infectious disease, which has led to millions of clinical cases and hundreds of deaths every year in China. This study aimed to exploring the effects on HFMD transmission of children’s caregivers and public area, as well as trying to locate the potential reservoirs of infections in primary cases. Total children’s 257 samples (98 children’s caregivers and 159 environmental samples) were tested for the presence of universal enterovirus, enterovirus 71, coxsackie virus A6 and A16 by real-time fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). 5.84% (15/257, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.98%, 8.70%) of total samples had positive results of enterovirus. The enterovirus positive rates of children’s caregiver samples and environmental samples were respectively 7.14% (7/98, 95% CI: 2.04%, 12.24%), and 5.03% (8/159, 95% CI: 1.63%, 8.43%); 7.61% (7/92, 95% CI: 2.21%, 13.01%) of wiping samples from playgrounds and 1.49% (1/67, 95% CI: 0, 7.00%) of air samples in indoor market places had positive result of enterovirus. High positive rates of enterovirus in children’s caregivers and from playgrounds indicated that they would be potential reservoirs of HFMD infection, as children might be infected via contacting with asymptomatic-infected individuals or exposure of contaminated surface of public facilities.

  9. A Practical Seedless Infrared Safe Cone Algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Salam, Gavin P.

    2007-01-01

    This writeup highlights the infrared unsafety of the "midpoint" cone jet-algorithm and provides a brief overview of why this is a serious issue. It then shows how one can build a safe (seedless) cone algorithm and discusses the potential impact on measurements.

  10. Shock Safe Nepal: team one

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterhof, A.J.; Düzgün, B.C.; Spelt, C.J.; De Stoppelaar, A.O.; Van Wijnbergen, E.C.M.

    2016-01-01

    As a response to the 2015 Nepal earthquakes Shock Safe Nepal was founded to function as platform intended to contribute to the development of knowledge on earthquake safe housing. The project started on initiative of the Consul General of Nepal to The Netherlands Cas de Stoppelaar and the faculty of

  11. Basics for Handling Food Safely

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Basics for Handling Food Safely Safe steps in food handling, cooking, and storage are essential to prevent foodborne illness. You can’t see, smell, or taste harmful bacteria that may cause illness. In every step of food preparation, follow the four Fight BAC! ® guidelines to ...

  12. Teaching safe sex practices to psychiatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sladyk, K

    1990-03-01

    An occupational therapist presented her 45-minute program called AIDS Education and Safe Sex 5 times to female mental patients in the locked ward of Cedarcrest Regional Hospital in Newington, Connecticut, to inform them about safe-sex practices and AIDS. She first administered a pretest then spoke briefly about AIDS and safe-sex practices. The lecture emphasized various important points such as no cure for AIDS exist, casual contact (e.g., kiss on the cheek, handshake) cannot transmit HIV, and effectiveness of using latex condoms. The occupational therapist spent much of her time addressing myths about AIDS and what safe-sex practices are. The patients discussed sexual abuse and dishonest partners. She administered a posttest which was the same as the pretest. Some sessions attracted more people than did other sessions. Test scores increased for every patient and for every session. They ranged from a 5% (68-73%) increase for the 3rd session to a 24% (67-91%) increase for the last session. She was not able to determine, however, whether the increased knowledge would translate into positive behavioral changes. Patients' psychiatric symptoms may have interfered with learning resulting in less than ideal improvements in knowledge. These symptoms were hypomanic behavior, restlessness, and distractibility. Perhaps other sessions with experiential techniques (e.g., putting condoms on dummies) would increase their understanding. This program helps fill the information gap not provided by the mass media which avoid mentioning safe-sex practices.

  13. Playground diseños e infraestructuras seguras para nuestros niños y niñas…una urgencia en Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Morera-Castro

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Se propone en este artículo una serie de aspectos que se deben tomar en cuenta para el diseño e infraestructura de los campos de juego o playgrounds.  Además del equipamiento y componentes necesarios que faciliten la conformación de normativas de seguridad, que van a establecer un espacio seguro capaz de cumplir el objetivo de su creación, deben ser un medio que facilite  la formación integral de la población, sin poner en riesgo su salud, previniendo cualquier tipo de accidente  y garantizando sus derechos inalienables como costarricenses.   Es urgente, por tanto, que en Costa Rica se establezcan legislaciones claras que garanticen el cumplimiento en cuanto a la construcción, diseño y utilización de los playgrounds.

  14. Safe disposal of prescribed medicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergen, Phillip J; Hussainy, Safeera Y; George, Johnson; Kong, David Cm; Kirkpatrick, Carl Mj

    2015-06-01

    The National Return and Disposal of Unwanted Medicines Program provides a free and safe method for the disposal of unwanted and expired medicines. This stops drugs being dumped in landfill and waterways. An audit showed that over 600 tonnes of medicines are returned through the program. A substantial proportion of these medicines were still within their expiry dates. Salbutamol, insulin and frusemide are the most commonly discarded medicines. More than $2 million of public money is wasted each year. Hoarding and non-adherence to treatment contribute to waste. Health professionals may be able to help minimise waste by informing patients about the importance of completing prescribed courses of treatment, and discouraging them from hoarding medicines after reaching the safety net threshold on the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme. Prescribe no more than the required quantity of medicines. When starting a new therapy, prescribe a minimal quantity in case the drug is unsuitable for the patient. Advise patients to return all unwanted medicines to a pharmacy for disposal.

  15. Camden active spaces: does the construction of active school playgrounds influence children's physical activity levels? A longitudinal quasi-experiment protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Lee; Kipps, Courtney; Aggio, Daniel; Fox, Paul; Robinson, Nigel; Trend, Verena; Munnery, Suzie; Kelly, Barry; Hamer, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Physical activity is essential for every facet of children's health. However, physical activity levels in British children are low. The school environment is a promising setting to increase children's physical activity but limited empirical evidence exists on how a change in the outdoor physical school environment influences physical activity behaviour. The London Borough of Camden is redesigning seven existing school playgrounds to engage children to become more physically active. The primary aim of this project is to evaluate the impact of the redesigned playgrounds on children's physical activity, well-being and physical function/fitness. This project will use a longitudinal quasi-experimental design. Seven experimental schools and one control school will take part. One baseline data collection session and two follow-ups will be carried out. Between baseline and follow-up, the experimental school playgrounds will be redesigned. At baseline, a series of fitness tests, anthropometric and questionnaire measurements, and 7-day objective physical activity monitoring (Actigraph accelerometer) will be carried out on children (aged 5–16 years). This will be repeated at follow-up. Changes in overall physical activity levels and levels during different times of the day (eg, school breaks) will be examined. Multilevel regression modelling will be used to analyse the data. The results of this study will be disseminated through peer-review publications and scientific presentations. Ethical approval was obtained through the University College London Research Ethics Committee (Reference number: 4400/002).

  16. ABCD of Safe Dental Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, K Sunil; Reddy B, V Thimma; Reddy, C Pujita; Lalita, Sree

    2011-01-01

    Dental practice is the integral component of the oral health. Though the dental practice is in close relation with that of the medical practice, it has its own distinctiveness in relation to safe practice. The safe dental practice should not only assure good oral and general health but also improve social interaction by enhancing physical appearance, esthetics, etc. For the safe dental practice, dentists must excel in patient care and standard of treatment. The interlocking missions of education, research, and patient care are the cornerstones for the safe and healthy dental practice. This paper is designed to bridge the gap between the educational preparation of the dentist and the reality of the working world in a simple way.

  17. Safe genetically engineered plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosellini, D.; Veronesi, F.

    2007-10-01

    The application of genetic engineering to plants has provided genetically modified plants (GMPs, or transgenic plants) that are cultivated worldwide on increasing areas. The most widespread GMPs are herbicide-resistant soybean and canola and insect-resistant corn and cotton. New GMPs that produce vaccines, pharmaceutical or industrial proteins, and fortified food are approaching the market. The techniques employed to introduce foreign genes into plants allow a quite good degree of predictability of the results, and their genome is minimally modified. However, some aspects of GMPs have raised concern: (a) control of the insertion site of the introduced DNA sequences into the plant genome and of its mutagenic effect; (b) presence of selectable marker genes conferring resistance to an antibiotic or an herbicide, linked to the useful gene; (c) insertion of undesired bacterial plasmid sequences; and (d) gene flow from transgenic plants to non-transgenic crops or wild plants. In response to public concerns, genetic engineering techniques are continuously being improved. Techniques to direct foreign gene integration into chosen genomic sites, to avoid the use of selectable genes or to remove them from the cultivated plants, to reduce the transfer of undesired bacterial sequences, and make use of alternative, safer selectable genes, are all fields of active research. In our laboratory, some of these new techniques are applied to alfalfa, an important forage plant. These emerging methods for plant genetic engineering are briefly reviewed in this work.

  18. Staying Safe in the Water

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-05-15

    In this podcast, Dr. Julie Gilchrist, a pediatrician and medical epidemiologist from CDC’s Injury Center, talks about staying safe in the water. Tips are for all audiences, with a focus on preventing drownings and keeping children safe in and around the pool, lake, or ocean.  Created: 5/15/2008 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC).   Date Released: 5/19/2008.

  19. Safe Cooperating Cyber-Physical Systems using Wireless Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pop, Paul; Scholle, Detlef; Sljivo, Irfan

    2017-01-01

    communication, multiple stakeholders, dynamic system definitions (openness), and unpredictable operating environments. SafeCOP will provide an approach to the safety assurance of CO-CPS, enabling thus their certification and development. The project will define a runtime manager architecture for runtime......This paper presents an overview of the ECSEL project entitled ―Safe Cooperating Cyber-Physical Systems using Wireless Communication‖ (SafeCOP), which runs during the period 2016–2019. SafeCOP targets safety-related Cooperating Cyber-Physical Systems (CO-CPS) characterised by use of wireless...

  20. Facilitating safe care: a qualitative study of Iranian nurse leaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaismoradi, Mojtaba; Bondas, Terese; Salsali, Mahvash; Jasper, Melanie; Turunen, Hannele

    2014-01-01

    Aim  The purpose of this study was to explore and describe how nurse leaders facilitate safe care from the perspectives of both nurses and nurse leaders. Background  The health-care system's success in improving patient safety pivots on nursing leadership. However, there is a lack of knowledge in the international literature about how nurse leaders facilitate provision of safe care and reaching the goal of a safe health-care system. Method  A qualitative design using a content analysis approach was applied for data gathering and analysis. In this study, 20 nurses (16 nurses and four head nurses) working in a referral teaching hospital in Tehran, Iran, were recruited through purposive sampling. Semi-structured interviews and 10 hours of structured observations were conducted to collect data. Results  The data analysis resulted in three main themes: 'providing environmental prerequisites for safe nursing practice', 'uniting and integrating health-care providers', and 'creating an atmosphere of safe care'. Conclusion  The results indicate that to facilitate providing safe care, nurse leaders should improve nurses' working conditions, develop the nurses' practical competencies, assign duties to nurses according to their skills and capabilities, administer appropriate supervision, improve health-care providers' professional relationships and encourage their collaboration, empower nurses and reward their safe practice. Implications for nursing management  Approaching the challenge of patient safety requires the health-care system to combine its efforts and strategies with nursing leadership in its vital role of facilitating safe care and improving patient safety. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Safe exercise prescription for children and adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Alleyne, Julia MK

    1998-01-01

    This article provides practical advice on healthy exercise prescription for children. There is growing scientific evidence about the abilities and limits of child athletes in both recreational and competitive environments. As exercise becomes essential for the prevention of illness and maintenance of health, the counselling for an exercise prescription requires enhanced knowledge. The latest recommendations on safe strength, resistance and weight training are presented in a concise format for...

  2. Safe exercise prescription for children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alleyne, J M

    1998-09-01

    This article provides practical advice on healthy exercise prescription for children. There is growing scientific evidence about the abilities and limits of child athletes in both recreational and competitive environments. As exercise becomes essential for the prevention of illness and maintenance of health, the counselling for an exercise prescription requires enhanced knowledge. The latest recommendations on safe strength, resistance and weight training are presented in a concise format for office use.

  3. Midwifery education for safe motherhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Heir, J M

    1997-09-01

    To determine the useability (relevance, clarity and quality of content), applicability (ease of use) and accessibility (structure and form) of a series of new safe motherhood midwifery education modules. Questionnaire survey and focus group discussions, preceded by a two week clinical skills course and an eight day orientation to using the modules. Nursing and midwifery education institutions, regional training centres, acute-care hospital facilities and community settings in Ethiopia, Fiji, Lesotho, Mozambique and Nepal. Thirty-six teachers, 82 midwives, nurse-midwives and auxiliary nurse-midwives from practice settings, and 60 post basic midwifery students. Overall it was found that the introductory information and the technical content of the modules were easy to understand and use as were the instructions for both teachers and students. The presentation of the material was orderly and easy to follow; the language was comprehensible; and the illustrations were appropriate, clear and facilitated teaching. The teachers found that they were able to use most of the teaching/learning methods, teach most of the skills in the modules, and use the guidelines for assessing competence. The main difficulties encountered included adherence to the recommended time frame for some of the classroom sessions; the limited availability of clinical cases for teaching the specific skills in the modules and time limitations in the clinical area for practising the skills; and the provision of transport for community visits, data to complete community profiles, and time to complete other planned community activities. The students identified the need for a set of learning materials which they could take with them for future reference, and both teachers and students expressed concern about resources to support, and legislation to cover, the application of the skills taught/learned. The modules have the potential to strengthen and support the education of midwives in developing countries

  4. Medicare Provider Data - Hospice Providers

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Hospice Utilization and Payment Public Use File provides information on services provided to Medicare beneficiaries by hospice providers. The Hospice PUF...

  5. How Safe Are Kid-Safe Search Engines?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masterson-Krum, Hope

    2001-01-01

    Examines search tools available to elementary and secondary school students, both human-compiled and crawler-based, to help direct them to age-appropriate Web sites; analyzes the procedures of search engines labeled family-friendly or kid safe that use filters; and tests the effectiveness of these services to students in school libraries. (LRW)

  6. Inherently safe in situ uranium recovery.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krumhansl, James Lee; Beauheim, Richard Louis; Brady, Patrick Vane; Arnold, Bill Walter; Kanney, Joseph F.; McKenna, Sean Andrew

    2009-05-01

    Expansion of uranium mining in the United States is a concern to some environmental groups and sovereign Native American Nations. An approach which may alleviate some problems is to develop inherently safe in situ uranium recovery ('ISR') technologies. Current ISR technology relies on chemical extraction of trace levels of uranium from aquifers that, once mined, can still contain dissolved uranium and other trace metals that are a health concern. Existing ISR operations are few in number; however, high uranium prices are driving the industry to consider expanding operations nation-wide. Environmental concerns and enforcement of the new 30 ppb uranium drinking water standard may make opening new mining operations more difficult and costly. Here we propose a technological fix: the development of inherently safe in situ recovery (ISISR) methods. The four central features of an ISISR approach are: (1) New 'green' leachants that break down predictably in the subsurface, leaving uranium, and associated trace metals, in an immobile form; (2) Post-leachant uranium/metals-immobilizing washes that provide a backup decontamination process; (3) An optimized well-field design that increases uranium recovery efficiency and minimizes excursions of contaminated water; and (4) A combined hydrologic/geochemical protocol for designing low-cost post-extraction long-term monitoring. ISISR would bring larger amounts of uranium to the surface, leave fewer toxic metals in the aquifer, and cost less to monitor safely - thus providing a 'win-win-win' solution to all stakeholders.

  7. Thermodynamics of asymptotically safe theories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rischke, Dirk H.; Sannino, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the thermodynamic properties of a novel class of gauge-Yukawa theories that have recently been shown to be completely asymptotically safe, because their short-distance behaviour is determined by the presence of an interacting fixed point. Not only do all the coupling constants freeze...

  8. Staying Safe on the Water

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-06-05

    In this podcast for all audiences, Dr. Julie Gilchrist from CDC's Injury Center outlines tips for safe boating.  Created: 6/5/2008 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC).   Date Released: 6/8/2008.

  9. Baby Sling: Is It Safe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... safe. In: Caring for Your Baby and Young Child: Birth to Age 5. 6th ed. New York, N.Y.: Bantam Books; 2014. Goldenberg RL, et al. Low birth weight in the United States. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2007;85:584S. Jana ...

  10. The Assumption of Adequacy: Operation Safe Haven, A Chaplain's View

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Neske, Robert

    1999-01-01

    .... This operation took place between 8 Sept. 1994 and 15 Mar. 1995, in the Republic of Panama, and provided a safe haven for up to 10,000 Cuban migrants who had sought to enter the U.S. illegally...

  11. No safe haven: locations of harassment and bullying victimization in middle schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, H Wesley; Perkins, Jessica M; Craig, David W

    2014-12-01

    Given that adolescent bullying victimization is a significant concern for secondary education and adolescent development, identifying school contexts in which victimization is most likely to occur is salient. An anonymous online survey assessed the prevalence of being harassed or bullied in various locations within 20 middle schools (grades 5-9) in New Jersey and New York (N = 10,668). Seven types of bullying-related victimization (teased in an unfriendly way, called hurtful names, physically abused, excluded from a group to hurt feelings, belongings taken/damaged, threatened to be hurt, and negative rumors spread) were examined in 7 locations where each type of victimization could occur (classroom, lunchroom, hallways, gym, playground, bus, or bathroom). Prevalence of victimization types ranged from 4% to 38% depending on location. Prevalence of overall victimization was equal or greater in classrooms compared with other school locations (highest prevalence rates in hallways, classrooms, and lunchrooms), regardless of school demographic characteristics. Victimization in classrooms compared with other school settings was most highly associated with feelings of being unsafe. Vigilant attention to bullying is needed across all school environments and especially in the classroom context, which may mistakenly be perceived as a more protected area. Indeed, middle school classrooms are not safe havens. © 2014, American School Health Association.

  12. Safe Distribution of Declarative Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hildebrandt, Thomas; Mukkamala, Raghava Rao; Slaats, Tijs

    2011-01-01

    process model generalizing labelled prime event structures to a systems model able to finitely represent ω-regular languages. An operational semantics given as a transition semantics between markings of the graph allows DCR Graphs to be conveniently used as both specification and execution model......We give a general technique for safe distribution of a declarative (global) process as a network of (local) synchronously communicating declarative processes. Both the global and local processes are given as Dynamic Condition Response (DCR) Graphs. DCR Graphs is a recently introduced declarative....... The technique for distribution is based on a new general notion of projection of DCR Graphs relative to a subset of labels and events identifying the set of external events that must be communicated from the other processes in the network in order for the distribution to be safe.We prove that for any vector...

  13. Inflation from Asymptotically Safe Theories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Niklas Grønlund; Sannino, Francesco; Svendsen, Ole

    2015-01-01

    We investigate models in which inflation is driven by an ultraviolet safe and interacting scalar sector stemming from a new class of nonsupersymmetric gauge field theories. These new theories, differently from generic scalar models, are well defined to arbitrary short distances because of the exi......We investigate models in which inflation is driven by an ultraviolet safe and interacting scalar sector stemming from a new class of nonsupersymmetric gauge field theories. These new theories, differently from generic scalar models, are well defined to arbitrary short distances because...... for inflation. In the minimal coupling case the theory requires large non-perturbative quantum corrections to the quantum potential for the theory to agree with data, while in the non- minimal coupling case the perturbative regime in the couplings of the theory is preferred. Requiring the theory to reproduce...

  14. Transfer pricing and safe harbours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Solilová

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Transfer prices are significant for both taxpayers and tax administrations because they determine in large part taxable profits of associated enterprises in different tax jurisdictions. Moreover, in the context of taxation, transfer prices must be complied with the arm’s length principle. However, Multinational Enterprises have been faced daily by conflicting rules and approaches to applying the arm’s length principle, burdensome documentation requirements, inconsistent audit standards and unpredictable competent authority outcomes. Therefore, the Committee on Fiscal Affairs launched another project on the administrative aspects of transfer pricing in 2010. On 16 May 2013 as a partial solution of this project was approved by the OECD Council the Revised Section E on Safe Harbours in Chapter IV of the Transfer Pricing Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises and Tax Authorities. The paper is focused on significant changes of newly approved chapter IV of the Transfer Pricing Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises and Tax Authorities, further on analysis of practice in this area, on advantages and disadvantages of safe harbours for taxpayers and competent authorities with aim to suggest recommendations on use of safe harbours in the Czech Republic.

  15. Parenteral nutrition: indications and safe management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyer, Nicky

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this article is to provide an overview of what parenteral nutrition (PN) is and when its use is required. It will describe the process of nutritional assessment, and considerations when choosing venous access. The different approaches to provision of PN solutions in hospital will be discussed. Catheter-related and metabolic complications can occur during delivery of PN; there will be a discussion of the different types of complications and how these can be avoided or minimised. Finally, the pivotal role of the nurse in the assessment and ongoing care of patients who require PN will be highlighted, including skills required to administer PN safely.

  16. Flywheel Rotor Safe-Life Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratner, J. K. H.; Chang, J. B.; Christopher, D. A.; McLallin, Kerry L. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Since the 1960s, research has been conducted into the use of flywheels as energy storage systems. The-proposed applications include energy storage for hybrid and electric automobiles, attitude control and energy storage for satellites, and uninterruptible power supplies for hospitals and computer centers. For many years, however, the use of flywheels for space applications was restricted by the total weight of a system employing a metal rotor. With recent technological advances in the manufacturing of composite materials, however, lightweight composite rotors have begun to be proposed for such applications. Flywheels with composite rotors provide much higher power and energy storage capabilities than conventional chemical batteries. However, the failure of a high speed flywheel rotor could be a catastrophic event. For this reason, flywheel rotors are classified by the NASA Fracture Control Requirements Standard as fracture critical parts. Currently, there is no industry standard to certify a composite rotor for safe and reliable operation forth( required lifetime of the flywheel. Technical problems hindering the development of this standard include composite manufacturing inconsistencies, insufficient nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques for detecting defects and/or impact damage, lack of standard material test methods for characterizing composite rotor design allowables, and no unified proof (over-spin) test for flight rotors. As part of a flywheel rotor safe-life certification pro-ram funded b the government, a review of the state of the art in composite rotors is in progress. The goal of the review is to provide a clear picture of composite flywheel rotor technologies. The literature review has concentrated on the following topics concerning composites and composite rotors: durability (fatigue) and damage tolerance (safe-life) analysis/test methods, in-service NDE and health monitoring techniques, spin test methods/ procedures, and containment options

  17. Playground Designs to Increase Physical Activity Levels during School Recess: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escalante, Yolanda; García-Hermoso, Antonio; Backx, Karianne; Saavedra, Jose M.

    2014-01-01

    School recess provides a major opportunity to increase children's physical activity levels. Various studies have described strategies to increase levels of physical activity. The purpose of this systematic review is therefore to examine the interventions proposed as forms of increasing children's physical activity levels during recess. A…

  18. Tort Liability in the Classroom, the Science Lab, and on the Playground.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMitchell, Todd A.

    1998-01-01

    As a case involving forgotten goggles shows, negligence lawsuits take a damaging toll in terms of money, time, emotion, and self-worth. Educators' best defense is consistently discharging their duties to students in a reasonable, prudent manner. Science teachers should secure all dangerous chemicals, provide adequate supervision, develop proper…

  19. Safe-haven CDS Premia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klingler, Sven; Lando, David

    We argue that Credit Default Swap (CDS) premia for safe-haven sovereigns, like Germany and the United States, are driven to a large extent by regulatory requirements under which derivatives dealing banks have an incentive to buy CDS to hedge counterparty credit risk of their counterparties. We...... explain the mechanics of the regulatory requirements and develop a model in which derivatives dealers, who have a derivatives exposure with sovereigns, need CDS for capital relief. End users without exposure to the sovereigns sell the CDS and require a positive premium equivalent to the capital...

  20. Clouds: a New Playground for the XtreemOS Grid Operating System

    OpenAIRE

    Morin, Christine; Jégou, Yvon; Gallard, Jérôme; Riteau, Pierre

    2009-01-01

    The emerging cloud computing model has recently gained a lot of interest both from commercial companies and from the research community. XtreemOS is a distributed operating system for large-scale wide-area dynamic infrastructures spanning multiple administrative domains. XtreemOS, which is based on the Linux operating system, has been designed as a Grid operating system providing native support for virtual organizations. In this paper, we discuss the positioning of XtreemOS technologies with ...

  1. Crime and hate in virtual worlds: a new playground for the ID?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorrindo, Tristan; Groves, James E

    2010-01-01

    Virtual worlds offer the potential for friendship, compassionate listening and support, and even love for 15 million users worldwide. But virtual analogs of crimes such as rape, murder, and pedophilia also exist within these worlds. The writings of Freud and Winnicott provide one model for understanding what may motivate these virtual crimes and how to think about them clinically. Psychiatric treatment can potentially benefit if therapists discuss virtual world use with patients as a way of understanding their inner lives.

  2. Narratives of Ghanaian abortion providers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    Michigan, Department of Women's Studies, Ann Arbor, MI, USA; 7University of Michigan, Department of Obstetrics and. Gynaecology, Ann Arbor, MI USA ..... personal spending habits of physicians who were known to provide abortion – a new ..... characterized by safe space for speaking can improve physician's resilience to ...

  3. The Difference Safe Spaces Make

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kendric Coleman

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade, lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT students have become very visible at Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs, but this visibility is not reflected in some colleges’ student programs and activities. Only a few notable HBCUs, such as Howard University and Spelman College, have made a concerted effort. Acknowledging that the LGBT community is significant and exists, and fostering such support, comes up against a steep wall of religious tradition and doctrines, and conservative administrations. It is imperative that HBCUs address LGBT issues and create and support a safe space for students to articulate their identity. Meanwhile, many LGBT students on these campuses find voice and understanding in Black scholars and writers such as Audre Lorde’s Zami: A New Spelling of My Name and Charles Michael Smith’s Fighting Words: Personal Essays by Black Gay Men.

  4. Working safely with electronics racks

    CERN Multimedia

    Simon Baird, HSE Unit Head

    2016-01-01

    Think of CERN and you’ll probably think of particle accelerators and detectors. These are the tools of the trade in particle physics, but behind them are the racks of electronics that include power supplies, control systems and data acquisition networks.   Inside an electronics rack: danger could be lurking if the rack is not powered off. In routine operation, these are no more harmful than the home entertainment system in your living room. But unscrew the cover and it’s a different matter. Even after following appropriate training, and with formal authorisation from your group leader or equivalent to carry out electrical work or any work in the vicinity of electrical hazards, and even with extensive experience of carrying out such operations, it’s important to incorporate safe working practices into your routine. At CERN, before the racks of electronics reach their operational configurations for the accelerators and detectors, they play a vital role in test set-ups ...

  5. Is herniography useful and safe?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hureibi, K.A., E-mail: alhureibi@gmail.com [Musgrove Park Hospital, Taunton TA1 5DA (United Kingdom); McLatchie, Gregor R., E-mail: Gregor.McLatchie@nth.nhs.uk [University Hospital of Hartlepool, Holdforth Road, Hartlepool TS24 9AH (United Kingdom); Kidambi, Ananta V., E-mail: Ananta.Kidambi@nth.nhs.uk [University Hospital of Hartlepool, Holdforth Road, Hartlepool TS24 9AH (United Kingdom)

    2011-11-15

    117 consecutive herniograms were reviewed for patients who had symptoms suggestive of hernia but with no evidence or inconclusive findings on physical examination. The traditional approach has been to explore patients with suspected occult hernias. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of herniography in minimizing needless groin exploration and to evaluate its safety. Thirty-three herniograms were positive and showed unilateral and bilateral inguinal hernias. There were no false positive examinations and two false negative examinations. No complications were present. Patients with positive herniograms were explored, and operative findings correlated well with herniographic findings. Twenty-four patients were referred to other specialities. Follow-up in clinic and telephone interviews showed symptomatic improvement in the majority of patients. Herniography is useful in evaluating obscure groin pain and occult hernias. It is a safe procedure and more cost effective than a negative exploration or diagnostic laparoscopy.

  6. Emergency Response Virtual Environment for Safe Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasfy, Ayman; Walker, Teresa

    2008-01-01

    An intelligent emergency response virtual environment (ERVE) that provides emergency first responders, response planners, and managers with situational awareness as well as training and support for safe schools is presented. ERVE incorporates an intelligent agent facility for guiding and assisting the user in the context of the emergency response operations. Response information folders capture key information about the school. The system enables interactive 3D visualization of schools and academic campuses, including the terrain and the buildings' exteriors and interiors in an easy to use Web..based interface. ERVE incorporates live camera and sensors feeds and can be integrated with other simulations such as chemical plume simulation. The system is integrated with a Geographical Information System (GIS) to enable situational awareness of emergency events and assessment of their effect on schools in a geographic area. ERVE can also be integrated with emergency text messaging notification systems. Using ERVE, it is now possible to address safe schools' emergency management needs with a scaleable, seamlessly integrated and fully interactive intelligent and visually compelling solution.

  7. Safe handling of vaccines: the rewards of rigorous routines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hefti, Kelly; David, Gerard

    2013-01-01

    A recent report published by the Office of Inspector General (OIG) entitled Vaccines for Children Program: Vulnerabilities in Vaccine Management has brought to public awareness the need for increased attention to safe handling of vaccines. The maximum benefit of receiving vaccines for vaccine-preventable diseases can only be attained when we ensure that safe storage and handling occurs through strict adherence to the vaccine cold chain. This compliance can best be accomplished by identifying a vaccine coordinator that is intimately familiar with the components of the vaccine cold chain and provides the necessary oversight to ensure that all links in the chain are maintained. Utilization of helpful resources, including the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) resources related to safe handling of vaccines, is central to a well defined process for vaccine handling. This adherence provides reassurance, both to patients receiving vaccine and providers administering it, that the safest and most effective vaccine is being delivered.

  8. Safe and Secure Services Based on NGN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukazawa, Tomoo; Nisase, Takemi; Kawashima, Masahisa; Hariu, Takeo; Oshima, Yoshihito

    Next Generation Network (NGN), which has been undergoing standardization as it has developed, is expected to create new services that converge the fixed and mobile networks. This paper introduces the basic requirements for NGN in terms of security and explains the standardization activities, in particular, the requirements for the security function described in Y.2701 discussed in ITU-T SG-13. In addition to the basic NGN security function, requirements for NGN authentication are also described from three aspects: security, deployability, and service. As examples of authentication implementation, three profiles-namely, fixed, nomadic, and mobile-are defined in this paper. That is, the “fixed profile” is typically for fixed-line subscribers, the “nomadic profile” basically utilizes WiFi access points, and the “mobile profile” provides ideal NGN mobility for mobile subscribers. All three of these profiles satisfy the requirements from security aspects. The three profiles are compared from the viewpoint of requirements for deployability and service. After showing that none of the three profiles can fulfill all of the requirements, we propose that multiple profiles should be used by NGN providers. As service and application examples, two promising NGN applications are proposed. The first is a strong authentication mechanism that makes Web applications more safe and secure even against password theft. It is based on NGN ID federation function. The second provides an easy peer-to-peer broadband virtual private network service aimed at safe and secure communication for personal/SOHO (small office, home office) users, based on NGN SIP (session initiation protocol) session control.

  9. What is a safe lift?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinoza, Kathy

    2013-09-01

    In a perfect world, a "safe" lift would be 51 pounds if the object is within 7 inches from the front of the body, if it is at waist height, if it is directly in front of the person, if there is a handle on the object, and if the load inside the box/bucket doesn't shift once lifted. If the load to be lifted does not meet all of these criteria, then it is an unsafe lift, and modifications must be made. Modifications would include lightening the load, getting help, or using a mechanical lifting device. There is always a way to turn an unsafe lift into a safer lift. An excellent resource for anyone interested in eliminating some of the hazards associated with lifting is the "Easy Ergonomics" publication from Cal/OSHA. This booklet offers practical advice on how to improve the workplace using engineering and administrative controls, problem-solving strategies and solutions, and a vast amount of ergonomics information and resources. "Easy Ergonomics" can be obtained by calling Cal/OSHA's education and training unit in Sacramento at 800-963-9424. A free copy can be obtained via www.dir.ca.gov/dosh/puborder.asp.

  10. SAFE Testing Nuclear Rockets Economically

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Steven D.; Travis, Bryan; Zerkle, David K.

    2003-01-01

    Several studies over the past few decades have recognized the need for advanced propulsion to explore the solar system. As early as the 1960s, Werner Von Braun and others recognized the need for a nuclear rocket for sending humans to Mars. The great distances, the intense radiation levels, and the physiological response to zero-gravity all supported the concept of using a nuclear rocket to decrease mission time. These same needs have been recognized in later studies, especially in the Space Exploration Initiative in 1989. One of the key questions that has arisen in later studies, however, is the ability to test a nuclear rocket engine in the current societal environment. Unlike the Rover/NERVA programs in the 1960s, the rocket exhaust can no longer be vented to the open atmosphere. As a consequence, previous studies have examined the feasibility of building a large-scale version of the Nuclear Furnace Scrubber that was demonstrated in 1971. We have investigated an alternative that would deposit the rocket exhaust along with any entrained fission products directly into the ground. The Subsurface Active Filtering of Exhaust, or SAFE, concept would allow variable sized engines to be tested for long times at a modest expense. A system overview, results of preliminary calculations, and cost estimates of proof of concept demonstrations are presented. The results indicate that a nuclear rocket could be tested at the Nevada Test Site for under $20 M.

  11. Safe spaces for youth "At Risk"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten Kromann; Wistoft, Karen

    for learning, democratic participation and citizenship education through farming and gardening. Keywords: Food Systems, Transformative Learning, Youth Empowerment Stream: Food Policies, Politics and Cultures Presentation Type: Paper Presentation in a Themed Session in English Paper: A paper has not yet been......The paper will discuss how farm based empowerment programs directed at youth "at risk" through the construction of "safe spaces" around farming, cooking and different workshops, and with a critical approach to the food system can provide a framework for transformative learning. Data in the research...... as different motivations, strategies and outcomes from participation in the program activities that can be identified in two main trajectories: network building and job training and emerging activist identities engaging youth in food justice issues and movement building in local communities. The research shows...

  12. Playground Safety (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gravel, or shredded rubber. Wood chips containing chromated copper arsenate (CCA) treatment are not recommended since the ... the equipment to make sure that it is clean and well maintained. There should be no broken ...

  13. Pectus tunneloscopy: making Nuss procedure for pectus excavatum safe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darlong, Laleng M

    2013-08-01

    The Nuss procedure for pectus excavatum involves the risk of cardiac injury during the creation of the retrosternal tunnel and during bar introduction or removal across the tunnel. A modified novel real-time technique for the safe introduction of the Nuss bar across the crucial retrosternal tunnel blind spot during introduction and removal is described. In 2012, we devised a technique for real-time endovision-guided introduction of the Nuss bar called pectus tunneloscopy. Between February 2012 and December 2012, 6 patients with pectus excavatum had their bar introduced across the tunnel using this technique. This technique provided safe introduction and removal of the bar during the multiple times the bar is remodelled before final fixation. Pectus tunneloscopy is a real-time endovision surgical technique, providing safe introduction of the bar across the crucial retrosternal tunnel blind spot.

  14. The World Health Organization's safe abortion guidance document.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Look, Paul F A; Cottingham, Jane

    2013-04-01

    We discuss the history of the World Health Organization's (WHO's) development of guidelines for governments on providing safe abortion services, which WHO published as Safe Abortion: Technical and Policy Guidance for Health Systems in 2003 and updated in 2012. We show how the recognition of the devastating impact of unsafe abortion on women's health and survival, the impetus of the International Conference on Population and Development and its five-year follow-up, and WHO's progressive leadership at the end of the century enabled the organization to elaborate guidance on providing safe abortion services. Guideline formulation involved extensive review of published evidence, an international technical expert meeting to review the draft document, and a protracted in-house review by senior WHO management.

  15. A comunidade segura Safe community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Jesus C. S Harada

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar a efetividade de programas de prevenção de injúrias intencionais e não intencionais, em crianças e adolescentes, embasados nos princípios da comunidade segura. FONTES DE DADOS: Pesquisa eletrônica nas bases de dados MEDLINE e LILACS, correspondendo ao período de 2000 a 2005. Para prevenção de injúrias não intencionais, usaram-se os descritores: injury and prevention and community or population and intervention; para prevenção de injúrias intencionais, violence and prevention and community or population and intervention; foi tomada como limite a faixa etária de 0 a 18 anos. Critérios de inclusão: artigos originais, que estudaram a efetividade de intervenções utilizando mais de uma estratégia e abrangendo toda uma comunidade ou grupo, abordando injúrias intencionais e não intencionais, publicados em português, inglês ou espanhol. SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: Foram obtidos 152 estudos como resultado. Considerando os critérios de inclusão, foram encontrados cinco artigos sobre prevenção de injúrias não intencionais, um sobre prevenção de injúrias intencionais e um artigo que aborda as duas questões. As pesquisas analisadas evidenciam benefícios para crianças e adolescentes, em diferentes proporções. CONCLUSÕES: Os programas que trabalham com o conceito de comunidade segura ainda são em número restrito. As investigações analisadas neste estudo apresentam resultados positivos. É preciso aumentar esforços para o desenvolvimento dessa base de evidência, respeitando as características locais, desenvolvendo indicadores de avaliação que permitam melhor comparação entre diferentes trabalhos.ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE:To analyze the effectiveness of prevention programs for intentional and unintentional injuries, based on safe community principles, in children and adolescents. SOURCES OF DATA: An electronic search was performed in the MEDLINE and LILACS database, corresponding to the period from 2000 to

  16. Safe prescribing: a titanic challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Routledge, Philip A

    2012-10-01

    The challenge to achieve safe prescribing merits the adjective 'titanic'. The organisational and human errors leading to poor prescribing (e.g. underprescribing, overprescribing, misprescribing or medication errors) have parallels in the organisational and human errors that led to the loss of the Titanic 100 years ago this year. Prescribing can be adversely affected by communication failures, critical conditions, complacency, corner cutting, callowness and a lack of courage of conviction, all of which were also factors leading to the Titanic tragedy. These issues need to be addressed by a commitment to excellence, the final component of the 'Seven C's'. Optimal prescribing is dependent upon close communication and collaborative working between highly trained health professionals, whose role is to ensure maximum clinical effectiveness, whilst also protecting their patients from avoidable harm. Since humans are prone to error, and the environments in which they work are imperfect, it is not surprising that medication errors are common, occurring more often during the prescribing stage than during dispensing or administration. A commitment to excellence in prescribing includes a continued focus on lifelong learning (including interprofessional learning) in pharmacology and therapeutics. This should be accompanied by improvements in the clinical working environment of prescribers, and the encouragement of a strong safety culture (including reporting of adverse incidents as well as suspected adverse drug reactions whenever appropriate). Finally, members of the clinical team must be prepared to challenge each other, when necessary, to ensure that prescribing combines the highest likelihood of benefit with the lowest potential for harm. © 2012 The Author. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology © 2012 The British Pharmacological Society.

  17. Working Safe and Feeling Fine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milshtein, Amy

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the problem of repetitive stress disorders in the administrative workplace and shares some quick fixes to aid ergonomics. Some thoughts on the ergonomics of office chairs are provided as is the use of professional guidance in furniture purchasing. (GR)

  18. Knowledge and practice of safe injection among nurses in tertiary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Risks associated with unsafe injection practices among the health care providers necessitated this study to determine the knowledge and practice of safe injection among nurses in university of Calabar Teaching Hospital, Calabar. The specific objectives were to assess injection safety knowledge by the nurses and to ...

  19. Rust-Bio: a fast and safe bioinformatics library

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Köster (Johannes)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractWe present Rust-Bio, the first general purpose bioinformatics library for the innovative Rust programming language. Rust-Bio leverages the unique combination of speed, memory safety and high-level syntax offered by Rust to provide a fast and safe set of bioinformatics algorithms and data

  20. Achievements of the EC network of excellence HySafe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jordan, T.; Adams, P.; Azkarate, I.; Baraldi, D.; Barthelemy, H.; Bauwens, L.; Bengaouer, A.; Brennan, S.; Carcassi, M.; Dahoe, A.; Eisenreich, N.; Engebo, A.; Funnemark, E.; Gallego, E.; Gavrikov, A.; Haland, E.; Hansen, A.M.; Haugom, G.P.; Hawksworth, S.; Jedicke, O.; Kessler, A.; Kotchourko, A.; Kumar, S.; Langer, G.; Ledin, S.; Makarov, D.; Marangon, A.; Markert, F.; Middha, P.; Molkov, V.; Nilsen, S.; Papanikolaou, E.; Perrette, L.; Reinecke, E.-A.; Schmidtchen, U.; Serre-Combe, P.; Stöcklin, M.; Sully, A.; Teodorczyk, A.; Tigreat, D.; Venetsanos, A.; Verfondern, K.; Versloot, N.A.H.; Vetere, A.; Wilms, M.; Zaretskiy, N.

    2009-01-01

    In many areas European research has been largely fragmented. To support the required integration and to focus and coordinate related research efforts the European Commission created a new instrument, the Networks of Excellences (NoEs). The goal of the NoE HySafe has been to provide the basis to

  1. How Can I Lose Weight Safely?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Abuse Love and Romance Understanding Other People How Can I Lose Weight Safely? KidsHealth > For Teens > How Can I Lose Weight Safely? Print A A A ... to talk to a doctor or dietitian, who can compare your weight with healthy norms to help ...

  2. Creating Safe Spaces for Music Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, Karin S.; Smith, Tawnya D.; Stanuch, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    This article offers a practical model for fostering emotionally safe learning environments that instill in music students a positive sense of self-belief, freedom, and purpose. The authors examine the implications for music educators of creating effective learning environments and present recommendations for creating a safe space for learning,…

  3. Virus Alert: Ten Steps to Safe Computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunter, Glenda A.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses computer viruses and explains how to detect them; discusses virus protection and the need to update antivirus software; and offers 10 safe computing tips, including scanning floppy disks and commercial software, how to safely download files from the Internet, avoiding pirated software copies, and backing up files. (LRW)

  4. A fail-safe CMOS logic gate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobin, V.; Whitaker, S.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports a design technique to make Complex CMOS Gates fail-safe for a class of faults. Two classes of faults are defined. The fail-safe design presented has limited fault-tolerance capability. Multiple faults are also covered.

  5. Improved water does not mean safe water

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, L. H.; Guo, Y.; Schwab, K. J.

    2012-12-01

    This work presents a model for estimating global access to drinking water that meets World Health Organization (WHO) water quality guidelines. The currently accepted international estimate of global access to safe water, the WHO and United Nations Children's Fund's (UNICEF) Joint Monitoring Program (JMP) report, estimates the population with access to water service infrastructure that is classified as improved and unimproved. The JMP report uses access to improved water sources as a proxy for access to safe water, but improved water sources do not always meet drinking water quality guidelines. Therefore, this report likely overestimates the number of people with access to safe water. Based on the JMP estimate, the United Nations has recently announced that the world has reached the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) target for access to safe water. Our new framework employs a statistical model that incorporates source water quality, water supply interruptions, water storage practices, and point of use water treatment to estimate access to safe water, resulting in a figure that is lower than the JMP estimate of global access to safe water. We estimate that at least 28% of the world does not have access to safe water today, as compared to the JMP estimate of 12%. These findings indicate that much more work is needed on the international scale to meet the MDG target for access to safe water.

  6. Commercial experience with facility deactivation to safe storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sype, T.T. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Fischer, S.R. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Lee, J.H. Jr.; Sanchez, L.C.; Ottinger, C.A.; Pirtle, G.J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-09-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has shutdown many production reactors; the Department has begun a major effort to also shutdown a wide variety of other nuclear facilities. Because so many facilities are being closed, it is necessary to place many of them into a safe- storage status, i.e., deactivation, before conducting decommissioning- for perhaps as long as 20 years. The challenge is to achieve this safe-storage condition in a cost-effective manner while remaining in compliance with applicable regulations. The DOE Office of Environmental Management, Office of Transition and Management, commissioned a lessons-learned study of commercial experience with safe storage and decommissioning. Although the majority of the commercial experience has been with reactors, many of the lessons learned presented in this document can provide insight into transitioning challenges that Will be faced by the DOE weapons complex.

  7. Secure, safe, and sensitive solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughan, Tina

    2012-04-01

    Tabloid sensationalism aside, the increase in attacks on health service workers has led to many hospitals and healthcare facilities re-assessing their security systems. Here, Tina Hughan, head of marketing for specialist in door opening systems, Assa Abloy, gives her view on how security providers can help healthcare estates and facilities teams to cope with this disturbing trend.

  8. TodaysBaby Quality Improvement: Safe Sleep Teaching and Role Modeling in 8 US Maternity Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellams, Ann; Parker, Margaret G; Geller, Nicole L; Moon, Rachel Y; Colson, Eve R; Drake, Emily; Corwin, Michael J; McClain, Mary; Golden, W Christopher; Hauck, Fern R

    2017-11-01

    Nursing education and role modeling can increase adherence to safe sleep practices. Eight US hospital maternity units with variable baseline approaches to education participated in a national multicenter nursing quality improvement (QI) intervention to promote safe sleep practices. The goals at participating maternity units were to (1) increase the rate of mothers who reported receiving safe sleep information from nurses to ≥90% and (2) increase the rates of infants observed sleeping supine in a safe environment to ≥90%. A safe sleep QI toolkit, designed for and provided to all sites, included an educational curriculum and tools to use for staff and parent education. Local teams implemented safe sleep education using the tools as plan-do-study-act cycles. After each cycle, audits assessing maternal report of nursing education on safe sleep and inpatient infant sleep position and environment were performed. The QI interventions lasted a median of 160 days (range, 101-273). Mothers reported receiving information on 4 primary safe sleep topics 72% to 95% of the time (a 24%-57% increase over the baseline). Additionally, 93% of infants were observed in a supine sleep position, and 88% of infants were observed in a safe sleep environment (a 24% and 33% increase over baseline, respectively). These rates were sustained up to 12 months later. Implementation of a multisite QI intervention for safe sleep parenting education and role modeling led to increased knowledge of and compliance with safe sleep practices during postpartum hospitalization. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  9. Safe Configuration of TLS Connections

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-16

    The hash algorithm itself is another potential source of vulnerability: use of MD5 , for example, is discouraged as known collision attacks exist [25...across cipher suites. While most practical implementations do, the cipher specification must employ a hash algorithm to provide integrity assurances...http://www.isg.rhul.ac.uk/tls/ [25] Stevens, Marc. "On collisions for MD5 ." TU Eindhoven MSc thesis, [Online]. Available: http://www. win. tue

  10. Repatriation: How Safe Is It?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Davy

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available This article provides updated information on the human rightsclimate in Laos as it pertains to the repatriation of Hmongrefugees from Thailand. The disappearance of Vue Mai and thearrests or demotions of Hmong officals in the Lao governmentare an indication of the problems faced by Hmong both asrepatriates and residents in Laos. The recent abuses againstseveral hundred Hmong at the Ban Phan Thao repatriation siteare described in detail.

  11. From Safe Systems to Patient Safety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarts, J.; Nøhr, C.

    2010-01-01

    for the third conference with the theme: The ability to design, implement and evaluate safe, useable and effective systems within complex health care organizations. The theme for this conference was "Designing and Implementing Health IT: from safe systems to patient safety". The contributions have reflected...... and implementation of safe systems and thus contribute to the agenda of patient safety? The contributions demonstrate how the health informatics community has contributed to the performance of significant research and to translating research findings to develop health care delivery and improve patient safety...

  12. Cigarette Alternatives: Are they Safe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shantakumari, Nisha; Muttappallymyalil, Jayakumary; John, Lisha Jenny; Sreedharan, Jayadevan

    2015-01-01

    In spite of limited data regarding the safety or effectiveness of electronic cigarette introduced into the market as a healthier alternative to tobacco smoking, its popularity has increased enormously. E-cigarettes have penetrated the market rapidly owing to the elaborate marketing network and attractive marketing strategies. Stated advantages include the claim that they help quit smoking and produce less exposure than conventional smoking. The list of disadvantages is even more elaborate. While the majority of the studies supporting health claims and efficacy for quitting smoking are not scientifically sound, they are also challenged by studies providing contradictory results. Owing to the limited evidence on the potential advantages and disadvantages of e-cigarettes, the debate on their safety continues.

  13. Distributed Programming via Safe Closure Passing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Haller

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Programming systems incorporating aspects of functional programming, e.g., higher-order functions, are becoming increasingly popular for large-scale distributed programming. New frameworks such as Apache Spark leverage functional techniques to provide high-level, declarative APIs for in-memory data analytics, often outperforming traditional "big data" frameworks like Hadoop MapReduce. However, widely-used programming models remain rather ad-hoc; aspects such as implementation trade-offs, static typing, and semantics are not yet well-understood. We present a new asynchronous programming model that has at its core several principles facilitating functional processing of distributed data. The emphasis of our model is on simplicity, performance, and expressiveness. The primary means of communication is by passing functions (closures to distributed, immutable data. To ensure safe and efficient distribution of closures, our model leverages both syntactic and type-based restrictions. We report on a prototype implementation in Scala. Finally, we present preliminary experimental results evaluating the performance impact of a static, type-based optimization of serialization.

  14. Thyroidectomy under local anaesthesia: how safe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misauno, M A; Yilkudi, M G; Akwaras, A L; Embu, H Y; Ojo, E O; Dakum, N K; Sule, A Z; Ugwu, B T

    2008-03-01

    In order to compliment the inadequate health facilities in the rural areas in Nigeria, nongovernmental organisations provide adhoc outreach health camps that offer treatment in various medical specialties including surgery. Rural outreach health camps. To evaluate the safety of thyroidectomy under local anaesthesia at rural outreach setting with inadequate facilities for general anaesthesia. This was a prospective descriptive study of 33 consecutive cases of thyroidectomy performed using field block with 1% lignocaine and adrenaline 1: 200,000 dilution during two free medical outreaches that held at Jos, Nigeria in March and October 2005 respectively, lasting two weeks each. A total of 33 primary thyroid operations were performed consisting of 30 subtotal thyroidectomies (91%), 2 lobectomies (6%) and one total thyroidectomy (3%), The patients were aged between 23 and 62 years with a mean age of 45.8 years. There were 3 males and 30 females with a male: female ratio of 1:10. There was no mortality but morbidity was 2/33 (6%) Two complications were recorded in 2 patients and were superficial surgical site infection (3%) and reactionary haemorrhage (3%). We conclude that thyroidectomy under local anaesthesia is a safe procedure in experienced hands at rural settings with inadequate facilities for general anaesthesia.

  15. Safe Care to Knee Injuries in Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Águila Tejeda

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: the guarantee of sporting success lies in the appropriate functioning of the musculoskeletal system, given that its vulnerability hinders the performance of each athlete. Being timely is critical to provide safe care to the affections of knee; late diagnosis in this system may lead to the development of complications and hinder sport practice. Objective: to characterize knee injuries in athletes of the sport system in the province of Cienfuegos.Methods: an observational, quantitative and qualitative, longitudinal and retrospective study was conducted. It included 104 athletes who attended the Traumatology Consultation from 2009 to 2011, presenting different types of knee injuries in various stages of training. Variables such as age, sex, sport, site of injury, stage of training, kilocalories consumed, type of training, quality of equipment and diagnosis were analyzed. The procedure used consists of a comprehensive review of case notes and medical records of all patients that attended consultation during the period analyzed, from which the necessary data was collected. Interviews with coaches and technical staff were carried out as well. Results: knee injuries occur in all ages of athletes, with a slight predominance of males. Highest frequencies are those of the ligament and meniscus, with the highest incidence in athletics, volleyball and judo. Conservative treatment predominated.Conclusions: knee injuries require a timely treatment in order to achieve athlete's success and safety.

  16. Aluminum vaccine adjuvants: are they safe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomljenovic, L; Shaw, C A

    2011-01-01

    Aluminum is an experimentally demonstrated neurotoxin and the most commonly used vaccine adjuvant. Despite almost 90 years of widespread use of aluminum adjuvants, medical science's understanding about their mechanisms of action is still remarkably poor. There is also a concerning scarcity of data on toxicology and pharmacokinetics of these compounds. In spite of this, the notion that aluminum in vaccines is safe appears to be widely accepted. Experimental research, however, clearly shows that aluminum adjuvants have a potential to induce serious immunological disorders in humans. In particular, aluminum in adjuvant form carries a risk for autoimmunity, long-term brain inflammation and associated neurological complications and may thus have profound and widespread adverse health consequences. In our opinion, the possibility that vaccine benefits may have been overrated and the risk of potential adverse effects underestimated, has not been rigorously evaluated in the medical and scientific community. We hope that the present paper will provide a framework for a much needed and long overdue assessment of this highly contentious medical issue.

  17. Think Before You Ink: Are Tattoos Safe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Consumers Consumer Updates Think Before You Ink: Are Tattoos Safe? Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... I be concerned about unsafe practices, or the tattoo ink itself? Both. While you can get serious ...

  18. How to Safely Use Nail Care Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Products For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates How to Safely Use Nail Care Products Share Tweet Linkedin ... more than 10 minutes per hand, per session. How to Report Problems with Nail Care Products If you ...

  19. When Is an Opioid Safe to Take?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/news/fullstory_166872.html When Is an Opioid Safe to Take? Doctors say it can treat ... Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA): Why was I prescribed opioids? Did the doctor assume opioids are the strongest ...

  20. AFSC/REFM: Groundfish SAFE Economic Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Groundfish SAFE Economic Report, published annually as a supplement to the Stock Assessment and Fishery Evaluation Reports for Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands...

  1. Implicit attitudes towards risky and safe driving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinussen, Laila Marianne; Sømhovd, Mikael Julius; Møller, Mette

    ; further, self-reports of the intention to drive safely (or not) are socially sensitive. Therefore, we examined automatic preferences towards safe and risky driving with a Go/No-go Association Task (GNAT). The results suggest that (1) implicit attitudes towards driving behavior can be measured reliably...... with the GNAT; (2) implicit attitudes towards safe driving versus towards risky driving may be separable constructs. We propose that research on driving behavior may benefit from routinely including measures of implicit cognition. A practical advantage is a lesser susceptibility to social desirability biases......, compared to self-report methods. Pending replication in future research, the apparent dissociation between implicit attitudes towards safe versus risky driving that we observed may contribute to a greater theoretical understanding of the causes of unsafe and risky driving behavior....

  2. Aspirin during Pregnancy: Is It Safe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Pregnancy week by week Is it safe to take aspirin during pregnancy? Answers from Yvonne Butler Tobah, M. ... 2015 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/pregnancy-week-by-week/expert-answers/aspirin-during-pregnancy/ ...

  3. Pregnancy and Fish: What's Safe to Eat?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Pregnancy week by week If you're unsure about whether it's safe to eat seafood during your pregnancy, ... 2016 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/pregnancy-week-by-week/in-depth/pregnancy-and-fish/ ...

  4. Pregnancy Constipation: Are Stool Softeners Safe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Pregnancy week by week Is it safe to take stool softeners to treat pregnancy constipation? Answers from Yvonne ... 2017 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/pregnancy-week-by-week/expert-answers/pregnancy-constipation/faq- ...

  5. Safe disposal of surplus plutonium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, W. L.; Naz, S.; Lutze, W.; Busch, R.; Prinja, A.; Stoll, W.

    2001-06-01

    About 150 tons of weapons grade and weapons usable plutonium (metal, oxide, and in residues) have been declared surplus in the USA and Russia. Both countries plan to convert the metal and oxide into mixed oxide fuel for nuclear power reactors. Russia has not yet decided what to do with the residues. The US will convert residues into a ceramic, which will then be over-poured with highly radioactive borosilicate glass. The radioactive glass is meant to provide a deterrent to recovery of plutonium, as required by a US standard. Here we show a waste form for plutonium residues, zirconia/boron carbide (ZrO 2/B 4C), with an unprecedented combination of properties: a single, radiation-resistant, and chemically durable phase contains the residues; billion-year-old natural analogs are available; and criticality safety is given under all conceivable disposal conditions. ZrO 2/B 4C can be disposed of directly, without further processing, making it attractive to all countries facing the task of plutonium disposal. The US standard for protection against recovery can be met by disposal of the waste form together with used reactor fuel.

  6. Capturing Essential Information to Achieve Safe Interoperability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weininger, Sandy; Jaffe, Michael B; Rausch, Tracy; Goldman, Julian M

    2017-01-01

    In this article, we describe the role of "clinical scenario" information to assure the safety of interoperable systems, as well as the system's ability to deliver the requisite clinical functionality to improve clinical care. Described are methods and rationale for capturing the clinical needs, workflow, hazards, and device interactions in the clinical environment. Key user (clinician and clinical engineer) needs and system requirements can be derived from this information, therefore, improving the communication from clinicians to medical device and information technology system developers. This methodology is intended to assist the health care community, including researchers, standards developers, regulators, and manufacturers, by providing clinical definition to support requirements in the systems engineering process, particularly those focusing on development of Integrated Clinical Environments described in standard ASTM F2761. Our focus is on identifying and documenting relevant interactions and medical device capabilities within the system using a documentation tool called medical device interface data sheets and mitigating hazardous situations related to workflow, product usability, data integration, and the lack of effective medical device-health information technology system integration to achieve safe interoperability. Portions of the analysis of a clinical scenario for a "patient-controlled analgesia safety interlock" are provided to illustrate the method. Collecting better clinical adverse event information and proposed solutions can help identify opportunities to improve current device capabilities and interoperability and support a learning health system to improve health care delivery. Developing and analyzing clinical scenarios are the first steps in creating solutions to address vexing patient safety problems and enable clinical innovation. A Web-based research tool for implementing a means of acquiring and managing this information, the Clinical

  7. Managing Cassini Safe Mode Attitude at Saturn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burk, Thomas A.

    2010-01-01

    The Cassini spacecraft was launched on October 15, 1997 and arrived at Saturn on June 30, 2004. It has performed detailed observations and remote sensing of Saturn, its rings, and its satellites since that time. In the event safe mode interrupts normal orbital operations, Cassini has flight software fault protection algorithms to detect, isolate, and recover to a thermally safe and commandable attitude and then wait for further instructions from the ground. But the Saturn environment is complex, and safety hazards change depending on where Cassini is in its orbital trajectory around Saturn. Selecting an appropriate safe mode attitude that insures safe operation in the Saturn environment, including keeping the star tracker field of view clear of bright bodies, while maintaining a quiescent, commandable attitude, is a significant challenge. This paper discusses the Cassini safe table management strategy and the key criteria that must be considered, especially during low altitude flybys of Titan, in deciding what spacecraft attitude should be used in the event of safe mode.

  8. Curiosity's Autonomous Surface Safing Behavior Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neilson, Tracy A.; Manning, Robert M.

    2013-01-01

    The safing routines on all robotic deep-space vehicles are designed to put the vehicle in a power and thermally safe configuration, enabling communication with the mission operators on Earth. Achieving this goal is made a little more difficult on Curiosity because the power requirements for the core avionics and the telecommunication equipment exceed the capability of the single power source, the Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator. This drove the system design to create an operational mode, called "sleep mode", where the vehicle turns off most of the loads in order to charge the two Li-ion batteries. The system must keep the vehicle safe from over-heat and under-heat conditions, battery cell failures, under-voltage conditions, and clock failures, both while the computer is running and while the system is sleeping. The other goal of a safing routine is to communicate. On most spacecraft, this simply involves turning on the receiver and transmitter continuously. For Curiosity, Earth is above the horizon only a part of the day for direct communication to the Earth, and the orbiter overpass opportunities only occur a few times a day. The design must robustly place the Rover in a communicable condition at the correct time. This paper discusses Curiosity's autonomous safing behavior and describes how the vehicle remains power and thermally safe while sleeping, as well as a description of how the Rover communicates with the orbiters and Earth at specific times.

  9. Safe haven laws as crime control theater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Michelle; Miller, Monica K; Griffin, Timothy

    2010-07-01

    This article examines safe haven laws, which allow parents to legally abandon their infants. The main objective is to determine whether safe haven laws fit the criteria of crime control theater, a term used to describe public policies that produce the appearance, but not the effect, of crime control, and as such are essentially socially constructed "solutions" to socially constructed crime "problems." The analysis will apply the principles of crime control theater to safe haven laws. Specifically, the term crime control theater applies to laws that are reactionary responses to perceived criminal threats and are often widely supported as a way to address the crime in question. Such laws are attractive because they appeal to mythic narratives (i.e., saving an innocent child from a predator); however they are likely ineffective due to the complexity of the crime. These laws can have deleterious effects when policymakers make false claims of success and stunt public discourse (e.g., drawing attention away from more frequent and preventable crimes). This analysis applies these criteria to safe haven laws to determine whether such laws can be classified as crime control theater. Many qualities inherent to crime control theater are present in safe haven laws. For example, the laws are highly publicized, their intentions lack moral ambiguity, rare cases of success legitimize law enforcement and other agencies, and they appeal to the public sense of responsibility in preventing crime. Yet the goal of saving infant lives may be unattainable. These qualities make the effectiveness of the laws questionable and suggest they may be counterproductive. This analysis determined that safe haven laws are socially constructed solutions to the socially constructed problem of child abandonment. Safe haven laws are appropriately classified as crime control theater. It is imperative that further research be conducted to examine the effectiveness and collateral effects of safe haven laws

  10. Household's willingness to pay for arsenic safe drinking water in Bangladesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khan, N.A.; Brouwer, R.; Yang, H.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines willingness to pay (WTP) in Bangladesh for arsenic (As) safe drinking water across different As-risk zones, applying a double bound discrete choice value elicitation approach. The study aims to provide a robust estimate of the benefits of As safe drinking water supply, which is

  11. Embracing Safe Ground Test Facility Operations and Maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Steven C.; Green, Donald R.

    2010-01-01

    Conducting integrated operations and maintenance in wind tunnel ground test facilities requires a balance of meeting due dates, efficient operation, responsiveness to the test customer, data quality, effective maintenance (relating to readiness and reliability), and personnel and facility safety. Safety is non-negotiable, so the balance must be an "and" with other requirements and needs. Pressure to deliver services faster at increasing levels of quality in under-maintained facilities is typical. A challenge for management is to balance the "need for speed" with safety and quality. It s especially important to communicate this balance across the organization - workers, with a desire to perform, can be tempted to cut corners on defined processes to increase speed. Having a lean staff can extend the time required for pre-test preparations, so providing a safe work environment for facility personnel and providing good stewardship for expensive National capabilities can be put at risk by one well-intending person using at-risk behavior. This paper documents a specific, though typical, operational environment and cites management and worker safety initiatives and tools used to provide a safe work environment. Results are presented and clearly show that the work environment is a relatively safe one, though still not good enough to keep from preventing injury. So, the journey to a zero injury work environment - both in measured reality and in the minds of each employee - continues. The intent of this paper is to provide a benchmark for others with operational environments and stimulate additional sharing and discussion on having and keeping a safe work environment.

  12. Safe Detection System for Hydrogen Leaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lieberman, Robert A. [Intelligent Optical Systems, Inc., Torrance, CA (United States); Beshay, Manal [Intelligent Optical Systems, Inc., Torrance, CA (United States)

    2012-02-29

    Hydrogen is an "environmentally friendly" fuel for future transportation and other applications, since it produces only pure ("distilled") water when it is consumed. Thus, hydrogen-powered vehicles are beginning to proliferate, with the total number of such vehicles expected to rise to nearly 100,000 within the next few years. However, hydrogen is also an odorless, colorless, highly flammable gas. Because of this, there is an important need for hydrogen safety monitors that can warn of hazardous conditions in vehicles, storage facilities, and hydrogen production plants. To address this need, IOS has developed a unique intrinsically safe optical hydrogen sensing technology, and has embodied it in detector systems specifically developed for safety applications. The challenge of using light to detect a colorless substance was met by creating chemically-sensitized optical materials whose color changes in the presence of hydrogen. This reversible reaction provides a sensitive, reliable, way of detecting hydrogen and measuring its concentration using light from low-cost LEDs. Hydrogen sensors based on this material were developed in three completely different optical formats: point sensors ("optrodes"), integrated optic sensors ("optical chips"), and optical fibers ("distributed sensors") whose entire length responds to hydrogen. After comparing performance, cost, time-to-market, and relative market need for these sensor types, the project focused on designing a compact optrode-based single-point hydrogen safety monitor. The project ended with the fabrication of fifteen prototype units, and the selection of two specific markets: fuel cell enclosure monitoring, and refueling/storage safety. Final testing and development of control software for these markets await future support.

  13. Monitoring moving queries inside a safe region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Khalidi, Haidar; Taniar, David; Betts, John; Alamri, Sultan

    2014-01-01

    With mobile moving range queries, there is a need to recalculate the relevant surrounding objects of interest whenever the query moves. Therefore, monitoring the moving query is very costly. The safe region is one method that has been proposed to minimise the communication and computation cost of continuously monitoring a moving range query. Inside the safe region the set of objects of interest to the query do not change; thus there is no need to update the query while it is inside its safe region. However, when the query leaves its safe region the mobile device has to reevaluate the query, necessitating communication with the server. Knowing when and where the mobile device will leave a safe region is widely known as a difficult problem. To solve this problem, we propose a novel method to monitor the position of the query over time using a linear function based on the direction of the query obtained by periodic monitoring of its position. Periodic monitoring ensures that the query is aware of its location all the time. This method reduces the costs associated with communications in client-server architecture. Computational results show that our method is successful in handling moving query patterns.

  14. Use of non-carbonated soft drinks to provide safe drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gracey, M; Burke, V; Robinson, J

    1985-03-01

    Non-carbonated, low-calorie soft drink concentrates (cordials), when diluted according to manufacturers' instructions, had significant antibacterial effects in vitro. Bacteria affected include Vibrio cholerae, Aeromonas hydrophila, Shigella sonnei, Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli. With vibrios, bacterial counts were reduced from 10(6)/ml to undetectable numbers in less than 10 min. Escherichia coli in an initial concentration of 10(6)/ml became undetectable after incubation for 1 h with one brand of cordial. Naturally contaminated water can be rendered potable by incubation with cordials at room temperature for 1 h. This may be a way to reduce the risk of water-borne diarrhoea, particularly where the cleanliness of drinking waters cannot be otherwise assured, for example when making up oral rehydration fluids and for travellers in high-risk areas.

  15. Voter comparator switch provides fail safe data communications system - A concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koczela, L. J.; Wilgus, D. S.

    1971-01-01

    System indicates status of computers and controls operational modes. Two matrices are used - one relating to permissible system states, the other relating to requested system states. Concept is useful to designers of digital data transmission systems and time shared computer systems.

  16. Nitrous oxide provides safe and effective analgesia for minor paediatric procedures - a systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Rie S; Bayat, Allan; Steen, Nick Phaff

    2013-01-01

    Pain and distress during minor hospital-related procedures is a familiar problem in many children. Inadequate relief of children's procedural pain and distress not only affects the experience of the children and their parents, but also adversely impacts procedural success. We aimed to review the ...... the safety and efficacy of nitrous oxide during brief, but painful paediatric procedures and to compare nitrous oxide with some of the commonly used pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments for relieving anxiety and mild to moderate pain in Denmark....

  17. The Dutch secret : How to provide safe drinking water without chlorine in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeets, P.W.M.H.; Medema, G.J.; Van Dijk, J.C.

    2009-01-01

    The Netherlands is one of the few countries where chlorine is not used at all, neither for primary disinfection nor to maintain a residual disinfectant in the distribution network. The Dutch approach that allows production and distribution of drinking water without the use of chlorine while not

  18. SEAFOODplus - how to provide health promoting, safe seafood of high eating quality to consumers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børresen, Torger

    2008-01-01

    of raw materials from aquaculture and from traditional fisheries. The aquaculture component will study the effects of dietary modulation, husbandry, fish physiology, genetics and pre-slaughter conditions. Validated traceability systems are assessed to make it possible to apply a total chain approach from......, by identifying risk factors and avoiding risks caused by viral and bacterial contamination and biogenic amines in seafood. The total value chain is addressed by developing consumer driven tailor-made, functional seafood products to improve health and to ensure nutritional quality and safety by full utilisation...

  19. Safe and Encouraging Home Providing the Countdown to Leadership? Finnish Female Leaders' Childhood Memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyvärinen, Sanna; Uusiautti, Satu

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to dissect the connection between childhood homes and leadership. The study forms a part of a larger study on Finnish female leaders and their life paths. The following research question was set for this study: how did Finnish female leaders describe their childhood and home environment? It was studied through two…

  20. Safe play areas on farms in New South Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depczynski, Julie; Herde, Emily; Fragar, Lyn; Lower, Tony

    2013-08-01

    To assess the prevalence and security of fenced house yards on NSW farms and rural properties with a view to providing information to increase the development of safe play areas on farms. A cross-sectional stratified study using computer-assisted telephone interviewing. Interviews were conducted in the four rural Area Health Services throughout February to December 2008. Randomly selected sample of 1117 adults living on a farm or rural property in the study areas. Self-reported issues involving fenced house yards or safe play areas for children. Overall, 79.8% of farm respondents reported that they had a fenced house yard or safe play area. For those respondents with a fenced house yard, 66.6% reported that it was secure enough to prevent /make it difficult for a young child to wander away unsupervised. Based on these figures, it is estimated that only 53.1% of all farms or rural properties have a secure fenced house yard or safe play area. There were statistically significant variations between geographic locations, with the North Coast (37.7%) being lower. This study illustrates a need across rural NSW to further promote, install or upgrade secure fenced house yards or safe play areas. While all geographic regions of the state could improve provision to protect children, there may also be some that are in need of more intensive intervention programs to enhance compliance. Such a proposition may also be relevant on a national level. © 2013 The Authors. Australian Journal of Rural Health © National Rural Health Alliance Inc.

  1. Sun Safe Mode Controller Design for LADEE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusco, Jesse C.; Swei, Sean S. M.; Nakamura, Robert H.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the development of sun safe controllers which are designed to keep the spacecraft power positive and thermally balanced in the event an anomaly is detected. Employed by NASA's Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE), the controllers utilize the measured sun vector and the spacecraft body rates for feedback control. To improve the accuracy of sun vector estimation, the least square minimization approach is applied to process the sensor data, which is proven to be effective and accurate. To validate the controllers, the LADEE spacecraft model engaging the sun safe mode was first simulated and then compared with the actual LADEE orbital fight data. The results demonstrated the applicability of the proposed sun safe controllers.

  2. The safe transport of radioactive materials

    CERN Document Server

    Gibson, R

    1966-01-01

    The Safe Transport of Radioactive Materials is a handbook that details the safety guidelines in transporting radioactive materials. The title covers the various regulations and policies, along with the safety measures and procedures of radioactive material transport. The text first details the 1963 version of the IAEA regulation for the safe transport of radioactive materials; the regulation covers the classification of radionuclides for transport purposes and the control of external radiation hazards during the transport of radioactive materials. The next chapter deals with concerns in the im

  3. Spousal Abuse in Nicholas Spark's Safe Haven

    OpenAIRE

    Sudargo, Laura M; Riyanto, Theophilus J

    2014-01-01

    Kevin Tierney is the male main character in Safe Haven who does spousal abuse toward his wife, Erin. The analysis is on what spousal abusive behavior is and what the effects of the spousal abuse are in Nicholas Spark's Safe Haven. The concept of spousal abuse proposed by Tina de Benedictis, Ph. D. is applied to reveal the spousal abuse done by Kevin and its effects on his spouse, Erin. In this research, I discover that Kevin does spousal abuse toward Erin that categorized into seven which are...

  4. Landscape planning for a safe city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ishikawa

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available To create a safe city free from natural disasters has been one of the important criteria in city planning. Since large cities have suffered from large fires caused by earthquakes, the planning of open spaces to prevent the spread of fires is part of the basic structure of city planning in Japan. Even in the feudal city of Edo, the former name of Tokyo, there had been open spaces to prevent fire disasters along canals and rivers. This paper discusses the historical evolution of open space planning, that we call landscape planning, through the experiences in Tokyo, and clarifies the characteristics and problems for achieving a safe city.

  5. Ergonomics: safe patient handling and mobility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallmark, Beth; Mechan, Patricia; Shores, Lynne

    2015-03-01

    This article reviews and investigates the issues surrounding ergonomics, with a specific focus on safe patient handling and mobility. The health care worker of today faces many challenges, one of which is related to the safety of patients. Safe patient handling and mobility is on the forefront of the movement to improve patient safety. This article reviews the risks associated with patient handling and mobility, and informs the reader of current evidence-based practice relevant to this area of care. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Now, It's Your Turn: How You Can Take Medicine Safely

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... turn Javascript on. Feature: Taking Medicines Safely Now, It's Your Turn: How You Can Take Medicine Safely ... medicine. The pharmacist has filled the prescription. Now it's up to you to take the medicine safely. ...

  7. Effectiveness of Interventions to Promote Safe Firearm Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowhani-Rahbar, Ali; Simonetti, Joseph A; Rivara, Frederick P

    2016-01-01

    Despite supportive evidence for an association between safe firearm storage and lower risk of firearm injury, the effectiveness of interventions that promote such practices remains unclear. Guided by the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) checklist, we conducted a systematic review of randomized and quasi-experimental controlled studies of safe firearm storage interventions using a prespecified search of 9 electronic databases with no restrictions on language, year, or location from inception through May 27, 2015. Study selection and data extraction were independently performed by 2 investigators. The Cochrane Collaboration's domain-specific tool for assessing risk of bias was used to evaluate the quality of included studies. Seven clinic- and community-based studies published in 2000-2012 using counseling with or without safety device provision met the inclusion criteria. All 3 studies that provided a safety device significantly improved firearm storage practices, while 3 of 4 studies that provided no safety device failed to show an effect. Heterogeneity of studies precluded conducting a meta-analysis. We discuss methodological considerations, gaps in the literature, and recommendations for conducting future studies. Although additional studies are needed, the totality of evidence suggests that counseling augmented by device provision can effectively encourage individuals to store their firearms safely. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. SafeDroid: A Distributed Malware Detection Service for Android

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goyal, Rohit; Spognardi, Angelo; Dragoni, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    static analysis and machine learning techniques. SafeDroid has been designed as a user friendly service, providing detailed feedback in case of malware detection. The detection service is optimized to be lightweight and easily updated. The feature set on which the micro-service of detection relies......Android platform has become a primary target for malware. In this paper we present SafeDroid, an open source distributed service to detect malicious apps on Android by combining static analysis and machine learning techniques. It is composed by three micro-services, working together, combining...... on on has been selected and optimized in order to focus only on the most distinguishing characteristics of the Android apps. We present a prototype to show the effectiveness of the detection mechanism service and the feasibility of the approach....

  9. How to encourage children to use mobile phones safely.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyse, Karen

    2011-12-01

    The safe use of mobile phones is part of the health promotion duty of children's nurses and those nurses working in schools. In this article the author advocates that children and young people should be encouraged to keep and use their mobiles in a safe place, avoid lengthy and incessant calls, provide their number only to those they feel they can trust and switch off the phone as soon as possible. They need to take care with the type of messages they send and to tell someone they can trust about any cyberbullying. The nurse can also help with school policies and can attend groups in schools and youth organisations to discuss the positive and negative aspects of mobile phone technology.

  10. Updated Guidance for Safe and Effective Use of Contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tepper, Naomi K; Curtis, Kathryn M; Jatlaoui, Tara C; Whiteman, Maura K

    2016-11-01

    Progress has been made in efforts to reduce unintended pregnancy; however, unintended pregnancy remains a public health issue in the United States. A key component of reducing unintended pregnancy is to increase correct and consistent use of contraception by reducing barriers to access and use. The CDC has recently updated its guidance for the safe and effective use of contraception. The U.S. Medical Eligibility Criteria for Contraceptive Use (US MEC), 2016, and U.S. Selected Practice Recommendations for Contraceptive Use (US SPR), 2016, are intended for healthcare providers to help patients choose a method that is safe and can be used effectively. The recommendations aim to reduce certain barriers to contraception and thus help women, men, and couples to control timing of pregnancies.

  11. Safe purging of natural gas pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perkins, T.K. (Arco Oil and Gas Co. (US)); Euchner, J.A. (Nynex Corp. (US))

    1988-11-01

    When a newly constructed natural gas pipeline is put into service, it can be safely purged of air by injection of a slug of inert gas, such as N/sub 2/. The method of sizing the required slug is based on a model of dispersion in turbulent flow in conjunction with flammability limits.

  12. Bike Maintenance Makes for a Safe Ride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    PTA Today, 1994

    1994-01-01

    Parents and children need to learn about bicycle maintenance and safety to keep bicycles fit and safe. The article presents a checklist of important bicycle equipment safety items and makes suggestions about how parents and children can learn more about bicycle safety and maintenance. (SM)

  13. Bottled Water Everywhere: Keeping it Safe

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... water also comes from municipal sources—in other words, the tap. Municipal water is usually treated before it is bottled. Examples ... regulations put in place and enforced by FDA. Water must be sampled, analyzed, and found to be safe and sanitary. These regulations also ...

  14. Safe laparoscopic colorectal surgery performed by trainees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langhoff, Peter Koch; Schultz, Martin; Harvald, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Laparoscopic surgery for colorectal cancer is safe, but there have been hesitations to implement the technique in all departments. One of the reasons for this may be suboptimal learning possibilities since supervised trainees have not been allowed to do the operations to an adequate extent...

  15. Staying Healthy and Safe at Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... don't have to get up in the middle of the night to go to the bathroom. Eat healthy foods , especially foods that are rich in iron and protein. Relax and avoid stressful situations when possible. How can you keep a safe work environment? It's important that the environment around you is ...

  16. Have Diabetes? Get Tips for Safe Travels

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this? Submit Button Past Emails Have Diabetes? Get Tips for Safe Travels Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) ... file Microsoft PowerPoint file Microsoft Word file Microsoft Excel file Audio/Video file Apple Quicktime file RealPlayer ...

  17. Have a Safe and Healthy Fall

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-10-14

    Fall is a great time to try new and healthy activities with your parents! Have a food tasting or a leaf raking contest! Whatever your plans, make sure to have fun and be safe!  Created: 10/14/2010 by CDC Office of Women’s Health.   Date Released: 10/14/2010.

  18. Safe and Healthy Travel to China

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-10-09

    In this podcast, Dr. Phyllis Kozarsky, CDC Travel Medicine expert, discusses what travelers should do to ensure a safe and healthy trip to China.  Created: 10/9/2008 by National Center for Preparedness, Detection, and Control of Infectious Diseases (NCPDCID), Division of Global Migration and Quarantine (DGMQ).   Date Released: 10/9/2008.

  19. Stay Safe and Healthy This Winter!

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-11-23

    In this podcast for kids, the Kidtastics offer some simple ways to stay safe and healthy during the winter holiday season.  Created: 11/23/2010 by CDC Office of Women’s Health.   Date Released: 11/23/2010.

  20. How safe are South African schools?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erna Kinsey

    South African Journal of Education. Copyright © 2005 EASA. Vol 25(1) 5–10 ... reports have indicated that children's rights are neither promoted nor protected in certain schools. The purpose in this study was to determine ... determine the right of learners to a safe school environment and the obligations of educators and ...

  1. DQO Summary Report for 105-N/109-N Interim Safe Storage Project Waste Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. A. Lee

    2005-09-15

    The DQO summary report provides the results of the DQO process completed for waste characterization activities for the 105-N/109-N Reactor Interim Safe Storage Project including decommission, deactivate, decontaminate, and demolish activities for six associated buildings.

  2. Are You Thinking about Suicide? How to Stay Safe and Find Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Are you thinking about suicide? How to stay safe and find treatment Hopelessness may lead you to think about suicide. Learn ... support to overcome the problems linked to suicidal thinking. Your doctor or mental health provider can help ...

  3. Understanding the genesis of mass transport deposits (MTDs) for safe mining planning : Anhovo Quarry, Western Slovenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pogačnik, Željko; Ogata, K.; Pini, Gian Andrea; Tunis, G.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the factors that contribute to anisotropic slopes instability provides important information for safe mining operations in flysch-type units. This work presents the results of sedimentological and structural analyses performed in the Anhovo Quarry (Western Slovenia), where

  4. Safe and Sustainable Water Resources Strategic Research Action Plan 2012-2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document represents a strategic guide to EPA’s research actions, alone and in part-nership with the broader federal, industry and scientific research community, to provide the science and engineering necessary for safe and sustainable water resources.

  5. Safe Use of Pesticides, Guidelines. Occupational Safety and Health Series No. 38.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Labour Office, Geneva (Switzerland).

    This document provides guidance on the safe use of pesticides in agricultural work. General principles are given and followed by more detailed safety requirements for the various pesticide application techniques. Finally, the medical aspects of pesticides are considered. (BB)

  6. Making operations on standard-library containers strongly exception safe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katajainen, Jyrki

    2007-01-01

    An operation on an element container is said to provide a strong guarantee of exception safety if, in case an exception is thrown, the operation leaves the container in the state in which it was before the operation. In this paper, we explore how to adjust operations on C++ standard......-library containers to provide the strong guarantee of exception safety, instead of the default guarantee, without violating the stringent performance requirements specified in the C++ standard. In particular, we show that every strongly exception-safe operation on dynamic arrays and ordered dictionaries is only...

  7. Developing a state-wide infrastructure for safe sleep promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlers-Schmidt, Carolyn R; Schunn, Christy; Kuhlmann, Stephanie; Kuhlmann, Zachary; Engel, Matthew

    2017-08-01

    Sleep-related deaths are the third leading cause of infant death in Kansas. This manuscript describes implementation of an infrastructure of regional trainers to educate on the American Academy of Pediatrics safe sleep recommendations. Prospective evaluation of training program on knowledge transfer. Instructors were recruited from throughout the state of Kansas and trained to provide safe sleep education in their communities. Instructors were a mix of healthcare workers and community members. Their trainees encompassed both professionals and caregivers. Instructors attended a 2-day training, including completing 18-item pre and post-training knowledge tests, a training evaluation survey, and performing a portion of the structured safe sleep presentation and crib demonstration for feedback. Instructors were evaluated before and after training. After conducting trainings in their region, instructors submitted trainees' pre and post-test results. Scores were compared using t-test. Twenty-three instructors were trained. Scores averaged 13.5 (SD=2.4) for the pre-test and 15.3 (SD=2.4) for the post-test. Those scoring sleep education at 21 events to a total of 378 trainees. Trainee scores averaged 11.4 (SD=2.7) on the pre-test and increased to 13.9 (SD=2.5) on the post-test (Psleep instructors can be trained to disseminate safe sleep guidelines; however, only half provided at least 1 training within 1 year. Future recommendations include over-recruiting potential instructors, incorporating trainings into existing positions or otherwise incentivizing trainers. Copyright © 2017 National Sleep Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. PENGEMBANGAN MODEL SAFE COMMUNITY BERBASIS MASYARAKAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niniek Lely Pratiwi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Safe community as a system starts at village level, sub health centers, health center to the emergency services in hospitals. This effort is to encourage people to motivate and raise awareness of the potential. This research aims to develop a model of community-based safe community in an effort to emergency care system in the village of alert starting from system input, process and output. Methods: The study design is explanative, with qualitative data. This research was conducted in the Province of West Java and Yogyakarta Special Region. Results: The results in terms of system inputs that safe community concept has not been much to formulate. Some claim a disaster mapping, taking into account the estimated number of victims, and needs help cure and health care in safe community based. Coordination of the main tasks and functions of each. Policy department already has a foundation of legitimacy according to laws, government regulations, medium-term development plan for the area and the Regent's decision letter, the local governor and even districts. Budget still relies on budget allocations, budget and block grand. Overview of the system process of the mdependence of the community there has been no system to start, but the potential is quite high, with the correct organizational, professional and can be better ensure the implementation of sustainable community based disaster management. Some of the inhibiting factor is the mobilization of community resources are lacking, limited human resources, budgeting, and coordination among sectors less traffic, less socialization and data collection, communications need to be increased, volunteers erratic, and less care. Development of community-based safe community model that is holistic, with the ability to empower local communities. This model includes the initiation efforts, partnerships, mobilization, advocacy resources, to accommodate the cultural, behavioral and regulatory assistance

  9. Patient Involvement in Safe Delivery: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olfati, Forozun; Asefzadeh, Saeid; Changizi, Nasrin; Keramat, Afsaneh; Yunesian, Masud

    2015-09-28

    Patient involvement in safe delivery planning is considered important yet not widely practiced. The present study aimed at identifythe factors that affect patient involvementin safe delivery, as recommended by parturient women. This study was part of a qualitative research conducted by content analysis method and purposive sampling in 2013.The data were collected through 63 semi-structured interviews in4 hospitalsand analyzed using thematic content analysis. The participants in this research were women before discharge and after delivery. Findings were analyzed using Colaizzi's method. Four categories of factors that could affect patient involvement in safe delivery emerged from our analysis: patient-related (true and false beliefs, literacy, privacy, respect for patient), illness-related (pain, type of delivery, patient safety incidents), health care professional-relatedand task-related factors (behavior, monitoring &training), health care setting-related (financial aspects, facilities). More research is needed to explore the factors affecting the participation of mothers. It is therefore, recommended to: 1) take notice of mother education, their husbands, midwives and specialists; 2) provide pregnant women with insurance coverage from the outset of pregnancy, especially during prenatal period; 3) form a labor pain committee consisting of midwives, obstetricians, and anesthesiologists in order to identify the preferred painless labor methods based on the existing facilities and conditions, 4) carry out research on observing patients' privacy and dignity; 5) pay more attention on the factors affecting cesarean.

  10. Human cloning: can it be made safe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhind, Susan M; Taylor, Jane E; De Sousa, Paul A; King, Tim J; McGarry, Michelle; Wilmut, Ian

    2003-11-01

    There are continued claims of attempts to clone humans using nuclear transfer, despite the serious problems that have been encountered in cloning other mammals. It is known that epigenetic and genetic mechanisms are involved in clone failure, but we still do not know exactly how. Human reproductive cloning is unethical, but the production of cells from cloned embryos could offer many potential benefits. So, can human cloning be made safe?

  11. Safe Sleep for Babies PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2018-01-09

    This 60 second public service announcement is based on the January 2018 CDC Vital Signs report. Every year, there are about 3,500 sleep-related deaths among U.S. babies. Learn how to create a safe sleep environment for babies.  Created: 1/9/2018 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 1/9/2018.

  12. Vulnerabilities Classification for Safe Development on Android

    OpenAIRE

    Ricardo Luis D. M. Ferreira; Anderson F. P. dos Santos; Ricardo Choren

    2016-01-01

    The global sales market is currently led by devices with the Android operating system. In 2015, more than 1 billion smartphones were sold, of which 81.5% were operated by the Android platform. In 2017, it is estimated that 267.78 billion applications will be downloaded from Google Play. According to Qian, 90% of applications are vulnerable, despite the recommendations of rules and standards for the safe software development. This study presents a classification of vulnerabilities, indicating ...

  13. A new safe and cost-effective percutaneous dilatational tracheotomy: SafeTrach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullman, Johan; Karling, Jonas; Margolin, Gregori

    2016-06-01

    Conclusion SafeTrach is a new simplified and safe technique to perform percutaneous dilatational tracheotomy (PDT) that eliminates known risk factors compared with existing percutaneous techniques. In the present clinical study, also patients with disadvantageous anatomy not suitable for conventional PDT (CPDT) were treated without complications using SafeTrach. PDT with SafeTrach (STPDT) offers an excellent solution for patients who need tracheotomy in connection with elective ear, nose, and throat (ENT) surgery. Objectives To assess a new technique for percutaneous tracheotomy. Methods Seventeen patients were tracheotomized with STPDT using SafeTrach for the initial penetration sequence and single step dilatational techniques for the dilatational sequence. The patients represented a variety of different neck anatomies. Fifteen patients were head- and neck cancer patients that were subjects of free flap transplants. Results This study showed that STPDT was safe and easy to perform and time-efficient. The median duration of the procedure was 11.5 min and the puncture was in all cases located in the midline of the trachea either between the 2nd and 3rd tracheal ring (n = 13) or between the 3rd and 4th ring (n = 4).

  14. Is phototherapy safe for HIV-infected individuals?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, M.L.; Houpt, K.R.; Cruz, P.D. Jr. [Texas Univ., Dallas, TX (United States). Southwestern Medical Center

    1996-08-01

    Patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have a high prevalence of UV radiation-responsive skin diseases including psoriasis, pruitus, eosinophillic folliculitis and eczemas. On the other hand, UV has been shown to suppress T cell-mediated immune responses and to induce activation and replication of HIV. These developments have prompted clinicians and investigators to question whether phototherapy is safe for HIV-infected individuals. We have reviewed these issues and hereby provide a summary and critique of relevant laboratory and clinical evidence. (Author).

  15. New Developments in FPGA Devices: SEUs and Fail-Safe Strategies from the NASA Goddard Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Melanie; LaBel, Kenneth; Pellish, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    It has been shown that, when exposed to radiation environments, each Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) device has unique error signatures. Subsequently, fail-safe and mitigation strategies will differ per FPGA type. In this session several design approaches for safe systems will be presented. It will also explore the benefits and limitations of several mitigation techniques. The intention of the presentation is to provide information regarding FPGA types, their susceptibilities, and proven fail-safe strategies; so that users can select appropriate mitigation and perform the required trade for system insertion. The presentation will describe three types of FPGA devices and their susceptibilities in radiation environments.

  16. New Developments in FPGA: SEUs and Fail-Safe Strategies from the NASA Goddard Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Melanie D.; Label, Kenneth A.; Pellish, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    It has been shown that, when exposed to radiation environments, each Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) device has unique error signatures. Subsequently, fail-safe and mitigation strategies will differ per FPGA type. In this session several design approaches for safe systems will be presented. It will also explore the benefits and limitations of several mitigation techniques. The intention of the presentation is to provide information regarding FPGA types, their susceptibilities, and proven fail-safe strategies; so that users can select appropriate mitigation and perform the required trade for system insertion. The presentation will describe three types of FPGA devices and their susceptibilities in radiation environments.

  17. SAFE: SPARQL Federation over RDF Data Cubes with Access Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Yasar; Saleem, Muhammad; Mehdi, Muntazir; Hogan, Aidan; Mehmood, Qaiser; Rebholz-Schuhmann, Dietrich; Sahay, Ratnesh

    2017-02-01

    Several query federation engines have been proposed for accessing public Linked Open Data sources. However, in many domains, resources are sensitive and access to these resources is tightly controlled by stakeholders; consequently, privacy is a major concern when federating queries over such datasets. In the Healthcare and Life Sciences (HCLS) domain real-world datasets contain sensitive statistical information: strict ownership is granted to individuals working in hospitals, research labs, clinical trial organisers, etc. Therefore, the legal and ethical concerns on (i) preserving the anonymity of patients (or clinical subjects); and (ii) respecting data ownership through access control; are key challenges faced by the data analytics community working within the HCLS domain. Likewise statistical data play a key role in the domain, where the RDF Data Cube Vocabulary has been proposed as a standard format to enable the exchange of such data. However, to the best of our knowledge, no existing approach has looked to optimise federated queries over such statistical data. We present SAFE: a query federation engine that enables policy-aware access to sensitive statistical datasets represented as RDF data cubes. SAFE is designed specifically to query statistical RDF data cubes in a distributed setting, where access control is coupled with source selection, user profiles and their access rights. SAFE proposes a join-aware source selection method that avoids wasteful requests to irrelevant and unauthorised data sources. In order to preserve anonymity and enforce stricter access control, SAFE's indexing system does not hold any data instances-it stores only predicates and endpoints. The resulting data summary has a significantly lower index generation time and size compared to existing engines, which allows for faster updates when sources change. We validate the performance of the system with experiments over real-world datasets provided by three clinical organisations as

  18. Infant Safe Sleep Interventions, 1990-2015: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salm Ward, Trina C; Balfour, Giselle M

    2016-02-01

    Sleep-related infant deaths remain a major public health issue. Multiple interventions have been implemented in efforts to increase adherence to safe sleep recommendations. We conducted a systematic review of the international research literature to synthesize research on interventions to reduce the risk of sleep-related deaths and their effectiveness in changing infant sleep practices. We searched PubMed, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and Google Scholar for peer-reviewed articles published between 1990 and 2015 which described an intervention and reported results. Twenty-nine articles were included for review. Studies focused on infant caregivers, health care professionals, peers, and child care professionals. Targeted behaviors included sleep position, location, removing items from the crib, breastfeeding, smoke exposure, clothing, pacifier use, and knowledge of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome. Most articles described multi-faceted interventions, including: one-on-one or group education, printed materials, visual displays, videos, and providing resources such as cribs, pacifiers, wearable blankets, and infant t-shirts. Two described public education campaigns, one used an educative questionnaire, and one encouraged maternal note taking. Health professional interventions included implementing safe sleep policies, in-service training, printed provider materials, eliciting agreement on a Declaration of Safe Sleep Practice, and sharing adherence data. Data collection methods included self-report via surveys and observational crib audits. Over half of the studies utilized comparison groups which helped determine effectiveness. Most articles reported some degree of success in changing some of the targeted behaviors; no studies reported complete adherence to recommendations. Future studies should incorporate rigorous evaluation plans, utilize comparison groups, and collect demographic and collect follow-up data.

  19. Laser patterning of platinum electrodes for safe neurostimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, R. A.; Matteucci, P. B.; Dodds, C. W. D.; Palmer, J.; Dueck, W. F.; Hassarati, R. T.; Byrnes-Preston, P. J.; Lovell, N. H.; Suaning, G. J.

    2014-10-01

    Objective. Laser surface modification of platinum (Pt) electrodes was investigated for use in neuroprosthetics. Surface modification was applied to increase the surface area of the electrode and improve its ability to transfer charge within safe electrochemical stimulation limits. Approach. Electrode arrays were laser micromachined to produce Pt electrodes with smooth surfaces, which were then modified with four laser patterning techniques to produce surface structures which were nanosecond patterned, square profile, triangular profile and roughened on the micron scale through structured laser interference patterning (SLIP). Improvements in charge transfer were shown through electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), cyclic voltammetry (CV) and biphasic stimulation at clinically relevant levels. A new method was investigated and validated which enabled the assessment of in vivo electrochemically safe charge injection limits. Main results. All of the modified surfaces provided electrical advantage over the smooth Pt. The SLIP surface provided the greatest benefit both in vitro and in vivo, and this surface was the only type which had injection limits above the threshold for neural stimulation, at a level shown to produce a response in the feline visual cortex when using an electrode array implanted in the suprachoroidal space of the eye. This surface was found to be stable when stimulated with more than 150 million clinically relevant pulses in physiological saline. Significance. Critical to the assessment of implant devices is accurate determination of safe usage limits in an in vivo environment. Laser patterning, in particular SLIP, is a superior technique for improving the performance of implant electrodes without altering the interfacial electrode chemistry through coating. Future work will require chronic in vivo assessment of these electrode patterns.

  20. Asymptotically safe inflation from quadratic gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Bonanno, Alfio

    2015-01-01

    Asymptotically Safe theories of gravity have recently received much attention. In this work we discuss a class of inflationary models derived from quantum-gravity modification of quadratic gravity according to the induced scaling around the non-Gaussian fixed point at very high energies. It is argued that the presence of a three dimensional ultraviolet critical surface generates operators of non-integer power of the type $R^{2-\\theta/2}$ in the effective Lagrangian, where $\\theta>0$ is a critical exponent. The requirement of a successful inflationary model in agreement with the recent Planck 2015 data puts important constraints on the strenght of this new type of couplings.

  1. A Safe Protocol for Amalgam Removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana G. Colson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Today's environment has different impacts on our body than previous generations. Heavy metals are a growing concern in medicine. Doctors and individuals request the removal of their amalgam (silver mercury restorations due to the high mercury content. A safe protocol to replace the silver mercury filling will ensure that there is minimal if any absorption of materials while being removed. Strong alternative white composite and lab-processed materials are available today to create a healthy and functioning mouth. Preparation of the patient prior to the procedure and after treatment is vital to establish the excretion of the mercury from the body.

  2. PLAYGROUND DISEÑOS E INFRAESTRUCTURAS SEGURAS PARA NUESTROS NIÑOS Y NIÑAS…UNA URGENCIA EN COSTA RICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Morera Castro

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo tiene como propósito dar a conocer los parámetros necesarios para el diseño e implementación de campos de juego seguros para la población. Ya que por medio de los campos de juego se suministran oportunidades únicas de desarrollo integral, especialmente en la edad infantil. En estos espacios públicos, los niños y las niñas tienen que aprender a resolver conflictos para seguir adelante con su juego, su diversión y su desarrollo. Este espacio lúdico se convierte en un lugar de aprendizaje que conlleva procesos de formación y grandes beneficios sociales, emocionales, físicos, cognoscitivos, intelectuales y espirituales. Sin embargo, estos beneficios se ven disminuidos por la falta de conciencia de las compañías constructoras que los diseñan en lugares no aptos, poniendo en riesgo a la población, también por el poco interés de las comunidades y la población adulta, en optimizar las condiciones para su uso. Por lo cual, es de suma importancia antes, durante y después de la construcción de un campo de juego tomar en cuenta: el diseño, la construcción, el material, los implementos, los componentes y los procedimientos que se deben de tener para que cumplan con los requerimientos necesarios de seguridad, y sin dejar de lado el objetivo de su creación, o sea un área diseñada, equipada, localizada y exclusiva para el juego y que facilite la formación integral de la población. Es urgente, por tanto, que en Costa Rica se establezcan legislaciones claras que garanticen el cumplimiento en cuanto a la construcción, diseño y utilización de los playgrounds, sin poner en riesgo la salud, previniendo cualquier tipo de accidente y garantizando los derechos inalienables de cada costarricense.

  3. Water Management: Communities rise to the challenge of providing ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-02-02

    Feb 2, 2011 ... Providing clean water for everyone is a global concern. But nowhere is this more challenging than in developing countries where one in five people has no access to safe drinking water.

  4. Boys and girls on the playground: sex differences in social development are not stable across early childhood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphanie Barbu

    Full Text Available Sex differences in human social behaviors and abilities have long been a question of public and scientific interest. Females are usually assumed to be more socially oriented and skillful than males. However, despite an extensive literature, the very existence of sex differences remains a matter of discussion while some studies found no sex differences whereas others reported differences that were either congruent or not with gender stereotypes. Moreover, the magnitude, consistency and stability across time of the differences remain an open question, especially during childhood. As play provides an excellent window into children's social development, we investigated whether and how sex differences change in social play across early childhood. Following a cross-sectional design, 164 children aged from 2 to 6 years old, divided into four age groups, were observed during outdoor free play at nursery school. We showed that sex differences are not stable over time evidencing a developmental gap between girls and boys. Social and structured forms of play emerge systematically earlier in girls than in boys leading to subsequent sex differences in favor of girls at some ages, successively in associative play at 3-4 years, cooperative play at 4-5 years, and social interactions with peers at 5-6 years. Preschool boys also display more solitary play than preschool girls, especially when young. Nevertheless, while boys catch up and girls move on towards more complex play, sex differences in social play patterns are reversed in favor of boys at the following ages, such as in associative play at 4-5 years and cooperative play at 5-6 years. This developmental perspective contributes to resolve apparent discrepancies between single-snapshot studies. A better understanding of the dynamics of sex differences in typical social development should also provide insights into atypical social developments which exhibit sex differences in prevalence, such as autism.

  5. Boys and girls on the playground: sex differences in social development are not stable across early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbu, Stéphanie; Cabanes, Guénaël; Le Maner-Idrissi, Gaïd

    2011-01-28

    Sex differences in human social behaviors and abilities have long been a question of public and scientific interest. Females are usually assumed to be more socially oriented and skillful than males. However, despite an extensive literature, the very existence of sex differences remains a matter of discussion while some studies found no sex differences whereas others reported differences that were either congruent or not with gender stereotypes. Moreover, the magnitude, consistency and stability across time of the differences remain an open question, especially during childhood. As play provides an excellent window into children's social development, we investigated whether and how sex differences change in social play across early childhood. Following a cross-sectional design, 164 children aged from 2 to 6 years old, divided into four age groups, were observed during outdoor free play at nursery school. We showed that sex differences are not stable over time evidencing a developmental gap between girls and boys. Social and structured forms of play emerge systematically earlier in girls than in boys leading to subsequent sex differences in favor of girls at some ages, successively in associative play at 3-4 years, cooperative play at 4-5 years, and social interactions with peers at 5-6 years. Preschool boys also display more solitary play than preschool girls, especially when young. Nevertheless, while boys catch up and girls move on towards more complex play, sex differences in social play patterns are reversed in favor of boys at the following ages, such as in associative play at 4-5 years and cooperative play at 5-6 years. This developmental perspective contributes to resolve apparent discrepancies between single-snapshot studies. A better understanding of the dynamics of sex differences in typical social development should also provide insights into atypical social developments which exhibit sex differences in prevalence, such as autism.

  6. The EASE Quality Improvement Project: Improving Safe Sleep Practices in Ohio Children's Hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macklin, Jamie R; Gittelman, Michael A; Denny, Sarah A; Southworth, Hayley; Arnold, Melissa Wervey

    2016-10-01

    Despite American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommendations, many hospitalized infants are not observed in the appropriate safe sleep environment. Caregivers tend to model sleep patterns observed in a hospital setting. This project assessed the change in infant safe sleep practices within 6 children's hospitals after the implementation of a statewide quality improvement program. The AAP recruited hospitalists from each of the state's children's hospitals and asked them to form "safe sleep teams" within their institutions. Teams used a standardized data tool to collect information on the infant's age and sleep position/environment. They collected baseline data and then weekly for the duration of the 12-month project. Teams were required to implement at least 3 Plan-Do-Study-Act cycles. We calculated changes in safe sleep practices over time. Providers received Maintenance of Certification Part IV credit for participation. Teams collected 5343 audits at all participating sites. At baseline, only 279 (32.6%) of 856 of the sleeping infants were observed to follow AAP recommendations, compared with 110 (58.2%) of 189 (P sleep practices from 48.2% to 75.4% (P hospitals improved observed infant safe sleep behaviors and family report of safe sleep education. These behavior changes may lead to more appropriate safe sleep practices at home. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  7. Cancer pain management: safe and effective use of opioids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruera, Eduardo; Paice, Judith A

    2015-01-01

    Pain remains a serious consequence of cancer and its treatment. Although significant advances have been made in providing effective cancer pain control, barriers persist. Lack of knowledge, limited time, financial restrictions, and diminished availability of necessary medications serve as significant obstacles. Safe and effective opioid use in a patient with cancer requires skill to overcome these challenges. Understanding the mechanism of action, along with the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, of opioids will lead to appropriate selection, dosing, and titration of these agents. Rotation from one opioid or route to another is an essential proficiency for oncologists. As opioid-related adverse effects often occur, the oncology team must be expert in preventing and managing constipation, nausea, sedation, and neurotoxicities. An emerging concern is overtreatment-the excessive and prolonged use of opioids in patients when these agents may produce more harm than benefit. This can occur when opioids are used inappropriately to treat comorbid psychologic issues such as anxiety and depression. Recognizing risk factors for overuse along with key components of universal precautions will promote safe use of these medications, supporting adherence and preventing diversion, thereby protecting the patient, the prescriber, and the community. Because substance use disorders are not rare in the oncology setting, attention must be given to the balance of providing analgesia while limiting harm. Caring for patients with substance misuse requires compassionate, multidisciplinary care, with input from supportive oncology/palliative care as well as addiction specialists.

  8. Safe to Fly: Certifying COTS Hardware for Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fichuk, Jessica L.

    2011-01-01

    Providing hardware for the astronauts to use on board the Space Shuttle or International Space Station (ISS) involves a certification process that entails evaluating hardware safety, weighing risks, providing mitigation, and verifying requirements. Upon completion of this certification process, the hardware is deemed safe to fly. This process from start to finish can be completed as quickly as 1 week or can take several years in length depending on the complexity of the hardware and whether the item is a unique custom design. One area of cost and schedule savings that NASA implements is buying Commercial Off the Shelf (COTS) hardware and certifying it for human spaceflight as safe to fly. By utilizing commercial hardware, NASA saves time not having to develop, design and build the hardware from scratch, as well as a timesaving in the certification process. By utilizing COTS hardware, the current detailed certification process can be simplified which results in schedule savings. Cost savings is another important benefit of flying COTS hardware. Procuring COTS hardware for space use can be more economical than custom building the hardware. This paper will investigate the cost savings associated with certifying COTS hardware to NASA s standards rather than performing a custom build.

  9. Organizing Safe Transitions from Intensive Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Häggström

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Organizing and performing patient transfers in the continuum of care is part of the work of nurses and other staff of a multiprofessional healthcare team. An understanding of discharge practices is needed in order to ultimate patients’ transfers from high technological intensive care units (ICU to general wards. Aim. To describe, as experienced by intensive care and general ward staff, what strategies could be used when organizing patient’s care before, during, and after transfer from intensive care. Method. Interviews of 15 participants were conducted, audio-taped, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Results. The results showed that the categories secure, encourage, and collaborate are strategies used in the three phases of the ICU transitional care process. The main category; a safe, interactive rehabilitation process, illustrated how all strategies were characterized by an intention to create and maintain safety during the process. A three-way interaction was described: between staff and patient/families, between team members and involved units, and between patient/family and environment. Discussion/Conclusions. The findings highlight that ICU transitional care implies critical care rehabilitation. Discharge procedures need to be safe and structured and involve collaboration, encouraging support, optimal timing, early mobilization, and a multidiscipline approach.

  10. Immunotherapy Shown Safe in Type 1 Diabetes Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Immunotherapy Shown Safe in Type 1 Diabetes Clinical Trial Next step is to see if it works ... Aug. 9, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- A small clinical trial showed an immune system therapy was safe for ...

  11. Soft Contact Lenses Safe for Kids and Teens, Review Finds

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_167037.html Soft Contact Lenses Safe for Kids and Teens, Review Finds Infection ... 2017 WEDNESDAY, July 5, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Soft contact lenses are as safe for children and teens as ...

  12. Nurses' clinical reasoning practices that support safe medication administration: An integrative review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohde, Emily; Domm, Elizabeth

    2017-09-19

    To review the current literature about nurses' clinical reasoning practices that support safe medication administration. The literature about medication administration frequently focuses on avoiding medication errors. Nurses' clinical reasoning used during medication administration to maintain medication safety receives less attention in the literature. As healthcare professionals, nurses work closely with patients, assessing and intervening to promote mediation safety prior to, during and after medication administration. They also provide discharge teaching about using medication safely. Nurses' clinical reasoning and practices that support medication safety are often invisible when the focus is medication errors avoidance. An integrative literature review was guided by Whittemore and Knafl's (Journal of Advanced Nursing, 5, 2005 and 546) five-stage review of the 11 articles that met review criteria. This review is modelled after Gaffney et al.'s (Journal of Clinical Nursing, 25, 2016 and 906) integrative review on medical error recovery. Health databases were accessed and systematically searched for research reporting nurses' clinical reasoning practices that supported safe medication administration. The level and quality of evidence of the included research articles were assessed using The Johns Hopkins Nursing Evidence-Based Practice Rating Scale©. Nurses have a central role in safe medication administration, including but not limited to risk awareness about the potential for medication errors. Nurses assess patients and their medication and use knowledge and clinical reasoning to administer medication safely. Results indicated nurses' use of clinical reasoning to maintain safe medication administration was inadequately articulated in 10 of 11 studies reviewed. Nurses are primarily responsible for safe medication administration. Nurses draw from their foundational knowledge of patient conditions and organisational processes and use clinical reasoning that

  13. Clinical Practice Guideline: Safe Medication Use in the ICU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane-Gill, Sandra L; Dasta, Joseph F; Buckley, Mitchell S; Devabhakthuni, Sandeep; Liu, Michael; Cohen, Henry; George, Elisabeth L; Pohlman, Anne S; Agarwal, Swati; Henneman, Elizabeth A; Bejian, Sharon M; Berenholtz, Sean M; Pepin, Jodie L; Scanlon, Mathew C; Smith, Brian S

    2017-09-01

    To provide ICU clinicians with evidence-based guidance on safe medication use practices for the critically ill. PubMed, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, CINAHL, Scopus, and ISI Web of Science for relevant material to December 2015. Based on three key components: 1) environment and patients, 2) the medication use process, and 3) the patient safety surveillance system. The committee collectively developed Population, Intervention, Comparator, Outcome questions and quality of evidence statements pertaining to medication errors and adverse drug events addressing the key components. A total of 34 Population, Intervention, Comparator, Outcome questions, five quality of evidence statements, and one commentary on disclosure was developed. Subcommittee members were assigned selected Population, Intervention, Comparator, Outcome questions or quality of evidence statements. Subcommittee members completed their Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation of the question with his/her quality of evidence assessment and proposed strength of recommendation, then the draft was reviewed by the relevant subcommittee. The subcommittee collectively reviewed the evidence profiles for each question they developed. After the draft was discussed and approved by the entire committee, then the document was circulated among all members for voting on the quality of evidence and strength of recommendation. The committee followed the principles of the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation system to determine quality of evidence and strength of recommendations. This guideline evaluates the ICU environment as a risk for medication-related events and the environmental changes that are possible to improve safe medication use. Prevention strategies for medication-related events are reviewed by medication use process node (prescribing, distribution, administration, monitoring). Detailed

  14. The safe use of spinal drains in thoracic aortic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Mark; Doolan, Jim; Safar, Maria; Kuduvalli, Manoj; Oo, Aung; Mills, Keith; Kendall, Jonathan; Desmond, Michael

    2011-12-01

    Paraplegia is a devastating complication which may occur following surgery on the thoracic aorta. The use of a cerebrospinal fluid drain (CSFD) has helped reduce the incidence of neurological deficit; however, the management of patients with a CSFD postsurgery requires nurses and doctors to have expertise and awareness of the associated complications. The National Patient Safety Agency (UK) has highlighted a number of cases involving inadvertent spinal injections throughout the UK National Health Service (NHS). To this end we have introduced a protocol or 'care bundle' for safe CSFD care as well as drain management. The protocol was developed by medical and nursing staff at our institution based on clinical experience and literature reviews over a two-year period (2008-2010). Interventions undertaken during the development of the protocol included discussion with the UK National Patient Safety Agency (NPSA). Content of the protocol was reviewed by internal regulatory bodies within the hospital prior to ratification and general dissemination. Clear guidance is given within the policy on the standards expected when caring for the line and managing drainage according to agreed parameters of spinal cord perfusion pressure. The protocol constitutes five documents which guide staff in the care of CSFD, its routine management, documentation and interventions necessary once neurological deficit is detected. Document 1 which is a checklist, communication tool and aide-memoire was developed to ensure effective management, when the patient arrives in intensive care unit (ICU) from theatre. Document 2 ensures that early detection of a neurological deficit is noted and with Document 3 is acted upon immediately to reverse the injury. Document 4 provides information on the safe administration of analgesia via the spinal drain and has reference to the Glasgow Coma Scale. Document 5 is a bespoke observation chart for documenting CSFD pressure and cerebrospinal fluid drainage. In

  15. Safe abortion information hotlines: An effective strategy for increasing women's access to safe abortions in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drovetta, Raquel Irene

    2015-05-01

    This paper describes the implementation of five Safe Abortion Information Hotlines (SAIH), a strategy developed by feminist collectives in a growing number of countries where abortion is legally restricted and unsafe. These hotlines have a range of goals and take different forms, but they all offer information by telephone to women about how to terminate a pregnancy using misoprostol. The paper is based on a qualitative study carried out in 2012-2014 of the structure, goals and experiences of hotlines in five Latin American countries: Argentina, Chile, Ecuador, Peru and Venezuela. The methodology included participatory observation of activities of the SAIH, and in-depth interviews with feminist activists who offer these services and with 14 women who used information provided by these hotlines to induce their own abortions. The findings are also based on a review of materials obtained from the five hotline collectives involved: documents and reports, social media posts, and details of public demonstrations and statements. These hotlines have had a positive impact on access to safe abortions for women whom they help. Providing these services requires knowledge and information skills, but little infrastructure. They have the potential to reduce the risk to women's health and lives of unsafe abortion, and should be promoted as part of public health policy, not only in Latin America but also other countries. Additionally, they promote women's autonomy and right to decide whether to continue or terminate a pregnancy. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Sandia SWiFT Site Safe Work Planning Manual.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, Jonathan

    2016-02-01

    The Department of Energy's Scaled Wind Farm Technology (SWiFT) facility provides research site with multiple wind turbines at a scale useful for the experimental study of wake dynamics, advanced rotor development, turbine control, and advanced sensing for production-scale wind farms. Safety of workers and the public is the top and overriding priority at SWiFT. Central to safe operations are formal planning processes . This manual provides an overview of test planning and work planning processes and requirements in adherence with the Sandia corporate Engineered Safety Work Planning and Control process. It is required reading for all SWiFT site staff, Sandia workers, and collaborators who oversee, conduct, or participate in test activities or who are involved in modifying Sandia SWiFT site assets.

  17. Operation Safe Haven: the needs of nurses caring for refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Rhonda; Emrys, Elisabeth; Finney Lamb, Cathryn; Eagar, Sandy; Smith, Mitchell

    2003-06-01

    Nurses played a significant role in providing care to Kosovar and East Timorese refugees at the East Hills Reception Centre in Sydney, Australia, during Operation Safe Haven in 1999-2000. To ascertain the needs of nurses in this setting, 13 nurses participated in two focus group interviews, and two in-depth interviews were conducted with nursing managers. Qualitative thematic analysis was conducted on the resulting transcripts. Nurses reported that, overall, they had the necessary clinical skills but needed specific refugee health profiles and training in culturally competent and trauma-sensitive care. The nurses experienced trauma-related, cultural, environmental and role-related stressors. They used a variety of informal psychosocial supports but reported the need for ongoing counselling and debriefing. While clinical skills were considered important, nurses identified other factors as having more impact on their ability to provide comprehensive care for traumatized refugees, particularly their role as client advocates.

  18. Subscale Validation of the Subsurface Active Filtration of Exhaust (SAFE) Approach to the NTP Ground Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, William M.; Borowski, Stanley K.; Bulman, Mel; Joyner, Russell; Martin, Charles R.

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) has been recognized as an enabling technology for missions to Mars and beyond. However, one of the key challenges of developing a nuclear thermal rocket is conducting verification and development tests on the ground. A number of ground test options are presented, with the Sub-surface Active Filtration of Exhaust (SAFE) method identified as a preferred path forward for the NTP program. The SAFE concept utilizes the natural soil characteristics present at the Nevada National Security Site to provide a natural filter for nuclear rocket exhaust during ground testing. A validation method of the SAFE concept is presented, utilizing a non-nuclear sub-scale hydrogen/oxygen rocket seeded with detectible radioisotopes. Additionally, some alternative ground test concepts, based upon the SAFE concept, are presented. Finally, an overview of the ongoing discussions of developing a ground test campaign are presented.

  19. Identifying best practices for "Safe Harbor" legislation to protect child sex trafficking victims: Decriminalization alone is not sufficient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnert, Elizabeth S; Abrams, Susan; Azzi, Veronica F; Ryan, Gery; Brook, Robert; Chung, Paul J

    2016-01-01

    Several states have recently enacted "Safe Harbor" laws to redirect child victims of commercial sexual exploitation and child sex trafficking from the criminal justice system and into the child welfare system. No comprehensive studies of Safe Harbor law implementation exist. The nine state Safe Harbor laws enacted by 2012 were analyzed to guide state legislators, health professionals, law enforcement agents, child welfare providers, and other responders to the commercial sexual exploitation of children on the development and implementation of state Safe Harbor laws. The authors conducted 32 semi-structured interviews with Safe Harbor experts in these states. Participants conveyed that Safe Harbor legislation signified a critical paradigm shift, treating commercially sexually exploited youth not as criminals but as vulnerable children in need of services. However, Safe Harbor legislation varied widely and significant gaps in laws exist. Such laws alone were considered insufficient without adequate funding for necessary services. As a result, many well-meaning providers were going around the Safe Harbor laws by continuing to incarcerate commercially sexually exploited youth in the juvenile justice system regardless of Safe Harbor laws in place. This was done, to act, in their view, in what was the best interest of the victimized children. With imperfect laws and implementation, these findings suggest an important role for local and state responders to act together to protect victims from unnecessary criminalization and potential further traumatization. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. 77 FR 61027 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act and Safe Drinking Water Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-05

    ... of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act and Safe Drinking Water Act On... Clean Water Act and Safe Drinking Water Act at mobile home parks operated by defendants in Pennsylvania, Delaware and Virginia. The defendants treat sewage and provide drinking water at a number of its mobile...

  1. 50 CFR 216.91 - Dolphin-safe labeling standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dolphin-safe labeling standards. 216.91... MAMMALS Dolphin Safe Tuna Labeling § 216.91 Dolphin-safe labeling standards. (a) It is a violation of... include on the label of those products the term “dolphin-safe” or any other term or symbol that claims or...

  2. 31 CFR 515.326 - Custody of safe deposit boxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Custody of safe deposit boxes. 515... Definitions § 515.326 Custody of safe deposit boxes. Safe deposit boxes shall be deemed to be in the custody... upon the meaning of the term custody. ...

  3. 31 CFR 500.326 - Custody of safe deposit boxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Custody of safe deposit boxes. 500... Definitions § 500.326 Custody of safe deposit boxes. Safe deposit boxes shall be deemed to be in the custody... upon the meaning of the term custody. ...

  4. Safe Laser Beam Propagation for Interplanetary Links

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Keith E.

    2011-01-01

    Ground-to-space laser uplinks to Earth–orbiting satellites and deep space probes serve both as a beacon and an uplink command channel for deep space probes and Earth-orbiting satellites. An acquisition and tracking point design to support a high bandwidth downlink from a 20-cm optical terminal on an orbiting Mars spacecraft typically calls for 2.5 kW of 1030-nm uplink optical power in 40 micro-radians divergent beams.2 The NOHD (nominal ocular hazard distance) of the 1030nm uplink is in excess of 2E5 km, approximately half the distance to the moon. Recognizing the possible threat of high power laser uplinks to the flying public and to sensitive Earth-orbiting satellites, JPL developed a three-tiered system at its Optical Communications Telescope Laboratory (OCTL) to ensure safe laser beam propagation through navigational and near-Earth space.

  5. Safe drinking water and waterborne outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, N A; Bondelind, M

    2017-02-01

    The present work compiles a review on drinking waterborne outbreaks, with the perspective of production and distribution of microbiologically safe water, during 2000-2014. The outbreaks are categorised in raw water contamination, treatment deficiencies and distribution network failure. The main causes for contamination were: for groundwater, intrusion of animal faeces or wastewater due to heavy rain; in surface water, discharge of wastewater into the water source and increased turbidity and colour; at treatment plants, malfunctioning of the disinfection equipment; and for distribution systems, cross-connections, pipe breaks and wastewater intrusion into the network. Pathogens causing the largest number of affected consumers were Cryptosporidium, norovirus, Giardia, Campylobacter, and rotavirus. The largest number of different pathogens was found for the treatment works and the distribution network. The largest number of affected consumers with gastrointestinal illness was for contamination events from a surface water source, while the largest number of individual events occurred for the distribution network.

  6. Towards Safe Navigation by Formalizing Navigation Rules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arne Kreutzmann

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available One crucial aspect of safe navigation is to obey all navigation regulations applicable, in particular the collision regulations issued by the International Maritime Organization (IMO Colregs. Therefore, decision support systems for navigation need to respect Colregs and this feature should be verifiably correct. We tackle compliancy of navigation regulations from a perspective of software verification. One common approach is to use formal logic, but it requires to bridge a wide gap between navigation concepts and simple logic. We introduce a novel domain specification language based on a spatio-temporal logic that allows us to overcome this gap. We are able to capture complex navigation concepts in an easily comprehensible representation that can direcly be utilized by various bridge systems and that allows for software verification.

  7. Vulnerabilities Classification for Safe Development on Android

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Luis D. M. Ferreira

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The global sales market is currently led by devices with the Android operating system. In 2015, more than 1 billion smartphones were sold, of which 81.5% were operated by the Android platform. In 2017, it is estimated that 267.78 billion applications will be downloaded from Google Play. According to Qian, 90% of applications are vulnerable, despite the recommendations of rules and standards for the safe software development. This study presents a classification of vulnerabilities, indicating the vulnerability, the safety aspect defined by the Brazilian Association of Technical Standards (Associação Brasileira de Normas Técnicas - ABNT norm NBR ISO/IEC 27002 which will be violated, which lines of code generate the vulnerability and what should be done to avoid it, and the threat agent used by each of them. This classification allows the identification of possible points of vulnerability, allowing the developer to correct the identified gaps.

  8. The safe road transport system approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vollpracht Hans-Joachim

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available More than 1,24 million people die each year on the worlds roads and between 20 to 50 million suffer from nonfatal injuries. The UN Road Safety Collaboration Meetings under the leadership of WHO developed the Programme for the Decade of Actions for road safety taking nations into the responsibility of improving their accident figures by the five pillars of a national Road Safety Policy, safer Roads, safer Vehicles, safer Road Users and Post Crash Care. It is this Safe System Approach that takes into consideration the land use, infrastructure and transport planning, road user’s abilities and limitations and the close cooperation of all governmental and none governmental stakeholders involved.

  9. Therapy Provider Phase Information

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Therapy Provider Phase Information dataset is a tool for providers to search by their National Provider Identifier (NPI) number to determine their phase for...

  10. Safe operation of a batch reactor: Safe storage of organic peroxides in supply vessels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steensma, M.; Steensma, Metske; Westerterp, K.R.

    1991-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the limits of safe operation for a cooled reactor, operated batchwise. As an example of a single-phase reaction, we studied the decomposition of t-butyl peroxypivalate, a well-known organic peroxide, undergoing self-heating at relatively low temperatures. If

  11. Safe Schools for LGBTQI Students: How Do Teachers View Their Role in Promoting Safe Schools?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega, Stephanie; Crawford, Heather Glynn; Van Pelt, J-Lynn

    2012-01-01

    This literature review presents insights from existing research on how teachers view their role in creating safe schools for lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer/questioning, and intersex (LGBTQI) students. Analysis of the literature shows that there are concerns for LGBTQI students' safety in schools, that educational settings operate from…

  12. Estimated Maximal Safe Dosages of Tumescent Lidocaine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeske, Daniel R.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Tumescent lidocaine anesthesia consists of subcutaneous injection of relatively large volumes (up to 4 L or more) of dilute lidocaine (≤1 g/L) and epinephrine (≤1 mg/L). Although tumescent lidocaine anesthesia is used for an increasing variety of surgical procedures, the maximum safe dosage is unknown. Our primary aim in this study was to measure serum lidocaine concentrations after subcutaneous administration of tumescent lidocaine with and without liposuction. Our hypotheses were that even with large doses (i.e., >30 mg/kg), serum lidocaine concentrations would be below levels associated with mild toxicity and that the concentration-time profile would be lower after liposuction than without liposuction. METHODS: Volunteers participated in 1 to 2 infiltration studies without liposuction and then one study with tumescent liposuction totally by local anesthesia. Serum lidocaine concentrations were measured at 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, and 24 hours after each tumescent lidocaine infiltration. Area under the curve (AUC∞) of the serum lidocaine concentration-time profiles and peak serum lidocaine concentrations (Cmax) were determined with and without liposuction. For any given milligram per kilogram dosage, the probability that Cmax >6 μg/mL, the threshold for mild lidocaine toxicity was estimated using tolerance interval analysis. RESULTS: In 41 tumescent infiltration procedures among 14 volunteer subjects, tumescent lidocaine dosages ranged from 19.2 to 52 mg/kg. Measured serum lidocaine concentrations were all lidocaine toxicity without liposuction at a dose of 28 mg/kg and with liposuction at a dose of 45 mg/kg was ≤1 per 2000. CONCLUSIONS: Preliminary estimates for maximum safe dosages of tumescent lidocaine are 28 mg/kg without liposuction and 45 mg/kg with liposuction. As a result of delayed systemic absorption, these dosages yield serum lidocaine concentrations below levels associated with mild toxicity and are a nonsignificant

  13. 75 FR 7149 - SAFE Mortgage Licensing Act: HUD Responsibilities Under the SAFE Act; Extension of Public Comment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-17

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT 24 CFR Parts 30 and 3400 RIN 2502-A170 SAFE Mortgage Licensing... responsibilities under the Secure and Fair Enforcement Mortgage Licensing Act of 2008 (SAFE Act), which was...

  14. Moving beyond safe sex to women-controlled safe sex: a concept analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Kamila A; Coleman, Christopher L; Deatrick, Janet A; Jemmott, Loretta S

    2012-08-01

    This paper is a report of a conceptual analysis of women-controlled safe sex. Women bear disproportionate burdens from sexually related health compromising outcomes. Imbalanced societal gender and power positions contribute to high morbidities. The expression, women-controlled safe sex, aims to empower women to gain control of their sexual lives. Few researchers focus on contextualized socio-cultural definitions of sexual safety among women. The sample included scientific literature from Scopus, CINAHL, PubMed, PsychINFO and Sociological Abstracts. Papers were published 2000-2010. Critical analyses of literature about women-controlled safe sex were performed in May 2011 using Rodgers' evolutionary concept analysis methods. The search focused on social and cultural influences on sexual practices aimed at increasing women's control over their sexual safety. The analysis uncovered five attributes of women-controlled safe sex: technology; access to choices; women at-risk; 'condom migration' panic; and communication. Three antecedents included: male partner influence; body awareness; and self-efficacy. Consequences were categorized as positive or negative. Nine surrogate terms included: empowerment; gender power; female-controlled sexual barrier method; microbicides; diaphragm; sexual negotiation and communication; female condom; women-initiated disease transmission prevention; and spermicides. Finally, a consensus definition was identified: a socio-culturally influenced multi-level process for initiating sexual safety by women deemed at-risk for sexually related dangers, usually sexually transmitted infections and/or HIV/AIDS. This concept analysis described current significance, uses, and applications of women-controlled safe sex in the scientific literature. The authors clarified its limited nature and conclude that additional conceptual refinement in nursing is necessary to influence women's health. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. Artificial sweeteners as a sugar substitute: Are they really safe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Arun; Amarnath, S; Thulasimani, M; Ramaswamy, S

    2016-01-01

    Nonnutritive sweeteners (NNS) have become an important part of everyday life and are increasingly used nowadays in a variety of dietary and medicinal products. They provide fewer calories and far more intense sweetness than sugar-containing products and are used by a plethora of population subsets for varying objectives. Six of these agents (aspartame, saccharine, sucralose, neotame, acesulfame-K, and stevia) have previously received a generally recognized as safe status from the United States Food and Drug Administration, and two more (Swingle fruit extract and advantame) have been added in the recent years to this ever growing list. They are claimed to promote weight loss and deemed safe for consumption by diabetics; however, there is inconclusive evidence to support most of their uses and some recent studies even hint that these earlier established benefits regarding NNS use might not be true. There is a lack of properly designed randomized controlled studies to assess their efficacy in different populations, whereas observational studies often remain confounded due to reverse causality and often yield opposite findings. Pregnant and lactating women, children, diabetics, migraine, and epilepsy patients represent the susceptible population to the adverse effects of NNS-containing products and should use these products with utmost caution. The overall use of NNS remains controversial, and consumers should be amply informed about the potential risks of using them, based on current evidence-based dietary guidelines.

  16. Progress in hardware development for the SAFE heatpipe reactor system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ring, P. J.; Sayre, E. D.; van Dyke, Melissa; Houts, Mike

    2002-01-01

    Advanced Methods & Materials Company (AMM) previously fabricated the stainless steel modules for the SAFE 30 system. These earlier modules consisting of five fuel pins surrounding a heat pipe, were brazed together using a tricusp insert in the gaps between tubes to ensure maximum braze coverage. It was decided that if possible the next generations of modules, both stainless steel and refractory alloy, would be diffusion bonded together using a Hot Issostatic Pressing (HIP) process. This process was very successfully used in producing the bonded rhenium Nb-lZr fuel cladding and the heat exchanger for the SP-100 Nuclear Space System Ref. 1 & 2. In addition AMM have since refined the technology enabling them to produce very high temperature rocket thrust chambers. Despite this background the complex geometry required for the SAFE module was quite challenging. It was necessary to develop a method which could be applied for both stainless steel and refractory alloy systems. In addition the interstices between tubes had to be completely filled with the tricusp insert to avoid causing distortion of the tube shape during HIPing and provide thermal conductivity from the fuel tubes to the heat pipes. Nevertheless it was considered worth the effort since Hot Isostatic Pressing, if successful, will produce an assembly with the heat pipe completely embedded within the module such that the diffusion bonded assembly has the thermal conduction and strength equivalent to a solid structure. .

  17. Environmentally safe system for treatment of bio corrosion of ETICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minarovičová Katarína

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Effects of microorganisms on building facades are responsible for aesthetic, bio-geophysical and biogeochemical deterioration. The process of cleaning of contaminated facades involves the removal and eradication of micro flora on the surface of insulation using chemical products, killing cells and eliminating all living mass, including organic ingredients. The removal of bio corrosion coating from ETICS structure by means of chemical and preservative substances (biocides is currently the only effective and most used technology. Uncontrolled leaching of the used biocides is unacceptable. Meantime, new technology for environmentally safe maintenance of ETICS is needed. Scientists have been working on replacement the biocides currently used in facades treatment with eco-friendly biocides that have no negative effects on the environment or human beings. While the eco- treatment will be available, safe dewatering of chemicals being leached from the surface of the facade could be provided by e.g. special drain systems adjusted to the building type, use and age. The paper gives an overview of the problem in context of Slovakia and examples of leaching systems designed for new and renovated buildings.

  18. Safe patient care - safety culture and risk management in otorhinolaryngology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Pierre, Michael

    2013-12-13

    Safety culture is positioned at the heart of an organization's vulnerability to error because of its role in framing organizational awareness to risk and in providing and sustaining effective strategies of risk management. Safety related attitudes of leadership and management play a crucial role in the development of a mature safety culture ("top-down process"). A type marker for organizational culture and thus a predictor for an organization's maturity in respect to safety is information flow and in particular an organization's general way of coping with information that suggests anomaly. As all values and beliefs, relationships, learning, and other aspects of organizational safety culture are about sharing and processing information, safety culture has been termed "informed culture". An informed culture is free of blame and open for information provided by incidents. "Incident reporting systems" are the backbone of a reporting culture, where good information flow is likely to support and encourage other kinds of cooperative behavior, such as problem solving, innovation, and inter-departmental bridging. Another facet of an informed culture is the free flow of information during perioperative patient care. The World Health Organization's safe surgery checklist" is the most prevalent example of a standardized information exchange aimed at preventing patient harm due to information deficit. In routine tasks mandatory standard operating procedures have gained widespread acceptance in guaranteeing the highest possible process quality. Technical and non-technical skills of healthcare professionals are the decisive human resource for an efficient and safe delivery of patient care and the avoidance of errors. The systematic enhancement of staff qualification by providing training opportunities can be a major investment in patient safety. In recent years several otorhinolaryngology departments have started to incorporate stimulation based team trainings into their

  19. [Safe patient care: safety culture and risk management in otorhinolaryngology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Pierre, M

    2013-04-01

    Safety culture is positioned at the heart of an organisation's vulnerability to error because of its role in framing organizational awareness to risk and in providing and sustaining effective strategies of risk management. Safety related attitudes of leadership and management play a crucial role in the development of a mature safety culture ("top-down process"). A type marker for organizational culture and thus a predictor for an organizations maturity in respect to safety is information flow and in particular an organization's general way of coping with information that suggests anomaly. As all values and beliefs, relationships, learning, and other aspects of organizational safety culture are about sharing and processing information, safety culture has been termed "informed culture". An informed culture is free of blame and open for information provided by incidents. "Incident reporting systems" are the backbone of a reporting culture, where good information flow is likely to support and encourage other kinds of cooperative behavior, such as problem solving, innovation, and inter-departmental bridging. Another facet of an informed culture is the free flow of information during perioperative patient care. The World Health Organisation's "safe surgery checklist" is the most prevalent example of a standardized information exchange aimed at preventing patient harm due to information deficit. In routine tasks mandatory standard operating procedures have gained widespread acceptance in guaranteeing the highest possible process quality.Technical and non-technical skills of healthcare professionals are the decisive human resource for an efficient and safe delivery of patient care and the avoidance of errors. The systematic enhancement of staff qualification by providing training opportunities can be a major investment in patient safety. In recent years several otorhinolaryngology departments have started to incorporate simulation based team trainings into their curriculum

  20. The multiverse is your playground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Alaina G.

    2018-01-01

    Astronomers should not feel like failures for leaving academia — the multiverse is replete with engaging, satisfying and well-remunerated jobs that will value you, your education, your training and your unique skills.

  1. A feasibility study to assess the effectiveness of safe dates for teen mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrman, Judith W; Waterhouse, Julie K

    2014-01-01

    To determine the effectiveness of the adapted Safe Dates curriculum as an intervention for pregnant and/or parenting teens to prevent teen dating violence (TDV). This pre-/posttest, single-sample study provided a means to assess the effectiveness of an adapted Safe Dates curriculum for teen mothers. The adapted Safe Dates curriculum was implemented in three schools designed for the unique needs of teens who are pregnant and/or parenting. The final sample of 41 teen participants, with a mean age of 16.27, completed 80% of the curriculum and two of the three assessments. Most of the teens were pregnant during participation in the curriculum, and six had infants between age 1 and 3 months. The teen mothers completed the pretest, participated in the 10-session adapted Safe Dates curriculum, and completed the posttest at the end of the program and 1 month after program completion. The pre/posttest was adapted from the Safe Dates curriculum-specific evaluation instrument. Senior, undergraduate nursing students were trained in and implemented the curriculum. Participation in the adapted Safe Dates program yielded significant differences in the areas of responses to anger, gender stereotyping, awareness of resources for perpetrators and victims, and psychological violence perpetration. This adapted program may be effective in changing selected outcomes. The implementation of a larger scale, experimental/control group study may demonstrate the program's efficacy at reducing the incidence of TDV among teen mothers. © 2014 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.

  2. Design of an integrated information management system for safe management of radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Son, Dong Chan; Hong, Suk Young; An, Kyoung Il [Daesang Information Technology Co., Ltd., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] (and others)

    2003-05-15

    An integrated data management system for the safe management of radioactive waste and spent fuel in Korea is developed to collect basic information, provide the framework for national regulation, and improve national competition and efficiency in the management of radioactive waste and spent fuel. This system can also provide public access to information such as a statistical graphs and integrated data from various waste generators to meet increased public needs and interests. Objectives can be summarized as: the five principles (independence, openness, clearance, efficiency and reliance) of safety regulation can be realized. Public understanding and reliance on the safety of spent fuel and radioactive waste management can be promoted by providing reliable information. Ensure an openness within the international nuclear community and efficiently support international agreements among contracting parties by operating safe and efficient management of spent fuel and radioactive waste (IAEA joint convention on the safety of spent fuel management and on the safety of radioactive waste management). The system can compensate for the imperfections in safe regulation of radioactive waste and spent fuel management related to waste generation, storage and disposal, and make it possible to holistic control. Re-organize the basic framework of KINS's intermediate and long term research organization and trends, regarding waste management policy is to integrate safe management and unit safe disposal.

  3. Development and design of an integrated information management system for safe management of radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Son, Dong Chan; Hong, Suk Young; An, Kyoung Il [Daesang Information Technology Co., Ltd., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-05-15

    An integrated data management system for the safe management of radioactive waste and spent fuel in Korea is developed to collect basic information, provide the framework for national regulation, and improve national competition and efficiency in the management of radioactive waste and spent fuel. This system can also provide public access to information such as a statistical graphs and integrated data from various waste generators to meet increased public needs and interests. Objectives can be summarized as; the five principles (independence, openness, clearance, efficiency and reliance) of safety regulation can be realized. Public understanding and reliance on the safety of spent fuel and radioactive waste management can be promoted by providing reliable information. Ensure an openness within the international nuclear community and efficiently support international agreements among contracting parties by operating safe and efficient management of spent fuel and radioactive waste (IAEA joint convention on the safety of spent fuel management and on the safety of radioactive waste management). The system can compensate for the imperfections In safe regulation of radioactive waste and spent fuel management related to waste generation, storage and disposal, and make it possible to holistic control. Re-organize the basic framework of KINS's intermediate and long term research organization and trends, regarding waste management policy is to integrate safe management and unit safe disposal.

  4. How safe is your neighborhood? Perceived neighborhood safety and functional decline in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Vivien K; Stijacic Cenzer, Irena; Kao, Helen; Ahalt, Cyrus; Williams, Brie A

    2012-05-01

    Neighborhood characteristics are associated with health and the perception of safety is particularly important to exercise and health among older adults. Little is known about the relationship between perception of neighborhood safety and functional decline in older adults. To determine the relationship between perceived neighborhood safety and functional decline in older adults. Longitudinal, community-based. 18,043 persons, 50 years or older, who participated in the 1998 and 2008 Health and Retirement Study. The primary outcome was 10-year functional decline (new difficulty or dependence in any Activity of Daily Living, new mobility difficulty, and/or death). The primary predictor was perceived neighborhood safety categorized into three groups: "very safe", "moderately safe", and "unsafe." We evaluated the association between perceived neighborhood safety and 10-year functional decline using a modified Poisson regression to generate unadjusted and adjusted relative risks (ARR). At baseline 11,742 (68.0%) participants perceived their neighborhood to be very safe, 4,477 (23.3%) moderately safe, and 1,824 (8.7%) unsafe. Over 10 years, 10,338 (53.9%) participants experienced functional decline, including 6,266 (50.2%) who had perceived their neighborhood to be very safe, 2,839 (61.2%) moderately safe, and 1,233 (63.6%) unsafe, P neighborhood safety was associated with 10-year functional decline (moderately safe ARR 1.15 95% CI 1.09-1.20; unsafe ARR 1.21 95% CI: 1.03-1.31 compared to very safe group). The relationship between perceived neighborhood safety and 10-year functional decline was not statistically significant for participants who had baseline functional impairment. Asking older adults about their perceived neighborhood safety may provide important information about their risk of future functional decline. These findings also suggest that future studies might focus on assessing whether interventions that promote physical activity while addressing safety

  5. Acceptance and use of eight arsenic-safe drinking water options in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inauen, Jennifer; Hossain, Mohammad Mojahidul; Johnston, Richard B; Mosler, Hans-Joachim

    2013-01-01

    Arsenic contamination of drinking water is a serious public health threat. In Bangladesh, eight major safe water options provide an alternative to contaminated shallow tubewells: piped water supply, deep tubewells, pond sand filters, community arsenic-removal, household arsenic removal, dug wells, well-sharing, and rainwater harvesting. However, it is uncertain how well these options are accepted and used by the at-risk population. Based on the RANAS model (risk, attitudes, norms, ability, and self-regulation) this study aimed to identify the acceptance and use of available safe water options. Cross-sectional face-to-face interviews were used to survey 1,268 households in Bangladesh in November 2009 (n = 872), and December 2010 (n = 396). The questionnaire assessed water consumption, acceptance factors from the RANAS model, and socioeconomic factors. Although all respondents had access to at least one arsenic-safe drinking water option, only 62.1% of participants were currently using these alternatives. The most regularly used options were household arsenic removal filters (92.9%) and piped water supply (85.6%). However, the former result may be positively biased due to high refusal rates of household filter owners. The least used option was household rainwater harvesting (36.6%). Those who reported not using an arsenic-safe source differed in terms of numerous acceptance factors from those who reported using arsenic-safe sources: non-users were characterized by greater vulnerability; showed less preference for the taste and temperature of alternative sources; found collecting safe water quite time-consuming; had lower levels of social norms, self-efficacy, and coping planning; and demonstrated lower levels of commitment to collecting safe water. Acceptance was particularly high for piped water supplies and deep tubewells, whereas dug wells and well-sharing were the least accepted sources. Intervention strategies were derived from the results in order to

  6. Evaluation of efalizumab using safe psoriasis control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henninger Eric

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Safe Psoriasis Control (SPC is an important comprehensive measure that is validated for the assessment of benefit:risk of psoriasis treatments, combining efficacy, quality of life, and safety measures. The objective of this analysis was to assess the benefit:risk of efalizumab, a novel biologic agent indicated for the treatment of moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis, by applying the SPC to data from randomized, placebo-controlled clinical studies of efalizumab. Methods SPC was applied to week 12 data from four placebo-controlled, Phase III studies: three retrospective and one prospective, the latter including a cohort of "high-need" patients for whom existing therapies were inadequate or unsuitable. Results In the retrospective analysis, 39.4% of patients achieved SPC after 12 weeks of treatment with efalizumab, compared with 10.4% for placebo. In the prospective analysis, 34.3% of patients achieved SPC after 12 weeks of treatment with efalizumab, compared with 7.3% on placebo. Among high-need patients, 33.0% achieved SPC, compared with 3.4% on placebo. Conclusion Efalizumab has a favorable benefit:risk profile using the comprehensive outcome measure SPC.

  7. Conceptual design of inherently safe integral reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J. I.; Chang, M. H.; Lee, D. J. and others

    1999-03-01

    The design concept of a 300 MWt inherently safe integral reactor(ISIR) for the propulsion of extra large and superhigh speed container ship was developed in this report. The scope and contents of this report are as follows : 1. The state of the art of the technology for ship-mounted reactor 2. Design requirements for ISIR 3. Fuel and core design 4. Conceptual design of fluid system 5. Conceptual design of reactor vessel assembly and primary components 6. Performance analyses and safety analyses. Installation of two ISIRs with total thermal power of 600MWt and efficiency of 21% is capable of generating shaft power of 126,000kW which is sufficient to power a container ship of 8,000TEU with 30knot cruise speed. Larger and speedier ship can be considered by installing 4 ISIRs. Even though the ISIR was developed for ship propulsion, it can be used also for a multi-purpose nuclear power plant for electricity generation, local heating, or seawater desalination by mounting on a movable floating barge. (author)

  8. CarbonSAFE Illinois - Macon County

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whittaker, Steve [University of Illinois; Illinois State Geological Survey

    2017-08-03

    CarbonSAFE Illinois is a a Feasibility study to develop an established geologic storage complex in Macon County, Illinois, for commercial-scale storage of industrially sourced CO2. Feasibility activities are focused on the Mt. Simon Storage Complex; a step-out well will be drilled near existing storage sites (i.e., the Midwest Geological Sequestration Consortium’s Illinois Basin – Decatur Project and the Illinois Industrial Carbon Capture and Storage Project) to further establish commercial viability of this complex and to evaluate EOR potential in a co-located oil-field trend. The Archer Daniels Midland facility (ethanol plant), City Water, Light, and Power in Springfield, Illinois (coal-fired power station), and other regional industries are potential sources of anthropogenic CO2 for storage at this complex. Site feasibility will be evaluated through drilling results, static and dynamic modeling, and quantitative risk assessment. Both studies will entail stakeholder engagement, consideration of infrastructure requirements, existing policy, and business models. Project data will help calibrate the National Risk Assessment Partnership (NRAP) Toolkit to better understand the risks of commercial-scale carbon storage.

  9. Safe and optimized used fuel management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiguer, M.; Casablanca, J. L.

    2012-07-01

    A Post-Fukushima perspective This paper lists and briefly describes challenges and issues at stake that used Fuel Management will be facing at existing spent fuel p001 at reactors in operation or permanently shutdown in the aftermath of Fukushima and upcoming stress tests and beyond. It is also an attempt to jet from the perspective of AREVA, existing and proven products and services going along risk reduction strategies that may be of value to adequate protection that appropriately balances defence-in-depth and risk considerations as far as Used Fuel Management is considered and this from the very starting point namely the unloading of used fuel at SFP. Over the past decades, AREVA never stops enhancing used fuel recycling performances and developing innovative solutions to respond to plant, utility or country related constraints. This will be illustrated through a few business cases that best describe the various proven solutions and implemented contractual schemes for the safe and optimized management of used fuel today.

  10. Drainless mastectomy: Is it safe and effective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Elizabeth; Piper, Jennifer

    2017-10-01

    Practice regarding the use of post operative drains after simple mastectomy varies widely. This project aimed to establish if not using a drain lead to an increase in post-operative seroma formation or other complications. Women undergoing simple mastectomy ± sentinel node biopsy were included. Patients were allocated to drain/no drain group via operating surgeon. Data was collected retrospectively from computer based records. Drain output, length of stay, seroma formation and volume and post-operative complications were recorded. There were 39 patients in the drain group and 24 patients in the no drain group. Patients did not differ significantly in terms of age, BMI or specimen weight. Seroma was more prevalent in the no drain group (62 v 83%) and required more clinic attendances for aspiration with larger volumes drained (360 vs 725 ml, p = 0.0096). There was no difference in overall complication rate. There did not appear to be a correlation between seroma formation and age, BMI or mastectomy weight. The use of a drain after simple mastectomy may confer lower rates of seroma formation as well as lower overall volumes. Therefore drainless mastectomy appears to be safe but may require more post-operative intervention. Copyright © 2016 Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh (Scottish charity number SC005317) and Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. How to Observe the Sun Safely

    CERN Document Server

    Macdonald, Lee

    2012-01-01

    How to Observe the Sun Safely, Second Edition gives all the basic information and advice the amateur astronomer needs to get started in observing our own ever-fascinating star. Unlike many other astronomical objects, you do not need a large telescope or expensive equipment to observe the Sun. And it is possible to take excellent pictures of the Sun with today's low-cost digital cameras! This book surveys what is visible on the Sun and then describes how to record solar features and measure solar activity levels. There is also an account of how to use H-alpha and Calcium-K filters to observe and record prominences and other features of the solar chromosphere, the Sun's inner atmosphere. Because we are just entering a period of high activity on the Sun, following a long, quiet period, this is a great time to get involved with solar observing. Still emphasizing safety first, this Second Edition reflects recent and exciting advances in solar observing equipment. Chapters 6 through 8 have been completely revised ...

  12. Is percutaneous nephrolithotomy in solitary kidneys safe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Kathie Alexina; Sahai, Arun; Patel, Amit; Thomas, Kay; Bultitude, Matthew; Glass, Jonathan

    2013-11-01

    To review our experience from a high volume stone center with a focus on efficacy, safety, and renal function. Stones requiring percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) in patients with solitary kidneys can pose significant anxiety to the urologist. Limited data are available in published reports in this setting. A comprehensive retrospective review of medical records was performed on patients who underwent PCNL and had a solitary kidney or a single functioning renal unit. Data were collected on patient demographics, stone burden, outcomes, complications, and renal function. Of 378 PCNLs performed between January 2003 and September 2011, 22 were performed in 17 patients with a single functioning kidney. Three procedures were performed in a transplanted kidney. In those with solitary calculus, the longest mean length and stone surface area were 37 mm and 825 mm(2), respectively. Stone-free rate was 59%. Auxiliary procedures were required in 6 cases, resulting in a stone-free rate of 77%. Median inpatient stay was 4 days. Serum creatinine values improved from 144 to 126 umol/L before and after the procedure and mean estimated glomerular filtration rate improved similarly from 51 to 59 mls/minute, respectively. Blood transfusion was required in 1 patient, sepsis developed in 3, and 2 patients required a stent for obstruction. PCNL in solitary kidneys is safe with an acceptable complication rate if performed in a high volume center. Outcomes are good, although auxiliary procedures may be necessary. Renal function remains stable or improves after procedure. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Surgery aboard ship: is it safe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, M; Lucha, P; Snyder, M; Liston, W

    1999-09-01

    A retrospective review was performed on 684 surgical procedures done aboard U.S. Atlantic Fleet ships during a 3-year period from 1994 to 1996. These procedures were compared with similar procedures performed at the Naval Medical Center in Portsmouth, Virginia. Morbidity and mortality rates were calculated and compared. A very low morbidity rate (0.43%) was reported for surgical procedures performed while deployed compared with 1.69% for procedures at the Naval Medical Center. One mortality was reported. These extremely low rates are felt to be attributable to multiple causes, including a highly selected, healthy patient population, performance of only low-risk procedures, early presentation of surgical problems, and early medical evacuation of patients with complex medical and surgical problems. We feel that elective surgical procedures such as vasectomy, circumcision, inguinal hernia repair, and hemorrhoidectomy can be performed safely aboard ship. This would increase the training opportunity for all members of the medical department and at the same time decrease the costs and risks associated with medical evacuation.

  14. [Acellular pertussis vaccines--safe alternative].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szenborn, L; Saraczyńska, E

    2000-09-01

    This study was undertaken to assess the safety of various acellular vaccines (ACV) TripAcel, PacMarieux--Pasteur Merieux, Infanrix-SKB, Acel-P-Lederle and DTaP-SSI in 355 children, aged 7 weeks to 7 years, dismissed from immunization against pertussis with a whole-cell vaccine. All ACV contained varying concentrations of pertussis toxin; some vaccines contained filamentous hemagglutinin, pertactin and/or agglutinogens. The indication of using ACV were adverse effects following immunization (AEFI) after wP vaccine (n = 29) and others reasons, mostly underlying perinatal and CNS pathology (n = 277). The 564 doses of ACV were given in 4 to 1 doses. Reaction forms and clinical follow-up were uniform throughout the study. Serious AEFI cases were not observed not only among children with CNS damage, but also in children with previous AEFI after DTwP vaccine. All ACV recipients consistently reported low rates of reactions in the 48 hours following immunization. We concluded that all investigated ACV were safe and well tolerated even in the group of high-risk children.

  15. Topological characterization of safe coordinated vehicle motions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MILGRAM.R. JAMES; KAUFMAN,STEPHEN G.

    2000-04-03

    This paper characterizes the homotopy properties and the global topology of the space of positions of vehicles which are constrained to travel without intersecting on a network of paths. The space is determined by the number of vehicles and the network. Paths in the space correspond to simultaneous non-intersecting motions of all vehicles. The authors therefore focus on computing the homotopy type of the space, and show how to do so in the general case. Understanding the homotopy type of the space is the central issue in controlling the vehicles, as it gives a complete description of the distinct ways that vehicles may move safely on the network. The authors exhibit graphs, products of graphs, and amalgamations of products of graphs that are homotopy equivalent to the full configuration space, and are far simpler than might be expected. The results indicate how a control system for such a network of vehicles (such as a fleet of automatically guided vehicles guided by wires buried in a factory floor) may be implemented.

  16. Bike to work safely (follow-up)

    CERN Multimedia

    Simon Baird, HSE Unit Head

    2016-01-01

    Following a recent article about safe cycling (see here), the Bulletin received a request for more details on the type of accidents that are reported.   An analysis of the 38 accidents involving bicycles reported this year up to the end of August reveals that the most common single cause of accidents is slippery surfaces: ice, snow, water and gravel, so the message here is to take extra care, particularly when cycling in bad weather. The second item on the list is obstacles of various kinds: collisions with kerbs, potholes and even the transition from roads to cycle paths. The lesson here is to pay close attention to the surface you’re cycling over, and if you do spot a pothole, even if it does not lead to an accident, report it so that it can be repaired. It’s also worth remembering that you’re more likely to avoid coming off your bike if you keep your hands on the handlebars. The third highest cause is collisions with other vehicles, and here there are lessons for ...

  17. A flavor-safe composite explanation of $R_K$

    CERN Document Server

    Carmona, Adrian

    2017-05-04

    In these proceedings we discuss a flavor-safe explanation of the anomaly found in $R_K= {\\cal B}(B \\to K \\mu^+ \\mu^-)/{\\cal B}(B \\to K e^+ e^-)$ by LHCb, within the framework of composite Higgs models. We present a model featuring a non-negligible degree of compositeness for all three generations of right-handed leptons, which leads to a violation of lepton-flavor universality in neutral current interactions while other constraints from quark- and lepton-flavor physics are met. Moreoever, the particular embedding of the lepton sector considered in this setup provides a parametrically enhanded contribution to the Higgs mass that can weak considerably the need for ultra-light top partners.

  18. Bully Prevention: Creating Safe and Inclusive Environments for Youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly Allen

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Bullying is a major issue facing youth of all ages, backgrounds, and walks of life. In fact, 30% of youth report experiencing bullying on a monthly basis (Nansel, Overpeck, Pilla, Ruan, Simons-Murton & Scheidt, 2001. As a consequence, these youth are at much greater risk for a host of mental and physical problems (Ttofi & Farrington, 2008. Parents, teachers, educators and youth advocates all agree that this issue merits time and attention, yet many professionals are at a loss for understanding the issue or what resources might be most effective with their young audience. With the increased rates of bullying behaviors and growing research about effective prevention and intervention strategies, youth development professionals need guidance for creating and sustaining bully prevention efforts. The purpose of this article is to highlight the growing research on bully prevention and provide information for practitioners working to create safe and inclusive environments for youth.

  19. Pressures and procedures for the design of safe consumer products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, J R

    1983-06-01

    An assessment is provided of the current position regarding changes in UK or EEC civil law under which injured parties can obtain redress in respect of injuries caused by defective products. One effect of proposed systems of strict liability in tort will be to shift some of the burden of proof from the injured party on to the producer of the product claimed to have caused injury. It is argued that this is a just and logical change, given the unfairness and anomalies in present systems and the relative abilities of consumers and producers to avoid such incidents and to bear or to offset the cost of the consequences. Cases of apparent misuse of a product by a consumer may frequently be induced by the design of that product and could thus be prevented by more thoughtful design. In order that producers can ensure their own viability and satisfy the consumer market, their products must be safe, efficient, comfortable and satisfying to use, as well as durable, serviceable and realistically priced. One requirement for achieving this has been said to be the input of accident and ergonomics data early in the product development process; the present paper examines this proposition. Evidence is provided by research into the design and manufacture of consumer products for the UK market, carried out at Birmingham University. Examined in particular are the extent to which formal development processes and design safety review procedures are used, and the degree of utilisation of accident, ergonomics, user testing and market feedback data, identifying barriers to the widespread use of these. Safe and ergonomic design of products must aim to be seen as a positive business activity, rather than as a cost-centre. The benefits to a company of a comprehensive design safety programme will more than outweigh the costs given the pressures identified earlier.

  20. Risk assessments and safe machinery ensuring compliance with the EU directives

    CERN Document Server

    Jespen, Torben

    2016-01-01

    This book describes the prerequisites for the placing on the market and the safe use of machinery in compliance with the relevant EU Directives, especially the Machinery Directive 2006/42. It provides readers with high-level knowledge concerning the Essential Health and Safety Requirements (EHSR) that machinery must fulfill. The approach and principles of the Machinery Directive were most recently made worldwide acknowledged in the ILO code of practice on safe machinery, released in 2013. The book addresses that code, as well as providing valuable insight into other EU Product and Workplace legislation. Focusing on the key aspect of safe machinery, the “machinery safety risk assessment”, which allows readers to better understand the more difficult aspects of risk assessments, the book equips readers to tackle problems at the manufacturing stage and in different use scenarios, introducing them to risk reduction techniques and functional safety aspects.

  1. Safe handling of potential peroxide forming compounds and their corresponding peroxide yielded derivatives.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sears, Jeremiah Matthew; Boyle, Timothy J.; Dean, Christopher J.

    2013-06-01

    This report addresses recent developments concerning the identification and handling of potential peroxide forming (PPF) and peroxide yielded derivative (PYD) chemicals. PPF chemicals are described in terms of labeling, shelf lives, and safe handling requirements as required at SNL. The general peroxide chemistry concerning formation, prevention, and identification is cursorily presented to give some perspective to the generation of peroxides. The procedure for determining peroxide concentrations and the proper disposal methods established by the Hazardous Waste Handling Facility are also provided. Techniques such as neutralization and dilution are provided for the safe handling of any PYD chemicals to allow for safe handling. The appendices are a collection of all available SNL documentation pertaining to PPF/PYD chemicals to serve as a single reference.

  2. Preferred provider organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davy, J D

    1984-05-01

    The 1980s has marked the beginning of a new alternative health care delivery system: the preferred provider organization ( PPO ). This system has developed from the health maintenance organization model and is predominant in California and Colorado. A PPO is a group of providers, usually hospitals and doctors, who agree to provide health care to subscribers for a negotiated fee that is usually discounted. Preferred provider organizations are subject to peer review and strict use controls in exchange for a consistent volume of patients and speedy turnaround on claims payments. This article describes the factors leading to the development of PPOs and the implications for occupational therapy.

  3. Safe staffing for the post anesthesia care unit: weighing the evidence and identifying the gaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamaril, Myrna E; Sullivan, Ellen; Clifford, Theresa L; Newhouse, Robin; Windle, Pamela E

    2007-12-01

    Postanesthesia nursing care and standards are continually evolving. ASPAN has the professional responsibility to develop standards of nursing practice to promote a safe environment of care. Currently, ASPAN's recommended staffing ratios are based on the best available evidence: expert opinion and consensus. Our Society believes that these nurse-to-patient ratios have served to provide safe, quality patient care. In 2006, the ASPAN Safe Staffing Strategic Work Team was charged with conducting a national PACU Safe Staffing Evidence-Based Practice (EBP) project. The purpose of this EBP staffing project was to search the scientific staffing evidence in an attempt to validate ASPAN's staffing ratios. This expert panel critically weighed the nursing evidence on staffing ratios, workload intensity, patient acuity, nursing-sensitive outcomes, and nursing-sensitive indicators, including appropriate critical care studies because of the scarce number of postanesthesia studies. The outcome of this dynamic initiative revealed the need to develop nursing-sensitive perianesthesia indicators that can provide patient outcomes used to assess the effectiveness of staffing ratios. Finally, research gaps were identified and the next steps in the generation of knowledge needed to build safe staffing evidence were identified in ASPAN's Strategic Research Staffing Plan.

  4. Building Service Provider Capabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandl, Kristin; Jaura, Manya; Ørberg Jensen, Peter D.

    In this paper we study whether and how the interaction between clients and the service providers contributes to the development of capabilities in service provider firms. In situations where such a contribution occurs, we analyze how different types of activities in the production process...

  5. Providing free autopoweroff plugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Carsten Lynge; Hansen, Lars Gårn; Fjordbak, Troels

    2012-01-01

    Experimental evidence of the effect of providing households with cheap energy saving technology is sparse. We present results from a field experiment in which autopoweroff plugs were provided free of charge to randomly selected households. We use propensity score matching to find treatment effects...

  6. Inherently safe reactors and a second nuclear era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberg, A M; Spiewak, I

    1984-06-29

    The Swedish PIUS reactor and the German-American small modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactor are inherently safe-that is, their safety relies not upon intervention of humans or of electromechanical devices but on immutable principles of physics and chemistry. A second nuclear era may require commercialization and deployment of such inherently safe reactors, even though existing light-water reactors appear to be as safe as other well-accepted sources of central electricity, particularly hydroelectric dams.

  7. An Automated Safe-to-Mate (ASTM) Tester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Phuc; Scott, Michelle; Leung, Alan; Lin, Michael; Johnson, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Safe-to-mate testing is a common hardware safety practice where impedance measurements are made on unpowered hardware to verify isolation, continuity, or impedance between pins of an interface connector. A computer-based instrumentation solution has been developed to resolve issues. The ASTM is connected to the circuit under test, and can then quickly, safely, and reliably safe-to-mate the entire connector, or even multiple connectors, at the same time.

  8. Ungoverned Areas and Threats from Safe Havens

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    operations. The report has three main sections. Section 1: Framework sifts through the byzantine terminology of ungoverned areas and presents a...Hizballah provides social services to some Lebanese civilians, competing with the government of Lebanon for legitimacy and influence). Few places in the...governments, private companies, cooperatives, churches , charities, non-governmental agencies, and other bodies commonly provide economic opportunities or

  9. Considerations for Safe Innovation: The Case of Graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Margriet V D Z; Bleeker, Eric A J; Brand, Walter; Cassee, Flemming R; van Elk, Merel; Gosens, Ilse; de Jong, Wim H; Meesters, Johannes A J; Peijnenburg, Willie J G M; Quik, Joris T K; Vandebriel, Rob J; Sips, Adriënne J A M

    2017-10-24

    The terms "Safe innovation" and "Safe(r)-by-design" are currently popular in the field of nanotechnology. These terms are used to describe approaches that advocate the consideration of safety aspects already at an early stage of the innovation process of (nano)materials and nanoenabled products. Here, we investigate the possibilities of considering safety aspects during various stages of the innovation process of graphene, outlining what information is already available for assessing potential hazard, exposure, and risks. In addition, we recommend further steps to be taken by various stakeholders to promote the safe production and safe use of graphene.

  10. Points-Based Safe Path Planning of Continuum Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khuram Shahzad

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Continuum robots exhibit great potential in a number of challenging applications where traditional rigid link robots pose certain limitations, e.g., working in unstructured environments. In order to enable the usage of continuum robots in safety-critical applications, such as surgery and nuclear decontamination, it is extremely important to ensure a safe path for the robot's movement. Existing algorithms for continuum robot path planning have certain limitations that need to be addressed. These include the fact that none of the algorithms provide safety assurance parameters and control for path planning. They are computationally expensive, applicable to a specific type of continuum robots, and mostly they do not incorporate design and kinematics constraints. In this paper, we propose a points-based path planning (PoPP algorithm for continuum robots that computes the path by imposing safety constraints and improves upon the limitations of existing approaches. In the algorithm, we exploit the constant curvature-bending property of continuum robots in their path planning process. The algorithm is computationally efficient and provides a good tradeoff between accuracy and efficiency that can be implemented to enable the safety-critical application of continuum robots. This algorithm also provides information regarding path volume and flexibility in movement. Simulation results confirm that the algorithm possesses promising potential for all types of continuum robots (following the constant curvature-bending property. We believe that this effectively balances the desired safety and efficiency requirements.

  11. Registered nurses' perceptions of safe care in overcrowded emergency departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Julia; Gellerstedt, Linda; Hillerås, Pernilla; Craftman, Åsa Gransjön

    2017-10-27

    To explore registered nurses' perceptions of safe practice in care for patients with an extended length of stay in the emergency department. Extended length of stay and overcrowding in emergency departments are described internationally as one of the most comprehensive challenges of modern emergency care. An emergency department is not designed, equipped or staffed to provide care for prolonged periods of time. This context, combined with a high workload, poses a risk to patient safety, with additional medical errors and an increased number of adverse events. From this perspective, it is important to extend our knowledge and to describe registered nurses' experiences of safe practice. A qualitative, inductive and descriptive study. Qualitative interview study carried out in five emergency departments. Data were analysed using a qualitative content analysis with a latent approach. Patient safety meets obstacles in the clinical environment involving experiencing deficiencies regarding patient safety in the clinical setting and the impact of working procedures and routines. Moreover, nurses are challenged in their professional responsibilities involving balancing essential nursing care and actual workload; it is common to experience emotional reactions based on feelings of loss of control. From the nurses' perspective, a prolonged stay in the emergency department may lead to negative consequences for both patient safety and care as well as registered nurses' psychosocial experiences. An extended length of stay significantly reduces the level of nursing and caring that registered nurses can perform in the emergency department. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  12. Fire-safe polymers and polymer composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huiqing

    The intrinsic relationships between polymer structure, composition and fire behavior have been explored to develop new fire-safe polymeric materials. Different experimental techniques, especially three milligram-scale methods---pyrolysis-combustion flow calorimetry (PCFC), simultaneous thermal analysis (STA) and pyrolysis GC/MS---have been combined to fully characterize the thermal decomposition and flammability of polymers and polymer composites. Thermal stability, mass loss rate, char yield and properties of decomposition volatiles were found to be the most important parameters in determining polymer flammability. Most polymers decompose by either an unzipping or a random chain scission mechanism with an endothermic decomposition of 100--900 J/g. Aromatic or heteroaromatic rings, conjugated double or triple bonds and heteroatoms such as halogens, N, O, S, P and Si are the basic structural units for fire-resistant polymers. The flammability of polymers can also be successfully estimated by combining pyrolysis GC/MS results or chemical structures with TGA results. The thermal decomposition and flammability of two groups of inherently fire-resistant polymers---poly(hydroxyamide) (PHA) and its derivatives, and bisphenol C (BPC II) polyarylates---have been systematically studied. PHA and most of its derivatives have extremely low heat release rates and very high char yields upon combustion. PHA and its halogen derivatives can completely cyclize into quasi-polybenzoxazole (PBO) structures at low temperatures. However, the methoxy and phosphate derivatives show a very different behavior during decomposition and combustion. Molecular modeling shows that the formation of an enol intermediate is the rate-determining step in the thermal cyclization of PHA. BPC II-polyarylate is another extremely flame-resistant polymer. It can be used as an efficient flame-retardant agent in copolymers and blends. From PCFC results, the total heat of combustion of these copolymers or blends

  13. What promotes sustainability in Safe Community programmes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindqvist Kent

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The theory and practice of safety promotion has traditionally focused on the safety of individuals. This study also includes systems, environments, and organizations. Safety promotion programmes are designed to support community health initiatives taking a bottom-up approach. This is a long-term and complex process. The aim of this study was to try to empirically identify factors that promote sustainability in the structures of programmes that are managed and coordinated by the local government. Methods Four focus group sessions with local government politicians and administrators in designated Safe Communities were conducted and analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Results Collaboration was found to be the basis for sustainability. Networks, enabling municipalities to exchange ideas, were reported to positively influence the programmes. Personal contacts rather than organizations themselves, determine whether collaboration is sustained. Participants reported an increase in cross-disciplinary collaboration among staff categories. Administrators and politicians were reported to collaborate well, which was perceived to speed up decision-making and thus to facilitate the programme work. Support from the politicians and the county council was seen as a prerequisite. Participants reported an increased willingness to share information between units, which, in their view, supports sustainability. A structure in which all local authorities' offices were located in close proximity to one another was considered to support collaboration. Appointing a public health coordinator responsible for the programme was seen as a way to strengthen the relational resources of the programme. Conclusion With a public health coordinator, the 'external' negotiating power was concentrated in one person. Also, the 'internal' programme strength increased when the coordination was based on a bureaucratic function rather than on one individual

  14. What promotes sustainability in Safe Community programmes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordqvist, Cecilia; Timpka, Toomas; Lindqvist, Kent

    2009-01-08

    The theory and practice of safety promotion has traditionally focused on the safety of individuals. This study also includes systems, environments, and organizations. Safety promotion programmes are designed to support community health initiatives taking a bottom-up approach. This is a long-term and complex process. The aim of this study was to try to empirically identify factors that promote sustainability in the structures of programmes that are managed and coordinated by the local government. Four focus group sessions with local government politicians and administrators in designated Safe Communities were conducted and analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Collaboration was found to be the basis for sustainability. Networks, enabling municipalities to exchange ideas, were reported to positively influence the programmes. Personal contacts rather than organizations themselves, determine whether collaboration is sustained. Participants reported an increase in cross-disciplinary collaboration among staff categories. Administrators and politicians were reported to collaborate well, which was perceived to speed up decision-making and thus to facilitate the programme work. Support from the politicians and the county council was seen as a prerequisite. Participants reported an increased willingness to share information between units, which, in their view, supports sustainability. A structure in which all local authorities' offices were located in close proximity to one another was considered to support collaboration. Appointing a public health coordinator responsible for the programme was seen as a way to strengthen the relational resources of the programme. With a public health coordinator, the 'external' negotiating power was concentrated in one person. Also, the 'internal' programme strength increased when the coordination was based on a bureaucratic function rather than on one individual. Increased relational resources facilitated the transfer of information

  15. Inclusive Development through Providing Vertical Housing for Low Income Family in Yogyakarta Urban Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rini Rachmawati

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Inclusive development is mean to accommodate the marginalized people, most of whom are the poor with problem of fulfilling their need of housing. The government has tried hard to meet the need of housing by constructing rusunawa. This paper is aimed at describing about the provision and uses of rusunawa, both in cities and peri urban area by studying the cases in the City of Yogyakarta, Sleman Regency, and Bantul Regency. The study was conducted by doing observation and both structured and in-depth interviews. The research results show that rusunawa was viewed as one solutions to help low-income family in fulfilling their need of housing. In some cases in the City of Yogyakarta, rusunawa plays an important role in preventing the settlement along both sides of rivers from becoming slum areas. Rusunawa in both Regencies of Sleman and Bantul are located near the city so it is easy for the settlers to get to their workplace. The construction of rusunawa has also paid attention to the disabled by providing special facilities. The same case is providing playground for children and facilities for early education for young kids. However, there have not been special facilities for the elderly and pregnant women.

  16. Drinking water safely during cancer treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from. This includes water for drinking, cooking, and brushing your teeth. Ask your health care provider about special care ... drink it or use it for cooking or brushing your teeth. Running well water through a filter or adding ...

  17. 77 FR 46633 - Parts and Accessories Necessary for Safe Operation: Brakes; Adjustment Limits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-06

    ... risk and removed from revenue service until the brake adjustment problems are resolved. With respect to... RIN 2126-AB28 Parts and Accessories Necessary for Safe Operation: Brakes; Adjustment Limits AGENCY... the operators . The rule provides improved guidance concerning CMV brake adjustment limits. The...

  18. Could martial arts fall training be safe for persons with osteoporosis? : a feasibility study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, B.E.; Smulders, E.; Duysens, J.E.J.; Lankveld, W.G.J.M. van; Weerdesteijn, V.G.M.

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Osteoporosis is a well-established risk factor for fall-related hip fractures. Training fall arrest strategies, such as martial arts (MA) fall techniques, might be useful to prevent hip fractures in persons with osteoporosis, provided that the training itself is safe. This

  19. Semantically Aware Foundation Environment (SAFE) for Clean-Slate Design of Resilient, Adaptive Secure Hosts (CRASH)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    and application) implementations. In many contemporary machine architectures any breech of intended operation is sufficient to compromise arbitrary...hardware and OS architectures . Security protections must be provided that are robust against individual design faults (using defense-in-depth and... architecture and design principles that were established. This section reviews those decisions and the individual components and tools of the SAFE project are

  20. 40 CFR 23.7 - Timing of Administrator's action under Safe Drinking Water Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Timing of Administrator's action under Safe Drinking Water Act. 23.7 Section 23.7 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Drinking Water Act. Unless the Administrator otherwise explicitly provides in a particular promulgation...

  1. SAFE MOVEMENT OF HAZARDOUS MATERIALS THROUGH HEURISTIC HYBRID APPROACH: TABU SEARCH AND GAME THEORY APLICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan ASLAN

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The safe movement of hazardous materials is receiving increased attention due to growing environmental awareness of the potential health affects of a release causing incident. A novel approach developed in this paper through a game theory interpretation provides a risk-averse solution to the hazardous materials transportation problem. The dispatcher minimizes the expected maximum disutility subject to worst possible set of link failure probabilities, assuming that one link in the network fails. The expected cost at the Nash equilibrium is a useful measure to evaluate the routing strategies for the safe movement of hazardous materials.

  2. Ten Things Gay Men Should Discuss with Their Health Care Provider

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... does not seem comfortable with you as a gay man, find another provider. 2. HIV/AIDS, Safe Sex Many men who have sex with men are ... rate of HIV infection is one of the gay community’s great success stories. ... a good HIV provider. Safe sex is proven to reduce the risk of receiving ...

  3. Safe School: A Planning Guide for Action. 1995 Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California State Office of the Attorney General, Sacramento. Crime Prevention Center.

    This guidebook shows how schools can form partnerships with law-enforcement agencies and communities to develop a comprehensive safe-school plan. The planning guide is based on four principles: that safe schools are caring schools, are built through cooperative efforts of all stakeholders, communicate high standards, and stress prevention. This…

  4. Save lives, make hospital safe in emergencies: framework for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Save lives, make hospital safe in emergencies: framework for disaster preparedness in hospitals in Nigeria. ... Nigerian Journal of Postgraduate Medicine ... All over the world, it is becoming obvious that there is a need to make hospitals safe at times of disasters and emergencies, when the need for their services become ...

  5. "Safe Zone" Classrooms: The Individual Student versus the Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruk, Amber

    2013-01-01

    Independence Day School is a small college preparatory school serving grades 9-12, in rural Illinois. As part of its commitment to creating a safe school for all students, it adopted a "safe zone" classrooms policy. The policy states that classrooms where conversation about homosexuality is permitted are marked with inverted pink…

  6. SAFE HANDLING LABELS AND CONSUMER BEHAVIOR IN THE SOUTHERN US

    OpenAIRE

    Adu-Nyako, Kofi; Kunda, Danny; Ralston, Katherine L.

    2003-01-01

    The impact of safe handling labels on food handling practices is assesed using a two step procedure to adjust for sample selection bias in the label use decision. A significant positive influence of labels on safe handling practices is found. Food safety knowledge, consumer risk perception, and illness experience impacted handling practices positively.

  7. Peacekeeper ICBM PBPS (Stage IV) Safing and Demilitarization Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglass, James L.

    2014-01-01

    Topics covered include: Overview of White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) and Capabilities. History of the Peacekeeper Intercontinental Ballistic Missile (ICBM) Program. Introduction to Safing & Demilitarization Project. Requirements for Safing Project. Approach Constellation Program. Need for Qualified Flight Hardware to Support Constellation. Ability to Use Peacekeeper Hardware to Support Constellation. Additional Uses for the Peacekeeper Post-Boost Propulsion System (PBPS) Hardware.

  8. original article predictors of safe delivery service utilization in arsi

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abrham

    education and communication on safe delivery service utilization, expansion of health service and empowerment of women are needed. KEY WORDS: safe delivery, skilled attendants, and .... mean or median of 11 knowledge questions and not knowledgeable if otherwise. Favourable attitude: women were considered as.

  9. Safe corridors for K-wiring in phalangeal fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Rex

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: K-wiring through the safe corridor has proved to yield the best clinical results because of least tethering of soft tissues as evidenced by performing "on-table active finger movement test" at the time of surgery. We strongly recommend K-wiring through safe portals in all phalangeal fractures.

  10. Be Food Safe: Protect Yourself from Food Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Submit What's this? Submit Button Past Emails Be Food Safe: Protect Yourself from Food Poisoning Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on ... illness that lasts more than 3 days. Be Food Safe: Learn the Risks and Rules Anyone can ...

  11. Examination of a University-Affiliated Safe Ride Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gieck, D. Joseph; Slagle, David M.

    2010-01-01

    A university-affiliated safe ride program was evaluated to determine whether these programs can reduce drunk-driving related costs. Data was collected from 187 safe ride passengers during three nights of operation. Among the passengers, 93% were enrolled at a local University, 31% were younger than 21, and 40% reported a prior alcohol-related…

  12. Swimming Safely (A Cup of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-05-22

    In the summertime, families will be flocking to pools for relaxation and relief from the heat. A few simple precautions can help ensure a safe day in the water. In this podcast, Michele Hlavsa discusses ways to stay safe at the pool.  Created: 5/22/2014 by MMWR.   Date Released: 5/22/2014.

  13. Well Connected, a platform for safe online communication and therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postel, Marloes Gerda; van Regteren, B.J.

    2012-01-01

    Well Connected, a platform for safe online communication and therapy Introduction Well Connected is a flexible, safe and user friendly e-health platform with a wide range of applications. Over the last 7 years 5000 patients were treated or a variety of addiction related problems. Besides creating an

  14. A Study on Visibility Rating of Several Representative Web-Safe Colors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Daisuke; Saito, Keiichi; Notomi, Kazuhiro; Saito, Masao

    This paper presents the visibility ordering of several web-safe colors. The research of web site visibility is important because of the rapid dissemination of the World Wide Web. The combination of a foreground color and a background color is an important factor in providing sufficient visibility. Therefore, the rating of color combination visibility is necessary when developing accessible web sites. In this study, the visibility of several web-safe color combinations was examined using psychological methodology, i.e., a paired comparison. Eighteen chromatic web-safe colors were employed for visual stimuli. Nine students ranging from ages 21 to 29 (average 23.7) were recruited, and all were with normal color sensation. These nine subjects looked at two different colored characters simultaneously on the white background and were instructed to identify which one enabled them to see more clearly. In examining the relationship between the psychological rankings of the color combinations and the visual sensations, each color combination was first scored as to the visibility by Thurstone's paired comparisons technique. Secondly, the visual sensation was deduced by applying Weber-Fechner's law to the luminance of the foreground colors. As results, the luminance of a foreground color influenced the visibility; however the visibility rating is difficult only using the luminance of web-safe colors. These indicate that the chromaticity and chroma saturation are necessary in rating of chromatic web-safe color visibility.

  15. A Study on Visibility Estimation of Web-Safe Colors using Paired Comparison and Discriminant Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Daisuke; Saito, Keiichi; Notomi, Kazuhiro; Saito, Masao

    This paper presents the visibility ordering of several web safe colors. The research of web page visibility is important because of the rapid dissemination of the World Wide Web. The combination of a foreground color and a background color is an important factor in providing sufficient visibility. Therefore, the rating of color combination visibility is necessary when developing accessible web sites. In this study, the visibility of several web-safe color combinations was examined using psychological methodology, i.e., paired comparison. Eighteen chromatic and 3 achromatic web-safe colors were employed for visual stimuli. Twenty-eight subjects ranging from ages 21 to 75 were recruited, and all were with normal color sensation. They looked at two different colored characters simultaneously on the white background and were instructed to identify which one enabled them to see more clearly. In examining the relationship between the psychological rankings of the color combinations and the visual sensations, each color combination was first scored as to the visibility by Thurstone's paired comparison technique. Secondly, the visual sensation was deduced by applying Weber-Fechner's law to the luminance of the foreground colors. As results, the luminance of a foreground color influenced the visibility; however the visibility rating is difficult only using the luminance of web-safe colors. These indicate that the chromaticity and chroma saturation are necessary in rating of chromatic web-safe color visibility.

  16. Fail-safe system for activity cooled supersonic and hypersonic aircraft. [using liquid hydrogen fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, R. A.; Braswell, D. O.; Richie, C. B.

    1975-01-01

    A fail-safe-system concept was studied as an alternative to a redundant active cooling system for supersonic and hypersonic aircraft which use the heat sink of liquid-hydrogen fuel for cooling the aircraft structure. This concept consists of an abort maneuver by the aircraft and a passive thermal protection system (TPS) for the aircraft skin. The abort manuever provides a low-heat-load descent from normal cruise speed to a lower speed at which cooling is unnecessary, and the passive TPS allows the aircraft skin to absorb the abort heat load without exceeding critical skin temperature. On the basis of results obtained, it appears that this fail-safe-system concept warrants further consideration, inasmuch as a fail-safe system could possibly replace a redundant active cooling system with no increase in weight and would offer other potential advantages.

  17. On the fail-safe design of tendon-driven manipulators with redundant tendons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheu, Jinn Biau; Liu, Tyng; Lee, Jyh Jone [National Taiwan University, Taipei (China)

    2012-06-15

    A tendon-driven manipulator having redundant tendons may possess more flexibility in operation, such as optimizing the performance of tendons, reducing the burden of each tendon, and providing fail-safe features. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the design of tendon-driven manipulators with a fail-safe feature, that is, to synthesize a system that may still remain controllable as any of the tendons have broken down or malfunctioned. Characteristics of tendon-driven manipulators are briefly discussed. Criteria for tendon-driven manipulators with redundant tendons and fail-safe feature are then established. Subsequently, constraints for such system are derived from the structure of tendon-driven manipulator. Associated with the criteria, manipulators can remain controllable when any of the tendons fails to function. Finally, a geometric method for determining the structure is developed. Examples of two-DOF and three-DOF tendondriven manipulators are demonstrated.

  18. Medication abortion knowledge among adolescent medicine providers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coles, Mandy S; Makino, Kevin K; Phelps, Rachael

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Adolescents are at high risk for unintended pregnancy and abortion. The purpose of this study is to understand if providers caring for adolescents have the knowledge to counsel accurately on medication abortion, a suitable option for many teens seeking to terminate a pregnancy. Methods Using an online questionnaire, we surveyed US providers in the Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine on medication abortion. We conducted chi-squared analyses to evaluate medication abortion knowledge by adolescent medicine fellowship training, and to compare responses to specific knowledge questions by medication abortion counseling. Further, we examined the relationship between providers’ self-assessed and actual knowledge using ANOVA. Results We surveyed 797 providers, with a 54% response rate. Almost a quarter of respondents incorrectly believed medication abortion was not very safe, 40% misidentified that it was pregnant teens receive accurate counseling on all options, adolescent medicine providers need better education on medication abortion. PMID:22443843

  19. A safe, high-power-density lithium battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, F.

    1985-03-01

    The Li/SOCl2 battery has received attention because of its high theoretical energy/power density. However, practical Li/SOCl2 cells have not provided the desired power density and have suffered from concerns with cell safety on discharge. In previous work, ECO has shown that the use of a TAA-type catalyst significantly improves the safety of the Li/S0Cl2 cell at high rate. The objective of this Phase 1 program was to determine whether a stacked disk electrode configuration with TAA-catalyzed cathodes would meet a high power-density design goal. Under the program, the effects of cathode thickness, preparation pressure, electrolyte gap and solute concentration on stacked-electrode cell performance and capacity were measured. The results of the Phase 1 program included the demonstration of stacked-electrode cell performance and capacity at levels suitable to meet a design goal of 400 W/kg with high energy density. Further work in a Phase 2 program will be required to demonstrate in laser-sealed fully-packaged cells that the results of Phase 1 can be practically applied to provide a safe high-rate, energy-dense power source for military applications.

  20. Provider of Services File

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The POS file consists of two data files, one for CLIA labs and one for 18 other provider types. The file names are CLIA and OTHER. If downloading the file, note it...

  1. The Provident Principal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCall, John R.

    This monograph offers leadership approaches for school principals. Discussion applies the business leadership theory of Warren Bennis and Burt Nanus to the role of the principal. Each of the booklet's three parts concludes with discussion questions. Part 1, "Visions and Values for the Provident Principal," demonstrates the importance of…

  2. What HERA may provide?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Hannes [DESY, Hamburg (Germany); De Roeck, Albert [CERN, Genf (Switzerland); Bartles, Jochen [Univ. Hamburg (DE). Institut fuer Theoretische Physik II] (and others)

    2008-09-15

    More than 100 people participated in a discussion session at the DIS08 workshop on the topic What HERA may provide. A summary of the discussion with a structured outlook and list of desirable measurements and theory calculations is given. (orig.)

  3. care Providers in Ibadan

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three hundred and eighty six respondents (77.7%) were aware of intermittent preventive treatment (IPT). Awareness ... Key Words: malaria in pregnancy, intermittent preventive treatment, malaria control, health care providers. Department of Obstetrics .... Auxiliary nurses do not have formal training prior to employment.

  4. Safe spaces: gay-straight alliances in high schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetner, Tina; Elafros, Athena; Bortolin, Sandra; Drechsler, Coralee

    2012-05-01

    In activists' circles as in sociology, the concept "safe space" has been applied to all sorts of programs, organizations, and practices. Few studies have specified clearly what safe spaces are and how they support the people who occupy them. We examine one social location typically understood to be a safe space: gay-straight alliance groups in high schools. Using qualitative interviews with young adults in the United States and Canada who have participated in gay-straight alliances, we unpack this complex concept to consider some of the dimensions along which safe spaces might vary. Based on interviews with participants, we derive three interrelated dimensions of safe space: social context, membership, and activity.

  5. Main corrective measures in an early phase of nuclear power plants’ preparation for safe long term operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krivanek, Robert, E-mail: r.krivanek@iaea.org [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Department of Nuclear Safety and Security, Operational Safety Section, Vienna 1400 (Austria); Fiedler, Jan, E-mail: fiedler@fme.vutbr.cz [University of Technology Brno, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Energy Institute, Technická 2896/2, 616 69 Brno (Czech Republic)

    2017-05-15

    Highlights: • Results of SALTO missions provide the most important issues for safe long term operation (LTO) of nuclear power plants. • The most important technical corrective measures in an early phase of preparation for safe LTO are described. • Their satisfactory resolution creates a basis for further activities to demonstrate preparedness for safe LTO. - Abstract: This paper presents the analysis of main technical deficiencies of nuclear power plants (NPPs) in preparedness for safe long term operation (LTO) and the main corrective measures in an early phase of preparation for safe LTO of NPPs. It focuses on technical aspects connected with management of physical ageing of NPP structures, systems and components (SSCs). It uses as a basis results of IAEA SALTO missions performed between 2005 and 2016 (see also paper NED8805 in Nuclear Engineering and Design in May 2016) and the personal experiences of the authors with preparation of NPPs for safe LTO. This paper does not discuss other important aspects of safe LTO of NPPs, e.g. national nuclear energy policies, compliance of NPPs with the latest international requirements on design, obsolescence, environmental impact and economic aspects of LTO. Chapter 1 provides a brief introduction of the current status of the NPP’ fleet in connection with LTO. Chapter 2 provides an overview of SALTO peer review service results with a focus on deficiencies related to physical ageing of safety SSCs and a demonstration that SSCs will perform their safety function during the intended period of LTO. Chapter 3 discusses the main corrective measures which NPPs typically face during the preparation for demonstration of safe LTO. Chapter 4 summarizes the current status of the NPP’ fleet in connection with LTO and outlines further steps needed in preparation for safe LTO.

  6. Safe delivery, Service utilization, Metekel Zone

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A multi-stage sampling technique was used in providing delivery service within 2 hours distance on ... Abortion in life time. Yes 122 11.8. NO 916 S8.2. RESULTS. One thousand thirty eight (1038) women, who gave at least one delivery in the past five years prior to this survey, were ..... maternal mortality: A new approach,.

  7. Public health communications for safe motherhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessel, E

    1994-03-30

    Public health communication aims to influence health practices of large populations, including maternal health care providers (traditional birth attendants, (TBAs), nurse-midwives, other indigenous practitioners, and physicians). A quality assurance process is needed to give public sector health providers feedback. Computerized record keeping is needing for quality assurance of maternal health programs. The Indian Rural Medical Association has trained more than 20,000 rural indigenous practitioners in West Bengal. Training of TBAs is expensive and rarely successful. However, trained health professional leading group discussions of TBAs is successful at teaching them about correct maternity care. Health education messages integrated into popular songs and drama is a way to reach large illiterate audiences. Even though a few donor agencies and governments provide time and technical assistance to take advantage of the mass media as a means to communicate health messages, the private sector has most of the potential. Commercial advertisements pay for Video on Wheels, which, with 100 medium-sized trucks each fitted with a 100-inch screen, plays movies for rural citizens of India. They are exposed to public and family planning messages. Jain Satellite Television (JST) broadcasts 24 hours a day and plans to broadcast programs on development, health and family planning, women's issues, and continuing education for all health care providers (physicians, nurses, TBAs, community workers, and indigenous practitioners). JST and the International Federation for Family Health plan to telecast courses as part of an Open University of Health Sciences.

  8. Thyroidectomy under local anaesthesia: how safe? | Misauno ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to compliment the inadequate health facilities in the rural areas in Nigeria, nongovernmental organisations provide adhoc outreach health camps that offer treatment in various medical specialties including surgery. Rural outreach health camps. To evaluate the safety of thyroidectomy under local anaesthesia at rural ...

  9. Safe and inclusive cities | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The program focuses on re-socializing children between the ages of 14 and 21 who belong to youth gangs, providing them with skills as well as civic and ... More than 200,000 participants (75% women) have been employed, and researchers found that the program has helped to strengthen social bonds and reduce crime.

  10. Practices and perceptions on contraception acceptance among clients availing safe abortion services in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanal, V; Joshi, C; Neupane, D; Karkee, R

    2011-01-01

    The Government of Nepal has implemented safe abortion policy since 2002. There are 245 approved sites providing safe abortion services to women across the country. Family planning counselling is one of the components of the safe abortion policy, which is important to reduce unwanted pregnancy, maternal morbidity and mortality due to the consequences of unsafe abortion and the service burden. This study explains the perceptions, practices and factors affecting the use of family planning among abortion clients attending safe abortion services in Nepal. A cross sectional study was carried out on September, 2008 enrolling 58 women who were waiting in the dressing room for safe abortion services in Paropkar Maternity Hospital, Nepal. All women attending hospital clinic for receiving safe abortion services were approached for interview till the targeted number was fulfilled. A convenience sampling was applied to reach the sample size. Of the 58 respondents, majority of the respondents were Hindus (83%), residing in Kathmandu district (76%); of the age group 20-29 years (69%); and 98% were married. One fifth (20.68 %) of the respondents had previous history of spontaneous or induced abortion. The main reason for abortion did not want any more babies/ complete family (45%). The knowledge of modern contraception was high (98.27%). The knowledge of emergency contraception was low (25.9%). Side effects was the main reason (48%, n=31) for discontinuation of contraceptives. Intention to use some modern family planning methods after the abortion was expressed by 83% clients. The major enabling factor for continued contraceptive use was the absence of side effects. The family planning counselling was acceptable for 91% clients. Knowledge, acceptance of counselling service and intention to use family planning measure was high in the study participants. There is need to provide skills on adapting with the adverse effect of family planning measure through continuous education and

  11. Internet Medline providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vine, D L; Coady, T R

    1998-01-01

    Each database in this review has features that will appeal to some users. Each provides a credible interface to information available within the Medline database. The major differences are pricing and interface design. In this context, features that cost more and might seem trivial to the occasional searcher may actually save time and money when used by the professional. Internet Grateful Med is free, but Ms. Coady and I agree the availability of only three ANDable search fields is a major functional limitation. PubMed is also free but much more powerful. The command line interface that permits very sophisticated searches requires a commitment that casual users will find intimidating. Ms. Coady did not believe the feedback currently provided during a search was sufficient for sustained professional use. Paper Chase and Knowledge Finder are mature, modestly priced Medline search services. Paper Chase provides a menu-driven interface that is very easy to use, yet permits the user to search virtually all of Medline's data fields. Knowledge Finder emphasizes the use of natural language queries but fully supports more traditional search strategies. The impact of the tradeoff between fuzzy and Boolean strategies offered by Knowledge Finder is unclear and beyond the scope of this review. Additional software must be downloaded to use all of Knowledge Finders' features. Other providers required no software beyond the basic Internet browser, and this requirement prevented Ms. Coady from evaluating Knowledge Finder. Ovid and Silver Platter offer well-designed interfaces that simplify the construction of complex queries. These are clearly services designed for professional users. While pricing eliminates these for casual use, it should be emphasized that Medline citation access is only a portion of the service provided by these high-end vendors. Finally, we should comment that each of the vendors and government-sponsored services provided prompt and useful feedback to e

  12. Providing plastic zone extrusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manchiraju, Venkata Kiran; Feng, Zhili; David, Stan A.; Yu, Zhenzhen

    2017-04-11

    Plastic zone extrusion may be provided. First, a compressor may generate frictional heat in stock to place the stock in a plastic zone of the stock. Then, a conveyer may receive the stock in its plastic zone from the compressor and transport the stock in its plastic zone from the compressor. Next, a die may receive the stock in its plastic zone from the conveyer and extrude the stock to form a wire.

  13. DOE handbook: Tritium handling and safe storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    The DOE Handbook was developed as an educational supplement and reference for operations and maintenance personnel. Most of the tritium publications are written from a radiological protection perspective. This handbook provides more extensive guidance and advice on the null range of tritium operations. This handbook can be used by personnel involved in the full range of tritium handling from receipt to ultimate disposal. Compliance issues are addressed at each stage of handling. This handbook can also be used as a reference for those individuals involved in real time determination of bounding doses resulting from inadvertent tritium releases. This handbook provides useful information for establishing processes and procedures for the receipt, storage, assay, handling, packaging, and shipping of tritium and tritiated wastes. It includes discussions and advice on compliance-based issues and adds insight to those areas that currently possess unclear DOE guidance.

  14. Predicting Australian adults' sun-safe behaviour: examining the role of personal and social norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Katherine M; Starfelt, Louise C; Young, Ross McD; Hawkes, Anna L; Leske, Stuart; Hamilton, Kyra

    2015-05-01

    To address the scarcity of comprehensive, theory-based research in the Australian context, this study, using a theory of planned behaviour (TPB) framework, investigated the role of personal and social norms to identify the key predictors of adult Australians' sun-safe intentions and behaviour. The study used a prospective design with two waves of data collection, 1 week apart. Participants were 816 adults (48.2% men) aged between 18 and 88 years recruited from urban, regional, and rural areas of Australia. At baseline, participants completed a questionnaire assessing the standard TPB predictors (attitude, subjective norm, and perceived behavioural control [PBC]), past behaviour, behavioural intention, and additional measures of group norm for the referent groups of friends and family, image norm, personal norm, personal choice/responsibility, and Australian identity. Seventy-one per cent of the participants (n = 577) reported on their sun-safe behaviour in the subsequent week. Via path modelling, past behaviour, attitude, group norm (friends), personal norm, and personal choice/responsibility emerged as independent predictors of intentions which, in turn, predicted sun-safe behaviour prospectively. Past behaviour, but not PBC, had direct effects on sun-safe behaviour. The model explained 61.6% and 43.9% of the variance in intention and behaviour, respectively. This study provides support for the use of a comprehensive theoretical decision-making model to explain Australian adults' sun-safe intentions and behaviours and identifies viable targets for health-promoting messages in this high-risk context. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Identifying determinants of sun-safe behaviour is vital in high-risk cancer areas like Australia. For young Australians, friendship group norm is a key influence of intentions and behaviour. Little is known about drivers of sun safety, especially norms, among Australian adults in general. What does this

  15. Strategies for Countering Terrorist Safe Havens

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-20

    insurgency, Sendero chose Chuschi for its initial military operations precisely because of this absence of haciendas , which allowed SL [Sendero...relationships of the hacienda system, Sendero perhaps hoped to avoid the mistakes made by the guerrillas inspired by the Cuban revolution who failed...to gain support of hacienda peons for their short- lived insurgency in 1965.77 The peasantry, in other words, provided an ungoverned area that was

  16. Climbing the Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Wall - Safely

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Jose; Greene, Stacie

    2010-01-01

    The success of the EVA team, that includes the EVA project office, Crew Office, Mission Operations, Engineering and Safety, is assured by the full integration of all necessary disciplines. Safety participation in all activities from hardware development concepts, certification and crew training, provides for a strong partnership within the team. Early involvement of Safety on the EVA team has mitigated risk and produced a high degree of mission success.

  17. Towards Secure and Safe Appified Automated Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Jia, Yunhan Jack; Zhao, Ding; Chen, Qi Alfred; Mao, Z. Morley

    2017-01-01

    The advancement in Autonomous Vehicles (AVs) has created an enormous market for the development of self-driving functionalities,raising the question of how it will transform the traditional vehicle development process. One adventurous proposal is to open the AV platform to third-party developers, so that AV functionalities can be developed in a crowd-sourcing way, which could provide tangible benefits to both automakers and end users. Some pioneering companies in the automotive industry have ...

  18. Being safe practitioners and safe mothers: a critical ethnography of continuity of care midwifery in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dove, Shona; Muir-Cochrane, Eimear

    2014-10-01

    To examine how midwives and women within a continuity of care midwifery programme in Australia conceptualised childbirth risk and the influences of these conceptualisations on women's choices and midwives' practice. A critical ethnography within a community-based continuity of midwifery care programme, including semi-structured interviews and the observation of sequential antenatal appointments. Eight midwives, an obstetrician and 17 women. The midwives assumed a risk-negotiator role in order to mediate relationships between women and hospital-based maternity staff. The role of risk-negotiator relied profoundly on the trust engendered in their relationships with women. Trust within the mother-midwife relationship furthermore acted as a catalyst for complex processes of identity work which, in turn, allowed midwives to manipulate existing obstetric risk hierarchies and effectively re-order risk conceptualisations. In establishing and maintaining identities of 'safe practitioner' and 'safe mother', greater scope for the negotiation of normal within a context of obstetric risk was achieved. The effects of obstetric risk practices can be mitigated when trust within the mother-midwife relationship acts as a catalyst for identity work and supports the midwife's role as a risk-negotiator. The achievement of mutual identity-work through the midwives' role as risk-negotiator can contribute to improved outcomes for women receiving continuity of care. However, midwives needed to perform the role of risk-negotiator while simultaneously negotiating their professional credibility in a setting that construed their practice as risky. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Providing Compassion through Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydia Royeen

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Meg Kral, MS, OTR/L, CLT, is the cover artist for the Summer 2015 issue of The Open Journal of Occupational Therapy. Her untitled piece of art is an oil painting and is a re-creation of a photograph taken while on vacation. Meg is currently supervisor of outpatient services at Rush University Medical Center. She is lymphedema certified and has a specific interest in breast cancer lymphedema. Art and occupational therapy serve similar purposes for Meg: both provide a sense of flow. She values the outcomes, whether it is a piece of art or improved functional status

  20. Providing Contraception to Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raidoo, Shandhini; Kaneshiro, Bliss

    2015-12-01

    Adolescents have high rates of unintended pregnancy and face unique reproductive health challenges. Providing confidential contraceptive services to adolescents is important in reducing the rate of unintended pregnancy. Long-acting contraception such as the intrauterine device and contraceptive implant are recommended as first-line contraceptives for adolescents because they are highly effective with few side effects. The use of barrier methods to prevent sexually transmitted infections should be encouraged. Adolescents have limited knowledge of reproductive health and contraceptive options, and their sources of information are often unreliable. Access to contraception is available through a variety of resources that continue to expand. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Ysla S. Catalina & Providence

    OpenAIRE

    Diazgranados, Carlos Nicolás; Torres Carreño, Guillermo Andrés; Castell, Edmon; Moreno, Santiago; Ramirez, Natalia

    2010-01-01

    Esta Hoja de Mano pertenece a la exposición temporal "Ysla S. Catalina & Providence". Contiene un resumen histórico de las Islas de Santa Catalina y Providencia en los idiomas inglés y español y un mapa del siglo VI que lo hace más didáctico apoyado por figuras recortables. Esta muestra hace parte del proyecto IDA y VUELTA del Sistema de Patrimonio Cultural y Museos SPM que gestiona la descentralización del patrimonio cultural de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia a otras ciudades del pa...

  2. Barriers and Facilitators to Safe Food Handling among Consumers: A Systematic Review and Thematic Synthesis of Qualitative Research Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Young, Ian; Waddell, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Foodborne illness has a substantial health and economic burden on society, and most cases are believed to be due to unsafe food handling practices at home. Several qualitative research studies have been conducted to investigate consumers? perspectives, opinions, and experiences with safe food handling at home, and these studies provide insights into the underlying barriers and facilitators affecting their safe food handling behaviours. We conducted a systematic review of previously published ...

  3. Sociocultural Determinants to Adoption of Safe Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene Practices in Nyakach, Kisumu County, Kenya: A Descriptive Qualitative Study

    OpenAIRE

    Wasonga, Job; Okowa, Mark; Kioli, Felix

    2016-01-01

    Provision of safe water, adequate sanitation, and hygiene has been lauded as one way of preventing diarrheal infections and improving health especially in developing countries. However, lack of safe water, inadequate sanitation, and poor hygiene practices in most parts of rural Kenya have posed a challenge that exposes the populace to diarrhea cases and possible deaths. In this regard, many nongovernmental organizations and governmental agencies have tried to provide water, sanitation, and hy...

  4. Teaching Family Caregivers to Assist Safely with Mobility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell-Cope, Gail; Pippins, Karla M; Young, Heather M

    2017-12-01

    : This article is part of a series, Supporting Family Caregivers: No Longer Home Alone, published in collaboration with the AARP Public Policy Institute. Results of focus groups, conducted as part of the AARP Public Policy Institute's No Longer Home Alone video project, supported evidence that family caregivers aren't given the information they need to manage the complex care regimens of family members. This series of articles and accompanying videos aims to help nurses provide caregivers with the tools they need to manage their family member's health care at home.The articles in this new installment of the series explain principles for promoting safe mobility that nurses should reinforce with family caregivers. Each article also includes an informational tear sheet-Information for Family Caregivers-that contains links to instructional videos. To use this series, nurses should read the article first, so they understand how best to help family caregivers, and then encourage the caregivers to watch the videos and ask questions. For additional information, see Resources for Nurses.

  5. Sufficient blood, safe blood: can we have both?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bönig Halvard

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The decision in September 2011 in the UK to accept blood donations from non-practicing men who have sex with men (MSM has received significant public attention. Will this rule change substantially boost the number of blood donations or will it make our blood less safe? Clearly, most European countries have a blood procurement problem. Fewer young people are donating, while the population is aging and more invasive therapies are requiring more blood. Yet if that was the reason for allowing non-practicing MSM to donate, clearly re-admission of some other, much larger populations that are currently deferred from donation should likewise be considered. As far as risks for blood safety are concerned, evidence has been provided that the current quality of infectious disease marker testing significantly mitigates against, although does not completely eradicate, risks associated with admission of donors with a high risk of carrying certain blood-transmissible agents. However, it could be argued that more effective recruitment of the non-donor pool, which is substantially larger than the group of currently ineligible donors, would be a better strategy. Recruitment of this group will benefit the availability of blood without jeopardizing the current excellent safety profile of blood.

  6. X-space MPI: magnetic nanoparticles for safe medical imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwill, Patrick William; Saritas, Emine Ulku; Croft, Laura Rose; Kim, Tyson N; Krishnan, Kannan M; Schaffer, David V; Conolly, Steven M

    2012-07-24

    One quarter of all iodinated contrast X-ray clinical imaging studies are now performed on Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) patients. Unfortunately, the iodine contrast agent used in X-ray is often toxic to CKD patients' weak kidneys, leading to significant morbidity and mortality. Hence, we are pioneering a new medical imaging method, called Magnetic Particle Imaging (MPI), to replace X-ray and CT iodinated angiography, especially for CKD patients. MPI uses magnetic nanoparticle contrast agents that are much safer than iodine for CKD patients. MPI already offers superb contrast and extraordinary sensitivity. The iron oxide nanoparticle tracers required for MPI are also used in MRI, and some are already approved for human use, but the contrast agents are far more effective at illuminating blood vessels when used in the MPI modality. We have recently developed a systems theoretic framework for MPI called x-space MPI, which has already dramatically improved the speed and robustness of MPI image reconstruction. X-space MPI has allowed us to optimize the hardware for fi ve MPI scanners. Moreover, x-space MPI provides a powerful framework for optimizing the size and magnetic properties of the iron oxide nanoparticle tracers used in MPI. Currently MPI nanoparticles have diameters in the 10-20 nanometer range, enabling millimeter-scale resolution in small animals. X-space MPI theory predicts that larger nanoparticles could enable up to 250 micrometer resolution imaging, which would represent a major breakthrough in safe imaging for CKD patients.

  7. Safe approaches for camptothecin delivery: Structural analogues and nanomedicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botella, Pablo; Rivero-Buceta, Eva

    2017-02-10

    Twenty-(S)-camptothecin is a strongly cytotoxic molecule with excellent antitumor activity over a wide spectrum of human cancers. However, the direct formulation is limited by its poor water solubility, low plasmatic stability and severe toxicity, which currently limits its clinical use. As a consequence, two strategies have been developed in order to achieve safe and efficient delivery of camptothecin to target cells: structural analogues and nanomedicines. In this review, we summarize recent advances in the design, synthesis and development of camptothecin molecular derivatives and supramolecular vehicles, following a systematic classification according to structure-activity relationships (structural analogues) or chemical nature (nanomedicines). A series of organic, inorganic and hybrid materials are presented as nanoplatforms to overcome camptothecin restrictions in administration, biodistribution, pharmacokinetics and toxicity. Nanocarriers which respond to a variety of stimuli endogenously (e.g., pH, redox potential, enzyme activity) or exogenously (e.g., magnetic field, light, temperature, ultrasound) seem the best positioned therapeutic materials for optimal spatial and temporal control over drug release. The main goal of this review is to be used as a source of relevant literature for others interested in the field of camptothecin-based therapeutics. To this end, final remarks on the most important formulations currently under clinical trial are provided. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Safe Active Scanning for Energy Delivery Systems Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helms, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Salazar, B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Scheibel, P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Engels, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Reiger, C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-09-30

    The Department of Energy’s Cybersecurity for Energy Delivery Systems Program has funded Safe(r) Active Scanning for Energy Delivery Systems, led by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, to investigate and analyze the impacts of active scanning in the operational environment of energy delivery systems. In collaboration with Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and Idaho National Laboratory, active scans across three testbeds including 38 devices were performed. This report gives a summary of the initial literature survey performed on the SASEDS project as well as industry partner interview summaries and main findings from Phase 1 of the project. Additionally, the report goes into the details of scanning techniques, methodologies for testing, testbed descriptions, and scanning results, with appendices to elaborate on the specific scans that were performed. As a result of testing, a single device out of 38 exhibited problems when actively scanned, and a reboot was required to fix it. This single failure indicates that active scanning is not likely to have a detrimental effect on the safety and resilience of energy delivery systems. We provide a path forward for future research that could enable wide adoption of active scanning and lead utilities to incorporate active scanning as part of their default network security plans to discover and rectify rogue devices, adversaries, and services that may be on the network. This increased network visibility will allow operational technology cybersecurity practitioners to improve their situational awareness of networks and their vulnerabilities.

  9. A preference for a sexual signal keeps females safe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae Won Kim

    Full Text Available Predation is generally thought to constrain sexual selection by female choice and limit the evolution of conspicuous sexual signals. Under high predation risk, females usually become less choosy, because they reduce their exposure to their predators by reducing the extent of their mate searching. However, predation need not weaken sexual selection if, under high predation risk, females exhibit stronger preferences for males that use conspicuous signals that help females avoid their predators. We tested this prediction in the fiddler crab Uca terpsichores by increasing females' perceived predation risk from crab-eating birds and measuring the attractiveness of a courtship signal that females use to find mates. The sexual signal is an arching mound of sand that males build at the openings of their burrows to which they attract females for mating. We found that the greater the risk, the more attractive were males with those structures. The benefits of mate preferences for sexual signals are usually thought to be linked to males' reproductive contributions to females or their young. Our study provides the first evidence that a female preference for a sexual signal can yield direct survival benefits by keeping females safe as they search for mates.

  10. What HERA May Provide?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Hannes; /DESY; De Roeck, Albert; /CERN; Bartels, Jochen; /Hamburg U., Inst. Theor. Phys. II; Behnke, Olaf; Blumlein, Johannes; /DESY; Brodsky, Stanley; /SLAC /Durham U., IPPP; Cooper-Sarkar, Amanda; /Oxford U.; Deak, Michal; /DESY; Devenish, Robin; /Oxford U.; Diehl, Markus; /DESY; Gehrmann, Thomas; /Zurich U.; Grindhammer, Guenter; /Munich, Max Planck Inst.; Gustafson, Gosta; /CERN /Lund U., Dept. Theor. Phys.; Khoze, Valery; /Durham U., IPPP; Knutsson, Albert; /DESY; Klein, Max; /Liverpool U.; Krauss, Frank; /Durham U., IPPP; Kutak, Krzysztof; /DESY; Laenen, Eric; /NIKHEF, Amsterdam; Lonnblad, Leif; /Lund U., Dept. Theor. Phys.; Motyka, Leszek; /Hamburg U., Inst. Theor. Phys. II /Birmingham U. /Southern Methodist U. /DESY /Piemonte Orientale U., Novara /CERN /Paris, LPTHE /Hamburg U. /Penn State U.

    2011-11-10

    More than 100 people participated in a discussion session at the DIS08 workshop on the topic What HERA may provide. A summary of the discussion with a structured outlook and list of desirable measurements and theory calculations is given. The HERA accelerator and the HERA experiments H1, HERMES and ZEUS stopped running in the end of June 2007. This was after 15 years of very successful operation since the first collisions in 1992. A total luminosity of {approx} 500 pb{sup -1} has been accumulated by each of the collider experiments H1 and ZEUS. During the years the increasingly better understood and upgraded detectors and HERA accelerator have contributed significantly to this success. The physics program remains in full swing and plenty of new results were presented at DIS08 which are approaching the anticipated final precision, fulfilling and exceeding the physics plans and the previsions of the upgrade program. Most of the analyses presented at DIS08 were still based on the so called HERA I data sample, i.e. data taken until 2000, before the shutdown for the luminosity upgrade. This sample has an integrated luminosity of {approx} 100 pb{sup -1}, and the four times larger statistics sample from HERA II is still in the process of being analyzed.

  11. Flexible and Safe Control of Mobile Surface Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The primary innovation of this work is a novel Petri net based approach for safe and flexible control of highly capable mobile surface systems, such as long-duration...

  12. Flexible and Safe Control of Mobile Surface Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The primary innovation of this work is a novel approach for flexible and safe control of highly capable mobile surface systems, such as long-duration science rovers,...

  13. Analysis of Methods of Determining the Safe Ship Trajectory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozef Lisowski

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes six methods of optimal and game theory and artificial neural network for synthesis of safe control in collision situations at sea. The application of optimal and game control algorithms to determine the own ship safe trajectory during the passing of other encountered ships in good and restricted visibility at sea is presented. The comparison of the safe ship control in collision situation: multi-step matrix non-cooperative and cooperative games, multi-stage positional non-cooperative and cooperative games have been introduced. The considerations have been illustrated with examples of computer simulation of the algorithms to determine safe of own ship trajectories in a navigational situation during passing of eight met ships.

  14. Myths and Facts about SIDS and Safe Infant Sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Myths and Facts About SIDS and Safe Infant Sleep Page Content Myth: Babies can “catch” SIDS. Fact: ... sleep environment for your baby. Myth: Babies who sleep on their backs will choke if they spit ...

  15. Zambia Communications Support for Health Safe Love Campaign Outcome Evaluation

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — The Safe Love campaign was a three-year comprehensive HIV prevention behavior change and communication (BCC) initiative implemented between June 2011 and June 2014....

  16. Safe Drinking Water Information System (SDWIS) Surface Water Intakes

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This is a point feature dataset showing the locations of surface water intakes. These intake locations are part of the safe drinking water information system...

  17. Safe Drinking Water Information System (SDWIS) Drinking Water Well Sites

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This is a point feature dataset showing the locations of drinking water wells. These well locations are part of the safe drinking water information system (SDWIS)....

  18. Safe Drinking Water Information System (SDWIS) Sewer Treatment Plants

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This is a point feature dataset showing the locations of sewer treatment plants. These facility locations are part of the safe drinking water information system...

  19. Inertial sensing microelectromechanical (MEM) safe-arm device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roesler, Alexander W [Tijeras, NM; Wooden, Susan M [Sandia Park, NM

    2009-05-12

    Microelectromechanical (MEM) safe-arm devices comprise a substrate upon which a sense mass, that can contain an energetic material, is constrained to move along a pathway defined by a track disposed on the surface of the substrate. The pathway has a first end comprising a "safe" position and a second end comprising an "armed" position, whereat the second end the sense mass can be aligned proximal to energetic materials comprising the explosive train, within an explosive component. The sense mass can be confined in the safe position by a first latch, operable to release the sense mass by an acceleration acting in a direction substantially normal to the surface of the substrate. A second acceleration, acting in a direction substantially parallel to the surface of the substrate, can cause the sense mass to traverse the pathway from the safe position to the armed position.

  20. Exercising with Osteoporosis: Stay Active the Safe Way

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exercising with osteoporosis: Stay active the safe way If you have osteoporosis, you might mistakenly think exercise will lead to fracture. ... helps protect your bones. By Mayo Clinic Staff Osteoporosis is a major cause of disability in older ...

  1. Concussion: Doug Flutie: "Be on the Safe Side."

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Concussion Doug Flutie: "Be on the Safe Side." Past ... for NBC Sports. Flutie is often asked about concussions and brain trauma associated with sports like football, ...

  2. Silencing in genetically engineered Prunus domestica provides durable and safe resistance to Plum pox virus (sharka disease)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Originally identified in Bulgaria in 1915, Plum pox virus (PPV) is the most damaging virus of stone fruit trees including apricot, plum, peach, and cherry. PPV steadily spread throughout Europe over the years since its discovery, and at the turn of the century (1999-2000), it reached North America ...

  3. Resistant starch: safe intakes and legal status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldring, Jay M

    2004-01-01

    Resistant starch (RS) can provide added values such as health benefits and fiber content to many processed foods without compromising taste and product quality. RS is defined as the total amount of starch and the products of starch degradation that resists digestion in the small intestine of healthy people, and the class is comprised of many chemically and physically distinct entities. Some forms of RS are present naturally in many foods, and average global consumption is estimated at 3-10 g/day. Among the best-characterized forms of RS are those derived from high-amylose maize (HAM). Animal and human studies confirm the health benefits and safety of HAM-derived RS as a food ingredient. Legally, RS can be sold in most countries if it falls under current food classifications. However, approved fiber measurements vary throughout the world, and different methods are required to measure RS derived from specific sources. A particular RS can only be claimed as fiber on the nutrition label (and as a source for a high-fiber claim) if the method appropriate to that product is approved in the country of interest. Similarly, each individual country's regulations must be consulted prior to developing health or other nutrition label claims, such as calorie content for RS-containing products, as these regulations vary widely around the world.

  4. Safe bicycling – Problems and solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grecka M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Herewith a popularity of bicycling, various safety problems of cyclists are researched. Studies are connected with infrastructure, riding culture, choice of cyclist's suit and riding equipment. Overall, 382 respondents (159 cyclists, 119 drivers, 104 pedestrians were involved in the survey. The road participants' mutual communication problems in the traffic and opportunities of solving them were clarified. Most of cyclists wear comfortable daily or sporty clothing with reflective elements, and in their opinion, clothing with light emissive elements must be like daily clothing. The drivers could better notice cyclists, if they wear brightly colored suit with light emissive and reflective elements, but pedestrians – if cyclists use warning sound signals. The opinions of road participants about the placement of light emissive and reflective elements in cyclist's clothing were clarified. The prototype of cycling belt (Fig. 1e has been drawn up with LED stop signals, which are activated by the accelerometer placed in the central back pocket. The results of approbation have shown that the sensor does not provide the proper functioning of signals, due to a high level of riding movements. Using Motion Capture technology and bicycle exercise equipment, the research of oscillation of anthropometric points on the back has been carried out. The accelerometer should be placed between scapulae to design the cycling jacket.

  5. Efficient and Safe Chemical Gas Generators with Nanocomposite Reactive Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-30

    2015 Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited Final Report: Efficient and Safe Chemical Gas Generators with Nanocomposite Reactive Materials...Research Office P.O. Box 12211 Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2211 Energetic materials, gas generators, nanoenergetics REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE 11...Building, Room 209 El Paso, TX 79968 -0587 12-Sep-2015 ABSTRACT Final Report: Efficient and Safe Chemical Gas Generators with Nanocomposite Reactive

  6. Acceptance and use of eight arsenic-safe drinking water options in Bangladesh.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Inauen

    Full Text Available Arsenic contamination of drinking water is a serious public health threat. In Bangladesh, eight major safe water options provide an alternative to contaminated shallow tubewells: piped water supply, deep tubewells, pond sand filters, community arsenic-removal, household arsenic removal, dug wells, well-sharing, and rainwater harvesting. However, it is uncertain how well these options are accepted and used by the at-risk population. Based on the RANAS model (risk, attitudes, norms, ability, and self-regulation this study aimed to identify the acceptance and use of available safe water options. Cross-sectional face-to-face interviews were used to survey 1,268 households in Bangladesh in November 2009 (n = 872, and December 2010 (n = 396. The questionnaire assessed water consumption, acceptance factors from the RANAS model, and socioeconomic factors. Although all respondents had access to at least one arsenic-safe drinking water option, only 62.1% of participants were currently using these alternatives. The most regularly used options were household arsenic removal filters (92.9% and piped water supply (85.6%. However, the former result may be positively biased due to high refusal rates of household filter owners. The least used option was household rainwater harvesting (36.6%. Those who reported not using an arsenic-safe source differed in terms of numerous acceptance factors from those who reported using arsenic-safe sources: non-users were characterized by greater vulnerability; showed less preference for the taste and temperature of alternative sources; found collecting safe water quite time-consuming; had lower levels of social norms, self-efficacy, and coping planning; and demonstrated lower levels of commitment to collecting safe water. Acceptance was particularly high for piped water supplies and deep tubewells, whereas dug wells and well-sharing were the least accepted sources. Intervention strategies were derived from the results

  7. Guidelines for safe handling, use and disposal of nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoabediny, G. H.; Naderi, A.; Malakootikhah, J.; Koohi, M. K.; Mortazavi, S. A.; Naderi, M.; Rashedi, H.

    2009-05-01

    situations, performing administrative means of control constitute other ways of limiaiting the occupational exposure risks. Accordingly, to minimize the risks from know and unknown health, safety and invironment hazards in research and occupational setting of the country, guideline for safe handling, use and disposal of manopractical has provided.

  8. LACK OF AWARENESS ABOUT SAFE BLOOD IN PAKISTANI POPULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Usman

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Blood transfusion is a life saving procedure in various transfusion-dependent life threatening conditions and donation of safe blood is a prerequisite for achieving this goal. This study was designed to evaluate the awareness regarding “safe blood” in Pakistani population. This study was conducted at a large scale through a population survey. The test population was divided into two groups i.e. general population and students. The Performa was designed for a general and student population and included 20 questions related to awareness of safe blood. A total of 4900 individuals belonging to different ethnic groups were included in this population survey. Results of social survey were analyzed by using Usman and Moin awareness chart. Results of this study revealed profound unawareness about safe blood in Pakistani population. This study found lack of awareness about safe blood as a major factor that is playing a vital role in the propagation of blood borne diseases in Pakistan. To secure the recipients from blood borne complications through blood donation, it is necessary to create effective awareness about safe blood in Pakistani population.

  9. The Safe Yield and Climatic Variability: Implications for Groundwater Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loáiciga, Hugo A

    2017-05-01

    Methods for calculating the safe yield are evaluated in this paper using a high-quality and long historical data set of groundwater recharge, discharge, extraction, and precipitation in a karst aquifer. Consideration is given to the role that climatic variability has on the determination of a climatically representative period with which to evaluate the safe yield. The methods employed to estimate the safe yield are consistent with its definition as a long-term average extraction rate that avoids adverse impacts on groundwater. The safe yield is a useful baseline for groundwater planning; yet, it is herein shown that it is not an operational rule that works well under all climatic conditions. This paper shows that due to the nature of dynamic groundwater processes it may be most appropriate to use an adaptive groundwater management strategy that links groundwater extraction rates to groundwater discharge rates, thus achieving a safe yield that represents an estimated long-term sustainable yield. An example of the calculation of the safe yield of the Edwards Aquifer (Texas) demonstrates that it is about one-half of the average annual recharge. © 2016, National Ground Water Association.

  10. Development of Safe Food Handling Guidelines for Korean Consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hee-Jin; Lee, Min-Woo; Hwang, In-Kyeong; Kim, Jeong-Weon

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop guidelines for Korean consumers with regard to safe food handling practices at home by identifying current food handling issues. Korean consumers' behaviors regarding their safe food handling were identified via survey questionnaires that included items on individual hygiene practices, prepreparation steps when cooking, the cooking process, and the storage of leftover foods. The subjects were 417 Korean parents with elementary school children living in Seoul and Gyeonggi Province in the central area of Korea. The survey results revealed gaps between the knowledge or practices of Korean consumers and scientific evidence pertaining to safe food handling practices. Based on these findings, a leaflet on safe food handling guidelines was developed in accordance with Korean food culture. These guidelines suggest personal hygiene practices as well as fundamental principles and procedures for safe food handling from the stage of food purchase to that of keeping leftover dishes. A pilot application study with 50 consumers revealed that the guidelines effectively improved Korean consumers' safe food handling practices, suggesting that they can serve as practical educational material suitable for Korean consumers.

  11. End-to-End demonstrator of the Safe Affordable Fission Engine (SAFE) 30: Power conversion and ion engine operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrbud, Ivana; van Dyke, Melissa; Houts, Mike; Goodfellow, Keith

    2002-01-01

    The Safe Affordable Fission Engine (SAFE) test series addresses Phase 1 Space Fission Systems issues in particular non-nuclear testing and system integration issues leading to the testing and non-nuclear demonstration of a 400-kW fully integrated flight unit. The first part of the SAFE 30 test series demonstrated operation of the simulated nuclear core and heat pipe system. Experimental data acquired in a number of different test scenarios will validate existing computational models, demonstrated system flexibility (fast start-ups, multiple start-ups/shut downs), simulate predictable failure modes and operating environments. The objective of the second part is to demonstrate an integrated propulsion system consisting of a core, conversion system and a thruster where the system converts thermal heat into jet power. This end-to-end system demonstration sets a precedent for ground testing of nuclear electric propulsion systems. The paper describes the SAFE 30 end-to-end system demonstration and its subsystems. .

  12. Polyvinylpyrrolidone-Poly(ethylene glycol) Modified Silver Nanorods Can Be a Safe, Noncarrier Adjuvant for HIV Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ye; Balachandran, Yekkuni L; Li, Dan; Shao, Yiming; Jiang, Xingyu

    2016-03-22

    One of the biggest obstacles for the development of HIV vaccines is how to sufficiently trigger crucial anti-HIV immunities via a safe manner. We herein integrated surface modification-dependent immunostimulation against HIV vaccine and shape-dependent biosafety and designed a safe noncarrier adjuvant based on silver nanorods coated by both polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and polyethylene glycol (PEG). Such silver nanorods can significantly elevate crucial immunities of HIV vaccine and overcome the toxicity, which is a big problem for other existing adjuvants. This study thus provided a principle for designing a safe and high-efficacy material for an adjuvant and allow researchers to really have a safe and effective prophylaxis against HIV. We expect this material approach to be applicable to other types of vaccines, whether they are preventative or therapeutic.

  13. Increasing Access to Health Care Providers with Nurse Practitioner Competencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, Del Marjorie

    2014-01-01

    Emergency department visits increased from 102.8 million to 136.1 million in 2009, resulting in crowding and increased wait times, affecting U.S. hospitals' ability to provide safe, timely patient care resulting in dangerous delays and serious health problems shown by research. The purpose of this project was to determine if competencies developed…

  14. National Athletic Trainers' Association position statement: safe weight loss and maintenance practices in sport and exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turocy, Paula Sammarone; DePalma, Bernard F; Horswill, Craig A; Laquale, Kathleen M; Martin, Thomas J; Perry, Arlette C; Somova, Marla J; Utter, Alan C

    2011-01-01

    To present athletic trainers with recommendations for safe weight loss and weight maintenance practices for athletes and active clients and to provide athletes, clients, coaches, and parents with safe guidelines that will allow athletes and clients to achieve and maintain weight and body composition goals. Unsafe weight management practices can compromise athletic performance and negatively affect health. Athletes and clients often attempt to lose weight by not eating, limiting caloric or specific nutrients from the diet, engaging in pathogenic weight control behaviors, and restricting fluids. These people often respond to pressures of the sport or activity, coaches, peers, or parents by adopting negative body images and unsafe practices to maintain an ideal body composition for the activity. We provide athletic trainers with recommendations for safe weight loss and weight maintenance in sport and exercise. Although safe weight gain is also a concern for athletic trainers and their athletes and clients, that topic is outside the scope of this position statement. Athletic trainers are often the source of nutrition information for athletes and clients; therefore, they must have knowledge of proper nutrition, weight management practices, and methods to change body composition. Body composition assessments should be done in the most scientifically appropriate manner possible. Reasonable and individualized weight and body composition goals should be identified by appropriately trained health care personnel (eg, athletic trainers, registered dietitians, physicians). In keeping with the American Dietetics Association (ADA) preferred nomenclature, this document uses the terms registered dietitian or dietician when referring to a food and nutrition expert who has met the academic and professional requirements specified by the ADA's Commission on Accreditation for Dietetics Education. In some cases, a registered nutritionist may have equivalent credentials and be the

  15. National Athletic Trainers' Association Position Statement: Safe Weight Loss and Maintenance Practices in Sport and Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turocy, Paula Sammarone; DePalma, Bernard F.; Horswill, Craig A.; Laquale, Kathleen M.; Martin, Thomas J.; Perry, Arlette C.; Somova, Marla J.; Utter, Alan C.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To present athletic trainers with recommendations for safe weight loss and weight maintenance practices for athletes and active clients and to provide athletes, clients, coaches, and parents with safe guidelines that will allow athletes and clients to achieve and maintain weight and body composition goals. Background: Unsafe weight management practices can compromise athletic performance and negatively affect health. Athletes and clients often attempt to lose weight by not eating, limiting caloric or specific nutrients from the diet, engaging in pathogenic weight control behaviors, and restricting fluids. These people often respond to pressures of the sport or activity, coaches, peers, or parents by adopting negative body images and unsafe practices to maintain an ideal body composition for the activity. We provide athletic trainers with recommendations for safe weight loss and weight maintenance in sport and exercise. Although safe weight gain is also a concern for athletic trainers and their athletes and clients, that topic is outside the scope of this position statement. Recommendations: Athletic trainers are often the source of nutrition information for athletes and clients; therefore, they must have knowledge of proper nutrition, weight management practices, and methods to change body composition. Body composition assessments should be done in the most scientifically appropriate manner possible. Reasonable and individualized weight and body composition goals should be identified by appropriately trained health care personnel (eg, athletic trainers, registered dietitians, physicians). In keeping with the American Dietetics Association (ADA) preferred nomenclature, this document uses the terms registered dietitian or dietician when referring to a food and nutrition expert who has met the academic and professional requirements specified by the ADA's Commission on Accreditation for Dietetics Education. In some cases, a registered nutritionist may have

  16. "Bareback" pornography consumption and safe-sex intentions of men having sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonas, Kai J; Hawk, Skyler T; Vastenburg, Danny; de Groot, Peter

    2014-05-01

    Men having sex with men (MSM) commonly consume "bareback" pornography, which includes scenes of unprotected anal intercourse. Prior research on human imitative behavior suggests that these media might counteract efforts to promote safe-sex behaviors. To date, no studies have demonstrated a causal link between bareback pornography consumption and reduced safe-sex intentions. Study 1 utilized a correlational design conducted as an online survey. Study 2 was set in an actual MSM sex club, using a 2 × 2 mixed-factorial design to compare type of pornography (unprotected vs. protected anal intercourse) and age of actors (younger vs. older). As the main dependent variable in both studies, participants self-reported their inclinations toward unprotected versus protected intercourse, using a 100-point sliding scale (1 = unprotected, 100 = protected). In Study 1, more attention to unprotected sex acts on actual DVD film covers predicted lower safe-sex intentions, as compared to other elements of the film cover. In Study 2, safe-sex intentions after viewing unprotected-sex films were lower than after viewing protected-sex films. The results provide novel and ecologically valid evidence that "bareback" pornography consumption impacts viewer's inclinations toward sexual risk-taking by lowering their intentions to use protected sex measures. Suggestions are given as to how these findings can be utilized for purposes of intervention and prevention of STI and HIV infections.

  17. Household's willingness to pay for arsenic safe drinking water in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Nasreen Islam; Brouwer, Roy; Yang, Hong

    2014-10-01

    This study examines willingness to pay (WTP) in Bangladesh for arsenic (As) safe drinking water across different As-risk zones, applying a double bound discrete choice value elicitation approach. The study aims to provide a robust estimate of the benefits of As safe drinking water supply, which is compared to the results from a similar study published almost 10 years ago using a single bound estimation procedure. Tests show that the double bound valuation design does not suffer from anchoring or incentive incompatibility effects. Health risk awareness levels are high and households are willing to pay on average about 5 percent of their disposable average annual household income for As safe drinking water. Important factors influencing WTP include the bid amount to construct communal deep tubewell for As safe water supply, the risk zone where respondents live, household income, water consumption, awareness of water source contamination, whether household members are affected by As contamination, and whether they already take mitigation measures. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Sexual temptation: substance abuse, no sex, safe sex, risky sex, and STDs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutarso, Toto; Tang, Thomas Li-Ping; Anerin, Denny R; McCartt, Intan W S; Gibson, Courtney B

    2016-12-23

    University students' substance abuse and risky sex contribute to sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). We develop and empirically test a formative theoretical model of sexual temptation involving substance abuse (cigarettes, alcohol, and marijuana), safe sexual behavior (use of condom/barrier for oral and vaginal intercourse), risky sexual behavior (unprotected sex and multiple sexual partners), and STDs: gonorrhea, HIV, and genital herpes. We simultaneously explore these constructs, controlling membership in social groups (fraternity/sorority, varsity athlete, and club sports) and perceived norm of substance abuse. A total of 687 American university students completed the National College Health Assessment (NCHA). We use structural equation modeling (SEM) to test the goodness of fit between our formative theoretical model and actual data. Results reveal the following discoveries: membership in campus social groups is positively associated with STDs, whereas perceived norm of peer substance abuse is negatively related to STDs. Under the influence of substance abuse, we test three outcomes of sexual temptation as related to STDs. Those who have no sex do not contract STDs. For those who fall into temptation and have sex, substance abuse is more strongly related to risky sex which leads to STDs than safe sex which does not. Those engaging in risky sex have significantly higher cognitive impairment than those practicing safe sex. Substance abuse contributes to STDs through risky sex only. Those having risky sex suffer higher cognitive impairment than those practicing safe sex. We provide novel implications to policy makers, practitioners, and researchers.

  19. Critically safe volume vacuum pickup for use in wet or dry cleanup of radioactive enclosures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeren, Joseph D.

    1993-12-28

    A physical compact vacuum pickup device of critically safe volume and geometric shape is provided for use in radioactive enclosures, such as a small glove box, to facilitate manual cleanup of either wet or dry radioactive material. The device is constructed and arranged so as to remain safe when filled to capacity with plutonium-239 oxide. Two fine mesh filter bags are supported on the exterior of a rigid fine mesh stainless steel cup. This assembly is sealed within, and spaced from, the interior walls of a stainless steel canister. An air inlet communicates with the interior of the canister. A modified conventional vacuum head is physically connected to, and associated with, the interior of the mesh cup. The volume of the canister, as defined by the space between the mesh cup and the interior walls of the canister, forms a critically safe volume and geometric shape for dry radioactive particles that are gathered within the canister. A critically safe liquid volume is maintained by operation of a suction terminating float valve, and/or by operation of redundant vacuum check/liquid drain valves and placement of the air inlet.

  20. Project SAFE: an Armed Forces cooperative initiative for the prevention and treatment of family violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNelis, P J; Awalt, S J

    1986-01-01

    About one out of every eight persons residing in the State of Hawaii is either active duty military or a military family member. In the late 1970s, it became apparent that neither the military nor the state could meet a growing obligation to provide responsive protective services to abused and neglected children of military families. Inspired by a first-ever congressional appropriation for the development of military child abuse and neglect and spouse abuse programs, the Department of Defense funded a 3-year joint-Service family violence project. Operational since 1982, Project SAFE (Services Assisting Family Environments) consists of a family violence shelter, clinical outreach teams, and a prenatal prevention project. This paper chronicles the history of Project SAFE, provides retrospective commentary on planning and implementation, and identifies key evaluation questions yet to be answered.