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Sample records for providing reliable measurements

  1. A spectral-domain optical coherence tomography device provides reliable corneal pachymetry measurements in canine eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alario, A F; Pirie, C G

    2013-06-08

    The objective of this study was to determine central corneal thickness (CCT) and the intra- and interuser reliability using a portable spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) device in canine eyes. Twenty clinically normal dogs were examined. CCT measurements were obtained from both eyes of each animal three times by two operators in succession. The CCT was automatically calculated using the pachymetry software generated from eight radial scans, 6 mm in length. Mean canine CCT was 606.83±39.45 μm for all eyes examined. There was no significant difference in CCT based on the eye examined (OD vs OS), age or gender of the animal. There was no significant difference in CCT between replicates performed by the same operator; however, a small but significant difference was noted in CCT between operators. The mean difference in CCT between operators was 1.9 μm (P=0.03). The coefficient of variation for each user and between users was very low (range 0.64-1.7 per cent). The intraclass correlation coefficient comparing operators was 0.975. Based on these results, the SD-OCT device evaluated is capable of obtaining precise CCT measurements with excellent intra- and interoperator reliability in canine eyes.

  2. A Highly Flexible, Automated System Providing Reliable Sample Preparation in Element- and Structure-Specific Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorberg, Ellen; Fleischer, Heidi; Junginger, Steffen; Liu, Hui; Stoll, Norbert; Thurow, Kerstin

    2016-10-01

    Life science areas require specific sample pretreatment to increase the concentration of the analytes and/or to convert the analytes into an appropriate form for the detection and separation systems. Various workstations are commercially available, allowing for automated biological sample pretreatment. Nevertheless, due to the required temperature, pressure, and volume conditions in typical element and structure-specific measurements, automated platforms are not suitable for analytical processes. Thus, the purpose of the presented investigation was the design, realization, and evaluation of an automated system ensuring high-precision sample preparation for a variety of analytical measurements. The developed system has to enable system adaption and high performance flexibility. Furthermore, the system has to be capable of dealing with the wide range of required vessels simultaneously, allowing for less cost and time-consuming process steps. However, the system's functionality has been confirmed in various validation sequences. Using element-specific measurements, the automated system was up to 25% more precise compared to the manual procedure and as precise as the manual procedure using structure-specific measurements. © 2015 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening.

  3. Transcutaneous PTCCO2 measurement in combination with arterial blood gas analysis provides superior accuracy and reliability in ICU patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spelten, Oliver; Fiedler, Fritz; Schier, Robert; Wetsch, Wolfgang A; Hinkelbein, Jochen

    2017-02-01

    Hyper or hypoventilation may have serious clinical consequences in critically ill patients and should be generally avoided, especially in neurosurgical patients. Therefore, monitoring of carbon dioxide partial pressure by intermittent arterial blood gas analysis (PaCO2) has become standard in intensive care units (ICUs). However, several additional methods are available to determine PCO2 including end-tidal (PETCO2) and transcutaneous (PTCCO2) measurements. The aim of this study was to compare the accuracy and reliability of different methods to determine PCO2 in mechanically ventilated patients on ICU. After approval of the local ethics committee PCO2 was determined in n = 32 ICU consecutive patients requiring mechanical ventilation: (1) arterial PaCO2 blood gas analysis with Radiometer ABL 625 (ABL; gold standard), (2) arterial PaCO2 analysis with Immediate Response Mobile Analyzer (IRMA), (3) end-tidal PETCO2 by a Propaq 106 EL monitor and (4) transcutaneous PTCCO2 determination by a Tina TCM4. Bland-Altman method was used for statistical analysis; p analysis revealed good correlation between PaCO2 by IRMA and ABL (R2 = 0.766; p analysis revealed a bias and precision of 2.0 ± 3.7 mmHg for the IRMA, 2.2 ± 5.7 mmHg for transcutaneous, and -5.5 ± 5.6 mmHg for end-tidal measurement. Arterial CO2 partial pressure by IRMA (PaCO2) and PTCCO2 provided greater accuracy compared to the reference measurement (ABL) than the end-tidal CO2 measurements in critically ill in mechanically ventilated patients patients.

  4. Measurement System Reliability Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kłos Ryszard

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Decision-making in problem situations is based on up-to-date and reliable information. A great deal of information is subject to rapid changes, hence it may be outdated or manipulated and enforce erroneous decisions. It is crucial to have the possibility to assess the obtained information. In order to ensure its reliability it is best to obtain it with an own measurement process. In such a case, conducting assessment of measurement system reliability seems to be crucial. The article describes general approach to assessing reliability of measurement systems.

  5. Reliability measurement without limits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reidsma, Dennis; Carletta, J.

    In computational linguistics, a reliability measurement of 0.8 on some statistic such as $\\kappa$ is widely thought to guarantee that hand-coded data is fit for purpose, with lower values suspect. We demonstrate that the main use of such data, machine learning, can tolerate data with a low

  6. Reliability of goniometric measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boone, D C; Azen, S P; Lin, C M; Spence, C; Baron, C; Lee, L

    1978-11-01

    This study determined the intratester and intertester variability and reliability of goniometric measurements taken by four physical therapists on upper and lower extremity motions of normal male subjects. The same subjects were measured once weekly for four weeks by testers with varied experience in goniometry. Data were analyzed by analyses of variance with repeated measures. Intratester variation for all measurements was less than intertester variation. Further, intertester variation was less for the three upper extremity motions than for those of the lower extremity. These findings indicate the necessity for using the same tester when effects of treatment are evaluated. When the same tester measures the same movement, increases in joint motion of at least three to four degrees determine improvement for either the upper or lower extremity. When more than one tester, however, measures the same movement, increases in joint motion should exceed five degrees for the upper extremity and six degrees for the lower extremity to determine improvement.

  7. OSS reliability measurement and assessment

    CERN Document Server

    Yamada, Shigeru

    2016-01-01

    This book analyses quantitative open source software (OSS) reliability assessment and its applications, focusing on three major topic areas: the Fundamentals of OSS Quality/Reliability Measurement and Assessment; the Practical Applications of OSS Reliability Modelling; and Recent Developments in OSS Reliability Modelling. Offering an ideal reference guide for graduate students and researchers in reliability for open source software (OSS) and modelling, the book introduces several methods of reliability assessment for OSS including component-oriented reliability analysis based on analytic hierarchy process (AHP), analytic network process (ANP), and non-homogeneous Poisson process (NHPP) models, the stochastic differential equation models and hazard rate models. These measurement and management technologies are essential to producing and maintaining quality/reliable systems using OSS.

  8. A reliability measure of protein-protein interactions and a reliability measure-based search engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Byungkyu; Han, Kyungsook

    2010-02-01

    Many methods developed for estimating the reliability of protein-protein interactions are based on the topology of protein-protein interaction networks. This paper describes a new reliability measure for protein-protein interactions, which does not rely on the topology of protein interaction networks, but expresses biological information on functional roles, sub-cellular localisations and protein classes as a scoring schema. The new measure is useful for filtering many spurious interactions, as well as for estimating the reliability of protein interaction data. In particular, the reliability measure can be used to search protein-protein interactions with the desired reliability in databases. The reliability-based search engine is available at http://yeast.hpid.org. We believe this is the first search engine for interacting proteins, which is made available to public. The search engine and the reliability measure of protein interactions should provide useful information for determining proteins to focus on.

  9. Measurement Practices for Reliability and Power Quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kueck, JD

    2005-05-06

    This report provides a distribution reliability measurement ''toolkit'' that is intended to be an asset to regulators, utilities and power users. The metrics and standards discussed range from simple reliability, to power quality, to the new blend of reliability and power quality analysis that is now developing. This report was sponsored by the Office of Electric Transmission and Distribution, U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Inconsistencies presently exist in commonly agreed-upon practices for measuring the reliability of the distribution systems. However, efforts are being made by a number of organizations to develop solutions. In addition, there is growing interest in methods or standards for measuring power quality, and in defining power quality levels that are acceptable to various industries or user groups. The problems and solutions vary widely among geographic areas and among large investor-owned utilities, rural cooperatives, and municipal utilities; but there is still a great degree of commonality. Industry organizations such as the National Rural Electric Cooperative Association (NRECA), the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), the American Public Power Association (APPA), and the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) have made tremendous strides in preparing self-assessment templates, optimization guides, diagnostic techniques, and better definitions of reliability and power quality measures. In addition, public utility commissions have developed codes and methods for assessing performance that consider local needs. There is considerable overlap among these various organizations, and we see real opportunity and value in sharing these methods, guides, and standards in this report. This report provides a ''toolkit'' containing synopses of noteworthy reliability measurement practices. The toolkit has been developed to address the interests of three groups: electric power users, utilities, and

  10. Measurement and Reliability of Response Inhibition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliza eCongdon

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Response inhibition plays a critical role in adaptive functioning and can be assessed with the Stop-signal task, which requires participants to suppress prepotent motor responses. Evidence suggests that this ability to inhibit a motor response that has already been initiated (reflected as Stop-signal reaction time (SSRT is a quantitative and heritable measure of interindividual variation in brain function. In order to examine the reliability of this measure, we pooled data across three separate studies and examined the influence of multiple SSRT calculation methods and outlier calling on reliability (using Intra-class correlation. Our results suggest that an approach which uses the average of all available sessions, all trials of each session, and excludes outliers based on predetermined lenient criteria yields reliable SSRT estimates, while not excluding too many participants. Our findings support the reliability of SSRT as an index of inhibitory control, and provide support for its continued use as a neurocognitive phenotype.

  11. Reliability and Its Quantitative Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru ISAIC-MANIU

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article is made an opening for the software reliability issues, through wide-ranging statistical indicators, which are designed based on information collected from operating or testing (samples. It is developed the reliability issues also for the case of the main reliability laws (exponential, normal, Weibull, which validated for a particular system, allows the calculation of some reliability indicators with a higher degree of accuracy and trustworthiness

  12. MEASUREMENT: ACCOUNTING FOR RELIABILITY IN PERFORMANCE ESTIMATES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterman, Brian; Sutter, Robert; Burroughs, Thomas; Dunagan, W Claiborne

    2014-01-01

    When evaluating physician performance measures, physician leaders are faced with the quandary of determining whether departures from expected physician performance measurements represent a true signal or random error. This uncertainty impedes the physician leader's ability and confidence to take appropriate performance improvement actions based on physician performance measurements. Incorporating reliability adjustment into physician performance measurement is a valuable way of reducing the impact of random error in the measurements, such as those caused by small sample sizes. Consequently, the physician executive has more confidence that the results represent true performance and is positioned to make better physician performance improvement decisions. Applying reliability adjustment to physician-level performance data is relatively new. As others have noted previously, it's important to keep in mind that reliability adjustment adds significant complexity to the production, interpretation and utilization of results. Furthermore, the methods explored in this case study only scratch the surface of the range of available Bayesian methods that can be used for reliability adjustment; further study is needed to test and compare these methods in practice and to examine important extensions for handling specialty-specific concerns (e.g., average case volumes, which have been shown to be important in cardiac surgery outcomes). Moreover, it's important to note that the provider group average as a basis for shrinkage is one of several possible choices that could be employed in practice and deserves further exploration in future research. With these caveats, our results demonstrate that incorporating reliability adjustment into physician performance measurements is feasible and can notably reduce the incidence of "real" signals relative to what one would expect to see using more traditional approaches. A physician leader who is interested in catalyzing performance improvement

  13. Visual Analogue Scale for Anxiety and Amsterdam Preoperative Anxiety Scale Provide a Simple and Reliable Measurement of Preoperative Anxiety in Patients Undergoing Cardiac Surgery

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    Joaquín Hernández-Palazón

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anxiety is an emotional state characterized by apprehension and fear resulting from anticipation of a threatening event. Objectives: The present study aimed to analyze the incidence and level of preoperative anxiety in the patients scheduled for cardiac surgery by using a Visual Analogue Scale for Anxiety (VAS-A and Amsterdam Preoperative Anxiety and Information Scale (APAIS and to identify the influencing clinical factors. Patients and Methods: This prospective, longitudinal study was performed on 300 cardiac surgery patients in a single university hospital. The patients were assessed regarding their preoperative anxiety level using VAS-A, APAIS, and a set of specific anxiety-related questions. Their demographic features as well as their anesthetic and surgical characteristics (ASA physical status, EuroSCORE, preoperative Length of Stay (LoS, and surgical history were recorded, as well. Then, one-way ANOVA and t-test were applied along with odds ratio for risk assessment. Results: According to the results, 94% of the patients presented preoperative anxiety, with 37% developing high anxiety (VAS-A ≥ 7. Preoperative LoS > 2 days was the only significant risk factor for preoperative anxiety (odds ratio = 2.5, CI 95%, 1.3 - 5.1, P = 0.009. Besides, a positive correlation was found between anxiety level (APAISa and requirement of knowledge (APAISk. APAISa and APAISk scores were greater for surgery than for anesthesia. Moreover, the results showed that the most common anxieties resulted from the operation, waiting for surgery, not knowing what is happening, postoperative pain, awareness during anesthesia, and not awakening from anesthesia. Conclusions: APAIS and VAS-A provided a quantitative assessment of anxiety and a specific qualitative questionnaire for preoperative anxiety in cardiac surgery. According to the results, preoperative LoS > 2 days and lack of information related to surgery were the risk factors for high anxiety levels.

  14. Reliability of the school AMPS measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munkholm, Michaela; Löfgren, Britta; Fisher, Anne G

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to use a variety of methods to evaluate and cross-validate the reliability estimates of the quality of schoolwork performance measures in the School Version of the Assessment of Motor and Process Skills (School AMPS) (1). Split-half reliability was estimated based on School AMPS data from 6 194 students who had performed at least two school AMPS tasks. Two different split-half methods were used: splitting the School AMPS items vertically and splitting them horizontally. The Rasch equivalent of Cronbach's alpha for the full School AMPS evaluation and standard error of measurement (SEm) were also considered. All three methods yielded high reliability coefficient estimates (r ≥ 0.70) and overall SEm was low. From a practice perspective, the results of this study are of clinical importance as they provide evidence that occupational therapists can have confidence in the consistency of the School AMPS measures when they are used in the process of making decisions about individual students, planning interventions, and later performing follow-up evaluations to measure the outcome.

  15. Validity and reliability of food security measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cafiero, Carlo; Melgar-Quiñonez, Hugo R; Ballard, Terri J; Kepple, Anne W

    2014-12-01

    This paper reviews some of the existing food security indicators, discussing the validity of the underlying concept and the expected reliability of measures under reasonably feasible conditions. The main objective of the paper is to raise awareness on existing trade-offs between different qualities of possible food security measurement tools that must be taken into account when such tools are proposed for practical application, especially for use within an international monitoring framework. The hope is to provide a timely, useful contribution to the process leading to the definition of a food security goal and the associated monitoring framework within the post-2015 Development Agenda. © 2014 New York Academy of Sciences.

  16. Interrater reliability of diastasis recti abdominis measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bursch, S G

    1987-07-01

    Diastasis recti abdominis, or midline separation of the abdominal musculature, has not been investigated scientifically. The purposes of this study were to provide data on the incidence and degree of diastasis recti abdominis, to describe the measurement system used, and to determine the interrater reliability of the measurements performed. Forty subjects less than four days postpartum were tested by four raters. All subjects were measured in a supine, flexed-knee position at a standard point of palpation above the umbilicus. During palpation, each subject performed a partial sit-up, and the rater determined the number of finger widths filling the separation. An analysis of variance for repeated measures revealed a highly significant difference between the measurement scores of the four raters. This measurement system, therefore, was found to be unreliable. All subjects had some degree of diastasis recti abdominis; over 60% had separations significant enough to warrant protective exercises. The author proposes that the incidence and degree of diastasis recti abdominis may be underestimated, that selected components of exercise prescriptions may be contraindicated, and that a reliable instrument for measuring the degree of separation is needed.

  17. The reliability of commonly used electrophysiology measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, K E; Lohse, K R; Mayer, I M S; Strigaro, G; Desikan, M; Casula, E P; Meunier, S; Popa, T; Lamy, J-C; Odish, O; Leavitt, B R; Durr, A; Roos, R A C; Tabrizi, S J; Rothwell, J C; Boyd, L A; Orth, M

    Electrophysiological measures can help understand brain function both in healthy individuals and in the context of a disease. Given the amount of information that can be extracted from these measures and their frequent use, it is essential to know more about their inherent reliability. To understand the reliability of electrophysiology measures in healthy individuals. We hypothesized that measures of threshold and latency would be the most reliable and least susceptible to methodological differences between study sites. Somatosensory evoked potentials from 112 control participants; long-latency reflexes, transcranial magnetic stimulation with resting and active motor thresholds, motor evoked potential latencies, input/output curves, and short-latency sensory afferent inhibition and facilitation from 84 controls were collected at 3 visits over 24 months at 4 Track-On HD study sites. Reliability was assessed using intra-class correlation coefficients for absolute agreement, and the effects of reliability on statistical power are demonstrated for different sample sizes and study designs. Measures quantifying latencies, thresholds, and evoked responses at high stimulator intensities had the highest reliability, and required the smallest sample sizes to adequately power a study. Very few between-site differences were detected. Reliability and susceptibility to between-site differences should be evaluated for electrophysiological measures before including them in study designs. Levels of reliability vary substantially across electrophysiological measures, though there are few between-site differences. To address this, reliability should be used in conjunction with theoretical calculations to inform sample size and ensure studies are adequately powered to detect true change in measures of interest. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Measurement-Reliability-Validity in Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hulya Cakmur

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Science use measurement understanding, evaluating and differentiating. Measurement is the display of a feature belonging to an object, fact or attitude with countable symbols. Scientific measurements is intended to create value in relation to a particular phenomenon or the comparision predetermined value. In case there is no predetermined norm value which displays the generalisation of the measurement, problems of reliability and validity arise. In this study, reliability and validity concepts in measurements made without a predetermined value were analyzed. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2012; 11(3.000: 339-344

  19. Bring Your Own Device - Providing Reliable Model of Data Access

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    Stąpór Paweł

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a model of Bring Your Own Device (BYOD as a model network, which provides the user reliable access to network resources. BYOD is a model dynamically developing, which can be applied in many areas. Research network has been launched in order to carry out the test, in which as a service of BYOD model Work Folders service was used. This service allows the user to synchronize files between the device and the server. An access to the network is completed through the wireless communication by the 802.11n standard. Obtained results are shown and analyzed in this article.

  20. Does multi-slice CT provide reliable attenuation values if measured with low slice thickness and low tube current? Results of a phantom study; Sind mit der Mehrschicht-Computertomografie Dichtemessungen auch bei geringer Schichtdicke und niedrigem Roehrenstrom verlaesslich?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirchhof, K.; Bohndorf, K. [Klinik fuer Diagnostische Radiologie und Neuroradiologie, Klinikum Augsburg (Germany); Welzel, T. [Abt. klinische Radiologie, Radiologische Universitaetsklinik Heidelberg (Germany); Wagner, T. [Pathologisches Inst., Klinikum Augsburg (Germany); Behr, W. [Inst. fuer Laboratoriumsmedizin, Mikrobiologie und Umwelthygiene, Klinikum Augsburg (Germany)

    2008-01-15

    Purpose: to test whether CT with low slice thickness and low tube current provides reliable attenuation measurements. Materials and methods: using multi-slice CT and a phantom, we measured the attenuation values of thrombi with different proportions of erythrocytes, using a slice thickness of 1.25 mm, 2.5 mm, and 5 mm with tube currents of 200 mA, 300 mA, and 400 mA and a slice thickness of 0.625 mm with tube currents of 150 mA, 175 mA, and 200 mA. Differences in attenuation values and pixel noise between the three thrombi for tube current and slice thickness were statistically analyzed. Results: the attenuation values of all thrombi increased (p < 0.05) when the slice thickness decreased using a tube current of 200 mA or when the tube current decreased using a slice thickness of 1.25 mm. With higher tube currents and thicker slices, the CT values depended on the type of thrombus and the slice thickness. In slices with a thickness of 0.625 mm, the CT values decreased with the tube current in the mixed thrombus with a low proportion of erythrocytes and in the red thrombus (p < 0.05). The maximal difference in mean attenuation values was 4.3 HU with a slice thickness of 0.625 mm and 2.2 HU with a slice thickness of 1.25 mm. The pixel noise increased as the slice thickness decreased (p < 0.05) with the exception of the red thrombus, if reduced to 0.625 mm. The pixel noise also increased as the tube current decreased (p < 0.05) except in mixed thrombi measured with 0.625 mm. The maximal difference in mean standard deviation was 1.8 HU with a slice thickness of 1.25 mm. (orig.)

  1. Reliability in perimetric multichannel contrast sensitivity measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Fez, Dolores; Capilla, Pascual; Camps, Vicente; Luque, M José; Moncho, Vicenta

    2014-11-01

    In this study, the reliability of perimetric contrast sensitivity measurements favouring the achromatic, the red-green and the blue-yellow post-receptorial mechanisms was analysed. A new technique, multichannel ATD perimetry, provides spatial and temporal stimuli favouring the detection by an achromatic mechanism (A), from a magno or parvocellular origin or by a red-green (RG) chromatic mechanism, with a parvocellular origin or a blue-yellow (BY) mechanism, with a koniocellular origin. The repeatability and reproducibility of contrast sensitivity measurements with these stimuli were studied in a group of 40 healthy subjects. The analysis was carried out on 21 testing points within a 60° by 40° fovea-centred region of the visual field. The within-observer repeatability for the four mechanisms studied is either good or excellent when the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) can be calculated. For the remaining points, the Friedman's test finds that the measurements are repeatable. The between-observer reproducibility was either excellent or good in cases where the ICC was applied and according to the Friedman's test all results were reproducible. The results obtained showed good repeatability and reproducibility with A, RG and BY stimuli, although with BY stimuli repeatability is slightly worse. Future studies on the diagnostic validity of this device are based on the fact that changes of sensitivity can be compared by means of a visual single task, contrast sensitivity measurement and using a common metric. © 2014 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Optometry © 2014 Optometrists Association Australia.

  2. Measuring Service Reliability Using Automatic Vehicle Location Data

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    Zhenliang Ma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bus service reliability has become a major concern for both operators and passengers. Buffer time measures are believed to be appropriate to approximate passengers' experienced reliability in the context of departure planning. Two issues with regard to buffer time estimation are addressed, namely, performance disaggregation and capturing passengers’ perspectives on reliability. A Gaussian mixture models based method is applied to disaggregate the performance data. Based on the mixture models distribution, a reliability buffer time (RBT measure is proposed from passengers’ perspective. A set of expected reliability buffer time measures is developed for operators by using different spatial-temporal levels combinations of RBTs. The average and the latest trip duration measures are proposed for passengers that can be used to choose a service mode and determine the departure time. Using empirical data from the automatic vehicle location system in Brisbane, Australia, the existence of mixture service states is verified and the advantage of mixture distribution model in fitting travel time profile is demonstrated. Numerical experiments validate that the proposed reliability measure is capable of quantifying service reliability consistently, while the conventional ones may provide inconsistent results. Potential applications for operators and passengers are also illustrated, including reliability improvement and trip planning.

  3. PROVIDING RELIABILITY OF HUMAN RESOURCES IN PRODUCTION MANAGEMENT PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna MAZUR

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available People are the most valuable asset of an organization and the results of a company mostly depends on them. The human factor can also be a weak link in the company and cause of the high risk for many of the processes. Reliability of the human factor in the process of the manufacturing process will depend on many factors. The authors include aspects of human error, safety culture, knowledge, communication skills, teamwork and leadership role in the developed model of reliability of human resources in the management of the production process. Based on the case study and the results of research and observation of the author present risk areas defined in a specific manufacturing process and the results of evaluation of the reliability of human resources in the process.

  4. Measuring Limb Volume: Accuracy and Reliability of Tape Measurement Versus Perometer Measurement.

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    Sharkey, Amy R; King, Samuel W; Kuo, Rachel Y; Bickerton, Shixin B; Ramsden, Alexander J; Furniss, Dominic

    2017-09-28

    Accurate limb volume measurement is key in the assessment of outcomes in lymphedema microsurgery. There are two commonly used methods as follows: manual circumferential measurement (tape) or Perometer measurement. There are no data on the intra- and interclass correlation of either method, making it difficult to establish a gold standard of limb volume measurement. We aim to assess the intra- and interclass correlation of each method to establish the most appropriate method for clinical practice and future research studies, aiming to compare the accuracy and reliability of tape measurement as assessed against Perometer measurement. Student volunteers and experts (lymphedema practitioners) were each asked to perform repeat tape and Perometer measurements on the upper or lower limb of one healthy volunteer. Perometer measurements were globally more accurate than tape (average SE [Perometer]: 23.23 vs. 77.21 [tape]). For intraobserver reliability, experts outperformed students in all domains tested, with little difference in intraobserver reliability using tape or Perometer (average Cronbach's alpha 0.9597 [expert)] vs. 0.6033 [student]). We recommend that, for increased interobserver reliability, the Perometer provides a more reliable standard of limb volume measurement.

  5. Developing safety performance functions incorporating reliability-based risk measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Shewkar El-Bassiouni; Sayed, Tarek

    2011-11-01

    Current geometric design guides provide deterministic standards where the safety margin of the design output is generally unknown and there is little knowledge of the safety implications of deviating from these standards. Several studies have advocated probabilistic geometric design where reliability analysis can be used to account for the uncertainty in the design parameters and to provide a risk measure of the implication of deviation from design standards. However, there is currently no link between measures of design reliability and the quantification of safety using collision frequency. The analysis presented in this paper attempts to bridge this gap by incorporating a reliability-based quantitative risk measure such as the probability of non-compliance (P(nc)) in safety performance functions (SPFs). Establishing this link will allow admitting reliability-based design into traditional benefit-cost analysis and should lead to a wider application of the reliability technique in road design. The present application is concerned with the design of horizontal curves, where the limit state function is defined in terms of the available (supply) and stopping (demand) sight distances. A comprehensive collision and geometric design database of two-lane rural highways is used to investigate the effect of the probability of non-compliance on safety. The reliability analysis was carried out using the First Order Reliability Method (FORM). Two Negative Binomial (NB) SPFs were developed to compare models with and without the reliability-based risk measures. It was found that models incorporating the P(nc) provided a better fit to the data set than the traditional (without risk) NB SPFs for total, injury and fatality (I+F) and property damage only (PDO) collisions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Fire Extinguisher Control System Provides Reliable Cold Weather Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branum, J. C.

    1967-01-01

    Fast acting, pneumatically and centrally controlled, fire extinguisher /firex/ system is effective in freezing climates. The easy-to-operate system provides a fail-dry function which is activated by an electrical power failure.

  7. Opportunities for measuring wheelchair kinematics in match settings; reliability of a three inertial sensor configuration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Slikke, R.M.A.; Berger, M.A.; Bregman, D.J.J.; Lagerberg, A.H.; Veeger, H.E.J.

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of wheelchair kinematics during a match is prerequisite for performance improvement in wheelchair basketball. Unfortunately, no measurement system providing key kinematic outcomes proved to be reliable in competition. In this study, the reliability of estimated wheelchair kinematics based

  8. The Reliability and Validity of a Pediatric Back Outcome Measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, James P; dʼHemecourt, Pierre A; Micheli, Lyle J

    2016-11-01

    Young athletes not uncommonly complain of back pain. Many patient-reported outcome measures are used to evaluate back pain, but none have been designed specifically to assess young, athletic patients. The Micheli Functional Scale (MFS) was developed to measure impairment due to back pain in this population. This study examined the reliability, validity, and responsiveness of the MFS used in routine clinical assessments. Retrospective Cohort Study. Pediatric sports medicine specialty clinic. Patients presenting with a chief concern of back pain over 1 year (n = 93) were enrolled in the study. Study subjects were administered the MFS and the revised Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) at each visit as part of routine clinical care. Reliability of the MFS was assessed by calculating Cronbach alpha (α). Concurrent validity was determined by measuring Spearman coefficient (rs) for the correlations between the MFS and ODI. Ninety-three patients (50 female, 43 male), mean age 14.1 ± 2.3 years were enrolled and 242 clinic encounters (71 initial/171 follow-up visits) analyzed. The MFS had acceptable item reliability (α = 0.786) and concurrent validity: the MFS and ODI were strongly and positively correlated [rs = 0.824 (P MFS was comparatively more reliable and valid when used in follow-up versus initial visits. The MFS is a reliable and valid instrument in assessing young athletes with back pain, although the instrument has different performance characteristics on initial versus follow-up assessments. Further work is needed to refine the MFS to enhance the instrument's reliability, validity, and responsiveness. This study provides further insight into an outcome measure of clinical use in evaluating young athletes with back pain.

  9. Interrater reliability of Violence Risk Appraisal Guide scores provided in Canadian criminal proceedings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edens, John F; Penson, Brittany N; Ruchensky, Jared R; Cox, Jennifer; Smith, Shannon Toney

    2016-12-01

    Published research suggests that most violence risk assessment tools have relatively high levels of interrater reliability, but recent evidence of inconsistent scores among forensic examiners in adversarial settings raises concerns about the "field reliability" of such measures. This study specifically examined the reliability of Violence Risk Appraisal Guide (VRAG) scores in Canadian criminal cases identified in the legal database, LexisNexis. Over 250 reported cases were located that made mention of the VRAG, with 42 of these cases containing 2 or more scores that could be submitted to interrater reliability analyses. Overall, scores were skewed toward higher risk categories. The intraclass correlation (ICCA1) was .66, with pairs of forensic examiners placing defendants into the same VRAG risk "bin" in 68% of the cases. For categorical risk statements (i.e., low, moderate, high), examiners provided converging assessment results in most instances (86%). In terms of potential predictors of rater disagreement, there was no evidence for adversarial allegiance in our sample. Rater disagreement in the scoring of 1 VRAG item (Psychopathy Checklist-Revised; Hare, 2003), however, strongly predicted rater disagreement in the scoring of the VRAG (r = .58). (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Importance measures in reliability, risk, and optimization principles and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Kuo, Way

    2012-01-01

    This unique treatment systematically interprets a spectrum of importance measures to provide a comprehensive overview of their applications in the areas of reliability, network, risk, mathematical programming, and optimization. Investigating the precise relationships among various importance measures, it describes how they are modelled and combined with other design tools to allow users to solve readily many real-world, large-scale decision-making problems.  Presenting the state-of-the-art in network analysis, multistate systems, and application in modern systems, this book offers a c

  11. Reliability and relationship of radiographic measurements in hallux valgus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyoung Min; Ahn, Soyeon; Chung, Chin Youb; Sung, Ki Hyuk; Park, Moon Seok

    2012-09-01

    Although various radiographic measurements have been developed and used for evaluating hallux valgus, not all are universally believed to be necessary and their relationships have not been clearly established. Determining which are related could provide some insight into which might be useful and which would not. We investigated the reliability of eight radiographic measurements used to evaluate hallux valgus, and determined which were correlated and which predicted the hallux valgus angle. We determined eight radiographic indices for 732 patients (mean age, 51 years; SD, 17 years; 107 males and 625 females) with hallux valgus: hallux valgus angle, intermetatarsal angle, hallux interphalangeal angle, distal metatarsal articular angle, proximal phalangeal articular angle, simplified metatarsus adductus angle, first metatarsal protrusion distance, and sesamoid rotation angle. Intraobserver and interobserver reliabilities of each radiographic measurement were analyzed on 36 feet from 36 randomly selected patients. Correlations among the radiographic measurements were analyzed. Radiographic measurements predicting hallux valgus angle were evaluated using multiple regression analysis. Hallux valgus angle had the highest reliability, whereas the distal metatarsal articular angle and simplified metatarsus adductus angle had the lowest. Distal metatarsal articular angle, intermetatarsal angle, and sesamoid rotation angle had the highest correlations with hallux valgus angle. Distal metatarsal articular angle correlated with sesamoid rotation angle. The intermetatarsal angle, interphalangeal angle, distal metatarsal articular angle, first metatarsal protrusion distance, sesamoid rotation angle, and metatarsus adductus angle predicted the hallux valgus angle. We suggest using hallux valgus angle, intermetatarsal angle, interphalangeal angle, sesamoid rotation angle, and first metatarsal protrusion distance considering their reliability and prediction of the deformity.

  12. Characterization of perovskite solar cells: Towards a reliable measurement protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugen Zimmermann

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Lead halide perovskite solar cells have shown a tremendous rise in power conversion efficiency with reported record efficiencies of over 20% making this material very promising as a low cost alternative to conventional inorganic solar cells. However, due to a differently severe “hysteretic” behaviour during current density-voltage measurements, which strongly depends on scan rate, device and measurement history, preparation method, device architecture, etc., commonly used solar cell measurements do not give reliable or even reproducible results. For the aspect of commercialization and the possibility to compare results of different devices among different laboratories, it is necessary to establish a measurement protocol which gives reproducible results. Therefore, we compare device characteristics derived from standard current density-voltage measurements with stabilized values obtained from an adaptive tracking of the maximum power point and the open circuit voltage as well as characteristics extracted from time resolved current density-voltage measurements. Our results provide insight into the challenges of a correct determination of device performance and propose a measurement protocol for a reliable characterisation which is easy to implement and has been tested on varying perovskite solar cells fabricated in different laboratories.

  13. Effectiveness and reliability analysis of emergency measures for flood prevention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lendering, K.T.; Jonkman, S.N.; Kok, M.

    2014-01-01

    During flood events emergency measures are used to prevent breaches in flood defences. However, there is still limited insight in their reliability and effectiveness. The objective of this paper is to develop a method to determine the reliability and effectiveness of emergency measures for flood

  14. Limited Nomination Reliability Using Single- and Multiple-item Measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Babcock, B.; Marks, P.E.L.; Crick, N.R.; Cillessen, A.H.N.

    2014-01-01

    This article examines a variety of reliability issues as related to limited nomination sociometric measures. Peer nomination data were collected from 77 sixth grade classrooms. Results showed that, although some single-item peer nomination measures were relatively reliable, many single-item peer

  15. Establishing maintenance intervals based on measurement reliability of engineering endpoints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, P J

    2000-01-01

    Methods developed by the metrological community and principles used by the research community were integrated to provide a basis for a periodic maintenance interval analysis system. Engineering endpoints are used as measurement attributes on which to base two primary quality indicators: accuracy and reliability. Also key to establishing appropriate maintenance intervals is the ability to recognize two primary failure modes: random failure and time-related failure. The primary objective of the maintenance program is to avert predictable and preventable device failure, and understanding time-related failures enables service personnel to set intervals accordingly.

  16. Reliability-Based Planning of Chloride Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Engelund, S.

    1996-01-01

    In reinforced concrete structures corrosion is initiated when the chloride concentration around the reinforcement exceeds a threshold value. If corrosion starts then expensive repairs can be necessary. The estimation of the probability that corrosion has been initiated in a given structure is based...... on measurements of the chloride content obtained from the given structure. In the present paper optimal planning of measurements of the chloride content in reinforced concrete structures is considered. It is shown how optimal experimental plans can be obtained using FORM-analysis. Bayesian statistics are used...

  17. Validity and reliability of a new ankle dorsiflexion measurement device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatt, Alfred; Chockalingam, Nachiappan

    2013-08-01

    The assessment of the maximum ankle dorsiflexion angle is an important clinical examination procedure. Evidence shows that the traditional goniometer is highly unreliable, and various designs of goniometers to measure the maximum ankle dorsiflexion angle rely on the application of a known force to obtain reliable results. Hence, an innovative ankle dorsiflexion measurement device was designed to make this measurement more reliable by holding the foot in a selected posture without the application of a known moment. To report on the comprehensive validity and reliability testing carried out on the new device. Following validity testing, four different trials to test reliability of the ankle dorsiflexion measurement device were performed. These trials included inter-rater and intra-rater testings with a controlled moment, intra-rater reliability testing with knees flexed and extended without a controlled moment, intra-rater testing with a patient population, and inter-rater reliability testing between four raters of varying experience without controlling moment. All raters were blinded. A series of trials to test intra-rater and inter-rater reliabilities. Intra-rater reliability intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.98 and inter-rater reliability intraclass correlation coefficient (2,1) was 0.953 with a controlled moment. With uncontrolled moment, very high reliability for intra-tester was also achieved (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.94 with knees extended and intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.95 with knees flexed). For the trial investigating test-retest reliability with actual patients, intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.99 was obtained. In the trial investigating four different raters with uncontrolled moment, intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.91 was achieved. The new ankle dorsiflexion measurement device is a valid and reliable device for measuring ankle dorsiflexion in both healthy subjects and patients, with both controlled and

  18. Reliability and Inequality Measures for the Weimal Distribution

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hp

    ABSTRACT. Reliability analysis basically deals with the probability of survival or failure (death). This article aimed at discussing both reliability and inequality measures from the Weimal distribution. The work has derived and discussed theoretically, expressions for the survival and hazard function of the Weimal distribution.

  19. Measuring Passenger Travel Time Reliability Using Smart Card Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bagherian, M.; Cats, O.; van Oort, N.; Hickman, M

    2016-01-01

    Service reliability is a key performance measure for transit agencies in increasing their service quality and thus ridership. Conventional reliability metrics are established based on vehicle movements and thus do not adequately reflect passenger’s experience. In the past few years, the growing

  20. Measuring Passenger Travel Time Reliability using Smartcard Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bagherian, M.; Cats, O.; van Oort, N.; Hickman, M

    2016-01-01

    Service reliability is a key performance measure for transit agencies in increasing their service quality and thus ridership. Conventional reliability metrics are established based on vehicle movements and thus do not adequately reflect passenger’s experience. In the past few years, the growing

  1. Measuring medial longitudinal arch deformation during gait. A reliability study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bencke, Jesper; Christiansen, Ditte; Jensen, Anne Kathrine Bendrup

    2012-01-01

    during gait and to compare this method with a static measure and a 2D dynamic method. Fifty-two feet (26 healthy male participants) were tested twice 4-9 days apart in a biomechanical gait analysis laboratory using a 3D three-marker foot model, a 2D video-based model for the measurement of MLAD during......Clinical evaluation of medial longitudinal arch deformation (MLAD) during walking gait is often estimated from static measures of e.g. navicular drop (ND) measured during quiet standing. The aim of the present study was to test the reliability of a new three-dimensional method of measuring the MLAD...... gait, and ND for measurements of MLAD during quiet standing. The 3D method showed the highest test-retest reliability among the measurements of MLAD. Furthermore, the ND showed only moderate correlation with both measurements of MLAD during gait. The new 3D method was found to be highly reliable...

  2. Reliability and Inequality Measures for the Weimal Distribution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ). This article aimed at discussing both reliability and inequality measures from the Weimal distribution. The work has derived and discussed theoretically, expressions for the survival and hazard function of the Weimal distribution. The ordinary ...

  3. Performance of the provider satisfaction inventory to measure provider satisfaction with diabetes care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montori, Victor M; Tweedy, Deborah A; Vogelsang, Debra A; Schryver, Patricia G; Naessens, James M; Smith, Steven A

    2002-01-01

    To develop and validate an inventory to measure provider satisfaction with diabetes management. Using the Mayo Clinic Model of Care, a review of the literature, and expert input, we developed a 4-category (chronic disease management, collaborative team practice, outcomes, and supportive environment), 29-item, 7-point-per-item Provider Satisfaction Inventory (PSI). For evaluation of the PSI, we mailed the survey to 192 primary-care and specialized providers from 8 practice sites (of whom 60 primary-care providers were participating in either usual or planned diabetes care). The Cronbach a score was used to assess the instrument's internal reliability. Participating providers indicated satisfaction or dissatisfaction with management of chronic disease by responding to 29 statements. The response rate was 58%. In each category, the Cronbach a score ranged from 0.71 to 0.90. Providers expressed satisfaction with patient-physician relationships, with the contributions of the nurse educator to the team, and with physician leadership. Providers were dissatisfied with their ability to spend adequate time with the patient (3.6 +/- 1.4), their ability to give patients with diabetes necessary personal attention (4.1 +/- 1.2), the efficient passing of communication (4.3 +/- 1.2), and the opportunities for input to change practice (4.3 +/- 1.6). No statistically significant difference (P = 0.12) was found in mean total scores between planned care (5.0 +/- 0.5) and usual care (4.7 +/- 0.6) providers. Moreover, no significant differences were noted across practice sites. The PSI is a reliable and preliminarily valid instrument for measuring provider satisfaction with diabetes care. Use in research and quality improvement activities awaits further validation.

  4. Reliability of a two-dimensional footprint measurement approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reel, Sarah; Rouse, Simon; Vernon, Wesley; Doherty, Patrick

    2010-09-01

    Although footprint evidence can be taken from the scene of a crime, the science underpinning such measurement in forensic science has not been fully explored. A literature search revealed various measuring approaches, all of which demonstrated either little or no measurement rigour in terms of reliability. The aim of this study was to apply a robust measurement approach for testing the reliability of two-dimensional footprint impressions. Three dynamic and three static footprints were taken from the right foot of thirty female and thirty one male volunteers using the 'Inkless Shoeprint Kit'. The images were digitised. Lengths, widths and angles were measured using a selection of currently employed methods. An investigation of the reliability of the chosen measuring method suggested high intra-rater agreement: for example, the length measurement suggested an intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) 0.99, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) -0.28 to 0.01, standard error of measurement (SEM) 0.07, Limits of Agreement (LOA) -0.91 to 0.65. Inter-rater reliability between three operators was also high: SEM ranged from 0.05 mm to 0.07 mm, ICC 0.99. Our study has established a reliable two-dimensional measuring technique that could be used for footprint comparison in further research. Copyright © 2009 Forensic Science Society. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Recommendations for certification or measurement of reliability for reliable digital archival repositories with emphasis on access

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Regina Ventura Amorim Gonçalez

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Considering the guidelines of ISO 16363: 2012 (Space data and information transfer systems -- Audit and certification of trustworthy digital repositories and the text of CONARQ Resolution 39 for certification of Reliable Digital Archival Repository (RDC-Arq, verify the technical recommendations should be used as the basis for a digital archival repository to be considered reliable. Objective: Identify requirements for the creation of Reliable Digital Archival Repositories with emphasis on access to information from the ISO 16363: 2012 and CONARQ Resolution 39. Methodology: For the development of the study, the methodology consisted of an exploratory, descriptive and documentary theoretical investigation, since it is based on ISO 16363: 2012 and CONARQ Resolution 39. From the perspective of the problem approach, the study is qualitative and quantitative, since the data were collected, tabulated, and analyzed from the interpretation of their contents. Results: We presented a set of Checklist Recommendations for reliability measurement and/or certification for RDC-Arq with a clipping focused on the identification of requirements with emphasis on access to information is presented. Conclusions: The right to information as well as access to reliable information is a premise for Digital Archival Repositories, so the set of recommendations is directed to archivists who work in Digital Repositories and wish to verify the requirements necessary to evaluate the reliability of the Digital Repository or still guide the information professional in collecting requirements for repository reliability certification.

  6. A test chip for automatic reliability measurements of interconnect vias

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lippe, K.; Lippe, K.; Hasper, A.; Hasper, A.; Elfrink, G.W.; Niehof, J.; Niehof, J.; Kerkhoff, Hans G.

    1992-01-01

    A test circuit for electromigration reliability measurements was designed and tested. The device under test (DUT) is a via-hole chain. The test circuit permits simultaneous measurements of a number of DUTs, and a fatal error of one DUT does not influence the measurement results of the other DUTs.

  7. Reliability of the Respiratory Movement Measuring Instrument, RMMI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsén, Monika Fagevik; Romberg, Karin

    2010-09-01

    A new instrument to measure breathing movements, Respiratory Movement Measuring Instrument (RMMI), has been developed. There is still a lack of knowledge about the reliability of the instrument. The aim was to investigate reliability of the RMMI. In this trial, RMMI (ReMo Inc. Keldnaholt, Reykjavik, Iceland) was used. Inter- and intrarater reliability was performed on 30 volunteers who were tested three times in the supine position. Two of the tests were performed by one of the authors and the third test by the other. Intrasubject reliability was tested on 10 volunteers 12 times randomly during 1 h. Intra-instrument reliability was performed by measuring 12 solid surfaces where the instrument was placed horizontally against a couch or vertically against a chair. Intra-rater reliability: The correlations were moderate to strong (r = 0.54-0.94) except for the left lower thoracic position r = 0.35. Inter-rater reliability: The correlations were strong (r = 0.71-0.99) except for the left lower thoracic position r = 0.35. The strongest correlations were seen on the tests on abdominal breathing movements. Intra subject reliability: The over-all difference within and between the participants and test was non-significant (P = 0.98). The average difference between the tests was 1.4 mm. Intra instrument: The differences between the measurements were small (mean 0.15 mm). The over-all difference was non-significant (P = 0.79). The RMMI is a reliable instrument and usable in both clinical practice and research.

  8. Interrater reliability in finger joint goniometer measurement in Dupuytren's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engstrand, Christina; Krevers, Barbro; Kvist, Joanna

    2012-01-01

    We investigated interrater reliability of motion (ROM) measurement in the finger joints of people with Dupuytren's disease. Eight raters measured flexion and extension of the three finger joints in one affected finger of each of 13 people with different levels of severity of Dupuytren's disease, giving 104 measures of joints and motions. Reliability measures, represented by intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), standard error of the mean (SEM), and differences between raters with the highest and lowest mean scores, were calculated. ICCs ranged from .832 to .973 depending on joint and motion. The SEM was ≤3° for all joints and motions. Differences in mean between highest and lowest raters were larger for flexion than for extension; the largest difference was in the distal interphalangeal joint. The results indicate that following these standardized guidelines, the interrater reliability of goniometer measurements is high for digital ROM in people with Dupuytren's disease.

  9. Reliable intraocular pressure measurement using automated radio-wave telemetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paschalis EI

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Eleftherios I Paschalis,* Fabiano Cade,* Samir Melki, Louis R Pasquale, Claes H Dohlman, Joseph B CiolinoMassachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA*These authors contributed equally to this workPurpose: To present an autonomous intraocular pressure (IOP measurement technique using a wireless implantable transducer (WIT and a motion sensor.Methods: The WIT optical aid was implanted within the ciliary sulcus of a normotensive rabbit eye after extracapsular clear lens extraction. An autonomous wireless data system (AWDS comprising of a WIT and an external antenna aided by a motion sensor provided continuous IOP readings. The sensitivity of the technique was determined by the ability to detect IOP changes resulting from the administration of latanoprost 0.005% or dorzolamide 2%, while the reliability was determined by the agreement between baseline and vehicle (saline IOP.Results: On average, 12 diurnal and 205 nocturnal IOP measurements were performed with latanoprost, and 26 diurnal and 205 nocturnal measurements with dorzolamide. No difference was found between mean baseline IOP (13.08±2.2 mmHg and mean vehicle IOP (13.27±2.1 mmHg (P=0.45, suggesting good measurement reliability. Both antiglaucoma medications caused significant IOP reduction compared to baseline; latanoprost reduced mean IOP by 10% (1.3±3.54 mmHg; P<0.001, and dorzolamide by 5% (0.62±2.22 mmHg; P<0.001. Use of latanoprost resulted in an overall twofold higher IOP reduction compared to dorzolamide (P<0.001. Repeatability was ±1.8 mmHg, assessed by the variability of consecutive IOP measurements performed in a short period of time (≤1 minute, during which the IOP is not expected to change.Conclusion: IOP measurements in conscious rabbits obtained without the need for human interactions using the AWDS are feasible and provide reproducible results.Keywords: IOP, pressure transducer, wireless, MEMS, implant, intraocular

  10. Statistical Primer for Athletic Trainers: The Essentials of Understanding Measures of Reliability and Minimal Important Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riemann, Bryan L; Lininger, Monica R

    2018-01-01

      To describe the concepts of measurement reliability and minimal important change.   All measurements have some magnitude of error. Because clinical practice involves measurement, clinicians need to understand measurement reliability. The reliability of an instrument is integral in determining if a change in patient status is meaningful.   Measurement reliability is the extent to which a test result is consistent and free of error. Three perspectives of reliability-relative reliability, systematic bias, and absolute reliability-are often reported. However, absolute reliability statistics, such as the minimal detectable difference, are most relevant to clinicians because they provide an expected error estimate. The minimal important difference is the smallest change in a treatment outcome that the patient would identify as important.   Clinicians should use absolute reliability characteristics, preferably the minimal detectable difference, to determine the extent of error around a patient's measurement. The minimal detectable difference, coupled with an appropriately estimated minimal important difference, can assist the practitioner in identifying clinically meaningful changes in patients.

  11. How to combine multiple techniques to provide reliable in-situ time series for climate applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valladeau, G.; Soudarin, L.; Gravelle, M.

    2012-12-01

    Tide gauge measurements, as observations dedicated to climate applications, require a rigorous quality control since measurements are highly sensitive to biases or drifts in datasets. One major part of the error related to the assessment of Sea Surface Height at tide gauge location originates in vertical movements. Indeed, many studies have for instance demonstrated the need for tide gauges to be corrected for land motion when compared with altimeter data. The combination of multiple techniques (altimeter, in-situ and geodetic data) is a way of providing relevant tide gauge time series for end-users and climate applications such as the contribution of ice-sheet mass balance to the global sea-level. In this way, DORIS (Doppler Orbitography and Radiopositioning Integrated by Satellite) as well as GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System) are considered as complementary techniques. They determine the crustal motion at a cm (or better) and mm/yr accuracy for the positions and velocities respectively. As the DORIS network was deployed by a geodetic institution, great care was taken when selecting the geographical location of the tracking stations to co-locate them with other space geodetic techniques (VLBI, SLR and GNSS), but also with tide gauges. Hence, as on May 2012, 22 DORIS stations are within 10 km from a tide gauge, including 8 within 500m. Ties between the DORIS antennas and the nearby tide gauge are also available when the measurement is possible. This study focuses on the example of the Thule tide gauge for which measurements are compared to the different techniques previously described. First, the comparison to both DORIS and GNSS data provides relevant information about the strong crustal movement North of Greenland. Then the use of altimeter data confirms results deduced from geodetic stations and give a larger view on the behavior of land motion around the Thule tide gauge. Therefore, the combination of multiple techniques is used to provide reliable tide

  12. Intrarater and interrater reliability for measurements in videofluoroscopy of swallowing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baijens, Laura, E-mail: laura.baijens@mumc.nl [Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht (Netherlands); Barikroo, Ali, E-mail: a.Barikroo@ufl.edu [Swallowing Research Laboratory, Department of Speech, Language and Hearing Sciences, College of Public Health and Health Professions, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Pilz, Walmari, E-mail: walmari.pilz@mumc.nl [Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht (Netherlands)

    2013-10-01

    Objective: Intrarater and interrater reliability is crucial to the quality of diagnostic and therapy-effect studies. This paper reports on a systematic review of studies on intrarater and interrater reliability for measurements in videofluoroscopy of swallowing. The aim of this review was to summarize and qualitatively analyze published studies on that topic. Materials and methods: Those published up to March 2013 were found through a comprehensive electronic database search using PubMed, Embase, and The Cochrane Library. Two reviewers independently assessed the studies using strict inclusion criteria. Results: Nineteen studies were included and then qualitatively analyzed. In several of these, methodological problems were found. Moreover, intrarater and interrater reliability varied with the measure applied. A meta-analysis was not carried out as studies were not of sufficient quality to warrant doing so. Conclusion: In order to achieve reliable measurements in videofluoroscopy of swallowing, it is recommended that raters use well-defined guidelines for the levels of ordinal visuoperceptual variables. Furthermore, in order to make the measurements reliable (intrarater and interrater) it is recommended that, following protocolled pre-experimental training, the raters should have maximum consensus about the definition of the measured variables.

  13. Narrative discourse productions in older language impaired learning disabled children: employing stricter reliability measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henshilwood, L; Ogilvy, D

    1999-01-01

    This study aimed to describe narrative discourse productions of older language impaired learning disabled (LILD) children, using stringent reliability measures. Coherence and cohesion were the measures of analysis employed. Content and clarity ratings provided a subjective analysis of narrative productions. Interrater and intrarater reliability measures were calculated and testing for stability of scores across three testing sessions were undertaken. The results indicated subtle differences in the coherence and cohesion of narrative productions in the LILD compared with controls. The findings of this study support past literature, which calls for greater research in this area using stricter reliability measures.

  14. Reliability of three measures of ankle dorsiflexion range of motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konor, Megan M; Morton, Sam; Eckerson, Joan M; Grindstaff, Terry L

    2012-06-01

    A variety of methods exist to measure ankle dorsiflexion range of motion (ROM). Few studies have examined the reliability of a novice rater. The purpose of this study was to determine the reliability of ankle ROM measurements using three different techniques in a novice rater. Twenty healthy subjects (mean±SD, age=24±3 years, height=173.2±8.1 cm, mass=72.6±15.2 kg) participated in this study. Ankle dorsiflexion ROM measures were obtained in a weight-bearing lunge position using a standard goniometer, digital inclinometer, and a tape measure using the distance-to-wall technique. All measures were obtained three times per side, with 10 minutes of rest between the first and second set of measures. Intrarater reliability was determined using an intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC(2,3)) and associated 95% confidence intervals (CI). Standard error of measurement (SEM) and the minimal detectable change (MDC) for each measurement technique were also calculated. The within-session intrarater reliability (ICC(2,3)) estimates for each measure are as follows: tape measure (right 0.98, left 0.99), digital inclinometer (right 0.96; left 0.97), and goniometer (right 0.85; left 0.96). The SEM for the tape measure method ranged from 0.4-0.6 cm and the MDC was between 1.1-1.5 cm. The SEM for the inclinometer was between 1.3-1.4° and the MDC was 3.7-3.8°. The SEM for the goniometer ranged from 1.8-2.8° with an MDC of 5.0-7.7°. The results indicate that reliable measures of weight-bearing ankle dorsiflexion ROM can be obtained from a novice rater. All three techniques had good reliability and low measurement error, with the distance-to-wall technique using a tape measure and inclinometer methods resulting in higher reliability coefficients (ICC(2,3)=0.96 to 0.99) and a lower SEM compared to the goniometer (ICC(2,3)=0.85 to 0.96). 2b.

  15. Standardized Patients Provide a Reliable Assessment of Athletic Training Students' Clinical Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Kirk J.; Jarriel, Amanda J.

    2016-01-01

    Context: Providing students reliable objective feedback regarding their clinical performance is of great value for ongoing clinical skill assessment. Since a standardized patient (SP) is trained to consistently portray the case, students can be assessed and receive immediate feedback within the same clinical encounter; however, no research, to our…

  16. The Impact of Process Capability on Service Reliability for Critical Infrastructure Providers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, Clemith J., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between organizational processes that have been identified as promoting resiliency and their impact on service reliability within the scope of critical infrastructure providers. The importance of critical infrastructure to the nation is evident from the body of research and is supported by instances where…

  17. Palmar abduction: reliability of 6 measurement methods in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Kraker, M; Selles, R W; Schreuders, T A R; Stam, H J; Hovius, S E R

    2009-03-01

    The aim of the current study was to assess reliability of 6 palmar thumb abduction measurement methods: conventional goniometry, the Inter Metacarpal Distance, the method described by the American Medical Association, the method described by the American Society of Hand Therapists, and 2 new methods: the Pollexograph-thumb and the Pollexograph-metacarpal. An experienced hand therapist and a less-experienced examiner (trainee in plastic surgery) measured the right hands of 25 healthy subjects. Palmar abduction was measured both passively and actively. Means and ranges for palmar abduction were calculated, and intrarater and interrater reliability was expressed in intraclass correlation coefficients, standard errors of measurement, and smallest detectable differences. Mean active and passive angles measured with goniometry resembled values measured with the Pollexograph-thumb method (approximately 60 degrees). Mean angles found with the Pollexograph-metacarpal method were approximately 48 degrees. Mean active and passive distances for the Inter Metacarpal Distance were 64 mm. Mean active and passive distances found with the American Society of Hand Therapists method were 97 to 101 mm, and mean distances found with the American Medical Association method were 67 to 70 mm for active and passive measurements. Intraclass correlation coefficients for the Pollexograph-thumb, Pollexograph-metacarpal, and the Inter Metacarpal Distance indicated good and significantly higher intrarater agreement for active and passive measurements than intraclass correlation coefficients of conventional goniometry, the American Society of Hand Therapists method, and the American Medical Association method, which showed only moderate agreement. For interrater reliability, the same measurement methods were found to be most reliable: the Pollexograph-thumb, Pollexograph-metacarpal, and the Inter Metacarpal Distance. We found that the Pollexograph-thumb, Pollexograph-metacarpal, and the Inter

  18. Reliability of goniometric measurements in children with spastic cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutlu, Akmer; Livanelioglu, Ayse; Gunel, Mintaze Kerem

    2007-07-01

    A prospective, cross-sectional, observational study was designed to determine the reliability of goniometric measurements in children with spastic diplegic cerebral palsy (CP). The study included 38 children with spastic diplegic CP. Passive range of motion (PROM) of hip extension, abduction, and external rotation, hip flexion with knee extended, and ankle dorsi flexion was measured using universal goniometry. Each child was assessed by three physical therapists once in each session on two different sessions a week apart. Intra-test reliability was determined by paired comparison of measurements for each therapist across the two assessments. Inter-test reliability was determined by paired comparisons of the three therapists' measurements on the same session. The interclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was calculated for intra- and inter-test reliability. The mean absolute differences for all measures between sessions ranged from 0.10-4.86 degrees for the three physical therapists. There was no statistical significance in the mean differences between the physical therapists in all measurements (p>0.05) except for hip flexion with the knee extended (preliability was high (preliability scores were high for all the physiotherapists, the most experienced physiotherapists' results were higher compared with the others. The results from this study encourage the use of goniometric measurements in assessing children with spastic diplegic CP.

  19. Inter-rater reliability of arm circumference measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foroughi, Nasim; Dylke, Elizabeth S; Paterson, Ross D; Sparrow, Kristine A; Fan, Jacqueline; Warwick, Elise B G; Kilbreath, Sharon L

    2011-01-01

    Arm lymphedema is routinely assessed by clinicians and researchers, using arm circumference measurements. A protocol was developed for measuring arm circumference independent of medically trained professionals. The aim of this project was to assess the protocol's inter-rater reliability and its coherence with perometry measures. Community-dwelling adults (n = 57), aged 60.2  ± 12.8 years, in good general health, were included in this study. Circumference of both arms were measured at the ulnar styloid of the wrist and at four 10 cm intervals up the arm by a friend of the participant, as well as the trained assessor using a tape measure. The same measures were also obtained with a perometer. The assessment tools had moderate to high concordance (r(c) = 0.84-0.94 for assessor vs. perometer and r(c) = 0.68-0.93 for assessor vs. participant). Limits of agreement analysis revealed that the mean difference between methods varied based on the measurement location; the bias ranged from -5.5% to 1.5% for assessor-measured vs. perometer methods and from -2.4% to 4.0% for assessor-measured vs. participant-measured methods. The written instructions and cartoons are reliable tools that could be used by women at risk of lymphedema as well as those with lymphedema following treatment for breast cancer to measure their arm circumference reliably independent of medically trained personnel.

  20. Can Composite Measures Provide a Different Perspective on Provider Performance Than Individual Measures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shwartz, Michael; Rosen, Amy K; Burgess, James F

    2017-12-01

    Composite measures, which aggregate performance on individual measures into a summary score, are increasingly being used to evaluate facility performance. There is little understanding of the unique perspective that composite measures provide. To examine whether high/low (ie, high or low) performers on a composite measures are also high/low performers on most of the individual measures that comprise the composite. We used data from 2 previous studies, one involving 5 measures from 632 hospitals and one involving 28 measures from 112 Veterans Health Administration (VA) nursing homes; and new data on hospital readmissions for 3 conditions from 131 VA hospitals. To compare high/low performers on a composite to high/low performers on the component measures, we used 2-dimensional tables to categorize facilities into high/low performance on the composite and on the individual component measures. In the first study, over a third of the 162 hospitals in the top quintile based on the composite were in the top quintile on at most 1 of the 5 individual measures. In the second study, over 40% of the 27 high-performing nursing homes on the composite were high performers on 8 or fewer of the 28 individual measures. In the third study, 20% of the 61 low performers on the composite were low performers on only 1 of the 3 individual measures. Composite measures can identify as high/low performers facilities that perform "pretty well" (or "pretty poorly") across many individual measures but may not be high/low performers on most of them.

  1. The reliability of height measurement (the Wessex Growth Study).

    OpenAIRE

    Voss, L D; Bailey, B J; Cumming, K; Wilkin, T J; Betts, P R

    1990-01-01

    The two major components of reliability are accuracy and reproducibility. Three studies of the reliability of height measurement in children are reported. In the first, a standard metre rod was used to spot check the accuracy of installation of 230 measuring instruments in one health district in Wessex, UK. The readings obtained ranged from 90.0 to 108.5 cm and showed the urgent need for the positioning of instruments to be regularly checked. In a second study, to examine the reproducibility ...

  2. Reliability and measurement error of 3-dimensional regional lumbar motion measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mieritz, Rune M; Bronfort, Gert; Kawchuk, Greg

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to systematically review the literature on reproducibility (reliability and/or measurement error) of 3-dimensional (3D) regional lumbar motion measurement systems.......The purpose of this study was to systematically review the literature on reproducibility (reliability and/or measurement error) of 3-dimensional (3D) regional lumbar motion measurement systems....

  3. Reliability of two Slovenian version low back related measurement tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Hlebš

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: One particular criterium for measuring disability of patients with low back pain (LBP with self-administered questionnaires for clinical decision making is reliability. Reliable measurement tools are needed for evaluating the effectiveness of physiotherapy treatment. Translating the original version of questionnaires may affect their reliability. The objective of this study was to determine the reliability and internal consistency of two low back pain (LBP-related measurement tools translated into Slovenian language, the Modified Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire (MRMQ and the Fear-Avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire (FABQ. The later was as recommended by the literature and divided into two parts. The first included statements about how physical activity may affect patient’s LBP, and the second included statements how regular work may affect it.Methods: Twenty-eight (16 female, 12 male; age 46.3 ± 7.3 years subjects with LBP referred to physiotherapy were invited to participate in this study. To assess test-retest reliability, the questionnaires were administrated with an interval of 3 to 4 days between test and retest.Results: Test-retest reliability was high and statistical significant (p < 0.01 for the MRMQ, physical activity and work indices of the FABQ (ICC ≥ 0.89; r ≥ 0.90; p ≥ 0.87. Internal consistency, evaluated by Cronbach’s alpha, on test and retest ranged from 0.58 to 0.86 and 0.68 to 0.89, respectively.Conclusions: Reliability of Slovenian version of the MRMQ and the FABQ was good and similar to results of previous studies. Both questionnaire may be suitable for use in Slovenia.

  4. Using dynamic factor analysis to provide insights into data reliability in experience sampling studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller-Tyszkiewicz, Matthew; Hartley-Clark, Linda; Cummins, Robert A; Tomyn, Adrian J; Weinberg, Melissa K; Richardson, Ben

    2017-09-01

    The past 2 decades have seen increasing use of experience sampling methods (ESMs) to gain insights into the daily experience of affective states (e.g., its variability, as well as antecedents and consequences of temporary shifts in affect). Much less attention has been given to methodological challenges, such as how to ensure reliability of test scores obtained using ESM. The present study demonstrates the use of dynamic factor analysis (DFA) to quantify reliability of test scores in ESM contexts, evaluates the potential impact of unreliable test scores, and seeks to identify characteristics of individuals that may account for their unreliable test scores. One hundred twenty-seven participants completed baseline measures (demographics and personality traits), followed by a 7-day ESM phase in which positive and negative state affect were measured up to 6 times per day. Analyses showed that although at the sample level, scores on these affect measures exhibited adequate levels of reliability, up to one third of participants failed to meet conventional standards of reliability. Where these low reliability estimates were not significantly associated with personality factors, they could-in some cases-be explained by model misspecification where a meaningful alternative structure was available. Despite these potential differences in factor structure across participants, subsequent modeling with and without these "unreliable" cases showed similar substantive results. Hence, the present findings suggest typical analyses based on ESM data may be robust to individual differences in data structure and/or quality. Ways to augment the DFA approach to better understand unreliable cases are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Test-retest reliability for aerodynamic measures of voice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awan, Shaheen N; Novaleski, Carolyn K; Yingling, Julie R

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the intrasubject reliability of aerodynamic characteristics of the voice within typical/normal speakers across testing sessions using the Phonatory Aerodynamic System (PAS 6600; KayPENTAX, Montvale, NJ). Participants were 60 healthy young adults (30 males and 30 females) between the ages 18 and 31 years with perceptually typical voice. Participants were tested using the PAS 6600 (Phonatory Aerodynamic System) on two separate days with approximately 1 week between each session at approximately the same time of day. Four PAS protocols were conducted (vital capacity, maximum sustained phonation, comfortable sustained phonation, and voicing efficiency) and measures of expiratory volume, maximum phonation time, mean expiratory airflow (during vowel production) and target airflow (obtained via syllable repetition), peak air pressure, aerodynamic power, aerodynamic resistance, and aerodynamic efficiency were obtained during each testing session. Associated acoustic measures of vocal intensity and frequency were also collected. All phonations were elicited at comfortable pitch and loudness. All aerodynamic and associated variables evaluated in this study showed useable test-retest reliability (ie, intraclass correlation coefficients [ICCs] ≥ 0.60). A high degree of mean test-retest reliability was found across all subjects for aerodynamic and associated acoustic measurements of vital capacity, maximum sustained phonation, glottal resistance, and vocal intensity (all with ICCs > 0.75). Although strong ICCs were observed for measures of glottal power and mean expiratory airflow in males, weaker overall results for these measures (ICC range: 0.60-0.67) were observed in females subjects and sizable coefficients of variation were observed for measures of power, resistance, and efficiency in both men and women. Differences in degree of reliability from measure to measure were revealed in greater detail using methods such as ICCs and

  6. ISway: a sensitive, valid and reliable measure of postural control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mancini Martina

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clinicians need a practical, objective test of postural control that is sensitive to mild neurological disease, shows experimental and clinical validity, and has good test-retest reliability. We developed an instrumented test of postural sway (ISway using a body-worn accelerometer to offer an objective and practical measure of postural control. Methods We conducted two separate studies with two groups of subjects. Study I: sensitivity and experimental concurrent validity. Thirteen subjects with early, untreated Parkinson’s disease (PD and 12 age-matched control subjects (CTR were tested in the laboratory, to compare sway from force-plate COP and inertial sensors. Study II: test-retest reliability and clinical concurrent validity. A different set of 17 early-to-moderate, treated PD (tested ON medication, and 17 age-matched CTR subjects were tested in the clinic to compare clinical balance tests with sway from inertial sensors. For reliability, the sensor was removed, subjects rested for 30 min, and the protocol was repeated. Thirteen sway measures (7 time-domain, 5 frequency-domain measures, and JERK were computed from the 2D time series acceleration (ACC data to determine the best metrics for a clinical balance test. Results Both center of pressure (COP and ACC measures differentiated sway between CTR and untreated PD. JERK and time-domain measures showed the best test-retest reliability (JERK ICC was 0.86 in PD and 0.87 in CTR; time-domain measures ICC ranged from 0.55 to 0.84 in PD and from 0.60 to 0.89 in CTR. JERK, all but one time-domain measure, and one frequency measure were significantly correlated with the clinical postural stability score (r ranged from 0.50 to 0.63, 0.01 Conclusions Based on these results, we recommend a subset of the most sensitive, reliable, and valid ISway measures to characterize posture control in PD: 1 JERK, 2 RMS amplitude and mean velocity from the time-domain measures, and 3 centroidal

  7. Inter-rater reliability of query/probe-based techniques for measuring situation awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Nathan; Jamieson, Greg A; Skraaning, Gyrd

    2014-01-01

    Query- or probe-based situation awareness (SA) measures sometimes rely on process experts to evaluate operator actions and system states when used in representative settings. This introduces variability of human judgement into the measurements that require inter-rater reliability assessment. However, the literature neglects inter-rater reliability of query/probe-based SA measures. We recruited process experts to provide reference keys to SA queries in trials of a full-scope nuclear power plant simulator experiment to investigate the inter-rater reliability of a query-based SA measure. The query-based SA measure demonstrated only 'moderate' inter-rater reliability even though the queries were seemingly direct. The level of agreement was significantly different across pairs of experts who had different levels of exposure to the experiment. The results caution that inter-rater reliability of query/probe-based techniques for measuring SA cannot be assumed in representative settings. Knowledge about the experiment as well as the domain is critical to forming reliable expert judgements. When the responses of domain experts are treated as the correct answers to the queries or probes of SA measures used in representative or industrial settings, practitioners should take caution in assuming (or otherwise assess) inter-rater reliability of the situation awareness measures.

  8. Reliability and Accuracy of Brain Volume Measurement on MR Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yamagchii, Kechiro; Lassen, Anders; Ring, Poul

    1998-01-01

    Yamaguchi, K., Lassen, A. And Ring, P. Reliability and Accuracy of Brain Volume Measurement on MR Imaging. Abstract at ESMRMB98 European Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine and Biology, Geneva, Sept 17-20, 1998 Danish Research Center for Magnetic Resonance, Hvidovre University Hospital...

  9. Research Measures for Dyscalculia: A Validity and Reliability Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiman, R. M.

    1986-01-01

    This study sought to evaluate a measure of dyscalculia to determine its validity and reliability. It also tested use of the instrument with seventh graders and ascertained where errors attributed to dyscalculia were also present in an average sample of seventh graders. Results varied. (MNS)

  10. Intraexaminer reliability of measurement of tooth color by spectrophotometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassel, Alexander J; Cevirgen, Engin; Balke, Zibandeh; Rammelsberg, Peter

    2009-05-01

    To evaluate intraexaminer reliability in measurement of basic tooth color by use of a clinically applicable spectrophotometer. Three examiners determined the L* (lightness), C* (chroma), and h* (hue) values and tooth color according to the Vita 3D-Master shade guide system (Vident), twice for 161 anterior teeth of 19 subjects by use of a spectrophotometer (Vita Easyshade 1, Vita Zahnfabrik). Between the 2 measurements on each tooth, the investigators had to completely remove the probe tip from the mouth. The reliability of the measurements was observed, and deviations between the 2 L*C*h* measurements, as well as DeltaEab for the measurements, were calculated. Exact agreement of chosen shade tab according to the 3D-Master shade guide was achieved in 48% of cases. Mean DeltaL*, DeltaC*, and Deltah* for all examiners were 1.9 (SD 1.7), 1.3 (SD 1.3), and 0.5 degrees (SD 0.7 degrees), respectively. The maximum deviation was 9 for DeltaL*, 7 for DeltaC*, and 3 degrees for Deltah*. Mean DeltaEab for the measurements was 2.7 (SD 1.8, range 0 to 9.5). Intraexaminer reliability was usually acceptable, although a clinically relevant difference between the 2 measurements of an examiner was occasionally observed. This uncertainty should be borne in mind in clinical routine and in studies reporting changes in color, eg, studies of tooth bleaching.

  11. ISway: a sensitive, valid and reliable measure of postural control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancini, Martina; Salarian, Arash; Carlson-Kuhta, Patricia; Zampieri, Cris; King, Laurie; Chiari, Lorenzo; Horak, Fay B

    2012-08-22

    Clinicians need a practical, objective test of postural control that is sensitive to mild neurological disease, shows experimental and clinical validity, and has good test-retest reliability. We developed an instrumented test of postural sway (ISway) using a body-worn accelerometer to offer an objective and practical measure of postural control. We conducted two separate studies with two groups of subjects. Study I: sensitivity and experimental concurrent validity. Thirteen subjects with early, untreated Parkinson's disease (PD) and 12 age-matched control subjects (CTR) were tested in the laboratory, to compare sway from force-plate COP and inertial sensors. Study II: test-retest reliability and clinical concurrent validity. A different set of 17 early-to-moderate, treated PD (tested ON medication), and 17 age-matched CTR subjects were tested in the clinic to compare clinical balance tests with sway from inertial sensors. For reliability, the sensor was removed, subjects rested for 30 min, and the protocol was repeated. Thirteen sway measures (7 time-domain, 5 frequency-domain measures, and JERK) were computed from the 2D time series acceleration (ACC) data to determine the best metrics for a clinical balance test. Both center of pressure (COP) and ACC measures differentiated sway between CTR and untreated PD. JERK and time-domain measures showed the best test-retest reliability (JERK ICC was 0.86 in PD and 0.87 in CTR; time-domain measures ICC ranged from 0.55 to 0.84 in PD and from 0.60 to 0.89 in CTR). JERK, all but one time-domain measure, and one frequency measure were significantly correlated with the clinical postural stability score (r ranged from 0.50 to 0.63, 0.01 control in PD: 1) JERK, 2) RMS amplitude and mean velocity from the time-domain measures, and 3) centroidal frequency as the best frequency measure, as valid and reliable measures of balance control from ISway.

  12. How reliable are crystalline silica dust concentration measurements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, L A; Van Orden, D R; Lee, R J; Arlauckas, S M; Kautz, R A; Warzel, A L; Bailey, K F; Ranpuria, A K

    2015-10-01

    To determine how reliably commercial laboratories measure crystalline silica concentrations corresponding to OSHA's proposed limits, 105 filters were prepared with known masses of 20, 40, and 80 μg of respirable quartz corresponding to airborne silica concentrations of 25, 50, and 100 μg/m(3) and were submitted, in a blind test, to qualified commercial laboratories over a nine month period. Under these test conditions, the reported results indicated a lack of accuracy and precision needed to reliably inform regulatory compliance decisions. This was true even for filters containing only silica, without an interfering matrix. For 36 filters loaded with 20 or more micrograms of silica, the laboratories reported non-detected levels of silica. Inter-laboratory variability in this performance test program was so high that the reported results could not be used to reliably discriminate among filters prepared to reflect 8-h exposures to respirable quartz concentrations of 25, 50 and 100 μg/m(3). Moreover, even in intra-laboratory performance, there was so much variability in the reported results that 2-fold variations in exposure concentrations could not be reliably distinguished. Part of the variability and underreporting may result from the sample preparation process. The results of this study suggest that current laboratory methods and practices cannot necessarily be depended on, with high confidence, to support proposed regulatory standards with reliable data. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Measuring the reliability of picture story exercises like the TAT.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Gruber

    Full Text Available As frequently reported, psychometric assessments on Picture Story Exercises, especially variations of the Thematic Apperception Test, mostly reveal inadequate scores for internal consistency. We demonstrate that the reason for this apparent shortcoming is not caused by the coding system itself but from the incorrect use of internal consistency coefficients, especially Cronbach's α. This problem could be eliminated by using the category-scores as items instead of the picture-scores. In addition to a theoretical explanation we prove mathematically why the use of category-scores produces an adequate internal consistency estimation and examine our idea empirically with the origin data set of the Thematic Apperception Test by Heckhausen and two additional data sets. We found generally higher values when using the category-scores as items instead of picture-scores. From an empirical and theoretical point of view, the estimated reliability is also superior to each category within a picture as item measuring. When comparing our suggestion with a multifaceted Rasch-model we provide evidence that our procedure better fits the underlying principles of PSE.

  14. Reliability of plastic cups to measure breast volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansson, Emma; Manjer, Jonas; Ringberg, Anita

    2014-08-01

    Breast volume measurement is valuable in clinical practice, and various methods have been used. Nonetheless, no commonly accepted standard technique exists for clinical everyday use and there is no optimal method that is quick, cheap, minimally invasive, and acceptable for the patient and for the surgeon. Previously, a study has shown that the volume measured with plastic cups differed little from that measured from mastectomy specimens. The aim of the present study was to test the reliability of breast volume measurements with plastic cups as a tool to measure breast volume in everyday clinical practice. The plastic cups were designed by the senior author (AR) and comprise 14 cups from 125 millilitres (ml) to 2000 ml. Six raters measured 12 breasts on the same day. The results show that there is a certain variation between different raters, and that a certain rater seems to consistently measure slightly lower or higher volumes than the other raters. The Intra Class Correlation (ICC) coefficient of average measures between raters is 0.89, that is, the agreement between different raters is high. According to the Bland-Altman plot, the overall assessment of the comparisons of measurements between the different raters shows that the direction of the mean differences is close to zero. The limits of agreements of the differences were within ±56 ml. The coefficient of variation (CV) between different raters was 14%. Breast volume measurement with plastic cups is an easily usable quick and cheap way to measure breast volume in everyday clinical practice. The measurements have an acceptable reliability.

  15. Inter- and intra-observer reliability of a smartphone application for measuring hallux valgus angles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Richard; Kosy, Jonathan D; Cove, Richard

    2013-03-01

    Measurement of radiological angles can be useful in the planning of the management of patients with hallux valgus. A smartphone application offers an alternative way of measuring these angles in a clinic setting. We compared the reliability (inter- and intra-observer) of this method to the use of PACS. Radiographs of 30 feet from new patients referred with hallux valgus were examined and angles (HVA, IMA, and DMAA) recorded using the smartphone application and PACS. The smartphone application provided good inter-observer reliability for HVA and IMA (r=0.93 and r=0.79 respectively). Intra-observer reliability for HVA and IMA was also found to be good (r=0.93-0.97 r=0.82-0.93 respectively). The inter- and intra-observer reliability for using this method to measure DMAA fell below useful levels (rDMAA. Copyright © 2012 European Foot and Ankle Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Reliability of impedance cardiography in measuring central haemodynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehlsen, J; Bonde, J; Stadeager, C

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of the study described here was to investigate the reliability of impedance cardiography (IC) in measuring cardiac output (CO) and central blood volume. Absolute values and changes in these variables obtained by impedance cardiography and by isotope- or thermodilution techniques were...... compared. The reproducibility of IC within the same day was compared with that of isotope dilution and the reproducibility in IC from day to day was derived. Finally, the effects of the readings of impedance tracings by different observers were quantified. The results are based on 270 measurements in 37...

  17. Tactile acuity charts: a reliable measure of spatial acuity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Bruns

    Full Text Available For assessing tactile spatial resolution it has recently been recommended to use tactile acuity charts which follow the design principles of the Snellen letter charts for visual acuity and involve active touch. However, it is currently unknown whether acuity thresholds obtained with this newly developed psychophysical procedure are in accordance with established measures of tactile acuity that involve passive contact with fixed duration and control of contact force. Here we directly compared tactile acuity thresholds obtained with the acuity charts to traditional two-point and grating orientation thresholds in a group of young healthy adults. For this purpose, two types of charts, using either Braille-like dot patterns or embossed Landolt rings with different orientations, were adapted from previous studies. Measurements with the two types of charts were equivalent, but generally more reliable with the dot pattern chart. A comparison with the two-point and grating orientation task data showed that the test-retest reliability of the acuity chart measurements after one week was superior to that of the passive methods. Individual thresholds obtained with the acuity charts agreed reasonably with the grating orientation threshold, but less so with the two-point threshold that yielded relatively distinct acuity estimates compared to the other methods. This potentially considerable amount of mismatch between different measures of tactile acuity suggests that tactile spatial resolution is a complex entity that should ideally be measured with different methods in parallel. The simple test procedure and high reliability of the acuity charts makes them a promising complement and alternative to the traditional two-point and grating orientation thresholds.

  18. Reliability of EEG Interactions Differs between Measures and Is Specific for Neurological Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvonne Höller

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Alterations of interaction (connectivity of the EEG reflect pathological processes in patients with neurologic disorders. Nevertheless, it is questionable whether these patterns are reliable over time in different measures of interaction and whether this reliability of the measures is the same across different patient populations. In order to address this topic we examined 22 patients with mild cognitive impairment, five patients with subjective cognitive complaints, six patients with right-lateralized temporal lobe epilepsy, seven patients with left lateralized temporal lobe epilepsy, and 20 healthy controls. We calculated 14 measures of interaction from two EEG-recordings separated by 2 weeks. In order to characterize test-retest reliability, we correlated these measures for each group and compared the correlations between measures and between groups. We found that both measures of interaction as well as groups differed from each other in terms of reliability. The strongest correlation coefficients were found for spectrum, coherence, and full frequency directed transfer function (average rho > 0.9. In the delta (2–4 Hz range, reliability was lower for mild cognitive impairment compared to healthy controls and left lateralized temporal lobe epilepsy. In the beta (13–30 Hz, gamma (31–80 Hz, and high gamma (81–125 Hz frequency ranges we found decreased reliability in subjective cognitive complaints compared to mild cognitive impairment. In the gamma and high gamma range we found increased reliability in left lateralized temporal lobe epilepsy patients compared to healthy controls. Our results emphasize the importance of documenting reliability of measures of interaction, which may vary considerably between measures, but also between patient populations. We suggest that studies claiming clinical usefulness of measures of interaction should provide information on the reliability of the results. In addition, differences between patient

  19. A Reliable Measure of Information Security Awareness and the Identification of Bias in Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata McCormac

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The Human Aspects of Information Security Questionnaire (HAIS-Q is designed to measure Information Security Awareness. More specifically, the tool measures an individual’s knowledge, attitude, and self-reported behaviour relating to information security in the workplace. This paper reports on the reliability of the HAIS-Q, including test-retest reliability and internal consistency. The paper also assesses the reliability of three preliminary over-claiming items, designed specifically to complement the HAIS-Q, and identify those individuals who provide socially desirable responses. A total of 197 working Australians completed two iterations of the HAIS-Q and the over-claiming items, approximately 4 weeks apart. Results of the analysis showed that the HAIS-Q was externally reliable and internally consistent. Therefore, the HAIS-Q can be used to reliably measure information security awareness. Reliability testing on the preliminary over-claiming items was not as robust and further development is required and recommended. The implications of these findings mean that organisations can confidently use the HAIS-Q to not only measure the current state of employee information security awareness within their organisation, but they can also measure the effectiveness and impacts of training interventions, information security awareness programs and campaigns. The influence of cultural changes and the effect of security incidents can also be assessed.

  20. Stress Rupture Life Reliability Measures for Composite Overwrapped Pressure Vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, Pappu L. N.; Thesken, John C.; Phoenix, S. Leigh; Grimes-Ledesma, Lorie

    2007-01-01

    Composite Overwrapped Pressure Vessels (COPVs) are often used for storing pressurant gases onboard spacecraft. Kevlar (DuPont), glass, carbon and other more recent fibers have all been used as overwraps. Due to the fact that overwraps are subjected to sustained loads for an extended period during a mission, stress rupture failure is a major concern. It is therefore important to ascertain the reliability of these vessels by analysis, since the testing of each flight design cannot be completed on a practical time scale. The present paper examines specifically a Weibull statistics based stress rupture model and considers the various uncertainties associated with the model parameters. The paper also examines several reliability estimate measures that would be of use for the purpose of recertification and for qualifying flight worthiness of these vessels. Specifically, deterministic values for a point estimate, mean estimate and 90/95 percent confidence estimates of the reliability are all examined for a typical flight quality vessel under constant stress. The mean and the 90/95 percent confidence estimates are computed using Monte-Carlo simulation techniques by assuming distribution statistics of model parameters based also on simulation and on the available data, especially the sample sizes represented in the data. The data for the stress rupture model are obtained from the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories (LLNL) stress rupture testing program, carried out for the past 35 years. Deterministic as well as probabilistic sensitivities are examined.

  1. Sustaining Reliability on Accountability Measures at The Johns Hopkins Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pronovost, Peter J; Holzmueller, Christine G; Callender, Tiffany; Demski, Renee; Winner, Laura; Day, Richard; Austin, J Matthew; Berenholtz, Sean M; Miller, Marlene R

    2016-02-01

    In 2012 Johns Hopkins Medicine leaders challenged their health system to reliably deliver best practice care linked to nationally vetted core measures and achieve The Joint Commission Top Performer on Key Quality Measures ®program recognition and the Delmarva Foundation award. Thus, the Armstrong Institute for Patient Safety and Quality implemented an initiative to ensure that ≥96% of patients received care linked to measures. Nine low-performing process measures were targeted for improvement-eight Joint Commission accountability measures and one Delmarva Foundation core measure. In the initial evaluation at The Johns Hopkins Hospital, all accountability measures for the Top Performer program reached the required ≥95% performance, gaining them recognition by The Joint Commission in 2013. Efforts were made to sustain performance of accountability measures at The Johns Hopkins Hospital. Improvements were sustained through 2014 using the following conceptual framework: declare and communicate goals, create an enabling infrastructure, engage clinicians and connect them in peer learning communities, report transparently, and create accountability systems. One part of the accountability system was for teams to create a sustainability plan, which they presented to senior leaders. To support sustained improvements, Armstrong Institute leaders added a project management office for all externally reported quality measures and concurrent reviewers to audit performance on care processes for certain measure sets. The Johns Hopkins Hospital sustained performance on all accountability measures, and now more than 96% of patients receive recommended care consistent with nationally vetted quality measures. The initiative methods enabled the transition of quality improvement from an isolated project to a way of leading an organization.

  2. Reliability of surface EMG measurements from the suprahyoid muscle complex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kothari, Mohit; Stubbs, Peter William; Pedersen, Asger Roer

    2017-01-01

    of using the suprahyoid muscle complex (SMC) using surface electromyography (sEMG) to assess changes to neural pathways by determining the reliability of measurements in healthy participants over days. Methods: Seventeen healthy participants were recruited. Measurements were performed twice with one week...... between sessions. Single pulse (at 120% and 140% of the resting motor threshold (rMT)) and paired pulse (2 ms and 15 ms paired pulse) transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) were used to elicit MEPs in the SMC which were recorded using sEMG. Results: ≈50% of participants (range: 42%-58%; depending...... on stimulus type/intensity) had significantly different MEP values between day 1 and day 2 for single pulse and paired pulse TMS. A large stimulus artefact resulted in MEP responses that could not be assessed in four participants. Conclusions: The assessment of the SMC using sEMG following TMS was poorly...

  3. An FEC Adaptive Multicast MAC Protocol for Providing Reliability in WLANs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basalamah, Anas; Sato, Takuro

    For wireless multicast applications like multimedia conferencing, voice over IP and video/audio streaming, a reliable transmission of packets within short delivery delay is needed. Moreover, reliability is crucial to the performance of error intolerant applications like file transfer, distributed computing, chat and whiteboard sharing. Forward Error Correction (FEC) is frequently used in wireless multicast to enhance Packet Error Rate (PER) performance, but cannot assure full reliability unless coupled with Automatic Repeat Request forming what is knows as Hybrid-ARQ. While reliable FEC can be deployed at different levels of the protocol stack, it cannot be deployed on the MAC layer of the unreliable IEEE802.11 WLAN due to its inability to exchange ACKs with multiple recipients. In this paper, we propose a Multicast MAC protocol that enhances WLAN reliability by using Adaptive FEC and study it's performance through mathematical analysis and simulation. Our results show that our protocol can deliver high reliability and throughput performance.

  4. Reliability of movement workspace measurements in a passive arm orthosis used in spinal cord injury rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudhe Claudia

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Robotic and non-robotic training devices are increasingly being used in the rehabilitation of upper limb function in subjects with neurological disorders. As well as being used for training such devices can also provide ongoing assessments during the training sessions. Therefore, it is mandatory to understand the reliability and validity of such measurements when used in a clinical setting. The aim of this study was to evaluate the reliability of movement measures as assessed in the Armeo Spring system for the eventual application to the rehabilitation of patients suffering from cervical spinal cord injury (SCI. Methods Reliability (intra- and inter-rater reliability of the movement workspace (representing multiple ranges of movement and the influence of varying seating conditions (5 different chair conditions was assessed in twenty control subjects. In eight patients with cervical SCI the test-retest reliability (tested twice on the same day by the same rater was assessed as well as a correlation of the movement workspace to retrieve self-care items as scored by the spinal cord independence measure (SCIM 3. Results Analysis of workspace measures in control subjects revealed intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC ranging from 0.747 to 0.837 for the intra-rater reliability and from 0.661 to 0.855 for the inter-rater reliability. Test-retest analysis in SCI patients showed a similar high reliability with ICC = 0.858. Also the reliability of the movement workspace between different seating conditions was good with ICCs ranging from 0.844 to 0.915. The movement workspace correlated significantly with the SCIM3 self-care items (p  Conclusion The upper limb movement workspace measures assessed in the Armeo Spring device revealed fair to good clinical reliability. These findings suggest that measures retrieved from such a training device can be used to monitor changes in upper limb function over time. The correlation

  5. Camera-based measurement of respiratory rates is reliable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Christoph; Achermann, Stefan; Rocque, Mukul; Kirenko, Ihor; Schlack, Andreas; Dreher-Hummel, Thomas; Zumbrunn, Thomas; Bingisser, Roland; Nickel, Christian H

    2017-06-01

    Respiratory rate (RR) is one of the most important vital signs used to detect whether a patient is in critical condition. It is part of many risk scores and its measurement is essential for triage of patients in emergency departments. It is often not recorded as measurement is cumbersome and time-consuming. We intended to evaluate the accuracy of camera-based measurements as an alternative measurement to the current practice of manual counting. We monitored the RR of healthy male volunteers with a camera-based prototype application and simultaneously by manual counting and by capnography, which was considered the gold standard. The four assessors were mutually blinded. We simulated normoventilation, hypoventilation and hyperventilation as well as deep, normal and superficial breathing depths to assess potential clinical settings. The volunteers were assessed while being undressed, wearing a T-shirt or a winter coat. In total, 20 volunteers were included. The results of camera-based measurements of RRs and capnography were in close agreement throughout all clothing styles and respiratory patterns (Pearson's correlation coefficient, r=0.90-1.00, except for one scenario, in which the volunteer breathed slowly dressed in a winter coat r=0.84). In the winter-coat scenarios, the camera-based prototype application was superior to human counters. In our pilot study, we found that camera-based measurements delivered accurate and reliable results. Future studies need to show that camera-based measurements are a secure alternative for measuring RRs in clinical settings as well.

  6. Generalizability Theory as a Unifying Framework of Measurement Reliability in Adolescent Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xitao; Sun, Shaojing

    2014-01-01

    In adolescence research, the treatment of measurement reliability is often fragmented, and it is not always clear how different reliability coefficients are related. We show that generalizability theory (G-theory) is a comprehensive framework of measurement reliability, encompassing all other reliability methods (e.g., Pearson "r,"…

  7. A Measure for the Reliability of a Rating Scale Based on Longitudinal Clinical Trial Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laenen, Annouschka; Alonso, Ariel; Molenberghs, Geert

    2007-01-01

    A new measure for reliability of a rating scale is introduced, based on the classical definition of reliability, as the ratio of the true score variance and the total variance. Clinical trial data can be employed to estimate the reliability of the scale in use, whenever repeated measurements are taken. The reliability is estimated from the…

  8. Damage preventing measures for wind turbines. Phase 1- Reliability data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlsson, Fredrik; Eriksson, Emil; Dahlberg, Magnus

    2010-08-15

    The state of existing reliability and failure data in the public sources has been investigated. The prime goal has been to evaluate the data's usefulness for developing damage preventing measures. Some publicly available databases exist, and the data has been presented in several papers in the literature. The results from the investigation can seem quite negative. Detailed data are lacking and the level of detailed reporting has even been decreasing in recent years. Information on the impact of load condition on failures, which is an important question, are lacking throughout in the statistics. Some components dominate the failure statistics. These are for example the gearboxes, where failures lead to long down times. Failures of the electrical system lead to considerably shorter down times but the failure rate is much higher. Severe rotor failures seem to be rare, but they occur and the consequences can be dramatic. Operators and insurance companies are demanding improved insight in damage collection, maintenance and overall damage preventing measures. Closer cooperation with these parties could be a fruitful way of gathering more useful data. Improvements for future databases are suggested. A structure for damage collection is proposed. Comparing experience of damage preventing measures from other industries, knowledge about the nature of the damage mechanism and current practice in the wind industry will be an important tool in the evaluation of different damage preventing measures. This will be done in the following phases of this project

  9. Reliability and validity for the measurement of moral disengagement in pharmacists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Christine; Segal, Richard; Kimberlin, Carole; Smith, W Thomas; Weiler, Robert M

    2014-01-01

    Social cognitive theory describes a process in which behavior can be disengaged from moral self control through eight different mechanisms. These mechanisms were used for the development of a new scale for measuring moral disengagement (Moral Disengagement Inventory, or MDI) in pharmacists. The objectives of this study were to assess the reliability and validation of a scale to measure pharmacists' moral disengagement toward patients who exhibit behaviors directly or indirectly leading to their disease condition, such as an asthmatic patient who smokes or a non-compliant asthmatic patient. A self-administered survey called the Moral Disengagement Instrument (MDI) was developed for this study. Once the MDI was designed, the items were evaluated for content validity, readability and face validity. The reliability of the developed measures was assessed. The convergent and discriminant validity of the moral disengagement constructs were tested using confirmatory factor analysis. The reliability coefficient for the MDI for the asthmatic smoker was 0.814 and reliability coefficient for the MDI for the non-compliant asthmatic patient was 0.782. Evidence supporting validity of the MDI was provided in a confirmatory factor analysis. The Moral Disengagement Instrument (MDI), developed as a tool for measuring pharmacists' disengagement beliefs for a smoker asthmatic patient and a non-compliant asthmatic patient, was found to be reliable and valid. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Reliability of the inter-rectus distance measured by palpation. Comparison of palpation and ultrasound measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, Patrícia; Pascoal, Augusto Gil; Sancho, Fátima; Carita, Ana Isabel; Bø, Kari

    2013-08-01

    An increased inter-rectus distance (IRD) is a common condition in late pregnancy and in the postnatal period. The condition is difficult to assess. Palpation is the most commonly used method to assess IRD. To date there is scant knowledge of intra and inter-tester reliability of palpation to measure IRD and how palpation compares with ultrasound measurements. The aims of this study were: 1) evaluate intra and inter-rater reliability of abdominal palpation; 2) validate abdominal palpation of IRD measurements using ultrasound imaging as a reference. Two physiotherapists (PTs) conducted the palpation study in random order, blinded to each other's assessments. IRD was measured as finger widths between the two rectus abdominis (RA) muscles. Ultrasound images were recorded at the same locations as the palpation test. A blinded investigator measured the IRD offline. Palpation showed good intra-rater reliability between days expressed by a weighted Kappa (wK) higher than 0.7 for both physiotherapists, and moderate inter-rater reliability (wK = 0.534). Ultrasound was found to be more responsive for differences in IRD compared with values obtained by palpation. The intra-rater reliability was higher than the inter-rater reliability. Besides the difference in experience with palpation testing between the PTs, this result may be due to differences in finger width and/or the subjective interpretation of abdominal soft-tissues pressure. Ultrasound measures are highly sensitive to changes of IRD, which is not possible to replicate by palpation assessment using a finger width scale. Palpation has sufficient reliability to be used in clinical practice. However, ultrasound is a more accurate and valid method and is recommended in future research of IRD. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Reliability analysis of a smartphone-aided measurement method for the Cobb angle of scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Jun; Liu, Zhen; Xu, Leilei; Wu, Tao; Zheng, Xin; Zhu, Zezhang; Zhu, Feng; Qian, Bangpin; Qiu, Yong

    2012-06-01

    A comparison between the smartphone-aided measurement method and the manual measurement method for the Cobb angle in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. To evaluate the reliability and measurement error for the smartphone-aided Cobb angle measurement method and compare its reliability and measurement error with those of the manual method. The development of smartphones has provided new opportunities that integrate mobile technology into daily clinical practice. Smartphone applications can provide quick assistance in the diagnosis and treatment of disease. Cobbmeter is a smartphone application designed for the measurement of Cobb angle on Apple iPhone smartphones. There is no study on the reliability and measurement error of this smartphone-aided measurement method. : Fifty-three posteroanterior radiographs of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patients with thoracic scoliosis were used for the standard Cobb method of measurement (manual set) and the smartphone-aided Cobb method of measurement (smartphone set). Five spinal surgeons measured the Cobb angle with the use of both the manual method and the smartphone-aided method. The measurement time was recorded for every measurement. The frequency and the cumulative percent distribution for intraobserver differences were tabulated, both for the individual examiners and for the overall results for the 5 examiners. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) 2-way mixed model on absolute agreement was used to analyze measurement reliability. Summary statistics from analyses of variance calculations were used to provide 95% prediction limits for the error in measurements. A paired t test was used to compare the time consumed for the measurement between both sets. The intraobserver and interobserver ICCs were excellent in the smartphone set and in the manual set. Both the intraobserver ICC and the interobserver ICC were better in the smartphone set than in the manual set. The mean Cobb angle of all measured x-rays was 29

  12. Cyber Physical Systems for User Reliability Measurements in a Sharing Economy Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Aria; Jeong, Junho; Kim, Yeichang

    2017-08-13

    As the sharing economic market grows, the number of users is also increasing but many problems arise in terms of reliability between providers and users in the processing of services. The existing methods provide shared economic systems that judge the reliability of the provider from the viewpoint of the user. In this paper, we have developed a system for establishing mutual trust between providers and users in a shared economic environment to solve existing problems. In order to implement a system that can measure and control users' situation in a shared economic environment, we analyzed the necessary factors in a cyber physical system (CPS). In addition, a user measurement system based on a CPS structure in a sharing economic environment is implemented through analysis of the factors to consider when constructing a CPS.

  13. Measuring Workplace Travel Behaviour: Validity and Reliability of Survey Questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas A. Petrunoff

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The purpose of this study was to assess the (previously untested reliability and validity of survey questions commonly used to assess travel mode and travel time. Methods. Sixty-five respondents from a staff survey of travel behaviour conducted in a south-western Sydney hospital agreed to complete a travel diary for a week, wear an accelerometer over the same period, and twice complete an online travel survey an average of 21 days apart. The agreement in travel modes between the self-reported online survey and travel diary was examined with the kappa statistic. Spearman’s correlation coefficient was used to examine agreement of travel time from home to workplace measured between the self-reported online survey and four-day travel diary. Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA time of active and nonactive travellers was compared by t-test. Results. There was substantial agreement between travel modes (K=0.62, P<0.0001 and a moderate correlation for travel time (ρ=0.75, P<0.0001 reported in the travel diary and online survey. There was a high level of agreement for travel mode (K=0.82, P<0.0001 and travel time (ρ=0.83, P<0.0001 between the two travel surveys. Accelerometer data indicated that for active travellers, 16% of the journey-to-work time is MVPA, compared with 6% for car drivers. Active travellers were significantly more active across the whole workday. Conclusions. The survey question “How did you travel to work this week? If you used more than one transport mode specify the one you used for the longest (distance portion of your journey” is reliable over 21 days and agrees well with a travel diary.

  14. Measuring workplace travel behaviour: validity and reliability of survey questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrunoff, Nicholas A; Xu, Huilan; Rissel, Chris; Wen, Li Ming; van der Ploeg, Hidde P

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the (previously untested) reliability and validity of survey questions commonly used to assess travel mode and travel time. Sixty-five respondents from a staff survey of travel behaviour conducted in a south-western Sydney hospital agreed to complete a travel diary for a week, wear an accelerometer over the same period, and twice complete an online travel survey an average of 21 days apart. The agreement in travel modes between the self-reported online survey and travel diary was examined with the kappa statistic. Spearman's correlation coefficient was used to examine agreement of travel time from home to workplace measured between the self-reported online survey and four-day travel diary. Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) time of active and nonactive travellers was compared by t-test. There was substantial agreement between travel modes (K = 0.62, P travel time (ρ = 0.75, P travel diary and online survey. There was a high level of agreement for travel mode (K = 0.82, P travel time (ρ = 0.83, P travel surveys. Accelerometer data indicated that for active travellers, 16% of the journey-to-work time is MVPA, compared with 6% for car drivers. Active travellers were significantly more active across the whole workday. The survey question "How did you travel to work this week? If you used more than one transport mode specify the one you used for the longest (distance) portion of your journey" is reliable over 21 days and agrees well with a travel diary.

  15. Reliability of measuring regional callosal atrophy in neurodegenerative diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeroen Van Schependom, MSc Eng, PhD

    2016-01-01

    In summary, we have constructed an algorithm that reliably detects the CC in 3D T1 images in a fully automated way in healthy controls and different neurodegenerative diseases. Although the CC area and the circularity are the most reliable features (ICC > 0.97; the reliability of the thickness profile (ICC > 0.90; excluding the tip is sufficient to warrant its inclusion in future clinical studies.

  16. High-density surface electromyography provides reliable estimates of motor unit behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Valdes, E; Laine, C M; Falla, D; Mayer, F; Farina, D

    2016-06-01

    To assess the intra- and inter-session reliability of estimates of motor unit behavior and muscle fiber properties derived from high-density surface electromyography (HDEMG). Ten healthy subjects performed submaximal isometric knee extensions during three recording sessions (separate days) at 10%, 30%, 50% and 70% of their maximum voluntary effort. The discharge timings of motor units of the vastus lateralis and medialis muscles were automatically identified from HDEMG by a decomposition algorithm. We characterized the number of detected motor units, their discharge rates, the coefficient of variation of their inter-spike intervals (CoVisi), the action potential conduction velocity and peak-to-peak amplitude. Reliability was assessed for each motor unit characteristics by intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC). Additionally, a pulse-to-noise ratio (PNR) was calculated, to verify the accuracy of the decomposition. Good to excellent reliability within and between sessions was found for all motor unit characteristics at all force levels (ICCs>0.8), with the exception of CoVisi that presented poor reliability (ICC95%). Motor unit features can be assessed non-invasively and reliably within and across sessions over a wide range of force levels. These results suggest that it is possible to characterize motor units in longitudinal intervention studies. Copyright © 2016 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Reliability of Heterochromatic Flicker Photometry in Measuring Macular Pigment Optical Density among Preadolescent Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasha M. McCorkle

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Macular pigment optical density (MPOD—assessed using customized heterochromatic flicker photometry (cHFP—is related to better cognition and brain lutein among adults. However, the reliability of MPOD assessed by cHFP has not been investigated in children. We assessed inter-session reliability of MPOD using modified cHFP. 7–10-year-olds (n = 66 underwent cHFP over 2 visits using 11 examiners. Reliability was also assessed in a subsample (n = 46 with only 2 examiners. Among all participants, there was no significant difference between the two sessions (p = 0.59—session 1: 0.61 ± 0.28; session 2: 0.62 ± 0.27. There was no significant difference in the MPOD of boys vs. girls (p = 0.56. There was a significant correlation between sessions (Y = 0.52x + 0.31; R2 = 0.29, p ≤ 0.005, with a reliability of 0.70 (Cronbach’s α. Among the subsample with 2 examiners, there was a significant correlation between sessions (Y = 0.54x + 0.31; R2 = 0.32, p < 0.005, with a reliability of 0.72 (Cronbach’s α. In conclusion, there is moderate reliability for modified cHFP to measure MPOD in preadolescents. These findings provide support for future studies aiming to conduct noninvasive assessments of retinal xanthophylls and study their association with cognition during childhood.

  18. Is the Hebb repetition task a reliable measure of individual differences in sequence learning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogaerts, Louisa; Siegelman, Noam; Ben-Porat, Tali; Frost, Ram

    2017-03-20

    The Hebb repetition task, an operationalization of long-term sequence learning through repetition, is the focus of renewed interest, as it is taken to provide a laboratory analogue for naturalistic vocabulary acquisition. Indeed, recent studies have consistently related performance in the Hebb repetition task with a range of linguistic (dis)abilities. However, in spite of the growing interest in the Hebb repetition effect as a theoretical construct, no previous research has ever tested whether the task used to assess Hebb learning offers a stable and reliable measure of individual performance in sequence learning. Since reliability is a necessary condition to predictive validity, in the present work we tested whether individual ability in visual verbal Hebb repetition learning displays basic test-retest reliability. In a first experiment Hebrew-English bilinguals performed two verbal Hebb tasks, one with English and one with Hebrew consonant letters. They were retested on the same Hebb tasks after a period of about six months. Overall serial recall performance proved to be a stable and reliable capacity of an individual. By contrast, the test-retest reliability of individual learning performance in our Hebb task was close to zero. A second experiment with French speakers replicated these results and demonstrated that the concurrent learning of two repeated Hebb sequences within the same task minimally improves the reliability scores. Taken together, our results raise concerns regarding the usefulness of at least some current Hebb learning tasks, in predicting linguistic (dis)abilities. The theoretical implications are discussed.

  19. Reliability Measure Model for Assistive Care Loop Framework Using Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venki Balasubramanian

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Body area wireless sensor networks (BAWSNs are time-critical systems that rely on the collective data of a group of sensor nodes. Reliable data received at the sink is based on the collective data provided by all the source sensor nodes and not on individual data. Unlike conventional reliability, the definition of retransmission is inapplicable in a BAWSN and would only lead to an elapsed data arrival that is not acceptable for time-critical application. Time-driven applications require high data reliability to maintain detection and responses. Hence, the transmission reliability for the BAWSN should be based on the critical time. In this paper, we develop a theoretical model to measure a BAWSN's transmission reliability, based on the critical time. The proposed model is evaluated through simulation and then compared with the experimental results conducted in our existing Active Care Loop Framework (ACLF. We further show the effect of the sink buffer in transmission reliability after a detailed study of various other co-existing parameters.

  20. Reliability and validity for measurement of body composition: A field ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Because all three instruments can estimate the percentage of body fat, but it is important to identify the most appropriate instruments and have high reliability. Hence, this study was conducted to determine the reliability and convergent validity of the instruments. A total of 40 students, males and females aged between 13 ...

  1. Forgotten marriages? Measuring the reliability of marriage histories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Sophia

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Marriage histories are a valuable data source for investigating nuptiality. While researchers typically acknowledge the problems associated with their use, it is unknown to what extent these problems occur and how marriage analyses are affected. OBJECTIVE This paper seeks to investigate the quality of marriage histories by measuring levels of misreporting, examining the characteristics associated with misreporting, and assessing whether misreporting biases marriage indicators. METHODS Using data from the Malawi Longitudinal Study of Families and Health (MLSFH), I compare marriage histories reported by the same respondents at two different points in time. I investigate whether respondents consistently report their spouses (by name), status of marriage, and dates of marriage. I use multivariate regression models to investigate the characteristics associated with misreporting. Finally, I examine whether misreporting marriages and marriage dates affects marriage indicators. RESULTS Results indicate that 28.3% of men and 17.9% of women omitted at least one marriage in one of the survey waves. Multivariate regression models show that misreporting is not random: marriage, individual, interviewer, and survey characteristics are associated with marriage omission and marriage date inconsistencies. Misreporting also affects marriage indicators. CONCLUSIONS This is the first study of its kind to examine the reliability of marriage histories collected in the context of Sub-Saharan Africa. Although marriage histories are frequently used to study marriage dynamics, until now no knowledge has existed on the degree of misreporting. Misreporting in marriage histories is shown to be non-negligent and could potentially affect analyses. PMID:27152090

  2. Validity and reliability of a scale to measure genital body image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielinski, Ruth E; Kane-Low, Lisa; Miller, Janis M; Sampselle, Carolyn

    2012-01-01

    Women's body image dissatisfaction extends to body parts usually hidden from view--their genitals. Ability to measure genital body image is limited by lack of valid and reliable questionnaires. We subjected a previously developed questionnaire, the Genital Self Image Scale (GSIS) to psychometric testing using a variety of methods. Five experts determined the content validity of the scale. Then using four participant groups, factor analysis was performed to determine construct validity and to identify factors. Further construct validity was established using the contrasting groups approach. Internal consistency and test-retest reliability was determined. Twenty one of 29 items were considered content valid. Two items were added based on expert suggestions. Factor analysis was undertaken resulting in four factors, identified as Genital Confidence, Appeal, Function, and Comfort. The revised scale (GSIS-20) included 20 items explaining 59.4% of the variance. Women indicating an interest in genital cosmetic surgery exhibited significantly lower scores on the GSIS-20 than those who did not. The final 20 item scale exhibited internal reliability across all sample groups as well as test-retest reliability. The GSIS-20 provides a measure of genital body image demonstrating reliability and validity across several populations of women.

  3. Inter-rater reliability and measurement error of sonographic muscle architecture assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    König, Niklas; Cassel, Michael; Intziegianni, Konstantina; Mayer, Frank

    2014-05-01

    Sonography of muscle architecture provides physicians and researchers with information about muscle function and muscle-related disorders. Inter-rater reliability is a crucial parameter in daily clinical routines. The aim of this study was to assess the inter-rater reliability of sonographic muscle architecture assessments and quantification of errors that arise from inconsistent probe positioning and image interpretation. The medial gastrocnemius muscle of 15 healthy participants was measured with sagittal B-mode ultrasound scans. The muscle thickness, fascicle length, superior pennation angle, and inferior pennation angle were assessed. The participants were examined by 2 investigators. A custom-made foam cast was used for standardized positioning of the probe. To analyze inter-rater reliability, the examinations of both raters were compared. The impact of probe positioning was assessed by comparison of foam cast and freehand scans. Error arising from picture interpretation was assessed by comparing the investigators' analyses of foam cast scans independently. Reliability was expressed as the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), inter-rater variability (IRV), Bland-Altman analysis (bias ± limits of agreement [LoA]), and standard error of measurement (SEM). Inter-rater reliability was good overall (ICC, 0.77-0.90; IRV, 9.0%-13.4%; bias ± LoA, 0.2 ± 0.2-1.7 ± 3.0). Superior and inferior pennation angles showed high systematic bias and LoA in all setups, ranging from 2.0° ± 2.2° to 3.4° ± 4.1°. The highest IRV was found for muscle thickness (13.4%). When the probe position was standardized, the SEM for muscle thickness decreased from 0.1 to 0.05 cm. Sonographic examination of muscle architecture of the medial gastrocnemius has good to high reliability. In contrast to pennation angle measurements, length measurements can be improved by standardization of the probe position.

  4. Test-retest reliability of diffusion measures in cerebral white matter: A multiband diffusion MRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Fei; Zhao, Tengda; He, Yong; Shu, Ni

    2015-10-01

    To investigate the test-retest (TRT) reliability of the diffusion measures in cerebral white matter obtained from the diffusion MRI dataset acquired with multiband acceleration. With the multiband diffusion MRI dataset with two repeated scanning sessions, the TRT reliability of diffusion measures (fractional anisotropy [FA], mean diffusivity [MD], primary diffusivity [PD] and transverse diffusivity [TD]) was investigated through several fully automated analysis methods, including two voxel-level analyses (voxel-based analysis [VBA] and tract-based spatial statistics [TBSS]) and an atlas ROI-based analysis. The reproducibility was assessed by the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC). Our results demonstrated moderate to high reproducibility (ICC > 0.4) of diffusion measures from the multiband EPI sequence with different analysis approaches. Across different measures, FA exhibited the highest reproducibility (mean ICC = 0.70), while MD showed the lowest reliability (mean ICC = 0.55) (P = 0.006). Additionally, ICCs varied across different tract ROIs: Commissural tracts showed higher reproducibility than other categories of tracts (projection, association and brainstem), while the brainstem tracts exhibited the poorest reliability (P = 0.004). Our findings suggest a potential utility of the multiband EPI sequence for exploring individual differences of cerebral white matter and provide reference for future white matter studies. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. RELIABILITY OF FLIGHT DATA PROVIDED BY PORTABLE GPS RECEIVERS DURING AIR ACCIDENT INVESTIGATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Rukhlinskiy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article considers the problem of assessment of data authenticity related to reliability of the flight data obtained in processing the information of portable GPS receivers’ during air accident investigations, which are characterized by the lack of standard flight data recording systems. Appropriate recommendations the improvement improving of the newly developed GPS receivers have been developed and implemented.

  6. Markerless motion capture can provide reliable 3D gait kinematics in the sagittal and frontal plane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandau, Martin; Koblauch, Henrik; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    2014-01-01

    Estimating 3D joint rotations in the lower extremities accurately and reliably remains unresolved in markerless motion capture, despite extensive studies in the past decades. The main problems have been ascribed to the limited accuracy of the 3D reconstructions. Accordingly, the purpose of the pr...

  7. Advice on total-score reliability issues in psychosomatic measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sijtsma, Klaas; Emons, Wilco H M

    2011-06-01

    This article addresses three reliability issues that are problematic in the construction of scales intended for use in psychosomatic research, illustrates how these problems may lead to errors, and suggests solutions. We used psychometric results and present five computational studies. The first, third, and fourth studies are based on the generation of artificial data from psychometric models in combination with distributions for scale scores, as is common in psychometric research, whereas the second and fifth studies are analytical. The power of Student's t test depends more on sample size than on total-score reliability, but reliability must be high when one estimates correlations involving test scores. Short scales often do not allow total scores to be significantly different from a cutoff score. Coefficient alpha is uninformative about the factorial structure of questionnaires and is one of the weakest estimators of total-score reliability. The relationship between questionnaire length/reliability and statistical power is complex. Both in research and individual diagnostics, we recommend the use of highly reliable scales so as to reduce the chance of faulty decisions. The conclusion calls for profound statistical research producing hands-on rules for researchers to act upon. Factor analysis should be used to assess the internal consistency of questionnaires. As a reliability estimator, alpha should be replaced by better and readily available methods. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Accuracy and Reliability of Visual Inspection and Smartphone Applications for Measuring Finger Range of Motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hannah H; St Louis, Kwesi; Fowler, John R

    2018-01-08

    Measurement of finger range of motion is critical in clinical settings, especially for outcome analysis, clinical decision making, and rehabilitation/disability assessment. Although goniometer measurement is clinically considered the gold standard, its accuracy compared with the true radiographic measurements of the joint angles remains questionable. The authors compared 3 smartphone applications and visual inspection measurements of the finger joints with the radiographic measurements and determined interrater reliability for these measurement tools. A finger was held in place using an aluminum-alloy splint, and a fluoroscopic image was acquired by a mini C-arm. An independent observer measured each joint flexion angle of the fluoroscopic image using a universal handheld goniometer, and this was used as the reference. Finger joint flexion angles were then independently measured by 3 observers using 3 different smartphone applications. In addition, visual inspection was used to estimate the flexion angles of finger joints. The results of this study suggest that all 3 smartphone measurement tools, as well as visual inspection, agree and correlate well with the reference fluoroscopic image measurement. Average differences between the fluoroscopic image measurements with the measured angles using the tools studied ranged from 9.4° to 12.2°. The mean correlation coefficients for each smartphone application exceeded 0.7. Overall interrater reliabilities were similar, with the interclass correlation coefficient being greater than 0.9 for all of the measurement tools. These data suggest that new smartphone applications hold promise for providing accurate and reliable measures of range of motion. [Orthopedics. 201x; xx(x):xx-xx.]. Copyright 2018, SLACK Incorporated.

  9. Reliability of a test measuring transversus abdominis muscle recruitment with a pressure biofeedback unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Garnier, Katharina; Köveker, Kirstin; Rackwitz, Berid; Kober, Ulrike; Wilke, Sabine; Ewert, Thomas; Stucki, Gerold

    2009-03-01

    There are indications that segmental stabilising exercises (SSEs) are effective in the treatment of low back pain. The evaluation of successful training in SSE performance in patients requires a reliable outcome measure. The PRONE test gives an indication of the activity of the transversus abdominis muscle. Performed in prone lying using a pressure biofeedback unit, it has been used as an aid to training and to assess the subject's ability to perform SSEs correctly. To evaluate inter-observer and test-retest reliability of the PRONE test. Repeated measures by three observers on 2 days. Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Ludwig-Maximilian University, Munich, Germany. Forty nurses (39 females and one male), aged between 24 and 62 years, with at least one episode of low back pain. During the test, movement of the abdominal wall was monitored by measuring a change in pressure during muscle contraction termed 'abdominal hollowing'. Defined observation and palpation criteria were verified by the observers to ensure correct execution of the test. Participants were tested on two separate days. On the first day, Observer A performed two similar test sets, each with four exercises. On the second test day, Observers B and C conducted one test set each. This study found an intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) of 0.47 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.20 to 0.67] for inter-observer reliability, and an ICC of 0.81 (95% CI 0.67 to 0.90) for test-retest reliability. Kappa values and the limits of agreement were also calculated with similar results. For this subject group, the PRONE test had relatively low inter-observer reliability but, as may be expected, higher test-retest reliability. It is suggested that by providing visual feedback, the PRONE test may enhance patients' insight into their deep abdominal muscle recruitment and thereby increase their motivation to exercise.

  10. Reliability and applicability of DSTs and bottomhole pressure measurements in Texas Gulf Coast Tertiary formations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akhter, M.S.; Kreitler, C.W. (Texas Univ., Austin, TX (USA))

    1990-01-01

    Pressure data gathered from drillstem tests (DSTs) and bottomhole pressure measurements provide critical information toward formation evaluation and can be used for an assessment of prevailing pressure regimes and their influence on the migration potential of formation fluids. Reliability of such pressure data is an issue of major concern in reservoir engineering practice and can be established through an appropriate screening procedure. 17 figs., 10 refs.

  11. Reliability of Wearable Inertial Measurement Units to Measure Physical Activity in Team Handball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luteberget, Live S; Holme, Benjamin R; Spencer, Matt

    2017-09-05

    The purpose of this study was to assess the reliability and sensitivity of commercially available inertial measurement units (IMU) to measure physical activity in team handball. Twenty-two handball players were instrumented with two IMUs (OptimEye S5, Catapult Sports, Australia) taped together. They participated in either a laboratory assessment (n=10), consisting of seven team handball specific tasks, or field assessment (n=12) conducted in twelve training sessions. Variables, including PlayerLoad™ and inertial movement analysis (IMA) magnitude and counts, were extracted from the manufactures software. IMA count was divided into intensity bands of low (1.5-2.5m·s-1), medium (2.5-3.5m·s-1), high (>3.5m·s-1), medium/high (>2.5m·s-1), and total (>1.5m·s-1). Reliability between devices and sensitivity was established using coefficient of variation (CV) and smallest worthwhile difference (SWD). Laboratory assessment : IMA magnitude showed a good reliability (CV: 3.1%) in well-controlled tasks. CV increased (4.4-6.7%) in more complex tasks. Field assessment : Total IMA count (CV: 1.8%, SWD: 2.5%), PlayerLoad™ (CV: 0.9 % SWD: 2.1%), and its associated variables (CV: 0.4-1.7%) showed a good reliability, well below the SWD. However, the CV of IMA increased when categorized into intensity bands (2.9-5.6%). The reliability of IMA count were good, when data was displayed as total, high or medium/high counts. A good reliability for PlayerLoad™ and associated variables was evident. The CV of the aforementioned variables was well below the SWD, suggesting that OptimEye IMU and its software are sensitive for use in team handball.

  12. Reliability and criterion validity of self-measured waist, hip, and neck circumferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela Barrios

    2016-05-01

    .e., mean difference ranged from −0.13 to 0.06 inches with nearly all (≥93 % differences within Bland-Altman limits of agreement and <10 % exceeding the a priori clinically meaningful difference criterion. Conclusions This study has demonstrated a simple, inexpensive method for teaching novice mothers of young children to take their own body circumferences resulting in accurate, reliable data. Thus, collecting self-measured and self-reported circumference data in future studies may be a feasible approach in research protocols that has potential to expand our knowledge of body composition beyond that provided by self-reported body mass indexes.

  13. THE RELIABILITY AND ACCURACY OF THE TRIPLE MEASUREMENTS OF ANALOG PROCESS VARIABLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Anishchenko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The increase in unit capacity of electric equipment as well as complication of technological processes, devices control and management of the latter in power plants and substations demonstrate the need to improve the reliability and accuracy of measurement information characterizing the state of the objects being managed. The mentioned objective is particularly important for nuclear power plants, where the price of inaccuracy of measurement responsible process variables is particularly high and the error might lead to irreparable consequences. Improving the reliability and accuracy of measurements along with the improvement of the element base is provided by methods of operational validation. These methods are based on the use of information redundancy (structural, topological, temporal. In particular, information redundancy can be achieved by the simultaneous measurement of one analog variable by two (duplication or three devices (triplication i.e., triple redundancy. The problem of operational control of the triple redundant system of measurement of electrical analog variables (currents, voltages, active and reactive power and energy is considered as a special case of signal processing by an orderly sampling on the basis of majority transformation and transformation being close to majority one. Difficulties in monitoring the reliability of measurements are associated with the two tasks. First, one needs to justify the degree of truncation of the distributions of random errors of measurements and allowable residuals of the pairwise differences of the measurement results. The second task consists in formation of the algorithm of joint processing of a set of separate measurements determined as valid. The quality of control is characterized by the reliability, which adopted the synonym of validity, and accuracy of the measuring system. Taken separately, these indicators might lead to opposite results. A compromise solution is therefore proposed

  14. Reliability and Minimum Detectable Change of Temporal-Spatial, Kinematic, and Dynamic Stability Measures during Perturbed Gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rábago, Christopher A; Dingwell, Jonathan B; Wilken, Jason M

    2015-01-01

    detectable change values, supporting their use for tracking changes over multiple testing sessions. The between-session reliability and minimum detectable change values reported here provide an objective means for interpreting changes in temporal-spatial, kinematic variability, and dynamic stability measures during perturbed walking which may assist in identifying instability.

  15. Reliability and validity of thickness measurements of the supraspinatus muscle of the shoulder: an ultrasonography study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temes, William C; Temes Clifton, Amy; Hilton, Valerie; Girard, Leslie; Strait, Neisha; Karduna, Andrew

    2014-04-11

    The supraspinatus is the most commonly affected muscle with rotator-cuff pathology and necessary for stability of the humeral head in the glenoid fossa. Rehabilitative ultrasound imaging (RUSI) of skeletal muscles provides a safe and clinically accessible measure of intact human muscle function at rest or during contracted states. The ability to perform accurate assessment of supraspinatus function has not been studied and may be of value in assessment and treatment. To determine the validity and reliability of measures obtained using RUSI for assessing supraspinatus muscle at rest and contracted conditions. Reliability and validity Outpatient physical therapy clinic. 15 asymptomatic subjects age 30-49 y. The supraspinatus muscle was measured at rest and contracted with a 0.9-kg weight with the arm positioned in 45° of abduction in the plane of the scapula. Repeated ultrasound images of the supraspinatus were collected by 3 physical therapists on 2 separate days. Reliability was assessed with the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and standard error of the measurement (SEM). Validity was tested by comparing mean difference between active and passive states for all 3 raters on both days. All ICC values were found to be at .9 or above. In addition, for all days and raters, the active condition was significantly thicker than the passive condition (P RUSI, during passive and active conditions, demonstrate high interrater and intrarater reliability and can easily distinguish between active and passive states. These findings suggest that RUSI may provide an appropriate quantitative measure for changes in the thickness of supraspinatus that are important for determining improvement or deterioration in muscle function.

  16. Markerless motion capture can provide reliable 3D gait kinematics in the sagittal and frontal plane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandau, Martin; Koblauch, Henrik; Moeslund, Thomas B; Aanæs, Henrik; Alkjær, Tine; Simonsen, Erik B

    2014-09-01

    Estimating 3D joint rotations in the lower extremities accurately and reliably remains unresolved in markerless motion capture, despite extensive studies in the past decades. The main problems have been ascribed to the limited accuracy of the 3D reconstructions. Accordingly, the purpose of the present study was to develop a new approach based on highly detailed 3D reconstructions in combination with a translational and rotational unconstrained articulated model. The highly detailed 3D reconstructions were synthesized from an eight camera setup using a stereo vision approach. The subject specific articulated model was generated with three rotational and three translational degrees of freedom for each limb segment and without any constraints to the range of motion. This approach was tested on 3D gait analysis and compared to a marker based method. The experiment included ten healthy subjects in whom hip, knee and ankle joint were analysed. Flexion/extension angles as well as hip abduction/adduction closely resembled those obtained from the marker based system. However, the internal/external rotations, knee abduction/adduction and ankle inversion/eversion were less reliable. Copyright © 2014 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Mixed Matrix Method Provides A Reliable Metabolite Exposure Comparison for Assessment of Metabolites in Safety Testing (MIST).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Ryan H; Khojasteh, Cyrus; Wright, Matthew; Hop, Cornelis E C A; Ma, Shuguang

    2017-11-17

    The regulatory guidances on metabolites in safety testing (MIST) by US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and International Conference on Harmonisation (ICH) describe the necessity to assess exposures of major circulating metabolites in humans at steady state relative to exposures achieved in nonclinical safety studies prior to the initiation of large scale clinical trials. This comparison can be accomplished by measuring metabolite concentrations in animals and humans with validated bioanalytical methods. However, bioanalysis of metabolites in multiple species and multiple studies is resource intensive and may impact the timelines of clinical studies. A simple, reliable and accurate method has been developed for quantitative assessment of metabolite coverage in preclinical safety species by mixing equal volume of human plasma with blank plasma of animal species and vice versa followed by an analysis using LC-SRM or LC-HRMS. Here, we explored the reliability and accuracy of this method in several development projects at Genentech and compared the results to those obtained from validated bioanalytical methods. The mixed-matrix method provided comparable accuracy (within ±20%) to those obtained from validated bioanalysis but does not require authentic standards or radiolabeled compounds, which could translate to time and resource savings in drug development. Quantitative assessment of metabolite coverage in safety species can be made using mixed matrix method with similar accuracy and scientific rigor to those obtained from validated bioanalytical methods. Moving forward, we are encouraging the industry and regulators to consider accepting the mixed matrix method for assessing metabolite exposure comparisons between humans and animal species used in toxicology studies. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  18. Opportunities for measuring wheelchair kinematics in match settings; reliability of a three inertial sensor configuration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Slikke, R M A; Berger, M A M; Bregman, D J J; Lagerberg, A H; Veeger, H E J

    2015-09-18

    Knowledge of wheelchair kinematics during a match is prerequisite for performance improvement in wheelchair basketball. Unfortunately, no measurement system providing key kinematic outcomes proved to be reliable in competition. In this study, the reliability of estimated wheelchair kinematics based on a three inertial measurement unit (IMU) configuration was assessed in wheelchair basketball match-like conditions. Twenty participants performed a series of tests reflecting different motion aspects of wheelchair basketball. During the tests wheelchair kinematics were simultaneously measured using IMUs on wheels and frame, and a 24-camera optical motion analysis system serving as gold standard. Results showed only small deviations of the IMU method compared to the gold standard, once a newly developed skid correction algorithm was applied. Calculated Root Mean Square Errors (RMSE) showed good estimates for frame displacement (RMSE≤0.05 m) and speed (RMSE≤0.1m/s), except for three truly vigorous tests. Estimates of frame rotation in the horizontal plane (RMSE0.90), rotational speed (ICC>0.99) and IRC (ICC> 0.90) showed high correlations between IMU data and gold standard. IMU based estimation of wheelchair kinematics provided reliable results, except for brief moments of wheel skidding in truly vigorous tests. The IMU method is believed to enable prospective research in wheelchair basketball match conditions and contribute to individual support of athletes in everyday sports practice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Reliability of blood pressure measurement and cardiovascular risk prediction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Hoeven, N.V.

    2016-01-01

    High blood pressure is one of the leading risk factors for cardiovascular disease, but difficult to reliably assess because there are many factors which can influence blood pressure including stress, exercise or illness. The first part of this thesis focuses on possible ways to improve the

  20. Measuring workplace travel behaviour: validity and reliability of survey questions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petrunoff, N.A.; Xu, H.; Rissel, C.; Wen, L.M.; van der Ploeg, H.P.

    2013-01-01

    Background. The purpose of this study was to assess the (previously untested) reliability and validity of survey questions commonly used to assess travel mode and travel time. Methods. Sixty-five respondents from a staff survey of travel behaviour conducted in a south-western Sydney hospital agreed

  1. Validity and reliability of using photography for measuring knee range of motion: a methodological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naylor, Justine M; Ko, Victoria; Adie, Sam; Gaskin, Clive; Walker, Richard; Harris, Ian A; Mittal, Rajat

    2011-04-18

    . For intra- and inter-rater reliability, the mean differences (within 2 degrees) and 95% limits of agreement (within 5 degrees) were generally clinically acceptable for both methods. Photography potentially offers a superior method of measurement over standard goniometry as visualising the centre of the knee is simplified in a two-dimensional plane and the permanent record provides greater assessor transparency as well as opportunity to confer. The Marker and Line of Femur Methods have moderate to substantial validity, but the inter- and intra-rater repeatability for trained observers are excellent with both methods yielding small mean differences with narrow limits of agreement. The Line of Femur Method offers the added advantage that it does not rely on inter-clinician consistency in identifying the greater trochanter.

  2. Measuring sequences of keystrokes with jsPsych: Reliability of response times and interkeystroke intervals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinet, S; Zielinski, C; Mathôt, S; Dufau, S; Alario, F-X; Longcamp, M

    2017-06-01

    Although the precision and reliability of response time (RT) measurements performed via Web-based interfaces have been evaluated, sequences of keystrokes have never been investigated in detail. Keystrokes often occur in much more rapid succession than RTs, and operating systems may interpret successive or concomitant keyboard events according to both automatic and user-based settings. Sequence keystroke timing could thus be more sensitive than single RTs to noise in online measurements. Here, we quantified the precision and reliability of timing measures performed during sequences of keystrokes. We used the JavaScript jsPsych library to create an experiment involving finger-movement sequences, and ran it online with 633 participants. We manipulated the structure of three keystroke motor sequences, targeting a replication of previous findings regarding both RTs and interkeystroke intervals (IKIs). Our online data accurately reproduced the original results and allowed for a novel assessment of demographic variables such as age and gender. In parallel, we also measured the objective timing accuracy of the jsPsych interface by using specialized hardware and software, showing a constant 60-ms delay for RTs and a 0-ms delay for IKIs across the sequences. The distribution of IKIs revealed quantizing for a majority of participants, most likely due to the sampling frequency of their USB keyboards. Overall, these findings indicate that JsPsych provides good reliability and accuracy in sequence keystroke timings for mental chronometry purposes, through online recordings.

  3. THE SIMULATION DIAGNOSTIC METHODS AND REGENERATION WAYS OF REINFORCED - CONCRETE CONSTRUCTIONS OF BRIDGES IN PROVIDING THEIR OPERATING RELIABILITY AND LONGEVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. V. Savchinskiy

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of analysis of existing diagnostic methods and regeneration ways of reinforced-concrete constructions of bridges the recommendations on introduction of new modern technologies of renewal of reinforced-concrete constructions of bridges in providing their operating reliability and longevity are offered.

  4. Quantitative paraspinal muscle measurements: inter-software reliability and agreement using OsiriX and ImageJ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortin, Maryse; Battié, Michele C

    2012-06-01

    Variations in paraspinal muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) and composition, particularly of the multifidus muscle, have been of interest with respect to risk of, and recovery from, low back pain problems. Several investigators have reported on the reliability of such muscle measurements using various protocols and image analysis programs. However, there is no standard protocol for tissue segmentation, nor has there been an investigation of reliability or agreement of measurements using different software. The purpose of this study was to provide a detailed muscle measurement protocol and determine the reliability and agreement of associated paraspinal muscle composition measurements obtained with 2 commonly used image analysis programs: OsiriX and ImageJ. This was a measurement reliability study. Lumbar magnetic resonance images of 30 individuals were randomly selected from a cohort of patients with various low back conditions. Muscle CSA and composition measurements were acquired from axial T2-weighted magnetic resonance images of the multifidus muscle, the erector spinae muscle, and the 2 muscles combined at L4-L5 and S1 for each participant. All measurements were repeated twice using each software program, at least 5 days apart. The assessor was blinded to all earlier measurements. The intrarater reliability and standard error of measurement (SEM) were comparable for most measurements obtained using OsiriX or ImageJ, with reliability coefficients (intraclass correlation coefficients [ICCs]) varying between .77 and .99 for OsiriX and .78 and .99 for ImageJ. There was similarly excellent agreement between muscle composition measurements using the 2 software applications (inter-software ICCs = .81-.99). The high degree of inter-software measurement reliability may not generalize to protocols using other commercial or custom-made software. The proposed method to investigate paraspinal muscle CSA, composition, and side-to-side asymmetry was highly reliable, with

  5. Can Reliability of Multiple Component Measuring Instruments Depend on Response Option Presentation Mode?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menold, Natalja; Raykov, Tenko

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the possible dependency of composite reliability on presentation format of the elements of a multi-item measuring instrument. Using empirical data and a recent method for interval estimation of group differences in reliability, we demonstrate that the reliability of an instrument need not be the same when polarity of the…

  6. The Reliability and Validity of Bem and Allen's Measure of Cross-Situational Consistency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greaner, Jackie L.; Penner, Louis A.

    1982-01-01

    Investigated the reliability and validity of Bem and Allen's cross-situational consistency measuring technique. Results showed low reliability for Bem and Allen's test-retest, high reliability for Snyder's Self-Monitoring Scale, and significant correlation between self-reported academic behavior variability and actual grade variability. (WAS)

  7. Reliability of upright posture measurements in primary school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grimmer Karen

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Correct upright posture is considered to be a measure of good musculoskeletal health. Little is known about the usual variability of children's upright standing posture. The aim of this study was to assess differences between repeated measures of upright posture in a group of primary school children. Methods Sagittal plane photographs of usual, relaxed upright standing posture of 38 boys and girls aged 5–12 years were taken twice within an hour. Reflective markers were placed over the canthus, tragus, C7 spinous process, greater trochanter and lateral malleolus. Digitising software was used to calculate the x,y plane coordinates, from which five postural angles were calculated (trunk, neck, gaze, head on neck, lower limb. Height, weight, motor control estimates (as measured by the Brace Tests and presence of recent pain were recorded for each child, and the association between the first test measure of posture angles and these factors was assessed using linear regression and ANOVA models. Multiple ANOVA models were applied to analyse the effect of repeated testing, and significant predictors on the angles. Results Four of the five postural angles (trunk, neck, head on neck, lower limb were significantly influenced by age. As age was strongly associated with height (r2 = 0.84 and moderately associated with weight and motor control (r2 = 0.67, 0.56 respectively, these developmental parameters may well explain the age effect on angles. There was no relationship between age and pain reported on either the testing day, or recently, and there was no gender influence on any angle. There was no significant effect of repeated testing on any angle (ICC>0.93. None of the hypothesized predictors were associated with differences in angles from repeated testing. Conclusion This study outlined the variability of relaxed upright standing posture of children aged 5–12 years, when measured twice in an hour. Age influenced the size of the

  8. Measuring reliability and validity of a newly developed stress instrument: Newly Diagnosed Breast Cancer Stress Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tso-Ying; Chen, Hsing-Hsia; Yeh, Mei-Ling; Li, Hui-Ling; Chou, Kuei-Ru

    2013-09-01

    To assess the reliability and validity of a developed instrument entitled Newly Diagnosed Breast Cancer Stress Scale. Distress, clinical anxiety and depression are evident in patients with cancer, leading to poor psychosocial and quality-of-life outcomes. Instrument development study with norm-referenced measurements. Content validity was determined by expert review. Cronbach's α was used to assess internal consistency reliability and product-moment correlations were conducted. Exploratory factor analysis measured validity of items using varimax rotation method. Criterion-related validity testing used the Perceived Stress Scale and the convergent validity test of construct validity used the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. A total of 125 women pathologically diagnosed with breast cancer were interviewed on the day prior to initial breast surgery. After testing, the Newly Diagnosed Breast Cancer Stress Scale consisted of four main factors with 17 items with acceptable reliability and good validity, and its length and time to complete the questionnaire were appropriate. Internal consistency reliability of the scale was shown by Cronbach's α = 0·84, the criterion validity of Perceived Stress Scale-10 was r = 0·46 (p validity of Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-14 was r = 0·57 (p validity to measure stress in newly diagnosed patients with breast cancer. The Newly Diagnosed Breast Cancer Stress Scale can provide healthcare workers with an instrument to better identify stress levels in newly diagnosed breast cancer patients and provide valuable information when defining psychosocial care interventions. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. Citation analysis did not provide a reliable assessment of core outcome set uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Karen L; Kirkham, Jamie J; Clarke, Mike; Williamson, Paula R

    2017-06-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate citation analysis as an approach to measuring core outcome set (COS) uptake, by assessing whether the number of citations for a COS report could be used as a surrogate measure of uptake of the COS by clinical trialists. Citation data were obtained for COS reports published before 2010 in five disease areas (systemic sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, eczema, sepsis and critical care, and female sexual dysfunction). Those publications identified as a report of a clinical trial were examined to identify whether or not all outcomes in the COS were measured in the trial. Clinical trials measuring the relevant COS made up a small proportion of the total number of citations for COS reports. Not all trials citing a COS report measured all the recommended outcomes. Some trials cited the COS reports for other reasons, including the definition of a condition or other trial design issues addressed by the COS report. Although citation data can be readily accessed, it should not be assumed that the citing of a COS report indicates that a trial has measured the recommended COS. Alternative methods for assessing COS uptake are needed. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Intra and intersession reliability of balance measures during one-leg standing in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muehlbauer, Thomas; Roth, Ralf; Mueller, Sylvana; Granacher, Urs

    2011-08-01

    A study was designed to investigate the intra and intersession reliability during 1-leg standing recorded from a computerized balance platform. Thirty-nine healthy young men (n = 17, age range: 20-30 years) and women (n = 22, age range: 21-28 years) performed 3 testing sessions, with the second session 30 minutes (intrasession comparison) and the third session 1 week (intersession comparison) after the initial testing session. Within each testing session, participants completed 3 trials of 1-leg standing with their dominant leg. Reliability statistics were calculated using the mean of all 3 trials during each session for 6 balance measures (i.e., total displacements of the center of pressure [CoP], the CoP displacements in mediolateral and anterior-posterior directions, and the CoP speed and CoP area and their SD). Test-retest reliability was examined calculating both, intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) with 95% confidence interval (95% CI) and Bland-Altman plots. In both sexes and irrespective of balance measure, ICC values were ≥0.75 except for 1 parameter in men. This indicates an excellent intra and intersession reliability. Bland-Altman plots confirmed these findings by showing that only 1 or 2 (4.5-11.8%) of the data points were beyond the 95% CI. Practitioners and clinicians are provided with a posturographic test setup that proved to be reliable. Researchers can use these data to identify the range in which the true value of a subject's score lies and estimate a priori sample sizes.

  11. Reliability of Pressure Ulcer Rates: How Precisely Can We Differentiate Among Hospital Units, and Does the Standard Signal‐Noise Reliability Measure Reflect This Precision?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Emily

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Hospital performance reports often include rankings of unit pressure ulcer rates. Differentiating among units on the basis of quality requires reliable measurement. Our objectives were to describe and apply methods for assessing reliability of hospital‐acquired pressure ulcer rates and evaluate a standard signal‐noise reliability measure as an indicator of precision of differentiation among units. Quarterly pressure ulcer data from 8,199 critical care, step‐down, medical, surgical, and medical‐surgical nursing units from 1,299 US hospitals were analyzed. Using beta‐binomial models, we estimated between‐unit variability (signal) and within‐unit variability (noise) in annual unit pressure ulcer rates. Signal‐noise reliability was computed as the ratio of between‐unit variability to the total of between‐ and within‐unit variability. To assess precision of differentiation among units based on ranked pressure ulcer rates, we simulated data to estimate the probabilities of a unit's observed pressure ulcer rate rank in a given sample falling within five and ten percentiles of its true rank, and the probabilities of units with ulcer rates in the highest quartile and highest decile being identified as such. We assessed the signal‐noise measure as an indicator of differentiation precision by computing its correlations with these probabilities. Pressure ulcer rates based on a single year of quarterly or weekly prevalence surveys were too susceptible to noise to allow for precise differentiation among units, and signal‐noise reliability was a poor indicator of precision of differentiation. To ensure precise differentiation on the basis of true differences, alternative methods of assessing reliability should be applied to measures purported to differentiate among providers or units based on quality. © 2016 The Authors. Research in Nursing & Health published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27223598

  12. Brief measure for screening complicated grief: reliability and discriminant validity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaya Ito

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Complicated grief, which is often under-recognized and under-treated, can lead to substantial impairment in functioning. The Brief Grief Questionnaire (BGQ is a 5-item self-report or interview instrument for screening complicated grief. Although investigations with help-seeking samples suggest that the BGQ is valid and reliable, it has not been validated in a broader population. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A questionnaire was mailed to a randomly selected sample (n = 5000 residing in one of 4 areas of Japan. The BCQ was examined for responders who were bereaved more than 6 months and less than 10 years (n = 915. Non-specific psychological distress was assessed with the K6 screening scale. Multiple group confirmatory factor analysis supported a uni-dimensional factor structure and the invariance of parameters across gender and age. Cronbach's alpha was sufficiently high (alpha = .75 to confirm internal consistency. Average Variance Extracted (0.39 was higher than the shared covariance (0.14 between BGQ and K6, suggesting discriminant validity. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study support the reliability and validity of the BGQ in the Japanese population. Future studies should examine predictive validity by using structured interviews or more detailed scales for complicated grief.

  13. The evidence provided by a single trial is less reliable than its statistical analysis suggests.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borm, G.F.; Lemmers, F.A.M.O.; Fransen, J.; Donders, A.R.T.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether a single trial can provide sufficiently robust evidence to warrant clinical implementation of its results. Trial-specific factors, such as subject selection, study design, and execution strategy, have an impact on the outcome of trials. In multiple trials, they may

  14. Citizen science provides a reliable and scalable tool to track disease-carrying mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, John R B; Oltra, Aitana; Collantes, Francisco; Delgado, Juan Antonio; Lucientes, Javier; Delacour, Sarah; Bengoa, Mikel; Eritja, Roger; Bartumeus, Frederic

    2017-10-24

    Recent outbreaks of Zika, chikungunya and dengue highlight the importance of better understanding the spread of disease-carrying mosquitoes across multiple spatio-temporal scales. Traditional surveillance tools are limited by jurisdictional boundaries and cost constraints. Here we show how a scalable citizen science system can solve this problem by combining citizen scientists' observations with expert validation and correcting for sampling effort. Our system provides accurate early warning information about the Asian tiger mosquito (Aedes albopictus) invasion in Spain, well beyond that available from traditional methods, and vital for public health services. It also provides estimates of tiger mosquito risk comparable to those from traditional methods but more directly related to the human-mosquito encounters that are relevant for epidemiological modelling and scalable enough to cover the entire country. These results illustrate how powerful public participation in science can be and suggest citizen science is positioned to revolutionize mosquito-borne disease surveillance worldwide.

  15. Can CT measurements of femoral varus be performed reliably – even between reconstructions?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miles, James Edward; Berg-Sørensen, Kristina; Buelund, Lene Elisabeth

    of their own reconstructions, and measurement reliability was assessed using the repeatability coefficient. The repeatability coefficient represents the interval within which two measurements on the same patient are expected to fall in 95% of cases. Coordinate data from one set of reconstructions and the spin...... area of 0.59 deg2. Surprisingly, reconstruction variability produced minimal effects on simulated varus measurements in contrast to previous experimental reports. Possible explanations include changing landmark appearance which cannot be modelled and lower magnitude of femoral subtense (procurvatum......) in our specimens. CT varus measurements can be performed with clinically relevant levels of precision, regardless of experience level. Provided strict reconstruction criteria are followed, reconstruction variability will be low and likely to have little influence on the values obtained....

  16. Reliability and Validity of Selected PROMIS Measures in People with Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan J Bartlett

    Full Text Available To evaluate the reliability and validity of 11 PROMIS measures to assess symptoms and impacts identified as important by people with rheumatoid arthritis (RA.Consecutive patients (N = 177 in an observational study completed PROMIS computer adapted tests (CATs and a short form (SF assessing pain, fatigue, physical function, mood, sleep, and participation. We assessed test-test reliability and internal consistency using correlation and Cronbach's alpha. We assessed convergent validity by examining Pearson correlations between PROMIS measures and existing measures of similar domains and known groups validity by comparing scores across disease activity levels using ANOVA.Participants were mostly female (82% and white (83% with mean (SD age of 56 (13 years; 24% had ≤ high school, 29% had RA ≤ 5 years with 13% ≤ 2 years, and 22% were disabled. PROMIS Physical Function, Pain Interference and Fatigue instruments correlated moderately to strongly (rho's ≥ 0.68 with corresponding PROs. Test-retest reliability ranged from .725-.883, and Cronbach's alpha from .906-.991. A dose-response relationship with disease activity was evident in Physical Function with similar trends in other scales except Anger.These data provide preliminary evidence of reliability and construct validity of PROMIS CATs to assess RA symptoms and impacts, and feasibility of use in clinical care. PROMIS instruments captured the experiences of RA patients across the broad continuum of RA symptoms and function, especially at low disease activity levels. Future research is needed to evaluate performance in relevant subgroups, assess responsiveness and identify clinically meaningful changes.

  17. Reliability and validity of a new instrument to measure tolerance of everyday risk for children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, A; Bundy, A C

    2014-01-01

    A modicum of everyday risk provides opportunities for children to extend the limits of their competence. However, increasingly negative perceptions of risk have led to risk-averse behaviours in adults, including severely restricting children's play. The degree to which risk in play is tolerated by adults impacts on the lives and experiences of children. However, no measure of adult tolerance to everyday risk exists. The purpose of this study was to develop a valid and reliable instrument examining adults' tolerances of risk during children's play. A 31-item survey of risk tolerance was developed based on a Norwegian model of risky play; 100 parents and teachers of children aged 3 to 13 years completed the instrument. Data were subjected to Rasch analysis. Psychometric properties of the data were examined. Iterative analyses produced an instrument with goodness of fit statistics in the acceptable range, a logical item hierarchy, person separation index >2 and reliability index of 0.87. There was a strong positive relationship between participants' self-perceived risk tolerance and scores on the instrument, and between the age of the child and scores on the instrument. The Tolerance of Risk in Play Scale (TRiPS) yields valid and reliable data for measuring the success of interventions to change adults' everyday risk beliefs, and for exploring the impact of adults' risk tolerance on children's play and development. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Can high resolution 3D topographic surveys provide reliable grain size estimates in gravel bed rivers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, E.; Smith, M. W.; Klaar, M. J.; Brown, L. E.

    2017-09-01

    High resolution topographic surveys such as those provided by Structure-from-Motion (SfM) contain a wealth of information that is not always exploited in the generation of Digital Elevation Models (DEMs). In particular, several authors have related sub-metre scale topographic variability (or 'surface roughness') to sediment grain size by deriving empirical relationships between the two. In fluvial applications, such relationships permit rapid analysis of the spatial distribution of grain size over entire river reaches, providing improved data to drive three-dimensional hydraulic models, allowing rapid geomorphic monitoring of sub-reach river restoration projects, and enabling more robust characterisation of riverbed habitats. However, comparison of previously published roughness-grain-size relationships shows substantial variability between field sites. Using a combination of over 300 laboratory and field-based SfM surveys, we demonstrate the influence of inherent survey error, irregularity of natural gravels, particle shape, grain packing structure, sorting, and form roughness on roughness-grain-size relationships. Roughness analysis from SfM datasets can accurately predict the diameter of smooth hemispheres, though natural, irregular gravels result in a higher roughness value for a given diameter and different grain shapes yield different relationships. A suite of empirical relationships is presented as a decision tree which improves predictions of grain size. By accounting for differences in patch facies, large improvements in D50 prediction are possible. SfM is capable of providing accurate grain size estimates, although further refinement is needed for poorly sorted gravel patches, for which c-axis percentiles are better predicted than b-axis percentiles.

  19. Assessing the reliability and validity of television and game violence exposure measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fikkers, K.M.; Taylor Piotrowski, J.; Valkenburg, P.M.

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluated whether common self-report measures of television and game violence exposure represent reliable and valid measurement tools. Three self-report measures—direct estimates, user-rated favorites, and agency-rated favorites—were assessed in terms of test-retest reliability, criterion

  20. Physical exposure of sign language interpreters: baseline measures and reliability analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delisle, Alain; Larivière, Christian; Imbeau, Daniel; Durand, Marie-José

    2005-07-01

    Measurement of physical exposure to musculoskeletal disorder risk factors must generally be performed directly in the field to assess the effectiveness of ergonomic interventions. To perform such an evaluation, the reliability of physical exposure measures under similar field conditions must be known. The objectives of this study were to estimate the reliability of physical exposure measures performed in the field and to establish the baseline values of physical exposure in sign language interpreters (SLI) before the implementation of an intervention. The electromyography (EMG) of the trapezius muscles as well as the wrist motions of the dominant arm were measured using goniometry on nine SLI on four different days. Several exposure parameters, proposed in the literature, were computed and the generalizability theory was used as a framework to assess reliability. Overall, SLI showed a relatively low level of trapezius muscle activity, but with little time at rest, and highly dynamic wrist motions. Electromyography exposure parameters showed poor to moderate reliability, while goniometry parameter reliability was moderate to excellent. For EMG parameters, performing repeated measurements on different days was more effective in increasing reliability than extending the duration of the measurement over one day. For goniometry, repeating measurements on different days was also effective in improving reliability, although good reliability could be obtained with a single sufficiently long measurement period.

  1. Inter-rater and intra-rater reliability of a clinical protocol for measuring turnout in collegiate dancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Amanda; Lasner, Andrea; Deu, Rajwinder; Oliphant, Seth; Johnson, Kenneth

    2018-02-02

    Reliable methods of measuring turnout in dancers and comparing active turnout (used in class) with functional (uncompensated) turnout are needed. Authors have suggested measurement techniques but there is no clinically useful, easily reproducible technique with established inter-rater and intra-rater reliability. We adapted a technique based on previous research, which is easily reproducible. We hypothesized excellent inter-rater and intra-rater reliability between experienced physical therapists (PTs) and a briefly trained faculty member from a university's department of dance. Thirty-two participants were recruited from the same dance department. Dancers' active and functional turnout was measured by each rater. We found that our technique for measuring active and functional turnout has excellent inter-rater and intra-rater reliability when performed by two experienced PTs and by one briefly trained university-level dance faculty member. For active turnout, inter-rater reliability was 0.78 among all raters and 0.82 among only the PT raters; intra-rater reliability was 0.82 among all raters and 0.85 among only the PT raters. For functional turnout, inter-rater reliability was 0.86 among all raters and 0.88 among only the PT raters; intra-rater reliability was 0.87 among all raters and 0.88 among only the PT raters. The measurement technique described provides a standardized protocol with excellent inter-rater and intra-rater reliability when performed by experienced PTs or by a briefly trained university-level dance faculty member.

  2. The Reliability of Randomly Generated Math Curriculum-Based Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strait, Gerald G.; Smith, Bradley H.; Pender, Carolyn; Malone, Patrick S.; Roberts, Jarod; Hall, John D.

    2015-01-01

    "Curriculum-Based Measurement" (CBM) is a direct method of academic assessment used to screen and evaluate students' skills and monitor their responses to academic instruction and intervention. Interventioncentral.org offers a math worksheet generator at no cost that creates randomly generated "math curriculum-based measures"…

  3. Reliability and Validity of Computerized Force Platform Measures of Balance Function in Healthy Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harro, Cathy C; Garascia, Chelsea

    2018-01-10

    Postural control declines with aging and is an independent risk factor for falls in older adults. Objective examination of balance function is warranted to direct fall prevention strategies. Force platform (FP) systems provide quantitative measures of postural control and analysis of different aspects of balance. The purpose of this study was to examine the reliability and validity of FP measures in healthy older adults. This study enrolled 46 healthy elderly adults, mean age 67.67 (5.1) years, who had no history of falls. They were assessed on 3 standardized tests on the NeuroCom Equitest FP system: limits of stability (LOS), motor control test (MCT), and sensory organization test (SOT). The test battery was administered twice within a 10-day period for test-retest reliability; intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs), standard error of measurement (SEM), and minimal detectable change based on a 95% confidence interval (MDC95) were calculated. FP measures were compared with criterion clinical balance (Mini-BESTest and Functional Gait Assessment) and gait (10-m walk and 6-minute walk) measures to examine concurrent validity using Pearson correlation coefficients. Multiple linear regression analysis examined whether age and activity level were associated with FP performance. The α level was set at P learning effects were evident, particularly for the SOT. The SEM and MDC95 for the LOS and SOT measures were relatively large for this healthy elderly cohort. A relationship between FP measures, which assess underlying balance mechanisms, and clinical balance and gait measures was not strongly supported in this study. Further research is needed to justify the value of adding FP measures to a test battery for balance assessment in older adults without a history of falls.

  4. Measurement-based reliability prediction methodology. M.S. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linn, Linda Shen

    1991-01-01

    In the past, analytical and measurement based models were developed to characterize computer system behavior. An open issue is how these models can be used, if at all, for system design improvement. The issue is addressed here. A combined statistical/analytical approach to use measurements from one environment to model the system failure behavior in a new environment is proposed. A comparison of the predicted results with the actual data from the new environment shows a close correspondence.

  5. The role of test-retest reliability in measuring individual and group differences in executive functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paap, Kenneth R; Sawi, Oliver

    2016-12-01

    Studies testing for individual or group differences in executive functioning can be compromised by unknown test-retest reliability. Test-retest reliabilities across an interval of about one week were obtained from performance in the antisaccade, flanker, Simon, and color-shape switching tasks. There is a general trade-off between the greater reliability of single mean RT measures, and the greater process purity of measures based on contrasts between mean RTs in two conditions. The individual differences in RT model recently developed by Miller and Ulrich was used to evaluate the trade-off. Test-retest reliability was statistically significant for 11 of the 12 measures, but was of moderate size, at best, for the difference scores. The test-retest reliabilities for the Simon and flanker interference scores were lower than those for switching costs. Standard practice evaluates the reliability of executive-functioning measures using split-half methods based on data obtained in a single day. Our test-retest measures of reliability are lower, especially for difference scores. These reliability measures must also take into account possible day effects that classical test theory assumes do not occur. Measures based on single mean RTs tend to have acceptable levels of reliability and convergent validity, but are "impure" measures of specific executive functions. The individual differences in RT model shows that the impurity problem is worse than typically assumed. However, the "purer" measures based on difference scores have low convergent validity that is partly caused by deficiencies in test-retest reliability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Myotonometry Reliably Measures Muscle Stiffness in the Thenar and Perineal Muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Melissa J; Bryant, Adam L; Bower, Wendy F; Frawley, Helena C

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The authors investigated the reliability of myotonometry-measured muscle tone in the thenar and perineal muscles. Methods: Participants were women aged 18-50 years who were asymptomatic for thumb and pelvic floor dysfunction (interrater study n=20; intrarater study n=43) or who were symptomatic for vulvodynia (interrater study n=14; intrarater study n=32). Mechanical properties (stiffness, frequency, decrement, relaxation time, and creep) of the muscles were measured using a myotonometer (MyotonPRO) while the muscles were in a relaxed state. Measures were performed twice by two assessors. Intra- and interrater reliability were determined using intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs) and absolute reliability using the standard error of measurement and a minimum detectable change. Results: The primary property of interest, muscle stiffness, showed very good interrater (ICC 0.85-0.86) and intrarater (ICC 0.82-0.88) reliability in the thenar eminence. In the perineal muscles, reliability results ranged from good to very good for interrater (ICC 0.70-0.86) and intrarater (ICC 0.80-0.91) reliability for muscle stiffness. Absolute reliability was confirmed, with all measures showing minimal variance. Conclusions: Muscle stiffness of the smaller muscles of the body can be reliably measured using the MyotonPRO. The device could be used as a reference standard in the development of a digital palpation scale that would facilitate accurate diagnosis of muscle tone.

  7. Reliability of the compensation comparison stray-light measurement method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppens, Joris E; Franssen, Luuk; van Rijn, L J; van den Berg, Thomas J T P

    2006-01-01

    The compensation comparison (CC) method is a psychophysical technique to measure retinal stray light. It uses a two alternative forced choice (2AFC) measurement paradigm. The 25 binary (0 and 1) responses resulting from the 2AFC test are analyzed using maximum likelihood estimates. The likelihood function is used to give two quantities: the most likely stray-light level of the eye under investigation, and the accuracy of this estimate [called expected standard deviation (ESD)]. The CC method is used in 2422 subjects of the GLARE study. Each eye is tested twice to allow analysis of measurement repeatability. Furthermore, the large amount of responses is used to evaluate the shape of the psychometric function, for which a mathematical model is used. The shape of the psychometric function found by averaging the 0 and 1 responses fit well to the model function. Data sorted according to ESD show differences in the shape of the psychometric function between good and bad observers. These different shapes for the psychometric function are used to reanalyze the data, but the stray-light results remain virtually identical. ESD proves to be an efficient tool to detect unreliable measurements. In clinical practice, ESD may be used to decide whether to repeat a measurement.

  8. Reliability of measurement of glenohumeral internal rotation, external rotation, and total arc of motion in 3 test positions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kevern, Mark A; Beecher, Michael; Rao, Smita

    2014-01-01

    .... To determine intrarater reliability, interrater reliability, and standard error of measurement for shoulder internal rotation, external rotation, and total arc of motion using an inclinometer in 3...

  9. How to measure wisdom: content, reliability, and validity of five measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glück, Judith; König, Susanne; Naschenweng, Katja; Redzanowski, Uwe; Dorner, Lara; Straßer, Irene; Wiedermann, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Wisdom is a field of growing interest both inside and outside academic psychology, and researchers are increasingly interested in using measures of wisdom in their work. However, wisdom is a highly complex construct, and its various operationalizations are based on quite different definitions. Which measure a researcher chooses for a particular research project may have a strong influence on the results. This study compares four well-established measures of wisdom-the Self-Assessed Wisdom Scale (Webster, 2003, 2007), the Three-Dimensional Wisdom Scale (Ardelt, 2003), the Adult Self-Transcendence Inventory (Levenson et al., 2005), and the Berlin Wisdom Paradigm (Baltes and Smith, 1990; Baltes and Staudinger, 2000)-with respect to content, reliability, factorial structure, and construct validity (relationships to wisdom nomination, interview-based wisdom ratings, and correlates of wisdom). The sample consisted of 47 wisdom nominees and 123 control participants. While none of the measures performed "better" than the others by absolute standards, recommendations are given for researchers to select the most suitable measure for their substantive interests. In addition, a "Brief Wisdom Screening Scale" is introduced that contains those 20 items from the three self-report scales that were most highly correlated with the common factor across the scales.

  10. Measuring reliable change of emotional and behavioural problems in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iachina, Maria; Bilenberg, Niels

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate true treatment effect measured by clinicians using the Health of the Nation Outcome Scale for Children and Adolescent (HoNOSCA) corrected for regression to the mean (RTM), and for ceiling and floor effects. The present study was based on routine clinical...... that if these corrections are implemented in routine outcome measurement of children diagnosed with Hyperkinetic Disorder (HKD), the estimate of change in total HoNOSCA score after adjustment is clearly smaller in absolute value than the absolute difference estimate. If RTM and the ceiling/floor effect is ignored...

  11. Comparison of ambulatory blood pressure measurement with home, office and pharmacy measurements: is arterial blood pressure measured at pharmacy reliable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutlu, Sinan; Sari, Oktay; Arslan, Erol; Aydogan, Umit; Doganer, Yusuf C; Koc, Bayram

    2016-02-01

    Standardizing arterial blood pressure (BP) measurement is difficult because of different performers like doctor or pharmacy employee. We investigated the reliability between different BP measurement methods. The study was conducted in an internal medicine service with 160 patients in Ankara, Turkey. First, the subjects' BP was measured by doctor. Then, 24-hour BP monitoring devices were placed. Participants were then instructed to measure their BPs both at home and in pharmacy. The next day, arterial BP was measured by the doctor for the second time. The prevalence rates of masked and white coat hypertension were 8.8% (n = 14) and 8.1% (n = 13), respectively. There was no statistically significant differences between ambulatory measurement and home, office and pharmacy measurements (P > 0.05). The consistency rate between ambulatory and home measurements was 97.5% (kappa = 0.947, P home measurement. There was a moderate positive correlation between ambulatory and other measurements in both systolic and diastolic values. There was a positive and very strong correlation between ambulatory and home measurements of systolic and diastolic ABP values (respectively; r = 0.926 and r = 0.968) and there was a statistically significant relation between these measurements (P home measurement when compared with ambulatory measurement. But both office and pharmacy measurements had also high sensitivity and specificity. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. The reliability analysis of a separated, dual fail operational redundant strapdown IMU. [inertial measurement unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motyka, P.

    1983-01-01

    A methodology for quantitatively analyzing the reliability of redundant avionics systems, in general, and the dual, separated Redundant Strapdown Inertial Measurement Unit (RSDIMU), in particular, is presented. The RSDIMU is described and a candidate failure detection and isolation system presented. A Markov reliability model is employed. The operational states of the system are defined and the single-step state transition diagrams discussed. Graphical results, showing the impact of major system parameters on the reliability of the RSDIMU system, are presented and discussed.

  13. Validity and reliability of using photography for measuring knee range of motion: a methodological study

    OpenAIRE

    Adie Sam; Ko Victoria; Naylor Justine M; Gaskin Clive; Walker Richard; Harris Ian A; Mittal Rajat

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The clinimetric properties of knee goniometry are essential to appreciate in light of its extensive use in the orthopaedic and rehabilitative communities. Intra-observer reliability is thought to be satisfactory, but the validity and inter-rater reliability of knee goniometry often demonstrate unacceptable levels of variation. This study tests the validity and reliability of measuring knee range of motion using goniometry and photographic records. Methods Design: Methodolo...

  14. 30 CFR 74.8 - Measurement, accuracy, and reliability requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-hour equivalent dust concentration range would be a one-hour average concentration range of: 8 hours/1... miner whose exposure is being monitored. (b) Accuracy. The ability of a CPDM to determine the true... the recorded measurements are within ± 25 percent of the true respirable dust concentration, as...

  15. Effectiveness and reliability of emergency measures for flood prevention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lendering, K.T.; Jonkman, S.N.; Kok, M.

    2014-01-01

    Floods in the summer of 2013 in Central Europe demonstrated once again that floods account for a large part of damage and loss of life caused by natural disasters. During flood threats emergency measures, such as sand bags and big bags, are often applied to strengthen the flood defences and attempt

  16. Test-retest reliability of knee kinematics measurement during gait ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACLR) is crucial to minimize the risk of joint degeneration. To achieve this, it is essential that the chosen measurement method can accurately assess knee kinematics and detect the changes in multi-planes of motion. However to date, limited ...

  17. Swedish version of measuring cultural awareness in nursing students: validity and reliability test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadziabdic, Emina; Safipour, Jalal; Bachrach-Lindström, Margareta; Hultsjö, Sally

    2016-01-01

    Nearly 20 % of the Swedish population is foreign-born. Increased exposure of patients from diverse cultures means there is an urgent need to address their unique requirements and provide optimal health care to a diverse population. Nursing schools thus have an important goal of educating nurses to ensure they are culturally competent. Culturally competent care improves safety and equity for patients. To measure cultural awareness among nursing students in Sweden, the aim of this study was to translate, adapt and test the validity and reliability of the Swedish version of a cultural awareness scale which has not previously been tested. A total of 158 nursing students from three universities in Sweden completed the 36-item questionnaire on cultural awareness. Verification of face and content validity and a translation/reverse translation process were first carried out. The results indicate that one item (no 13) caused weak reliability and validity, and therefore it was removed. The reliability test result (with 35 items) showed Cronbach's Alpha ranged from 0.60 to 0.87. The Model ChiSq group fit for five factors was 50.44 (31.27-77.06; Df = 5; p cultural settings.

  18. Application of generalizability theory in estimating the reliability of ankle-complex laxity measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitman, Robert J; Kovaleski, John E; Pugh, Steven F

    2009-01-01

    Generalizability theory is an appropriate method for determining the reliability of measurements obtained across more than a single facet. In the clinical and research settings, ankle-complex laxity assessment may be performed using different examiners and multiple trials. To determine the reliability of ankle-complex laxity measurements across different examiners and multiple trials using generalizability theory. Correlational study. Laboratory. Forty male university students without a history of ankle injury. Measures of right ankle-complex anteroposterior and inversion-eversion laxity were obtained by 2 examiners. Each examiner performed 2 anteroposterior trials, followed by 2 inversion-eversion trials for each ankle at 0 degrees of ankle flexion. Using generalizability theory, we performed G study and D study analyses. More measurement error was found for facets associated with examiner than with trial for both anteroposterior and inversion-eversion laxity. Inversion-eversion measurement was more reliable than anteroposterior laxity measurement. Although 1 examiner and 1 trial had acceptable reliability (G coefficient >/= .848), increasing the number of examiners increased reliability to a greater extent than did increasing the number of trials. Within the range of examiner and trial facets studied, any combination of examiners or trials (or both) above 1 can change ankle laxity measurement reliability from acceptable (1 examiner, 1 trial) to highly reliable (3 examiners, 3 trials). Individuals may respond to examiners and their procedural nuances differently; thus, standardized procedures are important.

  19. A measure of subjective happiness: Preliminary reliability and construct validation

    OpenAIRE

    Lyubomirsky, S; Lepper, HS

    1999-01-01

    Using a 'subjectivist' approach to the assessment of happiness, a new 4-item measure of global subjective happiness was developed and validated in 14 studies with a total of 2 732 participants. Data was collected in the United States from students on two college campuses and one high school campus, from community adults in two California cities, and from older adults. Students and community adults in Moscow, Russia also participated in this research. Results indicated that the Subjective Happ...

  20. Reliability of different body temperature measurement sites during aortic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göbölös, L; Philipp, A; Ugocsai, P; Foltan, M; Thrum, A; Miskolczi, S; Pousios, D; Khawaja, S; Budra, M; Ohri, S K

    2014-01-01

    We retrospectively performed a comparative analysis of temperature measurement sites during surgical repair of the thoracic aorta. Between January 2004 and May 2006, 22 patients (mean age: 63 ± 12 years) underwent operations on the thoracic aorta with arterial cannulation of the aortic arch concavity and selective antegrade cerebral perfusion (ACP) during deep hypothermic circulatory arrest (HCA). Indications for surgical intervention were acute type A dissection in 14 (64%) patients, degenerative aneurysm in 6 (27%), aortic infiltration of thymic carcinoma in 1 (4.5%) and intra-aortic stent refixation in 1 (4.5%). Rectal, tympanic and bladder temperatures were evaluated to identify the best reference to arterial blood temperature during HCA and ACP. There were no operative deaths and the 30-day mortality rate was 13% (three patients). Permanent neurological deficits were not observed and transient changes occurred in two patients (9%). During re-warming, there was strong correlation between tympanic and arterial blood temperatures (r = 0.9541, ptemperature (r = 0.7654, p = n.s; r = 0.7939, p = n.s., respectively). We conclude that tympanic temperature measurements correlate with arterial blood temperature monitoring during aortic surgery with HCA and ACP and, therefore, should replace bladder and rectal measurements.

  1. Assessing public health capabilities during emergency preparedness tabletop exercises: reliability and validity of a measurement tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savoia, Elena; Testa, Marcia A; Biddinger, Paul D; Cadigan, Rebecca O; Koh, Howard; Campbell, Paul; Stoto, Michael A

    2009-01-01

    Improving the ability of local public health agencies to respond to large-scale emergencies is an ongoing challenge. Tabletop exercises can provide an opportunity for individuals and groups to practice coordination of emergency response and evaluate performance. The purpose of this study was to develop a valid and reliable self-assessment performance measurement tool for tabletop exercise participants. The study population comprised 179 public officials who attended three tabletop exercises in Massachusetts and Maine between September 2005 and November 2006. A 42-item questionnaire was developed to assess five public health functional capabilities: (1) leadership and management, (2) mass casualty care, (3) communication, (4) disease control and prevention, and (5) surveillance and epidemiology. Analyses were undertaken to examine internal consistency, associations among scales, the empirical structure of the items, and inter-rater agreement. Thirty-seven questions were retained in the final questionnaire and grouped according to the original five domains. Alpha coefficients were 0.81 or higher for all scales. The five-factor solution from the principal components analysis accounted for 60% of the total variance, and the factor structure was consistent with the five domains of the original conceptual model. Inter-rater agreement ranged from good to excellent. The resulting 37-item performance measurement tool was found to reliably measure public health functional capabilities in a tabletop exercise setting, with preliminary evidence of a factor structure consistent with the original conceptualization and of criterion-related validity.

  2. Are the available apathy measures reliable and valid? A review of the psychometric evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Diana E.; Ko, Jean Y.; Kuhl, Emily A.; van Reekum, Robert; Salvador, Rocio; Marin, Robert S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Apathy is highly prevalent among neuropsychiatric populations and is associated with greater morbidity and worse functional outcomes. Despite this, it remains understudied and poorly understood, primarily due to lack of consensus definition and clear diagnostic criteria for apathy. Without a gold standard for defining and measuring apathy, the availability of empirically sound measures is imperative. This paper provides a psychometric review of the most commonly used apathy measures and provides recommendations for use and further research. Methods Pertinent literature databases were searched to identify all available assessment tools for apathy in adults aged 18 and older. Evidence of the reliability and validity of the scales were examined. Alternate variations of scales (e.g., non-English versions) were also evaluated if the validating articles were written in English. Results Fifteen apathy scales or subscales were examined. The most psychometrically robust measures for assessing apathy across any disease population appear to be the Apathy Evaluation Scale and the apathy subscale of the Neuropsychiatric Inventory based on the criteria set in this review. For assessment in specific populations, the Dementia Apathy Interview and Rating for patients with Alzheimer’s dementia, the Positive and Negative Symptom Scale for schizophrenia populations, and the Frontal System Behavior Scale for patients with fronto-temporal deficits are reliable and valid measures. Conclusion Clinicians and researchers have numerous apathy scales for use in broad and disease-specific neuropsychiatric populations. Our understanding of apathy would be advanced by research that helps build a consensus as to the definition and diagnosis of apathy, and further refine the psychometric properties of all apathy assessment tools. PMID:21193104

  3. Extreme rainfall events: evaluation with different instruments and measurement reliability

    OpenAIRE

    Saidi, Helmi; Ciampittiello, Marzia; Dresti, Claudia; Turconi, Laura

    2012-01-01

    With regard to extreme events, it is known that an intensity of about 1 mm/min already represents an extreme intensity. Under alpine conditions, a precipitation event with intensity about 3 mm/min has occurred. Therefore the rain gauges in this region have to be able to measure in this and even in higher intensity ranges. This study deals with basically automated Tipping Bucket Rain (TBR) gauge, and Bulk precipitation samplers, which allows to hold back more than 95% of the cumulative rainfal...

  4. Validity and reliability of using photography for measuring knee range of motion: a methodological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adie Sam

    2011-04-01

    for flexion compared to extension, and with the Marker compared to the Line of Femur Method. For intra- and inter-rater reliability, the mean differences (within 2 degrees and 95% limits of agreement (within 5 degrees were generally clinically acceptable for both methods. Conclusion Photography potentially offers a superior method of measurement over standard goniometry as visualising the centre of the knee is simplified in a two-dimensional plane and the permanent record provides greater assessor transparency as well as opportunity to confer. The Marker and Line of Femur Methods have moderate to substantial validity, but the inter- and intra-rater repeatability for trained observers are excellent with both methods yielding small mean differences with narrow limits of agreement. The Line of Femur Method offers the added advantage that it does not rely on inter-clinician consistency in identifying the greater trochanter.

  5. Reliable measurement of the FRET sensitized-quenching transition factor for FRET quantification in living cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiang; Zhang, Lili; Chai, Liuying; Yang, Fangfang; Du, Mengyan; Chen, Tongsheng

    2016-09-01

    3-cube-based Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) microscopy, a sensitized acceptor FRET quantification method, has been widely used to visualize dynamic protein-protein interaction in living cells. Determining the FRET sensitized-quenching transition factor (G factor) of a particular donor-acceptor pair and optical system is crucial for 3-cube FRET quantification. We here improved the acceptor photobleaching-based G factor determination method (termed as mPb-G) and the two-plasmid-based G factor determination method (termed as mTP-G) for rapid and reliable measurement of the G factor. mTP-G method determines G factor by simultaneously detecting three images of cells exclusively expressing each of two tandem constructs with multiple donors and multiple acceptors. This method circumvents switchover of the cells exclusively expressing each of the two constructs. mPb-G method images G factor by detecting three images of cells expressing a donor-acceptor tandem FRET construct before and after partially photobleaching acceptor. We performed the two methods on our dual-channel wide-field FRET microscope to obtain reliable G factor, and also measured the FRET efficiency and acceptor-to-donor concentration ratio of tandem constructs with different acceptor-donor stoichiometries in living HepG2 cells. mTP-G and mPb-G methods provide two simple and reliable tools for determining the G factor, in turn, quantitatively measuring FRET signal and monitoring dynamic biochemical processes in living cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Reliability of in-Shoe Plantar Pressure Measurements in Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidmar, Gaj; Novak, Primoz

    2009-01-01

    Plantar pressures measurement is a frequently used method in rehabilitation and related research. Metric characteristics of the F-Scan system have been assessed from different standpoints and in different patients, but not its reliability in rheumatoid arthritis patients. Therefore, our objective was to assess reliability of the F-Scan plantar…

  7. The Reliability and Validity of Discrete and Continuous Measures of Psychopathology: A Quantitative Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markon, Kristian E.; Chmielewski, Michael; Miller, Christopher J.

    2011-01-01

    In 2 meta-analyses involving 58 studies and 59,575 participants, we quantitatively summarized the relative reliability and validity of continuous (i.e., dimensional) and discrete (i.e., categorical) measures of psychopathology. Overall, results suggest an expected 15% increase in reliability and 37% increase in validity through adoption of a…

  8. Intrarater reliability of neck strength measurement of rugby union players using a handheld dynamometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geary, Kevin; Green, Brian S; Delahunt, Eamonn

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the isometric neck strength profiles of rugby union players and to assess the intrarater reliability of isometric neck strength measurement using a handheld dynamometer. Twenty-five male, academy-level, rugby union players (forwards [n = 16], backs [n = 9]) were tested on 2 occasions during a training week 2 days apart. Isometric strength of the neck musculature was tested using a handheld dynamometer, for flexion (F), extension (E), left side flexion (LSF), and right side flexion (RSF). The average of 3 trials for each test position was used for statistical analysis. The following isometric neck strength values were obtained: F, E, F:E, LSF, RSF, LSF:RSF, and total isometric strength. Intrarater reliability intraclass correlation coefficients ranged from 0.80 to 0.92 (intraclass correlation coefficient values: F, 0.85; E, 0.85; F:E, 0.85; LSF, 0.80; RSF, 0.85; LSF:RSF, 0.91; total isometric strength, 0.92), thus indicating excellent reliability in all instances. Forwards recorded significantly greater E scores compared with backs (637.10 ± 75.15 N vs 537.87 ± 82.25 N). Forwards also recoded significantly greater total isometric neck strength scores (2151.96 ± 231.11 N vs 1814.21 ± 211.26 N). The results of this study provide isometric neck strength values for the forward and back units in the rugby union and indicate that a handheld dynamometer may be a reliable tool for assessing isometric neck strength in this population. Copyright © 2013 National University of Health Sciences. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. An efficient method to measure reliability of underwater acoustic communication links

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roee Diamant

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We consider the problem of evaluating the reliability of underwater acoustic communication (UWAC systems. Reliability is a requirement for any communication system and is often defined as the probability to achieve a target bit error rate. Evaluation of system reliability is often performed empirically by conducting a large number of measurements. However, for UWAC, where experiments are expensive and time-consuming, not much data is available to perform such a reliability check. Based on the assumption that the long delay spread is the dominant characteristic of the underwater acoustic channel and for a given channel model, we offer a relaxed practical approach to evaluate the reliability of an UWAC system. As a test case, we show reliability results for the multiple input multiple output (MIMO code division multiple access (CDMA communication system.

  10. Accuracy and Reliability of the Kinect Version 2 for Clinical Measurement of Motor Function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Otte

    Full Text Available The introduction of low cost optical 3D motion tracking sensors provides new options for effective quantification of motor dysfunction.The present study aimed to evaluate the Kinect V2 sensor against a gold standard motion capture system with respect to accuracy of tracked landmark movements and accuracy and repeatability of derived clinical parameters.Nineteen healthy subjects were concurrently recorded with a Kinect V2 sensor and an optical motion tracking system (Vicon. Six different movement tasks were recorded with 3D full-body kinematics from both systems. Tasks included walking in different conditions, balance and adaptive postural control. After temporal and spatial alignment, agreement of movements signals was described by Pearson's correlation coefficient and signal to noise ratios per dimension. From these movement signals, 45 clinical parameters were calculated, including ranges of motions, torso sway, movement velocities and cadence. Accuracy of parameters was described as absolute agreement, consistency agreement and limits of agreement. Intra-session reliability of 3 to 5 measurement repetitions was described as repeatability coefficient and standard error of measurement for each system.Accuracy of Kinect V2 landmark movements was moderate to excellent and depended on movement dimension, landmark location and performed task. Signal to noise ratio provided information about Kinect V2 landmark stability and indicated larger noise behaviour in feet and ankles. Most of the derived clinical parameters showed good to excellent absolute agreement (30 parameters showed ICC(3,1 > 0.7 and consistency (38 parameters showed r > 0.7 between both systems.Given that this system is low-cost, portable and does not require any sensors to be attached to the body, it could provide numerous advantages when compared to established marker- or wearable sensor based system. The Kinect V2 has the potential to be used as a reliable and valid clinical

  11. Inter-arch digital model vs. manual cast measurements: Accuracy and reliability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiviahde, Heikki; Bukovac, Lea; Jussila, Päivi; Pesonen, Paula; Sipilä, Kirsi; Raustia, Aune; Pirttiniemi, Pertti

    2017-06-28

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the accuracy and reliability of inter-arch measurements using digital dental models and conventional dental casts. Thirty sets of dental casts with permanent dentition were examined. Manual measurements were done with a digital caliper directly on the dental casts, and digital measurements were made on 3D models by two independent examiners. Intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC), a paired sample t-test or Wilcoxon signed-rank test, and Bland-Altman plots were used to evaluate intra- and inter-examiner error and to determine the accuracy and reliability of the measurements. The ICC values were generally good for manual and excellent for digital measurements. The Bland-Altman plots of all the measurements showed good agreement between the manual and digital methods and excellent inter-examiner agreement using the digital method. Inter-arch occlusal measurements on digital models are accurate and reliable and are superior to manual measurements.

  12. A reduced factor structure for the PROQOL-HIV questionnaire provided reliable indicators of health-related quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalanne, Christophe; Chassany, Olivier; Carrieri, Patrizia; Marcellin, Fabienne; Armstrong, Andrew R; Lert, France; Spire, Bruno; Dray-Spira, Rosemary; Duracinsky, Martin

    2016-04-01

    To identify a simplified factor structure for the PROQOL-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) questionnaire to improve the measurement of the health-related quality of life (HRQL) of HIV-positive patients in clinical care and research settings. HRQL data were collected using the eight-dimension PROQOL-HIV questionnaire from 2,537 patients (VESPA2 study). Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) validated a simpler four-factor structure and assessed measurement invariance (MI). Multigroup analysis assessed the effect of sex, age, and antiretroviral therapy (ART) on the resulting factor scores. Correlations with symptom and Short Form (SF)-12 self-reports assessed convergent validity. Item analysis, EFA, and CFAs confirmed the validity [comparative fit index (CFI), 0.948; root mean square error of approximation, 0.064] and reliability (α's ≥ 0.8) of four dimensions: physical health and symptoms, health concerns and mental distress, social and intimate relationships, and treatment-related impact. Strong MI was demonstrated across sex and age (decrease in CFI indicator model indicated that HRQL correlated as expected with sex, age, and the ART status. Correlations of HRQL, symptom reports, and SF-12 scores evidenced convergent validity criterion. The simplified factor structure and scoring scheme for PROQOL-HIV will allow clinicians to monitor with greater reliability the HRQL of patients in clinical care and research settings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Measuring parental satisfaction of care quality provided in hospitalized children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spyridoula Tsironi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Measuring parental satisfaction is of major importance for pediatric hospitals and the key component of evaluating the quality of services provided to health services. Aim: To assess the degree of parental satisfaction from the care provided to their hospitalized children.Methodology: A descriptive study conducted using a convenience sample of parents of hospitalized children in two public pediatric hospitals in Athens. Data collection was completed in a period of 3 months. 352 questionnaires were collected (response rate 88%. The Pyramid Questionnaire for parents of hospitalized children was used which estimates the degree of parental satisfaction from the care provided to their hospitalized child.Results: More parents were satisfied with health care professionals’ behavior (81,9%, the supplied care (78,2% and the information provision to parents regarding the hospitalized child’s disease (71,9%. In contrast, less parents were satisfied with their hospitalized child’s involvement in care (52,3% and the accessibility to the hospital (39,5%. The overall parental satisfaction ranged in very good level (76,8% and it was higher on hospital A (78,8%, among married parents (77,4% and those not al all concerned or concerned less for child’s illness (83,1%. Logistic regression model showed that hospitalization in hospital B and the great concern for child’s illness and its complications decreased ovewrall satisfaction by 24% and 17% respectively. Conclusions: The assessment of the degree of parental satisfaction is the most important indicator of hospitals’ proper functioning. From our study certain areas need improvement, such as: the parental involvement in child’s care, information provision, the accessibility to the hospital, the communication and the interpersonal health care in order greater satisfaction to be achieved.

  14. Validating and calibrating the Nintendo Wii balance board to derive reliable center of pressure measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, Julia M; Mancini, Martina; Peterka, Robert J; Hayes, Tamara L; Horak, Fay B

    2014-09-29

    The Nintendo Wii balance board (WBB) has generated significant interest in its application as a postural control measurement device in both the clinical and (basic, clinical, and rehabilitation) research domains. Although the WBB has been proposed as an alternative to the "gold standard" laboratory-grade force plate, additional research is necessary before the WBB can be considered a valid and reliable center of pressure (CoP) measurement device. In this study, we used the WBB and a laboratory-grade AMTI force plate (AFP) to simultaneously measure the CoP displacement of a controlled dynamic load, which has not been done before. A one-dimensional inverted pendulum was displaced at several different displacement angles and load heights to simulate a variety of postural sway amplitudes and frequencies (increase in error as both sway amplitude and frequency increased and a significantly greater error in the mediolateral (ML) (compared to the anteroposterior (AP)) sway direction. There was no difference in error across the 12 WBB's, supporting low inter-device variability. A linear calibration procedure was then implemented to correct the WBB's CoP signals and reduce measurement error. There was a significant effect of calibration on the WBB's CoP signal accuracy, with a significant reduction in CoP measurement error (quantified by root-mean-squared error) from 2-6 mm (before calibration) to 0.5-2 mm (after calibration). WBB-based CoP signal calibration also significantly reduced the percent error in derived (time-domain) CoP sway measures, from -10.5% (before calibration) to -0.05% (after calibration) (percent errors averaged across all sway measures and in both sway directions). In this study, we characterized the WBB's CoP measurement error under controlled, dynamic conditions and implemented a linear calibration procedure for WBB CoP signals that is recommended to reduce CoP measurement error and provide more reliable estimates of time-domain CoP measures. Despite

  15. Reliability of measures used in radiographic evaluation of the adult hip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjarnason, J.A.; Reikeras, O. [Oslo University Hospital, Department of Orthopedics, Oslo (Norway); Pripp, A.H. [Oslo University Hospital, Department of Biostatistics, Oslo (Norway)

    2015-02-20

    The reliability of radiographic measurements has been studied in pediatric hips, but less has been published on the adult hip, and none have examined the reliability of measurements for the location of the center of rotation (COR) of the hip joint. We have investigated the reliability of various radiographic variables with a focus on the COR. The study was carried out on a standardized format for anterior-posterior radiographs of the pelvis. The measured variables were; (A) the distance from a sagittal reference line to the COR, (B) the distance from the sagittal reference line to the proximal end of the lateral cortical line of the femur, (C) the distance from the sagittal reference line to the medial rim of the acetabulum, (D) the distance from the horizontal reference line to the roof of the acetabulum, and (E) the distance from the horizontal reference line to the COR. One observer (JAB) conducted the measurements twice separated by a time interval of 45-60 days to assess intra-observer reliability, and the first measurements of JAB were compared to those performed by another observer (OR) to assess inter-observer reliability. Intraclass correlation coefficients were above 0.98 for all measurements, and the minimum and maximum values that statistically include 95 % of the observer differences were all within -3 to +3 mm. These measurements proved to have high reliability and agreement of both within the same observer and between two observers. They should therefore be reproducible in a clinical setting. (orig.)

  16. A new reliable index to measure individual deprivation: the EPICES score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labbe, Emilie; Blanquet, Marie; Gerbaud, Laurent; Poirier, Gilles; Sass, Catherine; Vendittelli, Françoise; Moulin, Jean-Jacques

    2015-08-01

    Deprivation is associated with inequalities in health care and higher morbidity and mortality. To assess the reliability of a new individual deprivation score, the EPICES score and to analyse the association between the Townsend index, the Carstairs index and the EPICES score and causes of death in one French administrative region. Eligible patients were 16 years old or more who had come for consultation in Health Examination Centres of the French administrative region of Nord-Pas-de-Calais. An ecological study was performed between 2002 and 2007 in the 392 districts of this administrative region. The EPICES score was compared with the Townsend and the Carstairs indices. These three measurements of deprivation were compared with social characteristics, indicators of morbidity, health-care use and mortality and specific causes of death. The Pearson correlation coefficients were calculated to assess the reliability of the EPICES score. The association between deprivation and mortality was assessed by comparison of the standardized mortality ratio (SMR) between the most and least deprived districts. The EPICES score was strongly correlated with the Townsend and Carstairs indices and with the health indicators measured. SMR increased with deprivation and the higher the deprivation the higher the SMR for all-cause mortality, premature and avoidable deaths and for most specific causes of death. The individual deprivation EPICES score is reliable. Deprivation was related to excess death rate, which clearly indicates that deprivation is a determinant factor that should be considered systematically by health policy makers and health-care providers. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  17. Spine and Thoracic Height Measurements have Excellent Interrater and Intrarater Reliability in Patients with Early Onset Scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Nicole; Carry, Patrick; Erickson, Mark; Bloch, Nikki; Gibbons, Steven; O'Donnell, Courtney; Garg, Sumeet

    2017-06-29

    Reproducibility of measurements OBJECTIVE.: This study investigates the reliability and standard error of measurement of spine and thoracic height radiographic measurements in patients with early onset scoliosis (EOS). Spine and thoracic height radiographic measurements are often used as a surrogate for pulmonary development in patients with EOS. There is limited literature validating the reliability of spine and thoracic height measurements in the EOS population. Using pilot data, we determined measuring 49 unique radiographs would provide 80% power to obtain a 95% confidence interval width of 0.05 for the interclass correlation coefficients (ICC). A random sampling strategy, stratified by underlying diagnosis from the Classification of Early Onset Scoliosis (C-EOS), was used to distribute the diagnoses in the study sample. Two attending pediatric spine surgeons, two pediatric orthopaedic fellows, and two research assistants measured coronal spine (T1-S1) and thoracic (T1-T12) height on digital radiographs using imaging software (Surgimap®; Nemaris, Inc; New York) on two separate occasions at least three weeks apart. Order of images was randomized for the second iteration. Linear mixed model regression analyses were used to estimate interrater and intrarater reliability. The study sample included subjects (N = 48) with idiopathic (N = 17, 35%), congenital (N = 16, 33%, 1 patient excluded), neuromuscular (N = 11, 23%), and syndromic (N = 4, 8%) scoliosis. Overall interrater reliability estimates for spine height [ICC: 0.894, 95% CI: 0.847-0.932] and thoracic height [ICC: 0.890, 95% CI: 0.844-0.929] were excellent. Intrarater reliability estimates for spine height [ICC: 0.906, 95% CI: 0.830-0.943] and thoracic height [ICC: 0.898, 95% CI: 0.817-0.938] were also excellent. There is excellent interrater and intrarater reliability for radiographic measurements of spine and thoracic height in the EOS population at our institution. 2.

  18. Poor Reliability of Wrist Blood Pressure Self-Measurement at Home: A Population-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casiglia, Edoardo; Tikhonoff, Valérie; Albertini, Federica; Palatini, Paolo

    2016-10-01

    The reliability of blood pressure measurement with wrist devices, which has not previously been assessed under real-life circumstances in general population, is dependent on correct positioning of the wrist device at heart level. We determined whether an error was present when blood pressure was self-measured at the wrist in 721 unselected subjects from the general population. After training, blood pressure was measured in the office and self-measured at home with an upper-arm device (the UA-767 Plus) and a wrist device (the UB-542, not provided with a position sensor). The upper-arm-wrist blood pressure difference detected in the office was used as the reference measurement. The discrepancy between office and home differences was the home measurement error. In the office, systolic blood pressure was 2.5% lower at wrist than at arm (P=0.002), whereas at home, systolic and diastolic blood pressures were higher at wrist than at arm (+5.6% and +5.4%, respectively; Phome measurement error of at least ±5 mm Hg and 455 of at least ±10 mm Hg (bad measurers). In multivariable linear regression, a lower cognitive pattern independently determined both the systolic and the diastolic home measurement error and a longer forearm the systolic error only. This was confirmed by logistic regression having bad measurers as dependent variable. The use of wrist devices for home self-measurement, therefore, leads to frequent detection of falsely elevated blood pressure values likely because of a poor memory and rendition of the instructions, leading to the wrong position of the wrist. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  19. The reliability of a handheld dynamometer in measuring maximal isometric neck strength

    OpenAIRE

    Vannebo, Katrine Tranaas

    2015-01-01

    Neck pain is the fourth leading cause of disability worldwide, and is a burden to both the affected individual and the society. Several studies have documented decreased neck strength in patients with chronic neck pain. However, there is a need for a practical and reliable device to measure neck strength in clinical practice. The main objective of this study was to determine the reliability of a handheld dynamometer in measuring maximal isometric neck strength in flexion, extension and latera...

  20. On new measures of reliability, stability and complexity in quantum mechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmid, G.M. [Universidad de La Laguna (Spain). Departamento de Fiscia Fundamental y Experimental; Zanardi, E.M. [Universidad de La Laguna (Spain). Departamento de Fiscia Fundamental y Experimental; Gomez Llorente, J.M. [Universidad de La Laguna (Spain). Departamento de Fiscia Fundamental y Experimental

    1995-06-10

    Observations are collected under particular conditions. Suppose the conditions vary. How reliable are then the original observations? We propose a measure of reliability and deduce its explicit form for quantum systems from the principles of information theory and also from physical principles. The deduced measure reflects <> and thus is simply related to <>, <> and <>. We illustrate its use in the context of perturbed molecular vibrations. (orig.).

  1. Reliability of sonographic muscle thickness measurements of the thenar and hypothenar muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misirlioglu, Tugce Ozekli; Ozyemisci Taskiran, Ozden

    2018-01-01

    Introduction This study was undertaken to assess the intra- and interrater reliability of sonographic thickness measurements of the thenar and hypothenar muscles. The thickness of the thenar and hypothenar muscles of both hands of 15 volunteers (7 male, 8 female) were evaluated with a 4-13-MHz linear probe by 2 examiners who were blinded to each other's measurements. Interrater reliability was then evaluated. To assess intrarater reliability, the first examiner also performed a second measurement after an interval of at least 1 day. Mean age of the subjects was 31.1 ± 9.0 years. Test-retest reliability showed excellent intrarater reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient range: 0.889-0.963) and substantial to excellent results for interrater reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient range: 0.692-0.937). We found that ultrasound is a reliable method for thickness measurements of the thenar and hypothenar muscles. Muscle Nerve 57: E14-E17, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Reliability of measuring pelvic floor elevation with a diagnostic ultrasonic imaging device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubukata, Hitomi; Maruyama, Hitoshi; Huo, Ming

    2015-08-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the reliability of measuring the amount of pelvic floor elevation during pelvic and abdominal muscle contraction with a diagnostic ultrasonic imaging device. [Subjects] The study group comprised 11 healthy women without urinary incontinence or previous birth experience. [Methods] We measured the displacement elevation of the bladder base during contraction of the abdominal and pelvic floor muscles was measured using a diagnostic ultrasonic imaging device. The exercise was a four-part operation undertaken with the subjects in the lateral position. The reliability analysis included use of the interclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was used to assess the reliability. [Results] ICC (1.1) values for the pelvic floor elevation measurement with a diagnostic ultrasonic imaging device were 0.98 [contraction of the transversus abdominis (TrA) muscle], 0.99 [contraction of pelvic floor muscles (PFMs)], 0.98 (co-contraction of the TrA and PFMs), and 0.98 (resistance of the TrA and PFMs). This study proved the reliability of the method because the coefficient of reliability was 0.97 or more for all of the measurements, even for those during exercise. [Conclusion] The diagnostic ultrasonic imaging device measures pelvic floor elevation with high reliability.

  3. Palmar abduction measurements: reliability and introduction of normative data in healthy children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Kraker, Marjolein; Selles, Ruud W; Molenaar, Ties M; Schreuders, Ton A; Hovius, Steven E; Stam, Henk J

    2009-11-01

    Previously, we studied normative and reliability data of palmar thumb abduction measurements (conventional goniometry, the Pollexograph thumb, the Pollexograph metacarpal, the Inter Metacarpal Distance, the American Society of Hand Therapists method, and the American Medical Association method) in healthy adults. Because many interventions aiming to improve palmar abduction are performed at an early age, the goal of this study was to assess normative and reliability data of these measurement methods in children. We performed measurements with the Pollexograph thumb, the Pollexograph metacarpal and Inter Metacarpal Distance in 100 healthy children to acquire normative data. A retest was performed in 63 children to assess intraobserver reliability. Mean active and passive palmar abduction measured with the Pollexograph thumb was 62 degrees (range, 40 degrees to 76 degrees). The range of motion of the Pollexograph metacarpal was smaller (mean 49 degrees, range, 32 degrees to 64 degrees). The mean Inter Metacarpal Distance was 50 mm (range, 36-70 mm). Intraclass correlation coefficients of the Pollexograph thumb, Pollexograph metacarpal, and Inter Metacarpal Distance indicated excellent reliability (intraclass correlation coefficients between 0.85 and 0.92). Normative Pollexograph thumb and Pollexograph metacarpal data showed that means measured in children are comparable to values found in healthy adults. Reliability data indicated that the Pollexograph thumb, the Pollexograph metacarpal, and Inter Metacarpal Distance are also reliable measurement methods in children.

  4. Measuring Efficiency of Secondary Healthcare Providers in Slovenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blatnik, Patricia; Bojnec, Štefan; Tušak, Matej

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The chief aim of this study was to analyze secondary healthcare providers' efficiency, focusing on the efficiency analysis of Slovene general hospitals. We intended to present a complete picture of technical, allocative, and cost or economic efficiency of general hospitals. Methods We researched the aspects of efficiency with two econometric methods. First, we calculated the necessary quotients of efficiency with the stochastic frontier analyze (SFA), which are realized by econometric evaluation of stochastic frontier functions; then, with the data envelopment analyze (DEA), we calculated the necessary quotients that are based on the linear programming method. Results Results on measures of efficiency showed that the two chosen methods produced two different conclusions. The SFA method concluded Celje General Hospital is the most efficient general hospital, whereas the DEA method concluded Brežice General Hospital was the hospital to be declared as the most efficient hospital. Conclusion Our results are a useful tool that can aid managers, payers, and designers of healthcare policy to better understand how general hospitals operate. The participants can accordingly decide with less difficulty on any further business operations of general hospitals, having the best practices of general hospitals at their disposal. PMID:28730180

  5. Reliability and validity of measures of hammer toe deformity angle and tibial torsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, O Y; Tuttle, L J; Commean, P K; Mueller, M J

    2009-09-01

    Measures of second-fourth metatarsophalangeal joint (MTPJ) angle (indicator of hammer toe deformity) and clinical measures of tibial torsion have limited evidence for validity and reliability. The purposes of this study are to determine: (1) reliability of using a 3D digitizer (Metrecom) and computed tomography (CT) to measure MTPJ angle for toes 2-4; (2) reliability of goniometer, 3D digitizer, and CT to measure tibial torsion; (3) validity of MTPJ angle measures for toes 2-4 using goniometry and 3D digitizer compared to CT (gold standard) and (4) validity of tibial torsion measures using goniometry and 3D digitizer (Metrecom) compared to CT (gold standard). Twenty-nine subjects participated in this study. 27 feet with hammer toe deformity and 31 feet without hammer toe deformity were tested using standardized gonimetric, 3D digitizer and CT methods. ICCs (3,1), standard error of the measurement (SEM) values, and difference measures were used to characterize intrarater reliability. Pearson correlation coefficients and an analysis of variance were used to determine associations and differences between the measurement techniques. 3D digitizer and CT measures of MTPJ angle had high test-retest reliability (ICC = 0.95-0.96 and 0.98-0.99, respectively; SEM = 2.64-3.35 degrees and 1.42-1.47 degrees, respectively). Goniometry, 3D digitizer, and CT measures of tibial torsion had good test-retest reliability (ICC = 0.75, 0.85, and 0.98, respectively; SEM = 2.15 degrees, 1.74 degrees, and 0.72 degree, respectively). Both goniometric and 3D digitizer measures of MTPJ angle were highly correlated with CT measures of MTPJ angle (r = 0.84-0.90, r = 0.84-0.88, respectively) and tibial torsion (r = 0.72, r = 0.83). Goniometry, 3D digitizer, and CT measures were all different from each other for measures of hammer toe deformity (p Goniometry measures were different from CT measures and 3D digitizer measures of tibial torsion (p reliable. Goniometer and 3D digitizer measures of

  6. Precision of lumbar intervertebral measurements: does a computer-assisted technique improve reliability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Adam M; Spratt, Kevin F; Genuario, James; McGough, William; Kosman, Katherine; Lurie, Jon; Sengupta, Dilip K

    2011-04-01

    Comparison of intra- and interobserver reliability of digitized manual and computer-assisted intervertebral motion measurements and classification of "instability." To determine if computer-assisted measurement of lumbar intervertebral motion on flexion-extension radiographs improves reliability compared with digitized manual measurements. Many studies have questioned the reliability of manual intervertebral measurements, although few have compared the reliability of computer-assisted and manual measurements on lumbar flexion-extension radiographs. Intervertebral rotation, anterior-posterior (AP) translation, and change in anterior and posterior disc height were measured with a digitized manual technique by three physicians and by three other observers using computer-assisted quantitative motion analysis (QMA) software. Each observer measured 30 sets of digital flexion-extension radiographs (L1-S1) twice. Shrout-Fleiss intraclass correlation coefficients for intra- and interobserver reliabilities were computed. The stability of each level was also classified (instability defined as >4 mm AP translation or 10° rotation), and the intra- and interobserver reliabilities of the two methods were compared using adjusted percent agreement (APA). Intraobserver reliability intraclass correlation coefficients were substantially higher for the QMA technique THAN the digitized manual technique across all measurements: rotation 0.997 versus 0.870, AP translation 0.959 versus 0.557, change in anterior disc height 0.962 versus 0.770, and change in posterior disc height 0.951 versus 0.283. The same pattern was observed for interobserver reliability (rotation 0.962 vs. 0.693, AP translation 0.862 vs. 0.151, change in anterior disc height 0.862 vs. 0.373, and change in posterior disc height 0.730 vs. 0.300). The QMA technique was also more reliable for the classification of "instability." Intraobserver APAs ranged from 87 to 97% for QMA versus 60% to 73% for digitized manual

  7. The better way to determine the validity, reliability, objectivity and accuracy of measuring devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazira, Parvin; Rostami Haji-Abadi, Mahdi; Zolaktaf, Vahid; Sabahi, Mohammadfarzan; Pazira, Toomaj

    2016-06-08

    In relation to statistical analysis, studies to determine the validity, reliability, objectivity and precision of new measuring devices are usually incomplete, due in part to using only correlation coefficient and ignoring the data dispersion. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the best way to determine the validity, reliability, objectivity and accuracy of an electro-inclinometer or other measuring devices. Another purpose of this study is to answer the question of whether reliability and objectivity represent accuracy of measuring devices. The validity of an electro-inclinometer was examined by mechanical and geometric methods. The objectivity and reliability of the device was assessed by calculating Cronbach's alpha for repeated measurements by three raters and by measurements on the same person by mechanical goniometer and the electro-inclinometer. Measurements were performed on "hip flexion with the extended knee" and "shoulder abduction with the extended elbow." The raters measured every angle three times within an interval of two hours. The three-way ANOVA was used to determine accuracy. The results of mechanical and geometric analysis showed that validity of the electro-inclinometer was 1.00 and level of error was less than one degree. Objectivity and reliability of electro-inclinometer was 0.999, while objectivity of mechanical goniometer was in the range of 0.802 to 0.966 and the reliability was 0.760 to 0.961. For hip flexion, the difference between raters in joints angle measurement by electro-inclinometer and mechanical goniometer was 1.74 and 16.33 degree (Preliability are acceptable, the results showed that measurement error was very high in the mechanical goniometer. Therefore, it can be concluded that objectivity and reliability alone cannot determine the accuracy of a device and it is preferable to use other statistical methods to compare and evaluate the accuracy of these two devices.

  8. Measuring stigma among abortion providers: assessing the Abortion Provider Stigma Survey instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Lisa A; Debbink, Michelle; Hassinger, Jane; Youatt, Emily; Eagen-Torkko, Meghan; Harris, Lisa H

    2014-01-01

    We explored the psychometric properties of 15 survey questions that assessed abortion providers' perceptions of stigma and its impact on providers' professional and personal lives referred to as the Abortion Provider Stigma Survey (APSS). We administered the survey to a sample of abortion providers recruited for the Providers' Share Workshop (N = 55). We then completed analyses using Stata SE/12.0. Exploratory factor analysis, which resulted in 13 retained items and identified three subscales: disclosure management, resistance and resilience, and discrimination. Stigma was salient in abortion provider's lives: they identified difficulties surrounding disclosure (66%) and felt unappreciated by society (89%). Simultaneously, workers felt they made a positive contribution to society (92%) and took pride in their work (98%). Paired t-test analyses of the pre- and post-Workshop APSS scores showed no changes in the total score. However, the Disclosure Management subscale scores were significantly lower (indicating decreased stigma) for two subgroups of participants: those over the age of 30 and those with children. This analysis is a promising first step in the development of a quantitative tool for capturing abortion providers' experiences of and responses to pervasive abortion stigma.

  9. Evaluating Frameworks That Provide Value Measures for Health Care Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandelblatt, Jeanne S; Ramsey, Scott D; Lieu, Tracy A; Phelps, Charles E

    2017-02-01

    The recent acceleration of scientific discovery has led to greater choices in health care. New technologies, diagnostic tests, and pharmaceuticals have widely varying impact on patients and populations in terms of benefits, toxicities, and costs, stimulating a resurgence of interest in the creation of frameworks intended to measure value in health. Many of these are offered by providers and/or advocacy organizations with expertise and interest in specific diseases (e.g., cancer and heart disease). To help assess the utility of and the potential biases embedded in these frameworks, we created an evaluation taxonomy with seven basic components: 1) define the purpose; 2) detail the conceptual approach, including perspectives, methods for obtaining preferences of decision makers (e.g., patients), and ability to incorporate multiple dimensions of value; 3) discuss inclusions and exclusions of elements included in the framework, and whether the framework assumes clinical intervention or offers alternatives such as palliative care or watchful waiting; 4) evaluate data sources and their scientific validity; 5) assess the intervention's effect on total costs of treating a defined population; 6) analyze how uncertainty is incorporated; and 7) illuminate possible conflicts of interest among those creating the framework. We apply the taxonomy to four representative value frameworks recently published by professional organizations focused on treatment of cancer and heart disease and on vaccine use. We conclude that each of these efforts has strengths and weaknesses when evaluated using our taxonomy, and suggest pathways to enhance the utility of value-assessing frameworks for policy and clinical decision making. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The reliability and internal consistency of an Internet-capable computer program for measuring utilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenert, L A

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the reliability and internal consistency of measurements of utilities performed with a computer program (iMPACT2) designed for Internet surveys and Internet patient decision-support systems. We implemented the Internet Multimedia Preference Assessor Construction Tool, version 2 (iMPACT2) program using the combination of a web server, HTML files, and a web-accessible database. The program randomized subjects, screened their responses for missing data and failures of internal consistency, assisted patients with resolving certain inconsistencies, and, upon a subject's completion of the protocol, provided a report of results to the research assistant administering the program. To validate the iMPACT2 program, we recruited 60 healthy community volunteers and elicited preferences in a research-lab setting using a visual analog scale (VAS) and the standard gamble (SG) for subject's current health and three hypothetical states. For purposes of comparison, we also administered a Short Form-12 (SF-12) health-assessment questionnaire. Subjects used the computer software on two occasions separated by 2-4 weeks of time. Visual analog scale and standard gamble ratings for subjects' current health were reliable (intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) of 0.82 and 0.84 (two outliers excluded -0.60 without exclusions), respectively) were comparable with the reliability of the Physical and Mental Component scales of the SF-12 (ICCs of 0.84 and 0.75, respectively). Subjects could easily discriminate between hypothetical states (D scores 0.74 for SG and 0.90 for VAS), and 94% had a completely internally consistent ordering of preference ratings for states. iMPACT2 produces measurements of standard gamble utilities that are reliable and have a high degree of internal consistency. Procedures for assessment of utilities developed for desktop computer programs can be translated to software designed for the Internet, facilitating the use of

  11. Measurements of knee rotation-reliability of an external device in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almquist Per O

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Knee rotation plays an important part in knee kinematics during weight-bearing activities. An external device for measuring knee rotation (the Rottometer has previously been evaluated for validity by simultaneous measurements of skeletal movements with Roentgen Stereometric Analysis (RSA. The aim of this study was to investigate the reliability of the device. Method The within-day and test-retest reliability as well as intertester reliability of the device in vivo was calculated. Torques of 3, 6 and 9 Nm and the examiner's apprehension of end-feel were used at 90°, 60° and 30° of knee flexion. Intraclass Correlation Coefficient 2,1 (ICC 2,1, 95% confidence interval (CI of ICC and 95% CI between test trials and examiners were used as statistical tests. Result ICC2,1 ranged from 0.50 to 0.94 at all three flexion angles at 6 and 9 Nm as well as end-feel, and from 0.22 to 0.75 at 3 Nm applied torque. Conclusion The Rottometer was a reliable measurement instrument concerning knee rotation at the three different flexion angles (90°, 60° and 30° with 6 and 9 Nm applied torques as well as the examiner's apprehension of end-feel. Three Nm was not a reliable torque. The most reliable measurements were made at 9 Nm applied torque.

  12. Reliability of environmental and occupational exposure data provided by surrogate respondents in a case-control study of Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, F L; Semchuk, K M; Love, E J

    1994-07-01

    This study used data provided by 40 non-demented Parkinson's disease patients and 101 community controls, and by their 110 spouses and 31 adult children to assess the reliability of surrogate-provided rural environmental and occupational exposure information on the index subjects. The level of overall raw agreement between the index subjects and the spouse or adult child surrogates varied from 50.0 to 100.0% for the case-surrogate group and from 80.6 to 96.0% for the control-surrogate group. We did not detect significant differences in overall raw agreement between the case-surrogate and control-surrogate groups or between the spouse-surrogate and adult child-surrogate groups, for any of the variables studied. Considering all index subjects and their surrogates, the level of overall raw agreement was 80.3% for well water consumption, 82.3% for farm living, 85.8% for agricultural work, 87.1% for use of pesticides, 87.9% for field crop farming and 91.9% for use of fertilizers. However, the kappa estimates were lower, varying from 0.48 (SE = 0.20) for fertilizer use to 0.66 (SE = 0.11) for crop farming. The level of specific agreement was 52.2% for fertilizer use, 64.0% for pesticide use, 71.4% for agricultural work, 73.9% for crop farming, 80.9% for farm living, and 83.6% for well water consumption. The overall findings of this study support the use, if necessary, of spouses and adult children of index subjects as surrogate respondents in case-control studies of rural environment and occupational exposures and Parkinson's disease and, possibly, other neurologic diseases. Specific agreement seems to be a better index of reliability than overall agreement in studies where exposure is rare.

  13. Reliability of anthropometric measures in a longitudinal cohort of patients initiating ART in West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ag Aboubacrine Souleymane

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anthropometric measurements are a non invasive, inexpensive, and suitable method for evaluating the nutritional status in population studies with relatively large sample sizes. However, anthropometric techniques are prone to errors that could arise, for example, from the inadequate training of personnel. Despite these concerns, anthropometrical measurement error is seldom assessed in cohort studies. We describe the reliability and challenges associated with measurement of longitudinal anthropometric data in a cohort of West African HIV+ adults . Methods In a cohort of patients initiating antiretroviral treatment in Mali, we evaluated nutritional status using anthropometric measurements(weight, height, mid-upper arm circumference, waist circumference and triceps skinfold. Observers with no prior experience in the field of anthropometry were trained to perform anthropometrical measurements. To assess the intra- and inter-observer variability of the measurements taken in the course of the study, two sub-studies were carried out: one at the beginning and one at the end of the prospective study. Twelve patients were measured twice on two consecutive days by the same observer on both study occasions. The technical error of measurement (TEM (absolute and relative value, and the coefficient of reliability (R were calculated and compared across reliability studies. Results According to the R and relative TEM, inter-observer reliabilities were only acceptable for height and weight. In terms of intra-observer precision, while the first and second anthropometrists demonstrated better reliability than the third, only height and weight measurements were reliable. Looking at total TEM, we observed that while measurements remained stable between studies for height and weight, circumferences and skinfolds lost precision from one occasion to the next. Conclusions Height and weight were the most reliable measurements under the study

  14. Clinical measurement of range of motion. Review of goniometry emphasizing reliability and validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajdosik, R L; Bohannon, R W

    1987-12-01

    Clinical measurement of range of motion is a fundamental evaluation procedure with ubiquitous application in physical therapy. Objective measurements of ROM and correct interpretation of the measurement results can have a substantial impact on the development of the scientific basis of therapeutic interventions. The purpose of this article is to review the related literature on the reliability and validity of goniometric measurements of the extremities. Special emphasis is placed on how the reliability of goniometry is influenced by instrumentation and procedures, differences among joint actions and body regions, passive versus active measurements, intratester versus intertester measurements, and different patient types. Our discussion of validity encourages objective interpretation of the meaning of ROM measurements in light of the purposes and the limitations of goniometry. We conclude that clinicians should adopt standardized methods of testing and should interpret and report goniometric results as ROM measurements only, not as measurements of factors that may affect ROM.

  15. reliability reliability

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    In this work, a FORTRAN-based computer computer. Eurocode 2 (EC 2)[1] ... addresses addresses: 1 idrcivil1@yahoo.com, 2 adomaarf1@gmail.com computer computer program was developed to aid the design of reinforced co program was ..... Haldar, A. and Mahadevan, S. Reliability Assessment using Stochastic Finite ...

  16. Measuring the quality of Hospital Food Services: Development and reliability of a Meal Quality Audit Tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Merrilyn; Hannan-Jones, Mary; Ross, Lynda; Buckley, Ann; Ellick, Jennifer; Young, Adrienne

    2017-04-01

    To develop and test the reliability of a Meal Quality Audit Tool (MQAT) to audit the quality of hospital meals to assist food service managers and dietitians in identifying areas for improvement. The MQAT was developed using expert opinion and was modified over time with extensive use and feedback. A phased approach was used to assess content validity and test reliability: (i) trial with 60 dietetic students, (ii) trial with 12 food service dietitians in practice and (iii) interrater reliability study. Phases 1 and 2 confirmed content validity and informed minor revision of scoring, language and formatting of the MQAT. To assess reliability of the final MQAT, eight separate meal quality audits of five identical meals were conducted over several weeks in the hospital setting. Each audit comprised an 'expert' team and four 'test' teams (dietitians, food services and ward staff). Interrater reliability was determined using intra-class correlation analysis. There was statistically significant interrater reliability for dimensions of Temperature and Accuracy (P food service-led teams scoring higher on these dimensions. 'Test' teams reported that MQAT was clear and easy to use. MQAT was found to be reliable for Temperature and Accuracy domains, with further work required to improve the reliability of the Appearance and Sensory dimensions. The systematic use of the tool, used in conjunction with patient satisfaction, could provide pertinent and useful information regarding the quality of food services and areas for improvement. © 2017 Dietitians Association of Australia.

  17. Reliability of a food menu to measure energy and macronutrient intake in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaput, J-P; Jomphe-Tremblay, S; Lafrenière, J; Patterson, S; McNeil, J; Ferraro, Z M

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the reliability of a food menu to measure energy and macronutrient intake within the laboratory and under real-life conditions in adolescents. A total of 12 boys and 8 girls (age 14.3 (s.d. 2.4) years, body mass index (BMI) 20.8 (s.d. 4.0) kg/m(2)) completed two identical in-laboratory sessions (ILS) and two out-of-laboratory sessions (OLS). During the ILS, participants had ad libitum access to a variety of foods (74 items in total), which they chose from a menu every hour, for 5 h (0800-1300 h). For the OLS (1300 h until bedtime), the foods were chosen from the same menu at 1300 h and packed into containers to bring home with them. Test-retest analysis of energy and macronutrient intake revealed no significant differences (ILS and OLS). Intra-class correlations ranged between 0.69 and 0.83 (ILS) and between 0.48 and 0.73 (OLS) for energy and macronutrient intake (all Pfood menu was well appreciated by the participants with a 75% appreciation rate on a visual analog scale. This food menu provides a reasonably reliable measure of energy and macronutrient intake in adolescents, irrespective of sex and BMI, especially inside the laboratory setting. Despite the difficulties in capturing a stable measure of energy intake in research, this tool could be a useful addition to the methods currently used to assess ad libitum food intake in youth.

  18. Measuring factors affecting implementation of health innovations: a systematic review of structural, organizational, provider, patient, and innovation level measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudoir, Stephenie R; Dugan, Alicia G; Barr, Colin H I

    2013-02-17

    Two of the current methodological barriers to implementation science efforts are the lack of agreement regarding constructs hypothesized to affect implementation success and identifiable measures of these constructs. In order to address these gaps, the main goals of this paper were to identify a multi-level framework that captures the predominant factors that impact implementation outcomes, conduct a systematic review of available measures assessing constructs subsumed within these primary factors, and determine the criterion validity of these measures in the search articles. We conducted a systematic literature review to identify articles reporting the use or development of measures designed to assess constructs that predict the implementation of evidence-based health innovations. Articles published through 12 August 2012 were identified through MEDLINE, CINAHL, PsycINFO and the journal Implementation Science. We then utilized a modified five-factor framework in order to code whether each measure contained items that assess constructs representing structural, organizational, provider, patient, and innovation level factors. Further, we coded the criterion validity of each measure within the search articles obtained. Our review identified 62 measures. Results indicate that organization, provider, and innovation-level constructs have the greatest number of measures available for use, whereas structural and patient-level constructs have the least. Additionally, relatively few measures demonstrated criterion validity, or reliable association with an implementation outcome (e.g., fidelity). In light of these findings, our discussion centers on strategies that researchers can utilize in order to identify, adapt, and improve extant measures for use in their own implementation research. In total, our literature review and resulting measures compendium increases the capacity of researchers to conceptualize and measure implementation-related constructs in their ongoing and

  19. Knee range of motion: reliability and agreement of 3 measurement methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Paul G; Herbenick, Michael A; Anloague, Philip A; Markert, Ronald J; Rubino, L Joseph

    2011-12-01

    We conducted a study to compare 3 methods of measuring knee range of motion: visual estimation by physicians, hand goniometry by physical therapists, and radiographic goniometry. We hypothesized that reliability would be high within and across all techniques. We found intrarater and interrater reliability to be satisfactory for visual estimation, hand goniometry, and radiographic goniometry. Interrater reliability across methods did not agree satisfactorily. Between-methods differences in estimating knee range of motion may result from variations in technique among physicians and physical therapists.

  20. Can Formal Methods Provide (Necessary and) Sufficient Conditions for Measurement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mari, Luca

    2017-01-01

    In his focus article, "Rethinking Traditional Methods of Survey Validation," published in this issue of "Measurement: Interdisciplinary Research and Perspectives," Andrew Maul introduces and discusses several foundational issues and concludes that self-report measures may be particularly difficult to validate and may fall short…

  1. Reliability of length measurements collected by community nurses and health volunteers in rural growth monitoring and promotion services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laar, Matilda E; Marquis, Grace S; Lartey, Anna; Gray-Donald, Katherine

    2018-02-17

    Length measurements are important in growth, monitoring and promotion (GMP) for the surveillance of a child's weight-for-length and length-for-age. These two indices provide an indication of a child's risk of becoming wasted or stunted, and are more informative about a child's growth than the widely used weight-for-age index (underweight). Although the introduction of length measurements in GMP is recommended by the World Health Organization, concerns about the reliability of length measurements collected in rural outreach settings have been expressed by stakeholders. Our aim was to describe the reliability and challenges associated with community health personnel measuring length for rural outreach GMP activities. Two reliability studies (A and B), using 10 children less than 24 months each, were conducted in the GMP services of a rural district in Ghana. Fifteen nurses and 15 health volunteers (HV) with no prior experience in length measurements were trained. Intra- and inter-observer technical error of measurement (TEM), average bias from expert anthropometrist, and coefficient of reliability (R) of length measurements were assessed and compared across sessions. Observations and interviews were used to understand the ability and experiences of health personnel with measuring length at outreach GMP. Inter-observer TEM was larger than intra-observer TEM for both nurses and HV at both sessions and was unacceptably (compared to error standards) high in both groups at both time points. Average biases from expert's measurements were within acceptable limits, however, both groups tended to underestimate length measurements. The R for lengths collected by nurses (92.3%) was higher at session B compared to that of HV (87.5%). Length measurements taken by nurses and HV, and those taken by an experienced anthropometrist at GMP sessions were of moderate agreement (kappa = 0.53, p reliability of length measurements improved after two refresher trainings for nurses but

  2. The navicular position test - a reliable measure of the navicular bone position during rest and loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spörndly-Nees, Søren; Dåsberg, Brian; Nielsen, Rasmus Oestergaard

    2011-01-01

    Lower limb injuries are a large problem in athletes. However, there is a paucity of knowledge on the relationship between alignment of the medial longitudinal arch (MLA) of the foot and development of such injuries. A reliable and valid test to quantify foot type is needed to be able to investigate...... the relationship between arch type and injury likelihood. Feiss Line is a valid clinical measure of the MLA. However, no study has investigated the reliability of the test....

  3. Dynamic footprint measurement collection technique and intrarater reliability: ink mat, paper pedography, and electronic pedography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fascione, Jeanna M; Crews, Ryan T; Wrobel, James S

    2012-01-01

    Identifying the variability of footprint measurement collection techniques and the reliability of footprint measurements would assist with appropriate clinical foot posture appraisal. We sought to identify relationships between these measures in a healthy population. On 30 healthy participants, midgait dynamic footprint measurements were collected using an ink mat, paper pedography, and electronic pedography. The footprints were then digitized, and the following footprint indices were calculated with photo digital planimetry software: footprint index, arch index, truncated arch index, Chippaux-Smirak Index, and Staheli Index. Differences between techniques were identified with repeated-measures analysis of variance with post hoc test of Scheffe. In addition, to assess practical similarities between the different methods, intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) were calculated. To assess intrarater reliability, footprint indices were calculated twice on 10 randomly selected ink mat footprint measurements, and the ICC was calculated. Dynamic footprint measurements collected with an ink mat significantly differed from those collected with paper pedography (ICC, 0.85-0.96) and electronic pedography (ICC, 0.29-0.79), regardless of the practical similarities noted with ICC values (P = .00). Intrarater reliability for dynamic ink mat footprint measurements was high for the footprint index, arch index, truncated arch index, Chippaux-Smirak Index, and Staheli Index (ICC, 0.74-0.99). Footprint measurements collected with various techniques demonstrate differences. Interchangeable use of exact values without adjustment is not advised. Intrarater reliability of a single method (ink mat) was found to be high.

  4. Improved radiograph measurement inter-observer reliability by use of statistical shape models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pegg, E.C., E-mail: elise.pegg@ndorms.ox.ac.uk [University of Oxford, Nuffield Department of Orthopaedics, Rheumatology and Musculoskeletal Sciences, Nuffield Orthopaedic Centre, Windmill Road, Oxford OX3 7LD (United Kingdom); Mellon, S.J., E-mail: stephen.mellon@ndorms.ox.ac.uk [University of Oxford, Nuffield Department of Orthopaedics, Rheumatology and Musculoskeletal Sciences, Nuffield Orthopaedic Centre, Windmill Road, Oxford OX3 7LD (United Kingdom); Salmon, G. [University of Oxford, Nuffield Department of Orthopaedics, Rheumatology and Musculoskeletal Sciences, Nuffield Orthopaedic Centre, Windmill Road, Oxford OX3 7LD (United Kingdom); Alvand, A., E-mail: abtin.alvand@ndorms.ox.ac.uk [University of Oxford, Nuffield Department of Orthopaedics, Rheumatology and Musculoskeletal Sciences, Nuffield Orthopaedic Centre, Windmill Road, Oxford OX3 7LD (United Kingdom); Pandit, H., E-mail: hemant.pandit@ndorms.ox.ac.uk [University of Oxford, Nuffield Department of Orthopaedics, Rheumatology and Musculoskeletal Sciences, Nuffield Orthopaedic Centre, Windmill Road, Oxford OX3 7LD (United Kingdom); Murray, D.W., E-mail: david.murray@ndorms.ox.ac.uk [University of Oxford, Nuffield Department of Orthopaedics, Rheumatology and Musculoskeletal Sciences, Nuffield Orthopaedic Centre, Windmill Road, Oxford OX3 7LD (United Kingdom); Gill, H.S., E-mail: richie.gill@ndorms.ox.ac.uk [University of Oxford, Nuffield Department of Orthopaedics, Rheumatology and Musculoskeletal Sciences, Nuffield Orthopaedic Centre, Windmill Road, Oxford OX3 7LD (United Kingdom)

    2012-10-15

    Pre- and post-operative radiographs of patients undergoing joint arthroplasty are often examined for a variety of purposes including preoperative planning and patient assessment. This work examines the feasibility of using active shape models (ASM) to semi-automate measurements from post-operative radiographs for the specific case of the Oxford™ Unicompartmental Knee. Measurements of the proximal tibia and the position of the tibial tray were made using the ASM model and manually. Data were obtained by four observers and one observer took four sets of measurements to allow assessment of the inter- and intra-observer reliability, respectively. The parameters measured were the tibial tray angle, the tray overhang, the tray size, the sagittal cut position, the resection level and the tibial width. Results demonstrated improved reliability (average of 27% and 11.2% increase for intra- and inter-reliability, respectively) and equivalent accuracy (p > 0.05 for compared data values) for all of the measurements using the ASM model, with the exception of the tray overhang (p = 0.0001). Less time (15 s) was required to take measurements using the ASM model compared with manual measurements, which was significant. These encouraging results indicate that semi-automated measurement techniques could improve the reliability of radiographic measurements.

  5. The Design, Development, and Reliability Testing of a New Innovative Device to Measure Ankle Joint Dorsiflexion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, James

    2016-09-02

    In clinical and research settings, ankle joint dorsiflexion needs to be reliably measured. Dorsiflexion is often measured by goniometry, but the intrarater and interrater reliability of this technique have been reported to be poor. Many devices to measure dorsiflexion have been developed for clinical and research use. An evaluation of 12 current tools showed that none met all of the desirable criteria. The purpose of this study was to design and develop a device that rates highly in all of the criteria and that can be proved to be highly reliable. While supine on a treatment table, 14 participants had a foot placed in the Charles device and ankle joint dorsiflexion measured and recorded three times with a digital inclinometer. The mean of the three readings was determined to be the ankle joint dorsiflexion. The analysis used was intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). There was very little difference in ICC single or average measures between left and right feet, so data were pooled (N = 28). The single-measure ICC was 0.998 (95% confidence interval, 0.996-0.998). The average-measure ICC was 0.998 (95% confidence interval, 0.995-0.999). Limits of agreement for the average measure were also very good: -1.30° to 1.65°. The Charles device meets all of the desirable criteria and has many innovative features, increasing its appropriateness for clinical and research applications. It has a suitable design for measuring dorsiflexion and high intrarater and interrater reliability.

  6. Inter-rater reliability of shoulder measurements in middle-aged women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Groef, A; Van Kampen, M; Vervloesem, N; Clabau, E; Christiaens, M-R; Neven, P; Geraerts, I; Struyf, F; Devoogdt, N

    2017-06-01

    To investigate inter-rater reliability of a set of shoulder measurements including inclinometry [shoulder range of motion (ROM)], acromion-table distance and pectoralis minor muscle length (static scapular positioning), upward rotation with two inclinometers (scapular kinematics) and pain pressure thresholds (muscle tenderness) in middle-aged women. Observational study. Thirty symptom-free middle-aged women (first cohort) were measured by two raters. All measurements with an intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) below 0.75 were retested after an additional training period in a second cohort of 30 symptom-free middle-aged women. Inter-rater reliability of all variables was measured with the ICC (95% confidence interval) and standard error of measurement (SEM). Acromion-table distance (ICC=0.91, SEM 0.22 to 0.28% of body length), pectoralis minor muscle length (ICC=0.91, SEM 0.16% of body length), pain pressure thresholds (ICC=0.78 to 0.85, SEM 0.39 to 0.70kg) and abduction ROM (ICC=0.77, SEM 5°) showed good to excellent inter-rater reliability in the first cohort. After an additional training period, forward flexion ROM showed good inter-rater reliability (ICC=0.83, SEM 5°), scapular upward rotation in resting position showed moderate reliability (ICC=0.52, SEM 2°), and other scaption angles showed weak reliability (ICC=0.26 to 0.43, SEM 3 to 8°). In a battery of clinical tools to evaluate factors contributing to shoulder pain, static scapular positioning and pressure pain thresholds were found to have good to excellent inter-rater reliability in middle-aged women. Additional training is recommended for measurements with a gravity inclinometer. Copyright © 2016 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Agreement and reliability of femoral varus measurements: a comparison of four techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miles, James Edward; Svalastoga, Eiliv Lars; Eriksen, Thomas

    with the diaphysis positioned horizontally and inclined at both 12.5° and 25° to the horizontal. Radiographs were blinded, randomised and read twice by one observer using ImageJ. Using coordinate data, varus angles were calculated using Microsoft Excel for the three previously reported techniques and a novel method......, which we believed would be more reliable. Reliability between readings was assessed using the within-subject standard deviation and repeatability coefficient, and the effect of angulation on varus measurement was assessed using a mixed model ANOVA. Two of the reported techniques varied significantly (P......Three different techniques have been described for measuring femoral varus radiographically in the dog, but how the measurements from these techniques compare is unknown. Further, measurement reliability has only been assessed for one technique. Seven grossly normal right femora were radiographed...

  8. Pronation and supination after forearm fractures in children: Reliability of visual estimation and conventional goniometry measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colaris, Joost; van der Linden, Marleen; Selles, Ruud; Coene, Napoleon; Allema, Jan Hein; Verhaar, Jan

    2010-06-01

    Forearm fractures are common amongst children and often result in limited rotational function. In daily practice, pronation and supination of the arm are often visually estimated or measured using a conventional goniometer. The aim of this study was to compare the reliability of these two methods in paediatric patients who had previously sustained a forearm fracture. Intra- and interrater reliability of visual estimation and conventional goniometry were determined in 47 children who had previously sustained a forearm fracture. Intra- and interrater reliability of visual estimation and conventional goniometry was fair to excellent, with intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) ranging between 0.75 and 0.94. In addition, the overall goniometer data consistently showed lower smallest detectable differences (SDDs) compared to the visual estimation data, also indicating better reliability for the goniometer method. A conventional goniometer is an easy, fast and reliable method to determine the pronation and supination in a child who had sustained a forearm fracture. If an uncooperative child hinders the measurement, visual estimation is a good second choice. Measurements are more reliable when repeated by the same professional. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Reliability and validity of a scale to measure change in persons with compulsive buying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monahan, P; Black, D W; Gabel, J

    1996-08-30

    A new scale to measure severity and change in persons with compulsive buying is described. Data were gathered during an open-label study in which compulsive buyers were treated with fluvoxamine, a serotonin reuptake inhibitor. The instrument showed good-to-excellent interrater reliability and high internal consistency. Its 10 separate items showed at least moderate correlations with the total score. The instrument was also sensitive to clinical change and correlated highly with other measures of illness severity. We conclude that this new instrument is both reliable and valid in measuring severity and change in persons with compulsive buying.

  10. A Reliable Method to Measure Lip Height Using Photogrammetry in Unilateral Cleft Lip Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Zeeuw, Frederique; Murabit, Amera; Volcano, Johnny; Torensma, Bart; Patel, Brijesh; Hay, Norman; Thorburn, Guy; Morris, Paul; Sommerlad, Brian; Gnarra, Maria; van der Horst, Chantal; Kangesu, Loshan

    2015-09-01

    There is still no reliable tool to determine the outcome of the repaired unilateral cleft lip (UCL). The aim of this study was therefore to develop an accurate, reliable tool to measure vertical lip height from photographs. The authors measured the vertical height of the cutaneous and vermilion parts of the lip in 72 anterior-posterior view photographs of 17 patients with repairs to a UCL. Points on the lip's white roll and vermillion were marked on both the cleft and the noncleft sides on each image. Two new concepts were tested. First, photographs were standardized using the horizontal (medial to lateral) eye fissure width (EFW) for calibration. Second, the authors tested the interpupillary line (IPL) and the alar base line (ABL) for their reliability as horizontal lines of reference. Measurements were taken by 2 independent researchers, at 2 different time points each. Overall 2304 data points were obtained and analyzed. Results showed that the method was very effective in measuring the height of the lip on the cleft side with the noncleft side. When using the IPL, inter- and intra-rater reliability was 0.99 to 1.0, with the ABL it varied from 0.91 to 0.99 with one exception at 0.84. The IPL was easier to define because in some subjects the overhanging nasal tip obscured the alar base and gave more consistent measurements possibly because the reconstructed alar base was sometimes indistinct. However, measurements from the IPL can only give the percentage difference between the left and right sides of the lip, whereas those from the ABL can also give exact measurements. Patient examples were given that show how the measurements correlate with clinical assessment. The authors propose this method of photogrammetry with the innovative use of the IPL as a reliable horizontal plane and use of the EFW for calibration as a useful and reliable tool to assess the outcome of UCL repair.

  11. Validity and Reliability of Field-Based Measures for Assessing Movement Skill Competency in Lifelong Physical Activities: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulteen, Ryan M; Lander, Natalie J; Morgan, Philip J; Barnett, Lisa M; Robertson, Samuel J; Lubans, David R

    2015-10-01

    It has been suggested that young people should develop competence in a variety of 'lifelong physical activities' to ensure that they can be active across the lifespan. The primary aim of this systematic review is to report the methodological properties, validity, reliability, and test duration of field-based measures that assess movement skill competency in lifelong physical activities. A secondary aim was to clearly define those characteristics unique to lifelong physical activities. A search of four electronic databases (Scopus, SPORTDiscus, ProQuest, and PubMed) was conducted between June 2014 and April 2015 with no date restrictions. Studies addressing the validity and/or reliability of lifelong physical activity tests were reviewed. Included articles were required to assess lifelong physical activities using process-oriented measures, as well as report either one type of validity or reliability. Assessment criteria for methodological quality were adapted from a checklist used in a previous review of sport skill outcome assessments. Movement skill assessments for eight different lifelong physical activities (badminton, cycling, dance, golf, racquetball, resistance training, swimming, and tennis) in 17 studies were identified for inclusion. Methodological quality, validity, reliability, and test duration (time to assess a single participant), for each article were assessed. Moderate to excellent reliability results were found in 16 of 17 studies, with 71% reporting inter-rater reliability and 41% reporting intra-rater reliability. Only four studies in this review reported test-retest reliability. Ten studies reported validity results; content validity was cited in 41% of these studies. Construct validity was reported in 24% of studies, while criterion validity was only reported in 12% of studies. Numerous assessments for lifelong physical activities may exist, yet only assessments for eight lifelong physical activities were included in this review

  12. Intra- and Inter-Examiner Reliability in Angular Measurements of the Knee with a Smartphone Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derhon Viviane

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Goniometric smartphone applications to measure joint angles offer greater practicality and accessibility, which makes them potential alternatives to a conventional goniometer. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the intra- and inter-examiner reliability in measuring the angles of the range of motion of the knee with the use of the ROM© goniometric smartphone application.

  13. Fatigue is a reliable, sensitive and unique outcome measure in rheumatoid arthritis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Minnock, Patricia

    2009-12-01

    Fatigue is an important symptom in patients with RA. Measurement of fatigue in clinical trials and in clinical practice requires scales that are reproducible, sensitive to change and practical. This study examined the reliability and sensitivity to change of fatigue and its relative independence as an outcome measure in RA.

  14. Reliability of Isometric Lower-Extremity Muscle Strength Measurements in Children With Cerebral Palsy: Implications for Measurement Design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willemse, A.A.M.; Brehm, M.A.; Scholtes, V.A.B.; Jansen, L.; Woudenberg-Vos, H.; Dallmeijer, A.J.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Children with cerebral palsy (CP) typically show muscle weakness of the lower extremities, which can be measured with the use of handheld dynamometry (HHD). Objective. The purposes of this study were: (1) to determine test-retest reliability and measurement error of isometric

  15. Reliability of isometric lower-extremity muscle strength measurements in children with cerebral palsy: implications for measurement design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willemse, Lydia; Brehm, Merel A.; Scholtes, Vanessa A.; Jansen, Laura; Woudenberg-Vos, Hester; Dallmeijer, Annet J.

    2013-01-01

    Children with cerebral palsy (CP) typically show muscle weakness of the lower extremities, which can be measured with the use of handheld dynamometry (HHD). The purposes of this study were: (1) to determine test-retest reliability and measurement error of isometric lower-extremity strength

  16. The reliability of a smartphone goniometer application compared with a traditional goniometer for measuring first metatarsophalangeal joint dorsiflexion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otter, Simon J; Agalliu, Brunilda; Baer, Nicola; Hales, Georgie; Harvey, Katrina; James, Keeley; Keating, Richard; McConnell, Warren; Nelson, Rachel; Qureshi, Saddaf; Ryan, Steven; St John, Abigail; Waddington, Heather; Warren, Katie; Wong, Duane

    2015-01-01

    Adequate sagittal plane motion of the first metatarsalphalangeal joint (1st MTPJ) is important during normal gait and goniometric measurement is commonly used as a diagnostic and outcome assessment tool. We aimed to determine the intra and inter-rater reliability together with the concurrent validity of a universal plastic goniometer (UG) and a smartphone applicationlication (Dr G) for the measurement of dorsiflexion at the 1st MTPJ. Measurement of joint position and passive range of motion of the 1st MTPJ dorsiflexion was compared using a UG and DrG goniometer. A double-blind repeated measures design was utilized, with intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) used to determine levels of reliability. For joint position good intra-rater reliability (ICC >0.861) and good inter-rater reliability (ICC >0.823) was noted. However, the Dr G application consistently measured lower angles (mean 27.8° (SD 8.37)) than the UG (mean 32° (SD 11.7)) and these associations were significant (r = 0.399, p range of motion, the mean total range of dorsiflexion motion (from maximum plantarflexed position to maximum dorsiflexed position) was 82.8° (SD 12.2) for the UG and 82.9° (SD 11.3) for the Dr G application. Both instruments demonstrated high levels of intra-rater reliability (ICC >0.809). Inter-rater reliability was moderate to good for the UG (ICC 0.693 (95 % CI 0.580 to 0.788)) and good for the Dr G application (ICC 0.708 (95 % CI 0.597 to 0.799)). Moderate to high intra and inter-rater reliability of joint position and passive 1st MTPJ motion can be achieved with traditional and smartphone-based goniometric measurement. The Dr G application may provide a slightly higher reliability, but devices should not be used inter-changeably as significant variation in measurement between devices may occur.

  17. Reliability of Upright and Supine Power Measurements Using an Inertial Load Cycle Ergometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickwire, P. J.; Leach, M.; Ryder, J.; Ploutz-Snyder, R.; Ploutz-Snyder, L.

    2011-01-01

    or equal to 0.97 for all days in both positions. Also, no significant differences between upright and supine postures were found for Pmax. No significant differences between days were found for RPMpk; however, there was a significant posture effect (upright greater than supine). Moderate correlations were observed between ILC Pmax and isokinetic and leg press tests (upright: 0.64-0.79, supine: 0.52-0.82). CONCLUSIONS: Overall, ILC is a very reliable test. Since a significant difference was found between day 1 and the other ILC testing days, it is suggested that day 1 of ILC testing should be used as a familiarization session to allow for subject learning. No significant difference in Pmax was seen from test 3 to test 6. However, an increase of 1.3% was observed from test 4 to test 6. Therefore, although 4 tests may be sufficient for most subjects to produce Pmax, in some cases 6 tests may be required. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: No differences were seen in Pmax between upright and supine positions despite differing RPMpk. This suggests that ILC testing can be used to provide reliable testing both in an upright position (appropriate for athletes) and in research (e.g., bed rest) or rehabilitation settings where supine testing is necessary. Future research should evaluate whether peak power measurements obtained with the ILC are sensitive to changes such as that observed with training and de-training.

  18. Reliability of AcuGraph system for measuring skin conductance at acupoints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mist, Scott D; Aickin, Mikel; Kalnins, Paul; Cleaver, Jim; Batchelor, Roger; Thorne, Tracy; Chamberlin, Steve; Tippens, Kim; Colbert, Agatha P

    2011-09-01

    There are many commercially available instruments for measuring electrical conductance, but there is little information about their reliability. The aim of this study was to quantify measurement variability and assess reliability of the AcuGraph system-a commonly used electrodermal screening device. Four experiments were conducted to measure variability in electrical conductance readings obtained by the AcuGraph system. The first involved measuring known resistors. The second measured non-human organic matter. The third was a test-retest assessment of the Yuan-Source and Jing-Well points in 30 healthy volunteers who were measured by a single operator. The fourth was an interoperator reliability evaluation of seven acupuncturists at the Yuan-Source and Jing-Well acupoints on four individuals at two time points. Against known resistors, the AcuGraph had an average coefficient of variability (CV) of 1.8% between operators and test-retests. On non-human organic material the AcuGraph had an average CV of 0.9% and 2.8%. When a single operator tested 30 participants, the average reliability for the Yuan-Source points was 0.86 and 0.76 for Jing-Well points with a CV of 23.2% and 25.9% respectively. The average CV for the seven acupuncturists was 24.5% on Yuan-Source points and 23.7% on Jing-Well points. The AcuGraph measures known resistors and organic matter accurately and reliably. Skin conductance at acupoints recorded by one operator was also reliable. There was less consistency in electrodermal recordings obtained by seven different operators. Operator training and technical improvements to the AcuGraph may improve consistency among operators.

  19. Blooms' separation of the final exam of Engineering Mathematics II: Item reliability using Rasch measurement model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuaad, Norain Farhana Ahmad; Nopiah, Zulkifli Mohd; Tawil, Norgainy Mohd; Othman, Haliza; Asshaari, Izamarlina; Osman, Mohd Hanif; Ismail, Nur Arzilah

    2014-06-01

    In engineering studies and researches, Mathematics is one of the main elements which express physical, chemical and engineering laws. Therefore, it is essential for engineering students to have a strong knowledge in the fundamental of mathematics in order to apply the knowledge to real life issues. However, based on the previous results of Mathematics Pre-Test, it shows that the engineering students lack the fundamental knowledge in certain topics in mathematics. Due to this, apart from making improvements in the methods of teaching and learning, studies on the construction of questions (items) should also be emphasized. The purpose of this study is to assist lecturers in the process of item development and to monitor the separation of items based on Blooms' Taxonomy and to measure the reliability of the items itself usingRasch Measurement Model as a tool. By using Rasch Measurement Model, the final exam questions of Engineering Mathematics II (Linear Algebra) for semester 2 sessions 2012/2013 were analysed and the results will provide the details onthe extent to which the content of the item providesuseful information about students' ability. This study reveals that the items used in Engineering Mathematics II (Linear Algebra) final exam are well constructed but the separation of the items raises concern as it is argued that it needs further attention, as there is abig gap between items at several levels of Blooms' cognitive skill.

  20. Reliability of the craniocervical posture assessment: visual and angular measurements using photographs and radiographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadotti, Inae C; Armijo-Olivo, Susan; Silveira, Anelise; Magee, David

    2013-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to determine the intrarater and interrater reliability of the craniocervical posture in a sagittal view using quantitative measurements on photographs and radiographs and to determine the agreement of the visual assessment of posture between raters. One photograph and 1 radiograph of the sagittal craniocervical posture were simultaneously taken from 39 healthy female subjects. Three angles were measured on the photographs and 10 angles on the radiographs of 22 subjects using Alcimage software (Alcimage; Uberlândia, MG, Brazil). Two repeated measurements were performed by 2 raters. The measurements were compared within and between raters to test the intrarater and interrater reliability, respectively. Intraclass correlation coefficient and SEM were used. κ Agreement was calculated for the visual assessment of 39 subjects using photographs and radiographs between 2 raters. Good to excellent intrarater and interrater intraclass correlation coefficient values were found on both photographs and radiographs. Interrater SEM was large and clinically significant for cervical lordosis photogrammetry and for 1 angle measuring cervical lordosis on radiographs. Interrater κ agreement for the visual assessment using photographs was poor (κ = 0.37). The raters were reliable to measure angles in photographs and radiographs to quantify craniocervical posture with exception of 2 angles measuring lordosis of the cervical spine when compared between raters. The visual assessment of posture between raters was not reliable. © 2013. Published by National University of Health Sciences All rights reserved.

  1. Measuring Eccentric Strength of the Shoulder External Rotators Using a Handheld Dynamometer: Reliability and Validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Fredrik R; Skillgate, Eva; Lapauw, Mattis L; Clijmans, Dorien; Deneulin, Valentijn P; Palmans, Tanneke; Engineer, Human Kinetic; Cools, Ann M

    2015-07-01

    Shoulder strength assessment plays an important role in the clinical examination of the shoulder region. Eccentric strength measurements are of special importance in guiding the clinician in injury prevention or return-to-play decisions after injury. To examine the absolute and relative reliability and validity of a standardized eccentric strength-measurement protocol for the glenohumeral external rotators. Descriptive laboratory study. Testing environment at the Department of Rehabilitation Sciences and Physiotherapy of Ghent University, Belgium. Twenty-five healthy participants (9 men and 16 women) without any history of shoulder pain were tested by 2 independent assessors using a handheld dynamometer (HHD) and underwent an isokinetic testing procedure. The clinical protocol used an HHD, a DynaPort accelerometer to measure acceleration and angular velocity of testing 30°/s over 90° of range of motion, and a Biodex dynamometer to measure isokinetic activity. Three eccentric strength measurements: (1) tester 1 with the HHD, (2) tester 2 with the HHD, and (3) Biodex isokinetic strength measurement. The intratester reliability was excellent (0.879 and 0.858), whereas the intertester reliability was good, with an intraclass correlation coefficient between testers of 0.714. Pearson product moment correlation coefficients of 0.78 and 0.70 were noted between the HHD and the isokinetic data, showing good validity of this new procedure. Standardized eccentric rotator cuff strength can be tested and measured in the clinical setting with good-to-excellent reliability and validity using an HHD.

  2. Measuring Perceptual (In) Congruence between Information Service Providers and Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, Crystal

    2017-01-01

    Library quality is no longer evaluated solely on the value of its collections, as user perceptions of service quality play an increasingly important role in defining overall library value. This paper presents a retooling of the LibQUAL+ survey instrument, blending the gap measurement model with perceptual congruence model studies from information…

  3. Feasibility and Inter-Rater Reliability of Physical Performance Measures in Acutely Admitted Older Medical Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodilsen, Ann Christine; Juul-Larsen, Helle Gybel; Petersen, Janne

    2015-01-01

    -rater reliability of four simple measures of physical performance in acutely admitted older medical patients. DESIGN: During the first 24 hours of hospitalization, the following were assessed twice by different raters in 52 (≥ 65 years) patients admitted for acute medical illness: isometric hand grip strength, 4...... chair stand. Absolute reliability was expressed as the standard error of measurement and the smallest real difference as a percentage of their respective means (SEM% and SRD%). RESULTS: The primary reasons for admission of the 52 included patients were infectious disease and cardiovascular illness......, and 30-s chair stand were 8%, 7%, and 18%, and the SRD95% values were 22%, 17%, and 49%. CONCLUSION: In acutely admitted older medical patients, grip strength, gait speed, and the Cumulated Ambulation Score measurements were feasible and showed high inter-rater reliability when administered by different...

  4. Stochastic Reliability Measurement and Design Optimization of an Inventory Management System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulaziz T. Almaktoom

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Inventory management systems and dynamic reliability measures and controls remain challenging at every stage, especially when time variances and operating conditions are considered. An inventory management system must maintain its adeptness over time while coping with the uncertainty of inventory flow. Unexpected delays during inventory movement can harm the reliability and robustness of the entire system. This paper introduces a method of quantifying the reliability of an inventory management system. Also, a novel, reliability-based robust design optimization model has been developed to optimally allocate and schedule time while considering uncertainty associated with inventory movement. The processes involved include purchasing, shipping, receiving, tracking, warehousing, storage, and turnover. A case study of a furniture company in Saudi Arabia is presented to demonstrate the efficacy of the model.

  5. Use of a tibial accelerometer to measure ground reaction force in running: A reliability and validity comparison with force plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raper, Damian P; Witchalls, Jeremy; Philips, Elissa J; Knight, Emma; Drew, Michael K; Waddington, Gordon

    2018-01-01

    The use of microsensor technologies to conduct research and implement interventions in sports and exercise medicine has increased recently. The objective of this paper was to determine the validity and reliability of the ViPerform as a measure of load compared to vertical ground reaction force (GRF) as measured by force plates. Absolute reliability assessment, with concurrent validity. 10 professional triathletes ran 10 trials over force plates with the ViPerform mounted on the mid portion of the medial tibia. Calculated vertical ground reaction force data from the ViPerform was matched to the same stride on the force plate. Bland-Altman (BA) plot of comparative measure of agreement was used to assess the relationship between the calculated load from the accelerometer and the force plates. Reliability was calculated by intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC) with 95% confidence intervals. BA plot indicates minimal agreement between the measures derived from the force plate and ViPerform, with variation at an individual participant plot level. Reliability was excellent (ICC=0.877; 95% CI=0.825-0.917) in calculating the same vertical GRF in a repeated trial. Standard error of measure (SEM) equalled 99.83 units (95% CI=82.10-119.09), which, in turn, gave a minimum detectable change (MDC) value of 276.72 units (95% CI=227.32-330.07). The ViPerform does not calculate absolute values of vertical GRF similar to those measured by a force plate. It does provide a valid and reliable calculation of an athlete's lower limb load at constant velocity. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Concurrent criterion-related validity and reliability of a clinical test to measure femoral anteversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Richard B; Powers, Christopher M

    2009-08-01

    Clinical measurement, criterion standard. To determine if the clinical measure of femoral anteversion is comparable to measures obtained from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). An additional purpose of this study was to assess the intertester and intratester reliability of the clinical test. Femoral anteversion is commonly assessed as part of the physical examination; however, limited and inconsistent data exist on the validity and reliability of the clinical test. Eighteen healthy adults (9 males, 9 females; mean +/- SD age, 25.4 +/- 3.3 years; body mass index, 22.9 +/- 3.4 kg/m2) participated. Each underwent 3 data collection sessions: (1) MRI to measure femoral anteversion, (2) clinical testing of femoral anteversion, measured independently by 2 physical therapists, and (3) repeated clinical testing. Validity and reliability were assessed using intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC2,3) and standard error of measurement (SEM). Moderate agreement was found between the clinical test and MRI measures of femoral anteversion (ICCs of 0.69 and 0.67 for examiners 1 and 2, respectively). The SEM was similar for both examiners (5.8 degrees and 6.0 degrees ). Both intra tester (ICCs of 0.88 and 0.90 for examiners 1 and 2, respectively) and intertester (ICC = 0.83) reliability was found to be substantial. In persons with a low body mass index, the clinical test to assess femoral anteversion was shown to exhibit substantial reliability, but only moderate agreement with MRI measurements. When performing the clinical test, one can be 95% confident that the true value of femoral anteversion will fall within 11.8 degrees of the clinically measured value. This relatively wide confidence interval calls into question the clinical utility of the clinical test for assessing femoral anteversion.

  7. Reliability, technical error of measurements and validity of length and weight measurements for children under two years old in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamaiyah, H; Geeta, A; Safiza, M N; Khor, G L; Wong, N F; Kee, C C; Rahmah, R; Ahmad, A Z; Suzana, S; Chen, W S; Rajaah, M; Adam, B

    2010-06-01

    The National Health and Morbidity Survey III 2006 wanted to perform anthropometric measurements (length and weight) for children in their survey. However there is limited literature on the reliability, technical error of measurement (TEM) and validity of these two measurements. This study assessed the above properties of length (LT) and weight (WT) measurements in 130 children age below two years, from the Hospital Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (HUKM) paediatric outpatient clinics, during the period of December 2005 to January 2006. Two trained nurses measured WT using Tanita digital infant scale model 1583, Japan (0.01kg) and Seca beam scale, Germany (0.01 kg) and LT using Seca measuring mat, Germany (0.1cm) and Sensormedics stadiometer model 2130 (0.1cm). Findings showed high inter and intra-examiner reliability using 'change in the mean' and 'intraclass correlation' (ICC) for WT and LT. However, LT was found to be less reliable using the 'Bland and Altman plot'. This was also true using Relative TEMs, where the TEM value of LT was slightly more than the acceptable limit. The test instruments were highly valid for WT using 'change in the mean' and 'ICC' but was less valid for LT measurement. In spite of this we concluded that, WT and LT measurements in children below two years old using the test instruments were reliable and valid for a community survey such as NHMS III within the limits of their error. We recommend that LT measurements be given special attention to improve its reliability and validity.

  8. Validating and Calibrating the Nintendo Wii Balance Board to Derive Reliable Center of Pressure Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia M. Leach

    2014-09-01

    under controlled, dynamic conditions and implemented a linear calibration procedure for WBB CoP signals that is recommended to reduce CoP measurement error and provide more reliable estimates of time-domain CoP measures. Despite our promising results, additional work is necessary to understand how our findings translate to the clinical and rehabilitation research domains. Once the WBB’s CoP measurement error is fully characterized in human postural sway (which differs from our simulated postural sway in both amplitude and frequency content, it may be used to measure CoP displacement in situations where lower accuracy and precision is acceptable.

  9. Harmonization process and reliability assessment of anthropometric measurements in the elderly EXERNET multi-centre study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alba Gómez-Cabello

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The elderly EXERNET multi-centre study aims to collect normative anthropometric data for old functionally independent adults living in Spain. PURPOSE: To describe the standardization process and reliability of the anthropometric measurements carried out in the pilot study and during the final workshop, examining both intra- and inter-rater errors for measurements. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 98 elderly from five different regions participated in the intra-rater error assessment, and 10 different seniors living in the city of Toledo (Spain participated in the inter-rater assessment. We examined both intra- and inter-rater errors for heights and circumferences. RESULTS: For height, intra-rater technical errors of measurement (TEMs were smaller than 0.25 cm. For circumferences and knee height, TEMs were smaller than 1 cm, except for waist circumference in the city of Cáceres. Reliability for heights and circumferences was greater than 98% in all cases. Inter-rater TEMs were 0.61 cm for height, 0.75 cm for knee-height and ranged between 2.70 and 3.09 cm for the circumferences measured. Inter-rater reliabilities for anthropometric measurements were always higher than 90%. CONCLUSION: The harmonization process, including the workshop and pilot study, guarantee the quality of the anthropometric measurements in the elderly EXERNET multi-centre study. High reliability and low TEM may be expected when assessing anthropometry in elderly population.

  10. Evaluation of clinical and radiographic measures and reliability of the quadriceps angle measurement in elderly women with knee osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateus Ramos Amorim

    Full Text Available Introduction Knees osteoarthritis (OA is a complex degenerative disease with intra-articular changes affecting the amplitude of the quadriceps angle (Q. To measure this variable, it is necessary to use reliable protocols aiming at methodological reproducibility. The objective was to evaluate the intra-examiner and inter-examiner reliability of clinical and radiographic measures of the Q angle and to investigate the relationship between the degree of OA and the magnitude of this angle in the elderly. Materials and methods 23 volunteers had the Q angle measured by two evaluators at 48-h interval. Clinical measurements were collected by using the universal goniometer in the same position adopted in the radiographic examination. Results The intra-examiner reliability was good (0.722 to 0.763 for radiographic measurements and low (0.518 to 0.574 for clinical assessment, while inter-examiner reliability was moderate (0.634 for radiographic measurements and low (0.499 to the clinics. The correlation analysis between the radiographic values with the OA classification showed no correlation between them (p = 0.824 and r = -0.024. Conclusion Clinically, it is suggested that the radiographic examination is preferable to evaluate the Q angle of elderly women with knee osteoarthritis. Moreover, the magnitude of this angle did not correlate with the degree of impairment of OA in this population.

  11. Providing Reliability Services through Demand Response: A Prelimnary Evaluation of the Demand Response Capabilities of Alcoa Inc.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Starke, Michael R [ORNL; Kirby, Brendan J [ORNL; Kueck, John D [ORNL; Todd, Duane [Alcoa; Caulfield, Michael [Alcoa; Helms, Brian [Alcoa

    2009-02-01

    Demand response is the largest underutilized reliability resource in North America. Historic demand response programs have focused on reducing overall electricity consumption (increasing efficiency) and shaving peaks but have not typically been used for immediate reliability response. Many of these programs have been successful but demand response remains a limited resource. The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) report, 'Assessment of Demand Response and Advanced Metering' (FERC 2006) found that only five percent of customers are on some form of demand response program. Collectively they represent an estimated 37,000 MW of response potential. These programs reduce overall energy consumption, lower green house gas emissions by allowing fossil fuel generators to operate at increased efficiency and reduce stress on the power system during periods of peak loading. As the country continues to restructure energy markets with sophisticated marginal cost models that attempt to minimize total energy costs, the ability of demand response to create meaningful shifts in the supply and demand equations is critical to creating a sustainable and balanced economic response to energy issues. Restructured energy market prices are set by the cost of the next incremental unit of energy, so that as additional generation is brought into the market, the cost for the entire market increases. The benefit of demand response is that it reduces overall demand and shifts the entire market to a lower pricing level. This can be very effective in mitigating price volatility or scarcity pricing as the power system responds to changing demand schedules, loss of large generators, or loss of transmission. As a global producer of alumina, primary aluminum, and fabricated aluminum products, Alcoa Inc., has the capability to provide demand response services through its manufacturing facilities and uniquely through its aluminum smelting facilities. For a typical aluminum smelter

  12. Reliability of measuring pelvic floor elevation with a diagnostic ultrasonic imaging device

    OpenAIRE

    Ubukata, Hitomi; Maruyama, Hitoshi; Huo, Ming

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the reliability of measuring the amount of pelvic floor elevation during pelvic and abdominal muscle contraction with a diagnostic ultrasonic imaging device. [Subjects] The study group comprised 11 healthy women without urinary incontinence or previous birth experience. [Methods] We measured the displacement elevation of the bladder base during contraction of the abdominal and pelvic floor muscles was measured using a diagnostic ultrasoni...

  13. Reliability of Two Smartphone Applications for Radiographic Measurements of Hallux Valgus Angles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattos E Dinato, Mauro Cesar; Freitas, Marcio de Faria; Milano, Cristiano; Valloto, Elcio; Ninomiya, André Felipe; Pagnano, Rodrigo Gonçalves

    The objective of the present study was to assess the reliability of 2 smartphone applications compared with the traditional goniometer technique for measurement of radiographic angles in hallux valgus and the time required for analysis with the different methods. The radiographs of 31 patients (52 feet) with a diagnosis of hallux valgus were analyzed. Four observers, 2 with >10 years' experience in foot and ankle surgery and 2 in-training surgeons, measured the hallux valgus angle and intermetatarsal angle using a manual goniometer technique and 2 smartphone applications (Hallux Angles and iPinPoint). The interobserver and intermethod reliability were estimated using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs), and the time required for measurement of the angles among the 3 methods was compared using the Friedman test. A very good or good interobserver reliability was found among the 4 observers measuring the hallux valgus angle and intermetatarsal angle using the goniometer (ICC 0.913 and 0.821, respectively) and iPinPoint (ICC 0.866 and 0.638, respectively). Using the Hallux Angles application, a very good interobserver reliability was found for measurements of the hallux valgus angle (ICC 0.962) and intermetatarsal angle (ICC 0.935) only among the more experienced observers. The time required for the measurements was significantly shorter for the measurements using both smartphone applications compared with the goniometer method. One smartphone application (iPinPoint) was reliable for measurements of the hallux valgus angles by either experienced or nonexperienced observers. The use of these tools might save time in the evaluation of radiographic angles in the hallux valgus. Copyright © 2016 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Low-magnification image analysis of Giemsa stained, electroporation and bleomycin treated endothelial monolayers provides reliable monolayer integrity data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meulenberg, Cécil J W; Cemazar, Maja

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to develop an in vitro cell model for studying the in vivo observed vascular effect, induced by exposing blood vessels to changing electric field strengths. Human microvascular endothelial cells (HMEC-1) were cultured as monolayers on 8 chamber glass slides as a model of capillary wall. Exposed to electric pulses alone, or in the presence of bleomycin (electrochemotherapy), monolayers were incubated with culture medium, fixed with methanol, stained with Giemsa, and photographed. Images of high-contrast low-magnification monolayers made under identical optimal light exposure were converted to greyscale, and the use of a threshold tool yielded a binary distribution, from which we determined two parameters of monolayer integrity: the covered surface area and the number of cells. We show that this low-magnification image analysis method for attached endothelial cells provides reliable control parameters of monolayer integrity, representing capillary wall. Besides, already within 2h post-treatment the data show distinct effects in the monolayer integrity parameters for electric pulses alone, or in the presence of bleomycin. The present method can be readily introduced to short and long-term toxicity assays with a variety of treatment conditions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Is Single Measurement Enough to Get a Reliable Result with Optical Coherence Tomography?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arzu Taşkıran Çömez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pur po se: To evaluate the repeatability and reliability of retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL thickness measurements using optical coherence tomography (OCT. Ma te ri al and Met hod: Two hundred sixty-six eyes of 135 subjects (glaucoma, glaucoma suspects and healthy were included in this study. Three sequential inferior, superior, nasal and temporal RNFL thickness measurements were performed using Spectral OCT [Opko/OTI, Inc., Miami, FL] by one operator at one session without pupillary dilatation. The differences between these three measurements of each quadrant in each eye were compared in microns and percentages. Repeated measures analysis of variance was performed for statistical analysis. Reliability is measured by intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC for each quadrant. Re sults: ICCs of all quadrants ranged between 0.77 and 0.92, with the measurements of nasal quadrant being the least reproducible and the inferior being the most reproducible of all quadrants. RNFL measurement errors over 20% were seen in 9.63% of nasal quadrant, 5.3% of temporal quadrant, 0.6% of superior quadrant and only 0.3% of inferior quadrant measurements. Dis cus si on: In order to get more repeatable and reliable results with OCT, sequential measurements more than one should be considered. We believe that special attention is required in the analysis of data of nasal and temporal quadrants. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2012; 42: 11-5

  16. A Study on the Reliability of Sasang Constitutional Body Trunk Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunsu Jang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Body trunk measurement for human plays an important diagnostic role not only in conventional medicine but also in Sasang constitutional medicine (SCM. The Sasang constitutional body trunk measurement (SCBTM consists of the 5-widths and the 8-circumferences which are standard locations currently employed in the SCM society. This study suggests to what extent a comprehensive training can improve the reliability of the SCBTM. Methods. We recruited 10 male subjects and 5 male observers with no experience of anthropometric measurement. We conducted measurements twice before and after a comprehensive training. Relative technical error of measurement (%TEMs was produced to assess intra and inter observer reliabilities. Results. Post-training intra-observer %TEMs of the SCBTM were 0.27% to 1.85% reduced from 0.27% to 6.26% in pre-training, respectively. Post-training inter-observer %TEMs of those were 0.56% to 1.66% reduced from 1.00% to 9.60% in pre-training, respectively. Post-training % total TEMs which represent the whole reliability were 0.68% to 2.18% reduced from maximum value of 10.18%. Conclusion. A comprehensive training makes the SCBTM more reliable, hence giving a sufficiently confident diagnostic tool. It is strongly recommended to give a comprehensive training in advance to take the SCBTM.

  17. Test-Retest Reliability of Dual-Task Outcome Measures in People With Parkinson Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strouwen, Carolien; Molenaar, Esther A L M; Keus, Samyra H J; Münks, Liesbeth; Bloem, Bastiaan R; Nieuwboer, Alice

    2016-08-01

    Dual-task (DT) training is gaining ground as a physical therapy intervention in people with Parkinson disease (PD). Future studies evaluating the effect of such interventions need reliable outcome measures. To date, the test-retest reliability of DT measures in patients with PD remains largely unknown. The purpose of this study was to assess the reliability of DT outcome measures in patients with PD. A repeated-measures design was used. Patients with PD ("on" medication, Mini-Mental State Examination score ≥24) performed 2 cognitive tasks (ie, backward digit span task and auditory Stroop task) and 1 functional task (ie, mobile phone task) in combination with walking. Tasks were assessed at 2 time points (same hour) with an interval of 6 weeks. Test-retest reliability was assessed for gait while performing each secondary task (DT gait) for both cognitive tasks while walking (DT cognitive) and for the functional task while walking (DT functional). Sixty-two patients with PD (age=39-89 years, Hoehn and Yahr stages II-III) were included in the study. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) showed excellent reliability for DT gait measures, ranging between .86 and .95 when combined with the digit span task, between .86 and .95 when combined with the auditory Stroop task, and between .72 and .90 when combined with the mobile phone task. The standard error of measurements for DT gait speed varied between 0.06 and 0.08 m/s, leading to minimal detectable changes between 0.16 and 0.22 m/s. With regard to DT cognitive measures, reaction times showed good-to-excellent reliability (digit span task: ICC=.75; auditory Stroop task: ICC=.82). The results cannot be generalized to patients with advanced disease or to other DT measures. In people with PD, DT measures proved to be reliable for use in clinical studies and look promising for use in clinical practice to assess improvements after DT training. Large effects, however, are needed to obtain meaningful effect sizes.

  18. Validity and reliability of subjective wellbeing indicators in sociological research: The measurement of life satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mentus Vladimir

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this paper is the level of accuracy i.e. validity and reliability of subjective well-being indicators in sociological research, in case of life satisfaction. First, the relationship between subjective and objective indicators of well-being is presented. Second, the concept of life satisfaction is defined, and the findings of research related to the validity (convergent, discriminant, and predictive and reliability (test-retest, and internal consistency of life satisfaction measures are presented. Third, these findings were reassessed using data originating from large international surveys, which have not been used for this purpose yet. The results in this paper generally contribute to, in quite a large extent existing agreement within the scientific literature about the satisfactory level of validity and reliability of life satisfaction measures i.e. subjective indicators of well-being.

  19. Intra-rater reliability of using KT 2000 compukt for measuring anterior tibial translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Vauhnik

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: To examine intra-rater reliability of the KT 2000 CompuKT use in a clinical setting.Methods: Fourteen healthy subjects of mean age 34.5 ± 5.68 years participated in the reliability study. Anterior tibial translation was measured using the KT 2000 CompuKT knee ligament arthrometer at 20 lb, 25 lb and 30 lb forces. Measurements were performed three times on each knee, one day apart and were averaged for statistical analysis. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS (SPSS for Windows 8.Results: Intraclass correlation coefficients were 0.83 and 0.88 for 20 lb, 0.92 and 0.93 for 25 lb and 0.95 and 0.93 for 30 lb for right and left knee, respectively.Conclusions: Results demonstrated high intra-rater reliability for use of the KT 2000 CompuKT in clinical settings.

  20. Reliability of digital compass goniometer in knee joint range of motion measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaikwawongs, Nammond; Limpaphayom, Noppachart; Wilairatana, Vajara

    2009-04-01

    To compare the reliability of range of motion measurement in the knee joint using a digital compass goniometer combined with inclinometer with standard range of motion measurement from roentgenographic picture. Range of flexion and extension of the knee joint in volunteer participants was measured by the newly developed digital compass goniometer combined with inclinometer (DCG). The results were compared with range of knee joint motion obtained from standard roentgenographic picture by intraclass correlation coefficient. Range of motion of knee joint measured by DCG correlated very well with the data obtained from standard knee roentgenographic picture. The intraclass correlation coefficient equals 0.973. The digital compass goniometer was a reliable tool to measure knee joint range of motion in flexion and extension plane.

  1. The Circadian Energy Scale (CIRENS): two simple questions for a reliable chronotype measurement based on energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottoni, Gustavo L; Antoniolli, Eduardo; Lara, Diogo R

    2011-04-01

    This study presents the Circadian Energy Scale (CIRENS), a very short and simple chronotype measurement tool based on energy. The CIRENS consists of two introspective questions about the usual energy level (very low, low, moderate, high, or very high, scored 1 to 5) in the morning and in the evening. The difference between energy level scores (-4 to 4) felt by respondents in the evening and morning defines the chronotype score and classification. A concurrent validity analysis of the CIRENS with the widely used Horne and Östberg Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire (MEQ) was conducted using a sample of 225 college students, and with MSFsc, a sleep-based chronotype assessment tool based on the Munich Chronotype Questionnaire (MCTQ), using a sample of 34,530 subjects (18-83 yrs, 27% males). This large sample was collected in a Web survey for behavioral correlates of the CIRENS with variables previously associated with chronotype differences. The correlation of the CIRENS chronotype score was r = -.70 with the MEQ and r = .32 with the MSFsc. CIRENS chronotype scores declined with age and were not affected by sex. Both CIRENS and MSFsc chronotype scores were related to differences in tobacco, caffeine, and cola soft-drink consumption (all higher in evening types). The CIRENS provides a simple chronotype index and a measure of absolute energy throughout the day and seems to be a reliable chronotype assessment tool that may be useful both clinically and for large-scale studies.

  2. Measurement methods to assess diastasis of the rectus abdominis muscle (DRAM): A systematic review of their measurement properties and meta-analytic reliability generalisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Water, A T M; Benjamin, D R

    2016-02-01

    Systematic literature review. Diastasis of the rectus abdominis muscle (DRAM) has been linked with low back pain, abdominal and pelvic dysfunction. Measurement is used to either screen or to monitor DRAM width. Determining which methods are suitable for screening and monitoring DRAM is of clinical value. To identify the best methods to screen for DRAM presence and monitor DRAM width. AMED, Embase, Medline, PubMed and CINAHL databases were searched for measurement property studies of DRAM measurement methods. Population characteristics, measurement methods/procedures and measurement information were extracted from included studies. Quality of all studies was evaluated using 'quality rating criteria'. When possible, reliability generalisation was conducted to provide combined reliability estimations. Thirteen studies evaluated measurement properties of the 'finger width'-method, tape measure, calipers, ultrasound, CT and MRI. Ultrasound was most evaluated. Methodological quality of these studies varied widely. Pearson's correlations of r = 0.66-0.79 were found between calipers and ultrasound measurements. Calipers and ultrasound had Intraclass Correlation Coefficients (ICC) of 0.78-0.97 for test-retest, inter- and intra-rater reliability. The 'finger width'-method had weighted Kappa's of 0.73-0.77 for test-retest reliability, but moderate agreement (63%; weighted Kappa = 0.53) between raters. Comparing calipers and ultrasound, low measurement error was found (above the umbilicus), and the methods had good agreement (83%; weighted Kappa = 0.66) for discriminative purposes. The available information support ultrasound and calipers as adequate methods to assess DRAM. For other methods limited measurement information of low to moderate quality is available and further evaluation of their measurement properties is required. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Reliability of the Q Force; a mobile instrument for measuring isometric quadriceps muscle strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douma, K W; Regterschot, G R H; Krijnen, W P; Slager, G E C; van der Schans, C P; Zijlstra, W

    2016-01-01

    The ability to generate muscle strength is a pre-requisite for all human movement. Decreased quadriceps muscle strength is frequently observed in older adults and is associated with a decreased performance and activity limitations. To quantify the quadriceps muscle strength and to monitor changes over time, instruments and procedures with a sufficient reliability are needed. The Q Force is an innovative mobile muscle strength measurement instrument suitable to measure in various degrees of extension. Measurements between 110 and 130° extension present the highest values and the most significant increase after training. The objective of this study is to determine the test-retest reliability of muscle strength measurements by the Q Force in older adults in 110° extension. Forty-one healthy older adults, 13 males and 28 females were included in the study. Mean (SD) age was 81.9 (4.89) years. Isometric muscle strength of the Quadriceps muscle was assessed with the Q Force at 110° of knee extension. Participants were measured at two sessions with a three to eight day interval between sessions. To determine relative reliability, the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was calculated. To determine absolute reliability, Bland and Altman Limits of Agreement (LOA) were calculated and t-tests were performed. Relative reliability of the Q Force is good to excellent as all ICC coefficients are higher than 0.75. Generally a large 95 % LOA, reflecting only moderate absolute reliability, is found as exemplified for the peak torque left leg of -18.6 N to 33.8 N and the right leg of -9.2 N to 26.4 N was between 15.7 and 23.6 Newton representing 25.2 % to 39.9 % of the size of the mean. Small systematic differences in mean were found between measurement session 1 and 2. The present study shows that the Q Force has excellent relative test-retest reliability, but limited absolute test-retest reliability. Since the Q Force is relatively cheap and mobile it is suitable for

  4. RELIABILITY OF ANKLE-FOOT MORPHOLOGY, MOBILITY, STRENGTH, AND MOTOR PERFORMANCE MEASURES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, John J; Koldenhoven, Rachel M; Saliba, Susan A; Hertel, Jay

    2017-12-01

    Assessment of foot posture, morphology, intersegmental mobility, strength and motor control of the ankle-foot complex are commonly used clinically, but measurement properties of many assessments are unclear. To determine test-retest and inter-rater reliability, standard error of measurement, and minimal detectable change of morphology, joint excursion and play, strength, and motor control of the ankle-foot complex. Reliability study. 24 healthy, recreationally-active young adults without history of ankle-foot injury were assessed by two clinicians on two occasions, three to ten days apart. Measurement properties were assessed for foot morphology (foot posture index, total and truncated length, width, arch height), joint excursion (weight-bearing dorsiflexion, rearfoot and hallux goniometry, forefoot inclinometry, 1 st metatarsal displacement) and joint play, strength (handheld dynamometry), and motor control rating during intrinsic foot muscle (IFM) exercises. Clinician order was randomized using a Latin Square. The clinicians performed independent examinations and did not confer on the findings for the duration of the study. Test-retest and inter-tester reliability and agreement was assessed using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC 2,k ) and weighted kappa ( K w ). Test-retest reliability ICC were as follows: morphology: .80-1.00, joint excursion: .58-.97, joint play: -.67-.84, strength: .67-.92, IFM motor rating: K W -.01-.71. Inter-rater reliability ICC were as follows: morphology: .81-1.00, joint excursion: .32-.97, joint play: -1.06-1.00, strength: .53-.90, and IFM motor rating: K w .02-.56. Measures of ankle-foot posture, morphology, joint excursion, and strength demonstrated fair to excellent test-retest and inter-rater reliability. Test-retest reliability for rating of perceived difficulty and motor performance was good to excellent for short-foot, toe-spread-out, and hallux exercises and poor to fair for lesser toe extension. Joint play measures had

  5. The Amsterdam preoperative anxiety and information scale provides a simple and reliable measure of preoperative anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boker, Abdulaziz; Brownell, Laurence; Donen, Neil

    2002-10-01

    To compare three anxiety scales; the anxiety visual analogue scale (VAS), the anxiety component of the Amsterdam preoperative anxiety and information scale (APAIS), and the state portion of the Spielburger state-trait anxiety inventory (STAI), for assessment of preoperative anxiety levels in same day admission patients. Patients completed the three anxiety assessment scales both before and after seeing the anesthesiologist preoperatively. The scales used were the STAI, the six-question APAIS, and the VAS. APAIS was further subdivided to assess anxiety about anesthesia (sum A), anxiety about surgery (sum S) and a combined anxiety total (i.e., sum C = sum A + sum S). These scales were compared to one another. Pearson's correlation (pair-wise deletion) was used for validity testing. Cronbach's alpha analysis was used to test internal validity of the various components of the APAIS scale. A correlation co-efficient (r) > or = 0.6 and P scale sets were completed by 197 patients. There was significant and positive correlation between VAS and STAI r = 0.64, P anxiety components of the APAIS (sum C) and desire for information were 0.84 and 0.77 respectively. In addition to VAS, the anxiety component of APAIS (sum C) is a promising new practical tool to assess preoperative patient anxiety levels.

  6. [Study of the reliability in one dimensional size measurement with digital slit lamp microscope].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Qi, Chaoxiu; Li, Qigen; Dong, Lijie; Yang, Jiezheng

    2010-11-01

    To study the reliability of digital slit lamp microscope as a tool for quantitative analysis in one dimensional size measurement. Three single-blinded observers acquired and repeatedly measured the images with a size of 4.00 mm and 10.00 mm on the vernier caliper, which simulatated the human eye pupil and cornea diameter under China-made digital slit lamp microscope in the objective magnification of 4 times, 10 times, 16 times, 25 times, 40 times and 4 times, 10 times, 16 times, respectively. The correctness and precision of measurement were compared. The images with 4 mm size were measured by three investigators and the average values were located between 3.98 to 4.06. For the images with 10.00 mm size, the average values fell within 10.00 ~ 10.04. Measurement results of 4.00 mm images showed, except A4, B25, C16 and C25, significant difference was noted between the measured value and the true value. Regarding measurement results of 10.00 mm iamges indicated, except A10, statistical significance was found between the measured value and the true value. In terms of comparing the results of the same size measured at different magnifications by the same investigator, except for investigators A's measurements of 10.00 mm dimension, the measurement results by all the remaining investigators presented statistical significance at different magnifications. Compared measurements of the same size with different magnifications, measurements of 4.00 mm in 4-fold magnification had no significant difference among the investigators', the remaining results were statistically significant. The coefficient of variation of all measurement results were less than 5%; as magnification increased, the coefficient of variation decreased. The measurement of digital slit lamp microscope in one-dimensional size has good reliability,and should be performed for reliability analysis before used for quantitative analysis to reduce systematic errors.

  7. Preliminary study: reliability of the spinal wheel. A novel device to measure spinal postures applied to sitting and standing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheeran, Liba; Sparkes, Valerie; Busse, Monica; van Deursen, Robert

    2010-06-01

    Postural re-education is an integral part of physiotherapy management in patients with back pain. Although the link between posture and back pain is largely unknown, postural re-education is performed on the premise of optimizing spinal alignment to minimize stresses on the passive structures of the spine, to facilitate optimal muscular support and thus to prevent possible damage and further pain. A reliable and clinically meaningful measurement of spinal postures to monitor such interventions remains challenging. This study evaluated within-day (intra-tester, inter-tester) and between-day (test-retest) reliability of a novel spinal wheel device measuring thoracic and lumbar postures during sitting and standing. 17 healthy volunteers (age 39.5 +/- 5.4, BMI 25 +/- 9.2; 9 males) were measured three times, by three testers, on two separate occasions (1 week apart). The angular change between C7 and T12 and between T12 and S1 provided thoracic and lumbar curvatures, respectively. Intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) with 95% confidence intervals and typical error were calculated. Excellent reliability was demonstrated with intra-tester ICCs between 0.947 and 0.980 and typical error between 1.7 degrees and 3.7 degrees and inter-tester ICCs between 0.949 and 0.986 and typical error between 2.0 degrees and 4.7 degrees. Test-retest reliability was high with ICCs 0.719-0.908 and typical error between 4.0 degrees and 7.4 degrees. In conclusion, the spinal wheel demonstrated excellent within-day and high between-day reliability. The device may be used in conjunction with 2D camcorder to provide clinically useful visual evaluation of postures for assessment, intervention monitoring, and feedback during postural re-education.

  8. Reliability and validity of ultrasonographic measurements of acromion-greater tuberosity distance in poststroke hemiplegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Praveen; Bradley, Michael; Gray, Selena; Swinkels, Annette

    2011-05-01

    The primary aim of this study was to assess the intrarater reliability of ultrasonographic measurements of acromion-greater tuberosity (AGT) distance in patients with stroke using portable ultrasound. A secondary aim was to determine the discriminant validity of the ultrasonographic technique by comparison of AGT distance measurements of stroke-affected and unaffected shoulders. Test-retest design. Two local National Health Service hospitals in the South West of England. Patients with first-time stroke (N=26; 16 men, 10 women; mean age ± SD, 71±10y) with 1-sided weakness who gave informed consent were recruited. Not applicable. Portable diagnostic ultrasound was used to record measurements on day 1 and again within a fortnight. Bedside measurements were undertaken by a single physical therapist with patients seated upright in a standard hospital chair. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) and standard errors of measurement were used to assess reliability. Minimum detectable change (MDC90) scores were used to estimate the magnitude of change that is likely to exceed measurement error. Repeated-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to assess discriminant validity. Mean ± SD AGT distances on the stroke-affected side and unaffected side were 2.3±0.6cm and 1.9±0.3cm, respectively. ICC for within-day reliability was .98 for the affected shoulder and .95 for the unaffected shoulder. Corresponding values for between-day reliability were .94 and .76. The standard error of measurement for both affected and unaffected shoulders was less than 0.2cm. Within-day MDC90 for the affected shoulder and the unaffected shoulder was ±0.2cm and ±0.1cm, respectively. Repeated-measures ANOVA showed a significant difference between mean AGT distance for the affected and unaffected shoulders. Ultrasonographic measurement of AGT distance demonstrates both intrarater reliability and discriminant validity and has the potential to assess shoulder subluxation in patients

  9. Inter-tester reliability of non-invasive technique for measurement of innominate motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhia, Divya Bharatkumar; Bussey, Melanie D; Mani, Ramakrishnan; Jayakaran, Prasath; Aldabe, Daniela; Milosavljevic, Stephan

    2012-02-01

    Although the complex anatomical orientation and position of the sacroiliac joints (SIJ) has rendered their 3D kinematic evaluation difficult, recent techniques of palpation-digitization of pelvic landmarks using electromagnetic tracking device have been able to accurately and non-invasively quantify the subtle SIJ kinematics. While this technique demonstrates radiographic validity and high test-retest reliability, it is yet to be assessed with regards to inter-tester and trial-to-trial reliability. A single-group repeated measure design using 4 testers was conducted to evaluate the inter-tester and trial-to-trial reliability of palpation-digitization technique for innominate vector length measurements using the Polhemus electromagnetic tracking device. Fourteen young, healthy adults between the ages of 18-40 years participated in the study. The innominate vector length was calculated from 3D co-ordinates of palpated and digitized pelvic landmarks in two test positions of hip. A sensitivity analysis was conducted to determine how palpation-digitization errors for pelvic landmarks impacts on innominate angle calculation. Reliability indexes of Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) (≥0.97) and Standard error of measurement (SEM) (≤2.02 mm) demonstrated very high inter-tester and trial-to-trial reliability and accuracy of palpation-digitization technique for innominate vector length measurements, irrespective of the two test positions. A higher consistency of measurements was obtained within-testers as compared to between testers, and sensitivity analysis demonstrated a negligible influence of palpation-digitization errors on the innominate angle measurements. The results support clinical and research utility of this technique for non-invasive kinematic evaluation of SIJ motion for this population. Further research on the use of this palpation-digitization technique in symptomatic population is warranted. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The reliability of continuous noninvasive finger blood pressure measurement in critically ill children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lemson, Joris; Hofhuizen, Charlotte M.; Schraa, Olaf; Settels, Jos J.; Scheffer, Gert Jan; van der Hoeven, Johannes G.

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Continuous noninvasive arterial blood pressure can be measured in finger arteries using an inflatable finger cuff (FINAP) with a special device and has proven to be feasible and reliable in adults. We studied prototype pediatric finger cuffs and pediatric software to compare this blood

  11. Generalizability Theory Reliability of Written Expression Curriculum-Based Measurement in Universal Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller-Margulis, Milena A.; Mercer, Sterett H.; Thomas, Erin L.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the reliability of written expression curriculum-based measurement (WE-CBM) in the context of universal screening from a generalizability theory framework. Students in second through fifth grade (n = 145) participated in the study. The sample included 54% female students, 49% White students, 23% African…

  12. The reliability of continuous noninvasive finger blood pressure measurement in critically ill children.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lemson, J.; Hofhuizen, C.M.; Schraa, O.; Settels, J.J.; Scheffer, G.J.; Hoeven, J.G. van der

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Continuous noninvasive arterial blood pressure can be measured in finger arteries using an inflatable finger cuff (FINAP) with a special device and has proven to be feasible and reliable in adults. We studied prototype pediatric finger cuffs and pediatric software to compare this blood

  13. Establishing Reliability and Construct Validity for an Instrument to Measure Environmental Connectedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beery, Thomas H.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this preliminary study is to establish a reliable and valid measure of environmental connectedness (EC) to allow for further exploration of the Swedish Outdoor Recreation in Change national survey data. The Nordic concept of friluftsliv (nature-based outdoor recreation) and the environmental psychology concept of EC are explored to…

  14. Computing interval-valued reliability measures: application of optimal control methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kozin, Igor; Krymsky, Victor

    2017-01-01

    The paper describes an approach to deriving interval-valued reliability measures given partial statistical information on the occurrence of failures. We apply methods of optimal control theory, in particular, Pontryagin’s principle of maximum to solve the non-linear optimisation problem and deriv...

  15. Reliability of the Measure of Acceptance of the Theory of Evolution (MATE) Instrument with University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutledge, Michael L.; Sadler, Kim C.

    2007-01-01

    The Measure of Acceptance of the Theory of Evolution (MATE) instrument was initially designed to assess high school biology teachers' acceptance of evolutionary theory. To determine if the MATE instrument is reliable with university students, it was administered to students in a non-majors biology course (n = 61) twice over a 3-week period.…

  16. Reliability of three-dimensional sonographic measurements in early pregnancy using virtual reality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.M. Verwoerd-Dikkeboom (Christine); A.H.J. Koning (Anton); W.C.J. Hop (Wim); M. Rousian (Melek); P.J. van der Spek (Peter); N. Exalto (Niek); R.P.M. Steegers-Theunissen (Régine)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractObjective: To establish the reliability of three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound measurements in early pregnancy using a virtual reality system (the Barco I-Space). Methods: The study included 28 pregnancies with gestational ages ranging from 6 to 14 (median, 10) weeks. 3D volumes were

  17. Concurrent validity and reliability of wireless instrumented insoles measuring postural balance and temporal gait parameters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oerbekke, Michiel S; Stukstette, Mirelle J; Schütte, Kurt; de Bie, Rob A; Pisters, Martijn F; Vanwanseele, Benedicte

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The OpenGo seems promising to take gait analysis out of laboratory settings due to its capability of long-term measurements and mobility. However, the OpenGo's concurrent validity and reliability need to be assessed to determine if the instrument is suitable for validation in patient

  18. Brazilian Version of the Functional Assessment Measure: Cross-Cultural Adaptation and Reliability Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourenco Jorge, Liliana; Garcia Marchi, Flavia Helena; Portela Hara, Ana Clara; Battistella, Linamara R.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this prospective study was to perform a cross-cultural adaptation of the Functional Assessment Measure (FAM) into Brazilian Portuguese, and to assess the test-retest reliability. The instrument was translated, back-translated, pretested, and reviewed by a committee. The Brazilian version was assessed in 61 brain-injury patients.…

  19. Test-Retest Reliability of Self-Reported Sexual Health Measures among US Hispanic Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerman, Petra; Berglas, Nancy F.; Rohrbach, Louise A.; Constantine, Norman A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Although Hispanic adolescents in the USA are often the focus of sexual health interventions, their response to survey measures has rarely been assessed within evaluation studies. This study documents the test-retest reliability of a wide range of self-reported sexual health values, attitudes, knowledge and behaviours among Hispanic…

  20. Sonographic measurements of the achilles tendon, plantar fascia, and heel fat pad are reliable

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannsen, Finn E; Jensen, Signe; Stallknecht, Sandra E

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: To determine intra- and interobserver reliability and precision of sonographic (US) scanning in measuring thickness of the Achilles tendon, plantar fascia, and heel fat pad in patients with heel pain. METHODS: Seventeen consecutive patients referred with heel pain were included. Two...

  1. Computing interval-valued reliability measures: application of optimal control methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kozin, Igor; Krymsky, Victor

    2017-01-01

    The paper describes an approach to deriving interval-valued reliability measures given partial statistical information on the occurrence of failures. We apply methods of optimal control theory, in particular, Pontryagin’s principle of maximum to solve the non-linear optimisation problem and derive...

  2. The reliability and measurement error of protractor-based goniometry of the fingers: A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooij, Y.E. van; Fink, A.; Nijhuis-Van der Sanden, M.W.; Speksnijder, C.M.

    2017-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN: Systematic review PURPOSE OF THE STUDY: The purpose was to review the available literature for evidence on the reliability and measurement error of protractor-based goniometry assessment of the finger joints. METHODS: Databases were searched for articles with key words "hand,"

  3. The reliability and measurement error of protractor-based goniometry of the fingers : A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kooij, Yara E.; Fink, Alexandra; Nijhuis-van der Sanden, Maria W.; Speksnijder, Caroline M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304821535

    2017-01-01

    Study Design: Systematic review. Purpose of the Study: The purpose was to review the available literature for evidence on the reliability and measurement error of protractor-based goniometry assessment of the finger joints. Methods: Databases were searched for articles with key words "hand,"

  4. Reliability of Performance-Based Clinical Measurements to Assess Shoulder Girdle Kinematics and Positioning: Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'hondt, Norman E; Kiers, Henri; Pool, Jan J M; Hacquebord, Sijmen T; Terwee, Caroline B; Veeger, Dirkjan H E J

    2017-01-01

    Deviant shoulder girdle movement is suggested as an eminent factor in the etiology of shoulder pain. Reliable measurements of shoulder girdle kinematics are a prerequisite for optimizing clinical management strategies. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the reliability, measurement error, and internal consistency of measurements with performance-based clinical tests for shoulder girdle kinematics and positioning in patients with shoulder pain. The MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, and SPORTDiscus databases were systematically searched from inception to August 2015. Articles published in Dutch, English, or German were included if they involved the evaluation of at least one of the measurement properties of interest. Two reviewers independently evaluated the methodological quality per studied measurement property with the 4-point-rating scale of the COSMIN (COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement INstruments) checklist, extracted data, and assessed the adequacy of the measurement properties. Forty studies comprising more than 30 clinical tests were included. Actual reported measurements of the tests were categorized into: (1) positional measurement methods, (2) measurement methods to determine dynamic characteristics, and (3) tests to diagnose impairments of shoulder girdle function. Best evidence synthesis of the tests was performed per measurement for each measurement property. All studies had significant limitations, including incongruence between test description and actual reported measurements and a lack of reporting on minimal important change. In general, the methodological quality of the selected studies was fair to poor. High-quality evidence indicates that measurements obtained with the Modified Scapular Assistance Test are not reliable for clinical use. Sound recommendations for the use of other tests could not be made due to inadequate evidence. Across studies, diversity in description, performance, and interpretation of similar

  5. Reliability and validation of in vitro lumbar spine height measurements using musculoskeletal ultrasound: A preliminary investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobczak, Stéphane; Dugailly, Pierre-Michel; Gilbert, Kerry K; Hooper, Troy L; Sizer, Phillip S; James, C Roger; Poortmans, Bernard; Matthijs, Omer C; Brismée, Jean-Michel

    2016-01-01

    Stadiometry measures total trunk height variations but cannot quantify individual spinal segment height changes. Different methods exist to measure both intervertebral disc and lumbar spine height (LSH) variations but they are either limited by radiation exposure or cost. Musculoskeletal ultrasound could be a valuable alternative to measure spinal segmental height changes as a result of intervention. To validate the use of musculoskeletal ultrasound (MSU) and new anatomical landmark references used in assessing inter-mammillary distances (IMD) and LSH changes resulting from lumbar spine traction. Two unembalmed cadaveric lumbar spines were extracted to assess (1) the reliability and validity of MSU, as compared to caliper, for measuring in vitro IMD and LSH using alternative anatomical landmarks than previously reported, and (2) the reliability of MSU for measuring in vitro IMD and lumbar spine height changes recorded during standardized mechanical traction up to 1.20 cm. Intra- and inter-rater reliability of musculoskeletal ultrasound for within and between sessions and for all experimental design, Standard Error ranged from 0.01 to 0.02 and from 0.03 to 0.04 cm for IMDs and LSHs, respectively. Root Mean Square Errors ranged from 1.6 to 6.8% and from 1 to 1.1% for IMDs and LSHs, respectively and mean ICC ranged from 0.98 to 1 for LSH. During traction, mean lumbar spine height measurement change using MSU was 1.15 ± 0.03 cm. Bland and Altman plots demonstrated confidence intervals included in the limits of agreement. Nevertheless, there were significant differences (plumbar spine height between caliper and ultrasound measurements. Musculoskeletal ultrasound overestimated distances of about 5.5 ± 1.5%. Musculoskeletal ultrasound is reliable and accurate for measuring intersegmental spinal distances and lumbar spine height with an apparent slight overestimation of distances. Based on mean differences, ultrasound technology seems to be valid for measuring lumbar

  6. Reliability and minimal detectable change in foot pressure measurements in typically developing children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niiler, Timothy; Church, Chris; Lennon, Nancy; Henley, John; George, Ameeka; Taylor, Daveda; Montes, Angelica; Miller, Freeman

    2016-12-01

    In pedobarography, clinically meaningful comparison of measurements within or between subjects is limited by data variability and measurement error. This study aims to determine the components of the minimal detectable change (MDC) in impulse across all foot regions and the reliability of these measures. A convenience sample of foot pressures from 108 visits by normal, healthy subjects aged 2-17 years was studied. Each subject had three pedobarograph measurements taken per foot, with six subjects returning for a second visit for assessment of day-to-day variability. Using a five-region mask, segmental impulses were determined, and from these we obtained the coronal plane pressure index (CPPI). Inter-rater, intra-rater, and day-to-day data were analyzed using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) to quantify reliability. Variability of the data was analyzed to quantify the MDC. Inter- and intra-rater reliability was high for all measurements while variability was low, indicating small direct measurement error. Generally, the largest contributing factor to the MDC was day-to-day variability. Step-to-step variability was more dependent on foot segment than age although minor age-related changes were noted. Finally, the high relative variability in the CPPI and the medial mid foot impulse resulted in very high MDCs for these measures. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Comparing the reliability of a trigonometric technique to goniometry and inclinometry in measuring ankle dorsiflexion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidaway, Ben; Euloth, Tracey; Caron, Heather; Piskura, Matthew; Clancy, Jessica; Aide, Alyson

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the reliability of three previously used techniques for the measurement of ankle dorsiflexion ROM, open-chained goniometry, closed-chained goniometry, and inclinometry, to a novel trigonometric technique. Twenty-one physiotherapy students used four techniques (open-chained goniometry, closed-chained goniometry, inclinometry, and trigonometry) to assess dorsiflexion range of motion in 24 healthy volunteers. All student raters underwent training to establish competence in the four techniques. Raters then measured dorsiflexion with a randomly assigned measuring technique four times over two sessions, one week apart. Data were analyzed using a technique by session analysis of variance, technique measurement variability being the primary index of reliability. Comparisons were also made between the measurements derived from the four techniques and those obtained from a computerized video analysis system. Analysis of the rater measurement variability around the technique means revealed significant differences between techniques with the least variation being found in the trigonometric technique. Significant differences were also found between the technique means but no differences between sessions were evident. The trigonometric technique produced mean ROMs closest in value to those derived from computer analysis. Application of the trigonometric technique resulted in the least variability in measurement across raters and consequently should be considered for use when changes in dorsiflexion ROM need to be reliably assessed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Reliability and Validity of Objective Measures of Physical Activity in Youth With Cerebral Palsy Who Are Ambulatory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neil, Margaret E; Fragala-Pinkham, Maria; Lennon, Nancy; George, Ameeka; Forman, Jeffrey; Trost, Stewart G

    2016-01-01

    Physical therapy for youth with cerebral palsy (CP) who are ambulatory includes interventions to increase functional mobility and participation in physical activity (PA). Thus, reliable and valid measures are needed to document PA in youth with CP. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the inter-instrument reliability and concurrent validity of 3 accelerometer-based motion sensors with indirect calorimetry as the criterion for measuring PA intensity in youth with CP. Fifty-seven youth with CP (mean age=12.5 years, SD=3.3; 51% female; 49.1% with spastic hemiplegia) participated. Inclusion criteria were: aged 6 to 20 years, ambulatory, Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) levels I through III, able to follow directions, and able to complete the full PA protocol. Protocol activities included standardized activity trials with increasing PA intensity (resting, writing, household chores, active video games, and walking at 3 self-selected speeds), as measured by weight-relative oxygen uptake (in mL/kg/min). During each trial, participants wore bilateral accelerometers on the upper arms, waist/hip, and ankle and a portable indirect calorimeter. Intraclass coefficient correlations (ICCs) were calculated to evaluate inter-instrument reliability (left-to-right accelerometer placement). Spearman correlations were used to examine concurrent validity between accelerometer output (activity and step counts) and indirect calorimetry. Friedman analyses of variance with post hoc pair-wise analyses were conducted to examine the validity of accelerometers to discriminate PA intensity across activity trials. All accelerometers exhibited excellent inter-instrument reliability (ICC=.94-.99) and good concurrent validity (rho=.70-.85). All accelerometers discriminated PA intensity across most activity trials. This PA protocol consisted of controlled activity trials. Accelerometers provide valid and reliable measures of PA intensity among youth with CP. © 2016 American

  9. Reliability of rehabilitative ultrasonographic imaging for muscle thickness measurement of the rhomboid major.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Ju Ri; Ko, Young Jun; Ha, Hyun Geun; Lee, Wan Hee

    2016-03-01

    This study was to establish inter-rater and intrarater reliability of the rehabilitative ultrasonographic imaging (RUSI) technique for muscle thickness measurement of the rhomboid major at rest and with the shoulder abducted to 90°. Twenty-four young adults (eight men, 16 women; right-handed; mean age [±SD], 24·4 years [±2·6]) with no history of neck, shoulder, or arm pain were recruited. Rhomboid major muscle images were obtained in the resting position and with shoulder in 90° abduction using an ultrasonography system with a 7·5-MHz linear transducer. In these two positions, the examiners found the site at which the transducer could be placed. Two examiners obtained the images of all participants in three test sessions at random. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) were used to estimate reliability. All ICCs (95% CI) were >0·75, ranging from 0·93 to 0·98, which indicates good reliability. The ICCs for inter-rater reliability ranged from 0·75 to 0·94. For the absolute value of the difference in the intra-examiner reliability between the right and left ratios, the ICCs ranged from 0·58 to 0·91. In this study, the intra- and interexaminer reliability of muscle thickness measurements of the rhomboid major were good. Therefore, we suggest that muscle thickness measurements of the rhomboid major obtained with the RUSI technique would be useful for clinical rehabilitative assessment. © 2014 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Validity and reliability of ankle dorsiflexion measures in children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Do-Hyun; An, Duk-Hyun; Yoo, Won-Gyu

    2017-09-22

    We compared a goniometer method in a non-weight-bearing position with a tape measure method in a weight-bearing position to determine which was more reliable for assessing dorsiflexion range of motion (ROM) in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Ankle dorsiflexion ROM was measured using goniometer and tape measure methods in non-weight- and weight-bearing positions, respectively. In the test-retest reliability of ankle dorsiflexion ROM using a universal goniometer, the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) varied from 0.75 to 0.96 and the overall ICC score was 0.91 (preliability of ankle dorsiflexion ROM using a tape measure, ICC varied from 0.98 to 0.99 and the overall ICC score was 0.99 (preliable than using a universal goniometer in a non-weight-bearing position in children with CP.

  11. Reliability of thickness measurements of the dorsal muscles of the upper cervical spine: an ultrasonographic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ya-Jung; Chai, Huei-Ming; Wang, Shwu-Fen

    2009-12-01

    Clinical measurement, reliability. To examine the intraday intrarater reliability of measuring thickness of the upper dorsal neck muscles at rest, as well as at 50% of maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC), for upper cervical extension. Methodology for measuring the thickness of the lower dorsal neck muscles, including semispinalis capitis and multifidus muscles, during contraction using ultrasonography has been established. Thickness measurements for the upper dorsal neck muscles have not been documented. Ten subjects (21 to 30 years of age) without neck pain and headache were recruited. Their upper dorsal neck muscles were measured both at rest and during 50% MVIC for upper cervical extension in sitting position using rehabilitative ultrasound imaging (RUSI). Muscles measured included the rectus capitis posterior major, oblique capitis superior, semispinalis capitis, and splenius capitis. All measurements were repeated after 10 minutes of rest, on the same day, by the same rater. Descriptive statistics were supplemented by calculations of intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC3,1), standard error of measurement (SEM), within-subject coefficient of variation (CVw), and minimal detectable change (MDC). ICC3,1 results ranged from 0.87 to 0.99 for thickness measurements made at rest and from 0.90 to 0.98 for thickness measurements made with a 50% MVIC. The SEMs for thickness measurements at rest and at 50% MVIC ranged from 0.11 to 0.46 mm and 0.23 to 0.52 mm, while the CVws ranged from 3.5% to 6.1% and 3.7% to 6.4%, and MDC95 ranged from 0.35 to 1.46 mm and 0.73 to 1.65 mm, respectively. The thickness of all upper dorsal neck muscles measured during a 50% MVIC was greater than when measured at rest (PRUSI were reliable both at rest and during a 50% effort isometric contraction.

  12. Reliable and Valid Tools for Measuring Surgeons' Teaching Performance: Residents' vs. Self Evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boerebach, Benjamin C. M.; Arah, Onyebuchi A.; Busch, Olivier R. C.; Lombarts, Kiki M. J. M. H.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In surgical education, there is a need for educational performance evaluation tools that yield reliable and valid data. This paper describes the development and validation of robust evaluation tools that provide surgeons with insight into their clinical teaching performance. We

  13. Validity and Reliability of the Achillometer(®): An Ankle Dorsiflexion Measurement Device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleeblad, Laura J; van Bemmel, Annelies F; Sierevelt, Inger N; Zuiderbaan, Hendrik A; Vergroesen, Diederik A

    2016-01-01

    Limited ankle dorsiflexion is closely related to important foot and ankle pathologies. Various measurement devices and methods have been examined, but these have demonstrated limited validity and reliability. The purpose of the present study was to assess the validity and intra- and interobserver reliability of the Achillometer(®). A total of 22 consecutive subjects with ankle or foot pathologies and 39 healthy participants were included. All participants were measured using the goniometer and the Achillometer(®), a portable device used to assess ankle dorsiflexion in the weightbearing position with knee in extension. The intraclass correlation coefficient, standard error of the mean, and minimal detectable change were determined. The goniometer and Achillometer(®) revealed high intraobserver reliability coefficients with an intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.88 (standard error of the mean 1.49, minimal detectable change 4.12) and 0.85 (standard error of the mean 1.57, minimal detectable change 4.34), respectively. The interobserver reliability of both measurement techniques ranged from 0.63 to 0.67. The Achillometer(®) showed a strong correlation with the goniometer for both observers. In conclusion, the Achillometer(®) is a valid measurement device to assess ankle dorsiflexion range of motion in the weightbearing position with an extended knee in a heterogeneous population. The device has good intraobserver and moderate interobserver reliability and measurement properties comparable to those of the goniometer. Copyright © 2016 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Reliability of lower extremity muscle strength measurements with handheld dynamometry in stroke patients during the acute phase: a pilot reliability study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Hsiao-Ching; Luh, Jer-Junn; Teng, Ting; Pan, Guan-Shuo; Chen, Wen-Shiang; Hsun, Chiang-Chang; Jeng, Jiann-Shing

    2017-02-01

    [Purpose] No literature has described a suitable method for measuring muscle strength in a supine position during acute phase after stroke. This study investigated the feasibility and reliability of using a commercial handheld dynamometer to measure the muscle strengths of the hip flexor, knee extensor, and dorsiflexor in the supine position with a modified method for patients at a stroke intensive care center within 7 days of stroke onset. [Subjects and Methods] Fifteen persons with acute stroke participated in this cross-sectional study. For each patient, the muscle strengths of the hip flexors, knee extensors, and dorsiflexors were measured twice by two testers on the same day. Each patient was re-tested at the same time of day one day later. Inter-rater and test-retest reliability were then determined by the intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs). [Results] For the three muscle groups, the inter-rater reliability ICCs were all 0.99 and the test-retest reliability ICCs were greater than 0.85. The investigated method thus has good inter-rater reliability and high agreement between the test-retest measurements, with acceptable measurement errors. [Conclusion] The modified method using a handheld dynamometer to test the muscle strength of acute stroke patients is a feasible and reliable method for clinical use.

  15. Measuring the Reliability of Geometries in Magnet Resonance Angiography A Reference for Multimodal Image Registration?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudnek, M. André; Hess, Andreas; Obermayer, Klaus; Sibila, Michael

    Magnet Resonance Angiography (MRA) can be used to register MR images of other types (e.g. functional MRI) acquired in the same imaging session as the angiogram since blood vessels are spatially closely confined features. This is only possible if MRA delivers reliable, reproducible images and does not show major random distortions. Therefore, we examine the reliability of MRA over subsequent scanning sessions using an appropriate distance measure on geometric vasculature models obtained from MR angiograms. Additionally we examine the variance between different specimens in order to value the possibility of interspecimen registration.

  16. Validity and reliability of range of motion measured on smartphone (mROM)

    OpenAIRE

    Cuesta-Vargas, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Background: Nowadays, as internet-based communication is advancing rapidly, it is getting more and more interesting to adapt clinical examination of patients to remote communication. The use of smartphone photographic is presented as a method for studying the measurement of shoulders joint ROM. Objective: To investigate the reliability of smartphone photographic measurements of upper limbs abduction angle through mRom app compared to inertial sensors as the criterion standard. Methods: ...

  17. A Study on the Reliability of Sasang Constitutional Body Trunk Measurement

    OpenAIRE

    Eunsu Jang; Jong Yeol Kim; Haejung Lee; Honggie Kim; Younghwa Baek; Siwoo Lee

    2011-01-01

    Objective. Body trunk measurement for human plays an important diagnostic role not only in conventional medicine but also in Sasang constitutional medicine (SCM). The Sasang constitutional body trunk measurement (SCBTM) consists of the 5-widths and the 8-circumferences which are standard locations currently employed in the SCM society. This study suggests to what extent a comprehensive training can improve the reliability of the SCBTM. Methods. We recruit...

  18. The Reliability of the Symax Method of Measuring the Radiographic Femoral Varus Angle

    OpenAIRE

    Allpass, Maja; Miles, James Edward; Schmökel, Hugo

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the practicability of curved osteotomy to correct femoral varus in small breed dogs, and to assess the reliability of the Symax method of measuring the radiographic femoral varus angle (FVA). Methods: Eleven cadaveric femora plus one clinical case were included in this study. The FVA was measured using the Symax method on craniocaudal femoral radiographs. CORA principles were used to plan the curved osteotomy. Following osteotomy and planned correction of the FVA to 0º...

  19. Reliability and validity of a self-report emotional expressivity measure: The Japanese version of the Berkeley Expressivity Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Mingming; Soi-Kawase, Sayaka; Narita-Ohtaki, Ryoko; Itoh, Mariko; Kim, Yoshiharu

    2016-01-01

    This study developed the Japanese version of the Berkeley Expressivity Questionnaire (BEQ), a self-report measure of three emotional expressivity facets, and provided evidence of its reliability and validity. Five hundred and four students answered an online survey. To determine test-retest reliability, 241 of the participants completed the Japanese version of the BEQ again approximately 1 month after initial surveying was completed. Cronbach's alpha coefficients were 0.83 for the BEQ full scale, and 0.61-0.77 for subscales. Test-retest correlations were 0.61 for the full scale, and 0.57-0.61 for subscales. Construct validity was demonstrated by correlations between BEQ scores and scores on measures of emotional expressivity, self-monitoring, self-esteem, depression, "Big Five" (neuroticism, extraversion, openness, agreeableness, and conscientiousness) personality traits, and emotional control. The Japanese version of the BEQ has adequate internal consistency, reliability, and construct validity. Test-retest reliability was lower than that of the original scale. This study was the first in Japan to develop a self-rating questionnaire assessing multiple facets of emotional expressivity. © 2015 Japan Academy of Nursing Science.

  20. Test-retest reliability of behavioral measures of impulsive choice, impulsive action, and inattention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weafer, Jessica; Baggott, Matthew J; de Wit, Harriet

    2013-12-01

    Behavioral measures of impulsivity are widely used in substance abuse research, yet relatively little attention has been devoted to establishing their psychometric properties, especially their reliability over repeated administration. The current study examined the test-retest reliability of a battery of standardized behavioral impulsivity tasks, including measures of impulsive choice (i.e., delay discounting, probability discounting, and the Balloon Analogue Risk Task), impulsive action (i.e., the stop signal task, the go/no-go task, and commission errors on the continuous performance task), and inattention (i.e., attention lapses on a simple reaction time task and omission errors on the continuous performance task). Healthy adults (n = 128) performed the battery on two separate occasions. Reliability estimates for the individual tasks ranged from moderate to high, with Pearson correlations within the specific impulsivity domains as follows: impulsive choice (r range: .76-.89, ps reliable measures and thus can be confidently used to assess various facets of impulsivity as intermediate phenotypes for drug abuse.

  1. The reliability of the Extra Load Index as a measure of relative load carriage economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Sean; Cooke, Carlton; Lloyd, Ray

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to measure the reliability of the extra load index (ELI) as a method for assessing relative load carriage economy. Seventeen volunteers (12 males, 5 females) performed walking trials at 3 km·h-1, 6 km·h-1 and a self-selected speed. Trial conditions were repeated 7 days later to assess test-retest reliability. Trials involved four 4-minute periods of walking, each separated by 5 min of rest. The initial stage was performed unloaded followed in a randomised order by a second unloaded period and walking with backpacks of 7 and 20 kg. Results show ELI values did not differ significantly between trials for any of the speeds (p = 0.46) with either of the additional loads (p = 0.297). The systematic bias, limits of agreement and coefficients of variation were small in all trial conditions. We conclude the ELI appears to be a reliable measure of relative load carriage economy. Practitioner Summary: This paper demonstrates that the ELI is a reliable measure of load carriage economy at a range of walking speeds with both a light and heavy load. The ELI, therefore, represents a useful tool for comparing the relative economy associated with different load carriage systems.

  2. The validity and reliability of GPS units for measuring distance in team sport specific running patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Denise; Cormack, Stuart; Coutts, Aaron J; Boyd, Luke; Aughey, Robert J

    2010-09-01

    To assess the validity and reliability of distance data measured by global positioning system (GPS) units sampling at 1 and 5 Hz during movement patterns common to team sports. Twenty elite Australian Football players each wearing two GPS devices (MinimaxX, Catapult, Australia) completed straight line movements (10, 20, 40 m) at various speeds (walk, jog, stride, sprint), changes of direction (COD) courses of two different frequencies (gradual and tight), and a team sport running simulation circuit. Position and speed data were collected by the GPS devices at 1 and 5 Hz. Distance validity was assessed using the standard error of the estimate (±90% confidence intervals [CI]). Reliability was estimated using typical error (TE) ± 90% CI (expressed as coefficient of variation [CV]). Measurement accuracy decreased as speed of locomotion increased in both straight line and the COD courses. Difference between criterion and GPS measured distance ranged from 9.0% to 32.4%. A higher sampling rate improved validity regardless of distance and locomotion in the straight line, COD and simulated running circuit trials. The reliability improved as distance traveled increased but decreased as speed increased. Total distance over the simulated running circuit exhibited the lowest variation (CV 3.6%) while sprinting over 10 m demonstrated the highest (CV 77.2% at 1 Hz). Current GPS systems maybe limited for assessment of short, high speed straight line running and efforts involving change of direction. An increased sample rate improves validity and reliability of GPS devices.

  3. Design, validation, and reliability of survey to measure female athlete triad knowledge among coaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jillian E. Frideres

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to design and to test the validity and reliability of an instrument to evaluate coaches' knowledge about the female athlete triad syndrome and their confidence in this knowledge. The instrument collects information regarding: knowledge of the syndrome, components, prevention and intervention; confidence of the coaches in their answers; and coach's characteristics (gender, degree held, years of experience in coaching females, continuing education participation specific to the syndrome and its components, and sport coached. The process of designing the questionnaire and testing the validity and reliability of it was done in four phases: a design and development of the instrument, b content validity, c instrument reliability, and d concurrent validity. The results show that the instrument is suitable for measuring coaches' female athlete triad knowledge. The instrument can contribute to assessing the coaches' knowledge level in relation to this topic.

  4. Inter-rater reliability of measures to characterize the tobacco retail environment in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marissa G Hall

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the inter-rater reliability of a data collection instrument to assess the tobacco retail environ- ment in Mexico, after major marketing regulations were implemented. Materials and methods. In 2013, two data collectors independently evaluated 21 stores in two census tracts, through a data collection instrument that assessed the presence of price promotions, whether single cigarettes were sold, the number of visible advertisements, the pre- sence of signage prohibiting the sale of cigarettes to minors, and characteristics of cigarette pack displays. We evaluated the inter-rater reliability of the collected data, through the calculation of metrics such as intraclass correlation coefficient, percent agreement, Cohen’s kappa and Krippendorff’s alpha. Results. Most measures demonstrated substantial or perfect inter-rater reliability. Conclusions. Our results indicate the potential utility of the data collection instrument for future point-of-sale research.

  5. Reliability of Instruments Measuring At-Risk and Problem Gambling Among Young Individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edgren, Robert; Castrén, Sari; Mäkelä, Marjukka

    2016-01-01

    This review aims to clarify which instruments measuring at-risk and problem gambling (ARPG) among youth are reliable and valid in light of reported estimates of internal consistency, classification accuracy, and psychometric properties. A systematic search was conducted in PubMed, Medline, and Psyc....... Reliability estimates were reported for five ARPG instruments. Most studies (66%) evaluated the South Oaks Gambling Screen Revised for Adolescents. The Gambling Addictive Behavior Scale for Adolescents was the only novel instrument. In general, the evaluation of instrument reliability was superficial. Despite...... its rare use, the Canadian Adolescent Gambling Inventory (CAGI) had a strong theoretical and methodological base. The Gambling Addictive Behavior Scale for Adolescents and the CAGI were the only instruments originally developed for youth. All studies, except the CAGI study, were population based. ARPG...

  6. A reliable measure of frailty for a community dwelling older population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fletcher Astrid

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Frailty remains an elusive concept despite many efforts to define and measure it. The difficulty in translating the clinical profile of frail elderly people into a quantifiable assessment tool is due to the complex and heterogeneous nature of their health problems. Viewing frailty as a 'latent vulnerability' in older people this study aims to derive a model based measurement of frailty and examines its internal reliability in community dwelling elderly. Method The British Women's Heart and Health Study (BWHHS cohort of 4286 women aged 60-79 years from 23 towns in Britain provided 35 frailty indicators expressed as binary categorical variables. These indicators were corrected for measurement error and assigned relative weights in its association with frailty. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA reduced the data to a smaller number of factors and was subjected to confirmatory factor analysis (CFAwhich restricted the model by fitting the EFA-driven structure to observed data. Cox regression analysis compared the hazard ratios for adverse outcomes of the newly developed British frailty index (FI with a widely known FI. This process was replicated in the MRC Assessment study of older people, a larger cohort drawn from 106 general practices in Britain. Results Seven factors explained the association between frailty indicators: physical ability, cardiac symptoms/disease, respiratory symptoms/disease, physiological measures, psychological problems, co-morbidities and visual impairment. Based on existing concepts and statistical indices of fit, frailty was best described using a General Specific Model. The British FI would serve as a better population metric than the FI as it enables people with varying degrees of frailty to be better distinguished over a wider range of scores. The British FI was a better independent predictor of all-cause mortality, hospitalization and institutionalization than the FI in both cohorts. Conclusions

  7. The reliability and measurement error of protractor-based goniometry of the fingers: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kooij, Yara E; Fink, Alexandra; Nijhuis-van der Sanden, Maria W; Speksnijder, Caroline M

    Systematic review PURPOSE OF THE STUDY: The purpose was to review the available literature for evidence on the reliability and measurement error of protractor-based goniometry assessment of the finger joints. Databases were searched for articles with key words "hand," "goniometry," "reliability," and derivatives of these terms. Assessment of the methodological quality was carried out using the Consensus-Based Standards for the Selection of Health Measurement Instruments checklist. Two independent reviewers performed a best evidence synthesis based on criteria proposed by Terwee et al (2007). Fifteen articles were included. One article was of fair methodological quality, and 14 articles were of poor methodological quality. An acceptable level for reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient > 0.70 or Pearson's correlation > 0.80) was reported in 1 study of fair methodological quality and in 8 articles of low methodological quality. Because the minimal important change was not calculated in the articles, there was an unknown level of evidence for the measurement error. Further research with adequate sample sizes should focus on reference outcomes for different patient groups. For valid therapy evaluation, it is important to know if the change in range of motion reflects a real change of the patient or if this is due to the measurement error of the goniometer. Until now, there is insufficient evidence to establish this cut-off point (the smallest detectable change). Following the Consensus-Based Standards for the Selection of Health Measurement Instruments criteria, there was limited level of evidence for an acceptable reliability in the dorsal measurement method and unknown level of evidence for the measurement error. 2a. Copyright © 2017 Hanley & Belfus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Measuring walking within and outside the neighborhood in Chinese elders: reliability and validity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cerin Ester

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Walking is a preferred, prevalent and recommended activity for aging populations and is influenced by the neighborhood built environment. To study this influence it is necessary to differentiate whether walking occurs within or outside of the neighborhood. The Neighborhood Physical Activity Questionnaire (NPAQ collects information on setting-specific physical activity, including walking, inside and outside one's neighborhood. While the NPAQ has shown to be a reliable measure in adults, its reliability in older adults is unknown. Additionally its validity and the influence of type of neighborhood on reliability and validity have yet to be explored. Methods The NPAQ walking component was adapted for Chinese speaking elders (NWQ-CS. Ninety-six Chinese elders, stratified by social economic status and neighborhood walkability, wore an accelerometer and completed a log of walks for 7 days. Following the collection of valid data the NWQ-CS was interviewer-administered. Fourteen to 20 days (average of 17 days later the NWQ-CS was re-administered. Test-retest reliability and validity of the NWQ-CS were assessed. Results Reliability and validity estimates did not differ with type of neighborhood. NWQ-CS measures of walking showed moderate to excellent reliability. Reliability was generally higher for estimates of weekly frequency than minutes of walking. Total weekly minutes of walking were moderately related to all accelerometry measures. Moderate-to-strong associations were found between the NWQ-CS and log-of-walks variables. The NWQ-CS yielded statistically significantly lower mean values of total walking, weekly minutes of walking for transportation and weekly frequency of walking for transportation outside the neighborhood than the log-of-walks. Conclusions The NWQ-CS showed measurement invariance across types of neighborhoods. It is a valid measure of walking for recreation and frequency of walking for transport. However, it may

  9. Core muscle strength and endurance measures in ambulatory persons with multiple sclerosis: validity and reliability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, Donna K; Huang, Min; Rodda, Becky J

    2015-09-01

    This study examined the test-retest reliability and validity of three core muscle strength tests in individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS). Twenty-one ambulatory individuals with MS completed the curl-up, flexor endurance, and pelvic tilt stabilization tests of core muscle strength. They were retested 1-2 weeks after the first test. The sit-to-stand (STS) test was also conducted on the first test. Descriptive statistics, intraclass correlation coefficients, SEM, and minimal detectable change (MDC) were calculated for each test. Pearson's correlations were calculated between all variables for the first test date. The curl-up test demonstrated excellent test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient=0.995), requiring 3.4 additional repetitions in 60 s to demonstrate a detectable change. The curl-up test was moderately correlated with the STS. The flexor endurance and pelvic tilt stabilization tests demonstrated moderate test-retest reliability, with relatively large SEMs and MDCs and only a low correlation with the STS. The curl-up test is recommended as a valid and reliable test of core muscle strength in individuals with MS. The flexor endurance test and the pelvic tilt stabilization test of core muscle strength are not recommended due to large SEM and MDC scores. Further study of core muscle strength and endurance measures is indicated to seek additional tests that are valid and reliable in the MS population.

  10. Using VIIRS Day/Night Band to Measure Electricity Supply Reliability: Preliminary Results from Maharashtra, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael L. Mann

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Unreliable electricity supplies are common in developing countries and impose large socio-economic costs, yet precise information on electricity reliability is typically unavailable. This paper presents preliminary results from a machine-learning approach for using satellite imagery of nighttime lights to develop estimates of electricity reliability for western India at a finer spatial scale. We use data from the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS onboard the Suomi National Polar Partnership (SNPP satellite together with newly-available data from networked household voltage meters. Our results point to the possibilities of this approach as well as areas for refinement. With currently available training data, we find a limited ability to detect individual outages identified by household-level measurements of electricity voltage. This is likely due to the relatively small number of individual outages observed in our preliminary data. However, we find that the approach can estimate electricity reliability rates for individual locations fairly well, with the predicted versus actual regression yielding an R2 > 0.5. We also find that, despite the after midnight overpass time of the SNPP satellite, the reliability estimates derived are representative of daytime reliability.

  11. Development, reliability, and validity of the Alberta Perinatal Stroke Project Parental Outcome Measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bemister, Taryn B; Brooks, Brian L; Kirton, Adam

    2014-07-01

    Perinatal stroke is a leading cause of cerebral palsy and lifelong disability, although parent and family outcomes have not yet been studied in this specific population. The Alberta Perinatal Stroke Project Parental Outcome Measure was developed as a 26-item questionnaire on the impact of perinatal stroke on parents and families. The items were derived from expert opinion and scientific literature on issues salient to parents of children with perinatal stroke, including guilt and blame, which are not well captured in existing measures of family impact. Data were collected from 82 mothers and 28 fathers who completed the Parental Outcome Measure and related questionnaires (mean age, 39.5 years; mean child age, 7.4 years). Analyses examined the Parental Outcome Measure's internal consistency, test-retest reliability, validity, and factor structure. The Parental Outcome Measure demonstrated three unique theoretical constructs: Psychosocial Impact, Guilt, and Blame. The Parental Outcome Measure has excellent internal consistency (Cronbach α = 0.91) and very good test-retest reliability more than 2-5 weeks (r = 0.87). Regarding validity, the Parental Outcome Measure is sensitive to condition severity, accounts for additional variance in parent outcomes, and strongly correlates with measures of anxiety, depression, stress, quality of life, family functioning, and parent adjustment. The Parental Outcome Measure contributes to the literature as the first brief measure of family impact designed for parents of children with perinatal stroke. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Reliability of a tool for measuring theory of planned behaviour constructs for use in evaluating research use in policymaking

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    Dobbins Maureen

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although measures of knowledge translation and exchange (KTE effectiveness based on the theory of planned behavior (TPB have been used among patients and providers, no measure has been developed for use among health system policymakers and stakeholders. A tool that measures the intention to use research evidence in policymaking could assist researchers in evaluating the effectiveness of KTE strategies that aim to support evidence-informed health system decision-making. Therefore, we developed a 15-item tool to measure four TPB constructs (intention, attitude, subjective norm and perceived control and assessed its face validity through key informant interviews. Methods We carried out a reliability study to assess the tool's internal consistency and test-retest reliability. Our study sample consisted of 62 policymakers and stakeholders that participated in deliberative dialogues. We assessed internal consistency using Cronbach's alpha and generalizability (G coefficients, and we assessed test-retest reliability by calculating Pearson correlation coefficients (r and G coefficients for each construct and the tool overall. Results The internal consistency of items within each construct was good with alpha ranging from 0.68 to alpha = 0.89. G-coefficients were lower for a single administration (G = 0.34 to G = 0.73 than for the average of two administrations (G = 0.79 to G = 0.89. Test-retest reliability coefficients for the constructs ranged from r = 0.26 to r = 0.77 and from G = 0.31 to G = 0.62 for a single administration, and from G = 0.47 to G = 0.86 for the average of two administrations. Test-retest reliability of the tool using G theory was moderate (G = 0.5 when we generalized across a single observation, but became strong (G = 0.9 when we averaged across both administrations. Conclusion This study provides preliminary evidence for the reliability of a tool that can be used to measure TPB constructs in relation to research

  13. The reliability of in-home measures of height and weight in large cohort studies: Evidence from Add Health

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    Jon Hussey

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: With the emergence of obesity as a global health issue, an increasing number of major demographic surveys are collecting measured anthropometric data. Yet little is known about the characteristics and reliability of these data. Objective: We evaluate the accuracy and reliability of anthropometric data collected in the home during Wave IV of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health, compare our estimates to national standard, clinic-based estimates from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES and, using both sources, provide a detailed anthropometric description of young adults in the United States. Methods: The reliability of Add Health in-home anthropometric measures was estimated from repeat examinations of a random subsample of study participants. A digit preference analysis evaluated the quality of anthropometric data recorded by field interviewers. The adjusted odds of obesity and central obesity in Add Health vs. NHANES were estimated with logistic regression. Results: Short-term reliabilities of in-home measures of height, weight, waist and arm circumference - as well as derived body mass index (BMI, kg/m2 - were excellent. Prevalence of obesity (37Š vs. 29Š and central obesity (47Š vs. 38Š was higher in Add Health than in NHANES, while socio-demographic patterns of obesity and central obesity were comparable in the two studies. Conclusions: Properly trained non-medical field interviewers can collect reliable anthropometric data in a nationwide, home visit study. This national cohort of young adults in the United States faces a high risk of early-onset chronic disease and premature mortality.

  14. The reliability of in-home measures of height and weight in large cohort studies: Evidence from Add Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussey, Jon M.; Nguyen, Quynh C.; Whitsel, Eric A.; Richardson, Liana J.; Halpern, Carolyn Tucker; Gordon-Larsen, Penny; Tabor, Joyce W.; Entzel, Pamela P.; Harris, Kathleen Mullan

    2015-01-01

    Background With the emergence of obesity as a global health issue an increasing number of major demographic surveys are collecting measured anthropometric data. Yet little is known about the characteristics and reliability of these data. Objectives We evaluate the accuracy and reliability of anthropometric data collected in the home during Wave IV of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health), compare our estimates to national standard, clinic-based estimates from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) and, using both sources, provide a detailed anthropometric description of young adults in the United States. Methods The reliability of Add Health in-home anthropometric measures was estimated from repeat examinations of a random subsample of study participants. A digit preference analysis evaluated the quality of anthropometric data recorded by field interviewers. The adjusted odds of obesity and central obesity in Add Health vs. NHANES were estimated with logistic regression. Results Short-term reliabilities of in-home measures of height, weight, waist and arm circumference—as well as derived body mass index (BMI, kg/m2)—were excellent. Prevalence of obesity (37% vs. 29%) and central obesity (47% vs. 38%) was higher in Add Health than in NHANES while socio-demographic patterns of obesity and central obesity were comparable in the two studies. Conclusions Properly trained non-medical field interviewers can collect reliable anthropometric data in a nationwide, home visit study. This national cohort of young adults in the United States faces a high risk of early-onset chronic disease and premature mortality. PMID:26146486

  15. Reliability and validity of a GPS-enabled iPhone "app" to measure physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Amanda Clare; Bruce, Lyndell; Gordon, Brett Ashley

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the validity and reliability of an iPhone "app" and two sport-specific global positioning system (GPS) units to monitor distance, intensity and contextual physical activity. Forty (23 female, 17 male) 18-55-year-olds completed two trials of six laps around a 400-m athletics track wearing GPSports Pro and WiSpi units (5 and 1 Hz) and an iPhone(TM) with a Motion X GPS(TM) "app" that used the inbuilt iPhone location services application programming interface to obtain its sampling rate (which is likely to be ≤1 Hz). Overall, the statistical agreement, assessed using t-tests and Bland-Altman plots, indicated an underestimation of the known track distance (2.400 km) and average speed by the Motion X GPS "app" and GPSports Pro while the GPSports WiSpi(TM) device overestimated these outcomes. There was a ≤3% variation between trials for distance and average speed when measured by any of the GPS devices. Thus, the smartphone "app" trialled could be considered as an accessible alternative to provide high-quality contextualised data to enable ubiquitous monitoring and modification of programmes to ensure appropriate intensity and type of physical activity is prescribed and more importantly adhered to.

  16. Reliability and Validity of a Newly Developed Measure of Citizenship Among Persons with Mental Illnesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, Maria J; Clayton, Ashley; Rowe, Michael

    2017-04-01

    Following development of a 46-item of measure citizenship, a framework for supporting the full membership in society of persons with mental illness, this study tested the measure's reliability and validity. 110 persons from a mental health center completed a questionnaire packet containing the citizenship measure and other measures to assess internal consistency and validity of the citizenship instrument. Correlation matrices were examined for associations between the citizenship instrument and other measures. Stepwise regression examines demographic factors, sense of community, and social capital as predictors of citizenship, recovery, and well-being. Analyses revealed that the measure is psychometrically sound. The measure captures subjective information about the degree to which individuals experience rights, sense of belonging, and other factors associated with community membership that have been previously difficult to assess. The measure establishes a platform for interventions to support the full participation in society of persons with mental illnesses.

  17. Inter- and intra-tester reliability of clinical measurement to determine medio-lateral patellar position using a pachymeter or visual assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacco, I C N; Onodera, A N; Butugan, M K; Taddei, U T; Mendes, Y C; Galhardo, B; Padua, M; Dreyer, S H; Lobo, R A S; Aliberti, S

    2010-01-01

    The aim was to investigate inter-tester and intra-tester reliability and parallel reliability between a visual assessment method and a method using a pachymeter for locating the mid-point of the patella in determining the medial/lateral patella orientation. Fifteen asymptomatic subjects were assessed and the mid-point of the patella was determined by both methods on two separate occasions two weeks apart. Inter-tester reliability was obtained by ANOVA and by intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC); intra-tester reliability was obtained by a paired t-test and ICC; and parallel reliability was obtained by Pearson's Correlation and ICC, for the measurement on the first and second evaluations. There was acceptable inter-tester agreement (p=0.490) and reliability for the visual inspection (ICC=0.747) and for the pachymeter (ICC=0.716) at the second evaluation. The inter-tester reliability in the first evaluation was unacceptable (visual ICC=0.604; pachymeter ICC=0.612). Although there was statistical similarity between measurements for the first and second evaluations for all testers, intra-tester reliability was not acceptable for both methods: visual (examiner 1 ICC=0.175; examiner 2 ICC=0.189; examiner 3 ICC=0.155) and pachymeter (examiner 1 ICC=0.214; examiner 2 ICC=0.246; examiner 3 ICC=0.069). Parallel reliability gave a perfect correlation at the first evaluation (r=0.828; p<0.001) and at the second (r=0.756; p<0.001) and reliability was between acceptable and very good (ICC=[0.748-0.813]). Both visual and pachymeter methods provide reliable and similar medial/lateral patella orientation and are reliable between different examiners, but the results between the two assessments at 2 weeks' interval demonstrated an unacceptable reliability.

  18. Reliability and validity of brief psychosocial measures related to dietary behaviors

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    Calfas Karen J

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Measures of psychosocial constructs are required to assess dietary interventions. This study evaluated brief psychosocial scales related to 4 dietary behaviors (consumption of fat, fiber/whole grains, fruits, and vegetables. Methods Two studies were conducted. Study 1 assessed two-week reliability of the psychosocial measures with a sample of 49 college students. Study 2 assessed convergent and discriminant validity of the psychosocial measures with dietary nutrient estimates from a Food Frequency Questionnaire on 441 men and 401 women enrolled in an Internet-based weight loss intervention study. Results Study 1 test-retest reliability ICCs were strong and ranged from .63 to .79. In study 2, dietary fat cons, fiber/whole grain cons and self-efficacy, fruit and vegetable cons and self-efficacy, and healthy eating social support, environmental factors, enjoyment, and change strategies demonstrated adequate correlations with the corresponding dietary nutrient estimates. Conclusions Brief psychosocial measures related to dietary behaviors demonstrated adequate reliability and in most cases validity. The strongest and most consistent scales related to dietary behaviors were healthy eating change strategies and enjoyment. Consistent convergent validity was also found for the cons of change scales. These measures can be used in intervention studies to evaluate psychosocial mediators of dietary change in overweight and obese individuals.

  19. Reliability of BOD POD Measurements Remains High After a Short-Duration Low-Carbohydrate Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Beau Kjerulf; Edsall, Kathleen M; Greer, Anna E

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of the current study was to determine whether expected changes in body weight via a 3-day low-carbohydrate (LC) diet will disrupt the reliability of air displacement plethysmography measurements via BOD POD. Twenty-four subjects recorded their typical diets for 3 days before BOD POD and 7-site skinfold analyses. Subjects were matched for lean body mass and divided into low-CHO (LC) and control (CON) groups. The LC group was given instruction intended to prevent more than 50 grams/day of carbohydrate consumption for 3 consecutive days, and the CON group replicated their previously recorded diet. Body composition measurements were repeated after dietary intervention. Test-retest reliability measures were significant (p BOD POD measurements for body mass (72.9 ± 13.3 vs. 72.1 ± 13.0 kg [M ± SD]) and body volume (69.0 ± 12.7-68.1 ± 12.2 L) in the LC group (p .05) in BOD POD-determined body fat percentage, lean body mass, or fat mass between the 1st and 2nd trial in either group. Body composition measures via BOD POD and 7-site skinfolds remain reliable after 3 days of an LC diet despite significant decreases in body mass.

  20. The reliability of a severity rating scale to measure stuttering in an unfamiliar language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Laura; Wilson, Linda; Copley, Anna; Hewat, Sally; Lim, Valerie

    2014-06-01

    With increasing multiculturalism, speech-language pathologists (SLPs) are likely to work with stuttering clients from linguistic backgrounds that differ from their own. No research to date has estimated SLPs' reliability when measuring severity of stuttering in an unfamiliar language. Therefore, this study was undertaken to estimate the reliability of SLPs' use of a 9-point severity rating (SR) scale, to measure severity of stuttering in a language that was different from their own. Twenty-six Australian SLPs rated 20 speech samples (10 Australian English [AE] and 10 Mandarin) of adults who stutter using a 9-point SR scale on two separate occasions. Judges showed poor agreement when using the scale to measure stuttering in Mandarin samples. Results also indicated that 50% of individual judges were unable to reliably measure the severity of stuttering in AE. The results highlight the need for (a) SLPs to develop intra- and inter-judge agreement when using the 9-point SR scale to measure severity of stuttering in their native language (in this case AE) and in unfamiliar languages; and (b) research into the development and evaluation of practice and/or training packages to assist SLPs to do so.

  1. Test-retest reliability of sensor-based sit-to-stand measures in young and older adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Regterschot, G. Ruben H.; Zhang, Wei; Baldus, Heribert; Stevens, Martin; Zijlstra, Wiebren

    This study investigated test-retest reliability of sensor-based sit-to-stand (STS) peak power and other STS measures in young and older adults. In addition, test-retest reliability of the sensor method was compared to test-retest reliability of the Timed Up and Go Test (TUGT) and

  2. Reliability and validity of the lung volume measurement made by the BOD POD body composition system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, James A; Dorado, Silvia; Keays, Kathleen A; Reigel, Kimberly A; Valencia, Kristoffer S; Pham, Patrick H

    2007-01-01

    The BOD POD Body Composition System uses air-displacement plethysmography to measure body volume. To correct the body volume measurement for the subject's lung volume, the BOD POD utilizes pulmonary plethysmography to measure functional residual capacity (FRC) at mid-exhalation as that is the subject's lung volume during the body volume measurement. Normally, FRC is measured at end-exhalation. The BOD POD FRC measurement can be corrected to an end-exhalation volume by subtracting approximately one-half of the measured tidal volume. Our purpose was to determine the reliability and validity of the BOD POD FRC measurement at end-exhalation. Ninety-two healthy adults (half female) underwent duplicate FRC measurements by the BOD POD and one FRC measurement by a traditional gas dilution technique. The latter method was used as the reference method for the validity component of the study. The order of the FRC measurements by the two methods was randomized. The test-retest correlation coefficients for the duplicate BOD POD FRC measurements for the male and female subjects were 0.966 and 0.948, respectively. The mean differences between the BOD POD FRC trial #1 measurement and gas dilution FRC measurement for the male and female subjects were -32 and -23 ml, respectively. Neither difference was statistically significant. The correlation coefficients for these two measurements in the male and female subjects were 0.925 and 0.917, respectively. Based on these results, we conclude that the BOD POD FRC measurement in healthy males and females is both reliable and valid.

  3. Reliability and validity of individual and composite recall pain measures in patients with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Mark P; Wang, Wei; Potts, Susan L; Gould, Errol M

    2012-10-01

    To evaluate and compare the validity and reliability of individual and composite recall pain intensity measures. Secondary analyses using data from a published 14-day open-label crossover clinical trial comparing two active treatments. Multiple settings. Fifty-two adults with a history of chronic cancer pain. Recall ratings of least, worst, and average pain during the past 2 days; composite score representing recalled characteristic pain in the past 2 days; and daily diary ratings of pain intensity from which "actual" least, worst, and average pain scores were derived. Recall ratings of least and average pain, and a composite score representing recalled characteristic pain were accurate (differed no more than three points from "actual" scores on a 0-100 scale). Although the recall rating of worst pain significantly (P recall measures demonstrated validity via their strong associations with the measures of actual pain intensity. The recall measures also demonstrated excellent test-retest stability, although the diary-derived measures tended to be more stable than the recall measures did. The composite measure of recalled characteristic pain demonstrated a high level of internal consistency (Cronbach's α = 0.90). Individual recall ratings and a composite score representing recalled characteristic pain intensity are reliable and valid measures of actual pain in patients with cancer. The findings support their use as outcome measures in clinical trials. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Measurement accuracy and reliability of tooth length on conventional and CBCT reconstructed panoramic radiographs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Flores-Mir

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: This in vivo study assessed accuracy and reliability of tooth length measurements obtained from conventional panoramic radiographs and CBCT panoramic reconstructions to that of a digital caliper (gold standard. METHODS: The sample consisted of subjects who had CBCT and conventional panoramic radiographic imaging and who required maxillary premolar extraction for routine orthodontic treatment. A total of 48 teeth extracted from 26 subjects were measured directly with digital calipers. Radiographic images were scanned and digitally measured in Dolphin 3D software. Accuracy of tooth length measurements made by CBCT panoramic reconstructions, conventional panoramic radiographs and digital caliper (gold standard were compared to each other by repeated measures one-way ANOVA with Bonferroni correction and by single measures intraclass correlation coefficient. RESULTS: Repeated root length measures with digital calipers, panoramic radiographs and CBCT constructed panoramic-like images were all individually highly reliable. Compared to the caliper (gold standard, tooth measurements obtained from conventional panoramic radiographs were on average 6.3 mm (SD = 2.0 mm longer, while tooth measurements from CBCT panoramic reconstructions were an average of 1.7 mm (SD = 1.2 mm shorter. CONCLUSIONS: In comparison to actual tooth lengths, conventional panoramic radiographs were relatively inaccurate, overestimating the lengths by 29%, while CBCT panoramic reconstructions underestimated the lengths by 4%.

  5. Measurement accuracy and reliability of tooth length on conventional and CBCT reconstructed panoramic radiographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Mir, Carlos; Rosenblatt, Mark R; Major, Paul W; Carey, Jason P; Heo, Giseon

    2014-01-01

    This in vivo study assessed accuracy and reliability of tooth length measurements obtained from conventional panoramic radiographs and CBCT panoramic reconstructions to that of a digital caliper (gold standard). The sample consisted of subjects who had CBCT and conventional panoramic radiographic imaging and who required maxillary premolar extraction for routine orthodontic treatment. A total of 48 teeth extracted from 26 subjects were measured directly with digital calipers. Radiographic images were scanned and digitally measured in Dolphin 3D software. Accuracy of tooth length measurements made by CBCT panoramic reconstructions, conventional panoramic radiographs and digital caliper (gold standard) were compared to each other by repeated measures one-way ANOVA with Bonferroni correction and by single measures intraclass correlation coefficient. Repeated root length measures with digital calipers, panoramic radiographs and CBCT constructed panoramic-like images were all individually highly reliable. Compared to the caliper (gold standard), tooth measurements obtained from conventional panoramic radiographs were on average 6.3 mm (SD = 2.0 mm) longer, while tooth measurements from CBCT panoramic reconstructions were an average of 1.7 mm (SD = 1.2 mm) shorter. In comparison to actual tooth lengths, conventional panoramic radiographs were relatively inaccurate, overestimating the lengths by 29%, while CBCT panoramic reconstructions underestimated the lengths by 4%.

  6. Reliability and validity of an instrument to measure quality of life in the dysarthric speaker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piacentini, Valentina; Zuin, Annalisa; Cattaneo, Davide; Schindler, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    To develop a tool to measure quality of life (QOL) in the dysarthric speaker (QOL-DyS). The study consisted of two phases: scale development and item reduction (phase 1), and reliability and validity analysis (phase 2). The 100-item 'Dysarthria from the Point of View of the Dysarthric Patient' questionnaire was used for item development; the data from 50 dysarthric patients were measured for internal consistency and the 40-item QOL-DyS was developed. A second group of 50 dysarthric patients and 30 control participants were recruited for phase 2. Internal consistency and test-retest reliability were analyzed through Cronbach's α coefficient and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), respectively. The scores obtained from the pathological and the control group were compared using the Mann-Whitney test. Finally, the correlation between the QOL-DyS and dysarthria severity was assessed using the Spearman test. An excellent internal consistency (α = 0.90) and test-retest reliability (ICC = 0.98, 95% CI: 0.97-0.99) were found; the score difference between the dysarthric and control groups was significant (p dysarthria (r = 0.43). The QOL-DyS is a reliable and valid tool to assess QOL in patients with dysarthria. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Design and Reliability of a Novel Heel Rise Test Measuring Device for Plantarflexion Endurance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy D. Sman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Plantarflexion results from the combined action of the soleus and gastrocnemius muscles in the calf. The heel rise test is commonly used to test calf muscle endurance, function, and performance by a wide variety of professionals; however, no uniform description of the test is available. This paper aims to document the construction and reliability of a novel heel rise test device and measurement protocol that is suitable for the needs of most individuals. Methods. This device was constructed from compact and lightweight materials and is fully adjustable, enabling the testing of a wide variety of individuals. It is easy to assemble and disassemble, ensuring that it is portable for use in different settings. Findings. We tested reliability on 40 participants, finding excellent interrater reliability (ICC2,1 0.97, 95% CI: 0.94 to 0.98. Limits of agreement were less than two repetitions in 90% of cases and the Bland-Altman plot showed no bias. Interpretation. We have designed a novel, standardized, simple, and reliable device and measurement protocol for the heel rise test which can be used by researchers and clinicians in a variety of settings.

  8. Reliability and Validity of the Behavioral Addiction Measure for Video Gaming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, James L; Williams, Robert J

    2016-01-01

    Most tests of video game addiction have weak construct validity and limited ability to correctly identify people in denial. The purpose of the present research was to investigate the reliability and validity of a new test of video game addiction (Behavioral Addiction Measure-Video Gaming [BAM-VG]) that was developed in part to address these deficiencies. Regular adult video gamers (n = 506) were recruited from a Canadian online panel and completed a survey containing three measures of excessive video gaming (BAM-VG; DSM-5 criteria for Internet Gaming Disorder [IGD]; and the IGD-20), as well as questions concerning extensiveness of video game involvement and self-report of problems associated with video gaming. One month later, they were reassessed for the purposes of establishing test-retest reliability. The BAM-VG demonstrated good internal consistency as well as 1 month test-retest reliability. Criterion-related validity was demonstrated by significant correlations with the following: time spent playing, self-identification of video game problems, and scores on other instruments designed to assess video game addiction (DSM-5 IGD, IGD-20). Consistent with the theory, principal component analysis identified two components underlying the BAM-VG that roughly correspond with impaired control and significant negative consequences deriving from this impaired control. Together with its excellent construct validity and other technical features, the BAM-VG represents a reliable and valid test of video game addiction.

  9. Design and reliability of a novel heel rise test measuring device for plantarflexion endurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sman, Amy D; Hiller, Claire E; Imer, Adam; Ocsing, Aldrin; Burns, Joshua; Refshauge, Kathryn M

    2014-01-01

    Plantarflexion results from the combined action of the soleus and gastrocnemius muscles in the calf. The heel rise test is commonly used to test calf muscle endurance, function, and performance by a wide variety of professionals; however, no uniform description of the test is available. This paper aims to document the construction and reliability of a novel heel rise test device and measurement protocol that is suitable for the needs of most individuals. This device was constructed from compact and lightweight materials and is fully adjustable, enabling the testing of a wide variety of individuals. It is easy to assemble and disassemble, ensuring that it is portable for use in different settings. We tested reliability on 40 participants, finding excellent interrater reliability (ICC2,1 0.97, 95% CI: 0.94 to 0.98). Limits of agreement were less than two repetitions in 90% of cases and the Bland-Altman plot showed no bias. We have designed a novel, standardized, simple, and reliable device and measurement protocol for the heel rise test which can be used by researchers and clinicians in a variety of settings.

  10. Magnetic resonance imaging of shoulders with idiopathic adhesive capsulitis: reliability of measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lefevre-Colau, Marie-Martine; Fayad, Fouad; Rannou, Francois; Demaille-Wlodyka, Samantha; Mayoux-Benhamou, Marie-Anne; Poiraudeau, Serge; Revel, Michel [Universite Rene Descartes, Department of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine, Hopital Cochin (AP-HP), Paris (France); Drape, Jean-Luc; Diche, Thierry; Minvielle, Francois [Hopital Cochin (AP-HP), Department of Radiology B, Paris (France); Fermanian, Jacques [Universite Rene Descartes, Department of Biostatistics, Hopital Necker (AP-HP), Paris (France)

    2005-12-01

    The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in idiopathic adhesive capsulitis (AC) were compared with those of contralateral healthy shoulders and the reliability of measures assessed. Twenty-six consecutive patients (26 AC and 14 healthy shoulders) were prospectively assessed. The main measurements were thickness of the joint capsule and synovial membrane in the axillary recess and rotator interval in T1-weighted spin-echo sequence enhanced with intravenous (IV) gadolinium chelate (Gd-chelate). Reliability was studied by use of the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). The mean thickness of the axillary recess on the coronal plane was 9.0{+-}2.2 mm in AC shoulders and 0.4{+-}0.7 mm in healthy shoulders. The mean thickness of the rotator interval on the sagittal plane was 8.4{+-}2.8 in AC shoulders and 0.6{+-}0.8 mm in healthy shoulders. Interobserver reliability was good for the axillary recess, with ICC values of 0.84 for the coronal plane, and good for the rotator interval, with ICC values of 0.80 for the sagittal plane. MRI with IV Gd-chelate injection can show, with acceptable reliability, signal and thickness abnormalities of the shoulder joint capsule and synovial membrane in AC. (orig.)

  11. Reliability generalization of the Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure-Revised (MEIM-R).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrington, Hayley M; Smith, Timothy B; Feinauer, Erika; Griner, Derek

    2016-10-01

    [Correction Notice: An Erratum for this article was reported in Vol 63(5) of Journal of Counseling Psychology (see record 2016-33161-001). The name of author Erika Feinauer was misspelled as Erika Feinhauer. All versions of this article have been corrected.] Individuals' strength of ethnic identity has been linked with multiple positive indicators, including academic achievement and overall psychological well-being. The measure researchers use most often to assess ethnic identity, the Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure (MEIM), underwent substantial revision in 2007. To inform scholars investigating ethnic identity, we performed a reliability generalization analysis on data from the revised version (MEIM-R) and compared it with data from the original MEIM. Random-effects weighted models evaluated internal consistency coefficients (Cronbach's alpha). Reliability coefficients for the MEIM-R averaged α = .88 across 37 samples, a statistically significant increase over the average of α = .84 for the MEIM across 75 studies. Reliability coefficients for the MEIM-R did not differ across study and participant characteristics such as sample gender and ethnic composition. However, consistently lower reliability coefficients averaging α = .81 were found among participants with low levels of education, suggesting that greater attention to data reliability is warranted when evaluating the ethnic identity of individuals such as middle-school students. Future research will be needed to ascertain whether data with other measures of aspects of personal identity (e.g., racial identity, gender identity) also differ as a function of participant level of education and associated cognitive or maturation processes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Dedicated Spine Measurement Software Quantifies Key Spino-Pelvic Parameters More Reliably Than Traditional Picture Archiving and Communication Systems Tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Munish; Henry, Jensen K; Schwab, Frank; Klineberg, Eric; Smith, Justin S; Gum, Jeffrey; Polly, David W; Liabaud, Barthelemy; Diebo, Bassel G; Hamilton, D Kojo; Eastlack, Robert; Passias, Peter G; Burton, Douglas; Protopsaltis, Themistocles; Lafage, Virginie

    2016-01-01

    Measurement reliability study of adult spinal deformity (ASD) patient radiographs using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) and variance. The aim of the study was to compare picture archiving and communication systems (PACS) to dedicated spine measurement software (SMS). Accurate radiographic measurement of sagittal alignment is essential for evaluating ASD. PACS measurements often necessitate rudimentary techniques and estimations of anatomic landmarks and angles. Though SMS has been studied and validated, no studies directly compare PACS to SMS. Eleven independent observers (7 spine surgeons, 4 researchers) digitally measured 20 ASD radiographs for pelvic incidence (PI), pelvic tilt (PT), lumbar lordosis (LL), PI-LL, thoracic kyphosis (TK), and sagittal vertical axis (SVA). Round 1 used PACS basic line/angle tools; Round 2 used a validated SMS that automatically calculates spino-pelvic parameters from 6 user-identified landmarks. Means, coefficient of variance (CV), and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) were analyzed. PACS measurements were significantly greater than SMS (PI, PT, PI-LL: P < 0.0001), though within clinical and measurement margins of error. Excluding TK, the variations in measurement (CV) were significantly greater for PACS (14-34%) vs. SMS (11-23%). Reliability was greater in SMS than PACS for PI, PT, PI-LL, LL, and SVA. The greatest differences in intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) between PACS and SMS were in PI (PACS: 0.647; SMS: 0.810) and PI-LL (PACS: 0.921; SMS: 0.970). Among surgeons, the differences between PACS and SMS were augmented, and SMS had higher intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) than PACS for all parameters (mean intraclass correlation coefficients [ICC] 0.931 vs. 0.861). Among surgeons, PI had the lowest reliability ( 0.505; SMS: 0.752) and SVA had the highest ( 0.985; SMS: 0.994). SMS provides significantly more reliable measurements than PACS, especially among surgeons. Consistent use of SMS in

  13. Can simple mobile phone applications provide reliable counts of respiratory rates in sick infants and children? An initial evaluation of three new applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, James; Gerdtz, Marie; Nicholson, Pat; Crellin, Dianne; Browning, Laura; Simpson, Julie; Bell, Lauren; Santamaria, Nick

    2015-05-01

    Respiratory rate is an important sign that is commonly either not recorded or recorded incorrectly. Mobile phone ownership is increasing even in resource-poor settings. Phone applications may improve the accuracy and ease of counting of respiratory rates. The study assessed the reliability and initial users' impressions of four mobile phone respiratory timer approaches, compared to a 60-second count by the same participants. Three mobile applications (applying four different counting approaches plus a standard 60-second count) were created using the Java Mobile Edition and tested on Nokia C1-01 phones. Apart from the 60-second timer application, the others included a counter based on the time for ten breaths, and three based on the time interval between breaths ('Once-per-Breath', in which the user presses for each breath and the application calculates the rate after 10 or 20 breaths, or after 60s). Nursing and physiotherapy students used the applications to count respiratory rates in a set of brief video recordings of children with different respiratory illnesses. Limits of agreement (compared to the same participant's standard 60-second count), intra-class correlation coefficients and standard errors of measurement were calculated to compare the reliability of the four approaches, and a usability questionnaire was completed by the participants. There was considerable variation in the counts, with large components of the variation related to the participants and the videos, as well as the methods. None of the methods was entirely reliable, with no limits of agreement better than -10 to +9 breaths/min. Some of the methods were superior to the others, with ICCs from 0.24 to 0.92. By ICC the Once-per-Breath 60-second count and the Once-per-Breath 20-breath count were the most consistent, better even than the 60-second count by the participants. The 10-breath approaches performed least well. Users' initial impressions were positive, with little difference between the

  14. Reliability of isometric lower-extremity muscle strength measurements in children with cerebral palsy: implications for measurement design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willemse, Lydia; Brehm, Merel A; Scholtes, Vanessa A; Jansen, Laura; Woudenberg-Vos, Hester; Dallmeijer, Annet J

    2013-07-01

    Children with cerebral palsy (CP) typically show muscle weakness of the lower extremities, which can be measured with the use of handheld dynamometry (HHD). The purposes of this study were: (1) to determine test-retest reliability and measurement error of isometric lower-extremity strength measurements in children with CP with the use of HHD and (2) to assess implications for measurement design. A test-retest design was used. Fourteen children with hemiplegic (n=6) or diplegic (n=8) spastic CP (Gross Motor Function Classification System levels I-III), ages 7 to 13 years, were assessed for isometric strength on 2 separate days (occasions) with the use of HHD, with 3 trials per muscle group. The intraclass correlation coefficient, standard error of measurement, and smallest detectable difference (SDD) were calculated for different measurement designs. Intraclass correlation coefficient values of single measurements for all muscle groups ranged from .70 to .90, and the SDD was large (>30%). Regarding measurement error, the largest source of variability was found for occasion. A 2-occasion mean decreased the SDD by 9% to 14%. For trials, a greater improvement in SDD was found when 2 trials were averaged instead of 3. A measurement design of 2 trials-2 occasions was superior to the often-used approach of 3 trials-1 occasion. The small sample size was the major study limitation. Handheld dynamometry is reliable and can be used to detect changes in isometric muscle strength in children with CP when using the mean of at least 2 trials. To further improve reliability, taking the average of 2 occasions on separate days is recommended, depending on group size and muscle group.

  15. Reliability and Correlation of Static and Dynamic Foot Arch Measurement in a Healthy Pediatric Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, Timo; Zech, Astrid; Wegscheider, Karl; Lezius, Susanne; Braumann, Klaus-Michael; Sehner, Susanne; Hollander, Karsten

    2017-09-01

    Measurement of the medial longitudinal foot arch in children is a controversial topic, as there are many different methods without a definite standard procedure. The purpose of this study was to 1) investigate intraday and interrater reliability regarding dynamic arch index and static arch height, 2) explore the correlation between both arch indices, and 3) examine the variation of the medial longitudinal arch at two different times of the day. Eighty-six children (mean ± SD age, 8.9 ± 1.9 years) participated in the study. Dynamic footprint data were captured with a pedobarographic platform. For static arch measurements, a specially constructed caliper was used to assess heel-to-toe length and dorsum height. A mixed model was established to determine reliability and variation. Reliability was found to be excellent for the static arch height index in sitting (intraday, 0.90; interrater, 0.80) and standing positions (0.88 and 0.85) and for the dynamic arch index (both 1.00). There was poor correlation between static and dynamic assessment of the medial longitudinal arch (standing dynamic arch index, r = -0.138; sitting dynamic arch index, r = -0.070). Static measurements were found to be significantly influenced by the time of day (P static arch height index is influenced by gender (P = .004), whereas dynamic arch index is influenced by side (P = .011) and body mass index (P static foot measurements are reliable for medial longitudinal foot arch assessment in children. The variation of static arch measurements during the day has to be kept in mind. For clinical purposes, static and dynamic arch data should be interpreted separately.

  16. Reliability and differentiation capability of dynamic and static kinematic measurements of rearfoot eversion in patellofemoral pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Danilo de Oliveira; Briani, Ronaldo Valdir; Pazzinatto, Marcella Ferraz; Ferrari, Deisi; Aragão, Fernando Amâncio; Albuquerque, Carlos Eduardo de; Alves, Neri; Azevedo, Fábio Mícolis de

    2015-02-01

    Excessive rearfoot eversion is thought to be a risk factor for patellofemoral pain development, due to the kinesiological relationship with ascendant adaptations. Individuals with patellofemoral pain are often diagnosed through static clinical tests, in scientific studies and clinical practice. However, the adaptations seem to appear in dynamic conditions. Performing static vs. dynamic evaluations of widely used measures would add to the knowledge in this area. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine the reliability and differentiation capability of three rearfoot eversion measures: rearfoot range of motion, static clinical test and static measurement using a three-dimensional system. A total of 29 individuals with patellofemoral pain and 25 control individuals (18-30 years) participated in this study. Each subject underwent three-dimensional motion analysis during stair climbing and static clinical tests. Intraclass correlation coefficient and standard error measurements were performed to verify the reliability of the variables and receiver operating characteristic curves to show the diagnostic accuracy of each variable. In addition, analyses of variance were performed to identify differences between groups. Rearfoot range of motion demonstrated higher diagnostic accuracy (an area under the curve score of 0.72) than static measures and was able to differentiate the groups. Only the static clinical test presented poor and moderate reliability. Other variables presented high to very high values. Rearfoot range of motion was the variable that presented the best results in terms of reliability and differentiation capability. Static variables do not seem to be related to patellofemoral pain and have low accuracy values. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The reliability and validity of hand-held refractometry water content measures of hydrogel lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Jason J; Mitchell, G Lynn; Good, Gregory W

    2003-06-01

    To investigate within- and between-examiner reliability and validity of hand-held refractometry water content measures of hydrogel lenses. Nineteen lenses of various nominal water contents were examined by two examiners on two occasions separated by 1 hour. An Atago N2 hand-held refractometer was used for all water content measures. Lenses were presented in a random order to each examiner by a third party, and examiners were masked to any potential lens identifiers. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC), 95% limits of agreement, and Wilcoxon signed rank test were used to characterize the within- and between-examiner reliability and validity of lens water content measures. Within-examiner reliability was excellent (ICC, 0.97; 95% limits of agreement, -3.6% to +5.7%), and the inter-visit mean difference of 1.1 +/- 2.4% was not biased (p = 0.08). Between-examiner reliability was also excellent (ICC, 0.98; 95% limits of agreement, -4.1% to +3.9%). The mean difference between examiners was -0.1 +/- 2.1% (p = 0.83). The mean difference between the nominally reported water content and our water content measures was -2.1 +/- 1.7% (p water content of hydrogel lenses. However, with our sample of lenses, examiners tended to overestimate the nominal water content of hydrogel lenses. As discussed, this bias may be associated with the Brix scale used in refractometry and is material dependent. Therefore, investigators may need to account for bias when measuring hydrogel lens water content via hand-held refractometry.

  18. Feasibility and reliability of dynamic postural control measures in children in first through fifth grades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faigenbaum, Avery D; Myer, Gregory D; Fernandez, Ismael Perez; Carrasco, Eduardo Gomez; Bates, Nathaniel; Farrell, Anne; Ratamess, Nicholas A; Kang, Jie

    2014-04-01

    Although dynamic postural control is a prerequisite to the development of fundamental movement skills in children, few studies have examined the feasibility and reliability of assessment techniques that measure dynamic postural control in youth under 13 years of age. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility and reliability of the Lower Quarter Y Balance Test (YBT-LQ) in children and to examine the reproducibility of these measures across developmental periods of childhood. 188 subjects in first through fifth grades (age = 6.9 to 12.1 yr) performed the YBT-LQ on two occasions in a field-based setting. Reach distances and cumulative score (sum of 3 directions) were measured and analyzed using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC). Sub-cohorts of 14 and 8 subjects were used to assess inter-rater reliability within-session and between-session, respectively. The overall ICC was moderate-to-good for the anterior (right=0.82; left=0.82), posteromedial (right=0.77; left=0.75), and posterolateral (right 0.80; left=0.77) reach directions. The combined ICC was also moderate-to-good for children in grades 1 (0.71), 2 (0.74), 3 (0.84), 4 (0.82), and 5 (0.79). Typical error values for right and left limbs were less than 10% of the mean for all reach measures across all grades. Interrater reliability within session (ICC > 0.995) and between sessions (0.907 ≤ ICC ≤ 0.974) were both excellent. No unexpected responses or injury occurred during testing. These findings indicate that the YBT-LQ is a feasible and reproducible measure of dynamic postural control in children in first through fifth grades. 2b.

  19. Reliability of a store observation tool in measuring availability of alcohol and selected foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Deborah A; Schoeff, Diane; Farley, Thomas A; Bluthenthal, Ricky; Scribner, Richard; Overton, Adrian

    2007-11-01

    Alcohol and food items can compromise or contribute to health, depending on the quantity and frequency with which they are consumed. How much people consume may be influenced by product availability and promotion in local retail stores. We developed and tested an observational tool to objectively measure in-store availability and promotion of alcoholic beverages and selected food items that have an impact on health. Trained observers visited 51 alcohol outlets in Los Angeles and southeastern Louisiana. Using a standardized instrument, two independent observations were conducted documenting the type of outlet, the availability and shelf space for alcoholic beverages and selected food items, the purchase price of standard brands, the placement of beer and malt liquor, and the amount of in-store alcohol advertising. Reliability of the instrument was excellent for measures of item availability, shelf space, and placement of malt liquor. Reliability was lower for alcohol advertising, beer placement, and items that measured the "least price" of apples and oranges. The average kappa was 0.87 for categorical items and the average intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.83 for continuous items. Overall, systematic observation of the availability and promotion of alcoholic beverages and food items was feasible, acceptable, and reliable. Measurement tools such as the one we evaluated should be useful in studies of the impact of availability of food and beverages on consumption and on health outcomes.

  20. Hand-Held Dynamometer Measurements Obtained in a Home Environment Are Reliable but Not Correlated Strongly with Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohannon, R. W.

    1996-01-01

    This research report describes the reliability and validity of hand-held dynamometer measurements of knee extension force obtained from 13 patients referred for physical therapy. Results found that hand-held dynamometry can be used to obtain reliable measures of muscle strength; however, correlation between strength measures and function was not…

  1. Measurement and Comparison of Reliability Performance of Photovoltaic Power Optimizers for Energy Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catelani Marcantonio

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Photovoltaic (PV power optimizers are introduced in PV systems to improve their energetic productivity in presence of mismatching phenomena and not uniform operating conditions. Commercially available converters are characterized by different DC-DC topologies. A promising one is the boost topology with its different versions. It is characterized by its circuital simplicity, few devices and high efficiency values - necessary features for a Distributed Maximum Power Point Tracking (DMPPT converter. PV power optimizer designs represent a challenging task since they operate in continuously changing operating conditions which strongly influence electronic component properties and thus the performance of complete converters. An aspect to carefully analyze in such applications is the thermal factor. In this paper, a necessity to have a suitable temperature monitoring system to avoid dangerous conditions is underlined In addition, another important requirement for a PV power optimizer is its reliability, since it can suggest a useful information on its diagnostic aspects, maintenance and investments. In fact, a reliable device requires less maintenance services, also improving the economic aspect. The evaluation of the electronic system reliability can be carried out using different reliability prediction models. In this paper, reliability indices, such as the Mean Time Between Failure (MTBF or the Failure Rate of a Diode Rectification (DR boost, are calculated using the evaluation of the Military Handbook 217F and Siemens SN29500 prediction models. With the reliability prediction results it has been possible to identify the most critical components of a DMPPT converter and a measurement setup has been developed in order to monitor the component stress level on the temperature, power, voltage, current, and energy in the DMPPT design phase avoiding the occurrence of a failure that might decrease the service life of the equipment.

  2. Measuring factors that influence the utilisation of preventive care services provided by general practitioners in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oldenburg Brian

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Relatively little research attention has been given to the development of standardised and psychometrically sound scales for measuring influences relevant to the utilisation of health services. This study aims to describe the development, validation and internal reliability of some existing and new scales to measure factors that are likely to influence utilisation of preventive care services provided by general practitioners in Australia. Methods Relevant domains of influence were first identified from a literature review and formative research. Items were then generated by using and adapting previously developed scales and published findings from these. The new items and scales were pre-tested and qualitative feedback was obtained from a convenience sample of citizens from the community and a panel of experts. Principal Components Analyses (PCA and internal reliability testing (Cronbach's alpha were then conducted for all of the newly adapted or developed scales utilising data collected from a self-administered mailed survey sent to a randomly selected population-based sample of 381 individuals (response rate 65.6 per cent. Results The PCA identified five scales with acceptable levels of internal consistency were: (1 social support (ten items, alpha 0.86; (2 perceived interpersonal care (five items, alpha 0.87, (3 concerns about availability of health care and accessibility to health care (eight items, alpha 0.80, (4 value of good health (five items, alpha 0.79, and (5 attitudes towards health care (three items, alpha 0.75. Conclusion The five scales are suitable for further development and more widespread use in research aimed at understanding the determinants of preventive health services utilisation among adults in the general population.

  3. SCALES FOR MEASURING PERCEIVED RISK IN E-COMMERCE - TESTING INFLUENCES ON RELIABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricea Elena BERTEA

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study analyzes the importance of research design in measuring perceived risk in e-commerce by revealing the influences that certain variables might have on the reliability of scales. Perceived risk is known as a major behavioral determinant, moreover it has been found to be a barrier against e-commerce adoption. This is why it is important for marketing researchers to have reliable measurement instruments. By performing a meta-analysis on 19 papers that developed scales for perceived risk in e-commerce, we aimed to identify what research design characteristics can determine the increase or decrease of alpha Cronbach estimates. Results were mixed, as only one of four hypotheses was supported. However, important issues for further research have been discovered here, being of great relevance for academics as well as for practitioners.

  4. Inter-rater reliability of kinesthetic measurements with the KINARM robotic exoskeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semrau, Jennifer A; Herter, Troy M; Scott, Stephen H; Dukelow, Sean P

    2017-05-22

    Kinesthesia (sense of limb movement) has been extremely difficult to measure objectively, especially in individuals who have survived a stroke. The development of valid and reliable measurements for proprioception is important to developing a better understanding of proprioceptive impairments after stroke and their impact on the ability to perform daily activities. We recently developed a robotic task to evaluate kinesthetic deficits after stroke and found that the majority (~60%) of stroke survivors exhibit significant deficits in kinesthesia within the first 10 days post-stroke. Here we aim to determine the inter-rater reliability of this robotic kinesthetic matching task. Twenty-five neurologically intact control subjects and 15 individuals with first-time stroke were evaluated on a robotic kinesthetic matching task (KIN). Subjects sat in a robotic exoskeleton with their arms supported against gravity. In the KIN task, the robot moved the subjects' stroke-affected arm at a preset speed, direction and distance. As soon as subjects felt the robot begin to move their affected arm, they matched the robot movement with the unaffected arm. Subjects were tested in two sessions on the KIN task: initial session and then a second session (within an average of 18.2 ± 13.8 h of the initial session for stroke subjects), which were supervised by different technicians. The task was performed both with and without the use of vision in both sessions. We evaluated intra-class correlations of spatial and temporal parameters derived from the KIN task to determine the reliability of the robotic task. We evaluated 8 spatial and temporal parameters that quantify kinesthetic behavior. We found that the parameters exhibited moderate to high intra-class correlations between the initial and retest conditions (Range, r-value = [0.53-0.97]). The robotic KIN task exhibited good inter-rater reliability. This validates the KIN task as a reliable, objective method for quantifying

  5. Test-retest reliability of tibiofemoral joint space width measurements made using a low-dose standing CT scanner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, Neil A; Bergin, John; Kern, Andrew; Findlay, Christian; Anderson, Donald D

    2017-02-01

    To determine the test-retest reliability of knee joint space width (JSW) measurements made using standing CT (SCT) imaging. This prospective two-visit study included 50 knees from 30 subjects (66% female; mean ± SD age 58.2 ± 11.3 years; BMI 29.1 ± 5.6 kg/m2; 38% KL grade 0-1). Tibiofemoral geometry was obtained from bilateral, approximately 20° fixed-flexed SCT images acquired at visits 2 weeks apart. For each compartment, the total joint area was defined as the area with a JSW measurements of interest were the percentage of the total joint area with a JSW less than 0.5-mm thresholds between 2.0 and 5.0 mm in each tibiofemoral compartment. Test-retest reliability of the summary JSW measurements was assessed by intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC 2,1) for the percentage area engaged at each threshold of JSW and root-mean-square errors (RMSE) were calculated to assess reproducibility. The ICCs were excellent for each threshold assessed, ranging from 0.95 to 0.97 for the lateral and 0.90 to 0.97 for the medial compartment. RMSE ranged from 1.1 to 7.2% for the lateral and from 3.1 to 9.1% for the medial compartment, with better reproducibility at smaller JSW thresholds. The knee joint positioning protocol used demonstrated high day-to-day reliability for SCT 3D tibiofemoral JSW summary measurements repeated 2 weeks apart. Low-dose SCT provides a great deal of information about the joint while maintaining high reliability, making it a suitable alternative to plain radiographs for evaluating JSW in people with knee OA.

  6. Test-retest reliability of tibiofemoral joint space width measurements made using a low-dose standing CT scanner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segal, Neil A. [University of Kansas Medical Center, Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, 3901 Rainbow Boulevard, Mailstop 1046, Kansas City, KS (United States); The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (United States); Bergin, John; Kern, Andrew; Findlay, Christian [The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (United States); Anderson, Donald D. [The University of Iowa, Department of Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation, Iowa City, IA (United States)

    2017-02-15

    To determine the test-retest reliability of knee joint space width (JSW) measurements made using standing CT (SCT) imaging. This prospective two-visit study included 50 knees from 30 subjects (66% female; mean ± SD age 58.2 ± 11.3 years; BMI 29.1 ± 5.6 kg/m{sup 2}; 38% KL grade 0-1). Tibiofemoral geometry was obtained from bilateral, approximately 20 fixed-flexed SCT images acquired at visits 2 weeks apart. For each compartment, the total joint area was defined as the area with a JSW <10 mm. The summary measurements of interest were the percentage of the total joint area with a JSW less than 0.5-mm thresholds between 2.0 and 5.0 mm in each tibiofemoral compartment. Test-retest reliability of the summary JSW measurements was assessed by intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC 2,1) for the percentage area engaged at each threshold of JSW and root-mean-square errors (RMSE) were calculated to assess reproducibility. The ICCs were excellent for each threshold assessed, ranging from 0.95 to 0.97 for the lateral and 0.90 to 0.97 for the medial compartment. RMSE ranged from 1.1 to 7.2% for the lateral and from 3.1 to 9.1% for the medial compartment, with better reproducibility at smaller JSW thresholds. The knee joint positioning protocol used demonstrated high day-to-day reliability for SCT 3D tibiofemoral JSW summary measurements repeated 2 weeks apart. Low-dose SCT provides a great deal of information about the joint while maintaining high reliability, making it a suitable alternative to plain radiographs for evaluating JSW in people with knee OA. (orig.)

  7. A unique method for estimating the reliability learning curve of optic nerve sheath diameter ultrasound measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeiler, Frederick A; Ziesmann, Markus T; Goeres, Patrick; Unger, Bertram; Park, Jason; Karakitsos, Dimitrios; Blaivas, Michael; Vergis, Ashley; Gillman, Lawrence M

    2016-12-01

    Optic nerve sheath diameter (ONSD) measurement using ultrasound has been proposed as a rapid, non-invasive, point of care technique to estimate intra-cranial pressure (ICP). Ultrasonic measurement of the optic nerve sheath can be quite challenging and there is limited literature surrounding learning curves for this technique. We attempted to develop a method to estimate the reliability learning curve for ONSD measurement utilizing a unique definition of reliability: a plateau in within-subject variability with unchanged between-subject variability. As part of a previously published study, a single operator measured the ONSD in 120 healthy volunteers over a 6-month period. Utilizing the assumption that the four measurements made on each subject during this study should be equal, the relationship of within-subject variance was described using a quadratic-plateau model as assessed by segmental polynomial (knot) regression. Segmental polynomial (knot) regression revealed a plateau in within-subject variance after the 21st subject. However, there was no difference in overall mean values [3.69 vs 3.68 mm (p = 0.884)] or between-subject variance [14.49 vs 11.92 (p = 0.54)] above or below this cutoff. This study suggests a significant finite learning curve associated with ONSD measurements. It also offers a unique method of calculating the learning curve associated with ONSD measurement.

  8. Measuring reliability and validity of Persian version of spirituality scale among elderly Iranian population

    OpenAIRE

    Hallaj Zahra; Rafiey Hasan; Momtaz Yadollah Abolfathi; Teimori Robab; Haroni Qholamreza Qaed Amini; Sahaf Robab

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to measure the validity and reliability of Persian version of spirituality scale among elderly Iranian people. Methods: Based on the international quality of life assessment (IQOLA) project approach, Persian version of the spirituality scale was prepared. Data on 200 elderly people (over 60 years old) were entered into SPSS software. Results: The findings of the descriptive results of the current study showed that there was no correlation between the demog...

  9. Limb Laterality Recognition Score: A Reliable Clinical Measure Related to Phantom Limb Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Christopher Kevin; Wong, Caitlin Kimberly

    2017-08-24

    To explore the usefulness of the limb laterality recognition score as a clinical measure of phantom limb pain, regarding test-retest reliability and association of limb laterality recognition scores with phantom limb pain measures. Retrospective cohort. Community support group. Eleven adults who averaged 4.8 years since lower limb amputation due to vascular pathologies (N = 9), trauma (N = 1), and cancer (N = 1). Subjects self-reported amputated limb pain using the sensation subsection of the Prosthetic Evaluation Questionnaire and back and sound limb pain. Using numbered iPads that corresponded to the self-reports, subjects played the Recognise Foot game to assess limb laterality recognition ability. Subjects identified the laterality of 20 foot images, within two seconds each. The software collected accuracy and speed scores in basic, vanilla, and context conditions for two rounds in random order. Basic showed feet against black backgrounds, vanilla showed feet with various monochromatic backgrounds, and context showed feet in clothed or environmental contexts. So that greater accuracy in less time meant a better score, accuracy scores were divided by completion speed. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC)3,1 assessed test-retest reliability. Correlations between accuracy/speed and phantom limb pain measures were assessed with Spearman's rho (categorical) and Pearson coefficients (continuous). Accuracy/speed test-retest reliability was strong (ICC = 0.72) and inversely associated with phantom limb pain frequency (context rho = 0.72). Limb laterality recognition accuracy/speed in the context condition had good test-retest reliability and correlated strongly with phantom limb pain frequency. Accuracy/speed limb laterality recognition ability relates to phantom limb pain and may be a valid clinical or research measure.

  10. Concurrent validity and reliability of wireless instrumented insoles measuring postural balance and temporal gait parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oerbekke, Michiel S; Stukstette, Mirelle J; Schütte, Kurt; de Bie, Rob A; Pisters, Martijn F; Vanwanseele, Benedicte

    2017-01-01

    The OpenGo seems promising to take gait analysis out of laboratory settings due to its capability of long-term measurements and mobility. However, the OpenGo's concurrent validity and reliability need to be assessed to determine if the instrument is suitable for validation in patient samples. Twenty healthy volunteers participated. Center of pressure data were collected under eyes open and closed conditions with participants performing unilateral stance trials on the gold standard (AMTI OR6-7 force plate) while wearing the OpenGo. Temporal gait data (stance time, gait cycle time, and cadence) were collected at a self-selected comfortable walking speed with participants performing test-retest trials on an instrumented treadmill while wearing the OpenGo. Validity was assessed using Bland-Altman plots. Reliability was assessed with Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (2,1) and smallest detectable changes were calculated. Negative means of differences were found in all measured parameters, illustrating lower scores for the OpenGo on average. The OpenGo showed negative upper limits of agreement in center of pressure parameters on the mediolateral axis. Temporal reliability ICCs ranged from 0.90-0.93. Smallest detectable changes for both stance times were 0.04 (left) and 0.05 (right) seconds, for gait cycle time 0.08s, and for cadence 4.5 steps per minute. The OpenGo is valid and reliable for the measurement of temporal gait parameters during walking. Measurements of center of pressure parameters during unilateral stance are not considered valid. The OpenGo seems a promising instrument for clinically screening and monitoring temporal gait parameters in patients, however validation in patient populations is needed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Repeatability and interdevice reliability of two portable color selection devices in matching and measuring tooth color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagouvardos, Panagiotis E; Fougia, Aggeliki G; Diamantopoulou, Sofia A; Polyzois, Gregory L

    2009-01-01

    There is a need to know how shade selection devices perform in matching and measuring tooth color, since these functions are usually evaluated independently and may present significant discrepancies. The purpose of this study was to evaluate 2 devices which offer both functions to test the null hypothesis that they present no differences in their repeatability and interdevice reliability relating to the 2 functions. Thirty-one extracted anterior human teeth were measured twice, with each of the devices (ShadeEye NCC and VITA EasyShade), by one investigator experienced and calibrated with both devices. L*a*b* values and shade matches to VITA Classical and Vitapan 3D-Master shade guide systems were determined for all teeth. Paired t tests and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) were used to statistically analyze the data (alpha=.05). The results showed that L*a*b* values with VITA EasyShade were significantly higher than those with ShadeEye NCC (PL*a*b* parameters, while interdevice matching reliability ranged from 0.189 to 0.430, with no significant differences between shade systems (P>.05). All tooth color parameters were higher with the VITA EasyShade device. Measuring repeatability of the VITA EasyShade was higher than the ShadeEye NCC only for the L* parameter. Matching repeatability of the ShadeEye NCC was higher than the VITA EasyShade for the VITA Classical system. Interdevice measuring reliabilities were not different for the color parameters, but matching reliability of the VITA Classical system was higher than that of the Vitapan 3D-Master.

  12. Reliability of knee joint position sense measurement: a comparison between goniometry and image capture methods

    OpenAIRE

    Irving, Fiona; Russell, Joseph; Smith, Toby

    2016-01-01

    Aims: Evaluate the intra-rater and inter-rater reliability of hand-held goniometry compared to image capture (IMC) in the assessment of joint position sense (JPS) in healthy participants. Methodology: Repeated-measures observational study design was undertaken with 36 asymptomatic university students of both genders aged between 18 to 45 years. JPS in the knee was assessed by two assessors over two sessions (one-week interval) using hand-held goniometry and IMC methods. Joint position sense w...

  13. Reliability of two goniometric methods of measuring active inversion and eversion range of motion at the ankle

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    Refshauge Kathryn M

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Active inversion and eversion ankle range of motion (ROM is widely used to evaluate treatment effect, however the error associated with the available measurement protocols is unknown. This study aimed to establish the reliability of goniometry as used in clinical practice. Methods 30 subjects (60 ankles with a wide variety of ankle conditions participated in this study. Three observers, with different skill levels, measured active inversion and eversion ankle ROM three times on each of two days. Measurements were performed with subjects positioned (a sitting and (b prone. Intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC[2,1] were calculated to determine intra- and inter-observer reliability. Results Within session intra-observer reliability ranged from ICC[2,1] 0.82 to 0.96 and between session intra-observer reliability ranged from ICC[2,1] 0.42 to 0.80. Reliability was similar for the sitting and the prone positions, however, between sessions, inversion measurements were more reliable than eversion measurements. Within session inter-observer measurements in sitting were more reliable than in prone and inversion measurements were more reliable than eversion measurements. Conclusion Our findings show that ankle inversion and eversion ROM can be measured with high to very high reliability by the same observer within sessions and with low to moderate reliability by different observers within a session. The reliability of measures made by the same observer between sessions varies depending on the direction, being low to moderate for eversion measurements and moderate to high for inversion measurements in both positions.

  14. Reliability of two goniometric methods of measuring active inversion and eversion range of motion at the ankle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menadue, Collette; Raymond, Jacqueline; Kilbreath, Sharon L; Refshauge, Kathryn M; Adams, Roger

    2006-07-28

    Active inversion and eversion ankle range of motion (ROM) is widely used to evaluate treatment effect, however the error associated with the available measurement protocols is unknown. This study aimed to establish the reliability of goniometry as used in clinical practice. 30 subjects (60 ankles) with a wide variety of ankle conditions participated in this study. Three observers, with different skill levels, measured active inversion and eversion ankle ROM three times on each of two days. Measurements were performed with subjects positioned (a) sitting and (b) prone. Intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC[2,1]) were calculated to determine intra- and inter-observer reliability. Within session intra-observer reliability ranged from ICC[2,1] 0.82 to 0.96 and between session intra-observer reliability ranged from ICC[2,1] 0.42 to 0.80. Reliability was similar for the sitting and the prone positions, however, between sessions, inversion measurements were more reliable than eversion measurements. Within session inter-observer measurements in sitting were more reliable than in prone and inversion measurements were more reliable than eversion measurements. Our findings show that ankle inversion and eversion ROM can be measured with high to very high reliability by the same observer within sessions and with low to moderate reliability by different observers within a session. The reliability of measures made by the same observer between sessions varies depending on the direction, being low to moderate for eversion measurements and moderate to high for inversion measurements in both positions.

  15. Reliability and validity of daily physical activity measures during inpatient spinal cord injury rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zbogar, Dominik; Eng, Janice J; Miller, William C; Krassioukov, Andrei V; Verrier, Mary C

    2016-01-01

    To assess the test-retest reliability and convergent validity of daily physical activity measures during inpatient spinal cord injury rehabilitation. Observational study. Two inpatient spinal cord injury rehabilitation centres. Participants (n = 106) were recruited from consecutive admissions to rehabilitation. Physical activity during inpatient spinal cord injury rehabilitation stay was recorded on two days via (1) wrist accelerometer, (2) hip accelerometer if ambulatory, and (3) self-report (Physical Activity Recall Assessment for People with Spinal Cord Injury questionnaire). Spearman's correlations and Bland-Altman plots were utilized for test-retest reliability. Correlations between physical activity measures and clinical measures (functional independence, hand function, and ambulation) were performed. Correlations for physical activity measures between Day 1 and Day 2 were moderate to high (ρ = 0.53-0.89). Bland-Altman plots showed minimal bias and more within-subject differences in more active individuals and wide limits of agreement. None of these three physical activity measures correlated with one another. A moderate correlation was found between wrist accelerometry counts and grip strength (ρ = 0.58) and between step counts and measures of ambulation (ρ = 0.62). Functional independence was related to wrist accelerometry (ρ = 0.70) and step counts (ρ = 0.56), but not with self-report. The test-retest reliability and convergent validity of the instrumented measures suggest that wrist and hip accelerometers are appropriate tools for use in research studies of daily physical activity in the spinal cord injury rehabilitation setting but are too variable for individual use.

  16. Reliability of corneal dynamic scheimpflug analyser measurements in virgin and post-PRK eyes.

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    Xiangjun Chen

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To determine the measurement reliability of CorVis ST, a dynamic Scheimpflug analyser, in virgin and post-photorefractive keratectomy (PRK eyes and compare the results between these two groups. METHODS: Forty virgin eyes and 42 post-PRK eyes underwent CorVis ST measurements performed by two technicians. Repeatability was evaluated by comparing three consecutive measurements by technician A. Reproducibility was determined by comparing the first measurement by technician A with one performed by technician B. Intraobserver and interobserver intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs were calculated. Univariate analysis of covariance (ANCOVA was used to compare measured parameters between virgin and post-PRK eyes. RESULTS: The intraocular pressure (IOP, central corneal thickness (CCT and 1st applanation time demonstrated good intraobserver repeatability and interobserver reproducibility (ICC ≧ 0.90 in virgin and post-PRK eyes. The deformation amplitude showed a good or close to good repeatability and reproducibility in both groups (ICC ≧ 0.88. The CCT correlated positively with 1st applanation time (r = 0.437 and 0.483, respectively, p<0.05 and negatively with deformation amplitude (r = -0.384 and -0.375, respectively, p<0.05 in both groups. Compared to post-PRK eyes, virgin eyes showed longer 1st applanation time (7.29 ± 0.21 vs. 6.96 ± 0.17 ms, p<0.05 and lower deformation amplitude (1.06 ± 0.07 vs. 1.17 ± 0.08 mm, p < 0.05. CONCLUSIONS: CorVis ST demonstrated reliable measurements for CCT, IOP, and 1st applanation time, as well as relatively reliable measurement for deformation amplitude in both virgin and post-PRK eyes. There were differences in 1st applanation time and deformation amplitude between virgin and post-PRK eyes, which may reflect corneal biomechanical changes occurring after the surgery in the latter.

  17. Reliability of cervical lordosis and global sagittal spinal balance measurements in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Christophe; Ilharreborde, Brice; Azoulay, Robin; Sebag, Guy; Mazda, Keyvan

    2013-06-01

    Radiological reproducibility study. To assess intra and interobserver reliability of radiographic measurements for global sagittal balance parameters and sagittal spine curves, including cervical spine. Sagittal spine balance in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is a main issue and many studies have been reported, showing that coronal and sagittal deformities often involve sagittal cervical unbalance. Global sagittal balance aims to obtain a horizontal gaze and gravity line at top of hips when subject is in a static position, involving adjustment of each spine curvature in the sagittal plane. To our knowledge, no study did use a methodologically validated imaging analysis tool able to appreciate sagittal spine contours and distances in AIS and especially in the cervical region. Lateral full-spine low-dose EOS radiographs were performed in 75 patients divided in three groups (control subjects, AIS, operated AIS). Three observers digitally analyzed twice each radiograph and 11 sagittal measures were collected for each image. Reliability was assessed calculating intraobserver Pearson's r correlation coefficient, interobserver intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) completed with a two-by-two Bland-Altman plot analysis. This measurement method has shown excellent intra and interobserver reliability in all parameters, sagittal curvatures, pelvic parameters and global sagittal balance. This study validated a simple and efficient tool in AIS sagittal contour analysis. It defined new relevant landmarks allowing to characterize cervical segmental curvatures and cervical involvement in global balance.

  18. Generalizability theory reliability of written expression curriculum-based measurement in universal screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller-Margulis, Milena A; Mercer, Sterett H; Thomas, Erin L

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the reliability of written expression curriculum-based measurement (WE-CBM) in the context of universal screening from a generalizability theory framework. Students in second through fifth grade (n = 145) participated in the study. The sample included 54% female students, 49% White students, 23% African American students, 17% Hispanic students, 8% Asian students, and 3% of students identified as 2 or more races. Of the sample, 8% were English Language Learners and 6% were students receiving special education. Three WE-CBM probes were administered for 7 min each at 3 time points across 1 year. Writing samples were scored for commonly used WE-CBM metrics (e.g., correct minus incorrect word sequences; CIWS). Results suggest that nearly half the variance in WE-CBM is related to unsystematic error and that conventional screening procedures (i.e., the use of one 3-min sample) do not yield scores with adequate reliability for relative or absolute decisions about student performance. In most grades, three 3-min writing samples (or 2 longer duration samples) were required for adequate reliability for relative decisions, and three 7-min writing samples would not yield adequate reliability for relative decisions about within-year student growth. Implications and recommendations are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Reliability and validity of the Pragmatics Observational Measure (POM): a new observational measure of pragmatic language for children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordier, Reinie; Munro, Natalie; Wilkes-Gillan, Sarah; Speyer, Renée; Pearce, Wendy M

    2014-07-01

    There is a need for a reliable and valid assessment of childhood pragmatic language skills during peer-peer interactions. This study aimed to evaluate the psychometric properties of a newly developed pragmatic assessment, the Pragmatic Observational Measure (POM). The psychometric properties of the POM were investigated from observational data of two studies - study 1 involved 342 children aged 5-11 years (108 children with ADHD; 108 typically developing playmates; 126 children in the control group), and study 2 involved 9 children with ADHD who attended a 7-week play-based intervention. The psychometric properties of the POM were determined based on the COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health status Measurement INstruments (COSMIN) taxonomy of psychometric properties and definitions for health-related outcomes; the Pragmatic Protocol was used as the reference tool against which the POM was evaluated. The POM demonstrated sound psychometric properties in all the reliability, validity and interpretability criteria against which it was assessed. The findings showed that the POM is a reliable and valid measure of pragmatic language skills of children with ADHD between the age of 5 and 11 years and has clinical utility in identifying children with pragmatic language difficulty. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. [Test-retest reliability of the Implicit Association Test for measuring shyness: Inclusion of malleability of implicit shyness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Tsutomu; Sawaumi, Takafumi; Aikawa, Atsushi

    2015-10-01

    The Implicit Association Test of Shyness (Shyness IAT: Aikawa & Fujii, 2011) provides an indirect assessment of shyness by measuring associations of self (vs. other) with shyness-related (vs sociability-related) words. In this study we examined the test-retest reliability of the Shyness IAT. Thirty-five participants responded twice to the Shyness IAT with a time lag of one month. The correlation coefficient between the two time points was .54 (p = .001), confirming an adequate level of test-retest reliability. Indeed, changes in explicit and implicit shyness between the two time points were not related to sociable behavior during the one month period. Implications of the results for the assessment of personalities using IATs as well as relevant future directions are discussed.

  1. Reliability of linear and angular dental measurements with the OrthoMechanics Sequential Analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talaat, Sameh; Kaboudan, Ahmed; Breuning, Hero; Ragy, Nivine; Elshebiny, Tarek; Kula, Katherine; Ghoneima, Ahmed

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the reliability of newly developed software in the assessment of orthodontic tooth movement 3 dimensionally. The sample consisted of pretreatment and posttreatment computed tomography scans and plaster dental models of 20 orthodontic patients treated with a hyrax palatal expander as a part of their comprehensive orthodontic treatment. Dental-arch measurements, including arch widths, tooth inclinations, and angulation parameters, were measured on the scans using InvivoDental 3D imaging software (version 5.1; Motionview, Hixson, Tenn). The plaster dental models were laser scanned and superimposed, and measurements were obtained digitally using the new software. Agreement between the digital models and the computed tomography measurements was evaluated with intraclass correlation coefficients, paired t tests, and Bland-Altman plots. A P value of ≤0.05 was considered statistically significant. High agreement, a nonsignificant paired t test, and no indication of agreement discrepancies were observed for most of the measured parameters. The results confirmed that the new software program offers a reliable tool for dental-arch measurements obtained from 3-dimensional laser-scanned models. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The Reliability and Validity of Using Ice to Measure Cold Pain Threshold

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    Prue Tilley

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cold pain threshold (CPT measures an individual’s pain threshold in response to a cold stimulus. CPT is most accurately determined with specialised equipment; however this technology is not readily accessible to clinicians. Instead, ice has been employed to measure CPT. An optimal ice protocol has not yet been identified. The aim of this study was to evaluate the reliability and validity of two CPT protocols using ice in a young, healthy population. Twenty-two participants aged 22.6 (SD 1.81 years underwent CPT measurements over 6 anatomical sites across 3 protocols, which were repeated in 2 sessions. One protocol measured pain (PVAS following ice applied for a standardised period of 30 seconds; a second protocol measured time to onset of pain, and the reference standard measured CPT using laboratory equipment (TSA-II. The PVAS protocol demonstrated the best reliability (mean ICC 0.783, 95% CI 0.706 to 0.841, but the Timed protocol demonstrated superior validity compared to the reference standard (mean ICC −0.504, 95% CI −0.621 to −0.365.

  3. Validity and reliability of the Chinese version of the care transition measure.

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    Xiaoyi Cao

    Full Text Available The 15-item care transition measure (CTM-15 is a reliable and valid instrument assessing the quality of care transition from patients' perspectives. The aim of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the CTM-15 and the CTM-3 (a 3-item short version of the CTM-15 in Mainland China.This was a cross-sectional study with a convenience sample of 646 patients in a general tertiary-level hospital in Chengdu, China. The results indicated that the Cronbach's α values of the Chinese version of the two measures were 0.90 and 0.56, and the test-retest reliability values were 0.91 and 0.87, respectively. Three factors were extracted for the CTM-15 in Chinese populations. The CTM-15 and the CTM-3 scores discriminated well between patients with and without re-hospitalization for their index condition. The CTM-15 and the CTM-3 had significant positive relationships with self-rated health status. The CTM-3 score was significantly related to the CTM-15 score, and the CTM-3 score accounted for 64.23% of the variance of the CTM-15 score.This study has demonstrated the psychometric properties of the CTM-15 and the CTM-3 in Mainland China. Although the Cronbach's α value of the CTM-3 is suboptimal, it has exhibited high test-retest reliability, convergent validity and criterion validity. Therefore, the CTM-3 can substitute the CTM-15 as a performance measurement tool when the sample size is large enough to compensate its suboptimal reliability or the reduced response burden is a concern.

  4. Reliability and validity of the protokinetics movement analysis software in measuring center of pressure during walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynall, Robert C; Zukowski, Lisa A; Plummer, Prudence; Mihalik, Jason P

    2017-02-01

    Our purpose was to determine the validity and test-retest reliability of the Protokinetics Movement Analysis Software (PKMAS) in measuring center of pressure (COP) during walking as compared to a force plate gold standard. Twenty-five healthy participants (14 females, 11 males; age 20.0±1.5years) completed 2 testing sessions approximately 5days apart (mean=5.5±1.1 days). In each session, participants completed 16 total trials across a 6m walkway: 8 trials walking on a ProtoKinetics Zeno Walkway using PKMAS and 8 trials walking over 2 force plates arranged in an offset tandem pattern. COP path length (cm) and speed (cm/s) were calculated from data averaged across the 8 trials on a given device for a given foot. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC 2, k) were computed to determine between session reliability. Pearson correlation coefficients (r) and Bland-Altman plots were produced between the PKMAS and force plate outcomes for session 1 to determine validity. The PKMAS demonstrated excellent reliability (ICC 2, k≥0.962) for all COP measures. Pearson correlation coefficients between PKMAS and force plates were ≥0.75 for all outcome variables. Bland-Altman plots and 95% levels of agreement revealed a bias where the PKMAS appeared to underestimate COP path length and speed by approximately 4cm and 6cm/s, respectively. After correcting for bias, our findings suggest the PKMAS is a reliable tool to measure COP in healthy people during gait. Using the PKMAS with the ProtoKinetics Zeno Walkway may allow for more efficient investigation of dynamic balance variables during functional movement tasks. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Reliability and Validity of Electro-Goniometric Range of Motion Measurements in Patients with Hand and Wrist Limitations

    OpenAIRE

    Bashardoust Tajali, Siamak; MacDermid, Joy C.; Grewal, Ruby; Young, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Study Design: Cross-sectional reliability and validity study. Purpose: 1. To determine intrarater, interrater and inter instrument reliabilities and validity of two digital electro goniometry to measure active wrist/finger range of motions (ROMs) in patients with limited motion. 2. To determine intrarater and interrater reliabilities of digital goniometry to measure torques of PIP passive flexion of the index finger in patients with limited motion. Methods: The study was designed in a randomi...

  6. Reliability and concurrent validity of a measure of critical thinking skills in biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMurray, Mary Anne; Beisenherz, Paul; Thompson, Bruce

    The present study investigated the utility of 52 items, selected from a readily available item pool developed for instructional purposes, when the items are used to measure critical thinking abilities of biology students. The items yield scores that have reasonable internal consistency reliability. Furthermore, analyses involving ACT, Watson-Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal, and Group Embedded Figures Test scores also suggest that the critical thinking test items have good concurrent validity. Thus, the measure may be useful in both science instruction and future research regarding critical thinking phenomena.

  7. Reliable and valid NEWS for Chinese seniors: measuring perceived neighborhood attributes related to walking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Lok-chun

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The effects of the built environment on walking in seniors have not been studied in an Asian context. To examine these effects, valid and reliable measures are needed. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a questionnaire of perceived neighborhood characteristics related to walking appropriate for Chinese seniors (Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale for Chinese Seniors, NEWS-CS. It was based on the Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale - Abbreviated (NEWS-A, a validated measure of perceived built environment developed in the USA for adults. A secondary study aim was to establish the generalizability of the NEWS-A to an Asian high-density urban context and a different age group. Methods A multidisciplinary panel of experts adapted the original NEWS-A to reflect the built environment of Hong Kong and needs of seniors. The translated instrument was pre-tested on a sample of 50 Chinese-speaking senior residents (65+ years. The final version of the NEWS-CS was interviewer-administered to 484 seniors residing in four selected Hong Kong districts varying in walkability and socio-economic status. Ninety-two participants completed the questionnaire on two separate occasions, 2-3 weeks apart. Test-rest reliability indices were estimated for each item and subscale of the NEWS-CS. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to develop the measurement model of the NEWS-CS and cross-validate that of the NEWS-A. Results The final version of the NEWS-CS consisted of 14 subscales and four single items (76 items. Test-retest reliability was moderate to good (ICC > 50 or % agreement > 60 except for four items measuring distance to destinations. The originally-proposed measurement models of the NEWS-A and NEWS-CS required 2-3 theoretically-justifiable modifications to fit the data well. Conclusions The NEWS-CS possesses sufficient levels of reliability and factorial validity to be used for measuring perceived neighborhood

  8. Reliable strain measurement in transistor arrays by robust scanning transmission electron microscopy

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    Suhyun Kim

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Accurate measurement of the strain field in the channels of transistor arrays is critical for strain engineering in modern electronic devices. We applied atomic-resolution high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy to quantitative measurement of the strain field in transistor arrays. The quantitative strain profile over 20 transistors was obtained with high reliability and a precision of 0.1%. The strain field was found to form homogeneously in the channels of the transistor arrays. Furthermore, strain relaxation due to the thin foil effect was quantitatively investigated for thicknesses of 35 to 275 nm.

  9. Reliability and predictive validity of energy intake measures from the 24-hour dietary recalls of homebound older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yanhui; Roth, David L; Ritchie, Christine S; Burgio, Kathryn L; Locher, Julie L

    2010-05-01

    Twenty-four-hour dietary recalls are used frequently to study homebound older adults' eating behaviors. However, the reliability and predictive validity of this method have not been established in this population. The purpose of this study was to examine whether homebound older adults provide reliable and valid measures of total energy intake in 24-hour dietary recalls. Two hundred thirty homebound older adults were interviewed in their homes using a questionnaire to assess eating behaviors and factors that could affect those behaviors. Participants completed three 24-hour dietary recalls at baseline and again at 6-month follow-up. Two subsamples were identified for analyses. For participants who were not hospitalized during the 6-month interval and had their weight measured at both assessments (n=52), sufficient test-retest reliability of energy intake was observed (r=0.59), but energy intake deficiencies relative to estimated energy requirements did not predict actual weight loss (r=0.08). When this sample was supplemented with 91 participants who experienced any adverse event (weight loss of 2.5% or more, hospitalization, institutionalization, or mortality) in the 6-month period (n=143), adverse events were more likely to occur for those with insufficient energy intake (odds ratio 3.49, P=0.009), and in white participants compared to African-American participants (odds ratio 3.13, P=0.016). Adequate test-retest reliability of the 24-hour dietary recall was demonstrated, but additional research with larger samples and longer follow-up intervals is needed to better evaluate the predictive validity of energy intake measures for this population. Copyright 2010 American Dietetic Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Test–Retest Reliability of Measures Commonly Used to Measure Striatal Dysfunction across Multiple Testing Sessions: A Longitudinal Study

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    Clare E. Palmer

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive impairment is common amongst many neurodegenerative movement disorders such as Huntington’s disease (HD and Parkinson’s disease (PD across multiple domains. There are many tasks available to assess different aspects of this dysfunction, however, it is imperative that these show high test–retest reliability if they are to be used to track disease progression or response to treatment in patient populations. Moreover, in order to ensure effects of practice across testing sessions are not misconstrued as clinical improvement in clinical trials, tasks which are particularly vulnerable to practice effects need to be highlighted. In this study we evaluated test–retest reliability in mean performance across three testing sessions of four tasks that are commonly used to measure cognitive dysfunction associated with striatal impairment: a combined Simon Stop-Signal Task; a modified emotion recognition task; a circle tracing task; and the trail making task. Practice effects were seen between sessions 1 and 2 across all tasks for the majority of dependent variables, particularly reaction time variables; some, but not all, diminished in the third session. Good test–retest reliability across all sessions was seen for the emotion recognition, circle tracing, and trail making test. The Simon interference effect and stop-signal reaction time (SSRT from the combined-Simon-Stop-Signal task showed moderate test–retest reliability, however, the combined SSRT interference effect showed poor test–retest reliability. Our results emphasize the need to use control groups when tracking clinical progression or use pre-baseline training on tasks susceptible to practice effects.

  11. Reliability assessment of measuring active wrist pronation and supination range of motion with a smartphone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, C; Pauchard, N; Guilloteau, A

    2017-10-01

    This study aimed to improve clinical examination techniques by determining the reliability of different methods to evaluate forearm movements. Two methods using the iPhone™ 5 and its gyroscope application (alone [I5] or attached to a selfie stick [ISS]) were compared with two conventional measurement devices (a plastic goniometer with a hand-held pencil [HHP] and a bubble goniometer [BG]) to evaluate the active range of movement (AROM) of the wrist during pronation and supination. Two independent groups of subjects took part in this prospective single-center diagnostic study: 20 healthy subjects and 20 patients. The four evaluation methods had high intra-observer consistency after three measurements (intra-class correlation coefficient [ICC] [3, 1] of 0.916 for the HHP; 0.944 for ISS; 0.925 for BG; 0.933 for I5) and excellent inter-observer reliability (ICC [2, k] of 0.926 for HHP; 0.934 for ISS; 0.899 for BG; 0.894 for I5), with an agreement of plus or minus 2°. When these devices are used with rigorous methodology, they are reliable for the goniometric evaluation of AROM of wrist pronation and supination. Copyright © 2017 SFCM. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Measuring reliability and validity of Persian version of spirituality scale among elderly Iranian population

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    Hallaj Zahra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to measure the validity and reliability of Persian version of spirituality scale among elderly Iranian people. Methods: Based on the international quality of life assessment (IQOLA project approach, Persian version of the spirituality scale was prepared. Data on 200 elderly people (over 60 years old were entered into SPSS software. Results: The findings of the descriptive results of the current study showed that there was no correlation between the demographic data collected in this study such as age, religion and marital status with spirituality. On the other hand, after performing the exploratory factor analysis, calculating test-retest and intra-class correlation coefficient and measuring Cronbach's Alpha coefficient for internal consistency, the results showed that respectively the reliability, the face and content validity of the questionnaire were confirmed in high level. Also, through the exploratory factor analysis, the construct validity was confirmed. Conclusions: The Persian version of the spirituality scale in the elderly people with an acceptable reliability and validity can be used in clinical assessment and research.

  13. Reliability and variability of day-to-day vault training measures in artistic gymnastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, Elizabeth; Hume, Patria; Calton, Mark; Aisbett, Brad

    2010-06-01

    Inter-day training reliability and variability in artistic gymnastics vaulting was determined using a customised infra-red timing gate and contact mat timing system. Thirteen Australian high performance gymnasts (eight males and five females) aged 11-23 years were assessed during two consecutive days of normal training. Each gymnast completed a number of vault repetitions per daily session. Inter-day variability of vault run-up velocities (at -18 to -12 m, -12 to -6 m, -6 to -2 m, and -2 to 0 m from the nearest edge of the beat board), and board contact, pre-flight, and table contact times were determined using mixed modelling statistics to account for random (within-subject variability) and fixed effects (gender, number of subjects, number of trials). The difference in the mean (Mdiff) and Cohen's effect sizes for reliability assessment and intra-class correlation coefficients, and the coefficient of variation percentage (CV%) were calculated for variability assessment. Approach velocity (-18 to -2m, CV = 2.4-7.8%) and board contact time (CV = 3.5%) were less variable measures when accounting for day-to-day performance differences, than pre-flight time (CV = 17.7%) and table contact time (CV = 20.5%). While pre-flight and table contact times are relevant training measures, approach velocity and board contact time are more reliable when quantifying vaulting performance.

  14. Reliability and practical aspects of the disease impact measure on hypertensive patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Bigatti Bellizzotti Pavan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to evaluate the feasibility, acceptability, the ceiling and floor effects and the reliability of the Instrument to Measure the Impact of Coronary Disease on Patient's Daily Life (IDCV when applied to hypertensive patients. METHOD: one hundred and thirty seven hypertensive outpatients were interviewed, using questionnaires to collect sociodemographic and clinical data, followed by the IDCV. Reliability was assessed according to the temporal stability and internal consistency criteria. RESULTS: the IDCV was applied in 8.0 (±3.0 minutes with 100% of the items answered. A ceiling effect of 31.4% was observed in the domain Adjustment to the Disease. The stability measure was observed for the total score and for all domains. There was evidence of internal consistency of the total IDCV (α=0.83 and the domains Physical Impact of the Disease - Symptoms (α=0.78 and Social and Emotional Impact of the Disease (α=0.74. CONCLUSION: the IDCV is an instrument of easy use and its reliability among hypertensive patients is evidenced. The domain Adjustment to the Disease, however, should be reviewed in further studies.

  15. Fork test: A new simple and reliable consistency measurement for the dysphagia diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jin-Woo; Kim, In-Jung; Lee, Ho-Jun

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to validate fork test which is a simple tool to assess the consistency of food. The consistencies of 27 water and thickener mixtures were measured with a viscometer. These measures were then compared to those obtained with fork test to evaluate the validity of fork test. The inter-observer and intra-observer reliabilities of the fork test were assessed with an intra-class correlation coefficient. The viscometer was used to obtain reference values for three categories (0-300 cP, 300-10,000 cP, and >10,000 cP) in order to categorize water and thickener mixtures into grade 1, grade 2, or grade 3 according to the results of fork test. Our results revealed that the fork test showed excellent validity (r = -0.889, p < 0.05), intra-observer reliability, and inter-observer reliability. Therefore, fork test may be used as a practical tool to assess food consistency. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Visual acuity measures do not reliably detect childhood refractive error--an epidemiological study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa O'Donoghue

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To investigate the utility of uncorrected visual acuity measures in screening for refractive error in white school children aged 6-7-years and 12-13-years. METHODS: The Northern Ireland Childhood Errors of Refraction (NICER study used a stratified random cluster design to recruit children from schools in Northern Ireland. Detailed eye examinations included assessment of logMAR visual acuity and cycloplegic autorefraction. Spherical equivalent refractive data from the right eye were used to classify significant refractive error as myopia of at least 1DS, hyperopia as greater than +3.50DS and astigmatism as greater than 1.50DC, whether it occurred in isolation or in association with myopia or hyperopia. RESULTS: Results are presented from 661 white 12-13-year-old and 392 white 6-7-year-old school-children. Using a cut-off of uncorrected visual acuity poorer than 0.20 logMAR to detect significant refractive error gave a sensitivity of 50% and specificity of 92% in 6-7-year-olds and 73% and 93% respectively in 12-13-year-olds. In 12-13-year-old children a cut-off of poorer than 0.20 logMAR had a sensitivity of 92% and a specificity of 91% in detecting myopia and a sensitivity of 41% and a specificity of 84% in detecting hyperopia. CONCLUSIONS: Vision screening using logMAR acuity can reliably detect myopia, but not hyperopia or astigmatism in school-age children. Providers of vision screening programs should be cognisant that where detection of uncorrected hyperopic and/or astigmatic refractive error is an aspiration, current UK protocols will not effectively deliver.

  17. Measuring Neuroticism in Nepali: Reliability and Validity of the Neuroticism Subscale of the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manandhar, K; Risal, A; Linde, M; Koju, R; Steiner, T J; Holen, A

    2015-01-01

    The Neuroticism subscale of the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire Revised Short Form (12 items) (EPQRS-N) has proven to be a reliable and valid measure in multiple languages. To develop a single-factor Nepali-language version of the EPQRS-N for use in the adult population of Nepal. The original English version of EPQRS-N was translated into Nepali using a forward-backward translation protocol. The first set of translated items was modified after testing by factor analysis with principal component extraction in an outpatient sample. Items with low factor correlations or poor semantic consistencies were reworded to fit the gist of the original items in a Nepali cultural context; the revised version was then tested in a representative random sample from the general population. Again, the same statistical procedures were applied. The first trial gave three factors. Based on the factor distribution of the items or their semantic quality, five were reworded. In the second trial, a two-factor solution emerged; the second factor had only one item with high correlation, which also had modest correlation with the first factor. Accordingly, a forced one-factor solution was chosen. This gave an internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha) of 0.80, with item-to-factor correlations from 0.40 to 0.73, and item-to-sum correlations from 0.31 to 0.61. The final Nepali version of EPQRS-N achieved satisfactory internal consistency. The item distribution coincided with the original English version, providing acceptable construct validity. It is psychometrically adequate for use in capturing the personality trait of neuroticism, and has broad applicability to the adult population of Nepal because of the diversity of the participant samples in which it was developed.

  18. Reliable and valid tools for measuring surgeons' teaching performance: residents' vs. self evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boerebach, Benjamin C M; Arah, Onyebuchi A; Busch, Olivier R C; Lombarts, Kiki M J M H

    2012-01-01

    In surgical education, there is a need for educational performance evaluation tools that yield reliable and valid data. This paper describes the development and validation of robust evaluation tools that provide surgeons with insight into their clinical teaching performance. We investigated (1) the reliability and validity of 2 tools for evaluating the teaching performance of attending surgeons in residency training programs, and (2) whether surgeons' self evaluation correlated with the residents' evaluation of those surgeons. We surveyed 343 surgeons and 320 residents as part of a multicenter prospective cohort study of faculty teaching performance in residency training programs. The reliability and validity of the SETQ (System for Evaluation Teaching Qualities) tools were studied using standard psychometric techniques. We then estimated the correlations between residents' and surgeons' evaluations. The response rate was 87% among surgeons and 84% among residents, yielding 2625 residents' evaluations and 302 self evaluations. The SETQ tools yielded reliable and valid data on 5 domains of surgical teaching performance, namely, learning climate, professional attitude towards residents, communication of goals, evaluation of residents, and feedback. The correlations between surgeons' self and residents' evaluations were low, with coefficients ranging from 0.03 for evaluation of residents to 0.18 for communication of goals. The SETQ tools for the evaluation of surgeons' teaching performance appear to yield reliable and valid data. The lack of strong correlations between surgeons' self and residents' evaluations suggest the need for using external feedback sources in informed self evaluation of surgeons. Copyright © 2012 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. INTER-RATER RELIABILITY FOR MOVEMENT PATTERN ANALYSIS (MPA: MEASURING PATTERNING OF BEHAVIORS VERSUS DISCRETE BEHAVIOR COUNTS AS INDICATORS OF DECISION-MAKING STYLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda L Connors

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The unique yield of collecting observational data on human movement has received increasing attention in a number of domains, including the study of decision-making style. As such, interest has grown in the nuances of core methodological issues, including the best ways of assessing inter-rater reliability. In this paper we focus on one key topic – the distinction between establishing reliability for the patterning of behaviors as opposed to the computation of raw counts – and suggest that reliability for each be compared empirically rather than determined a priori. We illustrate by assessing inter-rater reliability for key outcome measures derived from Movement Pattern Analysis (MPA, an observational methodology that records body movements as indicators of decision-making style with demonstrated predictive validity. While reliability ranged from moderate to good for raw counts of behaviors reflecting each of two Overall Factors generated within MPA (Assertion and Perspective, inter-rater reliability for patterning (proportional indicators of each factor was significantly higher and excellent (ICC = .89. Furthermore, patterning, as compared to raw counts, provided better prediction of observable decision-making process assessed in the laboratory. These analyses support the utility of using an empirical approach to inform the consideration of measuring discrete behavioral counts versus patterning of behaviors when determining inter-rater reliability of observable behavior. They also speak to the substantial reliability that may be achieved via application of theoretically grounded observational systems such as MPA that reveal thinking and action motivations via visible movement patterns.

  20. Reliability of isometric trunk moment measurements in healthy persons over 50 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kienbacher, Thomas; Paul, Birgit; Habenicht, Richard; Starek, Christian; Wolf, Markus; Kollmitzer, Josef; Ebenbichler, Gerold

    2014-03-01

    To determine the short- and long-term test-retest reliability of maximum isometric trunk moment measurements in healthy volunteers over 50 years of age, to compare these results with those from volunteers younger than 50 years, and to test whether volunteers' anticipatory emotional state affects the precision of these measurements. Forty-two older persons (21 females; age range 50-90 years) and 44 younger persons (19 females; age range 18-49 years) performed maximum isometric trunk extensions, flexions, and rotations using dynamometers (DAVID, Fi, David Health Solutions Ltd, Helsinki, Finland). They repeated the tests after 1-2 days (short-term) and at 6 weeks (long-term). Retest-reliability was evaluated for age- and gender-specific subgroups, with assessment of intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC2,1) , standard error of measurement, smallest real difference, and smallest real difference, in percent. For the elderly group, smallest real difference, in percent values varied up to 33% and were similar to those obtained from young volunteers. Precision of the trunk rotation tests was lower than that of trunk flexion or extension. Retest agreement exceeded 0.75 (ICC2,1) for all tests, with no relevant differences observed between gender- and age-specific subgroups. Neither participants' motivation nor their anticipatory emotions correlated with the individual coefficients of variation of the trunk muscle moment measurements. Isometric maximum trunk extension and flexion moment measurements taken from healthy persons > 50 years old are as reliable as those from persons < 50 years old, and can be expected to enable an acceptable level of detection of expected changes in muscle strength parameters as a result of planned exercise interventions.

  1. Reliability and Validity of Transversus Abdominis Measurement at the Posterior Muscle-Fascia Junction with Ultrasonography in Asymptomatic Participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yen-Hua; Chai, Huei-Ming; Yang, Jing-Lan; Lin, Ya-Jung; Wang, Shwu-Fen

    2015-10-01

    The purposes of this study were (1) to establish the intrarater sliding and change in thickness of the transversus abdominis (TrA) measurement at the posterior muscle-fascia junction and (2) to examine the relationship between the muscle thickness and sliding of the TrA at the anterior and posterior sites. Asymptomatic participants (n = 20) were placed into the hook-lying position to perform the abdominal drawing-in maneuver viewed in B-mode with a 5- to 12-MHz linear ultrasound transducer. The outcome variables included the resting thickness, the thickness during contraction, the change of thickness, and the change of sliding length. Both intraclass correlation coefficient and Pearson correlation were used for analysis. Measuring the thickness and sliding of the TrA at the posterior muscle-fascia junction showed good reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient (3,3), 0.89-0.98). The correlations between the sliding measurements of the TrA at the anterior and posterior sites were moderate to good (r = 0.41-0.74). This study found that measuring the musculofascial corset from the posterior site using ultrasonography is reliable, allowing for ultrasound measurements at both the anterior and posterior sites of the TrA to provide a comprehensive evaluation of the TrA fascia. Copyright © 2015 National University of Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Measuring Prosocial Tendencies in Germany: Sources of Validity and Reliablity of the Revised Prosocial Tendency Measure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Rodrigues

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The prosocial tendencies measure (PTM; Carlo and Randall, 2002 is a widely used measurement for prosocial tendencies in English speaking participants. This instrument distinguishes between six different types of prosocial tendencies that partly share some common basis, but also can be opposed to each other. To examine these constructs in Germany, a study with 1067 participants was conducted. The study investigated the structure of this German version of the PTM-R via exploratory factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis, correlations with similar constructs in subsamples as well as via measurement invariance test concerning the original English version. The German translation showed a similar factor structure to the English version in exploratory factor analysis and in confirmatory factor analysis. Measurement invariance was found between the English and German language versions of the PTM and support for the proposed six-factor structure (altruistic, anonymous, compliant, dire, emotional and public prosocial behavior was also found in confirmatory factor analysis. Furthermore, the expected interrelations of these factors of prosocial behavior tendencies were obtained. Finally, correlations of the prosocial behavior tendencies with validating constructs and behaviors were found. Thus, the findings stress the importance of seeing prosocial behavior not as a single dimension construct, but as a factored construct which now can also be assessed in German speaking participants.

  3. Measuring Prosocial Tendencies in Germany: Sources of Validity and Reliablity of the Revised Prosocial Tendency Measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Johannes; Ulrich, Natalie; Mussel, Patrick; Carlo, Gustavo; Hewig, Johannes

    2017-01-01

    The prosocial tendencies measure (PTM; Carlo and Randall, 2002) is a widely used measurement for prosocial tendencies in English speaking participants. This instrument distinguishes between six different types of prosocial tendencies that partly share some common basis, but also can be opposed to each other. To examine these constructs in Germany, a study with 1067 participants was conducted. The study investigated the structure of this German version of the PTM-R via exploratory factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis, correlations with similar constructs in subsamples as well as via measurement invariance test concerning the original English version. The German translation showed a similar factor structure to the English version in exploratory factor analysis and in confirmatory factor analysis. Measurement invariance was found between the English and German language versions of the PTM and support for the proposed six-factor structure (altruistic, anonymous, compliant, dire, emotional and public prosocial behavior) was also found in confirmatory factor analysis. Furthermore, the expected interrelations of these factors of prosocial behavior tendencies were obtained. Finally, correlations of the prosocial behavior tendencies with validating constructs and behaviors were found. Thus, the findings stress the importance of seeing prosocial behavior not as a single dimension construct, but as a factored construct which now can also be assessed in German speaking participants.

  4. Narrow-band imaging provides reliable screening for esophageal malignancy in patients with head and neck cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takenaka, Ryuta; Kawahara, Yoshiro; Okada, Hiroyuki; Hori, Keisuke; Inoue, Masafumi; Kawano, Seiji; Tanioka, Daisuke; Tsuzuki, Takao; Uemura, Masayuki; Ohara, Nobuya; Tominaga, Susumu; Onoda, Tomoo; Yamamoto, Kazuhide

    2009-12-01

    The narrow-band imaging (NBI) system is a novel technology that enhances the visualization of microvasculature and mucosal patterns. The aim of this study was to assess the reliability of the NBI system for esophageal cancer screening in patients with head and neck cancers. A total of 142 patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) were examined by NBI endoscopy, followed by Lugol chromoendoscopy between April 2006 and June 2008 at the Okayama University Hospital, Okayama, Japan. Detection of SCC and high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia (HGIN) was conducted. The median age of the patients was 64 years (range: 29-86 years), and approximately three-fourths of all the patients were male. In total, 21 superficial lesions in 16 patients were detected by NBI endoscopy. Of these, 4 lesions were diagnosed histologically as SCC and 11 lesions as HGIN. An additional 22 Lugol-voiding lesions >or=5 mm were detected in 19 patients by Lugol chromoendoscopy. Although 1 of these lesions was diagnosed as HGIN, 21 lesions were diagnosed as low-grade intraepithelial neoplasia or lesions without atypical findings. The sensitivity of NBI endoscopy for detecting esophageal SCC and HGIN was 90.9% (95% confidence interval (CI), 58.7-99.8), specificity was 95.4% (95% CI, 90.3-98.3), and accuracy was 95.1% (95% CI, 90.1-98.0). NBI seems to be useful and reliable for screening for esophageal SCC in patients with head and neck cancers.

  5. Inter-rater reliability for measurement of passive physiological movements in lower extremity joints is generally low: a systematic review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trijffel, E. van; Pol, R.J. van de; Oostendorp, R.A.B.; Lucas, C.

    2010-01-01

    QUESTION: What is the inter-rater reliability for measurements of passive physiological or accessory movements in lower extremity joints? DESIGN: Systematic review of studies of inter-rater reliability. PARTICIPANTS: Individuals with and without lower extremity disorders. OUTCOME MEASURES: Range of

  6. How to measure distinct components of visual attention fast and reliably

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vangkilde, Signe Allerup; Kyllingsbæk, Søren; Habekost, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Measuring different attentional processes in a fast and reliable way is important in both clinical and experimental settings. However, most tests of visual attention are either lengthy or lack sensitivity, specificity, and reliability. To address this we developed a ten minute test procedure...... for the Swedish Betula-project, a longitudinal study investigating changes in cognitive functions over the adult life span (Nilsson et al., 2004). The test consists of a computer-based letter recognition task with stimulus displays of varied durations followed by pattern masks or a blank screen. The temporal...... threshold of conscious perception (t0), visual processing speed (C), and storage capacity of visual short-term memory (K) are estimated by use of Bundesen's (1990) Theory of Visual Attention, and the standard error of each estimate is calculated using a bootstrapping procedure. The results from the first...

  7. Reliability and validity of goniometric turnout measurements compared with MRI and retro-reflective markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Gayanne; Waninger, Kevin N; Voloshin, Arkady; Reinus, William R; Ross, Rachael; Stoltzfus, Jill; Bibalo, Kathleen

    2008-01-01

    There is no consensus on a valid and reliable method of measuring turnout. However, there is a building awareness that such measures need to exist. Total turnout is the sum of hip rotation, tibial torsion, and contributions from the foot. To our knowledge, there has been no research that directly measures and then sums each individual component of turnout to verify a total turnout value. Furthermore, the tibial torsion component has not previously been confirmed by an imaging study. The purpose of this study was to test the validity and reliability of a single total passive turnout (TPT) test taken with a goniometer by comparing it with the sum of the individual components. Fourteen female dancers were recruited as participants. Measurements of the subjects' right and left legs were gathered for the components of turnout. Tibial torsion was measured using Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). Retro-reflective marker assisted measurements were used to calculate the static components of TPT. Hip external rotation, TPT, and total active turnout (TAT) were measured by goniometer. Additional standing turnout values were collected on rotational disks. Tibial torsion and hip rotation were summed and compared with three whole-leg turnout values using Two-Tailed T-Tests and Pearson product-moment correlation coefficients. Tibial torsion measurements in dancers were found to demonstrate substantial variation between subjects and between legs in the same subject. The range on the right leg was 16 degrees to 60 degrees, and the range on the left leg was 16 degrees to 52 degrees. Retro-reflective markers and biomechanical theory demonstrated that when the knee is extended and locked, "screwed home," it will not factor into a whole-leg turnout value. TAT and turnout on the disks were not statistically significant when compared with the summed total. Statistical significance was achieved in four of the eight measurement series comparing TPT with the summed value of tibial torsion and

  8. Measuring physical inactivity: do current measures provide an accurate view of "sedentary" video game time?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullerton, Simon; Taylor, Anne W; Dal Grande, Eleonora; Berry, Narelle

    2014-01-01

    Measures of screen time are often used to assess sedentary behaviour. Participation in activity-based video games (exergames) can contribute to estimates of screen time, as current practices of measuring it do not consider the growing evidence that playing exergames can provide light to moderate levels of physical activity. This study aimed to determine what proportion of time spent playing video games was actually spent playing exergames. Data were collected via a cross-sectional telephone survey in South Australia. Participants aged 18 years and above (n = 2026) were asked about their video game habits, as well as demographic and socioeconomic factors. In cases where children were in the household, the video game habits of a randomly selected child were also questioned. Overall, 31.3% of adults and 79.9% of children spend at least some time playing video games. Of these, 24.1% of adults and 42.1% of children play exergames, with these types of games accounting for a third of all time that adults spend playing video games and nearly 20% of children's video game time. A substantial proportion of time that would usually be classified as "sedentary" may actually be spent participating in light to moderate physical activity.

  9. The inter-rater reliability of the modified finger goniometer for measuring forearm rotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szekeres, Mike; MacDermid, Joy C; Birmingham, Trevor; Grewal, Ruby

    2016-01-01

    Prospective cohort study. To compare the inter-rater reliability of using a modified finger goniometer (MFG) for the measurement of isolated forearm rotation for patients with distal radius fractures to the currently accepted technique for isolated forearm measurement. The currently accepted method of forearm measurement requires the assessor to visually estimate vertical for the stationary arm and placement of the moveable arm while placing a straight edge along a curved surface. Inter-rater reliability may be limited as assessors may estimate the placement of the goniometer arms differently depending on their experience, posture, and even their positioning relative to the patient. Rather than continue to place a straight edge on a round surface, we evaluate a new technique using an MFG for measuring isolated forearm rotation. Patients with clinically healed distal radius fractures were enrolled in the study. Measurement of active forearm pronation and supination was recorded using 2 separate measurement techniques. These measurements were taken by 2 separate hand therapists with more than 10 years of clinical experience in a tertiary care setting at the beginning and end of hand therapy sessions for 3 consecutive weekly visits. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs), standard error of measurement, and minimal detectable change were calculated for each technique. The point estimates for the MFG method demonstrated a slightly higher ICC than the standard method for pronation (0.86 vs 0.82). For supination, both measurement techniques displayed equally high pooled ICCs (0.95). The standard error of measurements for the MFG were 2.1 for pronation and 1.2 for supination compared with 2.9 (pronation) and 1.2 (supination) for the standard technique. These translate into 90% minimal detectable changes of 5° and 3° for the MFG pronation/supination compared with 7° (pronation) and 3° (supination) for the standard technique, respectively. Although the point

  10. Measuring the quality of provided services for patients with chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahadori, Mohammadkarim; Raadabadi, Mehdi; Heidari Jamebozorgi, Majid; Salesi, Mahmood; Ravangard, Ramin

    2014-09-01

    The healthcare organizations need to develop and implement quality improvement plans for their survival and success. Measuring quality in the healthcare competitive environment is an undeniable necessity for these organizations and will lead to improved patient satisfaction. This study aimed to measure the quality of provided services for patients with chronic kidney disease in Kerman in 2014. This cross-sectional, descriptive-analytic study was performed from 23 January 2014 to 14 February 2014 in four hemodialysis centers in Kerman. All of the patients on chronic hemodialysis (n = 195) who were referred to these four centers were selected and studied using census method. The required data were collected using the SERVQUAL questionnaire, consisting of two parts: questions related to the patients' demographic characteristics, and 28 items to measure the patients' expectations and perceptions of the five dimensions of service quality, including tangibility, reliability, responsiveness, assurance, and empathy. The collected data were analyzed using SPSS 21.0 through some statistical tests, including independent-samples t test, one-way ANOVA, and paired-samples t test. The results showed that the means of patients' expectations were more than their perceptions of the quality of provided services in all dimensions, which indicated that there were gaps in all dimensions. The highest and lowest means of negative gaps were related to empathy (-0.52 ± 0.48) and tangibility (-0.29 ± 0.51). In addition, among the studied patients' demographic characteristics and the five dimensions of service quality, only the difference between the patients' income levels and the gap in assurance were statistically significant (P < 0.001). Overall, the results of the present study showed that the expectations of patients on hemodialysis were more than their perceptions of provided services. The healthcare providers and employees should pay more attention to the patients' opinions and

  11. Reliability and validity of a wireless microelectromechanicals based system (keimove™) for measuring vertical jumping performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Requena, Bernardo; García, Inmaculada; Requena, Francisco; Saez-Saez de Villarreal, Eduardo; Pääsuke, Mati

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the validity and reliability of a microelectromechanicals (MEMs) based system (Keimove™) in measuring flight time and takeoff velocity during a counter-movement jump (CMJ). As criterion reference, data of a high- speed camera (HSC) and a force-platform (FP) synchronized with a linear position transducer (LPT) was used. Thirty professional soccer players completely familiarized with the CMJ technique performed three CMJs. The second and third trials were used for further analysis. The Keimove™ system, the HSC and the FP synchronized with the LPT (FP+LPT) simultaneously measured the CMJ performance. During each repetition, the Keimove™ system registered flight time and velocity at takeoff. At the same time and as criterion reference, both the HSC and the FP recorded the flight time while the LPT+FP registered the velocity at takeoff. Pearson correlation coefficients for the flight time were high (r = 0.99; p flight times and velocity at takeoff between the three devices. Intraclass correlations and coefficients of variation between trials were similar and ranged between 0.92-0.97 and 2.1-7.4, respectively. In conclusion, the Keimove™ system represents a valid and reliable instrument to measure velocity at takeoff and flight time during CMJ testing. Thus, this MEMs-based system will offer a portable, cost-effective tool for the assessment CMJ performance. The Keimove™ system is composed of specific software and a wireless MEMs-based device designed to be attached at the lumbar region of the athlete.The Keimove™ system is a mechanically valid and reliable instrument in measuring flight time and velocity at takeoff during CMJ.The validity of the Keimove™ system was determined by comparing its mean flight time and velocity at takeoff with data obtained simultaneously with both a high-speed camera and a force platform synchronized with a linear position transducer.

  12. Reliability and minimal detectable change of a new treadmill-based progressive workload incremental test to measure cardiorespiratory fitness in manual wheelchair users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier, Cindy; Arel, Jasmine; Brosseau, Rachel; Hicks, Audrey L; Gagnon, Dany H

    2017-11-01

    Cardiorespiratory fitness training is commonly provided to manual wheelchair users (MWUs) in rehabilitation and physical activity programs, emphasizing the need for a reliable task-specific incremental wheelchair propulsion test. Quantifying test-retest reliability and minimal detectable change (MDC) of key cardiorespiratory fitness measures following performance of a newly developed continuous treadmill-based wheelchair propulsion test (WPTTreadmill). Twenty-five MWUs completed the WPTTreadmill on two separate occasions within one week. During these tests, participants continuously propelled their wheelchair on a motorized treadmill while the exercise intensity was gradually increased every minute until exhaustion by changing the slope and/or speed according to a standardized protocol. Peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak), carbon dioxide production (VCO2peak), respiratory exchange ratio (RERpeak), minute ventilation (VEpeak) and heart rate (HRpeak) were computed. Time to exhaustion (TTE) and number of increments completed were also measured. Intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC) were calculated to determine test-retest reliability. Standard error of measurement (SEM) and MDC90% values were calculated. Excellent test-retest reliability was reached for almost all outcome measures (ICC=0.91-0.76), except for RERpeak (ICC=0.58), which reached good reliability. TTE (ICC=0.89) and number of increments (ICC=0.91) also reached excellent test-retest reliability. For the main outcome measures (VO2peak and TTE), absolute SEM was 2.27 mL/kg/min and 0.76 minutes, respectively and absolute MDC90% was 5.30 mL/kg/min and 1.77 minutes, respectively. The WPTTreadmill is a reliable test to assess cardiorespiratory fitness among MWUs. TTE and number of increments could be used as reliable outcome measures when VO2 measurement is not possible.

  13. Test-retest reliability and descriptive statistics of geometric measurements based on plantar pressure measurements in a healthy population during gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akins, Jonathan S; Keenan, Karen A; Sell, Timothy C; Abt, John P; Lephart, Scott M

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that pressure, force, area, and time measurements can be reliably collected from pedobaragraphic platforms, but no studies have analyzed geometric measurements. The purpose of this study was to establish the test-retest reliability of geometric measurements obtained during gait at a self-selected speed using a two-step approach. Data were collected on both feet for 10 healthy participants using the emed-x platform. Reliability of 15 geometric measurements was assessed using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC). All 15 measurements were demonstrated to be reliable (ICC>0.8), with 12 measurements ICC>0.90. Collection of geometric measurements at a self-selected pace with the emed-x platform was found to be reliable and can be used for investigation in research settings. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Measuring Dispositional Flow: Validity and reliability of the Dispositional Flow State Scale 2, Italian version.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora F M Riva

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Italian version of the Dispositional Flow Scale-2 (DFS-2, for use with Italian adults, young adults and adolescents.In accordance with the guidelines for test adaptation, the scale has been translated with the method of back translation. The understanding of the item has been checked according to the latest standards on the culturally sensitive translation. The scale thus produced was administered to 843 individuals (of which 60.69% female, between the ages of 15 and 74. The sample is balanced between workers and students. The main activities defined by the subjects allow the sample to be divided into three categories: students, workers, athletes (professionals and semi-professionals.The confirmatory factor analysis, conducted using the Maximum Likelihood Estimator (MLM, showed acceptable fit indexes. Reliability and validity have been verified, and structural invariance has been verified on 6 categories of Flow experience and for 3 subsamples with different with different fields of action. Correlational analysis shows significant high values between the nine dimensions.Our data confirmed the validity and reliability of the Italian DFS-2 in measuring Flow experiences. The scale is reliable for use with Italian adults, young adults and adolescents. The Italian version of the scale is suitable for the evaluation of the subjective tendency to experience Flow trait characteristic in different contest, as sport, study and work.

  15. MEMS reliability

    CERN Document Server

    Hartzell, Allyson L; Shea, Herbert R

    2010-01-01

    This book focuses on the reliability and manufacturability of MEMS at a fundamental level. It demonstrates how to design MEMs for reliability and provides detailed information on the different types of failure modes and how to avoid them.

  16. Reliability and validity of advanced theory-of-mind measures in middle childhood and adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayward, Elizabeth O; Homer, Bruce D

    2017-09-01

    Although theory-of-mind (ToM) development is well documented for early childhood, there is increasing research investigating changes in ToM reasoning in middle childhood and adolescence. However, the psychometric properties of most advanced ToM measures for use with older children and adolescents have not been firmly established. We report on the reliability and validity of widely used, conventional measures of advanced ToM with this age group. Notable issues with both reliability and validity of several of the measures were evident in the findings. With regard to construct validity, results do not reveal a clear empirical commonality between tasks, and, after accounting for comprehension, developmental trends were evident in only one of the tasks investigated. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Second-order false belief tasks have acceptable internal consistency. The Eyes Test has poor internal consistency. Validity of advanced theory-of-mind tasks is often based on the ability to distinguish clinical from typical groups. What does this study add? This study examines internal consistency across six widely used advanced theory-of-mind tasks. It investigates validity of tasks based on comprehension of items by typically developing individuals. It further assesses construct validity, or commonality between tasks. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  17. Using Wireless Pedometers to Measure Children’s Physical Activity: How Reliable is the Fitbit Zip?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingting Xu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to examine the reliability of wireless pedometers in measuring elementary school children’s physical activity. Activity measurement using a wireless pedometer Fitbit ZipTM was compared to activity measurement using Yamax Digi-WalkerTM SW701 for a group of randomly selected 25 children in Grades 3, 4, and 5. Fitbit ZipTM wireless pedometers were found to have an appropriate degree (Nunnally & Bernstein, 1994 of accuracy and reliability compared to the Yamax Digi-WalkerTM SW701 pedometer. The Fitbit ZipTM wireless pedometer collected more step counts than the Yamax Digi-WalkerTM SW701 pedometer; however, the difference was not statistically significant. Participants reported that they preferred wearing the Fitbit ZipTM to the Yamax Digi-WalkerTM SW701 because the Fitbit ZipTM was more comfortable to wear and less likely to fall off. Participants also reported being more motivated to move while wearing the Fitbit ZipTM.

  18. Intratester and intertester reliability of goniometric measurement of passive lateral shoulder rotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDermid, J C; Chesworth, B M; Patterson, S; Roth, J H

    1999-01-01

    Measurement of lateral rotation range of motion (ROM) is frequently performed during shoulder evaluation. The purpose of this study was to determine the intratester and intertester reliability of goniometric measurement of passive lateral rotation ROM of the shoulder. Two experienced PTs performed the testing in a randomized block design. They were blinded to all clinical information and to their goniometric readings. Passive lateral rotation ROM of the shoulder was assessed in 34 patients with a variety of shoulder pathologies. Patients were placed in the supine position with the arm abducted approximately 20 degrees to 30 degrees. A standard goniometer, placed along the joint axis by the therapist, was red by an independent assistant. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) and their associated 95% confidence intervals were calculated. Intratherapist ICCs (0.88 and 0.93) and intertherapist ICCs (0.85 and 0.80) were high. These findings suggest that reliable measures of passive lateral rotation ROM of the shoulder can be obtained from patients with shoulder pathology using standard goniometry and by placing the patient in a supine position.

  19. Intra- and inter-observer agreement and reliability of bone mineral density measurements around acetabular cup

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mussmann, Bo Redder; Overgaard, Soren; Torfing, Trine

    2017-01-01

    with single-energy CT (SECT) and DECT in cemented and cementless cups.Material and Methods: Twenty-four acetabular cups inserted in porcine hip specimens were scanned with SECT and DECT. Bone density was measured in a three-dimensional volume adjacent to the cup. Double measurements were performed.......Results: BMD derived from SECT was approximately four times higher than that of DECT. In both scan modes, intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was >0.90 with no differences between repeated measurements, except for uncemented cups where a statistically significant difference of 11 mg/cm3 was found...... with DECT. DECT showed narrower limits of agreement than SECT. Inter-observer analysis showed small differences.Conclusion: BMD can be estimated with high intra- and inter-observer reliability with SECT and DECT around acetabular cups using custom software. The intra- and inter-observer agreement of DECT...

  20. The Reliability of the Symax Method of Measuring the Radiographic Femoral Varus Angle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allpass, Maja; Miles, James Edward; Schmökel, Hugo

    2014-01-01

    . The FVA was measured using the Symax method on craniocaudal femoral radiographs. CORA principles were used to plan the curved osteotomy. Following osteotomy and planned correction of the FVA to 0º, the femur was stabilized with a 2.4 mm locking plate and screws (cadavers) or 2.0mm SOP plate (patient). FVA......Objective: To determine the practicability of curved osteotomy to correct femoral varus in small breed dogs, and to assess the reliability of the Symax method of measuring the radiographic femoral varus angle (FVA). Methods: Eleven cadaveric femora plus one clinical case were included in this study...... method for measuring FVA offers satisfactory repeatability and reproducibility. A curved osteotomy used according to CORA principles can practicably correct FVA in small breed dogs. Clinical Relevance: Curved osteotomy is potentially easier to perform on especially small breed dogs and presents other...

  1. A simple, reliable, and no-destructive method for the measurement of vacuum pressure

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan, Jinpeng; Ji, Zhonghua; Zhao, Yanting; Chang, Xuefang; Xiao, Liantuan; Jia, Suotang

    2013-01-01

    We present a simple, reliable, and no-destructive method for the measurement of vacuum pressure in a magneto-optical trap. The vacuum pressure is verified to be proportional to collision rate constant between cold atoms and background gas with a coefficient k, which can be calculated by simple ideal gas law. The rate constant for loss due to collisions with all background gases can be derived from the total collision loss rate by a series of loading curve of cold atoms under different trappin...

  2. Simple, reliable, and nondestructive method for the measurement of vacuum pressure without specialized equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jin-Peng; Ji, Zhong-Hua; Zhao, Yan-Ting; Chang, Xue-Fang; Xiao, Lian-Tuan; Jia, Suo-Tang

    2013-09-01

    We present a simple, reliable, and nondestructive method for the measurement of vacuum pressure in a magneto-optical trap. The vacuum pressure is verified to be proportional to the collision rate constant between cold atoms and the background gas with a coefficient k, which can be calculated by means of the simple ideal gas law. The rate constant for loss due to collisions with all background gases can be derived from the total collision loss rate by a series of loading curves of cold atoms under different trapping laser intensities. The presented method is also applicable for other cold atomic systems and meets the miniaturization requirement of commercial applications.

  3. A New Approach for Reliability Life Prediction of Rail Vehicle Axle by Considering Vibration Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meral Bayraktar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of vibration on the axle has been considered. Vibration measurements at different speeds have been performed on the axle of a running rail vehicle to figure out displacement, acceleration, time, and frequency response. Based on the experimental works, equivalent stress has been used to find out life of the axles for 90% and 10% reliability. Calculated life values of the rail vehicle axle have been compared with the real life data and it is found that the life of a vehicle axle taking into account the vibration effects is in good agreement with the real life of the axle.

  4. Reliability and validity of a weight-bearing measure of ankle dorsiflexion range of motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisholm, Martin D; Birmingham, Trevor B; Brown, Janet; Macdermid, Joy; Chesworth, Bert M

    2012-01-01

    To examine reliability and validity of the Lunge Test (LT) of dorsiflexion range of motion and determine the impact of different approaches to obtain a score on these parameters. Fifty-three patients with ankle injury/dysfunction provided initial assessment data for cross-sectional convergent and known-groups validity analysis with the Pearson coefficient (r) and paired t-test, respectively; data after 4-8 weeks of treatment for longitudinal validity analysis with coefficient r; and data 3 days later for test-retest reliability using the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) and minimal detectable change (MDC). LT scores were determined for the affected leg only (LTAff) and for the difference between the two limbs (LTDiff). Two strategies were used to calculate LT scores: a single series and the mean of three series of lunges. LTs were correlated with the Lower Extremity Functional Scale and Global Foot and Ankle Scale. Reliability coefficients were high (ICC=0.93-0.99). The MDC=1.0/1.5 cm, LTAff/LTDiff, respectively. Cross-sectional validity was confirmed for LTDiff (r=-0.40 to -0.50). Between-limb differences (p<0.05) supported known-groups validity. Longitudinal validity was supported for both LT change scores (r=0.39-0.63). The number of series of lunges used did not impact results. A single series of lunges produces a reliable LT score. From a validity perspective, clinicians should use LTDiff on initial assessment and either LT to assess change.

  5. Reliability of a semi-automated algorithm for the vastus lateralis muscle architecture measurement based on ultrasound images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzilger, Robert; Legerlotz, Kirsten; Panteli, Chrystalla; Bohm, Sebastian; Arampatzis, Adamantios

    2018-02-01

    The assessment of muscle architecture with B-mode ultrasound is an established method in muscle physiology and mechanics. There are several manual, semi-automated and automated approaches available for muscle architecture analysis from ultrasound images or videos. However, most approaches have limitations such as workload, subjectivity, drift or they are applicable to short muscle fascicles only. Addressing these issues, an algorithm was developed to analyse architectural parameters of the vastus lateralis muscle (VL). In 17 healthy young men and women, ultrasound images were taken five times on two different days during passive knee joint flexion. From the images, fascicle length (FL), pennation angle (PAN) and muscle thickness (MTH) were calculated for both test days using the algorithm. Interday differences were determined using a two-way ANOVA. Interday and intraday reliability were assessed using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) and root mean square (RMS) differences. FL, MTH and PAN did not differ between day one and two. The within day ICCs were above 0.94 for all tested parameters. The average interday ICCs were 0.86 for the FL, 0.96 for MTH and 0.60 for PAN. The average RMS differences between both days were 5.0%, 8.5% and 12.0% for MTH, FL and PAN, respectively. The proposed algorithm provides high measurement reliability. However, the interday reliability might be influenced by small differences in probe position between days.

  6. Biomechanical measures in participants with shoulder pain: Intra-rater reliability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michener, Lori A; Elmore, Kevin A; Darter, Benjamin J; Timmons, Mark K

    2016-04-01

    Biomechanical measures are used to characterize the mechanisms of treatment for shoulder pain. The objective was to characterize test-retest reliability and measurement error of shoulder surface electromyographic(sEMG) and kinematic measures. Individuals(n = 12) with subacromial pain syndrome were tested at 2 visits. Five repetitions of shoulder scapular plane elevation were performed while collecting sEMG of the upper trapezius(UT), middle trapezius(MT), lower trapezius(LT), serratus anterior(SA) middle-deltoid, and infraspinatus muscles during ascending and descending phases. Simultaneously, electromagnetic sensors measured 3-dimensional kinematics of scapular internal/external rotation, upward/downward rotation, posterior/anterior tilt, and clavicular elevation/depression and clavicular protraction/retraction. Kinematic and sEMG variables were reduced for the total phase of ascending and descending elevation (30°-120°, 120°-30°), at 30° intervals for sEMG, and at every 30° discrete kinematic angle. The intraclass correlation coefficients(ICC) ranged from 0.08 to 0.99 for sEMG and 0.23-0.95 for kinematics. Correspondingly, the standard error of the measurement(SEM) and minimal detectable change(MDC) for sEMG measures varied from 2.3% to 103.8% of a reference contraction(REF-contraction). For kinematics, the SEM and MDC varied from 1.4° to 5.9°. Between-day reliability was good to very good, except for scapular internal/external rotation kinematics, and sEMG for the LT, UT, and SA. sEMG error values were highest (>25%REF-contraction) for most of the LT, UT, and SA variables. Kinematic error values indicate changes or differences of 2°-3° are meaningful, except for upward/downward rotation and internal/external rotation with MDCs of 4°-6°. Generally, data from the total phase of movement had better reliability and lower error than the data from sEMG interval or kinematic discrete angles. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Validity and Reliability of Dynamic Visual Acuity (DVA) Measurement During Walking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Nandini; Peters, Brian T.; Bloomberg, Jacob J.

    2014-01-01

    DVA is primarily subserved by the vestibulo-ocular reflex mechanism. Individuals with vestibular hypofunction commonly experience highly debilitating illusory movement or blurring of visual images during daily activities possibly, due to impaired DVA. Even without pathologies, gradual age-related morphological deterioration is evident in all components of the vestibular system. We examined the construct validity to detect age-related differences and test-retest reliability of DVA measurements performed during walking. METHODS: Healthy adults were recruited into 3 groups: 1. young (20-39years, n=18), 2. middle-aged (40-59years, n=14), and 3. older adults (60-80years, n=15). Randomly selected seven participants from each group (n=21) participated in retesting. Participants were excluded if they had a history of vestibular or neuromuscular pathologies, dizziness/vertigo or >1 falls in the past year. Older persons with MMSE scores DVA was measured while walking on a treadmill at 0.8 m/s, 1.0 m/s and 1.2 m/s speeds. The walking speeds chosen represent a range of slow to moderate walking speeds for adult life span in participants who have no current mobility problems. The monitor that displayed Landolt 'C' optotypes was placed at 50 cm from the eyes for nearDVA (primary compensation by otolith organs) and at 3.0 m for farDVA (primary compensation by semicircular canals). A mixed factor ANOVA (age group x speed) was performed separately for the Near and FarDVA for detecting group differences. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) were calculated for each condition to determine test-retest reliability. RESULTS: The three age groups were not different in their height, weight and normal walking speed (p>0.05). The post hoc analyses for DVA measurements demonstrated that each group was significantly different from the other two groups for Near as well as FarDVA (pDVA between the three age groups were detected by using both Near and FarDVA protocols irrespective of the

  8. Reliability of force per unit cross-sectional area measurements of the first dorsal interosseus muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Daniel; Cooper, Simon; Sale, Craig; Compton, Graham; Elliott-Sale, Kirsty

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the reliability of maximum voluntary isometric force (MVIF), cross-sectional area (CSA) and force per unit CSA measures, of the first dorsal interosseus (FDI) muscle, using a custom-built dynamometer and ultrasonography. Twenty-seven participants completed MVIF and CSA measurements on two separate occasions under the same conditions. Reliability was determined using paired samples t-tests, systematic bias ratio and ratio limits of agreement (RLoA), intra-class correlation (ICC) and coefficient of variation (CV). MVIF of the FDI muscle (mean ± s; 31.8 ± 7.6 N and 31.6 ± 7.3 N) was not different between trials (P = 0.63); RLoA between trials were 1.00 ×/÷ 1.09, ICC = 0.990 and CV = 3.22%. CSA of the FDI muscle (22.6 ± 6.9 and 22.9 ± 6.9 mm²) was also not different between trials (P = 0.31); RLoA between trials were 0.98 ×/÷ 1.19, ICC = 0.979 and CV = 6.61%. Force per unit CSA was not different between trials (1.49 ± 0.43 and 1.46 ± 0.44 N·mm²; P = 0.18), RLoA were 1.02 ×/÷ 1.17, ICC = 0.985 and CV = 5.76%. The techniques used to determine MVIF and CSA of the FDI muscle were reliable and can be combined to calculate force per unit CSA.

  9. The validity and reliability of a new instrumented device for measuring ankle dorsiflexion range of motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calatayud, Joaquin; Martin, Fernando; Gargallo, Pedro; García-Redondo, Jessica; Colado, Juan Carlos; Marín, Pedro J

    2015-04-01

    A restriction in ankle dorsiflexion range of motion (ROM) has been linked to several clinical manifestations such as metatarsalgia, heel pain, nerve entrapment, ankle joint equinus, patellar and ankle injuries. The purpose of the present study was to examine the validity and reliability of the Leg Motion system for measuring ankle dorsiflexion ROM. Descriptive repeated-measures study. Twenty-six healthy male university students were recruited to test the reliability of the Leg Motion system, which is a portable tool used for assessment of ankle dorsiflexion during the weight-bearing lunge test. The participants were tested two times separated by two weeks and measurements were performed at the same time of the day by the same single rater. To test the validity of the Leg Motion system, other maximal ankle dorsiflexion ROM assessments (goniometer, inclinometer and measuring tape) were measured in a single session (i.e., the first test session) during the weight-bearing lunge position using a standard goniometer, a digital inclinometer and a measuring tape measure with the ability to measure to the nearest 0.1 cm. Paired t-tests showed the absence of significant differences between right and left limb measurements of dorsiflexion in all tests. Mean values ± standard deviations were as follows: Leg Motion test (left 11.6cm±3.9; right 11.9cm ±4.0), tape measure (left 11.6cm±4.0; right 11.8cm±4.2), goniometer (left 40.6º±5.2; right 40.6º±5.2), and digital inclinometer (left 40.0º±5.8; right 39.9º±5.6). The Leg Motion composite values (i.e., average of the two legs) showed a significant (pMotion system as a valid, portable, and easy to use alternative to the weight-bearing lunge test to assess ankle dorsiflexion ROM in healthy participants. 2b.

  10. The validity and reliability of an iPhone app for measuring vertical jump performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balsalobre-Fernández, Carlos; Glaister, Mark; Lockey, Richard Anthony

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to analyse the concurrent validity and reliability of an iPhone app (called: My Jump) for measuring vertical jump performance. Twenty recreationally active healthy men (age: 22.1 ± 3.6 years) completed five maximal countermovement jumps, which were evaluated using a force platform (time in the air method) and a specially designed iPhone app. My jump was developed to calculate the jump height from flight time using the high-speed video recording facility on the iPhone 5 s. Jump heights of the 100 jumps measured, for both devices, were compared using the intraclass correlation coefficient, Pearson product moment correlation coefficient (r), Cronbach's alpha (α), coefficient of variation and Bland-Altman plots. There was almost perfect agreement between the force platform and My Jump for the countermovement jump height (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.997, P Jump showed good validity for the CMJ height (r = 0.995, P < 0.001). The results of the present study showed that CMJ height can be easily, accurately and reliably evaluated using a specially developed iPhone 5 s app.

  11. Test-retest reliability, internal consistency and concurrent validity of Fatigue Severity Scale in measuring post-stroke fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadarajah, Mohanasuntharaam; Mazlan, Mazlina; Abdul-Latif, Lydia; Goh, Hui-Ting

    2017-10-01

    Post-stroke fatigue (PSF) is a common complaint among stroke survivors and has significant impacts on recovery and quality of life. Limited tools that measure fatigue have been validated in stroke. The purpose of this study was to determine the psychometric properties of Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS) in patients with stroke. Cross-sectional study. Teaching hospital outpatient setting. Fifty healthy controls (mean age 61.1±7.4 years; 22 males) and 50 patients with stroke (mean age 63.6±10.3 years; 34 males). FSS was administered twice approximately a week apart through face-to-face interview. In addition, we measured fatigue with Visual Analogue Scale - Fatigue (VAS-F) and Short-Form Health Survey 36 version 2 vitality scale. We used Cronbach alpha to determine internal consistency of FSS. Reliability and validity of FSS were determined by intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and Spearman correlation coefficient (r). FSS showed excellent internal consistency for both stroke and healthy groups (Cronbach's alpha >0.90). FSS had excellent test-retest reliability for stroke patients and healthy controls (ICC=0.93 and ICC=0.90, respectively). The scale demonstrated good concurrent validity with VAS-Fatigue (all r>.60) and a moderate validity with the SF36-vitality scale. Furthermore, FSS was sensitive to distinguish fatigue in stroke from the healthy controls (Pvalidity with VAS-F for both groups. This study provides evidence that FSS is a reliable and valid tool to measure post-stroke fatigue and is readily to be used in clinical settings.

  12. Noninvasive Techniques for Blood Pressure Measurement Are Not a Reliable Alternative to Direct Measurement: A Randomized Crossover Trial in ICU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Ribezzo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Noninvasive blood pressure (NIBP monitoring methods are widely used in critically ill patients despite poor evidence of their accuracy. The erroneous interpretations of blood pressure (BP may lead to clinical errors. Objectives. To test the accuracy and reliability of aneroid (ABP and oscillometric (OBP devices compared to the invasive BP (IBP monitoring in an ICU population. Materials and Methods. Fifty adult patients (200 comparisons were included in a randomized crossover trial. BP was recorded simultaneously by IBP and either by ABP or by OBP, taking IBP as gold standard. Results. Compared with ABP, IBP systolic values were significantly higher (mean difference ± standard deviation 9.74±13.8; P<0.0001. Both diastolic (-5.13±7.1; P<0.0001 and mean (-2.14±7.1; P=0.0033 IBP were instead lower. Compared with OBP, systolic (10.80±14.9; P<0.0001 and mean (5.36±7.1; P<0.0001 IBP were higher, while diastolic IBP (-3.62±6.0; P<0.0001 was lower. Bland-Altman plots showed wide limits of agreement in both NIBP-IBP comparisons. Conclusions. BP measurements with different devices produced significantly different results. Since in critically ill patients the importance of BP readings is often crucial, noninvasive techniques cannot be regarded as reliable alternatives to direct measurements.

  13. Measuring Upper Limb Capacity in Patients After Stroke : Reliability and Validity of the Stroke Upper Limb Capacity Scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houwink, Annemieke; Roorda, Leo D.; Smits, Wendy; Molenaar, Ivo W.; Geurts, Alexander C.

    Houwink A, Roorda LD, Smits W, Molenaar IW, Geurts AC. Measuring upper limb capacity in patients after stroke: reliability and validity of the Stroke Upper Limb Capacity Scale. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2011;92:1418-22. Objective: To investigate the interrater reliability and construct validity of the

  14. Increasing Reliability of Direct Observation Measurement Approaches in Emotional and/or Behavioral Disorders Research Using Generalizability Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gage, Nicholas A.; Prykanowski, Debra; Hirn, Regina

    2014-01-01

    Reliability of direct observation outcomes ensures the results are consistent, dependable, and trustworthy. Typically, reliability of direct observation measurement approaches is assessed using interobserver agreement (IOA) and the calculation of observer agreement (e.g., percentage of agreement). However, IOA does not address intraobserver…

  15. The cleft audit protocol for speech-augmented: A validated and reliable measure for auditing cleft speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Alexandra; Sell, Debbie; Sweeney, Triona; Harding-Bell, Anne; Williams, Alison

    2006-05-01

    To develop an assessment tool for use in intercenter audit studies of cleft speech and to test its acceptability, validity, and reliability. The tool is to be used systematically to record and report speech outcomes, providing an indication of treatment needs and continuing burden of care. Regional Cleft Center, U.K. The Cleft Audit Protocol for Speech-Augmented (CAPS-A) was developed by three cleft speech experts who identified the key features required from existing assessment measures. Criterion validity was assessed by comparing the Cleft Audit Protocol for Speech-Augmented outcomes reported for 20 cases with clinical assessment results and other investigations. Intra- and interrater reliability were tested following the training of specialist speech and language therapists who used the Cleft Audit Protocol for Speech-Augmented on two occasions to assess 10 cases. The raters evaluated acceptability and ease of using a questionnaire. The mean percentage agreement for criterion validity in each section was 87% (range 70% to 100%). Both intra- and interexaminer reliability were rated as good/very good (Kappa 0.61 to 1.00) for seven sections and moderate (Kappa 0.41 to 0.60) for three sections. Raters reported that the Cleft Audit Protocol for Speech-Augmented was acceptable and easy to use with appropriate training. An acceptable, valid, and reliable cleft speech audit tool has been developed based on a small sample. The Cleft Audit Protocol for Speech-Augmented is recommended for use in intercenter audit studies in the U.K. and Ireland and could be used in other English-speaking countries. In addition, it has wider applicability for use in reporting speech outcomes of surgical procedures.

  16. Measuring help-seeking behaviors: factor structure, reliability, and validity among youth with disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Yen K; McWhirter, Ellen Hawley; Murray, Christopher

    2014-04-01

    Existing measures of help-seeking focus on assessing attitudes and beliefs, rather than specific behaviors, toward help-seeking. This study described the development of a self-report measure of informal help-seeking behaviors (HSB). Participants were 228 high school students (148 males, 80 females) with disabilities from four states. Factor analyses revealed three underlying factors, each addressing a different source of help: parent, peer, and teacher. The HSB had good internal reliability and moderate validity. Results from regression analyses suggested that help-seeking behaviors toward parents and teachers contributed uniquely to students' self-ratings of school bonding, life satisfaction, and career outcome expectations. Help-seeking behaviors toward peers was a negative predictor of career outcome expectations. The value of the HSB as a research instrument was discussed. Copyright © 2014 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Confiabilidade da medida de espessuras musculares pela ultrassonografia Reliability of muscle thickness measurements using ultrasound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Sergio Chagas Gomes

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar a confiabilidade das medidas de espessuras dos músculos flexores e extensores do cotovelo e joelho pela ultrassonografia (US, quantificando o erro típico associado a essas medidas (ETM. MÉTODOS: A confiabilidade (duas medidas interdias foi determinada em 15 voluntários aparentemente saudáveis (oito mulheres, 33,9 ± 11,4 anos, 76 ± 21kg, 170 ± 10cm. As imagens da musculatura flexora (FC e extensora do cotovelo (EC e flexora (FJ e extensora do joelho (EJ foram obtidas pela US bidimensional no modo B, utilizando transdutor de 7,5MHz. As espessuras do tecido muscular compreendidas entre as interfaces com o osso e com o tecido adiposo foram medidas em sítios anatômicos identificados e registrados para ser repetidos na segunda medida. RESULTADOS: A ANOVA não identificou diferenças significativas entre as medidas repetidas. Os coeficientes de correlação intraclasse foram FC = 0,970, EC = 0,971, FJ = 0,555 e EJ = 0,929 (P PURPOSE: To determine the reliability of muscle thickness measurements of elbow and knee flexors and extensors using ultrasound, and to quantify the typical error associated to the measurements (TEM. METHODS: The test-retest reliability was determined in 15 apparently healthy volunteers (8 women, 34 ± 11 years, 76 ± 21 kg, 170 ± 10 cm. The images of elbow flexors (EF and extensors (EE and knee flexors (KF and extensors (KE were obtained using a two dimensional mode B ultrasound instrument with a 7.5 MHz transducer. Muscle thickness between the adipose tissue and bone interfaces were measured at anatomical landmarks previously identified and recorded to assure the exact site for the retest. RESULTS: ANOVA did not identify any significant differences between the repeated measurements. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC of each pair of measure were EF = 0.970, EE = 0.971, KF = 0.555 e KE = 0.929 (P < 0.05 for all. The coefficients of variation were 3.9 %, 6.1 %, 6.6 % e 4.6 %, and TEM 1.3 mm, 1

  18. Effects of resting state condition on reliability, trait specificity, and network connectivity of brain function measured with arterial spin labeled perfusion MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhengjun; Vidorreta, Marta; Katchmar, Natalie; Alsop, David C; Wolf, Daniel H; Detre, John A

    2018-02-16

    Resting state fMRI (rs-fMRI) provides imaging biomarkers of task-independent brain function that can be associated with clinical variables or modulated by interventions such as behavioral training or pharmacological manipulations. These biomarkers include time-averaged regional brain function as manifested by regional cerebral blood flow (CBF) measured using arterial spin labeled (ASL) perfusion MRI and correlated temporal fluctuations of function across brain networks with either ASL or blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) fMRI. Resting-state studies are typically carried out using just one of several prescribed state conditions such as eyes closed (EC), eyes open (EO), or visual fixation on a cross-hair (FIX), which may affect the reliability and specificity of rs-fMRI. In this study, we collected test-retest ASL MRI data during 4 resting-state task conditions: EC, EO, FIX and PVT (low-frequency psychomotor vigilance task), and examined the effects of these task conditions on reliability and reproducibility as well as trait specificity of regional brain function. We also acquired resting-state BOLD fMRI under FIX and compared the network connectivity reliabilities between the four ASL conditions and the BOLD FIX condition. For resting-state ASL data, EC provided the highest CBF reliability, reproducibility, trait specificity, and network connectivity reliability, followed by EO, while FIX was lowest on all of these measures. PVT demonstrated lower CBF reliability, reproducibility and trait specificity than EO and EC. Overall network connectivity reliability was comparable between ASL and BOLD. Our findings confirm ASL CBF as a reliable, stable, and consistent measure of resting-state regional brain function and support the use of EC or EO over FIX and PVT as the resting-state condition. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Regional inversion of CO2 ecosystem fluxes from atmospheric measurements. Reliability of the uncertainty estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broquet, G.; Chevallier, F.; Breon, F.M.; Yver, C.; Ciais, P.; Ramonet, M.; Schmidt, M. [Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l' Environnement, CEA-CNRS-UVSQ, UMR8212, IPSL, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Alemanno, M. [Servizio Meteorologico dell' Aeronautica Militare Italiana, Centro Aeronautica Militare di Montagna, Monte Cimone/Sestola (Italy); Apadula, F. [Research on Energy Systems, RSE, Environment and Sustainable Development Department, Milano (Italy); Hammer, S. [Universitaet Heidelberg, Institut fuer Umweltphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Haszpra, L. [Hungarian Meteorological Service, Budapest (Hungary); Meinhardt, F. [Federal Environmental Agency, Kirchzarten (Germany); Necki, J. [AGH University of Science and Technology, Krakow (Poland); Piacentino, S. [ENEA, Laboratory for Earth Observations and Analyses, Palermo (Italy); Thompson, R.L. [Max Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry, Jena (Germany); Vermeulen, A.T. [Energy research Centre of the Netherlands ECN, EEE-EA, Petten (Netherlands)

    2013-07-01

    The Bayesian framework of CO2 flux inversions permits estimates of the retrieved flux uncertainties. Here, the reliability of these theoretical estimates is studied through a comparison against the misfits between the inverted fluxes and independent measurements of the CO2 Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE) made by the eddy covariance technique at local (few hectares) scale. Regional inversions at 0.5{sup 0} resolution are applied for the western European domain where {approx}50 eddy covariance sites are operated. These inversions are conducted for the period 2002-2007. They use a mesoscale atmospheric transport model, a prior estimate of the NEE from a terrestrial ecosystem model and rely on the variational assimilation of in situ continuous measurements of CO2 atmospheric mole fractions. Averaged over monthly periods and over the whole domain, the misfits are in good agreement with the theoretical uncertainties for prior and inverted NEE, and pass the chi-square test for the variance at the 30% and 5% significance levels respectively, despite the scale mismatch and the independence between the prior (respectively inverted) NEE and the flux measurements. The theoretical uncertainty reduction for the monthly NEE at the measurement sites is 53% while the inversion decreases the standard deviation of the misfits by 38 %. These results build confidence in the NEE estimates at the European/monthly scales and in their theoretical uncertainty from the regional inverse modelling system. However, the uncertainties at the monthly (respectively annual) scale remain larger than the amplitude of the inter-annual variability of monthly (respectively annual) fluxes, so that this study does not engender confidence in the inter-annual variations. The uncertainties at the monthly scale are significantly smaller than the seasonal variations. The seasonal cycle of the inverted fluxes is thus reliable. In particular, the CO2 sink period over the European continent likely ends later than

  20. Reliability of a Novel High Intensity One Leg Dynamic Exercise Protocol to Measure Muscle Endurance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Pageaux

    Full Text Available We recently developed a high intensity one leg dynamic exercise (OLDE protocol to measure muscle endurance and investigate the central and peripheral mechanisms of muscle fatigue. The aims of the present study were to establish the reliability of this novel protocol and describe the isokinetic muscle fatigue induced by high intensity OLDE and its recovery. Eight subjects performed the OLDE protocol (time to exhaustion test of the right leg at 85% of peak power output three times over a week period. Isokinetic maximal voluntary contraction torque at 60 (MVC60, 100 (MVC100 and 140 (MVC140 deg/s was measured pre-exercise, shortly after exhaustion (13 ± 4 s, 20 s (P20 and 40 s (P40 post-exercise. Electromyographic (EMG signal was analyzed via the root mean square (RMS for all three superficial knee extensors. Mean time to exhaustion was 5.96 ± 1.40 min, coefficient of variation was 8.42 ± 6.24%, typical error of measurement was 0.30 min and intraclass correlation was 0.795. MVC torque decreased shortly after exhaustion for all angular velocities (all P < 0.001. MVC60 and MVC100 recovered between P20 (P < 0.05 and exhaustion and then plateaued. MVC140 recovered only at P40 (P < 0.05. High intensity OLDE did not alter maximal EMG RMS of the three superficial knee extensors during MVC. The results of this study demonstrate that this novel high intensity OLDE protocol could be reliably used to measure muscle endurance, and that muscle fatigue induced by high intensity OLDE should be examined within ~ 30 s following exhaustion.

  1. The reliability of physiological and performance measures during simulated team-sport running on a non-motorised treadmill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirotic, Anita C; Coutts, Aaron J

    2008-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the reliability of a non-motorised treadmill team-sport simulation for measuring physiological responses and performance demands of team sports. Following familiarisation, 11 team-sport athletes completed a peak sprinting speed assessment followed by a 30-min team-sport simulation on the non-motorised treadmill, on three occasions, 5 days apart. Several performance (total distance, distance covered during each speed category, total work, high-intensity activity, mean maximal sprinting speed and power) and physiological variables (V(O)(2), heart rate and blood measures) were measured. A one-way analysis of variance and ratio limits of agreement were used to compare the results from each trial. Significant differences were established in total sprint distance and high-intensity activity between trials 1-2 and trials 1-3 and 3-s mean maximal sprinting speed for trials 1-3 (p0.8) were identified in 11 of the 18 physiological and performance variables measured. Ratio limits of agreement for total distance covered and total work performed during the team-sport simulation were 0.99 (*//1.05) and 0.97 (*//1.09), respectively. Largest measurement error was shown in post-exercise blood lactate concentration with a coefficient of variation of 17.6%. All other measures showed low coefficients of variation of sport simulation provides a reliable tool for assessing and monitoring physiological and performance demands of team-sport activity. We recommend the inclusion of two familiarisation sessions prior to testing.

  2. Reliability and validity of a self-rated analogue scale for global measure of successful aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwee, Xinyi; Nyunt, Ma Shwe Zin; Kua, Ee Heok; Jeste, Dilip V; Kumar, Rajeev; Ng, Tze Pin

    2014-08-01

    Dimension-specific objective measures are criticized for their limited perspective and failure to endorse subjective perceptions by respondents, but the validity and correlates of a subjective global measure of successful aging (SA) are still not well established. We evaluated the reliability and validity of a self-rated analogue scale of global SA in an elderly Singaporean population. Cross-sectional data analysis using a comprehensive questionnaire survey. 489 community-dwelling Singaporeans aged 65 years and over. Self-rated SA on an analogue scale from 1 (least successful) to 10 (most successful) was analyzed for its relationship to criterion-based measures of five specific dimensions (physical health and function, mental well-being, social engagement, psychological well-being, and spirituality/religiosity), as well as outcome measures (life satisfaction and quality of life). Self-rated SA was significantly correlated to measures of specific dimensions (standardized β from 0.11 to 0.39), most strongly with psychological functioning (β = 0.391). The five dimension-specific measures together accounted for 16.7% of the variance in self-rated SA. Self-rated SA best predicted life satisfaction (R(2) = 0.26) more than any dimension-specific measure (R(2) from 0.05 to 0.17). Self-rated SA, vis-à-vis dimension-specific measures, was related to a different set of correlates, and was notably independent of chronological age, sex, education, socioeconomic status, and medical comorbidity, but was significantly related to ethnicity. The self-rated analogue scale is a sensitive global measure of SA encompassing a spectrum of underlying dimensions and subjective perspectives and its validity is well supported in this study. Copyright © 2014 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The reliability of repeated TMS measures in older adults and in patients with subacute and chronic stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi M. Schambra

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The reliability of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS measures in healthy older adults and stroke patients has been insufficiently characterized. We determined whether common TMS measures could reliably evaluate change in individuals and in groups using the smallest detectable change (SDC, or could tell subjects apart using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC. We used a single-rater test-retest design in older healthy, subacute stroke, and chronic stroke subjects. At twice daily sessions on two consecutive days, we recorded resting motor threshold, test stimulus intensity, recruitment curves, short-interval intracortical inhibition and facilitation, and long-interval intracortical inhibition. Using variances estimated from a random effects model, we calculated the SDC and ICC for each TMS measure. For all TMS measures in all groups, SDCs for single subjects were large; only with modest group sizes did the SDCs become low. Thus, while these TMS measures cannot be reliably used as a biomarker to detect individual change, they can reliably detect change exceeding measurement noise in moderate-sized groups. For several of the TMS measures, ICCs were universally high, suggesting that they can reliably discriminate between subjects. Though most TMS measures have sufficient reliability in particular contexts, work establishing their validity, responsiveness, and clinical relevance is still needed.

  4. Intra-tester and inter-tester reliability of post-occlusive reactive hyperaemia measurement at the hallux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barwick, Alex; Lanting, Sean; Chuter, Vivienne

    2015-05-01

    Post-occlusive reactive hyperaemia (PORH) is a measurement of the vasodilatory capacity of the microvasculature that is associated with cardiovascular disease, peripheral arterial disease and foot ulceration. The reliability of its measurement in the hallux (great toe) for clinical and research purposes has not been adequately assessed. This study assesses both the intra-tester reliability and inter-tester reliability of four methods of assessing PORH in the hallux. A within-subject repeated measures design was used. Forty-two participants underwent PORH testing using four methods: pressure measurement with photoplethysmography; an automated laser Doppler technique with local heating; an automated laser Doppler technique without local heating; and a manual laser Doppler technique. Participants underwent testing on two occasions with a three to 14 day interval. Laser Doppler measurement with a heating probe was found to be the most reliable method of PORH measurement. The index of the area under the curve pre- and post-occlusion and peak perfusion as a percentage of baseline were the most reliable variables. PORH can be reliably measured using laser Doppler when combined with a heating probe. Further research is required to determine the clinical utility of photoplethysmography in the measurement of PORH. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Reliability analysis of Cobb angle measurements of congenital scoliosis using X-ray and 3D-CT images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauchi, Ryoji; Tsuji, Taichi; Cahill, Patrick J; Flynn, John M; Flynn, John M; Glotzbecker, Michael; El-Hawary, Ron; Heflin, John A; Imagama, Shiro; Joshi, Ajeya P; Nohara, Ayato; Ramirez, Norman; Roye, David P; Saito, Toshiki; Sawyer, Jeffrey R; Smith, John T; Kawakami, Noriaki

    2016-01-01

    Therapeutic decisions for congenital scoliosis rely on Cobb angle measurements on consecutive radiographs. There have been no studies documenting the variability of measuring the Cobb angle using 3D-CT images in children with congenital scoliosis. The purpose of this study was to compare the reliability and measurement errors using X-ray images and those utilizing 3D-CT images. The X-ray and 3D-CT images of 20 patients diagnosed with congenital scoliosis were used to assess the reliability of the digital 3D-CT images for the measurement of the Cobb angle. Thirteen observers performed the measurements, and each image was analyzed by each observer twice with a minimum interval of 1 week between measurements. The analysis of intraobserver variation was expressed as the mean absolute difference (MAD) and standard deviation (SD) between measurements and the intraclass correlation coefficient (IaCC) of the measurements. In addition, the interobserver variation was expressed as the MAD and interclass correlation coefficient (IeCC). The average MAD and SD was 4.5° and 3.2° by the X-ray method and 3.7° and 2.6° by the 3D-CT method. The intraobserver and interobserver intraclass ICCs were excellent in both methods (X-ray: IaCC 0.835-0.994 IeCC 0.847, 3D-CT: IaCC 0.819-0.996 IeCC 0.893). There was no significant MAD difference between X-ray and 3D-CT images in measuring each type of congenital scoliosis by each observer. Results of Cobb angle measurements in patients with congenital scoliosis using X-ray images in the frontal plane could be reproduced with almost the same measurement variance (3°-4° measurement error) using 3D-CT images. This suggests that X-ray images are clinically useful for assessing any type of congenital scoliosis about measuring the Cobb angle alone. However, since 3D-CT can provide more detailed images of the anterior and posterior components of malformed vertebrae, the volume of information that can be obtained by evaluating them has

  6. Reliability and construct validity of soccer skills tests that measure passing, shooting, and dribbling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Mark; Benton, David; Kingsley, Michael

    2010-11-01

    In this study, we examined the reliability and construct validity of new soccer skills tests. Twenty soccer players (10 professional and 10 recreational) repeated trials of passing, shooting, and dribbling skills on different days. Passing and shooting skills required players to kick a moving ball, delivered at constant speed, towards one of four randomly determined targets. Dribbling required players to negotiate seven cones over 20 m. Each trial consisted of 28 passes, 8 shots, and 10 dribbles. Ball speed, precision, and success were determined for all tests using video analysis. Systematic bias was small (Test-retest reliability statistics were as follows: ball speed (passing, shooting, dribbling; coefficient of variation [CV]: 6.5%, 6.9%, 2.4%; ratio limits of agreement [RLOA]: 0.958 ×/÷ 1.091, 0.990 ×/÷ 1.107, 0.993 ×/÷ 1.039), precision (passing, shooting, dribbling; CV: 10.0%, 23.5%, 4.6%; RLOA: 0.956 ×/÷ 1.147, 1.030 ×/÷ 1.356, 1.000 ×/÷ 1.068), and success (passing, shooting, dribbling; CV: 11.7%, 14.4%, 2.2%; RLOA: 1.017 ×/÷ 1.191, 0.913 ×/÷ 1.265, 0.996 ×/÷ 1.035). Professional players performed better than recreational players in at least one outcome measure for all skills. These findings demonstrate the reliability and validity of new soccer skill protocols.

  7. Test-retest Reliability of GPS derived Measurements in Patients with Claudication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gernigon, M; Fouasson-Chailloux, A; Colas-Ribas, C; Noury-Desvaux, B; Le Faucheur, A; Abraham, P

    2015-11-01

    In patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD), the different distances between stops and the stop durations recorded with Global Positioning System (GPS) during a 1 hour stroll in the community are highly variable. Nevertheless, the reliability of the greatest community walk distance (greatest distance), the average of walking speeds (average speed) and the durations of stops (average stop durations) have not been studied. Seventeen PAD patients performed two series of evaluations (T1 and T2) within a 1 month period. Each series included: a 1 hour stroll in the community with the calculation of the walking impairment questionnaire (WIQ) scores, the measurement of maximal walking distance on a treadmill (MWD on treadmill) and a 1 hour stroll in the community with GPS. The Garmin GPS-60 (Garmin Ltd, Olathe, Kan) receiver was used for all patients. Test-retest reliability of MWD on treadmill, WIQ, and GPS parameters were assessed with intraclass coefficient of correlation (ICC). ICCs are almost perfect between T1 and T2 for greatest distance (ICC = 0.911), average speed (ICC = 0.905), and MWD on treadmill (ICC = 0.992), and substantial for the average WIQ (ICC = 0.794). Correlation of average stop durations was considered substantial (ICC = 0.691). Despite the previously reported "within stroll" variability of walking bouts for distances, speeds, and stop durations, GPS derived greatest distance and average speed are reliable in PAD patients in test-retest experiments. The GPS appears to be a new tool to assess walking limitation and allows objective clinical investigation. Copyright © 2015 European Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Preliminary testing of the reliability and feasibility of SAGE: a system to measure and score engagement with and use of research in health policies and programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makkar, Steve R; Williamson, Anna; D'Este, Catherine; Redman, Sally

    2017-12-19

    coders' ratings indicates that the independent coders were scoring in a manner comparable to health policy research experts. If the present findings are replicated in a larger sample, end users (e.g. policy agency staff) could potentially be trained to use SAGE to reliably score research use within their agencies, which would provide a cost-effective and time-efficient approach to utilising this measure in practice.

  9. The Effects of Participation Rate on the Internal Reliability of Peer Nomination Measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marks, P.E.L.; Babcock, B.; Cillessen, A.H.N.; Crick, N.R.

    2013-01-01

    Although low participation rates have historically been considered problematic in peer nomination research, some researchers have recently argued that small proportions of participants can, in fact, provide adequate sociometric data. The current study used a classical measurement perspective to

  10. Reliability, validity and sensitivity of a computerized visual analog scale measuring state anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abend, Rany; Dan, Orrie; Maoz, Keren; Raz, Sivan; Bar-Haim, Yair

    2014-12-01

    Assessment of state anxiety is frequently required in clinical and research settings, but its measurement using standard multi-item inventories entails practical challenges. Such inventories are increasingly complemented by paper-and-pencil, single-item visual analog scales measuring state anxiety (VAS-A), which allow rapid assessment of current anxiety states. Computerized versions of VAS-A offer additional advantages, including facilitated and accurate data collection and analysis, and applicability to computer-based protocols. Here, we establish the psychometric properties of a computerized VAS-A. Experiment 1 assessed the reliability, convergent validity, and discriminant validity of the computerized VAS-A in a non-selected sample. Experiment 2 assessed its sensitivity to increase in state anxiety following social stress induction, in participants with high levels of social anxiety. Experiment 1 demonstrated the computerized VAS-A's test-retest reliability (r = .44, p validity with the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory's state subscale (STAI-State; r = .60, p validity as indicated by significantly lower correlations between VAS-A and different psychological measures relative to the correlation between VAS-A and STAI-State. Experiment 2 demonstrated the VAS-A's sensitivity to changes in state anxiety via a significant pre- to during-stressor rise in VAS-A scores (F(1,48) = 25.13, p VAS-A a valuable self-rating tool for state anxiety. It may prove particularly useful for clinical and research settings where multi-item inventories are less applicable, including computer-based treatment and assessment protocols. The VAS-A is freely available: http://people.socsci.tau.ac.il/mu/anxietytrauma/visual-analog-scale/. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. RELIABILITY AND VALIDITY OF A WIRELESS MICROELECTROMECHANICALS BASED SYSTEM (KEIMOVE™ FOR MEASURING VERTICAL JUMPING PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Requena

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the validity and reliability of a microelectromechanicals (MEMs based system (Keimove™ in measuring flight time and takeoff velocity during a counter-movement jump (CMJ. As criterion reference, data of a high- speed camera (HSC and a force-platform (FP synchronized with a linear position transducer (LPT was used. Thirty professional soccer players completely familiarized with the CMJ technique performed three CMJs. The second and third trials were used for further analysis. The Keimove™ system, the HSC and the FP synchronized with the LPT (FP+LPT simultaneously measured the CMJ performance. During each repetition, the Keimove™ system registered flight time and velocity at takeoff. At the same time and as criterion reference, both the HSC and the FP recorded the flight time while the LPT+FP registered the velocity at takeoff. Pearson correlation coefficients for the flight time were high (r = 0.99; p < 0.001 when Keimove™ system was compared with the HSC or the FP+LPT, respectively. For the velocity at takeoff variable, the Pearson r between the Keimove™ system and the FP+LPT was lower although significant at the 0.05 level. No significant differences in mean values were observed for flight times and velocity at takeoff between the three devices. Intraclass correlations and coefficients of variation between trials were similar and ranged between 0.92-0.97 and 2.1-7.4, respectively. In conclusion, the Keimove™ system represents a valid and reliable instrument to measure velocity at takeoff and flight time during CMJ testing. Thus, this MEMs-based system will offer a portable, cost-effective tool for the assessment CMJ performance

  12. Measurement of mandible movements using a vernier caliper--an evaluation of the intrasession-, intersession- and interobserver reliability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, Norman; Best, Stefanie; Loudovici-Krug, Dana; Smolenski, Ulrich C

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the intrasession-, intersession-, and interrater reliability of a vernier caliper measurement of mandible movements. The authors calculated the intrasession, intersession-, and interrater reliability using a plastic caliper for important mandibular parameters. All intraclass-correlation-coefficients (ICC) are at least moderately accurate, especially the values for intrasession- and intersession reliability, which were excellent. Only the interrater reliability shows greater fluctuations. Whereas the mouth opening, protrusion, and the tooth positions are reliably correct, the same was not applicable to the side movements. The lateral movement measurements were highly variable. This did not apply to other movements. Patient compliance is important along with a different mouth-opening angle. It is possible to generate a variable laterotrusion to both sides. The caliper investigated is a fast, simple, and inexpensive tool for daily work.

  13. Joint angle measurement: a comparative study of the reliability of goniometry and wire tracing for the hand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, B; Bruton, A; Goddard, J R

    1997-11-01

    To compare the inter- and intra-rater reliability of goniometry and wire tracing in the assessment of finger joint angles: metacarpo-phalangeal (MCPJ), proximal (PIPJ) and distal interphalangeal joints (DIPJ). Twenty occupational therapists and 20 physiotherapists with a range of clinical experience were recruited from nine different centres. Using a masked goniometer and wire tracing they carried out repeated assessments of the MCPJ, PIPJ and DIPJ of a normal subject fixed in two different positions. The two assessment methods did not produce comparable angle measurements. Goniometry showed greater inter- and intra-rater reliability than wire tracing. Regardless of the assessment tool, the repeatability coefficient indicated that DIPJ measurement was less reliable than the other joints. Clinical and specialist experience did not affect reliability. Although both goniometry and wire tracing show limitations as reliable assessment tools, it is recommended that where possible goniometry should be used.

  14. Measuring Numeracy in a Community College Context: Assessing the Reliability of the Subjective Numeracy Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate S. Wolfe

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, our goals were to assess the suitability of the Subjective Numeracy Scale (SNS, developed for health-care use, in a new context with predominantly minority students at a South Bronx community college and to identify any race/ ethnicity, gender, and ESL enrollment effects. The scale assesses perceptions of quantitative reasoning skills and preferences for data presentation. This scale was given to a convenience sample of students in behavioral sciences classes. Results show that the SNS scale was reliable with our sample using the full thirteen-question scale or the shorter eight-item version. Gender, race/ ethnicity, and English as a Second Language (ESL are related to perceptions of QR/QL. This study may help researchers see the SNS as a reliable instrument across samples and as a way to measure numeracy. The results of the multivariate analyses raise questions for future research about cultural differences for numerical presentation among these ethnic groups and our international student population.

  15. [Measuring Grief Symptoms in Cancer Patients: The Reliability and Validity Study of the Turkish Version of Prolonged Grief Disorder Scale].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gökler Danışman, Ilgın; Yalçınay, Merve; Yıldız, Nejla

    2017-01-01

    The need to grieve is not limited to losses due to death of significant others, but it also arises in reaction to various life events which result in a sense of loss. Grief is argued to be a universal and natural reaction also in face of life-theratening illnesses. Cancer is a phenomenon that has to be examined in terms of grief reactions since it inherits multiple losses. The aim of the current study is to test the reliability and validity of the Turkish version of Prolonged Grief Disorder Scale-Patient Form (PG-12-Patient Form), which is used to measure grief symptoms in cancer patients. Following the finalization of the Turkish form, the scale was applied to a sample of participants composed of 250 outpatients diagnosed with cancer. The participants were also presented with Hopelessness Scale and Illness Related Subjective Appraisals Scale for the purpose of examining criterion validity. Principle components analysis revealed that forced one-factor solution explaining 46% of the variance was satisfactory and gave a clearer factor structure than the dimensional solution. The Cronbach's Alpha internal consistency was found to be .88. The total scores obtained from the scale were found to have significant positive relationships with the scales used to test the criterion validity. The results provide evidence suggesting that the Turkish version of PG-12-Patient Form is a reliable and valid tool to measure grief symptoms in cancer patients.

  16. Reliability, construct validity and measurement potential of the ICF comprehensive core set for osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurtaiş Yeşim

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aimed to investigate the reliability and construct validity of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF Comprehensive Core Set for osteoarthritis (OA in order to test its possible use as a measuring tool for functioning. Methods 100 patients with OA (84 F, 16 M; mean age 63 yr completed forms including demographic and clinical information besides the Short Form (36 Health Survey (SF-36® and the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Index of Osteoarthritis (WOMAC. The ICF Comprehensive Core Set for OA was filled by health professionals. The internal construct validities of "Body Functions-Body structures" (BF-BS, "Activity" (A, "Participation" (P and "Environmental Factors" (EF domains were tested by Rasch analysis and reliability by internal consistency and person separation index (PSI. External construct validity was evaluated by correlating the Rasch transformed scores with SF-36 and WOMAC. Results In each scale, some items showing disordered thresholds were rescored, testlets were created to overcome the problem of local dependency and items that did not fit to the Rasch model were deleted. The internal construct validity of the four scales (BF-BS 16 items, A 8 items, P 7 items, EF 13 items were good [mean item fit (SD 0.138 (0.921, 0.216 (1.237, 0.759 (0.986 and -0.079 (2.200; person item fit (SD -0.147 (0.652, -0.241 (0.894, -0.310 (1.187 and -0.491 (1.173 respectively], indicating a single underlying construct for each scale. The scales were free of differential item functioning (DIF for age, gender, years of education and duration of disease. Reliabilities of the BF-BS, A, P, and EF scales were good with Cronbach's alphas of 0.79, 0.86, 0.88, and 0.83 and PSI's of 0.76, 0.86, 0.87, and 0.71, respectively. Rasch scores of BF-BS, A, and P showed moderate correlations with SF-36 and WOMAC scores where the EF had significant but weak correlations only with SF36-Social

  17. A neuropsychological instrument measuring age-related cerebral decline in older drivers: development, reliability, and validity of MedDrive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaucher, Paul; Cardoso, Isabel; Veldstra, Janet L.; Herzig, Daniela; Herzog, Michael; Mangin, Patrice; Favrat, Bernard

    2014-01-01

    When facing age-related cerebral decline, older adults are unequally affected by cognitive impairment without us knowing why. To explore underlying mechanisms and find possible solutions to maintain life-space mobility, there is a need for a standardized behavioral test that relates to behaviors in natural environments. The aim of the project described in this paper was therefore to provide a free, reliable, transparent, computer-based instrument capable of detecting age-related changes on visual processing and cortical functions for the purposes of research into human behavior in computational transportation science. After obtaining content validity, exploring psychometric properties of the developed tasks, we derived (Study 1) the scoring method for measuring cerebral decline on 106 older drivers aged ≥70 years attending a driving refresher course organized by the Swiss Automobile Association to test the instrument's validity against on-road driving performance (106 older drivers). We then validated the derived method on a new sample of 182 drivers (Study 2). We then measured the instrument's reliability having 17 healthy, young volunteers repeat all tests included in the instrument five times (Study 3) and explored the instrument's psychophysical underlying functions on 47 older drivers (Study 4). Finally, we tested the instrument's responsiveness to alcohol and effects on performance on a driving simulator in a randomized, double-blinded, placebo, crossover, dose-response, validation trial including 20 healthy, young volunteers (Study 5). The developed instrument revealed good psychometric properties related to processing speed. It was reliable (ICC = 0.853) and showed reasonable association to driving performance (R2 = 0.053), and responded to blood alcohol concentrations of 0.5 g/L (p = 0.008). Our results suggest that MedDrive is capable of detecting age-related changes that affect processing speed. These changes nevertheless do not necessarily affect

  18. A Neuropsychological Instrument Measuring Age-Related Cerebral Decline in Older Drivers: Development, Reliability, and Validity of MedDrive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul eVaucher

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available When facing age-related cerebral decline, older adults are unequally affected by cognitive impairment without us knowing why. To explore underlying mechanisms and find possible solutions to maintain life-space mobility, there is a need for a standardized behavioral test that relates to behaviors in natural environments. The aim of the project described in this paper was therefore to provide a free, reliable, transparent, computer-based instrument capable of detecting age-related changes on visual processing and cortical functions for the purposes of research into human behavior in computational transportation science. After obtaining content validity, exploring psychometric properties of the developed tasks, we derived (Study1 the scoring method for measuring cerebral decline on 106 older drivers aged ≥70 years attending a driving refresher course organized by the Swiss Automobile Association to test the instrument’s validity against on-road driving performance (106 older drivers. We then validated the derived method on a new sample of 182 drivers (Study2. We then measured the instrument’s reliability having 17 healthy, young volunteers repeat all tests included in the instrument five times (Study3 and explored the instrument’s psychophysical underlying functions on 47 older drivers (Study4. Finally, we tested the instrument’s responsiveness to alcohol and effects on performance on a driving simulator in a randomized, double-blinded, placebo, crossover, dose-response, validation trial including 20 healthy, young volunteers (Study5. The developed instrument revealed good psychometric properties related to processing speed. It was reliable (ICC=0.853 and showed reasonable association to driving performance (R2=0.053, and responded to blood alcohol concentrations of 0.5 g/L (p=0.008. Our results suggest that MedDrive is capable of detecting age-related changes that affect processing speed. These changes nevertheless do not necessarily

  19. A neuropsychological instrument measuring age-related cerebral decline in older drivers: development, reliability, and validity of MedDrive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaucher, Paul; Cardoso, Isabel; Veldstra, Janet L; Herzig, Daniela; Herzog, Michael; Mangin, Patrice; Favrat, Bernard

    2014-01-01

    When facing age-related cerebral decline, older adults are unequally affected by cognitive impairment without us knowing why. To explore underlying mechanisms and find possible solutions to maintain life-space mobility, there is a need for a standardized behavioral test that relates to behaviors in natural environments. The aim of the project described in this paper was therefore to provide a free, reliable, transparent, computer-based instrument capable of detecting age-related changes on visual processing and cortical functions for the purposes of research into human behavior in computational transportation science. After obtaining content validity, exploring psychometric properties of the developed tasks, we derived (Study 1) the scoring method for measuring cerebral decline on 106 older drivers aged ≥70 years attending a driving refresher course organized by the Swiss Automobile Association to test the instrument's validity against on-road driving performance (106 older drivers). We then validated the derived method on a new sample of 182 drivers (Study 2). We then measured the instrument's reliability having 17 healthy, young volunteers repeat all tests included in the instrument five times (Study 3) and explored the instrument's psychophysical underlying functions on 47 older drivers (Study 4). Finally, we tested the instrument's responsiveness to alcohol and effects on performance on a driving simulator in a randomized, double-blinded, placebo, crossover, dose-response, validation trial including 20 healthy, young volunteers (Study 5). The developed instrument revealed good psychometric properties related to processing speed. It was reliable (ICC = 0.853) and showed reasonable association to driving performance (R (2) = 0.053), and responded to blood alcohol concentrations of 0.5 g/L (p = 0.008). Our results suggest that MedDrive is capable of detecting age-related changes that affect processing speed. These changes nevertheless do not necessarily affect

  20. Reliability and Validity of Electro-Goniometric Range of Motion Measurements in Patients with Hand and Wrist Limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashardoust Tajali, Siamak; MacDermid, Joy C; Grewal, Ruby; Young, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Cross-sectional reliability and validity study. 1. To determine intrarater, interrater and inter instrument reliabilities and validity of two digital electro goniometry to measure active wrist/finger range of motions (ROMs) in patients with limited motion. 2. To determine intrarater and interrater reliabilities of digital goniometry to measure torques of PIP passive flexion of the index finger in patients with limited motion. The study was designed in a randomized block plan on 44 patients (24 women, 20 men) with limited wrist or hand motions. Two experienced raters measured active wrist ROMs, and active and passive index PIP flexion using two digital goniometers. All measures were repeated by one rater 2-5 days after the initial measurements. The reliability measures were analyzed using Intraclass Correlation Coefficients (ICCs) and the construct validity was determined by correlation coefficients analysis between sub measures of scores; patient rated pain and function (PRWE) and quick Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (quick DASH) scores. The intrarater, interrater and inter instrument reliabilities were high in most ROM measures (range 0.64-0.97) for both types of electro-goniometers. The 95% limit of agreements and Bland and Altman plots did not show progressive changes. There was a significant difference in force application between the raters when performing passive ROM measures for PIP index, but the same rater produced consistent force. Most of the NK and J-Tech ROM measures were moderately correlated with the patient rated pain and function scores (range 0.32-0.63).

  1. Reliability of Triaxial Accelerometry for Measuring Load in Men's Collegiate Ice Hockey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Iterson, Erik H; Fitzgerald, John S; Dietz, Calvin C; Snyder, Eric M; Peterson, Ben J

    2017-05-01

    Van Iterson, EH, Fitzgerald, JS, Dietz, CC, Snyder, EM, and Peterson, BJ. Reliability of triaxial accelerometry for measuring load in men's collegiate ice hockey. J Strength Cond Res 31(5): 1305-1312, 2017-Wearable microsensor technology incorporating triaxial accelerometry is used to quantify an index of mechanical stress associated with sport-specific movements termed PlayerLoad. The test-retest reliability of PlayerLoad in the environmental setting of ice hockey is unknown. The primary aim of this study was to quantify the test-retest reliability of PlayerLoad in ice hockey players during performance of tasks simulating game conditions. Division I collegiate male ice hockey players (N = 8) wore Catapult Optimeye S5 monitors during repeat performance of 9 ice hockey tasks simulating game conditions. Ordered ice hockey tasks during repeated bouts included acceleration (forward or backward), 60% top-speed, top-speed (forward or backward), repeated shift circuit, ice coasting, slap shot, and bench sitting. Coefficient of variation (CV), intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), and minimum difference (MD) were used to assess PlayerLoad reliability. Test-retest CVs and ICCs of PlayerLoad were as follows: 8.6% and 0.54 for forward acceleration, 13.8% and 0.78 for backward acceleration, 2.2% and 0.96 for 60% top-speed, 7.5% and 0.79 for forward top-speed, 2.8% and 0.96 for backward top-speed, 26.6% and 0.95 for repeated shift test, 3.9% and 0.68 for slap shot, 3.7% and 0.98 for coasting, and 4.1% and 0.98 for bench sitting, respectively. Raw differences between bouts were not significant for ice hockey tasks (p > 0.05). For each task, between-bout raw differences were lower vs. MD: 0.06 vs. 0.35 (forward acceleration), 0.07 vs. 0.36 (backward acceleration), 0.00 vs. 0.06 (60% top-speed), 0.03 vs. 0.20 (forward top-speed), 0.02 vs. 0.09 (backward top-speed), 0.18 vs. 0.64 (repeated shift test), 0.02 vs. 0.10 (slap shot), 0.00 vs. 0.10 (coasting), and 0.01 vs. 0

  2. Measuring theory of mind across middle childhood: Reliability and validity of the Silent Films and Strange Stories tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devine, Rory T; Hughes, Claire

    2016-09-01

    Recent years have seen a growth of research on the development of children's ability to reason about others' mental states (or "theory of mind") beyond the narrow confines of the preschool period. The overall aim of this study was to investigate the psychometric properties of a task battery composed of items from Happé's Strange Stories task and Devine and Hughes' Silent Film task. A sample of 460 ethnically and socially diverse children (211 boys) between 7 and 13years of age completed the task battery at two time points separated by 1month. The Strange Stories and Silent Film tasks were strongly correlated even when verbal ability and narrative comprehension were taken into account, and all items loaded onto a single theory-of-mind latent factor. The theory-of-mind latent factor provided reliable estimates of performance across a wide range of theory-of-mind ability and showed no evidence of differential item functioning across gender, ethnicity, or socioeconomic status. The theory-of-mind latent factor also exhibited strong 1-month test-retest reliability, and this stability did not vary as a function of child characteristics. Taken together, these findings provide evidence for the validity and reliability of the Strange Stories and Silent Film task battery as a measure of individual differences in theory of mind suitable for use across middle childhood. We consider the methodological and conceptual implications of these findings for research on theory of mind beyond the preschool years. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Reliability of two color selection devices in matching and measuring tooth color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llena, Carmen; Lozano, Esther; Amengual, Jose; Forner, Leopoldo

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the intra and interdevice reliability of two tooth color measurement devices: EasyShade (ES) and SpectroShade Micro (SSM). Tooth color was measured in six maxillary and mandibular. L*, a* and b* values and shade matches to VITA Classical and Vitapan 3D-Master shade guide systems were determined for all teeth. ΔE was assessed. Paired t-test and correlation coefficient (ICC) were used. Intradevices no significant differences (p > 0.05) were found between L*, a*, b*. Interdevice L* and b* were significantly higher for ES (p 0.05). Intradevices ICC values were higher for ES but not significant (p > 0.05). The null hypotheses that they present no differences in their color measuring within devices or shade systems is accepted, but the results allow to reject the null hypotheses that they present no differences in their color measuring or shade systems between devices. Both EasyShade (ES) and SpectroShade Micro (SSM) show excellent repeatability and so they can be used in office to evaluate tooth color or to assess color changes after treatment. Dental color can be diagnosed using dental spectrophotometers, allowing to detect in an objective way therapeutic dental color changes.

  4. Reliability Assessment for PSC Box-Girder Bridges Based on SHM Strain Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuang Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A reliability assessment method for prestressed concrete (PSC continuous box-girder bridges based on structural health monitoring (SHM strain measurements was proposed. First, due to the fact that measured strain was compositive and the variation periods of its components were different, a series of limit state equations under normal use limit state were given. Then, a linear fitting method was used to determine the relationship between the ambient temperature and the measured strain, which was aimed at extracting the vehicle load effect and the temperature load effect from the measured strain. Finally, according to the equivalent normalization method, the load effects unsatisfying the normal distribution by probability density function fitting were transformed, and the daily failure probabilities of monitored positions were calculated for evaluating the safety state of the girder. The results show that (1 the top plate of the box girder is more sensitive than the bottom plate to the high temperature, (2 the daily and seasonal strain variations induced by uniform temperature reveal an inconsistent tendency to the seasonal variation for mid-span cross sections, and (3 the generalized extreme value distribution is recommended for temperature gradient stress and vehicle induced stress fitting for box-girder bridges.

  5. Analytic tools for investigating the structure of network reliability measures with regard to observation correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prószyński, W.; Kwaśniak, M.

    2017-09-01

    A global measure of observation correlations in a network is proposed, together with the auxiliary indices related to non-diagonal elements of the correlation matrix. Based on the above global measure, a specific representation of the correlation matrix is presented, being the result of rigorously proven theorem formulated within the present research. According to the theorem, each positive definite correlation matrix can be expressed by a scale factor and a so-called internal weight matrix. Such a representation made it possible to investigate the structure of the basic reliability measures with regard to observation correlations. Numerical examples carried out for two test networks illustrate the structure of those measures that proved to be dependent on global correlation index. Also, the levels of global correlation are proposed. It is shown that one can readily find an approximate value of the global correlation index, and hence the correlation level, for the expected values of auxiliary indices being the only knowledge about a correlation matrix of interest. The paper is an extended continuation of the previous study of authors that was confined to the elementary case termed uniform correlation. The extension covers arbitrary correlation matrices and a structure of correlation effect.

  6. Reproducibility, reliability and validity of measurements obtained from Cecile3 digital models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Adolfo Watanabe-Kanno

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the reproducibility, reliability and validity of measurements in digital models compared to plaster models. Fifteen pairs of plaster models were obtained from orthodontic patients with permanent dentition before treatment. These were digitized to be evaluated with the program Cécile3 v2.554.2 beta. Two examiners measured three times the mesiodistal width of all the teeth present, intercanine, interpremolar and intermolar distances, overjet and overbite. The plaster models were measured using a digital vernier. The t-Student test for paired samples and interclass correlation coefficient (ICC were used for statistical analysis. The ICC of the digital models were 0.84 ± 0.15 (intra-examiner and 0.80 ± 0.19 (inter-examiner. The average mean difference of the digital models was 0.23 ± 0.14 and 0.24 ± 0.11 for each examiner, respectively. When the two types of measurements were compared, the values obtained from the digital models were lower than those obtained from the plaster models (p < 0.05, although the differences were considered clinically insignificant (differences < 0.1 mm. The Cécile digital models are a clinically acceptable alternative for use in Orthodontics.

  7. Research on the reliability of measurement of natural radioactive nuclide concentration of U-238

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Seok Ki; Kim, Gee Hyun [Dept. of Nuclear engineering, Univ. of SeJong, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Joo, Sun Dong; Lee, Hoon [KoFONS, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    Naturally occurred radioactive materials (NORM) can be found all around us and people are exposed to this no matter what they do or where they live. In this study, two indirect measurement methods of NORM U-238 has been reviewed; one that has used HPGe on the basis of the maintenance, and the other is disequilibrium theory of radioactive equilibrium relationships of mother and daughter nuclide at Decay-chain of NORM U-238. For this review, complicated pre-processing process (Breaking->Fusion->Chromatography->Electron deposit) has been used , and then carried out a comparative research with direct measurement method that makes use of and measures Alpha spectrometer. Through the experiment as above, we could infer the daughter nuclide whose radioactive equilibrium has been maintained with U-238. Therefore, we could find out that the daughter nuclide suitable to be applied to Gamma indirect measurement method was Th-234. Due to Pearson Correlation statistics, we could find out the reliability of the result value that has been analyzed by using Th-234.

  8. Reliability and responsiveness of a goniometric device for measuring the range of motion in the dart-throwing motion plane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasubuchi, Kenji; Dohi, Yoshihiro; Fujita, Hiroyuki; Fukumoto, Takahiko

    2018-02-26

    Dart-throwing motion (DTM) is an important component of wrist function and, consequently, has the potential to become an evaluation tool in rehabilitation. However, no measurement method is currently available to reliably measure range of motion (ROM) of the wrist in the DTM plane. To determine the reliability and responsiveness of a goniometric device to measure wrist ROM in the DTM plane. ROM of the wrist in the DTM plane was measured in 70 healthy participants. The intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) was used to evaluate the relative reliability of measurement, and a Bland-Altman analysis conducted to establish its absolute reliability, including the 95% limits of agreement (95% LOA). The standard error of the measurement (SEM) and minimal detectable change at the 95% confidence level (MDC 95 ) were calculated as measures of responsiveness. The intra-rater ICC was 0.87, and an inter-rater ICC of 0.71. There was no evidence of a fixed or proportional bias. For intra- and inter-rater reliability, 95% LOA ranged from -13.83 to 11.12 and from -17.75 to 16.19, respectively. The SEM and MDC 95 were 4.5° and 12.4°, respectively, for intra-rater reliability, and 6.0° and 16.6°, respectively, for inter-rater reliability. The ROM of the wrist in the DTM plane was measured with fair-to-good reliability and responsiveness and, therefore, has the potential to become an evaluation tool for rehabilitation.

  9. INTER- AND INTRA-RATER RELIABILITY OF PERFORMANCE MEASURES COLLECTED WITH A SINGLE-CAMERA MOTION ANALYSIS SYSTEM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Nathanial A; McPherson, April L; Berry, John D; Hewett, Timothy E

    2017-08-01

    Previous reliability investigations of single-camera three dimensional (3D) motion analysis systems have reported mixed results. The purpose of the current study was to determine the intra- and inter-rater reliability of a single-camera 3D motion analysis system for subject standing height, vertical jump height, and broad jump length. Experimental in vivo reliability study. Twelve subjects (age 20.6 ± 4.9 years) from a cohort that included high school to adult athletes who participated in sports at a recreational or competitive level entered and completed the study. Performance measurements were collected by a single-camera 3D motion analysis system and two human testers for standard clinical techniques. Inter- and intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC (2,k), ICC (2,1)) were determined. Intra-tester and inter-tester reliability were excellent (ICC ≥ 0.935) for single-camera system measured variables. Single-camera system measurements were slightly more reliable than clinical measurements for intra-tester ratings (ICC difference 0.020) for the standing broad jump. Single-camera system measurements were slightly less reliable than clinical measures for both intra- and inter-specimen standing height (mean ICC difference 0.003 and 0.043, respectively) and vertical jump height (mean ICC difference 0.017 and 0.036, respectively). The excellent reliability and previously demonstrated validity of the single-camera system along the anterior-posterior axis indicates that single-camera motion analysis may be a valid surrogate for clinically accepted manual measurements of performance in the horizontal plane. However, this single-camera 3D motion analysis system is likewise reliable, but inaccurate, for vertically oriented performance measurements. 2b.

  10. The concurrent validity and reliability of the Leg Motion system for measuring ankle dorsiflexion range of motion in older adults

    OpenAIRE

    Romero Morales, Carlos; Calvo Lobo, C?sar; Rodr?guez Sanz, David; Sanz Corbal?n, Irene; Ruiz Ruiz, Beatriz; L?pez L?pez, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Background New reliable devices for range of motion (ROM) measures in older adults are necessary to improve knowledge about the functional capability in this population. Dorsiflexion ROM limitation is associated with ankle injuries, foot pain, lower limb disorders, loss of balance, gait control disorders and fall risk in older adults. The aim of the present study was to assess the validity and reliability of the Leg Motion device for measuring ankle dorsiflexion ROM in older adults. Methods A...

  11. Intraclass reliability for assessing how well Taiwan constrained hospital-provided medical services using statistical process control chart techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien Tsair-Wei

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies discuss the indicators used to assess the effect on cost containment in healthcare across hospitals in a single-payer national healthcare system with constrained medical resources. We present the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC to assess how well Taiwan constrained hospital-provided medical services in such a system. Methods A custom Excel-VBA routine to record the distances of standard deviations (SDs from the central line (the mean over the previous 12 months of a control chart was used to construct and scale annual medical expenditures sequentially from 2000 to 2009 for 421 hospitals in Taiwan to generate the ICC. The ICC was then used to evaluate Taiwan’s year-based convergent power to remain unchanged in hospital-provided constrained medical services. A bubble chart of SDs for a specific month was generated to present the effects of using control charts in a national healthcare system. Results ICCs were generated for Taiwan’s year-based convergent power to constrain its medical services from 2000 to 2009. All hospital groups showed a gradually well-controlled supply of services that decreased from 0.772 to 0.415. The bubble chart identified outlier hospitals that required investigation of possible excessive reimbursements in a specific time period. Conclusion We recommend using the ICC to annually assess a nation’s year-based convergent power to constrain medical services across hospitals. Using sequential control charts to regularly monitor hospital reimbursements is required to achieve financial control in a single-payer nationwide healthcare system.

  12. Protein Based Molecular Markers Provide Reliable Means to Understand Prokaryotic Phylogeny and Support Darwinian Mode of Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaibhav eBhandari

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The analyses of genome sequences have led to the proposal that lateral gene transfers (LGTs among prokaryotes are so widespread that they disguise the interrelationships among these organisms. This has led to questioning whether the Darwinian model of evolution is applicable to the prokaryotic organisms. In this review, we discuss the usefulness of taxon-specific molecular markers such as conserved signature indels (CSIs and conserved signature proteins (CSPs for understanding the evolutionary relationships among prokaryotes and to assess the influence of LGTs on prokaryotic evolution. The analyses of genomic sequences have identified large numbers of CSIs and CSPs that are unique properties of different groups of prokaryotes ranging from phylum to genus levels. The species distribution patterns of these molecular signatures strongly support a tree-like vertical inheritance of the genes containing these molecular signatures that is consistent with phylogenetic trees. Recent detailed studies in this regard on Thermotogae and Archaea, which are reviewed here, have identified large numbers of CSIs and CSPs that are specific for the species from these two taxa and a number of their major clades. The genetic changes responsible for these CSIs (and CSPs initially likely occurred in the common ancestors of these taxa and then vertically transferred to various descendants. Although some CSIs and CSPs in unrelated groups of prokaryotes were identified, their small numbers and random occurrence has no apparent influence on the consistent tree-like branching pattern emerging from other markers. These results provide evidence that although LGT is an important evolutionary force, it does not mask the tree-like branching pattern of prokaryotes or understanding of their evolutionary relationships. The identified CSIs and CSPs also provide novel and highly specific means for identification of different groups of microbes and for taxonomical and biochemical

  13. Intraclass reliability for assessing how well Taiwan constrained hospital-provided medical services using statistical process control chart techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Tsair-Wei; Chou, Ming-Ting; Wang, Wen-Chung; Tsai, Li-Shu; Lin, Weir-Sen

    2012-05-15

    Few studies discuss the indicators used to assess the effect on cost containment in healthcare across hospitals in a single-payer national healthcare system with constrained medical resources. We present the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) to assess how well Taiwan constrained hospital-provided medical services in such a system. A custom Excel-VBA routine to record the distances of standard deviations (SDs) from the central line (the mean over the previous 12 months) of a control chart was used to construct and scale annual medical expenditures sequentially from 2000 to 2009 for 421 hospitals in Taiwan to generate the ICC. The ICC was then used to evaluate Taiwan's year-based convergent power to remain unchanged in hospital-provided constrained medical services. A bubble chart of SDs for a specific month was generated to present the effects of using control charts in a national healthcare system. ICCs were generated for Taiwan's year-based convergent power to constrain its medical services from 2000 to 2009. All hospital groups showed a gradually well-controlled supply of services that decreased from 0.772 to 0.415. The bubble chart identified outlier hospitals that required investigation of possible excessive reimbursements in a specific time period. We recommend using the ICC to annually assess a nation's year-based convergent power to constrain medical services across hospitals. Using sequential control charts to regularly monitor hospital reimbursements is required to achieve financial control in a single-payer nationwide healthcare system.

  14. Reliability of transcutaneous measurement of renal function in various strains of conscious mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Schock-Kusch

    Full Text Available Measuring renal function in laboratory animals using blood and/or urine sampling is not only labor-intensive but puts also a strain on the animal. Several approaches for fluorescence based transcutaneous measurement of the glomerular filtration rate (GFR in laboratory animals have been developed. They allow the measurement of GFR based on the elimination kinetics of fluorescent exogenous markers. None of the studies dealt with the reproducibility of the measurements in the same animals. Therefore, the reproducibility of a transcutaneous GFR assessment method was investigated using the fluorescent renal marker FITC-Sinistrin in conscious mice in the present study. We performed two transcutaneous GFR measurements within three days in five groups of mice (Balb/c, C57BL/6, SV129, NMRI at 3-4 months of age, and a group of 24 months old C57BL/6. Data were evaluated regarding day-to-day reproducibility as well as intra- and inter-strain variability of GFR and the impact of age on these parameters. No significant differences between the two subsequent GFR measurements were detected. Fastest elimination for FITC-Sinistrin was detected in Balb/c with significant differences to C57BL/6 and SV129 mice. GFR decreased significantly with age in C57BL/6 mice. Evaluation of GFR in cohorts of young and old C57BL/6 mice from the same supplier showed high consistency of GFR values between groups. Our study shows that the investigated technique is a highly reproducible and reliable method for repeated GFR measurements in conscious mice. This gentle method is easily used even in old mice and can be used to monitor the age-related decline in GFR.

  15. Crisis Reliability Indicators Supporting Emergency Services (CRISES): A Framework for Developing Performance Measures for Behavioral Health Crisis and Psychiatric Emergency Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balfour, Margaret E; Tanner, Kathleen; Jurica, Paul J; Rhoads, Richard; Carson, Chris A

    2016-01-01

    Crisis and emergency psychiatric services are an integral part of the healthcare system, yet there are no standardized measures for programs providing these services. We developed the Crisis Reliability Indicators Supporting Emergency Services (CRISES) framework to create measures that inform internal performance improvement initiatives and allow comparison across programs. The framework consists of two components-the CRISES domains (timely, safe, accessible, least-restrictive, effective, consumer/family centered, and partnership) and the measures supporting each domain. The CRISES framework provides a foundation for development of standardized measures for the crisis field. This will become increasingly important as pay-for-performance initiatives expand with healthcare reform.

  16. Thickness of the middle trapezius muscle measured by rehabilitative ultrasound imaging: description of the technique and reliability study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentman, Susanna; O'Sullivan, Cliona; Stokes, Maria

    2010-11-01

    A technique is described for measuring the thickness of the middle trapezius muscle using rehabilitative ultrasound imaging (RUSI). A test-retest study was employed to investigate the reliability of the technique in a convenience sample of 16 asymptomatic participants aged 20-41 (12 women). The middle trapezius muscle was imaged using RUSI with participants in a standardized sitting position. The principal investigator took measurements on two consecutive days to examine intra-rater reliability, and two additional investigators took measurements on the second day to investigate inter-rater reliability of the measurement technique. Reliability was examined using intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC), standard error of measurement (SEM), and Bland and Altman plots. The results demonstrated that inter-rater reliability was good between raters (ICC₂,₃ = 0.81, SEM = 0.94 mm) and was moderate for the same rater between days (ICC₃,₂ = 0.67, SEM = 1.0 mm). This study demonstrates that RUSI can be used reliably to measure muscle thickness of the middle trapezius muscle following the procedure described. © 2010 The Authors. Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging © 2010 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine.

  17. Spectral resolution in conjunction with polar plots improves the accuracy and reliability of FLIM measurements and estimates of FRET efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y-C; Clegg, R M

    2011-10-01

    A spectrograph with continuous wavelength resolution has been integrated into a frequency-domain fluorescence lifetime-resolved imaging microscope (FLIM). The spectral information assists in the separation of multiple lifetime components, and helps resolve signal cross-talking that can interfere with an accurate analysis of multiple lifetime processes. This extends the number of different dyes that can be measured simultaneously in a FLIM measurement. Spectrally resolved FLIM (spectral-FLIM) also provides a means to measure more accurately the lifetime of a dim fluorescence component (as low as 2% of the total intensity) in the presence of another fluorescence component with a much higher intensity. A more reliable separation of the donor and acceptor fluorescence signals are possible for Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) measurements; this allows more accurate determinations of both donor and acceptor lifetimes. By combining the polar plot analysis with spectral-FLIM data, the spectral dispersion of the acceptor signal can be used to derive the donor lifetime - and thereby the FRET efficiency - without iterative fitting. The lifetime relation between the donor and acceptor, in conjunction with spectral dispersion, is also used to separate the FRET pair signals from the donor alone signal. This method can be applied further to quantify the signals from separate FRET pairs, and provide information on the dynamics of the FRET pair between different states. © 2011 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2011 Royal Microscopical Society.

  18. Line Transect and Triangulation Surveys Provide Reliable Estimates of the Density of Kloss' Gibbons (Hylobates klossii) on Siberut Island, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höing, Andrea; Quinten, Marcel C; Indrawati, Yohana Maria; Cheyne, Susan M; Waltert, Matthias

    2013-02-01

    Estimating population densities of key species is crucial for many conservation programs. Density estimates provide baseline data and enable monitoring of population size. Several different survey methods are available, and the choice of method depends on the species and study aims. Few studies have compared the accuracy and efficiency of different survey methods for large mammals, particularly for primates. Here we compare estimates of density and abundance of Kloss' gibbons (Hylobates klossii) using two of the most common survey methods: line transect distance sampling and triangulation. Line transect surveys (survey effort: 155.5 km) produced a total of 101 auditory and visual encounters and a density estimate of 5.5 gibbon clusters (groups or subgroups of primate social units)/km(2). Triangulation conducted from 12 listening posts during the same period revealed a similar density estimate of 5.0 clusters/km(2). Coefficients of variation of cluster density estimates were slightly higher from triangulation (0.24) than from line transects (0.17), resulting in a lack of precision in detecting changes in cluster densities of triangulation and triangulation method also may be appropriate.

  19. Inter-observer reliability of radiographic classifications and measurements in the assessment of Perthes' disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiig, Ola; Terjesen, Terje; Svenningsen, Svein

    2002-10-01

    We evaluated the inter-observer agreement of radiographic methods when evaluating patients with Perthes' disease. The radiographs were assessed at the time of diagnosis and at the 1-year follow-up by local orthopaedic surgeons (O) and 2 experienced pediatric orthopedic surgeons (TT and SS). The Catterall, Salter-Thompson, and Herring lateral pillar classifications were compared, and the femoral head coverage (FHC), center-edge angle (CE-angle), and articulo-trochanteric distance (ATD) were measured in the affected and normal hips. On the primary evaluation, the lateral pillar and Salter-Thompson classifications had a higher level of agreement among the observers than the Catterall classification, but none of the classifications showed good agreement (weighted kappa values between O and SS 0.56, 0.54, 0.49, respectively). Combining Catterall groups 1 and 2 into one group, and groups 3 and 4 into another resulted in better agreement (kappa 0.55) than with the original 4-group system. The agreement was also better (kappa 0.62-0.70) between experienced than between less experienced examiners for all classifications. The femoral head coverage was a more reliable and accurate measure than the CE-angle for quantifying the acetabular covering of the femoral head, as indicated by higher intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) and smaller inter-observer differences. The ATD showed good agreement in all comparisons and had low interobserver differences. We conclude that all classifications of femoral head involvement are adequate in clinical work if the radiographic assessment is done by experienced examiners. When they are less experienced examiners, a 2-group classification or the lateral pillar classification is more reliable. For evaluation of containment of the femoral head, FHC is more appropriate than the CE-angle.

  20. Measurement of levofloxacin in human plasma samples for a reliable and accessible drug monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragon-Martinez, Othoniel Hugo; Isiordia-Espinoza, Mario Alberto; Galicia, Othir; Aranda Romo, Saray; Gómez Gómez, Alejandro; Romano-Moreno, Silvia; Martinez-Morales, Flavio

    2017-01-01

    Levofloxacin monitoring is recommended to obtain clinical cure and low incidence of antimicrobial resistance. During the monitoring procedure, levofloxacin should be measured in plasma samples and several assays are reported for this purpose. However, those methods do not have all of the characteristics for an accessible and reliable drug monitoring. For this reason, we develop a method that has all of the essential characteristics for levofloxacin monitoring. The procedure of validation was done in terms of Food and Drug Administration guidelines. Subsequently, our assay was applied in plasma samples obtained from healthy volunteers with a single oral administration of levofloxacin as well as patients with respiratory diseases under levofloxacin therapy. Levofloxacin was extracted from samples using only two precipitation steps. Our assay had a rapid run time (5min), adequate sensitivity (0.05μg/ml of lower limit of quantification), and acceptable parameters of validation. Moreover, compound identities were supported using three dimensional spectra and purities were confirmed employing similarity factors (values>900). Variable concentrations of levofloxacin in samples were observed during the application. Levofloxacin is successfully quantified using our method that shows reliable results, appropriate range, rapid analyses, and cost-effective measurements under a simple and easy technique while all prior methods did not have it all together. Consequently, our method is a valuable tool for routine drug monitoring. Moreover, a complete evaluation of specificity was done for levofloxacin in plasma samples for the first time. Meanwhile, the application data supported the necessity of levofloxacin monitoring. Copyright © 2016 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Intracellular sodium ion activity: reliable measurement and stimulation-induced change in cardiac Purkinje fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, C O; Im, W B; Sonn, J K

    1987-05-01

    Recently Na+-selective microelectrodes (NaSM) have been used to measure quantitatively small changes in intracellular sodium ion activity (aiNa) and to determine a precise time course of comparatively rapid change in aiNa. In such studies, accurate measurement of aiNa requires the following criteria: (i) NaSM should have a fast response time and (ii) an NaSM and a conventional voltage microelectrode should measure the same membrane potential. These criteria were evaluated by measuring aiNa when membrane potential of cardiac Purkinje fibers was suddenly hyperpolarized and depolarized by changing stimulation rate. The NaSM coated with a conductive silver paint had fast response times so that rapid changes in aiNa could be reliably measured. The cardiac Purkinje fibers stimulated at a constant rate generated uniform membrane voltage and the NaSM and conventional microelectrode measured virtually the same membrane potential. This result is somewhat different from that reported under voltage-clamp condition by other investigators. The aiNa of the fibers increased as the stimulation rate was increased over the range of 0.5-3 Hz. In fibers stimulated at 1 Hz, cessation of stimulation was immediately followed by an exponential decline of aiNa with an average time constant of 53 +/- 9 s (SD, n = 8), or rate constant of 0.020 +/- 0.004/s. Restimulation of the fibers produced an exponential rise of aiNa with an average time constant of 65 +/- 12 s (n = 8). Similar results were obtained in fibers stimulated at 2 Hz.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. Chapter 1: Reliably Measuring the Performance of Emerging Photovoltaic Solar Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rumbles, Garry [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Reese, Matthew O [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Marshall, Ashley [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-08

    Determining the power conversion efficiency of photovoltaic solar cells, especially those from new, emerging areas of technology, is important if advances in performance are to be made. However, although precise measurements are important, it is the accuracy of these types of measurements that can cause issues. Accurate measurements not only promote the development of new technology platforms, but they also enable comparisons with established technologies and allow assessments of advancements within the same field. This chapter provides insights into how measurements can be made with reasonable accuracy using both the components of the measuring system and a good protocol to acquire good data. The chapter discusses how to measure a calibrated lamp spectrum, determine a spectral mismatch factor, identify the correct reference cell and filter, define the illuminated active area, measure J-V curves to avoid any hysteresis effects, take note of sample degradation issues and avoid the temptation to artificially enhance efficiency data.

  3. The reliability and concurrent validity of shoulder mobility measurements using a digital inclinometer and goniometer: a technical report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolber, Morey J; Hanney, William J

    2012-06-01

    This study investigated the intrarater reliability and concurrent validity of active shoulder mobility measurements using a digital inclinometer and goniometer. Two investigators used a goniometer and digital inclinometer to measure shoulder flexion, abduction, internal and external rotation on 30 asymptomatic participants in a blinded repeated measures design. Excellent intrarater reliability was present with Intraclass Correlation Coefficients (ICC- 3,k) for goniometry ≥ 0.94 and digital inclinometry ≥ 0.95. The concurrent validity between goniometry and digital inclinometry was good with ICC (3,k) values of ≥ 0.85. The 95% limits of agreement suggest that the difference between these two measurement instruments can be expected to range from 2° to 20°. The results cautiously support the interchangeable use of goniometry and digital inclinometer for measuring shoulder mobility measurements. Although reliable, clinicians should consider the 95% limits of agreement when using these instruments interchangeably as clinically significant differences are likely to be present. 2b.

  4. Accurate measurement and influence on device reliability of defect density of a light-emitting diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zu-Qiang; Qian, Ke-Yuan

    2013-10-01

    A method of accurately measuring the defect density of a high-power light-emitting diode (LED) is proposed. The method is based on measuring the number of emitting photons in the magnitude of 105 under the injection current as weak as nA and calculating the non-radiative recombination coefficient which is related to defect density. Defect density is obtained with the self-developed measurement system, and it is demonstrated that defect density has an important influence on LED optical properties like luminous flux and internal quantum efficiency (IQE). At the same time, a batch of GaN-based LEDs with the chip size of 1 mm × 1 mm are selected to conduct the accelerated aging tests lasting for 1000 hours. The results show that defect density exhibits a greater variation and is more sensitive to LED reliability than luminous flux during aging tests. Based on these results, it is concluded that for the GaN-based LED with a chip size of 1mm × 1mm, if its defect density is over 1017/cm3, the LED device performance suffers a serious deterioration, and finally fails.

  5. Inter and intra-rater reliability of mobile device goniometer in measuring lumbar flexion range of motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedekar, Nilima; Suryawanshi, Mayuri; Rairikar, Savita; Sancheti, Parag; Shyam, Ashok

    2014-01-01

    Evaluation of range of motion (ROM) is integral part of assessment of musculoskeletal system. This is required in health fitness and pathological conditions; also it is used as an objective outcome measure. Several methods are described to check spinal flexion range of motion. Different methods for measuring spine ranges have their advantages and disadvantages. Hence, a new device was introduced in this study using the method of dual inclinometer to measure lumbar spine flexion range of motion (ROM). To determine Intra and Inter-rater reliability of mobile device goniometer in measuring lumbar flexion range of motion. iPod mobile device with goniometer software was used. The part being measure i.e the back of the subject was suitably exposed. Subject was standing with feet shoulder width apart. Spinous process of second sacral vertebra S2 and T12 were located, these were used as the reference points and readings were taken. Three readings were taken for each: inter-rater reliability as well as the intra-rater reliability. Sufficient rest was given between each flexion movement. Intra-rater reliability using ICC was r=0.920 and inter-rater r=0.812 at CI 95%. Validity r=0.95. Mobile device goniometer has high intra-rater reliability. The inter-rater reliability was moderate. This device can be used to assess range of motion of spine flexion, representing uni-planar movement.

  6. INTEGRATION OF OVERALL EQUIPMENT EFFECTIVENESS (OEE AND RELIABILITY METHOD FOR MEASURING MACHINE EFFECTIVENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Abdul Samat

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Maintenance is an important process in a manufacturing system. Thus it should be conducted and measured effectively to ensure performance efficiency. A variety of studies have been conducted on maintenance as affected by factors such as productivity, cost, employee skills, resource utilisation, equipment, processes, and maintenance task planning and scheduling [1,2]. According to Coetzee [3], equipment is the most significant factor affecting maintenance performance because it is directly influenced by maintenance activities. This paper proposes an equipment performance and reliability (EPR model for measuring maintenance performance based on machine effectiveness. The model is developed in four phases, using Pareto analysis for machine selection, and failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA for failure analysis processes. Machine effectiveness is measured using the integration of overall equipment effectiveness and the reliability principle. The result is interpreted in terms of maintenance effectiveness, using five health index levels as bases. The model is implemented in a semiconductor company, and the outcomes confirm the practicality of the EPR model as it helps companies to measure maintenance effectiveness.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Instandhouding is ’n belangrike proses in ’n vervaardigingsomgewing. Dit moet dus effektief onderneem en bestuur word met die oog op doeltreffende werkverrrigting. Verskeie studies is reeds onderneem om die impak van faktore soos produktiwiteit, koste, werknemervaardighede, hulpbronbenutting, toerusting, prosesse en instandhoudingsbeplanning en skedulering op instandhouding te bepaal [1,2]. Volgens Coetzee [3] het toerusting die mees betekeninsvolle impak op instandhoudingswerkverrrigting aangesien dit direk beïnvloed word deur instandhoudingsaktiwiteite. Hierdie artikel hou ’n model voor vir toerustingwerkverrigting en betroubaarheid wat gebruik kan word om die

  7. Performance Measurement for a Logistics Services Provider to the Polymer Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Tok, King Lai

    2007-01-01

    This management project discusses the form of performance measurement system suitable for a logistics services provider who focuses on providing its services to large multinational petrochemical companies in the polymer industry

  8. The importance of severity of arthrosis for the reliability of bone mineral density measurement in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayirlioglu, Alper; Gokaslan, Husnu; Cimsit, Canan; Baysal, Begumhan

    2009-02-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of the severity of degenerative changes on measurements of A-P lumbar spines BMD values and to determine the reliability of DEXA measurements associated with severity of the disease on A-P lumbar spines BMD values using DEXA. The measurements using DEXA were taken from L2-L4 spines and femoral neck of total 271 female cases. One hundred and ten of them had mild arthrosis (Group 0), and 69 had severe arthrosis (Group 1). Ninety-two cases without arthrosis were chosen as control group (Group 2). The cases with arthrosic changes were grouped according to their degree of severity of arthrosis. The groups were compared two by two and Tukey multiple comparison test was used for the analysis of the difference of the means of the groups. The mean age of cases was 61.79, 61.84, and 60.47, respectively. The average height was 157.26, 155.93, and 15.92 cm while the average weight was 69.21, 70.78, and 71.45 kg, respectively. The mean body mass index (BMI) was 0.00283, 0.00291, and 0.00293, respectively. L2-L4 A-P spinal BMD values were 0.9870, 0.9848, and 1.0836 g/cm(2) while the femoral neck BMD values were 0.7964, 0.8056, and 0.8223 g/cm(2), respectively. There was no statistical significance between study and control groups in terms of age, weight, height, BMI, and BMD values obtained from femoral neck. However, lumbar region BMD values of the cases with severe arthrosis were statistically significantly high when compared with other two groups. The femoral neck measurement is the prominent alternative method in severe arthrosis while taking measurements from lumbar region is still the most appropriate method in cases with mild arthrosis without having giant osteophytes.

  9. Reliability, validity, and responsiveness of the lower extremity measure for patients with a hip fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaglal, S; Lakhani, Z; Schatzker, J

    2000-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether currently published outcome measures of physical function would be suitable for use for older adults with a hip fracture. The measures that were considered were the Musculoskeletal Function Assessment (MFA) Instrument, the Older Americans' Resources and Services (OARS) Multidimensional Functional Assessment Questionnaire physical function subscale, the Toronto Extremity Salvage Score (TESS), and the Short Form-36 (SF-36). Following suggestions by an expert panel and patient interviews, the MFA was not tested further. The TESS was modified and renamed the Lower Extremity Measure (LEM). Forty-three community-dwelling patients with a hip fracture completed the LEM, OARS, and SF-36 in the hospital so that the prefracture status could be obtained; they were then followed prospectively at six weeks and at six months. All patients were interviewed twice in the hospital to assess the reliability of the LEM (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.85). To establish criterion validity, the measures were compared with the Timed Up and Go (TUG) test at six weeks. We tested a number of hypotheses to determine construct validity. Only the LEM scores were significantly correlated with the TUG scores (r = -0.53, p = 0.03). The LEM scores were significantly correlated with the SF-36 subscale scores and the OARS scores. Patients with at least one comorbidity had a lower mean prefracture LEM score (90.0 +/- 9.7) than patients with no comorbidity (96.9 +/- 8.1) (p = 0.02). Patients who had used no walking aids before the fracture had a higher mean prefracture LEM score than those who had used a cane (95.5 +/- 5.8 compared with 85.5 +/- 12.7; p = 0.0007). Both the LEM and the SF-36 scores changed significantly between all of the time-periods (p valid measure for patients with a hip fracture.

  10. Isometric hand grip strength measured by the Nintendo Wii Balance Board - a reliable new method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomkvist, A W; Andersen, S; de Bruin, E D; Jorgensen, M G

    2016-02-03

    Low hand grip strength is a strong predictor for both long-term and short-term disability and mortality. The Nintendo Wii Balance Board (WBB) is an inexpensive, portable, wide-spread instrument with the potential for multiple purposes in assessing clinically relevant measures including muscle strength. The purpose of the study was to explore intrarater reliability and concurrent validity of the WBB by comparing it to the Jamar hand dynamometer. Intra-rater test-retest cohort design with randomized validity testing on the first session. Using custom WBB software, thirty old adults (69.0 ± 4.2 years of age) were studied for reproducibility and concurrent validity compared to the Jamar hand dynamometer. Reproducibility was tested for dominant and non-dominant hands during the same time-of-day, one week apart. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and standard error of measurement (SEM) and limits of agreement (LOA) were calculated to describe relative and absolute reproducibility respectively. To describe concurrent validity, Pearson's product-moment correlation and ICC was calculated. Reproducibility was high with ICC values of >0.948 across all measures. Both SEM and LOA were low (0.2-0.5 kg and 2.7-4.2 kg, respectively) in both the dominant and non-dominant hand. For validity, Pearson correlations were high (0.80-0.88) and ICC values were fair to good (0.763-0.803). Reproducibility for WBB was high for relative measures and acceptable for absolute measures. In addition, concurrent validity between the Jamar hand dynamometer and the WBB was acceptable. Thus, the WBB may be a valid instrument to assess hand grip strength in older adults.

  11. The reliability and concurrent validity of measurements used to quantify lumbar spine mobility: an analysis of an iphone® application and gravity based inclinometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolber, Morey J; Pizzini, Matias; Robinson, Ashley; Yanez, Dania; Hanney, William J

    2013-04-01

    PURPOSEAIM: This purpose of this study was to investigate the reliability, minimal detectable change (MDC), and concurrent validity of active spinal mobility measurements using a gravity-based bubble inclinometer and iPhone® application. MATERIALSMETHODS: Two investigators each used a bubble inclinometer and an iPhone® with inclinometer application to measure total thoracolumbo-pelvic flexion, isolated lumbar flexion, total thoracolumbo-pelvic extension, and thoracolumbar lateral flexion in 30 asymptomatic participants using a blinded repeated measures design. The procedures used in this investigation for measuring spinal mobility yielded good intrarater and interrater reliability with Intraclass Correlation Coefficients (ICC) for bubble inclinometry ≥ 0.81 and the iPhone® ≥ 0.80. The MDC90 for the interrater analysis ranged from 4° to 9°. The concurrent validity between bubble inclinometry and the iPhone® application was good with ICC values of ≥ 0.86. The 95% level of agreement indicates that although these measuring instruments are equivalent individual differences of up to 18° may exist when using these devices interchangeably. The bubble inclinometer and iPhone® possess good intrarater and interrater reliability as well as concurrent validity when strict measurement procedures are adhered to. This study provides preliminary evidence to suggest that smart phone applications may offer clinical utility comparable to inclinometry for quantifying spinal mobility. Clinicians should be aware of the potential disagreement when using these devices interchangeably. 2b (Observational study of reliability).

  12. Reliability of the Brazilian Portuguese version of the Gross Motor Function Measure in children with cerebral palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Kênnea M.; Albuquerque, Karolina A.; Ferreira, Marina L.; Aguiar, Stéphany K. B.; Mancini, Marisa C.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To test the intra- and interrater reliability of the Brazilian Portuguese version of the 66-item Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM-66). METHOD: The sample included 48 children with cerebral palsy (CP), ranging from 2-17 years old, classified at levels I to IV of the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) and four child rehabilitation examiners. A main examiner evaluated all children using the GMFM-66 and video-recorded the assessments. The other examiners watched the video recordings and scored them independently for the assessment of interrater reliability. For the intrarater reliability evaluation, the main examiner watched the video recordings one month after the evaluation and re-scored each child. We calculated reliability by using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) with their respective 95% confidence intervals. RESULTS: Excellent test reliability was documented. The intrarater reliability of the total sample was ICC=0.99 (95% CI 0.98-0.99), and the interrater reliability was ICC=0.97 (95% CI 0.95-0.98). The reliability across GMFCS levels ranged from ICC=0.92 (95% CI 0.72-0.98) to ICC=0.99 (95% CI 0.99-0.99); the lowest value was the interrater reliability for the GMFCS IV group. Reliability in the five GMFM dimensions varied from ICC=0.95 (95% CI 0.93-0.97) to ICC=0.99 (95% CI 0.99-0.99). CONCLUSION: The Brazilian Portuguese version of the GMFM-66 showed excellent intra- and interrater reliability when used in Brazilian children with CP levels GMFCS I to IV. PMID:26786081

  13. Reliability and accuracy of the thoracic impedance signal for measuring cardiopulmonary resuscitation quality metrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Erik; Ruiz, Jesús; Aramendi, Elisabete; González-Otero, Digna; Ruiz de Gauna, Sofía; Ayala, Unai; Russell, James K; Daya, Mohamud

    2015-03-01

    To determine the accuracy and reliability of the thoracic impedance (TI) signal to assess cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) quality metrics. A dataset of 63 out-of-hospital cardiac arrest episodes containing the compression depth (CD), capnography and TI signals was used. We developed a chest compression (CC) and ventilation detector based on the TI signal. TI shows fluctuations due to CCs and ventilations. A decision algorithm classified the local maxima as CCs or ventilations. Seven CPR quality metrics were computed: mean CC-rate, fraction of minutes with inadequate CC-rate, chest compression fraction, mean ventilation rate, fraction of minutes with hyperventilation, instantaneous CC-rate and instantaneous ventilation rate. The CD and capnography signals were accepted as the gold standard for CC and ventilation detection respectively. The accuracy of the detector was evaluated in terms of sensitivity and positive predictive value (PPV). Distributions for each metric computed from the TI and from the gold standard were calculated and tested for normality using one sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. For normal and not normal distributions, two sample t-test and Mann-Whitney U test respectively were applied to test for equal means and medians respectively. Bland-Altman plots were represented for each metric to analyze the level of agreement between values obtained from the TI and gold standard. The CC/ventilation detector had a median sensitivity/PPV of 97.2%/97.7% for CCs and 92.2%/81.0% for ventilations respectively. Distributions for all the metrics showed equal means or medians, and agreements >95% between metrics and gold standard was achieved for most of the episodes in the test set, except for the instantaneous ventilation rate. With our data, the TI can be reliably used to measure all the CPR quality metrics proposed in this study, except for the instantaneous ventilation rate. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The patellar shift index: a reliable and valid measure for patellofemoral congruence following total knee arthroplasty with unresurfaced patella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metsna, Vahur; Sarap, Pirja; Vorobjov, Sigrid; Tootsi, Kaspar; Märtson, Aare

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a new radiographic measure, the patellar shift index (PSI), for the precise estimation of patellar position relative to the trochlea after a total knee replacement with an unresurfaced patella. This study included radiographs of 51 patients suffering from anterior knee pain following total knee arthroplasty. Patellofemoral axial radiographs were analyzed to compare the reliability of the PSI to the classical measures of patellofemoral congruence, the lateral patellar tilt (LPT) and patellar displacement (PD). Intra-rater reliability of the PSI, LPT and PD was estimated using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and the inter-rater reliability using Krippendorff's alpha (Kα). Agreement proportion of was calculated for the PD. Face validity of the PSI was also tested. The PSI had excellent intra (mean ICC=0.91) and inter-rater (Kα=0.92) reliability, as did LPT (mean ICC=0.96; Kα=0.89). The calculation of PD caused a low level of agreement (47.1%) between evaluators in terms of which images could be measured. The exclusion of these radiographs resulted in a high PD intra (ICC=0.96) and inter-rater (Kα=0.97) reliability. The PSI appears to be a reliable and valid measure for patellofemoral congruence in a replaced knee joint with an unresurfaced patella. The superiority of the PSI is the result of its consideration of the geometry and size of the replaced knee joint and independence from radiographic magnification.

  15. The reliability of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry measurements of bone mineral density in the metatarsals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuller, Joel T.; Buckley, Jonathan D.; Tsiros, Margarita D.; Thewlis, Dominic [University of South Australia, Alliance for Research in Exercise, Nutrition and Activity (ARENA), Sansom Institute for Health Research, GPO Box 2471, Adelaide, South Australia (Australia); Archer, Jane [University of South Australia, Medical Radiation, School of Health Sciences, Adelaide (Australia)

    2016-01-15

    To investigate the reliability of a simple, efficient technique for measuring bone mineral density (BMD) in the metatarsals using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). BMD of the right foot of 32 trained male distance runners was measured using a DXA scanner with the foot in the plantar position. Separate regions of interest (ROI) were used to assess the BMD of each metatarsal shaft (1st-5th) for each participant. ROI analysis was repeated by the same investigator to determine within-scan intra-rater reliability and by a different investigator to determine within-scan inter-rater reliability. Repeat DXA scans were undertaken for ten participants to assess between-scan intra-rater reliability. Assessment of BMD was consistently most reliable for the first metatarsal across all domains of reliability assessed (intra-class correlation coefficient [ICC] ≥0.97; coefficient of variation [CV] ≤1.5 %; limits of agreement [LOA] ≤4.2 %). Reasonable levels of intra-rater reliability were also achieved for the second and fifth metatarsals (ICC ≥0.90; CV ≤4.2 %; LOA ≤11.9 %). Poorer levels of reliability were demonstrated for the third (ICC ≥0.64; CV ≤8.2 %; LOA ≤23.6 %) and fourth metatarsals (ICC ≥0.67; CV ≤9.6 %; LOA ≤27.5 %). BMD was greatest in the first and second metatarsals (P < 0.01). Reliable measurements of BMD were achieved for the first, second and fifth metatarsals. (orig.)

  16. Test-retest reliability and construct validity of the Aspects of Wheelchair Mobility Test as a measure of the mobility of wheelchair users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rispin, Karen L; Huff, Kara; Wee, Joy

    2017-01-01

    The Aspects of Wheelchair Mobility Test (AWMT) was developed for use in a repeated measures format to provide comparative effectiveness data on mobility facilitated by different wheelchair types. It has been used in preliminary studies to compare the mobility of wheelchairs designed for low-resource areas and is intended to be simple and flexible enough so as to be used in low-technology settings. However, to reliably compare the impact of different types of wheelchairs on the mobility of users, a measure must first be a reliable and valid measure of mobility. This study investigated the test-retest reliability and concurrent validity for the AWMT 2.0 as a measure of mobility. For reliability testing, participants in a low-resource setting completed the tests twice in their own wheelchairs at least one week apart. For concurrent validity, participants also completed the Wheelchair Skills Test Questionnaire (WST-Q), a related but not identical validated assessment tool. Concurrent validity was indicated by a significant positive correlation with an r value of 0.7 between the WST-Q capacity score and the AWMT 2.0 score. Test-retest reliability was confirmed by an intraclass correlation coefficient greater than 0.7 between the two trials. Results support the preliminary reliability and validity of the AWMT 2.0, supporting its effectiveness in comparing the mobility provided by different wheelchair types. This information can be used to enable effective use of limited funds for wheelchair selection at individual and organisational scales.

  17. Evaluation of reliability of perioral muscle pressure measurements using a newly developed device with a lip piece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Mutsumi; Koide, Kaoru; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Satoh, Yoshihide; Iwasaki, Shin-Ichi

    2016-01-01

    We examined the reliability of measurements using a newly developed perioral muscle pressure measuring device with a lip piece in healthy adults. Subjects were 40 healthy men (25.8 years) with normal stomatognathic function. Perioral muscle pressure measuring device with a lip piece was used to measure upper lip, lower lip and tongue pressure, and a balloon-based measurement device was used to measure tongue and cheek pressure. Each measurement was taken twice with a 1-min interval between the two measurements. We determined intra-rater reliability by using the intra-class correlation coefficient as a test of relative reliability. As a test of absolute reliability, Bland-Altman analysis was used to assess systematic bias and the 95% confidence interval of the minimal detectable change was calculated. Additionally, the coefficient of vari