Sample records for providing reliable results

  1. Bring Your Own Device - Providing Reliable Model of Data Access

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    Stąpór Paweł


    Full Text Available The article presents a model of Bring Your Own Device (BYOD as a model network, which provides the user reliable access to network resources. BYOD is a model dynamically developing, which can be applied in many areas. Research network has been launched in order to carry out the test, in which as a service of BYOD model Work Folders service was used. This service allows the user to synchronize files between the device and the server. An access to the network is completed through the wireless communication by the 802.11n standard. Obtained results are shown and analyzed in this article.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna MAZUR


    Full Text Available People are the most valuable asset of an organization and the results of a company mostly depends on them. The human factor can also be a weak link in the company and cause of the high risk for many of the processes. Reliability of the human factor in the process of the manufacturing process will depend on many factors. The authors include aspects of human error, safety culture, knowledge, communication skills, teamwork and leadership role in the developed model of reliability of human resources in the management of the production process. Based on the case study and the results of research and observation of the author present risk areas defined in a specific manufacturing process and the results of evaluation of the reliability of human resources in the process.

  3. Does multi-slice CT provide reliable attenuation values if measured with low slice thickness and low tube current? Results of a phantom study; Sind mit der Mehrschicht-Computertomografie Dichtemessungen auch bei geringer Schichtdicke und niedrigem Roehrenstrom verlaesslich?

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    Kirchhof, K.; Bohndorf, K. [Klinik fuer Diagnostische Radiologie und Neuroradiologie, Klinikum Augsburg (Germany); Welzel, T. [Abt. klinische Radiologie, Radiologische Universitaetsklinik Heidelberg (Germany); Wagner, T. [Pathologisches Inst., Klinikum Augsburg (Germany); Behr, W. [Inst. fuer Laboratoriumsmedizin, Mikrobiologie und Umwelthygiene, Klinikum Augsburg (Germany)


    Purpose: to test whether CT with low slice thickness and low tube current provides reliable attenuation measurements. Materials and methods: using multi-slice CT and a phantom, we measured the attenuation values of thrombi with different proportions of erythrocytes, using a slice thickness of 1.25 mm, 2.5 mm, and 5 mm with tube currents of 200 mA, 300 mA, and 400 mA and a slice thickness of 0.625 mm with tube currents of 150 mA, 175 mA, and 200 mA. Differences in attenuation values and pixel noise between the three thrombi for tube current and slice thickness were statistically analyzed. Results: the attenuation values of all thrombi increased (p < 0.05) when the slice thickness decreased using a tube current of 200 mA or when the tube current decreased using a slice thickness of 1.25 mm. With higher tube currents and thicker slices, the CT values depended on the type of thrombus and the slice thickness. In slices with a thickness of 0.625 mm, the CT values decreased with the tube current in the mixed thrombus with a low proportion of erythrocytes and in the red thrombus (p < 0.05). The maximal difference in mean attenuation values was 4.3 HU with a slice thickness of 0.625 mm and 2.2 HU with a slice thickness of 1.25 mm. The pixel noise increased as the slice thickness decreased (p < 0.05) with the exception of the red thrombus, if reduced to 0.625 mm. The pixel noise also increased as the tube current decreased (p < 0.05) except in mixed thrombi measured with 0.625 mm. The maximal difference in mean standard deviation was 1.8 HU with a slice thickness of 1.25 mm. (orig.)

  4. Fire Extinguisher Control System Provides Reliable Cold Weather Operation (United States)

    Branum, J. C.


    Fast acting, pneumatically and centrally controlled, fire extinguisher /firex/ system is effective in freezing climates. The easy-to-operate system provides a fail-dry function which is activated by an electrical power failure.

  5. Results from the LHC Beam Dump Reliability Run

    CERN Document Server

    Uythoven, J; Carlier, E; Castronuovo, F; Ducimetière, L; Gallet, E; Goddard, B; Magnin, N; Verhagen, H


    The LHC Beam Dumping System is one of the vital elements of the LHC Machine Protection System and has to operate reliably every time a beam dump request is made. Detailed dependability calculations have been made, resulting in expected rates for the different system failure modes. A 'reliability run' of the whole system, installed in its final configuration in the LHC, has been made to discover infant mortality problems and to compare the occurrence of the measured failure modes with their calculations.

  6. Interrater reliability of Violence Risk Appraisal Guide scores provided in Canadian criminal proceedings. (United States)

    Edens, John F; Penson, Brittany N; Ruchensky, Jared R; Cox, Jennifer; Smith, Shannon Toney


    Published research suggests that most violence risk assessment tools have relatively high levels of interrater reliability, but recent evidence of inconsistent scores among forensic examiners in adversarial settings raises concerns about the "field reliability" of such measures. This study specifically examined the reliability of Violence Risk Appraisal Guide (VRAG) scores in Canadian criminal cases identified in the legal database, LexisNexis. Over 250 reported cases were located that made mention of the VRAG, with 42 of these cases containing 2 or more scores that could be submitted to interrater reliability analyses. Overall, scores were skewed toward higher risk categories. The intraclass correlation (ICCA1) was .66, with pairs of forensic examiners placing defendants into the same VRAG risk "bin" in 68% of the cases. For categorical risk statements (i.e., low, moderate, high), examiners provided converging assessment results in most instances (86%). In terms of potential predictors of rater disagreement, there was no evidence for adversarial allegiance in our sample. Rater disagreement in the scoring of 1 VRAG item (Psychopathy Checklist-Revised; Hare, 2003), however, strongly predicted rater disagreement in the scoring of the VRAG (r = .58). (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. An FEC Adaptive Multicast MAC Protocol for Providing Reliability in WLANs (United States)

    Basalamah, Anas; Sato, Takuro

    For wireless multicast applications like multimedia conferencing, voice over IP and video/audio streaming, a reliable transmission of packets within short delivery delay is needed. Moreover, reliability is crucial to the performance of error intolerant applications like file transfer, distributed computing, chat and whiteboard sharing. Forward Error Correction (FEC) is frequently used in wireless multicast to enhance Packet Error Rate (PER) performance, but cannot assure full reliability unless coupled with Automatic Repeat Request forming what is knows as Hybrid-ARQ. While reliable FEC can be deployed at different levels of the protocol stack, it cannot be deployed on the MAC layer of the unreliable IEEE802.11 WLAN due to its inability to exchange ACKs with multiple recipients. In this paper, we propose a Multicast MAC protocol that enhances WLAN reliability by using Adaptive FEC and study it's performance through mathematical analysis and simulation. Our results show that our protocol can deliver high reliability and throughput performance.

  8. Design features and results from fatigue reliability research machines. (United States)

    Lalli, V. R.; Kececioglu, D.; Mcconnell, J. B.


    The design, fabrication, development, operation, calibration and results from reversed bending combined with steady torque fatigue research machines are presented. Fifteen-centimeter long, notched, SAE 4340 steel specimens are subjected to various combinations of these stresses and cycled to failure. Failure occurs when the crack in the notch passes through the specimen automatically shutting down the test machine. These cycles-to-failure data are statistically analyzed to develop a probabilistic S-N diagram. These diagrams have many uses; a rotating component design example given in the literature shows that minimum size and weight for a specified number of cycles and reliability can be calculated using these diagrams.

  9. Standardized Patients Provide a Reliable Assessment of Athletic Training Students' Clinical Skills (United States)

    Armstrong, Kirk J.; Jarriel, Amanda J.


    Context: Providing students reliable objective feedback regarding their clinical performance is of great value for ongoing clinical skill assessment. Since a standardized patient (SP) is trained to consistently portray the case, students can be assessed and receive immediate feedback within the same clinical encounter; however, no research, to our…

  10. The Impact of Process Capability on Service Reliability for Critical Infrastructure Providers (United States)

    Houston, Clemith J., Jr.


    This study investigated the relationship between organizational processes that have been identified as promoting resiliency and their impact on service reliability within the scope of critical infrastructure providers. The importance of critical infrastructure to the nation is evident from the body of research and is supported by instances where…

  11. High-density surface electromyography provides reliable estimates of motor unit behavior. (United States)

    Martinez-Valdes, E; Laine, C M; Falla, D; Mayer, F; Farina, D


    To assess the intra- and inter-session reliability of estimates of motor unit behavior and muscle fiber properties derived from high-density surface electromyography (HDEMG). Ten healthy subjects performed submaximal isometric knee extensions during three recording sessions (separate days) at 10%, 30%, 50% and 70% of their maximum voluntary effort. The discharge timings of motor units of the vastus lateralis and medialis muscles were automatically identified from HDEMG by a decomposition algorithm. We characterized the number of detected motor units, their discharge rates, the coefficient of variation of their inter-spike intervals (CoVisi), the action potential conduction velocity and peak-to-peak amplitude. Reliability was assessed for each motor unit characteristics by intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC). Additionally, a pulse-to-noise ratio (PNR) was calculated, to verify the accuracy of the decomposition. Good to excellent reliability within and between sessions was found for all motor unit characteristics at all force levels (ICCs>0.8), with the exception of CoVisi that presented poor reliability (ICC95%). Motor unit features can be assessed non-invasively and reliably within and across sessions over a wide range of force levels. These results suggest that it is possible to characterize motor units in longitudinal intervention studies. Copyright © 2016 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Telomere Q-PNA-FISH--reliable results from stochastic signals.

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    Andrea Cukusic Kalajzic

    Full Text Available Structural and functional analysis of telomeres is very important for understanding basic biological functions such as genome stability, cell growth control, senescence and aging. Recently, serious concerns have been raised regarding the reliability of current telomere measurement methods such as Southern blot and quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Since telomere length is associated with age related pathologies, including cardiovascular disease and cancer, both at the individual and population level, accurate interpretation of measured results is a necessity. The telomere Q-PNA-FISH technique has been widely used in these studies as well as in commercial analysis for the general population. A hallmark of telomere Q-PNA-FISH is the wide variation among telomere signals which has a major impact on obtained results. In the present study we introduce a specific mathematical and statistical analysis of sister telomere signals during cell culture senescence which enabled us to identify high regularity in their variations. This phenomenon explains the reproducibility of results observed in numerous telomere studies when the Q-PNA-FISH technique is used. In addition, we discuss the molecular mechanisms which probably underlie the observed telomere behavior.

  13. Using dynamic factor analysis to provide insights into data reliability in experience sampling studies. (United States)

    Fuller-Tyszkiewicz, Matthew; Hartley-Clark, Linda; Cummins, Robert A; Tomyn, Adrian J; Weinberg, Melissa K; Richardson, Ben


    The past 2 decades have seen increasing use of experience sampling methods (ESMs) to gain insights into the daily experience of affective states (e.g., its variability, as well as antecedents and consequences of temporary shifts in affect). Much less attention has been given to methodological challenges, such as how to ensure reliability of test scores obtained using ESM. The present study demonstrates the use of dynamic factor analysis (DFA) to quantify reliability of test scores in ESM contexts, evaluates the potential impact of unreliable test scores, and seeks to identify characteristics of individuals that may account for their unreliable test scores. One hundred twenty-seven participants completed baseline measures (demographics and personality traits), followed by a 7-day ESM phase in which positive and negative state affect were measured up to 6 times per day. Analyses showed that although at the sample level, scores on these affect measures exhibited adequate levels of reliability, up to one third of participants failed to meet conventional standards of reliability. Where these low reliability estimates were not significantly associated with personality factors, they could-in some cases-be explained by model misspecification where a meaningful alternative structure was available. Despite these potential differences in factor structure across participants, subsequent modeling with and without these "unreliable" cases showed similar substantive results. Hence, the present findings suggest typical analyses based on ESM data may be robust to individual differences in data structure and/or quality. Ways to augment the DFA approach to better understand unreliable cases are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. How to combine multiple techniques to provide reliable in-situ time series for climate applications (United States)

    Valladeau, G.; Soudarin, L.; Gravelle, M.


    Tide gauge measurements, as observations dedicated to climate applications, require a rigorous quality control since measurements are highly sensitive to biases or drifts in datasets. One major part of the error related to the assessment of Sea Surface Height at tide gauge location originates in vertical movements. Indeed, many studies have for instance demonstrated the need for tide gauges to be corrected for land motion when compared with altimeter data. The combination of multiple techniques (altimeter, in-situ and geodetic data) is a way of providing relevant tide gauge time series for end-users and climate applications such as the contribution of ice-sheet mass balance to the global sea-level. In this way, DORIS (Doppler Orbitography and Radiopositioning Integrated by Satellite) as well as GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System) are considered as complementary techniques. They determine the crustal motion at a cm (or better) and mm/yr accuracy for the positions and velocities respectively. As the DORIS network was deployed by a geodetic institution, great care was taken when selecting the geographical location of the tracking stations to co-locate them with other space geodetic techniques (VLBI, SLR and GNSS), but also with tide gauges. Hence, as on May 2012, 22 DORIS stations are within 10 km from a tide gauge, including 8 within 500m. Ties between the DORIS antennas and the nearby tide gauge are also available when the measurement is possible. This study focuses on the example of the Thule tide gauge for which measurements are compared to the different techniques previously described. First, the comparison to both DORIS and GNSS data provides relevant information about the strong crustal movement North of Greenland. Then the use of altimeter data confirms results deduced from geodetic stations and give a larger view on the behavior of land motion around the Thule tide gauge. Therefore, the combination of multiple techniques is used to provide reliable tide

  15. Initial results of the CD-1 reliable multicast experiment

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    Agarwal, D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Stead, R. [Science Applications International Corporation. (SAIC), Tysons Corner, VA (United States); Coan, B. [Telecordia Technologies. Piscataway Township, NJ (United States); Burns, J. E. [Telecordia Technologies. Piscataway Township, NJ (United States); Shah, N. [Telecordia Technologies. Piscataway Township, NJ (United States); Kyriakopoulos, N. [George Washington Univ., Washington, DC (United States)


    During the past year, an experiment has been underway to test use of reliable multicast capabilities for transmission of continuous data in the Global Communication Infrastructure. For the experiment a version of the CD-1 protocol was multicast enabled. The experiment has demonstrated the feasibility of transmitting data in a multicast mode over the GCI. In the case of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty the sender could be the station and the receivers the International Data Center (IDC) and one or more National Data Centers (NDC). The potential advantages of multicasting include (a) the timely receipt of the data by the IDC and the host NDC and (b) the simultaneous availability of the raw station data at, at least, two locations. The latter, by introducing redundant data paths, decreases the probability of loss of station data due to a potential failure of a single data receiver. This experiment is only one element of a needed more thorough assessment of the reliability and cost-effectiveness of introducing redundancies in the data transmission paths and the data sinks of the IMS. The next stage of the multicast experiment planned is installation of the multicast-enabled CD-1 software at the GERES IMS station, at the German NDC and at the IDC for further experiments with actual IMS station data. This stage of the experiment is waiting on installation of a GCI link to the German NDC. Negotiations regarding price for this installation have been on going between the Global Communication Infrastructure (GCI) contractor and the German NDC with no resolution. Current development of the CD-x protocol is proceeding in two complementary directions. Along with the work on a multicast enabled version of CD-1 there is also work to develop CD-1.1, which will add end-to-end reliability to the CD-1 protocol among other things. A possible future activity would be to combine the reliable multicast and the end-to-end reliability mechanisms into one CD-x protocol version.

  16. A spectral-domain optical coherence tomography device provides reliable corneal pachymetry measurements in canine eyes. (United States)

    Alario, A F; Pirie, C G


    The objective of this study was to determine central corneal thickness (CCT) and the intra- and interuser reliability using a portable spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) device in canine eyes. Twenty clinically normal dogs were examined. CCT measurements were obtained from both eyes of each animal three times by two operators in succession. The CCT was automatically calculated using the pachymetry software generated from eight radial scans, 6 mm in length. Mean canine CCT was 606.83±39.45 μm for all eyes examined. There was no significant difference in CCT based on the eye examined (OD vs OS), age or gender of the animal. There was no significant difference in CCT between replicates performed by the same operator; however, a small but significant difference was noted in CCT between operators. The mean difference in CCT between operators was 1.9 μm (P=0.03). The coefficient of variation for each user and between users was very low (range 0.64-1.7 per cent). The intraclass correlation coefficient comparing operators was 0.975. Based on these results, the SD-OCT device evaluated is capable of obtaining precise CCT measurements with excellent intra- and interoperator reliability in canine eyes.

  17. Provider confidence in opioid prescribing and chronic pain management: results of the Opioid Therapy Provider Survey. (United States)

    Pearson, Amy Cs; Moman, Rajat N; Moeschler, Susan M; Eldrige, Jason S; Hooten, W Michael


    Many providers report lack of confidence in managing patients with chronic pain. Thus, the primary aim of this study was to investigate the associations of provider confidence in managing chronic pain with their practice behaviors and demographics. The primary outcome measure was the results of the Opioid Therapy Provider Survey, which was administered to clinicians attending a pain-focused continuing medical education conference. Nonparametric correlations were assessed using Spearman's rho. Of the respondents, 55.0% were women, 92.8% were white, and 56.5% were physicians. Primary care providers accounted for 56.5% of the total respondents. The majority of respondents (60.8%) did not feel confident managing patients with chronic pain. Provider confidence in managing chronic pain was positively correlated with 1) following an opioid therapy protocol (P=0.001), 2) the perceived ability to identify patients at risk for opioid misuse (P=0.006), and 3) using a consistent practice-based approach to improve their comfort level with prescribing opioids (Pconfidence was negatively correlated with the perception that treating pain patients was a "problem in my practice" (P=0.005). In this study, the majority of providers did not feel confident managing chronic pain. However, provider confidence was associated with a protocolized and consistent practice-based approach toward managing opioids and the perceived ability to identify patients at risk for opioid misuse. Future studies should investigate whether provider confidence is associated with measurable competence in managing chronic pain and explore approaches to enhance appropriate levels of confidence in caring for patients with chronic pain.

  18. Provider confidence in opioid prescribing and chronic pain management: results of the Opioid Therapy Provider Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pearson AC


    Full Text Available Amy CS Pearson,1 Rajat N Moman,2 Susan M Moeschler,3 Jason S Eldrige,3 W Michael Hooten3 1Department of Anesthesiology & Perioperative Medicine, Mayo School of Graduate Medical Education, Mayo Clinic, 2Mayo Clinic School of Medicine, 3Department of Anesthesiology & Perioperative Medicine, Mayo College of Medicine, Rochester, MN, USA Introduction: Many providers report lack of confidence in managing patients with chronic pain. Thus, the primary aim of this study was to investigate the associations of provider confidence in managing chronic pain with their practice behaviors and demographics.Materials and methods: The primary outcome measure was the results of the Opioid Therapy Provider Survey, which was administered to clinicians attending a pain-focused continuing medical education conference. Nonparametric correlations were assessed using Spearman’s rho.Results: Of the respondents, 55.0% were women, 92.8% were white, and 56.5% were physicians. Primary care providers accounted for 56.5% of the total respondents. The majority of respondents (60.8% did not feel confident managing patients with chronic pain. Provider confidence in managing chronic pain was positively correlated with 1 following an opioid therapy protocol (P=0.001, 2 the perceived ability to identify patients at risk for opioid misuse (P=0.006, and 3 using a consistent practice-based approach to improve their comfort level with prescribing opioids (P<0.001. Provider confidence was negatively correlated with the perception that treating pain patients was a “problem in my practice” (P=0.005.Conclusion: In this study, the majority of providers did not feel confident managing chronic pain. However, provider confidence was associated with a protocolized and consistent practice-based approach toward managing opioids and the perceived ability to identify patients at risk for opioid misuse. Future studies should investigate whether provider confidence is associated with measurable

  19. The evidence provided by a single trial is less reliable than its statistical analysis suggests.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borm, G.F.; Lemmers, F.A.M.O.; Fransen, J.; Donders, A.R.T.


    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether a single trial can provide sufficiently robust evidence to warrant clinical implementation of its results. Trial-specific factors, such as subject selection, study design, and execution strategy, have an impact on the outcome of trials. In multiple trials, they may


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Rukhlinskiy


    Full Text Available This article considers the problem of assessment of data authenticity related to reliability of the flight data obtained in processing the information of portable GPS receivers’ during air accident investigations, which are characterized by the lack of standard flight data recording systems. Appropriate recommendations the improvement improving of the newly developed GPS receivers have been developed and implemented.

  1. Markerless motion capture can provide reliable 3D gait kinematics in the sagittal and frontal plane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandau, Martin; Koblauch, Henrik; Moeslund, Thomas B.


    Estimating 3D joint rotations in the lower extremities accurately and reliably remains unresolved in markerless motion capture, despite extensive studies in the past decades. The main problems have been ascribed to the limited accuracy of the 3D reconstructions. Accordingly, the purpose of the pr...

  2. Citizen science provides a reliable and scalable tool to track disease-carrying mosquitoes. (United States)

    Palmer, John R B; Oltra, Aitana; Collantes, Francisco; Delgado, Juan Antonio; Lucientes, Javier; Delacour, Sarah; Bengoa, Mikel; Eritja, Roger; Bartumeus, Frederic


    Recent outbreaks of Zika, chikungunya and dengue highlight the importance of better understanding the spread of disease-carrying mosquitoes across multiple spatio-temporal scales. Traditional surveillance tools are limited by jurisdictional boundaries and cost constraints. Here we show how a scalable citizen science system can solve this problem by combining citizen scientists' observations with expert validation and correcting for sampling effort. Our system provides accurate early warning information about the Asian tiger mosquito (Aedes albopictus) invasion in Spain, well beyond that available from traditional methods, and vital for public health services. It also provides estimates of tiger mosquito risk comparable to those from traditional methods but more directly related to the human-mosquito encounters that are relevant for epidemiological modelling and scalable enough to cover the entire country. These results illustrate how powerful public participation in science can be and suggest citizen science is positioned to revolutionize mosquito-borne disease surveillance worldwide.

  3. Transitions in Pediatric Gastroenterology: Results of a National Provider Survey. (United States)

    Bensen, Rachel; McKenzie, Rebecca B; Fernandes, Susan M; Fishman, Laurie N


    Transition and transfer to adult-oriented health care is an important yet challenging task for adolescents and young adults with chronic medical conditions. Transition practices vary widely, but a paucity of data makes determination of best practices difficult. We described North American pediatric gastroenterologists' preferences and present transition practice patterns and explored whether experience affected providers' perspectives. An online survey was distributed via e-mail to members of the North American Society of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition. Participation was voluntary and answers were anonymous. Quantitative and qualitative analysis was performed. Almost three quarters of the 175 respondents describe providing transition or self-care management education, but only 23% use structured readiness assessments. Most respondents (88%) report having age cutoffs above which they no longer accept new referrals, with the most common age being 18 years (57%). One third report the ability to provide age-appropriate care to patients older than 21 years. Only 6% indicate that their practice or institution should provide care for individuals older than 25 years. Many (63%) indicate that their practice or institution has a policy regarding age of transfer, but most (79%) are flexible. Provider preferences for triggers to transfer to adult care diverge widely between age, milestones, and comorbidities. Overall, parent (81%) and patient (74%) attachment to pediatric health care providers are cited as the most common barriers to transition. Preferences and practices surrounding transition preparation and transfer to adult care vary widely, reflecting continued uncertainty regarding optimal transition strategies.

  4. Can high resolution 3D topographic surveys provide reliable grain size estimates in gravel bed rivers? (United States)

    Pearson, E.; Smith, M. W.; Klaar, M. J.; Brown, L. E.


    High resolution topographic surveys such as those provided by Structure-from-Motion (SfM) contain a wealth of information that is not always exploited in the generation of Digital Elevation Models (DEMs). In particular, several authors have related sub-metre scale topographic variability (or 'surface roughness') to sediment grain size by deriving empirical relationships between the two. In fluvial applications, such relationships permit rapid analysis of the spatial distribution of grain size over entire river reaches, providing improved data to drive three-dimensional hydraulic models, allowing rapid geomorphic monitoring of sub-reach river restoration projects, and enabling more robust characterisation of riverbed habitats. However, comparison of previously published roughness-grain-size relationships shows substantial variability between field sites. Using a combination of over 300 laboratory and field-based SfM surveys, we demonstrate the influence of inherent survey error, irregularity of natural gravels, particle shape, grain packing structure, sorting, and form roughness on roughness-grain-size relationships. Roughness analysis from SfM datasets can accurately predict the diameter of smooth hemispheres, though natural, irregular gravels result in a higher roughness value for a given diameter and different grain shapes yield different relationships. A suite of empirical relationships is presented as a decision tree which improves predictions of grain size. By accounting for differences in patch facies, large improvements in D50 prediction are possible. SfM is capable of providing accurate grain size estimates, although further refinement is needed for poorly sorted gravel patches, for which c-axis percentiles are better predicted than b-axis percentiles.

  5. Markerless motion capture can provide reliable 3D gait kinematics in the sagittal and frontal plane. (United States)

    Sandau, Martin; Koblauch, Henrik; Moeslund, Thomas B; Aanæs, Henrik; Alkjær, Tine; Simonsen, Erik B


    Estimating 3D joint rotations in the lower extremities accurately and reliably remains unresolved in markerless motion capture, despite extensive studies in the past decades. The main problems have been ascribed to the limited accuracy of the 3D reconstructions. Accordingly, the purpose of the present study was to develop a new approach based on highly detailed 3D reconstructions in combination with a translational and rotational unconstrained articulated model. The highly detailed 3D reconstructions were synthesized from an eight camera setup using a stereo vision approach. The subject specific articulated model was generated with three rotational and three translational degrees of freedom for each limb segment and without any constraints to the range of motion. This approach was tested on 3D gait analysis and compared to a marker based method. The experiment included ten healthy subjects in whom hip, knee and ankle joint were analysed. Flexion/extension angles as well as hip abduction/adduction closely resembled those obtained from the marker based system. However, the internal/external rotations, knee abduction/adduction and ankle inversion/eversion were less reliable. Copyright © 2014 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Pediatric Primary Care Providers' Relationships with Mental Health Care Providers: Survey Results (United States)

    Pidano, Anne E.; Honigfeld, Lisa; Bar-Halpern, Miri; Vivian, James E.


    Background: As many as 20 % of children have diagnosable mental health conditions and nearly all of them receive pediatric primary health care. However, most children with serious mental health concerns do not receive mental health services. This study tested hypotheses that pediatric primary care providers (PPCPs) in relationships with mental…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. V. Savchinskiy


    Full Text Available On the basis of analysis of existing diagnostic methods and regeneration ways of reinforced-concrete constructions of bridges the recommendations on introduction of new modern technologies of renewal of reinforced-concrete constructions of bridges in providing their operating reliability and longevity are offered.

  8. Reliability Assessment of a Single-Shot System by Use of Screen Test Results (United States)


    and service our satellites , as Dr. Roesler expressed so eloquently in his op-ed article, to the solitude of your lab where your research long as a discrete end point for the reliability requirement such as warranty termination has been established. The equations provide a tool with...this paper will take discrete 344A can be used to track and project the reliability achieved The parameters of the exponential equation produced

  9. Mixed Matrix Method Provides A Reliable Metabolite Exposure Comparison for Assessment of Metabolites in Safety Testing (MIST). (United States)

    Takahashi, Ryan H; Khojasteh, Cyrus; Wright, Matthew; Hop, Cornelis E C A; Ma, Shuguang


    The regulatory guidances on metabolites in safety testing (MIST) by US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and International Conference on Harmonisation (ICH) describe the necessity to assess exposures of major circulating metabolites in humans at steady state relative to exposures achieved in nonclinical safety studies prior to the initiation of large scale clinical trials. This comparison can be accomplished by measuring metabolite concentrations in animals and humans with validated bioanalytical methods. However, bioanalysis of metabolites in multiple species and multiple studies is resource intensive and may impact the timelines of clinical studies. A simple, reliable and accurate method has been developed for quantitative assessment of metabolite coverage in preclinical safety species by mixing equal volume of human plasma with blank plasma of animal species and vice versa followed by an analysis using LC-SRM or LC-HRMS. Here, we explored the reliability and accuracy of this method in several development projects at Genentech and compared the results to those obtained from validated bioanalytical methods. The mixed-matrix method provided comparable accuracy (within ±20%) to those obtained from validated bioanalysis but does not require authentic standards or radiolabeled compounds, which could translate to time and resource savings in drug development. Quantitative assessment of metabolite coverage in safety species can be made using mixed matrix method with similar accuracy and scientific rigor to those obtained from validated bioanalytical methods. Moving forward, we are encouraging the industry and regulators to consider accepting the mixed matrix method for assessing metabolite exposure comparisons between humans and animal species used in toxicology studies. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at

  10. Assessing the Reliability of Material Flow Analysis Results: The Cases of Rhenium, Gallium, and Germanium in the United States Economy. (United States)

    Meylan, Grégoire; Reck, Barbara K; Rechberger, Helmut; Graedel, Thomas E; Schwab, Oliver


    Decision-makers traditionally expect "hard facts" from scientific inquiry, an expectation that the results of material flow analyses (MFAs) can hardly meet. MFA limitations are attributable to incompleteness of flowcharts, limited data quality, and model assumptions. Moreover, MFA results are, for the most part, based less on empirical observation but rather on social knowledge construction processes. Developing, applying, and improving the means of evaluating and communicating the reliability of MFA results is imperative. We apply two recently proposed approaches for making quantitative statements on MFA reliability to national minor metals systems: rhenium, gallium, and germanium in the United States in 2012. We discuss the reliability of results in policy and management contexts. The first approach consists of assessing data quality based on systematic characterization of MFA data and the associated meta-information and quantifying the "information content" of MFAs. The second is a quantification of data inconsistencies indicated by the "degree of data reconciliation" between the data and the model. A high information content and a low degree of reconciliation indicate reliable or certain MFA results. This article contributes to reliability and uncertainty discourses in MFA, exemplifying the usefulness of the approaches in policy and management, and to raw material supply discussions by providing country-level information on three important minor metals often considered critical.

  11. Results of a Demonstration Assessment of Passive System Reliability Utilizing the Reliability Method for Passive Systems (RMPS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bucknor, Matthew; Grabaskas, David; Brunett, Acacia; Grelle, Austin


    Advanced small modular reactor designs include many advantageous design features such as passively driven safety systems that are arguably more reliable and cost effective relative to conventional active systems. Despite their attractiveness, a reliability assessment of passive systems can be difficult using conventional reliability methods due to the nature of passive systems. Simple deviations in boundary conditions can induce functional failures in a passive system, and intermediate or unexpected operating modes can also occur. As part of an ongoing project, Argonne National Laboratory is investigating various methodologies to address passive system reliability. The Reliability Method for Passive Systems (RMPS), a systematic approach for examining reliability, is one technique chosen for this analysis. This methodology is combined with the Risk-Informed Safety Margin Characterization (RISMC) approach to assess the reliability of a passive system and the impact of its associated uncertainties. For this demonstration problem, an integrated plant model of an advanced small modular pool-type sodium fast reactor with a passive reactor cavity cooling system is subjected to a station blackout using RELAP5-3D. This paper discusses important aspects of the reliability assessment, including deployment of the methodology, the uncertainty identification and quantification process, and identification of key risk metrics.

  12. Using VIIRS Day/Night Band to Measure Electricity Supply Reliability: Preliminary Results from Maharashtra, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael L. Mann


    Full Text Available Unreliable electricity supplies are common in developing countries and impose large socio-economic costs, yet precise information on electricity reliability is typically unavailable. This paper presents preliminary results from a machine-learning approach for using satellite imagery of nighttime lights to develop estimates of electricity reliability for western India at a finer spatial scale. We use data from the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS onboard the Suomi National Polar Partnership (SNPP satellite together with newly-available data from networked household voltage meters. Our results point to the possibilities of this approach as well as areas for refinement. With currently available training data, we find a limited ability to detect individual outages identified by household-level measurements of electricity voltage. This is likely due to the relatively small number of individual outages observed in our preliminary data. However, we find that the approach can estimate electricity reliability rates for individual locations fairly well, with the predicted versus actual regression yielding an R2 > 0.5. We also find that, despite the after midnight overpass time of the SNPP satellite, the reliability estimates derived are representative of daytime reliability.

  13. The subtalar joint axis palpation technique part 2: reliability and validity results using cadaver feet. (United States)

    Van Alsenoy, Ken K; D'Août, Kristiaan; Vereecke, Evie E; De Schepper, Joris; Santos, Derek


    Clinically locating the point of no rotation to determine the subtalar joint axis location by applying pressure on the plantar surface of the foot was described by Kirby in 1987 but was never validated. We sought to extend a previously validated mechanical model to cadaver feet and to examine the intratester and intertester reliability. Four testers with different levels of experience determined the subtalar joint axis location and moved the subtalar joint through its range of motion, capturing the movement using kinematic analysis. The comparison of the spatial subtalar joint axis location as determined by palpation between and within testers determined the intertester and intratester reliability. The helical axis method was performed to validate the model. The intrarater reliability varied from a high of α = 0.96 to a low of α = 0.26 for the slope and was, in general, high (α = 0.78-0.95) for the intersection. The interrater reliability scored moderate to high, depending on the specific cadaver specimen. Concerning the exact location of the subtalar joint axis, no significant difference was found between the results determined by different testers and the helical axis method. The palpation technique as part of the subtalar joint axis location and rotational equilibrium theory proposed by Kirby is a reliable and valid clinical tool. Experience in performing the palpation technique has a positive influence on the accuracy of the results. In the context of evidence-based practice, this technique could be a standard tool in the examination of patients with lower-limb-related pathologic disorders.

  14. Reliability of environmental and occupational exposure data provided by surrogate respondents in a case-control study of Parkinson's disease. (United States)

    Wang, F L; Semchuk, K M; Love, E J


    This study used data provided by 40 non-demented Parkinson's disease patients and 101 community controls, and by their 110 spouses and 31 adult children to assess the reliability of surrogate-provided rural environmental and occupational exposure information on the index subjects. The level of overall raw agreement between the index subjects and the spouse or adult child surrogates varied from 50.0 to 100.0% for the case-surrogate group and from 80.6 to 96.0% for the control-surrogate group. We did not detect significant differences in overall raw agreement between the case-surrogate and control-surrogate groups or between the spouse-surrogate and adult child-surrogate groups, for any of the variables studied. Considering all index subjects and their surrogates, the level of overall raw agreement was 80.3% for well water consumption, 82.3% for farm living, 85.8% for agricultural work, 87.1% for use of pesticides, 87.9% for field crop farming and 91.9% for use of fertilizers. However, the kappa estimates were lower, varying from 0.48 (SE = 0.20) for fertilizer use to 0.66 (SE = 0.11) for crop farming. The level of specific agreement was 52.2% for fertilizer use, 64.0% for pesticide use, 71.4% for agricultural work, 73.9% for crop farming, 80.9% for farm living, and 83.6% for well water consumption. The overall findings of this study support the use, if necessary, of spouses and adult children of index subjects as surrogate respondents in case-control studies of rural environment and occupational exposures and Parkinson's disease and, possibly, other neurologic diseases. Specific agreement seems to be a better index of reliability than overall agreement in studies where exposure is rare.

  15. reliability reliability

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    In this work, a FORTRAN-based computer computer. Eurocode 2 (EC 2)[1] ... addresses addresses: 1, 2 computer computer program was developed to aid the design of reinforced co program was ..... Haldar, A. and Mahadevan, S. Reliability Assessment using Stochastic Finite ...

  16. A reduced factor structure for the PROQOL-HIV questionnaire provided reliable indicators of health-related quality of life. (United States)

    Lalanne, Christophe; Chassany, Olivier; Carrieri, Patrizia; Marcellin, Fabienne; Armstrong, Andrew R; Lert, France; Spire, Bruno; Dray-Spira, Rosemary; Duracinsky, Martin


    To identify a simplified factor structure for the PROQOL-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) questionnaire to improve the measurement of the health-related quality of life (HRQL) of HIV-positive patients in clinical care and research settings. HRQL data were collected using the eight-dimension PROQOL-HIV questionnaire from 2,537 patients (VESPA2 study). Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) validated a simpler four-factor structure and assessed measurement invariance (MI). Multigroup analysis assessed the effect of sex, age, and antiretroviral therapy (ART) on the resulting factor scores. Correlations with symptom and Short Form (SF)-12 self-reports assessed convergent validity. Item analysis, EFA, and CFAs confirmed the validity [comparative fit index (CFI), 0.948; root mean square error of approximation, 0.064] and reliability (α's ≥ 0.8) of four dimensions: physical health and symptoms, health concerns and mental distress, social and intimate relationships, and treatment-related impact. Strong MI was demonstrated across sex and age (decrease in CFI indicator model indicated that HRQL correlated as expected with sex, age, and the ART status. Correlations of HRQL, symptom reports, and SF-12 scores evidenced convergent validity criterion. The simplified factor structure and scoring scheme for PROQOL-HIV will allow clinicians to monitor with greater reliability the HRQL of patients in clinical care and research settings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Is Single Measurement Enough to Get a Reliable Result with Optical Coherence Tomography?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arzu Taşkıran Çömez


    Full Text Available Pur po se: To evaluate the repeatability and reliability of retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL thickness measurements using optical coherence tomography (OCT. Ma te ri al and Met hod: Two hundred sixty-six eyes of 135 subjects (glaucoma, glaucoma suspects and healthy were included in this study. Three sequential inferior, superior, nasal and temporal RNFL thickness measurements were performed using Spectral OCT [Opko/OTI, Inc., Miami, FL] by one operator at one session without pupillary dilatation. The differences between these three measurements of each quadrant in each eye were compared in microns and percentages. Repeated measures analysis of variance was performed for statistical analysis. Reliability is measured by intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC for each quadrant. Re sults: ICCs of all quadrants ranged between 0.77 and 0.92, with the measurements of nasal quadrant being the least reproducible and the inferior being the most reproducible of all quadrants. RNFL measurement errors over 20% were seen in 9.63% of nasal quadrant, 5.3% of temporal quadrant, 0.6% of superior quadrant and only 0.3% of inferior quadrant measurements. Dis cus si on: In order to get more repeatable and reliable results with OCT, sequential measurements more than one should be considered. We believe that special attention is required in the analysis of data of nasal and temporal quadrants. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2012; 42: 11-5

  18. The European COPHES/DEMOCOPHES project: towards transnational comparability and reliability of human biomonitoring results. (United States)

    Schindler, Birgit Karin; Esteban, Marta; Koch, Holger Martin; Castano, Argelia; Koslitz, Stephan; Cañas, Ana; Casteleyn, Ludwine; Kolossa-Gehring, Marike; Schwedler, Gerda; Schoeters, Greet; Hond, Elly Den; Sepai, Ovnair; Exley, Karen; Bloemen, Louis; Horvat, Milena; Knudsen, Lisbeth E; Joas, Anke; Joas, Reinhard; Biot, Pierre; Aerts, Dominique; Lopez, Ana; Huetos, Olga; Katsonouri, Andromachi; Maurer-Chronakis, Katja; Kasparova, Lucie; Vrbík, Karel; Rudnai, Peter; Naray, Miklos; Guignard, Cedric; Fischer, Marc E; Ligocka, Danuta; Janasik, Beata; Reis, M Fátima; Namorado, Sónia; Pop, Cristian; Dumitrascu, Irina; Halzlova, Katarina; Fabianova, Eleonora; Mazej, Darja; Tratnik, Janja Snoj; Berglund, Marika; Jönsson, Bo; Lehmann, Andrea; Crettaz, Pierre; Frederiksen, Hanne; Nielsen, Flemming; McGrath, Helena; Nesbitt, Ian; De Cremer, Koen; Vanermen, Guido; Koppen, Gudrun; Wilhelm, Michael; Becker, Kerstin; Angerer, Jürgen


    COPHES/DEMOCOPHES has its origins in the European Environment and Health Action Plan of 2004 to "develop a coherent approach on human biomonitoring (HBM) in Europe". Within this twin-project it was targeted to collect specimens from 120 mother-child-pairs in each of the 17 participating European countries. These specimens were investigated for six biomarkers (mercury in hair; creatinine, cotinine, cadmium, phthalate metabolites and bisphenol A in urine). The results for mercury in hair are described in a separate paper. Each participating member state was requested to contract laboratories, for capacity building reasons ideally within its borders, carrying out the chemical analyses. To ensure comparability of analytical data a Quality Assurance Unit (QAU) was established which provided the participating laboratories with standard operating procedures (SOP) and with control material. This material was specially prepared from native, non-spiked, pooled urine samples and was tested for homogeneity and stability. Four external quality assessment exercises were carried out. Highly esteemed laboratories from all over the world served as reference laboratories. Web conferences after each external quality assessment exercise functioned as a new and effective tool to improve analytical performance, to build capacity and to educate less experienced laboratories. Of the 38 laboratories participating in the quality assurance exercises 14 laboratories qualified for cadmium, 14 for creatinine, 9 for cotinine, 7 for phthalate metabolites and 5 for bisphenol A in urine. In the last of the four external quality assessment exercises the laboratories that qualified for DEMOCOPHES performed the determinations in urine with relative standard deviations (low/high concentration) of 18.0/2.1% for cotinine, 14.8/5.1% for cadmium, 4.7/3.4% for creatinine. Relative standard deviations for the newly emerging biomarkers were higher, with values between 13.5 and 20.5% for bisphenol A and

  19. Modified Core Wash Cytology: A reliable same day biopsy result for breast clinics. (United States)

    Bulte, J P; Wauters, C A P; Duijm, L E M; de Wilt, J H W; Strobbe, L J A


    Fine Needle Aspiration Biopsy (FNAB), Core Needle biopsy (CNB) and hybrid techniques including Core Wash Cytology (CWC) are available for same-day diagnosis in breast lesions. In CWC a washing of the biopsy core is processed for a provisional cytological diagnosis, after which the core is processed like a regular CNB. This study focuses on the reliability of CWC in daily practice. All consecutive CWC procedures performed in a referral breast centre between May 2009 and May 2012 were reviewed, correlating CWC results with the CNB result, definitive diagnosis after surgical resection and/or follow-up. Symptomatic as well as screen-detected lesions, undergoing CNB were included. 1253 CWC procedures were performed. Definitive histology showed 849 (68%) malignant and 404 (32%) benign lesions. 80% of CWC procedures yielded a conclusive diagnosis: this percentage was higher amongst malignant lesions and lower for benign lesions: 89% and 62% respectively. Sensitivity and specificity of a conclusive CWC result were respectively 98.3% and 90.4%. The eventual incidence of malignancy in the cytological 'atypical' group (5%) was similar to the cytological 'benign' group (6%). CWC can be used to make a reliable provisional diagnosis of breast lesions within the hour. The high probability of conclusive results in malignant lesions makes CWC well suited for high risk populations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd, BASO ~ the Association for Cancer Surgery, and the European Society of Surgical Oncology. All rights reserved.

  20. Providing Reliability Services through Demand Response: A Prelimnary Evaluation of the Demand Response Capabilities of Alcoa Inc.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Starke, Michael R [ORNL; Kirby, Brendan J [ORNL; Kueck, John D [ORNL; Todd, Duane [Alcoa; Caulfield, Michael [Alcoa; Helms, Brian [Alcoa


    Demand response is the largest underutilized reliability resource in North America. Historic demand response programs have focused on reducing overall electricity consumption (increasing efficiency) and shaving peaks but have not typically been used for immediate reliability response. Many of these programs have been successful but demand response remains a limited resource. The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) report, 'Assessment of Demand Response and Advanced Metering' (FERC 2006) found that only five percent of customers are on some form of demand response program. Collectively they represent an estimated 37,000 MW of response potential. These programs reduce overall energy consumption, lower green house gas emissions by allowing fossil fuel generators to operate at increased efficiency and reduce stress on the power system during periods of peak loading. As the country continues to restructure energy markets with sophisticated marginal cost models that attempt to minimize total energy costs, the ability of demand response to create meaningful shifts in the supply and demand equations is critical to creating a sustainable and balanced economic response to energy issues. Restructured energy market prices are set by the cost of the next incremental unit of energy, so that as additional generation is brought into the market, the cost for the entire market increases. The benefit of demand response is that it reduces overall demand and shifts the entire market to a lower pricing level. This can be very effective in mitigating price volatility or scarcity pricing as the power system responds to changing demand schedules, loss of large generators, or loss of transmission. As a global producer of alumina, primary aluminum, and fabricated aluminum products, Alcoa Inc., has the capability to provide demand response services through its manufacturing facilities and uniquely through its aluminum smelting facilities. For a typical aluminum smelter

  1. Low-magnification image analysis of Giemsa stained, electroporation and bleomycin treated endothelial monolayers provides reliable monolayer integrity data. (United States)

    Meulenberg, Cécil J W; Cemazar, Maja


    The aim of this study was to develop an in vitro cell model for studying the in vivo observed vascular effect, induced by exposing blood vessels to changing electric field strengths. Human microvascular endothelial cells (HMEC-1) were cultured as monolayers on 8 chamber glass slides as a model of capillary wall. Exposed to electric pulses alone, or in the presence of bleomycin (electrochemotherapy), monolayers were incubated with culture medium, fixed with methanol, stained with Giemsa, and photographed. Images of high-contrast low-magnification monolayers made under identical optimal light exposure were converted to greyscale, and the use of a threshold tool yielded a binary distribution, from which we determined two parameters of monolayer integrity: the covered surface area and the number of cells. We show that this low-magnification image analysis method for attached endothelial cells provides reliable control parameters of monolayer integrity, representing capillary wall. Besides, already within 2h post-treatment the data show distinct effects in the monolayer integrity parameters for electric pulses alone, or in the presence of bleomycin. The present method can be readily introduced to short and long-term toxicity assays with a variety of treatment conditions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Test results of reliable and very high capillary multi-evaporators / condenser loop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Oost, S.; Dubois, M.; Bekaert, G. [Societe Anonyme Belge de Construction Aeronautique - SABCA (Belgium)


    The paper present the results of various SABCA activities in the field of two-phase heat transport system. These results have been based on a critical review and analysis of the existing two-phase loop and of the future loop needs in space applications. The research and the development of a high capillary wick (capillary pressure up to 38 000 Pa) are described. These activities have led towards the development of a reliable high performance capillary loop concept (HPCPL), which is discussed in details. Several loop configurations mono/multi-evaporators have been ground tested. The presented results of various tests clearly show the viability of this concept for future applications. Proposed flight demonstrations as well as potential applications conclude this paper. (authors) 7 refs.

  3. Validity and reliability of patient reported outcomes used in Psoriasis: results from two randomized clinical trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koo John


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Two Phase III randomized controlled clinical trials were conducted to assess the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of weekly subcutaneous administration of efalizumab for the treatment of psoriasis. Patient reported measures of psoriasis-related functionality and health-related quality of life and of psoriasis-related symptom assessments were included as part of the trials. Objective To assess the reliability, validity, and responsiveness of the patient reported outcome measures that were used in the trials – the Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI, the Psoriasis Symptom Assessment (PSA Scale, and two itch measures, a Visual Analog Scale (VAS and the National Psoriasis Foundation (NPF itch measure. Methods Subjects aged 18 to 70 years with moderate to severe psoriasis for at least 6 months were recruited into the two clinical trials (n = 1095. Internal consistency reliability was evaluated for all patient reported outcomes at baseline and at 12 weeks. Construct validity was evaluated by relations among the different patient reported outcomes and between the patient reported outcomes and the clinical assessments (Psoriasis Area and Severity Index; Overall Lesion Severity Scale; Physician's Global Assessment of Change assessed at baseline and at 12 weeks, as was the change over the course of the 12 week portion of the trial. Results Internal consistency reliability ranged from 0.86 to 0.95 for the patient reported outcome measures. The patient reported outcome measures were all shown to have significant construct validity with respect to each other and with respect to the clinical assessments. The four measures also demonstrated significant responsiveness to change in underlying clinical status of the patients over the course of the trial, as measured by the independently assessed clinical outcomes. Conclusions The DLQI, the PSA, VAS, and the NPF are considered useful tools for the measurement of dermatology

  4. Transcutaneous PTCCO2 measurement in combination with arterial blood gas analysis provides superior accuracy and reliability in ICU patients. (United States)

    Spelten, Oliver; Fiedler, Fritz; Schier, Robert; Wetsch, Wolfgang A; Hinkelbein, Jochen


    Hyper or hypoventilation may have serious clinical consequences in critically ill patients and should be generally avoided, especially in neurosurgical patients. Therefore, monitoring of carbon dioxide partial pressure by intermittent arterial blood gas analysis (PaCO2) has become standard in intensive care units (ICUs). However, several additional methods are available to determine PCO2 including end-tidal (PETCO2) and transcutaneous (PTCCO2) measurements. The aim of this study was to compare the accuracy and reliability of different methods to determine PCO2 in mechanically ventilated patients on ICU. After approval of the local ethics committee PCO2 was determined in n = 32 ICU consecutive patients requiring mechanical ventilation: (1) arterial PaCO2 blood gas analysis with Radiometer ABL 625 (ABL; gold standard), (2) arterial PaCO2 analysis with Immediate Response Mobile Analyzer (IRMA), (3) end-tidal PETCO2 by a Propaq 106 EL monitor and (4) transcutaneous PTCCO2 determination by a Tina TCM4. Bland-Altman method was used for statistical analysis; p analysis revealed good correlation between PaCO2 by IRMA and ABL (R2 = 0.766; p analysis revealed a bias and precision of 2.0 ± 3.7 mmHg for the IRMA, 2.2 ± 5.7 mmHg for transcutaneous, and -5.5 ± 5.6 mmHg for end-tidal measurement. Arterial CO2 partial pressure by IRMA (PaCO2) and PTCCO2 provided greater accuracy compared to the reference measurement (ABL) than the end-tidal CO2 measurements in critically ill in mechanically ventilated patients patients.

  5. A case study review of technical and technology issues for transition of a utility load management program to provide system reliability resources in restructured electricity markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weller, G.H.


    Utility load management programs--including direct load control and interruptible load programs--were employed by utilities in the past as system reliability resources. With electricity industry restructuring, the context for these programs has changed; the market that was once controlled by vertically integrated utilities has become competitive, raising the question: can existing load management programs be modified so that they can effectively participate in competitive energy markets? In the short run, modified and/or improved operation of load management programs may be the most effective form of demand-side response available to the electricity system today. However, in light of recent technological advances in metering, communication, and load control, utility load management programs must be carefully reviewed in order to determine appropriate investments to support this transition. This report investigates the feasibility of and options for modifying an existing utility load management system so that it might provide reliability services (i.e. ancillary services) in the competitive markets that have resulted from electricity industry restructuring. The report is a case study of Southern California Edison's (SCE) load management programs. SCE was chosen because it operates one of the largest load management programs in the country and it operates them within a competitive wholesale electricity market. The report describes a wide range of existing and soon-to-be-available communication, control, and metering technologies that could be used to facilitate the evolution of SCE's load management programs and systems to provision of reliability services. The fundamental finding of this report is that, with modifications, SCE's load management infrastructure could be transitioned to provide critical ancillary services in competitive electricity markets, employing currently or soon-to-be available load control technologies.

  6. Reliability of environmental sampling culture results using the negative binomial intraclass correlation coefficient. (United States)

    Aly, Sharif S; Zhao, Jianyang; Li, Ben; Jiang, Jiming


    The Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) is commonly used to estimate the similarity between quantitative measures obtained from different sources. Overdispersed data is traditionally transformed so that linear mixed model (LMM) based ICC can be estimated. A common transformation used is the natural logarithm. The reliability of environmental sampling of fecal slurry on freestall pens has been estimated for Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis using the natural logarithm transformed culture results. Recently, the negative binomial ICC was defined based on a generalized linear mixed model for negative binomial distributed data. The current study reports on the negative binomial ICC estimate which includes fixed effects using culture results of environmental samples. Simulations using a wide variety of inputs and negative binomial distribution parameters (r; p) showed better performance of the new negative binomial ICC compared to the ICC based on LMM even when negative binomial data was logarithm, and square root transformed. A second comparison that targeted a wider range of ICC values showed that the mean of estimated ICC closely approximated the true ICC.

  7. Interobserver reliability in musculoskeletal ultrasonography: results from a "Teach the Teachers" rheumatologist course

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naredo, ee.; Møller, I.; Moragues, C.


    OBJECTIVE: To assess the interobserver reliability of the main periarticular and intra-articular ultrasonographic pathologies and to establish the principal disagreements on scanning technique and diagnostic criteria between a group of experts in musculoskeletal ultrasonography. METHODS: The shou......OBJECTIVE: To assess the interobserver reliability of the main periarticular and intra-articular ultrasonographic pathologies and to establish the principal disagreements on scanning technique and diagnostic criteria between a group of experts in musculoskeletal ultrasonography. METHODS...

  8. How reliable are electrolyte and metabolite results measured by a blood gas analyzer in the ED? (United States)

    Uysal, Emin; Acar, Yahya Ayhan; Kutur, Ahmet; Cevik, Erdem; Salman, Necati; Tezel, Onur


    Blood gas analysis is a frequently ordered test in emergency departments for many indications. It is a rapid technique that can analyze electrolyte and metabolites in addition to pH and blood gases. The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation of electrolyte and metabolite results measured by blood gas and core laboratory analyzers. This was a prospective, single-center observational study conducted in a tertiary care center's emergency department. All adult patients requiring arterial/venous blood gas analysis and core laboratory tests together for any purpose were consecutively included in the study between April 2014 and July 2015. Patients younger than 16 years, having any intravenous infusion or blood transfusion prior to sampling, or who were pregnant were excluded. A total of 1094 patients' (male = 547, female = 547) paired blood samples were analyzed. The mean age was 58.10 ± 21.35 years, and there was no difference between arterial and venous sampling groups by age, pH, or sex (P = .93, .56, and .41, respectively). Correlation coefficients for hemoglobin, hematocrit, glucose, potassium, sodium, and chloride levels measured by blood gas analyzer and core laboratory analyzers were 0.922, 0.896, 0.964, 0.823, 0.854, and 0.791, respectively. Blood gas analysis results were strongly correlated for hemoglobin, hematocrit, glucose, potassium, and sodium levels but were only moderately correlated for chloride levels. These parameters as measured by a blood gas analyzer seem reliable in critical decision making but must be validated by core laboratory results. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Narrow-band imaging provides reliable screening for esophageal malignancy in patients with head and neck cancers. (United States)

    Takenaka, Ryuta; Kawahara, Yoshiro; Okada, Hiroyuki; Hori, Keisuke; Inoue, Masafumi; Kawano, Seiji; Tanioka, Daisuke; Tsuzuki, Takao; Uemura, Masayuki; Ohara, Nobuya; Tominaga, Susumu; Onoda, Tomoo; Yamamoto, Kazuhide


    The narrow-band imaging (NBI) system is a novel technology that enhances the visualization of microvasculature and mucosal patterns. The aim of this study was to assess the reliability of the NBI system for esophageal cancer screening in patients with head and neck cancers. A total of 142 patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) were examined by NBI endoscopy, followed by Lugol chromoendoscopy between April 2006 and June 2008 at the Okayama University Hospital, Okayama, Japan. Detection of SCC and high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia (HGIN) was conducted. The median age of the patients was 64 years (range: 29-86 years), and approximately three-fourths of all the patients were male. In total, 21 superficial lesions in 16 patients were detected by NBI endoscopy. Of these, 4 lesions were diagnosed histologically as SCC and 11 lesions as HGIN. An additional 22 Lugol-voiding lesions >or=5 mm were detected in 19 patients by Lugol chromoendoscopy. Although 1 of these lesions was diagnosed as HGIN, 21 lesions were diagnosed as low-grade intraepithelial neoplasia or lesions without atypical findings. The sensitivity of NBI endoscopy for detecting esophageal SCC and HGIN was 90.9% (95% confidence interval (CI), 58.7-99.8), specificity was 95.4% (95% CI, 90.3-98.3), and accuracy was 95.1% (95% CI, 90.1-98.0). NBI seems to be useful and reliable for screening for esophageal SCC in patients with head and neck cancers.

  10. A limited assessment of the ASEP human reliability analysis procedure using simulator examination results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gore, B.R.; Dukelow, J.S. Jr.; Mitts, T.M.; Nicholson, W.L. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)


    This report presents a limited assessment of the conservatism of the Accident Sequence Evaluation Program (ASEP) human reliability analysis (HRA) procedure described in NUREG/CR-4772. In particular, the, ASEP post-accident, post-diagnosis, nominal HRA procedure is assessed within the context of an individual`s performance of critical tasks on the simulator portion of requalification examinations administered to nuclear power plant operators. An assessment of the degree to which operator perforn:Lance during simulator examinations is an accurate reflection of operator performance during actual accident conditions was outside the scope of work for this project; therefore, no direct inference can be made from this report about such performance. The data for this study are derived from simulator examination reports from the NRC requalification examination cycle. A total of 4071 critical tasks were identified, of which 45 had been failed. The ASEP procedure was used to estimate human error probability (HEP) values for critical tasks, and the HEP results were compared with the failure rates observed in the examinations. The ASEP procedure was applied by PNL operator license examiners who supplemented the limited information in the examination reports with expert judgment based upon their extensive simulator examination experience. ASEP analyses were performed for a sample of 162 critical tasks selected randomly from the 4071, and the results were used to characterize the entire population. ASEP analyses were also performed for all of the 45 failed critical tasks. Two tests were performed to assess the bias of the ASEP HEPs compared with the data from the requalification examinations. The first compared the average of the ASEP HEP values with the fraction of the population actually failed and it found a statistically significant factor of two bias on the average.

  11. Reliable laboratory urinalysis results using a new standardised urine collection device

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelofs-Thijssen, M.A.; Schreuder, M.F.; Hogeveen, M.; Herwaarden, A.E. van


    OBJECTIVES: While urine sampling is necessary in the diagnosis of urinary tract infection and electrolyte disturbances, the collection of urine in neonates and non-toilet-trained children is often difficult. A universal urine collection method providing representative urinalyses results is needed.

  12. Intraclass reliability for assessing how well Taiwan constrained hospital-provided medical services using statistical process control chart techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien Tsair-Wei


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies discuss the indicators used to assess the effect on cost containment in healthcare across hospitals in a single-payer national healthcare system with constrained medical resources. We present the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC to assess how well Taiwan constrained hospital-provided medical services in such a system. Methods A custom Excel-VBA routine to record the distances of standard deviations (SDs from the central line (the mean over the previous 12 months of a control chart was used to construct and scale annual medical expenditures sequentially from 2000 to 2009 for 421 hospitals in Taiwan to generate the ICC. The ICC was then used to evaluate Taiwan’s year-based convergent power to remain unchanged in hospital-provided constrained medical services. A bubble chart of SDs for a specific month was generated to present the effects of using control charts in a national healthcare system. Results ICCs were generated for Taiwan’s year-based convergent power to constrain its medical services from 2000 to 2009. All hospital groups showed a gradually well-controlled supply of services that decreased from 0.772 to 0.415. The bubble chart identified outlier hospitals that required investigation of possible excessive reimbursements in a specific time period. Conclusion We recommend using the ICC to annually assess a nation’s year-based convergent power to constrain medical services across hospitals. Using sequential control charts to regularly monitor hospital reimbursements is required to achieve financial control in a single-payer nationwide healthcare system.

  13. Protein Based Molecular Markers Provide Reliable Means to Understand Prokaryotic Phylogeny and Support Darwinian Mode of Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaibhav eBhandari


    Full Text Available The analyses of genome sequences have led to the proposal that lateral gene transfers (LGTs among prokaryotes are so widespread that they disguise the interrelationships among these organisms. This has led to questioning whether the Darwinian model of evolution is applicable to the prokaryotic organisms. In this review, we discuss the usefulness of taxon-specific molecular markers such as conserved signature indels (CSIs and conserved signature proteins (CSPs for understanding the evolutionary relationships among prokaryotes and to assess the influence of LGTs on prokaryotic evolution. The analyses of genomic sequences have identified large numbers of CSIs and CSPs that are unique properties of different groups of prokaryotes ranging from phylum to genus levels. The species distribution patterns of these molecular signatures strongly support a tree-like vertical inheritance of the genes containing these molecular signatures that is consistent with phylogenetic trees. Recent detailed studies in this regard on Thermotogae and Archaea, which are reviewed here, have identified large numbers of CSIs and CSPs that are specific for the species from these two taxa and a number of their major clades. The genetic changes responsible for these CSIs (and CSPs initially likely occurred in the common ancestors of these taxa and then vertically transferred to various descendants. Although some CSIs and CSPs in unrelated groups of prokaryotes were identified, their small numbers and random occurrence has no apparent influence on the consistent tree-like branching pattern emerging from other markers. These results provide evidence that although LGT is an important evolutionary force, it does not mask the tree-like branching pattern of prokaryotes or understanding of their evolutionary relationships. The identified CSIs and CSPs also provide novel and highly specific means for identification of different groups of microbes and for taxonomical and biochemical

  14. Line Transect and Triangulation Surveys Provide Reliable Estimates of the Density of Kloss' Gibbons (Hylobates klossii) on Siberut Island, Indonesia. (United States)

    Höing, Andrea; Quinten, Marcel C; Indrawati, Yohana Maria; Cheyne, Susan M; Waltert, Matthias


    Estimating population densities of key species is crucial for many conservation programs. Density estimates provide baseline data and enable monitoring of population size. Several different survey methods are available, and the choice of method depends on the species and study aims. Few studies have compared the accuracy and efficiency of different survey methods for large mammals, particularly for primates. Here we compare estimates of density and abundance of Kloss' gibbons (Hylobates klossii) using two of the most common survey methods: line transect distance sampling and triangulation. Line transect surveys (survey effort: 155.5 km) produced a total of 101 auditory and visual encounters and a density estimate of 5.5 gibbon clusters (groups or subgroups of primate social units)/km(2). Triangulation conducted from 12 listening posts during the same period revealed a similar density estimate of 5.0 clusters/km(2). Coefficients of variation of cluster density estimates were slightly higher from triangulation (0.24) than from line transects (0.17), resulting in a lack of precision in detecting changes in cluster densities of triangulation and triangulation method also may be appropriate.

  15. The Reliability of Results from National Tests, Public Examinations, and Vocational Qualifications in England (United States)

    He, Qingping; Opposs, Dennis


    National tests, public examinations, and vocational qualifications in England are used for a variety of purposes, including the certification of individual learners in different subject areas and the accountability of individual professionals and institutions. However, there has been ongoing debate about the reliability and validity of their…

  16. Automated Energy Distribution and Reliability System: Validation Integration - Results of Future Architecture Implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buche, D. L.


    This report describes Northern Indiana Public Service Co. project efforts to develop an automated energy distribution and reliability system. The purpose of this project was to implement a database-driven GIS solution that would manage all of the company's gas, electric, and landbase objects. This report is second in a series of reports detailing this effort.

  17. MEMS reliability

    CERN Document Server

    Hartzell, Allyson L; Shea, Herbert R


    This book focuses on the reliability and manufacturability of MEMS at a fundamental level. It demonstrates how to design MEMs for reliability and provides detailed information on the different types of failure modes and how to avoid them.

  18. Reliability of the Abbreviated Westmead Post-traumatic Amnesia Scale in children: Impact of age on test results. (United States)

    Tesson, Stephanie A; Nogajski, Rebecca R; Macey, Julie-Anne; Paget, Simon P


    This study aimed to determine the reliability of the Abbreviated Westmead Post-traumatic Amnesia Scale (A-WPTAS) in children by examining the impact of age on A-WPTAS performance. Participants were typically developing patients with minor illnesses or injuries and/or accompanying siblings aged 5-10 years, attending a children's hospital ED. Exclusion criteria included: (i) a recent traumatic brain injury; (ii) developmental disability; (iii) recent drug administration judged to impact cognition; and/or (iv) non-English speaking background. The A-WPTAS was administered on two occasions separated by approximately 60 min. Logistic regression was used to determine the odds of passing based on age. A total of 125 children completed the A-WPTAS assessments. A-WPTAS pass rates were 36% for 5 year olds, 68% for 6 year olds, and exceeded 90% for 7-10 year olds. Compared with 9 year olds, 5 year olds had significantly lower odds of passing (P = 0.003), a trend that persisted for 6 year olds (P = 0.052). Among 5 and 6 year olds, failure was predominantly due to difficulty with temporo-spatial orientation items. The A-WPTAS is reliable for use in children aged 7 years and older, while its use in children aged 6 years and under results in an unsatisfactory high false positive rate, limiting its clinical utility. The adult-level performance of children aged 7 years onwards provides strong support for using the tool in the early management of these children with mild traumatic brain injury in Australian EDs. © 2015 Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine.

  19. [Reliability and validity of the Revised Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II). Results from German samples]. (United States)

    Kühner, C; Bürger, C; Keller, F; Hautzinger, M


    The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) underwent revision in 1996 (BDI-II) with the goal of addressing DSM-IV depression criteria. The present study assessed psychometric properties of the German version of the BDI-II. The BDI-II was translated into German and evaluated in a series of studies with clinical and nonclinical samples. The content validity of the BDI-II has improved by following DSM-IV symptom criteria. Internal consistency was satisfactorily high (alpha>or=0.84), and retest reliability exceeded r>or=0.75 in nonclinical samples. Associations with construct-related scales (depression, dysfunctional cognitive constructs) were high, while those with nonsymptomatic personality assessment (NEO-FFI) were lower. The BDI-II differentiated well between different grades of depression and was sensitive to change. The German BDI-II demonstrates good reliability and validity in clinical and nonclinical samples. It may now replace the older version of the BDI for assessing self-rated severity of depression and course of depressed symptoms under treatment.

  20. Intraclass reliability for assessing how well Taiwan constrained hospital-provided medical services using statistical process control chart techniques. (United States)

    Chien, Tsair-Wei; Chou, Ming-Ting; Wang, Wen-Chung; Tsai, Li-Shu; Lin, Weir-Sen


    Few studies discuss the indicators used to assess the effect on cost containment in healthcare across hospitals in a single-payer national healthcare system with constrained medical resources. We present the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) to assess how well Taiwan constrained hospital-provided medical services in such a system. A custom Excel-VBA routine to record the distances of standard deviations (SDs) from the central line (the mean over the previous 12 months) of a control chart was used to construct and scale annual medical expenditures sequentially from 2000 to 2009 for 421 hospitals in Taiwan to generate the ICC. The ICC was then used to evaluate Taiwan's year-based convergent power to remain unchanged in hospital-provided constrained medical services. A bubble chart of SDs for a specific month was generated to present the effects of using control charts in a national healthcare system. ICCs were generated for Taiwan's year-based convergent power to constrain its medical services from 2000 to 2009. All hospital groups showed a gradually well-controlled supply of services that decreased from 0.772 to 0.415. The bubble chart identified outlier hospitals that required investigation of possible excessive reimbursements in a specific time period. We recommend using the ICC to annually assess a nation's year-based convergent power to constrain medical services across hospitals. Using sequential control charts to regularly monitor hospital reimbursements is required to achieve financial control in a single-payer nationwide healthcare system.

  1. Prominent medical journals often provide insufficient information to assess the validity of studies with negative results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dittus Robert S


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physicians reading the medical literature attempt to determine whether research studies are valid. However, articles with negative results may not provide sufficient information to allow physicians to properly assess validity. Methods We analyzed all original research articles with negative results published in 1997 in the weekly journals BMJ, JAMA, Lancet, and New England Journal of Medicine as well as those published in the 1997 and 1998 issues of the bimonthly Annals of Internal Medicine (N = 234. Our primary objective was to quantify the proportion of studies with negative results that comment on power and present confidence intervals. Secondary outcomes were to quantify the proportion of these studies with a specified effect size and a defined primary outcome. Stratified analyses by study design were also performed. Results Only 30% of the articles with negative results comment on power. The reporting of power (range: 15%-52% and confidence intervals (range: 55–81% varied significantly among journals. Observational studies of etiology/risk factors addressed power less frequently (15%, 95% CI, 8–21% than did clinical trials (56%, 95% CI, 46–67%, p Conclusion Prominent medical journals often provide insufficient information to assess the validity of studies with negative results.

  2. Safeguard: Progress and Test Results for a Reliable Independent On-Board Safety Net for UAS (United States)

    Young, Steven D.; Dill, Evan T.; Hayhurst, Kelly J.; Gilabert, Russell V.


    As demands increase to use unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) for a broad spectrum of commercial applications, regulatory authorities are examining how to safely integrate them without compromising safety or disrupting traditional airspace operations. For small UAS, several operational rules have been established; e.g., do not operate beyond visual line-of-sight, do not fly within five miles of a commercial airport, do not fly above 400 feet above ground level. Enforcing these rules is challenging for UAS, as evidenced by the number of incident reports received by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). This paper reviews the development of an onboard system - Safeguard - designed to monitor and enforce conformance to a set of operational rules defined prior to flight (e.g., geospatial stay-out or stay-in regions, speed limits, and altitude constraints). Unlike typical geofencing or geo-limitation functions, Safeguard operates independently of the off-the-shelf UAS autopilot and is designed in a way that can be realized by a small set of verifiable functions to simplify compliance with existing standards for safety-critical systems (e.g. for spacecraft and manned commercial transportation aircraft systems). A framework is described that decouples the system from any other devices on the UAS as well as introduces complementary positioning source(s) for applications that require integrity and availability beyond what can be provided by the Global Positioning System (GPS). This paper summarizes the progress and test results for Safeguard research and development since presentation of the design concept at the 35th Digital Avionics Systems Conference (DASC '16). Significant accomplishments include completion of software verification and validation in accordance with NASA standards for spacecraft systems (to Class B), development of improved hardware prototypes, development of a simulation platform that allows for hardware-in-the-loop testing and fast-time Monte Carlo

  3. A treatment schedule of conventional physical therapy provided to enhance upper limb sensorimotor recovery after stroke: expert criterion validity and intra-rater reliability. (United States)

    Donaldson, Catherine; Tallis, Raymond C; Pomeroy, Valerie M


    Inadequate description of treatment hampers progress in stroke rehabilitation. To develop a valid, reliable, standardised treatment schedule of conventional physical therapy provided for the paretic upper limb after stroke. Eleven neurophysiotherapists participated in the established methodology: semi-structured interviews, focus groups and piloting a draft treatment schedule in clinical practice. Different physiotherapists (n=13) used the treatment schedule to record treatment given to stroke patients with mild, moderate and severe upper limb paresis. Rating of adequacy of the treatment schedule was made using a visual analogue scale (0 to 100mm). Mean (95% confidence interval) visual analogue scores were calculated (expert criterion validity). For intra-rater reliability, each physiotherapist observed a video tape of their treatment and immediately completed a treatment schedule recording form on two separate occasions, 4 to 6 weeks apart. The Kappa statistic was calculated for intra-rater reliability. The treatment schedule consists of a one-page A4 recording form and a user booklet, detailing 50 treatment activities. Expert criterion validity was 79 (95% confidence interval 74 to 84). Intra-rater Kappa was 0.81 (P<0.001). This treatment schedule can be used to document conventional physical therapy in subsequent clinical trials in the geographical area of its development. Further work is needed to investigate generalisability beyond this geographical area.

  4. Prior doctor shopping resulting from differential treatment correlates with differences in current patient-provider relationships. (United States)

    Gudzune, Kimberly A; Bennett, Wendy L; Cooper, Lisa A; Clark, Jeanne M; Bleich, Sara N


    To determine the prevalence of doctor shopping resulting from differential treatment and to examine associations between this shopping and current primary care relationships. In 2012, a national internet-based survey of 600 adults receiving primary care in the past year with a BMI ≥ 25 kg/m(2) was conducted. Our independent variable was "switching doctors because I felt treated differently because of my weight." Logistic regression models to examine the association of prior doctor shopping with characteristics of current primary care relationships: duration, trust in primary care provider (PCP), and perceived PCP weight-related judgment, adjusted for patient factors were used. Overall, 13% of adults with overweight/obesity reported previously doctor shopping resulting from differential treatment. Prior shoppers were more likely to report shorter durations of their current relationships [73% vs. 52%; p = 0.01] or perceive that their current PCP judged them because of their weight [74% vs. 11%; p shop resulting from perceived differential treatment. These prior negative experiences have no association with trust in current relationships, but our results suggest that patients may remain sensitive to provider weight bias. © 2014 The Obesity Society.

  5. Training pediatric health care providers in prevention of dental decay: results from a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeldin Leslie P


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physicians report willingness to provide preventive dental care, but optimal methods for their training and support in such procedures are not known. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of three forms of continuing medical education (CME on provision of preventive dental services to Medicaid-enrolled children by medical personnel in primary care physician offices. Methods Practice-based, randomized controlled trial. Setting: 1,400 pediatric and family physician practices in North Carolina providing care to an estimated 240,000 Medicaid-eligible children aged 0–3 years. Interventions: Group A practices (n = 39 received didactic training and course materials in oral health screening, referral, counseling and application of fluoride varnish. Group B practices (n = 41 received the same as Group A and were offered weekly conference calls providing advice and support. Group C practices (n = 41 received the same as Group B and were offered in-office visit providing hands-on advice and support. In all groups, physicians were reimbursed $38–$43 per preventive dental visit. Outcome measures were computed from reimbursement claims submitted to NC Division of Medical Assistance. Primary outcome measure: rate of preventive dental services provision per 100 well-child visits. Secondary outcome measure: % of practices providing 20 or more preventive dental visits. Results 121 practices were randomized, and 107 provided data for analysis. Only one half of Group B and C practices took part in conference calls or in-office visits. Using intention-to-treat analysis, rates of preventive dental visits did not differ significantly among CME groups: GroupA = 9.4, GroupB = 12.9 and GroupC = 8.5 (P = 0.32. Twenty or more preventive dental visits were provided by 38–49% of practices in the three study groups (P = 0.64. Conclusion A relatively high proportion of medical practices appear capable of adopting these preventive dental services

  6. Early mobilization after uncomplicated medial subtalar dislocation provides successful functional results. (United States)

    Lasanianos, Nikolaos G; Lyras, Dimitrios N; Mouzopoulos, George; Tsutseos, Nikolaos; Garnavos, Christos


    Subtalar dislocation is a rare injury, with the medial type occurring in the majority of cases. The period of postreduction immobilization is a matter of controversy. Most studies set the period of immobilization between 4 and 8 weeks. The hypothesis in this study is that a period of 2-3 weeks of immobilization in a cast, followed by early mobilization, could provide better functional results than longer periods of immobilization. During a period of 4 years, eight patients (six men, two women) with mean age of 37.2 years and uncomplicated medial subtalar dislocation were treated in our institution. Immediate reduction under sedation and cast immobilization was provided in all cases. Our rehabilitation protocol consisted of two completed weeks of immobilization and thereafter ankle range-of-motion exercises and partial weight-bearing mobilization. Patients were followed up for a mean period of 3 years. Clinical results were evaluated using the AOFAS Ankle-Hindfoot scale. All patients achieved almost normal ankle range of motion and good clinical outcome (mean AOFAS score 92.25). No radiographic evidence of arthritis or avascular necrosis of the talus was detected. Two patients complained of mild pain of the hindfoot. All patients returned to daily routine activities in about 2 months from injury. Immediate reduction and early mobilization could be key factors for uneventful recovery of uncomplicated medial subtalar dislocation. Multicenter clinical trials are needed for further validation of our initial results. III, prospective clinical series study.

  7. Korean round-robin result for new international program to assess the reliability of emerging nondestructive techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyung Cho; Kim, Jin Gyum; Kang, Sung Sik; Jhung, Myung Jo [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    The Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, as a representative organization of Korea, in February 2012 participated in an international Program to Assess the Reliability of Emerging Nondestructive Techniques initiated by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The goal of the Program to Assess the Reliability of Emerging Nondestructive Techniques is to investigate the performance of emerging and prospective novel nondestructive techniques to find flaws in nickel-alloy welds and base materials. In this article, Korean round-robin test results were evaluated with respect to the test blocks and various nondestructive examination techniques. The test blocks were prepared to simulate large-bore dissimilar metal welds, small-bore dissimilar metal welds, and bottom-mounted instrumentation penetration welds in nuclear power plants. Also, lessons learned from the Korean round-robin test were summarized and discussed.

  8. Korean Round-Robin Tests Result for New International Program to Assess the Reliability of Emerging Nondestructive Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung Cho Kim


    Full Text Available The Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, as a representative organization of Korea, in February 2012 participated in an international Program to Assess the Reliability of Emerging Nondestructive Techniques initiated by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The goal of the Program to Assess the Reliability of Emerging Nondestructive Techniques is to investigate the performance of emerging and prospective novel nondestructive techniques to find flaws in nickel-alloy welds and base materials. In this article, Korean round-robin test results were evaluated with respect to the test blocks and various nondestructive examination techniques. The test blocks were prepared to simulate large-bore dissimilar metal welds, small-bore dissimilar metal welds, and bottom-mounted instrumentation penetration welds in nuclear power plants. Also, lessons learned from the Korean round-robin test were summarized and discussed.

  9. The role of kaizen in creating radical performance results in a logistics service provider

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erez Agmoni


    Full Text Available Background: This study investigates the role of an incremental change in organizational process in creating radical performance results in a service provider company. The role of Kaizen is established prominently in manufacturing, but is nascent in service applications. This study examines the impact of introducing Kaizen as an ODI tool-how it is applied, how it works, and whether participants believe it helps service groups form more effective working relationships that result in significant performance improvements. Methods: Exploring the evolving role of Kaizen in service contexts, this study explores a variety of facets of human communication in the context of continuous improvement and teamwork inter-organizationally. The paper consists of an archival study and an action research case study. A pre-intervention study consisting of observations, interviews, and submission of questionnaires to employees of a manufacturing and air-sea freight firm was conducted. A Kaizen intervention occurred subsequently, and a post-intervention study was then conducted. Results: Radical improvements in both companies such as 30% financial growth, 81% productivity improvement and more are demonstrated in this paper. Conclusions: Findings offer unique insights into the effects of Kaizen in creating radical performance improvements in a service company and its customer. Both qualitative and quantitative results of business, satisfaction, and productivity suggest time invested in introducing Kaizen into a service organization helps the companies improve relationships and improve the bottom line dramatically.

  10. Basic haemoglobinopathy diagnostics in Dutch laboratories; providing an informative test result. (United States)

    Kaufmann, J O; Smit, J W; Huisman, W; Idema, R N; Bakker, E; Giordano, P C


    After a first survey in 2001, the Dutch Association of Hematological Laboratory Research (VHL) advised its members to adopt a basic protocol for haemoglobinopathy carrier detection and to provide genetic information with all positive results to allow health-care professionals to inform carriers about potential genetic risks. This article reports on the compliance with these recommendations and their consequences. Clinical chemists of all 106 Dutch laboratories were invited to answer a survey on patient population, diagnostic techniques used, (self-reported) knowledge, use and effect of the additional information. The average increase in diagnostic output was over 60% and the recommended basic protocol was applied by 65% of the laboratories. Over 84% of the laboratories reported to be aware of the additional recommendations and 77% to be using them. Most laboratories with limited diagnostic requests were still sending their cases to other laboratories and included the genetic information received from these laboratories in their diagnostic reports. The effect of information on subsequent 'family analysis' was estimated to be between 26 and 50%. The present study shows an increase in diagnostic potential for haemoglobinopathy over the last decade, especially in the larger cities. Low 'family testing' rates were mostly found in areas with lower carrier prevalence or associated with local reluctance to pass the information to carriers. In spite of a dramatic improvement, too many carriers are still not informed because of lack of awareness among health-care providers and more education is needed. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. The struggle to find reliable results in exome sequencing data: Filtering out Mendelian errors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zubin Hasmukh Patel


    Full Text Available Next Generation Sequencing studies generate a large quantity of genetic data in a relatively cost and time efficient manner and provide an unprecedented opportunity to identify candidate causative variants that lead to disease phenotypes. A challenge to these studies is the generation of sequencing artifacts by current technologies. To identify and characterize the properties that distinguish false positive variants from true variants, we sequenced a child and both parents (trio using DNA isolated from three sources (blood, buccal cells, and saliva. The trio strategy allowed us to identify variants in the proband that could not have been inherited from the parents (Mendelian errors and would most likely indicate sequencing artifacts. Quality control measurements were examined and three measurements were found to identify the greatest number of Mendelian errors. These included read depth, genotype quality score, and alternate allele ratio. Filtering the variants on these measurements removed ~95% of the Mendelian errors while retaining 80% of the called variants. These filters were applied independently. After filtering, the concordance between identical samples isolated from different sources was 99.99% as compared to 87% before filtering. This high concordance suggests that different sources of DNA can be used in trio studies without affecting the ability to identify causative polymorphisms. To facilitate analysis of next generation sequencing data, we developed the Cincinnati Analytical Suite for Sequencing Informatics (CASSI to store sequencing files, metadata (e.g. relatedness information, file versioning, data filtering, variant annotation, and identify candidate causative polymorphisms that follow either de novo, rare recessive homozygous or compound heterozygous inheritance models. We conclude the data cleaning process improves the signal to noise ratio in terms of variants and facilitates the identification of candidate disease causative

  12. Factors associated with providing social security benefits for traumatic brain injury resulting from occupational accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denismar Borges de Miranda


    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The Occupational Accident (OA is considered to be an important public health problem in Brazil. Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI is the most common among them. The TBI is associated with high morbidity and mortality rates among workers. OBJECTIVE: To identify factors associated with providing social security benefits for TBI due to occupational accidents according to the specific type of economic activity in Brazil, in 2009. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study that was conducted with all workers who were part of the General Regime of Social Security (RGPS of Brazil. Secondary data were obtained from the National Information System Benefit, from the Synchronized National Register of the Ministry of Finance and from the General Register of Employed and Unemployed Persons. Data were analyzed using the multiple logistic regression method. RESULTS: We analyzed 2,006 cases of social security benefits for traumatic brain injury due to Occupational Accident. Factors associated with the concession of the benefit according to the economic activity of the Company of the beneficiary were identified. Associations were found with sex, income and the region of the Company. CONCLUSION: Factors associated with the concession of social security benefits by TBI resulting from OA differ depending on the type of economic activity in the study. Understanding these factors may contribute to the planning of preventive policies.

  13. Sodium oxybate therapy provides multidimensional improvement in fibromyalgia: results of an international phase 3 trial (United States)

    Spaeth, Michael; Bennett, Robert M; Benson, Beverly A; Wang, Y Grace; Lai, Chinglin; Choy, Ernest H


    Background Fibromyalgia is characterised by chronic musculoskeletal pain and multiple symptoms including fatigue, multidimensional function impairment, sleep disturbance and tenderness. Along with pain and fatigue, non-restorative sleep is a core symptom of fibromyalgia. Sodium oxybate (SXB) is thought to reduce non-restorative sleep abnormalities. This study evaluated effects of SXB on fibromyalgia-related pain and other symptoms. Methods 573 patients with fibromyalgia according to 1990 American College of Rheumatology criteria were enrolled at 108 centres in eight countries. Subjects were randomly assigned to placebo, SXB 4.5 g/night or SXB 6 g/night. The primary efficacy endpoint was the proportion of subjects with ≥30% reduction in pain visual analogue scale from baseline to treatment end. Other efficacy assessments included function, sleep quality, effect of sleep on function, fatigue, tenderness, health-related quality of life and subject's impression of change in overall wellbeing. Results Significant improvements in pain, sleep and other symptoms associated with fibromyalgia were seen in SXB treated subjects compared with placebo. The proportion of subjects with ≥30% pain reduction was 42.0% for SXB4.5 g/night (p=0.002) and 51.4% for SXB6 g/night (panxiety, somnolence, fatigue, muscle spasms and peripheral oedema. Conclusion These results, combined with findings from previous phase 2 and 3 studies, provide supportive evidence that SXB therapy affordsimportant benefits across multiple symptoms in subjects with fibromyalgia. PMID:22294641

  14. Can simple mobile phone applications provide reliable counts of respiratory rates in sick infants and children? An initial evaluation of three new applications. (United States)

    Black, James; Gerdtz, Marie; Nicholson, Pat; Crellin, Dianne; Browning, Laura; Simpson, Julie; Bell, Lauren; Santamaria, Nick


    applications found. This study provides evidence that applications running on simple phones can be used to count respiratory rates in children. The Once-per-Breath methods are the most reliable, outperforming the 60-second count. For children with raised respiratory rates the 20-breath version of the Once-per-Breath method is faster, so it is a more suitable option where health workers are under time pressure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Results of a Nationwide Capacity Survey of Hospitals Providing Trauma Care in War-Affected Syria. (United States)

    Mowafi, Hani; Hariri, Mahmoud; Alnahhas, Houssam; Ludwig, Elizabeth; Allodami, Tammam; Mahameed, Bahaa; Koly, Jamal Kaby; Aldbis, Ahmed; Saqqur, Maher; Zhang, Baobao; Al-Kassem, Anas


    The Syrian civil war has resulted in large-scale devastation of Syria's health infrastructure along with widespread injuries and death from trauma. The capacity of Syrian trauma hospitals is not well characterized. Data are needed to allocate resources for trauma care to the population remaining in Syria. To identify the number of trauma hospitals operating in Syria and to delineate their capacities. From February 1 to March 31, 2015, a nationwide survey of 94 trauma hospitals was conducted inside Syria, representing a coverage rate of 69% to 93% of reported hospitals in nongovernment controlled areas. Identification and geocoding of trauma and essential surgical services in Syria. Although 86 hospitals (91%) reported capacity to perform emergency surgery, 1 in 6 hospitals (16%) reported having no inpatient ward for patients after surgery. Sixty-three hospitals (70%) could transfuse whole blood but only 7 (7.4%) could separate and bank blood products. Seventy-one hospitals (76%) had any pharmacy services. Only 10 (11%) could provide renal replacement therapy, and only 18 (20%) provided any form of rehabilitative services. Syrian hospitals are isolated, with 24 (26%) relying on smuggling routes to refer patients to other hospitals and 47 hospitals (50%) reporting domestic supply lines that were never open or open less than daily. There were 538 surgeons, 378 physicians, and 1444 nurses identified in this survey, yielding a nurse to physician ratio of 1.8:1. Only 74 hospitals (79%) reported any salary support for staff, and 84 (89%) reported material support. There is an unmet need for biomedical engineering support in Syrian trauma hospitals, with 12 fixed x-ray machines (23%), 11 portable x-ray machines (13%), 13 computed tomographic scanners (22%), 21 adult (21%) and 5 pediatric (19%) ventilators, 14 anesthesia machines (10%), and 116 oxygen cylinders (15%) not functional. No functioning computed tomographic scanners remain in Aleppo, and 95 oxygen cylinders (42

  16. Patient and provider perceptions of care for diabetes: results of the cross-national DAWN Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peyrol, Mark; Rubin, Richard R.; Lauritzen, Torsten


    , Europe and North America. Participants were randomly selected adults with type 1 or type 2 diabetes (n=5,104), and randomly selected diabetes-care providers, including primary-care physicians (n=2,070), diabetes specialist physicians (n=635) and nurses (n=1,122). Multivariate analysis was used to examine....... Patients reported moderate levels of collaboration among providers, and providers indicated that several specialist disciplines were not readily available to them. Patients reported high levels of collaboration with providers in their own care. Provider endorsement of primary prevention strategies for type......Aims/hypothesis We assessed country-level and individual-level patterns in patient and provider perceptions of diabetes care. Methods The study used a cross-sectional design with face-to-face or telephone interviews of diabetic patients and healthcare providers in 13 countries from Asia, Australia...

  17. Factors associated with providing social security benefits for traumatic brain injury resulting from occupational accidents. (United States)

    de Miranda, Denismar Borges; Rego, Rita Franco; Viola, Denise Nunes; Lima, Verônica Maria Cadena; Teixeira, Edriene Barros


    The Occupational Accident (OA) is considered to be an important public health problem in Brazil. Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) is the most common among them. The TBI is associated with high morbidity and mortality rates among workers. To identify factors associated with providing social security benefits for TBI due to occupational accidents according to the specific type of economic activity in Brazil, in 2009. This is a cross-sectional study that was conducted with all workers who were part of the General Regime of Social Security (RGPS) of Brazil. Secondary data were obtained from the National Information System Benefit, from the Synchronized National Register of the Ministry of Finance and from the General Register of Employed and Unemployed Persons. Data were analyzed using the multiple logistic regression method. We analyzed 2,006 cases of social security benefits for traumatic brain injury due to Occupational Accident. Factors associated with the concession of the benefit according to the economic activity of the Company of the beneficiary were identified. Associations were found with sex, income and the region of the Company. Factors associated with the concession of social security benefits by TBI resulting from OA differ depending on the type of economic activity in the study. Understanding these factors may contribute to the planning of preventive policies.

  18. Reliability and Validity of Kurdish Language Version of Health Promoting Lifestyle Profile II among Kurdish Healthcare Providers Kurdish Version of HPLP-II. (United States)

    Kamali, Aram Salih Mohammed Amin; Sadeghi, Roya; Tol, Azar; Yaseri, Mahdi


    Unhealthy lifestyles pose significant threat to public health. This study aimed to assess the validity and reliability of a Kurdish version of the HPLP-II instrument among Kurdish healthcare providers, whose society and culture differ from that of North America and Spain, where the instrument was developed. The instrument was translated into Kurdish, back translated, and pilot tested to ascertain cultural sensitivity. It was then evaluated using a convenience sample of 460 healthcare providers in the Kurdistan region, northern Iraq using a principal components factor analysis. The order of factors was entirely identical to those isolated previously during the psychometric assessment of the English language version. The majority of our study participants were male (55%). In addition, 39.2% of participants were nurses. In addition, 42% of participants had less than five years of working experience. Furthermore, 82.1% of our study population held a high school diploma. The mean (SE) of Physical Activities dimension was low (15.3 ± 4.8) compared to Spiritual Growth dimension (24.5 ± 4.4). Moreover, the Cronbach's alpha coefficient for the overall HPLP-II questionnaire was 0.870; however, the nutrition dimension was low (0.622) compared to Physical Activities dimension (0.792). Furthermore, the correlation between items ranged from 0.099 to 0.611. The Kurdish version of the HPLP-II demonstrated initial reliability and validity. It is a precious tool to evaluate and assess lifestyle and lifestyle interventions built to improve the health of Kurds.

  19. [Reliability for detection of developmental problems using the semaphore from the Child Development Evaluation test: Is a yellow result different from a red result? (United States)

    Rizzoli-Córdoba, Antonio; Ortega-Ríosvelasco, Fernando; Villasís-Keever, Miguel Ángel; Pizarro-Castellanos, Mariel; Buenrostro-Márquez, Guillermo; Aceves-Villagrán, Daniel; O'Shea-Cuevas, Gabriel; Muñoz-Hernández, Onofre

    The Child Development Evaluation (CDE) is a screening tool designed and validated in Mexico for detecting developmental problems. The result is expressed through a semaphore. In the CDE test, both yellow and red results are considered positive, although a different intervention is proposed for each. The aim of this work was to evaluate the reliability of the CDE test to discriminate between children with yellow/red result based on the developmental domain quotient (DDQ) obtained through the Battelle Development Inventory, 2nd edition (in Spanish) (BDI-2). The information was obtained for the study from the validation. Children with a normal (green) result in the CDE were excluded. Two different cut-off points of the DDQ were used (BDI-2): Infantil de México Federico Gómez. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  20. A reliable method for avoiding false negative results with Luminex single antigen beads; evidence of the prozone effect. (United States)

    Carey, B Sean; Boswijk, Kim; Mabrok, Mazen; Rowe, Peter A; Connor, Andrew; Saif, Imran; Poles, Anthony


    Luminex single antigen bead (SAB) assays have become an essential tool in monitoring the status of antibody to the Human Leucocyte Antigen (HLA) of patients both before and after transplantation. In addition SAB data is used to aid risk stratification to assess immunological risk of humoral rejection in solid organ transplantation (CTAG/BTAG guidelines) [1]. Increasingly laboratories are reporting false negative results at high antibody titre due to a prozone effect. Here we report a case study where the prozone effect led to a false negative antibody result that could have resulted in adverse outcome. We describe a method to reliably remove the prozone effect through heat inactivation and the addition of Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) to the Luminex wash buffer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Pledgeted repair of giant hiatal hernia provides excellent long-term results. (United States)

    Kang, Thomas; Urrego, Hernan; Gridley, Asahel; Richardson, William S


    Use of mesh in hiatal hernia repairs is a topic of debate. We present our experience in laparoscopic primary (nonmesh) repair of giant hiatal hernia. All laparoscopic antireflux procedures done by a single surgeon from November 1997 to October 2006 were retrospectively reviewed. Inclusion criteria were primary crural closure with pledgets and giant hiatal hernia (greater than one-third of the stomach in the chest by esophagram, greater than 5 cm in length endoscopically, or greater than one-third of the stomach in the chest operatively). We attempted to reach all patients who met inclusion criteria and administered the Reflux Symptom Index (RSI) and Quality of Life Scale for Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (QLSGR) questionnaires. In total, 89 patients met inclusion criteria. The male-to-female ratio was 32:57. Average age was 62.7 years. Average body mass index was 29.3 kg/m(2). Average length of stay was 2 days, and mean clinic follow-up was 161 days. At the most recent follow-up, 62% of patients were asymptomatic. The most common postoperative symptoms were dysphagia (16%), reflux/emesis (5%), bloating (5%), nausea (4%), epigastric pain (4%), and heartburn (3%). There were six (6.7%) recurrences on esophagogastroduodenoscopy or upper gastrointestinal examination. Five patients with recurrence were symptomatic. Of the 89 patients, 29 (33%) completed the questionnaire, with a mean follow-up of 69.7 months. Average RSI score was 12 (maximum possible score, 45). In six of nine categories, the average score was less than 1 (possible score, 0-5). Average QLSGR score was 12 (maximum possible score, 45). For satisfaction with the present condition, the average score was 4.34 (maximum score, 5), and 82.7% of respondents were satisfied or very satisfied with their present condition. Laparoscopic primary repair of giant hiatal hernia provides excellent long-term results. We found that 62% of patients were asymptomatic at the last follow-up and that 82% of respondents were

  2. Health care provider advice for adolescent tobacco use: results from the 2011 National Youth Tobacco Survey. (United States)

    Schauer, Gillian L; Agaku, Israel T; King, Brian A; Malarcher, Ann M


    Health care providers play an important role in promoting tobacco use abstinence among adolescents. This study aimed to provide nationally representative data on the prevalence of provider tobacco use screening and advice delivered to adolescents. Cessation behaviors and correlates of past year quit attempts among current smokers are also explored. Data came from the 2011 National Youth Tobacco Survey, a nationally representative school-based survey of adolescents in grades 6 through 12 (n = 18385). Provider screening and advice were assessed by smoking status and demographic characteristics. Logistic regression was used to assess the association between advice and past year quit attempt. The overall prevalence of current tobacco use was 16.6%; 10.8% were current cigarette smokers (3.6% were established smokers, 7.2% were nonestablished smokers); 17.3% were former smokers; and 71.9% were never smokers (22.6% high susceptibility, 77.4% low susceptibility). Among all respondents, the prevalence of being asked about tobacco use by a health care provider was 32.2%; the prevalence of being advised to quit or avoid tobacco was 31.4%. Established smokers were more likely than other groups to report provider assessment of tobacco use and advice. Receipt of advice was associated with a higher adjusted odds of having made a past year quit attempt (odds ratio: 1.47, 95% confidence interval: 1.18-1.82). Less than one-third of adolescents report being asked about tobacco use or being advised not to use tobacco. Increased tobacco use intervention by health care providers is needed to prevent initiation and increase cessation. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  3. Defining enthesitis in spondyloarthritis by ultrasound: results of a Delphi process and of a reliability reading exercise. (United States)

    Terslev, L; Naredo, E; Iagnocco, A; Balint, P V; Wakefield, R J; Aegerter, P; Aydin, S Z; Bachta, A; Hammer, H B; Bruyn, G A W; Filippucci, E; Gandjbakhch, F; Mandl, P; Pineda, C; Schmidt, W A; D'Agostino, M A


    To standardize ultrasound (US) in enthesitis. An initial Delphi exercise was undertaken to define US-detected enthesitis and its core components. These definitions were subsequently tested on static images taken from spondyloarthritis patients in order to evaluate their reliability. Excellent agreement (>80%) was obtained for including hypoechogenicity, increased thickness of the tendon insertion, calcifications, enthesophytes, erosions, and Doppler activity as core elementary lesions of US-detected enthesitis. US definitions were subsequently obtained for each elementary component. On static images, the intraobserver reliability showed a high degree of variability for the detection of elementary lesions, with kappa coefficients ranging from 0.13-1. The interobserver kappa values were variable, with the lowest kappa coefficient for enthesophytes (0.24) and the highest coefficient for Doppler activity at the enthesis (0.63). This is the first consensus-based US definition of enthesitis and its elementary components and the first step performed to ensure a higher degree of homogeneity and comparability of results between studies and in daily clinical work. Copyright © 2014 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  4. Service Providers in Psychology: Results of the 1982 APA Human Resources Survey. (United States)

    VandenBos, Gary R.; Stapp, Joy


    Based on a survey of service provider psychologists, describes (1) their age, sex, ethnicity, years since degree licensure, state association membership, and "National Register" listing; (2) primary and secondary employment settings; (3) professional practices; and (4) aspects of independent practice. (GC)

  5. Frontiers of reliability

    CERN Document Server

    Basu, Asit P; Basu, Sujit K


    This volume presents recent results in reliability theory by leading experts in the world. It will prove valuable for researchers, and users of reliability theory. It consists of refereed invited papers on a broad spectrum of topics in reliability. The subjects covered include Bayesian reliability, Bayesian reliability modeling, confounding in a series system, DF tests, Edgeworth approximation to reliability, estimation under random censoring, fault tree reduction for reliability, inference about changes in hazard rates, information theory and reliability, mixture experiment, mixture of Weibul

  6. Validity and reliability of the Malay version of sleep apnea quality of life index – preliminary results (United States)


    Background The objective of this study was to determine the validity and reliability of the Malay translated Sleep Apnea Quality of Life Index (SAQLI) in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Methods In this cross sectional study, the Malay version of SAQLI was administered to 82 OSA patients seen at the OSA Clinic, Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia prior to their treatment. Additionally, the patients were asked to complete the Malay version of Medical Outcomes Study Short Form (SF-36). Twenty-three patients completed the Malay version of SAQLI again after 1–2 weeks to assess its reliability. Results Initial factor analysis of the 40-item Malay version of SAQLI resulted in four factors with eigenvalues >1. All items had factor loadings >0.5 but one of the factors was unstable with only two items. However, both items were maintained due to their high communalities and the analysis was repeated with a forced three factor solution. Variance accounted by the three factors was 78.17% with 9–18 items per factor. All items had primary loadings over 0.5 although the loadings were inconsistent with the proposed construct. The Cronbach’s alpha values were very high for all domains, >0.90. The instrument was able to discriminate between patients with mild or moderate and severe OSA. The Malay version of SAQLI correlated positively with the SF-36. The intraclass correlation coefficients for all domains were >0.90. Conclusions In light of these preliminary observations, we concluded that the Malay version of SAQLI has a high degree of internal consistency and concurrent validity albeit demonstrating a slightly different construct than the original version. The responsiveness of the questionnaire to changes in health-related quality of life following OSA treatment is yet to be determined. PMID:23786866

  7. CERN result provides definite answer to one of nature's most subtle secrets

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Press Office. Geneva


    At a seminar at CERN on 10 May the NA48 collaboration announced its final result on one of nature's best-kept secrets : direct Charge Parity (CP)-violation. This subtle effect explains nature's preference for matter over antimatter.

  8. Who continues to stock oral artemisinin monotherapy? Results of a provider survey in Myanmar. (United States)

    Thein, Si Thu; Sudhinaraset, May; Khin, Hnin Su Su; McFarland, Willi; Aung, Tin


    Artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) is a key strategy for global malaria elimination efforts. However, the development of artemisinin-resistant malaria parasites threatens progress and continued usage of oral artemisinin monotherapies (AMT) predisposes the selection of drug resistant strains. This is particularly a problem along the Myanmar/Thailand border. The artemisinin monotherapy replacement programme (AMTR) was established in 2012 to remove oral AMT from stocks in Myanmar, specifically by replacing oral AMT with quality-assured ACT and conducting behavioural change communication activities to the outlets dispensing anti-malarial medications. This study attempts to quantify the characteristics of outlet providers who continue to stock oral AMT despite these concerted efforts. A cross-sectional survey of all types of private sector outlets that were stocking anti-malarial drugs in 13 townships of Eastern Myanmar was implemented from July to August 2014. A total of 573 outlets were included. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regressions were conducted to assess outlet and provider-level characteristics associated with stocking oral AMT. In total, 2939 outlets in Eastern Myanmar were screened for presence of any anti-malarial drugs in August 2014. The study found that 573 (19.5 %) had some kind of oral anti-malarial drug in stock at the time of survey and among them, 96 (16.8 %) stocked oral AMT. In bivariate analyses, compared to health care facilities, itinerant drug vendors, retailers and health workers were less likely to stock oral AMT (33.3 vs 12.9, 10.0, 8.1 %, OR = 0.30, 0.22, 0.18, respectively). Providers who cut blister pack or sell partial courses (40.6 vs 11.7 %, OR 5.18, CI 3.18-8.44) and those who based their stock decision on consumer demand (32.8 vs 12.1 %, OR 3.54, CI 2.21-5.63) were more likely to stock oAMT. Multivariate logistic regressions produced similar significant associations. Private healthcare facilities and drug

  9. CERN result provides answer to one of nature's most subtle secrets

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Press Office. Geneva


    At a seminar at CERN on 18 June Pascal Debu, spokesman of the Laboratory's NA48 experiment, announced its preliminary result, after analysis of 10% of the expected data, on one of nature's best-kept secrets. Direct CP-violation, as it is called, is a subtle effect that betrays nature's preference for matter over antimatter, the reason why we are here.

  10. Validity and reliability of the Malay version of Sleep Apnea Quality of Life Index--preliminary results. (United States)

    Saddki, Norkhafizah; Mohamad, Hazama; Mohd Yusof, Nor Idayu; Mohamad, Dasmawati; Mokhtar, Norehan; Wan Bakar, Wan Zaripah


    The objective of this study was to determine the validity and reliability of the Malay translated Sleep Apnea Quality of Life Index (SAQLI) in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). In this cross sectional study, the Malay version of SAQLI was administered to 82 OSA patients seen at the OSA Clinic, Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia prior to their treatment. Additionally, the patients were asked to complete the Malay version of Medical Outcomes Study Short Form (SF-36). Twenty-three patients completed the Malay version of SAQLI again after 1-2 weeks to assess its reliability. Initial factor analysis of the 40-item Malay version of SAQLI resulted in four factors with eigenvalues >1. All items had factor loadings >0.5 but one of the factors was unstable with only two items. However, both items were maintained due to their high communalities and the analysis was repeated with a forced three factor solution. Variance accounted by the three factors was 78.17% with 9-18 items per factor. All items had primary loadings over 0.5 although the loadings were inconsistent with the proposed construct. The Cronbach's alpha values were very high for all domains, >0.90. The instrument was able to discriminate between patients with mild or moderate and severe OSA. The Malay version of SAQLI correlated positively with the SF-36. The intraclass correlation coefficients for all domains were >0.90. In light of these preliminary observations, we concluded that the Malay version of SAQLI has a high degree of internal consistency and concurrent validity albeit demonstrating a slightly different construct than the original version. The responsiveness of the questionnaire to changes in health-related quality of life following OSA treatment is yet to be determined.

  11. Establishing Reliable Cognitive Change in Children with Epilepsy: The Procedures and Results for a Sample with Epilepsy (United States)

    van Iterson, Loretta; Augustijn, Paul B.; de Jong, Peter F.; van der Leij, Aryan


    The goal of this study was to investigate reliable cognitive change in epilepsy by developing computational procedures to determine reliable change index scores (RCIs) for the Dutch Wechsler Intelligence Scales for Children. First, RCIs were calculated based on stability coefficients from a reference sample. Then, these RCIs were applied to a…

  12. Becoming a health literate organization: Formative research results from healthcare organizations providing care for undeserved communities. (United States)

    Adsul, Prajakta; Wray, Ricardo; Gautam, Kanak; Jupka, Keri; Weaver, Nancy; Wilson, Kristin


    Background Integrating health literacy into primary care institutional policy and practice is critical to effective, patient centered health care. While attributes of health literate organizations have been proposed, approaches for strengthening them in healthcare systems with limited resources have not been fully detailed. Methods We conducted key informant interviews with individuals from 11 low resourced health care organizations serving uninsured, underinsured, and government-insured patients across Missouri. The qualitative inquiry explored concepts of impetus to transform, leadership commitment, engaging staff, alignment to organization wide goals, and integration of health literacy with current practices. Findings Several health care organizations reported carrying out health literacy related activities including implementing patient portals, selecting easy to read patient materials, offering community education and outreach programs, and improving discharge and medication distribution processes. The need for change presented itself through data or anecdotal staff experience. For any change to be undertaken, administrators and medical directors had to be supportive; most often a champion facilitated these changes in the organization. Staff and providers were often resistant to change and worried they would be saddled with additional work. Lack of time and funding were the most common barriers reported for integration and sustainability. To overcome these barriers, managers supported changes by working one on one with staff, seeking external funding, utilizing existing resources, planning for stepwise implementation, including members from all staff levels and clear communication. Conclusion Even though barriers exist, resource scarce clinical settings can successfully plan, implement, and sustain organizational changes to support health literacy.

  13. Direct Measurement of Tree Height Provides Different Results on the Assessment of LiDAR Accuracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuele Sibona


    Full Text Available In this study, airborne laser scanning-based and traditional field-based survey methods for tree heights estimation are assessed by using one hundred felled trees as a reference dataset. Comparisons between remote sensing and field-based methods were applied to four circular permanent plots located in the western Italian Alps and established within the Alpine Space project NewFor. Remote sensing (Airborne Laser Scanning, ALS, traditional field-based (indirect measurement, IND, and direct measurement of felled trees (DIR methods were compared by using summary statistics, linear regression models, and variation partitioning. Our results show that tree height estimates by Airborne Laser Scanning (ALS approximated to real heights (DIR of felled trees. Considering the species separately, Larix decidua was the species that showed the smaller mean absolute difference (0.95 m between remote sensing (ALS and direct field (DIR data, followed by Picea abies and Pinus sylvestris (1.13 m and 1.04 m, respectively. Our results cannot be generalized to ALS surveys with low pulses density (<5/m2 and with view angles far from zero (nadir. We observed that the tree heights estimation by laser scanner is closer to actual tree heights (DIR than traditional field-based survey, and this was particularly valid for tall trees with conical shape crowns.

  14. A query result merging scheme for providing energy efficiency in underwater sensor networks. (United States)

    Kim, Yunsung; Park, Soo-Hyun


    Underwater sensor networks are emerging as a promising distributed data management system for various applications in underwater environments, despite their limited accessibility and restricted energy capacity. With the aid of recent developments in ubiquitous data computing, an increasing number of users are expected to overcome low accessibility by applying queries to underwater sensor networks. However, when multiple users send queries to an underwater sensor network in a disorganized manner, it may incur lethal energy waste and problematic network traffic. The current query management mechanisms cannot effectively deal with this matter due to their limited applicability and unrealistic assumptions. In this paper, a novel query management scheme involving query result merging is proposed for underwater sensor networks. The mechanism is based on a relational database model and is adjusted to the practical restrictions affecting underwater communication environments. Network simulations will prove that the scheme becomes more efficient with a greater number of queries and a smaller period range.

  15. Logistic support provided to Australian disaster medical assistance teams: results of a national survey of team members (United States)

    Aitken, Peter; Leggat, Peter; Harley, Hazel; Speare, Richard; Leclercq, Muriel


    Background It is likely that calls for disaster medical assistance teams (DMATs) continue in response to international disasters. As part of a national survey, the present study was designed to evaluate the Australian DMAT experience and the need for logistic support. Methods Data were collected via an anonymous mailed survey distributed via State and Territory representatives on the Australian Health Protection Committee, who identified team members associated with Australian DMAT deployments from the 2004 Asian Tsunami disaster. Results The response rate for this survey was 50% (59/118). Most of the personnel had deployed to the South East Asian Tsunami affected areas. The DMAT members had significant clinical and international experience. There was unanimous support for dedicated logistic support with 80% (47/59) strongly agreeing. Only one respondent (2%) disagreed with teams being self sufficient for a minimum of 72 hours. Most felt that transport around the site was not a problem (59%; 35/59), however, 34% (20/59) felt that transport to the site itself was problematic. Only 37% (22/59) felt that pre-deployment information was accurate. Communication with local health providers and other agencies was felt to be adequate by 53% (31/59) and 47% (28/59) respectively, while only 28% (17/59) felt that documentation methods were easy to use and reliable. Less than half (47%; 28/59) felt that equipment could be moved easily between areas by team members and 37% (22/59) that packaging enabled materials to be found easily. The maximum safe container weight was felt to be between 20 and 40 kg by 58% (34/59). Conclusions This study emphasises the importance of dedicated logistic support for DMAT and the need for teams to be self sufficient for a minimum period of 72 hours. There is a need for accurate pre deployment information to guide resource prioritisation with clearly labelled pre packaging to assist access on site. Container weights should be restricted to between

  16. Instantaneous progression reference frame for calculating pelvis rotations: Reliable and anatomically-meaningful results independent of the direction of movement. (United States)

    Kainz, Hans; Lloyd, David G; Walsh, Henry P J; Carty, Christopher P


    In motion analysis, pelvis angles are conventionally calculated as the rotations between the pelvis and laboratory reference frame. This approach assumes that the participant's motion is along the anterior-posterior laboratory reference frame axis. When this assumption is violated interpretation of pelvis angels become problematic. In this paper a new approach for calculating pelvis angles based on the rotations between the pelvis and an instantaneous progression reference frame was introduced. At every time-point, the tangent to the trajectory of the midpoint of the pelvis projected into the horizontal plane of the laboratory reference frame was used to define the anterior-posterior axis of the instantaneous progression reference frame. This new approach combined with the rotation-obliquity-tilt rotation sequence was compared to the conventional approach using the rotation-obliquity-tilt and tilt-obliquity-rotation sequences. Four different movement tasks performed by eight healthy adults were analysed. The instantaneous progression reference frame approach was the only approach that showed reliable and anatomically meaningful results for all analysed movement tasks (mean root-mean-square-differences below 5°, differences in pelvis angles at pre-defined gait events below 10°). Both rotation sequences combined with the conventional approach led to unreliable results as soon as the participant's motion was not along the anterior-posterior laboratory axis (mean root-mean-square-differences up to 30°, differences in pelvis angles at pre-defined gait events up to 45°). The instantaneous progression reference frame approach enables the gait analysis community to analysis pelvis angles for movements that do not follow the anterior-posterior axis of the laboratory reference frame. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. A Comparison of Result Reliability for Investigation of Milk Composition by Alternative Analytical Methods in Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oto Hanuš


    Full Text Available The milk analyse result reliability is important for assurance of foodstuff chain quality. There are more direct and indirect methods for milk composition measurement (fat (F, protein (P, lactose (L and solids non fat (SNF content. The goal was to evaluate some reference and routine milk analytical procedures on result basis. The direct reference analyses were: F, fat content (Röse–Gottlieb method; P, crude protein content (Kjeldahl method; L, lactose (monohydrate, polarimetric method; SNF, solids non fat (gravimetric method. F, P, L and SNF were determined also by various indirect methods: – MIR (infrared (IR technology with optical filters, 7 instruments in 4 labs; – MIR–FT (IR spectroscopy with Fourier’s transformations, 10 in 6; – ultrasonic method (UM, 3 in 1; – analysis by the blue and red box (BRB, 1 v 1. There were used 10 reference milk samples. Coefficient of determination (R2, correlation coefficient (r and standard deviation of the mean of individual differences (MDsd, for n were evaluated. All correlations (r; for all indirect and alternative methods and all milk components were significant (P ≤ 0.001. MIR and MIR–FT (conventional methods explained considerably higher proportion of the variability in reference results than the UM and BRB methods (alternative. All r average values (x minus 1.64 × sd for 95% confidence interval can be used as standards for calibration quality evaluation (MIR, MIR–FT, UM and BRB: – for F 0.997, 0.997, 0.99 and 0.995; – for P 0.986, 0.981, 0.828 and 0.864; – for L 0.968, 0.871, 0.705 and 0.761; – for SNF 0.992, 0.993, 0.911 and 0.872. Similarly ​MDsd (x plus 1.64 × sd: – for F 0.071, 0.068, 0.132 and 0.101%; – for P 0.051, 0.054, 0.202 and 0.14%; – for L 0.037, 0.074, 0.113 and 0.11%; – for SNF 0.052, 0.068, 0.141 and 0.204.

  18. Methods of Estimation the Reliability and Increasing the Informativeness of the Laboratory Results (Analysis of the Laboratory Case of Measurement the Indicators of Thyroid Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N A Kovyazina


    Full Text Available The goal of the study was to demonstrate the multilevel laboratory quality management system and point at the methods of estimating the reliability and increasing the amount of information content of the laboratory results (on the example of the laboratory case. Results. The article examines the stages of laboratory quality management which has helped to estimate the reliability of the results of determining Free T3, Free T4 and TSH. The measurement results are presented by the expanded uncertainty and the evaluation of the dynamics. Conclusion. Compliance with mandatory measures for laboratory quality management system enables laboratories to obtain reliable results and calculate the parameters that are able to increase the amount of information content of laboratory tests in clinical decision making.

  19. Visual Analogue Scale for Anxiety and Amsterdam Preoperative Anxiety Scale Provide a Simple and Reliable Measurement of Preoperative Anxiety in Patients Undergoing Cardiac Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín Hernández-Palazón


    Full Text Available Background: Anxiety is an emotional state characterized by apprehension and fear resulting from anticipation of a threatening event. Objectives: The present study aimed to analyze the incidence and level of preoperative anxiety in the patients scheduled for cardiac surgery by using a Visual Analogue Scale for Anxiety (VAS-A and Amsterdam Preoperative Anxiety and Information Scale (APAIS and to identify the influencing clinical factors. Patients and Methods: This prospective, longitudinal study was performed on 300 cardiac surgery patients in a single university hospital. The patients were assessed regarding their preoperative anxiety level using VAS-A, APAIS, and a set of specific anxiety-related questions. Their demographic features as well as their anesthetic and surgical characteristics (ASA physical status, EuroSCORE, preoperative Length of Stay (LoS, and surgical history were recorded, as well. Then, one-way ANOVA and t-test were applied along with odds ratio for risk assessment. Results: According to the results, 94% of the patients presented preoperative anxiety, with 37% developing high anxiety (VAS-A ≥ 7. Preoperative LoS > 2 days was the only significant risk factor for preoperative anxiety (odds ratio = 2.5, CI 95%, 1.3 - 5.1, P = 0.009. Besides, a positive correlation was found between anxiety level (APAISa and requirement of knowledge (APAISk. APAISa and APAISk scores were greater for surgery than for anesthesia. Moreover, the results showed that the most common anxieties resulted from the operation, waiting for surgery, not knowing what is happening, postoperative pain, awareness during anesthesia, and not awakening from anesthesia. Conclusions: APAIS and VAS-A provided a quantitative assessment of anxiety and a specific qualitative questionnaire for preoperative anxiety in cardiac surgery. According to the results, preoperative LoS > 2 days and lack of information related to surgery were the risk factors for high anxiety levels.

  20. Evaluating Proposed Investments in Power System Reliability and Resilience: Preliminary Results from Interviews with Public Utility Commission Staff

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaCommare, Kristina [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Larsen, Peter [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Eto, Joseph [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)


    Policymakers and regulatory agencies are expressing renewed interest in the reliability and resilience of the U.S. electric power system in large part due to growing recognition of the challenges posed by climate change, extreme weather events, and other emerging threats. Unfortunately, there has been little or no consolidated information in the public domain describing how public utility/service commission (PUC) staff evaluate the economics of proposed investments in the resilience of the power system. Having more consolidated information would give policymakers a better understanding of how different state regulatory entities across the U.S. make economic decisions pertaining to reliability/resiliency. To help address this, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) was tasked by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Policy and Systems Analysis (EPSA) to conduct an initial set of interviews with PUC staff to learn more about how proposed utility investments in reliability/resilience are being evaluated from an economics perspective. LBNL conducted structured interviews in late May-early June 2016 with staff from the following PUCs: Washington D.C. (DCPSC), Florida (FPSC), and California (CPUC).

  1. Are Bibliographic Management Software Search Interfaces Reliable?: A Comparison between Search Results Obtained Using Database Interfaces and the EndNote Online Search Function (United States)

    Fitzgibbons, Megan; Meert, Deborah


    The use of bibliographic management software and its internal search interfaces is now pervasive among researchers. This study compares the results between searches conducted in academic databases' search interfaces versus the EndNote search interface. The results show mixed search reliability, depending on the database and type of search…

  2. The rating reliability calculator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solomon David J


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rating scales form an important means of gathering evaluation data. Since important decisions are often based on these evaluations, determining the reliability of rating data can be critical. Most commonly used methods of estimating reliability require a complete set of ratings i.e. every subject being rated must be rated by each judge. Over fifty years ago Ebel described an algorithm for estimating the reliability of ratings based on incomplete data. While his article has been widely cited over the years, software based on the algorithm is not readily available. This paper describes an easy-to-use Web-based utility for estimating the reliability of ratings based on incomplete data using Ebel's algorithm. Methods The program is available public use on our server and the source code is freely available under GNU General Public License. The utility is written in PHP, a common open source imbedded scripting language. The rating data can be entered in a convenient format on the user's personal computer that the program will upload to the server for calculating the reliability and other statistics describing the ratings. Results When the program is run it displays the reliability, number of subject rated, harmonic mean number of judges rating each subject, the mean and standard deviation of the averaged ratings per subject. The program also displays the mean, standard deviation and number of ratings for each subject rated. Additionally the program will estimate the reliability of an average of a number of ratings for each subject via the Spearman-Brown prophecy formula. Conclusion This simple web-based program provides a convenient means of estimating the reliability of rating data without the need to conduct special studies in order to provide complete rating data. I would welcome other researchers revising and enhancing the program.

  3. DIRECT secure messaging as a common transport layer for reporting structured and unstructured lab results to outpatient providers. (United States)

    Sujansky, Walter; Wilson, Tom


    This report describes a grant-funded project to explore the use of DIRECT secure messaging for the electronic delivery of laboratory test results to outpatient physicians and electronic health record systems. The project seeks to leverage the inherent attributes of DIRECT secure messaging and electronic provider directories to overcome certain barriers to the delivery of lab test results in the outpatient setting. The described system enables laboratories that generate test results as HL7 messages to deliver these results as structured or unstructured documents attached to DIRECT secure messages. The system automatically analyzes generated HL7 messages and consults an electronic provider directory to determine the appropriate DIRECT address and delivery format for each indicated recipient. The system also enables lab results delivered to providers as structured attachments to be consumed by HL7 interface engines and incorporated into electronic health record systems. Lab results delivered as unstructured attachments may be printed or incorporated into patient records as PDF files. The system receives and logs acknowledgement messages to document the status of each transmitted lab result, and a graphical interface allows searching and review of this logged information. The described system is a fully implemented prototype that has been tested in a laboratory setting. Although this approach is promising, further work is required to pilot test the system in production settings with clinical laboratories and outpatient provider organizations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Cancer and the LGBTQ Population: Quantitative and Qualitative Results from an Oncology Providers' Survey on Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practice Behaviors. (United States)

    Tamargo, Christina L; Quinn, Gwendolyn P; Sanchez, Julian A; Schabath, Matthew B


    Despite growing social acceptance, the LGBTQ population continues to face barriers to healthcare including fear of stigmatization by healthcare providers, and providers' lack of knowledge about LGBTQ-specific health issues. This analysis focuses on the assessment of quantitative and qualitative responses from a subset of providers who identified as specialists that treat one or more of the seven cancers that may be disproportionate in LGBTQ patients. A 32-item web-based survey was emailed to 388 oncology providers at a single institution. The survey assessed: demographics, knowledge, attitudes, and practice behaviors. Oncology providers specializing in seven cancer types had poor knowledge of LGBTQ-specific health needs, with fewer than half of the surveyed providers (49.5%) correctly answering knowledge questions. Most providers had overall positive attitudes toward LGBTQ patients, with 91.7% agreeing they would be comfortable treating this population, and would support education and/or training on LGBTQ-related cancer health issues. Results suggest that despite generally positive attitudes toward the LGBTQ population, oncology providers who treat cancer types most prevalent among the population, lack knowledge of their unique health issues. Knowledge and practice behaviors may improve with enhanced education and training on this population's specific needs.

  5. Leveraging Cloud Technology to Provide a Responsive, Reliable and Scalable Backend for the Virtual Ice Sheet Laboratory Using the Ice Sheet System Model and Amazon's Elastic Compute Cloud (United States)

    Perez, G. L.; Larour, E. Y.; Halkides, D. J.; Cheng, D. L. C.


    The Virtual Ice Sheet Laboratory(VISL) is a Cryosphere outreach effort byscientists at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory(JPL) in Pasadena, CA, Earth and SpaceResearch(ESR) in Seattle, WA, and the University of California at Irvine (UCI), with the goal of providing interactive lessons for K-12 and college level students,while conforming to STEM guidelines. At the core of VISL is the Ice Sheet System Model(ISSM), an open-source project developed jointlyat JPL and UCI whose main purpose is to model the evolution of the polar ice caps in Greenland and Antarctica. By using ISSM, VISL students have access tostate-of-the-art modeling software that is being used to conduct scientificresearch by users all over the world. However, providing this functionality isby no means simple. The modeling of ice sheets in response to sea and atmospheric temperatures, among many other possible parameters, requiressignificant computational resources. Furthermore, this service needs to beresponsive and capable of handling burst requests produced by classrooms ofstudents. Cloud computing providers represent a burgeoning industry. With majorinvestments by tech giants like Amazon, Google and Microsoft, it has never beeneasier or more affordable to deploy computational elements on-demand. This isexactly what VISL needs and ISSM is capable of. Moreover, this is a promisingalternative to investing in expensive and rapidly devaluing hardware.

  6. Making non-discrimination and equal opportunity a reality in Kenya's health provider education system: results of a gender analysis. (United States)

    Newman, Constance; Kimeu, Anastasiah; Shamblin, Leigh; Penders, Christopher; McQuide, Pamela A; Bwonya, Judith


    IntraHealth International's USAID-funded Capacity Kenya project conducted a performance needs assessment of the Kenya health provider education system in 2010. Various stakeholders shared their understandings of the role played by gender and identified opportunities to improve gender equality in health provider education. Findings suggest that occupational segregation, sexual harassment and discrimination based on pregnancy and family responsibilities present problems, especially for female students and faculty. To grow and sustain its workforce over the long term, Kenyan human resource leaders and managers must act to eliminate gender-based obstacles by implementing existing non-discrimination and equal opportunity policies and laws to increase the entry, retention and productivity of students and faculty. Families and communities must support girls' schooling and defer early marriage. All this will result in a fuller pool of students, faculty and matriculated health workers and, ultimately, a more robust health workforce to meet Kenya's health challenges.

  7. Living with fibromyalgia: results from the functioning with fibro survey highlight patients' experiences and relationships with health care providers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golden A


    Full Text Available Angela Golden,1 Yvonne D'Arcy,2 Elizabeth T Masters,3 Andrew Clair3 1NP from Home, LLC, Munds Park, AZ, 2Pain Management and Palliative Care, Suburban Hospital-Johns Hopkins Medicine, Bethesda, MD, 3Pfizer, New York, NY, USA Abstract: Fibromyalgia (FM is a chronic disorder characterized by widespread pain, which can limit patients' physical function and daily activities. FM can be challenging to treat, and the treatment approach could benefit from a greater understanding of patients' perspectives on their condition and their care. Patients with FM participated in an online survey conducted in the USA that sought to identify the symptoms that had the greatest impact on patients' daily lives. The purpose of the survey was to facilitate efforts toward improving care of patients by nurse practitioners, primary care providers, and specialists, in addition to contributing to the development of new outcome measures in both clinical trials and general practice. A total of 1,228 patients with FM completed the survey, responding to specific questions pertaining to symptoms, impact of symptoms, management of FM, and the relationship with health care providers. Chronic pain was identified as the key FM symptom, affecting personal and professional relationships, and restricting physical activity, work, and social commitments. Patients felt that the severity of their condition was underestimated by family, friends, and health care providers. The results of this survey highlight the need for nurse practitioners, primary care providers, and specialists to provide understanding and support to patients as they work together to enable effective diagnosis and management of FM. Keywords: fibromyalgia, pain, survey, impact, support

  8. The Accelerator Reliability Forum

    CERN Document Server

    Lüdeke, Andreas; Giachino, R


    A high reliability is a very important goal for most particle accelerators. The biennial Accelerator Reliability Workshop covers topics related to the design and operation of particle accelerators with a high reliability. In order to optimize the over-all reliability of an accelerator one needs to gather information on the reliability of many different subsystems. While a biennial workshop can serve as a platform for the exchange of such information, the authors aimed to provide a further channel to allow for a more timely communication: the Particle Accelerator Reliability Forum [1]. This contribution will describe the forum and advertise it’s usage in the community.

  9. On the question of determining the amount of experiments, reliability and accuracy of the results in the study of physical-mechanical properties of rocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuznetcov n.n.


    Full Text Available A comparative analysis of the methods for determining the required amount of experiments, the accuracy and reliability of the results of physical-mechanical rock properties study has been conducted. The advantages and disadvantages of the existing specialized method for determining the compressive strength of the samples have been discussed. On the basis of the investigation the optimal approach has been proposed to solve a wide range of the problems associated with the rock properties' parameters using

  10. Experimental Investigation Related To Some Predicted Results Of Reliable High Frequency Radio Communication Links Between Benghazi-Libya And Cairo-Egypt.


    Mohamed Yousef Ahmed Abou-Hussein; Abdulsalam H. Ambarek


    In this study, the central radio propagation laboratory (CRPL) method of ionospheric prediction of the National Bureau of Standards (NBS) in U.S.A was used in practical calculations of the optimal working frequencies for reliable high frequency (HF) radio communication links between Benghazi-Libya and Cairo-Egypt. The results were drawn in the form of curves by using the computer. The computer was used to measure the received signal level variation of frequencies 11.980 MHz, 1...

  11. Visual Analogue Scale for Anxiety and Amsterdam Preoperative Anxiety Scale Provide a Simple and Reliable Measurement of Preoperative Anxiety in Patients Undergoing Cardiac Surgery


    Joaquín Hernández-Palazón; Diego Fuentes-García; Luis Falcón-Araña; Antonio Rodríguez-Ribó; Carlos García-Palenciano; María José Roca-Calvo


    Background: Anxiety is an emotional state characterized by apprehension and fear resulting from anticipation of a threatening event. Objectives: The present study aimed to analyze the incidence and level of preoperative anxiety in the patients scheduled for cardiac surgery by using a Visual Analogue Scale for Anxiety (VAS-A) and Amsterdam Preoperative Anxiety and Information Scale (APAIS) and to identify the influencing clinical factors. Patients and Methods: This prospective, longitu...

  12. Tree Mortality Undercuts Ability of Tree-Planting Programs to Provide Benefits: Results of a Three-City Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Widney


    Full Text Available Trees provide numerous benefits for urban residents, including reduced energy usage, improved air quality, stormwater management, carbon sequestration, and increased property values. Quantifying these benefits can help justify the costs of planting trees. In this paper, we use i-Tree Streets to quantify the benefits of street trees planted by nonprofits in three U.S. cities (Detroit, Michigan; Indianapolis, Indiana, and Philadelphia, Pennsylvania from 2009 to 2011. We also use both measured and modeled survival and growth rates to “grow” the tree populations 5 and 10 years into the future to project the future benefits of the trees under different survival and growth scenarios. The 4059 re-inventoried trees (2864 of which are living currently provide almost $40,000 (USD in estimated annual benefits ($9–$20/tree depending on the city, the majority (75% of which are increased property values. The trees can be expected to provide increasing annual benefits during the 10 years after planting if the annual survival rate is higher than the 93% annual survival measured during the establishment period. However, our projections show that with continued 93% or lower annual survival, the increase in annual benefits from tree growth will not be able to make up for the loss of benefits as trees die. This means that estimated total annual benefits from a cohort of planted trees will decrease between the 5-year projection and the 10-year projection. The results of this study indicate that without early intervention to ensure survival of planted street trees, tree mortality may be significantly undercutting the ability of tree-planting programs to provide benefits to neighborhood residents.

  13. A decade of progress providing safe abortion services in Ethiopia: results of national assessments in 2008 and 2014. (United States)

    Dibaba, Yohannes; Dijkerman, Sally; Fetters, Tamara; Moore, Ann; Gebreselassie, Hailemichael; Gebrehiwot, Yirgu; Benson, Janie


    Ethiopia has one of the highest maternal mortality ratios in the world (420 per 100,000 live births in 2013), and unsafe abortion continues to be one of the major causes. To reduce deaths and disabilities from unsafe abortion, Ethiopia liberalized its abortion law in 2005 to allow safe abortion under certain conditions. This study aimed to measure how availability and utilization of safe abortion services has changed in the last decade in Ethiopia. This paper draws on results from nationally representative health facility studies conducted in Ethiopia in 2008 and 2014. The data come from three sources at two points in time: 1) interviews with 335 health providers in 2008 and 822 health care providers in 2014, 2) review of facility logbooks, and 3) prospective data on 3092 women in 2008 and 5604 women in 2014 seeking treatment for abortion complications or induced abortion over a one month period. The Safe Abortion Care Model was used as a framework of analysis. There has been a rapid expansion of health facilities eligible to provide legal abortion services in Ethiopia since 2008. Between 2008 and 2014, the number of facilities reporting basic and comprehensive signal functions for abortion care increased. In 2014, access to basic abortion care services exceeded the recommended level of available facilities providing the service, increasing from 25 to 117%, with more than half of regions meeting the recommended level. Comprehensive abortion services increased from 20% of the recommended level in 2008 to 38% in 2014. Smaller regions and city administrations achieved or exceeded the recommended level of comprehensive service facilities, yet larger regions fall short. Between 2008 and 2014, the use of appropriate technology for conducting first and second trimester abortion and the provision of post abortion family planning has increased at the same time that abortion-related obstetric complications have decreased. Ten years after the change in abortion law, service

  14. Gearbox Reliability Collaborative Update (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheng, S.; Keller, J.; Glinsky, C.


    This presentation was given at the Sandia Reliability Workshop in August 2013 and provides information on current statistics, a status update, next steps, and other reliability research and development activities related to the Gearbox Reliability Collaborative.

  15. How to Obtain a 100% Reliable Grid with Clean, Renewable Wind, Water, and Solar Providing 100% of all Raw Energy for All Purposes (United States)

    Jacobson, M. Z.; Delucchi, M. A.; Cameron, M. A.; Frew, B. A.


    The greatest concern facing the large-scale integration of wind, water, and solar (WWS) into a power grid is the high cost of avoiding load loss caused by WWS variability and uncertainty. This talk discusses the recent development of a new grid integration model to address this issue. The model finds low-cost, no-load-loss, non-unique solutions to this problem upon electrification of all U.S. energy sectors (electricity, transportation, heating/cooling, and industry) while accounting for wind and solar time-series data from a 3-D global weather model that simulates extreme events and competition among wind turbines for available kinetic energy. Solutions are obtained by prioritizing storage for heat (in soil and water); cold (in ice and water); and electricity (in phase-change materials, pumped hydro, hydropower, and hydrogen); and using demand response. No natural gas, biofuels, or stationary batteries are needed. The resulting 2050-2055 U.S. electricity social cost for a full system is much less than for fossil fuels. These results hold for many conditions, suggesting that low-cost, stable 100% WWS systems should work many places worldwide. The paper this talk is based on was published in PNAS, 112, 15,060-15,065, 2015, doi:10.1073/pnas.1510028112.

  16. Reliability and minimal clinically important differences of forced vital capacity: Results from the Scleroderma Lung Studies (SLS-I and SLS-II). (United States)

    Kafaja, Suzanne; Clements, Philip J; Wilhalme, Holly; Tseng, Chi-Hong; Furst, Daniel E; Kim, Grace Hyun; Goldin, Jonathan; Volkmann, Elizabeth R; Roth, Michael D; Tashkin, Donald P; Khanna, Dinesh


    To assess the reliability and the minimal clinically important differences (MCID) for FVC% predicted in the Scleroderma Lung Study I and II. Using data from SLS I and II (N=300), we evaluated the test-retest reliability for FVC% predicted (FVC%; screening vs. baseline) using intra-class correlation (ICC). MCID estimates at 12 months were calculated in the pooled cohort (SLS-I and II) using 2 anchors: Transition Dyspnea Index (≥change of 1.5 units for improvement and worsening, respectively) and the SF-36 Health Transition question: "Compared to one year ago, how would you rate your health in general now?", where "somewhat better" or "somewhat worse" were defined as the MCID estimates. We next assessed the association of MCID estimates for improvement and worsening of FVC% with patient reported outcomes (PROs) and computer-assisted quantitation of extent of fibrosis (QLF) and of total ILD (QILD) on HRCT. Reliability of FVC%, assessed at a mean of 34 days, was 0.93 for the pooled cohort. The MCID estimates for the pooled cohort at 12 months for FVC% improvement ranged from 3.0 % to 5.3% and for worsening from -3.0% to -3.3%. FVC% improvement by ≥MCID was associated with either statistically significant or numerical improvements in some PROs, QILD, and QLF, while FVC% worsening ≥MCID was associated with statistically significant or numerical worsening of PROs, QILD, and QLF. FVC% has acceptable test-retest reliability, and we have provided the MCID estimates for FVC% in SSc-ILD based changes at 12 months from baseline in two clinical trials. Clinical trial registration available at, IDs NCT00004563 and NCT00883129.

  17. Regadenoson provides perfusion results comparable to adenosine in heterogeneous patient populations: a quantitative analysis from the ADVANCE MPI trials. (United States)

    Mahmarian, John J; Peterson, Leif E; Xu, Jiaqiong; Cerqueira, Manuel D; Iskandrian, Ami E; Bateman, Timothy M; Thomas, Gregory S; Nabi, Faisal


    Total and reversible left ventricular (LV) perfusion defect size (PDS) predict patient outcome. Limited data exist as to whether regadenoson induces similar perfusion abnormalities as observed with adenosine. We sought to determine whether regadenoson induces a similar LV PDS as seen with adenosine across varying patient populations. ADVANCE MPI were prospective, double-blind randomized trials comparing regadenoson to standard adenosine myocardial perfusion tomography (SPECT). Following an initial adenosine SPECT, patients were randomized to either regadenoson (N = 1284) or a second adenosine study (N = 660). SPECT quantification was performed blinded to randomization and image sequence. Propensity analysis was used to define comparability of regadenoson and adenosine perfusion results. Baseline clinical and SPECT results were similar in the two randomized groups. There was a close correlation between adenosine and regadenoson-induced total (r (2) = 0.98, P regadenoson vs adenosine, respectively, and irrespective of age, gender, diabetic status, body mass index, or prior cardiovascular history. By propensity analysis, regadenoson-induced total PDS was significantly larger than observed with adenosine. This is the first study to show that regadenoson induces similar, if not larger, perfusion defects than those observed with adenosine across different patient populations and demonstrates the value of quantitative analysis for defining serial changes in SPECT perfusion results. Regadenoson should provide comparable diagnostic and prognostic SPECT information to that obtained with adenosine.

  18. A Large-Scale Initiative Inviting Patients to Share Personal Fitness Tracker Data with Their Providers: Initial Results. (United States)

    Pevnick, Joshua M; Fuller, Garth; Duncan, Ray; Spiegel, Brennan M R


    Personal fitness trackers (PFT) have substantial potential to improve healthcare. To quantify and characterize early adopters who shared their PFT data with providers. We used bivariate statistics and logistic regression to compare patients who shared any PFT data vs. patients who did not. A patient portal was used to invite 79,953 registered portal users to share their data. Of 66,105 users included in our analysis, 499 (0.8%) uploaded data during an initial 37-day study period. Bivariate and regression analysis showed that early adopters were more likely than non-adopters to be younger, male, white, health system employees, and to have higher BMIs. Neither comorbidities nor utilization predicted adoption. Our results demonstrate that patients had little intrinsic desire to share PFT data with their providers, and suggest that patients most at risk for poor health outcomes are least likely to share PFT data. Marketing, incentives, and/or cultural change may be needed to induce such data-sharing.

  19. Reliability of Periapical Radiographs and Orthopantomograms in Detection of Tooth Root Protrusion in the Maxillary Sinus: Correlation Results with Cone Beam Computed Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bassam A. Hassan


    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of the present study was to investigate the reliability of both periapical radiographs and orthopantomograms for exact detection of tooth root protrusion in the maxillary sinus by correlating the results with cone beam computed tomography.Material and methods: A database of 1400 patients scanned with cone beam computed tomography (CBCT was searched for matching periapical (PA radiographs and orthopantogram (OPG images of maxillary premolars and molars. Matching OPG images datasets of 101 patients with 628 teeth and PA radiographs datasets of 93 patients with 359 teeth were identified. Four observers assessed the relationship between the apex of tooth root and the maxillary sinus per tooth on PA radiographs, OPG and CBCT images using the following classification: root tip is in the sinus (class 1, root tip is against the sinus wall (class 2 and root tip is not in the sinus (class 3.Results: Overall correlation between OPG and CBCT images scores was 50%, 26% and 56.1% for class 1, class 2 and class 3, respectively (Cohen’s kappa [weighted] = 0.1. Overall correlation between PA radiographs and CBCT images was 75.8%, 15.8% and 56.9% for class 1, class 2 and class 3, respectively (Cohen’s kappa [weighted] = 0.24. In both the OPG images and the PA radiographs datasets, class 1 correlation was most frequently observed with the first and second molars.Conclusions: The results demonstrated that both periapical radiographs and orthopantomograms are not reliable in determination of exact relationship between the apex of tooth root and the maxillary sinus floor. Periapical radiography is slightly more reliable than orthopantomography in determining this relationship.

  20. Software reliability

    CERN Document Server

    Bendell, A


    Software Reliability reviews some fundamental issues of software reliability as well as the techniques, models, and metrics used to predict the reliability of software. Topics covered include fault avoidance, fault removal, and fault tolerance, along with statistical methods for the objective assessment of predictive accuracy. Development cost models and life-cycle cost models are also discussed. This book is divided into eight sections and begins with a chapter on adaptive modeling used to predict software reliability, followed by a discussion on failure rate in software reliability growth mo

  1. Reliability Results of NERSC Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petascale Data Storage Institute (PDSI); Mokhtarani, Akbar; Mokhtarani, Akbar; Kramer, William; Hick, Jason


    In order to address the needs of future scientific applications for storing and accessing large amounts of data in an efficient way, one needs to understand the limitations of current technologies and how they may cause systeminstability or unavailability. A number of factors can impact system availability ranging from facility-wide power outage to a single point of failure such as network switches or global file systems. In addition, individual component failure in a system can degrade the performance of that system. This paper focuses on analyzing both of these factors and their impacts on the computational and storage systems at NERSC. Component failure data presented in this report primarily focuses on disk drive in on of the computational system and tape drive failure in HPSS. NERSC collected available component failure data and system-wide outages for its computational and storage systems over a six-year period and made them available to the HPC community through the Petascale Data Storage Institute.

  2. Reliability and validity of the coping strategy inventory-short form applied to hemodialysis patients in 13 countries: Results from the Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study (DOPPS). (United States)

    Speyer, Elodie; Morgenstern, Hal; Hayashino, Yasuaki; Kerr, Peter G; Rayner, Hugh; Robinson, Bruce M; Pisoni, Ronald L


    The Coping Strategies Inventory-Short Form (CSI-SF) measures four coping strategies based on 16 items: 4 items each indicating problem- vs. emotion-focused engagement or disengagement. Here we provide the first assessment of reliability and construct validity of the CSI-SF among hemodialysis patients across 13 countries. The CSI-SF was completed by patients in 9 languages in phase 4 of the Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study (2009-11). Cronbach's alpha was used to assess internal consistency. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were applied to assess the factor structure of the CSI-SF by country and language. CSI-SF data were analyzed from 7201 patients (60% male; median age 62.5 [range 18-96] years). Good internal consistency (α=0.56-0.80) was seen for three scales in English (US, UK, Canada, Australia, New Zealand), German, and Swedish versions. The fourth scale was internally consistent if two items were dropped. In these countries, both exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses indicated a factor structure consistent with the four CSI-SF scales. Other language versions showed a factor structure inconsistent with these four scales. The slightly modified English, German, and Swedish versions of the CSI-SF are reliable and valid instruments for measuring coping strategies in hemodialysis patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Psychometric properties and reliability of the Assessment Screen to Identify Survivors Toolkit for Gender Based Violence (ASIST-GBV): results from humanitarian settings in Ethiopia and Colombia. (United States)

    Vu, Alexander; Wirtz, Andrea; Pham, Kiemanh; Singh, Sonal; Rubenstein, Leonard; Glass, Nancy; Perrin, Nancy


    Refugees and internally displaced persons who are affected by armed-conflict are at increased vulnerability to some forms of sexual violence or other types of gender-based violence. A validated, brief and easy-to-administer screening tool will help service providers identify GBV survivors and refer them to appropriate GBV services. To date, no such GBV screening tool exists. We developed the 7-item ASIST-GBV screening tool from qualitative research that included individual interviews and focus groups with GBV refugee and IDP survivors. This study presents the psychometric properties of the ASIST-GBV with female refugees living in Ethiopia and IDPs in Colombia. Several strategies were used to validate ASIST-GBV, including a 3 month implementation to validate the brief screening tool with women/girls seeking health services, aged ≥15 years in Ethiopia (N = 487) and female IDPs aged ≥ 18 years in Colombia (N = 511). High proportions of women screened positive for past-year GBV according to the ASIST-GBV: 50.6 % in Ethiopia and 63.4 % in Colombia. The factor analysis identified a single dimension, meaning that all items loaded on the single factor. Cronbach's α = 0.77. A 2-parameter logistic IRT model was used for estimating the precision and discriminating power of each item. Item difficulty varied across the continuum of GBV experiences in the following order (lowest to highest): threats of violence (0.690), physical violence (1.28), forced sex (2.49), coercive sex for survival (2.25), forced marriage (3.51), and forced pregnancy (6.33). Discrimination results showed that forced pregnancy was the item with the strongest ability to discriminate between different levels of GBV. Physical violence and forced sex also have higher levels of discrimination with threats of violence discriminating among women at the low end of the GBV continuum and coercive sex for survival among women at the mid-range of the continuum. The findings demonstrate that

  4. Knowledge of Healthcare Coverage for Refugee Claimants: Results from a Survey of Health Service Providers in Montreal: e0146798

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mónica Ruiz-Casares; Janet Cleveland; Youssef Oulhote; Catherine Dunkley-Hickin; Cécile Rousseau


      Following changes to the Interim Federal Health (IFH) program in Canada in 2012, this study investigates health service providers' knowledge of the healthcare coverage for refugee claimants living in Quebec...

  5. Knowledge of Healthcare Coverage for Refugee Claimants: Results from a Survey of Health Service Providers in Montreal

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ruiz-Casares, Mónica; Cleveland, Janet; Oulhote, Youssef; Dunkley-Hickin, Catherine; Rousseau, Cécile


    Following changes to the Interim Federal Health (IFH) program in Canada in 2012, this study investigates health service providers' knowledge of the healthcare coverage for refugee claimants living in Quebec...

  6. ER/LA opioid REMS and accredited education: Survey results provide insight into clinical roles, educational needs, and learner preferences. (United States)

    Kear, Cynthia; McKeithen, Tom; Robertson, Sheila


    The Collaborative for REMS (Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategy) Education (CO*RE) includes 13 organizations that provide REMS Program Companies (RPC) grant-supported accredited education on extended-release and long-acting (ER/LA) opioid therapy. This report summarizes results of a survey designed to investigate the impact of participant criteria and to better understand the roles and preferences of continuing medical education/continuing education (CME/CE) participants. In April 2015, the authors made an online survey available to an estimated 10,000 clinicians who had completed a CO*RE CME/CE activity since 2013. The purpose of the survey was to (1) examine possible reasons learners may underreport prescribing status, (2) investigate ways in which learners engage in nonprescribing roles relevant to reducing adverse patient outcomes, and (3) determine the acceptability of a potential test-based learning tool that allows participants with mastery to test out in lieu of participating in 2- to 3-hour education. Findings revealed that there was little confusion or reluctance by learners to answer questions about Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) licensing and whether they prescribed opioids in the past year. REMS "prescriber" education covers opioid management responsibilities that are distributed among team members who play critical nonprescribing roles in reducing serious adverse outcomes from both ER/LA and immediate-release (IR) opioids. Seventy-three percent of study participants would favor a test-based learning tool should future circumstances warrant it. The authors concluded the likelihood of underreporting is small, but there is an opportunity to clarify license and prescribing questions; opioid management responsibilities are distributed among nonprescribing team members who play roles in reducing adverse outcomes from both ER/LA and IR opioids, who would therefore benefit from REMS education; and clinicians favor a test-based learning tool, should

  7. Test Reliability at the Individual Level (United States)

    Hu, Yueqin; Nesselroade, John R.; Erbacher, Monica K.; Boker, Steven M.; Burt, S. Alexandra; Keel, Pamela K.; Neale, Michael C.; Sisk, Cheryl L.; Klump, Kelly


    Reliability has a long history as one of the key psychometric properties of a test. However, a given test might not measure people equally reliably. Test scores from some individuals may have considerably greater error than others. This study proposed two approaches using intraindividual variation to estimate test reliability for each person. A simulation study suggested that the parallel tests approach and the structural equation modeling approach recovered the simulated reliability coefficients. Then in an empirical study, where forty-five females were measured daily on the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) for 45 consecutive days, separate estimates of reliability were generated for each person. Results showed that reliability estimates of the PANAS varied substantially from person to person. The methods provided in this article apply to tests measuring changeable attributes and require repeated measures across time on each individual. This article also provides a set of parallel forms of PANAS. PMID:28936107

  8. Test Reliability at the Individual Level. (United States)

    Hu, Yueqin; Nesselroade, John R; Erbacher, Monica K; Boker, Steven M; Burt, S Alexandra; Keel, Pamela K; Neale, Michael C; Sisk, Cheryl L; Klump, Kelly


    Reliability has a long history as one of the key psychometric properties of a test. However, a given test might not measure people equally reliably. Test scores from some individuals may have considerably greater error than others. This study proposed two approaches using intraindividual variation to estimate test reliability for each person. A simulation study suggested that the parallel tests approach and the structural equation modeling approach recovered the simulated reliability coefficients. Then in an empirical study, where forty-five females were measured daily on the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) for 45 consecutive days, separate estimates of reliability were generated for each person. Results showed that reliability estimates of the PANAS varied substantially from person to person. The methods provided in this article apply to tests measuring changeable attributes and require repeated measures across time on each individual. This article also provides a set of parallel forms of PANAS.

  9. Circuit design for reliability

    CERN Document Server

    Cao, Yu; Wirth, Gilson


    This book presents physical understanding, modeling and simulation, on-chip characterization, layout solutions, and design techniques that are effective to enhance the reliability of various circuit units.  The authors provide readers with techniques for state of the art and future technologies, ranging from technology modeling, fault detection and analysis, circuit hardening, and reliability management. Provides comprehensive review on various reliability mechanisms at sub-45nm nodes; Describes practical modeling and characterization techniques for reliability; Includes thorough presentation of robust design techniques for major VLSI design units; Promotes physical understanding with first-principle simulations.

  10. Reliability of ultrasound grading traditional score and new global OMERACT-EULAR score system (GLOESS): results from an inter- and intra-reading exercise by rheumatologists. (United States)

    Ventura-Ríos, Lucio; Hernández-Díaz, Cristina; Ferrusquia-Toríz, Diana; Cruz-Arenas, Esteban; Rodríguez-Henríquez, Pedro; Alvarez Del Castillo, Ana Laura; Campaña-Parra, Alfredo; Canul, Efrén; Guerrero Yeo, Gerardo; Mendoza-Ruiz, Juan Jorge; Pérez Cristóbal, Mario; Sicsik, Sandra; Silva Luna, Karina


    This study aims to test the reliability of ultrasound to graduate synovitis in static and video images, evaluating separately grayscale and power Doppler (PD), and combined. Thirteen trained rheumatologist ultrasonographers participated in two separate rounds reading 42 images, 15 static and 27 videos, of the 7-joint count [wrist, 2nd and 3rd metacarpophalangeal (MCP), 2nd and 3rd interphalangeal (IPP), 2nd and 5th metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joints]. The images were from six patients with rheumatoid arthritis, performed by one ultrasonographer. Synovitis definition was according to OMERACT. Scoring system in grayscale, PD separately, and combined (GLOESS-Global OMERACT-EULAR Score System) were reviewed before exercise. Reliability intra- and inter-reading was calculated with Cohen's kappa weighted, according to Landis and Koch. Kappa values for inter-reading were good to excellent. The minor kappa was for GLOESS in static images, and the highest was for the same scoring in videos (k 0.59 and 0.85, respectively). Excellent values were obtained for static PD in 5th MTP joint and for PD video in 2nd MTP joint. Results for GLOESS in general were good to moderate. Poor agreement was observed in 3rd MCP and 3rd IPP in all kinds of images. Intra-reading agreement were greater in grayscale and GLOESS in static images than in videos (k 0.86 vs. 0.77 and k 0.86 vs. 0.71, respectively), but PD was greater in videos than in static images (k 1.0 vs. 0.79). The reliability of the synovitis scoring through static images and videos is in general good to moderate when using grayscale and PD separately or combined.

  11. Reliability analysis in intelligent machines (United States)

    Mcinroy, John E.; Saridis, George N.


    Given an explicit task to be executed, an intelligent machine must be able to find the probability of success, or reliability, of alternative control and sensing strategies. By using concepts for information theory and reliability theory, new techniques for finding the reliability corresponding to alternative subsets of control and sensing strategies are proposed such that a desired set of specifications can be satisfied. The analysis is straightforward, provided that a set of Gaussian random state variables is available. An example problem illustrates the technique, and general reliability results are presented for visual servoing with a computed torque-control algorithm. Moreover, the example illustrates the principle of increasing precision with decreasing intelligence at the execution level of an intelligent machine.

  12. Reliability and construction control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherif S. AbdelSalam


    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to determine the most reliable and efficient combination of design and construction methods required for vibro piles. For a wide range of static and dynamic formulas, the reliability-based resistance factors were calculated using EGYPT database, which houses load test results for 318 piles. The analysis was extended to introduce a construction control factor that determines the variation between the pile nominal capacities calculated using static versus dynamic formulae. From the major outcomes, the lowest coefficient of variation is associated with Davisson’s criterion, and the resistance factors calculated for the AASHTO method are relatively high compared with other methods. Additionally, the CPT-Nottingham and Schmertmann method provided the most economic design. Recommendations related to a pile construction control factor were also presented, and it was found that utilizing the factor can significantly reduce variations between calculated and actual capacities.

  13. Reliability Calculations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kurt Erling


    Risk and reliability analysis is increasingly being used in evaluations of plant safety and plant reliability. The analysis can be performed either during the design process or during the operation time, with the purpose to improve the safety or the reliability. Due to plant complexity and safety...... and availability requirements, sophisticated tools, which are flexible and efficient, are needed. Such tools have been developed in the last 20 years and they have to be continuously refined to meet the growing requirements. Two different areas of application were analysed. In structural reliability probabilistic...... approaches have been introduced in some cases for the calculation of the reliability of structures or components. A new computer program has been developed based upon numerical integration in several variables. In systems reliability Monte Carlo simulation programs are used especially in analysis of very...

  14. Knowledge of Healthcare Coverage for Refugee Claimants: Results from a Survey of Health Service Providers in Montreal. (United States)

    Ruiz-Casares, Mónica; Cleveland, Janet; Oulhote, Youssef; Dunkley-Hickin, Catherine; Rousseau, Cécile


    Following changes to the Interim Federal Health (IFH) program in Canada in 2012, this study investigates health service providers' knowledge of the healthcare coverage for refugee claimants living in Quebec. An online questionnaire was completed by 1,772 staff and physicians from five hospitals and two primary care centres in Montreal. Low levels of knowledge and significant associations between knowledge and occupational group, age, and contact with refugees were documented. Social workers, respondents aged 40-49 years, and those who reported previous contact with refugee claimants seeking healthcare were significantly more likely to have 2 or more correct responses. Rapid and multiple changes to the complex IFH policy have generated a high level of confusion among healthcare providers. Simplification of the system and a knowledge transfer strategy aimed at improving healthcare delivery for IFH patients are urgently needed, proposing easy avenues to access rapidly updated information and emphasizing ethical and clinical issues.

  15. Knowledge of Healthcare Coverage for Refugee Claimants: Results from a Survey of Health Service Providers in Montreal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Ruiz-Casares

    Full Text Available Following changes to the Interim Federal Health (IFH program in Canada in 2012, this study investigates health service providers' knowledge of the healthcare coverage for refugee claimants living in Quebec. An online questionnaire was completed by 1,772 staff and physicians from five hospitals and two primary care centres in Montreal. Low levels of knowledge and significant associations between knowledge and occupational group, age, and contact with refugees were documented. Social workers, respondents aged 40-49 years, and those who reported previous contact with refugee claimants seeking healthcare were significantly more likely to have 2 or more correct responses. Rapid and multiple changes to the complex IFH policy have generated a high level of confusion among healthcare providers. Simplification of the system and a knowledge transfer strategy aimed at improving healthcare delivery for IFH patients are urgently needed, proposing easy avenues to access rapidly updated information and emphasizing ethical and clinical issues.

  16. Free Access to Point of Care Resource Results in Increased Use and Satisfaction by Rural Healthcare Providers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay Alcock


    Full Text Available A Review of: Eldredge, J. D., Hall, L. J., McElfresh, K. R., Warner, T. D., Stromberg, T. L., Trost, J. T., & Jelinek, D. A. (2016. Rural providers’ access to online resources: A randomized controlled trial. Journal of the Medical Library Association, 104(1, 33-41. Objective – To determine whether free access to the point of care (PoC resource Dynamed or the electronic book collection AccessMedicine was more useful to rural health care providers in answering clinical questions in terms of usage and satisfaction. Design – Randomized controlled trial. Setting – Rural New Mexico. Subjects – Twenty-eight health care providers (physicians, nurses, physician assistants, and pharmacists with no reported access to PoC resources, (specifically Dynamed and AccessMedicine or electronic textbook collections prior to enrollment.

  17. Explaining perceived ability among older people to provide care as a result of HIV and AIDS in South Africa


    Boon, Hermien; James, Shamagonam; Ruiter, Robert A.C.; Van Den Borne, Bart; Esu-Williams, Eka; Reddy, Priscilla


    Abstract In South Africa, older people have become the primary caregivers of children and grandchildren infected or affected by HIV and AIDS. This study explores the determinants of the perceived ability to care for children and grandchildren in the domains of providing nursing care, communicating with (grand) children, generating income, and to relax. Structured one-on-one interviews were conducted among 409 isiXhosa speaking older people in two sites in the Eastern Cape Province ...

  18. Challenges in Providing Counselling to MSM in Highly Stigmatized Contexts: Results of a Qualitative Study from Kenya (United States)

    Taegtmeyer, Miriam; Davies, Alun; Mwangome, Mary; van der Elst, Elisabeth M.; Graham, Susan M.; Price, Matt A.; Sanders, Eduard J.


    The role of men who have sex with men (MSM) in the African HIV epidemic is gaining recognition yet capacity to address the HIV prevention needs of this group is limited. HIV testing and counselling is not only a critical entry point for biomedical HIV prevention interventions, such as pre-exposure prophylaxis, rectal microbicides and early treatment initiation, but is also an opportunity for focused risk reduction counselling that can support individuals living in difficult circumstances. For prevention efforts to succeed, however, MSM need to access services and they will only do so if these are non-judgmental, informative, focused on their needs, and of clear benefit. This study aimed to understand Kenyan providers' attitudes towards and experiences with counselling MSM in a research clinic targeting this group for HIV prevention. We used in-depth interviews to explore values, attitudes and cognitive and social constructs of 13 counsellors and 3 clinicians providing services to MSM at this clinic. Service providers felt that despite their growing experience, more targeted training would have been helpful to improve their effectiveness in MSM-specific risk reduction counselling. They wanted greater familiarity with MSM in Kenya to better understand the root causes of MSM risk-taking (e.g., poverty, sex work, substance abuse, misconceptions about transmission, stigma, and sexual desire) and felt frustrated at the perceived intractability of some of their clients' issues. In addition, they identified training needs on how to question men about specific risk behaviours, improved strategies for negotiating risk reduction with counselling clients, and improved support supervision from senior counsellors. This paper describes the themes arising from these interviews and makes practical recommendations on training and support supervision systems for nascent MSM HIV prevention programmes in Africa. PMID:23762241

  19. Challenges in providing counselling to MSM in highly stigmatized contexts: results of a qualitative study from Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Taegtmeyer

    Full Text Available The role of men who have sex with men (MSM in the African HIV epidemic is gaining recognition yet capacity to address the HIV prevention needs of this group is limited. HIV testing and counselling is not only a critical entry point for biomedical HIV prevention interventions, such as pre-exposure prophylaxis, rectal microbicides and early treatment initiation, but is also an opportunity for focused risk reduction counselling that can support individuals living in difficult circumstances. For prevention efforts to succeed, however, MSM need to access services and they will only do so if these are non-judgmental, informative, focused on their needs, and of clear benefit. This study aimed to understand Kenyan providers' attitudes towards and experiences with counselling MSM in a research clinic targeting this group for HIV prevention. We used in-depth interviews to explore values, attitudes and cognitive and social constructs of 13 counsellors and 3 clinicians providing services to MSM at this clinic. Service providers felt that despite their growing experience, more targeted training would have been helpful to improve their effectiveness in MSM-specific risk reduction counselling. They wanted greater familiarity with MSM in Kenya to better understand the root causes of MSM risk-taking (e.g., poverty, sex work, substance abuse, misconceptions about transmission, stigma, and sexual desire and felt frustrated at the perceived intractability of some of their clients' issues. In addition, they identified training needs on how to question men about specific risk behaviours, improved strategies for negotiating risk reduction with counselling clients, and improved support supervision from senior counsellors. This paper describes the themes arising from these interviews and makes practical recommendations on training and support supervision systems for nascent MSM HIV prevention programmes in Africa.

  20. Buprenorphine provides better anaesthetic conditions than butorphanol for field castration in ponies: results of a randomised clinical trial. (United States)

    Rigotti, C; De Vries, A; Taylor, P M

    A prospective, randomised, blinded, clinical trial in 47 ponies compared butorphanol and buprenorphine administered intravenously with detomidine prior to castration under anaesthesia. Detomidine 12 μg/kg intravenously was followed by butorphanol 25 μg/kg (BUT) or buprenorphine 5 μg/kg (BUP) before induction of anaesthesia with intravenous ketamine and diazepam. Quality of sedation, induction and recovery from anaesthesia, response to tactile stimulation, and surgical conditions were scored. If anaesthesia was inadequate 'rescue' was given with intravenous ketamine (maximum three doses) followed by intravenous thiopental and detomidine. Time from induction to first rescue, total ketamine dose and number of rescues were recorded. Postoperative locomotor activity was scored and abnormal behaviour noted. Simple descriptive scales were used for all scoring. Data were analysed using two-way analysis of variance, t tests, Mann-Whitney or Fisher's exact tests as appropriate; Pbuprenorphine appeared to provide better intraoperative analgesia. British Veterinary Association.

  1. Improving machinery reliability

    CERN Document Server

    Bloch, Heinz P


    This totally revised, updated and expanded edition provides proven techniques and procedures that extend machinery life, reduce maintenance costs, and achieve optimum machinery reliability. This essential text clearly describes the reliability improvement and failure avoidance steps practiced by best-of-class process plants in the U.S. and Europe.

  2. Some experimental results provided by the ska-3 , uvsips, imap-3 experiments on board the interball-2. A case study (United States)

    Palazov, K.; Bochev, A.; Spasov, S.; Manev, A.; Raykov, S.; Kuzmin, A.; Shuiskaya, F.; Esmont, N.; Prokhorenko, V.


    On board the Auroral satellite the magnetometer IMAP- 3 (STIL) and SKA-3 provide in-situ characteristics of the magnetic field , and of the electrons and ions, respectively. The UV Spectrometer UVSIPS maps ionospheric auroral characteristics in the magnetic field line foot print in 3 lines: 1304 A^o, 1356 A^o and 1493 A^o. On 10/27/1996 a phenomenon was found at the polar edge of the auroral oval in the postmidnight - morning sectors: field-aligned (FA) high-energy upward electron beams in the energy range 20-45 keV at altitudes about 3R_E, accompanied by bidirectional electron FA beams of keV energy. The beam intensity reaches more than 10^4 electrons/s sr keV cm^2 for a time ˜3 10^2-10^3 seconds, when the satellite at the apogee moves slowly within the ILAT-MLT frame.The location of the beams is consistent with a region of downward FA current.We suppose the satellite is in between the bidirectional acceleration regions where a stochastic FA acceleration is accomplished by waves (lower - hybrid, ion -cyclotron, ion-sound, Langmuir and/or lower-hybrid cavitons, or ion holes ) with fluctuating FA electric field components in both directions. Thise case contributes to solving the scientific aims of the Interball project essential understanding of the system Solar wind - Magnetosphere - Ionosphere.

  3. Reliability Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Lazzaroni, Massimo


    This book gives a practical guide for designers and users in Information and Communication Technology context. In particular, in the first Section, the definition of the fundamental terms according to the international standards are given. Then, some theoretical concepts and reliability models are presented in Chapters 2 and 3: the aim is to evaluate performance for components and systems and reliability growth. Chapter 4, by introducing the laboratory tests, puts in evidence the reliability concept from the experimental point of view. In ICT context, the failure rate for a given system can be

  4. Ultrasound definition of tendon damage in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Results of a OMERACT consensus-based ultrasound score focussing on the diagnostic reliability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruyn, George A W; Hanova, Petra; Iagnocco, Annamaria


    To develop the first ultrasound scoring system of tendon damage in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and assess its intraobserver and interobserver reliability.......To develop the first ultrasound scoring system of tendon damage in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and assess its intraobserver and interobserver reliability....

  5. How stable are quantitative sensory testing measurements over time? Report on 10-week reliability and agreement of results in healthy volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nothnagel H


    Full Text Available Helen Nothnagel,1,2,* Christian Puta,1,3,* Thomas Lehmann,4 Philipp Baumbach,5 Martha B Menard,6,7 Brunhild Gabriel,1 Holger H W Gabriel,1 Thomas Weiss,8 Frauke Musial2 1Department of Sports Medicine and Health Promotion, Friedrich Schiller University, Jena, Germany; 2Department of Community Medicine, National Research Center in Complementary and Alternative Medicine, UiT, The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway; 3Center for Interdisciplinary Prevention of Diseases Related to Professional Activities, 4Department of Medical Statistics, Computer Sciences and Documentation, Friedrich Schiller University, 5Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, University Hospital Jena, Germany; 6Crocker Institute, Kiawah Island, SC, 7School of Integrative Medicine and Health Sciences, Saybrook University, Oakland, CA, USA; 8Department of Biological and Clinical Psychology, Friedrich Schiller University, Jena, Germany *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Quantitative sensory testing (QST is a diagnostic tool for the assessment of the somatosensory system. To establish QST as an outcome measure for clinical trials, the question of how similar the measurements are over time is crucial. Therefore, long-term reliability and limits of agreement of the standardized QST protocol of the German Research Network on Neuropathic Pain were tested. Methods: QST on the lower back and hand dorsum (dominant hand were assessed twice in 22 healthy volunteers (10 males and 12 females; mean age: 46.6±13.0 years, with sessions separated by 10.0±2.9 weeks. All measurements were performed by one investigator. To investigate long-term reliability and agreement of QST, differences between the two measurements, correlation coefficients, intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs, Bland–Altman plots (limits of agreement, and standard error of measurement were used. Results: Most parameters of the QST were reliable over 10 weeks in

  6. Gearbox Reliability Collaborative (GRC) Description and Loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oyague, F.


    This document describes simulated turbine load cases in accordance to the IEC 61400-1 Ed.3 standard, which is representative of the typical wind turbine design process. The information presented herein is intended to provide a broad understanding of the gearbox reliability collaborative 750kW drivetrain and turbine configuration. In addition, fatigue and ultimate strength drivetrain loads resulting from simulations are presented. This information provides the bases for the analytical work of the gearbox reliability collaborative effort.

  7. The OMERACT Psoriatic Arthritis Magnetic Resonance Imaging Score (PsAMRIS) is reliable and sensitive to change: results from an OMERACT workshop

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøyesen, Pernille; McQueen, Fiona M; Gandjbakhch, Frédérique


    The aim of this multireader exercise was to assess the reliability and sensitivity to change of the psoriatic arthritis magnetic resonance imaging score (PsAMRIS) in PsA patients followed for 1 year.......The aim of this multireader exercise was to assess the reliability and sensitivity to change of the psoriatic arthritis magnetic resonance imaging score (PsAMRIS) in PsA patients followed for 1 year....

  8. Ultrasound definition of tendon damage in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Results of a OMERACT consensus-based ultrasound score focussing on the diagnostic reliability. (United States)

    Bruyn, George A W; Hanova, Petra; Iagnocco, Annamaria; d'Agostino, Maria-Antonietta; Möller, Ingrid; Terslev, Lene; Backhaus, Marina; Balint, Peter V; Filippucci, Emilio; Baudoin, Paul; van Vugt, Richard; Pineda, Carlos; Wakefield, Richard; Garrido, Jesus; Pecha, Ondrej; Naredo, Esperanza


    To develop the first ultrasound scoring system of tendon damage in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and assess its intraobserver and interobserver reliability. We conducted a Delphi study on ultrasound-defined tendon damage and ultrasound scoring system of tendon damage in RA among 35 international rheumatologists with experience in musculoskeletal ultrasound. Twelve patients with RA were included and assessed twice by 12 rheumatologists-sonographers. Ultrasound examination for tendon damage in B mode of five wrist extensor compartments (extensor carpi radialis brevis and longus; extensor pollicis longus; extensor digitorum communis; extensor digiti minimi; extensor carpi ulnaris) and one ankle tendon (tibialis posterior) was performed blindly, independently and bilaterally in each patient. Intraobserver and interobserver reliability were calculated by κ coefficients. A three-grade semiquantitative scoring system was agreed for scoring tendon damage in B mode. The mean intraobserver reliability for tendon damage scoring was excellent (κ value 0.91). The mean interobserver reliability assessment showed good κ values (κ value 0.75). The most reliable were the extensor digiti minimi, the extensor carpi ulnaris, and the tibialis posterior tendons. An ultrasound reference image atlas of tenosynovitis and tendon damage was also developed. Ultrasound is a reproducible tool for evaluating tendon damage in RA. This study strongly supports a new reliable ultrasound scoring system for tendon damage. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to

  9. Reliability in automotive ethernet networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soares, Fabio L.; Campelo, Divanilson R.; Yan, Ying


    This paper provides an overview of in-vehicle communication networks and addresses the challenges of providing reliability in automotive Ethernet in particular.......This paper provides an overview of in-vehicle communication networks and addresses the challenges of providing reliability in automotive Ethernet in particular....

  10. EPAct Alternative Fuel Transportation Program: State and Alternative Fuel Provider Fleet Compliance Annual Report, Fleet Compliance Results for MY 2014/ FY 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This annual report of the Alternative Fuel Transportation Program, which ensures compliance with DOE regulations covering state government and alternative fuel provider fleets pursuant to the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPAct), as amended, provides fleet compliance results for manufacturing year 2014 / fiscal year 2015.

  11. Reliability assessment of AOSpine thoracolumbar spine injury classification system and Thoracolumbar Injury Classification and Severity Score (TLICS) for thoracolumbar spine injuries: results of a multicentre study. (United States)

    Kaul, Rahul; Chhabra, Harvinder Singh; Vaccaro, Alexander R; Abel, Rainer; Tuli, Sagun; Shetty, Ajoy Prasad; Das, Kali Dutta; Mohapatra, Bibhudendu; Nanda, Ankur; Sangondimath, Gururaj M; Bansal, Murari Lal; Patel, Nishit


    The aim of this multicentre study was to determine whether the recently introduced AOSpine Classification and Injury Severity System has better interrater and intrarater reliability than the already existing Thoracolumbar Injury Classification and Severity Score (TLICS) for thoracolumbar spine injuries. Clinical and radiological data of 50 consecutive patients admitted at a single centre with a diagnosis of an acute traumatic thoracolumbar spine injury were distributed to eleven attending spine surgeons from six different institutions in the form of PowerPoint presentation, who classified them according to both classifications. After time span of 6 weeks, cases were randomly rearranged and sent again to same surgeons for re-classification. Interobserver and intraobserver reliability for each component of TLICS and new AOSpine classification were evaluated using Fleiss Kappa coefficient (k value) and Spearman rank order correlation. Moderate interrater and intrarater reliability was seen for grading fracture type and integrity of posterior ligamentous complex (Fracture type: k = 0.43 ± 0.01 and 0.59 ± 0.16, respectively, PLC: k = 0.47 ± 0.01 and 0.55 ± 0.15, respectively), and fair to moderate reliability (k = 0.29 ± 0.01 interobserver and 0.44+/0.10 intraobserver, respectively) for total score according to TLICS. Moderate interrater (k = 0.59 ± 0.01) and substantial intrarater reliability (k = 0.68 ± 0.13) was seen for grading fracture type regardless of subtype according to AOSpine classification. Near perfect interrater and intrarater agreement was seen concerning neurological status for both the classification systems. Recently proposed AOSpine classification has better reliability for identifying fracture morphology than the existing TLICS. Additional studies are clearly necessary concerning the application of these classification systems across multiple physicians at different level of training and trauma centers to evaluate not

  12. What score on the Vancouver Scar Scale constitutes a hypertrophic scar? Results from a survey of North American burn-care providers. (United States)

    Thompson, Callie M; Sood, Ravi F; Honari, Shari; Carrougher, Gretchen J; Gibran, Nicole S


    Reliable characterization of a hypertrophic scar (HTS) is integral to epidemiologic studies designed to identify clinical and genetic risk factors for HTS. The Vancouver Scar Scale (VSS) has been widely used for this purpose; however, no publication has defined what score on this scale corresponds to a clinical diagnosis of HTS. In a survey of 1000 burn care providers, we asked respondents what VSS score indicates a HTS and asked them to score scar photos using the VSS. We used receiver-operating-characteristic (ROC) curves to evaluate VSS sub-scores and their combinations in diagnosis of HTS. Of 130 responses (13.5%), most were physicians (43.9%) who had worked in burn care for over 10 years (63.1%) and did not use the VSS in clinical practice (58.5%). There was no consensus as to what VSS score indicates a diagnosis of HTS. VSS height score (0-3) performed best for diagnosis of HTS; using a cut-off of ≥1, height score was 99.5% sensitive and 85.9% specific for HTS. Burn clinicians do not routinely use the VSS and perceptions vary widely regarding what constitutes a HTS. When a dichotomous variable is needed, the VSS height score with a cut-off of ≥1 may be optimal. Our findings underscore the need for an objective tool to reproducibly characterize HTS across burn centers. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. On Reliability and Validity


    MARTINS, Gilberto de Andrade


    In order to assess, evaluate or quantify financial, equity, auditing and controllership oriented data related both to private and public sectors, the practioner or the researcher has to pay close attention to the significance and accurateness criteria of the research tools he is about to employ: validity and reliability. The validity criterion refers to the instrument capacity of assessing what it intends to assess; reliability deals with the constancy of results when the same individual or o...

  14. Do dam constructions in a Vietnamese river basin result in change points in hydrologic regime and how reliable are different methods? (United States)

    Vu, Tinh Thi; Kiesel, Jens; Guse, Bjoern; Fohrer, Nicola


    The damming of rivers causes one of the most considerable impacts of our society on the riverine environment. More than 50% of the world's streams and rivers are currently impounded by dams before reaching the oceans. The construction of dams is of high importance in developing and emerging countries, i.e. for power generation and water storage. In the Vietnamese Vu Gia - Thu Bon Catchment (10,350 km2), about 23 dams were built during the last decades and store approximately 2,156 billion m3 of water. The water impoundment in 10 dams in upstream regions amounts to 17 % of the annual discharge volume. It is expected that impacts from these dams have altered the natural flow regime. However, up to now it is unclear how the flow regime was altered. For this, it needs to be investigated at what point in time these changes became significant and detectable. Many approaches exist to detect changes in stationary or consistency of hydrological records using statistical analysis of time series for the pre- and post-dam period. The objective of this study is to reliably detect and assess hydrologic shifts occurring in the discharge regime of an anthropogenically influenced river basin, mainly affected by the construction of dams. To achieve this, we applied nine available change-point tests to detect change in mean, variance and median on the daily and annual discharge records at two main gauges of the basin. The tests yield conflicting results: The majority of tests found abrupt changes that coincide with the damming-period, while others did not. To interpret how significant the changes in discharge regime are, and to which different properties of the time series each test responded, we calculated Indicators of Hydrologic Alteration (IHAs) for the time period before and after the detected change points. From the results, we can deduce, that the change point tests are influenced in different levels by different indicator groups (magnitude, duration, frequency, etc) and that

  15. Metrology automation reliability (United States)

    Chain, Elizabeth E.


    At Motorola's MOS-12 facility automated measurements on 200- mm diameter wafers proceed in a hands-off 'load-and-go' mode requiring only wafer loading, measurement recipe loading, and a 'run' command for processing. Upon completion of all sample measurements, the data is uploaded to the factory's data collection software system via a SECS II interface, eliminating the requirement of manual data entry. The scope of in-line measurement automation has been extended to the entire metrology scheme from job file generation to measurement and data collection. Data analysis and comparison to part specification limits is also carried out automatically. Successful integration of automated metrology into the factory measurement system requires that automated functions, such as autofocus and pattern recognition algorithms, display a high degree of reliability. In the 24- hour factory reliability data can be collected automatically on every part measured. This reliability data is then uploaded to the factory data collection software system at the same time as the measurement data. Analysis of the metrology reliability data permits improvements to be made as needed, and provides an accurate accounting of automation reliability. This reliability data has so far been collected for the CD-SEM (critical dimension scanning electron microscope) metrology tool, and examples are presented. This analysis method can be applied to such automated in-line measurements as CD, overlay, particle and film thickness measurements.

  16. The determinants of logistics cooperation in the supply chain - selected results of the opinion poll within logistics service providers and their customers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Świtała


    Full Text Available Introduction: The paper is focused on some selected aspects of the cooperation between logistics service providers and their customers and considers the results of comparative analysis of importance assessment of the variables determining: the scope and nature of that cooperation, quality of providers' sales offer as well as changes in their customer service policy. Methods: To analyze the underlying problem direct research was conducted, i.e. a survey based on a questionnaire among 50 logistics service providers and 50 shippers. The sample was determined on special purpose. In the statistical analysis chi-square independence test, U Mann-Whitney's test as well as Cramer's V and Spearman's rho correlation ratios were used. Results: There were observed significant statistical differences between analyzed groups in the way the cooperation is perceived. The most vital discrepancies are related to customers' satisfaction degree and the assessment of the influence the providers' prices and competencies have on the cooperation. For the customers, declaring higher degree of the satisfaction from the cooperation, service quality was the most important factor. However, for the service providers, price factor was the most important one. Moreover, some differences in the answers related to changes in the service were observed, mainly with reference to: logistics capacity, out-of-loss shipments and communication. Conclusions: The group of customers revealed to be little demanding about logistics service. They tended to order mainly routine services, not demanding special skills from the service providers. This is the most probable reason why customers/providers preferred cooperation with greater number of entities. The customers, unlike service providers, also didn't have the need to develop more advanced forms of cooperation. Moreover, the observed differences related to the importance hierarchy of the cooperation determinants as well as service standards

  17. Electronics reliability calculation and design

    CERN Document Server

    Dummer, Geoffrey W A; Hiller, N


    Electronics Reliability-Calculation and Design provides an introduction to the fundamental concepts of reliability. The increasing complexity of electronic equipment has made problems in designing and manufacturing a reliable product more and more difficult. Specific techniques have been developed that enable designers to integrate reliability into their products, and reliability has become a science in its own right. The book begins with a discussion of basic mathematical and statistical concepts, including arithmetic mean, frequency distribution, median and mode, scatter or dispersion of mea

  18. How stable are quantitative sensory testing measurements over time? Report on 10-week reliability and agreement of results in healthy volunteers. (United States)

    Nothnagel, Helen; Puta, Christian; Lehmann, Thomas; Baumbach, Philipp; Menard, Martha B; Gabriel, Brunhild; Gabriel, Holger H W; Weiss, Thomas; Musial, Frauke


    Quantitative sensory testing (QST) is a diagnostic tool for the assessment of the somatosensory system. To establish QST as an outcome measure for clinical trials, the question of how similar the measurements are over time is crucial. Therefore, long-term reliability and limits of agreement of the standardized QST protocol of the German Research Network on Neuropathic Pain were tested. QST on the lower back and hand dorsum (dominant hand) were assessed twice in 22 healthy volunteers (10 males and 12 females; mean age: 46.6±13.0 years), with sessions separated by 10.0±2.9 weeks. All measurements were performed by one investigator. To investigate long-term reliability and agreement of QST, differences between the two measurements, correlation coefficients, intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs), Bland-Altman plots (limits of agreement), and standard error of measurement were used. Most parameters of the QST were reliable over 10 weeks in healthy volunteers: Almost-perfect ICCs were observed for heat pain threshold (hand) and mechanical pain sensitivity (back). Substantial ICCs were observed for heat pain threshold (back), pressure pain threshold (back), mechanical pain sensitivity (hand), and vibration detection threshold (back and hand). Some QST parameters, such as cold detection threshold, exhibited low ICCs, but also very low variability. Generally, QST measures exhibited narrow limits of agreement in the Bland-Altman plots. The standardized QST protocol of the German Research Network on Neuropathic Pain is feasible to be used in treatment trials. Moreover, defining a statistically meaningful change is possible, which is a prerequisite for the use of QST in clinical trials as well as in long-term investigations of disease progression.

  19. Reliability of digital reactor protection system based on extenics. (United States)

    Zhao, Jing; He, Ya-Nan; Gu, Peng-Fei; Chen, Wei-Hua; Gao, Feng


    After the Fukushima nuclear accident, safety of nuclear power plants (NPPs) is widespread concerned. The reliability of reactor protection system (RPS) is directly related to the safety of NPPs, however, it is difficult to accurately evaluate the reliability of digital RPS. The method is based on estimating probability has some uncertainties, which can not reflect the reliability status of RPS dynamically and support the maintenance and troubleshooting. In this paper, the reliability quantitative analysis method based on extenics is proposed for the digital RPS (safety-critical), by which the relationship between the reliability and response time of RPS is constructed. The reliability of the RPS for CPR1000 NPP is modeled and analyzed by the proposed method as an example. The results show that the proposed method is capable to estimate the RPS reliability effectively and provide support to maintenance and troubleshooting of digital RPS system.

  20. Challenges to the provision of diabetes care in first nations communities: results from a national survey of healthcare providers in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macaulay Ann C


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aboriginal peoples globally, and First Nations peoples in Canada particularly, suffer from high rates of type 2 diabetes and related complications compared with the general population. Research into the unique barriers faced by healthcare providers working in on-reserve First Nations communities is essential for developing effective quality improvement strategies. Methods In Phase I of this two-phased study, semi-structured interviews and focus groups were held with 24 healthcare providers in the Sioux Lookout Zone in north-western Ontario. A follow-up survey was conducted in Phase II as part of a larger project, the Canadian First Nations Diabetes Clinical Management and Epidemiologic (CIRCLE study. The survey was completed with 244 healthcare providers in 19 First Nations communities in 7 Canadian provinces, representing three isolation levels (isolated, semi-isolated, non-isolated. Interviews, focus groups and survey questions all related to barriers to providing optimal diabetes care in First Nations communities. Results the key factors emerging from interviews and focus group discussions were at the patient, provider, and systemic level. Survey results indicated that, across three isolation levels, healthcare providers' perceived patient factors as having the largest impact on diabetes care. However, physicians and nurses were more likely to rank patient factors as having a large impact on care than community health representatives (CHRs and physicians were significantly less likely to rank patient-provider communication as having a large impact than CHRs. Conclusions Addressing patient factors was considered the highest impact strategy for improving diabetes care. While this may reflect "patient blaming," it also suggests that self-management strategies may be well-suited for this context. Program planning should focus on training programs for CHRs, who provide a unique link between patients and clinical services

  1. Scaled CMOS Technology Reliability Users Guide (United States)

    White, Mark


    The desire to assess the reliability of emerging scaled microelectronics technologies through faster reliability trials and more accurate acceleration models is the precursor for further research and experimentation in this relevant field. The effect of semiconductor scaling on microelectronics product reliability is an important aspect to the high reliability application user. From the perspective of a customer or user, who in many cases must deal with very limited, if any, manufacturer's reliability data to assess the product for a highly-reliable application, product-level testing is critical in the characterization and reliability assessment of advanced nanometer semiconductor scaling effects on microelectronics reliability. A methodology on how to accomplish this and techniques for deriving the expected product-level reliability on commercial memory products are provided.Competing mechanism theory and the multiple failure mechanism model are applied to the experimental results of scaled SDRAM products. Accelerated stress testing at multiple conditions is applied at the product level of several scaled memory products to assess the performance degradation and product reliability. Acceleration models are derived for each case. For several scaled SDRAM products, retention time degradation is studied and two distinct soft error populations are observed with each technology generation: early breakdown, characterized by randomly distributed weak bits with Weibull slope (beta)=1, and a main population breakdown with an increasing failure rate. Retention time soft error rates are calculated and a multiple failure mechanism acceleration model with parameters is derived for each technology. Defect densities are calculated and reflect a decreasing trend in the percentage of random defective bits for each successive product generation. A normalized soft error failure rate of the memory data retention time in FIT/Gb and FIT/cm2 for several scaled SDRAM generations is



    A. M. Selutin; V. A. Zharanov; A. V. Tkachenko


    The investigations and experience of implementation of constructions, that provide increase of gas-tightness of heat-exchangers, are described in the article. The given variants of compensators of different types allow to increase the reliability of operation of systems of the fuel furnaces waste flue gases heat using.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Selutin


    Full Text Available The investigations and experience of implementation of constructions, that provide increase of gas-tightness of heat-exchangers, are described in the article. The given variants of compensators of different types allow to increase the reliability of operation of systems of the fuel furnaces waste flue gases heat using.

  4. Grid reliability

    CERN Document Server

    Saiz, P; Rocha, R; Andreeva, J


    We are offering a system to track the efficiency of different components of the GRID. We can study the performance of both the WMS and the data transfers At the moment, we have set different parts of the system for ALICE, ATLAS, CMS and LHCb. None of the components that we have developed are VO specific, therefore it would be very easy to deploy them for any other VO. Our main goal is basically to improve the reliability of the GRID. The main idea is to discover as soon as possible the different problems that have happened, and inform the responsible. Since we study the jobs and transfers issued by real users, we see the same problems that users see. As a matter of fact, we see even more problems than the end user does, since we are also interested in following up the errors that GRID components can overcome by themselves (like for instance, in case of a job failure, resubmitting the job to a different site). This kind of information is very useful to site and VO administrators. They can find out the efficien...

  5. How Reliable Is Laboratory Testing? (United States)

    ... electronic reports to the healthcare provider by directly printing the report in a provider's office with a ... increase the reliability of a diagnosis and can reduce the chance of medical errors. As this diagram ...

  6. Measurement and Reliability of Response Inhibition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliza eCongdon


    Full Text Available Response inhibition plays a critical role in adaptive functioning and can be assessed with the Stop-signal task, which requires participants to suppress prepotent motor responses. Evidence suggests that this ability to inhibit a motor response that has already been initiated (reflected as Stop-signal reaction time (SSRT is a quantitative and heritable measure of interindividual variation in brain function. In order to examine the reliability of this measure, we pooled data across three separate studies and examined the influence of multiple SSRT calculation methods and outlier calling on reliability (using Intra-class correlation. Our results suggest that an approach which uses the average of all available sessions, all trials of each session, and excludes outliers based on predetermined lenient criteria yields reliable SSRT estimates, while not excluding too many participants. Our findings support the reliability of SSRT as an index of inhibitory control, and provide support for its continued use as a neurocognitive phenotype.

  7. The molecular characterization of a depurinated trial DNA sample can be a model to understand the reliability of the results in forensic genetics. (United States)

    Fattorini, Paolo; Previderè, Carlo; Sorçaburu-Cigliero, Solange; Marrubini, Giorgio; Alù, Milena; Barbaro, Anna M; Carnevali, Eugenia; Carracedo, Angel; Casarino, Lucia; Consoloni, Lara; Corato, Silvia; Domenici, Ranieri; Fabbri, Matteo; Giardina, Emiliano; Grignani, Pierangela; Baldassarra, Stefania Lonero; Moratti, Marco; Nicolin, Vanessa; Pelotti, Susi; Piccinini, Andrea; Pitacco, Paola; Plizza, Laura; Resta, Nicoletta; Ricci, Ugo; Robino, Carlo; Salvaderi, Luca; Scarnicci, Francesca; Schneider, Peter M; Seidita, Gregorio; Trizzino, Lucia; Turchi, Chiara; Turrina, Stefania; Vatta, Paolo; Vecchiotti, Carla; Verzeletti, Andrea; De Stefano, Francesco


    The role of DNA damage in PCR processivity/fidelity is a relevant topic in molecular investigation of aged/forensic samples. In order to reproduce one of the most common lesions occurring in postmortem tissues, a new protocol based on aqueous hydrolysis of the DNA was developed in vitro. Twenty-five forensic laboratories were then provided with 3.0 μg of a trial sample (TS) exhibiting, in mean, the loss of 1 base of 20, and a molecular weight below 300 bp. Each participating laboratory could freely choose any combination of methods, leading to the quantification and to the definition of the STR profile of the TS, through the documentation of each step of the analytical approaches selected. The results of the TS quantification by qPCR showed significant differences in the amount of DNA recorded by the participating laboratories using different commercial kits. These data show that only DNA quantification "relative" to the used kit (probe) is possible, being the "absolute" amount of DNA inversely related to the length of the target region (r(2) = 0.891). In addition, our results indicate that the absence of a shared stable and certified reference quantitative standard is also likely involved. STR profiling was carried out selecting five different commercial kits and amplifying the TS for a total number of 212 multiplex PCRs, thus representing an interesting overview of the different analytical protocols used by the participating laboratories. Nine laboratories decided to characterize the TS using a single kit, with a number of amplifications varying from 2 to 12, obtaining only partial STR profiles. Most of the participants determined partial or full profiles using a combination of two or more kits, and a number of amplifications varying from 2 to 27. The performance of each laboratory was described in terms of number of correctly characterized loci, dropped-out markers, unreliable genotypes, and incorrect results. The incidence of unreliable and incorrect

  8. The results of a survey highlighting issues with feedback on medical training in the United Kingdom and how a Smartphone App could provide a solution. (United States)

    Gray, Thomas G; Hood, Gill; Farrell, Tom


    Feedback drives learning in medical education. Healthcare Supervision Logbook (HSL) is a Smartphone App developed at Sheffield Teaching Hospitals for providing feedback on medical training, from both a trainee's and a supervisor's perspective. In order to establish a mandate for the role of HSL in clinical practice, a large survey was carried out. Two surveys (one for doctors undertaking specialty training and a second for consultants supervising their training) were designed. The survey for doctors-in-training was distributed to all specialty trainees in the South and West localities of the Health Education Yorkshire and the Humber UK region. The survey for supervisors was distributed to all consultants involved in educational and clinical supervision of specialty trainees at Sheffield Teaching Hospitals. The results confirm that specialty trainees provide feedback on their training infrequently-66 % do so only annually. 96 % of the specialty trainees owned a Smartphone and 45 % said that they would be willing to use a Smartphone App to provide daily feedback on the clinical and educational supervision they receive. Consultant supervisors do not receive regular feedback on the educational and clinical supervision they provide to trainees-56 % said they never received such feedback and 33 % said it was only on an annual basis. 86 % of consultants surveyed owned a Smartphone and 41 % said they would be willing to use a Smartphone App to provide feedback on the performance of trainees they were supervising. Feedback on medical training is recorded by specialty trainees infrequently and consultants providing educational and clinical supervision often do not receive any feedback on their performance in this area. HSL is a simple, quick and efficient way to collect and collate feedback on medical training to improve this situation. Good support and education needs to be provided when implementing this new technology.

  9. Is the General Self-Efficacy Scale a Reliable Measure to be used in Cross-Cultural Studies? Results from Brazil, Germany and Colombia. (United States)

    Damásio, Bruno F; Valentini, Felipe; Núñes-Rodriguez, Susana I; Kliem, Soeren; Koller, Sílvia H; Hinz, Andreas; Brähler, Elmar; Finck, Carolyn; Zenger, Markus


    This study evaluated cross-cultural measurement invariance for the General Self-efficacy Scale (GSES) in a large Brazilian (N = 2.394) and representative German (N = 2.046) and Colombian (N = 1.500) samples. Initially, multiple-indicators multiple-causes (MIMIC) analyses showed that sex and age were biasing items responses on the total sample (2 and 10 items, respectively). After controlling for these two covariates, a multigroup confirmatory factor analysis (MGCFA) was employed. Configural invariance was attested. However, metric invariance was not supported for five items, in a total of 10, and scalar invariance was not supported for all items. We also evaluated the differences between the latent scores estimated by two models: MIMIC and MGCFA unconstraining the non-equivalent parameters across countries. The average difference was equal to |.07| on the estimation of the latent scores, and 22.8% of the scores were biased in at least .10 standardized points. Bias effects were above the mean for the German group, which the average difference was equal to |.09|, and 33.7% of the scores were biased in at least .10. In synthesis, the GSES did not provide evidence of measurement invariance to be employed in this cross-cultural study. More than that, our results showed that even when controlling for sex and age effects, the absence of control on items parameters in the MGCFA analyses across countries would implicate in bias of the latent scores estimation, with a higher effect for the German population.

  10. Counselor- versus provider-based HIV screening in the emergency department: results from the universal screening for HIV infection in the emergency room (USHER) randomized controlled trial. (United States)

    Walensky, Rochelle P; Reichmann, William M; Arbelaez, Christian; Wright, Elizabeth; Katz, Jeffrey N; Seage, George R; Safren, Steven A; Hare, Anna Q; Novais, Anna; Losina, Elena


    We compare rates of rapid HIV testing, test offer, and acceptance in an urban emergency department (ED) when conducted by dedicated HIV counselors versus current members of the ED staff. The Universal Screening for HIV Infection in the Emergency Room [USHER] trial is a prospective randomized controlled trial that implemented an HIV screening program in the ED of an urban tertiary medical center. ED patients were screened and consented for trial enrollment by an USHER research assistant. Eligible subjects were randomized to rapid HIV testing (oral OraQuick) offered by a dedicated counselor (counselor arm) or by an ED provider (provider arm). In the counselor arm, counselors-without other clinical responsibilities-assumed nearly all testing-related activities (consent, counseling, delivery of test results). In the provider arm, trained ED emergency service assistants (nursing assistants) consented and tested the participant in the context of other ED-related responsibilities. In this arm, ED house officers, physician assistants, or attending physicians provided HIV test results to trial participants. Outcome measures were rates of HIV testing and test offer among individuals consenting for study participation. Among individuals offered the test, test acceptance was also measured. From February 2007 through July 2008, 8,187 eligible patients were approached in the ED, and 4,855 (59%) consented and were randomized to trial participation. The mean age was 37 years, 65% were women, and 42% were white. The overall testing rate favored the counselor arm (57% versus 27%; P<.001); 80% (1,959/2,446) of subjects in the counselor arm were offered an HIV test compared with 36% (861/2,409) in the provider arm (P<.001). HIV test acceptance was slightly higher in the provider arm (counselor arm 71% versus provider arm 75%; P = .025). Routine rapid HIV testing in the ED was accomplished more frequently by dedicated HIV counselors than by ED staff in the course of routine clinical

  11. An interval-valued reliability model with bounded failure rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kozine, Igor; Krymsky, Victor


    The approach to deriving interval-valued reliability measures described in this paper is distinctive from other imprecise reliability models in that it overcomes the issue of having to impose an upper bound on time to failure. It rests on the presupposition that a constant interval-valued failure...... rate is known possibly along with other reliability measures, precise or imprecise. The Lagrange method is used to solve the constrained optimization problem to derive new reliability measures of interest. The obtained results call for an exponential-wise approximation of failure probability density...... function if only partial failure information is available. An example is provided. © 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC....

  12. Synthesis of Reliable Telecommunication Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dusan Trstensky


    Full Text Available In many application, the network designer may to know to senthesise a reliable telecommunication network. Assume that a network, denoted Gm,e has the number of nodes n and the number of edges e, and the operational probability of each edge is known. The system reliability of the network is defined to be the reliability that every pair of nodes can communicate with each other. A network synthesis problem considered in this paper is to find a network G*n,e, that maximises system reliability over the class of all networks for the classes of networks Gn,n-1, Gn,m and Gn,n+1 respectively. In addition an upper bound of maximum reliability for the networks with n-node and e-edge (e>n+2 is derived in terms of node. Computational experiments for the reliability upper are also presented. the results show, that the proposed reliability upper bound is effective.

  13. Lost opportunities to identify and treat HIV-positive patients: results from a baseline assessment of provider-initiated HIV testing and counselling (PITC) in Malawi. (United States)

    Ahmed, Saeed; Schwarz, Monica; Flick, Robert J; Rees, Chris A; Harawa, Mwelura; Simon, Katie; Robison, Jeff A; Kazembe, Peter N; Kim, Maria H


    To assess implementation of provider-initiated testing and counselling (PITC) for HIV in Malawi. A review of PITC practices within 118 departments in 12 Ministry of Health (MoH) facilities across Malawi was conducted. Information on PITC practices was collected via a health facility survey. Data describing patient visits and HIV tests were abstracted from routinely collected programme data. Reported PITC practices were highly variable. Most providers practiced symptom-based PITC. Antenatal clinics and maternity wards reported widespread use of routine opt-out PITC. In 2014, there was approximately 1 HIV test for every 15 clinic visits. HIV status was ascertained in 94.3% (5293/5615) of patients at tuberculosis clinics, 92.6% (30,675/33,142) of patients at antenatal clinics and 49.4% (6871/13,914) of patients at sexually transmitted infection clinics. Reported challenges to delivering PITC included test kit shortages (71/71 providers), insufficient physical space (58/71) and inadequate number of HIV counsellors (32/71) while providers from inpatient units cited the inability to test on weekends. Various models of PITC currently exist at MoH facilities in Malawi. Only antenatal and maternity clinics demonstrated high rates of routine opt-out PITC. The low ratio of facility visits to HIV tests suggests missed opportunities for HIV testing. However, the high proportion of patients at TB and antenatal clinics with known HIV status suggests that routine PITC is feasible. These results underscore the need to develop clear, standardised PITC policy and protocols, and to address obstacles of limited health commodities, infrastructure and human resources. © 2016 The Authors. Tropical Medicine & International Health Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. A comparison of the thoracolumbosacral orthoses and providence orthosis in the treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: results using the new SRS inclusion and assessment criteria for bracing studies. (United States)

    Janicki, Joseph A; Poe-Kochert, Connie; Armstrong, Douglas G; Thompson, George H


    This is a retrospective cohort study comparing the effectiveness of the thoracolumbosacral orthosis (TLSO) and the Providence orthosis in the treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) using the new Scoliosis Research Society (SRS) Committee on Bracing and Nonoperative Management inclusion and assessment criteria for bracing studies. These new criteria will make future studies comparable and more valid and accurate. We have used a custom TLSO (duration, 22 hours/day) and the Providence orthosis (duration, 8-10 hours/night) to control progressive AIS curves. Only 83 of 160 patients met the new SRS inclusion criteria: age of 10 years and older at initiation of bracing; initial curve of 25 to 40 degrees; Risser sign 0 to 2; female; premenarcheal or less than 1 year past menarche; and no previous treatment. There were 48 patients in the TLSO group and 35 in the Providence group. The new SRS assessment criteria of effectiveness included the percentage of patients who had 5 degrees or less and 6 degrees or more of curve progression at maturity, the percentage of patients whose curve progressed beyond 45 degrees, the percentage of patients who had surgery recommended or undertaken, and a minimum of 2 years of follow-up beyond maturity in those patients who were thought to have been successfully treated. All patients are evaluated regardless of compliance (intent to treat). There were no significant differences in age at brace initiation, initial primary curve magnitude, sex, or initial Risser sign between the 2 groups. In the TLSO group, only 7 patients (15%) did not progress (TLSO group and 10 (42%) of 24 patients in the Providence group did not progress, whereas 29 patients (85%) and 14 patients (58%), respectively, progressed by 6 degrees or more, and 26 patients (76%) and 11 patients (46%), respectively, required surgery. Using the new SRS bracing criteria, the Providence orthosis was more effective for avoiding surgery and preventing curve progression when

  15. Reliability of Oronasal Fistula Classification. (United States)

    Sitzman, Thomas J; Allori, Alexander C; Matic, Damir B; Beals, Stephen P; Fisher, David M; Samson, Thomas D; Marcus, Jeffrey R; Tse, Raymond W


    Objective Oronasal fistula is an important complication of cleft palate repair that is frequently used to evaluate surgical quality, yet reliability of fistula classification has never been examined. The objective of this study was to determine the reliability of oronasal fistula classification both within individual surgeons and between multiple surgeons. Design Using intraoral photographs of children with repaired cleft palate, surgeons rated the location of palatal fistulae using the Pittsburgh Fistula Classification System. Intrarater and interrater reliability scores were calculated for each region of the palate. Participants Eight cleft surgeons rated photographs obtained from 29 children. Results Within individual surgeons reliability for each region of the Pittsburgh classification ranged from moderate to almost perfect (κ = .60-.96). By contrast, reliability between surgeons was lower, ranging from fair to substantial (κ = .23-.70). Between-surgeon reliability was lowest for the junction of the soft and hard palates (κ = .23). Within-surgeon and between-surgeon reliability were almost perfect for the more general classification of fistula in the secondary palate (κ = .95 and κ = .83, respectively). Conclusions This is the first reliability study of fistula classification. We show that the Pittsburgh Fistula Classification System is reliable when used by an individual surgeon, but less reliable when used among multiple surgeons. Comparisons of fistula occurrence among surgeons may be subject to less bias if they use the more general classification of "presence or absence of fistula of the secondary palate" rather than the Pittsburgh Fistula Classification System.

  16. The reliable assurance of detecting somatic mutations in cancer-related genes by next-generation sequencing: the results of external quality assessment in China (United States)

    Han, Yanxi; Yi, Lang; Xie, Jiehong; Yang, Xin; Fan, Gaowei; Wang, Guojing; Hao, Mingju; Zhang, Dong; Zhang, Kuo; Lin, Guigao; Li, Jinming


    To evaluate the proficiencies of laboratories utilizing next-generation sequencing (NGS) to detect somatic mutations in cancer-related genes, an external quality assessment (EQA) was implemented by the National Center for Clinical Laboratories of China in 2015. We prepared a panel of samples that comprised eight samples made by mixing synthetic mutated DNA fragments with normal human genomic DNA and one reference sample containing only genomic DNA. We validated our sample panel, and then distributed it to laboratories across China. We received complete results from 64 laboratories. The performances of 51.6 % (33/64) respondent labs were acceptable and 26.6 % (17/64) of the labs returned perfect results. In total, 449 mistakes were reported, including 201 false-negatives (201/449, 44.8 %) and 222 false-positives (222/449, 49.4 %) and 26 slightly discordant results (26/449, 5.8 %). We believe these unsatisfactory results and varied performances are mainly due to the enrichment methods used, the diverse sequencing chemistries of the different NGS platforms, and other errors within the sequencing process. The results indicate that our sample panel is suitable for use in EQA studies, and that further laboratory training in targeted NGS testing is urgently required. To address this, we propose a targeted NGS workflow with details on quality assurance procedures according to the current guidelines. PMID:27542269

  17. A blinded international study on the reliability of genetic testing for GGGGCC-repeat expansions in C9orf72 reveals marked differences in results among 14 laboratories. (United States)

    Akimoto, Chizuru; Volk, Alexander E; van Blitterswijk, Marka; Van den Broeck, Marleen; Leblond, Claire S; Lumbroso, Serge; Camu, William; Neitzel, Birgit; Onodera, Osamu; van Rheenen, Wouter; Pinto, Susana; Weber, Markus; Smith, Bradley; Proven, Melanie; Talbot, Kevin; Keagle, Pamela; Chesi, Alessandra; Ratti, Antonia; van der Zee, Julie; Alstermark, Helena; Birve, Anna; Calini, Daniela; Nordin, Angelica; Tradowsky, Daniela C; Just, Walter; Daoud, Hussein; Angerbauer, Sabrina; DeJesus-Hernandez, Mariely; Konno, Takuya; Lloyd-Jani, Anjali; de Carvalho, Mamede; Mouzat, Kevin; Landers, John E; Veldink, Jan H; Silani, Vincenzo; Gitler, Aaron D; Shaw, Christopher E; Rouleau, Guy A; van den Berg, Leonard H; Van Broeckhoven, Christine; Rademakers, Rosa; Andersen, Peter M; Kubisch, Christian


    The GGGGCC-repeat expansion in C9orf72 is the most frequent mutation found in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD). Most of the studies on C9orf72 have relied on repeat-primed PCR (RP-PCR) methods for detection of the expansions. To investigate the inherent limitations of this technique, we compared methods and results of 14 laboratories. The 14 laboratories genotyped DNA from 78 individuals (diagnosed with ALS or FTD) in a blinded fashion. Eleven laboratories used a combination of amplicon-length analysis and RP-PCR, whereas three laboratories used RP-PCR alone; Southern blotting techniques were used as a reference. Using PCR-based techniques, 5 of the 14 laboratories got results in full accordance with the Southern blotting results. Only 50 of the 78 DNA samples got the same genotype result in all 14 laboratories. There was a high degree of false positive and false negative results, and at least one sample could not be genotyped at all in 9 of the 14 laboratories. The mean sensitivity of a combination of amplicon-length analysis and RP-PCR was 95.0% (73.9-100%), and the mean specificity was 98.0% (87.5-100%). Overall, a sensitivity and specificity of more than 95% was observed in only seven laboratories. Because of the wide range seen in genotyping results, we recommend using a combination of amplicon-length analysis and RP-PCR as a minimum in a research setting. We propose that Southern blotting techniques should be the gold standard, and be made obligatory in a clinical diagnostic setting. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to

  18. Reliability engineering theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Birolini, Alessandro


    This book shows how to build in, evaluate, and demonstrate reliability and availability of components, equipment, systems. It presents the state-of-theart of reliability engineering, both in theory and practice, and is based on the author's more than 30 years experience in this field, half in industry and half as Professor of Reliability Engineering at the ETH, Zurich. The structure of the book allows rapid access to practical results. This final edition extend and replace all previous editions. New are, in particular, a strategy to mitigate incomplete coverage, a comprehensive introduction to human reliability with design guidelines and new models, and a refinement of reliability allocation, design guidelines for maintainability, and concepts related to regenerative stochastic processes. The set of problems for homework has been extended. Methods & tools are given in a way that they can be tailored to cover different reliability requirement levels and be used for safety analysis. Because of the Appendice...

  19. LabPush: a pilot study of providing remote clinics with laboratory results via short message service (SMS) in Swaziland, Africa - a qualitative study. (United States)

    Hao, Wen-Rui; Hsu, Yi-Hsin; Chen, Kuan-Chen; Li, Hsien-Chang; Iqbal, Usman; Nguyen, Phung-Anh; Huang, Chih-Wei; Yang, Hsuan-Chia; Lee, Peisan; Li, Mei-Hsuan; Hlatshwayo, Sharoon Lungile; Li, Yu-Chuan Jack; Jian, Wen-Shan


    Developing countries are confronting a steady growth in the prevalence of the infectious diseases. Mobile technologies are widely available and can play an important role in health care at the regional, community, and individual levels. Although labs usually able to accomplish the requested blood test and produce the results within two days after receiving the samples, but the time for the results to be delivered back to clinics is quite variable depending on how often the motorbike transport makes trips between the clinic and the lab. In this study, we seek to assess factors facilitating as well as factors hindering the adoption of mobile devices in the Swazi healthcare through evaluating the end-users of the LabPush system. A qualitative study with semi-structured and in-depth one on one interviews were conducted over two month period July-August 2012. Purposive sampling was used; participants were those operating and using the LabPush system at the remote clinics, at the national laboratory and the supervisors of users at Swaziland. Interview questions were focused on perceived of ease of use and usefulness of the system. All interviews were recorded and then transcribed. This study had aimed its primary focus on reducing TAT, prompt patient care, reducing bouncing of patients and defaulting of patients which were challenges that the clinicians have always had. Therefore, the results revealed several barriers and facilitators to the adoption of mobile device by healthcare providers in the Swaziland. The themes Shortens TAT, Technical support, Patient-centered care, Mindset, Improved communication, Missing Reports, Workload, Workflow, Security of smart phone, Human error and Ownership are sorted by facilitators to barriers. Thus the end-users perspective, prompt patient care, reduced bouncing of patients, technical support, better communication, willing participant and social influence were facilitators of the adoption m-health in the Swazi healthcare. Copyright

  20. FY 1999 report on the results of the R and D on the assessment of reliability of oil refining facilities; 1999 nendo sekiyu seisei setsubi shinraisei hyoka nado gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    At present, in oil refineries in Japan, the term of the continued operation in oil refining facilities is shorter than that in Europe and America because of the regulation on the open inspection period for boilers and hazardous material storage tanks. As a result, the refining cost is comparatively higher than in Europe and America due to the increase in inspection/repair cost and decrease in operational rate. Therefore, it is becoming important to effectively supply petroleum products by keeping stability in oil refining facilities of the whole Japan and prolonging the term of the continued operation of oil refining facilities, etc. In this R and D, the technical development is conducted which is needed for the long-term continued operation of oil refining facilities. The items for the R and D are as follows: assessment technology of reliability of oil refining high temperature system facilities, assessment technology of reliability of piping/storage facilities in oil refinery, assessment technology of reliability of oil refining power system facilities, technology of management support system in oil refining facilities. In this fiscal year, technical survey, data collection, and construction of the basic concept of developmental technology were mostly conducted. Also conducted were trial manufacture of various probes for non-fracture inspection use, oscillators, etc., and basic design of inspection equipment and trial manufacture of a part of them. And the data acquired were analyzed. (NEDO)

  1. Providing critical laboratory results on time, every time to help reduce emergency department length of stay: how our laboratory achieved a Six Sigma level of performance. (United States)

    Blick, Kenneth E


    To develop a fully automated core laboratory, handling samples on a "first in, first out" real-time basis with Lean/Six Sigma management tools. Our primary goal was to provide services to critical care areas, eliminating turnaround time outlier percentage (TAT-OP) as a factor in patient length of stay (LOS). A secondary goal was to achieve a better laboratory return on investment. In 2011, we reached our primary goal when we calculated the TAT-OP distribution and found we had achieved a Six Sigma level of performance, ensuring that our laboratory service can be essentially eliminated as a factor in emergency department patient LOS. We also measured return on investment, showing a productivity improvement of 35%, keeping pace with our increased testing volume. As a result of our Lean process improvements and Six Sigma initiatives, in part through (1) strategic deployment of point-of-care testing and (2) core laboratory total automation with robotics, middleware, and expert system technology, physicians and nurses at the Oklahoma University Medical Center can more effectively deliver lifesaving health care using evidence-based protocols that depend heavily on "on time, every time" laboratory services.

  2. Issues Arising in Psychological Consultations to Help Parents Talk to Minor and Young Adult Children about their Cancer Genetic Test Result: a Guide to Providers. (United States)

    Patenaude, Andrea Farkas; Schneider, Katherine A


    The defining difference between genetic and traditional medicine is that genetic findings have implications not just for the patient, but also for their relatives. Discussion of a test result between parent and child is both a transformative and a translational moment in the life of a family. Parents report wanting help in talking to their children. The challenge for genetic counselors and other providers is to be able to recognize which issues are at the core of parental distress and be able to offer recommendations to empower and support parents. The complexity of potential genetic findings, including variants of uncertain significance (VUS) and incidental findings have vastly increased, requiring considerable explanation and leaving less time for discussion of emotional issues. While the nature of the testing (single gene to multigene panel and genomic testing) is dramatically changing, the nature of parent concerns remains remarkably constant. Families differ in many respects, so no "recipe" suffices to answer parents' questions about how this important task should be approached in each family. Successful consultation to parents requires true counseling, matching parents' fears and questions with information, exploration and advice specific to their concerns, their circumstances and strengths.

  3. Anatomic stabilization techniques provide superior results in terms of functional outcome in patients suffering from chronic ankle instability compared to non-anatomic techniques. (United States)

    Vuurberg, G; Pereira, H; Blankevoort, L; van Dijk, C N


    To determine the best surgical treatment for chronic ankle instability (CAI) a systematic review was performed to compare the functional outcomes between various surgical stabilization methods. A systematic search was performed from 1950 up to April 2016 using PubMed, EMBASE, Medline and the Cochrane Library. Inclusion criteria were a minimum age of 18 years, persistent lateral ankle instability, treatment by some form of surgical stabilization, described functional outcome measures. Exclusion criteria were case reports, (systematic) reviews, articles not published in English, description of only acute instability or only conservative treatment, medial ankle instability and concomitant injuries, deformities or previous surgical treatment for ankle instability. After inclusion, studies were critically appraised using the Modified Coleman Methodology Score. The search resulted in a total of 19 articles, including 882 patients, which were included in this review. The Modified Coleman Methodology Score ranged from 30 to 73 points on a scale from 0 to 90 points. The AOFAS and Karlsson Score were the most commonly used patient-reported outcome measures to assess functional outcome after surgery. Anatomic repair showed the highest post-operative scores [AOFAS 93.8 (SD ± 2.7; n = 119); Karlsson 95.1 (SD ± 3.6, n = 121)], compared to anatomic reconstruction [AOFAS 90.2 (SD ± 10.9, n = 128); Karlsson 90.1 (SD ± 7.8, n = 35)] and tenodesis [AOFAS 86.5 (SD ± 12.0, n = 10); Karlsson 85.3 (SD ± 2.5, n = 39)]. Anatomic reconstruction showed the highest score increase after surgery (AOFAS 37.0 (SD ± 6.8, n = 128); Karlsson 51.6 (SD ± 5.5, n = 35) compared to anatomic repair [AOFAS 31.8 (SD ± 5.3, n = 119); Karlsson 40.9 (SD ± 2.9, n = 121)] and tenodesis [AOFAS 19.5 (SD ± 13.7, n = 10); Karlsson 29.4 (SD ± 6.3, n = 39)] (p < 0.005). Anatomic reconstruction and anatomic repair provide better functional outcome after

  4. How reliable is the Internet for caregivers on their decision to vaccinate their child against influenza? Results from googling in two languages. (United States)

    Oncel, Selim; Alvur, Müge


    We have chosen Google, which is the most widely used search engine, to simulate a parent's experience in trying to find an answer on whether to have her/his child vaccinated against influenza. In doing this, we aimed to find out the chances that a parent with usual Internet searching tendencies may encounter right, wrong, and irrelevant answers in her/his search in the world wide web. We searched the Internet for an answer to the question "Should I make my child vaccinated against influenza?" by using the keywords "influenza", "vaccine", and "children" in two languages (English and Turkish). The "correct" answer was at least one clear statement meaning that annual influenza vaccination is recommended for all children (aged 6 months-18 years). Thirty-two of the 112 websites and 45 of the 103 websites had the correct answer, whereas 24 and 46 websites contained incorrect information in English and Turkish searches, respectively. Only non-relevant information was found in 56 English and 12 Turkish websites. When the first page of search results were taken into account, correctness and incorrectness were observed in six and four English and four and six in Turkish websites, respectively. Our findings call for the urgent need to check public-oriented healthcare information on the Internet for accuracy, completeness, and consistency. We have arrived at a conclusion that the information on the Internet cannot and should not be a substitute for routine care by primary care physicians.

  5. Reliability of environmental fate modeling results for POPs based on various methods of determining the air/water partition coefficient (log KAW) (United States)

    Odziomek, K.; Gajewicz, A.; Haranczyk, M.; Puzyn, T.


    Air-water partition coefficient (KAW) is one of the key parameters determining environmental behavior of Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs). Experimentally measured values of KAW are still unavailable for majority of POPs, thus alternative methods of supplying data, including Quantitative Structure-Property Relationships (QSPR) modeling, are often in use. In this paper, applicability of two QSPR methods of predicting KAW were compared with each other in the context of further application of the predicted data in environmental transport and fate studies. According to the first (indirect) method, KAW is calculated from previously predicted values of octanol-water (KOW) and octanol-air (KOA) partition coefficients. In the second (direct) approach, KAW is calculated, based on the estimated value of Henry's law constant (KH) and then adjusted to ensure its consistency with the other two partition coefficients (KOW and KOA). Although the indirect method carries theoretically twice as much error as the direct method, when the predicted values of KAW are then utilized as an input to the environmental fate model The OECD POV and LRTP Screening Tool, ver. 2.2, the indirect method elicits much higher and therefore much more restrictive values of overall persistence (POV) and transfer efficiency (TE) than its equivalent (direct method). High uncertainties related to the application of the direct method result mainly from the necessary adjustment procedure.

  6. On the Reliability of Optimization Results for Trigeneration Systems in Buildings, in the Presence of Price Uncertainties and Erroneous Load Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Piacentino


    Full Text Available Cogeneration and trigeneration plants are widely recognized as promising technologies for increasing energy efficiency in buildings. However, their overall potential is scarcely exploited, due to the difficulties in achieving economic viability and the risk of investment related to uncertainties in future energy loads and prices. Several stochastic optimization models have been proposed in the literature to account for uncertainties, but these instruments share in a common reliance on user-defined probability functions for each stochastic parameter. Being such functions hard to predict, in this paper an analysis of the influence of erroneous estimation of the uncertain energy loads and prices on the optimal plant design and operation is proposed. With reference to a hotel building, a number of realistic scenarios is developed, exploring all the most frequent errors occurring in the estimation of energy loads and prices. Then, profit-oriented optimizations are performed for the examined scenarios, by means of a deterministic mixed integer linear programming algorithm. From a comparison between the achieved results, it emerges that: (i the plant profitability is prevalently influenced by the average “spark-spread” (i.e., ratio between electricity and fuel price and, secondarily, from the shape of the daily price profiles; (ii the “optimal sizes” of the main components are scarcely influenced by the daily load profiles, while they are more strictly related with the average “power to heat” and “power to cooling” ratios of the building.

  7. Medicare Provider Data - Hospice Providers (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Hospice Utilization and Payment Public Use File provides information on services provided to Medicare beneficiaries by hospice providers. The Hospice PUF...

  8. Multi-virulence-locus sequence typing of Staphylococcus lugdunensis generates results consistent with a clonal population structure and is reliable for epidemiological typing. (United States)

    Didi, Jennifer; Lemée, Ludovic; Gibert, Laure; Pons, Jean-Louis; Pestel-Caron, Martine


    Staphylococcus lugdunensis is an emergent virulent coagulase-negative staphylococcus responsible for severe infections similar to those caused by Staphylococcus aureus. To understand its potentially pathogenic capacity and have further detailed knowledge of the molecular traits of this organism, 93 isolates from various geographic origins were analyzed by multi-virulence-locus sequence typing (MVLST), targeting seven known or putative virulence-associated loci (atlLR2, atlLR3, hlb, isdJ, SLUG_09050, SLUG_16930, and vwbl). The polymorphisms of the putative virulence-associated loci were moderate and comparable to those of the housekeeping genes analyzed by multilocus sequence typing (MLST). However, the MVLST scheme generated 43 virulence types (VTs) compared to 20 sequence types (STs) based on MLST, indicating that MVLST was significantly more discriminating (Simpson's index [D], 0.943). No hypervirulent lineage or cluster specific to carriage strains was defined. The results of multilocus sequence analysis of known and putative virulence-associated loci are consistent with a clonal population structure for S. lugdunensis, suggesting a coevolution of these genes with housekeeping genes. Indeed, the nonsynonymous to synonymous evolutionary substitutions (dN/dS) ratio, the Tajima's D test, and Single-likelihood ancestor counting (SLAC) analysis suggest that all virulence-associated loci were under negative selection, even atlLR2 (AtlL protein) and SLUG_16930 (FbpA homologue), for which the dN/dS ratios were higher. In addition, this analysis of virulence-associated loci allowed us to propose a trilocus sequence typing scheme based on the intragenic regions of atlLR3, isdJ, and SLUG_16930, which is more discriminant than MLST for studying short-term epidemiology and further characterizing the lineages of the rare but highly pathogenic S. lugdunensis. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  9. Satisfaction with childbirth services provided in public health facilities: results from a cross- sectional survey among postnatal women in Chhattisgarh, India (United States)

    Jha, Paridhi; Larsson, Margareta; Christensson, Kyllike; Skoog Svanberg, Agneta


    ABSTRACT Background: A woman’s satisfaction with childbirth services can have a significant impact on her mental health and ability to bond with her neonate. Knowing postnatal women’s opinions and satisfaction with services makes the services more women-friendly. Indian women’s satisfaction with childbirth services has been explored qualitatively, or by using non-standard local questionnaires, but scientific data gathered with standardised questionnaires are extremely limited. Objective: To measure postnatal Indian women’s satisfaction with childbirth services at selected public health facilities in Chhattisgarh, India. Methods: Cross-sectional survey using consecutive sampling (n = 1004) was conducted from March to May 2015. Hindi-translated and validated versions of the Scale for Measuring Maternal Satisfaction for Vaginal Births (VB) and Caesarean Births (CB) were used for data collection. Results: Although most of the women (VB 68.7%; CB 79.2%) were satisfied with the overall childbirth services received, those who had VB were least satisfied with the processes around meeting their neonates (mean subscale score 1.8, SD 1.3), while women having CB were least satisfied with postpartum care received (mean subscale score 2.7, SD 1.2). Regression analyses revealed that among women having VB, interacting with care providers, being able to maintain privacy, and being free from fear of childbirth had a positive influence on overall satisfaction with the childbirth. Among women having CB, earning their own salary and having a positive perception of self-health had associations with overall birth satisfaction. Conclusions: Improving interpersonal interaction with nurse-midwives, and ensuring privacy during childbirth and hospital stay, are recommended first steps to improve women’s childbirth satisfaction, until the supply gap is eliminated. PMID:29087240

  10. Fixed-Combination Gels of Adapalene and Benzoyl Peroxide Provide Optimal Percutaneous Absorption Compared to Monad Formulations of These Compounds: Results from Two In Vitro Studies. (United States)

    Osman-Ponchet, Hanan; Sevin, Karine; Gaborit, Alexandre; Wagner, Nathalie; Poncet, Michel


    Adapalene 0.1%/benzoyl peroxide 2.5% (0.1% A/BPO) and adapalene 0.3%/BPO 2.5% (0.3% A/BPO) gels are fixed-combination options for the topical treatment of acne. However, the active compounds of these combinations are also available as monads, to be used in association or as monotherapy. These two in vitro studies determined the effect of different treatment regimens on the percutaneous absorption of adapalene (0.1% and 0.3%) gels and BPO 2.5% gel in ex vivo human skin. In vitro percutaneous absorption studies were conducted using full-thickness human skin from six donors. Treatment regimens included the application of 0.1% A/BPO, 0.3% A/BPO, or four free-combination regimens of the monads. Skin samples were incubated for 24 h. Concentrations of adapalene and BPO equivalent (BPO-eq) (i.e. benzoic acid after chemical transformation of BPO) were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography. Comparison of regimens was performed using a bioequivalence criterion (estimated ratio bewteen 0.8 and 1.25). The fixed combination 0.3% A/BPO regimen demonstrated more than three times higher absorption of adapalene versus the fixed-combination 0.1% A/BPO. Based on the bioequivalence acceptance criterion, all four free-combination regimens were different from 0.1% A/BPO and 0.3% A/BPO, with higher adapalene release delivered by the fixed combinations versus the free combinations. For BPO-eq, the results showed that the free-combination regimens where adapalene 0.1% was applied first were different from 0.1% A/BPO, with lower BPO-eq release delivered by these regimens compared to the fixed combination. The regimen adapalene 0.3% for 10 h followed by BPO 2.5% delivered lower BPO-eq release compared to the fixed combination. The fixed-combination A/BPO gels provide optimal percutaneous absorption of the active compounds compared to free combinations of adapalene 0.1%, adapalene 0.3%, and BPO 2.5%. The higher concentration of adapalene in the 0.3% A/BPO gel and the

  11. Resistance to insulin therapy among patients and providers: results of the cross-national Diabetes Attitudes, Wishes, and Needs (DAWN) study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peyrot, M.; Rubin, R.R.; Lauritzen, T.; Skovlund, S.E.; Snoek, F.J.; Matthews, D.R.; Landgraf, R.; Kleinebreil, L.


    OBJECTIVE - To examine the correlates of patient and provider attitudes toward insulin therapy. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS - Data are from surveys of patients with type 2 diabetes not taking insulin (n = 2,061) and diabetes care providers (nurses = 1,109; physicians = 2,681) in 13 countries in

  12. In-hospital prescription changes and documentation in the medical records of the primary care provider: results from a medical record review study. (United States)

    Poldervaart, Judith M; van Melle, Marije A; Willemse, Sanne; de Wit, Niek J; Zwart, Dorien L M


    An increasing number of transitions due to substitution of care of more complex patients urges insight in and improvement of transitional medication safety. While lack of documentation of prescription changes and/or lack of information exchange between settings likely cause adverse drug events, frequency of occurrence of these causes is not clear. Therefore, we aimed at determining the frequency of in-hospital patients’ prescription changes that are not or incorrectly documented in their primary care provider’s (PCP) medical record. A medical record review study was performed in a database linking patients’ medical records of hospital and PCP. A random sample (n = 600) was drawn from all 1399 patients who were registered at a participating primary care practice as well as the gastroenterology or cardiology department in 2013 of the University Medical Center Utrecht, the Netherlands. Outcomes were the number of in-hospital prescription changes that was not or incorrectly documented in the medical record of the PCP, and timeliness of documentation. Records of 390 patients included one or more primary-secondary care transitions; in total we identified 1511 transitions. During these transitions, 408 in-hospital prescription changes were made, of which 31% was not or incorrectly documented in the medical record of the PCP within the next 3 months. In case changes were documented, the median number of days between hospital visit and documentation was 3 (IQR 0–18). One third of in-hospital prescription changes was not or incorrectly documented in the PCP’s record, which likely puts patients at risk of adverse drug events after hospital visits. Such flawed reliability of a routine care process is unacceptable and warrants improvement and close monitoring.

  13. Oncology providers' evaluation of the use of an automatically generated cancer survivorship care plan: longitudinal results from the ROGY Care trial. (United States)

    Nicolaije, Kim A H; Ezendam, Nicole P M; Vos, M Caroline; Pijnenborg, Johanna M A; van de Poll-Franse, Lonneke V; Kruitwagen, Roy F P M


    Previous studies have merely investigated oncology providers' a priori attitudes toward SCPs. The purpose of the current study was to longitudinally evaluate oncology providers' expectations and actual experiences with the use of an automatically generated Survivorship Care Plan (SCP) in daily clinical practice. Between April 2011 and October 2012, the participating oncology providers (i.e., gynecologists, gynecologic oncologists, oncology nurses) provided usual care or SCP care to 222 endometrial and 85 ovarian cancer patients included in the Registrationsystem Oncological GYnecology (ROGY) Care trial. All (n = 43) oncology providers in both arms were requested to complete a questionnaire before and after patient inclusion regarding their expectations and evaluation of SCP care. Before patient inclusion, 38 (88%; 21 SCP, 17 usual care), and after patient inclusion, 35 (83%; 20 SCP, 15 usual care) oncology providers returned the questionnaire. After patient inclusion, oncology providers were generally satisfied with the SCP (M = 7.1, SD = 1.3, with 1 = not at all-10 = very much) and motivated to keep using the SCP (M = 7.9, SD = 1.5). Most providers (64%) encountered barriers. Twenty-five percent felt they used more time for consultations (M = 7.3 min, SD = 4.6). However, self-reported consultation time did not differ between before (M = 21.8 min, SD = 11.6) and after patient inclusion (M = 18.7, SD = 10.6; p = 0.22) or between SCP care (M = 18.5, SD = 10.3) and usual care (M = 22.0, SD = 12.2; p = 0.21). Oncology providers using the SCP were generally satisfied and motivated to keep using the SCP. However, the findings of the current study suggest that even when the SCP can be generated automatically, oncology providers still have difficulties with finding the time to discuss the SCP with their patients. If SCP care is indeed effective, overcoming the perceived barriers is needed before

  14. Relationship of Provider and Practice Volume to Performance Measure Adherence for Coronary Artery Disease, Heart Failure, and Atrial Fibrillation: Results From the National Cardiovascular Data Registry. (United States)

    Fleming, Lisa M; Jones, Philip; Chan, Paul S; Andrei, Adin-Christian; Maddox, Thomas M; Farmer, Steven A


    There is a reported association between high clinical volume and improved outcomes. Whether this relationship is true for outpatients with coronary artery disease (CAD), heart failure (HF), and atrial fibrillation (AF) remains unknown. Using the PINNACLE Registry (2009-2012), average monthly provider and practice volumes were calculated for CAD, HF, and AF. Adherence with 4 American Heart Association CAD, 2 HF, and 1 AF performance measure were assessed at the most recent encounter for each patient. Hierarchical logistic regression models were used to assess the relationship between provider and practice volume and performance on eligible quality measures. Data incorporated patients from 1094 providers at 71 practices (practice level analyses n=654 535; provider level analyses n=529 938). Median monthly provider volumes were 79 (interquartile range [IQR], 51-117) for CAD, 27 (16-45) for HF, and 37 (24-54) for AF. Median monthly practice volumes were 923 (IQR, 476-1455) for CAD, 311 (145-657) for HF, and 459 (185-720) for AF. Overall, 55% of patients met all CAD measures, 72% met all HF measures, and 58% met the AF measure. There was no definite relationship between practice volume and concordance for CAD, AF, or HF (P=0.56, 0.52, and 0.79, respectively). In contrast, higher provider volume was associated with increased concordance for CAD and AF performance measures (Pperformance was modest and variable. Higher provider volume was positively associated with quality, whereas practice volume was not. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  15. Distribution Equipment Reliability Data; Tillfoerlitlighetsdata paa komponent nivaa foer eldistributionsnaet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ying He (Vattenfall Research and Development AB, Stockholm (SE))


    In risk analysis of a power system, the risk for the system to fail power supply is calculated from the knowledge of the reliability data of individual system components. Meaningful risk analysis requires reasonable and acceptable data. The quality of the data has the fundamental importance for the analysis. However, the valid data are expensive to collect. The component reliability performance statistics are not easy to obtain. This report documents the distribution equipment reliability data developed by the project 'Component Reliability Data for Risk Analysis of Distribution Systems' within the Elforsk RandD program 'Risk Analysis 06-10'. The project analyzed a large sample size of distribution outages recorded by more than a hundred power utilities in Sweden during 2004-2005, and derived the equipment reliability data nationwide. The detailed summaries of these data are presented in the appendices of the report. The component reliability was also investigated at a number of power utilities including Vattenfall Eldistribution AB, Goeteborg Energi Naet AB, E.ON Elnaet Sverige AB, Fortum Distribution, and Linde Energi AB. The reliability data were derived for individual utilities. The detailed data lists and failure statistics are summarized in the appendices for each participating companies. The data provided in this report are developed based on a large sample size of field outage records and can be therefore used as generic data in system risk analysis and reliability studies. In order to provide more references and complementary data, the equipment reliability surveys conducted by IEEE were studied in the project. The most significant results obtained by the IEEE surveys are provided in the report. A summary of the reliability data surveyed by IEEE is presented in the appendix of the report. These data are suggested to use in the absence of better data being available. The reliability data estimates were derived for sustained failure rates

  16. ["Onlay" mesh provides significantly better results than "sublay" reconstruction. Prospective randomized multicenter study of abdominal wall reconstruction with sutures only, or with surgical mesh--results of a five-years follow-up]. (United States)

    Wéber, György; Baracs, József; Horváth, Ors Péter


    There are several well-known procedures to treat abdominal wall hernias, but the results are quite controversial. The aim of study was to compare the results of different surgical modalities - mesh (onlay vs. sublay position) and suture repair - in the treatment of abdominal wall hernias. A five-year randomized, multicentric, internet-based, clinical trial was started in 2002. 953 patients were included in the study and divided into two groups according to the size of hernia orifice. In group 'A' ( n = 494) the surface of hernia orifice was between 5-25 cm 2 (small hernia), and in group 'B' ( n = 459) it was above 25 cm 2 (large hernia). Patients of these two groups were randomized according to surgery: group 'A' (suture vs. mesh) and in group 'B' (mesh in onlay vs. sublay position). In group 'A' suture repair was performed in 247, and sublay mesh implantation in 247 cases. In group 'B' sublay ( n = 235) and onlay ( n = 224) mesh reconstruction was performed. The patients were followed-up for five years. 734 patients - 77% of all randomized cases - have completed the study. In the small hernia group significantly ( p suture repair ( n = 50-27%) than in mesh repair ( n = 15-8%). In the large hernia group onlay mesh reconstruction provided significantly better ( p suture repair. In case of large hernias the recurrence rate is higher after sublay reconstruction. The randomized trial was registered on - ID number: NCT01018524.


    Waterman, Brian; Sutter, Robert; Burroughs, Thomas; Dunagan, W Claiborne


    When evaluating physician performance measures, physician leaders are faced with the quandary of determining whether departures from expected physician performance measurements represent a true signal or random error. This uncertainty impedes the physician leader's ability and confidence to take appropriate performance improvement actions based on physician performance measurements. Incorporating reliability adjustment into physician performance measurement is a valuable way of reducing the impact of random error in the measurements, such as those caused by small sample sizes. Consequently, the physician executive has more confidence that the results represent true performance and is positioned to make better physician performance improvement decisions. Applying reliability adjustment to physician-level performance data is relatively new. As others have noted previously, it's important to keep in mind that reliability adjustment adds significant complexity to the production, interpretation and utilization of results. Furthermore, the methods explored in this case study only scratch the surface of the range of available Bayesian methods that can be used for reliability adjustment; further study is needed to test and compare these methods in practice and to examine important extensions for handling specialty-specific concerns (e.g., average case volumes, which have been shown to be important in cardiac surgery outcomes). Moreover, it's important to note that the provider group average as a basis for shrinkage is one of several possible choices that could be employed in practice and deserves further exploration in future research. With these caveats, our results demonstrate that incorporating reliability adjustment into physician performance measurements is feasible and can notably reduce the incidence of "real" signals relative to what one would expect to see using more traditional approaches. A physician leader who is interested in catalyzing performance improvement

  18. Software Architecture Reliability Analysis using Failure Scenarios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tekinerdogan, B.; Sözer, Hasan; Aksit, Mehmet


    We propose a Software Architecture Reliability Analysis (SARA) approach that benefits from both reliability engineering and scenario-based software architecture analysis to provide an early reliability analysis of the software architecture. SARA makes use of failure scenarios that are prioritized

  19. Reliability-Based Code Calibration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, M.H.; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard


    The present paper addresses fundamental concepts of reliability based code calibration. First basic principles of structural reliability theory are introduced and it is shown how the results of FORM based reliability analysis may be related to partial safety factors and characteristic values....... Thereafter the code calibration problem is presented in its principal decision theoretical form and it is discussed how acceptable levels of failure probability (or target reliabilities) may be established. Furthermore suggested values for acceptable annual failure probabilities are given for ultimate...... and serviceability limit states. Finally the paper describes the Joint Committee on Structural Safety (JCSS) recommended procedure - CodeCal - for the practical implementation of reliability based code calibration of LRFD based design codes....

  20. HIV Care Providers' Attitudes regarding Mobile Phone Applications and Web-Based Dashboards to support Patient Self-Management and Care Coordination: Results from a Qualitative Feasibility Study. (United States)

    Swendeman, Dallas; Farmer, Shu; Mindry, Deborah; Lee, Sung-Jae; Medich, Melissa


    In-depth qualitative interviews were conducted with healthcare providers (HCPs) from five HIV medical care coordination teams in a large Los Angeles County HIV clinic, including physicians, nurses, and psychosocial services providers. HCPs reported on the potential utility, acceptability, and barriers for patient self-monitoring and notifications via mobile phones, and web-based dashboards for HCPs. Potential benefits included: 1) enhancing patient engagement, motivation, adherence, and self-management; and 2) improving provider-patient relationships and HCP care coordination. Newly diagnosed and patients with co-morbidities were highest priorities for mobile application support. Facilitators included universal mobile phone ownership and use of smartphones or text messaging. Patient-level barriers included concerns about low motivation and financial instability for consistent use by some patients. Organizational barriers, cited primarily by physicians, included concerns about privacy protections, easy dashboard access, non-integrated electronic records, and competing burdens in limited appointment times. Psychosocial services providers were most supportive of the proposed mobile tools.

  1. Overcoming some limitations of imprecise reliability models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kozine, Igor; Krymsky, Victor


    The application of imprecise reliability models is often hindered by the rapid growth in imprecision that occurs when many components constitute a system and by the fact that time to failure is bounded from above. The latter results in the necessity to explicitly introduce an upper bound on time ....... The main assumption consists in that failure rate is bounded. Langrage method is used to solve the non-linear program. Finally, an example is provided....

  2. Conceptions of reliability revisited and practical recommendations. (United States)

    Sijtsma, Klaas; van der Ark, L Andries


    We discuss reliability definitions from the perspectives of classical test theory, factor analysis, and generalizability theory. For each method, we discuss the rationale, the estimation of reliability, and the goodness of fit of the model that defines the reliability coefficient to the data. Similarities and differences in the three approaches are highlighted. Finally, we provide a computational example using generated data to illustrate the differences among the different reliability methods.

  3. LabPush: a pilot study of providing remote clinics with laboratory results via short message service (SMS in Swaziland, Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Shan Jian

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Turnaround time (TAT is an important indicator of laboratory performance. It is often difficult to achieve fast TAT for blood tests conducted at clinics in developing countries. This is because clinics where the patient is treated are often far away from the laboratory, and transporting blood samples and test results between the two locations creates significant delay. Recent efforts have sought to mitigate this problem by using Short Message Service (SMS to reduce TAT. Studies reporting the impact of this technique have not been published in scientific literature however. In this paper we present a study of LabPush, a system developed to test whether SMS delivery of HIV related laboratory results to clinics could shorten TAT time significantly. METHOD: LapPush was implemented in six clinics of the Kingdom of Swaziland. SMS results were sent out from the laboratory as a supplement to normal transport of paper results. Each clinic was equipped with a mobile phone to receive SMS results. The laboratory that processes the blood tests was equipped with a system for digital input of results, and transmission of results via SMS to the clinics. RESULTS: Laboratory results were received for 1041 different clinical cases. The total number of SMS records received (1032 was higher than that of paper records (965, indicating a higher loss rate for paper records. A statistical comparison of TAT for SMS and paper reports indicates a statistically significant improvement for SMS. Results were more positive for more rural clinics, and an urban clinic with high workload. CONCLUSION: SMS can be used to reduce TAT for blood tests taken at clinics in developing countries. Benefits are likely to be greater at clinics that are further away from laboratories, due to the difficulties this imposes on transport of paper records.

  4. Increased Classroom Consumption of Home-Provided Fruits and Vegetables for Normal and Overweight Children: Results of the Food Dudes Program in Italy. (United States)

    Presti, Giovambattista; Cau, Silvia; Oppo, Annalisa; Moderato, Paolo


    To increase classroom consumption of home-provided fruits (F) and vegetables (V) in obese, overweight, and normal weight children. Consumption evaluated within and across the baseline phase and the end of the intervention and maintenance phases. Three Italian primary schools. The study involved 672 children (321 male and 329 female) aged 5-11 years. Body mass index measures were available for 461 children. Intervention schools received the Food Dudes (FD) program: 16 days of repeated taste exposure (40 g of F and 40 g of V), video modeling, and rewards-based techniques. The comparison school was only repeatedly exposed to FV. Grams of FV brought from home and eaten. Chi-square, independent t test, repeated-measures ANOVA, and generalized estimating equation model. Intervention schools show a significant increase in home-provided F (P home-provided FV intake was similar in overweight and non-overweight children in the FD intervention schools compared with the comparison school. The effect of the FD program was higher at the end of the intervention phase than the end of the maintenance phase. Copyright © 2015 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. [Expectations and attitudes concerning geriatric counseling : Results of a survey among general practitioners and hospital-based providers in two German states]. (United States)

    Burkhardt, H; Trojan, C


    Expertise in geriatrics in the field of ambulatory and hospital-based treatment does not have access to comparable medical specialist structures, such as those in internal medicine and neurology; therefore, it is recommended that geriatric diagnostics by general practitioners can be supported by networking with hospital-based geriatric centers for geriatric counseling. The attitudes and experiences of both faculties in Germany are, however, not well known. Representative samples of general practitioners and hospital-based faculty departments for internal medicine in two regions of Germany (Baden-Württemberg and Hessen) were identified using a systematic selection method. All departments of geriatrics in these regions were also contacted. Participants were asked to give their attitudes and experiences regarding geriatric counseling using a questionnaire. Responses to the questionnaire were received from 48 general practices (14.9%), 42 internal medicine departments (38.5%) and 25 hospital-based geriatric centers (34.7%). Of the general practices 79.2% reported performing geriatric assessments but only 31.3% had access to geriatric counseling. Of the faculties of internal medicine 71.4% reported providing geriatric counseling of which 16.7% also provided counseling on an outpatient basis. With respect to the spectrum of actual reasons for geriatric counseling, initiation of rehabilitative measures was the main reason in both geriatric and internal medicine departments. There were differences in the estimation of suitable rating topics for geriatric counseling. Geriatric departments more frequently indicated preventive aspects compared to general internal medicine (80% vs 47.6%) and general practices (56.3%). With respect to the domain level, general practitioners rated these in the order of cognition (72.9%), social situation (70.8%), emotion (50%), locomotion (50%) and incontinence (27.1%). Noteworthy was that they also rated much lower compared to hospital

  6. Transit Reliability Information Program : Reliability Verification Demonstration Plan for Rapid Rail Vehicles (United States)


    The Transit Reliability Information Program (TRIP) is a government-initiated program to assist the transit industry in satisfying its need for transit reliability information. TRIP provides this assistance through the operation of a national Data Ban...

  7. Using Economic Experiments to Test the Effect of Reliability Pricing and Self-Sizing on the Private Provision of a Public Good Results: The Case of Constructing Water Conveyance Infrastructure to Mitigate Water Quantity and Quality Concerns in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta (United States)

    Kaplan, J.; Howitt, R. E.; Kroll, S.


    Public financing of public projects is becoming more difficult with growing political and financial pressure to reduce the size and scope of government action. Private provision is possible but is often doomed by under-provision. If however, market-like mechanisms could be incorporated into the solicitation of funds to finance the provision of the good, because, for example, the good is supplied stochastically and is divisible, then we would expect fewer incentives to free ride and greater efficiency in providing the public good. In a controlled computer-based economic experiment, we evaluate two market-like conditions (reliability pricing allocation and self-sizing of the good) that are designed to reduce under-provision. The results suggest that financing an infrastructure project when the delivery is allocated based on reliability pricing rather than historical allocation results in significantly greater price formation efficiency and less free riding whether the project is of a fixed size determined by external policy makers or determined endogenously by the sum of private contributions. When reliability pricing and self-sizing (endogenous) mechanism are used in combination free-riding is reduced the greatest among the tested treatments. Furthermore, and as expected, self-sizing when combined with historical allocations results in the worst level of free-riding. This setting for this treatment creates an incentive to undervalue willingness to pay since very low contributions still return positive earnings as long as enough contributions are raised for a single unit. If everyone perceives everyone else is undervaluing their contribution the incentive grows stronger and we see the greatest degree of free riding among the treatments. Lastly, the results from the analysis suggested that the rebate rule may have encouraged those with willingness to pay values less than the cost of the project to feel confident when contributing more than their willingness to pay and

  8. Nonspecialist Raters Can Provide Reliable Assessments of Procedural Skills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahmood, Oria; Dagnæs, Julia; Bube, Sarah


    skills which is difficult owing to the limited availability of faculty time. The aim of this study was to explore the validity of assessments of video recorded procedures performed by nonspecialist raters. METHODS: This study was a blinded observational trial. Twenty-three novices (senior medical...

  9. Service Reliability of Batelec–1 in Selected Barangays of Calatagan, Batangas, Philippines: Basis for an Action Plan




    This study aimed to help Batelec-1 in Calatagan to expand and improve their service to provide a more reliable service to end – users. Descriptive type of research method was utilized in the study. The results reveal that the overall assessment of the respondents on the level of service reliability in terms of construction services was reliable. However, clearing of line schedule and available maintenance equipment and machine was assessed less reliable. On the level of consume...

  10. Measuring Service Reliability Using Automatic Vehicle Location Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenliang Ma


    Full Text Available Bus service reliability has become a major concern for both operators and passengers. Buffer time measures are believed to be appropriate to approximate passengers' experienced reliability in the context of departure planning. Two issues with regard to buffer time estimation are addressed, namely, performance disaggregation and capturing passengers’ perspectives on reliability. A Gaussian mixture models based method is applied to disaggregate the performance data. Based on the mixture models distribution, a reliability buffer time (RBT measure is proposed from passengers’ perspective. A set of expected reliability buffer time measures is developed for operators by using different spatial-temporal levels combinations of RBTs. The average and the latest trip duration measures are proposed for passengers that can be used to choose a service mode and determine the departure time. Using empirical data from the automatic vehicle location system in Brisbane, Australia, the existence of mixture service states is verified and the advantage of mixture distribution model in fitting travel time profile is demonstrated. Numerical experiments validate that the proposed reliability measure is capable of quantifying service reliability consistently, while the conventional ones may provide inconsistent results. Potential applications for operators and passengers are also illustrated, including reliability improvement and trip planning.

  11. Using a high-flow nasal cannula provided superior results to low-flow oxygen delivery in moderate to severe bronchiolitis. (United States)

    Milani, Gregorio P; Plebani, Anna M; Arturi, Elisa; Brusa, Danila; Esposito, Susanna; Dell'Era, Laura; Laicini, Emanuela A; Consonni, Dario; Agostoni, Carlo; Fossali, Emilio F


    An observational study was carried out on infants with moderate to severe bronchiolitis to compare the clinical outcomes following treatment with a high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) or standard low-flow oxygen. We enrolled subjects below 12 months of age who were affected by their first bronchiolitis episode. Non-formal randomisation, based on HFNC availability, was used to assign subjects to either the HFNC or standard oxygen groups. Respiratory rate, respiratory effort and the ability to feed were compared between the two groups at enrolment and at regular time points. The oxygen requirements and the length of hospital stay were also analysed. Overall, 36 of the 40 enrolled infants completed the study: 18 treated with HFNC (mean age 3.2 months, range 1.2-5.4 months) and 18 with low-flow oxygen delivery (mean age 3.6 months, range 1.3-5.0 months). Improvements in the respiratory rate, respiratory effort and ability to feed were significantly faster in the HFNC group than the low-flow oxygen group. The HNFC group needed oxygen supplementation for two days less than the other group and hospital stays were three days shorter. HFNC provided superior clinical outcomes for infants under 12 months with moderate-to-severe bronchiolitis compared to low-flow oxygen. ©2016 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Single-site laparoscopic colorectal surgery provides similar lengths of hospital stay and similar costs compared with standard laparoscopy: results of a retrospective cohort study. (United States)

    Stewart, David B; Berg, Arthur; Messaris, Evangelos


    The present study sought to compare the length of stay (LOS) and hospital costs for elective single-site (SSL) and standard laparoscopic (SDL) colorectal resections performed at a tertiary referral center. An IRB-approved, retrospective cohort study of all elective SDL and SSL colorectal resections performed from 2008 to 2012 was undertaken. Patient charges and inflation adjusted hospital costs (US dollars) were compared with costs subcategorized by operating room expense, room and board, and pharmacy and radiology utilization. A total of 149 SDL and 111 SSL cases were identified. Compared with SSL, SDL surgeries were associated with longer median operative times (SSL: 153 min vs. SDL: 189 min, p = 0.001); however, median operating room costs were similar (p > 0.05). Median postoperative LOS was similar for both groups (SSL: 3 days; SDL: 4 days; p > 0.05). There was no difference between SSL and SDL with respect to either total patient charges (SSL: $34,847 vs. SDL: $38,306; p > 0.05) or hospital costs (SSL: $13,051 vs. SDL: $12,703; p > 0.05). Median costs during readmission were lower for SSL patients (SSL: $3,625 vs. SDL: $6,203, p = 0.04). SSL provides similar LOS as well as similar costs to both patients and hospitals compared with SDL, making it a cost-feasible alternative.

  13. Coupling 2H and 18O biomarker results provides new insight into palaeohumidity changes in East Africa during the last glacial (United States)

    Hepp, Johannes; Zech, Roland; Tuthorn, Mario; Glaser, Bruno; Rozanski, Kazimierz; Zech, Wolfgang; Zech, Michael


    We couple compound-specific δ2H results of leaf wax-derived n-alkanes with compound-specific δ18O results of hemicellulose-derived sugars extracted from the loess-paleosol-sequence Maundi (3° 10'27.5'S, 37° 31'05.8'E) located on the south-eastern slopes of Mt. Kilimanjaro at ~ 2780 m above sea level. This coupled biomarker approach allows inter alia establishing a ca. 100 ka record of the isotopic composition of leaf water. Accordingly, the deuterium-excess of leaf water may serve as a proxy for palaeohumidity. Furthermore, the coupled biomarker approach allows reconstructing the isotopic composition of palaeoprecipitation (by using the slope the local evaporation line derived from a simple Craig-Gordon model). Our results suggest that sedimentary δ2Hleaf-wax records should not be interpreted directly in terms of reflecting δ2Hprec because variable leaf water evaporative enrichment can strongly overprint the δ2Hprec signal. The Maundi δ2Hn-alkane record can be compared with δ2Hwax records from Lake Challa, Lake Tanganyika and Lake Malawi. Accordingly, the Maundi δ2Hn-alkane record is generally in good agreement with the Lake Challa and the Lake Tanganyika δ2Hwax records. However, a clear altitude effect can be seen in the δ2H records (Maundi: 2780 m a.s.l.; Lake Challa: 880 m a.s.l.; Lake Tanganyika: 773 m a.s.l.; Lake Malawi: 474 m a.s.l.). Moreover, the Maundi δ2Hn-alkane record reveals a clear smaller range compared to the other δ2Hwax records. Finally, especially the Lake Malawi δ2Hwax record reveals also clearly different features than the other available δ2Hwax records. These differences resulted in different interpretations of the δ2Hwax records (amount effect vs. source effect). Our coupled δ18Osugar and δ2Hn-alkane approach sheds new light into this discussion. In brief, reconstructed low deuterium-excessleaf-water values during the African Humid Period (AHP) indicate humid climatic conditions. By contrast, higher deuterium

  14. Human Reliability Program Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodin, Michael


    This presentation covers the high points of the Human Reliability Program, including certification/decertification, critical positions, due process, organizational structure, program components, personnel security, an overview of the US DOE reliability program, retirees and academia, and security program integration.

  15. Improving Software Reliability Forecasting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burtsy, Bernard; Albeanu, Grigore; Boros, Dragos N.; Popentiu, Florin; Nicola, V.F.


    This work investigates some methods for software reliability forecasting. A supermodel is presented as a suited tool for prediction of reliability in software project development. Also, times series forecasting for cumulative interfailure time is proposed and illustrated.

  16. Topical Treatment With an Agent Disruptive to em>P. acnesem> Biofilm Provides Positive Therapeutic Response: Results of a Randomized Clinical Trial. (United States)

    Bernhardt, Michael J; Myntti, Matthew F


    The traditional disease model of acne has been one of follicular plugging due to 'sticky epithelial cells' associated with increased sebum production with deep follicular anaerobic conditions favoring em>P. acnesem>- generated inflammation. em>P. acnesem> biofilms have been found more frequently in patients with acne than controls. Biofilms are genetically coded to create adhesion to the pilosebaceous unit followed by production of a mucopolysaccharide coating capable of binding to lipid surfaces. Traditional therapies for acne have involved mixtures of oral and topical antibiotics admixed with topical keratolytics and retinoids, which are aimed at traditional bacterial reduction as well as downregulating the inflammatory cascade. These approaches are limited by side effect and compliance/tolerability issues. As the em>P. acnesem> biofilm may, in fact, be the instigator of this process, we studied the use of a topical agent designed to reduce the em>P. acnesem> biofilm to see if reducing the biofilm would be therapeutically efficacious. We present data of a proprietary topical non-prescription agent with a novel pharmaco mechanism designed to attack the biofilm produced by em>P. acnesem>. Our data shows a decrease of inflammatory lesions by 44% and non-inflammatory lesions by 32% after 12 weeks and also provided for a meaningful improvement in the quality of life of the patients in the study. These improvements were achieved with a product that was not associated with burning, chafing, irritation, or erythema, which can be seen with topical treatments. It is apparent from this study that by addressing the biofilm which protects the em>P. acnesem> bacteria through the use of the Acne Gel, the incidence of acne symptoms can be greatly reduced, while having no negative impacts on the patients' skin ( registry number NCT02404285). em>J Drugs Dermatol. em>2016;15(6):677-683.

  17. Reliable Design Versus Trust (United States)

    Berg, Melanie; LaBel, Kenneth A.


    This presentation focuses on reliability and trust for the users portion of the FPGA design flow. It is assumed that the manufacturer prior to hand-off to the user tests FPGA internal components. The objective is to present the challenges of creating reliable and trusted designs. The following will be addressed: What makes a design vulnerable to functional flaws (reliability) or attackers (trust)? What are the challenges for verifying a reliable design versus a trusted design?


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. R. Selskyy


    Full Text Available The article describes an implementation experience of the innovative assessment methods at the I. Ya. Horbachevsky Ternopil State Medical University. The method of comparative analysis of the quality of the pre-graduation training of medical doctors in different investigational groups is proposed. In order to develop the integral descriptor of the training quality of the medical professionals for the job at the primary level of healthcare and medical treatment, the Saati method of hierarchies analysis was used as a result of the problem solution on the applied system analysis. The developed descriptor can be used for individual student, entire course, faculty, university, or for the corresponding entity as a whole.

  19. Providing researchers with online access to NHLBI biospecimen collections: The results of the first six years of the NHLBI BioLINCC program. (United States)

    Giffen, Carol A; Wagner, Elizabeth L; Adams, John T; Hitchcock, Denise M; Welniak, Lisbeth A; Brennan, Sean P; Carroll, Leslie E


    The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI), within the United States' National Institutes of Health (NIH), established the Biologic Specimen and Data Repository Information Coordinating Center (BioLINCC) in 2008 to develop the infrastructure needed to link the contents of the NHLBI Biorepository and the NHLBI Data Repository, and to promote the utilization of these scientific resources by the broader research community. Program utilization metrics were developed to measure the impact of BioLINCC on Biorepository access by researchers, including visibility, program efficiency, user characteristics, scientific impact, and research types. Input data elements were defined and are continually populated as requests move through the process of initiation through fulfillment and publication. This paper reviews the elements of the tracking metrics which were developed for BioLINCC and reports the results for the first six on-line years of the program.

  20. Can Bias Evaluation Provide Protection Against False-Negative Results in QT Studies Without a Positive Control Using Exposure-Response Analysis? (United States)

    Ferber, Georg; Zhou, Meijian; Dota, Corina; Garnett, Christine; Keirns, James; Malik, Marek; Stockbridge, Norman; Darpo, Borje


    The revised ICH E14 document allows the use of exposure-response analysis to exclude a small QT effect of a drug. If plasma concentrations exceeding clinically relevant levels is achieved, a positive control is not required. In cases when this cannot be achieved, there may be a need for metrics to protect against false-negative results. The objectives of this study were to create bias in electrocardiogram laboratory QT-interval measurements and define a metric that can be used to detect bias severe enough to cause false-negative results using exposure-response analysis. Data from the IQ-CSRC study, which evaluated the QT effect of 5 QT-prolonging drugs, were used. Negative bias using 3 deterministic and 2 random methods was introduced into the reported QTc values and compared with fully automated data from the underlying electrocardiogram algorithm (COMPAS). The slope estimate of the Bland-Altman plot was used as a bias metric. With the deterministic bias methods, negative bias, measured between electrocardiogram laboratory values and COMPAS, had to be larger than approximately -20 milliseconds over a QTcF range of 100 milliseconds to cause failures to predict the QT effect of ondansetron, quinine, dolasetron, moxifloxacin, and dofetilide. With the random methods, the rate of false-negatives was ≤5% with bias severity < -10 milliseconds for all 5 drugs when plasma levels exceeded those of interest. Severe and therefore detectable bias has to be introduced into reported QTc values to cause false-negative predictions with exposure-response analysis. © 2016, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  1. Repellent plants provide affordable natural screening to prevent mosquito house entry in tropical rural settings--results from a pilot efficacy study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank C Mng'ong'o

    Full Text Available Sustained malaria control is underway using a combination of vector control, prompt diagnosis and treatment of malaria cases. Progress is excellent, but for long-term control, low-cost, sustainable tools that supplement existing control programs are needed. Conventional vector control tools such as indoor residual spraying and house screening are highly effective, but difficult to deliver in rural areas. Therefore, an additional means of reducing mosquito house entry was evaluated: the screening of mosquito house entry points by planting the tall and densely foliated repellent plant Lantana camara L. around houses. A pilot efficacy study was performed in Kagera Region, Tanzania in an area of high seasonal malaria transmission, where consenting families within the study village planted L. camara (Lantana around their homes and were responsible for maintaining the plants. Questionnaire data on house design, socioeconomic status, malaria prevention knowledge, attitude and practices was collected from 231 houses with Lantana planted around them 90 houses without repellent plants. Mosquitoes were collected using CDC Light Traps between September 2008 and July 2009. Data were analysed with generalised negative binomial regression, controlling for the effect of sampling period. Indoor catches of mosquitoes in houses with Lantana were compared using the Incidence Rate Ratio (IRR relative to houses without plants in an adjusted analysis. There were 56% fewer Anopheles gambiae s.s. (IRR 0.44, 95% CI 0.28-0.68, p<0.0001; 83% fewer Anopheles funestus s.s. (IRR 0.17, 95% CI 0.09-0.32, p<0.0001, and 50% fewer mosquitoes of any kind (IRR 0.50, 95% CI 0.38-0.67, p<0.0001 in houses with Lantana relative to controls. House screening using Lantana reduced indoor densities of malaria vectors and nuisance mosquitoes with broad community acceptance. Providing sufficient plants for one home costs US $1.50 including maintenance and labour costs, (30 cents per person. L

  2. Principles of Bridge Reliability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle; Nowak, Andrzej S.

    The paper gives a brief introduction to the basic principles of structural reliability theory and its application to bridge engineering. Fundamental concepts like failure probability and reliability index are introduced. Ultimate as well as serviceability limit states for bridges are formulated......, and as an example the reliability profile and a sensitivity analyses for a corroded reinforced concrete bridge is shown....

  3. Integrated system reliability analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gintautas, Tomas; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    Specific targets: 1) The report shall describe the state of the art of reliability and risk-based assessment of wind turbine components. 2) Development of methodology for reliability and risk-based assessment of the wind turbine at system level. 3) Describe quantitative and qualitative measures...... (indicators) that can be used to assess the reliability of innovations and new technologies....

  4. Power system reliability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allan, R.; Billinton, Roy (Manchester Univ. (United Kingdom). Inst. of Science and Technology Saskatchewan Univ., Saskatoon, SK (Canada))


    The function of an electric power system is to satisfy the system load as economically as possible and with a reasonable assurance of continuity or reliability. The application of quantitative reliability techniques in planning and operation has increased considerably in the past few years. Reliability evaluation is now becoming an integral part of the economic comparison of alternatives (6 figures, 17 references) (Author)

  5. Load Control System Reliability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trudnowski, Daniel [Montana Tech of the Univ. of Montana, Butte, MT (United States)


    This report summarizes the results of the Load Control System Reliability project (DOE Award DE-FC26-06NT42750). The original grant was awarded to Montana Tech April 2006. Follow-on DOE awards and expansions to the project scope occurred August 2007, January 2009, April 2011, and April 2013. In addition to the DOE monies, the project also consisted of matching funds from the states of Montana and Wyoming. Project participants included Montana Tech; the University of Wyoming; Montana State University; NorthWestern Energy, Inc., and MSE. Research focused on two areas: real-time power-system load control methodologies; and, power-system measurement-based stability-assessment operation and control tools. The majority of effort was focused on area 2. Results from the research includes: development of fundamental power-system dynamic concepts, control schemes, and signal-processing algorithms; many papers (including two prize papers) in leading journals and conferences and leadership of IEEE activities; one patent; participation in major actual-system testing in the western North American power system; prototype power-system operation and control software installed and tested at three major North American control centers; and, the incubation of a new commercial-grade operation and control software tool. Work under this grant certainly supported the DOE-OE goals in the area of “Real Time Grid Reliability Management.”

  6. Optimal, Reliability-Based Code Calibration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard


    Reliability based code calibration is considered in this paper. It is described how the results of FORM based reliability analysis may be related to the partial safety factors and characteristic values. The code calibration problem is presented in a decision theoretical form and it is discussed how...... of reliability based code calibration of LRFD based design codes....

  7. Gerontechnology: Providing a Helping Hand When Caring for Cognitively Impaired Older Adults—Intermediate Results from a Controlled Study on the Satisfaction and Acceptance of Informal Caregivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anelia Mitseva


    Full Text Available The incidence of cognitive impairment in older age is increasing, as is the number of cognitively impaired older adults living in their own homes. Due to lack of social care resources for these adults and their desires to remain in their own homes and live as independently as possible, research shows that the current standard care provisions are inadequate. Promising opportunities exist in using home assistive technology services to foster healthy aging and to realize the unmet needs of these groups of citizens in a user-centered manner. ISISEMD project has designed, implemented, verified, and assessed an assistive technology platform of personalized home care (telecare for the elderly with cognitive impairments and their caregivers by offering intelligent home support services. Regions from four European countries have carried out long-term pilot-controlled study in real-life conditions. This paper presents the outcomes from intermediate evaluations pertaining to user satisfaction with the system, acceptance of the technology and the services, and quality of life outcomes as a result of utilizing the services.

  8. Adamtsl2 deletion results in bronchial fibrillin microfibril accumulation and bronchial epithelial dysplasia – a novel mouse model providing insights into geleophysic dysplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Hubmacher


    Full Text Available Mutations in the secreted glycoprotein ADAMTSL2 cause recessive geleophysic dysplasia (GD in humans and Musladin–Lueke syndrome (MLS in dogs. GD is a severe, often lethal, condition presenting with short stature, brachydactyly, stiff skin, joint contractures, tracheal-bronchial stenosis and cardiac valve anomalies, whereas MLS is non-lethal and characterized by short stature and severe skin fibrosis. Although most mutations in fibrillin-1 (FBN1 cause Marfan syndrome (MFS, a microfibril disorder leading to transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ dysregulation, domain-specific FBN1 mutations result in dominant GD. ADAMTSL2 has been previously shown to bind FBN1 and latent TGFβ-binding protein-1 (LTBP1. Here, we investigated mice with targeted Adamtsl2 inactivation as a new model for GD (Adamtsl2−/− mice. An intragenic lacZ reporter in these mice showed that ADAMTSL2 was produced exclusively by bronchial smooth muscle cells during embryonic lung development. Adamtsl2−/− mice, which died at birth, had severe bronchial epithelial dysplasia with abnormal glycogen-rich inclusions in bronchial epithelium resembling the cellular anomalies described previously in GD. An increase in microfibrils in the bronchial wall was associated with increased FBN2 and microfibril-associated glycoprotein-1 (MAGP1 staining, whereas LTBP1 staining was increased in bronchial epithelium. ADAMTSL2 was shown to bind directly to FBN2 with an affinity comparable to FBN1. The observed extracellular matrix (ECM alterations were associated with increased bronchial epithelial TGFβ signaling at 17.5 days of gestation; however, treatment with TGFβ-neutralizing antibody did not correct the epithelial dysplasia. These investigations reveal a new function of ADAMTSL2 in modulating microfibril formation, and a previously unsuspected association with FBN2. Our studies suggest that the bronchial epithelial dysplasia accompanying microfibril dysregulation in Adamtsl2−/− mice

  9. Quantifying reliability uncertainty : a proof of concept.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diegert, Kathleen V.; Dvorack, Michael A.; Ringland, James T.; Mundt, Michael Joseph; Huzurbazar, Aparna (Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM); Lorio, John F.; Fatherley, Quinn (Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM); Anderson-Cook, Christine (Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM); Wilson, Alyson G. (Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM); Zurn, Rena M.


    This paper develops Classical and Bayesian methods for quantifying the uncertainty in reliability for a system of mixed series and parallel components for which both go/no-go and variables data are available. Classical methods focus on uncertainty due to sampling error. Bayesian methods can explore both sampling error and other knowledge-based uncertainties. To date, the reliability community has focused on qualitative statements about uncertainty because there was no consensus on how to quantify them. This paper provides a proof of concept that workable, meaningful quantification methods can be constructed. In addition, the application of the methods demonstrated that the results from the two fundamentally different approaches can be quite comparable. In both approaches, results are sensitive to the details of how one handles components for which no failures have been seen in relatively few tests.

  10. Developing Reliable Life Support for Mars (United States)

    Jones, Harry W.


    A human mission to Mars will require highly reliable life support systems. Mars life support systems may recycle water and oxygen using systems similar to those on the International Space Station (ISS). However, achieving sufficient reliability is less difficult for ISS than it will be for Mars. If an ISS system has a serious failure, it is possible to provide spare parts, or directly supply water or oxygen, or if necessary bring the crew back to Earth. Life support for Mars must be designed, tested, and improved as needed to achieve high demonstrated reliability. A quantitative reliability goal should be established and used to guide development t. The designers should select reliable components and minimize interface and integration problems. In theory a system can achieve the component-limited reliability, but testing often reveal unexpected failures due to design mistakes or flawed components. Testing should extend long enough to detect any unexpected failure modes and to verify the expected reliability. Iterated redesign and retest may be required to achieve the reliability goal. If the reliability is less than required, it may be improved by providing spare components or redundant systems. The number of spares required to achieve a given reliability goal depends on the component failure rate. If the failure rate is under estimated, the number of spares will be insufficient and the system may fail. If the design is likely to have undiscovered design or component problems, it is advisable to use dissimilar redundancy, even though this multiplies the design and development cost. In the ideal case, a human tended closed system operational test should be conducted to gain confidence in operations, maintenance, and repair. The difficulty in achieving high reliability in unproven complex systems may require the use of simpler, more mature, intrinsically higher reliability systems. The limitations of budget, schedule, and technology may suggest accepting lower and

  11. Supply chain reliability modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugen Zaitsev


    Full Text Available Background: Today it is virtually impossible to operate alone on the international level in the logistics business. This promotes the establishment and development of new integrated business entities - logistic operators. However, such cooperation within a supply chain creates also many problems related to the supply chain reliability as well as the optimization of the supplies planning. The aim of this paper was to develop and formulate the mathematical model and algorithms to find the optimum plan of supplies by using economic criterion and the model for the probability evaluating of non-failure operation of supply chain. Methods: The mathematical model and algorithms to find the optimum plan of supplies were developed and formulated by using economic criterion and the model for the probability evaluating of non-failure operation of supply chain. Results and conclusions: The problem of ensuring failure-free performance of goods supply channel analyzed in the paper is characteristic of distributed network systems that make active use of business process outsourcing technologies. The complex planning problem occurring in such systems that requires taking into account the consumer's requirements for failure-free performance in terms of supply volumes and correctness can be reduced to a relatively simple linear programming problem through logical analysis of the structures. The sequence of the operations, which should be taken into account during the process of the supply planning with the supplier's functional reliability, was presented.

  12. Developing Ultra Reliable Life Support for the Moon and Mars (United States)

    Jones, Harry W.


    Recycling life support systems can achieve ultra reliability by using spares to replace failed components. The added mass for spares is approximately equal to the original system mass, provided the original system reliability is not very low. Acceptable reliability can be achieved for the space shuttle and space station by preventive maintenance and by replacing failed units, However, this maintenance and repair depends on a logistics supply chain that provides the needed spares. The Mars mission must take all the needed spares at launch. The Mars mission also must achieve ultra reliability, a very low failure rate per hour, since it requires years rather than weeks and cannot be cut short if a failure occurs. Also, the Mars mission has a much higher mass launch cost per kilogram than shuttle or station. Achieving ultra reliable space life support with acceptable mass will require a well-planned and extensive development effort. Analysis must define the reliability requirement and allocate it to subsystems and components. Technologies, components, and materials must be designed and selected for high reliability. Extensive testing is needed to ascertain very low failure rates. Systems design should segregate the failure causes in the smallest, most easily replaceable parts. The systems must be designed, produced, integrated, and tested without impairing system reliability. Maintenance and failed unit replacement should not introduce any additional probability of failure. The overall system must be tested sufficiently to identify any design errors. A program to develop ultra reliable space life support systems with acceptable mass must start soon if it is to produce timely results for the moon and Mars.

  13. Reliability in the design phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siahpush, A.S.; Hills, S.W.; Pham, H. (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)); Majumdar, D. (USDOE Idaho Field Office, Idaho Falls, ID (United States))


    A study was performed to determine the common methods and tools that are available to calculated or predict a system's reliability. A literature review and software survey are included. The desired product of this developmental work is a tool for the system designer to use in the early design phase so that the final design will achieve the desired system reliability without lengthy testing and rework. Three computer programs were written which provide the first attempt at fulfilling this need. The programs are described and a case study is presented for each one. This is a continuing effort which will be furthered in FY-1992. 10 refs.

  14. Reliability in the design phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siahpush, A.S.; Hills, S.W.; Pham, H. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Majumdar, D. [USDOE Idaho Field Office, Idaho Falls, ID (United States)


    A study was performed to determine the common methods and tools that are available to calculated or predict a system`s reliability. A literature review and software survey are included. The desired product of this developmental work is a tool for the system designer to use in the early design phase so that the final design will achieve the desired system reliability without lengthy testing and rework. Three computer programs were written which provide the first attempt at fulfilling this need. The programs are described and a case study is presented for each one. This is a continuing effort which will be furthered in FY-1992. 10 refs.

  15. Reliability evaluation of microgrid considering incentive-based demand response (United States)

    Huang, Ting-Cheng; Zhang, Yong-Jun


    Incentive-based demand response (IBDR) can guide customers to adjust their behaviour of electricity and curtail load actively. Meanwhile, distributed generation (DG) and energy storage system (ESS) can provide time for the implementation of IBDR. The paper focus on the reliability evaluation of microgrid considering IBDR. Firstly, the mechanism of IBDR and its impact on power supply reliability are analysed. Secondly, the IBDR dispatch model considering customer’s comprehensive assessment and the customer response model are developed. Thirdly, the reliability evaluation method considering IBDR based on Monte Carlo simulation is proposed. Finally, the validity of the above models and method is studied through numerical tests on modified RBTS Bus6 test system. Simulation results demonstrated that IBDR can improve the reliability of microgrid.

  16. Reliability analysis of component of affination centrifugal 1 machine by using reliability engineering (United States)

    Sembiring, N.; Ginting, E.; Darnello, T.


    Problems that appear in a company that produces refined sugar, the production floor has not reached the level of critical machine availability because it often suffered damage (breakdown). This results in a sudden loss of production time and production opportunities. This problem can be solved by Reliability Engineering method where the statistical approach to historical damage data is performed to see the pattern of the distribution. The method can provide a value of reliability, rate of damage, and availability level, of an machine during the maintenance time interval schedule. The result of distribution test to time inter-damage data (MTTF) flexible hose component is lognormal distribution while component of teflon cone lifthing is weibull distribution. While from distribution test to mean time of improvement (MTTR) flexible hose component is exponential distribution while component of teflon cone lifthing is weibull distribution. The actual results of the flexible hose component on the replacement schedule per 720 hours obtained reliability of 0.2451 and availability 0.9960. While on the critical components of teflon cone lifthing actual on the replacement schedule per 1944 hours obtained reliability of 0.4083 and availability 0.9927.

  17. Reliability and safety engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Verma, Ajit Kumar; Karanki, Durga Rao


    Reliability and safety are core issues that must be addressed throughout the life cycle of engineering systems. Reliability and Safety Engineering presents an overview of the basic concepts, together with simple and practical illustrations. The authors present reliability terminology in various engineering fields, viz.,electronics engineering, software engineering, mechanical engineering, structural engineering and power systems engineering. The book describes the latest applications in the area of probabilistic safety assessment, such as technical specification optimization, risk monitoring and risk informed in-service inspection. Reliability and safety studies must, inevitably, deal with uncertainty, so the book includes uncertainty propagation methods: Monte Carlo simulation, fuzzy arithmetic, Dempster-Shafer theory and probability bounds. Reliability and Safety Engineering also highlights advances in system reliability and safety assessment including dynamic system modeling and uncertainty management. Cas...

  18. Structural Reliability Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager; Madsen, H. O.

    The structural reliability methods quantitatively treat the uncertainty of predicting the behaviour and properties of a structure given the uncertain properties of its geometry, materials, and the actions it is supposed to withstand. This book addresses the probabilistic methods for evaluation...... of structural reliability, including the theoretical basis for these methods. Partial safety factor codes under current practice are briefly introduced and discussed. A probabilistic code format for obtaining a formal reliability evaluation system that catches the most essential features of the nature...

  19. Reliable computation from contextual correlations (United States)

    Oestereich, André L.; Galvão, Ernesto F.


    An operational approach to the study of computation based on correlations considers black boxes with one-bit inputs and outputs, controlled by a limited classical computer capable only of performing sums modulo-two. In this setting, it was shown that noncontextual correlations do not provide any extra computational power, while contextual correlations were found to be necessary for the deterministic evaluation of nonlinear Boolean functions. Here we investigate the requirements for reliable computation in this setting; that is, the evaluation of any Boolean function with success probability bounded away from 1 /2 . We show that bipartite CHSH quantum correlations suffice for reliable computation. We also prove that an arbitrarily small violation of a multipartite Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger noncontextuality inequality also suffices for reliable computation.

  20. Measurement System Reliability Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kłos Ryszard


    Full Text Available Decision-making in problem situations is based on up-to-date and reliable information. A great deal of information is subject to rapid changes, hence it may be outdated or manipulated and enforce erroneous decisions. It is crucial to have the possibility to assess the obtained information. In order to ensure its reliability it is best to obtain it with an own measurement process. In such a case, conducting assessment of measurement system reliability seems to be crucial. The article describes general approach to assessing reliability of measurement systems.

  1. Reliability assurance for regulation of advanced reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fullwood, R.; Lofaro, R.; Samanta, P.


    The advanced nuclear power plants must achieve higher levels of safety than the first generation of plants. Showing that this is indeed true provides new challenges to reliability and risk assessment methods in the analysis of the designs employing passive and semi-passive protection. Reliability assurance of the advanced reactor systems is important for determining the safety of the design and for determining the plant operability. Safety is the primary concern, but operability is considered indicative of good and safe operation. This paper discusses several concerns for reliability assurance of the advanced design encompassing reliability determination, level of detail required in advanced reactor submittals, data for reliability assurance, systems interactions and common cause effects, passive component reliability, PRA-based configuration control system, and inspection, training, maintenance and test requirements. Suggested approaches are provided for addressing each of these topics.

  2. Spacecraft reliability/maintainability optimization. (United States)

    Sharmahd, J. N.


    Description of a procedure to develop a methodology to optimize man-serviced systems for reliability and maintainability. The spacecraft systems are analyzed using failure modes and effects analysis and maintenance analysis, component mean-time-between failure, duty cycle, type of redundancy, and cost information to develop parametric data on various time intervals. Included are crew time-to-repair, cost, weight, and volume effects of increasing subsystem reliability above the baseline. Results are presented for space systems using the existing data from a research and applications module. These results show the minimum cost of sustaining mission operations.

  3. Robust and reliable fuel cells; Robusta och tillfoerlitliga braensleceller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordlund, Joakim [Cellkraft AB, Stockholm (Sweden)


    For fuel cells to be a viable alternative for backup power in applications, where reliability is a critical factor, the reliability of fuel cells has to be high and documented. Based on intrinsic properties of fuel cells, it is safe to argue that it is possible to make them highly reliable, but to unleash the full reliability potential of fuel cells, some great engineering work has to be performed. Cellkraft has since many years been addressing this issue and this project is an important piece of this puzzle. The project included both a large number of laboratory testing of fuel cells and long experiments in field environment to verify the results from the laboratory work. The development work performed within this project is a solid base for the continuous work to fulfil Cellkraft's own, tough, technical reliability targets. The project targets below were achieved within this project: 1. The fuel cell start with 100 % reliability. 2. The fuel cell provides nominal power within 30 seconds in 100 % of the cases. 3. The fuel cell keeps providing nominal power as long as there is a demand in 100 % of the cases. 4. No cell in the fuel cell deviates from the mean cell potential with more than 0,1 V at full power.

  4. Reliability Characteristics of Power Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbynek Martinek


    Full Text Available This paper describes the phenomenon of reliability of power plants. It gives an explanation of the terms connected with this topic as their proper understanding is important for understanding the relations and equations which model the possible real situations. The reliability phenomenon is analysed using both the exponential distribution and the Weibull distribution. The results of our analysis are specific equations giving information about the characteristics of the power plants, the mean time of operations and the probability of failure-free operation. Equations solved for the Weibull distribution respect the failures as well as the actual operating hours. Thanks to our results, we are able to create a model of dynamic reliability for prediction of future states. It can be useful for improving the current situation of the unit as well as for creating the optimal plan of maintenance and thus have an impact on the overall economics of the operation of these power plants.

  5. Reliability Modeling of Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kostandyan, Erik

    Cost reductions for offshore wind turbines are a substantial requirement in order to make offshore wind energy more competitive compared to other energy supply methods. During the 20 – 25 years of wind turbines useful life, Operation & Maintenance costs are typically estimated to be a quarter...... to one third of the total cost of energy. Reduction of Operation & Maintenance costs will result in significant cost savings and result in cheaper electricity production. Operation & Maintenance processes mainly involve actions related to replacements or repair. Identifying the right times when...... for Operation & Maintenance planning. Concentrating efforts on development of such models, this research is focused on reliability modeling of Wind Turbine critical subsystems (especially the power converter system). For reliability assessment of these components, structural reliability methods are applied...

  6. Reliability modelling and simulation of switched linear system ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thus, constructing a subsystem Markov model and matching its parameters with the specified safety factors provides the basis for the entire system analysis. For the system simulation, temporal databases and predictive control algorithm are designed. The simulation results are analyzed to assess the reliability of the system ...

  7. Reliable Communication in Wireless Meshed Networks using Network Coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pahlevani, Peyman; Paramanathan, Achuthan; Hundebøll, Martin


    The advantages of network coding have been extensively studied in the field of wireless networks. Integrating network coding with existing IEEE 802.11 MAC layer is a challenging problem. The IEEE 802.11 MAC does not provide any reliability mechanisms for overheard packets. This paper addresses th...... introduce some signaling overhead, the results show that the performance is yet improved....

  8. Applying reliability models to the maintenance of Space Shuttle software (United States)

    Schneidewind, Norman F.


    Software reliability models provide the software manager with a powerful tool for predicting, controlling, and assessing the reliability of software during maintenance. We show how a reliability model can be effectively employed for reliability prediction and the development of maintenance strategies using the Space Shuttle Primary Avionics Software Subsystem as an example.

  9. Reliability Considerations for the Operation of Large Accelerator User Facilities

    CERN Document Server

    Willeke, F.J.


    The lecture provides an overview of considerations relevant for achieving highly reliable operation of accelerator based user facilities. The article starts with an overview of statistical reliability formalism which is followed by high reliability design considerations with examples. The article closes with operational aspects of high reliability such as preventive maintenance and spares inventory.

  10. Structural Reliability Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager; Madsen, H. O.

    of structural reliability, including the theoretical basis for these methods. Partial safety factor codes under current practice are briefly introduced and discussed. A probabilistic code format for obtaining a formal reliability evaluation system that catches the most essential features of the nature...

  11. Hawaii Electric System Reliability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loose, Verne William [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Silva Monroy, Cesar Augusto [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    This report addresses Hawaii electric system reliability issues; greater emphasis is placed on short-term reliability but resource adequacy is reviewed in reference to electric consumers’ views of reliability “worth” and the reserve capacity required to deliver that value. The report begins with a description of the Hawaii electric system to the extent permitted by publicly available data. Electrical engineering literature in the area of electric reliability is researched and briefly reviewed. North American Electric Reliability Corporation standards and measures for generation and transmission are reviewed and identified as to their appropriateness for various portions of the electric grid and for application in Hawaii. Analysis of frequency data supplied by the State of Hawaii Public Utilities Commission is presented together with comparison and contrast of performance of each of the systems for two years, 2010 and 2011. Literature tracing the development of reliability economics is reviewed and referenced. A method is explained for integrating system cost with outage cost to determine the optimal resource adequacy given customers’ views of the value contributed by reliable electric supply. The report concludes with findings and recommendations for reliability in the State of Hawaii.

  12. Hawaii electric system reliability.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva Monroy, Cesar Augusto; Loose, Verne William


    This report addresses Hawaii electric system reliability issues; greater emphasis is placed on short-term reliability but resource adequacy is reviewed in reference to electric consumers' views of reliability %E2%80%9Cworth%E2%80%9D and the reserve capacity required to deliver that value. The report begins with a description of the Hawaii electric system to the extent permitted by publicly available data. Electrical engineering literature in the area of electric reliability is researched and briefly reviewed. North American Electric Reliability Corporation standards and measures for generation and transmission are reviewed and identified as to their appropriateness for various portions of the electric grid and for application in Hawaii. Analysis of frequency data supplied by the State of Hawaii Public Utilities Commission is presented together with comparison and contrast of performance of each of the systems for two years, 2010 and 2011. Literature tracing the development of reliability economics is reviewed and referenced. A method is explained for integrating system cost with outage cost to determine the optimal resource adequacy given customers' views of the value contributed by reliable electric supply. The report concludes with findings and recommendations for reliability in the State of Hawaii.

  13. LED system reliability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driel, W.D. van; Yuan, C.A.; Koh, S.; Zhang, G.Q.


    This paper presents our effort to predict the system reliability of Solid State Lighting (SSL) applications. A SSL system is composed of a LED engine with micro-electronic driver(s) that supplies power to the optic design. Knowledge of system level reliability is not only a challenging scientific

  14. Software reliability models for critical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pham, H.; Pham, M.


    This report presents the results of the first phase of the ongoing EG G Idaho, Inc. Software Reliability Research Program. The program is studying the existing software reliability models and proposes a state-of-the-art software reliability model that is relevant to the nuclear reactor control environment. This report consists of three parts: (1) summaries of the literature review of existing software reliability and fault tolerant software reliability models and their related issues, (2) proposed technique for software reliability enhancement, and (3) general discussion and future research. The development of this proposed state-of-the-art software reliability model will be performed in the second place. 407 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Software reliability models for critical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pham, H.; Pham, M.


    This report presents the results of the first phase of the ongoing EG&G Idaho, Inc. Software Reliability Research Program. The program is studying the existing software reliability models and proposes a state-of-the-art software reliability model that is relevant to the nuclear reactor control environment. This report consists of three parts: (1) summaries of the literature review of existing software reliability and fault tolerant software reliability models and their related issues, (2) proposed technique for software reliability enhancement, and (3) general discussion and future research. The development of this proposed state-of-the-art software reliability model will be performed in the second place. 407 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. A Passive System Reliability Analysis for a Station Blackout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunett, Acacia; Bucknor, Matthew; Grabaskas, David; Sofu, Tanju; Grelle, Austin


    The latest iterations of advanced reactor designs have included increased reliance on passive safety systems to maintain plant integrity during unplanned sequences. While these systems are advantageous in reducing the reliance on human intervention and availability of power, the phenomenological foundations on which these systems are built require a novel approach to a reliability assessment. Passive systems possess the unique ability to fail functionally without failing physically, a result of their explicit dependency on existing boundary conditions that drive their operating mode and capacity. Argonne National Laboratory is performing ongoing analyses that demonstrate various methodologies for the characterization of passive system reliability within a probabilistic framework. Two reliability analysis techniques are utilized in this work. The first approach, the Reliability Method for Passive Systems, provides a mechanistic technique employing deterministic models and conventional static event trees. The second approach, a simulation-based technique, utilizes discrete dynamic event trees to treat time- dependent phenomena during scenario evolution. For this demonstration analysis, both reliability assessment techniques are used to analyze an extended station blackout in a pool-type sodium fast reactor (SFR) coupled with a reactor cavity cooling system (RCCS). This work demonstrates the entire process of a passive system reliability analysis, including identification of important parameters and failure metrics, treatment of uncertainties and analysis of results.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Rаdkеvich


    Full Text Available Purpose. Development of scientific-methodical bases to the design of rational management of material streams in the field of building providing taking into account intersystem connections with the enterprises of building industry. Methodology. The analysis of last few years of functioning of building industry in Ukraine allows distinguishing a number of problems that negatively influence the steady development of building, as the component of the state economics system. Therefore the research of existent organization methods of the system of building objects providing with material resources is extremely necessary. In connection with this the article justifies the use of method of hierarchies analysis (Saati method for finding the optimal task solution of fixing the enterprises of building industry after building objects. Findings. Results give an opportunity to guidance of building organization to estimate and choose advantageous suppliers - enterprises of building industry, to conduct their rating, estimation taking into account basic descriptions, such as: quality, price, reliability of deliveries, specialization, financial status etc. Originality. On the basis of Saati method the methodologies of organization are improved, planning and managements of the reliable system of providing of building necessary material resources that meet the technological requirements of implementation of building and installation works. Practical value. Contribution to the decisions of many intricate organizational problems that are accompanied by the problems of development of building, provided due to organization of the reliable system of purchase of material resources.

  18. Reliability Based Ship Structural Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dogliani, M.; Østergaard, C.; Parmentier, G.


    This paper deals with the development of different methods that allow the reliability-based design of ship structures to be transferred from the area of research to the systematic application in current design. It summarises the achievements of a three-year collaborative research project dealing...... with developments of models of load effects and of structural collapse adopted in reliability formulations which aim at calibrating partial safety factors for ship structural design. New probabilistic models of still-water load effects are developed both for tankers and for containerships. New results are presented...... of non-linear wave induced load effects and the corresponding long-term formulations. Methods to combine linear and non-linear components of wave induced load effects have been developed and checked by alternative methods.These improved models were used for the reliability assessment of the primary hull...

  19. High Reliable Internet Hosting: A Case Study of Handling Unanticipated Threats to Reliability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnhoven, Alphonsus B.J.M.; Ehrenhard, Michel Léon; Alink, T.


    Internet hosting is pivotal for reliable access to internet resources. Yet, little research has been done on what threatens a hosting service’s reliability. Our analysis of reliability threatening incidents results in four causes of unreliability: the service’s technical architecture, service

  20. The Reliability of College Grades (United States)

    Beatty, Adam S.; Walmsley, Philip T.; Sackett, Paul R.; Kuncel, Nathan R.; Koch, Amanda J.


    Little is known about the reliability of college grades relative to how prominently they are used in educational research, and the results to date tend to be based on small sample studies or are decades old. This study uses two large databases (N > 800,000) from over 200 educational institutions spanning 13 years and finds that both first-year…

  1. Reliability Analysis of Money Habitudes (United States)

    Delgadillo, Lucy M.; Bushman, Brittani S.


    Use of the Money Habitudes exercise has gained popularity among various financial professionals. This article reports on the reliability of this resource. A survey administered to young adults at a western state university was conducted, and each Habitude or "domain" was analyzed using Cronbach's alpha procedures. Results showed all six…

  2. Reliability and Availability of Cloud Computing

    CERN Document Server

    Bauer, Eric


    A holistic approach to service reliability and availability of cloud computing Reliability and Availability of Cloud Computing provides IS/IT system and solution architects, developers, and engineers with the knowledge needed to assess the impact of virtualization and cloud computing on service reliability and availability. It reveals how to select the most appropriate design for reliability diligence to assure that user expectations are met. Organized in three parts (basics, risk analysis, and recommendations), this resource is accessible to readers of diverse backgrounds and experience le

  3. Reliability of large and complex systems

    CERN Document Server

    Kolowrocki, Krzysztof


    Reliability of Large and Complex Systems, previously titled Reliability of Large Systems, is an innovative guide to the current state and reliability of large and complex systems. In addition to revised and updated content on the complexity and safety of large and complex mechanisms, this new edition looks at the reliability of nanosystems, a key research topic in nanotechnology science. The author discusses the importance of safety investigation of critical infrastructures that have aged or have been exposed to varying operational conditions. This reference provides an asympt

  4. Performance and Reliability of Wind Turbines: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Pfaffel


    Full Text Available Performance (availability and yield and reliability of wind turbines can make the difference between success and failure of wind farm projects and these factors are vital to decrease the cost of energy. During the last years, several initiatives started to gather data on the performance and reliability of wind turbines on- and offshore and published findings in different journals and conferences. Even though the scopes of the different initiatives are similar, every initiative follows a different approach and results are therefore difficult to compare. The present paper faces this issue, collects results of different initiatives and harmonizes the results. A short description and assessment of every considered data source is provided. To enable this comparison, the existing reliability characteristics are mapped to a system structure according to the Reference Designation System for Power Plants (RDS-PP®. The review shows a wide variation in the performance and reliability metrics of the individual initiatives. Especially the comparison on onshore wind turbines reveals significant differences between the results. Only a few publications are available on offshore wind turbines and the results show an increasing performance and reliability of offshore wind turbines since the first offshore wind farms were erected and monitored.

  5. Reliable Integration of Terascale Systems with Nanoscale Devices (United States)

    Naeimi, Helia

    the area overhead. We further improve the system throughput to limit the throughput cost as well. (3) Defect pattern matching: With this techniques, the defective resources are located and the design is reconfigured considering the defect pattern of the chip. Then the design configuration is mapped to the chip. This technique isolates the defective resources and make use of most of defect free resources. (4) Global reliability: This technique is used to unify the reliability techniques used in different parts of the system. When using one unified technique to protect the system, the area overhead provided to protect one resource can be reused to protect other resources as well. In the present work, we report considerable improvement in the area overhead using the above techniques. We show that using Fine-Grained Reliability, Alternative Resources, and Defect Pattern Matching, high permanent defect rates (e.g., 10%) which is the result of imperfect manufacturing can be tolerated with moderate area overhead (about 30% on average for typical designs). Again Using Alternative Resources and Fine-Grained Reliability improve the area overhead of the transient fault-tolerant designs by close to an order of magnitude compared to recent reliable works. Finally we report a fully reliable memory system that employs a Global Reliability scheme to tolerate permanent defects and transient faults, both in the memory and in the supporting logic and still achieves 100 Gbit/cm2 density for fault rate of 10-18 errors per bit per cycle and 10% junction defect rate.

  6. Assessing the reliability, validity, and use of the Lasater Clinical Judgment Rubric: three approaches. (United States)

    Adamson, Katie Anne; Gubrud, Paula; Sideras, Stephanie; Lasater, Kathie


    The purpose of this article is to summarize the methods and findings from three different approaches examining the reliability and validity of data from the Lasater Clinical Judgment Rubric (LCJR) using human patient simulation. The first study, by Adamson, assessed the interrater reliability of data produced using the LCJR using intraclass correlation (2,1). Interrater reliability was calculated to be 0.889. The second study, by Gubrud-Howe, used the percent agreement strategy for assessing interrater reliability. Results ranged from 92% to 96%. The third study, by Sideras, used level of agreement for reliability analyses. Results ranged from 57% to 100%. Findings from each of these studies provided evidence supporting the validity of the LCJR for assessing clinical judgment during simulated patient care scenarios. This article provides extensive information about psychometrics and appropriate use of the LCJR and concludes with recommendations for further psychometric assessment and use of the LCJR. Copyright 2012, SLACK Incorporated.

  7. Solid State Lighting Reliability Components to Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Fan, XJ


    Solid State Lighting Reliability: Components to Systems begins with an explanation of the major benefits of solid state lighting (SSL) when compared to conventional lighting systems including but not limited to long useful lifetimes of 50,000 (or more) hours and high efficacy. When designing effective devices that take advantage of SSL capabilities the reliability of internal components (optics, drive electronics, controls, thermal design) take on critical importance. As such a detailed discussion of reliability from performance at the device level to sub components is included as well as the integrated systems of SSL modules, lamps and luminaires including various failure modes, reliability testing and reliability performance. This book also: Covers the essential reliability theories and practices for current and future development of Solid State Lighting components and systems Provides a systematic overview for not only the state-of-the-art, but also future roadmap and perspectives of Solid State Lighting r...

  8. Structural Reliability Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager; Madsen, H. O.

    The structural reliability methods quantitatively treat the uncertainty of predicting the behaviour and properties of a structure given the uncertain properties of its geometry, materials, and the actions it is supposed to withstand. This book addresses the probabilistic methods for evaluation...... of structural reliability, including the theoretical basis for these methods. Partial safety factor codes under current practice are briefly introduced and discussed. A probabilistic code format for obtaining a formal reliability evaluation system that catches the most essential features of the nature...... of the uncertainties and their interplay is the developed, step-by-step. The concepts presented are illustrated by numerous examples throughout the text....

  9. An Energy-Based Limit State Function for Estimation of Structural Reliability in Shock Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A. Guthrie


    Full Text Available limit state function is developed for the estimation of structural reliability in shock environments. This limit state function uses peak modal strain energies to characterize environmental severity and modal strain energies at failure to characterize the structural capacity. The Hasofer-Lind reliability index is briefly reviewed and its computation for the energy-based limit state function is discussed. Applications to two degree of freedom mass-spring systems and to a simple finite element model are considered. For these examples, computation of the reliability index requires little effort beyond a modal analysis, but still accounts for relevant uncertainties in both the structure and environment. For both examples, the reliability index is observed to agree well with the results of Monte Carlo analysis. In situations where fast, qualitative comparison of several candidate designs is required, the reliability index based on the proposed limit state function provides an attractive metric which can be used to compare and control reliability.

  10. Reliability of the school AMPS measures. (United States)

    Munkholm, Michaela; Löfgren, Britta; Fisher, Anne G


    The purpose of this study was to use a variety of methods to evaluate and cross-validate the reliability estimates of the quality of schoolwork performance measures in the School Version of the Assessment of Motor and Process Skills (School AMPS) (1). Split-half reliability was estimated based on School AMPS data from 6 194 students who had performed at least two school AMPS tasks. Two different split-half methods were used: splitting the School AMPS items vertically and splitting them horizontally. The Rasch equivalent of Cronbach's alpha for the full School AMPS evaluation and standard error of measurement (SEm) were also considered. All three methods yielded high reliability coefficient estimates (r ≥ 0.70) and overall SEm was low. From a practice perspective, the results of this study are of clinical importance as they provide evidence that occupational therapists can have confidence in the consistency of the School AMPS measures when they are used in the process of making decisions about individual students, planning interventions, and later performing follow-up evaluations to measure the outcome.

  11. On reliable discovery of molecular signatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Björkegren Johan


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Molecular signatures are sets of genes, proteins, genetic variants or other variables that can be used as markers for a particular phenotype. Reliable signature discovery methods could yield valuable insight into cell biology and mechanisms of human disease. However, it is currently not clear how to control error rates such as the false discovery rate (FDR in signature discovery. Moreover, signatures for cancer gene expression have been shown to be unstable, that is, difficult to replicate in independent studies, casting doubts on their reliability. Results We demonstrate that with modern prediction methods, signatures that yield accurate predictions may still have a high FDR. Further, we show that even signatures with low FDR may fail to replicate in independent studies due to limited statistical power. Thus, neither stability nor predictive accuracy are relevant when FDR control is the primary goal. We therefore develop a general statistical hypothesis testing framework that for the first time provides FDR control for signature discovery. Our method is demonstrated to be correct in simulation studies. When applied to five cancer data sets, the method was able to discover molecular signatures with 5% FDR in three cases, while two data sets yielded no significant findings. Conclusion Our approach enables reliable discovery of molecular signatures from genome-wide data with current sample sizes. The statistical framework developed herein is potentially applicable to a wide range of prediction problems in bioinformatics.

  12. Reliable design of electronic equipment an engineering guide

    CERN Document Server

    Natarajan, Dhanasekharan


    This book explains reliability techniques with examples from electronics design for the benefit of engineers. It presents the application of de-rating, FMEA, overstress analyses and reliability improvement tests for designing reliable electronic equipment. Adequate information is provided for designing computerized reliability database system to support the application of the techniques by designers. Pedantic terms and the associated mathematics of reliability engineering discipline are excluded for the benefit of comprehensiveness and practical applications. This book offers excellent support

  13. Models of network reliability analysis, combinatorics, and Monte Carlo

    CERN Document Server

    Gertsbakh, Ilya B


    Unique in its approach, Models of Network Reliability: Analysis, Combinatorics, and Monte Carlo provides a brief introduction to Monte Carlo methods along with a concise exposition of reliability theory ideas. From there, the text investigates a collection of principal network reliability models, such as terminal connectivity for networks with unreliable edges and/or nodes, network lifetime distribution in the process of its destruction, network stationary behavior for renewable components, importance measures of network elements, reliability gradient, and network optimal reliability synthesis

  14. Optimal Reliability-Based Code Calibration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Kroon, I. B.; Faber, Michael Havbro


    Calibration of partial safety factors is considered in general, including classes of structures where no code exists beforehand. The partial safety factors are determined such that the difference between the reliability for the different structures in the class considered and a target reliability...... level is minimized. Code calibration on a decision theoretical basis is also considered and it is shown how target reliability indices can be calibrated. Results from code calibration for rubble mound breakwater designs are shown....

  15. Performance and Risk Assessment of Soil-Structure Interaction Systems Based on Finite Element Reliability Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quan Gu


    Full Text Available In the context of performance-based earthquake engineering, reliability method has been of significant importance in performance and risk assessment of structures or soil-structure interaction (SSI systems. The finite element (FE reliability method combines FE analysis with state-of-the-art methods in reliability analysis and has been employed increasingly to estimate the probability of occurrence of failure events corresponding to various hazard levels (e.g., earthquakes with various intensity. In this paper, crucial components for FE reliability analysis are reviewed and summarized. Furthermore, recent advances in both time invariant and time variant reliability analysis methods for realistic nonlinear SSI systems are presented and applied to a two-dimensional two story building on layered soil. Various time invariant reliability analysis methods are applied, including the first-order reliability method (FORM, importance sampling method, and orthogonal plane sampling (OPS method. For time variant reliability analysis, an upper bound of the failure probability is obtained from numerical integration of the mean outcrossing rate (MOCR. The MOCR is computed by using FORM analysis and OPS analysis. Results by different FE reliability methods are compared in terms of accuracy and computational cost. This paper provides valuable insights for reliability based probabilistic performance and risk assessment of SSI systems.

  16. Reliability Engineering Analysis of ATLAS Data Reprocessing Campaigns

    CERN Document Server

    Vaniachine, A; The ATLAS collaboration; Karpenko, D


    During three years of LHC data taking, the ATLAS collaboration completed three petascale data reprocessing campaigns on the Grid, with up to 2 PB of data being reprocessed every year. In reprocessing on the Grid, failures can occur for a variety of reasons, while Grid heterogeneity makes failures hard to diagnose and repair quickly. As a result, Big Data processing on the Grid must tolerate a continuous stream of failures, errors and faults. While ATLAS fault-tolerance mechanisms improve the reliability of Big Data processing in the Grid, their benefits come at costs and result in delays making the performance prediction difficult. Reliability Engineering provides a framework for fundamental understanding of the Big Data processing on the Grid, which is not a desirable enhancement but a necessary requirement. In ATLAS, cost monitoring and performance prediction became critical for the success of the reprocessing campaigns conducted in preparation for the major physics conferences. In addition, our Reliability...

  17. Reliability Engineering Analysis of ATLAS Data Reprocessing Campaigns

    CERN Document Server

    Vaniachine, A; The ATLAS collaboration; Karpenko, D


    During three years of LHC data taking, the ATLAS collaboration completed three petascale data reprocessing campaigns on the Grid, with up to 2 PB of data being reprocessed every year. In reprocessing on the Grid, failures can occur for a variety of reasons, while Grid heterogeneity makes failures hard to diagnose and repair quickly. As a result, Big Data processing on the Grid must tolerate a continuous stream of failures, errors and faults. While ATLAS fault-tolerance mechanisms improve the reliability of Big Data processing in the Grid, their benefits come at costs and result in delays making the performance prediction difficult. Reliability Engineering provides a framework for fundamental understanding of the Big Data processing on the Grid, which is not a desirable enhancement but a necessary requirement. In ATLAS, cost monitoring and performance prediction became critical for the success of the reprocessing campaigns conducted in preparation for the major physics conferences. In addition, our Reliability...

  18. The macular mapping test: a reliability study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davies Leon N


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Age-related macular degeneration (ARMD is the leading cause of visual disability in people over 60 years of age in the developed world. The success of treatment deteriorates with increased latency of diagnosis. The purpose of this study was to determine the reliability of the macular mapping test (MMT, and to investigate its potential as a screening tool. Methods The study population comprised of 31 healthy eyes of 31 participants. To assess reliability, four macular mapping test (MMT measurements were taken in two sessions separated by one hour by two practitioners, with reversal of order in the second session. MMT readings were also taken from 17 age-related maculopathy (ARM, and 12 AMD affected eyes. Results For the normal cohort, average MMT scores ranged from 85.5 to 100.0 MMT points. Scores ranged from 79.0 to 99.0 for the ARM group and from 9.0 to 92.0 for the AMD group. MMT scores were reliable to within ± 7.0 points. The difference between AMD affected eyes and controls (z = 3.761, p = Conclusion The reliability data shows that a change of 14 points or more is required to indicate a clinically significant change. This value is required for use of the MMT as an outcome measure in clinical trials. Although there was no difference between MMT scores from ARM affected eyes and controls, the MMT has the advantage over the Amsler grid in that it uses a letter target, has a peripheral fixation aid, and it provides a numerical score. This score could be beneficial in office and home monitoring of AMD progression, as well as an outcome measure in clinical research.

  19. A reliability measure of protein-protein interactions and a reliability measure-based search engine. (United States)

    Park, Byungkyu; Han, Kyungsook


    Many methods developed for estimating the reliability of protein-protein interactions are based on the topology of protein-protein interaction networks. This paper describes a new reliability measure for protein-protein interactions, which does not rely on the topology of protein interaction networks, but expresses biological information on functional roles, sub-cellular localisations and protein classes as a scoring schema. The new measure is useful for filtering many spurious interactions, as well as for estimating the reliability of protein interaction data. In particular, the reliability measure can be used to search protein-protein interactions with the desired reliability in databases. The reliability-based search engine is available at We believe this is the first search engine for interacting proteins, which is made available to public. The search engine and the reliability measure of protein interactions should provide useful information for determining proteins to focus on.

  20. Statistical models and methods for reliability and survival analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Couallier, Vincent; Huber-Carol, Catherine; Mesbah, Mounir; Huber -Carol, Catherine; Limnios, Nikolaos; Gerville-Reache, Leo


    Statistical Models and Methods for Reliability and Survival Analysis brings together contributions by specialists in statistical theory as they discuss their applications providing up-to-date developments in methods used in survival analysis, statistical goodness of fit, stochastic processes for system reliability, amongst others. Many of these are related to the work of Professor M. Nikulin in statistics over the past 30 years. The authors gather together various contributions with a broad array of techniques and results, divided into three parts - Statistical Models and Methods, Statistical

  1. Telecommunications system reliability engineering theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Ayers, Mark L


    "Increasing system complexity require new, more sophisticated tools for system modeling and metric calculation. Bringing the field up to date, this book provides telecommunications engineers with practical tools for analyzing, calculating, and reporting availability, reliability, and maintainability metrics. It gives the background in system reliability theory and covers in-depth applications in fiber optic networks, microwave networks, satellite networks, power systems, and facilities management. Computer programming tools for simulating the approaches presented, using the Matlab software suite, are also provided"

  2. Reliability analysis of an offshore structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, Michael Havbro; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Rackwitz, R.


    A jacket type offshore structure from the North Sea is considered. The time variant reliability is estimated for failure defined as brittle fracture and crack through the tubular member walls. The stochastic modelling is described. The hot spot stress spectral moments as function of the stochastic...... variables are described using spline function response surfaces. A Laplace integral expansion is used to estimate the time variant reliability. Parameter studies are performed for the reliability estimates and the results of the time variant and the time invariant reliability analyses are compared. (Authors)...

  3. Reliability Analysis of an Offshore Structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Thoft-Christensen, Palle; Rackwitz, R.


    A jacket type offshore structure from the North Sea is considered. The time variant reliability is estimated for failure defined as brittie fradure and crack through the tubular roerober walls. The stochastic modeiling is described. The hot spot stress speetral moments as fundion of the stochastic...... variables are desenbed using spline fundion response surfaces. A Laplace integral expansion is used to estimate the time variant reliability. Parameter studies are performed for the reliability estimates and the results of the time variant and the time invariant reliability analyses are compared....

  4. Reliability-based condition assessment of steel containment and liners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellingwood, B.; Bhattacharya, B.; Zheng, R. [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering


    Steel containments and liners in nuclear power plants may be exposed to aggressive environments that may cause their strength and stiffness to decrease during the plant service life. Among the factors recognized as having the potential to cause structural deterioration are uniform, pitting or crevice corrosion; fatigue, including crack initiation and propagation to fracture; elevated temperature; and irradiation. The evaluation of steel containments and liners for continued service must provide assurance that they are able to withstand future extreme loads during the service period with a level of reliability that is sufficient for public safety. Rational methodologies to provide such assurances can be developed using modern structural reliability analysis principles that take uncertainties in loading, strength, and degradation resulting from environmental factors into account. The research described in this report is in support of the Steel Containments and Liners Program being conducted for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The research demonstrates the feasibility of using reliability analysis as a tool for performing condition assessments and service life predictions of steel containments and liners. Mathematical models that describe time-dependent changes in steel due to aggressive environmental factors are identified, and statistical data supporting the use of these models in time-dependent reliability analysis are summarized. The analysis of steel containment fragility is described, and simple illustrations of the impact on reliability of structural degradation are provided. The role of nondestructive evaluation in time-dependent reliability analysis, both in terms of defect detection and sizing, is examined. A Markov model provides a tool for accounting for time-dependent changes in damage condition of a structural component or system. 151 refs.

  5. Photovoltaic performance and reliability workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroposki, B


    This proceedings is the compilation of papers presented at the ninth PV Performance and Reliability Workshop held at the Sheraton Denver West Hotel on September 4--6, 1996. This years workshop included presentations from 25 speakers and had over 100 attendees. All of the presentations that were given are included in this proceedings. Topics of the papers included: defining service lifetime and developing models for PV module lifetime; examining and determining failure and degradation mechanisms in PV modules; combining IEEE/IEC/UL testing procedures; AC module performance and reliability testing; inverter reliability/qualification testing; standardization of utility interconnect requirements for PV systems; need activities to separate variables by testing individual components of PV systems (e.g. cells, modules, batteries, inverters,charge controllers) for individual reliability and then test them in actual system configurations; more results reported from field experience on modules, inverters, batteries, and charge controllers from field deployed PV systems; and system certification and standardized testing for stand-alone and grid-tied systems.

  6. Photovoltaic module reliability workshop (United States)

    Mrig, L.

    The paper and presentations compiled in this volume form the Proceedings of the fourth in a series of Workshops sponsored by Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI/DOE) under the general theme of photovoltaic module reliability during the period 1986 to 1990. The reliability photovoltaic (PV) modules/systems is exceedingly important along with the initial cost and efficiency of modules if the PV technology has to make a major impact in the power generation market, and for it to compete with the conventional electricity producing technologies. The reliability of photovoltaic modules has progressed significantly in the last few years as evidenced by warrantees available on commercial modules of as long as 12 years. However, there is still need for substantial research and testing required to improve module field reliability to levels of 30 years or more. Several small groups of researchers are involved in this research, development, and monitoring activity around the world. In the U.S., PV manufacturers, DOE laboratories, electric utilities and others are engaged in the photovoltaic reliability research and testing. This group of researchers and others interested in this field were brought together under SERI/DOE sponsorship to exchange the technical knowledge and field experience as related to current information in this important field. The papers presented here reflect this effort.

  7. Photovoltaic module reliability workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mrig, L. (ed.)


    The paper and presentations compiled in this volume form the Proceedings of the fourth in a series of Workshops sponsored by Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI/DOE) under the general theme of photovoltaic module reliability during the period 1986--1990. The reliability Photo Voltaic (PV) modules/systems is exceedingly important along with the initial cost and efficiency of modules if the PV technology has to make a major impact in the power generation market, and for it to compete with the conventional electricity producing technologies. The reliability of photovoltaic modules has progressed significantly in the last few years as evidenced by warranties available on commercial modules of as long as 12 years. However, there is still need for substantial research and testing required to improve module field reliability to levels of 30 years or more. Several small groups of researchers are involved in this research, development, and monitoring activity around the world. In the US, PV manufacturers, DOE laboratories, electric utilities and others are engaged in the photovoltaic reliability research and testing. This group of researchers and others interested in this field were brought together under SERI/DOE sponsorship to exchange the technical knowledge and field experience as related to current information in this important field. The papers presented here reflect this effort.

  8. Bales's Interpersonal Rating Forms: Reliability and Dimensionality. (United States)

    Lustig, Myron W.


    Investigated reliability and dimensionality of Bales's Interpersonal Rating Forms (IRF) using volunteer subjects (N=266) enrolled in undergraduate communications course. Results documented shortcomings of IRF as a measuring instrument finding the subscales neither reliable nor dimensionally structured; only 2 of 18 items in each subscale are…

  9. Improving Power Converter Reliability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghimire, Pramod; de Vega, Angel Ruiz; Beczkowski, Szymon


    The real-time junction temperature monitoring of a high-power insulated-gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) module is important to increase the overall reliability of power converters for industrial applications. This article proposes a new method to measure the on-state collector?emitter voltage...... of a high-power IGBT module during converter operation, which may play a vital role in improving the reliability of the power converters. The measured voltage is used to estimate the module average junction temperature of the high and low-voltage side of a half-bridge IGBT separately in every fundamental...

  10. Introduction to quality and reliability engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, Renyan


    This book presents the state-of-the-art in quality and reliability engineering from a product life cycle standpoint. Topics in reliability include reliability models, life data analysis and modeling, design for reliability and accelerated life testing, while topics in quality include design for quality, acceptance sampling and supplier selection, statistical process control, production tests such as screening and burn-in, warranty and maintenance. The book provides comprehensive insights into two closely related subjects, and includes a wealth of examples and problems to enhance reader comprehension and link theory and practice. All numerical examples can be easily solved using Microsoft Excel. The book is intended for senior undergraduate and post-graduate students in related engineering and management programs such as mechanical engineering, manufacturing engineering, industrial engineering and engineering management programs, as well as for researchers and engineers in the quality and reliability fields. D...

  11. Reliability-Based Multidisciplinary Design Optimization under Correlated Uncertainties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huanwei Xu


    Full Text Available Complex mechanical system is usually composed of several subsystems, which are often coupled with each other. Reliability-based multidisciplinary design optimization (RBMDO is an efficient method to design such complex system under uncertainties. However, the present RBMDO methods ignored the correlations between uncertainties. In this paper, through combining the ellipsoidal set theory and first-order reliability method (FORM for multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO, characteristics of correlated uncertainties are investigated. Furthermore, to improve computational efficiency, the sequential optimization and reliability assessment (SORA strategy is utilized to obtain the optimization result. Both a mathematical example and a case study of an engineering system are provided to illustrate the feasibility and validity of the proposed method.

  12. Reliability of the Participation and Sensory Environment Questionnaire: Teacher Version. (United States)

    Piller, Aimee; Fletcher, Tina; Pfeiffer, Beth; Dunlap, Karen; Pickens, Noralyn


    The Participation and Sensory Environment Questionnaire-Teacher Version (PSEQ-TV) is a teacher-report questionnaire to assess the impact of the sensory environment on participation of preschool children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Many children with ASD have sensory processing differences, although these differences are frequently examined from the standpoint of the person. The PSEQ-TV provides a single assessment to examine both participation and the sensory environment for preschool aged children with ASD. This study established the reliability of the PSEQ-TV including internal consistency of 0.98 and test-rest reliability of 0.70. The results indicate initial reliability of PSEQ-TV as an instrument that can be used to identify sensory environmental barriers within the preschool setting to target during interventions to increase participation.

  13. Simulation Models in Testing Reliability of Transport Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacyna Marianna


    Full Text Available The paper touches the problem of applying simulation models to assess the reliability of services in transport networks. Investigation of the transport processes in terms of their reliability is a complex decision-making task. The paper describes a method for assessing the reliability of transport process on the base of the criterion of minimizing the normalized lost time of vehicles. The time is wasted in a result of conflict situations occurring in the transport network during the transport process. The study includes stochastic distributions of system input. It enables studying the quality parameters of the transport network equipment, including service providers working under different workload and all kinds of disturbances. The method uses simulation models. Simulation studies were performed with Java Modelling Tools.

  14. Crosscultural reliability of the Childhood Health Assessment Questionnaire. (United States)

    Len, C; Goldenberg, J; Ferraz, M B; Hilário, M O; Oliveira, L M; Sacchetti, S


    To translate into Portuguese the Childhood Health Assessment Questionnaire and to evaluate the reliability of the Portuguese version. The original questionnaire was translated into Portuguese, without modifications, and it was administered to 53 children with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis and their parents. The reproducibility and construct validity were studied. We observed satisfactory Spearman's correlation coefficients among the instrument's score, a pain score (visual analog scale) and conventional clinical variables commonly used by the pediatric rheumatologists: disease activity index, number of involved joints, American College of Rheumatology functional class, and erythrocyte sedimentation rate. The test-retest reliability was established. Our results provide evidence of the reliability of the Portuguese version of the Childhood Health Assessment Questionnaire.

  15. Development of a reliable, valid annual skills mastery assessment examination. (United States)

    Alston, Gregory L; Love, Bryan L


    To develop a methodology for a reliable, valid annual skills mastery assessment examination to provide formative student feedback, inform curricular review, and comply with the Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education (ACPE) Standards 2007. A sample of program-level ability-based outcomes skills were chosen for the examination. Test items were written, underwent quality control, and were scored for level of difficulty. Versions of the examination for first-, second-, third-, and fourth-year pharmacy students were developed and administered, the results were analyzed, reliability and validity were evaluated, and reports were generated. Item-writing guidelines, quality control procedures, and examination production steps were codified to create a criterion-referenced examination. Students and faculty advisors received detailed score reports and results were used to guide student performance and stimulate a review of curricular outcomes. Content, criterion, and construct validity were analyzed as defined in the literature for the intended use of this assessment tool. Data suggest the Annual Skills Mastery Assessment (ASMA) examination is both reliable and valid. Students and faculty members were surveyed regarding the usefulness of the examination. Results indicate general satisfaction with the assessment program. A reasonably reliable, reasonably valid multiple-choice annual skills mastery assessment for selected outcomes statements providing formative feedback and informed curricular review was developed.

  16. Structural Reliability Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager; Madsen, H. O.

    The structural reliability methods quantitatively treat the uncertainty of predicting the behaviour and properties of a structure given the uncertain properties of its geometry, materials, and the actions it is supposed to withstand. This book addresses the probabilistic methods for evaluation...

  17. Reliability based structural design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrouwenvelder, A.C.W.M.


    According to ISO 2394, structures shall be designed, constructed and maintained in such a way that they are suited for their use during the design working life in an economic way. To fulfil this requirement one needs insight into the risk and reliability under expected and non-expected actions. A

  18. The value of reliability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgerau, Mogens; Karlström, Anders


    We derive the value of reliability in the scheduling of an activity of random duration, such as travel under congested conditions. Using a simple formulation of scheduling utility, we show that the maximal expected utility is linear in the mean and standard deviation of trip duration, regardless...

  19. Reliability and Model Fit (United States)

    Stanley, Leanne M.; Edwards, Michael C.


    The purpose of this article is to highlight the distinction between the reliability of test scores and the fit of psychometric measurement models, reminding readers why it is important to consider both when evaluating whether test scores are valid for a proposed interpretation and/or use. It is often the case that an investigator judges both the…

  20. Reliability of Plastic Slabs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle


    In the paper it is shown how upper and lower bounds for the reliability of plastic slabs can be determined. For the fundamental case it is shown that optimal bounds of a deterministic and a stochastic analysis are obtained on the basis of the same failure mechanisms and the same stress fields....

  1. Travel time reliability modeling. (United States)


    This report includes three papers as follows: : 1. Guo F., Rakha H., and Park S. (2010), "A Multi-state Travel Time Reliability Model," : Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, n 2188, : pp. 46-54. : 2. Park S.,...

  2. Parametric Mass Reliability Study (United States)

    Holt, James P.


    The International Space Station (ISS) systems are designed based upon having redundant systems with replaceable orbital replacement units (ORUs). These ORUs are designed to be swapped out fairly quickly, but some are very large, and some are made up of many components. When an ORU fails, it is replaced on orbit with a spare; the failed unit is sometimes returned to Earth to be serviced and re-launched. Such a system is not feasible for a 500+ day long-duration mission beyond low Earth orbit. The components that make up these ORUs have mixed reliabilities. Components that make up the most mass-such as computer housings, pump casings, and the silicon board of PCBs-typically are the most reliable. Meanwhile components that tend to fail the earliest-such as seals or gaskets-typically have a small mass. To better understand the problem, my project is to create a parametric model that relates both the mass of ORUs to reliability, as well as the mass of ORU subcomponents to reliability.

  3. Reliability of semiology description. (United States)

    Heo, Jae-Hyeok; Kim, Dong Wook; Lee, Seo-Young; Cho, Jinwhan; Lee, Sang-Kun; Nam, Hyunwoo


    Seizure semiology is important for classifying patients' epilepsy. Physicians usually get most of the seizure information from observers though there have been few reports on the reliability of the observers' description. This study aims at determining the reliability of observers' description of the semiology. We included 92 patients who had their habitual seizures recorded during video-EEG monitoring. We compared the semiology described by the observers with that recorded on the videotape, and reviewed which characteristics of the observers affected the reliability of their reported data. The classification of seizures and the individual components of the semiology based only on the observer-description was somewhat discordant compared with the findings from the videotape (correct classification, 85%). The descriptions of some ictal behaviors such as oroalimentary automatism, tonic/dystonic limb posturing, and head versions were relatively accurate, but those of motionless staring and hand automatism were less accurate. The specified directions by the observers were relatively correct. The accuracy of the description was related to the educational level of the observers. Much of the information described by well-educated observers is reliable. However, every physician should keep in mind the limitations of this information and use this information cautiously.

  4. Reliability measurement without limits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reidsma, Dennis; Carletta, J.

    In computational linguistics, a reliability measurement of 0.8 on some statistic such as $\\kappa$ is widely thought to guarantee that hand-coded data is fit for purpose, with lower values suspect. We demonstrate that the main use of such data, machine learning, can tolerate data with a low

  5. High reliability organizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gallis, R.; Zwetsloot, G.I.J.M.


    High Reliability Organizations (HRO’s) are organizations that constantly face serious and complex (safety) risks yet succeed in realising an excellent safety performance. In such situations acceptable levels of safety cannot be achieved by traditional safety management only. HRO’s manage safety

  6. Statistical Primer for Athletic Trainers: The Essentials of Understanding Measures of Reliability and Minimal Important Change. (United States)

    Riemann, Bryan L; Lininger, Monica R


      To describe the concepts of measurement reliability and minimal important change.   All measurements have some magnitude of error. Because clinical practice involves measurement, clinicians need to understand measurement reliability. The reliability of an instrument is integral in determining if a change in patient status is meaningful.   Measurement reliability is the extent to which a test result is consistent and free of error. Three perspectives of reliability-relative reliability, systematic bias, and absolute reliability-are often reported. However, absolute reliability statistics, such as the minimal detectable difference, are most relevant to clinicians because they provide an expected error estimate. The minimal important difference is the smallest change in a treatment outcome that the patient would identify as important.   Clinicians should use absolute reliability characteristics, preferably the minimal detectable difference, to determine the extent of error around a patient's measurement. The minimal detectable difference, coupled with an appropriately estimated minimal important difference, can assist the practitioner in identifying clinically meaningful changes in patients.

  7. Reliability analysis of crankshaft for high-speed punch based on Monte-Carlo method (United States)

    Zhang, Xinzhou; Chen, Lan; Gan, Shuyuan; Wang, Yuan; Ren, Naifei; Zhou, Jian


    The crankshaft, which has fateful consequence to the performance and reliability, is a key component of high-speed punch. In manufacturing process, the high reliability value of crankshaft contributes to the increasing of the reliability of the whole punch system. The study builds a reliability analysis model of the crankshaft for punching process under the premise of regarding design parameters as random variables. Monte-Carlo method is employed to make reliability analysis for crankshaft based on ANSYS. The numerical results present that the failure probability of strength and stiffness for crankshaft satisfied the use requirement. The impact of every input variable on reliability are obtained from the sensitivity analysis of status function factors. The design variable D4 and PRXY have the greatest impact on the strength of crankshaft and the design variable YOUNG and L3 have the greatest impact on the stiffness of crankshaft. And the result matches up with the response surface graph. The reliability analysis result provides some useful information for the improvement of the reliability of crankshaft for high-speed punch.


    This document provides a comprehensive review to evaluate the reliability of indicator species toxicity test results in predicting aquatic ecosystem impacts, also called the ecological relevance of laboratory single species toxicity tests.

  9. Reliable and Energy Efficient Protocol for MANET Multicasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bander H. AlQarni


    Full Text Available A mobile ad hoc network (MANET consists of a self-configured set of portable mobile nodes without any central infrastructure to regulate traffic in the network. These networks present problems such as lack of congestion control, reliability, and energy consumption. In this paper, we present a new model for MANET multicasting called Reliable and Energy Efficient Protocol Depending on Distance and Remaining Energy (REEDDRE. Our proposal is based on a tone system to provide more efficiency and better performance, and it combines solutions over the Medium Access Control (MAC layer. The protocol consists of a new construction method for mobile nodes using a clustering approach that depends on distance and remaining energy to provide more stability and to reduce energy consumption. In addition, we propose an adjustment to the typical multicast flow by adding unicast links between clusters. We further present in our model a technique to provide more reliability based on a busy tone system (RMBTM to reduce excessive control overhead caused by control packets in error recovery. We simulate our proposal using OPNET, and the results show enhancement in terms of reliability, packet delivery ratio (PDR, energy consumption, and throughput.

  10. Reliability of surface facial electromyography. (United States)

    Hess, Ursula; Arslan, Ruben; Mauersberger, Heidi; Blaison, Christophe; Dufner, Michael; Denissen, Jaap J A; Ziegler, Matthias


    Data from two studies were used to estimate the reliability of facial EMG when used to index facial mimicry (Study 1) or affective reactions to pictorial stimuli (Study 2). Results for individual muscle sites varied between muscles and depending on data treatment. For difference scores, acceptable internal consistencies were found only for corrugator supercilii, and test-retest reliabilities were low. For contrast measures describing patterns of reactions to stimuli, such as high zygomaticus major combined with low corrugator supercilii, acceptable internal consistencies were found for facial reactions to smiling faces and positive affective reactions to affiliative images (Study 2). Facial reactions to negative emotions (Study 1) and facial reactions to power and somewhat less to achievement imagery (Study 2) showed unsatisfactory internal consistencies. For contrast measures, good temporal stability over 24 months (Study 1) and 15 months (Study 2), respectively, was obtained. In Study 1, the effect of method factors such as mode of presentation was more reliable than the emotion effect. Overall, people's facial reactions to affective stimuli seem to be influenced by a variety of factors other than the emotion-eliciting element per se, which resulted in biased internal consistency estimates. However, the influence of these factors in turn seemed to be stable over time. © 2016 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  11. Reliability in the utility computing era: Towards reliable Fog computing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Henrik; Burtschy, Bernard; Albeanu, G.


    This paper considers current paradigms in computing and outlines the most important aspects concerning their reliability. The Fog computing paradigm as a non-trivial extension of the Cloud is considered and the reliability of the networks of smart devices are discussed. Combining the reliability...... requirements of grid and cloud paradigms with the reliability requirements of networks of sensor and actuators it follows that designing a reliable Fog computing platform is feasible....

  12. Reliability of CXR for the diagnosis of bronchopulmonary dysplasia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moya, M.P.; Auten, R.L. Jr. [Duke University Medical Center, Dept. of Pediatrics, Durham, NC (United States); Bisset, G.S. III; Miller, C.; Hollingworth, C.; Frush, D.P. [Dept. of Radiology, Duke Univ. Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States)


    Background. Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) continues to be prevalent, despite new treatment, in part because of increased survival in less mature infants. Investigations of new treatments have been hampered by a lack of universally accepted diagnostic criteria. Radiographic scoring systems have been developed to provide objective assessment of lung injury and risk for chronic lung disease. Objective. We sought to test the reliability of a recently reported system using chest radiography as the main tool for diagnosis of BPD. Materials and methods. One hundred chest radiographs, half demonstrating BPD and the other half without BPD, were analyzed by pediatric radiologists and by a neonatologist, using the Weinstein score (1-6, depending on increasing radiographic severity). The reliability of this scoring system was tested by kappa (k) statistics. Results. Reliability at the lowest threshold (dividing score 1 from score {>=} 2) was unacceptably low in this population. Reliability increased with inclusion of higher BPD scores in the comparison groups: 1-3 versus 4-6. Conclusion. Using the chest radiograph for the prediction of BPD is not reliable between different observers except at the two extremes of the disease. (orig.)

  13. Exploiting Spatio-Temporal Correlation for Reliable Information Transport in WSNs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faisal Karim Shaikh


    Full Text Available Delivering reliable services in service oriented architectures entails the underlying basis of having communication network models and well structured systems. With the rapid proliferation of ad-hoc mode of communication the reliable delivery of services increasingly encounter new communication and network perturbations. Empirically the core of service delivery in WSNs (Wireless Sensor Networks is information transport from the sensor nodes to the sink node where the service resides. In this work we provide a reliable information transport for enhanced service delivery by using spatio-temporal correlation in WSN. The classification for different types of information required by the services is also presented. To overcome dynamic network conditions and evolving service requirements an adaptive retransmission mechanism based on spatial correlation is utilized. Simulation results show that the proposed solutions provide service specific reliability and save expensive retransmissions and thus provide energy efficient solution.

  14. Statis Program Analysis for Reliable, Trusted Apps (United States)


    devices. App stores also provide a tempting vector for an attacker. An attacker can take advantage of bugdoors (software defects that permit...STATIC PROGRAM ANALYSIS FOR RELIABLE, TRUSTED APPS UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON FEBRUARY 2017 FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE...STATIC PROGRAM ANALYSIS FOR RELIABLE, TRUSTED APPS 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER FA8750-12-2-0107 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 61101E 6. AUTHOR

  15. Semiconductor packaging materials interaction and reliability

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Andrea


    In semiconductor manufacturing, understanding how various materials behave and interact is critical to making a reliable and robust semiconductor package. Semiconductor Packaging: Materials Interaction and Reliability provides a fundamental understanding of the underlying physical properties of the materials used in a semiconductor package. The book focuses on an important step in semiconductor manufacturing--package assembly and testing. It covers the basics of material properties and explains how to determine which behaviors are important to package performance. The authors also discuss how

  16. Utility-scale grid-tied PV inverter reliability workshop summary report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granata, Jennifer E.; Quintana, Michael A.; Tasca, Coryne Adelle (SRA International, Inc., Fairfax, VA); Atcitty, Stanley


    A key to the long-term success of the photovoltaic (PV) industry is confidence in the reliability of PV systems. Inverters are the most commonly noted cause of PV system incidents triggered in the field. While not all of these incidents are reliability-related or even necessarily failures, they still result in a loss of generated power. With support from the U.S. Department of Energy's Solar Energy Technologies Program, Sandia National Laboratories organized a Utility-Scale Grid-Tied Inverter Reliability Workshop in Albuquerque, New Mexico, January 27-28, 2011. The workshop addressed the reliability of large (100-kilowatt+) grid-tied inverters and the implications when such inverters fail, evaluated inverter codes and standards, and provided discussion about opportunities to enhance inverter reliability. This report summarizes discussions and presentations from the workshop and identifies opportunities for future efforts.

  17. Energy based reliable multicast routing protocol for packet forwarding in MANET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Gopinath


    Full Text Available Mobile Ad hoc Network consists of mobile nodes without any assisting infrastructure. Mobility of nodes causes network partition. This leads to heavy overhead and less packet forwarding ratio. In this research work, Residual Energy based Reliable Multicast Routing Protocol (RERMR is proposed to attain more network lifetime and increased packet delivery and forwarding rate. A multicast backbone is constructed to achieve more stability based on node familiarity and trustable loop. Reliable path criterion is estimated to choose best reliable path among all available paths. Data packets will be forwarded once the reliable path is chosen. We have also demonstrated that residual energy of paths aids to provide maximum network lifetime. Based on the simulation results, the proposed work achieves better performance than previous protocols in terms of packet reliability rate, network stability rate, end to end delay, end to end transmission and communication overhead.

  18. Expert Reliability for the World Health Organization Standardized Ultrasound Classification of Cystic Echinococcosis. (United States)

    Solomon, Nadia; Fields, Paul J; Tamarozzi, Francesca; Brunetti, Enrico; Macpherson, Calum N L


    AbstractCystic echinococcosis (CE), a parasitic zoonosis, results in cyst formation in the viscera. Cyst morphology depends on developmental stage. In 2003, the World Health Organization (WHO) published a standardized ultrasound (US) classification for CE, for use among experts as a standard of comparison. This study examined the reliability of this classification. Eleven international CE and US experts completed an assessment of eight WHO classification images and 88 test images representing cyst stages. Inter- and intraobserver reliability and observer performance were assessed using Fleiss' and Cohen's kappa. Interobserver reliability was moderate for WHO images (κ = 0.600, P classification for each image were significant for WHO (0.413 classification, with substantial to almost perfect interobserver reliability for pathognomonic stages. This confirms experts' abilities to reliably identify WHO-defined pathognomonic signs of CE, demonstrating that the WHO classification provides a reproducible way of staging CE.

  19. Accelerator reliability workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardy, L.; Duru, Ph.; Koch, J.M.; Revol, J.L.; Van Vaerenbergh, P.; Volpe, A.M.; Clugnet, K.; Dely, A.; Goodhew, D


    About 80 experts attended this workshop, which brought together all accelerator communities: accelerator driven systems, X-ray sources, medical and industrial accelerators, spallation sources projects (American and European), nuclear physics, etc. With newly proposed accelerator applications such as nuclear waste transmutation, replacement of nuclear power plants and others. Reliability has now become a number one priority for accelerator designers. Every part of an accelerator facility from cryogenic systems to data storage via RF systems are concerned by reliability. This aspect is now taken into account in the design/budget phase, especially for projects whose goal is to reach no more than 10 interruptions per year. This document gathers the slides but not the proceedings of the workshop.

  20. Human Reliability Program Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landers, John; Rogers, Erin; Gerke, Gretchen


    A Human Reliability Program (HRP) is designed to protect national security as well as worker and public safety by continuously evaluating the reliability of those who have access to sensitive materials, facilities, and programs. Some elements of a site HRP include systematic (1) supervisory reviews, (2) medical and psychological assessments, (3) management evaluations, (4) personnel security reviews, and (4) training of HRP staff and critical positions. Over the years of implementing an HRP, the Department of Energy (DOE) has faced various challenges and overcome obstacles. During this 4-day activity, participants will examine programs that mitigate threats to nuclear security and the insider threat to include HRP, Nuclear Security Culture (NSC) Enhancement, and Employee Assistance Programs. The focus will be to develop an understanding of the need for a systematic HRP and to discuss challenges and best practices associated with mitigating the insider threat.

  1. Laser System Reliability (United States)


    RELIABILITY INTERACTION WITH MANAGEMENT This section describes how reliability, in a general sense, plays Into the overall development of an optimally...8217— "l ’ ^’^Tt^jli^^ D. DEFINITIONS The hierarchy of levels of the physical system breakdown plays an . important role in the total under s t andi...plp2p3p4p5I6 (J). + plp2p3p«ii5W6 * plp2p3W6 * plp2£3V5W6 * hVlVA * ilW2W3V5W6 ; (J) whore , «gain, the (J) symbol Implies that the

  2. Measurement Practices for Reliability and Power Quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kueck, JD


    This report provides a distribution reliability measurement ''toolkit'' that is intended to be an asset to regulators, utilities and power users. The metrics and standards discussed range from simple reliability, to power quality, to the new blend of reliability and power quality analysis that is now developing. This report was sponsored by the Office of Electric Transmission and Distribution, U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Inconsistencies presently exist in commonly agreed-upon practices for measuring the reliability of the distribution systems. However, efforts are being made by a number of organizations to develop solutions. In addition, there is growing interest in methods or standards for measuring power quality, and in defining power quality levels that are acceptable to various industries or user groups. The problems and solutions vary widely among geographic areas and among large investor-owned utilities, rural cooperatives, and municipal utilities; but there is still a great degree of commonality. Industry organizations such as the National Rural Electric Cooperative Association (NRECA), the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), the American Public Power Association (APPA), and the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) have made tremendous strides in preparing self-assessment templates, optimization guides, diagnostic techniques, and better definitions of reliability and power quality measures. In addition, public utility commissions have developed codes and methods for assessing performance that consider local needs. There is considerable overlap among these various organizations, and we see real opportunity and value in sharing these methods, guides, and standards in this report. This report provides a ''toolkit'' containing synopses of noteworthy reliability measurement practices. The toolkit has been developed to address the interests of three groups: electric power users, utilities, and

  3. When and why are reliable organizations favored?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ethiraj, Sendil; Yi, Sangyoon

    In the 1980s, organization theory witnessed a decade long debate about the incentives and consequences of organizational change. Though the fountainhead of this debate was the observation that reliable organizations are the “consequence” rather than the “cause” of selection forces, much...... shocks, reliable organizations can in fact outperform their less reliable counterparts if they can take advantage of the knowledge resident in their historical choices. While these results are counter-intuitive, the caveat is that our results are only an existence proof for our theory rather than...

  4. Accessibility, reliability, and usability of neurosurgical resources. (United States)

    Agarwal, Nitin; Kommana, Sumana S; Hansberry, David R; Kashkoush, Ahmed I; Friedlander, Robert M; Lunsford, L Dade


    OBJECTIVE Closing the knowledge gap that exists between patients and health care providers is essential and is facilitated by easy access to patient education materials. Although such information has the potential to be an effective resource, it must be written in a user-friendly and understandable manner, especially when such material pertains to specialized and highly technical fields such as neurological surgery. The authors evaluated the accessibility, usability, and reliability of current educational resources provided by the American Association of Neurological Surgeons (AANS), Healthwise, and the National Institute for Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS). METHODS Online neurosurgical patient education information provided by AANS, Healthwise, and NINDS was evaluated using the LIDA scale, a website quality assessment tool, by medical professionals and nonmedical professionals. A high achieving score is regarded as 90% or greater using the LIDA scale. RESULTS Accessibility scores were 76.7% (AANS), 83.3% (Healthwise), and 75.0% (NINDS). Average usability scores for the AANS, Healthwise, and NINDS were 73.3%, 82.6%, and 82.9%, respectively, when evaluated by medical professionals and 78.5%, 80.7%, and 75.9%, respectively, for nonmedical professionals, respectively. Average reliability scores were 58.5%, 53.3%, 72.6%, respectively, for medical professionals and 70.4%, 66.7%, and 78.5%, respectively, for nonmedical professionals when evaluating the AANS, Healthwise, and NINDS websites. CONCLUSIONS Although organizations like AANS, Healthwise, and NINDS should be commended for their ongoing commitment to provide health care-oriented materials, modification of this material is suggested to improve the patient education value.

  5. Reliability of Circumplex Axes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micha Strack


    Full Text Available We present a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA procedure for computing the reliability of circumplex axes. The tau-equivalent CFA variance decomposition model estimates five variance components: general factor, axes, scale-specificity, block-specificity, and item-specificity. Only the axes variance component is used for reliability estimation. We apply the model to six circumplex types and 13 instruments assessing interpersonal and motivational constructs—Interpersonal Adjective List (IAL, Interpersonal Adjective Scales (revised; IAS-R, Inventory of Interpersonal Problems (IIP, Impact Messages Inventory (IMI, Circumplex Scales of Interpersonal Values (CSIV, Support Action Scale Circumplex (SAS-C, Interaction Problems With Animals (IPI-A, Team Role Circle (TRC, Competing Values Leadership Instrument (CV-LI, Love Styles, Organizational Culture Assessment Instrument (OCAI, Customer Orientation Circle (COC, and System for Multi-Level Observation of Groups (behavioral adjectives; SYMLOG—in 17 German-speaking samples (29 subsamples, grouped by self-report, other report, and metaperception assessments. The general factor accounted for a proportion ranging from 1% to 48% of the item variance, the axes component for 2% to 30%; and scale specificity for 1% to 28%, respectively. Reliability estimates varied considerably from .13 to .92. An application of the Nunnally and Bernstein formula proposed by Markey, Markey, and Tinsley overestimated axes reliabilities in cases of large-scale specificities but otherwise works effectively. Contemporary circumplex evaluations such as Tracey’s RANDALL are sensitive to the ratio of the axes and scale-specificity components. In contrast, the proposed model isolates both components.

  6. Wind turbine reliability analysis


    Pinar Pérez, Jesús María; García Márquez, Fausto Pedro; Tobias, Andrew Mark; Papaelias, Mayorkinos


    Against the background of steadily increasing wind power generation worldwide, wind turbine manufacturers are continuing to develop a range of configurations with different combinations of pitch control, rotor speeds, gearboxes, generators and converters. This paper categorizes the main designs, focusing on their reliability by bringing together and comparing data from a selection of major studies in the literature. These are not particularly consistent but plotting failure rates against hour...

  7. Providing free autopoweroff plugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Carsten Lynge; Hansen, Lars Gårn; Fjordbak, Troels


    Experimental evidence of the effect of providing households with cheap energy saving technology is sparse. We present results from a field experiment in which autopoweroff plugs were provided free of charge to randomly selected households. We use propensity score matching to find treatment effects...

  8. Reliability engineering theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Birolini, Alessandro


    This book shows how to build in and assess reliability, availability, maintainability, and safety (RAMS) of components, equipment, and systems. It presents the state of the art of reliability (RAMS) engineering, in theory & practice, and is based on over 30 years author's experience in this field, half in industry and half as Professor of Reliability Engineering at the ETH, Zurich. The book structure allows rapid access to practical results. Methods & tools are given in a way that they can be tailored to cover different RAMS requirement levels. Thanks to Appendices A6 - A8 the book is mathematically self-contained, and can be used as a textbook or as a desktop reference with a large number of tables (60), figures (210), and examples / exercises^ 10,000 per year since 2013) were the motivation for this final edition, the 13th since 1985, including German editions. Extended and carefully reviewed to improve accuracy, it represents the continuous improvement effort to satisfy reader's needs and confidenc...

  9. Establishing the reliability of natural language processing evaluation through linear regression modelling / E.R. Eiselen.


    Eiselen, Ernst Roald


    Determining the quality of natural language applications is one of the most important aspects of technology development. There has, however, been very little work done on establishing how well the methods and measures represent the quality of the technology and how reliable the evaluation results presented in most research are. This study presents a new stepwise evaluation reliability methodology that provides a step-by-step framework for creating predictive models of evaluation metric reliab...

  10. System Reliability for LED-Based Products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, J Lynn; Mills, Karmann; Lamvik, Michael; Yaga, Robert; Shepherd, Sarah D; Bittle, James; Baldasaro, Nick; Solano, Eric; Bobashev, Georgiy; Johnson, Cortina; Evans, Amy


    Results from accelerated life tests (ALT) on mass-produced commercially available 6” downlights are reported along with results from commercial LEDs. The luminaires capture many of the design features found in modern luminaires. In general, a systems perspective is required to understand the reliability of these devices since LED failure is rare. In contrast, components such as drivers, lenses, and reflector are more likely to impact luminaire reliability than LEDs.

  11. Performance Reliability Prediction of Complex System Based on the Condition Monitoring Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongxing Wang


    Full Text Available Complex system performance reliability prediction is one of the means to understand complex systems reliability level, make maintenance decision, and guarantee the safety of operation. By the use of complex system condition monitoring information and condition monitoring information based on support vector machine, the paper aims to provide an evaluation of the degradation of complex system performance. With degradation assessment results as input variables, the prediction model of reliability is established in Winer random process. Taking the aircraft engine as an example, the effectiveness of the proposed method is verified in the paper.

  12. Narrative discourse productions in older language impaired learning disabled children: employing stricter reliability measures. (United States)

    Henshilwood, L; Ogilvy, D


    This study aimed to describe narrative discourse productions of older language impaired learning disabled (LILD) children, using stringent reliability measures. Coherence and cohesion were the measures of analysis employed. Content and clarity ratings provided a subjective analysis of narrative productions. Interrater and intrarater reliability measures were calculated and testing for stability of scores across three testing sessions were undertaken. The results indicated subtle differences in the coherence and cohesion of narrative productions in the LILD compared with controls. The findings of this study support past literature, which calls for greater research in this area using stricter reliability measures.

  13. Analog IC reliability in nanometer CMOS

    CERN Document Server

    Maricau, Elie


    This book focuses on modeling, simulation and analysis of analog circuit aging. First, all important nanometer CMOS physical effects resulting in circuit unreliability are reviewed. Then, transistor aging compact models for circuit simulation are discussed and several methods for efficient circuit reliability simulation are explained and compared. Ultimately, the impact of transistor aging on analog circuits is studied. Aging-resilient and aging-immune circuits are identified and the impact of technology scaling is discussed.   The models and simulation techniques described in the book are intended as an aid for device engineers, circuit designers and the EDA community to understand and to mitigate the impact of aging effects on nanometer CMOS ICs.   ·         Enables readers to understand long-term reliability of an integrated circuit; ·         Reviews CMOS unreliability effects, with focus on those that will emerge in future CMOS nodes; ·         Provides overview of models for...

  14. Real Time Grid Reliability Management 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eto, Joe; Eto, Joe; Lesieutre, Bernard; Lewis, Nancy Jo; Parashar, Manu


    The increased need to manage California?s electricity grid in real time is a result of the ongoing transition from a system operated by vertically-integrated utilities serving native loads to one operated by an independent system operator supporting competitive energy markets. During this transition period, the traditional approach to reliability management -- construction of new transmission lines -- has not been pursued due to unresolved issues related to the financing and recovery of transmission project costs. In the absence of investments in new transmission infrastructure, the best strategy for managing reliability is to equip system operators with better real-time information about actual operating margins so that they can better understand and manage the risk of operating closer to the edge. A companion strategy is to address known deficiencies in offline modeling tools that are needed to ground the use of improved real-time tools. This project: (1) developed and conducted first-ever demonstrations of two prototype real-time software tools for voltage security assessment and phasor monitoring; and (2) prepared a scoping study on improving load and generator response models. Additional funding through two separate subsequent work authorizations has already been provided to build upon the work initiated in this project.

  15. Reliability in automotive and mechanical engineering determination of component and system reliability

    CERN Document Server

    Bertsche, Bernd


    In the present contemporary climate of global competition in every branch of engineering and manufacture it has been shown from extensive customer surveys that above every other attribute, reliability stands as the most desired feature in a finished product. To survive this relentless fight for survival any organisation, which neglect the plea of attaining to excellence in reliability, will do so at a serious cost Reliability in Automotive and Mechanical Engineering draws together a wide spectrum of diverse and relevant applications and analyses on reliability engineering. This is distilled into this attractive and well documented volume and practising engineers are challenged with the formidable task of simultaneously improving reliability and reducing the costs and down-time due to maintenance. The volume brings together eleven chapters to highlight the importance of the interrelated reliability and maintenance disciplines. They represent the development trends and progress resulting in making this book ess...

  16. Survey on the implementation and reliability of CubeSat electrical bus interfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwmeester, J.; Langer, M; Gill, E.K.A.


    This paper provides results and conclusions on a survey on the implementation and reliability aspects of CubeSat bus interfaces, with an emphasis on the data bus and power distribution. It provides recommendations for a future CubeSat bus standard. The survey is based on a literature study and a

  17. Fundamental mechanisms of micromachine reliability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    independent of RH up to a threshold value, depending on the coating chemistry. The mechanism for the adhesion increase beyond this threshold value is that the coupling agent reconfigures from a surface to a bulk phase (Chapter 3). To investigate the details of how the adhesion increase occurs, the authors developed the mechanics for adhesion hysteresis measurements. These revealed that near-crack tip compression is the underlying cause of the adhesion increase (Chapter 4). A vacuum deposition chamber for silane coupling agent deposition was constructed. Results indicate that vapor deposited coatings are less susceptible to degradation at high RH (Chapter 5). To address issues relating to surfaces in relative motion, a new test structure to measure friction was developed. In contrast to other surface micromachined friction test structures, uniform apparent pressure is applied in the frictional contact zone (Chapter 6). The test structure will enable friction studies over a large pressure and dynamic range. In this LDRD project, the authors established an infrastructure for MEMS adhesion and friction metrology. They then characterized in detail the performance of hydrophilic and hydrophobic films under humid conditions, and determined mechanisms which limit this performance. These studies contribute to a fundamental understanding for MEMS reliability design rules. They also provide valuable data for MEMS packaging requirements.

  18. Ultimately Reliable Pyrotechnic Systems (United States)

    Scott, John H.; Hinkel, Todd


    This paper presents the methods by which NASA has designed, built, tested, and certified pyrotechnic devices for high reliability operation in extreme environments and illustrates the potential applications in the oil and gas industry. NASA's extremely successful application of pyrotechnics is built upon documented procedures and test methods that have been maintained and developed since the Apollo Program. Standards are managed and rigorously enforced for performance margins, redundancy, lot sampling, and personnel safety. The pyrotechnics utilized in spacecraft include such devices as small initiators and detonators with the power of a shotgun shell, detonating cord systems for explosive energy transfer across many feet, precision linear shaped charges for breaking structural membranes, and booster charges to actuate valves and pistons. NASA's pyrotechnics program is one of the more successful in the history of Human Spaceflight. No pyrotechnic device developed in accordance with NASA's Human Spaceflight standards has ever failed in flight use. NASA's pyrotechnic initiators work reliably in temperatures as low as -420 F. Each of the 135 Space Shuttle flights fired 102 of these initiators, some setting off multiple pyrotechnic devices, with never a failure. The recent landing on Mars of the Opportunity rover fired 174 of NASA's pyrotechnic initiators to complete the famous '7 minutes of terror.' Even after traveling through extreme radiation and thermal environments on the way to Mars, every one of them worked. These initiators have fired on the surface of Titan. NASA's design controls, procedures, and processes produce the most reliable pyrotechnics in the world. Application of pyrotechnics designed and procured in this manner could enable the energy industry's emergency equipment, such as shutoff valves and deep-sea blowout preventers, to be left in place for years in extreme environments and still be relied upon to function when needed, thus greatly enhancing

  19. CR reliability testing (United States)

    Honeyman-Buck, Janice C.; Rill, Lynn; Frost, Meryll M.; Staab, Edward V.


    The purpose of this work was to develop a method for systematically testing the reliability of a CR system under realistic daily loads in a non-clinical environment prior to its clinical adoption. Once digital imaging replaces film, it will be very difficult to revert back should the digital system become unreliable. Prior to the beginning of the test, a formal evaluation was performed to set the benchmarks for performance and functionality. A formal protocol was established that included all the 62 imaging plates in the inventory for each 24-hour period in the study. Imaging plates were exposed using different combinations of collimation, orientation, and SID. Anthropomorphic phantoms were used to acquire images of different sizes. Each combination was chosen randomly to simulate the differences that could occur in clinical practice. The tests were performed over a wide range of times with batches of plates processed to simulate the temporal constraints required by the nature of portable radiographs taken in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU). Current patient demographics were used for the test studies so automatic routing algorithms could be tested. During the test, only three minor reliability problems occurred, two of which were not directly related to the CR unit. One plate was discovered to cause a segmentation error that essentially reduced the image to only black and white with no gray levels. This plate was removed from the inventory to be replaced. Another problem was a PACS routing problem that occurred when the DICOM server with which the CR was communicating had a problem with disk space. The final problem was a network printing failure to the laser cameras. Although the units passed the reliability test, problems with interfacing to workstations were discovered. The two issues that were identified were the interpretation of what constitutes a study for CR and the construction of the look-up table for a proper gray scale display.

  20. Advanced Functionalities for Highly Reliable Optical Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    An, Yi

    interconnects and network-on-chips. A novel concept of all-optical protection switching scheme is proposed, where fault detection and protection trigger are all implemented in the optical domain. This scheme can provide ultra-fast establishment of the protection path resulting in a minimum loss of data......This thesis covers two research topics concerning optical solutions for networks e.g. avionic systems. One is to identify the applications for silicon photonic devices for cost-effective solutions in short-range optical networks. The other one is to realise advanced functionalities in order...... to increase the availability of highly reliable optical networks. A cost-effective transmitter based on a directly modulated laser (DML) using a silicon micro-ring resonator (MRR) to enhance its modulation speed is proposed, analysed and experimentally demonstrated. A modulation speed enhancement from 10 Gbit...

  1. Key Reliability Drivers of Liquid Propulsion Engines and A Reliability Model for Sensitivity Analysis (United States)

    Huang, Zhao-Feng; Fint, Jeffry A.; Kuck, Frederick M.


    This paper is to address the in-flight reliability of a liquid propulsion engine system for a launch vehicle. We first establish a comprehensive list of system and sub-system reliability drivers for any liquid propulsion engine system. We then build a reliability model to parametrically analyze the impact of some reliability parameters. We present sensitivity analysis results for a selected subset of the key reliability drivers using the model. Reliability drivers identified include: number of engines for the liquid propulsion stage, single engine total reliability, engine operation duration, engine thrust size, reusability, engine de-rating or up-rating, engine-out design (including engine-out switching reliability, catastrophic fraction, preventable failure fraction, unnecessary shutdown fraction), propellant specific hazards, engine start and cutoff transient hazards, engine combustion cycles, vehicle and engine interface and interaction hazards, engine health management system, engine modification, engine ground start hold down with launch commit criteria, engine altitude start (1 in. start), Multiple altitude restart (less than 1 restart), component, subsystem and system design, manufacturing/ground operation support/pre and post flight check outs and inspection, extensiveness of the development program. We present some sensitivity analysis results for the following subset of the drivers: number of engines for the propulsion stage, single engine total reliability, engine operation duration, engine de-rating or up-rating requirements, engine-out design, catastrophic fraction, preventable failure fraction, unnecessary shutdown fraction, and engine health management system implementation (basic redlines and more advanced health management systems).

  2. Design for Reliability of Power Electronic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Huai; Ma, Ke; Blaabjerg, Frede


    Advances in power electronics enable efficient and flexible processing of electric power in the application of renewable energy sources, electric vehicles, adjustable-speed drives, etc. More and more efforts are devoted to better power electronic systems in terms of reliability to ensure high...... availability, long lifetime, sufficient robustness, low maintenance cost and low cost of energy. However, the reliability predictions are still dominantly according to outdated models and terms, such as MIL-HDBK-217F handbook models, Mean-Time-To-Failure (MTTF), and Mean-Time-Between-Failures (MTBF......). A collection of methodologies based on Physics-of-Failure (PoF) approach and mission profile analysis are presented in this paper to perform reliability-oriented design of power electronic systems. The corresponding design procedures and reliability prediction models are provided. Further on, a case study...

  3. Stochastic reliability and maintenance modeling essays in honor of Professor Shunji Osaki on his 70th birthday

    CERN Document Server

    Nakagawa, Toshio


    In honor of the work of Professor Shunji Osaki, Stochastic Reliability and Maintenance Modeling provides a comprehensive study of the legacy of and ongoing research in stochastic reliability and maintenance modeling. Including associated application areas such as dependable computing, performance evaluation, software engineering, communication engineering, distinguished researchers review and build on the contributions over the last four decades by Professor Shunji Osaki. Fundamental yet significant research results are presented and discussed clearly alongside new ideas and topics on stochastic reliability and maintenance modeling to inspire future research. Across 15 chapters readers gain the knowledge and understanding to apply reliability and maintenance theory to computer and communication systems. Stochastic Reliability and Maintenance Modeling is ideal for graduate students and researchers in reliability engineering, and workers, managers and engineers engaged in computer, maintenance and management wo...

  4. Blade reliability collaborative :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashwill, Thomas D.; Ogilvie, Alistair B.; Paquette, Joshua A.


    The Blade Reliability Collaborative (BRC) was started by the Wind Energy Technologies Department of Sandia National Laboratories and DOE in 2010 with the goal of gaining insight into planned and unplanned O&M issues associated with wind turbine blades. A significant part of BRC is the Blade Defect, Damage and Repair Survey task, which will gather data from blade manufacturers, service companies, operators and prior studies to determine details about the largest sources of blade unreliability. This report summarizes the initial findings from this work.

  5. Intrarater reliability of the functional movement screen. (United States)

    Gribble, Phillip A; Brigle, Jill; Pietrosimone, Brian G; Pfile, Kate R; Webster, Kathryn A


    The Functional Movement Screen (FMS) is a tool that quantifies movement patterns as a way to detect performance asymmetries. Although previous study has investigated the reliability of FMS, no current research has examined intrarater reliability or how clinical experience plays a role in the reliability of this tool. In this controlled laboratory study design, repeated measures were used to investigate how experience using the FMS and clinical experience as an athletic trainer (AT) affects the intrarater reliability of FMS testing. Before the data collection, 3 individuals recruited from the university community provided signed informed consent to serve as videotaped models performing the FMS test. The participants (raters) in the study, with different levels of FMS and clinical experience, viewed each of the 3 videotaped models and rated the video models on each exercise of the FMS according to the script that was presented by one of the study investigators. A week later, the participants watched the same videos again, in a different randomized order, and rated each video model on each exercise. After the scores from the participants were collected from both sessions, the intersession scores of the FMS were examined to establish intrarater reliability of all the participants. Additionally, the intrarater reliability of different groups of clinicians and students was compared to make inferences about the influence of clinical experience as an AT along with previous experience using the FMS. The ATs with at least 6 months of experience using the FMS (ATExp group) had the strongest intrarater reliability [intraclass correlation coefficients, ICC (2,1): 0.946], followed by the AT group with moderate reliability [ICC (2,1): 0.771]. This study indicates that intrarater reliability is strong and seems to strengthen when the individuals have experience using the FMS in addition to clinical experience.

  6. Reliability assessment of wave Energy devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambühl, Simon; Kramer, Morten; Kofoed, Jens Peter


    Energy from waves may play a key role in sustainable electricity production in the future. Optimal reliability levels for components used for Wave Energy Devices (WEDs) need to be defined to be able to decrease their cost of electricity. Optimal reliability levels can be found using probabilistic...... near Hanstholm (DK). In the present paper, a generic example for an extreme limit state is considered. The extreme limit state case considers important failure modes of the system which are determined by a Fault Tree Analysis (FTA) and Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA). The resulting reliability...

  7. Environmental education curriculum evaluation questionnaire: A reliability and validity study (United States)

    Minner, Daphne Diane

    The intention of this research project was to bridge the gap between social science research and application to the environmental domain through the development of a theoretically derived instrument designed to give educators a template by which to evaluate environmental education curricula. The theoretical base for instrument development was provided by several developmental theories such as Piaget's theory of cognitive development, Developmental Systems Theory, Life-span Perspective, as well as curriculum research within the area of environmental education. This theoretical base fueled the generation of a list of components which were then translated into a questionnaire with specific questions relevant to the environmental education domain. The specific research question for this project is: Can a valid assessment instrument based largely on human development and education theory be developed that reliably discriminates high, moderate, and low quality in environmental education curricula? The types of analyses conducted to answer this question were interrater reliability (percent agreement, Cohen's Kappa coefficient, Pearson's Product-Moment correlation coefficient), test-retest reliability (percent agreement, correlation), and criterion-related validity (correlation). Face validity and content validity were also assessed through thorough reviews. Overall results indicate that 29% of the questions on the questionnaire demonstrated a high level of interrater reliability and 43% of the questions demonstrated a moderate level of interrater reliability. Seventy-one percent of the questions demonstrated a high test-retest reliability and 5% a moderate level. Fifty-five percent of the questions on the questionnaire were reliable (high or moderate) both across time and raters. Only eight questions (8%) did not show either interrater or test-retest reliability. The global overall rating of high, medium, or low quality was reliable across both coders and time, indicating

  8. Supercomputing Centers and Electricity Service Providers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patki, Tapasya; Bates, Natalie; Ghatikar, Girish


    Supercomputing Centers (SCs) have high and variable power demands, which increase the challenges of the Electricity Service Providers (ESPs) with regards to efficient electricity distribution and reliable grid operation. High penetration of renewable energy generation further exacerbates this pro......Supercomputing Centers (SCs) have high and variable power demands, which increase the challenges of the Electricity Service Providers (ESPs) with regards to efficient electricity distribution and reliable grid operation. High penetration of renewable energy generation further exacerbates...

  9. Test–Retest and Between-Site Reliability in a Multicenter fMRI Study (United States)

    Friedman, Lee; Stern, Hal; Brown, Gregory G.; Mathalon, Daniel H.; Turner, Jessica; Glover, Gary H.; Gollub, Randy L.; Lauriello, John; Lim, Kelvin O.; Cannon, Tyrone; Greve, Douglas N.; Bockholt, Henry Jeremy; Belger, Aysenil; Mueller, Bryon; Doty, Michael J.; He, Jianchun; Wells, William; Smyth, Padhraic; Pieper, Steve; Kim, Seyoung; Kubicki, Marek; Vangel, Mark; Potkin, Steven G.


    In the present report, estimates of test–retest and between-site reliability of fMRI assessments were produced in the context of a multicenter fMRI reliability study (FBIRN Phase 1, Five subjects were scanned on 10 MRI scanners on two occasions. The fMRI task was a simple block design sensorimotor task. The impulse response functions to the stimulation block were derived using an FIR-deconvolution analysis with FMRISTAT. Six functionally-derived ROIs covering the visual, auditory and motor cortices, created from a prior analysis, were used. Two dependent variables were compared: percent signal change and contrast-to-noise-ratio. Reliability was assessed with intraclass correlation coefficients derived from a variance components analysis. Test–retest reliability was high, but initially, between-site reliability was low, indicating a strong contribution from site and site-by-subject variance. However, a number of factors that can markedly improve between-site reliability were uncovered, including increasing the size of the ROIs, adjusting for smoothness differences, and inclusion of additional runs. By employing multiple steps, between-site reliability for 3T scanners was increased by 123%. Dropping one site at a time and assessing reliability can be a useful method of assessing the sensitivity of the results to particular sites. These findings should provide guidance to others on the best practices for future multicenter studies. PMID:17636563

  10. Test-retest and between-site reliability in a multicenter fMRI study. (United States)

    Friedman, Lee; Stern, Hal; Brown, Gregory G; Mathalon, Daniel H; Turner, Jessica; Glover, Gary H; Gollub, Randy L; Lauriello, John; Lim, Kelvin O; Cannon, Tyrone; Greve, Douglas N; Bockholt, Henry Jeremy; Belger, Aysenil; Mueller, Bryon; Doty, Michael J; He, Jianchun; Wells, William; Smyth, Padhraic; Pieper, Steve; Kim, Seyoung; Kubicki, Marek; Vangel, Mark; Potkin, Steven G


    In the present report, estimates of test-retest and between-site reliability of fMRI assessments were produced in the context of a multicenter fMRI reliability study (FBIRN Phase 1, Five subjects were scanned on 10 MRI scanners on two occasions. The fMRI task was a simple block design sensorimotor task. The impulse response functions to the stimulation block were derived using an FIR-deconvolution analysis with FMRISTAT. Six functionally-derived ROIs covering the visual, auditory and motor cortices, created from a prior analysis, were used. Two dependent variables were compared: percent signal change and contrast-to-noise-ratio. Reliability was assessed with intraclass correlation coefficients derived from a variance components analysis. Test-retest reliability was high, but initially, between-site reliability was low, indicating a strong contribution from site and site-by-subject variance. However, a number of factors that can markedly improve between-site reliability were uncovered, including increasing the size of the ROIs, adjusting for smoothness differences, and inclusion of additional runs. By employing multiple steps, between-site reliability for 3T scanners was increased by 123%. Dropping one site at a time and assessing reliability can be a useful method of assessing the sensitivity of the results to particular sites. These findings should provide guidance toothers on the best practices for future multicenter studies.

  11. A Novel Power System Reliability Predicting Model Based on PCA and RVM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuping Zheng


    Full Text Available The power system reliability is an important index to evaluate the ability of power supply. According to the characteristics of the practical grid operation, this paper trains and sets up power grid reliability predicting model, based on relevance vector machine, taking the load supplying capacity of power grid and natural calamities as input variables, and the outage time of power grid failure affecting the reliability of the power supply as output variables. In the modeling process, through principal component analysis of the training sample set of relevance vector machine, the input factor number of sample is improved, the input number of network is reduced, the network structure is simplified, and the predicting accuracy is increased. Simulation results are provided to verify the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm, which show that it provides a new way for power system reliability predicting.

  12. System reliability, performance and trust in adaptable automation. (United States)

    Chavaillaz, Alain; Wastell, David; Sauer, Jürgen


    The present study examined the effects of reduced system reliability on operator performance and automation management in an adaptable automation environment. 39 operators were randomly assigned to one of three experimental groups: low (60%), medium (80%), and high (100%) reliability of automation support. The support system provided five incremental levels of automation which operators could freely select according to their needs. After 3 h of training on a simulated process control task (AutoCAMS) in which the automation worked infallibly, operator performance and automation management were measured during a 2.5-h testing session. Trust and workload were also assessed through questionnaires. Results showed that although reduced system reliability resulted in lower levels of trust towards automation, there were no corresponding differences in the operators' reliance on automation. While operators showed overall a noteworthy ability to cope with automation failure, there were, however, decrements in diagnostic speed and prospective memory with lower reliability. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Reliability-Based Optimization and Optimal Reliability Level of Offshore Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    Different formulations relevant for the reliability-based optimization of offshore wind turbines are presented, including different reconstruction policies in case of failure. Illustrative examples are presented and, as a part of the results, optimal reliability levels for the different failure...

  14. Reliability-Based Optimization and Optimal Reliability Level of Offshore Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Tarp-Johansen, N.J.


    Different formulations relevant for the reliability-based optimization of offshore wind turbines are presented, including different reconstruction policies in case of failure. Illustrative examples are presented and, as a part of the results, optimal reliability levels for the different failure...

  15. Gate-Level Circuit Reliability Analysis: A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ran Xiao


    Full Text Available Circuit reliability has become a growing concern in today’s nanoelectronics, which motivates strong research interest over the years in reliability analysis and reliability-oriented circuit design. While quite a few approaches for circuit reliability analysis have been reported, there is a lack of comparative studies on their pros and cons in terms of both accuracy and efficiency. This paper provides an overview of some typical methods for reliability analysis with focus on gate-level circuits, large or small, with or without reconvergent fanouts. It is intended to help the readers gain an insight into the reliability issues, and their complexity as well as optional solutions. Understanding the reliability analysis is also a first step towards advanced circuit designs for improved reliability in the future research.

  16. Study on segmented distribution for reliability evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huaiyuan Li


    Full Text Available In practice, the failure rate of most equipment exhibits different tendencies at different stages and even its failure rate curve behaves a multimodal trace during its life cycle. As a result, traditionally evaluating the reliability of equipment with a single model may lead to severer errors. However, if lifetime is divided into several different intervals according to the characteristics of its failure rate, piecewise fitting can more accurately approximate the failure rate of equipment. Therefore, in this paper, failure rate is regarded as a piecewise function, and two kinds of segmented distribution are put forward to evaluate reliability. In order to estimate parameters in the segmented reliability function, Bayesian estimation and maximum likelihood estimation (MLE of the segmented distribution are discussed in this paper. Since traditional information criterion is not suitable for the segmented distribution, an improved information criterion is proposed to test and evaluate the segmented reliability model in this paper. After a great deal of testing and verification, the segmented reliability model and its estimation methods presented in this paper are proven more efficient and accurate than the traditional non-segmented single model, especially when the change of the failure rate is time-phased or multimodal. The significant performance of the segmented reliability model in evaluating reliability of proximity sensors of leading-edge flap in civil aircraft indicates that the segmented distribution and its estimation method in this paper could be useful and accurate.

  17. OSS reliability measurement and assessment

    CERN Document Server

    Yamada, Shigeru


    This book analyses quantitative open source software (OSS) reliability assessment and its applications, focusing on three major topic areas: the Fundamentals of OSS Quality/Reliability Measurement and Assessment; the Practical Applications of OSS Reliability Modelling; and Recent Developments in OSS Reliability Modelling. Offering an ideal reference guide for graduate students and researchers in reliability for open source software (OSS) and modelling, the book introduces several methods of reliability assessment for OSS including component-oriented reliability analysis based on analytic hierarchy process (AHP), analytic network process (ANP), and non-homogeneous Poisson process (NHPP) models, the stochastic differential equation models and hazard rate models. These measurement and management technologies are essential to producing and maintaining quality/reliable systems using OSS.

  18. Travel reliability inventory for Chicago. (United States)


    The overarching goal of this research project is to enable state DOTs to document and monitor the reliability performance : of their highway networks. To this end, a computer tool, TRIC, was developed to produce travel reliability inventories from : ...

  19. Reliability Prediction for Aerospace Electronics (United States)


    semiconductor reliability, VLSI qualification, microelectronics reliability modeling 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT...memory, SRAM and DRAM, MEMS and laser programmable metal interconnect. He has licensed his technology and consulted for RFID and SRAM applications

  20. Production Facility System Reliability Analysis Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dale, Crystal Buchanan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Klein, Steven Karl [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    This document describes the reliability, maintainability, and availability (RMA) modeling of the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) design for the Closed Loop Helium Cooling System (CLHCS) planned for the NorthStar accelerator-based 99Mo production facility. The current analysis incorporates a conceptual helium recovery system, beam diagnostics, and prototype control system into the reliability analysis. The results from the 1000 hr blower test are addressed.

  1. System Reliability Evaluation Based on Convex Combination Considering Operation and Maintenance Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijie Li


    Full Text Available The approaches to the system reliability evaluation with respect to the cases, where the components are independent or the components have interactive relationships within the system, were proposed in this paper. Starting from the higher requirements on system operational safety and economy, the reliability focused optimal models of multiobjective maintenance strategies were built. For safety-critical systems, the pessimistic maintenance strategies are usually taken, and, in these cases, the system reliability evaluation has also to be tackled pessimistically. For safety-uncritical systems, the optimistic maintenance strategies were usually taken, and, in these circumstances, the system reliability evaluation had also to be tackled optimistically, respectively. Besides, the reasonable maintenance strategies and their corresponding reliability evaluation can be obtained through the convex combination of the above two cases. With a high-speed train system as the example background, the proposed method is verified by combining the actual failure data with the maintenance data. Results demonstrate that the proposed study can provide a new system reliability calculation method and solution to select and optimize the multiobjective operational strategies with the considerations of system safety and economical requirements. The theoretical basis is also provided for scientifically estimating the reliability of a high-speed train system and formulating reasonable maintenance strategies.

  2. Reliability and Its Quantitative Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru ISAIC-MANIU


    Full Text Available In this article is made an opening for the software reliability issues, through wide-ranging statistical indicators, which are designed based on information collected from operating or testing (samples. It is developed the reliability issues also for the case of the main reliability laws (exponential, normal, Weibull, which validated for a particular system, allows the calculation of some reliability indicators with a higher degree of accuracy and trustworthiness

  3. Testing for PV Reliability (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurtz, S.; Bansal, S.


    The DOE SUNSHOT workshop is seeking input from the community about PV reliability and how the DOE might address gaps in understanding. This presentation describes the types of testing that are needed for PV reliability and introduces a discussion to identify gaps in our understanding of PV reliability testing.

  4. 2017 NREL Photovoltaic Reliability Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurtz, Sarah [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)


    NREL's Photovoltaic (PV) Reliability Workshop (PVRW) brings together PV reliability experts to share information, leading to the improvement of PV module reliability. Such improvement reduces the cost of solar electricity and promotes investor confidence in the technology -- both critical goals for moving PV technologies deeper into the electricity marketplace.

  5. Reliability of goniometric measurements. (United States)

    Boone, D C; Azen, S P; Lin, C M; Spence, C; Baron, C; Lee, L


    This study determined the intratester and intertester variability and reliability of goniometric measurements taken by four physical therapists on upper and lower extremity motions of normal male subjects. The same subjects were measured once weekly for four weeks by testers with varied experience in goniometry. Data were analyzed by analyses of variance with repeated measures. Intratester variation for all measurements was less than intertester variation. Further, intertester variation was less for the three upper extremity motions than for those of the lower extremity. These findings indicate the necessity for using the same tester when effects of treatment are evaluated. When the same tester measures the same movement, increases in joint motion of at least three to four degrees determine improvement for either the upper or lower extremity. When more than one tester, however, measures the same movement, increases in joint motion should exceed five degrees for the upper extremity and six degrees for the lower extremity to determine improvement.

  6. Assessing reliability of classification in the most informative spectral regions of hyperspectral images (United States)

    Aria, S. E. Hosseini; Menenti, M.; Gorte, B. G. H.


    Reliability analysis is usually applied to evaluate classification procedures with different classes. In this research, we have applied the analysis to two different band sets to find out which one is more reliable. These band sets provide the most informative spectral regions covered by hyperspectral images. The informative regions are identified by minimizing two dependency measures between bands: correlation coefficient and normalized mutual information. The implementations are done by a newly developed top-down method named Spectral Region Splitting (SRS) resulting in two sets of bands which are almost identical at critical spectral regions. A reliability analysis based on the thresholding technique of the two sets of bands was performed. A technique was applied to discard those pixels that are not correctly classified at the given confidence level. The results show that the informative spectral regions selected by normalized mutual information was more reliable.

  7. Reliability of optical fibres and components final report of COST 246

    CERN Document Server

    Griffioen, Willem; Gadonna, Michel; Limberger, Hans; Heens, Bernard; Knuuttila, Hanna; Kurkjian, Charles; Mirza, Shehzad; Opacic, Aleksandar; Regio, Paola; Semjonov, Sergei


    Reliability of Optical Fibres and Components reports the findings of COST 246 (1993-1998) - European research initiative in the field of optical telecommunications. Experts in the materials and reliability field of optical fibres and components have contributed to this unique study programme. The results, conclusions and achievements of their work have been obtained through joint experimentation and discussion with representatives from manufacturing and research groups. Topics covered include: Lifetime estimation; Failure mechanisms; Ageing test methods; Field data and service environments for components. For the first time the reader can explore the reliability of products and examine the results and conclusions in published form. This comprehensive volume is intended to provide a deeper understanding of the reliability of optical fibres and components. The book will be extremely useful to all scientists and practitioners involved in the industry.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.О. Somka


    Full Text Available Purpose. To develop a diagnostic complex meeting the criteria and requirements for carrying out accelerated reliability test and realizing the basic modes of electric machines operation and performance of the posed problems necessary in the process of such test. Methodology. To determine and forecast the indices of electric machines reliability in accordance with the statistic data of repair plants we have conditionally divided them into structural parts that are most likely to fail. We have preliminarily assessed the state of each of these parts, which includes revelation of faults and deviations of technical and geometric parameters. We have determined the analyzed electric machine controlled parameters used for assessment of quantitative characteristics of reliability of these parts and electric machines on the whole. Results. As a result of the research, we have substantiated the structure of a computerized complex for electric machines reliability test. It allows us to change thermal and vibration actions without violation of the physics of the processes of aging and wearing of the basic structural parts and elements material. The above mentioned makes it possible to considerably reduce time spent on carrying out electric machines reliability tests and improve trustworthiness of the data obtained as a result of their performance. Originality. A special feature of determination of the controlled parameters consists in removal of vibration components in the idle mode and after disconnection of the analyzed electric machine from the power supply with the aim of singling out the vibration electromagnetic component, fixing the degree of sparking and bend of the shaft by means of phototechnique and local determination of structural parts temperature provided by corresponding location of thermal sensors. Practical value. We have offered a scheme of location of thermal and vibration sensors, which allows improvement of parameters measuring accuracy

  9. Probabilistic logic modeling of network reliability for hybrid network architectures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wyss, G.D.; Schriner, H.K.; Gaylor, T.R.


    Sandia National Laboratories has found that the reliability and failure modes of current-generation network technologies can be effectively modeled using fault tree-based probabilistic logic modeling (PLM) techniques. We have developed fault tree models that include various hierarchical networking technologies and classes of components interconnected in a wide variety of typical and atypical configurations. In this paper we discuss the types of results that can be obtained from PLMs and why these results are of great practical value to network designers and analysts. After providing some mathematical background, we describe the `plug-and-play` fault tree analysis methodology that we have developed for modeling connectivity and the provision of network services in several current- generation network architectures. Finally, we demonstrate the flexibility of the method by modeling the reliability of a hybrid example network that contains several interconnected ethernet, FDDI, and token ring segments. 11 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Flight control electronics reliability/maintenance study (United States)

    Dade, W. W.; Edwards, R. H.; Katt, G. T.; Mcclellan, K. L.; Shomber, H. A.


    Collection and analysis of data are reported that concern the reliability and maintenance experience of flight control system electronics currently in use on passenger carrying jet aircraft. Two airlines B-747 airplane fleets were analyzed to assess the component reliability, system functional reliability, and achieved availability of the CAT II configuration flight control system. Also assessed were the costs generated by this system in the categories of spare equipment, schedule irregularity, and line and shop maintenance. The results indicate that although there is a marked difference in the geographic location and route pattern between the airlines studied, there is a close similarity in the reliability and the maintenance costs associated with the flight control electronics.

  11. Reliability analysis of idealized tunnel support system using probability-based methods with case studies (United States)

    Gharouni-Nik, Morteza; Naeimi, Meysam; Ahadi, Sodayf; Alimoradi, Zahra


    In order to determine the overall safety of a tunnel support lining, a reliability-based approach is presented in this paper. Support elements in jointed rock tunnels are provided to control the ground movement caused by stress redistribution during the tunnel drive. Main support elements contribute to stability of the tunnel structure are recognized owing to identify various aspects of reliability and sustainability in the system. The selection of efficient support methods for rock tunneling is a key factor in order to reduce the number of problems during construction and maintain the project cost and time within the limited budget and planned schedule. This paper introduces a smart approach by which decision-makers will be able to find the overall reliability of tunnel support system before selecting the final scheme of the lining system. Due to this research focus, engineering reliability which is a branch of statistics and probability is being appropriately applied to the field and much effort has been made to use it in tunneling while investigating the reliability of the lining support system for the tunnel structure. Therefore, reliability analysis for evaluating the tunnel support performance is the main idea used in this research. Decomposition approaches are used for producing system block diagram and determining the failure probability of the whole system. Effectiveness of the proposed reliability model of tunnel lining together with the recommended approaches is examined using several case studies and the final value of reliability obtained for different designing scenarios. Considering the idea of linear correlation between safety factors and reliability parameters, the values of isolated reliabilities determined for different structural components of tunnel support system. In order to determine individual safety factors, finite element modeling is employed for different structural subsystems and the results of numerical analyses are obtained in

  12. Reliability and radiation tolerance of robots for nuclear applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauridsen, K. [Risoe National Lab. (Denmark); Decreton, M. [SCK.CEN (Belgium); Seifert, C.C. [Siemens AG (Germany); Sharp, R. [AEA Technology (United Kingdom)


    The reliability of a robot for nuclear applications will be affected by environmental factors such as dust, water, vibrations, heat, and, in particular, ionising radiation. The present report describes the work carried out in a project addressing the reliability and radiation tolerance of such robots. A widely representative range of components and materials has been radiation tested and the test results have been collated in a database along with data provided by the participants from earlier work and data acquired from other sources. A radiation effects guide has been written for the use by designers of electronic equipment for robots. A generic reliability model has been set up together with generic failure strategies, forming the basis for specific reliability modelling carried out in other projects. Modelling tools have been examined and developed for the prediction of the performance of electronic circuits subjected to radiation. Reports have been produced dealing with the prediction and detection of upcoming failures in electronic systems. Operational experience from the use of robots in radiation work in various contexts has been compiled in a report, and another report has been written on cost/benefit considerations about the use of robots. Also the possible impact of robots on the safety of the surrounding plant has been considered and reported. (au) 16 ills., 236 refs.

  13. Designing reliable supply chain network with disruption risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Bozorgi Amiri


    Full Text Available Although supply chains disruptions rarely occur, their negative effects are prolonged and severe. In this paper, we propose a reliable capacitated supply chain network design (RSCND model by considering random disruptions in both distribution centers and suppliers. The proposed model determines the optimal location of distribution centers (DC with the highest reliability, the best plan to assign customers to opened DCs and assigns opened DCs to suitable suppliers with lowest transportation cost. In this study, random disruption occurs at the location, capacity of the distribution centers (DCs and suppliers. It is assumed that a disrupted DC and a disrupted supplier may lose a portion of their capacities, and the rest of the disrupted DC's demand can be supplied by other DCs. In addition, we consider shortage in DCs, which can occur in either normal or disruption conditions and DCs, can support each other in such circumstances. Unlike other studies in the extent of literature, we use new approach to model the reliability of DCs; we consider a range of reliability instead of using binary variables. In order to solve the proposed model for real-world instances, a Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm-II (NSGA-II is applied. Preliminary results of testing the proposed model of this paper on several problems with different sizes provide seem to be promising.

  14. Reliability methods in nuclear power plant ageing management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simola, K. [VTT Automation, Espoo (Finland). Industrial Automation


    The aim of nuclear power plant ageing management is to maintain an adequate safety level throughout the lifetime of the plant. In ageing studies, the reliability of components, systems and structures is evaluated taking into account the possible time-dependent degradation. The phases of ageing analyses are generally the identification of critical components, identification and evaluation of ageing effects, and development of mitigation methods. This thesis focuses on the use of reliability methods and analyses of plant- specific operating experience in nuclear power plant ageing studies. The presented applications and method development have been related to nuclear power plants, but many of the approaches can also be applied outside the nuclear industry. The thesis consists of a summary and seven publications. The summary provides an overview of ageing management and discusses the role of reliability methods in ageing analyses. In the publications, practical applications and method development are described in more detail. The application areas at component and system level are motor-operated valves and protection automation systems, for which experience-based ageing analyses have been demonstrated. Furthermore, Bayesian ageing models for repairable components have been developed, and the management of ageing by improving maintenance practices is discussed. Recommendations for improvement of plant information management in order to facilitate ageing analyses are also given. The evaluation and mitigation of ageing effects on structural components is addressed by promoting the use of probabilistic modelling of crack growth, and developing models for evaluation of the reliability of inspection results. (orig.)

  15. Comparison of maintenance scheme effects on power transformer reliability performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. C. Durán


    Full Text Available Power transformer failures have a significant impact on electrical systems reliability, as they compromise the electricity delivery. Failures impact the operational cost of electric utilities as they endanger the accomplishment of power commitments. Power transformer failure rate can be modeled from its health condition, which is determined from different condition parameters. This paper is aimed to compare different maintenance schemes that allow the asset to be available the longest possible time. The power transformer operation is represented considering actual electric load profiles and temperature. Electrical and thermal transformer parameters are taken from manufacturer tests and technical standards. An electrical-thermal model is employed to estimate the life span reduction and temperature changes. From life span and loading, the health condition is determined, so as the effects of different maintenance schemes. The failure rates are calculated for unmaintained conditions and different maintained schemes, allowing to determine their effects on transformer reliability. Optimal maintenance schemes are determined and the expected benefits in failure rate reduction, asset reliability and life span extension are presented. As a result, it was found that certain time-based maintenance schemes provide better transformer reliability performance in comparison to condition based schemes, allowing to reduce the interruptions and extending the life of the transformer.

  16. Test-retest reliability of cognitive EEG (United States)

    McEvoy, L. K.; Smith, M. E.; Gevins, A.


    OBJECTIVE: Task-related EEG is sensitive to changes in cognitive state produced by increased task difficulty and by transient impairment. If task-related EEG has high test-retest reliability, it could be used as part of a clinical test to assess changes in cognitive function. The aim of this study was to determine the reliability of the EEG recorded during the performance of a working memory (WM) task and a psychomotor vigilance task (PVT). METHODS: EEG was recorded while subjects rested quietly and while they performed the tasks. Within session (test-retest interval of approximately 1 h) and between session (test-retest interval of approximately 7 days) reliability was calculated for four EEG components: frontal midline theta at Fz, posterior theta at Pz, and slow and fast alpha at Pz. RESULTS: Task-related EEG was highly reliable within and between sessions (r0.9 for all components in WM task, and r0.8 for all components in the PVT). Resting EEG also showed high reliability, although the magnitude of the correlation was somewhat smaller than that of the task-related EEG (r0.7 for all 4 components). CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that under appropriate conditions, task-related EEG has sufficient retest reliability for use in assessing clinical changes in cognitive status.

  17. Reliability and Failure in NASA Missions: Blunders, Normal Accidents, High Reliability, Bad Luck (United States)

    Jones, Harry W.


    NASA emphasizes crew safety and system reliability but several unfortunate failures have occurred. The Apollo 1 fire was mistakenly unanticipated. After that tragedy, the Apollo program gave much more attention to safety. The Challenger accident revealed that NASA had neglected safety and that management underestimated the high risk of shuttle. Probabilistic Risk Assessment was adopted to provide more accurate failure probabilities for shuttle and other missions. NASA's "faster, better, cheaper" initiative and government procurement reform led to deliberately dismantling traditional reliability engineering. The Columbia tragedy and Mars mission failures followed. Failures can be attributed to blunders, normal accidents, or bad luck. Achieving high reliability is difficult but possible.

  18. Mathematical reliability an expository perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Mazzuchi, Thomas; Singpurwalla, Nozer


    In this volume consideration was given to more advanced theoretical approaches and novel applications of reliability to ensure that topics having a futuristic impact were specifically included. Topics like finance, forensics, information, and orthopedics, as well as the more traditional reliability topics were purposefully undertaken to make this collection different from the existing books in reliability. The entries have been categorized into seven parts, each emphasizing a theme that seems poised for the future development of reliability as an academic discipline with relevance. The seven parts are networks and systems; recurrent events; information and design; failure rate function and burn-in; software reliability and random environments; reliability in composites and orthopedics, and reliability in finance and forensics. Embedded within the above are some of the other currently active topics such as causality, cascading, exchangeability, expert testimony, hierarchical modeling, optimization and survival...

  19. Reliability Modeling of Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kostandyan, Erik

    components. Thus, models of reliability should be developed and applied in order to quantify the residual life of the components. Damage models based on physics of failure combined with stochastic models describing the uncertain parameters are imperative for development of cost-optimal decision tools...... for Operation & Maintenance planning. Concentrating efforts on development of such models, this research is focused on reliability modeling of Wind Turbine critical subsystems (especially the power converter system). For reliability assessment of these components, structural reliability methods are applied....... Further, reliability modeling of load sharing systems is considered and a theoretical model is proposed based on sequential order statistics and structural systems reliability methods. Procedures for reliability estimation are detailed and presented in a collection of research papers....

  20. Improved Availability Processes from Reliability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrry Ricardo-Cabrera


    Full Text Available This research was conducted in the industry, “Cementos Cienfuegos S.A.”, its main objective was to implement a method for improving the technical availability of the production processes. The method described uses classical analytical systems as a tool to improve the work of the operators of industrial facilities using checklists developed from the identification of the contribution of the unavailability of equipment to the failure of the technological system. Examples of application are the results in the cement technology systems, made on the basis of the reliability of the components of technological systems, specifically the process of raw materials. As a result of improvements in technical implementation process availability are obtained and, therefore, an increasing efficiency. The extension of this work can ensure the improvement of the general availability of the industry.

  1. Reliability of steam generator tubing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kadokami, E. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd., Hyogo-ku (Japan)


    The author presents results on studies made of the reliability of steam generator (SG) tubing. The basis for this work is that in Japan the issue of defects in SG tubing is addressed by the approach that any detected defect should be repaired, either by plugging the tube or sleeving it. However, this leaves open the issue that there is a detection limit in practice, and what is the effect of nondetectable cracks on the performance of tubing. These studies were commissioned to look at the safety issues involved in degraded SG tubing. The program has looked at a number of different issues. First was an assessment of the penetration and opening behavior of tube flaws due to internal pressure in the tubing. They have studied: penetration behavior of the tube flaws; primary water leakage from through-wall flaws; opening behavior of through-wall flaws. In addition they have looked at the question of the reliability of tubing with flaws during normal plant operation. Also there have been studies done on the consequences of tube rupture accidents on the integrity of neighboring tubes.

  2. 77 FR 24594 - Version 4 Critical Infrastructure Protection Reliability Standards (United States)


    ... Standards provide a cybersecurity framework for the identification and protection of ``Critical Cyber Assets... Reliability Standards. The CIP Reliability Standards provide a cybersecurity framework for the identification... rating of 1000 MVAR or greater'' shall be designated as a Critical Asset. Criterion 1.3 designates as...

  3. Service Reliability of Batelec–1 in Selected Barangays of Calatagan, Batangas, Philippines: Basis for an Action Plan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available This study aimed to help Batelec-1 in Calatagan to expand and improve their service to provide a more reliable service to end – users. Descriptive type of research method was utilized in the study. The results reveal that the overall assessment of the respondents on the level of service reliability in terms of construction services was reliable. However, clearing of line schedule and available maintenance equipment and machine was assessed less reliable. On the level of consumers’ satisfaction in construction and maintenance services, the overall assessment of the respondents was satisfied but interruption duration and action on complaints and request got the lowest mean score and interpreted as less satisfied. The results also show that the common problems and complaints encountered by the consumers were lack of information drive, unavailability of consumer hotline, inadequate facilities and equipment, and delayed action on service request/complaints. A proposed action plan is designed to provide continuous reliability on Batelec-1 services. Based on the results of the study, construction and maintenance services of Batelec-1 in the selected Barangays in Calatagan are considered reliable, yet, can still be improved. Electric consumers are generally satisfied on personnel, construction and maintenance services yet less satisfied on information dissemination. The common problems and complaints from the consumers include lack of information drive and inavailability of consumer hotline. An action plan is proposed to provide continuous reliability on Batelec-1 services.

  4. Human Reliability Analysis for Design: Using Reliability Methods for Human Factors Issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronald Laurids Boring


    This paper reviews the application of human reliability analysis methods to human factors design issues. An application framework is sketched in which aspects of modeling typically found in human reliability analysis are used in a complementary fashion to the existing human factors phases of design and testing. The paper provides best achievable practices for design, testing, and modeling. Such best achievable practices may be used to evaluate and human system interface in the context of design safety certifications.

  5. Reliability, Readability and Quality of Online Information about Femoracetabular Impingement. (United States)

    Küçükdurmaz, Fatih; Gomez, Miguel M; Secrist, Eric; Parvizi, Javad


    The Internet has become the most widely-used source for patients seeking information more about their health and many sites geared towards this audience have gained widespread use in recent years. Additionally, many healthcare institutions publish their own patient-education web sites with information regarding common conditions. Little is known about how these resources impact patient health, though, as they have the potential both to inform and to misinform patients regarding their prognosis and possible treatments. In this study we investigated the reliability, readability and quality of information about femoracetabular impingement, a condition which commonly affects young patients. The terms "hip impingement" and "femoracetabular impingement" were searched in Google® in November 2013 and the first 30 results were analyzed. The LIDA scale was used to assess website accessibility, usability and reliability. The DISCERN scale was used to assess reliability and quality of information. The FRE score was used to assess readability. The patient-oriented sites performed significantly worse in LIDA reliability, and DISCERN reliability. However, the FRE score was significantly higher in patient-oriented sites. According to our results, the websites intended to attract patients searching for information regarding femoroacetabular impingement are providing a highly accessible, readable information source, but do not appear to apply a comparable amount of rigor to scientific literature or healthcare practitioner websites in regard to matters such as citing sources for information, supplying methodology and including a publication date. This indicates that while these resources are easily accessed by patients, there is potential for them to be a source of misinformation.

  6. Solid Rocket Booster Large Main and Drogue Parachute Reliability Analysis (United States)

    Clifford, Courtenay B.; Hengel, John E.


    The parachutes on the Space Transportation System (STS) Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) are the means for decelerating the SRB and allowing it to impact the water at a nominal vertical velocity of 75 feet per second. Each SRB has one pilot, one drogue, and three main parachutes. About four minutes after SRB separation, the SRB nose cap is jettisoned, deploying the pilot parachute. The pilot chute then deploys the drogue parachute. The drogue chute provides initial deceleration and proper SRB orientation prior to frustum separation. At frustum separation, the drogue pulls the frustum from the SRB and allows the main parachutes that are mounted in the frustum to unpack and inflate. These chutes are retrieved, inspected, cleaned, repaired as needed, and returned to the flight inventory and reused. Over the course of the Shuttle Program, several improvements have been introduced to the SRB main parachutes. A major change was the replacement of the small (115 ft. diameter) main parachutes with the larger (136 ft. diameter) main parachutes. Other modifications were made to the main parachutes, main parachute support structure, and SRB frustum to eliminate failure mechanisms, improve damage tolerance, and improve deployment and inflation characteristics. This reliability analysis is limited to the examination of the SRB Large Main Parachute (LMP) and drogue parachute failure history to assess the reliability of these chutes. From the inventory analysis, 68 Large Main Parachutes were used in 651 deployments, and 7 chute failures occurred in the 651 deployments. Logistic regression was used to analyze the LMP failure history, and it showed that reliability growth has occurred over the period of use resulting in a current chute reliability of R = .9983. This result was then used to determine the reliability of the 3 LMPs on the SRB, when all must function. There are 29 drogue parachutes that were used in 244 deployments, and no in-flight failures have occurred. Since there are no

  7. Failure Definition for Structural Reliability Assessment (United States)


    This study provides methodologies for defining failure for reliability-based, marine structural design and analysis. Structural reliability methods allow the prediction of an occurrence likelihood for a particular event of interest (for example, structural failure), allowing the designer to limit the probability of undesirable events. Changes to the traditional serviceability failure definitions are not possible without addressing the costs associated with the failures, either subjectively or objectively. A framework is provided by which this may be accomplished in the future. This study begins with a review and description of structural reliability methodologies as they have been applied to ship structure. Uncertainty types are then explored for information and tools used in a reliability prediction. Types of failure modes are described as reported in literature. These types are then expanded upon to establish classes of failure modes, leading to a methodology for formulating the range of failure definitions. Failure definition examples are provided for the hull girder and structural components at both the ultimate and serviceability types of failure. Finally, recommendations are made to provide guidance on applications and future research in this topic area.

  8. Logistic service providers and sustainable physical distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stef Weijers


    Full Text Available Background: Logistic Service Providers main concern was to ensure reliability for a low price (Christopher, 2005. Dutch Logistic Service Providers still have these two aspects at the top of their list, but also have to take in a new aspect: sustainability. 88% Of the investigated Logistic Service Providers have included sustainability in the company's goals. These Logistic Service Providers have developed different strategies to achieve a higher level of sustainability. This paper presents the results of a study into what Logistic Service Providers say what they are doing, or intend to do, to improve sustainability for their transport services. In this way insight is given in the attitude of Dutch Logistic Service Providers towards sustainability and how they intend to translate this into business practise: internal solutions or new methods incorporating external partners. Methods: Various methods of the investigations were used, among which the analysis of the statements about the sustainabilityon the websites of various companies as well as the questionnaire per Internet. The research covered 50 largest logistics companies operating in the Netherlands and 60 companies that competed for the award "Lean and Green" advertised in the Netherlands. In addition, the Internet survey was answered by 41 companies that belong to the network of our university. Results: The investigation has shown that sustainability is handled by the logistics company as an integral part of the corporate strategy. In contrast, shippers depend in the choice of logistics services primarily on such classical aspects as the reliability or the price and the sustainability play a minor role. Conclusions: Trying to find methods to improve the sustainability, Dutch logistics service providers, in the first place, look for solutions that increase the efficiency and therefore the cost reduction potential. Solutions, which require the involvement of clients, were less often

  9. Reliability Assessment of Graphite Specimens under Multiaxial Stresses (United States)

    Sookdeo, Steven; Nemeth, Noel N.; Bratton, Robert L.


    An investigation was conducted to predict the failure strength response of IG-100 nuclear grade graphite exposed to multiaxial stresses. As part of this effort, a review of failure criteria accounting for the stochastic strength response is provided. The experimental work was performed in the early 1990s at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) on hollow graphite tubes under the action of axial tensile loading and internal pressurization. As part of the investigation, finite-element analysis (FEA) was performed and compared with results of FEA from the original ORNL report. The new analysis generally compared well with the original analysis, although some discrepancies in the location of peak stresses was noted. The Ceramics Analysis and Reliability Evaluation of Structures Life prediction code (CARES/Life) was used with the FEA results to predict the quadrants I (tensile-tensile) and quadrant IV (compression-tension) strength response of the graphite tubes for the principle of independent action (PIA), the Weibull normal stress averaging (NSA), and the Batdorf multiaxial failure theories. The CARES/Life reliability analysis showed that all three failure theories gave similar results in quadrant I but that in quadrant IV, the PIA and Weibull normal stress-averaging theories were not conservative, whereas the Batdorf theory was able to correlate well with experimental results. The conclusion of the study was that the Batdorf theory should generally be used to predict the reliability response of graphite and brittle materials in multiaxial loading situations.

  10. Transcutaneous bilirubinometer: intermeter reliability. (United States)

    Brown, L P; Arnold, L; Allison, D; Jacobsen, B; Klein, M E; Charsha, D


    This study examined intermeter reliability on two transcutaneous bilirubinometers on 30 white prephototherapy infants between 36 and 42 weeks' gestation with birthweights greater than 2500 g. All infants were screened with both meters, on the forehead, within a 5-minute period. Meter readings were taken within 30 minutes following infant heelstick for serum bilirubin. The Pearson correlations between serum bilirubin and jaundice meter measurements were .75 for meter 1 and .76 for meter 2. The correlation between jaundice meter indices from the two meters was .87, leaving 13% of the variance in one meter not accounted for by the correlation with the other meter. An examination of the differences between the two meters revealed that in the upper range (greater than or equal to 16) meter 1 was always higher than meter 2 by, on the average, 2.6 points (SD = 1.3). In readings of 15 or less, the differences between the meters were inconsistent. Additionally, in 16 of 30 cases, the action levels from the two meters led to the same conclusion; in the remaining 14 cases, meter 1 gave a positive reading (indicating the need to determine serum bilirubin) while meter 2 gave an equivocal reading (indicating user discretion in deciding whether serum bilirubin should be determined). These data indicate that each meter should be individually evaluated to determine action indices, and that jaundice meters should not be used interchangeably on the same infant.

  11. Reliability in perceptual analysis of voice quality. (United States)

    Bele, Irene Velsvik


    This study focuses on speaking voice quality in male teachers (n = 35) and male actors (n = 36), who represent untrained and trained voice users, because we wanted to investigate normal and supranormal voices. In this study, both substantial and methodologic aspects were considered. It includes a method for perceptual voice evaluation, and a basic issue was rater reliability. A listening group of 10 listeners, 7 experienced speech-language therapists, and 3 speech-language therapist students evaluated the voices by 15 vocal characteristics using VA scales. Two sets of voice signals were investigated: text reading (2 loudness levels) and sustained vowel (3 levels). The results indicated a high interrater reliability for most perceptual characteristics. Connected speech was evaluated more reliably, especially at the normal level, but both types of voice signals were evaluated reliably, although the reliability for connected speech was somewhat higher than for vowels. Experienced listeners tended to be more consistent in their ratings than did the student raters. Some vocal characteristics achieved acceptable reliability even with a smaller panel of listeners. The perceptual characteristics grouped in 4 factors reflected perceptual dimensions.

  12. Dependent systems reliability estimation by structural reliability approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kostandyan, Erik; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard


    Estimation of system reliability by classical system reliability methods generally assumes that the components are statistically independent, thus limiting its applicability in many practical situations. A method is proposed for estimation of the system reliability with dependent components, where...... the leading failure mechanism(s) is described by physics of failure model(s). The proposed method is based on structural reliability techniques and accounts for both statistical and failure effect correlations. It is assumed that failure of any component is due to increasing damage (fatigue phenomena...

  13. Surface engineering for MEMS reliability (United States)

    Ashurst, William Robert

    The integration of miniaturized mechanical components with microelectronic components has spawned a new technology known as microelectromechanical systems (MEMS). This technology extends the benefits of microelectronic fabrication to sensing and actuating functions. Examples of MEMS devices that have been commercially produced include relatively simple mechanisms such as accelerometers, pressure sensors and digital mirror projectors. Despite recent progress in micromachining capability, the realization of more complex commercial and specialized use of MEMS is challenged due to plaguing reliability issues. Barriers to the widespread commercialization and development of MEMS technologies are steep and require engineering at the molecular level. Reliability issues which commonly limit MEMS to the research level include (but are not limited to) adhesion (also referred to as "stiction") and wear. The goal of this work is to improve MEMS reliability by developing new processes and techniques that allow the study of adhesion and wear, that are industrially favorable and that are process compatible with MEMS fabrication schemes. A "tribology chip" has been developed which employs a variety of standard micromechanical test instruments as well as new devices. Also, a liquid based anti-adhesion coating process for MEMS which utilizes non-chlorosilane chemistry is developed. This octadecene based coating process is simpler than the standard chlorosilane processes, and circumvents a number of limitations imposed by chlorosilane chemistry. In order to provide a manufacturable anti-adhesion process, a new vapor phase coating method has been developed. This method is based on chlorosilane chemistry, specifically dichlorodimethylsilane, and has been shown to be effective at reducing adhesion in fully packaged devices at the wafer scale. To address the issue of wear, novel methods of producing films of silicon carbide as coatings for existing polysilicon micromachines have been

  14. Climatic Reliability of Electronic Devices and Components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambat, Rajan


    This article provides an overview of the climatic reliability issues of electronic devices and components with a focus on the metals/alloys usage on PCB a surface together with cleanliness issues, humidity interaction on PCB a surface, and PCB a design and device design aspects. The miniaturization...... of electronic systems and the explosive increase in their usage has increased the climatic reliability issues of electronics devices and components, especially when metal/alloy parts are exposed on the PCB assembly surface or embedded within the multilayer laminate. Problems are compounded by the fact...

  15. Reliability Evaluation of Machine Center Components Based on Cascading Failure Analysis (United States)

    Zhang, Ying-Zhi; Liu, Jin-Tong; Shen, Gui-Xiang; Long, Zhe; Sun, Shu-Guang


    In order to rectify the problems that the component reliability model exhibits deviation, and the evaluation result is low due to the overlook of failure propagation in traditional reliability evaluation of machine center components, a new reliability evaluation method based on cascading failure analysis and the failure influenced degree assessment is proposed. A direct graph model of cascading failure among components is established according to cascading failure mechanism analysis and graph theory. The failure influenced degrees of the system components are assessed by the adjacency matrix and its transposition, combined with the Pagerank algorithm. Based on the comprehensive failure probability function and total probability formula, the inherent failure probability function is determined to realize the reliability evaluation of the system components. Finally, the method is applied to a machine center, it shows the following: 1) The reliability evaluation values of the proposed method are at least 2.5% higher than those of the traditional method; 2) The difference between the comprehensive and inherent reliability of the system component presents a positive correlation with the failure influenced degree of the system component, which provides a theoretical basis for reliability allocation of machine center system.

  16. Temporal reliability and lateralization of the resting-state language network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linlin Zhu

    Full Text Available The neural processing loop of language is complex but highly associated with Broca's and Wernicke's areas. The left dominance of these two areas was the earliest observation of brain asymmetry. It was demonstrated that the language network and its functional asymmetry during resting state were reproducible across institutions. However, the temporal reliability of resting-state language network and its functional asymmetry are still short of knowledge. In this study, we established a seed-based resting-state functional connectivity analysis of language network with seed regions located at Broca's and Wernicke's areas, and investigated temporal reliability of language network and its functional asymmetry. The language network was found to be temporally reliable in both short- and long-term. In the aspect of functional asymmetry, the Broca's area was found to be left lateralized, while the Wernicke's area is mainly right lateralized. Functional asymmetry of these two areas revealed high short- and long-term reliability as well. In addition, the impact of global signal regression (GSR on reliability of the resting-state language network was investigated, and our results demonstrated that GSR had negligible effect on the temporal reliability of the resting-state language network. Our study provided methodology basis for future cross-culture and clinical researches of resting-state language network and suggested priority of adopting seed-based functional connectivity for its high reliability.

  17. Inter-rater reliability of query/probe-based techniques for measuring situation awareness. (United States)

    Lau, Nathan; Jamieson, Greg A; Skraaning, Gyrd


    Query- or probe-based situation awareness (SA) measures sometimes rely on process experts to evaluate operator actions and system states when used in representative settings. This introduces variability of human judgement into the measurements that require inter-rater reliability assessment. However, the literature neglects inter-rater reliability of query/probe-based SA measures. We recruited process experts to provide reference keys to SA queries in trials of a full-scope nuclear power plant simulator experiment to investigate the inter-rater reliability of a query-based SA measure. The query-based SA measure demonstrated only 'moderate' inter-rater reliability even though the queries were seemingly direct. The level of agreement was significantly different across pairs of experts who had different levels of exposure to the experiment. The results caution that inter-rater reliability of query/probe-based techniques for measuring SA cannot be assumed in representative settings. Knowledge about the experiment as well as the domain is critical to forming reliable expert judgements. When the responses of domain experts are treated as the correct answers to the queries or probes of SA measures used in representative or industrial settings, practitioners should take caution in assuming (or otherwise assess) inter-rater reliability of the situation awareness measures.

  18. Can peers rate reliably as experts in small CSCL groups?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnisalis, Ioannis; Demetriadis, Stavros; Papadopoulos, Pantelis M.


    Research on the impact of peer rating (PR) has provided encouraging results, as a method to foster collaborative learning and improve its outcomes. The scope of this paper is to discuss peer rating towards two specific directions that usually are neglected in the CSCL field, namely: (a) coaching...... of objective anonymous peer rating through a rubric, and (b) provision of peer rating summary information during collaboration. The case study utilized an asynchronous CSCL tool with the two aforementioned capabilities. Initial results showed that peer rating, when anonymous, and guided, can be as reliable...

  19. Assessing the inter-coder reliability of the Body Type Dictionary (BTD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cariola Laura A.


    Full Text Available Computer-assisted content analysis has many advantages compared to a manual scoring system, provided that computerised dictionaries represent valid and reliable measures. This study aimed to assess the inter-coder reliability, alternate- form reliability and scoring consistency of the Body Type Dictionary (BTD (Wilson 2006 based on Fisher and Cleveland’s (1956, 1958 manual body boundary scoring scheme. The results indicated an acceptable inter-coder agreement with barrier and penetration imagery in the sub-sample (N = 53 of manually coded Rorschach responses. Additionally manually coded scores showed an acceptable correlation with the computerised frequency counts, and thus indicating an alternate-form reliability. In the full data set (N = 526, barrier imagery in the Rorschach responses only correlated with the picture response test, showing low scoring consistency, which might disconfirm the notion of body boundary awareness representing a stable personality trait but instead it might be dependent on the level of cognitive dedifferentiation.

  20. Exponentiated Weibull distribution approach based inflection S-shaped software reliability growth model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.B. Sagar


    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to estimate the number of defects in software and remove them successfully. This paper incorporates Weibull distribution approach along with inflection S-shaped Software Reliability Growth Models (SRGM. In this combination two parameter Weibull distribution methodology is used. Relative Prediction Error (RPE is calculated to predict the validity criterion of the developed model. Experimental results on actual data from five data sets are compared with two other existing models, which expose that the proposed software reliability growth model predicts better estimation to remove the defects. This paper presents best software reliability growth model with including feature of both Weibull distribution and inflection S-shaped SRGM to estimate the defects of software system, and provide help to researchers and software industries to develop highly reliable software products.

  1. High reliability linear drive device for artificial hearts (United States)

    Ji, Jinghua; Zhao, Wenxiang; Liu, Guohai; Shen, Yue; Wang, Fangqun


    In this paper, a new high reliability linear drive device, termed as stator-permanent-magnet tubular oscillating actuator (SPM-TOA), is proposed for artificial hearts (AHs). The key is to incorporate the concept of two independent phases into this linear AH device, hence achieving high reliability operation. The fault-tolerant teeth are employed to provide the desired decoupling phases in magnetic circuit. Also, as the magnets and the coils are located in the stator, the proposed SPM-TOA takes the definite advantages of robust mover and direct-drive capability. By using the time-stepping finite element method, the electromagnetic characteristics of the proposed SPM-TOA are analyzed, including magnetic field distributions, flux linkages, back- electromotive forces (back-EMFs) self- and mutual inductances, as well as cogging and thrust forces. The results confirm that the proposed SPM-TOA meets the dimension, weight, and force requirements of the AH drive device.

  2. Perspectives on climatic reliability of electronic devices and components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambat, Rajan

    packing with reduction in component size and closer spacing thereby increasing the electric field, while thinner metallic parts needs only nano-grams levels of metal loss for causing corrosion failures. This paper provides an overview of the climatic reliability issues of electronic devices and components......The miniaturization of electronic systems and the explosive increase in their usage has increased the climatic reliability issues of electronics devices and components especially having metal/alloys parts exposed on the Printed Circuit Board Assembly (PCBA) surface or embedded within the multi......-layer laminate. Problems are compounded by the fact that these systems are built by multi-material combinations and additional accelerating factors such as corrosion causing process related residues, bias voltage, and unpredictable user environment. Demand for miniaturised device has resulted in higher density...

  3. Reliability of Wireless Sensor Networks (United States)

    Dâmaso, Antônio; Rosa, Nelson; Maciel, Paulo


    Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) consist of hundreds or thousands of sensor nodes with limited processing, storage, and battery capabilities. There are several strategies to reduce the power consumption of WSN nodes (by increasing the network lifetime) and increase the reliability of the network (by improving the WSN Quality of Service). However, there is an inherent conflict between power consumption and reliability: an increase in reliability usually leads to an increase in power consumption. For example, routing algorithms can send the same packet though different paths (multipath strategy), which it is important for reliability, but they significantly increase the WSN power consumption. In this context, this paper proposes a model for evaluating the reliability of WSNs considering the battery level as a key factor. Moreover, this model is based on routing algorithms used by WSNs. In order to evaluate the proposed models, three scenarios were considered to show the impact of the power consumption on the reliability of WSNs. PMID:25157553

  4. The relative and absolute reliability of center of pressure trajectory during gait initiation in older adults. (United States)

    Khanmohammadi, Roya; Talebian, Saeed; Hadian, Mohammad Reza; Olyaei, Gholamreza; Bagheri, Hossein


    It has been thought that for scientific acceptance of a parameter, its psychometric properties such as reliability, validity and responsiveness have critical roles. Therefore, this study was conducted to estimate how many trials are required to obtain a reliable center of pressure (COP) parameter during gait initiation (GI) and to investigate the effect of number of trials on the relative and absolute reliability. Twenty older adults participated in the study. Subjects began stepping over the force platform in response to an auditory stimulus. Ten trials were collected in one session. The displacement, velocity, mean and median frequency of the COP in the mediolateral (ML) and anteroposterior (AP) directions were evaluated. Relative reliability was determined using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), and absolute reliability was evaluated using the standard error of measurement (SEM) and minimal detectable change (MDC95). The results revealed with respect to parameter, one to five trials should be averaged to ensure excellent reliability. Moreover, ICC, SEM% and MDC95% values were between 0.39-0.89, 4.84-41.5% and 13.4-115% for single trial and 0.86-0.99, 1.74-19.7% and 4.83-54.7% for ten trials averaged, respectively. Moreover, the ML and AP COP displacement in locomotor phase had the most relative reliability as well as the ML and AP median frequency in locomotor phase had the most absolute reliability. In general, the results showed that the COP-related parameters in time and frequency domains, based on average of five trials, provide reliable outcome measures for evaluation of dynamic postural control in older adults. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Data processing of qualitative results from an interlaboratory comparison for the detection of "Flavescence dorée" phytoplasma: How the use of statistics can improve the reliability of the method validation process in plant pathology. (United States)

    Chabirand, Aude; Loiseau, Marianne; Renaudin, Isabelle; Poliakoff, Françoise


    A working group established in the framework of the EUPHRESCO European collaborative project aimed to compare and validate diagnostic protocols for the detection of "Flavescence dorée" (FD) phytoplasma in grapevines. Seven molecular protocols were compared in an interlaboratory test performance study where each laboratory had to analyze the same panel of samples consisting of DNA extracts prepared by the organizing laboratory. The tested molecular methods consisted of universal and group-specific real-time and end-point nested PCR tests. Different statistical approaches were applied to this collaborative study. Firstly, there was the standard statistical approach consisting in analyzing samples which are known to be positive and samples which are known to be negative and reporting the proportion of false-positive and false-negative results to respectively calculate diagnostic specificity and sensitivity. This approach was supplemented by the calculation of repeatability and reproducibility for qualitative methods based on the notions of accordance and concordance. Other new approaches were also implemented, based, on the one hand, on the probability of detection model, and, on the other hand, on Bayes' theorem. These various statistical approaches are complementary and give consistent results. Their combination, and in particular, the introduction of new statistical approaches give overall information on the performance and limitations of the different methods, and are particularly useful for selecting the most appropriate detection scheme with regards to the prevalence of the pathogen. Three real-time PCR protocols (methods M4, M5 and M6 respectively developed by Hren (2007), Pelletier (2009) and under patent oligonucleotides) achieved the highest levels of performance for FD phytoplasma detection. This paper also addresses the issue of indeterminate results and the identification of outlier results. The statistical tools presented in this paper and their

  6. Data processing of qualitative results from an interlaboratory comparison for the detection of "Flavescence dorée" phytoplasma: How the use of statistics can improve the reliability of the method validation process in plant pathology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aude Chabirand

    Full Text Available A working group established in the framework of the EUPHRESCO European collaborative project aimed to compare and validate diagnostic protocols for the detection of "Flavescence dorée" (FD phytoplasma in grapevines. Seven molecular protocols were compared in an interlaboratory test performance study where each laboratory had to analyze the same panel of samples consisting of DNA extracts prepared by the organizing laboratory. The tested molecular methods consisted of universal and group-specific real-time and end-point nested PCR tests. Different statistical approaches were applied to this collaborative study. Firstly, there was the standard statistical approach consisting in analyzing samples which are known to be positive and samples which are known to be negative and reporting the proportion of false-positive and false-negative results to respectively calculate diagnostic specificity and sensitivity. This approach was supplemented by the calculation of repeatability and reproducibility for qualitative methods based on the notions of accordance and concordance. Other new approaches were also implemented, based, on the one hand, on the probability of detection model, and, on the other hand, on Bayes' theorem. These various statistical approaches are complementary and give consistent results. Their combination, and in particular, the introduction of new statistical approaches give overall information on the performance and limitations of the different methods, and are particularly useful for selecting the most appropriate detection scheme with regards to the prevalence of the pathogen. Three real-time PCR protocols (methods M4, M5 and M6 respectively developed by Hren (2007, Pelletier (2009 and under patent oligonucleotides achieved the highest levels of performance for FD phytoplasma detection. This paper also addresses the issue of indeterminate results and the identification of outlier results. The statistical tools presented in this paper

  7. Assessing the Reliability of NDE (United States)

    Roth, Don J.


    Versatile FORTRAN computer algorithm developed for calculating and plotting reliability of nondestructive evaluation (NDE) technique for inspection of flaws. Developed specifically to determine reliability of radiographic and ultrasonic methods for detection of critical flaws in structural ceramic materials. Reliability displayed in form of plot of probability of detection versus flaw size. NDE methods used in such applications as diagnostic medicine, quality control in industrial production, and prediction of failure in structural components.

  8. Wikipedia : its reliability and social role (United States)

    Kusaka, Kyuhachi

    This article discusses Japanese Wikipedia's reliability and its social role as a free, collaborative, multilingual Internet encyclopedia supported by the non-profit Wikimedia Foundation. Japanese Wikipedia's reliability is explained from several surveys. The central concern is how the nature of encyclopedia and Wikipedia affects the quality of Wikipedia's articles. Wikipedia's core content policies such as verifiability, no original research and a neutral point of view will make articles better. But incomplete or poorly written first drafts exist because Wikipedia is a work in progress. The article also argues that social role of online encyclopedia which provides knowledge for all. Knowledge-based society or/and advanced information society require public understanding of science and other expertise. Online encyclopedia attributed to a reliable, published source using an inline citation will guide anyone to specialized knowledge.

  9. Bayesian system reliability assessment under fuzzy environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, H.-C


    The Bayesian system reliability assessment under fuzzy environments is proposed in this paper. In order to apply the Bayesian approach, the fuzzy parameters are assumed as fuzzy random variables with fuzzy prior distributions. The (conventional) Bayes estimation method will be used to create the fuzzy Bayes point estimator of system reliability by invoking the well-known theorem called 'Resolution Identity' in fuzzy sets theory. On the other hand, we also provide the computational procedures to evaluate the membership degree of any given Bayes point estimate of system reliability. In order to achieve this purpose, we transform the original problem into a nonlinear programming problem. This nonlinear programming problem is then divided into four subproblems for the purpose of simplifying computation. Finally, the subproblems can be solved by using any commercial optimizers, e.g. GAMS or LINGO.

  10. Reliability Analysis of Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Henrik Stensgaard; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard


    In order to minimise the total expected life-cycle costs of a wind turbine it is important to estimate the reliability level for all components in the wind turbine. This paper deals with reliability analysis for the tower and blades of onshore wind turbines placed in a wind farm. The limit states......) the reliability level for a wind turbine placed in a wind farm is considered, and wake effects from neighbouring wind turbines is taken into account. An illustrative example with calculation of the reliability for mudline bending of the tower is considered. In the example the design is determined according...

  11. Reliability of procedures used for scaling loudness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jesteadt, Walt; Joshi, Suyash Narendra


    (ME, MP, CLS; MP, ME, CLS; CLS, ME, MP; CLS, MP, ME), and the order was reversed on the second visit. This design made it possible to compare the reliability of estimates of the slope of the loudness function across procedures in the same listeners. The ME data were well fitted by an inflected...... exponential (INEX) function, but a modified power law was used to obtain slope estimates for both ME and MP. ME and CLS were more reliable than MP. CLS results were consistent across groups, but ME and MP results differed across groups in a way that suggested influence of experience with CLS. Although CLS...

  12. Human reliability, error, and human factors in power generation

    CERN Document Server

    Dhillon, B S


    Human reliability, error, and human factors in the area of power generation have been receiving increasing attention in recent years. Each year billions of dollars are spent in the area of power generation to design, construct/manufacture, operate, and maintain various types of power systems around the globe, and such systems often fail due to human error. This book compiles various recent results and data into one volume, and eliminates the need to consult many diverse sources to obtain vital information.  It enables potential readers to delve deeper into a specific area, providing the source of most of the material presented in references at the end of each chapter. Examples along with solutions are also provided at appropriate places, and there are numerous problems for testing the reader’s comprehension.  Chapters cover a broad range of topics, including general methods for performing human reliability and error analysis in power plants, specific human reliability analysis methods for nuclear power pl...

  13. Revenue Sufficiency and Reliability in a Zero Marginal Cost Future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frew, Bethany A.


    Features of existing wholesale electricity markets, such as administrative pricing rules and policy-based reliability standards, can distort market incentives from allowing generators sufficient opportunities to recover both fixed and variable costs. Moreover, these challenges can be amplified by other factors, including (1) inelastic demand resulting from a lack of price signal clarity, (2) low- or near-zero marginal cost generation, particularly arising from low natural gas fuel prices and variable generation (VG), such as wind and solar, and (3) the variability and uncertainty of this VG. As power systems begin to incorporate higher shares of VG, many questions arise about the suitability of the existing marginal-cost-based price formation, primarily within an energy-only market structure, to ensure the economic viability of resources that might be needed to provide system reliability. This article discusses these questions and provides a summary of completed and ongoing modelling-based work at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory to better understand the impacts of evolving power systems on reliability and revenue sufficiency.

  14. Long-term care insurance and market for aged care in Japan: focusing on the status of care service providers by locality and organisational nature based on survey results. (United States)

    Kubo, Makoto


    The purpose of this paper is to examine the status of care service providers by locality and organisational nature. Questionnaires were sent to 9505 home-based care service providers registered in the databases of 17 prefectures. The prefectures were selected according to population size. Numerous for-profit providers have newly entered the aged care service market and are operating selectively in Tokyo, a typical example of a metropolitan area. Furthermore, both for-profit and non-profit providers have suffered from a shortage of care workers and difficult management conditions, which tend to be more pronounced in Tokyo. The market under long-term care insurance was successful in terms of the volume of services, but most providers were sceptical as to whether competition in the market could facilitate quality care services. © 2013 The Author. Australasian Journal on Ageing © 2013 ACOTA.

  15. Reliability of decision-support systems for nuclear emergency management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ionescu, Tudor B.


    Decision support systems for nuclear emergency management (DSNE) are currently used worldwide to assist decision makers in taking emergency response countermeasures in case of accidental releases of radioactive materials from nuclear facilities. The present work has been motivated by the fact that, up until now, DSNE systems have not been regarded as safetycritical software systems, such as embedded software currently being used in vehicles and aircraft. The core of any DSNE system is represented by the different simulation codes linked together to form the dispersion simulation workflow. These codes require input emission and meteorological data to produce forecasts of the atmospheric dispersion of radioactive pollutants and other substances. However, the reliability of the system not only depends on the trustworthiness of the measured (or generated) input data but also on the reliability of the simulation codes used. The main goal of this work is to improve the reliability of DSNE systems by adapting current state of the art methods from the domain of software reliability engineering to the case of atmospheric dispersion simulation codes. The current approach is based on the design by diversity principle for improving the reliability of codes and the trustworthiness of results as well as on a flexible fault-tolerant workflow scheduling algorithm for ensuring the maximum availability of the system. The author's contribution is represented by (i) an acceptance test for dispersion simulation results, (ii) an adjudication algorithm (voter) based on comparing taxonomies of dispersion simulation results, and (iii) a feedback-control based fault-tolerant workflow scheduling algorithm. These tools provide means for the continuous verification of dispersion simulation codes while tolerating timing faults caused by disturbances in the underlying computational environment and will thus help increase the reliability and trustworthiness of DSNE systems in missioncritical

  16. The Americleft Speech Project: A Training and Reliability Study. (United States)

    Chapman, Kathy L; Baylis, Adriane; Trost-Cardamone, Judith; Cordero, Kelly Nett; Dixon, Angela; Dobbelsteyn, Cindy; Thurmes, Anna; Wilson, Kristina; Harding-Bell, Anne; Sweeney, Triona; Stoddard, Gregory; Sell, Debbie


    To describe the results of two reliability studies and to assess the effect of training on interrater reliability scores. The first study (1) examined interrater and intrarater reliability scores (weighted and unweighted kappas) and (2) compared interrater reliability scores before and after training on the use of the Cleft Audit Protocol for Speech-Augmented (CAPS-A) with British English-speaking children. The second study examined interrater and intrarater reliability on a modified version of the CAPS-A (CAPS-A Americleft Modification) with American and Canadian English-speaking children. Finally, comparisons were made between the interrater and intrarater reliability scores obtained for Study 1 and Study 2. The participants were speech-language pathologists from the Americleft Speech Project. In Study 1, interrater reliability scores improved for 6 of the 13 parameters following training on the CAPS-A protocol. Comparison of the reliability results for the two studies indicated lower scores for Study 2 compared with Study 1. However, this appeared to be an artifact of the kappa statistic that occurred due to insufficient variability in the reliability samples for Study 2. When percent agreement scores were also calculated, the ratings appeared similar across Study 1 and Study 2. The findings of this study suggested that improvements in interrater reliability could be obtained following a program of systematic training. However, improvements were not uniform across all parameters. Acceptable levels of reliability were achieved for those parameters most important for evaluation of velopharyngeal function.

  17. Developing a patient satisfaction questionnaire for services provided in Iranian community pharmacies (United States)

    Yaghoubifard, Saeed; Rashidian, Arash; Kebriaeezadeh, Abbas; Sheidaei, Ali; Varmaghani, Mehdi; Hashemi-Meshkini, Amir; Zekri, Hedieh-Sadat


    Objective: To develop a valid and reliable instrument in the Persian language for evaluating patient satisfaction with services provided in community pharmacies. Methods: We selected a valid and reliable instrument from the literature and translated it to the Persian language. Some new items were added to the first draft based on the special characteristics of the Iranian health system. Then, the feasibility of utilizing the new instrument was assessed. In the third step, we conducted a formal content validity study to calculate content validity indices. Having completed the content validity study, the factorial structure of new instruments was determined by implementing a factorial analysis. Finally, the reliability of the instrument was assessed by assessment of Cronbach's alpha coefficient and test-retest reliability. Findings: The developed instrument demonstrated suitable validity and reliability. The final instrument showed desirable content validity, with inter-rater agreement of 94% and 97% for relevance and clarity, respectively. Scale content validity indices for relevance and clarity were calculated as 96% and 92%, respectively, and comprehensiveness was calculated as 100%. Factor analysis resulted in seven factors with a cumulative variance of 62.14%. In internal consistency reliability, Cronbach's alpha for the whole instrument was 0.912. About test-retest reliability, six items showed almost perfect agreement, 18 items showed substantial agreement, and three items showed moderate agreement. Therefore, test-retest reliability assessment too demonstrated appropriate results. Conclusion: The instrument demonstrated excellent validity and reliability for application in Iran. This instrument is useful for evaluating patient satisfaction with services provided in community pharmacies in the Persian-speaking communities. PMID:27162804

  18. Tailoring a Human Reliability Analysis to Your Industry Needs (United States)

    DeMott, D. L.


    Companies at risk of accidents caused by human error that result in catastrophic consequences include: airline industry mishaps, medical malpractice, medication mistakes, aerospace failures, major oil spills, transportation mishaps, power production failures and manufacturing facility incidents. Human Reliability Assessment (HRA) is used to analyze the inherent risk of human behavior or actions introducing errors into the operation of a system or process. These assessments can be used to identify where errors are most likely to arise and the potential risks involved if they do occur. Using the basic concepts of HRA, an evolving group of methodologies are used to meet various industry needs. Determining which methodology or combination of techniques will provide a quality human reliability assessment is a key element to developing effective strategies for understanding and dealing with risks caused by human errors. There are a number of concerns and difficulties in "tailoring" a Human Reliability Assessment (HRA) for different industries. Although a variety of HRA methodologies are available to analyze human error events, determining the most appropriate tools to provide the most useful results can depend on industry specific cultures and requirements. Methodology selection may be based on a variety of factors that include: 1) how people act and react in different industries, 2) expectations based on industry standards, 3) factors that influence how the human errors could occur such as tasks, tools, environment, workplace, support, training and procedure, 4) type and availability of data, 5) how the industry views risk & reliability, and 6) types of emergencies, contingencies and routine tasks. Other considerations for methodology selection should be based on what information is needed from the assessment. If the principal concern is determination of the primary risk factors contributing to the potential human error, a more detailed analysis method may be employed

  19. Evaluation of conventional electric power generating industry quality assurance and reliability practices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, R.T.; Lauffenburger, H.A.


    The techniques and practices utilized in an allied industry (electric power generation) that might serve as a baseline for formulating Quality Assurance and Reliability (QA and R) procedures for photovoltaic solar energy systems were studied. The study results provide direct near-term input for establishing validation methods as part of the SERI performance criteria and test standards development task.

  20. The Aiken Attitude to Mathematics Scales: Psychometric Data on Reliability and Discriminant Validity. (United States)

    Watson, Jane M.


    Providing additional data concerning the reliability and discriminant validity of Aiken's Enjoyment of Mathematics and Value of Mathematics Scales resulted in a degree of correlation between scales lower than for Aiken's data. Also, the view that the scales measure different aspects of attitude toward mathematics was supported. (PN)

  1. Test-retest reliability of myofascial trigger point detection in hip and thigh areas. (United States)

    Rozenfeld, E; Finestone, A S; Moran, U; Damri, E; Kalichman, L


    Myofascial trigger points (MTrP's) are a primary source of pain in patients with musculoskeletal disorders. Nevertheless, they are frequently underdiagnosed. Reliable MTrP palpation is the necessary for their diagnosis and treatment. The few studies that have looked for intra-tester reliability of MTrPs detection in upper body, provide preliminary evidence that MTrP palpation is reliable. Reliability tests for MTrP palpation on the lower limb have not yet been performed. To evaluate inter- and intra-tester reliability of MTrP recognition in hip and thigh muscles. Reliability study. 21 patients (15 males and 6 females, mean age 21.1 years) referred to the physical therapy clinic, 10 with knee or hip pain and 11 with pain in an upper limb, low back, shin or ankle. Two experienced physical therapists performed the examinations, blinded to the subjects' identity, medical condition and results of the previous MTrP evaluation. Each subject was evaluated four times, twice by each examiner in a random order. Dichotomous findings included a palpable taut band, tenderness, referred pain, and relevance of referred pain to patient's complaint. Based on these, diagnosis of latent MTrP's or active MTrP's was established. The evaluation was performed on both legs and included a total of 16 locations in the following muscles: rectus femoris (proximal), vastus medialis (middle and distal), vastus lateralis (middle and distal) and gluteus medius (anterior, posterior and distal). Inter- and intra-tester reliability (Cohen's kappa (κ)) values for single sites ranged from -0.25 to 0.77. Median intra-tester reliability was 0.45 and 0.46 for latent and active MTrP's, and median inter-tester reliability was 0.51 and 0.64 for latent and active MTrPs, respectively. The examination of the distal vastus medialis was most reliable for latent and active MTrP's (intra-tester k = 0.27-0.77, inter-tester k = 0.77 and intra-tester k = 0.53-0.72, inter-tester k = 0.72, correspondingly

  2. Reliability engineering in RF CMOS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sasse, G.T.


    In this thesis new developments are presented for reliability engineering in RF CMOS. Given the increase in use of CMOS technology in applications for mobile communication, also the reliability of CMOS for such applications becomes increasingly important. When applied in these applications, CMOS is

  3. Estimation of Bridge Reliability Distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    In this paper it is shown how the so-called reliability distributions can be estimated using crude Monte Carlo simulation. The main purpose is to demonstrate the methodology. Therefor very exact data concerning reliability and deterioration are not needed. However, it is intended in the paper...

  4. Preliminary study of the Southampton Hand Assessment Procedure for Children and its reliability (United States)


    Background The Southampton Hand Assessment Procedure (SHAP) is currently used in the adult population for evaluating the functionality of impaired or prosthetic hands. The SHAP cannot be used for children because of the relatively larger size of the objects used to perform SHAP tasks and unknown clinimetric properties. The aims of this study were to adapt the SHAP for use in children (SHAP-C), to determine norm values for the SHAP-C, and to analyze the reliability of the SHAP-C. Methods The SHAP-C was adapted based on the SHAP protocol. Some objects were downsized, and the timing of tasks was performed by the rater instead of the participant. Intra- and inter-rater reliability were assessed in 24 children (5 [0.54] y/o) with unimpaired hands. The repeatability coefficients (RCs) were calculated. An RC ≤ 75% of the mean SHAP-C task values was considered good reliability. Results Participants were able to perform all SHAP-C tasks. The means of the SHAP-C tasks ranged from 0.75 to 1.21 seconds for abstract objects and from 0.64-19.13 seconds for activities of daily living. The RCs of a single assessor did not exceed 75% in 17/26 SHAP-C tasks, displaying a relatively good intra-rater reliability, whereas the RCs for the inter-rater reliability exceeded 75% in 22/26 SHAP-C tasks, thus displaying poor reliability. Conclusion In this first study that adjusted the SHAP for pediatric use, we found that all SHAP-C objects and tasks could be performed by children. The intra-rater reliability was better than the inter-rater reliability. Although the SHAP-C appears to be a promising instrument, the protocol requires further modifications to provide reliable measurements in children. PMID:24916917

  5. Factors Influencing the Reliability of the Glasgow Coma Scale: A Systematic Review. (United States)

    Reith, Florence Cm; Synnot, Anneliese; van den Brande, Ruben; Gruen, Russell L; Maas, Andrew Ir


    The Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) characterizes patients with diminished consciousness. In a recent systematic review, we found overall adequate reliability across different clinical settings, but reliability estimates varied considerably between studies, and methodological quality of studies was overall poor. Identifying and understanding factors that can affect its reliability is important, in order to promote high standards for clinical use of the GCS. The aim of this systematic review was to identify factors that influence reliability and to provide an evidence base for promoting consistent and reliable application of the GCS. A comprehensive literature search was undertaken in MEDLINE, EMBASE, and CINAHL from 1974 to July 2016. Studies assessing the reliability of the GCS in adults or describing any factor that influences reliability were included. Two reviewers independently screened citations, selected full texts, and undertook data extraction and critical appraisal. Methodological quality of studies was evaluated with the consensus-based standards for the selection of health measurement instruments checklist. Data were synthesized narratively and presented in tables. Forty-one studies were included for analysis. Factors identified that may influence reliability are education and training, the level of consciousness, and type of stimuli used. Conflicting results were found for experience of the observer, the pathology causing the reduced consciousness, and intubation/sedation. No clear influence was found for the professional background of observers. Reliability of the GCS is influenced by multiple factors and as such is context dependent. This review points to the potential for improvement from training and education and standardization of assessment methods, for which recommendations are presented.

  6. Reliability of Manual Pulse Diagnosis Methods in Traditional East Asian Medicine: A Systematic Narrative Literature Review. (United States)

    Bilton, Karen; Zaslawski, Chris


    Little evidence shows the reliability of Chinese medicine pulse diagnosis. Regularly used in modern practice, it is believed to gather important diagnostic information. However, in the current evidence-based healthcare system, basing clinical decisions on unproven methods is problematic and obviously questions the relevancy of the procedure. Therefore, the literature on reliability of practitioners implementing the method was reviewed. Major medical databases and reference lists of identified articles were searched. All studies published in English that investigated manual pulse diagnosis applied to the radial artery by human testers were considered. Twelve eligible studies were included; three evaluated intra- and inter-rater pulse diagnosis reliability, and nine assessed inter-rater reliability. Acceptable levels of intra- and inter-rater reliability were achieved with operationally defined methods. Poor reliability was related to unclear definitions and terminology existing within the classical definitions, and with standardized systems to persisting imprecise descriptions that can be interpreted differently. Reliability of pulse qualities was influenced by sensation complexity and the amount of sensory input provided to the testers' fingers by the impulse. Consistent study limitations included small sample sizes; the possibility that testers' prior knowledge confounded the data; and, most notably, the fact that many studies did not consider intra-rater reliability. Assessing the effectiveness of interventions in clinical practice is guided by comparisons of markers to baseline. The absence of intra-rater results may therefore raise methodologic concerns for these types of studies. Strategies for future studies include using pulse methods with concrete operational definitions; investigating intra- and inter-rater reliability for extrapolation to clinical practice; similar training and experience in the method to control for tester variance; maintaining

  7. UCLA Loneliness Scale (Version 3): reliability, validity, and factor structure. (United States)

    Russell, D W


    In this article I evaluated the psychometric properties of the UCLA Loneliness Scale (Version 3). Using data from prior studies of college students, nurses, teachers, and the elderly, analyses of the reliability, validity, and factor structure of this new version of the UCLA Loneliness Scale were conducted. Results indicated that the measure was highly reliable, both in terms of internal consistency (coefficient alpha ranging from .89 to .94) and test-retest reliability over a 1-year period (r = .73). Convergent validity for the scale was indicated by significant correlations with other measures of loneliness. Construct validity was supported by significant relations with measures of the adequacy of the individual's interpersonal relationships, and by correlations between loneliness and measures of health and well-being. Confirmatory factor analyses indicated that a model incorporating a global bipolar loneliness factor along with two method factor reflecting direction of item wording provided a very good fit to the data across samples. Implications of these results for future measurement research on loneliness are discussed.

  8. Recommendations for certification or measurement of reliability for reliable digital archival repositories with emphasis on access

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Regina Ventura Amorim Gonçalez


    Full Text Available Introduction: Considering the guidelines of ISO 16363: 2012 (Space data and information transfer systems -- Audit and certification of trustworthy digital repositories and the text of CONARQ Resolution 39 for certification of Reliable Digital Archival Repository (RDC-Arq, verify the technical recommendations should be used as the basis for a digital archival repository to be considered reliable. Objective: Identify requirements for the creation of Reliable Digital Archival Repositories with emphasis on access to information from the ISO 16363: 2012 and CONARQ Resolution 39. Methodology: For the development of the study, the methodology consisted of an exploratory, descriptive and documentary theoretical investigation, since it is based on ISO 16363: 2012 and CONARQ Resolution 39. From the perspective of the problem approach, the study is qualitative and quantitative, since the data were collected, tabulated, and analyzed from the interpretation of their contents. Results: We presented a set of Checklist Recommendations for reliability measurement and/or certification for RDC-Arq with a clipping focused on the identification of requirements with emphasis on access to information is presented. Conclusions: The right to information as well as access to reliable information is a premise for Digital Archival Repositories, so the set of recommendations is directed to archivists who work in Digital Repositories and wish to verify the requirements necessary to evaluate the reliability of the Digital Repository or still guide the information professional in collecting requirements for repository reliability certification.

  9. Testing Standard Reliability Criteria (United States)

    Sherry, David


    Maul's paper, "Rethinking Traditional Methods of Survey Validation" (Andrew Maul), contains two stages. First he presents empirical results that cast doubt on traditional methods for validating psychological measurement instruments. These results motivate the second stage, a critique of current conceptions of psychological measurement…

  10. Photovoltaic performance and reliability workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mrig, L. [ed.


    This workshop was the sixth in a series of workshops sponsored by NREL/DOE under the general subject of photovoltaic testing and reliability during the period 1986--1993. PV performance and PV reliability are at least as important as PV cost, if not more. In the US, PV manufacturers, DOE laboratories, electric utilities, and others are engaged in the photovoltaic reliability research and testing. This group of researchers and others interested in the field were brought together to exchange the technical knowledge and field experience as related to current information in this evolving field of PV reliability. The papers presented here reflect this effort since the last workshop held in September, 1992. The topics covered include: cell and module characterization, module and system testing, durability and reliability, system field experience, and standards and codes.

  11. Target Window Reliability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woloshun, Keith Albert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    The target window design implemented and tested in experiments at ANL have performed without failure for the available beam of 6 mm FWHM on a 12 mm diameter target. However, scaling that design to a 25 mm diameter target size for a 12 mm FWHM beam has proven problematic. Combined thermal and mechanical (pressure induced) stresses and strains are too high to maintain the small coolant gaps and provide adequate fatigue lifetime.

  12. System Reliability Evaluation in Water Distribution Networks with the Impact of Valves Experiencing Cascading Failures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Shuang


    Full Text Available Water distribution networks (WDNs represent a class of critical infrastructure networks. When a disaster occurs, component failures in a WDN may trigger system failures that result in larger-scale reactions. The aim of the paper is to evaluate the evolution of system reliability and failure propagation time for a WDN experiencing cascading failures, and find the critical pipes which may reduce system reliability dramatically. Multiple factors are considered in the method such as network topology, the balance of water supply and demand, demand multiplier, and pipe break isolation. The pipe-based attack with multiple failure scenarios is simulated in the paper. A case WDN is used to illustrate the method. The results show that the lowest capacity gets stronger when a WDN is short of supply, becoming the dominant factor that decides the evolution of system reliability and failure propagation time. The valve ratio (VR and system reliability present a flattened S curve relationship, and there are two turning points in VR. The critical pipes can be identified. With the fixed 5% valves, a WDN can improve system reliability and resist cascading failures effectively. The findings provide insights into the system reliability and failure propagation time for WDNs experiencing cascading failures. It is proven to be useful in future studies focused on the operation and management of water services.

  13. Is the Hebb repetition task a reliable measure of individual differences in sequence learning? (United States)

    Bogaerts, Louisa; Siegelman, Noam; Ben-Porat, Tali; Frost, Ram


    The Hebb repetition task, an operationalization of long-term sequence learning through repetition, is the focus of renewed interest, as it is taken to provide a laboratory analogue for naturalistic vocabulary acquisition. Indeed, recent studies have consistently related performance in the Hebb repetition task with a range of linguistic (dis)abilities. However, in spite of the growing interest in the Hebb repetition effect as a theoretical construct, no previous research has ever tested whether the task used to assess Hebb learning offers a stable and reliable measure of individual performance in sequence learning. Since reliability is a necessary condition to predictive validity, in the present work we tested whether individual ability in visual verbal Hebb repetition learning displays basic test-retest reliability. In a first experiment Hebrew-English bilinguals performed two verbal Hebb tasks, one with English and one with Hebrew consonant letters. They were retested on the same Hebb tasks after a period of about six months. Overall serial recall performance proved to be a stable and reliable capacity of an individual. By contrast, the test-retest reliability of individual learning performance in our Hebb task was close to zero. A second experiment with French speakers replicated these results and demonstrated that the concurrent learning of two repeated Hebb sequences within the same task minimally improves the reliability scores. Taken together, our results raise concerns regarding the usefulness of at least some current Hebb learning tasks, in predicting linguistic (dis)abilities. The theoretical implications are discussed.

  14. Reliability of EEG Interactions Differs between Measures and Is Specific for Neurological Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvonne Höller


    Full Text Available Alterations of interaction (connectivity of the EEG reflect pathological processes in patients with neurologic disorders. Nevertheless, it is questionable whether these patterns are reliable over time in different measures of interaction and whether this reliability of the measures is the same across different patient populations. In order to address this topic we examined 22 patients with mild cognitive impairment, five patients with subjective cognitive complaints, six patients with right-lateralized temporal lobe epilepsy, seven patients with left lateralized temporal lobe epilepsy, and 20 healthy controls. We calculated 14 measures of interaction from two EEG-recordings separated by 2 weeks. In order to characterize test-retest reliability, we correlated these measures for each group and compared the correlations between measures and between groups. We found that both measures of interaction as well as groups differed from each other in terms of reliability. The strongest correlation coefficients were found for spectrum, coherence, and full frequency directed transfer function (average rho > 0.9. In the delta (2–4 Hz range, reliability was lower for mild cognitive impairment compared to healthy controls and left lateralized temporal lobe epilepsy. In the beta (13–30 Hz, gamma (31–80 Hz, and high gamma (81–125 Hz frequency ranges we found decreased reliability in subjective cognitive complaints compared to mild cognitive impairment. In the gamma and high gamma range we found increased reliability in left lateralized temporal lobe epilepsy patients compared to healthy controls. Our results emphasize the importance of documenting reliability of measures of interaction, which may vary considerably between measures, but also between patient populations. We suggest that studies claiming clinical usefulness of measures of interaction should provide information on the reliability of the results. In addition, differences between patient

  15. Continuous Reliability Enhancement for Wind (CREW) database :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hines, Valerie Ann-Peters; Ogilvie, Alistair B.; Bond, Cody R.


    To benchmark the current U.S. wind turbine fleet reliability performance and identify the major contributors to component-level failures and other downtime events, the Department of Energy funded the development of the Continuous Reliability Enhancement for Wind (CREW) database by Sandia National Laboratories. This report is the third annual Wind Plant Reliability Benchmark, to publically report on CREW findings for the wind industry. The CREW database uses both high resolution Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) data from operating plants and Strategic Power Systems ORAPWindª (Operational Reliability Analysis Program for Wind) data, which consist of downtime and reserve event records and daily summaries of various time categories for each turbine. Together, these data are used as inputs into CREWs reliability modeling. The results presented here include: the primary CREW Benchmark statistics (operational availability, utilization, capacity factor, mean time between events, and mean downtime); time accounting from an availability perspective; time accounting in terms of the combination of wind speed and generation levels; power curve analysis; and top system and component contributors to unavailability.

  16. Reliability and accuracy of Crystaleye spectrophotometric system. (United States)

    Chen, Li; Tan, Jian Guo; Zhou, Jian Feng; Yang, Xu; Du, Yang; Wang, Fang Ping


    to develop an in vitro shade-measuring model to evaluate the reliability and accuracy of the Crystaleye spectrophotometric system, a newly developed spectrophotometer. four shade guides, VITA Classical, VITA 3D-Master, Chromascop and Vintage Halo NCC, were measured with the Crystaleye spectrophotometer in a standardised model, ten times for 107 shade tabs. The shade-matching results and the CIE L*a*b* values of the cervical, body and incisal regions for each measurement were automatically analysed using the supporting software. Reliability and accuracy were calculated for each shade tab both in percentage and in colour difference (ΔE). Difference was analysed by one-way ANOVA in the cervical, body and incisal regions. range of reliability was 88.81% to 98.97% and 0.13 to 0.24 ΔE units, and that of accuracy was 44.05% to 91.25% and 1.03 to 1.89 ΔE units. Significant differences in reliability and accuracy were found between the body region and the cervical and incisal regions. Comparisons made among regions and shade guides revealed that evaluation in ΔE was prone to disclose the differences. measurements with the Crystaleye spectrophotometer had similar, high reliability in different shade guides and regions, indicating predictable repeated measurements. Accuracy in the body region was high and less variable compared with the cervical and incisal regions.

  17. Culture Representation in Human Reliability Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Gertman; Julie Marble; Steven Novack


    Understanding human-system response is critical to being able to plan and predict mission success in the modern battlespace. Commonly, human reliability analysis has been used to predict failures of human performance in complex, critical systems. However, most human reliability methods fail to take culture into account. This paper takes an easily understood state of the art human reliability analysis method and extends that method to account for the influence of culture, including acceptance of new technology, upon performance. The cultural parameters used to modify the human reliability analysis were determined from two standard industry approaches to cultural assessment: Hofstede’s (1991) cultural factors and Davis’ (1989) technology acceptance model (TAM). The result is called the Culture Adjustment Method (CAM). An example is presented that (1) reviews human reliability assessment with and without cultural attributes for a Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) system attack, (2) demonstrates how country specific information can be used to increase the realism of HRA modeling, and (3) discusses the differences in human error probability estimates arising from cultural differences.

  18. The complex network reliability and influential nodes (United States)

    Li, Kai; He, Yongfeng


    In order to study the complex network node important degree and reliability, considering semi-local centrality, betweenness centrality and PageRank algorithm, through the simulation method to gradually remove nodes and recalculate the importance in the random network, small world network and scale-free network. Study the relationship between the largest connected component and node removed proportion, the research results show that betweenness centrality and PageRank algorithm based on the global information network are more effective for evaluating the importance of nodes, and the reliability of the network is related to the network topology.

  19. Reliability of Human Subject - Artificial System Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Novák


    Full Text Available Main problems related to reliability of interaction between human subject and artificial system (namely of the transportation character are discussed. The paper consists of three mayor parts:The first one is devoted to the theoretical backgrounds of the problem from the both theory of system reliability and neurology/psychology views.Second part presents the discussion of relevant methodologies of the classification and prediction of the reliability decline. The methodology based on EEG pattern analysis is chosen as the appropriate one for the presented task. The key phenomenon of "micro-sleep" is discussed in detail.The last part presents some latest experimental results in context of presented knowledge. Proposals for the future studies are presented at the end of the presented article. The special interest should be devoted to the analysis and in-time prediction of fatal attention decreases and to the design and construction of the respective on-board applicable warning system.

  20. Reliability systems for implantable cardiac defibrillator batteries (United States)

    Takeuchi, Esther S.

    The reliability of the power sources used in implantable cardiac defibrillators is critical due to the life-saving nature of the device. Achieving a high reliability power source depends on several systems functioning together. Appropriate cell design is the first step in assuring a reliable product. Qualification of critical components and of the cells using those components is done prior to their designation as implantable grade. Product consistency is assured by control of manufacturing practices and verified by sampling plans using both accelerated and real-time testing. Results to date show that lithium/silver vanadium oxide cells used for implantable cardiac defibrillators have a calculated maximum random failure rate of 0.005% per test month.

  1. A reliable dual Blumlein device (United States)

    Noggle, R. C.; Adler, R. J.; Hendricks, K. J.


    In this article, we describe the 500 kV, 100 kA (each arm) GEMINI dual Blumlein accelerator at the Air Force Weapons Laboratory. Novel isolation, trigger, and trigger timing techniques are utilized in this device in order to allow two Blumleins to be charged by one Marx generator, and discharged at different times. The timing circuits are unique in that they make use of saturable magnetic circuits to provide the relative timing of the two outputs. We demonstrate that this technique is reliable, reproducible, and straightforward. We isolate the two Blumlein switches using an inductor wound so that it has minimal inductance when both Blumleins are charging, but maximum inductance when one is fired and the second Blumlein is delayed. Utilization of this technique allows us to isolate the two Blumleins without using resistive isolation with its associated energy loss, or simple inductive isolation with the associated cost in increasing the water line charge time. Complete operational and design data is presented, along with detailed data from the switch trigger arms.

  2. Reliability Analysis of an Offshore Structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Rackwitz, R.; Thoft-Christensen, Palle


    For an offshore structure in the North Sea it is assumed that information from measurements and inspections is available. As illustrations measurements of the significant wave height and the marine growth and different inspection and repair results are considered. It is shown how the reliability...

  3. TIGER reliability analysis in the DSN (United States)

    Gunn, J. M.


    The TIGER algorithm, the inputs to the program and the output are described. TIGER is a computer program designed to simulate a system over a period of time to evaluate system reliability and availability. Results can be used in the Deep Space Network for initial spares provisioning and system evaluation.

  4. Reevaluating Interrater Reliability in Offender Risk Assessment (United States)

    van der Knaap, Leontien M.; Leenarts, Laura E. W.; Born, Marise Ph.; Oosterveld, Paul


    Offender risk and needs assessment, one of the pillars of the risk-need-responsivity model of offender rehabilitation, usually depends on raters assessing offender risk and needs. The few available studies of interrater reliability in offender risk assessment are, however, limited in the generalizability of their results. The present study…

  5. Conceptualizing Essay Tests' Reliability and Validity: From Research to Theory (United States)

    Badjadi, Nour El Imane


    The current paper on writing assessment surveys the literature on the reliability and validity of essay tests. The paper aims to examine the two concepts in relationship with essay testing as well as to provide a snapshot of the current understandings of the reliability and validity of essay tests as drawn in recent research studies. Bearing in…

  6. Assessing the Impact of Imperfect Diagnosis on Service Reliability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønbæk, Lars Jesper; Schwefel, Hans-Peter; Kjærgaard, Jens Kristian


    of diagnosis imperfections on reliability for time-constrained SCTP/TCP-based services. This enables: (a) a model-based sensitivity analysis of the service reliability to the diagnosis performance metrics, and (b) investigation of whether the chosen metrics provide a sufficiently detailed characterization...

  7. Improvement of Steam Generator Reliability for GEN-IV SFR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seong O; Kim Se Yun; Kim, Seok Hoon; Eoh, Jae Hyuk; Lee, Hyeong Yeon; Choi, Byung Seon


    The R and D items performed in this study were selected from the R and D task of ' Reliability improvement of Steam Generator' of GEN-IV SFR Component Design and BOP. Since this project deals with one of the most important issues for a GEN-IV SFR system, it needs to enhance the domestic technical backgrounds associated with the corresponding R and D items even for a very short period by 2005. This study provides the R and D results for i) Development of assessment methodology for dissimilar metal weld and ii) Development of multi-dimensional simulation methodology for a SWR event in a SFR steam generator.

  8. Fundamentals of reliability engineering applications in multistage interconnection networks

    CERN Document Server

    Gunawan, Indra


    This book presents fundamentals of reliability engineering with its applications in evaluating reliability of multistage interconnection networks. In the first part of the book, it introduces the concept of reliability engineering, elements of probability theory, probability distributions, availability and data analysis.  The second part of the book provides an overview of parallel/distributed computing, network design considerations, and more.  The book covers a comprehensive reliability engineering methods and its practical aspects in the interconnection network systems. Students, engineers, researchers, managers will find this book as a valuable reference source.

  9. Reliable software for unreliable hardware a cross layer perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Rehman, Semeen; Henkel, Jörg


    This book describes novel software concepts to increase reliability under user-defined constraints. The authors’ approach bridges, for the first time, the reliability gap between hardware and software. Readers will learn how to achieve increased soft error resilience on unreliable hardware, while exploiting the inherent error masking characteristics and error (stemming from soft errors, aging, and process variations) mitigations potential at different software layers. · Provides a comprehensive overview of reliability modeling and optimization techniques at different hardware and software levels; · Describes novel optimization techniques for software cross-layer reliability, targeting unreliable hardware.

  10. Ultra Reliable Closed Loop Life Support for Long Space Missions (United States)

    Jones, Harry W.; Ewert, Michael K.


    Spacecraft human life support systems can achieve ultra reliability by providing sufficient spares to replace all failed components. The additional mass of spares for ultra reliability is approximately equal to the original system mass, provided that the original system reliability is not too low. Acceptable reliability can be achieved for the Space Shuttle and Space Station by preventive maintenance and by replacing failed units. However, on-demand maintenance and repair requires a logistics supply chain in place to provide the needed spares. In contrast, a Mars or other long space mission must take along all the needed spares, since resupply is not possible. Long missions must achieve ultra reliability, a very low failure rate per hour, since they will take years rather than weeks and cannot be cut short if a failure occurs. Also, distant missions have a much higher mass launch cost per kilogram than near-Earth missions. Achieving ultra reliable spacecraft life support systems with acceptable mass will require a well-planned and extensive development effort. Analysis must determine the reliability requirement and allocate it to subsystems and components. Ultra reliability requires reducing the intrinsic failure causes, providing spares to replace failed components and having "graceful" failure modes. Technologies, components, and materials must be selected and designed for high reliability. Long duration testing is needed to confirm very low failure rates. Systems design should segregate the failure causes in the smallest, most easily replaceable parts. The system must be designed, developed, integrated, and tested with system reliability in mind. Maintenance and reparability of failed units must not add to the probability of failure. The overall system must be tested sufficiently to identify any design errors. A program to develop ultra reliable space life support systems with acceptable mass should start soon since it must be a long term effort.

  11. North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) Reliability Coordinators (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — ERC is an international regulatory authority that works to improve the reliability of the bulk power system in North America. NERC works with many different regional...

  12. Developing a reliable method for signal wire attachment : [research results]. (United States)


    Railroad signaling systems detect trains on the track, identify track fractures, prevent derailments, and alert signal crossing stations when trains approach. These systems are vital to safe train operation; therefore, each component of this system h...

  13. Credible Mechanism for More Reliable SearchEngine Results


    Mohammed Abdel Razek


    the number of websites on the Internet is growing randomly, thanks to HTML language. Consequently, a diversity of information is available on the Web, however, sometimes the content of it may be neither valuable nor trusted. This leads to a problem of a credibility of the existing information on these Websites. This paper investigates aspects affecting on the Websites credibility and then uses them along with dominant meaning of the query for improving information retriev...

  14. Reliability of reference distances used in photogrammetry. (United States)

    Aksu, Muge; Kaya, Demet; Kocadereli, Ilken


    To determine the reliability of the reference distances used for photogrammetric assessment. The sample consisted of 100 subjects with mean ages of 22.97 +/- 2.98 years. Five lateral and four frontal parameters were measured directly on the subjects' faces. For photogrammetric assessment, two reference distances for the profile view and three reference distances for the frontal view were established. Standardized photographs were taken and all the parameters that had been measured directly on the face were measured on the photographs. The reliability of the reference distances was checked by comparing direct and indirect values of the parameters obtained from the subjects' faces and photographs. Repeated measure analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Bland-Altman analyses were used for statistical assessment. For profile measurements, the indirect values measured were statistically different from the direct values except for Sn-Sto in male subjects and Prn-Sn and Sn-Sto in female subjects. The indirect values of Prn-Sn and Sn-Sto were reliable in both sexes. The poorest results were obtained in the indirect values of the N-Sn parameter for female subjects and the Sn-Me parameter for male subjects according to the Sa-Sba reference distance. For frontal measurements, the indirect values were statistically different from the direct values in both sexes except for one in male subjects. The indirect values measured were not statistically different from the direct values for Go-Go. The indirect values of Ch-Ch were reliable in male subjects. The poorest results were obtained according to the P-P reference distance. For profile assessment, the T-Ex reference distance was reliable for Prn-Sn and Sn-Sto in both sexes. For frontal assessment, Ex-Ex and En-En reference distances were reliable for Ch-Ch in male subjects.

  15. Reliability Assessment Of Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard


    Reduction of cost of energy for wind turbines are very important in order to make wind energy competitive compared to other energy sources. Therefore the turbine components should be designed to have sufficient reliability but also not be too costly (and safe). This paper presents models for unce......Reduction of cost of energy for wind turbines are very important in order to make wind energy competitive compared to other energy sources. Therefore the turbine components should be designed to have sufficient reliability but also not be too costly (and safe). This paper presents models...... for uncertainty modeling and reliability assessment of especially the structural components such as tower, blades, substructure and foundation. But since the function of a wind turbine is highly dependent on many electrical and mechanical components as well as a control system also reliability aspects...... of these components are discussed and it is described how there reliability influences the reliability of the structural components. Two illustrative examples are presented considering uncertainty modeling, reliability assessment and calibration of partial safety factors for structural wind turbine components exposed...

  16. Reliable High Performance Peta- and Exa-Scale Computing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bronevetsky, G


    As supercomputers become larger and more powerful, they are growing increasingly complex. This is reflected both in the exponentially increasing numbers of components in HPC systems (LLNL is currently installing the 1.6 million core Sequoia system) as well as the wide variety of software and hardware components that a typical system includes. At this scale it becomes infeasible to make each component sufficiently reliable to prevent regular faults somewhere in the system or to account for all possible cross-component interactions. The resulting faults and instability cause HPC applications to crash, perform sub-optimally or even produce erroneous results. As supercomputers continue to approach Exascale performance and full system reliability becomes prohibitively expensive, we will require novel techniques to bridge the gap between the lower reliability provided by hardware systems and users unchanging need for consistent performance and reliable results. Previous research on HPC system reliability has developed various techniques for tolerating and detecting various types of faults. However, these techniques have seen very limited real applicability because of our poor understanding of how real systems are affected by complex faults such as soft fault-induced bit flips or performance degradations. Prior work on such techniques has had very limited practical utility because it has generally focused on analyzing the behavior of entire software/hardware systems both during normal operation and in the face of faults. Because such behaviors are extremely complex, such studies have only produced coarse behavioral models of limited sets of software/hardware system stacks. Since this provides little insight into the many different system stacks and applications used in practice, this work has had little real-world impact. My project addresses this problem by developing a modular methodology to analyze the behavior of applications and systems during both normal and faulty

  17. Reliability of Tubular Joints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    In this paper the preliminary results obtained by tests on tubular joints are presented. The joints are T-joints and the loading is static. It is the intention in continuation of these tests to perform tests on other types of joints (e.g. Y-joints) and also with dynamic loading. The purpose of th...

  18. Development of Reliable Life Support Systems (United States)

    Carter, Layne


    The life support systems on the International Space Station (ISS) are the culmination of an extensive effort encompassing development, design, and test to provide the highest possible confidence in their operation on ISS. Many years of development testing are initially performed to identify the optimum technology and the optimum operational approach. The success of this development program depends on the accuracy of the system interfaces. The critical interfaces include the specific operational environment, the composition of the waste stream to be processed and the quality of the product. Once the development program is complete, a detailed system schematic is built based on the specific design requirements, followed by component procurement, assembly, and acceptance testing. A successful acceptance test again depends on accurately simulating the anticipated environment on ISS. The ISS Water Recovery System (WRS) provides an excellent example of where this process worked, as well as lessons learned that can be applied to the success of future missions. More importantly, ISS has provided a test bed to identify these design issues. Mechanical design issues have included an unreliable harmonic drive train in the Urine Processor's fluids pump, and seals in the Water Processor's Catalytic Reactor with insufficient life at the operational temperature. Systems issues have included elevated calcium in crew urine (due to microgravity effect) that resulted in precipitation at the desired water recovery rate, and the presence of an organosilicon compound (dimethylsilanediol) in the condensate that is not well removed by the water treatment process. Modifications to the WRS to address these issues are either complete (and now being evaluated on ISS) or are currently in work to insure the WRS has the required reliability before embarking on a mission to Mars.

  19. New Approaches to Reliability Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Ke; Wang, Huai; Blaabjerg, Frede


    of energy. New approaches for reliability assessment are being taken in the design phase of power electronics systems based on the physics-of-failure in components. In this approach, many new methods, such as multidisciplinary simulation tools, strength testing of components, translation of mission profiles......, and statistical analysis, are involved to enable better prediction and design of reliability for products. This article gives an overview of the new design flow in the reliability engineering of power electronics from the system-level point of view and discusses some of the emerging needs for the technology...

  20. Reliability evaluation of power systems

    CERN Document Server

    Billinton, Roy


    The Second Edition of this well-received textbook presents over a decade of new research in power system reliability-while maintaining the general concept, structure, and style of the original volume. This edition features new chapters on the growing areas of Monte Carlo simulation and reliability economics. In addition, chapters cover the latest developments in techniques and their application to real problems. The text also explores the progress occurring in the structure, planning, and operation of real power systems due to changing ownership, regulation, and access. This work serves as a companion volume to Reliability Evaluation of Engineering Systems: Second Edition (1992).

  1. Therapy Provider Phase Information (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Therapy Provider Phase Information dataset is a tool for providers to search by their National Provider Identifier (NPI) number to determine their phase for...

  2. Reliability-Centered Maintenance (United States)


    maintenance is desirable if it is cost-effective. Compressor blades are exposed to ero’,ion and airseals to wear, causing losses in aerodynamic efficiency...this book is how to determine which types of sched- uled maintenance tasks, if any, should be applied to an item and how frequently assigned tasks should...sonnel responsible for equipment design and the personnel responsible for equip- ment maintenance if maximum RCM results are to be achieved. Appendices

  3. Resting-state test-retest reliability of a priori defined canonical networks over different preprocessing steps. (United States)

    Varikuti, Deepthi P; Hoffstaedter, Felix; Genon, Sarah; Schwender, Holger; Reid, Andrew T; Eickhoff, Simon B


    Resting-state functional connectivity analysis has become a widely used method for the investigation of human brain connectivity and pathology. The measurement of neuronal activity by functional MRI, however, is impeded by various nuisance signals that reduce the stability of functional connectivity. Several methods exist to address this predicament, but little consensus has yet been reached on the most appropriate approach. Given the crucial importance of reliability for the development of clinical applications, we here investigated the effect of various confound removal approaches on the test-retest reliability of functional-connectivity estimates in two previously defined functional brain networks. Our results showed that gray matter masking improved the reliability of connectivity estimates, whereas denoising based on principal components analysis reduced it. We additionally observed that refraining from using any correction for global signals provided the best test-retest reliability, but failed to reproduce anti-correlations between what have been previously described as antagonistic networks. This suggests that improved reliability can come at the expense of potentially poorer biological validity. Consistent with this, we observed that reliability was proportional to the retained variance, which presumably included structured noise, such as reliable nuisance signals (for instance, noise induced by cardiac processes). We conclude that compromises are necessary between maximizing test-retest reliability and removing variance that may be attributable to non-neuronal sources.

  4. Making noncatastrophic health care processes reliable: Learning to walk before running in creating high-reliability organizations. (United States)

    Resar, Roger K


    Health care clinicians successfully apply proven medical evidence in common acute, chronic, or preventive care processes less than 80 percent of the time. This low level of reliability at the basic process level means that health care's efforts to improve reliability start from a different baseline from most other industries, and therefore may require a different approach. This paper describes The Institute for Healthcare Improvement's (IHI) current approach to improving health care reliability, including a useful nomenclature for levels of reliability, and a focus on improving reliability of basic health care processes before moving on to more sophisticated high reliability organization concepts. Early IHI work with a community of health care reliability innovators has identified four themes in health care settings that help to explain at least a portion of the gap in process reliability between health care and other industries. These include extreme dependence on hard work and personal vigilance, a focus on mediocre benchmark outcomes rather than process, great tolerance of provider autonomy, and failure to create systems that are specifically designed to reach articulated reliability goals. This paper describes our recommendations for the initial steps health care organizations' might take, based on these four themes, as they begin to move toward higher reliability.

  5. Nuclear reliability assurance data source guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    Seven sources of reliability and maintainability data are reviewed for their potential for providing nuclear equipment data. Consideration is given to similarity to nuclear application, variety of equipment types reported, availability of data, and obsolescence of data. In addition, discussions of advantages and disadvantages of each data source are presented, and samples of either the data or the character of the data are included as appendixes.

  6. Representative Sampling for reliable data analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lars; Esbensen, Kim Harry


    regime in order to secure the necessary reliability of: samples (which must be representative, from the primary sampling onwards), analysis (which will not mean anything outside the miniscule analytical volume without representativity ruling all mass reductions involved, also in the laboratory) and data......) that fully cover all practical aspects of sampling and provides a handy “toolbox” for samplers, engineers, laboratory and scientific personnel....

  7. Further reliability, convergent and discriminant validity of overall defensive functioning. (United States)

    Hilsenroth, Mark J; Callahan, Kelley L; Eudell, Erin M


    The reliability, convergent and discriminant validity of the Defensive Functioning Scale (DFS) and the overall defensive functioning score (ODF) has been previously examined. This study aims to address gaps in the literature as well as to replicate and extend the initial positive clinical validity data emerging on the DFS ( Blais et al., 1996; Hoglend and Perry, 1998; Lingiardi et al., 1999; Perry 2001; Perry and Hoglend, 1998; Perry et al., 1998). Fifty-three outpatient clients were rated by clinicians trained on the DFS. The relationship between the ODF with both clinician-rated and self-report measures of psychopathology was examined. The mean interrater reliability for the DFS levels rated in this study was found to be moderate to high, and reliability for the ODF score was found to be excellent. Coefficient alpha of individual defense levels as well as across the entire DFS indicated high levels of internal consistency. Factor analysis revealed that the ODF represents a construct different from various aspects of patient self-report and clinician ratings of psychopathology. These results provide further support for the clinical application and relevance of the DFS system.

  8. Cellular adaptation facilitates sparse and reliable coding in sensory pathways. (United States)

    Farkhooi, Farzad; Froese, Anja; Muller, Eilif; Menzel, Randolf; Nawrot, Martin P


    Most neurons in peripheral sensory pathways initially respond vigorously when a preferred stimulus is presented, but adapt as stimulation continues. It is unclear how this phenomenon affects stimulus coding in the later stages of sensory processing. Here, we show that a temporally sparse and reliable stimulus representation develops naturally in sequential stages of a sensory network with adapting neurons. As a modeling framework we employ a mean-field approach together with an adaptive population density treatment, accompanied by numerical simulations of spiking neural networks. We find that cellular adaptation plays a critical role in the dynamic reduction of the trial-by-trial variability of cortical spike responses by transiently suppressing self-generated fast fluctuations in the cortical balanced network. This provides an explanation for a widespread cortical phenomenon by a simple mechanism. We further show that in the insect olfactory system cellular adaptation is sufficient to explain the emergence of the temporally sparse and reliable stimulus representation in the mushroom body. Our results reveal a generic, biophysically plausible mechanism that can explain the emergence of a temporally sparse and reliable stimulus representation within a sequential processing architecture.

  9. Raising Reliability of Web Search Tool Research through Replication and Chaos Theory


    Nicholson, Scott


    Because the World Wide Web is a dynamic collection of information, the Web search tools (or "search engines") that index the Web are dynamic. Traditional information retrieval evaluation techniques may not provide reliable results when applied to the Web search tools. This study is the result of ten replications of the classic 1996 Ding and Marchionini Web search tool research. It explores the effects that replication can have on transforming unreliable results from one iteration into replica...

  10. Operation reliability assessment for cutting tools by applying a proportional covariate model to condition monitoring information. (United States)

    Cai, Gaigai; Chen, Xuefeng; Li, Bing; Chen, Baojia; He, Zhengjia


    The reliability of cutting tools is critical to machining precision and production efficiency. The conventional statistic-based reliability assessment method aims at providing a general and overall estimation of reliability for a large population of identical units under given and fixed conditions. However, it has limited effectiveness in depicting the operational characteristics of a cutting tool. To overcome this limitation, this paper proposes an approach to assess the operation reliability of cutting tools. A proportional covariate model is introduced to construct the relationship between operation reliability and condition monitoring information. The wavelet packet transform and an improved distance evaluation technique are used to extract sensitive features from vibration signals, and a covariate function is constructed based on the proportional covariate model. Ultimately, the failure rate function of the cutting tool being assessed is calculated using the baseline covariate function obtained from a small sample of historical data. Experimental results and a comparative study show that the proposed method is effective for assessing the operation reliability of cutting tools.

  11. Determining the optimum length of a bridge opening with a specified reliability level of water runoff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evdokimov Sergey


    Full Text Available Current trends in construction are aimed at providing reliability and safety of engineering facilities. According to the latest government regulations for construction, the scientific approach to engineering research, design, construction and operation of construction projects is a key priority. The reliability of a road depends on a great number of factors and characteristics of their statistical compounds (sequential and parallel. A part of a road with such man-made structures as a bridge or a pipe is considered as a system with a sequential element connection. The overall reliability is the multiplication of the reliability of these elements. The parameters of engineering structures defined by analytical dependences are highly volatile because of the inaccuracy of the defining factors. However each physical parameter is statistically unstable that is evaluated by variable coefficient of their values. It causes the fluctuation in the parameters of engineering structures. Their study may result in the changes in general and particular design rules in order to increase the reliability. The paper gives the grounds for these changes by the example of a bridge. It allows calculating its optimum length with a specified reliability level of water runoff under the bridge.

  12. A Reliable Measure of Information Security Awareness and the Identification of Bias in Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata McCormac


    Full Text Available The Human Aspects of Information Security Questionnaire (HAIS-Q is designed to measure Information Security Awareness. More specifically, the tool measures an individual’s knowledge, attitude, and self-reported behaviour relating to information security in the workplace. This paper reports on the reliability of the HAIS-Q, including test-retest reliability and internal consistency. The paper also assesses the reliability of three preliminary over-claiming items, designed specifically to complement the HAIS-Q, and identify those individuals who provide socially desirable responses. A total of 197 working Australians completed two iterations of the HAIS-Q and the over-claiming items, approximately 4 weeks apart. Results of the analysis showed that the HAIS-Q was externally reliable and internally consistent. Therefore, the HAIS-Q can be used to reliably measure information security awareness. Reliability testing on the preliminary over-claiming items was not as robust and further development is required and recommended. The implications of these findings mean that organisations can confidently use the HAIS-Q to not only measure the current state of employee information security awareness within their organisation, but they can also measure the effectiveness and impacts of training interventions, information security awareness programs and campaigns. The influence of cultural changes and the effect of security incidents can also be assessed.

  13. Reliability Measure Model for Assistive Care Loop Framework Using Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venki Balasubramanian


    Full Text Available Body area wireless sensor networks (BAWSNs are time-critical systems that rely on the collective data of a group of sensor nodes. Reliable data received at the sink is based on the collective data provided by all the source sensor nodes and not on individual data. Unlike conventional reliability, the definition of retransmission is inapplicable in a BAWSN and would only lead to an elapsed data arrival that is not acceptable for time-critical application. Time-driven applications require high data reliability to maintain detection and responses. Hence, the transmission reliability for the BAWSN should be based on the critical time. In this paper, we develop a theoretical model to measure a BAWSN's transmission reliability, based on the critical time. The proposed model is evaluated through simulation and then compared with the experimental results conducted in our existing Active Care Loop Framework (ACLF. We further show the effect of the sink buffer in transmission reliability after a detailed study of various other co-existing parameters.

  14. Probability interpretations of intraclass reliabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellis, J.L.


    Research where many organizations are rated by different samples of individuals such as clients, patients, or employees frequently uses reliabilities computed from intraclass correlations. Consumers of statistical information, such as patients and policy makers, may not have sufficient background

  15. Reliability Assessment of Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard


    but manufactured in series production based on many component tests, some prototype tests and zeroseries wind turbines. These characteristics influence the reliability assessment where focus in this paper is on the structural components. Levelized Cost Of Energy is very important for wind energy, especially when...... comparing to other energy sources. Therefore much focus is on cost reductions and improved reliability both for offshore and onshore wind turbines. The wind turbine components should be designed to have sufficient reliability level with respect to both extreme and fatigue loads but also not be too costly...... (and safe). In probabilistic design the single components are designed to a level of reliability, which accounts for an optimal balance between failure consequences, cost of operation & maintenance, material costs and the probability of failure. Furthermore, using a probabilistic design basis...

  16. Reliability assessment of Wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard


    but manufactured in series production based on many component tests, some prototype tests and zeroseries wind turbines. These characteristics influence the reliability assessment where focus in this paper is on the structural components. Levelized Cost Of Energy is very important for wind energy, especially when...... comparing to other energy sources. Therefore much focus is on cost reductions and improved reliability both for offshore and onshore wind turbines. The wind turbine components should be designed to have sufficient reliability level with respect to both extreme and fatigue loads but also not be too costly...... (and safe). In probabilistic design the single components are designed to a level of reliability, which accounts for an optimal balance between failure consequences, cost of operation & maintenance, material costs and the probability of failure. Furthermore, using a probabilistic design basis...

  17. Transportation reliability and trip satisfaction. (United States)


    Travel delays and associated costs have become a major problem in Michigan over the : past several decades as congestion has continued to increase, creating significant negative : impacts on travel reliability on many roadways throughout the State. T...

  18. Development of reliable pavement models. (United States)


    The current report proposes a framework for estimating the reliability of a given pavement structure as analyzed by : the Mechanistic-Empirical Pavement Design Guide (MEPDG). The methodology proposes using a previously fit : response surface, in plac...

  19. Innovations in power systems reliability

    CERN Document Server

    Santora, Albert H; Vaccaro, Alfredo


    Electrical grids are among the world's most reliable systems, yet they still face a host of issues, from aging infrastructure to questions of resource distribution. Here is a comprehensive and systematic approach to tackling these contemporary challenges.

  20. Reliability issues at the LHC

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva. Audiovisual Unit; Gillies, James D


    The Lectures on reliability issues at the LHC will be focused on five main Modules on five days. Module 1: Basic Elements in Reliability Engineering Some basic terms, definitions and methods, from components up to the system and the plant, common cause failures and human factor issues. Module 2: Interrelations of Reliability & Safety (R&S) Reliability and risk informed approach, living models, risk monitoring. Module 3: The ideal R&S Process for Large Scale Systems From R&S goals via the implementation into the system to the proof of the compliance. Module 4: Some Applications of R&S on LHC Master logic, anatomy of risk, cause - consequence diagram, decomposition and aggregation of the system. Module 5: Lessons learned from R&S Application in various Technologies Success stories, pitfalls, constrains in data and methods, limitations per se, experienced in aviation, space, process, nuclear, offshore and transport systems and plants. The Lectures will reflect in summary the compromise in...

  1. Improved reliability of power modules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, Nick; Liserre, Marco; Dupont, Laurent


    environments that challenge the reliability aspects of power electronic techniques. For example, increasingly thermally stressful environments are seen in applications such as electric vehicles, where ambient temperatures under the hood exceed 150 °C, while some wind turbine applications can place large...... temperature cycling conditions on the system. On the other hand, safety requirements in the aerospace and automotive industries place rigorous demands on reliability....

  2. Reliability-Based Design of Wind Turbine Components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Henrik Stensgaard; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard


    Application of reliability-based design for wind turbines requires a definition of the probabilistic basis for the individual components of the wind turbine. In the present paper reliability-based design of structural wind turbine components is considered. A framework for the uncertainties which ...... demonstrated how partial safety factors can be derived for reliability-based design and how the partial safety factors changes dependent on the uncertainty in the test results....

  3. Unmet expectations of medications and care providers among patients with heart failure assessed to be poorly adherent: results from the Chronic Heart Failure Intervention to Improve MEdication Adherence (CHIME) study. (United States)

    Ekman, Inger; Wolf, Axel; Vaughan Dickson, Victoria; Bosworth, Hayden B; Granger, Bradi B


    Ineffective medication management contributes to repeated hospitalisation and death among patients with heart failure. The meaning ascribed to medications and the influence of meaning on how patients manage medications is unknown. The purpose of this study was to explore the meaning and expectations associated with medication use in high-risk, non-adherent patients with heart failure. Patients ( n=265) with heart failure were screened for adherence to prescribed medication using the Morisky medication adherence scale (MMAS). Patients (MMAS score <6; n=44) participated in semistructured interviews, analysed using qualitative content analysis. Of 17 initial themes (223 representative segments), the overarching theme 'unmet expectations' consisted of two subthemes 'working to be heard' by professionals and 'resignation' to both the illness and medications. Patients' expectations were challenged by unexpected work to communicate with providers in general (72 representative segments), and specifically regarding medications (118 representative segments) and feelings of resignation regarding the medication regimen (33 representative segments). These findings suggest that unmet expectations contribute to poor medication management. Improved listening and communication by providers, to establish a common understanding and plan for managing medications may strengthen patient beliefs, resolve feelings of resignation and improve patients' ability to manage medications effectively.

  4. Reliability of analog quantum simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarovar, Mohan [Sandia National Laboratories, Digital and Quantum Information Systems, Livermore, CA (United States); Zhang, Jun; Zeng, Lishan [Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Joint Institute of UMich-SJTU, Key Laboratory of System Control and Information Processing (MOE), Shanghai (China)


    Analog quantum simulators (AQS) will likely be the first nontrivial application of quantum technology for predictive simulation. However, there remain questions regarding the degree of confidence that can be placed in the results of AQS since they do not naturally incorporate error correction. Specifically, how do we know whether an analog simulation of a quantum model will produce predictions that agree with the ideal model in the presence of inevitable imperfections? At the same time there is a widely held expectation that certain quantum simulation questions will be robust to errors and perturbations in the underlying hardware. Resolving these two points of view is a critical step in making the most of this promising technology. In this work we formalize the notion of AQS reliability by determining sensitivity of AQS outputs to underlying parameters, and formulate conditions for robust simulation. Our approach naturally reveals the importance of model symmetries in dictating the robust properties. To demonstrate the approach, we characterize the robust features of a variety of quantum many-body models. (orig.)

  5. Evaluation of MHTGR fuel reliability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wichner, R.P. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Barthold, W.P. [Barthold Associates, Inc., Knoxville, TN (United States)


    Modular High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (MHTGR) concepts that house the reactor vessel in a tight but unsealed reactor building place heightened importance on the reliability of the fuel particle coatings as fission product barriers. Though accident consequence analyses continue to show favorable results, the increased dependence on one type of barrier, in addition to a number of other factors, has caused the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to consider conservative assumptions regarding fuel behavior. For this purpose, the concept termed ``weak fuel`` has been proposed on an interim basis. ``Weak fuel`` is a penalty imposed on consequence analyses whereby the fuel is assumed to respond less favorably to environmental conditions than predicted by behavioral models. The rationale for adopting this penalty, as well as conditions that would permit its reduction or elimination, are examined in this report. The evaluation includes an examination of possible fuel-manufacturing defects, quality-control procedures for defect detection, and the mechanisms by which fuel defects may lead to failure.

  6. HDMR methods to assess reliability in slope stability analyses (United States)

    Kozubal, Janusz; Pula, Wojciech; Vessia, Giovanna


    Stability analyses of complex rock-soil deposits shall be tackled considering the complex structure of discontinuities within rock mass and embedded soil layers. These materials are characterized by a high variability in physical and mechanical properties. Thus, to calculate the slope safety factor in stability analyses two issues must be taken into account: 1) the uncertainties related to structural setting of the rock-slope mass and 2) the variability in mechanical properties of soils and rocks. High Dimensional Model Representation (HDMR) (Chowdhury et al. 2009; Chowdhury and Rao 2010) can be used to carry out the reliability index within complex rock-soil slopes when numerous random variables with high coefficient of variations are considered. HDMR implements the inverse reliability analysis, meaning that the unknown design parameters are sought provided that prescribed reliability index values are attained. Such approach uses implicit response functions according to the Response Surface Method (RSM). The simple RSM can be efficiently applied when less than four random variables are considered; as the number of variables increases, the efficiency in reliability index estimation decreases due to the great amount of calculations. Therefore, HDMR method is used to improve the computational accuracy. In this study, the sliding mechanism in Polish Flysch Carpathian Mountains have been studied by means of HDMR. The Southern part of Poland where Carpathian Mountains are placed is characterized by a rather complicated sedimentary pattern of flysh rocky-soil deposits that can be simplified into three main categories: (1) normal flysch, consisting of adjacent sandstone and shale beds of approximately equal thickness, (2) shale flysch, where shale beds are thicker than adjacent sandstone beds, and (3) sandstone flysch, where the opposite holds. Landslides occur in all flysch deposit types thus some configurations of possible unstable settings (within fractured rocky

  7. A Dynamical Reliability Prediction Algorithm for Composite Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunli Xie


    Full Text Available Dynamic selection and dynamic binding and rebinding at runtime are new characters of composite services. The traditional static reliability prediction models are unsuitable to dynamic composite services. A new reliability predicting algorithm for composite services is proposed in this paper. Firstly, a composite service is decomposed into composition unites (executing path, composite module and atomic service according to their constituents. Consequently, a hierarchical graph of all composite units is constructed. Lastly, a new dynamic reliability prediction algorithm is presented. Comparing with the traditional reliability model, the new dynamic reliability approach is more flexible, which does not recompute reliability for all composite units and only computes the reliability of the effected composite units. In addition, an example to show how to measure the reliability based on our algorithm is designed. The experimental results show our proposed methods can give an accurate estimation of reliability. Furthermore, a more flexible sensitivity analysis is performed to determine which service component has the most significant impact on the improvement of composite service reliability.

  8. [Digital electroencephalography in brain death diagnostics : Technical requirements and results of a survey on the compatibility with medical guidelines of digital EEG systems from providers in Germany]. (United States)

    Walter, U; Noachtar, S; Hinrichs, H


    The guidelines of the German Medical Association and the German Society for Clinical Neurophysiology and Functional Imaging (DGKN) require a high procedural and technical standard for electroencephalography (EEG) as an ancillary method for diagnosing the irreversible cessation of brain function (brain death). Nowadays, digital EEG systems are increasingly being applied in hospitals. So far it is unclear to what extent the digital EEG systems currently marketed in Germany meet the guidelines for diagnosing brain death. In the present article, the technical und safety-related requirements for digital EEG systems and the EEG documentation for diagnosing brain death are described in detail. On behalf of the DGKN, the authors sent out a questionnaire to all identified distributors of digital EEG systems in Germany with respect to the following technical demands: repeated recording of the calibration signals during an ongoing EEG recording, repeated recording of all electrode impedances during an ongoing EEG recording, assessability of intrasystem noise and galvanic isolation of measurement earthing from earthing conductor (floating input). For 15 of the identified 20 different digital EEG systems the specifications were provided by the distributors (among them all distributors based in Germany). All of these EEG systems are provided with a galvanic isolation (floating input). The internal noise can be tested with all systems; however, some systems do not allow repeated recording of the calibration signals and/or the electrode impedances during an ongoing EEG recording. The majority but not all of the currently available digital EEG systems offered for clinical use are eligible for use in brain death diagnostics as per German guidelines.

  9. Testing inter-rater reliability of the Urostomy Education Scale. (United States)

    Kristensen, Susanne A; Jensen, Bente Thoft


    Previous research has validated the Urostomy Education Scale as a standardised evidence based tool to document patients' level of stoma self-care skills. The aim of this study was to test the scale's inter-rater reliability among urology nurses in a continuous validation of the Urostomy Education Scale. During the study period from June 2011 to September 2012, 38 ward nurses performing standard stoma care attended 150 validation sessions evaluating 70 patients' level of stoma self-care skills using the Urostomy Education Scale. In pairs, the nurses randomly observed the patients during a training episode involving change of a stoma appliance. Data were categorised into three groups to investigate the impact of nurses' experience on reliability: comparing two inexperienced nurses, two experienced or one of each. Data were compared for agreement by testing variation between groups and analysing Bland Altman Plots with Limits of Agreement. The variation in scores was not influenced by the nurses' level of experience (p > 0.05). Reliability was found to be high with Bland Altman Plot and Limits of Agreement documenting that 84% of scores (95% CI (Confidence interval): 74; 89) were within a range of 2 points. The Urostomy Education Scale demonstrates high reliability irrespective of nurses' different levels of experience. The results are clinically relevant and contribute to a precise documentation of stoma self-care skills. The tool ensures evidence based patient education and can provide a high standard of communication in transitions between sectors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Turkish validity and reliability of Organ Donation Attitude Scale. (United States)

    Yazici Sayin, Yazile


    To report the translation and adaptation process from English to Turkish and the psychometric estimates of the validity and reliability of The Organ Donation Attitude Scale Turkish. Its aim (1) is to provide data about and (2) to assess Turkish people's attitudes and volunteerism towards organ donation. Lack of donors is a significant problem for organ transplantation worldwide. Attitudes about organ donation and volunteerism are important factors in the lack of donors. To collect survey data from Turkish participants, a cross-sectional design was used: the classical measurement method. The Organ Donation Attitude Scale was translated from English to Turkish and back-translated into English. The analysis included a total of 892 Turkish participants. The validity of the scale was confirmed by exploratory factor analysis and criterion-relation validity testing. A test-retest procedure was implemented for the reliability of the scale over time. The Organ Donation Attitude Scale consists of three relatively independent components: humanity and moral conviction, fears of medical neglect and fears of bodily mutilation. Internal consistency of these three components resulted in acceptable Cronbach's α levels. Positive correlation occurred between the volunteerism score and positive attitude about organ donation. The correlation between volunteerism score and negative attitude about organ donation was negative. Fears of bodily mutilation were most significantly related to unwillingness to commit to organ donation. The test-retest correlation coefficients proves that the Organ Donation Attitude Scale were reliable over time. The Organ Donation Attitude Scale Turkish version is both a reliable and valid instrument that can be useful in measuring positive and negative attitudes of Turkish people about organ donation. With the Organ Donation Attitude Scale, researchers in Turkey will be able to ascertain important data on volunteerism and attitudes towards organ donation

  11. Flexibility and reliability in long-term planning exercises dedicated to the electricity sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maizi, Nadia; Drouineau, Mathilde; Assoumou, Edi; Mazauric, Vincent


    Long-term planning models are useful to build plausible options for future energy systems and must consequently address the technological feasibility and associated cost of these options. This paper focuses on the electricity sector and on problems of flexibility and reliability in power systems in order to improve results provided by long-term planning exercises: flexibility needs are integrated as an additional criterion for new investment decisions and, reliability requirements are assessed through the level of electrical losses they induced and a related cost. These approaches are implemented in a long-term planning model and demonstrated through a study of the Reunion Island.

  12. The Functional Movement Screen: a reliability study. (United States)

    Teyhen, Deydre S; Shaffer, Scott W; Lorenson, Chelsea L; Halfpap, Joshua P; Donofry, Dustin F; Walker, Michael J; Dugan, Jessica L; Childs, John D


    Reliability study. To determine intrarater test-retest and interrater reliability of the Functional Movement Screen (FMS) among novice raters. The FMS is used by various examiners to assess movement and predict time-loss injuries in diverse populations (eg, youth to professional athletes, firefighters, military service members) of active participants. Unfortunately, critical analysis of the reliability of the FMS is currently limited to 1 sample of active college-age participants. Sixty-four active-duty service members (mean ± SD age, 25.2 ± 3.8 years; body mass index, 25.1 ± 3.1 kg/m2) without a history of injury were enrolled. Participants completed the 7 component tests of the FMS in a counterbalanced order. Each component test was scored on an ordinal scale (0 to 3 points), resulting in a composite score ranging from 0 to 21 points. Intrarater test-retest reliability was assessed between baseline scores and those obtained with repeated testing performed 48 to 72 hours later. Interrater reliability was based on the assessment from 2 raters, selected from a pool of 8 novice raters, who assessed the same movements on day 2 simultaneously. Descriptive statistics, weighted kappa (κw), and percent agreement were calculated on component scores. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs), standard error of the measurement, minimal detectable change (MDC95), and associated 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated on composite scores. The average ± SD score on the FMS was 15.7 ± 0.2 points, with 15.6% (n = 10) of the participants scoring less than or equal to 14 points, the recommended cutoff for predicting time-loss injuries. The intrarater test-retest and interrater reliability of the FMS composite score resulted in an ICC3,1 of 0.76 (95% CI: 0.63, 0.85) and an ICC2,1 of 0.74 (95% CI: 0.60, 0.83), respectively. The standard error of the measurement of the composite test was within 1 point, and the MDC95 values were 2.1 and 2.5 points on the 21-point scale

  13. Distribution planning with reliability options for distributed generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trebolle, David [Union Fenosa Distribucion, C/Antonio Lopez, 19, 28026 Madrid (Spain); Gomez, Tomas; Cossent, Rafael; Frias, Pablo [Instituto de Investigacion Tecnologica, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieria, Universidad Pontificia Comillas, C/Quintana 21, 28008 Madrid (Spain)


    The promotion of electricity generation from renewable energy sources (RES) and combined heat and power (CHP) has resulted in increasing penetration levels of distributed generation (DG). However, large-scale connection of DG involves profound changes in the operation and planning of electricity distribution networks. Distribution System Operators (DSOs) play a key role since these agents have to provide flexibility to their networks in order to integrate DG. Article 14.7 of EU Electricity Directive states that DSOs should consider DG as an alternative to new network investments. This is a challenging task, particularly under the current regulatory framework where DSOs must be legally and functionally unbundled from other activities in the electricity sector. This paper proposes a market mechanism, referred to as reliability options for distributed generation (RODG), which provides DSOs with an alternative to the investment in new distribution facilities. The mechanism proposed allocates the firm capacity required to DG embedded in the distribution network through a competitive auction. Additionally, RODG make DG partly responsible for reliability and provide DG with incentives for a more efficient operation taking into account the network conditions. (author)

  14. Reliability of large superconducting magnets through design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henning, C.D.


    As superconducting magnet systems grow larger and become the central component of major systems involving fusion, magnetohydrodynamics, and high-energy physics, their reliability must be commensurate with the enormous capital investment in the projects. Although the magnet may represent only 15% of the cost of a large system such as the Mirror Fusion Test Facility, its failure would be catastrophic to the entire investment. Effective quality control during construction is one method of ensuring success. However, if the design is unforgiving, even an inordinate amount of effort expended on quality control may be inadequate. Creative design is the most effective way of ensuring magnet reliability and providing a reasonable limit on the amount of quality control needed. For example, by subjecting the last drawing operation is superconductor manufacture to a stress larger than the magnet design stress, a 100% proof test is achieved; cabled conductors offer mechanical redundancy, as do some methods of conductor joining; ground-plane insulation should be multilayered to prevent arcs, and interturn and interlayer insulation spaced to be compatible with the self-extinguishing of arcs during quench voltages; electrical leads should be thermally protected; and guard vacuum spaces can be incorporated to control helium leaks. Many reliable design options are known to magnet designers. These options need to be documented and organized to produce a design guide. Eventually, standard procedures, safety factors, and design codes can lead to reliability in magnets comparable to that obtained in pressure vessels and other structures. Wihout such reliability, large-scale applications in major systems employing magnetic fusion energy, magnetohydrodynamics, or high-energy physics would present unacceptable economic risks.

  15. Structural characterization of genomes by large scale sequence-structure threading: application of reliability analysis in structural genomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brunham Robert C


    Full Text Available Abstract Background We establish that the occurrence of protein folds among genomes can be accurately described with a Weibull function. Systems which exhibit Weibull character can be interpreted with reliability theory commonly used in engineering analysis. For instance, Weibull distributions are widely used in reliability, maintainability and safety work to model time-to-failure of mechanical devices, mechanisms, building constructions and equipment. Results We have found that the Weibull function describes protein fold distribution within and among genomes more accurately than conventional power functions which have been used in a number of structural genomic studies reported to date. It has also been found that the Weibull reliability parameter β for protein fold distributions varies between genomes and may reflect differences in rates of gene duplication in evolutionary history of organisms. Conclusions The results of this work demonstrate that reliability analysis can provide useful insights and testable predictions in the fields of comparative and structural genomics.

  16. Wireless Channel Modeling Perspectives for Ultra-Reliable Communications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eggers, Patrick Claus F.; Popovski, Petar


    Ultra-Reliable Communication (URC) is one of the distinctive features of the upcoming 5G wireless communication. The level of reliability, going down to packet error rates (PER) of $10^{-9}$, should be sufficiently convincing in order to remove cables in an industrial setting or provide remote......-wave model leads to pessimistic predictions of the fading in the region of ultra-reliable communications, while the CDFs of models that contain diffuse components have slopes that correspond to the slope of a Rayleigh fading. We provide analysis of the receive antenna diversity schemes for URC...

  17. Survey of Software Assurance Techniques for Highly Reliable Systems (United States)

    Nelson, Stacy


    This document provides a survey of software assurance techniques for highly reliable systems including a discussion of relevant safety standards for various industries in the United States and Europe, as well as examples of methods used during software development projects. It contains one section for each industry surveyed: Aerospace, Defense, Nuclear Power, Medical Devices and Transportation. Each section provides an overview of applicable standards and examples of a mission or software development project, software assurance techniques used and reliability achieved.

  18. Reliability-based Assessment of Fatigue Life for Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Henrik Stensgaard; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard


    The reliability level for bridges is discussed based on a comparison of the reliability levels proposed and used by e.g. JCSS, ISO, NKB and Eurocodes. The influence of reserve capacity by which failure of a specific detail does not lead to structural collapse is investigated. The results show...... that the reliability level can be significantly reduced if the probability of collapse given local failure is small. A method for reliability analysis of welded steel details is described using both an SN-approach and a Fracture Mechanics approach. By using a fracture mechanics it is possible to take the influence...

  19. Reliability generalization of the Texas Revised Inventory of Grief (TRIG). (United States)

    Montano, Samuel A; Lewey, Jennifer H; O'Toole, Siobhan K; Graves, Douglas


    While grief is a universal experience, this phenomenon is experienced in a variety of ways largely dependent upon one's cultural schema. To consider the potential problems inherent in generalizing the results of an assessment tool across cultures, this study explores the notion of generalizability in assessment by evaluating the reliability of the Texas Revised Inventory of Grief (TRIG) using a meta-analytic technique called reliability generalization. The TRIG demonstrated strong reliability with mean Cronbach's alphas of .90 and .82 for the present and past subscales, respectively. Overall, the TRIG, especially the present subscale, appears to produce reliable scores even across cultures.

  20. CMOS RF circuit design for reliability and variability

    CERN Document Server

    Yuan, Jiann-Shiun


    The subject of this book is CMOS RF circuit design for reliability. The device reliability and process variation issues on RF transmitter and receiver circuits will be particular interest to the readers in the field of semiconductor devices and circuits. This proposed book is unique to explore typical reliability issues in the device and technology level and then to examine their impact on RF wireless transceiver circuit performance. Analytical equations, experimental data, device and circuit simulation results will be given for clear explanation. The main benefit the reader derive from this book will be clear understanding on how device reliability issues affects the RF circuit performance subjected to operation aging and process variations.