Wake, C.; Frades, M.; Hurtt, G. C.; Magnusson, M.; Gittell, R.; Skoglund, C.; Morin, J.
Carbon Solutions New England (CSNE), a public-private partnership formed to promote collective action to achieve a low carbon society, has been working with the Governor appointed New Hampshire Climate Change Policy Task Force (NHCCTF) to support the development of a state Climate Change Action Plan. CSNE's role has been to quantify the potential carbon emissions reduction, implementation costs, and cost savings at three distinct time periods (2012, 2025, 2050) for a range of strategies identified by the Task Force. These strategies were developed for several sectors (transportation and land use, electricity generation and use, building energy use, and agriculture, forestry, and waste).New Hampshire's existing and projected economic and population growth are well above the regional average, creating additional challenges for the state to meet regional emission reduction targets. However, by pursuing an ambitious suite of renewable energy and energy efficiency strategies, New Hampshire may be able to continue growing while reducing emissions at a rate close to 3% per year up to 2025. This suite includes efficiency improvements in new and existing buildings, a renewable portfolio standard for electricity generation, avoiding forested land conversion, fuel economy gains in new vehicles, and a reduction in vehicle miles traveled. Most (over 80%) of these emission reduction strategies are projected to provide net economic savings in 2025.A collaborative and iterative process was developed among the key partners in the project. The foundation for the project's success included: a diverse analysis team with leadership that was committed to the project, an open source analysis approach, weekly meetings and frequent communication among the partners, interim reporting of analysis, and an established and trusting relationship among the partners, in part due to collaboration on previous projects.To develop decision-relevant information for the Task Force, CSNE addressed
In the 12 years since the Kyoto Protocol was signed setting forth targets for greenhouse gas emissions from several nations, the number of policies, voluntary programs and commercial enterprises that have developed to manage carbon has grown exponentially. Many of these programs have occurred in a voluntary context, such as carbon trading, carbon offset programs, and climate registries . To date, no single, common system for accrediting, verifying and recording carbon credits has developed. Moreover, as the international community continues to negotiate the dimensions of an international agreement for the post-Kyoto time period, discussions still center on targets for fossil fuel emissions, biospheric carbon protection, and appropriate distribution of the burden of compliance globally. If carbon still remains the currency for discussion in a climate agreement, some type of effective measurement and verification system will be needed to ensure that commitments are being met. While entire volumes over the past decade have been written on what it is possible to observe about the carbon cycle and how to do so-- these tend to describe observations from the perspective of studying the carbon cycle to discover fundamental new knowledge. I will argue, however, that for the application under consideration in this session, i.e. a global greenhouse gas information system, it is essential to bring in the perspective of the policy and regulatory community. The needs of the scientific community for measuring the uncertainties in the global carbon cycle are not necessarily the same as those for the policy community. To ensure that such a system can serve a policy-relevant function, the scientific community must engage with policy makers, entrepreneurs, those who must comply, and others involved in constructing the policy framework. This paper will examine some of the key fundamentals that the policy community may be considering in designing a greenhouse gas monitoring system. I
Brouwer, A.; Faramarzi, A; Hoogendoorn, M.
The basic question we raise in this paper is whether the 2013 Discussion Paper (DP 2013) on the Conceptual Framework provides adequate principles for reporting an entity’s performance and what improvements could be made in light of both user needs and evidence from academic literature. DP 2013
Introduction: The term "information" in information science does not share the characteristics of those of a nomenclature: it does not bear a generally accepted definition and it does not serve as the bases and assumptions for research studies. As the data deluge has arrived, is the concept of information still relevant for information…
Sharma, S; Cruickshank, J K
Diet can play a key role in the management of disorders such as obesity, diabetes and hypertension, conditions highly prevalent in the British African Caribbean population. In this paper, information not previously available is provided on the dietary habits and foods consumed by a British African-Caribbean population representative of the local community. Food frequency questionnaires were obtained from 255 randomly selected subjects in Manchester (78% of Jamaican origin), the nutrient intake results of which are available elsewhere. Here, suggestions are given to ensure that complete and valid dietary assessments (by diet history) are obtained, and the need for the approach to be somewhat different to that used in the White European population, highlighted with examples. Suggestions have also been listed for methods of dietary modification for obesity, diabetes and hypertension, taking into account differences in cultural understanding and food practices. People of Caribbean origin are not from just one territory: food habits and cultural context play an important role in every island, with clear differences between each which persist in first and later generations in Britain. In this paper, we attempt to integrate experience of learning from patients themselves during consultations and from participants in this study, with direct quantitative data on types of foods and their frequency in the local African-Caribbean diet.
Rothman, Brian S; Dexter, Franklin; Epstein, Richard H
Tablet computers and smart phones have gained popularity in anesthesia departments for educational and patient care purposes. VigiVU(™) is an iOS application developed at Vanderbilt University for remote viewing of perioperative information, including text message notifications delivered via the Apple Push Notification (APN) service. In this study, we assessed the reliability of the APN service. Custom software was written to send a message every minute to iOS devices (iPad(®), iPod Touch(®), and iPhone(®)) via wireless local area network (WLAN) and cellular pathways 24 hours a day over a 4-month period. Transmission and receipt times were recorded and batched by days, with latencies calculated as their differences. The mean, SEM, and the exact 95% upper confidence limits for the percent of days with ≥1 prolonged (>100 seconds) latency were calculated. Acceptable performance was defined as mean latency 100 seconds. Testing conditions included fixed locations of devices in high signal strength locations. Mean latencies were 173,000 iPad and iPod latencies, none were >100 seconds. For iPhone latencies, 0.03% ± 0.01% were >100 seconds. The 95% upper confidence limits of days with ≥1 prolonged latency were 42% (iPhone) and 5% to 8% (iPad, iPod). The APN service was reliable for all studied devices over WLAN and cellular pathways, and performance was better than third party paging systems using Internet connections previously investigated using the same criteria. However, since our study was a best-case assessment, testing is required at individual sites considering use of this technology for critical messaging. Furthermore, since the APN service may fail due to Internet or service provider disruptions, a backup paging system is recommended if the APN service were to be used for critical messaging.
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Therapy Provider Phase Information dataset is a tool for providers to search by their National Provider Identifier (NPI) number to determine their phase for...
Full Text Available Although relevance has represented a key concept in the field of information science for evaluating information retrieval effectiveness, the broader context established by interdisciplinary frameworks could provide greater depth and breadth to on-going research in the field. This work provides an overview of the nature of relevance in the field of information science with a cursory view of how cross-disciplinary approaches to relevance could represent avenues for further investigation into the evaluative characteristics of relevance as a means for enhanced understanding of human information behavior.
Durso, Francis T; Sethumadhavan, Arathi; Crutchfield, Jerry
The main objective of this study is to present a methodology for computing information relevance. Relevance is a pervasive term used in several domains, such as pragmatics, information science, and psychology. Quantifying the relevance of information can be helpful in effective display design. Displays should be designed so that the more relevant information is more easily accessed. This procedure focuses on computing the relevance of a piece of information by taking into account three aspects of tasks that use the information: the number of different tasks that make use of the information, the frequency of occurrence of those tasks, and the criticality of those tasks. The methodology can be used to compute the aggregate relevance of a piece of information for a particular component of a system or for the entire system. This methodology was illustrated using the domain of air traffic control (ATC). In support of the validity of the methodology, we were able to confirm the value of weather information and traffic information in ATC towers. The method can be used to derive information relevance, a characteristic of information that has implications for display design for any domain. Designers can use information about aggregate relevance to design information displays that feature the most relevant information.
Full Text Available Dogs are particularly skilful during communicative interactions with humans. Dogs' abilities to use human communicative cues in cooperative contexts outcompete those of other species, and might be the result of selection pressures during domestication. Dogs also produce signals to direct the attention of humans towards outside entities, a behaviour often referred to as showing behaviour. This showing behaviour in dogs is thought to be something dogs use intentionally and referentially. However, there is currently no evidence that dogs communicate helpfully, i.e. to inform an ignorant human about a target that is of interest to the human but not to the dog. Communicating with a helpful motive is particularly interesting because it might suggest that dogs understand the human's goals and need for information. In study 1, we assessed whether dogs would abandon an object that they find interesting in favour of an object useful for their human partner, a random novel distractor, or an empty container. Results showed that it was mainly self-interest that was driving the dogs' behaviour. The dogs mainly directed their behaviour towards the object they had an interest in, but dogs were more persistent when showing the object relevant to the human, suggesting that to some extent they took the humans interest into account. Another possibility is that dogs' behaviour was driven by an egocentric motivation to interact with novel targets and that the dogs' neophila might have masked their helpful tendencies. Therefore, in study 2 the dogs had initial access to both objects, and were expected to indicate only one (relevant or distractor. The human partner interacted with the dog using vocal communication in half of the trials, and remaining silent in the other half. Dogs from both experimental groups, i.e. indicating the relevant object or indicating the distractor, established joint attention with the human. However, the human's vocal communication and the
Piotti, Patrizia; Kaminski, Juliane
Dogs are particularly skilful during communicative interactions with humans. Dogs' abilities to use human communicative cues in cooperative contexts outcompete those of other species, and might be the result of selection pressures during domestication. Dogs also produce signals to direct the attention of humans towards outside entities, a behaviour often referred to as showing behaviour. This showing behaviour in dogs is thought to be something dogs use intentionally and referentially. However, there is currently no evidence that dogs communicate helpfully, i.e. to inform an ignorant human about a target that is of interest to the human but not to the dog. Communicating with a helpful motive is particularly interesting because it might suggest that dogs understand the human's goals and need for information. In study 1, we assessed whether dogs would abandon an object that they find interesting in favour of an object useful for their human partner, a random novel distractor, or an empty container. Results showed that it was mainly self-interest that was driving the dogs' behaviour. The dogs mainly directed their behaviour towards the object they had an interest in, but dogs were more persistent when showing the object relevant to the human, suggesting that to some extent they took the humans interest into account. Another possibility is that dogs' behaviour was driven by an egocentric motivation to interact with novel targets and that the dogs' neophila might have masked their helpful tendencies. Therefore, in study 2 the dogs had initial access to both objects, and were expected to indicate only one (relevant or distractor). The human partner interacted with the dog using vocal communication in half of the trials, and remaining silent in the other half. Dogs from both experimental groups, i.e. indicating the relevant object or indicating the distractor, established joint attention with the human. However, the human's vocal communication and the presence of the
Dahl, Katja; Kesmodel, Ulrik; Hvidman, Lone
to empower women making an informed consent. Information on Down syndrome is often confined and limitations of screenings tests rarely mentioned. Understanding is better achieved by presenting the risk estimate as a numerical probability compared to a verbal explanation. Rates are better understood than......Prenatal care has gradually moved away from paternalism, to a state where patient autonomy and information is vital. It is known from other health care settings that the way information is presented affects understanding.The objective is to summarize current knowledge on aspects of informing...... pregnant women about prenatal examinations. Women's knowledge, decisional conflict, satisfaction and anxiety will be explored as compared with different ways and different groups of health professionals providing information. To what extent information empowers informed decision making will be explored...
Suckling, E. B.; Smith, L. A.
It is widely held that only physics-based simulation models can capture the dynamics required to provide decision-relevant probabilistic climate predictions. This fact in itself provides no evidence that predictions from today's GCMs are fit for purpose. Empirical (data-based) models are employed to make probability forecasts on decadal timescales, where it is argued that these 'physics free' forecasts provide a quantitative 'zero skill' target for the evaluation of forecasts based on more complicated models. It is demonstrated that these zero skill models are competitive with GCMs on decadal scales for probability forecasts evaluated over the last 50 years. Complications of statistical interpretation due to the 'hindcast' nature of this experiment, and the likely relevance of arguments that the lack of hindcast skill is irrelevant as the signal will soon 'come out of the noise' are discussed. A lack of decision relevant quantiative skill does not bring the science-based insights of anthropogenic warming into doubt, but it does call for a clear quantification of limits, as a function of lead time, for spatial and temporal scales on which decisions based on such model output are expected to prove maladaptive. Failing to do so may risk the credibility of science in support of policy in the long term. The performance amongst a collection of simulation models is evaluated, having transformed ensembles of point forecasts into probability distributions through the kernel dressing procedure , according to a selection of proper skill scores  and contrasted with purely data-based empirical models. Data-based models are unlikely to yield realistic forecasts for future climate change if the Earth system moves away from the conditions observed in the past, upon which the models are constructed; in this sense the empirical model defines zero skill. When should a decision relevant simulation model be expected to significantly outperform such empirical models? Probability
Laverdure, Patricia A.; Rose, Deborah S.
As defined in the Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act, occupational and physical therapists provide services to support students to access, participate, and progress in their educational program within the least restrictive educational environment. Educationally relevant occupational and physical therapy services in school…
Thinggaard, Frank; Damkier, Jesper
as the total market-adjusted return that could be earned from investment strategies based on foreknowledge of financial statement information. It answers the question: Are investments based on financial statement information able to capture progressively less information in security returns over time......? The sample is based on non-financial companies listed on the Copenhagen Stock Exchange in the period 1984-2002. Our analyses show that all the applied accounting measures are value-relevant as investment strategies based on the information earn positive market-adjusted returns in our sample period...
The paper examined the tool of Information Communication Technology (ICT), its relevance and the need to integrate it into teacher formation programmes in Nigerian universities. The paper defined ICT in pedagogical context and so established its implicatians in education management for teacher education.
Boland, Stacey W.; Duren, Riley M.
Global Greenhouse Gas Information System Workshop; Albuquerque, New Mexico, 20-22 May 2009; The second Greenhouse Gas Information System (GHGIS) workshop brought together 74 representatives from 28 organizations including U.S. government agencies, national laboratories, and members of the academic community to address issues related to the understanding, operational monitoring, and tracking of greenhouse gas emissions and carbon offsets. The workshop was held at Sandia National Laboratories and organized by an interagency collaboration among NASA centers, Department of Energy laboratories, and the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. It was motivated by the perceived need for an integrated interagency, community-wide initiative to provide information about greenhouse gas sources and sinks at policy-relevant temporal and spatial scales. Such an initiative could significantly enhance the ability of national and regional governments, industry, and private citizens to implement and evaluate effective climate change mitigation policies.
... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Provider information. 890.910 Section 890.910 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS..., and FEHB Benefit Payments § 890.910 Provider information. The hospital provider information used to...
PATRUTA MIRCEA IOAN
Full Text Available The performance analysis is based on an informational system, which provides financial information in various formatsand with various applicabilities.We intend to formulate a set of important caracteristics of financial information along with identifying a set of relevant financial rates and indicatorsused to appreciate the performance level of a company. Economic performance can be interpreted in different ways at each level of analysis. Generally, it refers to economic growth, increased productivity and profitability. The growth of labor productivity or increased production per worker is a measure of efficient use of resources in value creation.
Prybutok, Gayle Linda; Koh, Chang; Prybutok, Victor R
Consumer health informatics includes the development and implementation of Internet-based systems to deliver health risk management information and health intervention applications to the public. The application of consumer health informatics to educational and interventional efforts such as smoking reduction and cessation has garnered attention from both consumers and health researchers in recent years. Scientists believe that smoking avoidance or cessation before the age of 30 years can prevent more than 90% of smoking-related cancers and that individuals who stop smoking fare as well in preventing cancer as those who never start. The goal of this study was to determine factors that were most highly correlated with content relevance for health information provided on the Internet for a study group of 18- to 30-year-old college students. Data analysis showed that the opportunity for convenient entertainment, social interaction, health information-seeking behavior, time spent surfing on the Internet, the importance of available activities on the Internet (particularly e-mail), and perceived site relevance for Internet-based sources of health information were significantly correlated with content relevance for 18- to 30-year-old college students, an educated subset of this population segment.
The inference is that relevance has a strong influence on users' satisfaction with information resources in university libraries in the South -South zone of Nigeria. It is therefore recommended th at librarians should take cognizance of relevanceof the information resources in the event of acquisition. Key Words: Relevance ...
This article illustrates the relevance of information warfare models to critical infrastructure protection. Analogies of information warfare models to those of information security and information systems were used to deconstruct the models into their fundamental components and this will be discussed. The models were applied ...
Vladimir N. Shvedenko
Full Text Available The paper deals with creation of integrated information system architecture capable of supporting management decisions using behavioral features. The paper considers the architecture of information decision support system for production system management. The behavioral feature is given to an information system, and it ensures extraction, processing of information, management decision-making with both automated and automatic modes of decision-making subsystem being permitted. Practical implementation of information system with behavior is based on service-oriented architecture: there is a set of independent services in the information system that provides data of its subsystems or data processing by separate application under the chosen variant of the problematic situation settlement. For creation of integrated information system with behavior we propose architecture including the following subsystems: data bus, subsystem for interaction with the integrated applications based on metadata, business process management subsystem, subsystem for the current state analysis of the enterprise and management decision-making, behavior training subsystem. For each problematic situation a separate logical layer service is created in Unified Service Bus handling problematic situations. This architecture reduces system information complexity due to the fact that with a constant amount of system elements the number of links decreases, since each layer provides communication center of responsibility for the resource with the services of corresponding applications. If a similar problematic situation occurs, its resolution is automatically removed from problem situation metamodel repository and business process metamodel of its settlement. In the business process performance commands are generated to the corresponding centers of responsibility to settle a problematic situation.
Jamal Barzegari Khanagha
Full Text Available This paper examines the value relevance of accounting information in per and post-periods of International Financial Reporting Standards implementation using the regression and portfolio approaches for sample of the UAE companies. The results obtained from a combination of regression and portfolio approaches, show accounting information is value relevant in UAE stock market. A comparison of the results for the periods before and after adoption, based on both regression and portfolio approaches, shows a decline in value relevance of accounting information after the reform in accounting standards. It could be interpreted to mean that following to IFRS in UAE didn’t improve value relevancy of accounting information. However, results based on and portfolio approach shows that cash flows’ incremental information content increased for the post-IFRS period.
Drucker, Harris; Shahrary, Behzad; Gibbon, David C.
Compares support vector machines (SVMs) to Rocchio, Ide regular and Ide dec-hi algorithms in information retrieval (IR) of text documents using relevancy feedback. If the preliminary search is so poor that one has to search through many documents to find at least one relevant document, then SVM is preferred. Includes nine tables. (Contains 24…
Berlan, David; Shiffman, Jeremy
Health care providers in low-income countries often treat consumers poorly. Many providers do not consider it their responsibility to listen carefully to consumer preferences, to facilitate access to care, to offer detailed information, or to treat patients with respect. A lack of provider accountability to health consumers may have adverse effects on the quality of health care they provide, and ultimately on health outcomes. This paper synthesizes relevant research on health provision in low-, middle- and high-income countries with the aim of identifying factors that shape health provider accountability to consumers, and discerning promising interventions to enhance responsiveness. Drawing on this scholarship, we develop a framework that classifies factors into two categories: those concerning the health system and those that pertain to social influences. Among the health systems factors that may shape provider accountability are oversight mechanisms, revenue sources, and the nature of competition in the health sector-all influences that may lead providers to be accountable to entities other than consumers, such as governments and donors. Among the social factors we explore are consumer power, especially information levels, and provider beliefs surrounding accountability. Evidence on factors and interventions shaping health provider accountability is thin. For this reason, it is not possible to draw firm conclusions on what works to enhance accountability. This being said, research does suggest four mechanisms that may improve provider responsiveness: 1. Creating official community participation mechanisms in the context of health service decentralization; 2. Enhancing the quality of health information that consumers receive; 3. Establishing community groups that empower consumers to take action; 4. Including non-governmental organizations in efforts to expand access to care. This synthesis reviews evidence on these and other interventions, and points to future
PALIU – POPA LUCIA
Full Text Available Financial statements, which, actually are a core of the accounting information synthesis, represent the most spread and the least expensive method in terms of the managerial communication, provided that the economic professionals not to introduce, in convenience, tax accounting rules. If by drawing them the accounting records do not succeed in reflecting the reality of an entity patrimony, then the information issued by the financial statements have just the feature of some statistical data, not being useful for users. From this perspective and taking into account the great importance of the accounting information concerning the deferred taxes in the activity of the economic entity, as not accounting the taxes by the deferred tax method leads to the net overcome fluctuation depending on the temporary differences, and this issue leads to a greater difficulty in forecasting bot the financial exercise overcome and of the cash flows, we considered as useful to conduct a study aiming the relevance of the accounting information on the tax losses in establishing the deferred taxes, acknowledging the value of these taxes resulting in the deletion of the tax effects from the accounting records, as a stage in the tax accounting disconnection.
Gloeckner, M R; Starling, J R
Forty patients with a permanent colostomy, ileostomy, or ileal conduit were interviewed. Besides changes in sexual performance postoperatively, the authors specifically attempted to determine answers to other sexual variables such as attractiveness, appliance problems, and partner reactions. The extent of information provided to patients on sexuality prior to the permanent ostomy was also examined. There was a significant but predictable incidence of male impotence and female dyspareunia after surgery. Despite innumerable sexual variables, other than performance, which these patients faced postoperatively, 42 per cent received no information regarding sexuality at the time of ostomy surgery. most patients (97.5 per cent) stated that sexuality, including variables other than performance, should be discussed primarily by the surgeon prior to permanent ostomy surgery. The enterostomal therapist has an important role in the total patient adjustment in the long-term postoperative period.
Stimson, G V
In this study of advertisements appearing in medical periodicals and by direct mail advertising to general practitioners, Dr. Stimson, a sociologist, concludes that from what is intended to provide therapeutic information hardly any therapeutic information is provided. He reminds the reader of the safeguards which surround all drug advertising by law and by the code of practice of the Association of the British Pharmaceutical Industry but these safeguards do not appear to control real or potential sins of omission. Frequently in these advertisements the literature relating to the drug is quoted but Dr. Stimson found that it was difficult to trace all the papers quoted in different types of medical library. (Some references quoted were to unpublished papers but surely the blame should be shared in this situation?) Dr. Stimson also gives a vivid and fascinating glimpse of what he calls the 'images and stereotypes' of the patients who, it is claimed, would benefit from the drug being advertised. Certainly most general practitioners must be aware that when they prescribe that image is displaced by an individual but the portrait gallery is indeed depressing. However, to balance these advertisements drug companies issue data sheets which must be more informative than advertisements and conform to regulations in their format. Unfortunately data sheets are only issued every 15 months whereas the 'average general practitioner is potentially exposed to 1,300 advertisements every month'. In other words, the data sheet and not the advertisement should be the guideline but it arrives too infrequently to offset the lack of therapeutic information contained in advertisements. PMID:870694
Pursuant to Article R V 1.38 of the Staff Regulations, members of the personnel are reminded that they are required to inform the Organization in writing, within 30 calendar days, of any change in their family situation (marriage, partnership, birth of a child, etc.) and of the amount of any financial benefit of a similar nature to those provided for in the Staff Regulations (e.g. family allowance, child allowance, infant allowance, non-resident allowance or international indemnity) to which they or a member of their family may be entitled from a source other than CERN. The procedures to be followed are available in the Admin e-guide: https://admin-eguide.web.cern.ch/en/procedure/change-family-situation Members of the personnel are also reminded that any false declaration or failure to make a declaration with a view to deceiving others or achieving a gain resulting in a loss of funds or reputation for CERN constitutes fraud and may lead to disciplinary action in accordance with Article S ...
Weberschock, T; Valipour, A; Ochsendorf, F
Involuntary childlessness is a common problem. In about 50% of cases, inadequate semen quality plays a relevant role. A semen analysis provides information regarding exocrine function of the male reproductive organs of the testes, epidydimis, seminal vesicles, prostate gland, and vas deferens. These parameters can only be interpreted in conjunction with medical history and physical examination. Then they can be useful to identify relevant disorders or the causes of these disturbances. The fundamental principles for the interpretation of a semen analysis are easily learned and traditionally belong to the field of dermatology. This article explains the variables which are examined in a routine semen analysis as well as the reference values. Furthermore, common causes for deviations from the normal values are discussed to allow decision-making for further diagnostic workup. The interpretation of these values must always take into account the situation of the couple.
Toms, Elaine G.
Discussion of information architecture focuses on a model of information interaction that bridges the gap between human and computer and between information behavior and information retrieval. Illustrates how the process of information interaction is affected by the user, the system, and the content. (Contains 93 references.) (LRW)
Full Text Available This research study is analyzing the relevance of accounting information reflected through the elaboration of firm performance variables and administration because of the necessity of performance to be administrated. The subject of the theme is enclosed in current development of accounting norms at national , european, (Directives and international levels (IAS/IFRS. The analyised topic is based upon the capabilty of accounting to generate information , throug synthesis calculus being settled the nature , the characteristics and the informational valences of financial performance of an organization. The accounting infromation is base for performing the decison process. The rol of accounting in insurring the relevance and comparability of information increased significantly, being already indispensable. A real solution for communication misunderstanig elimination emerged, as result of diputes in perception and interpretation of economic information, as results for the national speciffic norms.The economic communication is demanding for firm not only in its expression but in thinking and in the process of method conceptualization of organization and administration. A detailed financial situation analysis, which are employing annual financial analysis procedures, underling the performance and risks influencing factors, are considering one starting point for addressing the issue. The introduced variables are insuring a whole vision of firm activity and an appropriate strategy for results significance.
Pursuant to Article R V 1.38 of the Staff Regulations, members of the personnel are reminded that they are required to inform the Organization in writing, within 30 calendar days, of any change in their family situation (marriage, partnership, birth of a child, etc.) and of the amount of any financial benefit of a similar nature to those stipulated in the Staff Regulations (e.g. family allowance, child allowance, infant allowance, non-resident allowance or international indemnity) to which they or a member of their family may be entitled from a source other than CERN. The procedures to be followed are available in the admin e-guide: https://admin-eguide.web.cern.ch/en/procedure/change-family-situation Members of the personnel are also reminded that any false declaration or failure to make a declaration with a view to deceiving others or achieving a gain resulting in a loss of funds or reputation for CERN constitutes fraud and may lead to disciplinary action in accordance with Article S VI 2.01 of ...
Pursuant to Article R V 1.38 of the Staff Regulations, members of the personnel are reminded that they are required to inform the Organization in writing, within 30 calendar days, of any change in their family situation (marriage, partnership, birth of a child, etc.) and of the amount of any financial benefit of a similar nature to those stipulated in the Staff Regulations (e.g. family allowance, child allowance, infant allowance, non-resident allowance or international indemnity) to which they or a member of their family may be entitled from a source other than CERN. The procedures to be followed are available in the Admin e-guide: https://admin-eguide.web.cern.ch/en/procedure/change-family-situation Members of the personnel are also reminded that any false declaration or failure to make a declaration with a view to deceiving others or achieving a gain resulting in a loss of funds or reputation for CERN constitutes fraud and may lead to disciplinary action in accordance with Article S VI 2.01 of ...
Sonia Raifur Kos
Full Text Available The demand for relevant accounting information has been intense by the regulatory bodies in last years, who havesougth to establish standards that make accounting information relevant and can be used safely in the decision-making process, especially considering decisions related to the capital market. Along these lines, James Ohlson proposed company valuation models based on accounting numbers. The objective of this study is to verify the differences in the Relevance of Accounting Information in the capital markets of Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa (BRICS and the United States of America, based on data available on stock Exchange of these countries, through the Residual Income Valuation (RIV and Abnormal Earnings Growth (AEG models proposed by Ohlson (2005. By means of the Panel Data Regression, it was concluded that the variables of each country show different behavior regarding their influence in the capital market, since besides presenting different coefficients, there was a large variation of R2,being 0.02 in Brazil for the AEG model and 0.79 in China for the RIV model. As regards the verification of which model (RIV or AEG best adapts to the reality of each country, it was observed that in Brazil and South Africa the AEG model presented a greater adjustment, whereas in Russia and China the RIV model was more suitable for both lagged variables in t-1 and non-lagged ones, as it has more expressive R2 and lower value for Akaike's Information Criterion. For the US and India, for non-delayed variables, AEG is the best model for India and RIV for the US. Already with lagged variables, the result is reversed.
Full Text Available Efforts have been underway for years to find more effective ways to retrieve information from large knowledge domains. This effort is now being driven particularly by the Internet and the vast amount of information that is available to unsophisticated users. In the early days of the Internet, some effort involved allowing users to enter Boolean equations of search terms into search engines, for example, rather than just a list of keywords. More recently, effort has focused on understanding a user's desires from past search histories in order to narrow searches. Also there has been much effort to improve the ranking of results based on some measure of relevancy. This paper discusses using iterative filtering of retrieved information to focus in on useful information. This work was done for finding source code correlation and the author extends his findings to Internet searching and e-commerce. The paper presents specific information about a particular filtering application and then generalizes it to other forms of information retrieval.
Bischoff, Kerstin; Herder, Eelco; Nejdl, Wolfgang
At the workplace, learning is often a by-product of working on complex projects, requiring self-steered, need-driven and goal-oriented retrieval of information just in time from documents or peers. The personal desktop provides one rich source for learning material and for adaptation of learning
The latter was found to be more inhibited from discussing sexuality with their spouse or anybody than those who got their information from books/magazines and films. Sex education of adolescents should, therefore be provided in a cultural, community-based setting of which the guardian programme should be only one ...
Silva, Cristina; Fresco, Paula; Monteiro, Joaquim; Rama, Ana Cristina Ribeiro
Evidence-Based Practice requires health care decisions to be based on the best available evidence. The model "Information Mastery" proposes that clinicians should use sources of information that have previously evaluated relevance and validity, provided at the point of care. Drug databases (DB) allow easy and fast access to information and have the benefit of more frequent content updates. Relevant information, in the context of drug therapy, is that which supports safe and effective use of medicines. Accordingly, the European Guideline on the Summary of Product Characteristics (EG-SmPC) was used as a standard to evaluate the inclusion of relevant information contents in DB. To develop and test a method to evaluate relevancy of DB contents, by assessing the inclusion of information items deemed relevant for effective and safe drug use. Hierarchical organisation and selection of the principles defined in the EGSmPC; definition of criteria to assess inclusion of selected information items; creation of a categorisation and quantification system that allows score calculation; calculation of relative differences (RD) of scores for comparison with an "ideal" database, defined as the one that achieves the best quantification possible for each of the information items; pilot test on a sample of 9 drug databases, using 10 drugs frequently associated in literature with morbidity-mortality and also being widely consumed in Portugal. Main outcome measure Calculate individual and global scores for clinically relevant information items of drug monographs in databases, using the categorisation and quantification system created. A--Method development: selection of sections, subsections, relevant information items and corresponding requisites; system to categorise and quantify their inclusion; score and RD calculation procedure. B--Pilot test: calculated scores for the 9 databases; globally, all databases evaluated significantly differed from the "ideal" database; some DB performed
Hürriyetoğlu, A.; Gudehus, C.; Oostdijk, N.; Bosch, A.P.J. van den
We introduce a tool that supports knowledge workers who want to gain insights from a tweet collection, but due to time constraints cannot go over all tweets. Our system first pre-processes, de-duplicates, and clusters the tweets. The detected clusters are presented to the expert as so-called information threads. Subsequently, based on the information thread labels provided by the expert, a classifier is trained that can be used to classify additional tweets. As a case study, the tool is evalu...
Biru, Tesfaye; And Others
Discusses the effect of including relevance data on the calculation of term discrimination values in bibliographic databases. Algorithms that calculate the ability of index terms to discriminate between relevant and non-relevant documents are described and tested. The results are discussed in terms of the relationship between term frequency and…
Rurik, Clas; Zowalla, Richard; Wiesner, Martin; Pfeifer, Daniel
Many people use the Internet as one of the primary sources of health information. This is due to the high volume and easy access of freely available information regarding diseases, diagnoses and treatments. However, users may find it difficult to retrieve information which is easily understandable and does not require a deep medical background. In this paper, we present a new kind of Web browser add-on, in order to proactively support users when searching for relevant health information. Our add-on not only visualizes the understandability of displayed medical text but also provides further recommendations of Web pages which hold similar content but are potentially easier to comprehend.
Full Text Available The paper presents empirical evidence about the impact of firm’s shareholders number as non accounting information on the value relevance of its earnings and book value of equity as accounting information for Jordanian industrial firms for the period from 1993 to 2002. Employing the return regression analysis and using shareholders number in two proxies namely local and foreign shareholders number, the findings of the study are fourfold. First, Individual earnings are value relevant while book value is irrelevant. Second, combining earnings with book value leads both of them to be irrelevant. Third, extending local shareholders number has significant impact on the value relevance of individual and combined earnings. Forth, extending foreign shareholders number has significant impact on the value relevance of individual book value and combined earnings. Since studies on the value relevance of these variables have neglected Jordan (and the Middle Eastern region, the study is the first especially in Jordan that tries to fill this gap by examiningthe impact of shareholders numbers on the value relevance of earnings and book valueto indicate firm value.
... LIBRARIES AND INFORMATION SCIENCE GOVERNMENT IN THE SUNSHINE ACT Procedures Governing Decisions About Meetings § 1703.206 Providing information to the public. Individuals or organizations interested in... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Providing information to the public. 1703.206...
... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Providing information to the public. 1206.8 Section 1206.8 Administrative Personnel MERIT SYSTEMS PROTECTION BOARD ORGANIZATION AND PROCEDURES OPEN MEETINGS Procedures § 1206.8 Providing information to the public. Information available to the...
Full Text Available In the reformed tradition and theology, the doctrine of provi- dence has always been important and relevant, so much so that it forms an integral part of the reformed confessions. At the same time some of the most difficult theological questions are raised regarding this doctrine, questions like the following: Is God in control of everything? What is the relationship between the providence of God and sin, suffering, man’s responsibility, et cetera? In our times the doctrine as such is questioned or even rejected. What makes this topic even more important is the commemoration of the publication of Darwin’s book, “The origin of species”, coupled with the renewed emphasis on Darwinism, evolutionism and atheism.1 From the perspective of the Calvinistic-reformed theology and in the light of the com- memoration of Calvin’s birth 500 years ago, it is important to determine the relevance of Calvin’s thoughts on a number of important issues in the current debate, e.g. the doctrine on God, providence and creation, sin, suffering, et cetera. It is also determined that Calvin’s thoughts are reflected in the reformed confessions, which is still the living faith of reformed churches all over the world.
Wolf, Christian; Schütz, Alexander C
Saccades bring objects of interest onto the fovea for high-acuity processing. Saccades to rewarded targets show shorter latencies that correlate negatively with expected motivational value. Shorter latencies are also observed when the saccade target is relevant for a perceptual discrimination task. Here we tested whether saccade preparation is equally influenced by informational value as it is by motivational value. We defined informational value as the probability that information is task-relevant times the ratio between postsaccadic foveal and presaccadic peripheral discriminability. Using a gaze-contingent display, we independently manipulated peripheral and foveal discriminability of the saccade target. Latencies of saccades with perceptual task were reduced by 36 ms in general, but they were not modulated by the information saccades provide (Experiments 1 and 2). However, latencies showed a clear negative linear correlation with the probability that the target is task-relevant (Experiment 3). We replicated that the facilitation by a perceptual task is spatially specific and not due to generally heightened arousal (Experiment 4). Finally, the facilitation only emerged when the perceptual task is in the visual but not in the auditory modality (Experiment 5). Taken together, these results suggest that saccade latencies are not equally modulated by informational value as by motivational value. The facilitation by a perceptual task only arises when task-relevant visual information is foveated, irrespective of whether the foveation is useful or not.
Ross, Lone; Petersen, Morten Aagaard; Johnsen, Anna Thit
To validate five items (CPWQ-inf) regarding satisfaction with information provided to cancer patients from health care staff, assess the prevalence of dissatisfaction with this information, and identify factors predicting dissatisfaction.......To validate five items (CPWQ-inf) regarding satisfaction with information provided to cancer patients from health care staff, assess the prevalence of dissatisfaction with this information, and identify factors predicting dissatisfaction....
Donges, Uta-Susan; Dukalski, Bibiana; Suslow, Thomas
Enhanced sensitivity to emotion stimuli and poor differentiation between self and others have been proposed to be important features of borderline personality disorder (BPD). Automatic processing of affective stimuli provides information about valence (positive vs. negative) and relevance of valence (self vs. other). The objectives of our study were to investigate the efficiency of automatic processing of valence and relevance at a semantic level in BPD compared to healthy individuals. A masked affective priming task, varying the valence and relevance of prime and target adjectives, was administered to 33 women with BPD and 33 healthy women. The forward and backward masked primes were shown for 50 ms. Subjects had the task of evaluating target words. In the whole sample, a significant affective priming effect and a significant relevance priming effect occurred. BPD patients did not significantly differ from healthy individuals in affective priming or relevance priming after controlling for age, education, and intelligence. The presence of comorbid somatoform disorders was associated with increased affective priming and reduced relevance priming in BPD patients. The efficiency of automatic recognition and the processing of valence information at a semantic level are not impaired in BPD. Moreover, BPD patients are able to perceive and differentiate automatically self- versus other-relevance during the perception of affective information like healthy controls. Thus, there is no evidence for enhanced sensitivity to emotion stimuli or poor differentiation between self and others in BPD at a very early stage of processing. The presence of somatoform disorders appears to influence affective as well as relevance priming in BPD. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Albensi, Benedict C
Several start-up biotechnology companies have been created with the primary intent of developing cognitive enhancers. In addition, established pharmaceutical companies also frequently focus their efforts on cognitive drug discovery. In many instances, the rationale and evidence for these endeavors are based largely on in vitro assessments. In particular, the experimental paradigm, know as long-term potentiation (LTP), a cellular model of synaptic plasticity and memory encoding, is being increasing used preclinically for assessing potential nootropic drugs in vitro. Central to this thinking is the idea that the modulation of LTP and/or glutamate receptors are the key criteria that must be met for the development of cognitive enhancers. However, programs targeting the NMDA receptor, a glutamate receptor subtype, over the years have been less than fruitful. In addition, skeptics criticize the relevance of some in vitro tests such as LTP for simulating human cognitive function. Given these considerations, one may wonder if in vitro assessments in general, and the LTP paradigm in particular, provide relevant end points for cognitive drug discovery and development programs. The focus of this article is to address this question and to present evidence as to why in vitro assessment is still critical to the success of any cognitive drug program.
Full Text Available Purpose: The paper aims to explore whether intangible items that recognised in financial statements are value-relevant to investors in the French context, and whether these items affect the value relevance of accounting information. Design/methodology/approach: Empirical data were collected from a sample of French listed companies, over the nine-year period of 2005 to 2013. Starting of Ohlson’s (1995 model, the correlation analysis and the linear multiple regressions have been applied. Findings: We find that intangibles and traditional accounting measures as a whole are value relevant. However, the amortization and impairment charges of intangibles and cash flows do not affect the market values of French companies, unlike other variables, which affect positively and substantially the market values. Also goodwill and book values are more associated with market values than intangible assets and earnings respectively. Finally, we find that intangibles have improved the value relevance of accounting information. Practical implications: French legislators must give more interest for intangibles, in order to enrich the financial statements content and increasing the pertinence of accounting information. Auditors must give more attention for intangibles’ examination process, in order to certify the amounts related to intangibles in financial statements, and hence enrich their reliability, what provides adequacy guarantees for investors to use them in decision making. Originality/value: The paper used recently available financial data, and proposed an improvement concerning the measure of incremental value relevance of intangibles items.
Ferry, Quentin; Steinberg, Julia; Webber, Caleb; FitzPatrick, David R; Ponting, Chris P; Zisserman, Andrew; Nellåker, Christoffer
Craniofacial characteristics are highly informative for clinical geneticists when diagnosing genetic diseases. As a first step towards the high-throughput diagnosis of ultra-rare developmental diseases we introduce an automatic approach that implements recent developments in computer vision. This algorithm extracts phenotypic information from ordinary non-clinical photographs and, using machine learning, models human facial dysmorphisms in a multidimensional 'Clinical Face Phenotype Space'. The space locates patients in the context of known syndromes and thereby facilitates the generation of diagnostic hypotheses. Consequently, the approach will aid clinicians by greatly narrowing (by 27.6-fold) the search space of potential diagnoses for patients with suspected developmental disorders. Furthermore, this Clinical Face Phenotype Space allows the clustering of patients by phenotype even when no known syndrome diagnosis exists, thereby aiding disease identification. We demonstrate that this approach provides a novel method for inferring causative genetic variants from clinical sequencing data through functional genetic pathway comparisons.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02020.001. Copyright © 2014, Ferry et al.
Jackson, Jade; Rich, Anina N; Williams, Mark A; Woolgar, Alexandra
Human cognition is characterized by astounding flexibility, enabling us to select appropriate information according to the objectives of our current task. A circuit of frontal and parietal brain regions, often referred to as the frontoparietal attention network or multiple-demand (MD) regions, are believed to play a fundamental role in this flexibility. There is evidence that these regions dynamically adjust their responses to selectively process information that is currently relevant for behavior, as proposed by the "adaptive coding hypothesis" [Duncan, J. An adaptive coding model of neural function in prefrontal cortex. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 2, 820-829, 2001]. Could this provide a neural mechanism for feature-selective attention, the process by which we preferentially process one feature of a stimulus over another? We used multivariate pattern analysis of fMRI data during a perceptually challenging categorization task to investigate whether the representation of visual object features in the MD regions flexibly adjusts according to task relevance. Participants were trained to categorize visually similar novel objects along two orthogonal stimulus dimensions (length/orientation) and performed short alternating blocks in which only one of these dimensions was relevant. We found that multivoxel patterns of activation in the MD regions encoded the task-relevant distinctions more strongly than the task-irrelevant distinctions: The MD regions discriminated between stimuli of different lengths when length was relevant and between the same objects according to orientation when orientation was relevant. The data suggest a flexible neural system that adjusts its representation of visual objects to preferentially encode stimulus features that are currently relevant for behavior, providing a neural mechanism for feature-selective attention.
Chatterley, Trish; Storie, Dale; Chambers, Thane; Buckingham, Jeanette; Shiri, Ali; Dorgan, Marlene
Healthcare practitioners in Alberta and across Canada have varying levels of access to information resources depending on their institutional and professional affiliations, yet access to current health information is critical for all. To determine what information resources and services are provided by Albertan and Canadian professional health associations to their members. Representatives of professional colleges and associations were interviewed regarding information resources and services offered to members and perceptions of their members' information needs. National-level associations are more likely to provide resources than provincial ones. There is a clear distinction between colleges and associations in terms of information offered: colleges provide regulatory information, while associations are responsible for provision of clinical information resources. Only half of the associations interviewed provide members with access to licensed databases, with cost being a major barrier. There is considerable variation in the number of electronic resources and the levels of information support provided by professional health associations in Alberta and Canada. Access and usage vary among the health professions. National licensing of resources or creation of a portal linking to freely available alternatives are potential options for increasing access and awareness. © 2012 The authors. Health Information and Libraries Journal © 2012 Health Libraries Group.
information security and information systems were used to deconstruct the models into their fundamental components and this .... emptive strikes on communications and logistics may be conducted using computer- based information warfare or physical ..... and risk to infrastructure. Preventing an aggressor from acquiring ...
Available evidence shows that information and Communication Technology (ICT) has further transformed information into a global phenomenon. In fact, the knowledge explosion following ubiquitous ICT tools, have equipped information and library science with immediate access to practically limitless resources, as well as ...
Acharya, Amit; Shimpi, Neel; Mahnke, Andrea; Mathias, Richard; Ye, Zhan
The authors conducted this study to identify the most relevant patient dental information in a medical-dental integrated electronic health record (iEHR) necessary for medical care providers to inform holistic treatment. The authors collected input from a diverse sample of 65 participants from a large, regional health system representing 13 medical specialties and administrative units. The authors collected feedback from participants through 11 focus group sessions. Two independent reviewers analyzed focus group transcripts to identify major and minor themes. The authors identified 336 of 385 annotations that most medical care providers coded as relevant. Annotations strongly supporting relevancy to clinical practice aligned with 18 major thematic categories, with the top 6 categories being communication, appointments, system design, medications, treatment plan, and dental alerts. Study participants identified dental data of highest relevance to medical care providers and recommended implementation of user-friendly access to dental data in iEHRs as crucial to holistic care delivery. Identification of the patients' dental information most relevant to medical care providers will inform strategies for improving the integration of that information into the medical-dental iEHR. Copyright © 2017 American Dental Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Goodman, Ruth L; Webb, Thomas L; Stewart, Andrew J
Factual information is more frequently read and discussed than fictional information. However, research on the role of communication in shaping stereotypes has focused almost exclusively on fictional narratives. In Experiments 1 and 2 a newspaper article containing information about heroin users was communicated along chains of 4 people. No stereotype-consistency bias was observed. Instead, a greater proportion of stereotype-inconsistent information was communicated than was stereotype-consistent or -neutral information. Three further experiments investigated explanations for the difference between the communication of fictional and factual information. Experiment 3 ruled out the possibility that participants' beliefs about the validity of the information could influence the way that it is communicated. Experiments 4 and 5 divided information into concrete (a specific event or fact) or abstract (opinion). A stereotype-consistency bias emerged only for abstract information. In summary, linguistic abstraction moderates whether stereotype-consistency biases emerge in the communication of stereotype-relevant factual information.
Yellowlees, Peter M; Odor, Alberto; Iosif, Ana-Maria; Parish, Michelle Burke; Nafiz, Najia; Patrice, Kesha; Xiong, Glen; McCaron, Robert; Sanchez, Richard; Ochoa, Enrique; Hilty, Donald
To examine the feasibility and diagnostic reliability of asynchronous telepsychiatry (ATP) consultations in Spanish and ATP consultation with Spanish-to-English translation. Twenty-four interviews of Spanish-speaking patients were videorecorded by a bilingual clinician who also collected patient history data and gave the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders (SCID-I) to each patient. The ATP data (video of the interview and patient history) were forwarded for psychiatric consultation and a diagnostic assessment by the investigators. The ATP data were then examined separately by two Spanish-speaking psychiatrists, before being translated into English and then re-examined by two English-speaking psychiatrists. Agreement between the expert diagnoses of the investigators and the diagnoses from the Spanish consultations, the Spanish-to-English translated consultations, and the SCID-I results was assessed using kappa statistics. We found acceptable levels of agreement for major diagnostic groupings among the Spanish- and English-speaking psychiatrists. Kappa values for diagnostic agreement between the expert and the translated consultations, the original language consultations, and the SCID-I were at least 0.52 (percentage agreement, 79%) and higher. ATP consultations in Spanish, and those translated from Spanish to English, are feasible, and broad diagnostic reliability was achieved. The ATP process allows for rapid language translation. This approach could be useful across national boundaries and in numerous ethnic groups. Cross-language ATP may also offer significant benefits over the use of real-time interpreting services and has the potential to improve the quality of care by allowing for the addition of culturally relevant information.
van der Sluis, Frans; van Dijk, Elisabeth M.A.G.; van den Broek, Egon; Chen, Hsin-Hsi; Efthimiadis, Efthimis N.; Savoy, Jacques; Crestani, Fabio; Marchand-Maillet, Stephane
As widely recognized, there is more to relevance than topicality. By looking at the user experience of Information Retrieval (IR), this proposal takes a broader perspective on relevance. Several facets of relevance are structured according to how the user will experience an information object. In
School of Information Systems and Technology, University of. KwaZulu-Natal. Abstract. This article illustrates ... environment in which both sides use information-technology means, equipment, or systems in a rivalry over the ...... occurred in the cyber attacks on Estonia and Georgia. 61 The penetration of. NASDAQ computer ...
Banwell, Linda; Ray, Kathryn; Coulson, Graham; Urquhart, Christine; Lonsdale, Ray; Armstrong, Chris; Thomas, Rhian; Spink, Sin; Yeoman, Alison; Fenton, Roger; Rowley, Jennifer
This article aims to provide a baseline for future studies on the provision and support for the use of digital or electronic information services (EIS) in further education. The analysis presented is based on a multi-level model of access, which encompasses access to and availability of information and communication technology (ICT) resources,…
Mustafa A. Alssageer
Full Text Available Objective: To examine the opinions of Libyan doctors regarding the quality of drug information provided by pharmaceutical company representatives (PCRs during detailing visits. Method: An anonymous survey was conducted among 1,000 doctors from selected institutes in Tripoli, Benghazi and Sebha. Doctors were asked questions regarding the quality of information provided during drug-detailing visits. Results: A questionnaire return rate of 61% (608 returned questionnaires out of 1,000 was achieved. The majority (n=463, 76% of surveyed participants graded the quality of information provided as average. Approximately, 40% of respondents indicated that contraindications, precautions, interactions and adverse effects of products promoted by PCRs were never or rarely mentioned during promotional visits, and 65% of respondents indicated that an alternative drug to the promoted product was never or rarely mentioned by the representatives. More than 50% of respondents (n=310, 51% reported that PCRs were not always able to answer all questions about their products. Only seven respondents (1% believed that PCRs never exaggerated the uniqueness, efficacy or safety of their product. The majority of respondents (n=342, 56% indicated that verbal information was not always consistent with written information provided. Seven per cent of respondents (n=43 admitted that they did not know whether or not the verbal information provided by PCRs was consistent with written information. Conclusion: Doctors believe that the provision of drug information by PCRs in Libya is incomplete and often exaggerated. Pharmaceutical companies should ensure that their representatives are trained to a standard to provide reliable information regarding the products they promote.
Lansink, Carien S; Goltstein, Pieter M; Lankelma, Jan V; Joosten, Ruud N J M A; McNaughton, Bruce L; Pennartz, Cyriel M A
Spontaneous "off-line" reactivation of neuronal activity patterns may contribute to the consolidation of memory traces. The ventral striatum exhibits reactivation and has been implicated in the processing of motivational information. It is unknown, however, whether reactivating neuronal ensembles specifically recapitulate information relating to rewards that were encountered during wakefulness. We demonstrate a prolonged reactivation in rat ventral striatum during quiet wakefulness and slow-wave but not rapid eye movement sleep. Reactivation of reward-related information processed in this structure was particularly prominent, and this was primarily attributable to spike trains temporally linked to reward sites. It was accounted for by small, strongly correlated subgroups in recorded cell assemblies and can thus be characterized as a sparse phenomenon. Our results indicate that reactivated memory traces may not only comprise feature- and context-specific information but also contain a value component.
Thenen Menna Barreto, Vanessa von
The present thesis should deliver a contribution to the area of the organisational communication. What one defined long as an informal communication – spontaneous, ad hoc and unplanned information exchange beyond the formalized communication surroundings, thus in the hall, by photocopiers, coffeemakers or during lunch in the canteen – is nowadays used by most enterprises as a natural procedure to the increase of productiveness and is accepted. The work structures have changed so far that this...
Full Text Available We investigate the potential of polarization lidar to provide vertical profiles of aerosol parameters from which cloud condensation nucleus (CCN and ice nucleating particle (INP number concentrations can be estimated. We show that height profiles of particle number concentrations n50, dry considering dry aerosol particles with radius > 50 nm (reservoir of CCN in the case of marine and continental non-desert aerosols, n100, dry (particles with dry radius > 100 nm, reservoir of desert dust CCN, and of n250, dry (particles with dry radius > 250 nm, reservoir of favorable INP, as well as profiles of the particle surface area concentration sdry (used in INP parameterizations can be retrieved from lidar-derived aerosol extinction coefficients σ with relative uncertainties of a factor of 1.5–2 in the case of n50, dry and n100, dry and of about 25–50 % in the case of n250, dry and sdry. Of key importance is the potential of polarization lidar to distinguish and separate the optical properties of desert aerosols from non-desert aerosol such as continental and marine particles. We investigate the relationship between σ, measured at ambient atmospheric conditions, and n50, dry for marine and continental aerosols, n100, dry for desert dust particles, and n250, dry and sdry for three aerosol types (desert, non-desert continental, marine and for the main lidar wavelengths of 355, 532, and 1064 nm. Our study is based on multiyear Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET photometer observations of aerosol optical thickness and column-integrated particle size distribution at Leipzig, Germany, and Limassol, Cyprus, which cover all realistic aerosol mixtures. We further include AERONET data from field campaigns in Morocco, Cabo Verde, and Barbados, which provide pure dust and pure marine aerosol scenarios. By means of a simple CCN parameterization (with n50, dry or n100, dry as input and available INP
Dranseika, Vilius; Piasecki, Jan; Waligora, Marcin
In this article, we seek to contribute to the debate on the requirement of disclosure in the context of informed consent for research. We defend the subjective standard of disclosure and describe ways to implement this standard in research practice. We claim that the researcher should make an effort to find out what kinds of information are likely to be relevant for those consenting to research. This invites researchers to take empirical survey information seriously, attempt to understand the cultural context, talk to patients to be better able to understand what can be potentially different concerns and interests prevalent in the target population. The subjective standard of disclosure should be seen as a moral ideal that perhaps can never be perfectly implemented but still can and should be used as a normative ideal guiding research practice. In the light of these discussions, we call for more empirical research on what considerations are likely to be perceived as relevant by potential research participants recruited from different socio-economic and cultural groups.
ter Schure, S.M.M.
Newborn infants are sensitive to combinations of visual and auditory speech. Does this ability to match sounds and sights affect how infants learn the sounds of their native language? And are visual articulations the only type of visual information that can influence sound learning? This
The research institution should teach and train both the rural farmers and extension agent on how to use the modern communication gadgets to enhance their performance in agriculture. The trained extension agent and Agricultural experts should train the local farmers on how to use modern information technology and to ...
Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorder (ASD is a pervasive developmental disorder characterized by deficits in social communication skills as well as repetitive, restricted or stereotyped behaviors (1. Early interventionists are often found at the forefront of assessment, evaluation and early intervention services for children with ASD. The role of an early intervention specialist may include, assessing developmental history, providing group and individual counseling, working in partnership with families on home, school, and community environments, mobilizing school and community resources and assisting in the development of positive early intervention strategies (2, 3. The commonality amongst these roles resides in the importance of providing up-to-date, relevant information to families and children. The purpose of this review is to provide pertinent up-to-date knowledge for early interventionists to help inform practice in working with individuals with ASD, including common behavioral models of intervention.
A Planetary Defense Gateway for Smart Discovery of relevant Information for Decision Support presentation discussing background, framework architecture, current results, ongoing research, conclusions.
Knuth, Kevin H.; Golera, Anthony; Curry, Charles T.; Huyser, Karen A.; Kevin R. Wheeler; Rossow, William B.
The primary objective of the NASA Earth-Sun Exploration Technology Office is to understand the observed Earth climate variability, thus enabling the determination and prediction of the climate's response to both natural and human-induced forcing. We are currently developing a suite of computational tools that will allow researchers to calculate, from data, a variety of information-theoretic quantities such as mutual information, which can be used to identify relationships among climate variables, and transfer entropy, which indicates the possibility of causal interactions. Our tools estimate these quantities along with their associated error bars, the latter of which is critical for describing the degree of uncertainty in the estimates. This work is based upon optimal binning techniques that we have developed for piecewise-constant, histogram-style models of the underlying density functions. Two useful side benefits have already been discovered. The first allows a researcher to determine whether there exist sufficient data to estimate the underlying probability density. The second permits one to determine an acceptable degree of round-off when compressing data for efficient transfer and storage. We also demonstrate how mutual information and transfer entropy can be applied so as to allow researchers not only to identify relations among climate variables, but also to characterize and quantify their possible causal interactions.
Haluza, Daniela; Cervinka, Renate
Unprotected leisure time exposure to ultraviolet radiation from the sun or artificial tanning beds is the most important environmental risk factor for melanoma, a malignant skin cancer with increasing incidences over the past decades. The aim of the present study was to assess the impact of skin health information provided by several sources and different publishing issues on knowledge, risk perception, and sun protective behavior of sunbathers. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted among Austrian residents (n=563) spending leisure time outdoors in August 2010. Print media, television, and family were perceived as the most relevant sources of information on skin health, whereas the source physician was only ranked as fourth important source. Compared to other sources, information provided by doctors positively influenced participants' knowledge on skin risk and sun protective behavior resulting in higher scores in the knowledge test (p=0.009), higher risk perception (pgender differences, internet was more often used by males as health information source, whereas females were more familiar with printed information material in general. The results of this survey put emphasis on the demand for information provided by medical professionals in order to attain effective, long-lasting promotion of photoprotective habits.
This paper examines unique opportunities provided by international discourses and practices of the Green Economy approach and valuation of ecosystem services (as promoted under the international climate change regime) on the sustainable management of indigenous forests and lands in Peru. It examines the ...
Victor Chiedu Oba
Full Text Available Nigeria firms are facing the challenge of discharging sound environmental practices anddisclosing environmental information in order to meet upwith public concerns regarding these issues.This study basically investigates the association between environmental responsibility informationdisclosure and financial performance. To achieve the objective of this study, eighteen listed firmswere randomly selected from four environmentally sensitive industries for the year 2005–2009.Using the ordinary least square and logistic regression to test the research proposition, the studyobserved that there is a positive significant association between environmental responsibility andfinancial performance and vice versa. Additionally, foreign directors were found to play significantroles in these interactions. The paper therefore calls for an embrace of sound environmental policiesand disclosure practices by Nigerian firms and also recommends further research into associatedexplanatory factors and disclosure practices.
This study assessed the information services provided in special collections unit in federal and state University libraries in Nigeria. One research question was formulated to guide the study. Descriptive survey design was adopted in carrying out the study. A purposive sampling procedure was used to obtain a sample of 178 ...
Boggs, Sharon A. C.; And Others
A survey of 130 rural community pharmacists in Washington State found 70% in towns with five or fewer pharmacies; almost all provided nutrition information to their communities though only 20% had taken a nutrition course during pharmacy training. Most common questions concerned supplements and weight loss. Respondents relied on pharmacy journals,…
Student support is a major factor in distance education. This study was concerned with the use of ICT as a medium for providing student support at the University of Zambia. It was necessary to study the factors that would affect the application of ICT, in order to inform policy makers and managers of distance education which ...
Full Text Available Flood protection is one of several disciplines where geospatial data is very important and is a crucial component. Its management, processing and sharing form the foundation for their efficient use; therefore, special attention is required in the development of effective, precise, standardized, and interoperable models for the discovery and publishing of data on the Web. This paper describes the design of a methodology to discover Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC services on the Web and collect descriptive information, i.e., metadata in a geocatalogue. A pilot implementation of the proposed methodology - Geocatalogue of geospatial information provided by OGC services discovered on Google (hereinafter “Geocatalogue” - was used to search for available resources relevant to the area of flood protection. The result is an analysis of the availability of resources discovered through their metadata collected from the OGC services (WMS, WFS, etc. and the resources they provide (WMS layers, WFS objects, etc. within the domain of flood protection.
The hypotheses testing were conducted at 0.05 level of significance (p<0.05) for rejection or retention. The currency and relevance of information sources therefore have significant relationship with the use of library services. Recommended adequate funding to acquire current and relevant information sources as well as the ...
The hypotheses testing were conducted at. 0.05 level of significance (p<0.05) for rejection or retention. The currency and relevance of information sources therefore have significant relationship with the use of library services. Recommended adequate funding to acquire current and relevant information sources as well as ...
.../omb/procurement/frn/frn-access-to-relevant-integrity-information-public-comments.pdf . Joseph G... BUDGET Office of Federal Procurement Policy Improving Contracting Officers' Access to Relevant Integrity Information AGENCY: Office of Federal Procurement Policy, Office of Management and Budget. ACTION: Notice of...
Levine, Jason W.; Kiapour, Ata M.; Quatman, Carmen E.; Wordeman, Samuel C.; Goel, Vijay K.; Hewett, Timothy E.; Demetropoulos, Constantine K.
Background The functional disability and high costs of treating anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries have generated a great deal of interest in understanding the mechanism of noncontact ACL injuries. Secondary bone bruises have been reported in over 80% of partial and complete ACL ruptures. Purpose The objectives of this study were (1) to quantify ACL strain under a range of physiologically relevant loading conditions and (2) to evaluate soft tissue and bony injury patterns associated with applied loading conditions thought to be responsible for many noncontact ACL injuries. Study Design Controlled laboratory study. Methods Seventeen cadaveric legs (age, 45 ± 7 years; 9 female and 8 male) were tested utilizing a custom-designed drop stand to simulate landing. Specimens were randomly assigned between 2 loading groups that evaluated ACL strain under either knee abduction or internal tibial rotation moments. In each group, combinations of anterior tibial shear force, and knee abduction and internal tibial rotation moments under axial impact loading were applied sequentially until failure. Specimens were tested at 25° of flexion under simulated 1200-N quadriceps and 800-N hamstring loads. A differential variable reluctance transducer was used to calculate ACL strain across the anteromedial bundle. A general linear model was used to compare peak ACL strain at failure. Correlations between simulated knee injury patterns and loading conditions were evaluated by the χ2 test for independence. Results Anterior cruciate ligament failure was generated in 15 of 17 specimens (88%). A clinically relevant distribution of failure patterns was observed including medial collateral ligament tears and damage to the menisci, cartilage, and subchondral bone. Only abduction significantly contributed to calculated peak ACL strain at failure (P = .002). While ACL disruption patterns were independent of the loading mechanism, tibial plateau injury patterns (locations) were
Langarizadeh, Mostafa; Moghbeli, Fatemeh; Aliabadi, Ali
Advanced technology has increased the use of telemedicine and Information Technology (IT) in treating or rehabilitating diseases. An increased use of technology increases the importance of the ethical issues involved. The need for keeping patients' information confidential and secure, controlling a number of therapists' inefficiency as well as raising the quality of healthcare services necessitates adequate heed to ethical issues in telemedicine provision. The goal of this review is gathering all articles that are published through 5 years until now (2012-2017) for detecting ethical issues for providing telemedicine services and Information technology. The reason of this time is improvement of telemedicine and technology through these years. This article is important for clinical practice and also to world, because of knowing ethical issues in telemedicine and technology are always important factors for physician and health providers. the required data in this research were derived from published electronic sources and credible academic articles published in such databases as PubMed, Scopus and Science Direct. The following key words were searched for in separation and combination: tele-health, telemedicine, ethical issues in telemedicine. A total of 503 articles were found. After excluding the duplicates (n= 93), the titles and abstracts of 410 articles were skimmed according to the inclusion criteria. Finally, 64 articles remained. They were reviewed in full text and 36 articles were excluded. At the end, 28 articles were chosen which met our eligibility criteria and were included in this study. Ethics has been of a great significance in IT and telemedicine especially the Internet since there are more chances provided for accessing information. It is, however, accompanied by a threat to patients' personal information. Therefore, suggestions are made to investigate ethics in technology, to offer standards and guidelines to therapists. Due to the advancement in
Muzumdar, Jagannath M; Pantaleo, Nicholas L
This study compared the following effects of two vaccine information flyers-one developed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) versus one adapted from this information to a comic medium (comic)-on adults: (a) attitude toward the flyer; (b) perceived informativeness of the flyer; (c) intention to seek more information about adult immunizations after viewing the flyer; and (d) intention to get immunized after viewing the flyer. A between-group, randomized trial was used to randomly assign adults (age 18 years or older) at an ambulatory care center to review the CDC or comic flyer. Participants were asked to complete a survey to measure several outcome variables. Items were measured using a 7-point semantic differential scale. Independent-samples t-test was used for comparisons. A total of 265 surveys (CDC n = 132 vs comic n = 133) were analyzed. The comic flyer had a statistically significant effect on participants' attitudes and their perception of the flyer's informativeness compared to the CDC flyer. Flyer type did not have a statistically significant effect on intention-related variables. The study findings showed that the comic flyer was positively evaluated compared to the CDC flyer. These findings could provide a new direction for developing adult educational materials.
People with disabilities use various assistance devices to improve their capacity to lead independent and fulfilling lives. Service dogs can be crucial lifesaving companions for their owners. As the use of service dogs increases, nurses are more likely to encounter them in healthcare settings. Service dogs are often confused with therapy or emotional support dogs. While some of their roles overlap, service dogs have distinct protection under the American Disabilities Act (ADA). Knowing the laws and proper procedures regarding service dogs strengthens the abilities of healthcare providers to deliver holistic, patient-centered care. This article provides background information about use of dogs, and discusses benefits to patients and access challenges for providers. The author reviews ADA laws applicable to service dog use and potential challenges and risks in acute care settings. The role of the healthcare professional is illustrated with an exemplar, along with recommendations for future research and nursing implications related to care of patients with service dogs.
Christopher Steven Marcum
Full Text Available The informR package greatly simplifies the analysis of complex event histories in R by providing user friendly tools to build sufficient statistics for the relevent package. Historically, building sufficient statistics to model event sequences (of the form a?b using the egocentric generalization of Butts (2008 relational event framework for modeling social action has been cumbersome. The informR package simplifies the construction of the complex list of arrays needed by the rem( model fitting for a variety of cases involving egocentric event data, multiple event types, and/or support constraints. This paper introduces these tools using examples from real data extracted from the American Time Use Survey.
Grobe, M. [Alberta Geological Survey, Edmonton, AB (Canada). Earth Systems Section
The mission of the Alberta Geological Survey (AGS) is to provide, data, information, knowledge, and advice about the geology of Alberta needed by government, industry, and the public for earth-resource stewardship and sustainable development in Alberta. This presentation discussed the provision of geoscience information for geoexchange technology implementation in Alberta. Surficial and bedrock geology influences the selection, installation cost and performance of geoexchange systems. The AGS is currently examining the feasibility of transforming geological maps to geothermal property maps for geoexchange design purposes and decision making by policy makers and industry. Shallow or ground-source geothermal energy in Alberta and the role of geoscience information were presented. The role of the AGS and its activities were outlined. The presentation also identified a project approach to two studies, notably a geoscience needs and utilities assessment as well as a pilot study in the Edmonton area. Data compilation and maps of the pilot study were presented. Last, the presentation discussed drilling, sampling and thermal testing in an area of thick drift over bedrock. It was determined that quality geoscience information is an important factor for site assessment and proper geoexchange design and decision making. The sharing data and experience for better decision making was found to be an important benefit. tabs., figs.
Yuon, Egor; Soukhanov, Mikhail; Markov, Kirill
One of the Russian Federal аgency of mineral resources problems is to provide the geological information which was delivered during the field operation for the means of federal budget. This information should be present in the current, conditional form. Before, the leading way of presenting geological information were paper geological maps, slices, borehole diagrams reports etc. Technologies of database construction, including distributed databases, technologies of construction of distributed information-analytical systems and Internet-technologies are intensively developing nowadays. Most of geological organizations create their own information systems without any possibility of integration into other systems of the same orientation. In 2012, specialists of VNIIgeosystem together with specialists of VSEGEI started the large project - creating the system of providing digital geological materials with using modern and perspective internet-technologies. The system is based on the web-server and the set of special programs, which allows users to efficiently get rasterized and vectorised geological materials. These materials are: geological maps of scale 1:1M, geological maps of scale 1:200 000 and 1:2 500 000, the fragments of seamless geological 1:1M maps, structural zoning maps inside the seamless fragments, the legends for State geological maps 1:200 000 and 1:1 000 000, full author's set of maps and also current materials for international projects «Atlas of geological maps for Circumpolar Arctic scale 1:5 000 000» and «Atlas of Geologic maps of central Asia and adjacent areas scale 1:2 500 000». The most interesting and functional block of the system - is the block of providing structured and well-formalized geological vector materials, based on Gosgeolkart database (NGKIS), managed by Oracle and the Internet-access is supported by web-subsystem NGKIS, which is currently based on MGS-Framework platform, developed by VNIIgeosystem. One of the leading elements
Dr Jason Cooper
Full Text Available As developers of the open source LORLS Resource/Reading List Management System we have developed a dashboard to better support academic staffs’ understanding of how their students use reading lists. This dashboard provides both graphical and tabulated information drawn from LORLS and the Aleph Integrated Library System. Development of the dashboard required changes to back-end functionality of LORLS such as logging views of reading lists and caching of loan data. Changes to the front end included the use of HTML5 canvas elements to generate pie charts and line graphs. Recently launched to academic staff at Loughborough University, the dashboard has already garnered much praise. It is hoped that further development of the dashboard will provide even more support for academics in the compilation of their reading lists.
Full Text Available Alternative health practices have become increasingly popular in recent years. Many patients visit specific complementary practitioners, while others attempt to educate themselves, trusting advice from employees at local health food stores or the Internet. Thirty-two retail health food stores were surveyed on the nature of the information provided by their staff. A research assistant visited the stores and presented as the mother of a child in whom Crohn’s disease had been diagnosed. Seventy-two per cent (23 of 32 of store employees offered advice, such as to take nutritional and herbal supplements. Of the 23 stores where recommendations were made, 15 (65% based their recommendation on a source of information. Fourteen of the 15 stores using information sources used the same reference book. This had a significant impact on the recommendations; the use of nutritional supplements was favoured. In conclusion, retail health food stores are not as inconsistent as hypothesized, although there are many variances in the types of supplements recommended for the same chronic disease.
Boughanem, M.; Christment, C.; Tamine, L.
Presents a genetic relevance optimization process performed in an information retrieval system that uses genetic techniques for solving multimodal problems (niching) and query reformulation techniques. Explains that the niching technique allows the process to reach different relevance regions of the document space, and that query reformulations…
Uncertainty in clinical encounters is inevitable and despite this uncertainty clinicians must still work with patients to make diagnostic and treatment decisions. Explicit diagnostic reasoning based on probabilities will optimise information in relation to uncertainty. In clinical diagnostic encounters, there is often pre-existing information that reflects the probability any particular patient has a disease. Diagnostic testing provides extra information that refines diagnostic probabilities. However, in general diagnostic tests will be positive in most, but not all cases of disease (sensitivity) and may not be negative in all cases of disease absence (specificity). Bayes rule is an arithmetic method of using diagnostic testing information to refine diagnostic probabilities. In this method, when probabilities are converted to odds, multiplication of the odds of disease before diagnostic testing, by the positive likelihood ratio (LR+), the sensitivity of a test divided by 1 minus the specificity refines the probability of a particular diagnosis. Similar arithmetic applies to the probability of not having a disease, where the negative likelihood ratio is the specificity divided by 1 minus the sensitivity. A useful diagnostic test is one where the LR+ is greater than 5-10. This can be clarified by creating a contingency table for hypothetical groups of patients in relation to true disease prevalence and test performance predicted by sensitivity and specificity. Most screening tests in populations with a low prevalence of disease have a very high ratio of false positive results to true positive results, which can also be illustrated by contingency tables. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Full Text Available The goal of this study is to look after the amount of information that is mandatory to get a relevant parameters optimisation by data assimilation for physical models in neutronic diffusion calculations, and to determine what is the best information to reach the optimum of accuracy at the cheapest cost. To evaluate the quality of the optimisation, we study the covariance matrix that represents the accuracy of the optimised parameter. This matrix is a classical output of the data assimilation procedure, and it is the main information about accuracy and sensitivity of the parameter optimal determination. From these studies, we present some results collected from the neutronic simulation of nuclear power plants. On the basis of the configuration studies, it has been shown that with data assimilation we can determine a global strategy to optimise the quality of the result with respect to the amount of information provided. The consequence of this is a cost reduction in terms of measurement and/or computing time with respect to the basic approach.
Demetriades, Andreas K; Alg, Varinder Singh; Hardwidge, Carl
Trigeminal neuralgia has a variety of treatments with variable efficacy. Sufferers present to a spectrum of disciplines. While traditional delivery of medical information has been by oral/printed communication, up to 50-80% patients access the internet for information. Confusion, therefore, may arise when seeking treatment for trigeminal neuralgia. We evaluated the quality of information on the internet for trigeminal neuralgia using the DISCERN© instrument. Only 54% websites had clear objectives; 42% delivered on these. A total of 71% provided relevant information on trigeminal neuralgia, 54% being biased/unbalanced; 71% not providing clear sources of information. No website detailed the side-effect profile of treatments; 79% did not inform patients of the consequences/natural history if no treatment was undertaken; it was unclear if patients could anticipate symptoms settling or when treatment would be indicated. Internet information on trigeminal neuralgia is of variable quality; 83% of sites assessed were of low-to-moderate quality, 29% having 'serious shortcomings.' Only two sites scored highly, only one being in the top 10 search results. Websites on trigeminal neuralgia need to appreciate areas highlighted in the DISCERN© instrument, in order to provide balanced, reliable, evidence-based information. To advise patients who may be misguided from such sources, neurosurgeons should be aware of the quality of information on the internet.
Full Text Available During monitoring of the discourse, the detection of the relevance of incoming lexical information could be critical for its incorporation to update mental representations in memory. Because, in these situations, the relevance for lexical information is defined by abstract rules that are maintained in memory, results critical to understand how an abstract level of knowledge maintained in mind mediates the detection of the lower-level semantic information. In the present study, we propose that neuronal oscillations participate in the detection of relevant lexical information, based on ‘kept in mind’ rules deriving from more abstract semantic information. We tested our hypothesis using an experimental paradigm that restricted the detection of relevance to inferences based on explicit information, thus controlling for ambiguities derived from implicit aspects. We used a categorization task, in which the semantic relevance was previously defined based on the congruency between a kept in mind category (abstract knowledge, and the lexical-semantic information presented. Our results show that during the detection of the relevant lexical information, phase synchronization of neuronal oscillations selectively increases in delta and theta frequency bands during the interval of semantic analysis. These increments were independent of the semantic category maintained in memory, had a temporal profile specific for each subject, and were mainly induced, as they had no effect on the evoked mean global field power. Also, recruitment of an increased number of pairs of electrodes was a robust observation during the detection of semantic contingent words. These results are consistent with the notion that the detection of relevant lexical information based on a particular semantic rule, could be mediated by increasing the global phase synchronization of neuronal oscillations, which may contribute to the recruitment of an extended number of cortical regions.
Full Text Available The wetland has a strategic role in national development. The potential uses of the wetland are varied such as for agriculture, fisheries, industries, and forestry. The intensive use of the wetland for agricultural development in Sumatera, Kalimantan, Sulawesi, and Papua through transmigration projects has been run since in 1973. Unfortunately, not all the projects were well developed, causing the social, economic, and physical environmental problems. These problems resulted in the negative impact for the life of the transmigration people. For that reason, the community empowerment for the unlucky transmigration people by handling the physical and non physical aspects is very important. This paper will describe the importance of providing spatial data and information biophysical wetland as an initial step in empowering people who live in the wetland resource.
Vladimir D. Secerin
Full Text Available The thesis of importance of informative constituent Comes into question as non-material assets in a postindustrial economy. Importance of limitations is shown in realization of technological processes to want of authenticity, objectivity and timeliness of actualization of knowledge of specialists. As recommendations on providing of accordance of actuality of on-line tutorial to the level of technological development on a production at the limitations determined by the system requirements of educational standard “From a teacher to a student”, the chart of forming of the creative thinking of student is offered as nooswear technologies are in organization of feed-back “From a student to a teacher “.
Jacquiod, Samuel Jehan Auguste; Stenbæk, Jonas; Santos, Susana S.
Despite the critical ecological roles of microeukaryotes in terrestrial ecosystems, most descriptive studies of soil microbes published so far focused only on specific groups. Meanwhile, the fast development of metagenome sequencing leads to considerable data accumulation in public repositories......, providing microbiologists with substantial amounts of accessible information. We took advantage of public metagenomes in order to investigate microeukaryote communities in a well characterized grassland soil. The data gathered allowed the evaluation of several factors impacting the community structure...... on metagenomic microeukaryote DNA. Choosing the correct annotation procedure and reference database has proven to be crucial, as it considerably limits the risk of wrong assignments. In addition, a significant and pronounced effect of the DNA extraction method on the taxonomical structure of soil microeukaryotes...
Sugita, Takiko; Sasaki, Shiho; Tanaka, Keiko; Toda, Miou; Uneyama, Chikako; Yamamoto, Miyako; Morikawa, Kaoru
Databases for ADI (Acceptable Daily Intake) and relevant information on food additives, pesticides and veterinary drugs were developed. The databases we developed are easily accessible on the web, and contain ADIs, latest evaluation year, classification and use, as well as synonym and CAS registry number. The databases are designed to be easily updated by researchers as ADI and relevant information are updated or added without delay. The database for food additives has already provided from the homepage of NIHS, and the access log of the web site was 1325/month in December 2005 and 2179/month in March 2006.
Full Text Available Treating morphologically complex words (MCWs as atomic units in translation would not yield a desirable result. Such words are complicated constituents with meaningful subunits. A complex word in a morphologically rich language (MRL could be associated with a number of words or even a full sentence in a simpler language, which means the surface form of complex words should be accompanied with auxiliary morphological information in order to provide a precise translation and a better alignment. In this paper we follow this idea and propose two different methods to convey such information for statistical machine translation (SMT models. In the first model we enrich factored SMT engines by introducing a new morphological factor which relies on subword-aware word embeddings. In the second model we focus on the language-modeling component. We explore a subword-level neural language model (NLM to capture sequence-, word- and subword-level dependencies. Our NLM is able to approximate better scores for conditional word probabilities, so the decoder generates more fluent translations. We studied two languages Farsi and German in our experiments and observed significant improvements for both of them.
Full Text Available In view of the tremendous potential benefits of clinical information systems (CIS for the quality of patient care; it is hard to understand why not every CIS is embraced by its targeted users, the physicians. The aim of this study is to propose a framework for assessing hospital physicians' CIS-acceptance that can serve as a guidance for future research into this area. Hereto, a review of the relevant literature was performed in the ISI Web-of-Science database. Eleven studies were withheld from an initial dataset of 797 articles. Results show that just as in business settings, there are four core groups of variables that influence physicians' acceptance of a CIS: its usefulness and ease of use, social norms, and factors in the working environment that facilitate use of the CIS (such as providing computers/workstations, compatibility between the new and existing system.... We also identified some additional variables as predictors of CIS-acceptance.
Churi, Shobha; Abraham, Lovin; Ramesh, M; Narahari, M G
The aim of this study is to assess the nature and quality of services provided by poison information center established at a tertiary-care teaching hospital, Mysore. This was a prospective observational study. The poison information center was officially established in September 2010 and began its functioning thereafter. The center is equipped with required resources and facility (e.g., text books, Poisindex, Drugdex, toll free telephone service, internet and online services) to provide poison information services. The poison information services provided by the center were recorded in documentation forms. The documentation form consists of numerous sections to collect information on: (a) Type of population (children, adult, elderly or pregnant) (b) poisoning agents (c) route of exposure (d) type of poisoning (intentional, accidental or environmental) (e) demographic details of patient (age, gender and bodyweight) (f) enquirer details (background, place of call and mode of request) (g) category and purpose of query and (h) details of provided service (information provided, mode of provision, time taken to provide information and references consulted). The nature and quality of poison information services provided was assessed using a quality assessment checklist developed in accordance with DSE/World Health Organization guidelines. Chi-Square test (χ(2)). A total of 419 queries were received by the center. A majority (n = 333; 79.5%) of the queries were asked by the doctors to provide optimal care (n = 400; 95.5%). Most of the queries were received during ward rounds (n = 201; 48.0%), followed by direct access (n = 147; 35.1%). The poison information services were predominantly provided through verbal communication (n = 352; 84.0%). Upon receipt of queries, the required service was provided immediately (n = 103; 24.6%) or within 10-20 min (n = 296; 70.6%). The queries were mainly related to intentional poisoning (n = 258; 64.5%), followed by accidental poisoning
Hämäläinen, Liisa; Rowland, Hannah M; Mappes, Johanna; Thorogood, Rose
Video playback is becoming a common method for manipulating social stimuli in experiments. Parid tits are one of the most commonly studied groups of wild birds. However, it is not yet clear if tits respond to video playback or how their behavioural responses should be measured. Behaviours may also differ depending on what they observe demonstrators encountering. Here we present blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus) videos of demonstrators discovering palatable or aversive prey (injected with bitter-tasting Bitrex) from coloured feeding cups. First we quantify variation in demonstrators' responses to the prey items: aversive prey provoked high rates of beak wiping and head shaking. We then show that focal blue tits respond differently to the presence of a demonstrator on a video screen, depending on whether demonstrators discover palatable or aversive prey. Focal birds faced the video screen more during aversive prey presentations, and made more head turns. Regardless of prey type, focal birds also hopped more frequently during the presence of a demonstrator (compared to a control video of a different coloured feeding cup in an empty cage). Finally, we tested if demonstrators' behaviour affected focal birds' food preferences by giving individuals a choice to forage from the same cup as a demonstrator, or from the cup in the control video. We found that only half of the individuals made their choice in accordance to social information in the videos, i.e., their foraging choices were not different from random. Individuals that chose in accordance with a demonstrator, however, made their choice faster than individuals that chose an alternative cup. Together, our results suggest that video playback can provide social cues to blue tits, but individuals vary greatly in how they use this information in their foraging decisions.
Full Text Available Video playback is becoming a common method for manipulating social stimuli in experiments. Parid tits are one of the most commonly studied groups of wild birds. However, it is not yet clear if tits respond to video playback or how their behavioural responses should be measured. Behaviours may also differ depending on what they observe demonstrators encountering. Here we present blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus videos of demonstrators discovering palatable or aversive prey (injected with bitter-tasting Bitrex from coloured feeding cups. First we quantify variation in demonstrators’ responses to the prey items: aversive prey provoked high rates of beak wiping and head shaking. We then show that focal blue tits respond differently to the presence of a demonstrator on a video screen, depending on whether demonstrators discover palatable or aversive prey. Focal birds faced the video screen more during aversive prey presentations, and made more head turns. Regardless of prey type, focal birds also hopped more frequently during the presence of a demonstrator (compared to a control video of a different coloured feeding cup in an empty cage. Finally, we tested if demonstrators’ behaviour affected focal birds’ food preferences by giving individuals a choice to forage from the same cup as a demonstrator, or from the cup in the control video. We found that only half of the individuals made their choice in accordance to social information in the videos, i.e., their foraging choices were not different from random. Individuals that chose in accordance with a demonstrator, however, made their choice faster than individuals that chose an alternative cup. Together, our results suggest that video playback can provide social cues to blue tits, but individuals vary greatly in how they use this information in their foraging decisions.
This study investigated the effects of perceived controllability on information processing within Weiner's (1985, 1986) attributional model of learning. Attributional style was used to identify trait patterns of controllability for 37 university students. Task-relevant feedback on an information-processing task was then manipulated to test for…
Zewge, Amanuel; Dittrich, Yvonne; Bekele, Rahel
In a developing country like Ethiopia, marketing of agricultural products is influenced by local, socioeconomic, cultural and IT infrastructure characteristics. ICT-based agriculture information systems have been proposed to support farmers with market information. However, such initiatives have...
Samimi, Parnia; Ravana, Sri Devi
Test collection is used to evaluate the information retrieval systems in laboratory-based evaluation experimentation. In a classic setting, generating relevance judgments involves human assessors and is a costly and time consuming task. Researchers and practitioners are still being challenged in performing reliable and low-cost evaluation of retrieval systems. Crowdsourcing as a novel method of data acquisition is broadly used in many research fields. It has been proven that crowdsourcing is an inexpensive and quick solution as well as a reliable alternative for creating relevance judgments. One of the crowdsourcing applications in IR is to judge relevancy of query document pair. In order to have a successful crowdsourcing experiment, the relevance judgment tasks should be designed precisely to emphasize quality control. This paper is intended to explore different factors that have an influence on the accuracy of relevance judgments accomplished by workers and how to intensify the reliability of judgments in crowdsourcing experiment.
Bergenholtz, Henning; Pedersen, Heidi Agerbo
research into lexicographical functions) with a particular interest in linguistic uncertainties and the lack of knowledge and skills in relation to one or several languages. In this article, we suggest a classification of information needs in which a tripartition has been made according to the different......In some situations, you need information in order to solve a problem that has occurred. In information science, user needs are often described through very specific examples rather than through a classification of situation types in which information needs occur. Furthermore, information science...... often describes general human needs, typically with a reference to Maslow’s classification of needs (1954), instead of actual information needs. Lexicography has also focused on information needs, but has developed a more abstract classification of types of information needs, though (until more recent...
Pauer, Frédéric; Göbel, Jens; Storf, Holger; Litzkendorf, Svenja; Babac, Ana; Frank, Martin; Lührs, Verena; Schauer, Franziska; Schmidtke, Jörg; Biehl, Lisa; Wagner, Thomas Of; Ückert, Frank; Graf von der Schulenburg, Johann-Matthias; Hartz, Tobias
The European Union considers diseases to be rare when they affect less than 5 in 10,000 people. It is estimated that there are between 5000 and 8000 different rare diseases. Consistent with this diversity, the quality of information available on the Web varies considerably. Thus, quality criteria for websites about rare diseases are needed. The objective of this study was to generate a catalog of quality criteria suitable for rare diseases. First, relevant certificates and quality recommendations for health information websites were identified through a comprehensive Web search. Second, all considered quality criteria of each certification program and catalog were examined, extracted into an overview table, and analyzed by thematic content. Finally, an interdisciplinary expert group verified the relevant quality criteria. We identified 9 quality certificates and criteria catalogs for health information websites with 304 single criteria items. Through this, we aggregated 163 various quality criteria, each assigned to one of the following categories: thematic, technical, service, content, and legal. Finally, a consensus about 13 quality criteria for websites offering medical information on rare diseases was determined. Of these categories, 4 (data protection concept, imprint, creation and updating date, and possibility to contact the website provider) were identified as being the most important for publishing medical information about rare diseases. The large number of different quality criteria appearing within a relatively small number of criteria catalogs shows that the opinion of what is important in the quality of health information differs. In addition, to define useful quality criteria for websites about rare diseases, which are an essential source of information for many patients, a trade-off is necessary between the high standard of quality criteria for health information websites in general and the limited provision of information about some rare diseases
Camila Monteiro de Barros
Full Text Available The general goal of this research was to verify which metadata elements of music information representation are relevant for its retrieval from the perspective of expert music users. Based on a bibliographical research, a comprehensive metadata set of music information representation was developed and transformed into a questionnaire for data collection, which was applied to students and professors of the Graduate Program in Music at the Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul. The results show that the most relevant information for expert music users is related to identification and authorship responsibilities. The respondents from Composition and Interpretative Practice areas agree with these results, while the respondents from Musicology/Ethnomusicology and Music Education areas also consider the metadata related to the historical context of composition relevant.
Kolthoff, Sie Karen; Hestbech, Mie Sara; Jørgensen, Karsten Juhl
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether invitations for publicly funded cervical screening provide sufficient information to enable an informed choice about participation. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study using a checklist of 23 information items on benefits and harms from cervical screening and the risks...... OUTCOME MEASURES: Number of information items presented in invitations for cervical screening. RESULTS: We contacted 21 coordinating units from 11 countries and 20 (95%) responded. Of these, four units did not issue invitations, but the remaining 16 coordinating units in 10 different countries supplied...... a sample. The invitations for cervical screening were generally information poor and contained a median of only four out of 23 information items possible (17%), ranging from 0 to 12 (0-52%). The most important harms of cancer screening, overdiagnosis and overtreatment, were typically downplayed...
O. S. Solovjov
Full Text Available The controversial questions of the pharmaceutical market informatization are considered. The main principles and legal frameworks to manage population ensure with medicines based on use of information technology are proposed. The logic and conception framework of related information automatization for hospitals and population under the current legislation are discussed.
Brewster, Liz; Sen, Barbara
Information prescriptions (IPs) are part of a Department of Health (DH) initiative to improve patient care. IPs aim to meet health information needs by providing personalised, high quality patient information about conditions and treatment. This paper identifies current online IP provision and evaluates a sample of IP websites against the original DH aims of IP provision; British Medical Association usability criteria; and information seeking vignettes. Five UK and one international IP website were randomly selected as a sample. Two checklists designed to appraise the websites were used to review each IP provider. Two patient information seeking vignettes were developed to enable the websites to be assessed from a patient-centred perspective. Information prescriptions currently vary in content, accessibility and quality. National IP websites score more highly than local IP websites, which are often weak on content for specific conditions and poorly designed but strong on signposting to local services. Guidelines for IP provision need to be improved to ensure higher quality, more easily accessible information is available. A synthesis of expertise included in national and local websites would improve usability for patients. IP websites should conform to standards of web design and accessibility. © 2010 The authors. Health Information and Libraries Journal © 2010 Health Libraries Group.
Belcher, Claire; Hudpsith, Victoria; Doerr, Stefan; Santin, Cristina
Building an understanding of the impact of a wildfire is critical to the management of ecosystems. Aspects of fire severity such as the amount of soil heating, can relate to post-fire ecosystem recovery. Yet, there is no quantitative measure of this in current post-burn fire severity assessments, which are mostly qualitative ground-based visual assessments of organic matter loss, and as such can be subjective and variable between ecosystems. In order to develop a unifying fire severity assessment we explore the use of charcoal produced during a wildfire, as a tool. Charcoal has been suggested to retain some information about the nature of the fire in which it was created and one such physical property of charcoal that can be measured post-fire is its ability to reflect light when studied under oil using reflectance microscopy. The amount of light reflected varies between charcoals and is thought to be explained by the differential ordering of graphite-like phases within the char however, to what aspects of a fire's nature this alteration pertains is unknown. We have explored the formation of charcoal reflectance in 1) laboratory-based experiments using an iCone calorimeter and in 2) experimental forest scale and natural wildland fires occurring in Canada in spring 2015. In our laboratory experiments we assessed the formation and evolution of charcoal reflectance during pre-ignition heating, peak fire intensity through to the end of flaming and the transition to oxidative/smoldering heating regimes. In the prescribed and natural wildland fires we positioned the same woods used in our laboratory experiments, rigged with thermocouples in the path of oncoming fires in order to assess the resulting charcoal reflectance in response to the heating regime imposed by the fire on the samples. In this presentation we will outline our approach, findings and discuss the potential for charcoal reflectance to provide a tool in post-fire assessments seeking to determine levels of
Kenneth J. Knapp
Full Text Available This study proposes using an established common body of knowledge (CBK as one means of organizing information security literature.Â Consistent with calls for more relevant information systems (IS research, this industry-developed framework can motivate future research towards topics that are important to the security practitioner.Â In this review, forty-eight articles from ten IS journals from 1995 to 2004 are selected and cross-referenced to the ten domains of the information security CBK.Â Further, we distinguish articles as empirical research, frameworks, or tutorials.Â Generally, this study identified a need for additional empirical research in every CBK domain including topics related to legal aspects of information security.Â Specifically, this study identified a need for additional IS security research relating to applications development, physical security, operations security, and business continuity.Â The CBK framework is inherently practitioner oriented and using it will promote relevancy by steering IS research towards topics important to practitioners.Â This is important considering the frequent calls by prominent information systems scholars for more relevant research.Â Few research frameworks have emerged from the literature that specifically classify the diversity of security threats and range of problems that businesses today face.Â With the recent surge of interest in security, the need for a comprehensive framework that also promotes relevant research can be of great value.
Churi, Shobha; Abraham, Lovin; Ramesh, M.; Narahari, M. G.
Aim: The aim of this study is to assess the nature and quality of services provided by poison information center established at a tertiary-care teaching hospital, Mysore. Settings and Design: This was a prospective observational study. Materials and Methods: The poison information center was officially established in September 2010 and began its functioning thereafter. The center is equipped with required resources and facility (e.g., text books, Poisindex, Drugdex, toll free telephon...
Icek Ajzen; Thomas C. Brown; Lori H. Rosenthal
A laboratory experiment examined the potential for information bias in contingent valuation (CV). Consistent with the view that information about a public or private good can function as a persuasive communication, willingness to pay (WTP) was found to increase with the quality of arguments used to describe the good, especially under conditions of high personal...
В. В. Степко
Full Text Available The article highlights information resources of the scientific library of the Kiev National University of Culture and Arts and characterizes its use in the system of providing librarian and informational services for users. It is proved that the important information resource of the library is website, which provides additional opportunities for users, forming a positive image of the library in the virtual space. The site contains information on various directions of the library’s activities, librarian services, projects and media products. One of the main tasks of the library is formation and presentation on the website of the electronic catalog as a multifunctional bibliographic resource, which is the basis for informational services and the basic information product of the library. The creation of an electronic library continues as the essential element of providing qualitative and effective services to users. The article discusses the functioning of the “Virtual Help” service as an effective form of working with remote users. The authors also consider such an actual direction of the library’s activity as the presentation of the scientific and creative heritage of the university with help of “12 + books of the year” project. The aim of the project is to inform about new editions of university’s teachers published this year and presented in the library fund. The implementation of the patriotic innovation and educational project “Treasures of the Nation”, whose purpose is to study and popularize the elements of the intangible cultural heritage ofUkraine, is analyzed. The booktrails and flash presentations are considered as a means of presenting books prepared by the library staff. The preparation of longreed, a new format for submitting information on the Internet, is also considered. Thanks to the use of Tilda Publishing and ThingLink services, innovative products were created: a complex multimedia story that combined photos
Mateus Alexandre Costa dos Santos
Full Text Available This study aimed to assess the effect of adopting the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS in Brazil on the information relevance of accounting profits of publicly traded companies. International studies have shown that the adoption of IFRS improves the quality of accounting information compared with domestic accounting standards. Concurrent evidence is sparse in Brazil. Information relevance is understood herein as a multidimensional attribute that is closely related to the quality and usefulness of the information conveyed by accounting profits. The associative capacity and information timeliness of accounting profits in relation to share prices were examined. Furthermore, the level of conditional conservatism present in accounting profits was also analyzed because according to Basu (1997, this aspect is related to timeliness. The study used pooled regressions and panel data models to analyze the quarterly accounting profits of 246 companies between the first quarter of 1999 and the first quarter of 2013, resulting in 9,558 quarter-company observations. The results indicated that the adoption of IFRS in Brazil (1 increased the associative capacity of accounting profits; (2 reduced information timeliness to non-significant levels; and (3 had no effect on conditional conservatism. The joint analysis of the empirical evidence from the present study conclusively precludes stating that the adoption of IFRS in Brazil contributed to an increase the information relevance of accounting profits of publicly traded companies.
Full Text Available The study is designed to examine students’ perceptions of the introductory Information Systems (IS course. It was an exploratory study in which 67 students participated. A quantitative approach was followed making use of questionnaires for the collection of data. Using the theory of reasoned action as a framework, the study explores the factors that influence non-IS major students’ perceived relevance of the IS introductory course. The analysis of collected data included descriptive and inferential statistics. Using multiple regression analysis, the results suggest that overall, the independent variables, relevance of the content, previous IT knowledge, relevance for professional practice, IT preference in courses and peers’ influence may account for 72% of the explanatory power for the dependent variable, perceived relevance of the IS course. In addition, the results have shown some strong predictors (IT preference and peers’ influence that influence students’ perceived relevance of the IS course. Practical work was found to be a strong mediating variable toward positive perceptions of IS. The results of this study suggest that students do indeed perceive the introductory IS course to be relevant and match their professional needs, but more practical work would enhance their learning. Implications for theory and practice are discussed as a result of the behavioural intention to perceive the IS course to be relevant and eventually to recruit more IS students.
Beshears, John; Choi, James J.; Laibson, David; Madrian, Brigitte C.; Milkman, Katherine L.
Using a field experiment in a 401(k) plan, we measure the effect of disseminating information about peer behavior on savings. Low-saving employees received simplified plan enrollment or contribution increase forms. A randomized subset of forms stated the fraction of age-matched coworkers participating in the plan or age-matched participants contributing at least 6% of pay to the plan. We document an oppositional reaction: the presence of peer information decreased the savings of nonparticipants who were ineligible for 401(k) automatic enrollment, and higher observed peer savings rates also decreased savings. Discouragement from upward social comparisons seems to drive this reaction. PMID:26045629
Argaud Jean-Philippe; Bouriquet Bertrand; Clerc Thomas; Lucet-Sanchez Flora; Ponçot Angélique
The goal of this study is to look after the amount of information that is mandatory to get a relevant parameters optimisation by data assimilation for physical models in neutronic diffusion calculations, and to determine what is the best information to reach the optimum of accuracy at the cheapest cost. To evaluate the quality of the optimisation, we study the covariance matrix that represents the accuracy of the optimised parameter. This matrix is a classical output of the data assimilation ...
... part to participants by making it available on the TSP Web site. A participant can request paper copies of that information from the TSP by calling the ThriftLine, submitting a request through the TSP Web site, or by writing to the TSP record keeper. ...
Peter, Johannes; Leichner, Nikolas; Mayer, Anne-Kathrin; Krampen, Günter
This paper presents an approach to information literacy instruction in colleges and universities that combines online and classroom learning (Blended Learning). The concept includes only one classroom seminar, so the approach presented here can replace existing one-shot sessions at colleges and universities without changes to the current workflow.…
The main purpose of establishing library in any academic environment is to serve as the information centre to the community of users. But many have failed to serve this purpose after spending lots of money due to some reason and the other. This survey study is aimed at assessing Effectiveness of Reference Services in ...
Xing, Cai; Isaacowitz, Derek
Previous studies suggested that older adults are more likely to engage in heuristic decision-making than young adults. This study used eye tracking technique to examine young adults' and highly educated older adults' attention toward two types of decision-relevant information: heuristic cue vs. factual cues. Surprisingly, highly educated older…
Wiersema, D.V.; van der Pligt, J.; van Harreveld, F.
In this article we offer a new perspective on the contradictory findings in the literature on memory for attitude-relevant information. We propose that biases in memory are most likely to occur when the attitude involved is connected to personally important values and the self; i.e., if the attitude
reduce all the Grice’s maxims to one and define a cognitive psychological theory, the Relevance Theory, based on the following informal definition: An...Conference iTrust. (2004)  Sadek, D.: Le dialogue homme-machine : de l’ ergonomie des interfaces à l’ agent intelligent dia- loguant. In: Nouvelles interfaces hommemachine, Lavoisier Editeur, Arago 18 (1996) 277–321
Langenau, David M; Sweet-Cordero, Alejandro; Wechsler-Reya, Robert; Dyer, Michael A
Despite improvements in survival rates for children with cancer since the 1960s, progress for many pediatric malignancies has slowed over the past two decades. With the recent advances in our understanding of the genomic landscape of pediatric cancer, there is now enthusiasm for individualized cancer therapy based on genomic profiling of patients' tumors. However, several obstacles to effective personalized cancer therapy remain. For example, relatively little data from prospective clinical trials demonstrate the selective efficacy of molecular-targeted therapeutics based on somatic mutations in the patient's tumor. In this commentary, we discuss recent advances in preclinical testing for pediatric cancer and provide recommendations for providing scientific justification and translational relevance for novel therapeutic combinations for childhood cancer. Establishing rigorous criteria for defining and validating druggable mutations will be essential for the success of ongoing and future clinical genomic trials for pediatric malignancies. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.
Dunning, R.J.; Grayson, A.
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to renew a research agenda considering the impact that information providers’ processes are having on the housing market; in particular to develop a research agenda around the role of the Internet in shaping households’ perceptions of the spatial nature of housing markets. Design/methodology/approach – This paper reviews the existing literature. It uses preliminary extensive survey findings about the role of the Internet in housing search to hypothesise ...
Full Text Available Government financial information is an important part of government information, fully reporting the operational efficiency and the place where government puts tax onto. This paper analyses the problems in Chinese government financial information disclosure and the necessity of reform in detail. It also provides several proposals for the improvement of Chinese governmental financial report and financial information disclosure system.
Government financial information is an important part of government information, fully reporting the operational efficiency and the place where government puts tax onto. This paper analyses the problems in Chinese government financial information disclosure and the necessity of reform in detail. It also provides several proposals for the improvement of Chinese governmental financial report and financial information disclosure system.
Full Text Available Paul Smith’s College provides library hours and workstation availability using SMS Text Messages. The service was implemented using an easy and affordable web-based API for SMS sending and receiving, from twilio.com. A new class of ‘cloud-based‘ SMS vendors make simple SMS-based services efficient and cost-effective to implement, and have many possible applications in the library environment. A simple PHP example is provided which supplies workstation availability over SMS based on a database of computer availability from a previous Code4Lib Journal Article.
From the parent population of micro and small business enterprises, seven municipal areas of the geopolitical zone were randomly sampled. Research instrument used for collecting data was the questionnaire which was constructed along the theoretical frame of the study. Hypotheses were formulated to provide basis for ...
Major topics studied were on communicable diseases (22%), environmental health (11%), demography/family planning (10%), nutrition (9%), pharmacy & drug testing (8%) using quantitative methods (86%). Conclusion: Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences served its primary purpose providing scientific and technological ...
Butte, A J; Kohane, I S
Increasing numbers of methodologies are available to find functional genomic clusters in RNA expression data. We describe a technique that computes comprehensive pair-wise mutual information for all genes in such a data set. An association with a high mutual information means that one gene is non-randomly associated with another; we hypothesize this means the two are related biologically. By picking a threshold mutual information and using only associations at or above the threshold, we show how this technique was used on a public data set of 79 RNA expression measurements of 2,467 genes to construct 22 clusters, or Relevance Networks. The biological significance of each Relevance Network is explained.
Findholt, Nancy E; Davis, Melinda M; Michael, Yvonne L
To explore the perceived barriers, resources, and training needs of rural primary care providers in relation to implementing the American Medical Association Expert Committee recommendations for assessment, treatment, and prevention of childhood obesity. In-depth interviews were conducted with 13 rural primary care providers in Oregon. Transcribed interviews were thematically coded. Barriers to addressing childhood obesity fell into 5 categories: barriers related to the practice (time constraints, lack of reimbursement, few opportunities to detect obesity), the clinician (limited knowledge), the family/patient (family lifestyle and lack of parent motivation to change, low family income and lack of health insurance, sensitivity of the issue), the community (lack of pediatric subspecialists and multidisciplinary/tertiary care services, few community resources), and the broader sociocultural environment (sociocultural influences, high prevalence of childhood obesity). There were very few clinic and community resources to assist clinicians in addressing weight issues. Clinicians had received little previous training relevant to childhood obesity, and they expressed an interest in several topics. Rural primary care providers face extensive barriers in relation to implementing recommended practices for assessment, treatment, and prevention of childhood obesity. Particularly problematic is the lack of local and regional resources. Employing nurses to provide case management and behavior counseling, group visits, and telehealth and other technological communications are strategies that could improve the management of childhood obesity in rural primary care settings. © 2013 National Rural Health Association.
Tolnai, Sandra; Dolležal, Lena-Vanessa; Klump, Georg M
Informational masking (IM) describes the insensitivity of detecting a change in sound features in a complex acoustical environment when such a change could easily be detected in the absence of distracting sounds. IM occurs because of the similarity between deviant sound and distracting sounds (so-called similarity-based IM) and/or stimulus uncertainty stemming from trial-to-trial variability (so-called uncertainty-based IM). IM can be abolished if similarity-based or uncertainty-based IM are minimized. Here, we modulated similarity-based IM using binaural cues. Standard/deviant tones and distracting tones were presented sequentially, and level-increment thresholds were measured. Deviant tones differed from standard tones by a higher sound level. Distracting tones covered a wide range of levels. Standard/deviant tones and distracting tones were characterized by their interaural time difference (ITD), interaural level difference (ILD), or both ITD and ILD. The larger the ITD or ILD was, the better similarity-based IM was overcome. If both interaural differences were applied to standard/deviant tones, the release from IM was larger than when either interaural difference was used. The results show that binaural cues are potent cues to abolish similarity-based IM and that the auditory system makes use of multiple available cues. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Dodd, Helen F; Vogt, Julia; Turkileri, Nilgun; Notebaert, Lies
Task relevance affects emotional attention in healthy individuals. Here, we investigate whether the association between anxiety and attention bias is affected by the task relevance of emotion during an attention task. Participants completed two visual search tasks. In the emotion-irrelevant task, participants were asked to indicate whether a discrepant face in a crowd of neutral, middle-aged faces was old or young. Irrelevant to the task, target faces displayed angry, happy, or neutral expressions. In the emotion-relevant task, participants were asked to indicate whether a discrepant face in a crowd of middle-aged neutral faces was happy or angry (target faces also varied in age). Trait anxiety was not associated with attention in the emotion-relevant task. However, in the emotion-irrelevant task, trait anxiety was associated with a bias for angry over happy faces. These findings demonstrate that the task relevance of emotional information affects conclusions about the presence of an anxiety-linked attention bias. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Fábio Moraes da Costa
Full Text Available This papers investigates the impact of financial crises occurred in Brazil (1997-1999, 2002 and 2007-2008 on the value relevance of book value and earnings. The final sample comprised 1,904 observations from Brazilian listed companies, from 1997 till 2010. It is an empirical study based on panel data regression. To answer the research question, a dummy was applied for each year of negative macroeconomic shocks and how they affected the relation between market prices and accounting variables. Empirical evidence indicates that financial crises affected the value relevance of book value positively and the value relevance of earnings negatively, similarly to other countries like Thailand and Mexico. Therefore, macroeconomic factors should be taken into consideration when analyzing how accounting information captures the underlying characteristics of a firm. Future research could consider companies from other countries in Latin America and evaluate if the effects are similar or not. This is important because macroeconomic policies implemented to mitigate the effects of a crisis could lead to different impacts on the relevance of accounting information.
Víctor CORCOBA MAGAÑA
Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a solution to reduce the stress level of the driver, minimize fuel consumption and improve safety. The system analyzes the driving style and the driver’s workload during the trip while driving. If it discovers an area where the stress increases and the driving style is not appropriate from the point of view of energy efficiency and safety for a particular driver, the location of this area is saved in a shared database. On the other hand, the implemented solution warns a particular user when approaching a region where the driving is difficult (high fuel consumption and stress using the shared database based on previous recorded knowledge of similar drivers in that area. In this case, the proposal provides an optimal deceleration profile if the vehicle speed is not adequate. Therefore, he or she may adjust the vehicle speed with both a positive impact on the driver workload and fuel consumption. The Data Envelopment Analysis algorithm is used to estimate the efficiency of driving and the driver’s workload in in each area. We employ this method because there is no preconceived form on the data in order to calculate the efficiency and stress level. A validation experiment has been conducted using both a driving simulator and a real environment with 12 participants who made 168 driving tests. The system reduced the slowdowns (38%, heart rate (4.70%, and fuel consumption (12.41% in the real environment. The proposed solution is implemented on Android mobile devices and does not require the installation of infrastructure on the road. It can be installed on any model of vehicle.
Marcel Ginotti Pires; Reynaldo Cavalheiro Marcondes
This article discusses the factors present in post-merger integration of Systems and Information Technology (SIT) that lead to positive and negative results in mergers and acquisitions (M & A). The research comprised three of the largest acquiring banks in Brazil. We adopted two methods of research, qualitative, to operationalize the theoretical concepts and quantitative, to test the hypotheses. We interviewed six executives of banks that held relevant experience in M & A pro...
Ganesan Kannabiran; Srinivasan Sundar
Increasing global competition and advances in Internet technologies have led organizations to consider e-business strategies. However, evolving e-business strategies have been identified as a critical issue faced by corporate planners. The relevance and the use of IS (Information Systems) strategy planning practices in the context of e-business have been argued among researchers. In this paper, the authors investigate whether organizations can successfully improve the IS value in the e-busine...
Full Text Available In the tradition of Arab and Islamic Scientifics, research on genetics has been done since thousands of years ago. However, the information is not found in the books of genetic history. This indicates the existence of historical distortion of genetic history writers to include Arabs or Muslims within the span of history. Therefore, the follow-up and dissemination of information from various parties, especially the parties associated with genetic studies explain that this science has been found in Arab society and Muslims. Qiyafah is a method term used to recognize a person's trace in determining lineage based on traits and likeness. While qa`if, is a person who has special skills to see other people in connecting, determine the lineage based on the signs and similarities between the parties studied. According to asy-Shafi'i, qa'if services in determining one's lineage can be accepted as a legal provision. Therefore, if a lineage dispute arises where there is no other evidence or the parties have strong evidence, then the matter is solved by qa'if research. In support of his opinion, the school of ash-Shafi'i argued with the hadith of the Prophet Muhammad and the opinions of his companions. Therefore qiyafah practice is believed to have syariah justification.Genetika is one of the branches of biological science that discusses the nature of hereditary inheritance and variations that may arise in it. The practice of qiyafah and genetics are both aimed to examine the hereditary traits that are passed down from generation to generation. Judging from the similarity of function and purpose, then qiyafah has relevance to the science of genetics in establishing one's nasab. And the provision of modern science based on DNA test results with the same legal force with the provision of qiyafah perspective priest Shafi`i.
Baron, R.; Martin, L.; Gitsels-van der Wal, J.T.; Noordman, J.; Heymans, M.W.; Spelten, E.; Brug, J.; Hutton, E.K.
Objective: to quantify to what extent evidence-based health behaviour topics relevant for pregnancy are discussed with clients during midwife-led prenatal booking visits and to assess the association of client characteristics with the extent of information provided. Design: quantitative video
Muhammad Yusuf Alkali
Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to determine the effect of International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS as a new accounting reporting among Nigerian listed firms. This study uses book value, earnings and dividends to fill in the gap using a sample of 126 Nigerian listed firms in the stock market from 2009 to 2013 (pre and Post-IFRS adoption. Data was collected from Thompson Reuters, Bank scope DataStreams and annual reports. The study adopted Ohlson (1995 [Ohlson, J. (1995. Earnings, book-value, and dividends in equity valuation. Contemporary Accounting Research, 11(2, 661–687.] price model that has been frequently used in determining the quality of accounting information studies. The study finds that combined book value, earnings and dividends do not provide statistical significance effects on IFRS after adoption on the quality of accounting information. This could be possible, as dividends do not provide a significant effect in the presence of earnings. Furthermore, the audit big 4 quality provided an effect on the quality of accounting information because of IFRS adoption. Therefore, findings of this study provide additional literature on the decreasing quality of accounting information in an emerging market setting like Nigeria. The study implication is to the policy makers, regulators, and government that accounting information do not provide value relevance among Nigerian listed firms after IFRS adoption.
Baik, Seung Yeon; Jeong, Minkyung; Kim, Hyang Sook; Lee, Seung-Hwan
Previous studies suggest the presence of attentional bias towards suicide-relevant information in suicidal individuals. However, the findings are limited by their reliance on behavioral measures. This study investigates the role of difficulty in disengaging attention from suicide-relevant stimuli using the P300 component of event-related potentials (ERPs). Forty-four adults with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) were administered the spatial cueing task using suicide-relevant and negatively-valenced words as cue stimuli. Disengagement difficulty was measured using reaction time and P300 during invalid trials. P300 amplitudes at Pz were higher in suicide-relevant compared to negatively-valenced word condition on invalid trials for participants with low rates of suicidal behavior. However, no such difference was found among participants with high rates of suicidal behavior. P300 amplitudes for suicide-relevant word condition were negatively correlated with "lifetime suicide ideation and attempt" at Pz. No significant results were found for the reaction time data, indicating that the ERP may be more sensitive in capturing the attentional disengagement effect. The groups were divided according to Suicidal Behaviors Questionnaire-Revised (SBQ-R) total score. Neutral stimulus was not included as cue stimuli. Most participants were under medication during the experiment. Our results indicate that patients with MDD and low rates of suicidal behavior show difficulty in disengaging attention from suicide-relevant stimuli. We suggest that suicide-specific disengagement difficulties may be related to recentness of suicide attempt and that acquired capability for suicide may contribute to reduced disengagement difficulties. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Malpas, P J
Within the medical, legal and bioethical literature, there has been an increasing concern that the information derived from genetic tests may be used to unfairly discriminate against individuals seeking various kinds of insurance; particularly health and life insurance. Consumer groups, the general public and those with genetic conditions have also expressed these concerns, specifically in the context of life insurance. While it is true that all insurance companies may have an interest in the information obtained from genetic tests, life insurers potentially have a very strong incentive to (want to) use genetic information to rate applicants, as individuals generally purchase their own cover and may want to take out very large policies. This paper critically focuses on genetic information in the context of life insurance. We consider whether genetic information differs in any relevant way from other kinds of non-genetic information required by and disclosed to life insurance companies by potential clients. We will argue that genetic information should not be treated any differently from other types of health information already collected from those wishing to purchase life insurance cover.
Felin, Elina; Jukola, Elias; Raulo, Saara; Heinonen, Jaakko; Fredriksson-Ahomaa, Maria
Meat inspection now incorporates a more risk-based approach for protecting human health against meat-borne biological hazards. Official post-mortem meat inspection of pigs has shifted to visual meat inspection. The official veterinarian decides on additional post-mortem inspection procedures, such as incisions and palpations. The decision is based on declarations in the food chain information (FCI), ante-mortem inspection and post-mortem inspection. However, a smooth slaughter and inspection process is essential. Therefore, one should be able to assess prior to slaughter which pigs are suitable for visual meat inspection only, and which need more profound inspection procedures. This study evaluates the usability of the FCI provided by pig producers and considered the possibility for risk ranking of incoming slaughter batches according to the previous meat inspection data and the current FCI. Eighty-five slaughter batches comprising 8954 fattening pigs were randomly selected at a slaughterhouse that receives animals from across Finland. The mortality rate, the FCI and the meat inspection results for each batch were obtained. The current FCI alone provided insufficient and inaccurate information for risk ranking purposes for meat inspection. The partial condemnation rate for a batch was best predicted by the partial condemnation rate calculated for all the pigs sent for slaughter from the same holding in the previous year (p<0.001) and by prior information on cough declared in the current FCI (p=0.02) statement. Training and information to producers are needed to make the FCI reporting procedures more accurate. Historical meat inspection data on pigs slaughtered from the same holdings and well-chosen symptoms/signs for reporting, should be included in the FCI to facilitate the allocation of pigs for visual inspection. The introduced simple scoring system can be easily used for additional information for directing batches to appropriate meat inspection procedures. To
Bothma, Theo; Tarp, Sven
This article starts by providing a brief summary of relevance theory in information science in relation to the function theory of lexicography, explaining the different types of relevance, viz. objective system relevance and the subjective types of relevance, i.e. topical, cognitive, situational...... that is very important for lexicography as well as for information science, viz. functional relevance. Since all lexicographic work is ultimately aimed at satisfying users’ information needs, the article then discusses why the lexicographer should take note of all these types of relevance when planning a new...... dictionary project, identifying new tasks and responsibilities of the modern lexicographer. The article furthermore discusses how relevance theory impacts on teaching dictionary culture and reference skills. By integrating insights from lexicography and information science, the article contributes to new...
Dillen, van S.M.E.; Hiddink, G.J.; Koelen, M.A.; Graaf, de C.; Woerkum, van C.M.J.
Objective: For more effective nutrition communication, it is crucial to identify sources from which consumers seek information. Our purpose was to assess perceived relevance and information needs regarding food topics, and preferred information sources by means of quantitative consumer research.
Costa, Tchaikowisky M. [Faculdade de Tecnologia e Ciencias (FTC), Itabuna, BA (Brazil); Bresci, Claudio T.; Franca, Carlos M.M. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)
For every mobilization of a new enterprise it is necessary to quickly obtain the greatest amount of relative information in regards to location and availability of infra-structure, logistics, and work site amenities. Among this information are reports elaborated for management of the enterprise, (organizational chart, work schedule, objectives, contacts, etc.) as well as geographic anomalies, social-economic and culture of the area to be developed such as territorial extension, land aspects, local population, roads and amenities (fuel stations ,restaurants and hotels), infra-structure of the cities (health, education, entertainment, housing, transport, etc.) and logistically the distance between cities the estimated travel time, ROW access maps and notable points, among other relevant information. With the idea of making this information available for everyone involved in the enterprise, it was elaborated for GASCAC Spread 2A a rapid guide containing all the information mentioned above and made it available for all the vehicles used to transport employees and visitors to the spread. With this, everyone quickly received the majority of information necessary in one place, in a practical, quick, and precise manner, since the information is always used and controlled by the same person. This study includes the model used in the gas pipeline GASCAC Spread 2A project and the methodology used to draft and update the information. Besides the above, a file in the GIS format was prepared containing all necessary planning, execution and tracking information for enterprise activities, from social communication to the execution of the works previously mentioned. Part of the GIS file information was uploaded to Google Earth so as to disclose the information to a greater group of people, bearing in mind that this program is free of charge and easy to use. (author)
Marcel Ginotti Pires
Full Text Available This article discusses the factors present in post-merger integration of Systems and Information Technology (SIT that lead to positive and negative results in mergers and acquisitions (M & A. The research comprised three of the largest acquiring banks in Brazil. We adopted two methods of research, qualitative, to operationalize the theoretical concepts and quantitative, to test the hypotheses. We interviewed six executives of banks that held relevant experience in M & A processes. Subsequently, we applied questionnaires to IT professionals who were involved in the SIT integration processes. The results showed that the quality and expertise of the integration teams and managing the integration were the most relevant factors in the processes, with positive results for increased efficiency and the increased capacity of SIT. Negative results were due to failures in exploiting learning opportunities, the loss of employees and the inexpressive record of integration procedures.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Molecularly-guided trials (i.e. PMed now seek to aid clinical decision-making by matching cancer targets with therapeutic options. Progress has been hampered by the lack of cancer models that account for individual-to-individual heterogeneity within and across cancer types. Naturally occurring cancers in pet animals are heterogeneous and thus provide an opportunity to answer questions about these PMed strategies and optimize translation to human patients. In order to realize this opportunity, it is now necessary to demonstrate the feasibility of conducting molecularly-guided analysis of tumors from dogs with naturally occurring cancer in a clinically relevant setting. METHODOLOGY: A proof-of-concept study was conducted by the Comparative Oncology Trials Consortium (COTC to determine if tumor collection, prospective molecular profiling, and PMed report generation within 1 week was feasible in dogs. Thirty-one dogs with cancers of varying histologies were enrolled. Twenty-four of 31 samples (77% successfully met all predefined QA/QC criteria and were analyzed via Affymetrix gene expression profiling. A subsequent bioinformatics workflow transformed genomic data into a personalized drug report. Average turnaround from biopsy to report generation was 116 hours (4.8 days. Unsupervised clustering of canine tumor expression data clustered by cancer type, but supervised clustering of tumors based on the personalized drug report clustered by drug class rather than cancer type. CONCLUSIONS: Collection and turnaround of high quality canine tumor samples, centralized pathology, analyte generation, array hybridization, and bioinformatic analyses matching gene expression to therapeutic options is achievable in a practical clinical window (<1 week. Clustering data show robust signatures by cancer type but also showed patient-to-patient heterogeneity in drug predictions. This lends further support to the inclusion of a heterogeneous population of
Koller, Ulrich; Waldstein, Wenzel; Schatz, Klaus-Dieter; Windhager, Reinhard
YouTube is increasingly becoming a key source for people to satisfy the need for additional information concerning their medical condition. This study analyses the completeness of accurate information found on YouTube pertaining to hip arthritis. The present study analyzed 133 YouTube videos using the search terms: hip arthritis, hip arthritis symptoms, hip arthritis diagnosis, hip arthritis treatment and hip replacement. Two quality assessment checklists with a scale of 0 to 12 points were developed to evaluate available video content for the diagnosis and the treatment of hip arthritis. Videos were grouped into poor quality (grade 0-3), moderate quality (grade 4-7) and excellent quality (grade 8-12), respectively. Three independent observers assessed all videos using the new grading system and independently scored all videos. Discrepancies regarding the categories were clarified by consensus discussion. For intra-observer reliabilities, grading was performed at two occasions separated by four weeks. Eighty-four percent (n = 112) had a poor diagnostic information quality, 14% (n = 19) a moderate quality and only 2% (n = 2) an excellent quality, respectively. In 86% (n = 114), videos provided poor treatment information quality. Eleven percent (n = 15) of videos had a moderate quality and only 3% (n = 4) an excellent quality, respectively. The present study demonstrates that YouTube is a poor source for accurate information pertaining to the diagnosis and treatment of hip arthritis. These finding are of high relevance for clinicians as videos are going to become the primary source of information for patients. Therefore, high quality educational videos are needed to further guide patients on the way from the diagnosis of hip arthritis to its proper treatment.
Kubicek, Katrina; Beyer, William J.; Weiss, George; Iverson, Ellen; Kipke, Michele D.
A growing body of research has investigated the effectiveness of abstinence-only sexual education. There remains a dearth of research on the relevant sexual health information available to young men who have sex with men (YMSM). Drawing on a mixed-methods study with 526 YMSM, this study explores how and where YMSM receive relevant information on…
Rojahn, K; Pettigrew, T F
The research on memory for schema-relevant information has produced sharply contradictory results. Some studies demonstrate memory selectivity for schema-consistent information, others demonstrate memory selectivity for schema-inconsistent information. Meta-analytic procedures are applied to a sample of 60 independent studies with 165 comparative tests. The overall result shows a slight overall memory advantage for schema-inconsistent information. As the effect sizes are highly heterogeneous, it was hypothesized that schema-based processing is moderated by an array of variables. In large part the direction of the effect is dependent on the memory measure used. Both recognition tests corrected for guessing and recall tests reveal consistently better memory for schema-inconsistent information. But recognition tests uncorrected for guessing consistently uncover better memory for schema-consistent information. In addition, several moderators derived from Wyer & Srull's (1989) Associative Network model of person memory influence the amount of inconsistent information recalled. Processing demands, length of exposure to inconsistent information, delay between presentation of the stimulus and the memory test, proportion of inconsistent items, order of schema-presentation, degree of inconsistency and importance of categories to subjects all had significant impacts on inconsistency resolution. Most of these moderator effects support the Wyer-Srull model; but several of its contentions are called into question. In particular, inconsistency resolution emerges as a more robust consequence than schema-bolstering of longer stimulus exposure and delays between exposure and memory test. The results are compared with a similar meta-analysis, then discussed in relation to the possibilities for stereotype change.
Homma, Keiichi; Suzuki, Koji; Sugawara, Hideaki
Autophagy is a process of self-digestion generally observed in eukaryotes and has been shown to play crucial roles for survival under starvation and removal of deleterious substances. Despite great advances that have been made, many problems in mechanisms of autophagy remain unsolved. As a large number of autophagy-related proteins are identified in each species, a database that collects data, identifies their homologs in other species and makes them available will contribute to research advancement. As no such resources exist, we built the Autophagy database (http://tp-apg.genes.nig.ac.jp/autophagy) to provide basics, up-to-date information on relevant literature, and a list of autophagy-related proteins and their homologs in 41 eukaryotes. From the database, the user can search for proteins by keywords or sequences to obtain a wealth of data including functional and structural information and find possible functional homologs of proteins whose functions have been demonstrated in other species. As proteins that bind the phospholipid, phosphatidyl inositol 3-phosphate (PI3P) are essential for autophagy to proceed, we carried out an original analysis to identify probable PI3P-binding proteins, and made the list available from the database. The database is expected to give impetus to further research on autophagy by providing basic and specialized data on the subject.
Chandrasekaran, Neeraja; Gressick, Kimberly; Singh, Vivek; Kwal, Jaclyn; Cap, Natalia; Koru-Sengul, Tulay; Curry, Christine L
Introduction In 2015, there was an outbreak of Zika virus in Brazil that spread throughout the Americas. The association of Zika virus with birth defects in infants born to infected pregnant women created concern for women of childbearing age. Social media is an important platform for health promotion, communication, and education on preventative methods during Zika virus outbreaks. Methods We evaluated the utility of social media on providing information regarding Zika virus. Facebook, Instagram, Twitter, and YouTube were utilized for our study. A search of the term "#Zikavirus" on Twitter and Instagram, and "Zika virus" on Facebook and YouTube was performed. The first 50 search results were analyzed from each source. Only English, Spanish, or Portuguese results were included. Results were categorized into three groups: "Useful", "Not Useful", or "Misleading". Results Search was conducted on December 17th, 2016, with 185 results. Forty (21.6%) were from Facebook, 50 (27%) from Twitter, 48 (25.9%) from YouTube, and 47 (25.4%) from Instagram. A total of 104 (56.22%) results were "Useful", 67 (36.2%) "Not Useful", and 14 (7.5%) were "Misleading". There were significantly more "Useful" results compared to "Not Useful" and "Misleading" results (Fisher's exact: p < 0.0001). Conclusion Social media is a useful resource for providing relevant information on Zika virus. Young women can utilize social media for Zika virus information. The role of social media in public health should be further investigated and established. Patient education interventions should focus on social media impact on behavior modification and education of public to recognize useful information.
Grady, Cheryl L; Grigg, Omer; Ng, Charisa
We recently found activity in default mode and reward-related regions during self-relevant tasks in young adults. Here we examine the effect of aging on engagement of the default network (DN) and reward network (RN) during these tasks. Previous studies have shown reduced engagement of the DN and reward areas in older adults, but the influence of age on these circuits during self-relevant tasks has not been examined. The tasks involved judging personality traits about one's self or a well known other person. There were no age differences in reaction time on the tasks but older adults had more positive Self and Other judgments, whereas younger adults had more negative judgments. Both groups had increased DN and RN activity during the self-relevant tasks, relative to non-self tasks, but this increase was reduced in older compared to young adults. Functional connectivity of both networks during the tasks was weaker in the older relative to younger adults. Intrinsic functional connectivity, measured at rest, also was weaker in the older adults in the DN, but not in the RN. These results suggest that, in younger adults, the processing of personally relevant information involves robust activation of and functional connectivity within these two networks, in line with current models that emphasize strong links between the self and reward. The finding that older adults had more positive judgments, but weaker engagement and less consistent functional connectivity in these networks, suggests potential brain mechanisms for the "positivity bias" with aging. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Baron, Ruth; Martin, Linda; Gitsels-van der Wal, Janneke T; Noordman, Janneke; Heymans, Martijn W; Spelten, Evelien R; Brug, Johannes; Hutton, Eileen K
to quantify to what extent evidence-based health behaviour topics relevant for pregnancy are discussed with clients during midwife-led prenatal booking visits and to assess the association of client characteristics with the extent of information provided. quantitative video analyses. 173 video recordings of prenatal booking visits with primary care midwives and clients in the Netherlands taking place between August 2010 and April 2011. thirteen topics regarding toxic substances, nutrition, maternal weight, supplements, and health promoting activities were categorized as either 'never mentioned', 'briefly mentioned', 'basically explained' or 'extensively explained'. Rates on the extent of information provided were calculated for each topic and relationships between client characteristics and dichotomous outcomes of the extent of information provided were assessed using Generalized Linear Mixed Modelling. our findings showed that women who did not take folic acid supplementation, who smoked, or had a partner who smoked, were usually provided basic and occasionally extensive explanations about these topics. The majority of clients were provided with no information on recommended weight gain (91.9%), fish promotion (90.8%), caffeine limitation (89.6%), vitamin D supplementation (87.3%), physical activity promotion (81.5%) and antenatal class attendance (75.7%) and only brief mention of alcohol (91.3%), smoking (81.5%), folic acid (58.4) and weight at the start of pregnancy (52.0%). The importance of a nutritious diet was generally either never mentioned (38.2%) or briefly mentioned (45.1%). Nulliparous women were typically given more information on most topics than multiparous women. although additional information was generally provided about folic acid and smoking, when relevant for their clients, the majority of women were provided with little or no information about the other health behaviours examined in this study. Midwives may be able to improve prenatal health
Morales, Francisco J.; Reyes, Antonio; Cáceres, Noelia; Romero, Luis M.; Benitez, Francisco G.; Morgado, Joao; Duarte, Emanuel; Martins, Teresa
A large percentage of transport infrastructures are composed of linear assets, such as roads and rail tracks. The large social and economic relevance of these constructions force the stakeholders to ensure a prolonged health/durability. Even though, inevitable malfunctioning, breaking down, and out-of-service periods arise randomly during the life cycle of the infrastructure. Predictive maintenance techniques tend to diminish the appearance of unpredicted failures and the execution of needed corrective interventions, envisaging the adequate interventions to be conducted before failures show up. This communication presents: i) A procedural approach, to be conducted, in order to collect the relevant information regarding the evolving state condition of the assets involved in all maintenance interventions; this reported and stored information constitutes a rich historical data base to train Machine Learning algorithms in order to generate reliable predictions of the interventions to be carried out in further time scenarios. ii) A schematic flow chart of the automatic learning procedure. iii) Self-learning rules from automatic learning from false positive/negatives. The description, testing, automatic learning approach and the outcomes of a pilot case are presented; finally some conclusions are outlined regarding the methodology proposed for improving the self-learning predictive capability.
Jiménez, Felipe; Naranjo, Jose Eugenio; Serradilla, Francisco; Pérez, Elisa; Hernández, María Jose; Ruiz, Trinidad; Anaya, José Javier; Díaz, Alberto
Inappropriate speed is a relevant concurrent factor in many traffic accidents. Moreover, in recent years, traffic accidents numbers in Spain have fallen sharply, but this reduction has not been so significant on single carriageway roads. These infrastructures have less equipment than high-capacity roads, therefore measures to reduce accidents on them should be implemented in vehicles. This article describes the development and analysis of the impact on the driver of a warning system for the safe speed on each road section in terms of geometry, the presence of traffic jams, weather conditions, type of vehicle and actual driving conditions. This system is based on an application for smartphones and includes knowledge of the vehicle position via Ground Positioning System (GPS), access to intravehicular information from onboard sensors through the Controller Area Network (CAN) bus, vehicle data entry by the driver, access to roadside information (short-range communications) and access to a centralized server with information about the road in the current and following sections of the route (long-range communications). Using this information, the system calculates the safe speed, recommends the appropriate speed in advance in the following sections and provides warnings to the driver. Finally, data are sent from vehicles to a server to generate new information to disseminate to other users or to supervise drivers’ behaviour. Tests in a driving simulator have been used to define the system warnings and Human Machine Interface (HMI) and final tests have been performed on real roads in order to analyze the effect of the system on driver behavior. PMID:26805839
Full Text Available Inappropriate speed is a relevant concurrent factor in many traffic accidents. Moreover, in recent years, traffic accidents numbers in Spain have fallen sharply, but this reduction has not been so significant on single carriageway roads. These infrastructures have less equipment than high-capacity roads, therefore measures to reduce accidents on them should be implemented in vehicles. This article describes the development and analysis of the impact on the driver of a warning system for the safe speed on each road section in terms of geometry, the presence of traffic jams, weather conditions, type of vehicle and actual driving conditions. This system is based on an application for smartphones and includes knowledge of the vehicle position via Ground Positioning System (GPS, access to intravehicular information from onboard sensors through the Controller Area Network (CAN bus, vehicle data entry by the driver, access to roadside information (short-range communications and access to a centralized server with information about the road in the current and following sections of the route (long-range communications. Using this information, the system calculates the safe speed, recommends the appropriate speed in advance in the following sections and provides warnings to the driver. Finally, data are sent from vehicles to a server to generate new information to disseminate to other users or to supervise drivers’ behaviour. Tests in a driving simulator have been used to define the system warnings and Human Machine Interface (HMI and final tests have been performed on real roads in order to analyze the effect of the system on driver behavior.
Jiménez, Felipe; Naranjo, Jose Eugenio; Serradilla, Francisco; Pérez, Elisa; Hernández, María Jose; Ruiz, Trinidad; Anaya, José Javier; Díaz, Alberto
Inappropriate speed is a relevant concurrent factor in many traffic accidents. Moreover, in recent years, traffic accidents numbers in Spain have fallen sharply, but this reduction has not been so significant on single carriageway roads. These infrastructures have less equipment than high-capacity roads, therefore measures to reduce accidents on them should be implemented in vehicles. This article describes the development and analysis of the impact on the driver of a warning system for the safe speed on each road section in terms of geometry, the presence of traffic jams, weather conditions, type of vehicle and actual driving conditions. This system is based on an application for smartphones and includes knowledge of the vehicle position via Ground Positioning System (GPS), access to intravehicular information from onboard sensors through the Controller Area Network (CAN) bus, vehicle data entry by the driver, access to roadside information (short-range communications) and access to a centralized server with information about the road in the current and following sections of the route (long-range communications). Using this information, the system calculates the safe speed, recommends the appropriate speed in advance in the following sections and provides warnings to the driver. Finally, data are sent from vehicles to a server to generate new information to disseminate to other users or to supervise drivers' behaviour. Tests in a driving simulator have been used to define the system warnings and Human Machine Interface (HMI) and final tests have been performed on real roads in order to analyze the effect of the system on driver behavior.
genes.Overall, breast cancer cell lines were genetically more complex than tumors, but retained expression patterns with relevance to the luminal-basal subtype distinction. The compendium of molecular profiles defines cell lines suitable for investigations of subtype-specific pathobiology, cancer stem cell biology, biomarkers and therapies, and provides a resource for discovery of new breast cancer genes.
Onyenekwu, Ifeyinwa Uchechi
The experience of international Black African collegians (IBAC) in U.S. higher education has not been adequately investigated, particularly as it relates to understanding the diversity within Black and international student populations. In this manuscript, I offer seven culturally relevant suggestions for student affairs professionals, all of…
PALIU – POPA LUCIA; COSNEANU LAVINIA
Financial statements, which, actually are a core of the accounting information synthesis, represent the most spread and the least expensive method in terms of the managerial communication, provided that the economic professionals not to introduce, in convenience, tax accounting rules. If by drawing them the accounting records do not succeed in reflecting the reality of an entity patrimony, then the information issued by the financial statements have just the feature of some statistical data, ...
Selleslagh, Jonathan, E-mail: Jonathan.Selleslagh@u-bordeaux.fr [Université de Bordeaux, CNRS, UMR EPOC 5805, Station Marine d' Arcachon, place du docteur Peyneau, 33120 Arcachon (France); Echard, Aurélie [IRSTEA Centre de Bordeaux, unité EABX, 50 avenue de Verdun, 33612 Cestas (France); Pécheyran, Christophe [Université de Pau et des pays de l' Adour, CNRS, LCABIE-IPREM UMR 5254, 64053 Pau (France); Baudrimont, Magalie [Université de Bordeaux, CNRS, UMR EPOC 5805, Station Marine d' Arcachon, place du docteur Peyneau, 33120 Arcachon (France); Lobry, Jérémy; Daverat, Françoise [IRSTEA Centre de Bordeaux, unité EABX, 50 avenue de Verdun, 33612 Cestas (France)
Despite recent efforts to manage them more efficiently, estuaries are natural sinks for a wide range of metal contaminants, many of which accumulate at potentially toxic concentrations for fish populations, posing a threat to recruitment and stocks. While analysis of metal concentrations in soft tissue and water samples calls for continuous and long-term sampling operations, the use of otoliths to study metal pollution may be one way of providing a historical record of pollutant exposure. In this study, we examine the potential use of otoliths as natural tracers of metal contamination. A “cocktail” of different metals (Cd, Pb and Ni) was used to test bio-accumulation in otoliths and tissue (liver, kidney, muscle and gills) extracted from juvenile flounder (Platichthys flesus). Assessment took place under controlled conditions over a three month period, with water exposure concentrations increasing every 3 weeks. The concentrations used were natural (T1), X5 (T2), X10 (T3), and null (T4). Chemical analyses were carried out using an inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer ICP-OES and atomic absorption spectrometer AAS for water and tissue, while otolith microchemistry analyses were performed using a femtosecond laser ablation-high resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (fsLA-ICP-MS-HR). Significant differences between control and exposed individuals, as well as an increase in metal concentrations according to exposure level, were observed in all tissues except in muscle tissue. Significant increases in Pb were also detected in contaminated fish otoliths compared with control specimens, with the highest concentrations occurring in T3. Cartographies of Pb distribution in otoliths of both control and contaminated fish only showed high concentrations of Pb at the edge of contaminated fish otoliths, indicating an accumulation of metal during the experiment. Although the relationships between exposure level and Pb concentration in
Bunget Ovidiu Constantin
The objective of IAS 29 is to establish specific standards for entities reporting in the currency of a hyperinflationary economy, so that the financial information provided is meaningful. Our empirical analysis encompasses a hyperinflationary economy covering a wide variety of hyperinflationary conditions.
The discourse of rights has increasingly been used to frame debates about access to information for donor-conceived individuals. This article seeks to clarify the moral and legal basis upon which human rights are relevant to this issue. It outlines the elements of a substantive rights-based approach which is then used to resolve the competing rights of a donor and a donor-conceived individual. Three arguments are offered. First, donor anonymity must be prohibited prospectively and donor-conceived individuals must be entitled to information about their genetic parents. Secondly, a context-sensitive application of a human rights-based approach allows retrospective access to non-identifying information but precludes retrospective access to identifying information where a donor wishes to remain anonymous in circumstances where anonymity was guaranteed at the time of donation. Finally, despite this finding, a rights-based approach requires states to actively encourage such donors to consent to the release of identifying information and to take reasonable steps to support donor-conceived individuals in circumstances where donors refuse to provide their consent.
Anzhelika G. GERASYMENKO
Full Text Available This paper investigates the role of informative advertising in creation and augment of market power as well as the ability of an advertiser to maximize the value of its economic rent. Informative advertising is considered to be a merit good unlike a persuasive one that is mostly associated with a bad. But analysis of the advertisement breakdown in Ukraine shows that the share of price advertisements, which are the most beneficial for the public, is negligible today. Further still those advertisements are mostly situated in the sectors, where price competition is the least strong. Another kind of informative advertising – differentiating advertising – turns from an instrument of informing consumers into the vehicle of manipulation of consumer choice. Using the blind tests the author has compared the quality and the prices of the range of advertised goods and has found out a low level of correlation between the variables. That means that informative advertising serves a function of informing consumers inefficiently. At the same time phantom differentiation and misleading advertising proliferation as well as informative advertising concentration on experience and credible goods instead search ones testify to effective serving a function of maximizing advertiser welfare.
Verbaten, M.N.; Woestenburg, J.C.; Sjouw, W.
This study investigated the hypothesis that task-relevant stimuli induce orienting reactions (ORs) that are stronger and more resistant to habituation when their information content is high than when it is low. Task-relevance was given to the stimuli by rewarding the subjects for correct recognition
Vatenmacher, Michael; Isaac, Shabtai; Svoray, Tal
This study seeks to attain a better understanding of the information that is required by governments to prepare for earthquakes, and of the constraints they face in obtaining this information. The contributions of the study are two-fold. A survey that was conducted among those responsible for earthquake preparedness actions in different governmental agencies and at different levels revealed on the one hand a desire for information on a broad range of topics, but on the other hand that no resources were allocated in practice to gather this information. A Geographic Information System-based process that was developed following the survey, allowed the required information on seismic hazards and loss and damage risks to be rapidly collected, mapped and integrated. This supported the identification of high-priority areas, for which a more detailed analysis could be initiated. An implementation of the process showed promise, and confirmed its feasibility. Its relative simplicity may ensure that an earthquake preparedness process is initiated by governments that are otherwise reluctant to allocate resources for this purpose.
Ballermann, Mark; Shaw, Nicola T; Mayes, Damon C; Gibney, R T Noel
Electronic documentation methods may assist critical care providers with information management tasks in Intensive Care Units (ICUs). We conducted a quasi-experimental observational study to investigate patterns of information tool use by ICU physicians, nurses, and respiratory therapists during verbal communication tasks. Critical care providers used tools less at 3 months after the CCIS introduction. At 12 months, care providers referred to paper and permanent records, especially during shift changes. The results suggest potential areas of improvement for clinical information systems in assisting critical care providers in ensuring informational continuity around their patients.
Jiang, Guoqian; Ogasawara, Katsuhiko; Endoh, Akira; Sakurai, Tsunetaro
We conducted a survey among 100 clinicians in a university hospital to determine the clinician’s attitudes and the relevant computer-based information needs towards the practice of evidence-based medicine in outpatient setting. PMID:14728387
Othman, Noordin; Vitry, Agnes I; Roughead, Elizabeth E; Ismail, Shaiful B; Omar, Khairani
.... However, studies have shown that the quality of this information is often low. No study has assessed the medicines information provided by pharmaceutical representatives to doctors in Malaysia and no recent evidence in Australia is present...
Stein, Bradley D; Kogan, Jane N; Essock, Susan; Fudurich, Stephanie
This qualitative study examined consumer preferences regarding the content and use of provider performance data and other provider information to aid in consumers' decision making. Focus groups were conducted with 41 adults who were consumers of mental health care, and discussions were transcribed and analyzed with standard qualitative research methods. Consumers supported trends toward enhancing information about providers and its availability. Several key themes emerged, including the need for easily accessible information and the most and least useful types of information. Current efforts to share provider performance information do not meet consumer preferences. Modest changes in the types of information being shared and the manner in which it is shared may substantially enhance use of such information. Such changes may help consumers to be more informed and empowered in making decisions about care, improve the quality of the care delivered, and support the movement toward a more recovery-focused system of care.
Full Text Available In recent years, pluvial floods caused by extreme rainfall events have occurred frequently. Especially in urban areas, they lead to serious damages and endanger the citizens’ safety. Therefore, real-time information about such events is desirable. With the increasing popularity of social media platforms, such as Twitter or Instagram, information provided by voluntary users becomes a valuable source for emergency response. Many applications have been built for disaster detection and flood mapping using crowdsourcing. Most of the applications so far have merely used keyword filtering or classical language processing methods to identify disaster relevant documents based on user generated texts. As the reliability of social media information is often under criticism, the precision of information retrieval plays a significant role for further analyses. Thus, in this paper, high quality eyewitnesses of rainfall and flooding events are retrieved from social media by applying deep learning approaches on user generated texts and photos. Subsequently, events are detected through spatiotemporal clustering and visualized together with these high quality eyewitnesses in a web map application. Analyses and case studies are conducted during flooding events in Paris, London and Berlin.
Haluza, Daniela; Cervinka, Renate
Objectives Unprotected leisure time exposure to ultraviolet radiation from the sun or artificial tanning beds is the most important environmental risk factor for melanoma, a malignant skin cancer with increasing incidences over the past decades. The aim of the present study was to assess the impact of skin health information provided by several sources and different publishing issues on knowledge, risk perception, and sun protective behavior of sunbathers. Methods A cross-sectional questionna...
Ismail Shaiful B; Roughead Elizabeth E; Vitry Agnes I; Othman Noordin; Omar Khairani
Abstract Background Pharmaceutical representatives provide medicines information on their promoted products to doctors. However, studies have shown that the quality of this information is often low. No study has assessed the medicines information provided by pharmaceutical representatives to doctors in Malaysia and no recent evidence in Australia is present. We aimed to compare the provision of medicines information by pharmaceutical representatives to doctors in Australia and Malaysia. Metho...
Hanoch, Yaniv; Pachur, Thorsten
Nurses are increasingly being called upon to be the conveyers of important statistical information to patients. This trend is particularly evident in the domains of genetics and cancer screening. These new roles, however, demand new competencies, such as the ability to solve statistical problems, and the skill to communicate the answers effectively, as effective communication is an important ingredient in shared decision making. Genetic testing, perhaps more than other medical domains, relies heavily on the use of statistics. Being able to convey statistical information effectively is vital. In this paper, we illustrate the problems health care professionals have had in tackling and communicating statistical information. We introduce the natural frequencies method of solving Bayesian inference problems and review empirical evidence that shows the superiority of this format. Being able to transform probabilities into natural frequencies facilitates correct Bayesian inferences. It is argued that the conventional approach to educating nurses in Bayesian problem solving should be reconsidered and their statistical curriculum should be supplemented with instruction in using the natural frequency format.
Grote, Nancy K.; Bledsoe, Sarah E.; Swartz, Holly A.; Frank, Ellen
Objective: To minimize barriers to care, ameliorate antenatal depression, and prevent postpartum depression, we conducted a pilot study to assess the feasibility of providing brief interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT-B) to depressed, pregnant patients on low incomes in an obstetrics and gynecological (OB/GYN) clinic. Method: Twelve pregnant,…
Trevors Jack T
Full Text Available Abstract Genetic algorithms instruct sophisticated biological organization. Three qualitative kinds of sequence complexity exist: random (RSC, ordered (OSC, and functional (FSC. FSC alone provides algorithmic instruction. Random and Ordered Sequence Complexities lie at opposite ends of the same bi-directional sequence complexity vector. Randomness in sequence space is defined by a lack of Kolmogorov algorithmic compressibility. A sequence is compressible because it contains redundant order and patterns. Law-like cause-and-effect determinism produces highly compressible order. Such forced ordering precludes both information retention and freedom of selection so critical to algorithmic programming and control. Functional Sequence Complexity requires this added programming dimension of uncoerced selection at successive decision nodes in the string. Shannon information theory measures the relative degrees of RSC and OSC. Shannon information theory cannot measure FSC. FSC is invariably associated with all forms of complex biofunction, including biochemical pathways, cycles, positive and negative feedback regulation, and homeostatic metabolism. The algorithmic programming of FSC, not merely its aperiodicity, accounts for biological organization. No empirical evidence exists of either RSC of OSC ever having produced a single instance of sophisticated biological organization. Organization invariably manifests FSC rather than successive random events (RSC or low-informational self-ordering phenomena (OSC.
Full Text Available The present study explored the ability of expert and novice chess players to rapidly distinguish between regions of a chessboard that were relevant to the best move on the board, and regions of the board that were irrelevant. Accordingly, we monitored the eye movements of expert and novice chess players, while they selected white’s best move for a variety of chess problems. To manipulate relevancy, we constructed two different versions of each chess problem in the experiment, and we counterbalanced these versions across participants. These two versions of each problem were identical except that a single piece was changed from a bishop to a knight. This subtle change reversed the relevancy map of the board, such that regions that were relevant in one version of the board were now irrelevant (and vice versa. Using this paradigm, we demonstrated that both the experts and novices spent more time fixating the relevant relative to the irrelevant regions of the board. However, the experts were faster at detecting relevant information than the novices, as shown by the finding that experts (but not novices were able to distinguish between relevant and irrelevant information during the early part of the trial. These findings further demonstrate the domain-related perceptual processing advantage of chess experts, using an experimental paradigm that allowed us to manipulate relevancy under tightly controlled conditions.
Sheridan, Heather; Reingold, Eyal M
The present study explored the ability of expert and novice chess players to rapidly distinguish between regions of a chessboard that were relevant to the best move on the board, and regions of the board that were irrelevant. Accordingly, we monitored the eye movements of expert and novice chess players, while they selected white's best move for a variety of chess problems. To manipulate relevancy, we constructed two different versions of each chess problem in the experiment, and we counterbalanced these versions across participants. These two versions of each problem were identical except that a single piece was changed from a bishop to a knight. This subtle change reversed the relevancy map of the board, such that regions that were relevant in one version of the board were now irrelevant (and vice versa). Using this paradigm, we demonstrated that both the experts and novices spent more time fixating the relevant relative to the irrelevant regions of the board. However, the experts were faster at detecting relevant information than the novices, as shown by the finding that experts (but not novices) were able to distinguish between relevant and irrelevant information during the early part of the trial. These findings further demonstrate the domain-related perceptual processing advantage of chess experts, using an experimental paradigm that allowed us to manipulate relevancy under tightly controlled conditions.
Havik, Else M.; Kooijman, Aart C.; Steyvers, Frank J. J. M.
The effectiveness of different types of verbal information provided by electronic travel aids was studied in a real-life setting. Assessments included wayfinding performance and the preferences of 24 visually impaired users. The participants preferred a combination of route information and environmental information, even though this information…
Garoufallou, Emmanouel; Balatsoukas, Panos; Siatri, Rania; Zafeiriou, Georgia; Asderi, S.; Ekizoglou; P.
The increased popularity of Google search engine in the daily routine in one's workplace and in the academic information seeking process is undeniable. "Googling" challenges the traditional skills of librarians as information providers and the role of library and information service provision in the digital era. This paper reports on the…
Jonietz, David; Timpf, Sabine
J. J. Gibson's concept of affordances has provided a theoretical basis for various studies in geographical information science (GISc). This paper sets out to explain its popularity from a GISc perspective. Based on a short review of previous work, it will be argued that its main contributions to GISc are twofold, including an action-centered view of spatial entities and the notion of agent-environment mutuality. Using the practical example of pedestrian behavior simulation, new potentials for using and extending affordances are discussed.
Sakai, Hitomi; Katsumata, Noriyuki; Takahashi, Miyako
The Institute of Medicine (IOM) of the United States recommends that all cancer survivors be provided with a survivorship care plan (SCP), which includes a patient treatment summary and a follow-up care plan. However, SCPs have not been widely adopted in Japan. To provide basic data necessary for implementing SCPs in Japan, we aimed to investigate the forms of clinical and survivorship-related information that Japanese cancer survivors receive from their healthcare providers, and to examine whether written information increases their satisfaction. We performed a cross-sectional online survey of cancer survivors who underwent acute cancer treatment and had at least one follow-up with a physician in the past year. Cancer survivors provided the elements and forms (verbally and/or written) of information they received, as well as the degree of satisfaction with the information provided. Responses were obtained from 545 cancer survivors. Information elements such as surgical procedure (98.3%), surgical outcome (98.1%), and names of administered chemotherapy agents (97.8%) were commonly provided, whereas mental care resources and providers (29.7%), effects on marital relationship and sexual health (35.7%), and effects on fertility (43.4%) were less common. A large proportion of cancer survivors received verbal information only. For 18 of 20 elements, except for effects on fertility and duration of hormonal therapy, satisfaction was significantly higher when both forms of information were provided (P information can better meet the needs of Japanese cancer survivors.
Buchholz, Bernd [VDE/ETG (Germany); Frey, Hellmuth [Energie Baden-Wuerttemberg AG (EnBW), Karlsruhe (Germany); Stein, Johannes [German Electrical and Electronic Manufacturers' Association (ZVEI), Frankfurt (Germany)
Significant changes in the operation of distribution systems are necessary for the development of smart grids, as the exchange of a large volume of data in order to ensure the power management, the metering and smart automation. The provision of relevant and accurate information to each user in a timely manner should be performed by new agents, further encouraging the non vertical process of the sector.
Kurimoto, Fuki; Hori, Satoko; Satoh, Hiroki; Miki, Akiko; Sawada, Yasufumi
For drug fostering and evolution, it is important to collect information directly from patients on the efficacy and safety of drugs as well as patient needs. At present, however, information gathered by healthcare professionals, pharmaceutical companies, or governments is not sufficient. There is concern that patients may fail to recognize the importance of providing information voluntarily. The present study was conducted to provide drug information to patients/consumers, to enlighten them on the importance of providing drug information by themselves, and to develop an Internet website, called "Minkusu," for collecting drug information from patients. This website is based on a registration system (free of charge). It is designed to provide information on proper drug use, and to collect opinions about drugs. As of May 31, 2012, a total of 1149 people had been registered. The male/female ratio of registered members was approximately 1:1, and patients/consumers accounted for 23%. According to the results of a questionnaire survey, several patient/consumer members appreciated the usefulness of the information service, and they took an opportunity to know of the concepts of drug development and evolution (Ikuyaku, in Japanese) through the information services provided by this site. In conclusion, the developed information system would contribute to the proper use of drugs by patients/consumers and to the promotion of drug development and evolution.
Bruce, Jordan G; Tucholka, Jennifer L; Steffens, Nicole M; Mahoney, Jane E; Neuman, Heather B
Patients facing decisions for breast cancer surgery commonly search the internet. Directing patients to high-quality websites prior to the surgeon consultation may be one way of supporting patients' informational needs. The objective was to test an approach for delivering web-based information to breast cancer patients. The implementation strategy was developed using the Replicating Effective Programs framework. Pilot testing measured the proportion that accepted the web-based information. A pre-consultation survey assessed whether the information was reviewed and the acceptability to stakeholders. Reasons for declining guided refinement to the implementation package. Eighty-two percent (309/377) accepted the web-based information. Of the 309 that accepted, 244 completed the pre-consultation survey. Participants were a median 59 years, white (98%), and highly educated (>50% with a college degree). Most patients who completed the questionnaire reported reviewing the website (85%), and nearly all found it helpful. Surgeons thought implementation increased visit efficiency (5/6) and would result in patients making more informed decisions (6/6). The most common reasons patients declined information were limited internet comfort or access (n = 36), emotional distress (n = 14), and preference to receive information directly from the surgeon (n = 7). Routine delivery of web-based information to breast cancer patients prior to the surgeon consultation is feasible. High stakeholder acceptability combined with the low implementation burden means that these findings have immediate relevance for improving care quality.
Russo, Carlo; Tufi, Eleonora
Incomplete information in food consumption is a relevant topic in agricultural economics. This paper proposes a theoretical model describing consumer behavior, market equilibrium and public intervention in an industry where consumers must rely on the information of interested parties such as producers or associations. We provide simple game theory model showing the link between price competition and the strategic use of information. If information are unverifiable (as in the case of credence attributes) firms may have no incentive to advertise true claims and consumer decisions may be biased. Our model incorporates the opportunistic behavior of self-interested information providers. The result is a model of competition in prices and information finding a potential for market failure and public intervention. In the paper we discuss the efficiency of three possible regulations: banning false claims, subsidizing advertising campaigns, and public statement if favor of true claims. In that context, some recent patents related to both the regulatory compliance in communication and to the reduction of asymmetric information between producers and consumers have been considered. Finally, we found that the efficiency of these policy tools is affected by the reputation of trustworthiness of the firms.
Cacace, Mirella; Ettelt, Stefanie; Brereton, Laura; Pedersen, Janice S; Nolte, Ellen
This article provides details on a report that reviews and discusses information systems reporting on the quality or performance of providers of healthcare ("quality information systems") in seven countries: Denmark, England, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Sweden and the United States. Data collection involves a review of the published and grey literature and is complemented by information provided by key informants in the selected countries using a detailed questionnaire. Quality information systems typically address a number of audiences, including patients (or respectively the general public before receiving services and becoming patients), commissioners, purchasers and regulators. We observe that as the policy context for quality reporting in countries varies, so also does the nature and scope of quality information systems within and between countries. Systems often pursue multiple aims and objectives, which typically are (a) to support patient choice (b) to influence provider behaviour to enhance the quality of care (c) to strengthen transparency of the provider-commissioner relationship and the healthcare system as a whole and (d) to hold healthcare providers and commissioners to account for the quality of care they provide and the purchasing decisions they make. We emphasise that the main users of information systems are the providers themselves as the publication of information provides an incentive for improving the quality of care. Finally, based on the evidence reviewed, we identify a number of considerations for the design of successful quality information systems, such as the clear definition of objectives, ensuring users' accessibility and stakeholder involvement, as well as the need to provide valid, reliable and consistent data.
Ismail Shaiful B
Full Text Available Abstract Background Pharmaceutical representatives provide medicines information on their promoted products to doctors. However, studies have shown that the quality of this information is often low. No study has assessed the medicines information provided by pharmaceutical representatives to doctors in Malaysia and no recent evidence in Australia is present. We aimed to compare the provision of medicines information by pharmaceutical representatives to doctors in Australia and Malaysia. Methods Following a pharmaceutical representative's visit, general practitioners in Australia and Malaysia who had agreed to participate, were asked to fill out a questionnaire on the main product and claims discussed during the encounter. The questionnaire focused on provision of product information including indications, adverse effects, precautions, contraindications and the provision of information on the Pharmaceutical Benefit Scheme (PBS listings and restrictions (in Australia only. Descriptive statistics were produced. Chi-square analysis and clustered linear regression were used to assess differences in Australia and Malaysia. Results Significantly more approved product information sheets were provided in Malaysia (78% than in Australia (53% (P Conclusions Information on indications and dosages were usually provided by pharmaceutical representatives in Australia and Malaysia. However, risk and harmful effects of medicines were often missing in their presentations. Effective control of medicines information provided by pharmaceutical representatives is needed.
Sazonets Olga M.
Full Text Available The aim of the article is to study the peculiarities of the innovative activity in the context of providing the enterprise information security. By analyzing, systematizing and summarizing the scientific works of many scientists the essence of the concept of «information security» has been considered and components of the innovation development process from the standpoint of providing information security have been identified. The article discusses issues of providing information security on the basis of introducing innovations, which will allow achieving a state in which there would be realized a sustainable, protected from threats, development of the enterprise. It has been proved that the formation of the innovative enterprise policy should include measures to ensure information security. As a result of the study the types of threats to the enterprise information security have been identified. It has been determined that the innovation process in the field of information security is provided by means of research, administrative, industrial, technological and commercial activities leading to the emergence and commercialization of innovations. The prospect for further research in this area is determining a system of indicators for forecasting the integral innovation indicator of economic information security. The system of indicators for diagnostics of the enterprise information security level enables monitoring the indicators of the state of the enterprise innovation and information activity in order to prevent the emergence of threats.
Fitch, Rebecca C; Harnack, Lisa J; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne R; Story, Mary T; French, Simone A; Oakes, J Michael; Rydell, Sarah A
To gather consumer input about approaches to providing energy composition information for foods on fast-food restaurant menus. We asked a subset of individuals (n = 150) in an experimental study about the influence of nutrition labeling on fast-food meal choices to evaluate calorie information on mock fast-food menus in various formats. Three community sites in the Minneapolis-St. Paul, Minnesota, metropolitan area. Adolescents and adults who ate fast food at least once per week were recruited. Via a series of open- and close-ended questions, participants gave feedback about several formats for providing energy composition information for foods on fast-food restaurant menus. Means and frequencies were calculated, and chi2 tests were conducted. When asked to compare a menu that provided calorie information for each menu item with a menu that provided the number of minutes of running that would be required to burn the calories contained in each menu item, 71.0% of participants preferred the calorie information over the physical activity information. Participants also compared two approaches to providing caloric reference information on the menu (average daily calorie needs per day vs. per meal), and 61.3% preferred the calorie needs-per-meal format. Our results may be useful in designing approaches to providing energy composition information for foods on fast-food restaurant menus.
Eby, David W; Molnar, Lisa J; Kostyniuk, Lidia P; St Louis, Renée M; Zanier, Nicole
The study aim was to gain a better understanding of the characteristics of informal caregivers who provide transportation assistance and to explore the types and frequency of this assistance. A telephone survey was administered to a representative sample of 268 informal caregivers (age 45-80) who provide transportation assistance to older adults (age 70 and older) in Michigan. Responses were analyzed overall and by the caregiver sex and care recipient age. Informal transportation caregivers were: most often women; on average 61 years old; generally college educated; employed full- or part-time jobs; relatively healthy; providing care to a parent/family member 1-4 times per week, living close to the care recipient; and providing assistance by giving rides. Less than one-half of caregivers sought information to help them provide assistance. No significant burden was reported and there were few differences by sex of the caregiver of the age group of the care recipient.
David W Eby
Full Text Available The study aim was to gain a better understanding of the characteristics of informal caregivers who provide transportation assistance and to explore the types and frequency of this assistance. A telephone survey was administered to a representative sample of 268 informal caregivers (age 45-80 who provide transportation assistance to older adults (age 70 and older in Michigan. Responses were analyzed overall and by the caregiver sex and care recipient age. Informal transportation caregivers were: most often women; on average 61 years old; generally college educated; employed full- or part-time jobs; relatively healthy; providing care to a parent/family member 1-4 times per week, living close to the care recipient; and providing assistance by giving rides. Less than one-half of caregivers sought information to help them provide assistance. No significant burden was reported and there were few differences by sex of the caregiver of the age group of the care recipient.
Risks for patients and consumers can be minimized depending on how they are provided appropriate drug information. Therefore, from the viewpoint of hospital pharmacists, I would like to report on how information should be provided in order to minimize patient risk. For example, there is an ongoing opinion that the provision of easy-to-understand drug information to patients and consumers "does not appear necessary". The reasons for this include the following: Because the level of understanding varies greatly among patients, it is difficult to define what "easy-to-understand" information entails; rather, it may cause misunderstanding. These problems occur repeatedly if they are resolved by individual institutions. Therefore, it is essential to standardize the drug information provided to patients, that is, to establish a system to transmit drug information to patients and consumers. Regardless of whether the development of a hospital information system is in progress or not, it can be said that the development of such information systems is gradually spreading outside of hospitals and the situation is changing. From the viewpoint of patients, medical services are not limited to those from hospitals. Patient-centered collaboration between hospitals/clinics and pharmacies (but not the collaboration between hospital pharmacists and community pharmacists (why not?)) can provide good medical services only if patient information is shared. It is essential to establish a system for providing a drug guide for patients, in order to have patients understand drug information. The preparation of Drug Information for Patients would provide health care specialists a communication tool that helps minimize patient risk.
Giorda, Paolo; Allegra, Michele
Understanding how correlations can be used for quantum communication protocols is a central goal of quantum information science. While many authors have linked the global measures of correlations such as entanglement or discord to the performance of specific protocols, in general the latter may require only correlations between specific observables. In this work, we first introduce a general measure of correlations for two-qubit states, based on the classical mutual information between local observables. Our measure depends on the state’s purity and the symmetry in the correlation distribution, according to which we provide a classification of maximally mixed marginal states (MMMS). We discuss the complementarity relation between correlations and coherence. By focusing on a simple yet paradigmatic example, i.e. the remote state preparation protocol, we introduce a method to systematically define the proper protocol-tailored measures of the correlations. The method is based on the identification of those correlations that are relevant (useful) for the protocol. On the one hand, the approach allows the role of the symmetry of the correlation distribution to be discussed in determining the efficiency of the protocol, both for MMMS and general two-qubit quantum states, and on the other hand, it allows an optimized protocol for non-MMMS to be devised, which is more efficient with respect to the standard one. Overall, our findings clarify how the key resources in simple communication protocols are the purity of the state used and the symmetry of the correlation distribution.
Lee, Susan K; Sulaiman-Hill, Cheryl M R; Thompson, Sandra C
Preferences for topics and means of access to health information among newly arrived, culturally and linguistically diverse women in Perth, Western Australia, were explored. A mixed-methods approach was adopted. Qualitative material obtained from focus groups and interviews with 22 service providers and 26 migrant women was used to develop a questionnaire, which was then administered to 268 newly arrived migrant and refugee women from 50 countries. Participants' information and support priorities were ascertained from a ranking exercise conducted in a non-threatening context. Responses of migrant and refugee women were compared quantitatively. Women's top priorities for information and support included employment advice, as well as information regarding mental health issues, women's health, exercise and nutrition, family violence and alcohol and other drug issues. Their preferred methods for receiving information were interactive talks or presentations, with written material support. Audiovisual and Web-based material were also considered useful. There were differences between refugee women's and other migrants' preferences for means of receiving information and topics of most concern. The use of a non-threatening ranking process encouraged women to prioritise sensitive topics, such as family violence, and revealed a need for such topics to be incorporated within general health information presentations. Internet-based technologies are becoming increasingly important methods for disseminating information to migrant women. SO WHAT? Differences between migrant and refugee women's priority health issues and their preferred methods for receiving information highlight the desirability of tailoring information to particular groups. Although advice on employment pathways and mental health concerns were top priorities, the study revealed a need for more discussion on other sensitive topics, such as family violence and alcohol-related issues, and that ideally these should
Grispen, Janaica E J; Ickenroth, Martine H P; de Vries, Nanne K; van der Weijden, Trudy; Ronda, Gaby
Diagnostic self-tests (tests on body materials that are initiated by consumers with the aim of diagnosing a disorder or risk factor) are becoming increasingly available. Although the pros and cons of self-testing are currently not clear, it is an existing phenomenon that is likely to gain further popularity. To examine consumers' use of and needs for information about self-testing, and to assess the quality of consumer information provided with home test kits, as perceived by consumers and as assessed using a checklist of quality criteria. A cross-sectional Internet survey among 305 self-testers assessed their use of and needs for information and their perception of the quality of consumer information provided with self-test kits. A meta-search engine was used to identify Dutch and English consumer information for home diagnostic tests available online at the time of the study. The quality of this consumer information was evaluated using a checklist of quality criteria. The consumers' information needs were in line with the most frequently used information, and the information was perceived as being of moderate to good quality. The information was mostly in agreement with clinical practice guidelines, although information on reliability and follow-up behaviour was limited. Approximately half of the instruction leaflets did not include information on the target group of the test. Although generally of moderate to good quality, some aspects of the information provided were in many cases insufficient. European legislation concerning self-tests and accompanying information needs to be adapted and adhered to more closely. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Dingman, Deirdre A; Schulz, Mark R; Wyrick, David L; Bibeau, Daniel L; Gupta, Sat N
In 2010, the United States (US) enacted a restaurant menu labeling law. The law also applied to vending machine companies selling food. Research suggested that providing nutrition information on menus in restaurants might reduce the number of calories purchased. We tested the effect of providing nutrition information and 'healthy' designations to consumers where vending machines were located in college residence halls. We conducted our study at one university in Southeast US (October-November 2012). We randomly assigned 18 vending machines locations (residence halls) to an intervention or control group. For the intervention we posted nutrition information, interpretive signage, and sent a promotional email to residents of the hall. For the control group we did nothing. We tracked sales over 4 weeks before and 4 weeks after we introduced the intervention. Our intervention did not change what the residents bought. We recommend additional research about providing nutrition information where vending machines are located, including testing formats used to present information.
.... Whereas expansion of a water utility typically involves the replacement of informal providers, the experience in Manila demonstrates that the rapid connection of low-income areas actually hinges...
花岡, 智恵; Hanaoka, Chie
In this paper, we investigate whether expected bequests from elderly parents affects the probability of children providing informal care, using Japanese micro data. We found that elderly parents with home equity were more likely to receive informal care from their children compared to those without. The results imply that the assets of the elderly may affect the probability of receiving informal care from their children.
Havik, Else M.; Kooijman, Aart C.; Steyvers, Frank J. J. M.
The effectiveness of different types of verbal information provided by electronic travel aids was studied in a real-life setting. Assessments included wayfinding performance and the preferences of 24 visually impaired users. The participants preferred a combination of route information and
Full Text Available The prevalence of smartphones and wireless broadband networks have been progressing as a new Railway infomration environment. According to the spread of such devices and information technology, various types of information can be obtained from databases connected to the Internet. One scenario of obtaining such a wide variety of information resources is in the phase of user’s transportation. This paper proposes an information provision system, named the Station Concierge System that matches the situation and intention of passengers. The purpose of this system is to estimate the needs of passengers like station staff or hotel concierge and to provide information resources that satisfy user’s expectations dynamically. The most important module of the system is constructed based on a new information ranking method for passenger intention prediction and service recommendation. This method has three main features, which are (1 projecting a user to semantic vector space by using her current context, (2 predicting the intention of a user based on selecting a semantic vector subspace, and (3 ranking the services by a descending order of relevant scores to the user’ intention. By comparing the predicted results of our method with those of two straightforward computation methods, the experimental studies show the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed method. Using this system, users can obtain transit information and service map that dynamically matches their context.
Full Text Available Background: This study analyzed differences between transparency of information disclosure and related demands from the health service consumer’s perspective. It also compared how health service providers and consumers are associated by different levels of mandatory information disclosure. Methods: We obtained our research data using a questionnaire survey (health services providers, n = 201; health service consumers, n = 384. Results: Health service consumers do not have major concerns regarding mandatory information disclosure. However, they are concerned about complaint channels and settlement results, results of patient satisfaction surveys, and disclosure of hospital financial statements (p < 0.001. We identified significant differences in health service providers’ and consumers’ awareness regarding the transparency of information disclosure (p < 0.001. Conclusions: It may not be possible for outsiders to properly interpret the information provided by hospitals. Thus, when a hospital discloses information, it is necessary for the government to consider the information’s applicability. Toward improving medical expertise and information asymmetry, the government has to reduce the burden among health service consumers in dealing with this information, and it has to use the information effectively.
Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this article is to study whether there exists natural relationship between fair value and corporate external market. A series of special phenomenon in the application of fair value arouses our research interests, which present evidences on how competition affects the correlation of fair value information. Design/methodology/approach: this thesis chooses fair value changes gains and losses and calculate the ratio of DFVPSit as the alternative variable of the fair value. In order to effectively inspect the mutual influence between the degree of industry competition and the value relevance of fair value, and reduce the impact of multi-collinearity, we built a regression model on the hypothesis, which supposes that if other conditions are the same, the fair value information has greater value relevance if the degree of the industry competition is greater. To test the hypothesis, we use the comparison of the DFVPSit coefficient absolute value to judge the value relevance of fair value information, and the greater the absolute value is, the higher relevance between the changes in fair value per share profits and losses with the stock prices. Findings: The higher the degree of competition in the industry is, the more fair value information relevance is. Also, there are evidences representing that fair value information often presents negative correlation with the stock price. Originality/value: The main contribution of the article is to show that not only need we make the formulation and implementation of the high quality of fair value accounting standards to suit for both the national conditions and international practice, but also need we further to improve the company's external governance mechanism to promote fair value’s information correlation.
Othman, Noordin; Vitry, Agnes I; Roughead, Elizabeth E; Ismail, Shaiful B; Omar, Khairani
Pharmaceutical representatives provide medicines information on their promoted products to doctors. However, studies have shown that the quality of this information is often low. No study has assessed the medicines information provided by pharmaceutical representatives to doctors in Malaysia and no recent evidence in Australia is present. We aimed to compare the provision of medicines information by pharmaceutical representatives to doctors in Australia and Malaysia. Following a pharmaceutical representative's visit, general practitioners in Australia and Malaysia who had agreed to participate, were asked to fill out a questionnaire on the main product and claims discussed during the encounter. The questionnaire focused on provision of product information including indications, adverse effects, precautions, contraindications and the provision of information on the Pharmaceutical Benefit Scheme (PBS) listings and restrictions (in Australia only). Descriptive statistics were produced. Chi-square analysis and clustered linear regression were used to assess differences in Australia and Malaysia. Significantly more approved product information sheets were provided in Malaysia (78%) than in Australia (53%) (P pharmaceutical representatives. Contraindications, precautions, drug interactions and adverse effects were often omitted in the presentations (range 25% - 41%). General practitioners in Australia and Malaysia indicated that in more than 90% of presentations, pharmaceutical representatives partly or fully answered their questions on contraindications, precautions, drug interactions and adverse effects. More general practitioners in Malaysia (85%) than in Australia (60%) reported that pharmaceutical representatives should have mentioned contraindications, precautions for use, drug interaction or adverse effects spontaneously (P presentations, general practitioners reported the pharmaceutical representatives failed to mention information on PBS listings to general
Sushko, O. P.; Kaznin, A. A.; Babkin, A. V.; Bogdanov, D. A.
The study we are conducting involves the analysis of information security levels achieved by energy providers operating in the North Arctic Region. We look into whether the energy providers’ current information security levels meet reliability standards and determine what further actions may be needed for upgrading information security in the context of the digital transformation that the world community is undergoing. When developing the information security systems for electric energy providers or selecting the protection means for them, we are governed by the fact that the assets to be protected are process technologies. While information security risk can be assessed using different methods, the evaluation of the economic damage from these risks appears to be a difficult task. The most probable and harmful risks we have identified when evaluating the electric energy providers’ information security will be used by us as variables. To provide the evaluation, it is necessary to calculate the costs relating to elimination of the risks identified. The final stage of the study will involve the development of an operation algorithm for the North Arctic Region’s energy provider’s business information protection security system – a set of information security services, and security software and hardware.
Usherwood, Bob; Wilson, Kerry; Bryson, Jared
In a project funded by the AHRB, researchers at the University of Sheffield used a combination of quantitative and qualitative research methods to examine the perceived contemporary relevance of archives, libraries and museums. The research sought to discern how far the British people value access to these established repositories of public…
...: Written comments may be submitted to the NIOSH Docket Office, Robert A. Taft Laboratories, 4676 Columbia... docket, including any personal information. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Chia Chang, NIOSH, telephone...
... mental health services. 51.46 Section 51.46 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... a provider of mental health services. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, if a... of mental health services, it may not disclose information from such records to the individual who is...
.../or per diem for programs to assist homeless veterans' transition to independent living and to... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Homeless Providers Grant and Per Diem Program) Activity; Comment.... Titles a. Homeless Providers Grant and Per Diem Program, Capital Grant. Application, VA Form 10-0361-CG...
Cohen, Fred; Rogers, Deanna T.; Neagoe, Vicentiu
A method and/or system and/or apparatus providing deception and/or execution alteration in an information system. In specific embodiments, deceptions and/or protections are provided by intercepting and/or modifying operation of one or more system calls of an operating system.
Jaish- e-Muhammad ( Kashmir ); Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan; Al Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb (Algeria) (formerly Salafist Group for Call and Combat...Also called IO.8 Information Warfare: Conflict between two or more states in information space with the aim of causing damage to information systems...
Goldberg, Holly Bianca; Shorten, Allison
The objective of this study was to determine whether differences exist between patient and provider perceptions regarding the decision-making process around use of epidural analgesia during childbirth. The dyadic patient-provider Decisional Conflict Scale was modified to measure first-time mother (n = 35) and maternity care provider (n = 52) perceptions. Providers perceived a greater degree of informed decision making than patients (84.97 vs. 79.41, p = .04) and were more likely to recall they upheld patients' rights to make informed choices than patients were to perceive their rights had been upheld (85.95 vs. 71.73, p < .01). This incongruity highlights the need to align legal principles with practice to create mutual agreement between stakeholder perceptions of informed decision making.
Kumar, Manish; Mostafa, Javed; Ramaswamy, Rohit
Health information systems (HIS) in India, as in most other developing countries, support public health management but fail to enable healthcare providers to use data for delivering quality services. Such a failure is surprising, given that the population healthcare data that the system collects are aggregated from patient records. An important reason for this failure is that the health information architecture (HIA) of the HIS is designed primarily to serve the information needs of policymakers and program managers. India has recognised the architectural gaps in its HIS and proposes to develop an integrated HIA. An enabling HIA that attempts to balance the autonomy of local systems with the requirements of a centralised monitoring agency could meet the diverse information needs of various stakeholders. Given the lack of in-country knowledge and experience in designing such an HIA, this case study was undertaken to analyse HIS in the Bihar state of India and to understand whether it would enable healthcare providers, program managers and policymakers to use data for decision-making. Based on a literature review and data collected from interviews with key informants, this article proposes a federated HIA, which has the potential to improve HIS efficiency; provide flexibility for local innovation; cater to the diverse information needs of healthcare providers, program managers and policymakers; and encourage data-based decision-making.
Евгений Геннадьевич Панкратов
Full Text Available This article analyzes the existing methods of e-government systems audit, their shortcomings are examined. The approaches to improve existing techniques and adapt them to the specific characteristics of e-government systems are suggested. The paper describes the methodology, providing possibilities of integrated assessment of information systems. This methodology uses systems maturity models and can be used in the construction of e-government rankings, as well as in the audit of their implementation process. Maturity models are based on COBIT, COSO methodologies and models of e-government, developed by the relevant committee of the UN. The methodology was tested during the audit of information systems involved in the payment of temporary disability benefits. The audit was carried out during analysis of the outcome of the pilot project for the abolition of the principle of crediting payments for disability benefits.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2014-2-5
Full Text Available Abstract Background Adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis who are considering spinal surgery face a major decision that requires access to in-depth information and support. Unfortunately, most online resources provide incomplete and inconsistent information and minimal social support. The aim of this study was to develop an online information and support resource for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS patients considering spinal surgery. Prior to website development, a user-based needs assessment was conducted. The needs assessment involved a total of six focus groups with three stakeholder groups: (1 post-operative AIS patients or surgical candidates (10-18 years (n = 11, (2 their parents (n = 6 and (3 health care providers (n = 11. This paper reports on the findings from focus groups with health care providers. Methods Focus group methodology was used to invite a range of perspectives and stimulate discussion. During audio-recorded focus groups, an emergent table of website content was presented to participants for assessment of relevance, viability and comprehensiveness in targeting global domains of need. Specifically, effective presentation of content, desired aspects of information and support, and discussions about the value of peer support and the role of health professionals were addressed. Focus group transcripts were then subject to content analysis through a constant comparative review and analysis. Results Two focus groups were held with health care providers, consisting of 5 and 6 members respectively. Clinicians provided their perceptions of the information and support needs of surgical patients and their families and how this information and support should be delivered using internet technology. Health care providers proposed four key suggestions to consider in the development of this online resource: (1 create the website with the target audience in mind; (2 clearly state the purpose of the website and organize website content
Macculloch, Radha; Nyhof-Young, Joyce; Nicholas, David; Donaldson, Sandra; Wright, James G
Adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis who are considering spinal surgery face a major decision that requires access to in-depth information and support. Unfortunately, most online resources provide incomplete and inconsistent information and minimal social support. The aim of this study was to develop an online information and support resource for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) patients considering spinal surgery. Prior to website development, a user-based needs assessment was conducted. The needs assessment involved a total of six focus groups with three stakeholder groups: (1) post-operative AIS patients or surgical candidates (10-18 years) (n = 11), (2) their parents (n = 6) and (3) health care providers (n = 11). This paper reports on the findings from focus groups with health care providers. Focus group methodology was used to invite a range of perspectives and stimulate discussion. During audio-recorded focus groups, an emergent table of website content was presented to participants for assessment of relevance, viability and comprehensiveness in targeting global domains of need. Specifically, effective presentation of content, desired aspects of information and support, and discussions about the value of peer support and the role of health professionals were addressed. Focus group transcripts were then subject to content analysis through a constant comparative review and analysis. Two focus groups were held with health care providers, consisting of 5 and 6 members respectively. Clinicians provided their perceptions of the information and support needs of surgical patients and their families and how this information and support should be delivered using internet technology. Health care providers proposed four key suggestions to consider in the development of this online resource: (1) create the website with the target audience in mind; (2) clearly state the purpose of the website and organize website content to support the user; (3) offer a
Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this paper is to assess the compliance with the characteristic of the relevance of disclosure in Management Reports, particularly dealing with Human Capital (HC information.Design/methodology/approach: We codify all instances where narratives of IBEX-35 stock index companies over a five year period in Spain comply with the recommendations for a “high quality” Management Commentary (MC in terms of the relevance characteristic of the information disclosed (IASB, 2005.Findings: The analysis results show that a greater quantity of information about HC in terms of the number of pages devoted is not always indicative of higher quality in terms of relevance if we look for the application of IASB recommendations.Research limitations/implications: Further research could assess compliance with other qualitative characteristics required by other standards or guidances that were internationaly generaly accepted.Practical implications: Among the areas that require improvement in HC disclosures we highlight forward-looking information.Social implications: We propose that an internationally accepted agreement must be struck to unite all the efforts that are being made to improve narrative information in the MC section, and specifically with reference to HC.Originality/value: This work compiles the HC disclosures identified as best practices that may serve as a reference to other companies.
Liu, Jian-Ming; Xu, Ru-Xiang; Hu, Yong-Sheng; Ren, Lian-Kun; Qiao, Hui; Ding, Hu; Liu, Zhi-Liang
Most patients with epilepsy want to learn as much as possible about the disease, and many have turned to the internet for information. Patients are likely to use information obtained from the internet to control their epilepsy, but little is known about the accuracy of this information. In this survey, we have assessed the feasibility and usability of internet-based interventions for the treatment of epilepsy. Data were collected from an internet search. Different search terms were used to obtain general information on epilepsy together with information about medication, types of epilepsy, treatment, women's health, and other information. The accuracy of the information was evaluated by a group of experts. A total of 1320 web pages were assessed. The majority were websites related to health. A large number (80.2%) of web pages contained content related to the search term. A significant number of web pages 450/1058 (42.5%) claimed to provide information from a credible source; however, only 206/1058 (19.5%) of the information was accurate and complete; 326/1058 (30.8%) was accurate but incomplete; 328/1058 (31.0%) was correct but nonstandard, and 198/1058 (18.8%) was inaccurate. The authenticity of the information was not significantly different between the two search engines (χ2 = 0.009, P = 0.924). No significant difference was observed in the information obtained from a specialist or nonspecialist source (χ2 = 7.538, P = 0.057). There was also no correlation between the quality of the information and the priority (χ2 = 6.880, P = 0.076). Searching for information about epilepsy on the internet is convenient, but the information provided is not reliable. Too much information is inaccurate or for advertisement purposes, and it is difficult for patients to find the useful information. Turning to the internet for medical knowledge may be harmful. Physicians should be aware that their patients may search for information on the internet and guide them to safe
Full Text Available Background: Most patients with epilepsy want to learn as much as possible about the disease, and many have turned to the internet for information. Patients are likely to use information obtained from the internet to control their epilepsy, but little is known about the accuracy of this information. In this survey, we have assessed the feasibility and usability of internet-based interventions for the treatment of epilepsy. Methods: Data were collected from an internet search. Different search terms were used to obtain general information on epilepsy together with information about medication, types of epilepsy, treatment, women′s health, and other information. The accuracy of the information was evaluated by a group of experts. Results: A total of 1320 web pages were assessed. The majority were websites related to health. A large number (80.2% of web pages contained content related to the search term. A significant number of web pages 450/1058 (42.5% claimed to provide information from a credible source; however, only 206/1058 (19.5% of the information was accurate and complete; 326/1058 (30.8% was accurate but incomplete; 328/1058 (31.0% was correct but nonstandard, and 198/1058 (18.8% was inaccurate. The authenticity of the information was not significantly different between the two search engines (χ2 = 0.009, P = 0.924. No significant difference was observed in the information obtained from a specialist or nonspecialist source (χ2 = 7.538, P = 0.057. There was also no correlation between the quality of the information and the priority (χ2 = 6.880, P = 0.076. Conclusions: Searching for information about epilepsy on the internet is convenient, but the information provided is not reliable. Too much information is inaccurate or for advertisement purposes, and it is difficult for patients to find the useful information. Turning to the internet for medical knowledge may be harmful. Physicians should be aware that their patients may search for
Diana K. Wakimoto
Full Text Available Objective – To compare recall and precision of results retrieved by searches in PubMed and Google Scholar for clinical nephrology literature. Design – Survey questionnaire, comparative. Setting – Canada. Subjects – Practicing nephrologists with average age of 48 years and who have practiced nephrology for an average of 15 years. Methods – The researchers identified 100 systematic reviews in renal therapy published between 2001 and 2009. The primary studies cited in the systematic reviews served as the reference standard for relevant articles; 1,574 unique citations were identified and used to measure recall and precision. The researchers created a unique clinical question from each of the objective statements of systematic reviews and sent one question to a random sample of practicing nephrologists to determine the search strings they would use to search for clinical literature; the researchers collected 100 usable responses. Using the search string in both Google Scholar and PubMed, the researchers analyzed the first 40 retrieved results in each for recall of relevant literature and precision. The researchers also analyzed the availability of full-text articles in each database. A pilot study to test the methodology preceded the main study. Results – Google Scholar’s recall for the first 40 records was 21.9% and PubMed was 10.9%. Each database contained 78% of the relevant literature/reference standard set from the systematic reviews. However, 15% of the articles were in neither database. Precision results were similar (7.6% for Google Scholar and 5.6% for PubMed. Google Scholar had more full-text available at 15% of articles versus 5% for PubMed. Google Scholar and PubMed had similar numbers of relevant articles when all retrieved records were analyzed, but Google Scholar still provided more access to free full-text articles. Conclusion – Google Scholar provides better recall and provides more access to full-text than Pub
Urquiza, J M; Rojas, I; Pomares, H; Herrera, J; Florido, J P; Valenzuela, O; Cepero, M
In modern proteomics, prediction of protein-protein interactions (PPIs) is a key research line, as these interactions take part in most essential biological processes. In this paper, a new approach is proposed to PPI data classification based on the extraction of genomic and proteomic information from well-known databases and the incorporation of semantic measures. This approach is carried out through the application of data mining techniques and provides very accurate models with high levels of sensitivity and specificity in the classification of PPIs. The well-known support vector machine paradigm is used to learn the models, which will also return a new confidence score which may help expert researchers to filter out and validate new external PPIs. One of the most-widely analyzed organisms, yeast, will be studied. We processed a very high-confidence dataset by extracting up to 26 specific features obtained from the chosen databases, half of them calculated using two new similarity measures proposed in this paper. Then, by applying a filter-wrapper algorithm for feature selection, we obtained a final set composed of the eight most relevant features for predicting PPIs, which was validated by a ROC analysis. The prediction capability of the support vector machine model using these eight features was tested through the evaluation of the predictions obtained in a set of external experimental, computational, and literature-collected datasets. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Apelian, Clément; Gastaud, Clément; Boccara, A. Claude
For a large number of cancer surgeries, the lack of reliable intraoperative diagnosis leads to reoperations or bad outcomes for the patients. To deliver better diagnosis, we developed Dynamic Full Field OCT (D-FFOCT) as a complement to FFOCT. FFOCT already presents interesting results for cancer diagnosis e.g. Mohs surgery and reaching 96% accuracy on prostate cancer. D-FFOCT accesses the dynamic processes of metabolism and gives new tools to diagnose the state of a tissue at the cellular level to complement FFOCT contrast. We developed a processing framework that intends to maximize the information provided by the FFOCT technology as well as D-FFOCT and synthetize this as a meaningful image. We use different time processing to generate metrics (standard deviation of time signals, decorrelation times and more) and spatial processing to sort out structures and the corresponding imaging modality, which is the most appropriate. Sorting was achieved through quadratic discriminant analysis in a N-dimension parametric space corresponding to our metrics. Combining the best imaging modalities for each structure leads to a rich morphology image. This image displaying the morphology is then colored to represent the dynamic behavior of these structures (slow or fast) and to be quickly analyzed by doctors. Therefore, we achieved a micron resolved image, rich of both FFOCT ability of imaging fixed and highly backscattering structures as well as D-FFOCT ability of imaging low level scattering cellular level details. We believe that this morphological contrast close to histology and the dynamic behavior contrast will push forward the limits of intraoperative diagnosis further on.
Lodder, A.R.; van der Meulen, N.S.
Internet service providers (ISPs) play a pivotal role in contemporary society because they provide access to the Internet. The primary task of ISPs – to blindly transfer information across the network – has recently come under pressure, as has their status as neutral third parties. Both the public
Buys, Laurie; Aird, Rosemary; van Megen, Kimberley; Miller, Evonne; Sommerfeld, Jeffrey
Disagreement within the global science community about the certainty and causes of climate change has led the general public to question what to believe and whom to trust on matters related to this issue. This paper reports on qualitative research undertaken with Australian residents from two rural areas to explore their perceptions of climate change and trust in information providers. While overall, residents tended to agree that climate change is a reality, perceptions varied in terms of its causes and how best to address it. Politicians, government, and the media were described as untrustworthy sources of information about climate change, with independent scientists being the most trusted. The vested interests of information providers appeared to be a key reason for their distrust. The findings highlight the importance of improved transparency and consultation with the public when communicating information about climate change and related policies.
Aarts, J W M; van Oers, A M; Faber, M J; Cohlen, B J; Nelen, W L D M; Kremer, J A M; van Dulmen, A M
Online patient-provider communication has become increasingly popular in fertility care. However, it is not known to what extent patients express cues or concerns and how providers respond. In this study, we investigated cues and responses that occur in online patient-provider communication at an infertility-specific expert forum. We extracted 106 threads from the multidisciplinary expert forum of two Dutch IVF clinics. We performed the following analyses: (1) thematic analysis of patients' questions; and (2) rating patients' emotional and informational cues and subsequent professionals' responses using an adaptation of the validated Medical Interview Aural Rating Scale. Frequencies of themes, frequencies of cues and responses, and sequences (what cue is followed by what response) were extracted. Sixty-five infertile patients and 19 providers participated. The most common themes included medication and lifestyle. Patients gave more informational than emotional cues (106 versus 64). Responses to informational cues were mostly adequate (61%). The most common response to emotional cues was empathic acknowledgment (72%). Results indicate that an online expert forum could have a positive effect on patient outcomes, which should guide future research. Offering infertile patients an expert forum to communicate with providers can be a promising supplement to usual care in both providing information and addressing patients' concerns.
Pylypiv, Nadiia; Motyl, Vasyl
This article explores the impact of organization of managerial accounting on formation of informational base on the local (level of the individual enterprise), regional, disciplinary and national levels in the context of providing stable economic development for building enterprises. Based on our findings, we built a cognitive map of such an influence, which shows itself through different spheres, such as: economic, ecological and social, and will enjoy informational requests of management fo...
The Department of Energy (DOE) and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) provide consumers with web-based information on the environmental effects of automobiles so that individuals can make informed choices about the vehicles they use or may purchase. DOE and EPA maintain a web site (www.fueleconomy.gov) that provides users with information about fuel economy [as well as greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and air pollution emissions] for the cars and trucks they use or may consider purchasing. EPA also maintains a separate web site (www.epa.gov/greenvehicles) that offers similar information, with the focus on air pollution emissions rather than fuel economy. The American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy (ACEEE) (www.greenercars.com) and the California Air Resources Board (CARB) (www.arb.ca.gov/msprog/ccbg/ccbg.htm) also maintain web sites that provide consumers with information on the environmental effects of automobiles. Through the National Transportation Research Center (NTRC) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, DOE has supported some initial qualitative research with people who are interested in purchasing a new or used vehicle and whose actions identify them as at least somewhat concerned about the environment. The purpose of this research was to explore and understand how these people respond to the different ratings and measurements of environmental effects provided by the four web sites. The goal of the research is to optimize the communication of information provided on the DOE/EPA web site (www.fueleconomy.gov). Working with a private marketing research firm (The Looking Glass Group of Knoxville, Tennessee), NTRC staff initiated this research by meeting with two focus groups in Knoxville on February 27, 2001. To obtain information for comparison, staff from the NTRC and the Looking Glass Group also met with two focus groups in Los Angeles, California, on August 13, 2001.
Patients have to acquire information to support their decision on choosing a suitable healthcare provider. But in developing countries like Vietnam, accessibility issues remain an obstacle, thus adversely affect both quality and costliness of healthcare information. Vietnamese use both sources from health professionals and friends/relatives, especially when quality of the Internet-based cheaper sources appear to be still questionable. The search of information from both professionals and friends/relatives incurs some cost, which can be viewed as low or high depending low or high accessibility to the sources. These views potentially affect their choices. To investigate the effects that medical/health services information on perceived expensiveness of patients' labor costs. Two related objectives are a) establishing empirical relations between accessibility to sources and expensiveness; and, b) probabilistic trends of probabilities for perceived expensiveness. There is evidence for established relations among the variables "Convexp" and "Convrel" (all p's information sources (experts and friends/relatives) have influence on patients perception of information expensiveness. The use of experts source tends to increase the probability of perceived expensiveness. a) Probabilistic trends show Vietnamese patients have propensity to value healthcare information highly and do not see it as "expensive"; b) The majority of Vietnamese households still take non-professional advices at their own risks; c) There is more for the public healthcare information system to do to reduce costliness and risk of information. The Internet-based health service users communities cannot replace this system.
van der Sluis, Frans; van den Broek, Egon; van Dijk, Elisabeth M.A.G.; Hoeber, O.; Li, Y.; Huang, X.J.
We approach Information Retrieval (IR) from a User eXperience (UX) perspective. Through introducing a model for Information Retrieval eXperience (IRX), this paper operationalizes a perspective on IR that reaches beyond topicality. Based on a document's topicality, complexity, and emotional value, a
Kaufmann, J O; Smit, J W; Huisman, W; Idema, R N; Bakker, E; Giordano, P C
After a first survey in 2001, the Dutch Association of Hematological Laboratory Research (VHL) advised its members to adopt a basic protocol for haemoglobinopathy carrier detection and to provide genetic information with all positive results to allow health-care professionals to inform carriers about potential genetic risks. This article reports on the compliance with these recommendations and their consequences. Clinical chemists of all 106 Dutch laboratories were invited to answer a survey on patient population, diagnostic techniques used, (self-reported) knowledge, use and effect of the additional information. The average increase in diagnostic output was over 60% and the recommended basic protocol was applied by 65% of the laboratories. Over 84% of the laboratories reported to be aware of the additional recommendations and 77% to be using them. Most laboratories with limited diagnostic requests were still sending their cases to other laboratories and included the genetic information received from these laboratories in their diagnostic reports. The effect of information on subsequent 'family analysis' was estimated to be between 26 and 50%. The present study shows an increase in diagnostic potential for haemoglobinopathy over the last decade, especially in the larger cities. Low 'family testing' rates were mostly found in areas with lower carrier prevalence or associated with local reluctance to pass the information to carriers. In spite of a dramatic improvement, too many carriers are still not informed because of lack of awareness among health-care providers and more education is needed. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available When the World Wide Web provides suitable methods for producing and publishing information to scientists, the Web has become a mediator to publishing information. This environment has been formed billions of web pages that each of them has a special title, special content, special address and special purpose. Search engines provide a variety of facilities limit search results to raise the possibility of relevance in the retrieval results. One of these facilities is the limitation of the keywords and search terms to the title or URL. It can increase the possibility of results relevance significantly. Search engines claim what are limited to title and URL is most relevant. This research tried to compare the results relevant between results limited in title and URL in agricultural and Humanities areas from their users sights also it notice to Comparison of the presence of keywords in the title and URL between two areas and the relationship between search query numbers and matching keywords in title and their URLs. For this purpose, the number of 30 students in each area whom were in MA process and in doing their thesis was chosen. There was a significant relevant of the results that they limited their information needs to title and URL. There was significantly relevance in URL results in agricultural area, but there was not any significant difference between title and URL results in the humanities. For comparing the number of keywords in title and URL in two areas, 30 keywords in each area were chosen. There was not any significantly difference between the number of keywords in the title and URL of websites in two areas. To show relationship between number of search keyword and the matching of title and URL 45 keywords in each area were chosen. They were divided to three parts (one keyword, two keywords and three keywords. It was determined that if search keyword was less, the amount of matching between title and URL was more and if the matching
Full Text Available This study investigated links between lower-level visual attention processes and higher-level problem solving. This was done by overlaying visual cues on conceptual physics problem diagrams to direct participants’ attention to relevant areas to facilitate problem solving. Participants (N = 80 individually worked through four problem sets, each containing a diagram, while their eye movements were recorded. Each diagram contained regions that were relevant to solving the problem correctly and separate regions related to common incorrect responses. Problem sets contained an initial problem, six isomorphic training problems, and a transfer problem. The cued condition saw visual cues overlaid on the training problems. Participants’ verbal responses were used to determine their accuracy. The study produced two major findings. First, short duration visual cues can improve problem solving performance on a variety of insight physics problems, including transfer problems not sharing the surface features of the training problems, but instead sharing the underlying solution path. Thus, visual cues can facilitate re-representing a problem and overcoming impasse, enabling a correct solution. Importantly, these cueing effects on problem solving did not involve the solvers’ attention necessarily embodying the solution to the problem. Instead, the cueing effects were caused by solvers attending to and integrating relevant information in the problems into a solution path. Second, these short duration visual cues when administered repeatedly over multiple training problems resulted in participants becoming more efficient at extracting the relevant information on the transfer problem, showing that such cues can improve the automaticity with which solvers extract relevant information from a problem. Both of these results converge on the conclusion that lower-order visual processes driven by attentional cues can influence higher-order cognitive processes
Zanto, Theodore P; Hennigan, Kelly; Ostberg, Mattias; Clapp, Wesley C; Gazzaley, Adam
Our ability to focus attention on task-relevant stimuli and ignore irrelevant distractions is reflected by differential enhancement and suppression of neural activity in sensory cortices. Previous research has shown that older adults exhibit a deficit in suppressing task-irrelevant information, the magnitude of which is associated with a decline in working memory performance. However, it remains unclear if a failure to suppress is a reflection of an inability of older adults to rapidly assess the relevance of information upon stimulus presentation when they are not aware of the relevance beforehand. To address this, we recorded the electroencephalogram (EEG) in healthy older participants (aged 60-80 years) while they performed two different versions of a selective face/scene working memory task, both with and without prior knowledge as to when relevant and irrelevant stimuli would appear. Each trial contained two faces and two scenes presented sequentially followed by a 9 sec delay and a probe stimulus. Participants were given the following instructions: remember faces (ignore scenes), remember scenes (ignore faces), remember the xth and yth stimuli (where x and y could be 1st, 2nd, 3rd or 4th), or passively view all stimuli. Working memory performance remained consistent regardless of task instructions. Enhanced neural activity was observed at posterior electrodes to attended stimuli, while neural responses that reflected the suppression of irrelevant stimuli was absent for both tasks. The lack of significant suppression at early stages of visual processing was revealed by P1 amplitude and N1 latency modulation indices. These results reveal that prior knowledge of stimulus relevance does not modify early neural processing during stimulus encoding and does not improve working memory performance in older adults. These results suggest that the inability to suppress irrelevant information early in the visual processing stream by older adults is related to mechanisms
Hall, Robert T.; White, Joshua S.; Fields, Jeremy
Information Cascades (IC) through a social network occur due to the decision of users to disseminate content. We define this decision process as User Diffusion (UD). IC models typically describe an information cascade by treating a user as a node within a social graph, where a node's reception of an idea is represented by some activation state. The probability of activation then becomes a function of a node's connectedness to other activated nodes as well as, potentially, the history of activation attempts. We enrich this Coarse-Grained User Diffusion (CGUD) model by applying actor type logics to the nodes of the graph. The resulting Fine-Grained User Diffusion (FGUD) model utilizes prior research in actor typing to generate a predictive model regarding the future influence a user will have on an Information Cascade. Furthermore, we introduce a measure of Information Resonance that is used to aid in predictions regarding user behavior.
Full Text Available The application of new technologies in the processes of gathering, analysing, transforming, visualizing and communicating of space data and geoinformation offers a great challenge for cartography. Cartographic information provision as described in several cartographic models, which is included in cartographic information systems depend on the graphical presentation/visualization at certain scales. That necessitates a need to define the capacity or content borders (geometry and semantic for cognition and communication. However, currently we need and use maps as a vehicle for transportation of spatial and temporal information. Graphic constructions of geoanalogies, linked with interaction, multimedia sequences and animations, support effective geocommunication, bridging the gaps imposed by having to work at pre-defined scales. This paper illustrates two interactive information systems, which were conceptualised and prototyped at the Institute of Cartography and Geomedia Technique, Vienna University of Technology.
Piero C. Giordano
Full Text Available The aims of this study are: i to enquire whether informing healthy hemoglobinopathy carriers about their condition is a welcome initiative in The Netherlands; ii to study whether using information letters and thorough explanation is associated with presence or absence of undesired feelings or emotions. We have approached 100 multi-ethnic carriers previously diagnosed in our lab. All subjects had previously received our information letter through their physician who was supposed to have provided an explanation of the letter if required. We have enquired whether the subjects had experienced negative or positive emotions after receiving our diagnosis and explanation and to which degree, if they were sufficiently informed and satisfied and if they would have considered prevention in case of risk. The rate negative versus positive feelings was calculated using a numerical distribution. We have registered negative feelings in a rate that was directly proportional to the lack of information. While the number of registered negative feelings in well-informed carriers was very low it was more present in badly informed. Nevertheless, all participants found carrier information a welcome initiative and over 80% of them declared to be in favor of prenatal diagnosis in case of risk.
Pearson, Steven D; Moreno, Ricardo; Trnka, Yvona
OBJECTIVE To study the process, outcomes, and time spent on informal consultations provided by gastroenterologists to the primary care general internists of an HMO. DESIGN Observational study. SETTING A large, urban staff-model HMO. PATIENTS/PARTICIPANTS Seven gastroenterologists constituting the total workforce of the gastroenterology department of the HMO. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS Data on 91 informal consultations were obtained, of which 55 (60%) involved the acute management of a patient with new symptoms or test results, and 36 (40%) were for questions related to nonacute diagnostic test selection or medical therapy. Questions regarding patients previously unknown to the gastroenterology department accounted for 74 (81%) of the consultations. Formal referral was recommended in only 16 (22%) of these cases. As judged by the time data gathered on the 91 consultations, the gastroenterologists spent approximately 7.2 hours per week to provide informal consultation for the entire HMO. CONCLUSIONS Gastroenterologists spend a significant amount of time providing informal consultation to their general internist colleagues in this HMO. The role informal consultation plays in the workload of physicians and in the clinical care of populations is an important question for health care system design, policy, and research. PMID:9686708
Renner, Gerolf; Irblich, Dieter
Test Reviews in Child Psychology: Test Users Wish to Obtain Practical Information Relevant to their Respective Field of Work This study investigated to what extent diagnosticians use reviews of psychometric tests for children and adolescents, how they evaluate their quality, and what they expect concerning content. Test users (n = 323) from different areas of work (notably social pediatrics, early intervention, special education, speech and language therapy) rated test reviews as one of the most important sources of information. Readers of test reviews value practically oriented descriptions and evaluations of tests that are relevant to their respective field of work. They expect independent reviews that critically discuss opportunities and limits of the tests under scrutiny. The results show that authors of test reviews should not only have a background in test theory but should also be familiar with the practical application of tests in various settings.
Manojlovich, Milisa; Adler-Milstein, Julia; Harrod, Molly; Sales, Anne; Hofer, Timothy P; Saint, Sanjay; Krein, Sarah L
Communication failures between physicians and nurses are one of the most common causes of adverse events for hospitalized patients, as well as a major root cause of all sentinel events. Communication technology (ie, the electronic medical record, computerized provider order entry, email, and pagers), which is a component of health information technology (HIT), may help reduce some communication failures but increase others because of an inadequate understanding of how communication technology is used. Increasing use of health information and communication technologies is likely to affect communication between nurses and physicians. The purpose of this study is to describe, in detail, how health information and communication technologies facilitate or hinder communication between nurses and physicians with the ultimate goal of identifying how we can optimize the use of these technologies to support effective communication. Effective communication is the process of developing shared understanding between communicators by establishing, testing, and maintaining relationships. Our theoretical model, based in communication and sociology theories, describes how health information and communication technologies affect communication through communication practices (ie, use of rich media; the location and availability of computers) and work relationships (ie, hierarchies and team stability). Therefore we seek to (1) identify the range of health information and communication technologies used in a national sample of medical-surgical acute care units, (2) describe communication practices and work relationships that may be influenced by health information and communication technologies in these same settings, and (3) explore how differences in health information and communication technologies, communication practices, and work relationships between physicians and nurses influence communication. This 4-year study uses a sequential mixed-methods design, beginning with a
Jantz, Ronald C.
Discussion of digital library projects at Rutgers University focuses on publishing bibliographic databases on the Web to provide access to information sources not likely to be published elsewhere. Describes the reusable technology platform concept, bibliographic platform architecture, metadata approach, data entry, and managing the process.…
... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration... Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice... entitled ``Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff: Providing Information About...
Nazari, Behzad; Ninknejad, Sahar
The present study highly supported the effective role of providing background information via email by the teacher to write e-mail by the students in learners' writing ability. A total number of 50 EFL advanced male students aged between 25 and 40 at different branches of Iran Language Institute in Tehran, Tehran. Through the placement test of…
... clients? 377.31 Section 377.31 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education... PROJECTS TO INCREASE CLIENT CHOICE PROGRAM What Post-Award Conditions Must Be Met by a Grantee? § 377.31 What information must a grantee provide to eligible clients? Each grantee shall advise all clients and...
Timmers, Caroline; Veldkamp, Bernard
Three studies are presented on attention paid to feedback provided by a computer-based assessment for learning on information literacy. Results show that the attention paid to feedback varies greatly. In general the attention focuses on feedback of incorrectly answered questions. In each study approximately fifty percent of the respondents paid…
Buffer, Janet; Kendall, Patricia; Medeiros, Lydia; Schroeder, Mary; Sofos, John
Objective: To determine content, education channels, and motivational factors that influence what health professionals teach about safe food handling to populations who are highly susceptible for foodborne illnesses. To assess the differences in information provided by health professionals to highly susceptible populations. Design: Descriptive,…
Simpson E Hatheway
Full Text Available Abstract Background Movement towards evidence-based practices in many fields suggests that public health (PH challenges may be better addressed if credible information about health risks and effective PH practices is readily available. However, research has shown that many PH information needs are unmet. In addition to reviewing relevant literature, this study performed a comprehensive review of existing information resources and collected data from two representative PH groups, focusing on identifying current practices, expressed information needs, and ideal systems for information access. Methods Nineteen individual interviews were conducted among employees of two domains in a state health department – communicable disease control and community health promotion. Subsequent focus groups gathered additional data on preferences for methods of information access and delivery as well as information format and content. Qualitative methods were used to identify themes in the interview and focus group transcripts. Results Informants expressed similar needs for improved information access including single portal access with a good search engine; automatic notification regarding newly available information; access to best practice information in many areas of interest that extend beyond biomedical subject matter; improved access to grey literature as well as to more systematic reviews, summaries, and full-text articles; better methods for indexing, filtering, and searching for information; and effective ways to archive information accessed. Informants expressed a preference for improving systems with which they were already familiar such as PubMed and listservs rather than introducing new systems of information organization and delivery. A hypothetical ideal model for information organization and delivery was developed based on informants' stated information needs and preferred means of delivery. Features of the model were endorsed by the subjects who
LaPelle, Nancy R; Luckmann, Roger; Simpson, E Hatheway; Martin, Elaine R
Movement towards evidence-based practices in many fields suggests that public health (PH) challenges may be better addressed if credible information about health risks and effective PH practices is readily available. However, research has shown that many PH information needs are unmet. In addition to reviewing relevant literature, this study performed a comprehensive review of existing information resources and collected data from two representative PH groups, focusing on identifying current practices, expressed information needs, and ideal systems for information access. Nineteen individual interviews were conducted among employees of two domains in a state health department--communicable disease control and community health promotion. Subsequent focus groups gathered additional data on preferences for methods of information access and delivery as well as information format and content. Qualitative methods were used to identify themes in the interview and focus group transcripts. Informants expressed similar needs for improved information access including single portal access with a good search engine; automatic notification regarding newly available information; access to best practice information in many areas of interest that extend beyond biomedical subject matter; improved access to grey literature as well as to more systematic reviews, summaries, and full-text articles; better methods for indexing, filtering, and searching for information; and effective ways to archive information accessed. Informants expressed a preference for improving systems with which they were already familiar such as PubMed and listservs rather than introducing new systems of information organization and delivery. A hypothetical ideal model for information organization and delivery was developed based on informants' stated information needs and preferred means of delivery. Features of the model were endorsed by the subjects who reviewed it. Many critical information needs of PH
Gary L. Cochran
Full Text Available BackgroundHealth information exchange (HIE systems are implemented nationwide to integrate health information and facilitate communication among providers. The Nebraska Health Information Initiative is a state-wide HIE launched in 2009. Objective The purpose of this study was to conduct a comprehensive assessment of health care providers’ perspectives on a query-based HIE, including barriers to adoption and important functionality for continued utilization. MethodsWe surveyed 5618 Nebraska health care providers in 2013. Reminder letters were sent 30 days after the initial mailing. ResultsA total of 615 questionnaires (11% were completed. Of the 100 current users, 63 (63% indicated satisfaction with HIE. The most common reasons for adoption among current or previous users of an HIE (N = 198 were improvement in patient care (N = 111, 56% as well as receiving (N = 95, 48% and sending information (N = 80, 40% in the referral network. Cost (N = 233, 38% and loss of productivity (N = 220, 36% were indicated as the ‘major barriers’ to adoption by all respondents. Accessing a comprehensive patient medication list was identified as the most important feature of the HIE (N = 422, 69%. ConclusionsThe cost of HIE access and workflow integration are significant concerns of health care providers. Additional resources to assist practices plan the integration of the HIE into a sustainable workflow may be required before widespread adoption occurs. The clinical information sought by providers must also be readily available for continued utilization. Query-based HIEs must ensure that medication history, laboratory results and other desired clinical information be present, or long-term utilization of the HIE is unlikely.
So, Jiyeon; Jeong, Se-Hoon; Hwang, Yoori
The extant empirical research examining the effectiveness of statistical and exemplar-based health information is largely inconsistent. Under the premise that the inconsistency may be due to an unacknowledged moderator (O'Keefe, 2002), this study examined a moderating role of outcome-relevant involvement (Johnson & Eagly, 1989) in the effects of statistical and exemplified risk information on risk perception. Consistent with predictions based on elaboration likelihood model (Petty & Cacioppo, 1984), findings from an experiment (N = 237) concerning alcohol consumption risks showed that statistical risk information predicted risk perceptions of individuals with high, rather than low, involvement, while exemplified risk information predicted risk perceptions of those with low, rather than high, involvement. Moreover, statistical risk information contributed to negative attitude toward drinking via increased risk perception only for highly involved individuals, while exemplified risk information influenced the attitude through the same mechanism only for individuals with low involvement. Theoretical and practical implications for health risk communication are discussed.
Lau, Denys T; Joyce, Brian; Clayman, Marla L; Dy, Sydney; Ehrlich-Jones, Linda; Emanuel, Linda; Hauser, Joshua; Paice, Judith; Shega, Joseph W
Managing and administering medications to relieve pain and symptoms are common, important responsibilities for informal caregivers of patients receiving end-of-life care at home. However, little is known about how hospice providers prepare and support caregivers with medication-related tasks. This qualitative study explores the key approaches that hospice providers use to facilitate medication management for caregivers. Semistructured, open-ended interviews were conducted with 22 providers (14 nurses, four physicians, and four social workers) from four hospice organizations around an urban setting in the midwestern U.S. Based on the interviews, the following five key approaches emerged, constituting how the hospice team collectively helped caregivers manage medications: 1) establishing trust; 2) providing information; 3) promoting self-confidence; 4) offering relief (e.g., provided in-home medication assistance, mobilized supportive resources, and simplified prescriptions); and 5) assessing understanding and performance. Each hospice discipline used multiple approaches. Nurses emphasized tailoring information to individual caregivers and patients, providing in-home assistance to help relieve caregivers, and assessing caregivers' understanding and performance of medication management during home visits. Physicians simplified medication prescriptions to alleviate burden and reassured caregivers using their perceived medical authority. Social workers facilitated medication management by providing emotional support to promote self-confidence and mobilizing resources in caregivers' support networks and the community at large. Hospice nurses, physicians, and social workers identified distinct, yet overlapping, approaches in aiding caregivers with medication management. These findings emphasize the importance of interdisciplinary teamwork among hospice providers. Future research should investigate how common, standardized, effective, and efficient these approaches are in
Black, Betty S; Brandt, Jason; Rabins, Peter V; Samus, Quincy M; Steele, Cynthia D; Lyketsos, Constantine G; Rosenblatt, Adam
This study's goal was to identify factors associated with providing either informed consent or assent for research in individuals at high risk for cognitive impairment. Cross-sectional baseline data were used to identify predictors of consent or assent status. The study was conducted at 22 assisted living facilities in Maryland. A stratified random sample of 198 assisted living residents participated in the study. Residents' consent or assent status was documented as providing informed consent, written assent, or verbal assent/no objection. Potential predictors included residents' demographic characteristics, measures of physical and mental health status, and neuropsychological test performance. Most participants provided written assent (32.8%) or verbal assent/no objection (30.3%) rather than informed consent (36.9%). Although many resident characteristics correlated with consent or assent status based on bivariate analyses, few variables distinguished those who provided written assent from those in the verbal assent/no objection group. On the basis of multiple discriminant analysis, the best predictors of consent or assent status were Mini-Mental State Exam scores, impairments in instrumental activities of daily living, and dementia diagnosis, which together classified correctly 63.6% of residents. The relatively small proportion of participants who could provide informed consent highlights the importance of assessing decisional capacity for research in a high-risk population and identifying an appropriate surrogate decision maker to provide proxy consent if needed. Consensus on how to define assent is lacking, and specific measures of assent capabilities are needed to better characterize the assent capacity continuum.
Ma, Xiaogang; Fox, Peter; Tilmes, Curt; Jacobs, Katherine; Waple, Anne
Global change information demands access to data sources and well-documented provenance to provide evidence needed to build confidence in scientific conclusions and, in specific applications, to ensure the information's suitability for use in decision-making. A new generation of Web technology, the Semantic Web, provides tools for that purpose. The topic of global change covers changes in the global environment (including alterations in climate, land productivity, oceans or other water resources, atmospheric composition and or chemistry, and ecological systems) that may alter the capacity of the Earth to sustain life and support human systems. Data and findings associated with global change research are of great public, government, and academic concern and are used in policy and decision-making, which makes the provenance of global change information especially important. In addition, since different types of decisions benefit from different types of information, understanding how to capture and present the provenance of global change information is becoming more of an imperative in adaptive planning.
Dekens, C; Fontaine, C; Carpentier, E; Barcat, L; Gondry, J; Tourneux, P
Women hospitalized for preterm labor require clear information about prematurity. This study assessed whether or not specific written information about prematurity delivered at admission to the unit combined with an oral explanation from a pediatrician would decrease women's anxiety compared to an oral explanation alone. This was a prospective, single-center observational study. Women were included in the high-risk pregnancies department and distributed into two groups: receiving "only oral" information for a prenatal clinical consultation with a senior pediatrician or receiving "combined" oral information+a booklet about prematurity given to the women at admission. The primary endpoint was the change in anxiety-state (before and after the information procedure) evaluated by the State Trait Anxiety Inventory-Y (STAI-Y). The anxiety score before receiving information did not differ between the two groups (STAI-Y-A "combined" group: 46.7±3.0 vs. "only oral" group: 42.7±2.74; P=0.55). After consultation with a pediatrician, the acute anxiety-state score STAI-Y-A decreased significantly in the "combined" group (-6.7±1.9) compared to the "only oral" group (-2.5±4.6; Pinformation from a pediatrician reduced patients' anxiety more than oral information alone. Given that the psychology of the mother interacts with the pregnancy, it is necessary to provide clear and adapted information. Giving a booklet appears to be one of the modalities to improve information. Other modalities such as video documents have to be studied. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Bodemer, Nicolai; Müller, Stephanie M; Okan, Yasmina; Garcia-Retamero, Rocio; Neumeyer-Gromen, Angela
The media is a powerful tool for informing the public about health treatments. In particular, the Internet has gained importance as a widely valued source for health information for parents and adolescents. Nonetheless, traditional sources, such as newspapers, continue to report on health innovations. But do websites and newspaper reports provide balanced information? We performed a systematic media analysis to evaluate and compare media coverage of the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine on websites and in newspapers in Germany and Spain. We assessed to what extent the media provide complete (pros and cons), transparent (absolute instead of relative numbers), and correct information about the epidemiology and etiology of cervical cancer as well as the effectiveness and costs of the HPV vaccine. As a basis for comparison, a facts box containing current scientific evidence about cervical cancer and the HPV vaccine was developed. The media analysis included 61 websites and 141 newspaper articles in Germany, and 41 websites and 293 newspaper articles in Spain. Results show that 57% of German websites and 43% of German newspaper reports communicated correct estimates of epidemiological data, whereas in Spain 39% of the websites and 20% of the newspaper did so. While two thirds of Spanish websites explicitly mentioned causes of cervical cancer as well as spontaneous recovery, German websites communicated etiological information less frequently. Findings reveal that correct estimates about the vaccine's effectiveness were mentioned in 10% of German websites and 6% of German newspaper reports; none of the Spanish newspaper reports and 2% of Spanish websites reported effectiveness correctly. Only German websites (13%) explicitly referred to scientific uncertainty regarding the vaccine's evaluation. We conclude that the media lack balanced reporting on the dimensions completeness, transparency, and correctness. We propose standards for more balanced reporting on websites and
Full Text Available Concentration-response curves of isometric tension studies on isolated blood vessels are obtained traditionally. Although parameters such as Imax, EC50 and pA2 may be readily calculated, this method does not provide information on the temporal profile of the responses or the actual nature of the reaction curves. Computerized data acquisition systems can be used to obtain average data that represent a new source of otherwise inaccessible information, since early and late responses may be observed separately in detail
Martín-Delgado, M C; Fernández-Maillo, M; Bañeres-Amella, J; Campillo-Artero, C; Cabré-Pericas, L; Anglés-Coll, R; Gutiérrez-Fernández, R; Aranaz-Andrés, J M; Pardo-Hernández, A; Wu, A
To develop recommendations regarding «Information about adverse events to patients and their families», through the implementation of a consensus conference. A literature review was conducted to identify all relevant articles, the major policies and international guidelines, and the specific legislation developed in some countries on this process. The literature review was the basis for responding to a series of questions posed in a public session. A group of experts presented the best available evidence, interacting with stakeholders. At the end of the session, an interdisciplinary and multi-professional jury established the final recommendations of the consensus conference. The main recommendations advocate the need to develop policies and institutional guidelines in our field, favouring the patient adverse events disclosure process. The recommendations emphasize the need for the training of professionals in communication skills and patient safety, as well as the development of strategies for supporting professionals who are involved in an adverse event. The assessment of the interest and impact of specific legislation that would help the implementation of these policies was also considered. A cultural change is needed at all levels, nuanced and adapted to the specific social and cultural aspects of our social and health spheres, and involves all stakeholders in the system to create a framework of trust and credibility in which the processing of information about adverse events may become effective. Copyright © 2013 SECA. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Stephen J. Connor
Full Text Available Good health status is one of the primary aspirations of human social development and, as a consequence, health indicators are key components of the human development indices by which we measure progress toward sustainable development. Certain diseases and ill health are associated with particular environmental and climate conditions. The timeframe of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs demands that the risks to health associated with current climate variability are more fully understood and acted upon to improve the focus of resources in climate sensitive disease control, especially in sub-Saharan Africa, where good epidemiological surveillance data are lacking. In the absence of high-quality epidemiological data on malaria distribution in Africa, climate information has long been used to develop malaria risk maps illustrating the climatic suitability boundaries for endemic transmission. However, experience to date has shown that it is difficult in terms of availability, timing and cost to obtain meteorological observations from national meteorological services in Africa. National health services generally find the costs of purchasing these data prohibitive given their competing demands for resources across the spectrum of health service requirements. Some national health services have tried to overcome this access problem by using proxies derived from satellites, which tend to be available freely, in 'near-real-time' and therefore offer much promise for monitoring applications. This paper discusses the issues related to climate and health, reviews the current use of climate information for malaria endemic and epidemic surveillance, and presents examples of operational use of climate information for malaria control in Africa based on Geographical Information Systems and Remote Sensing.
costumes of the barbarians who took on the armies of the Roman Republic. The movement of kinetic assets in relation to those of an opposing force...know the machine. ● Know your audience. Articles in numerous journals have already gone into detail about the importance of language skills and...value of an information warrior with long-term language exposure gained through in-country cultural immersion. Ashley Jackson’s recent article in
Burger, Joanna; Nakata, Kimi; Liang, Laura; Pittfield, Taryn; Jeitner, Christian
Governmental agencies, regulators, health professionals, and the public are faced with understanding and responding to new development practices and conditions in their local and regional environment. While hydraulic fracking (fracking) for shale gas has been practiced for over 50 years in some states, it is a relatively recent event in the northeastern United States. Providing environmental health information to the public about fracking requires understanding both the knowledge base and the perceptions of the public. The knowledge, perceptions, and concerns of college students about fracking were examined. Students were interviewed at Rutgers University in New Jersey, a state without any fracking, although fracking occurs in nearby Pennsylvania. Objectives were to determine (1) knowledge about fracking, (2) rating of concerns, (3) trusted information sources, (4) importance of fracking relative to other energy sources, and (5) the effect of a 15-min lecture and discussion on these aspects. On the second survey, students improved on their knowledge (except the components used for fracking), and their ratings changed for some concerns, perceived benefits, and trusted information sources. There was no change in support for further development of natural gas, but support for solar, wind, and wave energy decreased. Data suggest that students’ knowledge and perceptions change with exposure to information, but many of these changes were due to students using the Internet to look up information immediately after the initial survey and lecture. Class discussions indicated a general lack of trust for several information sources available on the Web. PMID:25965194
Burger, Joanna; Nakata, Kimi; Liang, Laura; Pittfield, Taryn; Jeitner, Christian
Governmental agencies, regulators, health professionals, and the public are faced with understanding and responding to new development practices and conditions in their local and regional environment. While hydraulic fracking (fracking) for shale gas has been practiced for over 50 years in some states, it is a relatively recent event in the northeastern United States. Providing environmental health information to the public about fracking requires understanding both the knowledge base and the perceptions of the public. The knowledge, perceptions, and concerns of college students about fracking were examined. Students were interviewed at Rutgers University in New Jersey, a state without any fracking, although fracking occurs in nearby Pennsylvania. Objectives were to determine (1) knowledge about fracking, (2) rating of concerns, (3) trusted information sources, (4) importance of fracking relative to other energy sources, and (5) the effect of a 15-min lecture and discussion on these aspects. On the second survey, students improved on their knowledge (except the components used for fracking), and their ratings changed for some concerns, perceived benefits, and trusted information sources. There was no change in support for further development of natural gas, but support for solar, wind, and wave energy decreased. Data suggest that students' knowledge and perceptions change with exposure to information, but many of these changes were due to students using the Internet to look up information immediately after the initial survey and lecture. Class discussions indicated a general lack of trust for several information sources available on the Web.
Islam, Qazi S; Ahmed, Syed M; Islam, Mohammad A; Chowdhury, Anita S; Siddiquea, Bodrun N; Husain, Mohammad A
BRAC (formerly Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee), in collaboration with the National Tuberculosis Control Programme, provides one full-day training on TB to make informal allopathic providers knowledgeable for managing TB in rural Bangladesh. This study explored the knowledge and practices of the providers receiving the above training in the control and prevention of TB. The study was conducted in 30 subdistricts, with 30 trained and 30 untrained providers randomly selected from each subdistrict. Approximately 3% (49/1800) did not provide complete information. Pre-tested structured and semi-structured questionnaires were used. TB was commonly perceived as a disease of only males (66.1%, 1157/1751). Only one-quarter knew about the bacterial cause of TB. Very few providers (2.1%, 36) had adequate knowledge regarding prevention of TB. They also lacked knowledge about TB treatment duration (71.6%, 1253), the meaning of DOTS (directly observed treatment, short course) (26.0%, 455) and multidrug resistance (20.6%, 360). Antibiotics (79.7%, 1396) and cough syrup (75.0%, 1313) were commonly prescribed by providers despite symptoms suggestive of TB. However, 70.2% (613) and 74.5% (650) of trained providers' knowledge and practice scores were equal to or more than the mean scores (≥6.97 and ≥6.6, respectively), whereas they were only 49.5% (435) and 64.2% (563), respectively, among untrained providers (ppreventing TB efficiently. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Hinds, Richard M; Klifto, Christopher S; Naik, Amish A; Sapienza, Anthony; Capo, John T
The Internet is a common resource for applicants of hand surgery fellowships, however, the quality and accessibility of fellowship online information is unknown. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the accessibility of hand surgery fellowship Web sites and to assess the quality of information provided via program Web sites. Hand fellowship Web site accessibility was evaluated by reviewing the American Society for Surgery of the Hand (ASSH) on November 16, 2014 and the National Resident Matching Program (NRMP) fellowship directories on February 12, 2015, and performing an independent Google search on November 25, 2014. Accessible Web sites were then assessed for quality of the presented information. A total of 81 programs were identified with the ASSH directory featuring direct links to 32% of program Web sites and the NRMP directory directly linking to 0%. A Google search yielded direct links to 86% of program Web sites. The quality of presented information varied greatly among the 72 accessible Web sites. Program description (100%), fellowship application requirements (97%), program contact email address (85%), and research requirements (75%) were the most commonly presented components of fellowship information. Hand fellowship program Web sites can be accessed from the ASSH directory and, to a lesser extent, the NRMP directory. However, a Google search is the most reliable method to access online fellowship information. Of assessable programs, all featured a program description though the quality of the remaining information was variable. Hand surgery fellowship applicants may face some difficulties when attempting to gather program information online. Future efforts should focus on improving the accessibility and content quality on hand surgery fellowship program Web sites.
..., cells, and organs. The original RFI was published in the Federal Register in Vol. 76, No. 79 on Monday... provided until June 30, 2011 (4 p.m. EDT). Please notify us if you intend to respond by the extended date... Health and Human Services, 1101 Wootton Parkway, Tower Building, Suite 250, Rockville, MD 20852. Dated...
manufacturer on both the container and pack of the drug} were mentioned in 65.6% and 50% adverts, respectively. The product and package descriptions were provided in 57 (72.2% Nigerian medical journals, which was significantly higher than in other African medical journals 39 (37.9% (P<0.001.Conclusions: None of the drug advertisements in the journals adequately provided the basic information required by the WHO for appropriate prescribing. More guidance and regulation is needed to ensure adequate information is provided.
Bobb, Morgan R.; Van Heukelom, Paul G.; Faine, Brett A.; Ahmed, Azeemuddin; Messerly, Jeffrey T.; Bell, Gregory; Harland, Karisa K.; Simon, Christian; Mohr, Nicholas M.
Objective Telemedicine networks are beginning to provide an avenue for conducting emergency medicine research, but using telemedicine to recruit participants for clinical trials has not been validated. The goal of this consent study is to determine whether patient comprehension of telemedicine-enabled research informed consent is non-inferior to standard face-to-face research informed consent. Methods A prospective, open-label randomized controlled trial was performed in a 60,000-visit Midwestern academic Emergency Department (ED) to test whether telemedicine-enabled research informed consent provided non-inferior comprehension compared with standard consent. This study was conducted as part of a parent clinical trial evaluating the effectiveness of oral chlorhexidine gluconate 0.12% in preventing hospital-acquired pneumonia among adult ED patients with expected hospital admission. Prior to being recruited into the study, potential participants were randomized in a 1:1 allocation ratio to consent by telemedicine versus standard face-to-face consent. Telemedicine connectivity was provided using a commercially available interface (REACH platform, Vidyo Inc., Hackensack, NJ) to an emergency physician located in another part of the ED. Comprehension of research consent (primary outcome) was measured using the modified Quality of Informed Consent (QuIC) instrument, a validated tool for measuring research informed consent comprehension. Parent trial accrual rate and qualitative survey data were secondary outcomes. Results One-hundred thirty-one patients were randomized (n = 64, telemedicine), and 101 QuIC surveys were completed. Comprehension of research informed consent using telemedicine was not inferior to face-to-face consent (QuIC scores 74.4 ± 8.1 vs. 74.4 ± 6.9 on a 100-point scale, p = 0.999). Subjective understanding of consent (p=0.194) and parent trial study accrual rates (56% vs. 69%, p = 0.142) were similar. Conclusion Telemedicine is non-inferior to face
Bobb, Morgan R; Van Heukelom, Paul G; Faine, Brett A; Ahmed, Azeemuddin; Messerly, Jeffrey T; Bell, Gregory; Harland, Karisa K; Simon, Christian; Mohr, Nicholas M
Telemedicine networks are beginning to provide an avenue for conducting emergency medicine research, but using telemedicine to recruit participants for clinical trials has not been validated. The goal of this consent study was to determine whether patient comprehension of telemedicine-enabled research informed consent is noninferior to standard face-to-face (F2F) research informed consent. A prospective, open-label randomized controlled trial was performed in a 60,000-visit Midwestern academic emergency department (ED) to test whether telemedicine-enabled research informed consent provided noninferior comprehension compared with standard consent. This study was conducted as part of a parent clinical trial evaluating the effectiveness of 0.12% oral chlorhexidine gluconate in preventing hospital-acquired pneumonia among adult ED patients with expected hospital admission. Prior to being recruited into the study, potential participants were randomized in a 1:1 allocation ratio to consent by telemedicine versus standard F2F consent. Telemedicine connectivity was provided using a commercially available interface (REACH platform, Vidyo Inc.) to an emergency physician located in another part of the ED. Comprehension of research consent (primary outcome) was measured using the modified quality of informed consent (QuIC) instrument, a validated tool for measuring research informed consent comprehension. Parent trial accrual rate and qualitative survey data were secondary outcomes. A total of 131 patients were randomized (n = 64, telemedicine), and 101 QuIC surveys were completed. Comprehension of research informed consent using telemedicine was not inferior to F2F consent (QuIC scores 74.4 ± 8.1 vs. 74.4 ± 6.9 on a 100-point scale, p = 0.999). Subjective understanding of consent (p = 0.194) and parent trial study accrual rates (56% vs. 69%, p = 0.142) were similar. Telemedicine is noninferior to F2F consent for delivering research informed consent, with no detected
Full Text Available Reporting on performance was legislatively established in South Africa in terms of the Public Finance Management Act, Act 1 of 1999, section 40 (3(a. The auditing of the reported information was legislated in the Public Audit Act, Act 25 of 2004, section 20(2 (c. The objectives of the article are firstly to provide an overview of the development and application of the reporting and secondly providing assurance on service delivery information and thirdly to reflect on challenges to the implementation thereof in South Africa. The aim through deploying these set objectives is to formulate possible future considerations for improved governance. As central part of the methodology, review of literature on reporting and audit of non-financialwas conducted. The research included scrutiny of the different philosophies and approaches adopted by different countries to the reporting and providing assurance on service delivery information. In this respect, the research reflects a comparative element. In South Africa the Auditor-General adopted a phasing-in approach. The development of the audit approach and audit procedures has reached a stable stage, nine years after the initial process started. The audit of performance information now forms an integral part of the regularity audit process. The analysis of audit findings of the period under study indicates a considerable improvement once initiated, but stagnation persists in subsequent years. Numerous challenges remain around the application of performance reporting in South Africa including non-compliance, the lack of sufficient and appropriate audit evidence, inconsistencies between the various strategic documents and the need to improve the usefulness of performance information. In conclusion the article proposes some steps to address the challenges.
Modern information systems designed to service a wide range of users, regardless of their subject area, are increasingly based on Web technologies and are available to users via Internet. The article discusses the issues of providing the fault-tolerant operation of such information systems, based on free and open source content management systems. The toolkit available to administrators of similar systems is shown; the scenarios for using these tools are described. Options for organizing backups and restoring the operability of systems after failures are suggested. Application of the proposed methods and approaches allows providing continuous monitoring of the state of systems, timely response to the emergence of possible problems and their prompt solution.
Slater, Penelope J; Fielden, Philippa E; Bradford, Natalie K
The Oncology Family App supports families across the vast state of Queensland, Australia, with easy access to vital information, including management plans for a deteriorating child, patient specific information and other resources. This article describes the development and evaluation of this mobile app. The app was developed and tested in collaboration with parents, caregivers, and clinicians and released in November 2015. This first version featured "Statewide Hospital Contacts," including phone numbers, links to Google maps, and 24-hour emergency contacts with click to call functionality; "When to Call" describing symptoms to look out for in a deteriorating child; "Blood Results Table"; and "Information" listing recommended websites, health care team contacts, appointments, and notes. The app was evaluated through interviews with parents, caregivers and patients and download metrics. Six months after the app release, 68% of the 38 parents and caregivers surveyed had downloaded the app. The most used modules were "Blood Results Table," "When to Call," and "Statewide Hospital Contacts," but families reported using all features available. Families were enthusiastic about the support the app provided and gave useful feedback to direct future development. Using mobile health technology to support families is a novel, but rapidly growing concept. Family and caregiver feedback showed that the Oncology Family App was an efficient and convenient way to provide much needed information. A new version of the app is under development and evaluation of outcomes will be ongoing.
Full Text Available Genetic interactions help map biological processes and their functional relationships. A genetic interaction is defined as a deviation from the expected phenotype when combining multiple genetic mutations. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, most genetic interactions are measured under a single phenotype - growth rate in standard laboratory conditions. Recently genetic interactions have been collected under different phenotypic readouts and experimental conditions. How different are these networks and what can we learn from their differences? We conducted a systematic analysis of quantitative genetic interaction networks in yeast performed under different experimental conditions. We find that networks obtained using different phenotypic readouts, in different conditions and from different laboratories overlap less than expected and provide significant unique information. To exploit this information, we develop a novel method to combine individual genetic interaction data sets and show that the resulting network improves gene function prediction performance, demonstrating that individual networks provide complementary information. Our results support the notion that using diverse phenotypic readouts and experimental conditions will substantially increase the amount of gene function information produced by genetic interaction screens.
CyberPsychology and Behavior 8, 3 (2005), 187-211.  T. Parsons & A.A. Rizzo, Affective Outcomes of Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy for Anxiety...VH System for Providing Healthcare Information and Support508  G. Riva, Virtual Reality in Psychotherapy: Review, CyberPsychology and Behavior 8...3 (2005), 220- 230.  F.D. Rose, B.M. Brooks & A.A. Rizzo, Virtual Reality in Brain Damage Rehabilitation: Review, CyberPsychology and Behavior
Tertoolen, G.; Verstraten, E.C.H. [Section of Social and Organizational Psychology, University of Utrecht, Utrecht (Netherlands)
In a field experiment the authors attempted to stimulate car users to come to a more selective use of their vehicle by means of providing information and feedback about different negative consequences of their car use. Attitude change was observed but the experimental treatments did not lead to behavioural changes. Attempts to influence car use arouse psychological resistance. Therefore, effects opposite to those intended occurred. We discuss the possible implications of the results for policy-making. 1 fig., 2 refs.
Kim, Bong-Hee; Kang, Hee-Young; Choi, Eun-Young
This study evaluated the effects of handholding and spoken information provided on the anxiety of patients undergoing percutaneous vertebroplasty under local anaesthesia. A surgical intervention usually entails physical discomfort and psychological burden. Furthermore, patients under local anaesthesia are conscious during the surgical intervention, which leads to more anxiety, as patients are aware of their surroundings in the operating theatre. A quasi-experimental design with a nonequivalent control group was utilised. Amsterdam preoperative anxiety scale assessed psychological anxiety, while blood pressure and pulse were measured to evaluate physiological anxiety. Participants were 94 patients undergoing percutaneous vertebroplasty in a spine hospital in Gwangju Metropolitan City, South Korea. Thirty patients were assigned to Experimental Group I, 34 to the Experimental Group II and 30 to the control group. During a surgical intervention, nurses held the hands of those in Experimental Group I and provided them with spoken information. Patients in Experimental Group II experienced only handholding. Psychological anxiety in Experimental Group I was low compared to those in Experimental Group II and the control group. In addition, there were significant decreases in systolic blood pressure in both Experimental Groups compared to the control group. Handholding and spoken information provided during a surgical intervention to mitigate psychological anxiety, and handholding to mitigate physiological anxiety can be used in nursing interventions with patients undergoing percutaneous vertebroplasty. Handholding and providing nursing information are possibly very useful interventions that are easily implemented by circulating nurses during a surgical intervention. In particular, handholding is a simple, economical and appropriate way to help patient in the operating theatre. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Dani, Francesca R; Foster, Kevin R; Zacchi, Francesca; Seppä, Perttu; Massolo, Alessandro; Carelli, Annalisa; Arévalo, Elisabeth; Queller, David C; Strassmann, Joan E; Turillazzi, Stefano
Inclusive fitness theory predicts that members of non-clonal societies will gain by directing altruistic acts towards their closest relatives. Multiple mating by queens and multiple queens creates distinct full-sister groups in many hymenopteran societies within which nepotism might occur. However, the weight of empirical data suggests that nepotism within full-sister groups is absent. It has been suggested that a lack of reliable recognition markers is responsible. In this paper, we investigated whether epicuticular lipids could provide reliable cues for intracolony kin recognition in two species of social wasps, the paper wasp Polistes dominulus and the hornet Vespa crabro. Epicuticular lipids have previously been shown to be central to kin recognition at the nest level, making them excellent candidates for within-nest discrimination. We genotyped individuals using DNA microsatellites and analysed surface chemistry by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. We find that in both species epicuticular lipids typically could provide enough information to distinguish related nest-mates from unrelated nest-mates, a difference that occurs in colonies with multiple queens. However, in V. crabro, where colonies may be composed by different patrilines, information for discrimination between full sisters and half-sisters is weaker and prone to errors. Our data suggest that epicuticular lipids at best provide reliable information for intracolony nepotistic discrimination in multiple-queen colonies composed of unrelated lines.
Gupta, Monica; Chauhan, Kriti; Singhvi, Tanvi; Kumari, Manisha; Grover, Rajesh Kumar
Automated cell counters have become more and more sophisticated with passing years. The numerical and graphic data both provide useful clues for suspecting a diagnosis especially when the workload is very high. We present our experience of useful information provided by graphic displays of an automated cell counter in hematological malignancies in a cancer hospital where a large number of complete blood count (CBC) requests are received either before or during chemotherapy. This study was conducted to assess the usefulness of hematology cell counter, viz. WBC-Diff (WBC differential), WBC/BASO (WBC basophil) and IMI (immature myeloid information) channel scatter plots, and the flaggings generated in various hematological malignancies. The graphic displays have been compiled over a period of 1 year (October 2015-September 2016) from blood samples of various solid and hematological malignancies (approximately 400 per day) received for routine CBC in the laboratory. Approximately 50 000 scattergrams have been analyzed during the study period. The findings were confirmed by peripheral blood smear examination. The scattergram analysis on XE-2100 is very sensitive as well as specific for diagnosing acute leukemia, viz. acute myeloid leukemia, acute lymphoblastic leukemia; chronic myeloproliferative disorders, viz. chronic myeloid leukemia; and chronic lymphoproliferative disorder especially chronic lymphocytic leukemia. It is suggested that the laboratories using the hematology analyzers be aware of graphic display patterns in addition to flaggings generated which provide additional information and give clue toward the diagnosis even before peripheral smear examination. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Pan, Xuequn; Cimino, James J
Clinicians and clinical researchers often seek information in electronic health records (EHRs) that are relevant to some concept of interest, such as a disease or finding. The heterogeneous nature of EHRs can complicate retrieval, risking incomplete results. We frame this problem as the presence of two gaps: 1) a gap between clinical concepts and their representations in EHR data and 2) a gap between data representations and their locations within EHR data structures. We bridge these gaps with a knowledge structure that comprises relationships among clinical concepts (including concepts of interest and concepts that may be instantiated in EHR data) and relationships between clinical concepts and the database structures. We make use of available knowledge resources to develop a reproducible, scalable process for creating a knowledge base that can support automated query expansion from a clinical concept to all relevant EHR data.
Otty Sarmiento Barrios
Full Text Available In the Department of Casanare, Colombia (Casanare State, tourism has not been seen as an influential and important activity for its Regional Economic Development, therefore, there are no strategic guidelines to allow planning a competitive tourist system in the region. In this sense, this paper intends to present a diagnosis and analysis of the information found within the different participants of the tourism sector. The main objective is to determine the relevant indicators for the evaluation and monitoring of tourism tendencies in this Department, taking as reference the indicator systems presented in most representative information systems at a national and international level. As a conclusion, these results will be used as the basis needed to build a tourist information system for the Department of Casanare.
Gries, C.; Vanderbilt, K.; Reid, D.; Melendez-Colom, E.; San Gil, I.
Over the last five years several Long-Term Ecological Research (LTER) sites have collaboratively developed a standardized yet flexible approach to ecological information management based on the open source Drupal content management system. These LTER sites adopted a common data model for basic metadata necessary to describe data sets, but also used for site management and web presence. Drupal core functionality provides web forms for easy management of information stored in this data model. Custom Drupal extensions were developed to generate XML files conforming to the Ecological Metadata Language (EML) for contribution to the LTER Network Information System (NIS) and other data archives. Each LTER site then took advantage of the flexibility Drupal provides to develop its unique web presence, choosing different themes and adding additional content to the websites. By nature, information presented is highly interlinked which can easily be modeled in Drupal entities and is further supported by a sophisticated tagging system (Fig. 1). Therefore, it is possible to provide the visitor with many different entry points to the site specific information presented. For example, publications and datasets may be grouped for each scientist, for each research project, for each major research theme at the site, making the information presented more accessible for different visitors. Experience gained during the early years was recently used to launch a complete re-write for upgrading to Drupal 7. LTER sites from multiple academic institutions pooled resources in order to partner with professional Drupal developers. Highlights of the new developments are streamlined data entry, improved EML output and integrity, support of IM workflows, a faceted data set search, a highly configurable data exploration tool with intelligent filtering and data download, and, for the mobile age, a responsive web design theme. Seven custom modules and a specific installation profile were developed
Full Text Available In this paper we chose to present two components of the financial statements: the profit and loss account and the cash flow statement. These summary documents and different indicators calculated based on them allow us to formulate assessments on the performance and profitability on various functions and levels of the companyâ€™s activity. This paper aims to support the hypothesis that the accounting information presented in the profit and loss account and in the cash flow statement is an appropriate source for assessing company performance. The purpose of this research is to answer the question linked to the main hypothesis: Is it the profit and loss statement or the cash flow account that reflects better the performance of a business? Based on the literature of specialty studied we tried a conceptual, analytical and practical approach of the term performance, overviewing some terminological acceptations of the term performance as well as the main indicators of performance analysis on the basis of the profit and loss account and of the cash flow statement: aggregated indicators, also known as intermediary balances of administration, economic rate of return, rate of financial profitability, rate of return through cash flows, operating cash flow rate, rate of generating operating cash out of gross operating result. At the same time we had a comparative approach of the profit and loss account and cash flow statement, outlining the main advantages and disadvantages of these documents. In order to demonstrate the above theoretical assessments, we chose to analyze these indicators based on information from the financial statements of SC Sinteza SA, a company in Bihor county, listed on the Bucharest Stock Exchange.
Huber, Sigbert; Baumgarten, Andreas; Birli, Barbara; Englisch, Michael; Tulipan, Monika; Zechmeister-Boltenstern, Sophie
The Austrian Soil Science Society (ASSS), founded in 1954, is a non-profit organisation aiming at furthering all branches of soil science in Austria. The ASSS provides information on the current state of soil research in Austria and abroad. It organizes annual conferences for scientists from soil and related sciences to exchange their recent studies and offers a journal for scientific publications. Annually, ASSS awards the Kubiena Research Prize for excellent scientific studies provided by young scientists. In order to conserve and improve soil science in the field, excursions are organized, also in cooperation with other scientific organisations. Due to well-established contacts with soil scientists and soil science societies in many countries, the ASSS is able to provide its members with information about the most recent developments in the field of soil science. This contributes to a broadening of the current scientific knowledge on soils. The ASSS also co-operates in the organisation of excursions and meetings with neighbouring countries. Several members of the ASSS teach soil science at various Austrian universities. More detail on said conferences, excursions, publications and awards will be given in the presentation. Beside its own scientific journal, published once or twice a year, and special editions such as guidebooks for soil classification, the ASSS runs a website providing information on the Society, its activities, meetings, publications, awards and projects. Together with the Environment Agency Austria the ASSS runs a soil platform on the internet. It is accessible for the public and thus informs society about soil issues. This platform offers a calendar with national and international soil events, contacts of soil related organisations and networks, information on national projects and publications. The society has access to products, information material and information on educational courses. Last but not least information on specific soil
Tröster, Alexander I
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an effective (but non-curative) treatment for some of the motor symptoms and treatment complications associated with dopaminergic agents in Parkinson's disease (PD). DBS can be done relatively safely and is associated with quality of life gains. In most DBS centers, neuropsychological evaluations are performed routinely before surgery, and sometimes after surgery. The purpose of such evaluation is not to decide solely on its results whether or not to offer DBS to a given candidate, but to provide the patient and treatment team with the best available information to make reasonable risk-benefit assessments. This review provides information relevant to the questions often asked by patients and their carepartners, neurologists, and neurosurgeons about neuropsychological outcomes of DBS, including neuropsychological adverse event rates, magnitude of cognitive changes, outcomes after unilateral versus bilateral surgery directed at various targets, impact of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) on outcome, factors implicated in neurobehavioral outcomes, and safety of newer interventions or techniques such as asleep surgery and current steering. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.
Raja, Sheela; Hoersch, Michelle; Rajagopalan, Chelsea F; Chang, Priscilla
and Overview Dentists frequently treat patients who have a history of traumatic events. These traumatic events (including childhood sexual abuse, domestic violence, elder abuse and combat history) may influence how patients experience oral health care and may interfere with patients' engagement in preventive care. The purpose of this article is to provide a framework for how dentists can interact sensitively with patients who have survived traumatic events. The authors propose the trauma-informed care pyramid to help engage traumatized patients in oral health care. Evidence indicates that all of the following play an important role in treating traumatized patients: demonstrating strong behavioral and communication skills, understanding the health effects of trauma, engaging in interprofessional collaboration, understanding the provider's own trauma-related experiences and understanding when trauma screening should be used in oral health practice. Dental patients with a history of traumatic experiences are more likely to engage in negative health habits and to display fear of routine dental care. Although not all patients disclose a trauma history to their dentists, some patients might. The trauma-informed care pyramid provides a framework to guide dental care providers in interactions with many types of traumatized patients, including those who choose not to disclose their trauma history in the context of oral health care.
California Univ., Los Angeles. Center for Mental Health Schools.
Key resources are listed that provide statistical information on youth, mental health, education, and related fields. Many of the references are to Web sites with current statistical reports. The advantage to this form of reporting is that the most recent information is available quickly. The topics covered give a broad perspective on youth, their…
Low, Chinyao; Hsueh Chen, Ya
As cloud computing technology has proliferated rapidly worldwide, there has been a trend toward adopting cloud-based hospital information systems (CHISs). This study examines the critical criteria for selecting the CHISs outsourcing provider. The fuzzy Delphi method (FDM) is used to evaluate the primary indicator collected from 188 useable responses at a working hospital in Taiwan. Moreover, the fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (FAHP) is employed to calculate the weights of these criteria and establish a fuzzy multi-criteria model of CHISs outsourcing provider selection from 42 experts. The results indicate that the five most critical criteria related to CHISs outsourcing provider selection are (1) system function, (2) service quality, (3) integration, (4) professionalism, and (5) economics. This study may contribute to understanding how cloud-based hospital systems can reinforce content design and offer a way to compete in the field by developing more appropriate systems.
Bayramian, A J; Deri, R J; Erlandson, A C
Development of a new technology for commercial application can be significantly accelerated by leveraging related technologies used in other markets. Synergies across multiple application domains attract research and development (R and D) talent - widening the innovation pipeline - and increases the market demand in common components and subsystems to provide performance improvements and cost reductions. For these reasons, driver development plans for inertial fusion energy (IFE) should consider the non-fusion technology base that can be lveraged for application to IFE. At this time, two laser driver technologies are being proposed for IFE: solid-state lasers (SSLs) and KrF gas (excimer) lasers. This document provides a brief survey of organizations actively engaged in these technologies. This is intended to facilitate comparison of the opportunities for leveraging the larger technical community for IFE laser driver development. They have included tables that summarize the commercial organizations selling solid-state and KrF lasers, and a brief summary of organizations actively engaged in R and D on these technologies.
Lindvall, Agneta; Kristensson, Jimmie; Willman, Ania; Holst, Göran
HOW TO OBTAIN CONTACT HOURS BY READING THIS ARTICLE INSTRUCTIONS 1.3 contact hours will be awarded by Villanova University College of Nursing upon successful completion of this activity. A contact hour is a unit of measurement that denotes 60 minutes of an organized learning activity. This is a learner-based activity. Villanova University College of Nursing does not require submission of your answers to the quiz. A contact hour certificate will be awarded once you register, pay the registration fee, and complete the evaluation form online at http://goo.gl/gMfXaf. To obtain contact hours you must: 1. Read the article, "Informal Care Provided by Family Caregivers: Experiences of Older Adults With Multimorbidity" found on pages 24-31, carefully noting any tables and other illustrative materials that are included to enhance your knowledge and understanding of the content. Be sure to keep track of the amount of time (number of minutes) you spend reading the article and completing the quiz. 2. Read and answer each question on the quiz. After completing all of the questions, compare your answers to those provided within this issue. If you have incorrect answers, return to the article for further study. 3. Go to the Villanova website listed above to register for contact hour credit. You will be asked to provide your name; contact information; and a VISA, MasterCard, or Discover card number for payment of the $20.00 fee. Once you complete the online evaluation, a certificate will be automatically generated. This activity is valid for continuing education credit until July 31, 2019. CONTACT HOURS This activity is co-provided by Villanova University College of Nursing and SLACK Incorporated. Villanova University College of Nursing is accredited as a provider of continuing nursing education by the American Nurses Credentialing Center's Commission on Accreditation. ACTIVITY OBJECTIVES 1. Describe how older adults with multimorbidity experience care provided from informal
Kwag, Koren Hyogene; González-Lorenzo, Marien; Banzi, Rita; Bonovas, Stefanos; Moja, Lorenzo
The complexity of modern practice requires health professionals to be active information-seekers. Our aim was to review the quality and progress of point-of-care information summaries-Web-based medical compendia that are specifically designed to deliver pre-digested, rapidly accessible, comprehensive, and periodically updated information to health care providers. We aimed to evaluate product claims of being evidence-based. We updated our previous evaluations by searching Medline, Google, librarian association websites, and conference proceedings from August 2012 to December 2014. We included Web-based, regularly updated point-of-care information summaries with claims of being evidence-based. We extracted data on the general characteristics and content presentation of products, and we quantitatively assessed their breadth of disease coverage, editorial quality, and evidence-based methodology. We assessed potential relationships between these dimensions and compared them with our 2008 assessment. We screened 58 products; 26 met our inclusion criteria. Nearly a quarter (6/26, 23%) were newly identified in 2014. We accessed and analyzed 23 products for content presentation and quantitative dimensions. Most summaries were developed by major publishers in the United States and the United Kingdom; no products derived from low- and middle-income countries. The main target audience remained physicians, although nurses and physiotherapists were increasingly represented. Best Practice, Dynamed, and UptoDate scored the highest across all dimensions. The majority of products did not excel across all dimensions: we found only a moderate positive correlation between editorial quality and evidence-based methodology (r=.41, P=.0496). However, all dimensions improved from 2008: editorial quality (P=.01), evidence-based methodology (P=.015), and volume of diseases and medical conditions (PUptoDate scored the highest across all dimensions, while others that were marketed as evidence
Lopez, Wallace H.
The focus of this program, was to address those scientific, technical, market, and policy activities which are supported/conducted by Japanese and other relevant Asian organizations pursing research, development and/or manufacturing in high performance computing and communications (HPC), networking, and related sectors, as well as, relevant specialized end applications. The scope of the programs and activities were focused on establishing direct and timely analyses of relevant scientific and technical trend and developments.
Megan Sapp Nelson
Full Text Available Objective – This study aims to determine if the timing of library in-class presentations makes a difference in the type and quality of resources students use for each of four assignments in an introductory speech class. This comparison of content delivery timing contrasts a single, 50-minute lecture early in the semester with four approximately 12-minute lectures offered just before each assignment.Methods – First-year engineering students taking Fundamentals of Speech Communication provide the study group. Each speech assignment requires students to turn in an outline and list of references. The list of references for each student was given to the librarians, after the assignments were appropriately anonymized, for analysis of resource type, quality of resource, and completeness of citation. Researchers coded arandom sample of bibliographies from the assignments using a framework to identify resource type (book, periodical, Web, facts & figures, unknown and quality, based on intended audience and purpose (scholarly, entertainment, persuasion/bias, and compared them to each other to determine if a difference is evident. The authors coordinated what material would be presented to the students to minimize variation between the sections.Results – The study found a statistically significant difference between groups of students, demonstrating that the frequent, short library instruction sessions produce an increased use of high-quality content. Similarly, the sections with multiple library interactions show more use of periodicals than websites, while completeness of references is not significantly different across teaching methods.Conclusions – More frequent and timely interaction between students and library instruction increases the quality of sources used and the completeness of the citations written. While researchers found statistically significant differences, the use of a citation coding framework developed for specific engineering
Learmonth, Yvonne C; Adamson, Brynn C; Balto, Julia M; Chiu, Chung-Yi; Molina-Guzman, Isabel; Finlayson, Marcia; Riskin, Barry J; Motl, Robert W
There is growing recognition of the benefits and safety of exercise and its importance in the comprehensive care of persons with multiple sclerosis (MS), yet uptake is low. We explored the needs and wants of patients with MS regarding exercise promotion through healthcare providers. Participants were adults with MS who had mild-or-moderate disability and a range of exercise levels. All participants lived in the Midwest of the United States. Fifty semi-structured interviews were conducted and analysed using thematic analysis. Two themes emerged, namely interactions between patients and healthcare providers and needs and wants of patients. Analysis of participant accounts illustrate that current exercise promotion by healthcare providers does not meet patient needs and wants. The identified needs and wants of persons with MS involved (i) information and knowledge on the benefits of exercise and exercise prescription, (ii) materials to allow home and community exercise and (iii) tools for initiating and maintaining exercise behaviour. Patients with MS frequently interact with healthcare providers and are generally unsatisfied with exercise promotion during interactions. Healthcare providers can address the low uptake of exercise among persons with MS by acting upon the identified unmet needs involving materials, knowledge and behaviour change strategies for exercise. © 2016 The Authors Health Expectations Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
More than two-thirds of NHS psychotherapy departments now use questionnaires in assessment of new patients. Their content is described for the first time. Most are primarily designed to gather biographical information but salient questions are frequently omitted. These questionnaires have suffered from being designed and used in isolation. Psychotherapy service providers need to consider how collaboration will enable questionnaires to be more effective during their assessments and to assist research into which historical factors are of greatest prognostic significance among newly referred patients.
... provide other information and granting immunity. 1025.39 Section 1025.39 Commercial Practices CONSUMER... Process § 1025.39 Orders requiring witnesses to testify or provide other information and granting immunity... witness or deponent to testify or provide other information upon being granted immunity from prosecution...
Abraham, Anna; Kaufmann, Carolin; Redlich, Ronny; Hermann, Andrea; Stark, Rudolf; Stevens, Stephan; Hermann, Christiane
The fear of negative evaluation is one of the hallmark features of social anxiety. Behavioral evidence thus far largely supports cognitive models which postulate that information processing biases in the face of socially relevant information are a key factor underlying this widespread phobia. So far only one neuroimaging study has explicitly focused on the fear of negative evaluation in social anxiety where the brain responses of social phobics were compared to healthy participants during the processing of self-referential relative to other-referential criticism, praise or neutral information. Only self-referential criticism led to stronger activations in emotion-relevant regions of the brain, such as the amygdala and medial prefrontal cortices (mPFC), in the social phobics. The objective of the current study was to determine whether these findings could be extended to subclinical social anxiety. In doing so, the specificity of this self-referential bias was also examined by including both social and non-social (physical illness-related) threat information as well as a highly health anxious control group in the experimental paradigm. The fMRI findings indicated that the processing of emotional stimuli was accompanied by activations in the amygdala and the ventral mPFC, while self-referential processing was associated with activity in regions such as the mPFC, posterior cingulate and temporal poles. Despite the validation of the paradigm, the results revealed that the previously reported behavioral and brain biases associated with social phobia could not be unequivocally extended to subclinical social anxiety. The divergence between the findings is explored in detail with reference to paradigm differences and conceptual issues.
Uneke, Chigozie Jesse; Ezeoha, Abel Ebeh; Uro-Chukwu, Henry; Ezeonu, Chinonyelum Thecla; Ogbu, Ogbonnaya; Onwe, Friday; Edoga, Chima
Information and communication technology (ICT) tools are known to facilitate communication and processing of information and sharing of knowledge by electronic means. In Nigeria, the lack of adequate capacity on the use of ICT by health sector policymakers constitutes a major impediment to the uptake of research evidence into the policymaking process. The objective of this study was to improve the knowledge and capacity of policymakers to access and utilize policy relevant evidence. A modified "before and after" intervention study design was used in which outcomes were measured on the target participants both before the intervention is implemented and after. A 4-point likert scale according to the degree of adequacy; 1 = grossly inadequate, 4 = very adequate was employed. This study was conducted in Ebonyi State, south-eastern Nigeria and the participants were career health policy makers. A two-day intensive ICT training workshop was organized for policymakers who had 52 participants in attendance. Topics covered included: (i). intersectoral partnership/collaboration; (ii). Engaging ICT in evidence-informed policy making; use of ICT for evidence synthesis; (iv) capacity development on the use of computer, internet and other ICT. The pre-workshop mean of knowledge and capacity for use of ICT ranged from 2.19-3.05, while the post-workshop mean ranged from 2.67-3.67 on 4-point scale. The percentage increase in mean of knowledge and capacity at the end of the workshop ranged from 8.3%-39.1%. Findings of this study suggest that policymakers' ICT competence relevant to evidence-informed policymaking can be enhanced through training workshop.
Uneke, Chigozie Jesse; Ezeoha, Abel Ebeh; Uro-Chukwu, Henry; Ezeonu, Chinonyelum Thecla; Ogbu, Ogbonnaya; Onwe, Friday; Edoga, Chima
Information and communication technology (ICT) tools are known to facilitate communication and processing of information and sharing of knowledge by electronic means. In Nigeria, the lack of adequate capacity on the use of ICT by health sector policymakers constitutes a major impediment to the uptake of research evidence into the policymaking process. The objective of this study was to improve the knowledge and capacity of policymakers to access and utilize policy relevant evidence. A modified “before and after” intervention study design was used in which outcomes were measured on the target participants both before the intervention is implemented and after. A 4-point likert scale according to the degree of adequacy; 1 = grossly inadequate, 4 = very adequate was employed. This study was conducted in Ebonyi State, south-eastern Nigeria and the participants were career health policy makers. A two-day intensive ICT training workshop was organized for policymakers who had 52 participants in attendance. Topics covered included: (i). intersectoral partnership/collaboration; (ii). Engaging ICT in evidence-informed policy making; use of ICT for evidence synthesis; (iv) capacity development on the use of computer, internet and other ICT. The pre-workshop mean of knowledge and capacity for use of ICT ranged from 2.19-3.05, while the post-workshop mean ranged from 2.67-3.67 on 4-point scale. The percentage increase in mean of knowledge and capacity at the end of the workshop ranged from 8.3%-39.1%. Findings of this study suggest that policymakers’ ICT competence relevant to evidence-informed policymaking can be enhanced through training workshop. PMID:26448807
te Moller, N C R; Brommer, H; Liukkonen, J; Virén, T; Timonen, M; Puhakka, P H; Jurvelin, J S; van Weeren, P R; Töyräs, J
Arthroscopy enables direct inspection of the articular surface, but provides no information on deeper cartilage layers. Optical coherence tomography (OCT), based on measurement of reflection and backscattering of light, is a diagnostic technique used in cardiovascular surgery and ophthalmology. It provides cross-sectional images at resolutions comparable to that of low-power microscopy. The aim of this study was to determine if OCT is feasible for advanced clinical assessment of lesions in equine articular cartilage during diagnostic arthroscopy. Diagnostic arthroscopy of 36 metacarpophalangeal joints was carried out ex vivo. Of these, 18 joints with varying degrees of cartilage damage were selected, wherein OCT arthroscopy was conducted using an OCT catheter (diameter 0.9 mm) inserted through standard instrument portals. Five sites of interest, occasionally supplemented with other locations where defects were encountered, were arthroscopically graded according to the International Cartilage Repair Society (ICRS) classification system. The same sites were evaluated qualitatively (ICRS classification and morphological description of the lesions) and quantitatively (measurement of cartilage thickness) on OCT images. OCT provided high resolution images of cartilage enabling determination of cartilage thickness. Comparing ICRS grades determined by both arthroscopy and OCT revealed poor agreement. Furthermore, OCT visualised a spectrum of lesions, including cavitation, fibrillation, superficial and deep clefts, erosion, ulceration and fragmentation. In addition, with OCT the arthroscopically inaccessible area between the dorsal MC3 and P1 was reachable in some cases. Arthroscopically-guided OCT provided more detailed and quantitative information on the morphology of articular cartilage lesions than conventional arthroscopy. OCT could therefore improve the diagnostic value of arthroscopy in equine orthopaedic surgery. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Alvarez-Bermejo, J A; Hernández-Capel, D M; Belmonte-Ureña, L J; Roca-Piera, J
Ensuring the quality of services provided in centres where dependent persons are seen by specialist services, by improving and enhancing how information -salary, control of tasks, patients' records, etc.- is shared between staff and carers. A web information system has been developed and experimentally deployed to accomplish this. The accuracy of the system was evaluated by assessing how confident the employees were with it rather than relying on statistical data. It was experimentally deployed since January 2009 in Asociación de Personas con Discapacidad "El Saliente" that manages several day centres in Almeria, for dependent persons over 65 years old, particularly those affected by Alzheimer' disease. Incidence data was collected during the experimental period. A total of 84% of the employees thought that the system helped to manage documents, administrative duties, etc., and 92.4% said they could attend to really important tasks because the system was responsible for alerting them of every task, such as medication timetables, checking all patients were present (to prevent an Alzheimer affected person leaving the centre) etc. During this period the incidences reported were reduced by about a 30%, although data is still partially representative. As the life expectancy of the population gets longer, these centres will increase. Providing systems such as the one presented here would be of great help for administrative duties (sensitive data protection...) as well as ensuring high quality care and attention.
Dittus Robert S
Full Text Available Abstract Background Physicians reading the medical literature attempt to determine whether research studies are valid. However, articles with negative results may not provide sufficient information to allow physicians to properly assess validity. Methods We analyzed all original research articles with negative results published in 1997 in the weekly journals BMJ, JAMA, Lancet, and New England Journal of Medicine as well as those published in the 1997 and 1998 issues of the bimonthly Annals of Internal Medicine (N = 234. Our primary objective was to quantify the proportion of studies with negative results that comment on power and present confidence intervals. Secondary outcomes were to quantify the proportion of these studies with a specified effect size and a defined primary outcome. Stratified analyses by study design were also performed. Results Only 30% of the articles with negative results comment on power. The reporting of power (range: 15%-52% and confidence intervals (range: 55–81% varied significantly among journals. Observational studies of etiology/risk factors addressed power less frequently (15%, 95% CI, 8–21% than did clinical trials (56%, 95% CI, 46–67%, p Conclusion Prominent medical journals often provide insufficient information to assess the validity of studies with negative results.
Wu, D.; Torres, E.; Nguyen, J.; Mistry, S.; Whyatt, C.; Kalampratsidou, V.; Kolevzon, A.; Jose, J.
Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) are known to have deficits in language and social skills. They also have deficits on how they move. Why individuals get ASD? It is not generally known. There is, however, one particular group of children with a SHANK3 gene deficiency (Phelan-McDermid Syndrome (PMDS)) that present symptoms similar to ASD. We have been searching for universal mechanism in ASD going beyond the usual heterogeneous ASD symptoms. We studied motions in gaits for both PMDS patients and idiopathic ASD. We have examined their motions continuously at milliseconds time scale, away from naked eye detection. Gait is a complex process, requiring a complex integration and coordination of different joints' motions. Significant information about the development and/or deficits in the sensory system is hidden in our gaits. We discovered that the speed smoothness in feet motion during gaits is a critical feature that provides a significant distinction between subjects with ASD and typical controls. The differences in appearance of the speed fluctuations suggested a different coordination mechanism in subjects with disorders. Our work provides a very important feature in gait motion that has significant physiological information.
Passfield, Louis; Hopker, James G
This paper explores the notion that the availability and analysis of large data sets have the capacity to improve practice and change the nature of science in the sport and exercise setting. The increasing use of data and information technology in sport is giving rise to this change. Web sites hold large data repositories, and the development of wearable technology, mobile phone applications, and related instruments for monitoring physical activity, training, and competition provide large data sets of extensive and detailed measurements. Innovative approaches conceived to more fully exploit these large data sets could provide a basis for more objective evaluation of coaching strategies and new approaches to how science is conducted. An emerging discipline, sports analytics, could help overcome some of the challenges involved in obtaining knowledge and wisdom from these large data sets. Examples of where large data sets have been analyzed, to evaluate the career development of elite cyclists and to characterize and optimize the training load of well-trained runners, are discussed. Careful verification of large data sets is time consuming and imperative before useful conclusions can be drawn. Consequently, it is recommended that prospective studies be preferred over retrospective analyses of data. It is concluded that rigorous analysis of large data sets could enhance our knowledge in the sport and exercise sciences, inform competitive strategies, and allow innovative new research and findings.
A. A. Kuzkin
Full Text Available Subject of research. The paper presents research and instructional tools for assessment of providing with the development strategy for information technologies in an organization. Method. The corresponding assessment model is developed which takes into consideration IT-processes equilibrium according to selected efficiency factors of information technologies application. Basic results. The model peculiarity resides in applying neuro-fuzzy approximators where the conclusion is drawn upon fuzzy logic, and membership functions are adjusted through the use of neural networks. For the adequacy testing of the suggested model, due diligence result analysis has been carried out for the IT-strategy executed in the “Navigator” group of companies at the stage of implementation and support of new technologies and production methods. Data visualization with a circle diagram is applied for the comparative evaluation of the analysis results. The chosen model adequacy is proved by the agreement between predictive assessments for IT-strategy performance targets derived by means of the fuzzy cognitive model over 12 months planning horizon and the real values of these targets upon the expiry of the given planning term. Practical significance. The developed model application gives the possibility to solve the problem of sustainability assessment for the process of providing the required IT-strategy realization level based upon the fuzzy cognitive map analysis and to reveal IT-objectives changing tendencies for an organization over the stated planning interval.
López-Picazo, J J; de Dios Cánovas-García, J; Antúnez, C; Marín, J; Antequera, M M; Vivancos, L; Martínez, B; Legaz, A; Navarro, D; Leal, M
Dementia units (DU) provide comprehensive and specialised care to patients with dementia. However, assessment in these units normally focuses on patient management. The aim of this study was to determine satisfaction of the caregivers of patients managed in a DU and how they rated DU care. We created a self-administered questionnaire which was completed by 236 caregivers visiting the DU in 2015. The questionnaire included 6 dimensions (accessibility, organisation, professionalism, relationship with staff, information, and facilities); data were analysed using problem rates. A total of 53.4% caregivers completed the questionnaire; most were women, patients' spouses, or first-degree relatives. The overall problem rates was 15.0% (95% CI, 13.9-16.1), with sizeable differences between dimensions: from 0.1% (95% CI, 0.0-0.4) for 'relationship with staff' and 'professionalism' to 49.3% (95% CI, 45.4-53.2) for 'information'. Waiting times over 30minutes were perceived as excessive. Information problems were not directly related to patient management. Satisfaction was scored 8.29/10 (median 8; SD 1.45); 77.3% (95% CI, 69.8-74.8) of respondents were highly satisfied. Ninety-nine percent of the caregivers stated that they would recommend the DU. This questionnaire provides interesting data on care quality as perceived by patients' caregivers. Our results have allowed us to identify problems and implement corrective actions. Our questionnaire has proved to be a useful tool for evaluating and improving care quality in DUs. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
French, N. H.; Erickson, T.; McKenzie, D.
A major goal of the North American Carbon Program is to resolve uncertainties in understanding and managing the carbon cycle of North America. As carbon modeling tools become more comprehensive and spatially oriented, accurate datasets to spatially quantify carbon emissions from fire are needed, and these data resources need to be accessible to users for decision-making. Under a new NASA Carbon Cycle Science project, Drs. Nancy French and Tyler Erickson, of the Michigan Technological University, Michigan Tech Research Institute (MTRI), are teaming with specialists with the USDA Forest Service Fire and Environmental Research Applications (FERA) team to provide information for mapping fire-derived carbon emissions to users. The project focus includes development of a web-based system to provide spatially resolved fire emissions estimates for North America in a user-friendly environment. The web-based Decision Support System will be based on a variety of open source technologies. The Fuel Characteristic Classification System (FCCS) raster map of fuels and MODIS-derived burned area vector maps will be processed using the Geographic Data Abstraction Library (GDAL) and OGR Simple Features Library. Tabular and spatial project data will be stored in a PostgreSQL/PostGIS, a spatially enabled relational database server. The browser-based user interface will be created using the Django web page framework to allow user input for the decision support system. The OpenLayers mapping framework will be used to provide users with interactive maps within the browser. In addition, the data products will be made available in standard open data formats such as KML, to allow for easy integration into other spatial models and data systems.
Castillo-Ortiz, Jose Dionisio; Valdivia-Nuno, Jose de Jesus; Ramirez-Gomez, Andrea; Garagarza-Mariscal, Heber; Gallegos-Rios, Carlos; Flores-Hernandez, Gabriel; Hernandez-Sanchez, Luis; Brambila-Barba, Victor; Castaneda-Sanchez, Jose Juan; Barajas-Ochoa, Zalathiel; Suarez-Rico, Angel; Sanchez-Gonzalez, Jorge Manuel; Ramos-Remus, Cesar
Education is a major health determinant and one of the main independent outcome predictors in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The use of the Internet by patients has grown exponentially in the last decade. To assess the characteristics, legibility and quality of the information available in Spanish in the Internet regarding to rheumatoid arthritis. The search was performed in Google using the phrase rheumatoid arthritis. Information from the first 30 pages was evaluated according to a pre-established format (relevance, scope, authorship, type of publication and financial objective). The quality and legibility of the pages were assessed using two validated tools, DISCERN and INFLESZ respectively. Data extraction was performed by senior medical students and evaluation was achieved by consensus. The Google search returned 323 hits but only 63% were considered relevant; 80% of them were information sites (71% discussed exclusively RA, 44% conventional treatment and 12% alternative therapies) and 12.5% had a primary financial interest. 60% of the sites were created by nonprofit organizations and 15% by medical associations. Web sites posted by medical institutions from the United States of America were better positioned in Spanish (Arthritis Foundation 4th position and American College of Rheumatology 10th position) than web sites posted by Spanish speaking countries. There is a risk of disinformation for patients with RA that use the Internet. We identified a window of opportunity for rheumatology medical institutions from Spanish-speaking countries to have a more prominent societal involvement in the education of their patients with RA. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Reumatología y Colegio Mexicano de Reumatología. All rights reserved.
Koenig, Kristi L; Shastry, Siri; Mzahim, Bandr; Almadhyan, Abdulmajeed; Burns, Michael J
Mumps is a highly contagious viral infection that became rare in most industrialized countries following the introduction of measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine in 1967. The disease, however, has been re-emerging with several outbreaks over the past decade. Many clinicians have never seen a case of mumps. To assist frontline healthcare providers with detecting potential cases and initiating critical actions, investigators modified the "Identify-Isolate-Inform" tool for mumps infection. The tool is applicable to regions with rare incidences or local outbreaks, especially seen in college students, as well as globally in areas where vaccination is less common. Mumps begins with a prodrome of low-grade fever, myalgias and malaise/anorexia, followed by development of nonsuppurative parotitis, which is the pathognomonic finding associated with acute mumps infection. Orchitis and meningitis are the two most common serious complications, with hearing loss and infertility occurring rarely. Providers should consider mumps in patients with exposure to a known case or international travel to endemic regions who present with consistent signs and symptoms. If mumps is suspected, healthcare providers must immediately implement standard and droplet precautions and notify the local health department and hospital infection control personnel.
This study has demonstrated that although an information need could trigger off an information activity, the subsequent information processes could only be sustained by the value of information. The value of information is therefore the core category, while the moderation of constraints and interaction with sources for latent ...
Full Text Available This paper presents OnRoute, a framework for developing and running ubiquitous software that provides information services to passengers of public transportation, including payment systems and on-route guidance services. To achieve a high level of interoperability, accessibility and context awareness, OnRoute uses the ubiquitous computing paradigm. To guarantee the quality of the software produced, the reliable software principles used in critical contexts, such as automotive systems, are also considered by the framework. The main components of its architecture (run-time, system services, software components and development discipline and how they are deployed in the transportation network (stations and vehicles are described in this paper. Finally, to illustrate the use of OnRoute, the development of a guidance service for travellers is explained.
Carolina Luisa dos Santos Vieira
Full Text Available With the growth in the supply of logistics services, and the increase of competition, the use of information and communication technologies (ICT is now considered by logistics service providers (LSP, a source of competitive advantage. Through a literature review, this paper seeks to identify which technologies have been used by the PSL. Analyzing 47 articles on the subject, published in international journal that has the largest number of works on PSL, applications of technologies by PSL were analyzed according to a taxonomy suggested based on literature - software, hardware and networks. Among the results highlight the technologies cited by categories and greater scientific interest, such as EDI, RFID, TTS, WMS and Internet.
Akcay Yasemin D
Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent findings suggest a role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of Behcet's disease (BD, but the utility of oxidative stress-associated assays in offering diagnostic information or in the monitoring of disease activity is largely unassessed. Objective and methods We aimed to measure oxidative and inflammatory markers, along with the markers of reactive nitrogen species, S-nitrosothiols and 3-nitrotyrosine, in BD patients (n = 100 and healthy volunteers (n = 50. These markers were evaluated in regard to their role in the pathogenesis of BD as well as their relation to clinical presentation, disease activity and duration. Results Median values for erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR, C-reactive protein, leukocyte count, and IL-18 levels, as well as myeloperoxidase (MPO activity, were statistically higher in the patient group compared to controls. Some inflammation markers (ESR, neutrophil and leukocyte counts were statistically higher (p 0.05 in all statistical comparisons, nor was there any difference in median levels of these oxidative stress markers in active disease versus disease remission. S-nitrosothiols and 3-nitrotyrosine were undetectable in BD plasma. Conclusions The application of oxidative stress-associated measures to BD blood samples offered no supplemental diagnostic or disease activity information to that provided by standard laboratory measures of inflammation. S-nitrosothiols and 3-nitrotyrosine appeared not to be markers for active BD; thus the search for biochemical markers that will indicate the active period should be continued with larger studies.
Shinkai, Soya; Nozaki, Tadasu; Maeshima, Kazuhiro; Togashi, Yuichi
The mammalian genome is organized into submegabase-sized chromatin domains (CDs) including topologically associating domains, which have been identified using chromosome conformation capture-based methods. Single-nucleosome imaging in living mammalian cells has revealed subdiffusively dynamic nucleosome movement. It is unclear how single nucleosomes within CDs fluctuate and how the CD structure reflects the nucleosome movement. Here, we present a polymer model wherein CDs are characterized by fractal dimensions and the nucleosome fibers fluctuate in a viscoelastic medium with memory. We analytically show that the mean-squared displacement (MSD) of nucleosome fluctuations within CDs is subdiffusive. The diffusion coefficient and the subdiffusive exponent depend on the structural information of CDs. This analytical result enabled us to extract information from the single-nucleosome imaging data for HeLa cells. Our observation that the MSD is lower at the nuclear periphery region than the interior region indicates that CDs in the heterochromatin-rich nuclear periphery region are more compact than those in the euchromatin-rich interior region with respect to the fractal dimensions as well as the size. Finally, we evaluated that the average size of CDs is in the range of 100-500 nm and that the relaxation time of nucleosome movement within CDs is a few seconds. Our results provide physical and dynamic insights into the genome architecture in living cells.
Liu, Xiao; Liu, Anfeng; Huang, Changqin
Applications running on the Internet of Things, such as the Wireless Sensor and Actuator Networks (WSANs) platform, generally have different quality of service (QoS) requirements. For urgent events, it is crucial that information be reported to the actuator quickly, and the communication cost is the second factor. However, for interesting events, communication costs, network lifetime and time all become important factors. In most situations, these different requirements cannot be satisfied simultaneously. In this paper, an adaptive communication control based on a differentiated delay (ACCDS) scheme is proposed to resolve this conflict. In an ACCDS, source nodes of events adaptively send various searching actuators routings (SARs) based on the degree of sensitivity to delay while maintaining the network lifetime. For a delay-sensitive event, the source node sends a large number of SARs to actuators to identify and inform the actuators in an extremely short time; thus, action can be taken quickly but at higher communication costs. For delay-insensitive events, the source node sends fewer SARs to reduce communication costs and improve network lifetime. Therefore, an ACCDS can meet the QoS requirements of different events using a differentiated delay framework. Theoretical analysis simulation results indicate that an ACCDS provides delay and communication costs and differentiated services; an ACCDS scheme can reduce the network delay by 11.111%-53.684% for a delay-sensitive event and reduce the communication costs by 5%-22.308% for interesting events, and reduce the network lifetime by about 28.713%.
Arya, Bhawna; Glickstein, Julie S; Levasseur, Stéphanie M; Williams, Ismeé A
To determine whether pediatric cardiologists and parents of older children with congenital heart disease (CHD) share similar expectations regarding the education and counseling that should be provided to parents of children with CHD in both the prenatal and neonatal period. Consenting parents of older children with CHD (age >3 years) and cardiologists ranked the importance of education topics on a scale of 1 (unimportant) to 10 (very important). The rankings of parents and cardiologists were compared using Student's t-test. We had 38 cardiologists and 41 parents complete the questionnaire. There was a statistically significant difference in rankings between cardiologist and parents of children with CHD (PParents consistently ranked topics as more important than cardiologists with a mean difference in rank score of 0.85 ±0.3. In the prenatal period, the most significant differences between parents and cardiologists were noted for information related to the child's quality of life. For neonatal counseling, the most significant differences were noted for information regarding follow-up care and the parent's ability to describe the child's CHD to medical personnel. Parents of older children with CHD would prefer to receive more counseling and education in the prenatal and newborn period than cardiologists perceive is wanted. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Ysunza, Pablo Antonio; Bloom, David; Chaiyasate, Kongkrit; Rontal, Matthew; VanHulle, Rachel; Shaheen, Kenneth; Gibson, Donald
The state of the art for correcting velopharyngeal insufficiency (VPI) is a surgical procedure which is customized according to findings on imaging procedures: multiplanar videofluoroscopy (MPVF) and flexible videonasopharyngoscopy (FVNP). Recently, the use of MPVF has been challenged because of the potential risk of using ionizing radiation, especially in children. To study whether using a protocol for performing MPVF can effectively decrease radiation dose in patients with VPI while providing useful information for planning surgical correction of VPI in combination with FVNP. The methodology used for performing the imaging procedures is described as well as the effectiveness of the surgical procedure. Eighty - nine patients (Age range = 3-17 years; median = 5.5 years) with VPI resulting from multiple etiologies were studied. All patients underwent MPVF and FVNP for planning surgical correction of VPI. Radiation dosage data in each case was recorded. Forty of the 89 patients also completed a postoperative evaluation. Eleven out of the remaining 49 patients have not completed a postoperative evaluation and 38 patients are still pending surgical correction. Radiation dosage ranged from 1.00 to 8.75 miliSieverts (mSv); Mean = 2.88 mSv; SD = 1.575 mSv. Preoperative nasometry demonstrated mean nasalance ranging from 41%-95%; Mean = 72.30; SD = 4.54. Postoperatively mean nasalance was within normal limits in 36 (90%) out of 40 cases, ranging from 21% to 35%; Mean = 28.10; SD = 5.40. Nasal emission was eliminated postoperatively in all cases. MPVF provides useful information for planning the surgical procedure aimed at correcting VPI. The combination of MPVF and FVNP is a reliable procedure for assessing velopharyngeal closure and to surgically correcting VPI with a highly successful outcome. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Jeevan, R; Birch, J; Armstrong, A P
Travelling abroad for surgery is a phenomenon reported internationally. It is particularly likely for aesthetic procedures not undertaken routinely by national health services. We assessed the impact of these patients presenting to the UK National Health Service (NHS) with concerns or complications on their return. All 326 UK consultant members of the British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons (BAPRAS) were asked to complete a short questionnaire about patients that had presented to the NHS with complications or concerns following surgery abroad. The results were subsequently presented to the Department of Health (DH). 203 (62%) UK consultant plastic surgeons responded. 76 (37%) of the 203 respondents had seen such patients in their NHS practice, most commonly following breast or abdominal procedures. A quarter underwent emergency surgery, a third out-patient treatment and a third elective surgical revision. In response to these findings, the DH clarified that NHS teams should provide emergency care to such patients but should not undertake any elective revision procedures. Travelling abroad for aesthetic surgery may reduce its cost. However, aesthetic procedures have high minor complication rates, and peri-operative travel is associated with increased risks. Fully informed consent is unlikely when patients do not meet their surgeon prior to paying and travelling for surgery, and national health services are used to provide a free safety net on their return. To help minimise the potential risks, BAPRAS has clarified the responsibilities of the NHS and is acting to better inform UK patients considering travelling abroad. Copyright © 2010 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hernández-Del Amo, Elena; Menció, Anna; Gich, Frederic; Mas-Pla, Josep; Bañeras, Lluís
Natural attenuation processes alleviate the impact of fertilization practices on groundwater resources. Therefore, identifying the occurrence of denitrification has become a requirement for water quality management. Several approaches are useful for this purpose, such as isotopic and microbiological methods, each of them providing distinct but complementary information about denitrification reactions, attenuation rates and their occurrence in the aquifer. In this paper, we investigate the contribution of both approaches to describe denitrification in a consolidated rock aquifer (limestone and marls), with a porosity related to fracture networks located in the northeastern sector of the Osona basin (NE Spain). Isotopic methods indicated the origin of nitrate (fertilization using manure) and that denitrification occurred, reaching a reduction of near 25% of the nitrate mass in groundwater. The studied area could be divided in two zones with distinct agricultural pressures and, consequently, nitrate concentrations in groundwater. Denitrification occurred in both zones and at different levels, indicating that attenuation processes took place all along the whole hydrogeological unit, and that the observed levels could be attributed to a larger flow path or, in a minor extent, to mixing processes that mask the actual denitrification rates. Microbiological data showed a correlation between denitrifier genes and the isotopic composition. However, the groundwater microbiome and the distribution of denitrifying bacteria did not reveal a major influence on the denitrification level observed by isotopic methods. This focuses the interest of microbiological analysis to identify functional genes within the bacteria present in the aquifer. Results indicated that isotopic methods provide information of the overall denitrification ability of the hydrogeological unit, and that genomic data represent the processes actually acting nearby the well. A combination of both approaches is
Maglaughlin, Kelly L.; Sonnenwald, Diane H.
implications for relevance feedback in information retrieval systems, suggesting that systems accept and utilize multiple positive and negative relevance criteria from users. Systems designers may want to focus on supporting content criteria followed by full text criteria as these may provide the greatest cost...
... other information and granting immunity. 511.39 Section 511.39 Transportation Other Regulations Relating... testify or provide other information and granting immunity. (a) A party who desires the issuance of an order requiring a witness to testify or provide other information upon being granted immunity from...
Giannakopoulos, Christos; Kotroni, Vasso; Lagouvardos, Kostas; Korakaki, Evi; Hatzaki, Maria; Tenentes, Vassilis; Roussos, Anargyros; Karali, Anna; Goodess, Clare
In EU project CLIMRUN, there has been a continuous interaction with stakeholders and end-users to develop new and improved tools to extract useful and useable information tailored to the needs of specific sectors. In this work, we review the provision of climate information services required in the Mediterranean country of Greece where forest fires represent a major hazard. Intense terrain, sparsely vegetated with typical Mediterranean flora makes Greece a fire prone environment. That, in addition to the abandonment of rural lands and extreme weather conditions due to climate change the last few decades, constitutes an issue of an annual cycle of catastrophe from forest fires. An iterative and bottom-up (i.e. stakeholder led) approach for optimizing the two-way information transfer between climate experts and stakeholders has been adopted from the start of the project with a workshop in Athens helping to define the framework for the forest fires case study. The main objectives of this workshop were to better understand who the wildfires stakeholders are and what they need from climate services. After the first workshop three main categories of stakeholders were identified: short term fire planners, long term policy makers and education stakeholders. To address the needs of these stakeholders' categories the following actions were taken: 1. In collaboration with the forecasting team at the National Observatory of Athens, an application providing fire risk forecasts for the following 3 days (http://cirrus.meteo.noa.gr/forecast/bolam/index.htm) was developed, to address the needs of short term fire planners. 2. A web-based application providing long term fire risk and other fire related indices changes due to climate change (time horizon up to 2050 and up to 2100) was developed in collaboration with the Greek WWF office, to address the needs of long term fire policy makers (http://www.oikoskopio.gr/map/). 3. Finally, an educational tool was built in order to
The pattern of the mood-congruent effect in an autobiographical memory recall task was investigated. Each subject was randomly assigned to one of three experimental conditions: positive mood, negative mood (induced with music), and control groups (no specific mood). Subjects were then presented with a word at a time from a list of trait words, which were pleasant or unpleasant. They decided whether they could recall any of their autobiographical memories related to the word, and responded with "yes" or "no" buttons as rapidly and accurately as possible. After the task, they were given five minutes for an incidental free recall test. Results indicated that the mood-congruent effect was found regardless of whether there was an autobiographical memory related to the word or not in both positive and negative mood states. The effect of moods on self-relevant information processing was discussed.
Verneau, Fabio; Caracciolo, Francesco; Coppola, Adele; Lombardi, Pasquale
Food choice and consumption behaviour are influenced by many interacting factors. In this paper we present an empirical effort to enhance understanding of the neophobia-neophilia forces affecting food choice. Starting from the analysis of consumer preferences for some of the most familiar highly processed foods, namely fat-reduced, functional (enriched drinks and yogurt) and ready-to-eat frozen food, our study investigates the role of traditional demographic variables vs attitudes to new food technologies in predicting the consumption behaviour of a sample of Italians buying such products. Consumer attitudes toward food technologies were collected by means of the Food Technology Neophobia Scale (FTNS). Moreover, this paper explicitly analyses the value of the information provided by the FTNS. Underlying the research is the hypothesis that the FTNS may contribute to provide a comprehensive picture of the driving forces behind consumers' behavioural responses towards processed foods which are the end-result of mature technologies. The four FTNS components, once measured and used independently, help clarify the influence on food choices of each neophobia-neophilia force (risk perception and novelty seeking, media influence, own health and environmental concerns) into a single, comprehensive framework. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Katz, Mira L; Broder-Oldach, Ben; Fisher, James L; King, Justin; Eubanks, Kathy; Fleming, Kelly; Paskett, Electra D
Colorectal cancer (CRC) screening rates remain low among low-income minority populations. To evaluate informed decision making (IDM) elements about CRC screening among low-income minority patients. Observational data were collected as part of a patient-level randomized controlled trial to improve CRC screening rates. Medical visits (November 2007 to May 2010) were audio-taped and coded for IDM elements about CRC screening. Near the end of the study one provider refused recording of patients' visits (33 of 270 patients). Among all patients in the trial, agreement to be audio taped was 43.5 % (103/237). Evaluable patient (n = 100) visits were assessed for CRC screening discussion occurrence, IDM elements, and who initiated discussion of each IDM element. Patients were African American (72.2 %), female (63.7 %), with annual household incomes IDM elements was five; however, only two visits included five elements. The most common IDM element discussed in addition to the nature of the decision was the assessment of the patient's understanding in 16 (33.3 %) of the visits that included a CRC discussion. A patient activation intervention initiated CRC screening discussions with health care providers; however, limited IDM occurred about CRC screening during medical visits of minority and low-income patients.
... and information in languages other than English? 37.35 Section 37.35 Labor Office of the Secretary of... Communication § 37.35 What are a recipient's responsibilities to provide services and information in languages... services or information in a language other than English in order to be effectively informed about, or able...
Damien C Croteau-Chonka
Full Text Available Disease-associated loci identified through genome-wide association studies (GWAS frequently localize to non-coding sequence. We and others have demonstrated strong enrichment of such single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs for expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs, supporting an important role for regulatory genetic variation in complex disease pathogenesis. Herein we describe our initial efforts to develop a predictive model of disease-associated variants leveraging eQTL information. We first catalogued cis-acting eQTLs (SNPs within 100 kb of target gene transcripts by meta-analyzing four studies of three blood-derived tissues (n = 586. At a false discovery rate < 5%, we mapped eQTLs for 6,535 genes; these were enriched for disease-associated genes (P < 10(-04, particularly those related to immune diseases and metabolic traits. Based on eQTL information and other variant annotations (distance from target gene transcript, minor allele frequency, and chromatin state, we created multivariate logistic regression models to predict SNP membership in reported GWAS. The complete model revealed independent contributions of specific annotations as strong predictors, including evidence for an eQTL (odds ratio (OR = 1.2-2.0, P < 10(-11 and the chromatin states of active promoters, different classes of strong or weak enhancers, or transcriptionally active regions (OR = 1.5-2.3, P < 10(-11. This complete prediction model including eQTL association information ultimately allowed for better discrimination of SNPs with higher probabilities of GWAS membership (6.3-10.0%, compared to 3.5% for a random SNP than the other two models excluding eQTL information. This eQTL-based prediction model of disease relevance can help systematically prioritize non-coding GWAS SNPs for further functional characterization.
Liu, Xiao; Liu, Anfeng; Huang, Changqin
Applications running on the Internet of Things, such as the Wireless Sensor and Actuator Networks (WSANs) platform, generally have different quality of service (QoS) requirements. For urgent events, it is crucial that information be reported to the actuator quickly, and the communication cost is the second factor. However, for interesting events, communication costs, network lifetime and time all become important factors. In most situations, these different requirements cannot be satisfied simultaneously. In this paper, an adaptive communication control based on a differentiated delay (ACCDS) scheme is proposed to resolve this conflict. In an ACCDS, source nodes of events adaptively send various searching actuators routings (SARs) based on the degree of sensitivity to delay while maintaining the network lifetime. For a delay-sensitive event, the source node sends a large number of SARs to actuators to identify and inform the actuators in an extremely short time; thus, action can be taken quickly but at higher communication costs. For delay-insensitive events, the source node sends fewer SARs to reduce communication costs and improve network lifetime. Therefore, an ACCDS can meet the QoS requirements of different events using a differentiated delay framework. Theoretical analysis simulation results indicate that an ACCDS provides delay and communication costs and differentiated services; an ACCDS scheme can reduce the network delay by 11.111%–53.684% for a delay-sensitive event and reduce the communication costs by 5%–22.308% for interesting events, and reduce the network lifetime by about 28.713%. PMID:28085097
Full Text Available Nowadays, economic development is characterized by increasing of contradictions between ecological and economic systems. As a result, the necessity of unity achievement is growing in the existence of ecological and economic values as one of the main conditions of the concept of sustainable development. For this purpose it is important to implement and create an ecological and economic management system at the enterprise to ensure ecological and economic efficiency. There is a need to improve accounting as a system of measuring economic phenomena and processes for a high level of ecological and economic management. The research is aimed at the development of theoretical and methodological approaches to accounting management for ecological quality of products based on the definition of the essence of the concept as an object of management under conditions of sustainable development, identification and systematization of factors of increasing the ecological quality of products and their management features, accounting identification of costs for ecological quality of products. According to the results of the research, it is established that the ecological quality of products is a combination of properties, which ensure excellent performance of assigned functions and the presence in products of those properties and characteristics that promote the maximum satisfaction of consumer needs and inquiries. The existing order of organization of accounting in Ukraine does not provide the provision of necessary information for the management of the ecological quality of products. The proposed directions of development of elements of the expense accounting method for the ecological quality of products will promote the expansion of information support for the adoption of substantiated and effective management decisions regarding the activities of business entities in accordance with the provisions of the concept of sustainable development.
Full Text Available Applications running on the Internet of Things, such as the Wireless Sensor and Actuator Networks (WSANs platform, generally have different quality of service (QoS requirements. For urgent events, it is crucial that information be reported to the actuator quickly, and the communication cost is the second factor. However, for interesting events, communication costs, network lifetime and time all become important factors. In most situations, these different requirements cannot be satisfied simultaneously. In this paper, an adaptive communication control based on a differentiated delay (ACCDS scheme is proposed to resolve this conflict. In an ACCDS, source nodes of events adaptively send various searching actuators routings (SARs based on the degree of sensitivity to delay while maintaining the network lifetime. For a delay-sensitive event, the source node sends a large number of SARs to actuators to identify and inform the actuators in an extremely short time; thus, action can be taken quickly but at higher communication costs. For delay-insensitive events, the source node sends fewer SARs to reduce communication costs and improve network lifetime. Therefore, an ACCDS can meet the QoS requirements of different events using a differentiated delay framework. Theoretical analysis simulation results indicate that an ACCDS provides delay and communication costs and differentiated services; an ACCDS scheme can reduce the network delay by 11.111%–53.684% for a delay-sensitive event and reduce the communication costs by 5%–22.308% for interesting events, and reduce the network lifetime by about 28.713%.
Epstein, R H; Dexter, F
Perioperative interruptions generated electronically from anaesthesia information management systems (AIMS) can provide useful feedback, but may adversely affect task performance if distractions occur at inopportune moments. Ideally such interruptions would occur only at times when their impact would be minimal. In this study of AIMS data, we evaluated the times of comments, drugs, fluids and periodic assessments (e.g. electrocardiogram diagnosis and train-of-four) to develop recommendations for the timing of interruptions during the intraoperative period. The 39,707 cases studied were divided into intervals between: 1) enter operating room; 2) induction; 3) intubation; 4) surgical incision; and 5) end surgery. Five-minute intervals of no documentation were determined for each case. The offsets from the start of each interval when >50% of ongoing cases had completed initial documentation were calculated (MIN50). The primary endpoint for each interval was the percentage of all cases still ongoing at MIN50. Results were that the intervals from entering the operating room to induction and from induction to intubation were unsuitable for interruptions confirming prior observational studies of anaesthesia workload. At least 13 minutes after surgical incision was the most suitable time for interruptions with 92% of cases still ongoing. Timing was minimally affected by the type of anaesthesia, surgical facility, surgical service, prone positioning or scheduled case duration. The implication of our results is that for mediated interruptions, waiting at least 13 minutes after the start of surgery is appropriate. Although we used AIMS data, operating room information system data is also suitable.
Gendron, Marie-Pierre; Martin, Brigitte; Oraichi, Driss; Bérard, Anick
Medication use during pregnancy and lactation is prevalent. However, current knowledge of the risks and benefits of medication use during pregnancy and lactation is incomplete as the best available evidence has been obtained from cohort studies of inadvertent exposures and registries. This situation may partly explain health care providers' (HCP) risk perceptions and thus the increasing number of calls to Teratogen Information Services (TIS). The objectives of this study were (1) to identify the medication classes for which HCP are seeking counseling from the IMAGe center, a Quebec TIS; (2) to identify the medical conditions for which medication classes were used during pregnancy and lactation; (3) to identify and quantify predictors of medication information requests during pregnancy and lactation. A retrospective analysis of data was conducted within the population served by the IMAGe center, a TIS based at CHU Ste-Justine in Montreal, Quebec, Canada, that serves the French population of Canada. To be included, calls had to be received between January 1, 2004 and April 30, 2007, and the subject of the call had to be directly associated with the exposure, or not, of a pregnant or breastfeeding woman to medication. Multivariate generalized estimating equation (GEE) regression models were performed to identify the predictors of medication requests. A total of 11, 076 requests regarding medication exposure during pregnancy, 12 055 requests regarding pregnant women before the exposure took place, and 13, 364 requests regarding lactation were included for analyses. Pregnant women were most frequently exposed to antidepressants (17.3), antibiotics (6.3%), and benzodiazepines (5.3%). Prior to drug exposure, the most frequent inquiries by HCP were on antibiotics (11.0%), anti-inflammatory drugs (6.0%), and antiemetics (5.1%). Inquiries concerning lactating women most frequently requested information on the drug classes of antidepressants (10.8%), antibiotics (9.1%), and
Gentles, Stephen James; Lokker, Cynthia; McKibbon, K Ann
Pediatric patients with health conditions requiring follow-up typically depend on a caregiver to mediate at least part of the necessary two-way communication with health care providers on their behalf. Health information technology (HIT) and its subset, information communication technology (ICT), are increasingly being applied to facilitate communication between health care provider and caregiver in these situations. Awareness of the extent and nature of published research involving HIT interventions used in this way is currently lacking. This scoping review was designed to map the health literature about HIT used to facilitate communication involving health care providers and caregivers (who are usually family members) of pediatric patients with health conditions requiring follow-up. Terms relating to care delivery, information technology, and pediatrics were combined to search MEDLINE, EMBASE, and CINAHL for the years 1996 to 2008. Eligible studies were selected after three rounds of duplicate screening in which all authors participated. Data regarding patient, caregiver, health care provider, HIT intervention, outcomes studied, and study design were extracted and maintained in a Microsoft Access database. Stage of research was categorized using the UK's Medical Research Council (MRC) framework for developing and evaluating complex interventions. Quantitative and qualitative descriptive summaries are presented. We included 104 eligible studies (112 articles) conducted in 17 different countries and representing 30 different health conditions. The most common conditions were asthma, type 1 diabetes, special needs, and psychiatric disorder. Most studies (88, 85%) included children 2 to 12 years of age, and 73 (71%) involved home care settings. Health care providers operated in hospital settings in 96 (92%) of the studies. Interventions featured 12 modes of communication (eg, Internet, intranets, telephone, video conferencing, email, short message service [SMS], and
Lee, Eun Young; Lee, Chang-Keun; Lee, Tae Hoon; Chung, Son Mi; Kim, Seong Ho; Cho, You Sook; Yoo, Bin; Moon, Hee-Bom
To investigate whether the anti-beta(2)-glycoprotein I (anti-beta(2)GPI) antibody may provide additional information in patients with thrombosis in conjunction with the lupus anticoagulant (LAC) or anticardiolipin (aCL) antibody. We selected 235 patients whose plasma were tested for the presence of all three antiphospholipid (aPL) antibodies (LAC, aCL, and anti-beta(2)GPI) and were positive for at least one aPL antibody from January 2000 to December 2001. The LAC test was performed using dilute activated thromboplastin time reagent (dAPTT) and dilute Russell viper venom time reagent (dRVVT). ACL (IgG/IgM) and anti-beta(2)GPI (IgG/IgM) were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Clinical data were collected and analysed in all patients with aPL antibody. Of the 235 patients with aPL, thrombosis was detected in 76 patients (28.0%). Of the 76 patients with thrombosis, 29 were positive for LAC, 9 for aCL, 7 for anti-beta(2)GPI, 3 for LAC+aCL, 9 for aCL+anti-beta(2)GPI, 11 for LAC+anti-beta(2)GPI, and 8 for LAC+aCL+anti-beta(2)GPI. The rate of thrombosis was significantly different (p=0.01) among single positive patients (45/163, 27.6%), double positive patients (23/60, 38.3%), and triple positive patients (8/12, 66.7%). In single positive patients, the rate of thrombosis was highest in LAC positive patients (29/85, 34.1%). In double positive patients, the LAC+anti-beta(2)GPI positive group (11/24, 45.8%) and aCL+anti-beta(2)GPI positive group (9/22, 40.9%) had higher rates of thrombosis than the LAC+aCL positive group (3/14, 21.4%). Single positivity for anti-beta(2)GPI explained 9.2% of thrombotic events in the absence of LAC or aCL. Double or triple positivity for aPLs were associated with a higher rate of thrombosis than single positivity for aPL. Our results suggest that anti-beta(2)GPI provides additional information in patients with thrombosis in conjunction with LAC or aCL.
Sudhinaraset, May; Briegleb, Christina; Aung, Moe; Khin, Hnin Su Su; Aung, Tin
Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) for malaria enable proper diagnosis and have been shown to reduce overuse of artemisinin combination therapy. Few studies have evaluated the feasibility and use of RDTs in the private sector in Myanmar. The objectives of the study were to: 1) understand the acceptability of using RDTs in the informal sector in Myanmar; 2) examine motivations for use among informal providers; and, 3) highlight decision-making and knowledge of providers for diagnostic testing and treatment. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 30 informal providers. Purposeful sampling was used to enrol study participants in the Mon and Shan State in Myanmar. All interviews were conducted in Burmese, translated into English, and two researchers coded all interviews using Atlas ti. Major themes identified included: 1) informal provider and outlet characteristics, including demographic and background characteristics; 2) the benefits and challenges of using RDTs according to providers; 3) provider experiences with using RDTs, including motivations for using the RDT; 4) adherence to test results, either positive or negative; and, 5) recommendations from informal providers to promote increased use of RDTs in their communities. This study found that introducing RDTs to informal providers in Myanmar was feasible, resulting in improved provider empowerment and patient-provider relationships. Specific challenges included facility infrastructure to use and dispose RDTs and provider knowledge. This varied across the type of informal provider, with itinerant drug vendors more comfortable and knowledgeable about RDTs compared to general retail sellers and medical drug representatives. This study found informal providers in Myanmar found the introduction of RDTs to be highly acceptable. Providers discussed improvement in service quality including provider empowerment and patient-provider relationships. The study also highlighted a number of challenges that informal providers
Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård; Ronit, Karsten
Information asymmetries between producers and consumers exist with respect to nutritional characteristics of foods and beverages. This paper aims to analyze firms’ methods to supply nutritional information, focusing on three specific food industries: breakfast cereals, snacks and soft drinks...
Advanced traveler information systems (ATIS) analyze and communicate information that can enhance travel efficiency, alleviate congestion, and increase safety. In Texas, tourists (i.e., tripmakers unacquainted with the state) constitute an important ...
Cheong, B. J.; Kang, J. M.; Kim, H. S.; Koh, S. H.; Kang, D. H.; Park, C. H. [Cheju Univ., Jeju (Korea, Republic of)
The goal of this study is to estimate the relevance and Influence of the Existing Regulation and the RI-PBR to the institutionalization of the regulatory system. This study reviews the current regulatory system and the status of the RI-PBR implementation of the US NRC and Korea based upon SECY Papers, Risk Informed Regulation Implementation Plan (RIRIP) of the US NRC and other domestic studies. In order to investigate the perceptions, knowledge level, ground for the regulatory change, a survey was performed to Korean nuclear utilities, researchers and regulators on the perception on the RIR. The questionnaire was composed of 50 questions regarding personal details on work experience, level of education and specific field of work ; level of knowledge on the risk informed performance based regulation (RI-PBR); the perception of the current regulation, the effectiveness, level of procedure, flexibility, dependency on the regulator and personal view, and the perception of the RI-PBR such as flexibility of regulation, introduction time and the effect of RI-PBR, safety improvement, public perception, parts of the existing regulatory system that should be changed, etc. 515 answered from all sectors of the nuclear field; utilities, engineering companies, research institutes, and regulatory bodies.
Full Text Available The leading national states in the tomato market are mainly Sinaloa and Jalisco. They determine the amount of production will sell in the country meanwhile smallholders depend about that decision to calculate the quantity of tomato they be able to place into local supply markets. Large producers invest in other aspects, such as in Information Technology Management (ITM, in order to obtain international and updated information they need for their strategic decision-making, as well as to establish effective communication with other producers, with suppliers and with customers. The question posed in the present investigation is: Will the lack of investment in ITM be a factor that affects the competitiveness of smallholders? This article has the objective to estimate the relevance of investing in the ITM, in order to increase the production through the application of the Cournot and Branding model; for two players who decide to sell simultaneously, resulting in two models: The first one, where the player 1 it will be a big producer who decides to invest in ITM to increase its market, while player 2 is a smallholder who does not have the capacity to invest in ITM. In the second resulting model, both players are big producers, who decide to invest in ITM to increase their market. In both models, we would be expected that the player who sells the most, whoever invests in ITM; however, as will be observed in the conclusions, investing in ITM is not always the solution to sell more.
Minna M Boström
Full Text Available Inflammation is an important feature of carcinogenesis. Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs can be associated with either poor or improved prognosis, depending on their properties and polarization. Current knowledge of the prognostic significance of TAMs in bladder cancer is limited and was investigated in this study. We analyzed 184 urothelial bladder cancer patients undergoing transurethral resection of a bladder tumor or radical cystectomy. CD68 (pan-macrophage marker, MAC387 (polarized towards type 1 macrophages, and CLEVER-1/Stabilin-1 (type 2 macrophages and lymphatic/blood vessels were detected immunohistochemically. The median follow-up time was 6.0 years. High macrophage counts associated with a higher pT category and grade. Among patients undergoing transurethral resection, all studied markers apart from CLEVER-1/Stabilin-1 were associated with increased risk of progression and poorer disease-specific and overall survival in univariate analyses. High levels of two macrophage markers (CD68/MAC387+/+ or CD68/CLEVER-1+/+ groups had an independent prognostic role after transurethral resection in multivariate analyses. In the cystectomy cohort, MAC387, alone and in combination with CD68, was associated with poorer survival in univariate analyses, but none of the markers were independent predictors of outcome in multivariate analyses. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that macrophage phenotypes provide significant independent prognostic information, particularly in bladder cancers undergoing transurethral resection.
Haering, Ed; Plotkin, Ken
Supersonic aircraft generate shock waves that move outward and extend to the ground. As a cone of pressurized air spreads across the landscape along the flight path, it creates a continuous sonic boom along the flight track. Several factors can influence sonic booms: weight, size, and shape of the aircraft; its altitude and flight path; and weather and atmospheric conditions. This technology allows pilots to control the impact of sonic booms. A software system displays the location and intensity of shock waves caused by supersonic aircraft. This technology can be integrated into cockpits or flight control rooms to help pilots minimize sonic boom impact in populated areas. The system processes vehicle and flight parameters as well as data regarding current atmospheric conditions. The display provides real-time information regarding sonic boom location and intensity, enabling pilots to make the necessary flight adjustments to control the timing and location of sonic booms. This technology can be used on current-generation supersonic aircraft, which generate loud sonic booms, as well as future- generation, low-boom aircraft, anticipated to be quiet enough for populated areas.
Zullig, Leah L; Sanders, Linda L; Shaw, Ryan J; McCant, Felicia; Danus, Susanne; Bosworth, Hayden B
We conducted a feasibility study of a web-based intervention, which provided personalized cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk information, behavioural risk reduction strategies and educational resources. Participants were block-randomized to the 3-month intervention (n = 47) or to usual care (n = 49). Participants in the intervention group were presented with their CVD risk based on the Framingham risk score, and in three subsequent online encounters could select two behavioural/lifestyle modules, giving them an opportunity to complete six modules over the course of the study. Because it was self-guided, participants had differing levels of engagement with intervention materials. Most intervention group participants (77%, n = 36) completed all modules. After 3 months there were no significant differences between the intervention and usual care groups for systolic blood pressure, body-mass index, CVD risk, smoking cessation or medication non-adherence. The study suggests that modest clinical improvements can be achieved by interventions that are entirely web-administered. However, web-based interventions do not replace the need for human interaction to communicate CVD risk and assist with decision-making.
van Wyk, Ernita; Roux, Dirk J; Drackner, Mikael; McCool, Stephen F
Scientific information is not always effectively incorporated into decision-making processes. This phenomenon seems to hold even when the information is aligned with an articulated need, is generated according to sound scientific procedures, and is packaged with end-user preferences in mind. We propose that contextual or cultural differences contribute significantly to the misalignment in communication between those who generate information and those who seek information for improved management of natural resources. The solution is to cultivate shared understanding, which in turn relies on acknowledgment and sharing of diverse values and attitudes. This constitutes a difficult challenge in a culturally diverse environment. Whereas cultural diversity represents wealth in experiences, knowledge and perspectives it can constrain the potential to develop the shared understandings necessary for effective integration of new information. This article illustrates how a lack of shared understanding among participants engaged in a resource-management process can produce and perpetuate divergent views of the world, to the extent that information and knowledge flows are ineffective and scientific information, even when requested, cannot be used effectively. Four themes were distilled from interviews with management and scientific staff of a natural resource-management agency in South Africa. The themes are used to illustrate how divergent views embedded in different cultures can discourage alignment of effort toward a common purpose. The article then presents a sense-making framework to illustrate the potential for developing shared understandings in a culturally diverse world.
Giulietti, Giovanni; Bozzali, Marco; Figura, Viviana; Spanò, Barbara; Perri, Roberta; Marra, Camillo; Lacidogna, Giordano; Giubilei, Franco; Caltagirone, Carlo; Cercignani, Mara
Preliminary studies, based on a region-of-interest approach, suggest that quantitative magnetization transfer (qMT), an extension of magnetization transfer imaging, provides complementary information to conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the characterisation of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The aim of this study was to extend these findings to the whole brain, using a voxel-wise approach. We recruited 19AD patients and 11 healthy subjects (HS). All subjects had an MRI acquisition at 3.0T including a T(1)-weighted volume, 12 MT-weighted volumes for qMT, and data for computing T(1) and B(1) maps. The T(1)-weighted volumes were processed to yield grey matter (GM) volumetric maps, while the other sequences were used to compute qMT parametric maps of the whole brain. qMT maps were warped to standard space and smoothed, and subsequently compared between groups. Of all the qMT parameters considered, only the forward exchange rate, RM(0)(B), showed significant group differences. These images were therefore retained for the multimodal statistical analysis, designed to locate brain regions of RM(0)(B) differences between AD and HS groups, adjusting for local GM atrophy. Widespread areas of reduced RM(0)(B) were found in AD patients, mainly located in the hippocampus, in the temporal lobe, in the posterior cingulate and in the parietal cortex. These results indicate that, among qMT parameters, RM(0)(B) is the most sensitive to AD pathology. This quantity is altered in the hippocampus of patients with AD (as found by previous works) but also in other brain areas, that PET studies have highlighted as involved with both, reduced glucose metabolism and amyloid β deposition. RM(0)(B) might reflect, through the measurement of the efficiency of MT exchange, some information with a specific pathological counterpart. Given previous evidence of a strict relationship between RM(0)(B) and intracellular pH, an intriguing speculation is that our findings might reflect metabolic
Schroeder, J.V.; Mayer, G.
In the last 20 years, federal, state and local regulations have provided regulatory incentives for industry to better manage environmental, health and safety (EHS) practices. In order for voluntary EHS management practices to move beyond compliance and continue improving, specific, quantifiable benefits must result. That is, companies must achieve some competitive advantage from implementing EHS improvements that are considered voluntary. Recently, many private companies and public agencies have been giving significant consideration toward the implementation of an EHS management information system (EMIS). Currently considered voluntary, the automation of EHS data collection, storage, retrieval and reporting is subject to the same benefit expectations that other EHS improvements are subject to. The benefits resulting from an EMIS typically result from a reduction in either direct or indirect costs. Direct costs, consisting primarily of labor hours, permit fees, disposal costs, etc., are definable and easily to quantify. Indirect costs, which are comprised of reduced risks and liabilities, are less easily quantifiable. In fact, many have abandoned hope of ever quantifying expected benefits from indirect costs, and simply lump all indirect benefits into a qualitative, catch-all category called intangible benefits. However, by statistically analyzing individual risk events over an expected project life, anticipated benefits can be objectively and accurately quantified. Through the use of a case study, this paper will describe the process of quantifying direct and indirect benefits resulting from the implementation of an EMIS. The paper will describe the application of a statistical model to estimate indirect benefits and will demonstrate how the results of the benefit quantification can be used to make sound, business based decisions based on a required rate of return/return on investment.
... provide other information and granting immunity. 2.15 Section 2.15 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE... and granting immunity. (a) The Bureau Director, Deputy Directors, and Assistant Directors in the... issuance of an order requiring a witness to testify or provide other information granting immunity under...
... provide other information and granting immunity. 3.39 Section 3.39 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE... granting immunity. (a) Where Commission complaint counsel desire the issuance of an order requiring a witness or deponent to testify or provide other information and granting immunity under 18 U.S.C. 6002...
Lukosch, S.G.; Lukosch, H.K.; Datcu, D.; Cidota, M.A.
For operational units in the security domain that work together in teams, it is important to quickly and adequately exchange context-related information to ensure well-working collaboration. Currently, most information exchange is based on oral communication. This paper reports on different
Lukosch, S.G.; Lukosch, H.K.; Datcu, D.; Cidota, M.A.
For operational units in the security domain that work together in teams, it is important to quickly and adequately exchange context-related information to ensure well-working collaboration. Currently, most information exchange is based on oral communication. This paper reports on different
Lukosch, S.G.; Lukosch, H.K.; Datcu, D.; Cidota, M.A.
For operational units in the security domain that work together in teams, it is important to quickly and adequately exchange context-related information to ensure well-working collaboration. Currently, most information exchange is based on oral communication. This paper reports on different
... information collection are owners or operators of existing spark ignition (SI) engines that have a site rating...) and existing stationary SI engines located at area sources of HAP emissions. The information is... system is inoperative; sulfur and nitrogen content of the fuel; fuel to water ratio; rate of fuel...
Brigo, Francesco; Otte, Wim; Igwe, Stanley C.; Tezzon, Frediano; Nardone, Raffaele
There is a general need for high-quality, easily accessible, and comprehensive health-care information on epilepsy to better inform the general population about this highly stigmatized neurological disorder. The aim of this study was to evaluate the health literacy level of eight popular
Hoekstra, Janny C.; Huizingh, Eelko K.R.E.; Bijmolt, Tammo H.A.; Krawczyk, Adriana
In this study, we propose and test a chain of effects from website content, through informational and transactional success to overall website success and company performance. This framework enables us to determine the relative importance of the informational and transaction-related website
Donaldson, Abigail A; Lindberg, Laura D; Ellen, Jonathan M; Marcell, Arik V
To describe the extent to which sexually experienced adolescents in the United States receive sexual health information (SHI) from multiple of three sources: parents, teachers, and healthcare providers. Descriptive analysis. 2006-2010 National Survey of Family Growth. Heterosexually experienced, unmarried/non-cohabiting females (n = 875) and males (n = 1,026) ages 15-19 years. Self-reported receipt of birth control, sexually transmitted infection/human immunodeficiency virus (STI/HIV), and condom information from parents, teachers, and healthcare providers. Parent and teacher SHI sources were reported by 55% and 43% of sexually experienced female and male adolescents, respectively, for birth control information; and by 59% and 66%, respectively, for STI/HIV information. For sexually experienced adolescents reporting both parent and teacher sources, about one-third also reported healthcare provider as a source of birth control information, and one-quarter of females and one-third of males reported a healthcare provider as a source of STI/HIV information, respectively. For sexually experienced adolescents reporting no SHI from either parent or teacher sources, only one in ten reported healthcare providers as a source of birth control information, with a similar proportion reporting healthcare providers as a source of STI/HIV information. SHI receipt was found to vary by gender with more females than males reporting birth control information receipt from parents and teachers, and about one in six males reporting no birth control or condom information receipt from either source. Study findings highlight gaps in sexual health information receipt from parents, teachers, and healthcare providers among sexually experienced adolescents, as well as gender differences across information sources. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
...) to establish a process for health care providers to disclose potential fraud involving the Federal health care programs. The Protocol provides guidance on how to investigate this conduct, quantify damages, and report the conduct to OIG to resolve the provider's liability exposure under OIG's civil money...
Murray, Christine E.; Welch, Metoka L.
This article presents the results of a statewide survey of domestic violence (DV) service providers that focused on the needs, background characteristics, and opinions of service providers related to research. The survey included an examination of service providers' motivation for working in the field, research background and training, and…
Bros, J; Poulet, C; Deschaux, C; Charavel, M
To promote adaptation to treatment with continuous positive airway pressure, an information document was developed for people starting their treatment with continuous positive airway pressure. Seven patients with obstructive sleep apnea took part in a focus group. This allowed the identification both of useful information and the best way that this information could be presented. The key specific information objectives and the best emotional register to use were as follows: (1) develop awareness about the physiological mechanisms and consequences that can occur from obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, using formulations arousing fear, (2) enable the recognition of the symptoms, risk factors and chronicity of this syndrome, (3) reassure and motivate the patient about treatment with continuous positive airway pressure. To promote adaptation to positive airway pressure in early care, combining different emotional tones is preferable, mixing both fear and reassurance. Copyright © 2017 SPLF. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Manojlovich, Milisa; Adler-Milstein, Julia; Harrod, Molly; Sales, Anne; Hofer, Timothy P; Saint, Sanjay; Krein, Sarah L
...), which is a component of health information technology (HIT), may help reduce some communication failures but increase others because of an inadequate understanding of how communication technology is used...
... (Continued) OFFICE OF INVESTMENT SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY REGULATIONS PERTAINING TO MERGERS, ACQUISITIONS, AND TAKEOVERS BY FOREIGN PERSONS Provision and Handling of Information § 800.701 Obligation of...
Zinaida P. Arharova
Full Text Available In this article the main questions of preparation of ﬁnancial information (IFRS 1 areconsidered. In this text the main requirements of users to accounting (ﬁnancial information are expressed. The principlesof preparation and drawing up ﬁnancial statements aren’t standards, it is possibleto divide them in three main groups. In article each of these groups are considered.
marketing research , relationship between expertise, source credibility, and information sharing behaviors have been studied. Thomas-Hunt et al. [9...intention depends on the situation. In marketing research , the correlation between trustworthy source and information credibility is commonly assumed... Marketing Research , vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 255-260, May 1982  Numerical Recipes in C. The Art of Scientific Computing, 2nd Edition, 1992, ISBN 0-521-43108
Le Morvan, Marine; Zinovyev, Andrei; Vert, Jean-Philippe
Genome-wide somatic mutation profiles of tumours can now be assessed efficiently and promise to move precision medicine forward. Statistical analysis of mutation profiles is however challenging due to the low frequency of most mutations, the varying mutation rates across tumours, and the presence of a majority of passenger events that hide the contribution of driver events. Here we propose a method, NetNorM, to represent whole-exome somatic mutation data in a form that enhances cancer-relevant information using a gene network as background knowledge. We evaluate its relevance for two tasks: survival prediction and unsupervised patient stratification. Using data from 8 cancer types from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), we show that it improves over the raw binary mutation data and network diffusion for these two tasks. In doing so, we also provide a thorough assessment of somatic mutations prognostic power which has been overlooked by previous studies because of the sparse and binary nature of mutations.
Marine Le Morvan
Full Text Available Genome-wide somatic mutation profiles of tumours can now be assessed efficiently and promise to move precision medicine forward. Statistical analysis of mutation profiles is however challenging due to the low frequency of most mutations, the varying mutation rates across tumours, and the presence of a majority of passenger events that hide the contribution of driver events. Here we propose a method, NetNorM, to represent whole-exome somatic mutation data in a form that enhances cancer-relevant information using a gene network as background knowledge. We evaluate its relevance for two tasks: survival prediction and unsupervised patient stratification. Using data from 8 cancer types from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA, we show that it improves over the raw binary mutation data and network diffusion for these two tasks. In doing so, we also provide a thorough assessment of somatic mutations prognostic power which has been overlooked by previous studies because of the sparse and binary nature of mutations.
Genome-wide somatic mutation profiles of tumours can now be assessed efficiently and promise to move precision medicine forward. Statistical analysis of mutation profiles is however challenging due to the low frequency of most mutations, the varying mutation rates across tumours, and the presence of a majority of passenger events that hide the contribution of driver events. Here we propose a method, NetNorM, to represent whole-exome somatic mutation data in a form that enhances cancer-relevant information using a gene network as background knowledge. We evaluate its relevance for two tasks: survival prediction and unsupervised patient stratification. Using data from 8 cancer types from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), we show that it improves over the raw binary mutation data and network diffusion for these two tasks. In doing so, we also provide a thorough assessment of somatic mutations prognostic power which has been overlooked by previous studies because of the sparse and binary nature of mutations. PMID:28650955
Full Text Available To process information selectively and to continuously fine-tune selectivity of information processing are important abilities for successful goal-directed behavior. One phenomenon thought to represent this fine-tuning are conflict adaptation effects in interference tasks, i.e. reduction of interference after an incompatible trial and when incompatible trials are frequent. The neurocognitive mechanisms of these effects are currently only partly understood and results from brainimaging studies so far are mixed. In our study we validate and extend recent findings by examining adaption to recent conflict in the classical Stroop task using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Consistent with previous research we found increased activity in a fronto-parietal network comprising the medial prefrontal cortex, ventro-lateral prefrontal cortex, and posterior parietal cortex when contrasting incompatible with compatible trials. These areas have been associated with attentional processes and might reflect increased cognitive conflict and resolution thereof during incompatible trials. While carefully controlling for non-attentional sequential effects we found smaller Stroop interference after an incompatible trial (conflict adaptation effect. These behavioral conflict adaptation effects were accompanied by changes in activity in visual color-selective areas (V4, V4α, while there was no modulation by previous trial compatibility in a visual word-selective area (VWFA. Our results provide further evidence for the notion, that adaptation to recent conflict seems to be based mainly on enhancement of processing of the task-relevant information.
Sayin, Yazile; Aksoy, Güler
In 2008, we conducted a nonexperimental, cross-sectional, descriptive study in the surgical services department of a hospital in Istanbul, Turkey, with the aim of determining how much information was required by perioperative patients and their family members, the extent to which this information was provided, and the role that nurses play in this process. We included a total of 394 outpatients and inpatients and their family members (ie, 197 patients, 197 family members) and 30 nurses in the study. We collected the research data by using one questionnaire for patients, a second for family members of patients, and a third for nurses. We discovered that the patients and their family members wanted to be given more information about the surgical process than they had received. Patients wanted more information about the intraoperative period, whereas their family members wanted more information about the postoperative period. We also found that nurses were aware that they did not play an effective role in providing information to patients and their family members because of a lack of knowledge about what information they were responsible for providing and insufficient staffing. We concluded that nurses should know what education they are responsible for providing, put more effort into understanding patient and family member information needs, and plan a better means of providing information to meet those needs. Copyright © 2012 AORN, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lioma, Christina; Larsen, Birger; Petersen, Casper
train a Recurrent Neural Network (RNN) on existing relevant information to that query. We then use the RNN to "deep learn" a single, synthetic, and we assume, relevant document for that query. We design a crowdsourcing experiment to assess how relevant the "deep learned" document is, compared...... to existing relevant documents. Users are shown a query and four wordclouds (of three existing relevant documents and our deep learned synthetic document). The synthetic document is ranked on average most relevant of all....
Pace, Adriana; Buttigieg, Sandra C
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to analyse hospital dashboards' visibility of information at different management levels to improve quality and performance in an acute general hospital. Design/methodology/approach Data were generated via 21 semi-structured interviews across different management levels. Findings All management levels had greater visibility of information, could make informed decisions, and registered performance improvement. Specifically, waiting time improved, however since introduction of hospital dashboards was work-in-progress at time of study, managers could not record improvement in terms of cost reductions, clinical effectiveness, patient safety and patient satisfaction. Different managerial levels had different visibility with top management having the greatest. Research limitations/implications In single case studies, where only one context is used, the findings cannot be reproduced in different contexts; even though most of the results could be matched with the current literature. Practical implications The need to have balanced key performance indicators that take into account other facets of improvements, apart from time, has been emphasised. Furthermore, if middle and departmental managers have greater visibility, this would allow them to work towards a strategic fit between the departments that they manage with the rest of the hospital. Originality/value There is scant literature regarding performance dashboards' enhancement of visibility of information at different management levels. Furthermore, according to the authors' knowledge, no other paper has tried to identify and discuss the different levels of information, which should be visible from bedside to board namely to management, clinicians and public.
Kennedy, C E; Yeh, P T; Johnson, C; Baggaley, R
New strategies for HIV testing services (HTS) are needed to achieve UN 90-90-90 targets, including diagnosis of 90% of people living with HIV. Task-sharing HTS to trained lay providers may alleviate health worker shortages and better reach target groups. We conducted a systematic review of studies evaluating HTS by lay providers using rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs). Peer-reviewed articles were included if they compared HTS using RDTs performed by trained lay providers to HTS by health professionals, or to no intervention. We also reviewed data on end-users' values and preferences around lay providers preforming HTS. Searching was conducted through 10 online databases, reviewing reference lists, and contacting experts. Screening and data abstraction were conducted in duplicate using systematic methods. Of 6113 unique citations identified, 5 studies were included in the effectiveness review and 6 in the values and preferences review. One US-based randomized trial found patients' uptake of HTS doubled with lay providers (57% vs. 27%, percent difference: 30, 95% confidence interval: 27-32, p Cambodia, Malawi, and South Africa comparing testing quality between lay providers and laboratory staff found little discordance and high sensitivity and specificity (≥98%). Values and preferences studies generally found support for lay providers conducting HTS, particularly in non-hypothetical scenarios. Based on evidence supporting using trained lay providers, a WHO expert panel recommended lay providers be allowed to conduct HTS using HIV RDTs. Uptake of this recommendation could expand HIV testing to more people globally.
Allen, J. S.; Tobola, K. W.; Betrue, R.
How do we reach the public with the exciting story of Solar System Exploration? How do we encourage girls to think about careers in science, math, engineering and technology? Why should NASA scientists make an effort to reach the public and informal education settings to tell the Solar System Exploration story? These are questions that the Solar System Exploration Forum, a part of the NASA Office of Space Science Education (SSE) and Public Outreach network, has tackled over the past few years. The SSE Forum is a group of education teams and scientists who work to share the excitement of solar system exploration with colleagues, formal educators, and informal educators like museums and youth groups. One major area of the SSE Forum outreach supports the training of Girl Scouts of the USA (GS) leaders and trainers in a suite of activities that reflect NASA missions and science research. Youth groups like Girl Scouts structure their activities as informal education.
The blower characteristic as a rule is difficult to interpret. The contribution therefore discusses how it should be read and what information can be derived. It also goes into the influence of pressure changes on the operating point. [German] Die Kennliniendarstellung von Ventilatoren zeigt in der Regel eine verwirrende Fuelle von Linien, Kurven und Skalenstaeben, deren Bedeutung und Information zum gewaehlten Betriebspunkt nicht immer auf Anhieb erkennbar wird. Im folgenden soll daher einmal ausfuehrlich und detailliert auf die Informationen, die ein Kennlinienfeld bietet, eingegangen werden. Des weiteren werden die Betriebspunktaenderungen infolge von Druckverschiebungen erlaeutert. (orig.)
Kahaner, David K. [Asian Technology Information Program
The Asian Technology Information Program (ATIP) conducted a seven-month Asian science and technology information program for the Office:of Energy Research (ER), U.S: Department of Energy (DOE.) The seven-month program consists of 1) monitoring, analyzing, and dissemiuating science and technology trends and developments associated with Asian high performance computing and communications (HPC), networking, and associated topics, 2) access to ATIP's annual series of Asian S&T reports for ER and HPC related personnel and, 3) supporting DOE and ER designated visits to Asia to study and assess Asian HPC.
Full Text Available This paper has attempted to clarify the ways in which individual, holistic case studies, produced via the process of constructivist inquiry, can be tested for trustworthiness and applied to other, similar situations. Service providers and systems designers need contextual information concerning their users in order to design and provide systems and services that will function effectively and efficiently within those contexts. Abstract models can only provide abstract insight into human behaviour and this is rarely sufficient detail upon which to base the planning and delivery of a service. The methodological issues which surround the applicability of individual, holistic case studies are discussed, explaining the concept of 'contextual applicability.' The relevance and usefulness of in-depth case study research to systems designers and service providers is highlighted.
Jahn, Georg; Krems, Josef F; Gelau, Christhard
This study tested whether the ease of learning to use human-machine interfaces of in-vehicle information systems (IVIS) can be assessed at standstill. Assessing the attentional demand of IVIS should include an evaluation of ease of learning, because the use of IVIS at low skill levels may create safety-relevant distractions. Skill acquisition in operating IVIS was quantified by fitting the power law of practice to training data sets collected in a driving study and at standstill. Participants practiced manual destination entry with two route guidance systems differing in cognitive demand. In Experiment 1, a sample of middle-aged participants was trained while steering routes of varying driving demands. In Experiment 2, another sample of middle-aged participants was trained at standstill. In Experiment 1, display glance times were less affected by driving demands than by total task times and decreased at slightly higher speed-up rates (0.02 higher on average) than task times collected at standstill in Experiment 2. The system interface that minimized cognitive demand was operated more quickly and was easier to learn. Its system delays increased static task times, which still predicted 58% of variance in display glance times compared with even 76% for the second system. The ease of learning to use an IVIS interface and the decrease in attentional demand with training can be assessed at standstill. Fitting the power law of practice to static task times yields parameters that predict display glance times while driving, which makes it possible to compare interfaces with regard to ease of learning.
Radiske, Andressa; Gonzalez, Maria Carolina; Conde-Ocazionez, Sergio A; Feitosa, Anatildes; Köhler, Cristiano A; Bevilaqua, Lia R; Cammarota, Martín
Reactivated memories can be modified during reconsolidation, making this process a potential therapeutic target for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), a mental illness characterized by the recurring avoidance of situations that evoke trauma-related fears. However, avoidance memory reconsolidation depends on a set of still loosely defined boundary conditions, limiting the translational value of basic research. In particular, the involvement of the hippocampus in fear-motivated avoidance memory reconsolidation remains controversial. Combining behavioral and electrophysiological analyses in male Wistar rats, we found that previous learning of relevant nonaversive information is essential to elicit the participation of the hippocampus in avoidance memory reconsolidation, which is associated with an increase in theta- and gamma-oscillation power and cross-frequency coupling in dorsal CA1 during reactivation of the avoidance response. Our results indicate that the hippocampus is involved in memory reconsolidation only when reactivation results in contradictory representations regarding the consequences of avoidance and suggest that robust nesting of hippocampal theta-gamma rhythms at the time of retrieval is a specific reconsolidation marker.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is characterized by maladaptive avoidance responses to stimuli or behaviors that represent or bear resemblance to some aspect of a traumatic experience. Disruption of reconsolidation, the process by which reactivated memories become susceptible to modifications, is a promising approach for treating PTSD patients. However, much of what is known about fear-motivated avoidance memory reconsolidation derives from studies based on fear conditioning instead of avoidance-learning paradigms. Using a step-down inhibitory avoidance task in rats, we found that the hippocampus is involved in memory reconsolidation only when the animals acquired the avoidance response in an
Buunk, Abraham (Bram); van den Eijnden, R.J J M; Siero, F.W.
A group of 267 college students participated in an experiment to determine the effect of communicating different percentages (i.e., 12%, 36%, 64%, 88%) of the prevalence of safer sex in the student population on condom-use intention, A positive linear effect of prevalence information on condom-use
van Zweden, Jelle Stijn; Vitikainen, Emma; D'Ettorre, Patrizia
-sister relatedness workers should bias their sex ratio towards males. However, in order to achieve this, workers need to be able to reliably assess the type of colony in which they live. The information on colony kin structure may be encoded in cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs), assuming that genetic variability...
Berlo, L.A.H.M. van; Natrop, M.
Building Information Modelling (BIM) is accepted as the new technology for design, engineering and collaboration AEC projects. BIM can be seen as a collection of objects, properties and relations. Many parties in the construction process use the data in their benefit. There is a group of people that
..., address, phone number, and fax number (can be pre-printed on the CCF at Step 1-A). (e) DER information required at § 40.35 of this part. (f) MRO name, address, phone number, and fax number (can be pre-printed... name, address, phone, and fax number (can be pre-printed on the CCF). ...
Conclusions: Contrast-enhanced T1-weighted MR Cholangiography may improve the level of diagnostic confidence provided by conventional T2-weighted MR Cholangiography in the evaluation of biliary complications after orthotopic liver transplantation.
Clements, Anna; Darroch, Peter I.; Green, John
Delivered at the CRIS2016 Conference in St Andrews; published in Procedia Computer Science 106 (Mar 2017).-- Contains conference paper (8 pages) and presentation (16 slides). Universities and funders need robust metrics to help them develop and monitor evidence-based strategies. Metrics are a part, albeit an important part, of the evaluation landscape, and no single metric can paint a holistic picture or inform strategy. A “basket of metrics” alongside other evaluation methods such as peer...
Full Text Available This article highlights the importance of indicators (as net working capital, working capital requirements and net cash by means of which it is considered in the context of financial balances capitalization information released by the balance sheet of an entity tourist profile. Theoretical concepts presented in a logical sequence are combined with the practical example transposed Turism Covasna company. The results of the analysis are interpreted while trying to formulate solutions to the economic and financial viability of the entity.
O. P. Mintser
Full Text Available Principles of the new unified informative system of health care (UISHC are considered. In the system unlike existent analogues the complex reflection of all factors influencing on the state of health, including environment, pharmaceutical factors etc are under discussion. Principles of formation of UISHC among which the most important is realization of duality (availability of stationary and mobile - medical electronic passport of a citizen are also defined.
The Relationship between Environmental Turbulence, Management Support, Organizational Collaboration, Information Technology Solution Realization, and Process Performance, in Healthcare Provider Organizations
Muglia, Victor O.
The Problem: The purpose of this study was to investigate relationships between environmental turbulence, management support, organizational collaboration, information technology solution realization, and process performance in healthcare provider organizations. Method: A descriptive/correlational study of Hospital medical services process…
Alexander A. Galushkin
Full Text Available In the present article author investigates interconnected questions of information security and providing state and municipal services by means of the global information Internet. Author analyzes opinions of the number of leading Russian and foreign experts and scientists. In the summary author draws a conclusion that implementation of rules of law answering to modern realities and also fruitful work of law enforcement and supervisory authorities regarding law application practice improvement is necessary for information security and human rights protection.
Kominiarek, Michelle A; Gay, Franklin; Peacock, Nadine
To investigate perceptions of minority pregnant women and providers about obesity and gestational weight gain (GWG), and to explore strategies to improve management of obesity in pregnancy with an emphasis on group prenatal care. Sixteen primarily non-Hispanic black pregnant women with a body mass index ≥ 30 kg/m(2) and 19 prenatal care providers participated in focus groups. Discussion topics included GWG goals, body image, health behaviors, and group prenatal care with additional emphasis on provider training needs. Women frequently stated a GWG goal >20 lbs. Women described a body image not in line with clinical recommendations ("200 pounds is not that big."). They avoided the term "obese". They were interested in learning about nutrition and culturally-acceptable healthy cooking. Women would enjoy massage and exercise in group settings, though definitions of "exercise" varied. Family members could help, but generational differences posed challenges. Most had to "encourage myself" and "do this for me and the baby". Providers expressed discomfort discussing GWG and difficulty finding the right words for obesity, which was partially attributed to their own weight. They noted the challenges they faced during prenatal care including time constraints, cultural myths, and system issues. Providers considered a group setting with social support an ideal environment to address health behaviors in obese women. Culturally-tailored programs that use acceptable terms for obesity, provide education regarding healthy eating and safe exercise, and encourage support from social networks may be effective in addressing GWG in obese minority women. Provider training in communication skills is necessary to address obesity in pregnancy.
... information to the Finance Board and the Office of Finance. 989.3 Section 989.3 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD OFFICE OF FINANCE FINANCIAL STATEMENTS OF THE BANKS § 989.3 Requirement to provide financial and other information to the Finance Board and the Office of Finance. In order to facilitate the...
... submit with its proposal a preliminary analysis of possible organizational conflicts of interest that... the NASA organizational element or activity that requires specified services to be provided. (3) As... organizational conflicts of interest avoidance plan. (d) This comprehensive plan shall incorporate any previous...
Brigham, Susan M.; Baillie Abidi, Catherine; Tastsoglou, Evangelia; Lange, Elizabeth
Like the immigrant clients they serve, service providers have been overlooked in adult education literature, yet their roles are crucial for addressing the serious concerns of refugees and refugee claimants who flee their home countries hoping to find safe refuge in another country.
... HUD? You should provide us with: (a) Your name, address, and telephone numbers where you can be... description the date when the discrimination happened and why you believe the discrimination occurred because of race, color, religion, national origin, sex, disability, or the presence of children under the age...
...) of the institution or organization operating the IRB(s); and the name, mailing address, phone number..., phone number, facsimile number, and electronic mail address of the contact person providing the... IRB's mailing address, street address (if different from the mailing address), phone number, facsimile...
Arnrich, Bert; Ersoy, Cem; Mayora, Oscar; Dey, Anind; Berthouze, Nadia; Kunze, Kai
This accompanying editorial provides a brief introduction into the focus theme "Wearable Therapy". The focus theme "Wearable Therapy" aims to present contributions which target wearable and mobile technologies to support clinical and self-directed therapy. A call for papers was announced to all participants of the "9th International Conference on Pervasive Computing Technologies for Healthcare" and was published in November 2015. A peer review process was conducted to select the papers for the focus theme. Six papers were selected to be included in this focus theme. The paper topics cover a broad range including an approach to build a health informatics research program, a comprehensive literature review of self-quantification for health self-management, methods for affective state detection of informal care givers, social-aware handling of falls, smart shoes for supporting self-directed therapy of alcohol addicts, and reference information model for pervasive health systems. More empirical evidence is needed that confirms sustainable effects of employing wearable and mobile technology for clinical and self-directed therapy. Inconsistencies between different conceptual approaches need to be revealed in order to enable more systematic investigations and comparisons.
Russell C. Van Horn
Full Text Available Using photos of captive Andean bears of known age and pedigree, and photos of wild Andean bear cubs <6 months old, we evaluated the degree to which visual information may be used to estimate bears’ ages and assess their kinship. We demonstrate that the ages of Andean bear cubs ≤6 months old may be estimated from their size relative to their mothers with an average error of <0.01 ± 13.2 days (SD; n = 14, and that ages of adults ≥10 years old may be estimated from the proportion of their nose that is pink with an average error of <0.01 ± 3.5 years (n = 41. We also show that similarity among the bears’ natural markings, as perceived by humans, is not associated with pedigree kinship among the bears (R2 < 0.001, N = 1,043, p = 0.499. Thus, researchers may use photos of wild Andean bears to estimate the ages of young cubs and older adults, but not to infer their kinship. Given that camera trap photos are one of the most readily available sources of information on large cryptic mammals, we suggest that similar methods be tested for use in other poorly understood species.
Boker, Abdulaziz; Brownell, Laurence; Donen, Neil
To compare three anxiety scales; the anxiety visual analogue scale (VAS), the anxiety component of the Amsterdam preoperative anxiety and information scale (APAIS), and the state portion of the Spielburger state-trait anxiety inventory (STAI), for assessment of preoperative anxiety levels in same day admission patients. Patients completed the three anxiety assessment scales both before and after seeing the anesthesiologist preoperatively. The scales used were the STAI, the six-question APAIS, and the VAS. APAIS was further subdivided to assess anxiety about anesthesia (sum A), anxiety about surgery (sum S) and a combined anxiety total (i.e., sum C = sum A + sum S). These scales were compared to one another. Pearson's correlation (pair-wise deletion) was used for validity testing. Cronbach's alpha analysis was used to test internal validity of the various components of the APAIS scale. A correlation co-efficient (r) > or = 0.6 and P scale sets were completed by 197 patients. There was significant and positive correlation between VAS and STAI r = 0.64, P anxiety components of the APAIS (sum C) and desire for information were 0.84 and 0.77 respectively. In addition to VAS, the anxiety component of APAIS (sum C) is a promising new practical tool to assess preoperative patient anxiety levels.
Herman, L.; Řezník, T.
3D information is essential for a number of applications used daily in various domains such as crisis management, energy management, urban planning, and cultural heritage, as well as pollution and noise mapping, etc. This paper is devoted to the issue of 3D modelling from the levels of buildings to cities. The theoretical sections comprise an analysis of cartographic principles for the 3D visualization of spatial data as well as a review of technologies and data formats used in the visualization of 3D models. Emphasis was placed on the verification of available web technologies; for example, X3DOM library was chosen for the implementation of a proof-of-concept web application. The created web application displays a 3D model of the city district of Nový Lískovec in Brno, the Czech Republic. The developed 3D visualization shows a terrain model, 3D buildings, noise pollution, and other related information. Attention was paid to the areas important for handling heterogeneous input data, the design of interactive functionality, and navigation assistants. The advantages, limitations, and future development of the proposed concept are discussed in the conclusions.
Mayberry, G. C.; Guffanti, M. C.; Luhr, J. F.; Venzke, E. A.; Wunderman, R. L.
The awesome power and intricate inner workings of volcanoes have made them a popular subject with scientists and the general public alike. About 1500 known volcanoes have been active on Earth during the Holocene, approximately 50 of which erupt per year. With so much activity occurring around the world, often in remote locations, it can be difficult to find up-to-date information about current volcanism from a reliable source. To satisfy the desire for timely volcano-related information the Smithsonian Institution and US Geological Survey combined their strengths to create the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report. The Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program (GVP) has developed a network of correspondents while reporting worldwide volcanism for over 30 years in their monthly Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network. The US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program studies and monitors volcanoes in the United States and responds (upon invitation) to selected volcanic crises in other countries. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is one of the most popular sites on both organization's websites. The core of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is the brief summaries of current volcanic activity around the world. In addition to discussing various types of volcanism, the summaries also describe precursory activity (e.g. volcanic seismicity, deformation, and gas emissions), secondary activity (e.g. debris flows, mass wasting, and rockfalls), volcanic ash hazards to aviation, and preventative measures. The summaries are supplemented by links to definitions of technical terms found in the USGS photoglossary of volcano terms, links to information sources, and background information about reported volcanoes. The site also includes maps that highlight the location of reported volcanoes, an archive of weekly reports sorted by volcano and date, and links to commonly used acronyms. Since the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report's inception in November 2000, activity has been reported at
Full Text Available Purpose: to investigate the innovative forms of the informative providing of educational process in institutions of higher learning of physical culture and sport of countries: Ukraine, Republic of Belarus, Republic of Moldova, Republic of Kazakhstan, Republic of Uzbekistan, Russian Federation. Material & Methods: content-analysis of web sites and web pages of sporting institutions of higher learning of these countries. Results: the informative providing of institutions of higher learning of physical culture and sport of Ukraine, Belarus, Moldova, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan and RF differs substantially, in spite of the fact that the specific of educating in these educational establishments is identical. Institutions of higher learning of physical culture and sport of Ukraine actively offer the innovative forms of the informative providing − give possibility to the students and teachers to take advantage of e-catalog, electronic repository, virtual bibliographic certificate, electronic delivery of document. Sporting institutions of higher learning of Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan and Russian Federation carry out the informative providing by means of the electronic-library systems, in particular "Znanium.com" and "Rukont". The system "Rukont" is erected in the grade of the national inter-branch digital resource created on the base of state educational standard and contains the informative resource of different family: books, magazines, separate articles, and also audio, video data, multimedia. Collection of electronic versions of editions of electronic-library systems "Znanium.com" unites books, magazines, articles grouped on thematic and having a special purpose signs. The unique institute of higher of Republic of Moldova does not give electronic informative services, but uses the traditional forms of the informative providing by means of catalogues and card library indexes. Conclusions: higher educational establishments of physical culture and
Ovidiu I. MOISESCU
Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship between the usage and perceived credibility of several sources of information domestic travelers take into consideration when gathering information on potential accommodation providers, on one hand, and, respectively, travelers’ demographic characteristics, on the other hand. After analyzing data from an online questionnaire based study conducted among a sample of 346 young Romanian Facebook users (between 19 and 35 years old, the results showed that, considering types of information sources usually taken into consideration, personal sources and Facebook are more frequently found among travelers with a lower income, travel agencies are more frequently mentioned as usual sources of information among older travelers and among those with a higher level of education, while women are more inclined than men to use leaflets and booklets as sources of information on accommodation providers. Moreover, the research showed that the higher the income, the higher the level of perceived credibility of online portals is. Also, travel agencies and personal sources are more frequently mentioned among the most credible sources by women, than by men, while men are slightly more confident than women in online banners and blogs. The findings can be very useful and relevant from a practical perspective, especially for communication and promotion purposes in the hospitality industry.
Epstein, Richard H; Dexter, Franklin; Hofer, Ira S; Rodriguez, Luis I; Schwenk, Eric S; Maga, Joni M; Hindman, Bradley J
Perioperative hypothermia may increase the incidences of wound infection, blood loss, transfusion, and cardiac morbidity. U.S. national quality programs for perioperative normothermia specify the presence of at least 1 "body temperature" ≥35.5°C during the interval from 30 minutes before to 15 minutes after the anesthesia end time. Using data from 4 academic hospitals, we evaluated timing and measurement considerations relevant to the current requirements to guide hospitals wishing to report perioperative temperature measures using electronic data sources. Anesthesia information management system databases from 4 hospitals were queried to obtain intraoperative temperatures and intervals to the anesthesia end time from discontinuation of temperature monitoring, end of surgery, and extubation. Inclusion criteria included age >16 years, use of a tracheal tube or supraglottic airway, and case duration ≥60 minutes. The end-of-case temperature was determined as the maximum intraoperative temperature recorded within 30 minutes before the anesthesia end time (ie, the temperature that would be used for reporting purposes). The fractions of cases with intervals >30 minutes between the last intraoperative temperature and the anesthesia end time were determined. Among the hospitals, averages (binned by quarters) of 34.5% to 59.5% of cases had intraoperative temperature monitoring discontinued >30 minutes before the anesthesia end time. Even if temperature measurement had been continued until extubation, averages of 5.9% to 20.8% of cases would have exceeded the allowed 30-minute window. Averages of 8.9% to 21.3% of cases had end-of-case intraoperative temperatures <35.5°C (ie, a quality measure failure). Because of timing considerations, a substantial fraction of cases would have been ineligible to use the end-of-case intraoperative temperature for national quality program reporting. Thus, retrieval of postanesthesia care unit temperatures would have been necessary. A
Cassidy, J T; Fitzgerald, E; Cassidy, E S; Cleary, M; Byrne, D P; Devitt, B M; Baker, J F
YouTube is a global medium used predominantly by young adults (aged 18-49 years). This study examined the quality of YouTube information regarding ACL injury and reconstruction. YouTube was searched on the 13th of June 2015 for "ACL" and "anterior cruciate ligament" with/without associated terms of "injury", "reconstruction", and "surgery". Videos were evaluated by two independent reviewers [EF (Reviewer 1), (Reviewer 2)] using two recognized information scoring systems (Modified DISCERN (MD) 0-5 and JAMA Benchmark 0-4) and an adaptation of a score designed for written ACL information [ACL Specific Score (ASS) 0-25]. The ASS categorized scores as very good (21-25), good (16-20), moderate (11-15), poor (6-10), and very poor (0-5). Number of views/likes/dislikes, animation, and continent of origin and source (e.g., corporate/educational) were recorded. Correlation of video characteristics with number of views was examined using the analysis of variance (ANOVA) model. Agreement between reviewers was assessed by Interclass Correlation Co-efficient (ICC). Following a filtering process of the 964,770 identified videos, 39 videos were retained. The mean MD score was 2.3 (standard deviation (SD) ±0.9) for Reviewer 1 and 2.2 (SD ±0.9) for Reviewer 2 (ICC = 0.7). The mean JAMA score was 2.5(SD ±0.7) for Reviewer 1 and 2.3 (SD ±0.7) for Reviewer 2 (ICC = 0.8). The mean ASS was 6.3 (SD ±3.5) for Reviewer 1 and 4.6 (SD ±2.9) for Reviewer 2 (ICC = 0.9). Five videos achieved moderate score (13%), while 15 (38%) and 19 (49%) scored as poor and very poor, respectively. There was no correlation between number of views and video quality/video source for any scoring system. The majority of videos viewed on YouTube regarding ACL injury and treatment are of low quality.
Techniques and mechanisms for providing a value from physically unclonable function (PUF) circuitry for a cryptographic operation of a security module. In an embodiment, a cryptographic engine receives a value from PUF circuitry and based on the value, outputs a result of a cryptographic operation to a bus of the security module. The bus couples the cryptographic engine to control logic or interface logic of the security module. In another embodiment, the value is provided to the cryptographic engine from the PUF circuitry via a signal line which is distinct from the bus, where any exchange of the value by either of the cryptographic engine and the PUF circuitry is for communication of the first value independent of the bus.
Koenig, Kristi L.; Shastry, Siri; Mzahim, Bandr; Almadhyan, Abdulmajeed; Burns, Michael J.
Mumps is a highly contagious viral infection that became rare in most industrialized countriesfollowing the introduction of measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine in 1967. The disease, however,has been re-emerging with several outbreaks over the past decade. Many clinicians have neverseen a case of mumps. To assist frontline healthcare providers with detecting potential casesand initiating critical actions, investigators modified the “Identify-Isolate-Inform” tool for mumpsinfection. The tool is...
Kristi L. Koenig
Full Text Available Mumps is a highly contagious viral infection that became rare in most industrialized countries following the introduction of measles-mumps-rubella (MMR vaccine in 1967. The disease, however, has been re-emerging with several outbreaks over the past decade. Many clinicians have never seen a case of mumps. To assist frontline healthcare providers with detecting potential cases and initiating critical actions, investigators modified the “Identify-Isolate-Inform” tool for mumps infection. The tool is applicable to regions with rare incidences or local outbreaks, especially seen in college students, as well as globally in areas where vaccination is less common. Mumps begins with a prodrome of low-grade fever, myalgias and malaise/anorexia, followed by development of nonsuppurative parotitis, which is the pathognomonic finding associated with acute mumps infection. Orchitis and meningitis are the two most common serious complications, with hearing loss and infertility occurring rarely. Providers should consider mumps in patients with exposure to a known case or international travel to endemic regions who present with consistent signs and symptoms. If mumps is suspected, healthcare providers must immediately implement standard and droplet precautions and notify the local health department and hospital infection control personnel.
Gordon, E J; Mullee, J; Beauvais, N; Warren, E; Theodoropoulos, N; McNatt, G; Rassiwala, J; Ison, M G
Transplant providers must understand the definition of increased risk donor (IRD) organs to effectively educate transplant candidates and obtain informed consent. This study surveyed non-physician providers from 20 transplant centers about their educational and informed consent practices of IRD kidneys. An anonymous, web-based survey about the content and timing of education and informed consent for potential recipients of IRD kidneys, providers' knowledge of IRD kidneys, and provider and center characteristics was completed by most (67%; 90 of 135) of those invited to participate; 87 responses were included in analysis. Most (80%) reported understanding the concept of IRD kidneys. However, few reported sufficient knowledge of the Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network definition of IRDs, risk factors, screening tests, window periods, and infection transmission rates. Most (56%) felt uncomfortable with obtaining specific informed consent for IRD kidneys. Most respondents received informal education about IRD kidneys (78%), and recognized the need for (98%) and were interested in receiving (99%) further education on this topic. Non-physician transplant providers need and are interested in better education about IRD kidneys to effectively educate patients and obtain patients' informed consent. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
... provide concerning SAP services to an employee who has a DOT drug and alcohol regulation violation? 40.287... § 40.287 What information is an employer required to provide concerning SAP services to an employee who... (including an applicant or new employee) who violates a DOT drug and alcohol regulation a listing of SAPs...
Software projects are often late and over-budget and this leads to major problems for software customers. Clearly, there is a serious issue in estimating a realistic, software project budget. Furthermore, generic estimation models cannot be trusted to provide credible estimates for projects as complex as software projects. This book presents a number of examples using data collected over the years from various organizations building software. It also presents an overview of the non-for-profit organization, which collects data on software projects, the International Software Benchmarking Stan
McGowan, Jessie; Hogg, William; Rader, Tamara; Salzwedel, Doug; Worster, Danielle; Cogo, Elise; Rowan, Margo
A librarian consultation service was offered to 88 primary care clinicians during office hours. This included a streamlined evidence-based process to answer questions in fewer than 20 min. This included a contact centre accessed through a Web-based platform and using hand-held devices and computers with Web access. Librarians were given technical training in evidence-based medicine, including how to summarise evidence. To describe the process and lessons learned from developing and operating a rapid response librarian consultation service for primary care clinicians. Evaluation included librarian interviews and a clinician exit satisfaction survey. Clinicians were positive about its impact on their clinical practice and decision making. The project revealed some important 'lessons learned' in the clinical use of hand-held devices, knowledge translation and training for clinicians and librarians. The Just-in-Time Librarian Consultation Service showed that it was possible to provide evidence-based answers to clinical questions in 15 min or less. The project overcame a number of barriers using innovative solutions. There are many opportunities to build on this experience for future joint projects of librarians and healthcare providers.
Wilsey, Barth; Atkinson, J. Hampton; Marcotte, Thomas D.; Grant, Igor
Over 20 states now approve medical marijuana for a long list of "indications," and more states may well offer access in the near future. Surveys have demonstrated that pain is the most common indication for medical use of cannabis. As more individuals gain access to this botanical product through state ballot initiatives and legislative mandate, the pain specialist is likely to be confronted by patients either seeking such treatment where permitted, or otherwise inquiring about its potential benefits and harms, and alternative pharmaceuticals containing cannabinoids. Whether or not they are in the position to prescribe medical cannabis, pain physicians would seem to have an obligation to understand and inform their patients on key issues of the evidence base on cannabinoid therapeutics. One way to fulfill this obligation might be to borrow from concepts developed in the prescription of opioids: the use of a written agreement to describe and minimize risks. Regrettably, the widespread adoption of opioids was undertaken while harmful effects were minimized; obviously, no one wants to repeat this misstep. This article describes a method of educating patients in a manner analogous to other treatment agreements. Undoubtedly, the knowledge base concerning risks will be an iterative process as we learn more about the long-term use of medicinal cannabis. But we should start the process now so that patients may be instructed about our current conception of what the use of medicinal cannabis entails. PMID:25370134
Wilsey, Barth; Atkinson, J Hampton; Marcotte, Thomas D; Grant, Igor
Pain practitioners would seem to have an obligation to understand and inform their patients on key issues of the evidence base on cannabinoid therapeutics. One way to fulfill this obligation might be to borrow from concepts developed in the prescription of opioids: the use of a written agreement to describe and minimize risks. Regrettably, the widespread adoption of opioids was undertaken while harmful effects were minimized; obviously, no one wants to repeat this misstep. This article describes a method of educating patients in a manner analogous to other treatment agreements. Surveys have demonstrated that pain is the most common indication for medical use of cannabis. As more individuals gain access to this botanical product through state ballot initiatives and legislative mandate, the pain specialist is likely to be confronted by patients either seeking such treatment where permitted, or otherwise inquiring about its potential benefits and harms, and alternative pharmaceuticals containing cannabinoids. PubMed searches were conducted using the following keywords: cannabis guidelines, harmful effects of cannabis, medical marijuana, medicinal cannabis, opioid cannabis interaction, cannabis dependence and cannabis abuse : The authors selected individual tenets a medicinal cannabis patient would be asked to review and acknowledge via signature. Undoubtedly, the knowledge base concerning risks will be an iterative process as we learn more about the long-term use of medicinal cannabis. But we should start the process now so that patients may be instructed about our current conception of what the use of medicinal cannabis entails.
Shugart, L.R.; Adams, S.M.; Jimenez, B.D.; Talmage, S.S.; McCarthy, J.F.
Epidemiologic studies of agents present in the environment seek to identify the extent to which they contribute to the causation of a specific toxic, clinical, or pathological endpoint. The multifactorial nature of disease etiology, long latency periods and the complexity of exposure, all contribute to the difficulty of establishing associations and casual relationships between a specific exposure and an adverse outcome. These barriers to studies of exposures and subsequent risk assessment cannot generally be changed. However, the appropriate use of biological markers in animal species living in a contaminated habitat can provide a measure of potential damage from that exposure and, in some instances, act as a surrogate for human environmental exposures. Quantitative predictivity of the effect of exposure to environmental pollutants is being approached by employing an appropriate array of biological end points. 34 refs., 1 fig., 6 tabs.
This pilot study explores the impact of a health topics overview (HTO) on reading comprehension. The HTO is generated automatically based on the presence of Unified Medical Language System terms. In a controlled setting, we presented health texts and posed 15 questions for each. We compared performance with and without the HTO. The answers were available in the text, but not always in the HTO. Our study (n=48) showed that consumers with low health literacy or high stress performed poorly when the HTO was available without linking directly to the answer. They performed better with direct links in the HTO or when the HTO was not available at all. Consumers with high health literacy or low stress performed better regardless of the availability of the HTO. Our data suggests that vulnerable consumers relied solely on the HTO when it was available and were misled when it did not provide the answer. PMID:20190068
Full Text Available No previous report has described whether information regarding an odor used in aromatherapy has placebo effects. We investigated whether placebo analgesia was engendered by verbal information regarding the analgesic effects of an odor. Twelve of 24 subjects were provided with the information that a lavender odor would reduce pain (informed, whereas the other 12 subjects were not (not-informed. Concurrent with respiration recording, the subjects were administered a lavender-odor or no-odor treatment during application of painful stimulation to the forefinger. The subjects reported their experience of pain and its unpleasantness on a visual analogue scale after the painful stimulation. The lavender-odor treatment significantly alleviated pain and unpleasantness compared with the no-odor treatment in the informed (P<0.01 and not-informed groups (P<0.05. The no-odor treatment in the informed group significantly alleviated pain and unpleasantness compared with both the no-odor and lavender-odor treatments in the not-informed group (P<0.05. Rapid and shallow breathing induced by the painful stimulation became slow and deep during the lavender-odor and no-odor treatments in both groups. Information regarding a lavender odor, the lavender odor itself, and slower breathing contributed to reduced perceptions of pain and unpleasantness during painful stimulation, suggesting that placebo effects significantly contribute to analgesia in aromatherapy.
Full Text Available Background: Regular IEC programs during antenatal and intranatal period, through individual or group approach, brings desirable changes in health practices of people, resulting in a healthy mother and a healthy baby. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted to assess the level of IEC services regarding pregnancy and child care, received by the women at an MCH clinic of an urban health center, where the study subjects comprised 400 antenatal (AN and postnatal (PN women and mothers of children under five years. Results: Warning signs of danger was explained to only 10% of the AN and PN women. Advice regarding family planning appeared to be the most frequently covered, though that too was explained to less than half of the subjects. About one third of the women were advised on breast feeding. Only 8% of the mothers had been told about all issues regarding pregnancy and child care. Breast feeding and weaning was properly explained to 85.7 and 81.1% of the total mothers of U5 children. Advice regarding subsequent nutrition was given to 60.9% of mothers. About only a quarter of the total mothers were advised on home management of diarrhea and acute respiratory infections. Very few mothers were counseled about the growth pattern of the children and none were shown the growth chart. Only 12.9% of the mothers were informed about all issues. Conclusion: IEC regarding maternal and child care other than feeding practices is a neglected service in the health facility where the study was conducted.
Hammarberg, Karin; Prentice, Tess; Purcell, Isabelle; Johnson, Louise
Many factors influence the chance of having a baby with assisted reproductive technologies (ART). A 2016 Australian Competition and Consumer Commission (ACCC) investigation concluded that ART clinics needed to improve the quality of information they provide about chance of ART success. To evaluate changes in the quality of information about success rates provided on the websites of ART clinics in Australia and New Zealand before and after the ACCC investigation. Desktop audits of websites of ART clinics in Australia and New Zealand were conducted in 2016 and 2017 and available information about success rates was scored using a matrix with eight variables and a possible range of scores of 0-9. Of the 54 clinic websites identified in 2016, 32 had unique information and were eligible to be audited. Of these, 29 were also eligible to be audited in 2017. While there was a slight improvement in the mean score from 2016 to 2017 (4.93-5.28), this was not statistically significantly different. Of the 29 clinics, 14 had the same score on both occasions, 10 had a higher and five a lower information quality score in 2017. To allow people who consider ART to make informed decisions about treatment they need comprehensive and accurate information about what treatment entails and what the likely outcomes are. As measured by a scoring matrix, most ART clinics had not improved the quality of the information about success rates following the ACCC investigation. © 2017 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.
de Menezes, Rebeca Ferraz; Harvey, Catherine Malinda; de Martínez Gerbi, Marleny Elizabeth Márquez; Smith, Zachary J; Smith, Dan; Ivaldi, Juan C; Phillips, Alton; Chan, James W; Wachsmann-Hogiu, Sebastian
The goal of this work is to investigate the thermal effects of femtosecond laser (fs-laser) ablation for the removal of carious dental tissue. Additional studies identify different tooth tissues through femtosecond laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (fsLIBS) for the development of a feedback loop that could be utilized during ablation in a clinical setting. Scanning Election Microscope (SEM) images reveal that minimal morphological damages are incurred at repetition rates below the carbonization threshold of each tooth tissue. Thermal studies measure the temperature distribution and temperature decay during laser ablation and after laser cessation, and demonstrate that repetition rates at or below 10kHz with a laser fluence of 40 J/cm(2) would inflict minimal thermal damage on the surrounding nerve tissues and provide acceptable clinical removal rates. Spectral analysis of the different tooth tissues is also conducted and differences between the visible wavelength fsLIBS spectra are evident, though more robust classification studies are needed for clinical translation. These results have initiated a set of precautionary recommendations that would enable the clinician to utilize femtosecond laser ablation for the removal of carious lesions while ensuring that the solidity and utility of the tooth remain intact. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Full Text Available Quantifying the travel times, pathways, and dispersion of solutes moving through stream environments is critical for understanding the biogeochemical cycling processes that control ecosystem functioning. Validation of stream solute transport and exchange process models requires data obtained from in-stream measurement of chemical concentration changes through time. This can be expensive and time consuming, leading to a need for cheap distributed sensor arrays that respond instantly and record chemical transport at points of interest on timescales of seconds. To meet this need we apply new, low-cost (in the order of a euro per sensor potentiometric chloride sensors used in a distributed array to obtain data with high spatial and temporal resolution. The application here is to monitoring in-stream hydrodynamic transport and dispersive mixing of an injected chemical, in this case NaCl. We present data obtained from the distributed sensor array under baseflow conditions for stream reaches in Luxembourg and Western Australia. The reaches were selected to provide a range of increasingly complex in-channel flow patterns. Mid-channel sensor results are comparable to data obtained from more expensive electrical conductivity meters, but simultaneous acquisition of tracer data at several positions across the channel allows far greater spatial resolution of hydrodynamic mixing processes and identification of chemical ‘dead zones’ in the study reaches.
Whitley, Meredith A.
While the quality and quantity of research on service-learning has increased considerably over the past 20 years, researchers as well as governmental and funding agencies have called for more rigor in service-learning research. One key variable in improving rigor is using relevant existing theories to improve the research. The purpose of this…
Hernández-Pérez, María; Puig, Josep; Blasco, Gerard; Pérez de la Ossa, Natalia; Dorado, Laura; Dávalos, Antoni; Munuera, Josep
Contrary to usual static vascular imaging techniques, contrast-enhanced dynamic magnetic resonance angiography (dMRA) enables dynamic study of cerebral vessels. We evaluated dMRA ability to assess arterial occlusion, cerebral hemodynamics, and collateral circulation in acute ischemic stroke. Twenty-five acute ischemic stroke patients with proximal anterior circulation occlusion underwent dMRA on a 3T scanner within 12 hours of symptoms onset. Diffusion weighted imaging, Tmax6 s lesion volumes and hypoperfusion intensity ratio as volume of Tmax>6 s/volume of Tmax>10 s were measured. Site and grade of occlusion (Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction criteria) were evaluated on time-of-flight MRA and dMRA. Leptomeningeal collaterality (American Society of Interventional and Therapeutic Neuroradiology/Society of Interventional Radiology [ASITN/SIR] Scale) and asymmetries in venous clearance were assessed exclusively on dMRA. Collateral filling was dichotomized into incomplete (ASITN/SIR 0-2) or complete (ASITN/SIR 3-4). On dMRA, site of occlusion was M1 in 21 patients, tandem internal carotid artery/M1 in 2 and tandem internal carotid artery/terminal internal carotid artery in 2 patients. Three tandem occlusions were not detected on time-of-flight-MRA. All patients had Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction 0 to 1 on time-of-flight-MRA, but three of them had Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction 2 on dMRA. Complete collateral filling (n=12, 48%) was associated with smaller diffusion weighted imaging lesion volume (P=0.039), smaller hypoperfused volume (P=0.018), and lower hypoperfusion intensity ratio (P=0.006). Patients with symmetrical clearance of transverse sinuses (52%) were more likely to have complete collateral filling (P=0.015). As a fast, direct, feasible, noninvasive, and reliable method to assess site of occlusion, collateral circulation and hemodynamic alterations, dMRA provides profound insights in acute stroke. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.
Biraimah, Karen L.
Namibia has one of the most dehumanising and destructive colonial pasts of any nation in Africa, or, for that matter, the world. Before colonisation, the area now known as Namibia was home to diverse cultural groups. The successive colonial regimes of Germany and South Africa inflicted genocide, brutality and apartheid on the region. Namibia finally fought for and won its independence in 1990 - over three decades after Ghana became the first independent sub-Saharan nation in 1957. Today, Namibia strives to leave behind its troubled past and harness the power of education to provide greater equality of opportunity and quality of life for all of its citizens. The concept of ubuntu, with its emphasis on inclusiveness, equity and equality, is central to Namibia's pursuit of this goal. Significant challenges stand in its way, including extreme poverty, an emerging economy struggling with drought and a competitive world market, and a populace with multiple mother tongues and cultural traditions. After a brief summary of Namibia's colonial past, this study examines these challenges, noting that the same factors that provide Namibia with a rich and diverse cultural tapestry also pose great difficulties for educators determined to provide equitable education for all. Current inequities in Namibian education are assessed, with a particular focus on the divide between urban and rural Namibia and between the four major ethnic and cultural groupings: the White Afrikaans speakers, the Black African majority, the Coloured population, and the Basters. The study concludes by suggesting multiple ways in which education could be brought closer into line with ubuntu values. The author argues that the very same factors that currently pose challenges to the quality and equity of Namibian education (ethnicity, urban/rural location, gender and socioeconomic class) might, if seen from a new perspective, become the basis for educational transformation.
van Walraven, Carl; Taljaard, Monica; Bell, Chaim M; Etchells, Edward; Stiell, Ian G; Zarnke, Kelly; Forster, Alan J
Continuity of care is composed of provider and information continuity and can change value over time. Most studies that have quantitatively associated continuity of care and outcomes have ignored these characteristics. This study is a detailed examination of continuity of care in patients discharged from hospital that simultaneously measured separate components of continuity over time or determined the factors with which they are associated. Multicenter, prospective cohort study of patients discharged to the community after elective or emergent hospitalization. For all physician visits during 6 months after discharge, we identified the physician and the availability of particular information (including hospital discharge summary and any information from previous physician visits). Four physician continuity scores (preadmission; hospital admitting; hospital consultant; and postdischarge) and two information continuity scores (discharge summary and postdischarge visit information) were calculated for all patients (range: 0-1, where 0 is perfect discontinuity and 1 is perfect continuity). Four thousand five hundred fifty-three people were followed for a median of 175 days. Both provider (range of median values: 0-0.410) and information (range: 0.220-0.427) continuity scores were low and varied extensively over time. With a few exceptions, continuity measures were independent of each other. The influence of patient factors on continuity varied extensively between the continuity measures with the most influential factors being admission urgency, admitting service, and the number of physicians who regularly treated the patient. Both provider and information continuity was low in patients discharged from hospital. Continuity measures can change extensively over time, which are usually independent of each other, and are associated with patient and admission characteristics. Future studies should measure multiple components of provider and information continuity over time
Beehler, Gregory P; Lilienthal, Kaitlin R; Possemato, Kyle; Johnson, Emily M; King, Paul R; Shepardson, Robyn L; Vair, Christina L; Reyner, Jacqueline; Funderburk, Jennifer S; Maisto, Stephen A; Wray, Laura O
Primary care behavioral health (PCBH) is a population-based approach to delivering mental and behavioral health care in the primary care setting. Implementation of the PCBH model varies across practice settings, which can impact how PCBH providers deliver services to patients and in turn may predict a variety of important outcomes. This article aims to characterize PCBH provider engagement in key processes of integrated care as demonstrated in results from empirical studies of real-world clinical practice. For this narrative review of published studies on PCBH provider engagement in processes of care, PubMed and PsycINFO databases were searched from January 1990 through May 2016 to identify relevant articles. Provider adherence to the brief, time-limited treatment model appears suboptimal. Common mental health conditions, such as depression, were often the primary focus of provider attention, with less consistent emphasis on behavioral medicine concerns. Whereas providers regularly conducted qualitative functional assessments with patients, routine use of standardized measures was low. Engagement in interprofessional collaboration with the primary care team was also low, but engagement in behaviors that fostered therapeutic relationships was high. This review identified several strengths and weaknesses of typical PCBH provider practices. Results are discussed in relation to their value as areas for future quality improvement initiatives that can improve PCBH service delivery and, ultimately, patient outcomes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Sieverding, Maia; Liu, Jenny; Beyeler, Naomi
The social and institutional environments in which informal healthcare providers operate shape their health and business practices, particularly in contexts where regulatory enforcement is weak. In this study, we adopt a social capital perspective to understanding the social networks on which proprietary and patent medicine vendors (PPMVs) in Nigeria rely for support in the operation of their shops. Data are drawn from 70 in-depth interviews with PPMVs in three states, including interviews with local leaders of the PPMV professional association. We find that PPMVs primarily relied on more senior colleagues and formal healthcare professionals for informational support, including information about new medicines and advice on how to treat specific cases of illness. For instrumental support, including finance, start-up assistance, and intervention with regulatory agencies, PPMVs relied on extended family, the PPMVs with whom they apprenticed, and the leaders of their professional association. PPMVs' networks also provided continual reinforcement of what constitutes good PPMV practice through admonishments to follow scope of practice limitations. These informal reminders, as well as monitoring activities conducted by the professional association, served to reinforce PPMVs' concern with avoiding negative customer health outcomes, which were perceived to be detrimental to their business reputations. That PPMVs' networks both encouraged practices to reduce the likelihood of poor health outcomes, and provided advice regarding customers' health conditions, highlights the potential impact of informal providers' access to different forms of social capital on their delivery of health services, as well as their success as microenterprises. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Salmon, Margaret; Landes, Megan; Hunchak, Cheryl; Paluku, Justin; Malemo Kalisya, Luc; Salmon, Christian; Muller, Mundenga Mutendi; Wachira, Benjamin; Mangan, James; Chhaganlal, Kajal; Kalanzi, Joseph; Azazh, Aklilu; Berman, Sara; Zied, El-Sayed; Lamprecht, Hein
Significant evidence identifies point-of-care ultrasound (PoCUS) as an important diagnostic and therapeutic tool in resource-limited settings. Despite this evidence, local health care providers on the African continent continue to have limited access to and use of ultrasound, even in potentially high-impact fields such as obstetrics and trauma. Dedicated postgraduate emergency medicine residency training programs now exist in 8 countries, yet no current consensus exists in regard to core PoCUS competencies. The current practice of transferring resource-rich PoCUS curricula and delivery methods to resource-limited health systems fails to acknowledge the unique challenges, needs, and disease burdens of recipient systems. As emergency medicine leaders from 8 African countries, we introduce a practical algorithmic approach, based on the local epidemiology and resource constraints, to curriculum development and implementation. We describe an organizational structure composed of nexus learning centers for PoCUS learners and champions on the continent to keep credentialing rigorous and standardized. Finally, we put forth 5 key strategic considerations: to link training programs to hospital systems, to prioritize longitudinal learning models, to share resources to promote health equity, to maximize access, and to develop a regional consensus on training standards and credentialing. Copyright © 2016 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Baji, Petra; Rubashkin, Nicholas; Szebik, Imre; Stoll, Kathrin; Vedam, Saraswathi
In Central and Eastern Europe, many women make informal cash payments to ensure continuity of provider, i.e., to have a "chosen" doctor who provided their prenatal care, be present for birth. High rates of obstetric interventions and disrespectful maternity care are also common to the region. No previous study has examined the associations among informal payments, intervention rates, and quality of maternity care. We distributed an online cross-sectional survey in 2014 to a nationally representative sample of Hungarian internet-using women (N = 600) who had given birth in the last 5 years. The survey included items related to socio-demographics, type of provider, obstetric interventions, and experiences of care. Women reported if they paid informally, and how much. We built a two-part model, where a bivariate probit model was used to estimate conditional probabilities of women paying informally, and a GLM model to explore the amount of payments. We calculated marginal effects of the covariates (provider choice, interventions, respectful care). Many more women (79%) with a chosen doctor paid informally (191 euros on average) compared to 17% of women without a chosen doctor (86 euros). Based on regression analysis, the chosen doctor's presence at birth was the principal determinant of payment. Intervention and procedure rates were significantly higher for women with a chosen doctor versus without (cesareans 45% vs. 33%; inductions 32% vs. 19%; episiotomy 75% vs. 62%; epidural 13% vs. 5%), but had no direct effect on payments. Half of the sample (42% with a chosen doctor, 62% without) reported some form of disrespectful care, but this did not reduce payments. Despite reporting disrespect and higher rates of interventions, women rewarded the presence of a chosen doctor with informal payments. They may be unaware of evidence-based standards, and trust that their chosen doctor provided high quality maternity care. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available This article troubles the notion of a formal-informal dichotomy in urban water provision. Whereas expansion of a water utility typically involves the replacement of informal providers, the experience in Manila demonstrates that the rapid connection of low-income areas actually hinges, in part, on the selective inclusion and exclusion of these smaller actors. In this sense, privatisation has not eliminated small-scale water provision, but has led to the reconfiguration of its usage, blurring the boundaries between formal and informal. By examining the spatial and temporal evolution of small-scale water provision in Manila’s post-privatisation era, I show how certain spaces are seen as less serviceable than others. Critically, small providers working in partnership with the utilities are sanctioned because they supplement the utilities’ operations. The areas in which they work are considered served, factoring into aggregate coverage statistics, even though their terms of service are often less desirable than those of households directly connected to the utilities. In contrast, small providers that operate outside of the utilities’ zones of coverage are considered inferior, to be replaced. The result is a differentiation in informality – one in which the private utilities largely determine modes of access and thus the spatialisation of informal water provision.
Smit, Amelia K; Keogh, Louise A; Newson, Ainsley J; Hersch, Jolyn; Butow, Phyllis; Cust, Anne E
To explore the potential emotional and behavioural impact of providing information on personalised genomic risk to the public, using melanoma as an example, to aid research translation. We conducted four focus groups in which 34 participants were presented with a hypothetical scenario of an individual's lifetime genomic risk of melanoma (using the term 'genetic risk'). We asked about understanding of genetic risk, who would choose to receive this risk information, potential emotional and behavioural impacts, and other concerns or potential benefits. Data were analysed thematically. Participants thought this risk information could potentially motivate preventive behaviours such as sun protection and related it to screening for other diseases including breast cancer. Factors identified as influencing the decision to receive genetic risk information included education level, children, age and gender. Participants identified potential negative impacts on the recipient such as anxiety and worry, and proposed that this could be mitigated by providing additional explanatory and prevention information, and contact details of a health professional for further discussion. Participants' concerns included workplace and insurance discrimination. Participants recognised the potential for both positive and negative emotional and behavioural impacts related to receiving information on the personalised genomic risk of melanoma. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.
... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are the procedures used by the Secretary for providing information or technical assistance? 86.302 Section 86.302 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education DRUG AND ALCOHOL ABUSE PREVENTION Responses and Sanctions Issued or Imposed by the...
Wright, Ammon K.
System components are presented that are being implemented to augment teleoperated systems by providing both force and tactile information to the human operator. The concept proposed is the control of a manipulator to perform tasks; i.e., flight line maintenance and repair of combat aircraft or satellites while under the control of a human operator at a remote location to maintain mission effectiveness in a hostile environment. The human would control the motion of the manipulator via a master system with information from the remote site being fed back by direct stimulation of the humans sensory mechanisms or by graphic interpretation of displays. We are interested in providing the operator feedback of position, force, auditory, vision, and tactile information to aide in the human's cognitive ability to control the manipulator. This sensory information from the remote site would then be presented to the operator in such a manner as to enhance his performance while providing him a sense of being present at the remote location, this is known as telepresence. Also discussed is the research done by the Human Sensory Feedback (HSF) facility at the Armstrong Laboratory to provide tactile and proprioceptive feedback to the operator. The system components of this system includes tactile sensor and stimulators, dexterous robotic hands, and the control of positioning and operating industrial robots with exoskeletal mechanisms.
... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prescription drugs; reminder advertisements and... Prescription Drug Consumer Price Listing § 200.200 Prescription drugs; reminder advertisements and reminder labeling to provide price information to consumers. (a) Prescription drug reminder advertisements and...
... NONPROCUREMENT DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION Statutory Disqualification and Reinstatement Under the Clean Air Act and Clean Water Act § 1532.1210 Will anyone else provide information to the EPA debarring official... EPA debarring official will make sure that you have an opportunity to address important allegations or...
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the quality of the contents related to screening in a sample of websites providing information on breast and prostate cancer in the Portuguese language. The first 200 results of each cancer-specific Google search were considered. The accuracy of the screening contents was defined in accordance with the state of the art, and its readability was assessed. Most websites mentioned mammography as a method for breast cancer screening (80%, although only 28% referred to it as the only recommended method. Almost all websites mentioned PSA evaluation as a possible screening test, but correct information regarding its effectiveness was given in less than 10%. For both breast and prostate cancer screening contents, the potential for overdiagnosis and false positive results was seldom addressed, and the median readability index was approximately 70. There is ample margin for improving the quality of websites providing information on breast and prostate cancer in Portuguese.
Plath, Jasper; Siebenhofer, Andrea; Schulz-Rothe, Sylvia; Güthlin, Corina
Background Colonoscopy is recommended for persons with a familial risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) before they reach 55 years of age. The aim of this analysis was to ask affected persons aged 40-54 years whether they had found out about early detection of CRC and from which institutions and media they would like to obtain such information. Methods Analysis of data from a cross-sectional study: In a general practice setting, those with a positive family history of CRC were asked to provide written information. Results In total, 191 persons with a positive family history of CRC participated in the study: 59.6% had already found out about early detection of CRC. Out of this, 67.0% had received information from their physicians. Most of the participants wanted information on early detection of CRC to be provided by the general practitioner (98.9% completely or mostly agree), and by health insurers (74.5% completely or mostly agree). The participants would rather not prefer to receive information from public institutions such as the public health department (69.5% not or mostly not agree) and private organizations such as self-help groups (80.9% not or mostly not agree). Approximately half would prefer to receive such information via TV. More men than women would prefer to source such information from the internet (completely or mostly agree: 66.7 vs. 43.8%), or newspapers and magazines (completely or mostly agree: 53.6 vs. 41.8%). Conclusion A survey in a general practice setting found that more than half of persons with familial risk of CRC had already obtained information on early detection. The setting of the survey on preferred information sources possibly encouraged participants to put general practitioners in the first place. Furthermore, the results of this nationwide unique cohort of persons aged 40-54 with a familial risk of CRC show that their information-seeking behavior was not more pronounced than average and that men and women can be provided with
Vamos, Cheryl A; Walsh, Margaret L; Thompson, Erika; Daley, Ellen M; Detman, Linda; DeBate, Rita
Pregnancy is identified as a sensitive period of increased risk for poor oral health among mothers and offspring. Subsequently, both medical and dental associations have re-endorsed consolidated, inter-professional guidelines promoting oral health during pregnancy. The objective was to explore prenatal and oral health providers' information, motivation and practice behaviors related to oral health during pregnancy. Twenty-two in-depth interviews were conducted with prenatal and oral health providers based on the Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills Model. Data were analyzed using the constant comparative method in NVivo 10. Providers held variable knowledge with regards to identified oral-systemic connections and implications. Most providers were unaware of the guidelines; however, some oral health providers reported avoiding specific treatment behaviors during this period. Motivation to address oral-systemic health during pregnancy included: prevention; healthy pregnancy/birth outcomes; patient's complaint/question as cue to action; comprehensive, patient-centered, and family-centered care; ethical duty; and professional governing body. Oral health providers reported assessing, educating, and communicating with patients about oral health issues; whereas prenatal providers rarely addressed oral health but reported signing approval forms to receive such care. A few oral health providers highlighted lifecourse implications and the need for family-centered care when addressing poor oral health among pregnant patients. Findings suggest gaps in oral health prevention information and behaviors among prenatal and oral health providers. Future efforts should examine effective dissemination and implementation strategies that translate evidence-based guidelines into clinical practice, with the ultimate goal of improve oral-systemic health among women and their offspring across the lifecourse.
Goodall, Ken; Ward, Paul; Newman, Lareen
print media from Australia and their home countries, family and acquaintances, government departments or service providers. Many expressed a preference for receiving information as printed material or directly from another person. Governments or primary healthcare organisations planning to make health information solely available via ICT should be aware that doing so may lead to an increase in 'information exclusion' and the formation of functional knowledge deficits for older migrants. At the moment at least, our participants do not perceive any functional knowledge deficits as they engage multiple sources to access the information they need for everyday life. We recommend that governments and healthcare organisations evaluate the appropriateness of using ICT to directly provide information to older migrants and consider non-digital means or the engagement of 'information brokers' when communicating with groups identified as low or non-users of ICT.
Dolce, Maria C
To describe the experiences of cancer survivors and caregivers with healthcare providers in the context of the Internet as a source of health information. Qualitative description. Online cancer communities hosted by the Association of Cancer Online Resources. Purposive sample of 488 cancer survivors, with varying cancer types and survivorship stages, and caregivers. Secondary data analysis using Krippendorff's thematic clustering technique of qualitative content analysis. Survivorship, healthcare relationships, and the Internet. Disenchantment with healthcare relationships was associated with failed expectations related to evidence-based practice, clinical expertise, informational support, and therapeutic interpersonal communication. Survivors and caregivers exercised power in healthcare relationships through collaboration, direct confrontation, becoming expert, and endorsement to influence and control care decisions. Disenchantment propelled cancer survivors and caregivers to search the Internet for health information and resources. Conversely, Internet information-seeking precipitated the experience of disenchantment. Through online health information and resources, concealed failures in healthcare relationships were revealed and cancer survivors and caregivers were empowered to influence and control care decisions. The findings highlight failures in cancer survivorship care and underscore the importance of novel interdisciplinary programs and models of care that support evidence-informed decision making, self-management, and improved quality of life. Healthcare professionals need to receive education on survivors' use of the Internet as a source of health information and its impact on healthcare relationships. Future research should include studies examining the relationship between disenchantment and survivorship outcomes.
O'Brien, Casey L; Moore, Gaye; Rolley, John X; Ski, Chantal F; Thompson, David R; Lautenschlager, Nicola T; Gonzales, Graeme; Hsueh, Ya-Seng Arthur; Castle, David
Health care provider experiences of the carer have been researched, but little is written about how these can inform development of support programs. This study aimed to (1) explore health care provider perceptions of stroke carer roles and support needs and (2) examine carer needs across the stroke care trajectory to assist with development of an Optimal Health Program (OHP) to support carers. This study is part of a staged program of research that will evaluate and refine the OHP. Four dual-moderated semi-structured focus groups of stroke health care providers across acute, subacute, and community rehabilitation services were conducted. Facilitators used a semi-structured focus group schedule to guide discussion. Sessions were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed using thematic and content analysis. Three key themes emerged: transition, information, and impact of stroke. A number of subthemes highlighted the distinct roles of health care providers and carers. Specific elements of the OHP were identified as having the potential to advance support for carers across the stroke care trajectory. Findings support the integration of an OHP for carers within existing stroke care services in Australian public hospital and community settings. This study suggests how health care provider experiences could inform a self-management OHP to assist carers in navigating stroke services and to address their health-related concerns.
Sedgley, Jocelyn; Rickard, Kristen; Morris, Jonathan
In NSW, around 30% of women experience a caesarean section. Anecdotally, few receive consistent information regarding driving after a caesarean delivery. The aims were to determine the information provided to women following caesarean section and by whom it was given, and compare this with women's actual driving behaviour. Prior to hospital discharge, 101 consenting women completed a survey of five questions documenting the information they received about when to commence driving. They were telephoned 6-8 weeks postpartum and asked when they drove and whether they experienced any problems. Following this, a staff survey was conducted to establish what information was given to women. Insurance companies and government departments were contacted for relevant polices about when women can drive postcaesarean. 100 women completed both surveys (99% of recruits); 65% were advised to wait for 6 weeks or longer before driving. However, 72% of women reported they had driven by 6 weeks, and 35% by 3 weeks. In our sample, women reported minimal discomfort and rarely discontinued driving. Returned staff surveys (n = 138) revealed inconsistent advice ranging from no advice to 8 weeks of driving abstinence. Other recommendations included following insurance company guidelines (of which there were none specific to postcaesarean) (34%), 'listen to your body and be able to perform an emergency stop' (27%). Women receive conflicting advice, and current recommendations are not reflected in women's behaviour. Women are driving earlier than advised with minimal reported complications. © 2012 The Authors ANZJOG © 2012 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.
Ahn, Jae-Young; Park, Hae-Ryun; Lee, Kiwon; Kwon, Sooyoun; Kim, Soyeong; Yang, Jihye; Song, Kyung-Hee; Lee, Youngmi
To encourage healthier food choices for children in fast-food restaurants, many initiatives have been proposed. This study aimed to examine the effect of disclosing nutritional information on parents' meal choices for their children at fast-food restaurants in South Korea. An online experimental survey using a menu board was conducted with 242 parents of children aged 2-12 years who dined with them at fast-food restaurants at least once a month. Participants were classified into two groups: the low-calorie group (n = 41) who chose at least one of the lowest calorie meals in each menu category, and the high-calorie group (n = 201) who did not. The attributes including perceived empowerment, use of provided nutritional information, and perceived difficulties were compared between the two groups. The low-calorie group perceived significantly higher empowerment with the nutritional information provided than did the high-calorie group (P = 0.020). Additionally, the low-calorie group was more interested in nutrition labeling (P children more than did the high-calorie group (P = 0.017). The low-calorie group used the nutritional information provided when choosing meals for their children significantly more than did the high-calorie group (P food choices for their children at fast-food restaurants.
Pian, Wenjing; Khoo, Christopher Sg; Chang, Yun-Ke
People are increasingly accessing health-related social media sites, such as health discussion forums, to post and read user-generated health information. It is important to know what criteria people use when deciding the relevance of information found on health social media websites, in different situations. The study attempted to identify the relevance criteria that people use when browsing a health discussion forum, in 3 types of use contexts: when seeking information for their own health issue, when seeking for other people's health issue, and when browsing without a particular health issue in mind. A total of 58 study participants were self-assigned to 1 of the 3 use contexts or information needs and were asked to browse a health discussion forum, HealthBoards.com. In the analysis, browsing a discussion forum was divided into 2 stages: scanning a set of post surrogates (mainly post titles) in the summary result screen and reading a detailed post content (including comments by other users). An eye tracker system was used to capture participants' eye movement behavior and the text they skim over and focus (ie, fixate) on during browsing. By analyzing the text that people's eyes fixated on, the types of health information used in the relevance judgment were determined. Post-experiment interviews elicited participants' comments on the relevance of the information and criteria used. It was found that participants seeking health information for their own health issue focused significantly more on the poster's symptoms, personal history of the disease, and description of the disease (P=.01, .001, and .02). Participants seeking for other people's health issue focused significantly more on cause of disease, disease terminology, and description of treatments and procedures (P=.01, .01, and .02). In contrast, participants browsing with no particular issue in mind focused significantly more on general health topics, hot topics, and rare health issues (P=.01, .01, and .01
Full Text Available Abstract Background The Federal Ministry of Health of Ethiopia is implementing an ambitious and rapid scale-up of health care services for the prevention, care and treatment of HIV/AIDS in public facilities. With support from the United States President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief, 38 830 service providers were trained, from early 2005 until December 2007, in HIV-related topics. Anecdotal evidence suggested high attrition rates of providers, but reliable quantitative data have been limited. Methods With that funding, Jhpiego supports a Training Information Monitoring System, which stores training information for all HIV/AIDS training events supported by the same funding source. Data forms were developed to capture information on providers' working status and were given to eight partners who collected data during routine site visits on individual providers about working status; if not working at the facility, date of and reason for leaving; and source of information. Results Data were collected on 1744 providers (59% males in 53 hospitals and 45 health centres in 10 regional and administrative states. The project found that 32.6% of the providers were no longer at the site, 57.6% are still working on HIV/AIDS services at the same facility where they were trained and 10.4% are at the facility, but not providing HIV/AIDS services. Of the providers not at the facility, the two largest groups were those who had left for further study (27.6% and those who had gone to another public facility (17.6%. Of all physicians trained, 49.2% had left the facility. Regional and cadre variation was found, for example Gambella had the highest percent of providers no longer at the site (53.7% while Harari had the highest percentage of providers still working on HIV/AIDS (71.6%. Conclusion Overall, the project found that the information in the Training Information Monitoring System can be used to track the working status of trained providers. Data generated from
Gunn, I P
Michael L. Millenson's well-documented book, Demanding Medical Excellence: Doctors and Accountability in the Information Age, is a wake up call to both medicine and nursing for somewhat different reasons. Millenson decries the lack of scientific-based medical practice and medicine's failure to wake up due to its own historical studies. He cites data that 85% of current practice has not been scientifically validated despite medicine's claims of the physician-scientist. He outlines a historical chronology of advocacy for better practice based on concerns and studies that demonstrates significant differences in patient outcomes, adjusted for case mix, across hospitals studied. Millenson advocates the development of a broader base of benchmarking and best practices, reflected in clinical practice guidelines, recognizing the resistance of physicians to their use. He further advocates incorporating more fully information-age computers in the delivery of quality care by programming them to the tasks they are best suited for in informing and alerting us to flawed memories, orders, and abnormal laboratory and radiologic data. The relevance of Millenson's book to CRNAs and nursing in general is twofold: (1) He discusses the National Halothane Study and the subsequent Stanford Institutional Differences Study. The latter study confirmed what was found in the National Halothane Study concerning significant differences in patient outcomes across studied hospitals but did not address the role of the hospital's primary anesthesia provider, anesthesiologists, or CRNAs in these differences, as did the latter. He addresses the lack of publication and dissemination of the institutional outcome differences of these studies performed in the 1960s and 1970s, but he does not address the anesthesia provider portion of the Stanford Study. (2) While Millenson does mention nursing briefly and advocates its involvement in clinical practice guideline development, he does not discuss the
Agaku, Israel T; Adisa, Akinyele O; Ayo-Yusuf, Olalekan A; Connolly, Gregory N
This study assessed the perceptions and behaviors of US adults about the security of their protected health information (PHI). The first cycle of the fourth wave of the Health Information National Trends Survey was analyzed to assess respondents' concerns about PHI breaches. Multivariate logistic regression was used to assess the effect of such concerns on disclosure of sensitive medical information to a healthcare professional (pinformation from a healthcare provider because of security concerns. The likelihood of information withholding was higher among respondents who perceived they had very little say about how their medical records were used (adjusted OR=1.42; 95% CI 1.03 to 1.96). This study underscores the need for enhanced measures to secure patients' PHI to avoid undermining their trust.
van Veen, Merel Rebecca; Beijer, Sandra; Adriaans, Anika Maria Alberdina; Vogel-Boezeman, Jeanne; Kampman, Ellen
Although widely available, the general public, cancer patients, and cancer survivors have difficulties accessing evidence-based information on nutrition and cancer. It is challenging to distinguish myths from facts, and sometimes conflicting information can be found in different places. The public and patients would benefit from evidence-based, correct, and clear information from an easily recognizable source. The aim of this project is to make scientific information available for the general public, cancer patients, and cancer survivors through a website. The aim of this paper is to describe and evaluate the development of the website as well as related statistics 1st year after its launch. To develop the initial content for the website, the website was filled with answers to frequently asked questions provided by cancer organizations and the Dutch Dietetic Oncology Group, and by responding to various fiction and facts published in the media. The website was organized into 3 parts, namely, nutrition before (prevention), during, and after cancer therapy; an opportunity for visitors to submit specific questions regarding nutrition and cancer was included. The website was pretested by patients, health care professionals, and communication experts. After launching the website, visitors' questions were answered by nutritional scientists and dieticians with evidence- or eminence-based information on nutrition and cancer. Once the website was live, question categories and website statistics were recorded. Before launch, the key areas for improvement, such as navigation, categorization, and missing information, were identified and adjusted. In the 1st year after the launch, 90,111 individuals visited the website, and 404 questions were submitted on nutrition and cancer. Most of the questions were on cancer prevention and nutrition during the treatment of cancer. The website provides access to evidence- and eminence-based information on nutrition and cancer. As can be
Beijer, Sandra; Adriaans, Anika Maria Alberdina; Vogel-Boezeman, Jeanne; Kampman, Ellen
Background Although widely available, the general public, cancer patients, and cancer survivors have difficulties accessing evidence-based information on nutrition and cancer. It is challenging to distinguish myths from facts, and sometimes conflicting information can be found in different places. The public and patients would benefit from evidence-based, correct, and clear information from an easily recognizable source. Objective The aim of this project is to make scientific information available for the general public, cancer patients, and cancer survivors through a website. The aim of this paper is to describe and evaluate the development of the website as well as related statistics 1st year after its launch. Methods To develop the initial content for the website, the website was filled with answers to frequently asked questions provided by cancer organizations and the Dutch Dietetic Oncology Group, and by responding to various fiction and facts published in the media. The website was organized into 3 parts, namely, nutrition before (prevention), during, and after cancer therapy; an opportunity for visitors to submit specific questions regarding nutrition and cancer was included. The website was pretested by patients, health care professionals, and communication experts. After launching the website, visitors’ questions were answered by nutritional scientists and dieticians with evidence- or eminence-based information on nutrition and cancer. Once the website was live, question categories and website statistics were recorded. Results Before launch, the key areas for improvement, such as navigation, categorization, and missing information, were identified and adjusted. In the 1st year after the launch, 90,111 individuals visited the website, and 404 questions were submitted on nutrition and cancer. Most of the questions were on cancer prevention and nutrition during the treatment of cancer. Conclusions The website provides access to evidence- and eminence
Jones, Theodore H. D.
Describes an introductory chemistry course for nurses in which students learn basic chemical principles by performing 12 chemical analyses that are routinely conducted on body fluids and listed on a patient's clinical laboratory chart. (MLH)
Full Text Available Martin Basedow,1 Peter Hibbert,1 Tamara Hooper,1 William Runciman,1 Adrian Esterman,2 1School of Psychology, Social Work and Social Policy, 2School of Nursing and Midwifery, University of South Australia, Adelaide, SA, Australia Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the satisfaction of Australian patients who suffer from osteoarthritis (OA with their health care providers and the perceived helpfulness of treatments and information sources. Methods: A self-administered questionnaire was conducted with a sample of 560 Australian patients who suffer from OA with questions about satisfaction with health care providers and the helpfulness of different treatment options and information sources. Logistic regression models were used to assess potential predictors of satisfaction. Thematic analysis was undertaken for attitudinal factors associated with satisfaction. Results: A total of 435 participants returned questionnaires (response rate 78%. Most respondents were highly satisfied with the care provided by their general practitioner (GP (84%, communication with their GP (88%, time spent with their GP (84%, and their ability to talk freely with their GP about their medical problem (93%, but less satisfied with their ability to talk freely about associated emotional problems (77%. Satisfaction with pharmacists (80%, rheumatologists (76%, and orthopedic surgeons (72% was high. Joint replacement surgery (91%, prescription anti-inflammatory medications (66%, aids and assistive devices (65%, intra-articular injections (63%, and prescription painkiller medications (62% were perceived as effective treatments. Less highly rated treatments were exercise (48%, physiotherapy (43%, and complementary medicines (29%. A majority of patients were satisfied with the information to manage their OA (65%. From the multivariable logistic regression analysis, four GP satisfaction factors were found to be predictors of overall satisfaction with GP care: the amount
Sium, Aman; Giuliani, Meredith; Papadakos, Janet
Since the early 2000s, web and digital health information and education has progressed in both volume and innovation (Dutta-Bergman 2006; Mano, Computers in Human Behavior 39 404 412, 2014). A growing number of leading Canadian health institutions (e.g., hospitals, community health centers, and health ministries) are migrating much of their vital public health information and education, once restricted to pamphlets and other physically distributed materials, to online platforms. Examples of these platforms are websites and web pages, eLearning modules, eBooks, streamed classrooms, audiobooks, and online health videos. The steady migration of health information to online platforms is raising important questions for fields of patient education, such as cancer education. These questions include, but are not limited to (a) are pamphlets still a useful modality for patient information and education when so much is available on the Internet? (b) If so, what should be the relationship between print-based and online health information and education, and when should one modality take precedence over the other? This article responds to these questions within the Canadian health care context.
Rodrigues, Alexandre M; Ferreira, Pedro L; Ferré-Grau, Carmen
To evaluate the quality of life of informal caregivers of patients with pressure ulcer; to assess their levels of burden; to analyse the variables influencing both their quality of life and burden. Informal caregivers of pressure ulcer patients, besides coping with the natural dependency of these patients, deal with the specificity of caring these types of wounds. This situation has an impact on not only the quality of life and burden felt by informal caregivers but also on individual and familiar dynamics. Descriptive and correlational study. This study focused on 145 informal caregivers providing home care. Measurement instruments were: SF-36v2 and the Burden Interview Scale. Descriptive analysis of the quantitative variables was carried out according to measures of central tendency, and the qualitative variables were described using absolute and relative frequencies. The relationships or associations between variables were explored through correlational analysis and, whenever the data allowed, multivariate techniques were used. Informal caregivers showed low levels of quality of life and, most of them, significant burden. Quality of life decreased with overload, with the increasing number of pressure ulcer and with less experience of informal caregivers, with lack of financial remuneration, with unemployment, with patient positioning and with the direct care of the wound. The burden increased with the number of pressure ulcer in each patient and with the lack of financial remuneration. These informal caregivers have low quality of life and are overburdened. Both situations are positively and negatively influenced by factors related to the pressure ulcer and to the patients' sociodemographic data. The results of this study allow more effective monitoring by health professionals of levels of burden and quality of life encountered in pressure ulcer informal caregivers, as well as direct interventions to inhibit the factors inducing burden and enhance those that
Full Text Available This paper examines the process and outcome of a major curriculum update for the Office Information Systems (OIS major in the Office Information Systems Department in the School of Computer Science and Information Systems (CSIS at Pace University. The curriculum was updated to better prepare our students for success as end-user specialists in todays flattened organizations. The changes made were based on modules recommended from the Office Systems Research Association (OSRA--recommendations that were both reliable and valid. OSRAs national curriculum was flexible enough to allow us to incorporate regional business demands as well as adhere to CSISs mission statement. The success of this curriculum, now two years old, is measured by the success of our graduates (B.Sc. degree in obtaining meaningful employment.
Full Text Available Despite U.S. mothers’ wide adoption of pumps and bottles to provide human milk (HM to their infants, mothers lack comprehensive, evidence-based guidelines for these practices. Thus, some women use online sources to seek information from each other. We aimed to characterize the information women sought online about pumping. We used data provided by ~25,000 women in an open cohort within a discussion forum about parenting. We examined 543 posts containing questions about providing pumped HM cross-sectionally and longitudinally in three time intervals: prenatal, 0 through 1.5 months postpartum, and 1.5 to 4.5 months postpartum. We used thematic analysis with Atlas.ti to analyze the content of posts. During pregnancy, women commonly asked questions about how and where to obtain pumps, both out-of-pocket and through insurance policies. Between 0–1.5 months postpartum, many mothers asked about how to handle pumped HM to ensure its safety as fed. Between 1.5–4.5 months postpartum, mothers sought strategies to overcome constraints to pumping both at home and at work and also asked about stopping pumping and providing their milk. Women’s questions related to ensuring the safety of pumped HM represent information women need from health professionals, while their questions related to obtaining pumps suggest that women may benefit from clearer guidelines from their insurance providers. The difficulties women face at home and at work identify avenues through which families and employers can support women to meet their goals for providing HM.
Whitmore, Rebecca; Crooks, Valorie A; Snyder, Jeremy
Canadians travelling abroad for privately arranged surgeries paid for out-of-pocket are engaging in what has come to be known as medical tourism. They are often accompanied by friends or family members, who we call caregiver-companions. Caregiver-companions provide care in and across a variety of formal and informal settings, such as in hotels, airplanes and at home. This qualitative study examines the experiences of informal caregivers in medical tourism to learn more about the lived experiences or 'experiential resources' they draw upon to cope with providing care and avoiding caregiver burden. The care-giving literature has demonstrated that such burden can negatively impact caregivers' well-being. The unique, transnational context of care-giving in medical tourism and recent growth in popularity of this practice means that there are few supports or resources currently in place to assist informal caregivers. In this article, we report on an analysis that sought to detail how caregiver-companions draw upon their previous lived experiences to cope with providing transnational care and to minimise or avoid the onset of caregiver burden. We conducted semi-structured telephone interviews with 20 Canadians who had accompanied their friends or family members abroad for surgery between September 2013 and January 2014. Thematic analysis revealed the ways that participants had developed practical strategies to deal with the challenges they faced in medical tourism. The interviews revealed three important experiential resources drawn upon by participants: (i) previous experiences of international travel; (ii) previous experiences of informal care-giving; and (iii) dimensions of the existing relationship with the care recipient. Differences in access to and use of these experiential resources related to participants' perspectives on medical tourism and the outcomes of the trip. By identifying the experiential resources drawn upon by informal caregivers in medical tourism
This study proposed to define the role and duties of librarians who provide health information service in public and medical libraries. Appropriate education, career experience and starting salary for this position are also presented. This study analysed previous research and job advertisements to understand the current needs for this position. Almost all job advertisements studied were eventually retrieved from Salary.com (US job posting site). Public libraries seeking to fill health informationist positions were even more difficult to find in any of the above locations. Therefore, the researcher attempted to find cases using various search engines, including Google, and noticed that public libraries usually post job advertisements on their website. Finally, 32 job postings were selected as suitable. Fifty-four public and medical librarians were surveyed to validate the results in Korea. Public librarians chose 'health information librarian' as the most appropriate title for this position, while medical librarians answered 'medical librarian'. Therefore, librarians providing health information service in public libraries should be called 'health information librarians', while the position in medical libraries should be called 'medical librarian'. Accordingly, job postings and academic articles will be easily accessible. Both groups marked that the position should require a bachelor's degree in both LIS and a health science field, 2 years library experience and health-related user training. Other requirements included knowledge of health resources and medical terminology, search capabilities and a focus on user-centric service. For required duties, public librarians chose accessing information resources, while medical librarians selected collection management. Health information librarians will play a vital role in the future and must therefore be educated accordingly. © 2015 Health Libraries Group.
Georgiou, Andrew; Tariq, Amina; Prgomet, Mirela; Warland, Andrew; Armour, Pauline; Westbrook, Johanna I
Introduction: There is limited evidence of the benefits of information and communication technology (ICT) to support integrated aged care services. Objectives: We undertook a case study to describe carelink+, a centralised client service management ICT system implemented by a large aged and community care service provider, Uniting. We sought to explicate the care-related information exchange processes associated with carelink+ and identify lessons for organisations attempting to use ICT to support service integration. Methods: Our case study included seventeen interviews and eleven observation sessions with a purposive sample of staff within the organisation. Inductive analysis was used to develop a model of ICT-supported information exchange. Results: Management staff described the integrated care model designed to underpin carelink+. Frontline staff described complex information exchange processes supporting coordination of client services. Mismatches between the data quality and the functions carelink+ was designed to support necessitated the evolution of new work processes associated with the system. Conclusions: There is value in explicitly modelling the work processes that emerge as a consequence of ICT. Continuous evaluation of the match between ICT and work processes will help aged care organisations to achieve higher levels of ICT maturity that support their efforts to provide integrated care to clients. PMID:29042851
Douglas, Heather E; Georgiou, Andrew; Tariq, Amina; Prgomet, Mirela; Warland, Andrew; Armour, Pauline; Westbrook, Johanna I
There is limited evidence of the benefits of information and communication technology (ICT) to support integrated aged care services. We undertook a case study to describe carelink+, a centralised client service management ICT system implemented by a large aged and community care service provider, Uniting. We sought to explicate the care-related information exchange processes associated with carelink+ and identify lessons for organisations attempting to use ICT to support service integration. Our case study included seventeen interviews and eleven observation sessions with a purposive sample of staff within the organisation. Inductive analysis was used to develop a model of ICT-supported information exchange. Management staff described the integrated care model designed to underpin carelink+. Frontline staff described complex information exchange processes supporting coordination of client services. Mismatches between the data quality and the functions carelink+ was designed to support necessitated the evolution of new work processes associated with the system. There is value in explicitly modelling the work processes that emerge as a consequence of ICT. Continuous evaluation of the match between ICT and work processes will help aged care organisations to achieve higher levels of ICT maturity that support their efforts to provide integrated care to clients.
van Wagenberg, Coen P A; Backus, Gé B C; van der Vorst, Jack G A J; Urlings, Bert A P
The EU prescribes that food business operators must use food chain information to assist in food safety control. This study analyses usefulness of food chain information about antibiotic usage covering the 60-day period prior to delivery of pigs to slaughter in the control of antibiotic residues in pork. A dataset with 479 test results for antibiotic residues in tissue samples of finishing pigs delivered to a Dutch slaughter company was linked to information provided by pig producers about antibiotic usage in these finishing pigs. Results show that twice as many producers reported using antibiotics in the group of 82 producers with antibiotic residues (11.0%) compared to the group without antibiotic residues (5.5%) (p=0.0686). For 89% of consignments with a finishing pig with antibiotic residues, the producer reported 'did not use antibiotics'. Food chain information about antibiotic usage provided by Dutch pig producers was no guarantee for absence of antibiotic residues in delivered finishing pigs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Tutunjian, Damon A.
This dissertation examines the influence of lexical-semantic representations, conceptual similarity, and contextual fit on the processing of coordinated verb phrases. The study integrates information gleaned from current linguistic theory with current psycholinguistic approaches to examining the processing of coordinated verb phrases. It has…
Kern, R.; Hateren, J.H. van; Egelhaaf, M.
Flying blowflies shift their gaze by saccadic turns of body and head, keeping their gaze basically fixed between saccades. For the head, this results in almost pure translational optic flow between saccades, enabling visual interneurons in the fly motion pathway to extract information about
Klemenc-Ketis, Zalika; Peterlin, Borut
Management of patients with genetic problems, including provision of genetic testing, is increasingly becoming a part of primary health care. The aim of this study was to determine the family physicians' (FPs) self-perceived importance of providing genetic test information to their patients. This was an observational cross-sectional postal study in the whole population of Slovenian family physicians (N=950). Its main outcome measure was the perceived importance of providing genetic test information on each of 10 items on a 5-point Likert scale. There were 271 (27.1% response rate) FPs that completed the questionnaire, out of which 205 (75.6%) were women. Mean age of the sample was 45.5 ± 10.6 years. More than 90% of Slovene FPs felt that it was their professional duty to discuss genetic testing issues with their patients. They were particularly prone to discuss clinical implications of positive and negative test results, as well as giving the patients information about the risk of passing a mutation onto children. Most Slovene family physicians feel responsible and willing to offer and discuss genetic testing and implications with their patients. Additional education should be provided to empower them for this task.
Robins, Jason A; McInnes, Matthew D F; Esmail, Kaisra
Resident selection committees must rely on information provided by medical schools in order to evaluate candidates. However, this information varies between institutions, limiting its value in comparing individuals and fairly assessing their quality. This study investigates what is included in candidates' documentation, the heterogeneity therein, as well as its objective data. Samples of recent transcripts and Medical Student Performance Records were anonymised prior to evaluation. Data were then extracted by two independent reviewers blinded to the submitting university, assessing for the presence of pre-selected criteria; disagreement was resolved through consensus. The data were subsequently analysed in multiple subgroups. Inter-rater agreement equalled 92%. Inclusion of important criteria varied by school, ranging from 22.2% inclusion to 70.4%; the mean equalled 47.4%. The frequency of specific criteria was highly variable as well. Only 17.7% of schools provided any basis for comparison of academic performance; the majority detailed only status regarding pass or fail, without any further qualification. Considerable heterogeneity exists in the information provided in official medical school documentation, as well as markedly little objective data. Standardization may be necessary in order to facilitate fair comparison of graduates from different institutions. Implementation of objective data may allow more effective intra- and inter-scholastic comparison.
Kratzke, Cynthia; Wilson, Susan
Although growing research supports cancer survivor information-seeking, little is known about breast cancer prevention information-seeking among women. The purpose of the study was to examine differences in breast cancer risk factor knowledge, information sources, and desired mobile messages among Hispanic and non-Hispanic rural women. Women were recruited to complete a survey at an imaging center during a mammography screening visit. A total of 156 women (mean age = 61, SD = 12.07) completed the survey. Breast cancer risk factor knowledge was significantly higher for non-Hispanic women compared to Hispanic women (p = .035). Television, magazines, and Internet were the most frequent information sources. Providers were the most frequent interpersonal information source. Nearly 87 % used cell phones and 47 % used texting. Hispanic women were more likely to desire breast cancer prevention cell voice messages (p Health educators and clinicians must promote mobile messages for Hispanics and non-Hispanics for mammography adherence, breast cancer prevention education, and best practices to manage screening appointments.
Sabuncu, Mert R.; Van Leemput, Koen
from volumetric gray matter segmentations, and as a classification model by distinguishing patients with Alzheimer's disease from healthy controls using surface-based cortical thickness data. Our results indicate that RVoxM yields biologically meaningful models, while providing state...
Lowther, R. P.; Brill, M.
A scenario-based distributed information system for operationally building the Global Earth Observing System of Systems (GEOSS) is presented as part of Northrop Grumman's participation in the GEOSS ten- year Architecture Implementation Pilot plan. Northrop Grumman is responding to the application challenge of implementing GEOSS capabilities by adding several U.S. Global Earth Observing (USGEO) data providers through architecture development and multiple scenario demonstrations, one of which is Natural Disaster Response. The scenarios ensure responders collaborate with the Group on Earth Observations (GEO) Societal Benefit Area working groups and external agencies. A six-stage disaster cycle is executed for a major hurricane and flooding scenario on the Port of Houston that incorporates multiple user communities and demonstrates how communities of practice may be applied to extend information sharing in response to disasters. The scenario is user driven and uses products derived from existing earth observing systems. The enterprise model for this hurricane and flooding scenario depicts an end-to-end approach to executing disaster response management. The centrality of the community portal in creating a coordinated disaster response cannot be overstated. Northrop Grumman has reached interoperability agreements with multiple community data providers whose goal is to make their data and products accessible as "persistent exemplars" within GEOSS to global users and decision makers. As multiple GEO community members integrate their data and services into GEOSS, the whole of GEOSS becomes much more than the sum of its components; however, GEOSS must deliver high-value information easily understood by decision makers through smart source selection. When this occurs, and GEOSS becomes operational, the information gap will narrow between systems, providers, analysts, and decision makers.
Dal Bello-Haas, Vanina P M; Cammer, Allison; Morgan, Debra; Stewart, Norma; Kosteniuk, Julie
Rural and remote settings pose particular healthcare and service delivery challenges. Providing appropriate care and support for individuals with dementia and their families living in these communities is especially difficult, and can only be accomplished when the needs of care providers and the context and complexity of care provision are understood. This paper describes formal and informal caregivers' perceptions of the challenges and needs in providing care and support for individuals with dementia living in rural and remote areas of Saskatchewan, Canada. A mixed-methods exploratory approach was used to examine caregivers' needs. This research was a component of a broader process evaluation designed to inform the initial and ongoing development of a community-based participatory research program in rural dementia care, which included the development of the Rural and Remote Memory Clinic (RRMC). Four approaches were used for data collection and analyses: (1) thematic analysis of consultation meetings with rural healthcare providers: documented discussions from consultation meetings that occurred in 2003-2004 with rural physicians and healthcare providers regarding plans for a new RRMC were analysed thematically; (2) telephone and mail questionnaires: consultation meeting participants completed a subsequent telephone or mail questionnaire (2003-2004) that was analysed descriptively; (3) thematic analysis of referral letters to the Rural and Remote Memory Clinic: physician referral letters over a five-year period (2003-2008) were analysed descriptively and thematically; and (4) examination of family caregiver satisfaction: four specific baseline questionnaire questions completed by family caregivers (2007-2010) were analysed descriptively and thematically. Both physician and non-physician healthcare providers identified increased facilities and care programs as needs. Physicians were much more likely than other providers to report available support services for
Nathan Paula M
Full Text Available Abstract Background Mathematical models of infection that consider targeted interventions are exquisitely dependent on the assumed mixing patterns of the population. We report on a pilot study designed to assess three different methods (one retrospective, two prospective for obtaining contact data relevant to the determination of these mixing patterns. Methods 65 adults were asked to record their social encounters in each location visited during 6 study days using a novel method whereby a change in physical location of the study participant triggered data entry. Using a cross-over design, all participants recorded encounters on 3 days in a paper diary and 3 days using an electronic recording device (PDA. Participants were randomised to first prospective recording method. Results Both methods captured more contacts than a pre-study questionnaire, but ascertainment using the paper diary was superior to the PDA (mean difference: 4.52 (95% CI 0.28, 8.77. Paper diaries were found more acceptable to the participants compared with the PDA. Statistical analysis confirms that our results are broadly consistent with those reported from large-scale European based surveys. An association between household size (trend 0.14, 95% CI (0.06, 0.22, P P Conclusions The study's location-based reporting design allows greater scope compared to other methods for examining differences in the characteristics of encounters over a range of environments. Improved parameterisation of dynamic transmission models gained from work of this type will aid in the development of more robust decision support tools to assist health policy makers and planners.
Crispin, Vivianne; Bugge, Carol; Stoddart, Kathleen
Information exchange as part of shared decision-making is widely discussed in research and policy literature as a means of improving patient involvement in treatment and care. To date information exchange between patients and nurses has not been explored in ward contexts. To explore the sufficiency of, and intentions behind, information exchanged by patients and nurses in surgical and medical ward settings using a recognised model of shared decision-making. A multiple-case study design was used. Data were collected from 19 cases. Each case comprised one patient, the nurses interacting with that patient, the interactions between them, and their perceptions about the interactions. The study was undertaken across six surgical, six medical and one rehabilitation ward in a large teaching hospital in the United Kingdom. Purposive sampling was used to first recruit nurses and then patients. Inclusion criteria included nurses registered with the Nursing and Midwifery Council, and patients who had been in hospital for more than 24h and who could consent to participating. Twenty-two nurses and 19 patients participated. Interactions from 19 cases were observed and audio-recorded. Individual interviews with patients and nurses followed, and were related to, the observed interactions. Patients and nurses perceived they had exchanged sufficient information for their own needs including patient involvement, due to: information being shared previously and on an ongoing basis; having asked all their questions; therapeutic patient/nurse relationships; and, nurses speaking in lay terms. In contrast, the observational data suggested that insufficient information was exchanged between patients and nurses due to: lost opportunities for sharing information; paternalistic practice; and withholding information. The elements of information exchange within a recognised model of shared decision-making do not adequately fit with patient/nurse interactions in ward settings. Participants
Bhuyan, Soumitra S; Chandak, Aastha; Gupta, Niodita; Isharwal, Sudhir; LaGrange, Chad; Mahmood, Asos; Gentry, Dan
The American Urological Association, American Cancer Society, and American College of Physicians recommend that patients and providers make a shared decision with respect to prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing for prostate cancer (PCa). The goal of this study is to determine the extent of patient-provider communication for PSA testing and treatment of PCa and to examine the patient specific factors associated with this communication. Using recent data from the Health Information National Trends Survey, this study examined the association of patient characteristics with four domains of patient-provider communication regarding PSA test and PCa treatment: (1) expert opinion of PSA test, (2) accuracy of PSA test, (3) side effects of PCa treatment, and (4) treatment need of PCa. The current results suggested low level of communication for PSA testing and treatment of PCa across four domains. Less than 10% of the respondents report having communication about all four domains. Patient characteristics like recent medical check-up, regular healthcare provider, global health status, age group, marital status, race, annual household income, and already having undergone a PSA test are associated with patient-provider communication. There are few discussions about PSA testing and PCa treatment options between healthcare providers and their patients, which limits the shared decision-making process for PCa screening and treatment as recommended by the current best practice guidelines. This study helps identify implications for changes in physician practice to adhere with the PSA screening guidelines. © The Author(s) 2015.
Dombrowsky, W.R. [Kiel Univ. (Germany). Katastrophenforschungsstelle
Based on the results of empirical research, which implemented and evaluated information to the public requested by law (HIO-Paragraph-11a) and based on the general findings of crisis- and risk-communication research, some disturbing elements in the relationship between entrepreneurs, administration and the public will be described in terms of cognitive dissonance, prejudice, fears and false expectations. The empirical example of public information in emergencies will evidence the conflicting views on types, styles, size and profoundity of such information as well as the differences in perception, motivation and interest of all parties involved. Finally, the cultural context of risk perception and of coping capabilities will be interrelated with historical changes of risk-management to prepare for the understanding that risk- and crisis communication has to be more than talking about safety. (orig.) [Deutsch] Am Beispiel einer Implementations- und Evaluationsforschung zur Erstellung von Stoerfallinformationen nach Paragraph 11a BimSchG fuer zwei Unternehmen und auf Basis des Kenntnisstandes der internationalen Forschung zur Krisen- und Risikokommunikation wird verdeutlicht, welche kognitiven Dissonanzen zwischen Anlagenbetreibern, Behoerden und Bevoelkerung ueber Art, Umfang und Gestaltung von Gefahrinformationen bestehen, welche Vorurteile und Aengste eine sachliche Kommunikation behindern, welche gesellschaftlichen Faktoren bislang weitgehend uebersehen wurden, was von wem fuer `stoer- und unfallrelevant` gehalten wird und welche gesellschaftlichen, sozialen `settings`, d.h. welche menschlichen Bedingungen die Wahrnehmung und Verarbeitung welcher Informationen beeinflussen. Darin liegt die empirische Bestaetigung der Hypothese, dass sich die Wahrnehmung von Risiken und Bedrohungen historisch kurzfristig (bereits innerhalb einer Generation) veraendert und es keine `one-for-all`-Strategie der Risiko- und Krisenkommunikation geben kann, wohl aber allgemeine
Fraknoi, Andrew; Schatz, Dennis; Dusenbery, Paul; Duncan, Douglas; Holland, Anne; Laconte, Keliann
With support from the Moore Foundation, Google, the Research Corporation, and NASA, we were able to distribute about 2.1 million eclipse glasses and an extensive booklet of eclipse information and outreach suggestions to 7,100 public libraries throughout the nation. It appears that this project was the single largest program to provide glasses and eclipse information to the public in the U.S. The project using (and significantly enlarged) the existing STARNet network of libraries set up and maintained by the Space Science Institute. We were able to get glasses to a diverse set of institutions, including urban, rural, Native American, small town and large city libraries. In this poster, we will summarize the history of the project, the various components and how they worked together, and the results of a post survey of the librarians, which provided numbers, photographs, and impressions from the many libraries and their patrons. A map of the libraries involved is at www.starnetlibraries.org/2017eclipse/. The booklet of information that was sent to help train librarians in eclipse science and eclipse outreach can still be downloaded free at: http://www.starnetlibraries.org/EclipseGuide/.”
Lee, Juwoon; Kang, Mincheol; Min, Sangky; Yi, Jongmin; Yi, Yunyoung
This detailed assignment conducted to improve the communication efficiency through the operation of differentiated programs to accomplish 'Establishment of knowledge diffusion system for improvement of Nuclear understanding', which is the purpose of the general assignment. We developed the programs on each social opinion leader groups by providing the right information on nuclear(radiation) technology, and had a forum for providing the right information on each social groups. Also, Consisted the consultant group, which participates humanities and social sciences, civic group, science teachers, the press, national assembly workers. Technology PR was performed 4 times, which is 1 time more than the original plan of 4 times. In the theme of affection of radiation, we broadened the vision of various fields which enabled to approach in general for the PR program. We Induced a positive reaction from the participants in political areas which coexistent of uncertain expectation and difficult vision of nuclear and radiation, by sharing the development possibility in relation with potential values of radiation industry and other industries and delivering accurate information, not a fragmentary knowledge, but in general. We hope that this results will contribute to establishing the effective nuclear knowledge diffusion program system.
MacLennan, S J; Murdoch, S E; Cox, T
There is a growing body of evidence on the importance of work following a diagnosis of cancer and the need to provide better information, advice and related support to patients on work engagement. The aim of this study was to better understand the nature of those needs and to identify better ways to meet these for those with a urological cancer. The focus was on the issues that were common to three key stakeholder groups. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with stakeholders in North East Scotland: 12 individuals with kidney, bladder or prostate cancer, 10 healthcare providers and 10 managers from large organisations. Five key themes emerged from the Framework Analysis: perceived importance of work engagement; decision-making: treatment, work and cancer; roles and responsibilities; education and training; information, advice and support resources. The data confirmed that work engagement is important to those with urological cancer. It also made clear that the current provision of information and advice could be improved. Any such interventions should involve all three key stakeholder groups with greater clarity on their respective roles and responsibilities. Finally, any new system would be best integrated with existing care provision and supported by adequate education and training of those involved. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Ahn, Jae-Young; Park, Hae-Ryun; Lee, Kiwon; Kwon, Sooyoun; Kim, Soyeong; Yang, Jihye; Song, Kyung-Hee
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES To encourage healthier food choices for children in fast-food restaurants, many initiatives have been proposed. This study aimed to examine the effect of disclosing nutritional information on parents' meal choices for their children at fast-food restaurants in South Korea. SUBJECTS/METHODS An online experimental survey using a menu board was conducted with 242 parents of children aged 2-12 years who dined with them at fast-food restaurants at least once a month. Participants were classified into two groups: the low-calorie group (n = 41) who chose at least one of the lowest calorie meals in each menu category, and the high-calorie group (n = 201) who did not. The attributes including perceived empowerment, use of provided nutritional information, and perceived difficulties were compared between the two groups. RESULTS The low-calorie group perceived significantly higher empowerment with the nutritional information provided than did the high-calorie group (P = 0.020). Additionally, the low-calorie group was more interested in nutrition labeling (P promoting healthier parental food choices for their children at fast-food restaurants. PMID:26634057
Henry, Elspeth; Marley, Lesley
A partnership between the Specialist Health Promotion Service of NHS Tayside and Dundee City Council developed a project, 'Discover Health', to bring health information to the public. The two main formats used were traditional leaflets and Internet access via the People's Network, both available in public libraries. The steering group for the project was made up of staff from both organisations. The NHS side secured the funding; the Council side provided the accommodation and information and communication technologies. The partnership worked well, and the project is continuing, with expansion in the pipeline for other areas within Tayside. The various aspects of the functioning of the partnership are discussed. A literature review of similar initiatives is included.
Tesch, Deanna M.; Nevzorov, Alexander A.
Elucidating structure and topology of membrane proteins (MPs) is essential for unveiling functionality of these important biological constituents. Oriented-sample solid-state NMR (OS-NMR) is capable of providing such information on MPs under nearly physiological conditions. However, two dimensional OS-NMR experiments can take several days to complete due to long longitudinal relaxation times combined with the large number of scans to achieve sufficient signal sensitivity in biological samples. Here, free radicals 5-DOXYL stearic acid, TEMPOL, and CAT-1 were added to uniformly 15N-labeled Pf1 coat protein reconstituted in DMPC/DHPC bicelles, and their effect on the longitudinal relaxation times (T1Z) was investigated. The dramatically shortened T1Z's allowed for the signal gain per unit time to be used for either: (i) up to a threefold reduction of the total experimental time at 99% magnetization recovery or (ii) obtaining up to 74% signal enhancement between the control and radical samples during constant experimental time at “optimal” relaxation delays. In addition, through OS-NMR and high-field EPR studies, free radicals were able to provide positional constraints in the bicelle system, which provide a description of the location of each residue in Pf1 coat protein within the bicellar membranes. This information can be useful in the determination of oligomerization states and immersion depths of larger membrane proteins.
Tesch, Deanna M; Nevzorov, Alexander A
Elucidating structure and topology of membrane proteins (MPs) is essential for unveiling functionality of these important biological constituents. Oriented-sample solid-state NMR (OS-NMR) is capable of providing such information on MPs under nearly physiological conditions. However, two dimensional OS-NMR experiments can take several days to complete due to long longitudinal relaxation times combined with the large number of scans to achieve sufficient signal sensitivity in biological samples. Here, free radicals 5-DOXYL stearic acid, TEMPOL, and CAT-1 were added to uniformly (15)N-labeled Pf1 coat protein reconstituted in DMPC/DHPC bicelles, and their effect on the longitudinal relaxation times (T1Z) was investigated. The dramatically shortened T1Z's allowed for the signal gain per unit time to be used for either: (i) up to a threefold reduction of the total experimental time at 99% magnetization recovery or (ii) obtaining up to 74% signal enhancement between the control and radical samples during constant experimental time at "optimal" relaxation delays. In addition, through OS-NMR and high-field EPR studies, free radicals were able to provide positional constraints in the bicelle system, which provide a description of the location of each residue in Pf1 coat protein within the bicellar membranes. This information can be useful in the determination of oligomerization states and immersion depths of larger membrane proteins. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Education planning provides the policy maker and the decision maker a logical framework in which to develop and implement education policy. At the international level, education planning is often confounded by both internal and external complexities, making the development of education policy difficult. This research presents a discrete event simulation in which individual students and teachers flow through the system across a variable time horizon. This simulation is then used with advancements in design of experiments, multivariate statistical analysis, and data envelopment analysis, to provide a methodology designed to assist the international education planning community. We propose that this methodology will provide the education planner with insights into the complexity of the education system, the effects of both endogenous and exogenous factors upon the system, and the implications of policies as they pertain to potential futures of the system. We do this recognizing that there are multiple actors and stochastic events in play, which although cannot be accurately forecasted, must be accounted for within the education model. To both test the implementation and usefulness of such a model and to prove its relevance, we chose the Afghan education system as the focal point of this research. The Afghan education system is a complex, real world system with competing actors, dynamic requirements, and ambiguous states. At the time of this writing, Afghanistan is at a pivotal point as a nation, and has been the recipient of a tremendous amount of international support and attention. Finally, Afghanistan is a fragile state, and the proliferation of the current disparity in education across gender, districts, and ethnicity could provide the catalyst to drive the country into hostility. In order to prevent the failure of the current government, it is essential that the education system is able to meet the demands of the Afghan people. This work provides insights into
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Hospice Utilization and Payment Public Use File provides information on services provided to Medicare beneficiaries by hospice providers. The Hospice PUF...
Barbarito, Fulvio; Pinciroli, Francesco; Mason, John; Marceglia, Sara; Mazzola, Luca; Bonacina, Stefano
Information technologies (ITs) have now entered the everyday workflow in a variety of healthcare providers with a certain degree of independence. This independence may be the cause of difficulty in interoperability between information systems and it can be overcome through the implementation and adoption of standards. Here we present the case of the Lombardy Region, in Italy, that has been able, in the last 10 years, to set up the Regional Social and Healthcare Information System, connecting all the healthcare providers within the region, and providing full access to clinical and health-related documents independently from the healthcare organization that generated the document itself. This goal, in a region with almost 10 millions citizens, was achieved through a twofold approach: first, the political and operative push towards the adoption of the Health Level 7 (HL7) standard within single hospitals and, second, providing a technological infrastructure for data sharing based on interoperability specifications recognized at the regional level for messages transmitted from healthcare providers to the central domain. The adoption of such regional interoperability specifications enabled the communication among heterogeneous systems placed in different hospitals in Lombardy. Integrating the Healthcare Enterprise (IHE) integration profiles which refer to HL7 standards are adopted within hospitals for message exchange and for the definition of integration scenarios. The IHE patient administration management (PAM) profile with its different workflows is adopted for patient management, whereas the Scheduled Workflow (SWF), the Laboratory Testing Workflow (LTW), and the Ambulatory Testing Workflow (ATW) are adopted for order management. At present, the system manages 4,700,000 pharmacological e-prescriptions, and 1,700,000 e-prescriptions for laboratory exams per month. It produces, monthly, 490,000 laboratory medical reports, 180,000 radiology medical reports, 180
Hollander, Sue M.
A questionnaire was mailed to 148 publicly and privately supported academic health sciences libraries affiliated with Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC)–accredited medical schools in the United States and Canada to determine level of access and services provided to the general public. For purposes of this study, “general public” was defined as nonaffiliated students or health care professionals, attorneys and other nonhealth-related professionals, patients from affiliated or other hospitals or clinics, and general consumers. One hundred five (71%) libraries responded. Results showed 98% of publicly supported libraries and 88% of privately supported libraries provided access to some or all of the general public. Publicly supported libraries saw greater numbers of public patrons, often provided more services, and were more likely to circulate materials from their collections than were privately supported libraries. A significant number of academic health sciences libraries housed a collection of consumer-oriented materials and many provided some level of document delivery service, usually for a fee. Most allowed the public to use some or all library computers. Results of this study indicated that academic health sciences libraries played a significant role in serving the information-seeking public and suggested a need to develop written policies or guidelines covering the services that will be provided to minimize the impact of this service on primary clientele. PMID:10658965
Klein, Gudrun E; Guethlin, Corina
Among cancer care providers (CCPs), lack of knowledge constitutes an important barrier to the discussion of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use with patients. This study assessed CCPs' needs and preferences regarding CAM information and training (I&T). An online survey was completed by 209 general practitioners, 437 medical specialists, 159 oncology nurses and medical assistants, and 244 psychologists and social workers engaged in cancer care. Latent class analysis (LCA) was used to identify subgroups of individuals with distinct preference patterns regarding I&T content. CCPs prefer CAM I&T to be provided as lectures, information platforms on the internet, workshops, and e-mail newsletters. Concerning subject matters, many CCPs considered CAM therapy options for the treatment of a variety of cancer disease- and therapy-related symptoms to be very important (75%-72% of the sample); the same applies to an "overview of different CAM therapies" (74%). LCA identified 5 latent classes (LCs) of CCPs. All of them attached considerable importance to "medical indication," "potential side effects," and "tips for usage." LCs differed, however, in terms of overall importance ratings, the perceived importance of "patients' reasons" for using specific CAM therapies, "case examples," and "scientific evidence." Notably, the 5 LCs were clearly present in all 4 occupational groups. CAM I&T should provide CCPs with an overview of different CAM therapies and show how CAM might help in treating symptoms cancer patients frequently demonstrate (eg, fatigue). Moreover, I&T programs should be flexible and take into account that individual information needs vary even within the same occupational group. © The Author(s) 2016.
Yusuff, Kazeem B; Wassi Sanni, Abd'
To determine vending strategies and marketing themes employed by itinerant bus vendors, and assess the accuracy and completeness of information provided on medicines being sold in an urban setting in Nigeria. Cross-sectional study and content analysis of itinerant vending of medicines inside buses recorded with a mobile telephone on purposively selected routes in a mega city with an estimated 18 million residents in southwestern Nigeria over a 2-month period. Two coders independently assessed 192 vending episodes by 56 vendors for 147 OTC and prescription medicines. Inter-rater reliability (Gwet AC1 =0.924; pmarketers' of medicines inside buses, markets, and motor parks. Of the 14400 consumers encountered inside buses during the study period, between 6.7% and 48.3% purchased the medicines promoted. Prayers against death from road traffic accidents and diseases of physical and / or meta-physical origins were the most frequently used (76•8%) ice-breaking opening statement / strategy to gain consumers' attention. Hematinics, multi-vitamins, simple analgesic, NSAIDs and corticosteroids were the most frequently vended medicines. Consumers' enquiries were related to dosing for children (51.8%), elderly (28.6%), and pregnancy (52.7%); and contra-indications during pregnancy (8.9%). Factual medicines information such as dose, frequency, potential side effects and contra-indications were not provided in majority of vending episodes. Itinerant vending of medicines and the use of misleading and melodramatic themes to secure high consumer patronage appear considerable in Nigeria. Majority of the vendors did not correctly respond to consumers medicine-related enquiries, or provide detailed factual medicines information to guide appropriate use. These misleading promotional activities could potentially encourage inappropriate purchase and probable self-medication by consumers.
Karunaratne, Asuntha S; Korenman, Stanley G; Thomas, Samantha L; Myles, Paul S; Komesaroff, Paul A
To assess the efficacy, with respect to participant understanding of information, of a computer-based approach to communication about complex, technical issues that commonly arise when seeking informed consent for clinical research trials. An open, randomised controlled study of 60 patients with diabetes mellitus, aged 27-70 years, recruited between August 2006 and October 2007 from the Department of Diabetes and Endocrinology at the Alfred Hospital and Baker IDI Heart and Diabetes Institute, Melbourne. Participants were asked to read information about a mock study via a computer-based presentation (n = 30) or a conventional paper-based information statement (n = 30). The computer-based presentation contained visual aids, including diagrams, video, hyperlinks and quiz pages. Understanding of information as assessed by quantitative and qualitative means. Assessment scores used to measure level of understanding were significantly higher in the group that completed the computer-based task than the group that completed the paper-based task (82% v 73%; P = 0.005). More participants in the group that completed the computer-based task expressed interest in taking part in the mock study (23 v 17 participants; P = 0.01). Most participants from both groups preferred the idea of a computer-based presentation to the paper-based statement (21 in the computer-based task group, 18 in the paper-based task group). A computer-based method of providing information may help overcome existing deficiencies in communication about clinical research, and may reduce costs and improve efficiency in recruiting participants for clinical trials.
Heijmans, Naomi; van Lieshout, Jan; Wensing, Michel
Although a wide range of preventive and clinical interventions has targeted cardiovascular risk management (CVRM), outcomes remain suboptimal. Therefore, the question is what additional determinants of CVRM and outcomes can be identified and addressed to optimize CVRM. In this study, we aimed to identify new perspectives for improving healthcare delivery and explored associations between information exchange networks of health care providers and evidence-based CVRM. This observational study was performed parallel to a randomized clinical trial which aimed to improve professional performance of practice nurses in the Netherlands. Information exchange on medical policy for CVRM ("general information networks") and CVRM for individual patients ("specific information networks") of 180 health professionals in 31 general practices was measured with personalized questionnaires. Medical record audit was performed concerning 1620 patients in these practices to document quality of care delivery and two risk factors (systolic blood pressure (SBP) and LDL cholesterol level). Hypothesized effects of five network characteristics (density, frequency of contact, centrality of CVRM-coordinators, homophily on positive attitudes for treatment target achievement, and presence of an opinion leader for CVRM) constructed on both general and specific information exchange networks were tested and controlled for practice and patient factors using logistic multilevel analyses. Odds for adequate performance were enhanced in practices with an opinion leader for CVRM (OR 2.75, p based CVRM is associated with homophily of clinical attitudes and presence of opinion leaders in primary care teams. These results signal the potential of social networks to be taken into account in further attempts to improve the implementation of evidence-based care for CVRM. Future research is needed to identify and formulate optimal strategies for using opinion leaders to improve CVRM. Future interventions may be
This research study evaluated the use of Second Life and its virtual museums as a means of providing effective informal science education for both junior high and high school students. This study investigated whether the attitudes of students toward science change as a result of scholastic exposure to the science museums in Second Life. The dependence between attitudes and learning styles was also investigated. The data gathered from the experiences and the perceptions of students using Second Life in informal science education were analyzed to address the questions of the study. The researcher used qualitative and quantitative research methodologies to investigate the research questions. The first and second research questions were quantitative and used TOSRA2 research instrument to assess attitude and perceptions and learning style questionnaire scores. The attitudes toward science before and after visiting the Second Life museums showed no significant change. A weak relationship between the attitudes toward science and the participants learning styles was found. The researcher therefore concluded that no relationship existed between the average of the TOSRA scores and the learning styles questionnaire scores. To address questions research three and four, a collective qualitative case study approach (Creswell, 2007), as well as a structured interviews focusing on the students' perspectives about using Second Life for informal science education was used. The students did not prefer informal science education using second life over formal education. This was in part attributed to the poor usability and/or familiarity with the program. Despite the students' technical difficulties confronted in visiting Second Life the perception of student about their learning experiences and the use of Second Life on informal science environment were positive.
Hogrefe, Christian; Trivikrama Rao, S.; Zurbenko, Igor G.; Porter, P. Steven
To study the underlying forcing mechanisms that distinguish the days with high ozone concentrations from average or nonepisodic days, the observed and model-predicted ozone time series are spectrally decomposed into different temporal components; the modeled values are based on the results of a three-month simulation with the Urban Airshed Model-Variable Grid Version photochemical modeling system. The ozone power spectrum is represented as the sum of four temporal components, ranging from the intraday timescale to the multiweek timescale. The results reveal that only those components that contain fluctuations with periods equal to or greater than one day carry the information that distinguishes ozone episode days from nonepisodic days. Which of the longer-term fluctuations is dominant in a particular episode varies from episode to episode. However, the magnitude of the intraday fluctuations is nearly invariant in time. The promulgation of the 8-h standard for ozone further emphasizes the importance of longer-term fluctuations embedded in ozone time series data. Furthermore, the results indicate that the regional photochemical modeling system is able to capture these features. This paper also examines the effect of simulation length on the predicted ozone reductions stemming from emission reductions. The results demonstrate that for regulatory purposes, model simulations need to cover longer time periods than just the duration of a single ozone episode; this is necessary not only to perform a meaningful model performance evaluation, but also to quantify the variability in the efficacy of an emission control strategy.
Full Text Available Background: The rate of use of nursing-care services has been increasing dramatically in recent years with the upgrading of the public long-term care insurance system in Japan. We addressed how the increased use of the nursing-care services might affect the information on the patients provided by their caregivers. Methods: A questionnaire survey of 531 family caregivers caring for dementia patients at home was carried out to investigate how the use of these services might affect the information about the patients provided by the caregivers. The survey revealed that the use of the nursing-care services reduced the burden (quality, quantity, time of nursing care, and feeling on the caregivers. Results: According to the observation provided by the caregivers, the patients’ behaviors and activities at home tended to decrease. These results indicated that the use of the nursing-care services resulted in a reduction in the opportunity for and the time spent on observation of the patients by the caregivers, making it more difficult for the caregiver to provide an appropriate assessment of the patient’s condition. Conclusions: We discussed the impact of the use of the nursing-care services on the Clinician’s Interview-Based Impression of Change plus (CIBIC-plus rating. Due to the reduction in the time spent on nursing care and in the opportunity for observation of the patient’s activities of daily living by the caregiver resulting from the use of the nursing-care services, it is difficult to obtain an accurate picture of the patient’s clinical condition using the CIBIC-plus, probably leading to an inappropriate CIBIC-plus rating.
Hall, Jane; Kenny, Patricia; Hossain, Ishrat; Street, Deborah J; Knox, Stephanie A
The trend for terminally ill patients to receive much of their end-of-life care at home necessitates the design of services to facilitate this. Care at home also requires that informal care be provided by family members and friends. This study investigated informal carers' preferences for support services to aid the development of end-of-life health care services. This cross-sectional study used 2 discrete choice experiments to ascertain the preferences of carers supporting patients with different levels of care need, determined by the assistance needed with personal care and labeled High Care (HC) and Low Care (LC). The sample included 168 informal carers of people receiving palliative care at home from 2 palliative care services in Sydney, Australia. Data were collected in face-to-face interviews; carers chose between 2 hypothetical plans of support services and their current services. Data were analyzed with generalized multinomial logit models that were used to calculate the impact of each attribute on the probability of a carer choosing a service plan. Preferred support included nursing services; the probability of choosing a plan increased significantly if it included nurse home visits and phone advice (P situation. The most valued services are those that support carers in their caregiving role; however, supportive care preferences vary with the different circumstances of patients and carers. © The Author(s) 2013.
Lee, Lana; Rand, Cynthia S; Ellen, Jonathan M; Agwu, Allison L
Young people with behaviorally acquired HIV (BHIV) are less likely than adults to initiate antiretroviral therapy (ART) despite meeting treatment criteria. We explored critical factors involved in healthcare providers' decision making regarding ART initiation for young people with BHIV (aged 12-24 years). Semistructured interviews were conducted with 23 HIV providers from diverse training backgrounds caring for youth with BHIV at four adult clinics and one pediatric clinic in a high prevalence urban city. Interview domains probed clinical and nonclinical patient characteristics, the role of adherence, and provider attitudes working with youth to establish decision-making priorities for ART initiation. The constant comparative approach was used to develop grounded theory on providers' decision making on ART initiation. Clinical criteria, particularly the CD4 count, and the public health implications of HIV transmission determined the urgency for ART initiation. However, patient-related concerns regarding treatment readiness and adherence hampered the decision to initiate, especially at higher CD4 counts. Providers who acknowledged developmental characteristics of youth (e.g., evolving adult identity and self-efficacy around health management) appeared more cautious in assessing future ART adherence and responded with intensive clinical support. Extensive involvement of multidisciplinary teams was identified as an important strategy to retain youth in care, whereas strengthening youth-targeted approaches may be an unmet need in adult clinics. Evaluation of providers' awareness of the developmental features of youth and characteristics of youth-targeted approaches in clinics caring for youth with BHIV may inform interventions to increase youth engagement in care and subsequent decisions to successfully initiate ART. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Charrière, Marie K. M.; Bogaard, Thom A.
Every year, people are victims of avalanches. It is commonly assumed that one way to decrease those losses is to inform about danger levels. This paper presents a study on current practices in the development and evaluation of smartphones applications that are dedicated to avalanche risk communication. The analysis based on semi-structured interviews with developers of six smartphone apps highlights the context of their development, how choices of content and visualization were made and how their effectiveness is evaluated by the developers themselves. It appears that all these communicators agree on the message to disseminate and the general representation concepts (i.e., use of the international avalanche danger scale and of a tiered approach). However, the specific ways this message is presented (e.g., maps, icons) is not uniform. Moreover, only simple evaluation processes (e.g., usage monitoring) are conducted by the developers. However, they are well aware that further efforts need to be made in order to thoroughly analyze the effectiveness of the smartphone apps in terms of their real impact (e.g., increase in awareness or change in behavior). This work also highlighted that the smartphone applications are in transition from being one-way communication tools to becoming two-way communication platforms, with the possibility for non-experts users to report on snow and avalanche conditions. This paper indicates challenges that avalanche risk communication is facing, although it is indisputably the most advanced and standardized practice compared to communication tools for other natural hazards. In addition to being relevant for the avalanche risk communication community, this research is therefore of interest for scientists and practitioners working on risk communication related to natural hazards.
Sherman, Sarah; Harden, Jeni; Cattanach, Dawn; Cameron, Sharon T
An animated film has been created to provide information to women requesting early medical abortion (EMA). The 9 min film, Lara's Story, was created using one woman's personal account of her experience. This study evaluated the views of women who had recently undergone EMA on the film and its potential usefulness in providing experiential information to women requesting EMA. Women who had undergone EMA within the past month were recruited. They were shown the film and interviewed in a semi-structured style. Interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim. They were analysed using cross-sectional indexing and thematic analysis with an inductive approach. 13 women were interviewed. All reported that the film gave a realistic account of EMA and most agreed that they would have wanted to watch it before EMA had it been available. Some said that it might help women who were struggling with decision-making with regard to EMA and all said that there should be unrestricted access to the film from the website of the abortion service. The women commented that the animated style of the film allowed all groups of women to relate to the story. Some commented that Lara's experience of pain, bleeding and side effects such as nausea differed from their own and therefore felt that it would be useful to make more than one woman's account available. The availability of animated audiovisual films recounting women's experiences of EMA might be a valuable adjunct to clinical information for women seeking EMA. © Faculty of Sexual and Reproductive Healthcare of the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.