WorldWideScience

Sample records for providing quality preschool

  1. Systematic Quality Work in Preschool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheridan, Sonja; Williams, Pia; Sandberg, Anette

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the meaning that Swedish preschool teachers ascribe to systematic quality work. In Sweden, all preschools are required to work systematically with quality issues. This involves several interdependent steps that follow each other in a specific order. Although the concept of systematic quality work might…

  2. Quality in preschool in a cultural context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh-Müller, Grethe; Ringsmose, Charlotte

    What is educational quality i preschools? How can it be evaluated/measured. How can educational quality be developped in everyday life in preschools?......What is educational quality i preschools? How can it be evaluated/measured. How can educational quality be developped in everyday life in preschools?...

  3. Quality in Preschool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Næsby, Torben

    2016-01-01

    . Neither the objective (global) nor the subjective (or relative) perspective, with their limitations, should be dominant (Siraj-Blatchford & Mayo, 2012). In an interactionist perspective, dimensions of the society, the pedagogues, the children’s development and the learning environment continuously...... and dialectically influence and are influenced by each other (Bronfenbrenner & Morris, 2006; Sheridan, 2009). The research project takes on a Critical Realistic approach, Building on the bio-ecological model; theory on development (proximal processes); an interactionist perspective on quality and inclusion......The Danish Day Care Facilities Act, which provides the curriculum on which day care education is based, does not stipulate very clearly what children should learn and therefore how educational processes should be organized. This means that we must accept that there are large local differences...

  4. Quality in Preschool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Næsby, Torben

    The Danish Day Care Facilities Act, which provides the curriculum on which day care education is based, does not stipulate very clearly what children should learn and therefore how educational processes should be organized. This means that we must accept that there are large local differences in ...

  5. Organising and Leading Systematic Quality Work in the Preschool -- Preschool Managers' Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Håkansson, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Preschool managers' responsibility for and leadership of systematic quality work has come to the fore in connection with changes made to the Swedish preschool curriculum. The aim of this study is to contribute to the understanding of preschool managers' leadership and management of the systematic quality work in Swedish preschools with reference…

  6. Preschool Teaching & Learning Expectations: Standards of Quality. PTM# 1503.18

    Science.gov (United States)

    New Jersey Department of Education, 2004

    2004-01-01

    The "Preschool Teaching and Learning Expectations: Standards of Quality" sets a standard for preschool learning outcomes and serves as a benchmark for determining how effectively the classroom curriculum is being implemented. It provides the focus for curriculum determination and instruction for all preschool children ages three and…

  7. Using the Quality of Literacy Implementation Checklist to Improve Preschool Literacy Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beecher, Constance C.; Abbott, Mary I.; Petersen, Sarah; Greenwood, Charles R.

    2017-01-01

    Despite much progress in improving the quality of preschool programs, there is still an uneven quality of instruction in early childhood settings. Providing support and professional development (PD) for teachers that is practical, systematic and sustainable is one potential avenue to increase classroom quality in preschool, including quality of…

  8. Childcare Quality and Preschoolers' Math Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ji Young; Dobbs-Oates, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the associations between four types of childcare quality (i.e. teacher-child closeness, frequency of math-related activities, and teacher education and experience) and preschoolers' residualised gain in math over the course of six months. Additionally, potential interactions between teacher-child closeness and other indicators…

  9. Preschool Teachers' Understanding of Quality in Preschool: A Comparative Study in Three European Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodin, J.; Hollerer, L.; Renblad, K.; Stancheva-Popkostadinova, V.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article is to highlight the concept "quality" with a special focus on preschool teachers' understanding and compare what preschool teachers in Austria, Bulgaria and Sweden regard as quality. Although quality is at high degree a subjective concept, some aspects are regarded decisive for good quality. A questionnaire was…

  10. The economic effects of pre-school education and quality

    OpenAIRE

    Cattan, Sarah; Crawford, Claire; Dearden, Lorraine

    2014-01-01

    The Effective Pre-School, Primary and Secondary Education (EPPSE) project is the first large-scale British study on the effects of different pre-school experiences on children's outcomes. It enables researchers to look at the impact of both pre-school education and pre-school quality not only on short-term education outcomes, but also on long-term education and possible future labour market outcomes for a cohort of individuals who did not have access to universal pre-school education. It is t...

  11. Long-run benefits from universal high-quality preschooling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauchmüller, Robert; Gørtz, Mette; Rasmussen, Astrid Würtz

    2014-01-01

    a formal preschool institution in 1998 are used in the analyses. OLS analyses show that three out of five quality indicators, a higher staff-per-child ratio, a higher share of male staff, and a higher share of staff with formal preschool teacher training are associated with significant improvements...... in children's test results in Danish. Boys benefit more from preschool quality than girls. Ethnic minority children benefit from higher staff stability....

  12. [Quality scale for preschool spirometry interpretation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatto, Francisca; Bedregal, Paula; Ubilla, Carlos; Barrientos, Hortensia; Caussade, Solange

    2017-02-01

    Since 2007, there are international guidelines for implementation and interpretation of spirometry in preschool children. A percentage of these patients cannot obtain maneuvers that meet all eligibility criteria. The objective of this study was to develop a quality scale for interpreting these partially acceptable spirometry. Delphi methodology was used, which allows to reach consensus among experts analyzing a defined problem. We invited to participate pediatric pneumologists dedicated to lung function and who participated actively in scientific specialty societies in Chile. Successive rounds were conducted with questionnaires about criteria used to assess spirometry in preschool children. These criteria define the acceptability of spirometric maneuvers according to international guidelines. Proposed quality grades were “very good”, “good”, “fair” and “bad”. Thirteen of the 15 invited experts accepted our invitation. In the first round 9 disagreed with the degree of “regular” quality. In the second round this was removed and 11 experts answered, 9 of them agreed with the use of this new version. The most contentious criterion was the end of expiration. Most experts agreed with the final scale, using “very good”, “good” and “bad” judgments. This would help to improve the performance of spirometry in children between 2 and 5 years.

  13. Changes in Lithuanian Pre-School and Pre-Primary Education Quality over the Last Decade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monkeviciene, Ona; Stankeviciene, Kristina

    2011-01-01

    Over the last decade, the changes in Lithuanian pre-school and pre-primary education have been predetermined by changes in paradigms of children's education and strategic education documents that provided for guidelines of high quality children's (self-)education, an increasing attention of society to the quality of children's education, training…

  14. Identifying Quality in Preschool Education: Progress and Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Jan N.

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author comments on Dominguez, Vitiello, Maier, and Greenfield's (2010) article on identifying quality in preschool education. Dominguez et al. have conducted a methodologically sophisticated study describing the growth of learning behavior among Head Start children. By doing so, they contribute to a growing body of evidence…

  15. In Search of Quality in Finnish Pre-School Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niikko, Anneli; Havu-Nuutinen, Sari

    2009-01-01

    This study was conducted during the academic year 2002-2003 in a municipality in Eastern Finland. It focuses on pre-school education assessing its quality factors from the parents', teachers' and children's points of view. Theoretically, the study focuses on analyses of the purposes of the national core curriculum and pedagogical issues that are…

  16. Concurrent Validity of Preschooler Gross Motor Quality Scale with Test of Gross Motor Development-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shih-Heng; Sun, Hsiao-Ling; Zhu, Yi-Ching; Huang, Li-chi; Hsieh, Yueh-Ling

    2011-01-01

    Preschooler Gross Motor Quality Scale (PGMQ) was recently developed to evaluate motor skill quality of preschoolers. The purpose of this study was to establish the concurrent validity of PGMQ using Test of Gross Motor Development-2 (TGMD-2) as the gold standard. One hundred and thirty five preschool children aged from three to six years were…

  17. Dietary Quality of Preschoolers' Sack Lunches as Measured by the Healthy Eating Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romo-Palafox, Maria Jose; Ranjit, Nalini; Sweitzer, Sara J; Roberts-Gray, Cindy; Hoelscher, Deanna M; Byrd-Williams, Courtney E; Briley, Margaret E

    2015-11-01

    Eating habits are developed during the preschool years and track into adulthood, but few studies have quantified dietary quality of meals packed by parents for preschool children enrolled in early care and education centers. Our aim was to evaluate the dietary quality of preschoolers' sack lunches using the Healthy Eating Index (HEI) 2010 to provide parents of preschool children with guidance to increase the healthfulness of their child's lunch. This study is a cross-sectional analysis of baseline dietary data from the Lunch Is in the Bag trial. A total of 607 parent-child dyads from 30 early care and education centers in Central and South Texas were included. Total and component scores of the HEI were computed using data obtained from direct observations of packed lunches and of children's consumption. Three-level regression models with random intercepts at the early care and education center and child level were used; all models were adjusted for child sex, age, and body mass index (calculated as kg/m(2)). Mean HEI-2010 total scores were 58 for lunches packed and 52 for lunches consumed, out of 100 possible points. Mean HEI component scores for packed and consumed lunches were lowest for greens and beans (6% and 8% of possible points), total vegetables (33% and 28%), seafood and plant proteins (33% and 29%), and whole grains (38% and 34%); and highest for empty calories (85% and 68% of possible points), total fruit (80% and 70%), whole fruit (79% and 64%), and total protein foods (76% and 69%). Parents of preschool children pack lunches with low dietary quality that lack vegetables, plant proteins, and whole grains, as measured by the HEI. Education of parents and care providers in early care and education centers is vital to ensure that preschoolers receive high dietary-quality meals that promote their preference for and knowledge of a healthy diet. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Increasing Access to Preschool: Recommendations for Reducing Barriers to Providing Full-day, Full-year Programs. Policy Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Kate

    2008-01-01

    More than ever before, Californians recognize that preschool provides young children with a strong start in school and life. Research confirms that effective preschool not only prepares children for kindergarten, but benefits them in the long-term. Despite the benefits, only 48% of 3- and 4-year-old children attend preschool in California. While…

  19. Exploratory behaviour, emotional wellbeing and childcare quality in preschool education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Barandiaran

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between children exploratory behaviour and the quality of structural childcare and process in preschools. The study also examined how childcare quality affects the relationship between emotional wellbeing and exploratory behaviour. The sample comprised 206 children from 40 classrooms in 20 preschools, together with their teachers. The children's age ranged between 37 and 64 months (M = 50.96, SD = 6.54. The results indicated that children cared for by more sensitive teachers engaged in more exploratory behavior. However, no moderating effect was found of teacher sensitivity on the positive relationship between exploratory behavior and wellbeing. Finally, some factors linked to the quality of structural childcare also influenced exploratory behavior, although to a lesser extent.

  20. Advancing High-Quality Preschool Inclusion: A Discussion and Recommendations for the Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Erin E.; Smith, Barbara J.

    2015-01-01

    Although considerable progress has been achieved regarding the research and laws supporting preschool inclusion, access to inclusive preschool environments remains intangible for many children with disabilities in the United States. The purpose of this article is to discuss current challenges and solutions to high-quality preschool inclusion. We…

  1. The Promise of Pre-K: Expanding Quality Preschool in Cincinnati. Education/Childcare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Quality preschool improves children's educational outcomes into the elementary grades, and good programs with wraparound childcare anchor family financial stability by enabling parents to work. Yet, too few Cincinnati children have access to a good preschool or any preschool at all. A levy on this November's ballot seeks to change that by adding a…

  2. The Promise of Pre-K. Expanding Quality Preschool in Cincinnati. Education/Childcare. Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Quality preschool improves children's educational outcomes into the elementary grades, and good programs with wraparound childcare anchor family financial stability by enabling parents to work. Yet, too few Cincinnati children have access to a good preschool or any preschool at all. A levy on this November's ballot seeks to change that by adding a…

  3. Teachers' education, classroom quality, and young children's academic skills: results from seven studies of preschool programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Early, Diane M; Maxwell, Kelly L; Burchinal, Margaret; Alva, Soumya; Bender, Randall H; Bryant, Donna; Cai, Karen; Clifford, Richard M; Ebanks, Caroline; Griffin, James A; Henry, Gary T; Howes, Carollee; Iriondo-Perez, Jeniffer; Jeon, Hyun-Joo; Mashburn, Andrew J; Peisner-Feinberg, Ellen; Pianta, Robert C; Vandergrift, Nathan; Zill, Nicholas

    2007-01-01

    In an effort to provide high-quality preschool education, policymakers are increasingly requiring public preschool teachers to have at least a Bachelor's degree, preferably in early childhood education. Seven major studies of early care and education were used to predict classroom quality and children's academic outcomes from the educational attainment and major of teachers of 4-year-olds. The findings indicate largely null or contradictory associations, indicating that policies focused solely on increasing teachers' education will not suffice for improving classroom quality or maximizing children's academic gains. Instead, raising the effectiveness of early childhood education likely will require a broad range of professional development activities and supports targeted toward teachers' interactions with children.

  4. Quality in Preschool Education: The Views of Teachers and Assistant Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karademir, Abdulhamit; Cingi, Mehmet Akif; Dereli, Fatih; Akman, Berrin

    2017-01-01

    As the importance attached to preschool education has increased in recent years, researchers have begun to discuss the quality of educational and care services. This study aims to show the views of assistant teachers working at preschool educational institutions concerning quality, investigate their influence on quality, and reveal the effect of…

  5. Educational Process Quality in Preschools at the Individual Child Level: Findings from a German Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smidt, Wilfried; Rossbach, Hans-Günther

    2016-01-01

    A large body of research has examined the quality of educational processes in preschools, but it has usually been studied at the group level. Thus, there is a lack of research on the quality of educational processes as experienced by individual children. Therefore, this study investigated the quality of educational processes in preschools at the…

  6. African American Preschoolers' Emotion Explanations Can Provide Evidence of Their Pragmatic Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curenton, Stephanie M.

    2015-01-01

    This study provides qualitative and quantitative evidence of how an emotion explanation task can reflect African American preschoolers' pragmatic skills. We used an emotion explanation task to assess pragmatic skills among 19 children (aged 3-5 years) related to (1) engaging in conversational turn-taking, (2) answering "Wh-" questions,…

  7. Long-Run Benefits from Universal High-Quality Pre-Schooling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauchmüller, Robert; Gørtz, Mette; Rasmussen, Astrid Würtz

    of staff with a pedagogic education, and a higher share of teachers with non-Danish ethnic background lead to significant improvements in children’s test results in Danish at the end of the 9th grade. Boys benefit more from pre-school quality than girls. We address possible selectivity by using......This paper investigates the role of pre-school quality for children’s cognitive development at the end of elementary schooling (age 16). We use a unique dataset based on Danish admini-strative registers where pre-school children are linked to their pre-school and its pre-school teachers. Based...... on this, we generate five main quality indicators of pre-schools. Child out-comes are language test scores from final (9th grade) elementary school exams. Controlling for child background factors, we find that a higher number of staff members per child, a higher share of male staff, a higher share...

  8. The Role of Preschool Quality in Promoting Child Development: Evidence from Rural Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkman, Sally Anne; Hasan, Amer; Jung, Haeil; Kinnell, Angela; Nakajima, Nozomi; Pradhan, Menno

    2017-01-01

    This article examines the relationship between preschool quality and children's early development in a sample of over 7900 children enrolled in 578 preschools in rural Indonesia. Quality was measured by: (1) classroom observations using the Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale-Revised (ECERS-R); (2) teacher characteristics; and (3) structural…

  9. The role of preschool quality in promoting child development: evidence from rural Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinkman, S.A.; Hasan, A.; Jung, H.; Kinnell, A.; Nakajima, N.; Pradhan, M.

    2017-01-01

    This article examines the relationship between preschool quality and children’s early development in a sample of over 7900 children enrolled in 578 preschools in rural Indonesia. Quality was measured by: (1) classroom observations using the Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale-Revised (ECERS-R);

  10. Health Provider Networks, Quality and Costs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boone, J.; Schottmuller, C.

    2015-01-01

    We provide a modeling framework to think about selective contracting in the health care sector. Two health care providers differ in quality and costs. When buying health insurance, consumers observe neither provider quality nor costs. We derive an equilibrium where health insurers signal provider

  11. Health provider networks, quality and costs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boone, Jan; Schottmuller, C.

    2015-01-01

    We provide a modeling framework to think about selective contracting in the health care sector. Two health care providers differ in quality and costs. When buying health insurance, consumers observe neither provider quality nor costs. We derive an equilibrium where health insurers signal provider

  12. IMPROVING STUDENTS’ METHODOLOGICAL AND MATHEMATICAL TRAINING TO PROVIDING CONTINUITY BETWEEN PRESCHOOL AND PRIMARY EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetiana Bondarenko

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the problem of implementing the principle of continuity in the mathematical education of pre-school and primary school children in terms of restarting the primary school that caused the need to update the future teachers’ training. Integration into European and world educational space actualized the problem of creating conditions for development and personal fulfillment, search for effective ways of increasing future teachers’ training quality. The article aims to examine normative support and ways of improving students’ methodological and mathematical training for realization of continuity between pre-school and primary education. At the zeroth educational level the summarized results of learning (competence are to become child's readiness to learn at primary school. At the first level it is the ability to select and search for knowledge and ways of action to solve learning problems; learning and developing through mastery of the common ways of organizing learning activities; awareness of the need to continue their education and develop individual experience knowledge. The use of ICT, including methodological web quests, blended learning in the course of improving future specialists’ methodological and mathematical training to implement continuity between preschool and primary education leads to a sense of success, develops students’ ability to self-education. In authors’ view, a perspective area of future research is the development and selection of new tasks for using methodological web quests in order to improve the future specialists’ methodological and mathematical training to implement continuity between preschool and primary education, insurance in effective conditions of organizational and methodological support of the process.

  13. Depression, Control, and Climate: An Examination of Factors Impacting Teaching Quality in Preschool Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandilos, Lia E.; Cycyk, Lauren M.; Scheffner Hammer, Carol; Sawyer, Brook E.; López, Lisa; Blair, Clancy

    2015-01-01

    Research Findings: This study investigated the relationship of preschool teachers' self-reported depressive symptomatology, perception of classroom control, and perception of school climate to classroom quality as measured by the Classroom Assessment Scoring System Pre-K. The sample consisted of 59 urban preschool classrooms serving low-income and…

  14. The Pre-School Education Market in England from 1997: Quality, Availability, Affordability and Equity

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Anne

    2006-01-01

    This paper explores changes in the pre-school education market in England since the Labour Government came into office in 1997. It focuses in particular on quality, availability and affordability and in so doing explores issues of equity. It will be argued that whilst overall levels of pre-school educational provision have increased, there are…

  15. The Characteristics and Quality of Pre-School Education in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandstrom, Heather

    2012-01-01

    We examined 25 four-year-old pre-school classrooms from a random sample of 15 schools within a large urban city in southern Spain. Observational measures of classroom quality included the Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale-Revised, the Classroom Assessment Scoring System and the Observation of Activities in Pre-school. Findings revealed…

  16. Teachers’ actions and children’s interests. Quality becomings in preschool documentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarina Elfström Pettersson

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available High quality is considered to be important for children’s development and learning in early childhood education. Swedish preschool teachers are required to systematically develop their practice and support children’s learning, using documentation and taking children’s interests into account. From a posthumanist perspective, preschool documentation, models and templates could be seen as actively producing certain elements of quality.  Reading  documentation from eight Swedish preschool groups diffractively through different texts, such as the national curriculum, supportive texts and research, this article discusses how teachers’ actions and children’s interests are produced as important quality aspects in one of these groups.

  17. Parent-healthcare provider interaction during peripheral vein cannulation with resistive preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svendsen, Edel Jannecke; Moen, Anne; Pedersen, Reidar; Bjørk, Ida Torunn

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to increase understanding of parent-healthcare provider interaction in situations where newly admitted preschool children resist peripheral vein cannulation. Parent-healthcare provider interaction represents an important context for understanding children's resistance to medical procedures. Knowledge about this interaction can provide a better understanding of how restraint is used and talked about. Symbolic interactionism informed the understanding of interaction. An exploratory, qualitative study was chosen because little is known about these interactions. During 2012-2013, 14 naturalistic peripheral vein cannulation -attempts with six newly hospitalized preschool children were video recorded. Eight parents/relatives, seven physicians and eight nurses participated in this study. The analytical foci of turn-taking and participant structure were used. The results comprised three patterns of interactions. The first pattern, 'parents supported the interaction initiated by healthcare providers', was a response to the children's expressed resistance and they performed firm restraint together. The second pattern, 'parents create distance in interaction with healthcare providers', appeared after failed attempts and had a short time span. Parents stopped following up on the healthcare providers' interaction and their restraint became less firm. In the third pattern, 'healthcare providers reorient in interaction', healthcare providers took over more of the restraint and either helped each other to continue the interaction or they stopped it. Knowledge about the identified patterns of interactions can help healthcare providers to better understand and thereby prepare both parents and themselves for situations with potential use of restraint. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. The influence of parents and the home environment on preschoolers' physical activity behaviours: a qualitative investigation of childcare providers' perspectives

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tucker, Patricia; van Zandvoort, Melissa M; Burke, Shauna M; Irwin, Jennifer D

    2011-01-01

    .... This study sought to examine childcare providers' perspectives of the importance of parents and the home environment for supporting the physical activity behaviours of preschool-aged children (aged 2.5-5 years...

  19. A Preschool with Promise: How One District Provides Early Education for All

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubin, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    This article features a school district in Perth Amboy, New Jersey, that has created a full-day preschool program that helps prepare all children socially and academically for school. For students ages 3 and 4 in Perth Amboy, the two ideas--learning and fun--are one and the same. Through the district's full-day preschool program, teachers…

  20. Do Standard Measures of Preschool Quality Used in Statewide Policy Predict School Readiness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabol, Terri J.; Pianta, Robert C.

    2014-01-01

    In the majority of states using Quality Rating and Improvement Systems (QRIS) to improve children's school readiness, the Early Childhood Environmental Rating Scale-Revised (ECERS-R) is a core assessment of preschool program quality and is central to QRIS metrics and incentive structures. The present study utilizes nationally representative data…

  1. Two randomized trials provide no consistent evidence for nonmusical cognitive benefits of brief preschool music enrichment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel A Mehr

    Full Text Available Young children regularly engage in musical activities, but the effects of early music education on children's cognitive development are unknown. While some studies have found associations between musical training in childhood and later nonmusical cognitive outcomes, few randomized controlled trials (RCTs have been employed to assess causal effects of music lessons on child cognition and no clear pattern of results has emerged. We conducted two RCTs with preschool children investigating the cognitive effects of a brief series of music classes, as compared to a similar but non-musical form of arts instruction (visual arts classes, Experiment 1 or to a no-treatment control (Experiment 2. Consistent with typical preschool arts enrichment programs, parents attended classes with their children, participating in a variety of developmentally appropriate arts activities. After six weeks of class, we assessed children's skills in four distinct cognitive areas in which older arts-trained students have been reported to excel: spatial-navigational reasoning, visual form analysis, numerical discrimination, and receptive vocabulary. We initially found that children from the music class showed greater spatial-navigational ability than did children from the visual arts class, while children from the visual arts class showed greater visual form analysis ability than children from the music class (Experiment 1. However, a partial replication attempt comparing music training to a no-treatment control failed to confirm these findings (Experiment 2, and the combined results of the two experiments were negative: overall, children provided with music classes performed no better than those with visual arts or no classes on any assessment. Our findings underscore the need for replication in RCTs, and suggest caution in interpreting the positive findings from past studies of cognitive effects of music instruction.

  2. Two Randomized Trials Provide No Consistent Evidence for Nonmusical Cognitive Benefits of Brief Preschool Music Enrichment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehr, Samuel A.; Schachner, Adena; Katz, Rachel C.; Spelke, Elizabeth S.

    2013-01-01

    Young children regularly engage in musical activities, but the effects of early music education on children's cognitive development are unknown. While some studies have found associations between musical training in childhood and later nonmusical cognitive outcomes, few randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have been employed to assess causal effects of music lessons on child cognition and no clear pattern of results has emerged. We conducted two RCTs with preschool children investigating the cognitive effects of a brief series of music classes, as compared to a similar but non-musical form of arts instruction (visual arts classes, Experiment 1) or to a no-treatment control (Experiment 2). Consistent with typical preschool arts enrichment programs, parents attended classes with their children, participating in a variety of developmentally appropriate arts activities. After six weeks of class, we assessed children's skills in four distinct cognitive areas in which older arts-trained students have been reported to excel: spatial-navigational reasoning, visual form analysis, numerical discrimination, and receptive vocabulary. We initially found that children from the music class showed greater spatial-navigational ability than did children from the visual arts class, while children from the visual arts class showed greater visual form analysis ability than children from the music class (Experiment 1). However, a partial replication attempt comparing music training to a no-treatment control failed to confirm these findings (Experiment 2), and the combined results of the two experiments were negative: overall, children provided with music classes performed no better than those with visual arts or no classes on any assessment. Our findings underscore the need for replication in RCTs, and suggest caution in interpreting the positive findings from past studies of cognitive effects of music instruction. PMID:24349171

  3. Two randomized trials provide no consistent evidence for nonmusical cognitive benefits of brief preschool music enrichment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehr, Samuel A; Schachner, Adena; Katz, Rachel C; Spelke, Elizabeth S

    2013-01-01

    Young children regularly engage in musical activities, but the effects of early music education on children's cognitive development are unknown. While some studies have found associations between musical training in childhood and later nonmusical cognitive outcomes, few randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have been employed to assess causal effects of music lessons on child cognition and no clear pattern of results has emerged. We conducted two RCTs with preschool children investigating the cognitive effects of a brief series of music classes, as compared to a similar but non-musical form of arts instruction (visual arts classes, Experiment 1) or to a no-treatment control (Experiment 2). Consistent with typical preschool arts enrichment programs, parents attended classes with their children, participating in a variety of developmentally appropriate arts activities. After six weeks of class, we assessed children's skills in four distinct cognitive areas in which older arts-trained students have been reported to excel: spatial-navigational reasoning, visual form analysis, numerical discrimination, and receptive vocabulary. We initially found that children from the music class showed greater spatial-navigational ability than did children from the visual arts class, while children from the visual arts class showed greater visual form analysis ability than children from the music class (Experiment 1). However, a partial replication attempt comparing music training to a no-treatment control failed to confirm these findings (Experiment 2), and the combined results of the two experiments were negative: overall, children provided with music classes performed no better than those with visual arts or no classes on any assessment. Our findings underscore the need for replication in RCTs, and suggest caution in interpreting the positive findings from past studies of cognitive effects of music instruction.

  4. Child Care Providers' Knowledge About Dental Injury First Aid in Preschool-age Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sienkiewicz, Kristine L; Rainchuso, Lori; Boyd, Linda D; Giblin, Lori

    2017-06-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to assess child care providers' level of knowledge of first aid management and attitudes towards dental injuries among preschool-age children within Fairfield County, Connecticut and Boston, Massachusetts.Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study used a web-based, validated questionnaire adapted from several studies with permission from authors. A panel of 5 dental experts determined the relevance of the questions and overall content (I-CVI range 0.8-1; S-CVI = 0.95). The 28 question survey included demographics, level of knowledge, attitudes about traumatic dental injuries, emergency management, and 2 case study questions on management of luxation and tooth fracture. Survey data was coded and analyzed for associations and trends using STATA® statistics/data analysis software v. 11.2.Results: A total of 100 child care providers completed the online questionnaire. Eighty-four percent self-reported little to no knowledge about dental injury management. Sixty percent of child care providers agreed that they are responsible for managing dental injuries. Approximately two-thirds of child care providers reported not feeling adequately informed about dental injuries, with 77% expressing interest in receiving more information.Conclusions: The majority of child care providers' do not have the knowledge to perform adequate first aid following a dental injury. Professional development on first aid for dental injuries is recommended among this workforce population. Copyright © 2017 The American Dental Hygienists’ Association.

  5. Preschool and Child-Care Quality in California Neighborhoods: Policy Success, Remaining Gaps. PACE Working Paper Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Bruce; Holloway, Susan D.; Bozzi, Laurie; Burr, Elizabeth; Cohen, Nancy; Suzuki, Sawako

    Noting that the quality of child care and early education available to lower-income families has received considerable attention over the past decade, this study explored variability in the quality of California day care centers and preschools. Participating in the study were 170 centers and preschools situated among 20 California zip codes,…

  6. Conflict Inhibitory Control Facilitates Pretense Quality in Young Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Reet, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    The present research explores the role of inhibitory control (IC) in young preschoolers' pretense ability using an ego depletion paradigm. In Experiment 1 (N = 56), children's pretense ability was assessed either before or after participating in conflict IC or control tasks, and in Experiment 2 (N = 36), pretense ability was measured after…

  7. Investing in High Quality Preschool: Lessons from an Urban Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorman, Rebekah L.; Anthony, Elizabeth; Osborne-Fears, Billie; Fischer, Robert L.

    2017-01-01

    Large numbers of children of low income families in the United States arrive at kindergarten already far behind their more affluent peers on measures of school readiness. In the absence of any federal preschool policy and amidst alarm about this growing divide, universal prekindergarten (UPK) programs have been launched around the United States,…

  8. Providing better indoor environmental quality brings economicbenefits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisk, William; Seppanen, Olli

    2007-06-01

    This paper summarizes the current scientific evidence that improved indoor environmental quality can improve work performance and health. The review indicates that work and school work performance is affected by indoor temperature and ventilation rate. Pollutant source removal can sometimes improve work performance. Based on formal statistical analyses of existing research results, quantitative relationships are provided for the linkages of work performance with indoor temperature and outdoor air ventilation rate. The review also indicates that improved health and related financial savings are obtainable from reduced indoor tobacco smoking, prevention and remediation of building dampness, and increased ventilation. Example cost-benefit analyses indicate that many measures to improve indoor temperature control and increase ventilation rates will be highly cost effective, with benefit-cost ratios as high as 80 and annual economic benefits as high as $700 per person.

  9. The influence of parents and the home environment on preschoolers' physical activity behaviours: A qualitative investigation of childcare providers' perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irwin Jennifer D

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical activity offers numerous physiological and psychological benefits for young children; however, many preschool-aged children are not engaging in sufficient activity. The home environment, inclusive of parent role modeling, has been identified as influencing preschoolers' physical activity. This study sought to examine childcare providers' perspectives of the importance of parents and the home environment for supporting the physical activity behaviours of preschool-aged children (aged 2.5-5 years attending childcare. Methods A heterogeneous sample of childcare providers (n = 84; response rate 39% working at childcare facilities in London, Ontario participated. Thirteen semi-structured focus groups were conducted in London centres between February 2009 and February 2010. Focus groups were audio recorded and transcribed verbatim and inductive content analysis was used to code and classify themes. A number of strategies were used to verify the trustworthiness of the data. Results Childcare providers acknowledged their reliance on parents/guardians to create a home environment that complements the positive physical activity messaging children may receive in childcare. Moreover, childcare staff highlighted the need for positive parent role modeling and parent support to encourage active healthy lifestyles among young children. Conclusion This study's findings highlight the need for increased parent-caregiver partnering in terms of communication and cooperation in service of promoting appropriate amounts of physical activity among London preschoolers.

  10. Quality of Distance Education in Turkey: Preschool Teacher Training Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Gultekin

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Distance education is used for teacher training at different levels and fields in Turkey. Launched in the 2000-2001 academic year and still applied by Anadolu University, the Pre-School Teacher Training Program is one of those programs offered by distance education. This study aims to evaluate Anadolu University’s Preschool Teacher Training Program in Turkey by obtaining student opinions. A total of 1,026 senior students enrolled in the Preschool Education major at the Open Education Faculty of Anadolu University participated in the survey. A questionnaire to determine the opinions of students on the program was used as a means of data collection. Means (X and standard deviations (SD were employed to analyze the survey data. The results showed that although the teacher candidates study at a good level, they do not have a good record of watching the television programs. The results also revealed that the opinions of teacher candidates about the textbooks, television programs, teaching practices, and academic assistance services are positive.

  11. Tensions in Defining Quality Pre-School Education: The Singapore Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim-Ratnam, Christina

    2013-01-01

    Over the past decade, the government in Singapore has been introducing many initiatives in the early childhood sector to raise the quality of pre-school education. Educational reforms made without consideration of the perspectives and concerns of the participants in the socio-cultural milieu would only lead to superficial implementation. This…

  12. Health-related quality of life in preschool children in five health conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.T. Spuijbroek; R. Oostenbrink (Rianne); J.M. Landgraf (Jeanne); E. Rietveld (Edwin); A. de Goede-Bolder (Arja); E.F. van Beeck (Ed); M.E. van Baar (Margriet); H. Raat (Hein); H.A. Moll (Henriëtte)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractObjective: To test the responsiveness of the Infant/Toddler Quality of Life Questionnaire (ITQOL) to five health conditions. In addition, to evaluate the impact of the child's age and gender on the ITQOL domain scores. Methods: Observational study of 494 Dutch preschool-aged children

  13. Perceived Impact of Dental Pain on the Quality of Life of Preschool Children and Their Families

    OpenAIRE

    Clementino, Marayza Alves; Gomes, Monalisa Cesarino; Pinto-Sarmento, T?ssia Cristina de Almeida; Martins, Carolina Castro; Granville-Garcia, Ana Fl?via; Paiva, Saul Martins

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the perceived impact of dental caries and dental pain on oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) among preschool children and their families. A cross-sectional study was conduct with 843 preschool children in Campina Grande, Brazil. Parents/caregivers answered a questionnaire on socio-demographic information, their child's general/oral health and history of dental pain. The Brazilian version of the Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale was ...

  14. Diet quality of overweight and obese mothers and their preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laster, Leigh Ellen R; Lovelady, Cheryl A; West, Deborah G; Wiltheiss, Gina A; Brouwer, Rebecca J N; Stroo, Marissa; Østbye, Truls

    2013-11-01

    Children of obese parents are more likely to become obese than children of normal-weight parents. However, there is little information regarding the diet intakes of children of obese parents. Our objective was to determine the diet quality of preschoolers and their overweight/obese mothers, whether maternal and child diet quality were correlated, and predictors of child's diet quality. Results are from baseline measurements from a randomized controlled behavioral intervention. Participants were English-literate, postpartum mothers and their preschoolers (n=177 mother-child dyads) in North Carolina. Visits took place in the Triangle and Triad regions of North Carolina between September 2007 and November 2009. We measured diet quality of mothers and preschoolers using the Healthy Eating Index-2005. Descriptive statistics, χ(2), analysis of variance, Pearson correlations, and stepwise regression models were used. Only 11% of children and 7% of mothers had Healthy Eating Index-2005 scores ≥80. Most children did not meet recommendations for fruits, vegetables, whole grains, meat and beans, sodium, saturated fat, and energy from solid fat and added sugars. Child diet quality was correlated with maternal diet quality (r=0.44; Pdark green and orange vegetables and legumes (7% vs 19%), total grains (57% vs 71%), milk (63% vs 22%), and meat and beans (33% vs 60%). Maternal diet quality and household income were positively correlated with child diet quality. The diets of children of overweight/obese mothers need improvement in several areas. Mother's diet quality and household income are important contributors to child's diet quality and should be considered in efforts to improve the diets of these children. Copyright © 2013 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Latino Access to Preschool Stalls after Earlier Gains: Certain to Harden Achievement Gaps, Erode Workforce Quality. New Journalism on Latino Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Bruce; Kim, Anthony Y.

    2011-01-01

    It has been known that quality preschool can boost children's early literacy and social agility, skills valued highly by employers. The returns to preschool appear to be stronger for Latino children, especially those from non-English speaking families, compared with other populations. But newly available data reveal that preschool enrollment…

  16. Diet qualities: healthy and unhealthy aspects of diet quality in preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Sarah E; Ramsden, Megan; Kaye, Gail

    2016-06-01

    Diet quality indexes combine the healthy and unhealthy aspects of diet within a single construct, but few studies have evaluated their association. Emerging evidence suggests that predictors differ for the more and less healthy components of children's diets. Our objectives were to determine whether preschool-aged children's frequency of eating healthy foods was inversely related to their intake of unhealthy foods and to determine whether this differed by household income, maternal education, or child race-ethnicity. We analyzed data from a representative sample of 8900 US children (mean age: 52.5 mo) who were born in 2001 and participated in the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort. Primary caregivers reported the frequency with which children consumed fruit, vegetables, milk, juice, sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), fast food, sweets, and salty snacks in the past week. Response options ranged from none to ≥4 times/d. We created healthy (fruit, vegetables, milk) and unhealthy (SSBs, fast food, sweets, salty snacks) diet scores. Healthy diet behaviors were defined as ≥2 daily servings of fruit, vegetables, and milk. The prevalence of consuming fruit, vegetables, and milk ≥2 times/d (i.e., having 3 healthy diet behaviors) was 18.5%, and a similar proportion (17.6%) of children had none of these healthy behaviors. Contrary to our hypotheses, children with more healthy diet behaviors did not have lower unhealthy diet scores. The intake of healthy foods was not inversely associated with unhealthy foods overall or within any subgroup. Overall, the Spearman rank correlation between healthy and unhealthy diet scores was positive (r = 0.09). From the lowest to the highest strata of household income, these correlations were 0.12, 0.14, 0.14, 0.05, and 0.00, respectively. No evidence was found in US preschool-aged children of an inverse association between eating healthy and unhealthy foods. The implications of combining healthy and unhealthy aspects of diet

  17. SSB taxes and diet quality in US preschoolers: estimated changes in the 2010 Healthy Eating Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, C N; Poti, J M; Ng, S W; Popkin, B M

    2017-04-01

    Taxing sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) has been proposed as a strategy to combat child obesity. Yet it is unclear how a tax on SSBs might influence the overall quality of diet in preschool children. Thus, we use simulated price increases and the 2010 Healthy Eating Index (HEI-2010) to explore the relationship between SSB taxes and diet quality in preschool children. Price and purchase data from the 2009-2012 Nielsen Homescan Panel and a two-part marginal effects model were used to estimate relative changes in purchases with a 20% increase in the price of SSBs. Demand elasticities were applied to dietary intake data for children ages 2-5 years from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2009-2010 and 2011-2012) to estimate the impact of a 20% SSB tax on dietary intake and quality (HEI-2010). A 20% increase in the price of SSBs was associated with lower total caloric intake (-28 kcal d(-1) , p price (difference: -0.85, p quality as an isolated intervention among US preschool children. © 2016 World Obesity Federation.

  18. Indoor Air Quality and Respiratory Health among Malay Preschool Children in Selangor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Azwani Mohd Nor Rawi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Indoor air quality (IAQ has been the object of several studies due to its adverse health effects on children. Methods. A cross-sectional comparative study was carried out among Malay children in Balakong (2 studied preschools and Bangi (2 comparative preschools, Selangor, with the aims of determining IAQ and its association with respiratory health. 61 and 50 children aged 5-6 years were selected as studied and comparative groups. A questionnaire was used to obtain an exposure history and respiratory symptoms. Lung function test was carried out. IAQ parameters obtained include indoor concentration of particulate matter (PM, volatile organic compounds (VOCs, carbon monoxide (CO, carbon dioxide (CO2, temperature, air velocity (AV, and relative humidity. Results. There was a significant difference between IAQ in studied and comparative preschools for all parameters measured (P<0.001 except for CO2 and AV. Studied preschools had higher PM and CO concentration. FVC, FEV1, FVC% and FEV1% predicted values were significantly lower among studied group. Exposures to PM, VOCs, and CO were associated with wheezing. Conclusion. The finding concluded that exposures to poor IAQ might increase the risk of getting lung function abnormality and respiratory problems among study respondents.

  19. Quality of pre-school children's pretend play and subsequent development of semantic organization and narrative re-telling skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stagnitti, Karen; Lewis, Fiona M

    2015-04-01

    This study investigated if the quality of pre-school children's pretend play predicted their semantic organization and narrative re-telling ability when they were in early primary school. It was hypothesized that the elaborateness of a child's play and the child's use of symbols in play were predictors of their semantic organization and narrative re-tell scores of the School Age Oral Language Assessment. Forty-eight children were assessed using the Child-Initiated Pretend Play Assessment when they were aged 4-5 years. Three-to-five years after this assessment their semantic organization and narrative re-telling skills were assessed. Results indicate that the elaborateness of a child's play and their ability to use symbols was predictive of semantic organization skills. Use of symbols in play was the strongest play predictor of narrative re-telling skills. The quality of a pre-school child's ability to elaborate complex sequences in pretend play and use symbols predicted up to 20% of a child's semantic organization and narrative re-telling skills up to 5 years later. The study provides evidence that the quality of pretend play in 4-5 year olds is important for semantic organization and narrative re-telling abilities in the school-aged child.

  20. Impact of untreated dental caries on quality of life of preschool children: different stages and activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Jorge, Joana; Pordeus, Isabela A; Ramos-Jorge, Maria L; Marques, Leandro S; Paiva, Saul M

    2014-08-01

    The aim of the present population-based cross-sectional study was to evaluate the association between untreated dental caries, considering stages and activity, and the impact on OHRQoL among preschool children and their parents/caregivers. A randomly selected sample of 451 Brazilian preschool children aged three to 5 years underwent a clinical oral examination for the assessment of dental caries using the ICDAS II criteria. Parents/caregivers were asked to answer two questionnaires: one on the OHRQoL of the children (ECOHIS) and another on the demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of the children and families. Statistical analysis involved descriptive statistics, the chi-square test, Mann-Whitney test and hierarchically adjusted Poisson regression models. The prevalence of early childhood caries was 51.2%. The majority of teeth with caries exhibited severe decay (60.6%). Untreated severe decay, such as active lesions within visible dentin (P cavity without pulp exposure or fistula (P cavity with pulp exposure and absence of fistula (P = 0.003) and root remnant (P = 0.002), were associated with a negative impact on quality of life. Active and inactive untreated severe carious lesions were associated with a negative impact on the quality of life of preschoolers and their parents/caregivers. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Parents and Teachers‘ Voices of Quality Preschool: Preliminary findings from Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edi Waluyo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes preliminary findings of a study on Indonesian teachers and parents’ perspectives of quality preschool program. It departs in one hand from the context of the Indonesian government massive promotion of early childhood programs and on the other hand of the country top-down, government-dominated quality system. Moreover, it is contextualized within the growing body of literatures, which emphasizes the centrality of quality issues to early childhood service and the notion that quality is a complex, contextual, multifaceted construction and idea. This study found that even though parents and teachers’ constructions of quality share some commonalities with those of the government-constructed ones, they significantly differ. The government-constructed quality framework for example emphasizes on teacher formal qualification, but teachers and parents have moved beyond such formality and urged the importance of teacher personal character

  2. Quality Perception within Corporate E-Learning Providers in Catalonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangra, Albert; Fernandez-Michels, Pedro

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The paper seeks to describe the Catalan corporate e-learning providers from the perspective of quality perception, quality assessment and quality control. Design/methodology/approach: A literature review reveals key aspects of the definition of quality in e-learning. The results of the review constitute the basis for exploratory research…

  3. Latino family childcare providers' beliefs, attitudes, and practices related to promotion of healthy behaviors among preschool children: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Ana C; Salkeld, Judith A; Greaney, Mary L; Sands, Faith D

    2015-01-01

    The continuing rise of obesity among Latinos is a public health concern with an immediate need for early prevention. Changes in family structures have increased demand and reliance for child care for young children. Latino children are the fastest-growing segment of the child population in the United States, and research shows that Latino families use preschools and day care centers much less than those of other ethnic groups, apparently because of cultural preferences for family-like care. Given that many low income Latino children attend family child care homes (FCCHs), there is a need to explore the role that FCCH providers may play in establishing and reinforcing children's early healthful eating and physical activity behaviors and consequently in the prevention of childhood obesity. Using purposive sampling, six focus groups were conducted in Spanish with licensed Latino FCCH providers (n = 44). Data was analyzed to identify recurrent themes. Latino FCCH providers described how they play an influential role in promoting healthful eating and physical activity behaviors of preschool children in their care. They also identified many barriers and challenges in establishing and maintaining healthful nutrition and physical activity behaviors, including high cost of healthy foods, cold weather, and physical environment of FCCH. Latino FCCH providers can have a strong impact in promoting healthful behaviors in low-income, Latino communities. They may be able to effectively deliver interventions targeting low-income, minority families to promote healthful eating and physical activity behaviors and prevent child obesity.

  4. Impact of Traumatic Dental Injury on the Quality of Life of Brazilian Preschool Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria B. Siqueira

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to assess the impact of traumatic dental injury (TDI on the quality of life of preschoolers and their families. A cross-sectional study was carried out, with a sample of 814 children, aged three to five years old, in Campina Grande, Brazil. Parents/caregivers were asked to complete the Brazilian Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale and a questionnaire on socio-demographic data. Oral examinations of the children were performed by three previously calibrated dentists. Bivariate and multiple Poisson regression analyses were performed (α = 5%. The prevalence of negative impact from oral conditions on quality of life was 31.1% among the children and 24.7% among the families. TDI was not associated with a negative impact on quality of life. Parent/caregiver’s assessment of the child’s oral health (PR = 1.210; 95% CI: 1.027–1.426 and history of toothache (PR = 4.997; 95% CI: 2.943–8.493 remained in the final model for the child section, whereas only a history of toothache (PR = 2.791; 95% CI: 1.801–4.325 remained in the final model for the family section. TDI exerted no negative impact on quality of life in the present sample. A history of toothache was the only variable associated with a negative impact on the quality of life of the preschoolers and their families.

  5. Impact of traumatic dental injury on the quality of life of Brazilian preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siqueira, Maria B; Firmino, Ramon T; Clementino, Marayza A; Martins, Carolina C; Granville-Garcia, Ana F; Paiva, Saul M

    2013-11-28

    This study aimed to assess the impact of traumatic dental injury (TDI) on the quality of life of preschoolers and their families. A cross-sectional study was carried out, with a sample of 814 children, aged three to five years old, in Campina Grande, Brazil. Parents/caregivers were asked to complete the Brazilian Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale and a questionnaire on socio-demographic data. Oral examinations of the children were performed by three previously calibrated dentists. Bivariate and multiple Poisson regression analyses were performed (α = 5%). The prevalence of negative impact from oral conditions on quality of life was 31.1% among the children and 24.7% among the families. TDI was not associated with a negative impact on quality of life. Parent/caregiver's assessment of the child's oral health (PR = 1.210; 95% CI: 1.027-1.426) and history of toothache (PR = 4.997; 95% CI: 2.943-8.493) remained in the final model for the child section, whereas only a history of toothache (PR = 2.791; 95% CI: 1.801-4.325) remained in the final model for the family section. TDI exerted no negative impact on quality of life in the present sample. A history of toothache was the only variable associated with a negative impact on the quality of life of the preschoolers and their families.

  6. Impact of economic change on nutrition quality in preschool institutions in Macva district

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragičević Igor

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Health food safety is an absolute priority, whether it is a physical-chemical and microbiological safety. This applies particularly to vulnerable population groups. Particularly vulnerable population group is pre-school children. In this age, in addition to health security, as an important segment of the nutritional value of food. Nutritional value represents the energy value of meals, as well as a total in a certain amount (100g, as it looks at the energy density of meals. A reliable indicator of nutritional value, in addition to the mere satisfaction of energy needs, the amount and concentration ratio of macronutrients. This paper deals with the energy value of daily meals in preschools in Macva administrative district. The quality of the meal depends on several factors, such as the selection of food, preparation methods, expertise, personnel to create menus. This work focused on the economic situation in the whole society, as a factor affecting the quality of daily meals in preschools in Macva administrative district. Aim: To investigate the existence of statistically significant differences in the quality of daily meals in 2010, 2011 and 2012. Materials and methods: During the period under review were collected and analyzed data on the quality of the food at nine preschools in Macva administrative district. Data on the total caloric value, energy value in 100 grams, as well as data on the proportion of macronutrients carbohydrates, fats and proteins are analized and compared. The comparison of the results with the current regulations in the Republic of Serbia, and testing the statistical significance of the energy value variation and content of macronutrients in the observed poreioda. Results and Conclusion: The results showed that the total energy value does not satisfy 75% of daily needs, and that there is a significant reduction in the share of protein and increase in the proportion of carbohydrates. Test results indicate

  7. Quality of life in preschool children born preterm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Theunissen, N.C.M.; Veen, S.; Fekkes, M.; Koopman, H.M.; Zwinderman, K.A.H.; Brugman, E.; Wit, J.M.

    2001-01-01

    The relationship of preterm birth to health-related quality of life (HRQoL) was examined for children aged 1 to 4 years. Three gestational age groups with a NICU history were selected, <32 weeks (n=65), 32 to 36 weeks (n=41),≥37 weeks (n=54), and a reference group from the open population (n=50).

  8. Association between anterior open bite and impact on quality of life of preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Jorge, Joana; Motta, Thiago; Marques, Leandro Silva; Paiva, Saul Martins; Ramos-Jorge, Maria Letícia

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between different types of malocclusion and the impact on quality of life among preschoolers and their families. A cross-sectional study was carried out involving 451 children 3-5 years of age. A clinical exam was performed to evaluate the malocclusions according to criteria proposed by Foster and Hamilton. This examination was conducted by a calibrated dentist. Parents/caregivers answered the Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale (ECOHIS) for the assessment of Oral Health-Related Quality of Life (OHRQoL) and the questionnaire on socioeconomic and demographic characteristics. Data analysis involved descriptive statistics, chi-square, Mann-Whitney and hierarchically adjusted Poisson regression. The prevalence of malocclusion was 28.4%. The most frequent conditions were posterior crossbite (20.4%), anterior open bite (9.5%) and increased overjet (8.4%). A significant association was found between anterior open bite and OHRQoL (p impact on quality of life (PR = 2.55; 95%CI: 1.87 to 3.47; p impact on the quality of life of preschoolers.

  9. IMPACT OF DENTAL TRAUMA AND ESTHETIC IMPAIRMENT ON THE QUALITY OF LIFE OF PRESCHOOL CHILDREN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Bruna Miroski; Dias, Loraine Fernandes; Pereira, Carla da Silva; Ponte, Marcos Ximenes; Konrath, Andréa Cristina; Bolan, Michele da Silva; Cardoso, Mariane

    2017-09-21

    To evaluate the impact of dental trauma and impaired esthetics on the quality of life (QoL) of preschool children and their relatives. Study conducted with 192 children aged 2 to 5 years in 11 preschools in Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, South of Brazil. Parents/caregivers completed a questionnaire on quality of life (Brazilian version of the Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scales - B-ECOHIS), a socioeconomic survey, and then answered specific questions related to dental trauma. The subjects were examined by three accordant examiners (Kappa>0.7). Dental trauma was evaluated on the basis of indexes adopted by the World Health Organization, and esthetic impairment was then classified. Data were descriptively analyzed and put to bivariate analysis by chi-square and Fisher tests, with significance level at 5%. The prevalence of dental trauma was 62.5% with 15.6% of esthetic impairment. Almost 12% of parents reported impact on the quality of life of their children. Dental trauma was not significantly associated with gender, age or QoL. Crown color change by trauma was associated with esthetic impairment. Also esthetic impairment had a negative impact on QoL (pimpact on children's quality of life, while dental trauma was not associated to it.

  10. Privately Provided Accommodation Service Quality and Customer Satisfaction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Joshua Mugambwa; George William Mugerwa; Wilson Williams Mutumba; Claire Muganzi; Bridget Namubiru; Yusuf Waswa; Isaac Newton Kayongo

    2016-01-01

    .... This research took a case study of Nsamizi Training Institute of Social Development (NTISD) to determine the relationship between privately provided accommodation service quality and customer satisfaction...

  11. Preschoolers' vocabulary acquisition in Chile: the roles of socioeconomic status and quality of home environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohndorf, Regina T; Vermeer, Harriet J; Cárcamo, Rodrigo A; Mesman, Judi

    2017-09-21

    Preschoolers' vocabulary acquisition sets the stage for later reading ability and school achievement. This study examined the role of socioeconomic status (SES) and the quality of the home environment of seventy-seven Chilean majority and Mapuche minority families from low and lower-middle-class backgrounds in explaining individual differences in vocabulary acquisition of their three-and-a-half-year-old children. Additionally, we investigated whether the relation between SES and receptive and expressive vocabulary was mediated by the quality of the home environment as the Family Investment Model suggests. The quality of the home environment significantly predicted receptive and expressive vocabulary above and beyond ethnicity, SES, parental caregiver status, and quantity of daycare. Furthermore, the quality of the home environment mediated the relation between SES and expressive and receptive vocabulary acquisition.

  12. Healthcare quality management in Switzerland--a survey among providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaderli, Reto; Pfortmueller, Carmen A; Businger, Adrian P

    2012-04-27

    In the last decade assessing the quality of healthcare has become increasingly important across the world. Switzerland lacks a detailed overview of how quality management is implemented and of its effects on medical procedures and patients' concerns. This study aimed to examine the systematics of quality management in Switzerland by assessing the providers and collected parameters of current quality initiatives. In summer 2011 we contacted all of the medical societies in Switzerland, the Federal Office of Public Health, the Swiss Medical Association (FMH) and the head of Swiss medical insurance providers, to obtain detailed information on current quality initiatives. All quality initiatives featuring standardised parameter assessment were included. Of the current 45 initiatives, 19 were powered by medical societies, five by hospitals, 11 by non-medical societies, two by the government, two by insurance companies or related institutions and six by unspecified institutions. In all, 24 medical registers, five seals of quality, five circles of quality, two self-assessment tools, seven superior entities, one checklist and one combined project existed. The cost of treatment was evaluated by four initiatives. A data report was released by 24 quality initiatives. The wide variety and the large number of 45 recorded quality initiatives provides a promising basis for effective healthcare quality management in Switzerland. However, an independent national supervisory authority should be appointed to provide an effective review of all quality initiatives and their transparency and coordination.

  13. The Development of a Diet Quality Score for Preschool Children and Its Validation and Determinants in the Generation R Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voortman, T.; Kiefte-de Jong, J.C.; Geelen, A.; Villamor, G.B.; Moll, H.A.; Jongste, de J.C.; Raat, H.; Hofman, A.; Jaddoe, V.W.V.; Franco, O.H.; Hooven, van den E.H.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Although many studies have examined health effects of infant feeding, studies on diet quality shortly after the weaning and lactation period are scarce. Objectives: Our aims were to develop and evaluate a diet score that measures overall diet quality in preschool children and to examine

  14. Preschool Teacher Education as an Example of an Open Social System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekmen, Belkis

    2017-01-01

    With the realization of the substantial long-term educational, social, and economic benefits produced by high-quality preschool education, preschool teachers' education has come under increasing scrutiny in recent years. Moreover, other than the studies that focus on providing evidence for the impact of preschool education on children's outcomes,…

  15. Shared Reading Quality and Brain Activation during Story Listening in Preschool-Age Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutton, John S; Phelan, Kieran; Horowitz-Kraus, Tzipi; Dudley, Jonathan; Altaye, Mekibib; DeWitt, Tom; Holland, Scott K

    2017-12-01

    To explore the relationship between maternal shared reading quality (verbal interactivity and engagement) and brain function during story listening in at-risk, preschool-age children, in the context of behavioral evidence and American Academy of Pediatrics, recommendations. In this cross-sectional study, 22 healthy, 4-year-old girls from low socioeconomic status households completed functional magnetic resonance imaging using an established story listening task, followed by videotaped observation of uncoached mother-daughter reading of the same, age-appropriate picture book. Shared reading quality was independently scored applying dialogic reading and other evidence-based criteria reflecting interactivity and engagement, and applied as a predictor of neural activation during the functional magnetic resonance imaging task, controlling for income and maternal education. Shared reading quality scores were generally low and negatively correlated with maternal distraction by smartphones (P emotional integration, and working memory (P emotional processing in at-risk, preschool-age children. These findings represent novel neural biomarkers of how this modifiable aspect of home reading environment may influence foundational emergent literacy skills, reinforce behavioral evidence and American Academy of Pediatrics, recommendations, and underscore the potential of dialogic reading interventions to promote healthy brain development, especially in at-risk households. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Evaluation of patients ' satisfaction with quality of care provided at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The umpteenth threats to change of healthcare provider by dissatisfied patients on formal sector health insurance are well known and can be a proxy indicator for the need for quality improvement in service delivery. Objective: This study was aimed at evaluating patientsf satisfaction with quality of care provided ...

  17. Oral health-related quality of life among Brazilian preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarpelli, Ana Carolina; Paiva, Saul Martins; Viegas, Cláudia Marina; Carvalho, Anita Cruz; Ferreira, Fernanda Morais; Pordeus, Isabela Almeida

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of oral health conditions on oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) in population-based sample of Brazilian preschool children. A further aim was to identify the influence of socio-demographic profile and perceptions regarding general health and oral health status on OHRQoL. An epidemiological survey was carried out at public and private preschools in the city of Belo Horizonte, Brazil. The sample consisted of 1632 5-year-old male and female preschoolers randomly selected using a multi-stage sampling technique and their parents/caregivers. Oral examinations of the children were performed by a single, previously calibrated examiner for the assessment of dental caries experience, malocclusion, traumatic dental injury and developmental defects of enamel. Caregivers were asked to complete the Brazilian Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale (B-ECOHIS) and a form on socio-demographic data. Descriptive, bivariate and adjusted Poisson regression model analyses were carried out. In the child section of the B-ECOHIS, OHRQoL was negatively impacted by decayed, missing and filled teeth [prevalence ratios (PR) = 2.18; 95% CI, 1.88-2.52], position of the child among siblings in the family (PR = 1.20; 95% CI, 1.04-1.39), type of preschool (PR = 1.36; 95% CI, 1.10-1.69), age of parents/caregivers (PR = 1.18; 95% CI, 1.04-1.34), monthly household income (PR = 1.48; 95% CI, 1.18-1.85) and perception of the child's general health status (PR = 1.26; 95% CI, 1.06-1.51). In the family section, the adjusted results demonstrated a negative impact on OHRQoL associated with dental caries experience (PR = 3.40; 95% CI, 2.83-4.08), age of parents/caregivers (PR = 1.16; 95% CI, 1.01-1.33) and monthly household income (PR = 1.41; 95% CI, 1.16-1.72). Dental caries experience was the only normative criteria with a negative impact on OHRQoL. Families with low income and younger parents reported a greater impact on quality of life

  18. Provide good air quality for people and improve their productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fanger, Povl Ole

    2000-01-01

    Three recent independent studies have documented that the quality of indoor air has a significant and positive influence on the productivity of office workers. A combined analysis of the results of the three studies shows a significant relationship between productivity and perceived indoor air...... quality. The impact on productivity justifies a much higher indoor air quality than the minimum levels prescribed in present standards and guidelines. One way of providing air of high quality for people to breathe, without involving excessive ventilation rates and energy use, is to provide "personalized...

  19. Perceived Impact of Dental Pain on the Quality of Life of Preschool Children and Their Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clementino, Marayza Alves; Gomes, Monalisa Cesarino; Pinto-Sarmento, Tássia Cristina de Almeida; Martins, Carolina Castro; Granville-Garcia, Ana Flávia; Paiva, Saul Martins

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the perceived impact of dental caries and dental pain on oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) among preschool children and their families. A cross-sectional study was conduct with 843 preschool children in Campina Grande, Brazil. Parents/caregivers answered a questionnaire on socio-demographic information, their child's general/oral health and history of dental pain. The Brazilian version of the Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale was administered to determine the perceived impact of caries and dental pain on OHRQoL. The children underwent an oral examination. Logistic regression for complex sample was used to determine associations between the dependent and independent variables (OR: Odds ratio, α = 5%). The independents variables that had a p-value dental caries and dental pain was 66.3% and 9.4%, respectively. Order of birth of the child, being the middle child (OR: 10.107, 95%CI: 2.008-50.869) and youngest child (OR: 3.276, 95%CI: 1.048-10.284) and dental pain (OR: 84.477, 95%CI: 33.076-215.759) were significant predictors of the perceived impact on OHRQOL for children. Poor perception of oral health was significant predictor of the perceived impact on OHRQOL for family (OR=7.397, 95%CI: 2.190-24.987). Dental caries was not associated with a perceived impact on the ORHQoL of either the children or their families. However, order of child birth and dental pain were indicators of impact of OHRQoL on preschool children and poor perception of oral health was indicators of impact on families.

  20. Perceived Impact of Dental Pain on the Quality of Life of Preschool Children and Their Families.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marayza Alves Clementino

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the perceived impact of dental caries and dental pain on oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL among preschool children and their families. A cross-sectional study was conduct with 843 preschool children in Campina Grande, Brazil. Parents/caregivers answered a questionnaire on socio-demographic information, their child's general/oral health and history of dental pain. The Brazilian version of the Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale was administered to determine the perceived impact of caries and dental pain on OHRQoL. The children underwent an oral examination. Logistic regression for complex sample was used to determine associations between the dependent and independent variables (OR: Odds ratio, α = 5%. The independents variables that had a p-value <0.20 in the bivariate analysis were selected for the multivariate model. The prevalence of dental caries and dental pain was 66.3% and 9.4%, respectively. Order of birth of the child, being the middle child (OR: 10.107, 95%CI: 2.008-50.869 and youngest child (OR: 3.276, 95%CI: 1.048-10.284 and dental pain (OR: 84.477, 95%CI: 33.076-215.759 were significant predictors of the perceived impact on OHRQOL for children. Poor perception of oral health was significant predictor of the perceived impact on OHRQOL for family (OR=7.397, 95%CI: 2.190-24.987. Dental caries was not associated with a perceived impact on the ORHQoL of either the children or their families. However, order of child birth and dental pain were indicators of impact of OHRQoL on preschool children and poor perception of oral health was indicators of impact on families.

  1. Quality reform and "the learning pre-school child" in the making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krejsler, John B.

    2012-01-01

    The article argues that Early Childhood Education & Care (ECEC) is being redesigned based on quality reform discourse with references to global knowledge economy across Nordic countries and the EU. This takes place in policy processes that extend from transnational agents like the OECD and EU...... promotes governance structures among municipalities and professionals that pull ECEC into comprehensive educational strategies. This process draws on policy advice from the OECD and EU. Quality reform thus changes in fundamental ways the organisation and content in ECEC. In discourse, learning displaces...... playing, and the learning pre-school child emerges. Put together, this situation represents a paradigmatic challenge to professionals and the struggle about their autonomy and discretion....

  2. Swedish Preschool Teachers' Ideas of the Ideal Preschool Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramling Samuelsson, Ingrid; Williams, Pia; Sheridan, Sonja; Hellman, Annette

    2016-01-01

    In Sweden, preschool has been noted as being of a high quality compared to many other countries. However, dramatic changes in the preschool sector are taking place. A recent law states that it is a child's right to get a preschool place within a few months. As a consequence, the number of children in preschool has increased, which could influence…

  3. Provider communication and HPV vaccination: The impact of recommendation quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilkey, Melissa B.; Calo, William A.; Moss, Jennifer L.; Shah, Parth D.; Marciniak, Macary W.; Brewer, Noel T.

    2016-01-01

    Background Receiving a healthcare provider’s recommendation is a strong predictor of HPV vaccination, but little is known empirically about which types of recommendation are most influential. Thus, we sought to investigate the relationship between recommendation quality and HPV vaccination among U.S. adolescents. Methods In 2014, we conducted a national, online survey of 1,495 parents of 11- to 17-year-old adolescents. Parents reported whether providers endorsed HPV vaccination strongly, encouraged same-day vaccination, and discussed cancer prevention. Using an index of these quality indicators, we categorized parents as having received no, low-quality, or high-quality recommendations for HPV vaccination. Separate multivariable logistic regression models assessed associations between recommendation quality and HPV vaccine initiation (≥1 dose), follow through (3 doses, among initiators), refusal, and delay. Results Almost half (48%) of parents reported no provider recommendation for HPV vaccination, while 16% received low-quality recommendations and 36% received high-quality recommendations. Compared to no recommendation, high-quality recommendations were associated with over nine times the odds of HPV vaccine initiation (23% vs. 74%, OR=9.31, 95% CI, 7.10–12.22) and over three times the odds of follow through (17% vs. 44%, OR=3.82, 95% CI, 2.39–6.11). Low-quality recommendations were more modestly associated with initiation (OR=4.13, 95% CI, 2.99–5.70), but not follow through. Parents who received high-versus low-quality recommendations less often reported HPV vaccine refusal or delay. Conclusions High-quality recommendations were strongly associated with HPV vaccination behavior, but only about one-third of parents received them. Interventions are needed to improve not only whether, but how providers recommend HPV vaccination for adolescents. PMID:26812078

  4. Health-related quality of life, emotional and behavioral problems in mild to moderate prematures at (pre-)school age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ketharanathan, N.; Lee, W.; Mol, A.C. de

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is a gap in the knowledge of longterm outcome of mild to moderate prematures compared to the extreme prematures or very low birth weight infants. AIM: Determine health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and prevalence of emotional and behavioral problems in (pre-)school age children

  5. Quality in Family Child Care: A Focus Group Study with Canadian Providers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, Gillian

    2015-01-01

    A substantial proportion of American, Canadian and English preschoolers regularly participate in family child care making its quality of vital importance for the children concerned, their parents, the school system and the society in which they live. This article discusses the seven key caregiver behaviors and physical space characteristics…

  6. The impact of preschool wheezing patterns on health-related quality of life at age 4 years pattern of pulmonary adenocarcinoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hafkamp-De Groen, E.; Mohangoo, A.D.; Landgraf, J.M.; Jongste, J.C. de; Duijts, L.; Moll, H.A.; Jaddoe, V.W.V.; Hofmane, A.; Raat, H.

    2013-01-01

    We assessed whether dynamic preschool wheezing patterns affect health-related quality of life (HRQOL) at age 4 years. The study included 3878 children participating a prospective cohort study. Information on preschool wheezing was obtained by questionnaire and children were categorised into: never,

  7. Do public nursing home care providers deliver higher quality than private providers? Evidence from Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winblad, Ulrika; Blomqvist, Paula; Karlsson, Andreas

    2017-07-14

    Swedish nursing home care has undergone a transformation, where the previous virtual public monopoly on providing such services has been replaced by a system of mixed provision. This has led to a rapidly growing share of private actors, the majority of which are large, for-profit firms. In the wake of this development, concerns have been voiced regarding the implications for care quality. In this article, we investigate the relationship between ownership and care quality in nursing homes for the elderly by comparing quality levels between public, for-profit, and non-profit nursing home care providers. We also look at a special category of for-profit providers; private equity companies. The source of data is a national survey conducted by the Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare in 2011 at 2710 nursing homes. Data from 14 quality indicators are analyzed, including structure and process measures such as staff levels, staff competence, resident participation, and screening for pressure ulcers, nutrition status, and risk of falling. The main statistical method employed is multiple OLS regression analysis. We differentiate in the analysis between structural and processual quality measures. The results indicate that public nursing homes have higher quality than privately operated homes with regard to two structural quality measures: staffing levels and individual accommodation. Privately operated nursing homes, on the other hand, tend to score higher on process-based quality indicators such as medication review and screening for falls and malnutrition. No significant differences were found between different ownership categories of privately operated nursing homes. Ownership does appear to be related to quality outcomes in Swedish nursing home care, but the results are mixed and inconclusive. That staffing levels, which has been regarded as a key quality indicator in previous research, are higher in publicly operated homes than private is consistent with earlier

  8. Providing quality palliative care in end-stage Alzheimer disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeaman, Paul A; Ford, James L; Kim, Kye Y

    2013-08-01

    Providing quality palliative care is a daunting task profoundly impacted by diminished patient capacity at the end of life. Alzheimer disease (AD) is a disorder that erases our memories and is projected to increase dramatically for decades to come. By the time the patients with AD reach the end stage of the disease, the ability of patients to provide pertinent subjective complaints of pain and discomfort would have vanished. Historical perspectives of palliative care, exploration of the AD process, ethical issues, and crucial clinical considerations are provided to improve the understanding of disease progression and quality of care for patients with end-stage AD.

  9. Parents' perceptions of the services provided to children with cerebral palsy in the transition from preschool rehabilitation to school-based services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alsem, M. W.; Verhoef, M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/290465508; Gorter, J. W.; Langezaal, L. C M; Visser-Meily, J. M A|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/180428047; Ketelaar, M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/180866850

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To describe the course of parents' perceptions of the family centredness of rehabilitation services provided to their children with cerebral palsy (CP) before and after the transition from preschool to school-based services. Background: Parents of 59 children with CP aged 2.5 to 4.5 years

  10. Privately Provided Accommodation Service Quality and Customer Satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Mugambwa

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Privately provided accommodation is a growing service in Uganda’s higher education sector due to education liberalization and demand for education. This research took a case study of Nsamizi Training Institute of Social Development (NTISD to determine the relationship between privately provided accommodation service quality and customer satisfaction. Specifically, the objectives of the study were (a to find out the relationship between security and NTISD students’ satisfaction with privately provided accommodation, and (b to find out the hierarchical level of importance of NTISD student satisfaction of the three service quality dimensions (reliability, security, and tangibles with privately provided accommodation. Using quantitative and qualitative modes of data analysis and a sample of 300 students from 20 private hostels, this study established a strong positive significant relationship between security and satisfaction regarding privately provided accommodation. This implies that accommodation service providers should increase the quality of security so as to increase the satisfaction of students regarding privately provided accommodation. The study established the hierarchical order of importance from the most important service quality dimension, respectively, as follows: reliability, security, and tangibles. Therefore, private accommodation service managers should pay extra attention to the dimensions in the same order.

  11. Provider diversity in the NHS: impact on quality and innovation

    OpenAIRE

    Bartlett, Will; Allen, Pauline; Pérotin, Virginie; Turner, Simon; Zamora, Bernarda; Matchaya, Greenwell; Roberts, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    The overall objective of the research project has been to assess the impact of provider diversity on quality and innovation in the NHS. The specific research aims were to identify the differences in performance between non-profit Third Sector organisations, for-profit private enterprises, and incumbent public sector institutions within the NHS as providers of health care services, as well as the factors that affect the entry and growth of new private and Third Sector providers.\\ud The study u...

  12. The Quality of Early Childhood Education Curriculum Framework in the Republic of Serbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krnjaja, Živka

    2015-01-01

    The paper addresses Serbian preschool education Curriculum Framework as one of dimensions of the preschool education quality. The first part of paper deals with the importance of preschool education worldwide as a social responsibility and its accountability in education policy. The second part provides the evaluation of the preschool education…

  13. Children's Support Services: Providing a System of Care for Urban Preschoolers with Significant Behavioral Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewhey, Karen

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author features the Children's Support Services (CSS) project in Lowell, Massachusetts, which is an interagency, multidisciplinary program that provides young children and their families a range of child development, mental health, and family support services. The CSS project, which was begun in September 2000, addresses the…

  14. The Roots of Quality Care: Strengths of Master Providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Ruth Harding

    2002-01-01

    Reviews research on characteristics and resources of family child caregivers providing high quality care. Focuses on regulation, lifelong learning in early childhood education, psychological well-being, commitment to child care, supportive child care connections, and a solid financial foundation. Maintains that consumer education can help parents…

  15. Disparities in early childhood caries and its impact on oral health-related quality of life of preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krisdapong, Sudaduang; Somkotra, Tewarit; Kueakulpipat, Wilai

    2014-05-01

    This study aimed to investigate the caries experience and its impact on preschool children's quality of life and the associations between these outcomes and underlying determinants. A survey was conducted on 5- to 6-year-old children (503 in all) in Bangkok who were orally examined and interviewed on their oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL). In addition, behavioral questionnaires were sent to parents. Associations between determinants and oral health outcomes were tested through logistic regression. It was found that 28% of children experienced high-level impacts on quality of life, mostly dental pain (58.3%) and eating difficulties (45.9%). Children of low socioeconomic status were more likely to have a high level of dental caries and subsequent OHRQoL impact. Oral status was related to oral behaviors and OHRQoL. Social disparities in preschool children's OHRQoL were identified. © 2012 APJPH.

  16. Provider communication quality: influence of patients' weight and race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Michelle S; Gudzune, Kimberly A; Bleich, Sara N

    2015-04-01

    To examine the relationship between patient weight and provider communication quality and determine whether patient race/ethnicity modifies this association. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis with 2009-2010 medical expenditures panel survey-household component (N=25,971). Our dependent variables were patient report of providers explaining well, listening, showing respect, and spending time. Our independent variables were patient weight status and patient weight-race/ethnicity groups. Using survey weights, we performed multivariate logistic regression to examine the adjusted association between patient weight and patient-provider communication measures, and whether patient race/ethnicity modifies this relationship. Compared to healthy weight whites, obese blacks were less likely to report that their providers explained things well (OR 0.78; p=0.02) or spent enough time with them (OR 0.81; p=0.04), and overweight blacks were also less likely to report that providers spent enough time with them (OR 0.78; p=0.02). Healthy weight Hispanics were also less likely to report adequate provider explanations (OR 0.74; p=0.04). Our study provides preliminary evidence that overweight/obese black and healthy weight Hispanic patients experience disparities in provider communication quality. Curricula on weight bias and cultural competency might improve communication between providers and their overweight/obese black and healthy weight Hispanic patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Agents for change: nonphysician medical providers and health care quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucher, Nathan A; Mcmillen, Marvin A; Gould, James S

    2015-01-01

    Quality medical care is a clinical and public health imperative, but defining quality and achieving improved, measureable outcomes are extremely complex challenges. Adherence to best practice invariably improves outcomes. Nonphysician medical providers (NPMPs), such as physician assistants and advanced practice nurses (eg, nurse practitioners, advanced practice registered nurses, certified registered nurse anesthetists, and certified nurse midwives), may be the first caregivers to encounter the patient and can act as agents for change for an organization's quality-improvement mandate. NPMPs are well positioned to both initiate and ensure optimal adherence to best practices and care processes from the moment of initial contact because they have robust clinical training and are integral to trainee/staff education and the timely delivery of care. The health care quality aspects that the practicing NPMP can affect are objective, appreciative, and perceptive. As bedside practitioners and participants in the administrative and team process, NPMPs can fine-tune care delivery, avoiding the problem areas defined by the Institute of Medicine: misuse, overuse, and underuse of care. This commentary explores how NPMPs can affect quality by 1) supporting best practices through the promotion of guidelines and protocols, and 2) playing active, if not leadership, roles in patient engagement and organizational quality-improvement efforts.

  18. Impact of traumatic dental injury on quality of life among Brazilian preschool children and their families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viegas, Cláudia Marina; Scarpelli, Ana Carolina; Carvalho, Anita Cruz; Ferreira, Fernanda de Morais; Pordeus, Isabela Alameida; Paiva, Saul Martins

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of traumatic dental injury (TDI) on the quality of life of preschool children and their families. This cross-sectional study was carried out with 388 60- to 71-month-old children. Data on oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) were collected using the Brazilian version of the Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale (ECOHIS). Oral examinations of the children were performed to determine the prevalence of TDI. Data analysis involved the chi-square test and multiple Poisson regression analysis. The prevalence of OHRQoL of the children and their families was approximately 49% and 35%, respectively. The adjusted Poisson regression model revealed that the OHRQoL of the children and their families was significantly related to parents'/caregivers' report of the occurrence of TDI (PR =1.54, 95% confidence interval=1.22-1.93; and PR=1.63, 95% CI=1.21-2.19, respectively). The nonadjusted Poisson regression analysis, the OHRQofL of the children and their families was not related to TDI, as determined by the clinical examination (PR=1.15, 95% CI=0.92-1.42; and PR=1.28, 95% CI=0.95-1.71, respectively). The families and children who had traumatic dental injury, perceived by the parents/caregivers, had a greater chance of reporting an impact on quality of life.

  19. Abortion providers, stigma and professional quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Lisa A; Debbink, Michelle; Hassinger, Jane; Youatt, Emily; Harris, Lisa H

    2014-12-01

    The Providers Share Workshop (PSW) provides abortion providers safe space to discuss their work experiences. Our objectives were to assess changes in abortion stigma over time and explore how stigma is related to aspects of professional quality of life, including compassion satisfaction, burnout and compassion fatigue for providers participating in the workshops. Seventy-nine providers were recruited to the PSW study. Surveys were completed prior to, immediately following and 1 year after the workshops. The outcome measures were the Abortion Provider Stigma Survey and the Professional Quality of Life (ProQOL) survey. Baseline ProQOL scores were compared to published averages using t tests. Changes in abortion stigma and aspects of professional quality of life were assessed by fitting a two-level random-effects model with repeated measures at level 1 (period-level) and static measures (e.g., demographic data) at level 2 (person-level). Potential covariates included age, parenting status, education, organizational tenure, job type and clinic type (stand-alone vs. hospital-based clinics). Compared to other healthcare workers, abortion providers reported higher compassion satisfaction (t=2.65, p=.009) and lower burnout (t=5.13, pabortion stigma as a significant predictor of lower compassion satisfaction, higher burnout and higher compassion fatigue. Participants in PSW reported a reduction in abortion stigma over time. Further, stigma is an important predictor of compassion satisfaction, burnout and compassion fatigue, suggesting that interventions aimed at supporting the abortion providing workforce should likely assess abortion stigma. Stigma is an important predictor of compassion satisfaction, burnout and compassion fatigue among abortion care providers. Therefore, strengthening human resources for abortion care requires stigma reduction efforts. Participants in the PSWs show reductions in stigma over time. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Impact of oral hygiene on oral health-related quality of life of preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaghaghian, S; Bahmani, M; Amin, M

    2015-08-01

    To assess the impact of oral hygiene of preschool children and parental attitude on children's oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL). In this cross-sectional study, 396 children of Shiraz kindergartens were selected by a randomized cluster sampling. Children's oral hygiene was assessed using the Simplified Debris Index (DI-S) and a self-made questionnaire about oral hygiene habits. Children's OHRQoL was evaluated by the Farsi version of Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale (F-ECOHIS). The effect of oral hygiene determinants on OHRQoL was measured using Pearson and Spearman correlation, independent-sample t-test and anova. Children's mean DI-S and F-ECOHIS scores were 1.19 (± 0.77) and 19.36 (±8.42), respectively. Only 75% of the children had their teeth brushed once a day or more, and in 28%, toothbrushing had started before 2 years of age. DI-S values (P impact on OHRQoL of the children. Children's OHRQoL was also significantly associated with parents' attitude towards the importance of brushing deciduous teeth (P = 0.002). Oral health status of preschool children in Shiraz was less than optimal and had a significant impact on their OHRQoL. Therefore, improvement of children's OHRQoL could be achieved by improving their home dental care. Strategies promoting parental attitude about the importance of children's toothbrushing may significantly influence children's oral hygiene and are highly recommended. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. FOCUS: Essential Elements of Quality for State-Funded Preschool Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    New Mexico Public Education Department, 2016

    2016-01-01

    The "FOCUS: Essential Elements of Quality, New Mexico's Tiered Quality Rating and Improvement System (TQRIS)," provides early childhood program personnel with the criteria, tools, and resources they need to improve the quality of their program. These quality improvements focus on children's growth, development, and learning--so that each…

  2. Reducing Poverty through Preschool Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Greg J.; Ludwig, Jens; Magnuson, Katherine A.

    2007-01-01

    Greg Duncan, Jens Ludwig, and Katherine Magnuson explain how providing high-quality care to disadvantaged preschool children can help reduce poverty. In early childhood, they note, children's cognitive and socioemotional skills develop rapidly and are sensitive to "inputs" from parents, home learning environments, child care settings, and the…

  3. Examining Pre-School Classroom Quality in a Statewide Quality Rating and Improvement System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Lieny; Buettner, Cynthia K.; Hur, Eunhye

    2014-01-01

    Background: Research has documented the importance of high-quality early childhood experiences in preparing children for school. Quality rating and improvement systems (QRIS) have recently emerged in many states as a way to build quality of child care and to promote better child outcomes. Objective: The goal of this study was to determine if…

  4. Ways to improve the professionalism quality of pre-school teachers in the implementation of developing training in practice of preschool educational institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Бахышева Шарафат Арам кызы

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In the article the problems of pre-school teachers’ training in the process of implementation in pre-school "Curriculum of pre-school education in the Republic of Azerbaijan" are revealed. Difficulties and positive aspects in the work of teachers implementing developing training are marked. Education upgrading requires knowledge of trends of innovative developments in this system, objectives, content, forms and methods of work from pre-school teachers

  5. Should bus commuting be subsidized for providing quality transport ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    e-mail: geetamt@gmail.com. Abstract. Urban transport has ... (ii) Should bus prices be subsidized in order to provide a quality public transport system? (iii) How large is the modal shift in favour ..... been derived through a speed-flow relationship function, with a car free flow speed of 45 km/h, peak traffic speed of 24 km/h and ...

  6. The Quality Rating System of Chinese Preschool Education: Prospects and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Bi Ying; Li, Kejian

    2012-01-01

    In China, the Central People's Government (2010) recently promulgated the "Compendium for China's Mid- and Long-Term Education Development," which declared that 95% of Chinese children should receive at least one year of preschool education, while 75% of children should receive a three-year preschool education by 2020. Subsequently, The…

  7. Impact of early childhood caries on oral health-related quality of life of preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, M Y; Zhi, Q H; Zhou, Y; Qiu, R M; Lin, H C

    2015-03-01

    Child oral health-related quality of life (COHRQoL) has been assessed in developed areas; however, it remains unstudied in mainland China. Studies on COHRQoL would benefit a large number of children in China suffering from oral health problems such as dental caries. This study explored the relationship between COHRQoL and early childhood caries, adjusted by socioeconomic factors, in 3- to 4-year-old children in a region of southern China. In this study, 1062 children aged 3-4 years were recruited by cluster sampling and their oral health statuses were examined by a trained dentist. The Chinese version of the Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale (ECOHIS) and questions about the children's socioeconomic conditions were completed by the children's parents. A negative binomial regression analysis was used to assess the prevalence of early childhood caries among the children and its influence on COHRQoL. The total ECOHIS scores of the returned scale sets ranged from 0 to 31, and their average scores was 3.1±5.1. The negative binomial analysis showed that the dmfs indices were significantly associated with the ECOHIS score and subscale scores (Pimpact on COHRQoL (RR = 1.10; 95% CI = 1.07, 1.13; P 0.05). The severity of early childhood caries has a negative impact on the oral health-related quality of life of preschool children and their parents.

  8. Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the Malay language version of the TZO-AZL Preschool Children Quality of Life questionnaire: A health-related quality of life instrument for preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, Chee Geap; Jalaludin, Muhammad Yazid; Low, Wah Yun; Lim, Chin Theam

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the psychometric properties of the translated Malay language version of TZO-AZL Preschool Children Quality of Life (TAPQOL) questionnaire in preschool children. Preterm children and term children aged between two and five years were enrolled into the study. The Malay language version of TAPQOL and a set of questions regarding the child's health status were answered by the caregivers. The internal consistency, Spearman's correlation coefficients and principal component analysis (PCA) with Varimax rotation and Mann-Whitney U test for group comparison were employed to evaluate the psychometric properties of this instrument. A total of 258 children (120 preterm children and 138 term children) were recruited to this study with a response rate of 94%. All (sub)domains except one had Cronbach's α coefficients of more than .7. The Spearman's correlation coefficients between 12 subdomains were generally low. PCA supported the structural unidimensionality of the items in the instrument. Preterm children had lower quality of life scores than that of term children. Malay version of TAPQOL has multidimensional construct. It is a reliable and valid instrument for preschool children, with almost similar psychometric properties to the original version. © The Author(s) 2013.

  9. Sleep architecture in healthy 5-year-old preschool children: associations between sleep schedule and quality variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, Sachiko; Iwata, Osuke; Iemura, Akiko; Iwasaki, Mizue; Matsuishi, Toyojiro

    2012-03-01

    Although disturbed sleep quality such as night awakenings and difficulties in falling asleep are common symptoms during sleep in preschool children, relationships between sleep quality and sleep schedule are mostly unknown. This study aimed to evaluate the relationships between sleep schedule and quality variables in preschool children. Sleep-wake patterns of 48 healthy 5-year-old children were assessed over 7 consecutive days using actigraphy. Children with longer sleep latency had a lower sleep quality, a later bedtime, a later sleep onset time, a shorter nocturnal sleep period and a longer daytime nap. Children with a longer nocturnal sleep period on weekends compared with weekdays had longer sleep latency and a later sleep onset time on weekdays, resulting in a lower sleep quality on weekends. An irregular bedtime on weekdays was associated with a later sleep onset time and a shorter sleep period on weekends. Sleep quality and schedule were linked with each other, which may explain why sleep problems tend to aggregate and form a wider syndrome of disturbed sleep even in young children. Strategies solely targeting the improvement of sleep quantity may not promote ideal sleep; simultaneous considerations for the sleep rhythm and quality may be required. © 2011 The Author(s)/Acta Paediatrica © 2011 Foundation Acta Paediatrica.

  10. Influence of maternal dental anxiety on oral health-related quality of life of preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goettems, Marília Leão; Ardenghi, Thiago Machado; Romano, Ana Regina; Demarco, Flávio Fernando; Torriani, Dione Dias

    2011-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the influence of maternal dental anxiety on perceptions about oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) of preschool children. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 608 mother-child dyads during the Children's National Immunization Campaign in Pelotas, Brazil. Mothers answered a questionnaire on dental anxiety (DAS), socioeconomic status, use of dental services, and perception of their child's OHRQoL (ECOHIS). The ECOHIS includes a child impact section (symptoms, function, psychological, self-image/social interaction domains) and a family impact section (parent distress and family function domains). Clinical examination of the children was performed to assess dental caries, dental trauma, and occlusal traits occurrence. The association assessment used Poisson regression models (RR; 95%CI, P ≤ 0.05). Anxious mothers presented higher scores in the parent distress domain. Higher impacts on OHRQoL were observed in children presenting untreated dental caries; children whose mothers had not completed primary education; and those who had non-regular use of dental services. Mean ECOHIS total score was not influenced by maternal dental anxiety. However, anxiety had a negative effect on the perception of the impact of the child's oral health problems in the family, affecting the parent distress domain.

  11. The impact of preschool wheezing patterns on health-related quality of life at age 4 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafkamp-de Groen, Esther; Mohangoo, Ashna D; Landgraf, Jeanne M; de Jongste, Johan C; Duijts, Liesbeth; Moll, Henriëtte A; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Hofman, Albert; Raat, Hein

    2013-04-01

    We assessed whether dynamic preschool wheezing patterns affect health-related quality of life (HRQOL) at age 4 years. The study included 3878 children participating a prospective cohort study. Information on preschool wheezing was obtained by questionnaire and children were categorised into: never, early, late and persistent wheezing. At age 4 years HRQOL was measured using the Child Health Questionnaire (CHQ). Persistent wheezing was associated with reduced scores for nine out of 13 CHQ scales. No differences in psychosocial CHQ scores (p>0.05), but lower physical CHQ scores were found in children with late and persistent wheezing, compared to children who never wheezed (ppreschool age independently affects a child's HRQOL, particularly general health perceptions and physical domains at age 4 years. HRQOL was more affected by frequent wheezing episodes in the fourth year of life, rather than by the duration of wheezing at age 0-4 years.

  12. Impact of oral mucosal conditions on oral health-related quality of life in preschool children: a hierarchical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira-Andrade, Raquel Gonçalves; Martins-Júnior, Paulo Antônio; Corrêa-Faria, Patrícia; Marques, Leandro Silva; Paiva, Saul Martins; Ramos-Jorge, Maria Letícia

    2015-03-01

    To determine the impact of oral mucosal conditions on OHRQoL in preschool children. A cross-sectional study was carried out with a selected representative sample of 724 children aged 2-5 years and their parents/caregivers. Data were collected through interviews with parents/caregivers, who also answered the B-ECOHIS. A clinical oral examination was performed to determine oral mucosal conditions, dental caries, dental trauma, and malocclusion. Data analysis involved descriptive statistics, the Kolmogorov-Smirnov normality test, the Mann-Whitney U-test and hierarchically adjusted Poisson regression models (P impact on children's OHRQoL. Child with 5 years of age, presence of fistula, and dental caries were associated with a negative impact on the quality of life of preschool children. © 2014 BSPD, IAPD and John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. An ethnographic study of Latino preschool children's oral health in rural California: Intersections among family, community, provider and regulatory sectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horton Sarah B

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Latino children experience a higher prevalence of caries than do children in any other racial/ethnic group in the US. This paper examines the intersections among four societal sectors or contexts of care which contribute to oral health disparities for low-income, preschool Latino1 children in rural California. Methods Findings are reported from an ethnographic investigation, conducted in 2005–2006, of family, community, professional/dental and policy/regulatory sectors or contexts of care that play central roles in creating or sustaining low income, rural children's poor oral health status. The study community of around 9,000 people, predominantly of Mexican-American origin, was located in California's agricultural Central Valley. Observations in homes, community facilities, and dental offices within the region were supplemented by in-depth interviews with 30 key informants (such as dental professionals, health educators, child welfare agents, clinic administrators and regulatory agents and 47 primary caregivers (mothers of children at least one of whom was under 6 years of age. Results Caregivers did not always recognize visible signs of caries among their children, nor respond quickly unless children also complained of pain. Fluctuating seasonal eligibility for public health insurance intersected with limited community infrastructure and civic amenities, including lack of public transportation, to create difficulties in access to care. The non-fluoridated municipal water supply is not widely consumed because of fears about pesticide pollution. If the dentist brought children into the clinic for multiple visits, this caused the accompanying parent hardship and occasionally resulted in the loss of his or her job. Few general dentists had received specific training in how to handle young patients. Children's dental fear and poor provider-parent communication were exacerbated by a scarcity of dentists willing to serve rural

  14. Exploring the impact of oral diseases and disorders on quality of life of preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Paulo Floriani; Feldens, Carlos Alberto; Ferreira, Simone Helena; Bervian, Juliane; Rodrigues, Priscila Humbert; Peres, Marco Aurélio

    2013-08-01

    To assess the impact of oral health outcomes on Oral Health-Related Quality of Life (OHRQoL) in a school-based sample of Brazilian preschool children and their families. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 1036 children aged 2-5 years attending all the public nurseries in Canoas, Brazil. Caregivers were asked to complete questionnaire on socioeconomic status and the Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale (ECOHIS) on their perception of the children's OHRQoL. Clinical assessment included dental caries, traumatic dental injuries (TDI) and malocclusion. Multivariable Poisson regression models with robust variance were fitted to assess covariates for the prevalence of impacts on OHRQoL following a theoretical hierarchical framework. 17.4% of the caregivers reported that their child had an impact on at least one ECOHIS item. Negative impacts were more prevalent on items related to pain, difficult drinking and eating some foods. The multivariable Poisson regression analysis showed that dental caries, TDI and malocclusion were associated with the outcome. The prevalence of having any impact on OHRQoL was almost three times higher for children with dental caries (PR 2.74 95% CI 2.02-3.72) compared to those who were caries free; and approximately 1.5 times higher for those who presented TDI (PR 1.70 95% CI 1.27-2.27) and malocclusion (PR 1.42 95% CI 1.04-1.94). The findings showed that caregivers of young children with oral disease and disorders perceived that both the children and other family members had poorer quality of life. Oral health policies should be included into general health programs based on common risk approach. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Quality of Services and Quality of Life from Service Providers' Perspectives: Analysis with Focus Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenaro, C.; Vega, V.; Flores, N.; Cruz, M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Concepts such as support, quality of life and quality of services are customary in services for people with intellectual disabilities. The identification of the different ways of conceiving, prioritising and implementing these concepts by service providers can help to drive changes to achieve better personal outcomes for this…

  16. Recent history provides sustainable African water quality project insight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Rochelle H

    2012-01-01

    Small-scale projects to provide clean drinking water undertaken in the developing world can contribute to significantly improving the livelihood of rural communities. There has been a historical tendency to poorly plan such projects leading to an unsustainable future. Recent history indicates three simple steps to ensuring successful and enduring clean water projects. First, identification of need by the indigenous community provides ownership in the project. Second, a partnership between key individuals in the indigenous community with the donor provides for ambassadors on both sides of the project. Finally, an exit strategy by the donors for the indigenous communities ensures local sustainability for the future. The study site is the village of Geisha in northern Malawi, Africa. Sustainable implementation approaches are discussed in this case study as well as the various lessons learned. Improved project processes ensure sustainable small-scale water quality projects by donor organizations in developing countries. © 2011, The Author(s). Ground Water © 2011, National Ground Water Association.

  17. Impact of oral and dental health on quality of life in Iranian preschool children and their families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemati, Siyamak; Ghasempour, Maryam; Khafri, Sorayya

    2016-11-01

    Oral and dental health is one of the most important factors that affect the quality of life of preschool children. This study determined the effect of oral and dental health of preschoolers on their quality of life and that of their parents. This descriptive-cross sectional study asked 304 mothers of children aged 2-5 years from Babol, Iran, to complete an Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale (ECOHIS) questionnaire. Higher raw scores for ECOHIS indicate more oral problems and lower quality of life as related to oral health. The demographic information and dmft indices of the children were documented. The data were analyzed using the independent sample t-test, one way ANOVA, and the Scheffe post hoc test. The mean ECOHIS score was 6.65 ± 3.57, and the mean score of "decay, missing and filling teeth" (dmft) was 4.39 ± 3.68. A high correlation (r = 0.725) was observed between the dmft score and the ECOHIS score (p < 0.001). The oral and dental health of the children strongly influenced their quality of life and that of their parents. There was an inverse relationship between dmft and oral health-related quality of life.

  18. Cultural competency: providing quality care to diverse populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancourt, Joseph R

    2006-12-01

    The goal of this paper is to define cultural competence and present a practical framework to address crosscultural challenges that emerge in the clinical encounter, with a particular focus on the issue of nonadherence. English-language literature, both primary and reports from various agencies, and the author's personal experiences in clinical practice. Relevant literature on patient-centered care and cultural competence. There is a growing literature that delineates the impact of sociocultural factors, race, ethnicity, and limited-English proficiency on health and clinical care. The field of cultural competence focuses on addressing these issues. Health care providers need a practical set of tools and skills that will enable them to provide quality care to patients during a brief encounter, whatever differences in background that may exist. Cultural competence has evolved from the gathering of information and making of assumptions about patients on the basis of their sociocultural background to the development of skills to implement the principles of patient-centered care. This patient-based approach to cross-cultural care consists of first, assessing core cross-cultural issues; second, exploring the meaning of the illness to the patient; third, determining the social context in which the patient lives; and fourth, engaging in negotiation with the patient to encourage adherence. Addressing adherence is a particularly challenging issue, the determinants of which are multifactorial, and the ESFT (explanatory/social/fears/treatment) model--derived from the patient-based approach--is a tool that identifies barriers to adherence and provides strategies to address them. It obviously is impossible to learn everything about every culture and that should not be expected. Instead, we should learn about the communities we care for. More important, we should have a framework that allows us to provide appropriate care for any patient--one that deals with issues of adherence

  19. Utility of a brief index to measure diet quality of Australian preschoolers in the Feeding Healthy Food to Kids Randomised Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncanson, Kerith; Lee, Yu Qi; Burrows, Tracy; Collins, Clare

    2017-04-01

    The aim was to evaluate the utility of a brief dietary intake assessment tool in measuring nutritional adequacy of preschoolers and differences in food and nutrient intake between quartiles stratified by overall diet quality. Dietary intakes of preschoolers (n = 146) from the Feeding Healthy Food to Kids trial were reported by parents/caregivers using a 120-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Diet quality was assessed using the Australian Recommended Food Score for Preschoolers. Analyses were performed using Kruskal-Wallis one-way analysis of variance, adjusted for Type 1 error. Participants were grouped into quartiles by total food score for comparison of subscale scores, food groups and nutrient intakes from the FFQ. Participants who scored less than the median total food score of 36 were more likely to have suboptimal micronutrient intakes. Median fruit (9 vs 5, P quality score by quartiles (P foods, protein, fibre and 11 micronutrients. The Australian Recommended Food Score for Preschoolers is a practical brief diet quality assessment tool to measure food variety and nutritional adequacy in Australian preschoolers. Stratifying children by baseline diet quality in future nutrition interventions is recommended in order to identify those who are likely to benefit or require more targeted approaches to address specific nutritional needs in order to optimise food and nutrient intakes. © 2016 Dietitians Association of Australia.

  20. Impact of traumatic dental injuries and malocclusions on quality of life of preschool children: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abanto, Jenny; Tello, Gustavo; Bonini, Gabriela Cunha; Oliveira, Luciana Butini; Murakami, Christiana; Bönecker, Marcelo

    2015-01-01

    Few studies assessed the impact of traumatic dental injuries (TDI) and malocclusions on the oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) in preschool children. To assess the impact of the presence of TDI and malocclusions, as well as its severity and types, respectively, on the OHRQoL of preschool children. The study was conducted in 1215 children aged 1-4 years old who attended the National Day of Children Vaccination in Diadema, Brazil. Parents answered the Brazilian version of the Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale (B-ECOHIS) and socio-demographic conditions. Calibrated dental examiners performed the oral examinations for TDI and malocclusions. Poisson regression models adjusted by dental caries associated the clinical and socio-demographic conditions with the outcome. The multivariate adjusted models showed associations between some individual domains of the B-ECOHIS and clinical and socio-demographic conditions (P impact on the symptoms domain and self-image/social interaction domain (P impact on total B-ECOHIS scores (PR = 2.10; P = 0.048). The presence of complicated TDI and dental caries were associated with worse OHRQoL of Brazilian preschool children, whereas malocclusions do not. © 2014 BSPD, IAPD and John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Impact of quality assurance program: providing practice assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saporito, R A; Feldman, C A; Stewart, D C; Echoldt, H; Buchanan, R N

    1994-05-01

    Participation in a self-administered quality assessment (SAQA) program led to changes in New Jersey dentists' perceptions of practice quality. Ninety-four percent indicated they discovered practice deficiencies. This study suggests that using a self-administered quality assessment program, such as the SAQA program, can lead to a better understanding of a practice's strengths and weaknesses.

  2. Health-related quality of life of Palestinian preschoolers in the Gaza Strip: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massad, Salwa G; Nieto, F Javier; Palta, Mari; Smith, Maureen; Clark, Roseanne; Thabet, Abdel-Aziz

    2011-04-21

    Research on children's responses to wartime trauma has mostly addressed Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). However, PTSD is only one aspect of a complex set of responses. This study proposes to expand knowledge of well-being in children exposed to political violence through widening the conceptualization of well-being beyond PTSD, morbidity, and mortality by measuring health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and its facets, physical health, and psychosocial health. In 2007, we used a cross-sectional random sample of kindergartens to examine factors associated with HRQOL, as measured by the PedsQL 4.0, in 350 preschoolers in the Gaza Strip, Palestine, where political violence and deprivation are widespread. About 65% of the mothers reported severely impaired psychosocial and emotional functioning in their children. Preschoolers had lower HRQOL than the US reference sample and samples of children in other low income countries with large effect size. HRQOL was comparable to those of US children with several chronic diseases. Factors associated with lower HRQOL were older child age, male gender, and more exposures to traumatic events. Factors associated with HRQOL subscales were for lower psychosocial health: older child age, history of food, water, and electricity deprivation during incursion, and witnessing assassination of people by rockets. For lower physical health: older child age, history of food, water, and electricity deprivation during incursion, and having heard of a killing of a friend by soldiers. HRQOL, including psychosocial health and emotional functioning is often severely impaired among preschoolers in the Gaza Strip. Exposure to both violent and non-violent negative events was associated with HRQOL in preschoolers.

  3. Health-related quality of life of Palestinian preschoolers in the Gaza Strip: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Maureen

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research on children's responses to wartime trauma has mostly addressed Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD. However, PTSD is only one aspect of a complex set of responses. This study proposes to expand knowledge of well-being in children exposed to political violence through widening the conceptualization of well-being beyond PTSD, morbidity, and mortality by measuring health-related quality of life (HRQOL and its facets, physical health, and psychosocial health. Methods In 2007, we used a cross-sectional random sample of kindergartens to examine factors associated with HRQOL, as measured by the PedsQL 4.0, in 350 preschoolers in the Gaza Strip, Palestine, where political violence and deprivation are widespread. Results About 65% of the mothers reported severely impaired psychosocial and emotional functioning in their children. Preschoolers had lower HRQOL than the US reference sample and samples of children in other low income countries with large effect size. HRQOL was comparable to those of US children with several chronic diseases. Factors associated with lower HRQOL were older child age, male gender, and more exposures to traumatic events. Factors associated with HRQOL subscales were for lower psychosocial health: older child age, history of food, water, and electricity deprivation during incursion, and witnessing assassination of people by rockets. For lower physical health: older child age, history of food, water, and electricity deprivation during incursion, and having heard of a killing of a friend by soldiers. Conclusions HRQOL, including psychosocial health and emotional functioning is often severely impaired among preschoolers in the Gaza Strip. Exposure to both violent and non-violent negative events was associated with HRQOL in preschoolers.

  4. Measuring parental satisfaction of care quality provided in hospitalized children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spyridoula Tsironi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Measuring parental satisfaction is of major importance for pediatric hospitals and the key component of evaluating the quality of services provided to health services. Aim: To assess the degree of parental satisfaction from the care provided to their hospitalized children.Methodology: A descriptive study conducted using a convenience sample of parents of hospitalized children in two public pediatric hospitals in Athens. Data collection was completed in a period of 3 months. 352 questionnaires were collected (response rate 88%. The Pyramid Questionnaire for parents of hospitalized children was used which estimates the degree of parental satisfaction from the care provided to their hospitalized child.Results: More parents were satisfied with health care professionals’ behavior (81,9%, the supplied care (78,2% and the information provision to parents regarding the hospitalized child’s disease (71,9%. In contrast, less parents were satisfied with their hospitalized child’s involvement in care (52,3% and the accessibility to the hospital (39,5%. The overall parental satisfaction ranged in very good level (76,8% and it was higher on hospital A (78,8%, among married parents (77,4% and those not al all concerned or concerned less for child’s illness (83,1%. Logistic regression model showed that hospitalization in hospital B and the great concern for child’s illness and its complications decreased ovewrall satisfaction by 24% and 17% respectively. Conclusions: The assessment of the degree of parental satisfaction is the most important indicator of hospitals’ proper functioning. From our study certain areas need improvement, such as: the parental involvement in child’s care, information provision, the accessibility to the hospital, the communication and the interpersonal health care in order greater satisfaction to be achieved.

  5. Quality in Family Child Care Networks: An Evaluation of All Our Kin Provider Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Toni; Reiman, Kayla; Nelson, Christina; Sager, Jessica; Wagner, Janna

    2016-01-01

    This article presents findings from a quasi-experimental evaluation of quality with a sample of 28 family child care providers in the All Our Kin Family Child Care Network, a staffed family child care network which offers a range of services including relationship-based intensive consultation, and 20 family child care providers who had no…

  6. Development and validation of oral health-related early childhood quality of life tool for North Indian preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, Vijay Prakash; Dhillon, Jatinder Kaur; Logani, Ajay; Agarwal, Ramesh

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a reliable instrument [Oral Health related Early Childhood Quality of Life (OH- ECQOL) scale] for measuring oral health related quality of life (OHrQoL) in preschool children in North Indian population. Four pediatric dentists evaluated a pool of 65 items from various QoL questionnaires to assess their relevance to Indian population. These items were discussed with eight independent pediatric dentists and two community dentists who were not a part of this study to assess relevance of these items to preschool age children based on their comprehensiveness and clarity. Based on their responses and feedback a modified pool of items was developed and administered to a convenience sample of 20 parents who rated these items according to their relevance. The test retest reliability was evaluated on another sample of 20 parents of 2-5 year old children. The final questionnaire comprised of 16 items (12 child and 4 family). This was administered to 300 parents of 24-71 months old children divided on the basis of early childhood caries to assess its reliability and validity. OH-ECQOL scores were significantly associated with parental ratings of their child's general and oral health, and the presence of dental disease in the child. Cronbach's alpha was 0.862, and the ICC for test-retest reliability was 0.94. The OH-ECQOL proved reliable and valid tool for assessing the impact of oral disorders on the quality of life of preschool children in Northern India.

  7. [Diet quality of preschool children aged 2 to 5 years living in the urban area of Pelotas, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, Katharine Konrad; Schneider, Bruna Celestino; França, Giovanny Vinicius Araújo; Gigante, Denise Petrucci; dos Santos, Iná; Assunção, Maria Cecília Formoso

    2015-01-01

    To assess the dietary quality of preschool children in the urban area of Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil. Dietary quality was measured according to the Healthy Eating Index (HEI), adapted to Brazil. Food consumption was obtained using the Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ). The index score was obtained by a score, ranging from 0 to 100, distributed in 13 food groups that characterize different components of a healthy diet. The better the quality of the diet, the closer the score is to 100. Dietary was evaluated in 556 preschoolers. The mean HEI score value was 74.4 points, indicating that diets need improvement. The mean scores were significantly higher among girls and in children from families with income between one and less than three minimum wages. The children showed vegetable consumption below the recommended level, while the food group of oils and fats, as well as the group of sugars, candies, chocolates and snacks were consumed in excess. It is important to reinforce guidelines to promote healthier eating habits, which may persist later in life. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  8. Influence of the duration of breastfeeding on quality of muscle function during mastication in preschoolers: a cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background There is some evidence of the benefits of breastfeeding to masticatory function, but no studies have evaluated the influence of breastfeeding duration on the quality of this function. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between duration of breastfeeding and quality of masticatory function in preschoolers. Methods Cross-sectional study nested in a contemporary cohort of 144 randomly selected Brazilian infants. Data on sociodemographic, dietary, and sucking-related parameters were collected shortly after birth and at 7, 30, 60, 120, and 180 days of life. Masticatory function was assessed between the ages of 3 and 5 years, using a standardized procedure involving three foodstuffs of different consistencies, for evaluation of incision, lip competence, masticatory patterns, masticatory movements, and perioral muscle use. The quality of masticatory function was scored, and multiple linear regression was used to test for association between this score and the duration of breastfeeding. Results A positive correlation was found between duration of breastfeeding and masticatory function scores (rs = 0.473; p masticatory function at preschool age. PMID:23114410

  9. Toothache, associated factors, and its impact on Oral Health-Related Quality of Life (OHRQoL) in preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Fernanda Ruffo; Tomazoni, Fernanda; Oliveira, Marta Dutra Machado; Piovesan, Chaiana; Mendes, Fausto; Ardenghi, Thiago M

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of toothache, associated factors and impact of this condition on the Child Oral Health Related Quality of Life (COHRQoL) in preschoolers. The study was carried out in Santa Maria, Brazil, during the National Children's Vaccination Day, and 534 children aged 0 to 5 years were included. Clinical variables included dental caries and dental trauma. A questionnaire was responded by the parents and provided information about several socioeconomic indicators, dental service use and toothache. Toothache was collected by the question: "Has your child ever had a toothache - Yes or no?". Data on COHRQoL were assessed using the Brazilian version of the Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale (ECOHIS). Multivariable Logistic regression models were performed to assess the association between the predictor variables and outcomes. The prevalence of toothache was 10.11% (95% CI: 7.55% - 12.68%). Older children had a higher chance of presenting dental pain (OR 2.72; 95% CI: 1.01 - 7.56), as well as children with caries experience (OR 3.43; 95% CI: 1.81 - 6.52). Moreover, children who had not visited the dental service in the last 6 months were less likely to present toothache (OR 0.51; 95% CI: 0.28 - 0.95). The presence of dental pain negatively affects the COHRQoL; those with toothache presented a higher chance of having higher impact on the total scores of ECOHIS (OR 4.18; 95% CI: 1.76 - 9.95) than those without toothache. Similar observation was found for the child section of the questionnaire (OR 5.54; 95% CI: 2.15 - 14.24). Toothache negatively affects COHRQoL and is associated with caries experience, age and use of dental service.

  10. Quality and Knowledge Content in Music Activities in Preschool: The Impact of Human Materiality Combinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman Nilsson, Marie-Helene; Holmberg, Kristina

    2017-01-01

    Traditionally, pedagogical research has been child centered, where materialities often have been considered as objects and tools. However, in recent posthuman research, attempts have been made to consider human materiality combinations to have impact on pedagogical activities in preschool, but to a large extent music as an issue has been…

  11. The Quality of Care Provided to Patients with Chronic Non ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: Chronic Non-Communicable Diseases are among the major causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. However, access to and quality of health care for patients is very low in developing countries including Ethiopia. Hospitals and Health Centers are the main sources of health care for such patients in ...

  12. Impact of dental caries on quality of life among preschool children: emphasis on the type of tooth and stages of progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Jorge, Joana; Alencar, Bruna Mota; Pordeus, Isabela Almeida; Soares, Maria Eliza da Consolação; Marques, Leandro Silva; Ramos-Jorge, Maria Letícia; Paiva, Saul Martins

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate the impact of dental caries on the quality of life of preschool children and their parents/caretakers, with an emphasis on the type of tooth and stage of progression. A randomly selected sample of preschool children, 3-5 yrs of age, underwent an oral examination for the assessment of dental caries using the International Caries Detection and Assessment System II (ICDAS II) criteria. Parents/caretakers answered two questionnaires, one on the oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) of the child [the Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale (ECOHIS)], and the other on the socio-economic characteristics of the family. Statistical analyses were performed using the chi-square test, Kruskal-Wallis test, Mann-Whitney U-test, and Poisson regression. A total of 451 preschool children participated in the study. The majority of carious lesions exhibited severe decay (60.6%) and were found in both anterior (incisors/canines) and posterior (molars) teeth. The final Poisson model revealed negative impacts on quality of life from more advanced stages of dental caries, both in incisors/canines and molars. Child's age and household income were also associated with impact on quality of life. Carious lesions in more advanced stages of progression in anterior and posterior teeth were associated with a negative impact on the quality of life of preschool children. © 2014 Eur J Oral Sci.

  13. Psychosocial Quality-of-Life, Lifestyle and Adiposity: A Longitudinal Study in Pre-schoolers (Ballabeina Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michels, Nathalie; Susi, Kriemler; Marques-Vidal, Pedro M; Nydegger, Andreas; Puder, Jardena J

    2016-06-01

    In obesity prevention, understanding psychosocial influences in early life is pivotal. Reviews reported contradictory results and a lack of longitudinal studies focusing on underlying lifestyle factors. This study tested whether psychosocial Quality-Of-Life (QOL) was associated with pre-schoolers' lifestyle and adiposity changes over one school year and whether lifestyle moderated the latter. It was hypothesised that QOL might not impact adiposity in everybody but that this might depend on preceding lifestyle. Longitudinal data from 291 Swiss pre-schoolers (initially 3.9-6.3 years) was available. The following measures were used in longitudinal regressions: psychosocial QOL by PedsQL, adiposity (BMI z-score, waist, fat%), diet (food frequency), sedentary time and accelerometer-based activity. Concerning lifestyle, low psychosocial QOL was only related to unfavourable changes in diet (less fruit β = 0.21 and more fat intake β = -0.28) and lower physical activity (β = 0.21). Longitudinal QOL-adiposity relations appeared only after moderation by lifestyle factors (beta-range 0.13-0.67). Low psychosocial QOL was associated with increased adiposity in children with an unhealthy diet intake or high sedentary time. By contrast, low psychosocial QOL was associated with decreasing adiposity in high fruit consumers or more physically active pre-schoolers. Results emphasise the need for testing moderation in the QOL-adiposity relation. An unhealthy diet can be a vulnerability factor and high physical activity a protective factor in QOL-related adiposity. Consequently, QOL and lifestyle should be targeted concurrently in multi-factorial obesity prevention. The environment should be an 'activity encouraging, healthy food zone' that minimises opportunities for stress-induced eating. In addition, appropriate stress coping skills should be acquired.

  14. Association of fathers' feeding practices and feeding style on preschool age children's diet quality, eating behavior and body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmer, Rachel L; Adamsons, Kari; Foster, Jaime S; Mobley, Amy R

    2015-06-01

    The associations of parental feeding practices and feeding style with childhood obesity have gained more attention in the literature recently; however, fathers are rarely included within these studies. The aim of this research was to determine the relationship of paternal feeding practices on child diet quality, weight status, and eating behavior, and the moderating effect of paternal feeding style on these relationships in preschool age children. This study included a one-time, one-on-one interview with biological fathers of preschoolers (n = 150) to assess feeding practices (Child Feeding Questionnaire), feeding style (Caregiver Feeding Style Questionnaire), child eating behaviors (Child Eating Behavior Questionnaire), and diet quality (24 hour recall, Healthy Eating Index). Height and weight for each father and child were also measured and Body Mass Index (BMI) or BMI z-score calculated. Linear regression was used to test the relationship between paternal feeding practices, style and child diet quality and/or body weight. Overall, the findings revealed that a father's feeding practices and feeding style are not associated with children's diet quality or weight status. However, child eating behaviors are associated with child BMI z-score and these relationships are moderated by paternal feeding practices. For example, child satiety responsiveness is inversely (β = -.421, p = 0.031) associated with child BMI z-score only if paternal restriction scores are high. This relationship is not significant when paternal restriction scores are low (β = -.200, p = 0.448). These results suggest that some child appetitive traits may be related to child weight status when exposed to certain paternal feeding practices. Future studies should consider the inclusion of fathers as their feeding practices and feeding style may be related to a child's eating behavior. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Associations of Preschool Type and Teacher-Child Relational Quality with Young Children's Social-Emotional Competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, Pamela W.; Mahatmya, Duhita; Moses, Laurence Kimberly; Bolt, Elizabeth N.

    2014-01-01

    Research Findings: This study examined associations of preschool type (i.e., urban and suburban Head Start and university-affiliated center) and teacher-child variables with positive and negative child outcomes among 145 preschoolers (74 boys). Differences emerged across preschools, with urban Head Start children scoring lowest on the emotional…

  16. Exploring the Definitions of Quality Early Childhood Programmes in a Market-Driven Context: Case Studies of Two Hong Kong Preschools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Choi Wa Dora

    2008-01-01

    Set within the market-driven context in educare for young children in Hong Kong, a Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China, this paper points to the importance of exploring the definitions of quality in early childhood programmes from the multiple perspectives of school stakeholders. This study describes two preschools that…

  17. Metabolomics Provides Quality Characterization of Commercial Gochujang (Fermented Pepper Paste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gyu Min Lee

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available To identify the major factors contributing to the quality of commercial gochujang (fermented red pepper paste, metabolites were profiled by mass spectrometry. In principal component analysis, cereal type (wheat, brown rice, and white rice and species of hot pepper (Capsicum annuum, C. annuum cv. Chung-yang, and C. frutescens affected clustering patterns. Relative amino acid and citric acid levels were significantly higher in wheat gochujang than in rice gochujang. Sucrose, linoleic acid, oleic acid, and lysophospholipid levels were high in brown-rice gochujang, whereas glucose, maltose, and γ-aminobutyric acid levels were high in white-rice gochujang. The relative capsaicinoid and luteolin derivative contents in gochujang were affected by the hot pepper species used. Gochujang containing C. annuum cv. Chung-yang and C. frutescens showed high capsaicinoid levels. The luteolin derivative level was high in gochujang containing C. frutescens. These metabolite variations in commercial gochujang may be related to different physicochemical phenotypes and antioxidant activity.

  18. Impact of early childhood caries on the oral health-related quality of life of preschool children and their parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins-Júnior, P A; Vieira-Andrade, R G; Corrêa-Faria, P; Oliveira-Ferreira, F; Marques, L S; Ramos-Jorge, M L

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present population study was to evaluate the impact of early childhood caries (ECC) on the oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) of preschool children and their parents/caregivers. A random sample of 638 children (aged 2-5 years) underwent a clinical oral examination to assess ECC, and their parents were invited to answer two questionnaires: one on the OHRQoL of the child, the Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale, and another on the characteristics and sociodemographic conditions of the child. Descriptive analysis, χ(2) test, Mann-Whitney test, Kruskal-Wallis test, and hierarchically adjusted Poisson regression models were used. The prevalence of ECC was 52.2%. The number of teeth with decay ranged from 1 (n = 42; 6.6%) to 20 (n = 5; 0.8%), averaging 2.86 (SD = 4.04). There was a significant difference between the severity of ECC and OHRQoL in terms of the impact on both child and family (p impact on the quality of life of the child (rate ratio, RR = 5.32; 95% confidence interval, CI: 3.67-7.71). Greater age of the mother had a positive impact on the OHRQoL of preschool children (RR = 0.72; 95% CI: 0.54-0.97). Increased age resulted in an increased negative impact on the quality of life of the child (RR = 2.97; 95% CI: 1.61-5.47). ECC has a negative impact on the OHRQoL of children aged 2-5 years and their parents. Mothers aged 30 or older reported better OHRQoL, independent of the presence of ECC and the age of the child. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Influences on the diet quality of pre-school children: importance of maternal psychological characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarman, Megan; Inskip, Hazel M; Ntani, Georgia; Cooper, Cyrus; Baird, Janis; Robinson, Sian M; Barker, Mary E

    2015-08-01

    To test the hypothesis that maternal psychological profiles relate to children's quality of diet. Cross-sectional study. Mothers provided information on their health-related psychological factors and aspects of their child's mealtime environment. Children's diet quality was assessed using an FFQ from which weekly intakes of foods and a diet Z-score were calculated. A high score described children with a better quality diet. Cluster analysis was performed to assess grouping of mothers based on psychological factors. Mealtime characteristics, describing how often children ate while sitting at a table or in front of the television, their frequency of takeaway food consumption, maternal covert control and food security, and children's quality of diet were examined, according to mothers' cluster membership. Mother-child pairs (n 324) in the Southampton Initiative for Health. Children were aged 2-5 years. Hampshire, UK. Two main clusters were identified. Mothers in cluster 1 had significantly higher scores for all psychological factors than mothers in cluster 2 (all P maternal education and home/mealtime characteristics (P = 0.006). The study suggests that mothers should be offered psychological support as part of interventions to improve children's quality of diet.

  20. Influences on the diet quality of preschool children: importance of maternal psychological characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarman, Megan; Inskip, Hazel; Ntani, Georgia; Cooper, Cyrus; Baird, Janis; Robinson, Sian; Barker, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Objective To test the hypothesis that maternal psychological profiles relate to children’s quality of diet. Design Cross-sectional study. Mothers provided information on their health-related psychological factors and aspects of their child’s mealtime environment. Children’s diet quality was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire from which weekly intakes of foods and a diet z-score was calculated. A high score described children with a better quality diet. Cluster analysis was performed to assess grouping of mothers based on psychological factors. Mealtime characteristics, describing how often children ate whilst sitting at a table or in front of the television, their frequency of take-away food consumption, maternal covert control and food security, and children’s quality of diet were examined, according to mothers cluster membership. Subjects 324 mother-child pairs, in the Southampton Initiative for Health. Children were aged between 2-5 years. Setting Hampshire, UK. Results Two main clusters were identified. Mothers in cluster one had significantly higher scores for all psychological factors than mothers in cluster two (all Pdiets (β −0.61, 95% CI −0.82, −0.40, p=maternal education and home/mealtime characteristics (p=0.006). Conclusion This study suggests that mothers should be offered psychological support as part of interventions to improve children’s quality of diet. PMID:25409750

  1. Impact of oral diseases and disorders on oral health-related quality of life of preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abanto, Jenny; Carvalho, Thiago S; Mendes, Fausto M; Wanderley, Marcia T; Bönecker, Marcelo; Raggio, Daniela P

    2011-04-01

    The presence of oral diseases and disorders can produce an impact on the quality of life of preschool children and their parents, affecting their oral health and well-being. However, socioeconomic factors could confound this association, but it has not been yet tested at this age. To assess the impact of early childhood caries (ECC), traumatic dental injuries (TDI) and malocclusions on the oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) of children between 2 and 5 years of age adjusted by socioeconomic factors. Parents of 260 children answered the Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale (ECOHIS) (six domains) on their perception of the children's OHRQoL and socioeconomic conditions. Two calibrated dentists (κ>0.8) examined the severity of ECC according to dmft index, and children were categorized into: 0=caries free; 1-5=low severity; ≥6=high severity. TDI and malocclusions were examined according to Andreasen & Andreasen (1994) classification and for the presence or absence of three anterior malocclusion traits (AMT), respectively. OHRQoL was measured through ECOHIS domain and total scores, and poisson regression was used to associate the different factors with the outcome. In each domain and overall ECOHIS scores, the severity of ECC showed a negative impact on OHRQoL (Pimpact on OHRQoL nor in each domain (P>0.05). The increase in the child's age, higher household crowding, lower family income and mother working out of home were significantly associated with OHRQoL (Pimpact on OHRQoL, while high family income was a protective factor for OHRQoL (RR=0.93; 95% CI=0.87, 0.99; Pimpact on the OHRQoL of preschool children and their parents. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  2. Preschool Teachers use of ICTs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Masoumi, Davoud

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the ways in which information and communication technologies (ICT) are integrated in three preschools in south-western Sweden. The case study involved observations of and interviews with preschool teachers. The findings support claims that ICT can enhance preschool...... practices by providing a variety of complementary opportunities to enrich and transform existing curricula. The study shows that in the studied preschools ICTs have been appropriated in distinctive ways: as an object to enrich existing practices; as a cultural mediator; as a way to entertain young children...... to the complexities that surround engagement with any innovation in preschool settings, and the adoption of new technologies in particular....

  3. What's for lunch? An analysis of lunch menus in 83 urban and rural Oklahoma child-care centers providing all-day care to preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frampton, Ashley M; Sisson, Susan B; Horm, Diane; Campbell, Janis E; Lora, Karina; Ladner, Jennifer L

    2014-09-01

    More than half of 3- to 6-year-old children attend child-care centers. Dietary intakes of children attending child-care centers tend to fall short of Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs). Our aim was to examine macro-/micronutrient content of child-care center menus, compare menus to one third of DRIs, and determine menu differences by population density. A stratified, random, geographically proportionate sample of Oklahoma child-care centers was obtained. Child-care centers providing all-day care for 2- to 5-year-old children were contacted to complete a telephone questionnaire and asked to send in that month's menus for the 3- to 4-year-old children. Overall means and standard deviations of the nutrient content of 5 days of lunch menus were calculated. Comparisons were made to both the 1- to 3-year-old and 4- to 8-year-old DRIs. One-sample t tests compared mean nutrient content of lunches to one third of the DRIs for the overall sample and urban/rural classification. Independent t tests compared nutrient content of urban and rural lunches. One hundred sixty-seven child-care centers were contacted; 83 completed the study (50% response). Menus provided statistically significantly insufficient carbohydrate, dietary fiber, iron, vitamin D, and vitamin E. Calcium was higher than the 1- to 3-year-old DRI, but lower than the 4- to 8-year-old DRI. Folate was higher than the 1- to 3-year-old DRI, but not different from the 4- to 8-year-old DRI. Sodium was higher than the DRI for both age groups. Thirty-four child-care centers (41%) were classified as urban and 49 (59%) as rural. Urban menus provided less than the 4- to 8-year-old DRI for folate, but rural child-care center menus did not. Oklahoma child-care center menus appear to provide adequate protein, magnesium, zinc, vitamin A, and vitamin C, but may be deficient in key nutrients required for good health and proper development in preschool-aged children. These issues can be addressed by including food and nutrition

  4. Impact of malocclusion on oral health-related quality of life among Brazilian preschool children: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Anita Cruz; Paiva, Saul Martins; Viegas, Claudia Marina; Scarpelli, Ana Carolina; Ferreira, Fernanda Morais; Pordeus, Isabela Almeida

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the impact of malocclusion on Oral Health-Related Quality of Life (OHRQoL) of children and their families. A population-based cross-sectional study was carried out in Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil. A representative sample of 1069 male and female preschoolers aged 60 to 71 months was randomly selected from public and private preschools and daycare centers. Data were collected using the B-ECOHIS. In addition, a questionnaire addressing socioeconomic and demographic data was self-administered by the parents/guardians. The criteria used to diagnose malocclusion were based on Foster and Hamilton (1969), Graboswki et al. (2007) and Oliveira et al. (2008). Descriptive, univariate and multiple Poison logistic regression analyses were carried out. The prevalence of malocclusion was observed in 46.2% of the children and deep overbite was the most prevalent type of malocclusion (19.7%), followed by posterior crossbite (13.1%), accentuated overjet (10.5%), anterior open bite (7.9%) and anterior crossbite (6.7%). The impact of malocclusion on OHRQoL was 32.7% among the children and 27.1% among the families. In Poisson multiple regression model adjusted for socioeconomic status, no significant association was found between malocclusion and OHRQoL of the children (PR=1.09, 95% CI: 0.96-1.24) and their families (PR=1.11, 95% CI: 0.94-1.31). It is concluded that children with malocclusion in this sample did not have a negative impact on their OHRQoL and of their families.

  5. Providing Accessible Statewide Inservice Training for Practicing Professionals and Paraprofessionals Working with Infants, Toddlers, and Preschoolers Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing and Their Families. SKI-HI Distance Education Project, Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barringer, Donald; Glover, Barbara; Parlin, Mary Ann; Johnson, Dorothy

    This final report discusses the outcomes of a project that developed, demonstrated, evaluated, and disseminated information about a specialized inservice training model to prepare early interventionists, special education teachers, and related service personnel to provide family-centered programming to infants, toddlers, and preschoolers who are…

  6. Motor competence and characteristics within the preschool environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    True, Larissa; Pfeiffer, Karin Allor; Dowda, Marsha; Williams, Harriet G; Brown, William H; O'Neill, Jennifer R; Pate, Russell R

    2017-08-01

    Environmental characteristics within preschools that influence children's motor competence are largely unknown. The purpose of the present study was to examine the contribution of various preschool environmental characteristics to children's locomotor, object control, and total gross motor scores. Cross-sectional, observational study of 3-5 year-old children (n=229) from 22 preschools in South Carolina. The Children's Activity and Movement in Preschool Study (CHAMPS) Motor Skills Protocol assessed MC. Preschool directors provided information regarding policies and practices. The research team measured playgrounds and classrooms, and the Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale-Revised assessed preschool quality. Time spent in open space and electronic media use were also assessed using direct observation. The aforementioned variables predicted children's object control, locomotor, and total gross motor scores. Classroom size/child ratio, teacher education, playground size, electronic media use, and trips to outside organizations emerged as significant predictors of locomotor score and total motor score. The object control model was non-significant. Preschools may be able to promote motor competence by allowing children more time in open spaces, structured activity experiences, and by expanding existing outdoor playground space whenever possible. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Endorsing good quality assurance practices in molecular pathology: risks and recommendations for diagnostic laboratories and external quality assessment providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tembuyser, Lien; Dequeker, Elisabeth M C

    2016-01-01

    Quality assurance is an indispensable element in a molecular diagnostic laboratory. The ultimate goal is to warrant patient safety. Several risks that can compromise high quality procedures are at stake, from sample collection to the test performed by the laboratory, the reporting of test results to clinicians, and the organization of effective external quality assessment schemes. Quality assurance should therefore be safeguarded at each level and should imply a holistic multidisciplinary approach. This review aims to provide an overview of good quality assurance practices and discusses certain risks and recommendations to promote and improve quality assurance for both diagnostic laboratories and for external quality assessment providers. The number of molecular targets is continuously rising, and new technologies are evolving. As this poses challenges for clinical implementation and increases the demand for external quality assessment, the formation of an international association for improving quality assurance in molecular pathology is called for.

  8. The development of a diet quality score for preschool children and its validation and determinants in the Generation R Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voortman, Trudy; Kiefte-de Jong, Jessica C; Geelen, Anouk; Villamor, Eduardo; Moll, Henriëtte A; de Jongste, Johan C; Raat, Hein; Hofman, Albert; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Franco, Oscar H; van den Hooven, Edith H

    2015-02-01

    Although many studies have examined health effects of infant feeding, studies on diet quality shortly after the weaning and lactation period are scarce. Our aims were to develop and evaluate a diet score that measures overall diet quality in preschool children and to examine the sociodemographic and lifestyle determinants of this score. On the basis of national and international dietary guidelines for young children, we developed a diet score containing 10 components: intake of vegetables; fruit; bread and cereals; rice, pasta, potatoes, and legumes; dairy; meat and eggs; fish; oils and fats; candy and snacks; and sugar-sweetened beverages. The total score ranged from 0 to 10 on a continuous scale and was standardized to an energy intake of 1200 kcal/d with the residual method. The score was evaluated in 3629 children participating in the Generation R Study, a population-based prospective cohort study. Food consumption was assessed with a food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ) at a median age of 13 mo. The mean ± SD diet score was 4.1 ± 1.3. The food-based diet score was positively associated with intakes of many nutrients, including n-3 (ω-3) fatty acids [FAs; 0.25 SD increase (95% CI: 0.22, 0.27) per 1 point increase in the diet score], dietary fiber [0.32 (95% CI: 0.30, 0.34)], and calcium [0.13 (95% CI: 0.11, 0.16)], and was inversely associated with intakes of sugars [-0.28 (95% CI: -0.31, -0.26)] and saturated fat [-0.03 (95% CI: -0.05, -0.01)]. A higher diet score was associated with several health-conscious behaviors, such as maternal folic acid supplement use during pregnancy, no smoking during pregnancy, and children watching less television. We developed a novel food-based diet score for preschool children that could be applied in future studies to compare diet quality in early childhood and to investigate associations between diet in early childhood and growth, health, and development. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  9. Customized power quality service provided by converter interfaced microgrids — Voltage harmonics as a study case

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meng, Lexuan; Chaudhary, Sanjay K.; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2017-01-01

    Customers may have different power quality requirements, thus, the economic operational strategy can try to provide them with distinctive quality levels as customized service. An optimization based method is proposed in this paper to realize this functionality, offering the possibility...

  10. Indoor Air Quality in Urban and Rural Preschools in Upper Silesia, Poland: Particulate Matter and Carbon Dioxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Mainka

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Indoor air quality (IAQ in preschools is an important public health challenge. Particular attention should be paid to younger children, because they are more vulnerable to air pollution than higher grade children and because they spend more time indoors. Among air pollutants, particulate matter (PM is of the greatest interest mainly due to its acute and chronic effects on children’s health. In addition, carbon dioxide (CO2 levels indicate ventilation conditions. In this paper, we present the concentrations of PM (PM1, PM2.5, PM10 and total—TSP and CO2 monitored in four naturally ventilated nursery schools located in the area of Gliwice, Poland. The nursery schools were selected to characterize areas with different degrees of urbanization and traffic densities during the winter season. The results indicate the problem of elevated concentrations of PM inside the examined classrooms, as well as that of high levels of CO2 exceeding 1000 ppm in relation to outdoor air. The characteristics of IAQ were significantly different, both in terms of classroom occupation (younger or older children and of localization (urban or rural. To evaluate the children’s exposure to poor IAQ, indicators based on air quality guidelines were proposed to rank classrooms according to their hazard on the health of children.

  11. Impact of traumatic dental injuries on oral health-related quality of life of preschool children: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Borges, T?ssia Silvana; Vargas-Ferreira,Fabiana; Kramer, Paulo Floriani; Feldens,Carlos Alberto

    2017-01-01

    Background Observational studies have suggested that traumatic dental injuries (TDI) can lead to pain, loss of function and esthetic problems, with physical, emotional and social consequences for children and their families. However, population-based studies that investigate the impact of TDI on oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) among preschool children are scarce and offer conflicting results. The aim of the systematic review and meta-analysis was to evaluate the impact of TDI on ...

  12. The quality of sport-related services in institutions designed for children aged 3-6 years (pre-school education)

    OpenAIRE

    Šubr, Vladimír

    2016-01-01

    Title: The quality of sport-related services in institutions designed for children aged 3-6 years (pre-school education). Objectives The quality of objective of this work is to determine the quality of sport-related services in day-care centers in the Czech Republic. Methods: This marketing research is going to be conducted using standardized methods of SERVQUAL in the form of a written questionnaire, which is going to be left to the principals of selected day-care centers who will further ha...

  13. Provider perspectives on barriers to family planning quality in Uganda: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugisha, John Frank; Reynolds, Heidi

    2008-01-01

    Provider perspectives on the quality of family planning services have been overlooked in quality of care research and interventions. This qualitative study was carried out in four districts in Uganda, a country where lack of access to quality family planning services remains a challenge. Using four focus group discussions, 16 provider in-depth interviews and nine manager in-depth interviews, this study documented providers' perceptions of quality of care and of barriers to quality services at the organisational and societal levels. To guide study development, analysis and interpretation, the authors relied on an ecological framework where providers' abilities are shaped by the larger organisational and societal environments in which providers live and work. Providers felt that organisational factors, such as supply availability, workload and their own knowledge and skills, affected their abilities to offer quality care. At the same time, providers were challenged by societal factors such as male partner participation, financial constraints, misconceptions and leadership support. While making changes to the elements of quality care that clients experience is important, it is not sufficient in view of the organisational and social barriers. Across the different levels of the ecological framework, providers face barriers to providing quality family planning services that are synergistic. Solutions to improve quality of care must address also limitations at the organisational and societal levels since efforts to overcome a particular constraint are less likely to be successful if this interdependence is not taken into account.

  14. Quality of reproductive healthcare for adolescents: A nationally representative survey of providers in Mexico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aremis Villalobos

    Full Text Available Adolescents need sexual and reproductive health services but little is known about quality-of-care in lower- and middle-income countries where most of the world's adolescents reside. Quality-of-care has important implications as lower quality may be linked to higher unplanned pregnancy and sexually transmitted infection rates. This study sought to generate evidence about quality-of-care in public sexual and reproductive health services for adolescents.This cross-sectional study had a complex, probabilistic, stratified sampling design, representative at the national, regional and rural/urban level in Mexico, collecting provider questionnaires at 505 primary care units in 2012. A sexual and reproductive quality-of-healthcare index was defined and multinomial logistic regression was utilized in 2015.At the national level 13.9% (95%CI: 6.9-26.0 of healthcare units provide low quality, 68.6% (95%CI: 58.4-77.3 medium quality and 17.5% (95%CI: 11.9-25.0 high quality reproductive healthcare services to adolescents. Urban or metropolitan primary care units were at least 10 times more likely to provide high quality care than those in rural areas. Units with a space specifically for counseling adolescents were at least 8 times more likely to provide high quality care. Ministry of Health clinics provided the lowest quality of service, while those from Social Security for the Underserved provided the best.The study indicates higher quality sexual and reproductive healthcare services are needed. In Mexico and other middle- to low-income countries where quality-of-care has been shown to be a problem, incorporating adolescent-friendly, gender-equity and rights-based perspectives could contribute to improvement. Setting and disseminating standards for care in guidelines and providing tools such as algorithms could help healthcare personnel provide higher quality care.

  15. Quality of Individualised Education Programme Goals and Objectives for Preschool Children with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakap, Salih

    2015-01-01

    Individualised education programmes (IEPs) are the road maps for individualising services for children with disabilities, specifically through the development of high-quality child goals/objectives. High-quality IEP goals/objectives that are developed based on a comprehensive assessment of child functioning and directly connected to intervention…

  16. Glaucoma patient-provider communication about vision quality-of-life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleath, Betsy; Sayner, Robyn; Vitko, Michelle; Carpenter, Delesha M; Blalock, Susan J; Muir, Kelly W; Giangiacomo, Annette L; Hartnett, Mary Elizabeth; Robin, Alan L

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to: (a) describe the extent to which ophthalmologists and glaucoma patients discuss vision quality-of-life during office visits, and (b) examine the association between patient and ophthalmologist characteristics and provider-patient communication about vision quality-of-life. Patients with glaucoma who were newly prescribed or on glaucoma medications were recruited at six ophthalmology clinics. Patients' visits were video-tape recorded and quality-of-life communication variables were coded. Generalized estimating equations were used to analyze the data. Two hundred and seventy-nine patients participated. Specific glaucoma quality-of-life domains were discussed during only 13% of visits. Older patients were significantly more likely to discuss one or more vision quality-of-life domains than younger patients. African American patients were significantly less likely to make statements about their vision quality-of-life and providers were less likely to ask them one or more vision quality-of-life questions than non-African American patients. Eye care providers and patients infrequently discussed the patient's vision quality-of-life during glaucoma visits. African American patients were less likely to communicate about vision quality-of-life than non-African American patients. Eye care providers should make sure to discuss vision quality-of-life with glaucoma patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Investigating the Relationship of Body Mass Index, Diet Quality, and Physical Activity Level between Fathers and Their Preschool-Aged Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmer, Rachel L; Adamsons, Kari; Gorin, Amy; Foster, Jaime S; Mobley, Amy R

    2015-06-01

    Diet quality and physical activity are two important factors in determining a child's risk for obesity. In early childhood, parents may serve as role models for these behaviors. However, few studies have examined associations of a father's body mass index (BMI), dietary intake, and physical activity with his preschool-aged child. The purpose of this study was to examine relationships between fathers' and children's body weight, diet quality, and physical activity. This cross-sectional study included one-on-one interviews with fathers (n=150) of preschool-aged children conducted by a trained interviewer (a registered dietitian nutritionist). To be eligible, biological fathers (n=150) of preschool-aged children (aged 3 to 5 years) were required to regularly eat at least one meal per week with their child and be able to read or speak English. They could be of any race, ethnicity, income, or education level. During the interview, diet quality was assessed using a single 24-hour recall and the Healthy Eating Index-2010. Physical activity was assessed using the Pre-Physical Activity Questionnaire. Height and weight for each father and child were also measured. BMI and BMI z scores were calculated for fathers and children, respectively. Linear regression was used to test relationships between fathers' and children's body weight, diet quality, and physical activity while controlling for income level, race, and ethnicity. Overall, the findings revealed that there were significant, positive relationships between father-child weight status (β=.03; P=0.05), overall diet quality (β=.39; Pphysical activity. These results suggest that there are relationships between fathers' and children's BMI z score, dietary intake, and physical activity level. Future research should consider the inclusion of fathers in obesity prevention programs for young children. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Diet Quality and Adequacy of Nutrients in Preschool Children: Should Rice Fortified with Micronutrients Be Included in School Meals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della Lucia, Ceres M; Rodrigues, Kellen Cristina C; Rodrigues, Vivian Cristina C; Santos, Laura Luiza M; Cardoso, Leandro M; Martino, Hércia S D; Franceschini, Sylvia C C; Pinheiro-Sant'Ana, Helena Maria

    2016-05-14

    Feeding is indicative of the nutritional status of children, however micronutrient deficiency is common in this age group. We evaluated the impact of inclusion of rice (Ultra Rice(®) (UR(®))) fortified with iron, zinc, thiamin and folic acid on laboratory measurements and the nutrient intake of children. Ninety-nine preschoolers (2-6 years; 42.6% male) from two preschools participated, one of which received UR(®) added to polished rice as part of school meals (test preschool) and the other received only polished rice (control preschool). Biochemical evaluations were performed before and after four months of intervention. Feeding was assessed by direct weighing of food, complemented by 24-h recalls, and the diet was assessed by the Healthy Eating Index (HEI) adapted to the Brazilian reality. The fortified rice improved the levels of zinc (p < 0.001), thiamine (p < 0.001), folic acid (p = 0.003), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (p < 0.001) and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (p < 0.001). The inadequacy percentages of thiamine, folic acid and iron were lower among preschoolers from the test preschool. This study demonstrated the effectiveness of using UR(®) on laboratory measurements of children. The inadequate intake of thiamine, folic acid and iron was also reduced, making the fortified rice an interesting strategy in school feeding programs.

  19. Diet Quality and Adequacy of Nutrients in Preschool Children: Should Rice Fortified with Micronutrients Be Included in School Meals?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceres M. Della Lucia

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Feeding is indicative of the nutritional status of children, however micronutrient deficiency is common in this age group. We evaluated the impact of inclusion of rice (Ultra Rice® (UR® fortified with iron, zinc, thiamin and folic acid on laboratory measurements and the nutrient intake of children. Ninety-nine preschoolers (2–6 years; 42.6% male from two preschools participated, one of which received UR® added to polished rice as part of school meals (test preschool and the other received only polished rice (control preschool. Biochemical evaluations were performed before and after four months of intervention. Feeding was assessed by direct weighing of food, complemented by 24-h recalls, and the diet was assessed by the Healthy Eating Index (HEI adapted to the Brazilian reality. The fortified rice improved the levels of zinc (p < 0.001, thiamine (p < 0.001, folic acid (p = 0.003, mean corpuscular hemoglobin (p < 0.001 and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (p < 0.001. The inadequacy percentages of thiamine, folic acid and iron were lower among preschoolers from the test preschool. This study demonstrated the effectiveness of using UR® on laboratory measurements of children. The inadequate intake of thiamine, folic acid and iron was also reduced, making the fortified rice an interesting strategy in school feeding programs.

  20. Diet quality of preschool children and maternal perceptions/misperceptions: the GENESIS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kourlaba, G; Kondaki, K; Grammatikaki, E; Roma-Giannikou, E; Manios, Y

    2009-11-01

    To quantify maternal perceptions regarding the quality of their child's diet, and to identify factors associated with misperceptions. A representative sample of 2287 children aged 2-5 years from a cross-sectional study (GENESIS study) was used. Maternal perceptions of the quality of their child's diet, child's and mother's anthropometric characteristics, and other characteristics (i.e. socio-demographic and lifestyle) were recorded. The actual quality of each child's diet was estimated using the Healthy Eating Index (HEI) score. Based on the HEI score, 18.3% of participants had a 'poor' diet, 81.5% had a diet which 'needs improvement' and only 0.2% had a 'good' diet. Almost 83% of mothers overestimated the quality of their child's diet. The overestimation rate was 86% among mothers who declared that they choose their child's food based on what they consider to be healthy, and 72% among those who reported that other factors play the predominant role in food choices for their child (Pdiet. The vast majority of mothers overestimate the quality of their child's diet. Given that maternal perceptions regarding the quality of their child's diet are likely to be one of the predominant factors determining the child's food intake, health professionals should make mothers aware of the existence of particular dietary recommendations that their children should meet in order to eat a healthy diet.

  1. Raising a Fit Preschooler

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... October 2014 More on this topic for: Parents Music and Your Preschooler Is Your Preschooler Too Active? Sleep and Your Preschooler Games for Preschoolers Motivating Preschoolers to Be Active Should Your Preschooler Play Sports? Safe Exploring for Preschoolers Your Child's Weight Kids ...

  2. Provider category and quality of care in the Norwegian nursing home industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astri Drange Hole

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines empirically if there is a link between quality of care in the Norwegian nursing home industry and exposure of the industry to competition. Exposing public care to competition implies that the responsibility for providing care services is shared between public authorities and private actors. In Norway, exposure to competition means tender competition. Suppliers bid for a contract issued by the Norwegian authorities for a limited number of years. Quality of care in an institution is the major competitive factor. The provider categories of elderly care are: 1 care provided by institutions run by municipalities, 2 care provided by institutions run by private companies, which have won a tender competition, 3 care provided by institutions run by private companies owned by private families, voluntary religious or idealistic organizations. Nurse-to-patient ratio is used as a proxy for quality of care. The regression analysis indicates a relationship between quality of care and exposure to competition. The quality of care in provider category 2 is significantly lower than in provider category 1, but there are more variations in the quality of care in provider category 1 than in provider category 2. We find the lowest quality of care in provider category 1. There is also a relationship between the quality of care in an institution and the educational level of the staff, the location, the workforce, and the size of an institution. Finally, there is a relationship between the quality of care in an institution and the real and the required capacity, and the financial status in a region.

  3. Educational Vouchers for Universal Pre-Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Henry M.; Schwartz, Heather L.

    2007-01-01

    This article considers two issues regarding preschool education. First, it provides a brief set of arguments for government funding of universal, pre-school education. Second, it explores the applicability of a voucher plan using a regulated market approach for the funding of universal, pre-school education. Four criteria are used to assess the…

  4. Large performance incentives had the greatest impact on providers whose quality metrics were lowest at baseline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Jessica; Hibbard, Judith H; Overton, Valerie

    2015-04-01

    This study examined the impact of Fairview Health Services' primary care provider compensation model, in which 40 percent of compensation was based on clinic-level quality outcomes. Fairview Health Services is a Pioneer accountable care organization in Minnesota. Using publicly reported performance data from 2010 and 2012, we found that Fairview's improvement in quality metrics was not greater than the improvement in other comparable Minnesota medical groups. An analysis of Fairview's administrative data found that the largest predictor of improvement over the first two years of the compensation model was primary care providers' baseline quality performance. Providers whose baseline performance was in the lowest tertile improved three times more, on average, across the three quality metrics studied than those in the middle tertile, and almost six times more than those in the top tertile. As a result, there was a narrowing of variation in performance across all primary care providers at Fairview and a narrowing of the gap in quality between providers who treated the highest-income patient panels and those who treated the lowest-income panels. The large quality incentive fell short of its overall quality improvement aim. However, the results suggest that payment reform may help narrow variation in primary care provider performance, which can translate into narrowing socioeconomic disparities. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  5. 45 CFR 605.38 - Preschool and adult education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Preschool and adult education. 605.38 Section 605... Preschool, Elementary, and Secondary Education § 605.38 Preschool and adult education. A recipient to which this subpart applies that provides preschool education or day care or adult education may not, on the...

  6. Development and Initial Validation of the Preschooler Gross Motor Quality Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shih-Heng; Zhu, Yi-Ching; Shih, Ching-Lin; Lin, Chien-Hui; Wu, Sheng K.

    2010-01-01

    Motor skills have great impact on children in adapting to an environment and developing interpersonal interaction, cognition, and social behavior. Understanding what children can do and how they perform it is essential. Most motor tests seldom contain quality evaluation in the items or criteria. The purpose of this study was to develop and…

  7. Quality of the Home Learning Environment during Preschool Age--Domains and Contextual Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluczniok, Katharina; Lehrl, Simone; Kuger, Susanne; Rossbach, Hans-Guenther

    2013-01-01

    The quality of the home learning environment has been proven to be of major importance for child development, but little is known about the role of domain specificity in promoting early childhood learning at home and its dependence on family background. This article presents a framework of the home learning environment in early childhood that…

  8. Using a Standardized Task to Assess the Quality of Teacher-Child Dyadic Interactions in Preschool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittaker, Jessica E. V.; Williford, Amanda P.; Carter, Lauren M.; Vitiello, Virginia E.; Hatfield, Bridget E.

    2018-01-01

    Research Findings: This study explored the quality of teacher-child interactions within the context of a newly developed standardized task, Teacher-Child Structured Play Task (TC-SPT). A sample of 146 teachers and 345 children participated. Children who displayed the highest disruptive behaviors within each classroom were selected to participate.…

  9. Evaluation of Dental Status and Its Association with Oral Health-Related Quality of Life in Preschool Children in Zahedan City, Iran: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amirabadi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Several factors can affect the oral health-related quality of life in children. Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the dental status and its relationship with the oral health-related quality of life in preschool children in Zahedan City, Iran. Methods In this descriptive-analytical cross-sectional study, 200 preschool children (5 - 6 years old were randomly selected from different areas of Zahedan city. Dental health status of children was investigated using the decayed, missing and filled teeth (DMFT questionnaire. Oral-health-related quality of life of the children and their parents was measured using the Farsi version of the early childhood oral health impact scale (F- ECOHIS index. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 20, statistical t-test and Pearson correlation coefficient at the significant level of 0.05. Results The mean scores of F- ECOHIS and DMFT for all studied children were 10.94 ± 7.67 and 5.05 ± 4.48, respectively. No significant relationship was found between the DMFT and F- ECOHIS indices in children (r = 0.26, P = 0.563 and their parents (r = 0.16, P = 0.217. Conclusions Under the limitations of the present study, there is no significant relationship between the DMFT index and the index of oral health-related quality of life. Further studies are recommended.

  10. The Push for Public Preschool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dessoff, Alan

    2010-01-01

    From selecting appropriate curricula and teachers to providing classrooms with bathrooms easily accessible to 4-year-olds, public preschool programs present challenges to districts that run the programs, which are designed to prepare children to get off to a good start when they enter kindergarten. While a wide range of private preschool programs…

  11. The Association of Perceived Provider-Patient Communication and Relationship Quality with Colorectal Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underhill, Meghan L.; Kiviniemi, Marc T.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Two-thirds of adults aged 50 years and older are adherent to recommendations for colorectal cancer screening. Provider-patient communication and characteristics of the patient-provider relationship may relate to screening behavior. Methods: The association of provider communication quality, relationship, and colorectal cancer screening…

  12. Maternal stress and family quality of life in response to raising a child with autism: from preschool to adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McStay, Rebecca L; Trembath, David; Dissanayake, Cheryl

    2014-11-01

    While the impact of raising a child with an Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is well documented, with mothers reporting higher levels of stress than mothers of children with other disabilities, positive maternal outcomes have also been identified. What remains unclear, however, is the role of child age on maternal outcomes. We sought to clarify the role of child age in maternal stress and family quality of life (FQoL) in mothers raising a child with ASD. Participants included 140 mothers of children aged 3-16 years grouped to represent four key stages of childhood (preschool, early school years, middle school, early high school). Using a cross-sectional design, mothers completed questionnaires assessing potential risk (e.g., child problem behaviour, symptom severity) and protective (e.g., family characteristics) factors attributed to maternal outcomes. The results revealed significant age related group differences in child internalising behaviour and ASD symptomatology between the early and middle school years. Lower levels of adaptive social behaviour in older age groups were also found. Although mothers of older children reported significantly less support from professionals than mothers of younger children, no significant age effects were found to contribute to maternal reports of stress or FQoL. The current findings support the view that mothers appear to demonstrate stable levels of stress and FQoL despite fluctuations in key child variables and a reduction in supports, across age, highlighting the ongoing nature of maternal needs and heightened levels of child symptomatology during adolescence. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Adopting Quality Criteria for Websites Providing Medical Information About Rare Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauer, Frédéric; Göbel, Jens; Storf, Holger; Litzkendorf, Svenja; Babac, Ana; Frank, Martin; Lührs, Verena; Schauer, Franziska; Schmidtke, Jörg; Biehl, Lisa; Wagner, Thomas Of; Ückert, Frank; Graf von der Schulenburg, Johann-Matthias; Hartz, Tobias

    2016-08-25

    The European Union considers diseases to be rare when they affect less than 5 in 10,000 people. It is estimated that there are between 5000 and 8000 different rare diseases. Consistent with this diversity, the quality of information available on the Web varies considerably. Thus, quality criteria for websites about rare diseases are needed. The objective of this study was to generate a catalog of quality criteria suitable for rare diseases. First, relevant certificates and quality recommendations for health information websites were identified through a comprehensive Web search. Second, all considered quality criteria of each certification program and catalog were examined, extracted into an overview table, and analyzed by thematic content. Finally, an interdisciplinary expert group verified the relevant quality criteria. We identified 9 quality certificates and criteria catalogs for health information websites with 304 single criteria items. Through this, we aggregated 163 various quality criteria, each assigned to one of the following categories: thematic, technical, service, content, and legal. Finally, a consensus about 13 quality criteria for websites offering medical information on rare diseases was determined. Of these categories, 4 (data protection concept, imprint, creation and updating date, and possibility to contact the website provider) were identified as being the most important for publishing medical information about rare diseases. The large number of different quality criteria appearing within a relatively small number of criteria catalogs shows that the opinion of what is important in the quality of health information differs. In addition, to define useful quality criteria for websites about rare diseases, which are an essential source of information for many patients, a trade-off is necessary between the high standard of quality criteria for health information websites in general and the limited provision of information about some rare diseases

  14. Effectiveness of UK provider financial incentives on quality of care: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandavia, Rishi; Mehta, Nishchay; Schilder, Anne; Mossialos, Elias

    2017-11-01

    Provider financial incentives are being increasingly adopted to help improve standards of care while promoting efficiency. To review the UK evidence on whether provider financial incentives are an effective way of improving the quality of health care. Systematic review of UK evidence, undertaken in accordance with Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) recommendations. MEDLINE and Embase databases were searched in August 2016. Original articles that assessed the relationship between UK provider financial incentives and a quantitative measure of quality of health care were included. Studies showing improvement for all measures of quality of care were defined as 'positive', those that were 'intermediate' showed improvement in some measures, and those classified as 'negative' showed a worsening of measures. Studies showing no effect were documented as such. Quality was assessed using the Downs and Black quality checklist. Of the 232 published articles identified by the systematic search, 28 were included. Of these, nine reported positive effects of incentives on quality of care, 16 reported intermediate effects, two reported no effect, and one reported a negative effect. Quality assessment scores for included articles ranged from 15 to 19, out of a maximum of 22 points. The effects of UK provider financial incentives on healthcare quality are unclear. Owing to this uncertainty and their significant costs, use of them may be counterproductive to their goal of improving healthcare quality and efficiency. UK policymakers should be cautious when implementing these incentives - if used, they should be subject to careful long-term monitoring and evaluation. Further research is needed to assess whether provider financial incentives represent a cost-effective intervention to improve the quality of care delivered in the UK. © British Journal of General Practice 2017.

  15. Key Factors of Quality in the Sector of Tourism Services Providers: Case Study: Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Vajčnerová

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper summarizes main results of partial research aimed at detection of the key factors affecting quality in the sector of tourism services providers, namely tour operators and travel agencies. A primary questionnaire survey was conducted; the researched factors were distributed in the context of service quality dimensions (Grönroos model; the dimensions were tested in relation to sex, age and education of the respondents (ANOVA; Brown-Forsythe test. Assurance was identified as the most important dimension. The output of the study is determining the significance of individual quality factors from the perspective of a potential customer when selecting a service provider.

  16. Impact of television on the quality of sleep in preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockmann, Pablo E; Diaz, Blanca; Damiani, Felipe; Villarroel, Luis; Núñez, Felipe; Bruni, Oliviero

    2016-04-01

    We aimed to investigate the impact of different habits concerning television (TV) use and the time of day in which TV is watched on the sleep quality of young children. Parents of 100 healthy children (58% boys, mean age of 2.7 ± 1.5 years) attending a routine health check completed the Sleep Disturbance Scale for Children (SDSC) and a questionnaire concerning TV and electronic media use. Children were divided into those with a normal (SDSC-) or abnormal (SDSC+) questionnaire score. TV viewing habits were compared between groups. The total sleep time and total TV viewing time were not different between groups. A TV set was inside each child's bedroom in 51% of participants. Children with a TV in their bedroom showed significantly higher scores in the "sleep terrors," "nightmares," "sleep talking," and "tired when waking up" responses of the SDSC (P = 0.02, 0.01, 0.01, and 0.01, respectively). Children with a TV in their room had an odds ratio (95% confidence interval) of 3.29 (1.08-9.99) for having an abnormal SDSC. Evening TV viewers had significantly higher SDSC scores compared with those who watched TV earlier during the day (P = 0.04). The presence of a TV set in the child's bedroom was associated with significant reductions in the quality of young children's sleep. Evening exposure to TV was associated with significantly worse sleep quality. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Exposure to traumatic events and health-related quality of life in preschool-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Yvonne Humenay; Ferguson, Monette; Crusto, Cindy A

    2013-10-01

    To examine the association of lifetime exposure to traumatic events with health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and psychosocial health in children aged 3 through 5 years. This study is a community-based, cross-sectional survey of 170 children and their parents. Traumatic events were assessed by the Traumatic Events Screening Inventory-Parent Report Revised using criteria for potentially traumatic events in young childhood outlined by the Zero to Three working group. HRQOL of young children was measured using the 97-item Infant/Toddler Quality of Life Questionnaire, and psychosocial health was measured using the Child Behavior Checklist 1.5-5. One hundred and twenty-three (72 %) of children had experienced at least one type of trauma event. Children who had been exposed to 1-3 types of trauma and those exposed to 4 or more types of trauma had significantly worse HRQOL and psychosocial health than children not exposed to trauma. Significant effect sizes between children exposed to low levels or high levels of traumatic events and children not exposed to trauma ranged from small to large. Exposure to traumatic events in early childhood is associated with less positive HRQOL and psychosocial health. Cumulative trauma exposure led to significant effects in outcome variables in this population. Interventions to decrease trauma exposure and to reduce significant stress in early childhood associated with exposure to trauma may be appropriate strategies for preventing negative health conditions throughout the life span.

  18. Oral mucosal lesions' impact on oral health-related quality of life in preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Luísa Jardim Corrêa; Torriani, Dione Dias; Correa, Marcos Britto; Peres, Marco Aurélio; Peres, Karen Glazer; Matijasevich, Alicia; Dos Santos, Iná da Silva; Barros, Aluisio J D; Demarco, Flávio Fernando; Tarquinio, Sandra Beatriz Chaves

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of oral mucosal lesions and their impact on oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) in children aged 5 years. A sample of 1118 children from Pelotas' birth cohort, born in 2004 (response rate of 85.8%), were selected to participate in the study. Data were collected using a questionnaire applied to mothers and from the oral examinations of the children. OML were identified by type, site, and size. Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale (ECOHIS) was used to assess caregivers' perception on children's OHRQoL. Descriptive, bivariate, and multivariate Poisson regression analyses were carried out, considering the impact on OHRQoL (total ECOHIS score) as the outcome. The prevalence of the OML was 30.1% (95% CI 27.5-32.9). Ulcers were the more prevalent type of lesion (29.4%), and the most affected site was the gums (31.0%). In bivariate analysis, there was a positive association between the presence of OML and OHRQoL impact measured by the following: mean overall score of ECOHIS (P oral health variables, children with OML presented higher impact on OHRQoL [rate ratio (RR) 1.38 95% CI 1.11; 1.72] comparing with their counterparts. Analyzing specific domains, children with OML also presented higher impact on children symptoms (RR 1.46 95% CI 1.20; 1.66) and family functional (RR 3.14 95% CI 1.59; 6.22) domains. Almost one-third of children presented with oral mucosal lesions, and these lesions impaired children's oral health-related quality of life. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Impact of oral health conditions on the quality of life of preschool children and their families: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Monalisa Cesarino; Pinto-Sarmento, Tassia Cristina de Almeida; Costa, Edja Maria Melo de Brito; Martins, Carolina Castro; Granville-Garcia, Ana Flávia; Paiva, Saul Martins

    2014-04-18

    Dental caries, traumatic dental injury (TDI) and malocclusion are common oral health conditions among preschool children and can have both physical and psychosocial consequences. Thus, it is important to measure the impact these on the oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) of children. The aim of the present study was to assess the impact of oral health conditions on the OHRQoL of preschool children and their families. A preschool-based, cross-sectional study was carried out with 843 preschool children in the city of Campina Grande, Brazil. Parents/caregivers answered the Brazilian Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale and a questionnaire addressing socio-demographic data as well as the parent's/caregiver's perceptions regarding their child's health. Clinical exams were performed by three researchers who had undergone a calibration process for the diagnosis of dental caries, TDI and malocclusion (K = 0.83-0.85). Hierarchical Poisson regression was employed to determine the strength of associations between oral health conditions and OHRQoL (α = 5%). The multivariate model was run on three levels obeying a hierarchical approach from distal to proximal determinants: 1) socio-demographic data; 2) perceptions of health; and 3) oral health conditions. The prevalence of impact from oral health conditions on OHRQoL was 32.1% among the children and 26.2% among the families. The following variables were significantly associated with a impact on OHRQoL among the children: birth order of child (PR = 1.430; 95% CI: 1.045-1.958), parent's/caregiver's perception of child's oral health as poor (PR = 1.732; 95% CI: 1.399-2.145), cavitated lesions (PR = 2.596; 95% CI: 1.982-3.400) and TDI (PR = 1.413; 95% CI: 1.161-1.718). The following variables were significantly associated with a impact on OHRQoL among the families: parent's/caregiver's perception of child's oral health as poor (PR = 2.116; 95% CI: 1.624-2.757), cavitated lesions (PR = 2.809; 95% CI: 2.009-3.926) and

  20. Boston's Rapid Expansion of Public School-Based Preschool: Promoting Quality, Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachs, Jason; Weiland, Christina

    2010-01-01

    In his 2005 State of the City address, Boston Mayor Thomas Menino directed the Boston Public Schools (BPS) to "provide all 4-year-olds in the city with full-day school within five years." There were several reasons for this commitment, including an emerging consensus that early childhood education makes a positive difference in long-term…

  1. THE INFLUENCE CELLULAR PROVIDER SERVICE QUALITY TOWARDS CUSTOMER LOYALTY INDOSAT IN JAKARTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dita Puruwita

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This research aims are to find out how well the service quality of PT Indosat Jakarta, how loyal are the customers, and how far the effect of the service quality toward the customers loyalty Indosat in Jakarta. The category of this research are descriptive and verification with surveys method by using a convenience sampling. The sample sizes is 120 respondents of Indosat customers. Therefore, the data collecting technique used are from secondary data, interview, observation and questionnaires. The result of this research based on hypothetical test indicates that there is a effect between the service quality and the customer loyalty. The conclusion of this research is that the performance of the service quality provided by Indosat is still under the customer expectation. It is suggested to the management of PT. Indosat, to improve and maintain their service quality in the dimension that is regard as important, as well the customer’s loyalty level.

  2. Measuring Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Næsby, Torben

    The Danish Day Care Facilities Act (2015), which provides the curriculum on which day care education is based, does not stipulate very clearly what children should learn and therefore how educational processes in preschools should be organised. This means that we must accept that there are large...... local differences in the quality of day care facilities in Denmark (Nordahl et al, 2012; Hansen et al, 2016) and also that we in fact have little knowledge of whether the desired politically determined targets are being met or not and what the quality is really like. In order to measure the quality...... of preschool in Denmark a new research project using the ECERS 3 instrument has been launched. This could capture quality from a global quality standard’s perspective, building the basis for a further investigation of practice in Danish early childhood provisions and centers in a more narrow approach...

  3. Preschoolers' cognitive and emotional self-regulation in pretend play : Relations with executive functions and quality of play

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slot, Pauline Louise; Mulder, Hanna; Verhagen, Josje; Leseman, Paul

    2017-01-01

    The preschool period is marked by rapid growth of children's self-regulation and related executive functions. Self-regulation is considered an important aspect of school readiness and is related to academic and social–emotional outcomes in childhood. Pretend play, as part of the early childhood

  4. Value-added strategy models to provide quality services in senior health business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ya-Ting; Lin, Neng-Pai; Su, Shyi; Chen, Ya-Mei; Chang, Yao-Mao; Handa, Yujiro; Khan, Hafsah Arshed Ali; Elsa Hsu, Yi-Hsin

    2017-06-20

    The rapid population aging is now a global issue. The increase in the elderly population will impact the health care industry and health enterprises; various senior needs will promote the growth of the senior health industry. Most senior health studies are focused on the demand side and scarcely on supply. Our study selected quality enterprises focused on aging health and analyzed different strategies to provide excellent quality services to senior health enterprises. We selected 33 quality senior health enterprises in Taiwan and investigated their excellent quality services strategies by face-to-face semi-structured in-depth interviews with CEO and managers of each enterprise in 2013. A total of 33 senior health enterprises in Taiwan. Overall, 65 CEOs and managers of 33 enterprises were interviewed individually. None. Core values and vision, organization structure, quality services provided, strategies for quality services. This study's results indicated four type of value-added strategy models adopted by senior enterprises to offer quality services: (i) residential care and co-residence model, (ii) home care and living in place model, (iii) community e-business experience model and (iv) virtual and physical portable device model. The common part in these four strategy models is that the services provided are elderly centered. These models offer virtual and physical integrations, and also offer total solutions for the elderly and their caregivers. Through investigation of successful strategy models for providing quality services to seniors, we identified opportunities to develop innovative service models and successful characteristics, also policy implications were summarized. The observations from this study will serve as a primary evidenced base for enterprises developing their senior market and, also for promoting the value co-creation possibility through dialogue between customers and those that deliver service.

  5. Evaluation of the Quality of Health Service Providers: The Iranian People Perspective 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asefzadeh, Saeed; Gholami, Soheyla; Rajaee, Roya; Najafi, Marziye; Alijanzadeh, Mehran

    2016-03-01

    Quality is the center of attention in all service providing organizations that are effective in promoting satisfaction of patients who are referred to medical centers. The aim of this study was to investigate the quality of health service providers in a case study of Qazvin, Iran, in 2014. This descriptive study was conducted on 1,002 people who were residents of Qazvin Province (Iran) in 2014. The people were selected randomly from the population of the study area. The main variables studied were education, perceptions, expectations, and gaps in service quality. The data collection tool was the standard Servequal questionnaire. To determine the reliability of the research tool, we used Cronbach's Alpha coefficient and the test-retest method. Statistical analyses were conducted using SPSS and the ANOVA test. The mean age of people included in the study was 32 ± 9.9 years, and the average waiting time to receive services was 73 ± 47 minutes. Hospitals and doctors' offices had the highest quality gap of -1.420 ± 0.82 and -1.01 ± 0.75, respectively. The service quality gaps in medical centers, health providers of rural area, and health providers of urban area were -0.883 ± 0.67, -0.882 ± 0.83, and -0.804 ± 0.62, respectively. There was a significant relationship between peoples' perceptions and expectations concerning the quality of health services and their educational levels. The higher gaps in quality in hospitals and in doctors' offices require more attention. Managers and policy makers should consider developing and implementing plans to reduce these gaps in quality and to promote better health services in these two sectors.

  6. Quality of language intervention provided to primary-grade students with language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biancone, Tricia L; Farquharson, Kelly; Justice, Laura M; Schmitt, Mary Beth; Logan, Jessica A R

    2014-01-01

    This study had two aims: (a) to describe the quality of language intervention provided by school-based speech-language pathologists (SLPs) to children with language impairment in the primary grades with respect to the quality of emotional support, instructional support, and proactive management during SLP-child interactions, and (b) to determine if key characteristics of the SLPs are predictors of variance in intervention quality. Participants were 174 children nested within 40 SLPs' caseloads from various districts in two Midwestern states involved in a larger study of speech-language therapy practices in the public schools. A total of 208 videotaped language intervention sessions were coded for emotional support, instructional support, and proactive management using the Classroom Assessment Scoring System (CLASS; Pianta, La Paro, & Hamre, 2008). The quality of language intervention varied widely and was generally mid-range to high with respect to emotional support and proactive management, and low to mid-range in terms of instructional support. The quality of interactions varied and a large percentage of the observed variance in quality was attributed to SLPs. Time pressure was a strong predictor of the quality of emotional support, instructional support, and proactive management, and job satisfaction was a significant predictor of instructional support and proactive management. This descriptive information about school-based language intervention highlights the impact of the individual SLP in terms of the quality of the interactions taking place and the potential need to ease job pressures and promote job satisfaction. Readers will be able to: (1) identify and define three aspects of SLP-child interaction quality during intervention as framed in this study using the CLASS observation tool (Pianta, La Paro, et al., 2008); (2) discuss the relevance of those three aspects of quality to children with LI; and (3) identify SLP-level factors that significantly predict

  7. Formation of Future Pre-School Teachers' Readiness to Work in the Conditions of Educational Inclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biktagirova, Gulnara F.; Khitryuk, Vera V.

    2016-01-01

    Inclusive education becomes a social reality and needs to ensure its quality. Preschool age is a sensitive period of the process of personality's socialization and the formation of moral qualities, providing interaction and communication between people pattern, among which are: respect for "otherness", cooperation, support and mutual…

  8. Review of the studies on nutrition in Polish preschool children. Part 2. Meals prepared at preschool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkiel-Pawłowska, Sylwia; Chalcarz, Wojciech

    This article is the second part of the review of the studies on nutrition in Polish preschool children. In the first part, studies on preschool menus assessment were presented and summarised, whereas this article reviews the studies on the assessment of foods and meals prepared at preschool. The aim of this review was to present and summarise the results of the studies on the assessment of meals prepared for children at preschool based on the reports from the preschool food storeroom, the studies on chemical analysis of sample meals served at preschools and the studies on comparison of the results of chemical analysis to the results obtained by calculations obtained from computer programmes. The results of the studies on the assessment of meals prepared for children at preschool using various methods confirm most of the findings from the studies on the assessment of preschool menus. It is necessary to carry out more studies on energy and nutrient content assessment of preschool meals determined by chemical analysis of sample meals in order to provide more accurate information about the real nutritional value of meals served to children at preschool. It is essential to update the Polish food composition tables to enable more precise calculations of nutritional value of the meals planned for children at preschools which will improve the possibility of adjusting preschool meals to the real needs of both 3-year-old and 4-6-year-old children during their stay at preschool.

  9. Preschooler development

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as roofs, attic windows, and steep staircases). Have strict rules for the preschooler about areas that are ... have appropriate role models of both sexes. Single parents should make sure the child has the chance ...

  10. Quality evaluation of rice bran protein isolate-based weaning food for preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Saima H; Butt, Masood S; Anjum, Faqir M; Sameen, Ayesha

    2011-05-01

    Agro-industrial waste 'rice bran' was stabilized and the extracted protein isolates were used as ingredients to make nutritive complimentary food for the growing infants. The formulation processed through drum drying and the starchy ingredients were pregelatinized to reduce bulk in the prepared meal and facilitate spoon-feeding. The formulations had uniform texture, light golden color and good paste consistency. Nutrient composition was good enough to meet standards for supplementary infant foods. Caloric value remained up to 416 kcal/100 g with spoonable viscosity and 80.90-84.45% in vitro digestibility. A single meal could substantially contribute to the daily essential amino acid requirement. The formulation had good acceptability during a short-term infant-feeding trial. The present study can provide practical guideline for manufacturers as well as the nutritionist for the use of an economical and nutritive formulation for young children.

  11. Quality and use of consumer information provided with home test kits: room for improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grispen, Janaica E J; Ickenroth, Martine H P; de Vries, Nanne K; van der Weijden, Trudy; Ronda, Gaby

    2014-10-01

    Diagnostic self-tests (tests on body materials that are initiated by consumers with the aim of diagnosing a disorder or risk factor) are becoming increasingly available. Although the pros and cons of self-testing are currently not clear, it is an existing phenomenon that is likely to gain further popularity. To examine consumers' use of and needs for information about self-testing, and to assess the quality of consumer information provided with home test kits, as perceived by consumers and as assessed using a checklist of quality criteria. A cross-sectional Internet survey among 305 self-testers assessed their use of and needs for information and their perception of the quality of consumer information provided with self-test kits. A meta-search engine was used to identify Dutch and English consumer information for home diagnostic tests available online at the time of the study. The quality of this consumer information was evaluated using a checklist of quality criteria. The consumers' information needs were in line with the most frequently used information, and the information was perceived as being of moderate to good quality. The information was mostly in agreement with clinical practice guidelines, although information on reliability and follow-up behaviour was limited. Approximately half of the instruction leaflets did not include information on the target group of the test. Although generally of moderate to good quality, some aspects of the information provided were in many cases insufficient. European legislation concerning self-tests and accompanying information needs to be adapted and adhered to more closely. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. The Relationship between Classroom Quality-Related Variables and Engagement Levels in Swedish Preschool Classrooms: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Susana; Granlund, Mats; Almqvist, Lena

    2017-01-01

    Child engagement has been defined as active participation in classroom routines, appropriate interactions with the environment and it also predicts academic achievement. Therefore, it is necessary to identify predictors of engagement over time. Moreover, cross-cultural data is needed to provide a global picture of the quality of Early Childhood…

  13. Predictors of Quality and Commitment in Family Child Care: Provider Education, Personal Resources, and Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Ruth Harding

    2002-01-01

    Examined the personal characteristics and resources in 65 licensed family child care providers' lives that influence developmentally enhancing caregiving and professional commitment. Unique predictors to higher quality of care were higher levels of formal education and training, college coursework in early childhood education, higher psychological…

  14. Considerations of Administrative Licensure, Provider Type, and Leadership Quality: Recommendations for Research, Policy, and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackmann, Donald G.

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews U.S. administrative licensure regulations, focusing on type of school leader licensure, provider types, and leadership quality. Licensure obtained through university-based and alternative routes is examined. Due to limited research on alternative school administrative licensure, regulations in medicine, psychology,…

  15. Providing high-quality HIV care in a deeply rural setting – the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Providing high-quality HIV care in a deeply rural setting – the Zithulele experience. C Young, B Gaunt. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.7196/sajhivmed.1035 · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO ...

  16. Qualities of care managers in chronic disease management: patients and providers' expectations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dejesus, Ramona S; Vickers, Kristin S; Howell, Lisa A; Stroebel, Robert J

    2012-10-01

    The collaborative care model has been shown in studies to be effective in achieving sustained treatment outcomes in chronic disease management. Its success is highly dependent on active patient engagement, provider endorsement and effective care management. This study sought to ask patients and providers what qualities they look for in a care manager. A questionnaire with 3 open ended questions was mailed out randomly to 1000 patients residing in Olmsted County, MN identified through the registry to have type 2 diabetes mellitus. Forty-two primary care providers received similar questionnaire with 2 open ended questions. Answers were qualitatively analyzed using coding and identification of major themes. One hundred seventy-five patients and 22 providers responded. Both groups listed being knowledgeable, having good communication skills and certain personality traits as common themes on what are desirable qualities in a care manager. Patients felt that a care manager would be most helpful by being accessible. Providers listed undesirable qualities to include not being a team player and not knowing practice limitations. Both patients and providers have clear expectations of a care manager which carry significant implications in recruiting and training care managers for chronic disease management. Copyright © 2012 Primary Care Diabetes Europe. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Pairs of cooperating cleaner fish provide better service quality than singletons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bshary, Redouan; Grutter, Alexandra S; Willener, Astrid S T; Leimar, Olof

    2008-10-16

    Service providers may vary service quality depending on whether they work alone or provide the service simultaneously with a partner. The latter case resembles a prisoner's dilemma, in which one provider may try to reap the benefits of the interaction without providing the service. Here we present a game-theory model based on the marginal value theorem, which predicts that as long as the client determines the duration, and the providers cooperate towards mutual gain, service quality will increase in the pair situation. This prediction is consistent with field observations and with an experiment on cleaning mutualism, in which stable male-female pairs of the cleaner wrasse Labroides dimidiatus repeatedly inspect client fish jointly. Cleaners cooperate by eating ectoparasites off clients but actually prefer to cheat and eat client mucus. Because clients often leave in response to such cheating, the benefits of cheating can be gained by only one cleaner during a pair inspection. In both data sets, the increased service quality during pair inspection was mainly due to the smaller females behaving significantly more cooperatively than their larger male partners. In contrast, during solitary inspections, cleaning behaviour was very similar between the sexes. Our study highlights the importance of incorporating interactions between service providers to make more quantitative predictions about cooperation between species.

  18. Cooperation between Parents and Preschool Institutions through Different Concepts of Preschool Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanja Berčnik

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the importance, role, and methods of cooperation between parents and preschool institutions through the different concepts of preschool education and different educational approaches and formal frameworks. Through educational approaches, the authors analyse how cooperation affects the implementation of preschool education in alternative educational approaches, such as the Waldorf, Montessori, and Reggio Emilia approaches, and Slovenian public preschool institutions. They envisage that different educational approaches in preschool education perceive the importance and role of cooperation with parents differently and conclude that there are various models of cooperation, which can be demonstrated through a theoretical analysis of the aforementioned alternative preschool approaches. In their view, partnership promotes a shared commitment to the quality realisation of educational goals; it also develops understanding and an ethos of openness in the relationship between all actors in the process of care and education of preschool children.

  19. What Is the Reality of Preschool in Jordan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ALdarab'h, Intisar; Alrub, Mohammad Abo; Al-Mohtadi, Reham Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    The present study evaluated the reality of the preschools in Jordan. A random sample of 500 preschool teachers participated in this study. Quantitative and qualitative methods were used. Preschools' learning environment quality was assessed using the revised version of the Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale (Harms, Clifford, & Cryer,…

  20. Higher cortisol is associated with poorer executive functioning in preschool children: The role of parenting stress, parent coping and quality of daycare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Shannon L.; Cepeda, Ivan; Krieger, Dena; Maggi, Stefania; D’Angiulli, Amedeo; Weinberg, Joanne; Grunau, Ruth E.

    2016-01-01

    Child executive functions (cognitive flexibility, inhibitory control, working memory) are key to success in school. Cortisol, the primary stress hormone, is known to affect cognition; however, there is limited information about how child cortisol levels, parenting factors and child care context relate to executive functions in young children. The aim of this study was to examine relationships between child cortisol, parenting stress, parent coping, and daycare quality in relation to executive functions in children aged 3–5 years. We hypothesized that (1) poorer executive functioning would be related to higher child cortisol and higher parenting stress, and (2) positive daycare quality and positive parent coping style would buffer the effects of child cortisol and parenting stress on executive functions. A total of 101 children (53 girls, 48 boys, mean age 4.24 years ±0.74) with complete data on all measures were included. Three saliva samples to measure cortisol were collected at the child’s daycare/preschool in one morning. Parents completed the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function – Preschool Version (BRIEF-P), Parenting Stress Index (PSI), and Ways of Coping Questionnaire (WCQ). The Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale – Revised (ECERS-R) was used to measure the quality of daycare. It was found that children with poorer executive functioning had higher levels of salivary cortisol, and their parents reported higher parenting stress. However, parent coping style and quality of daycare did not modulate these relationships. Identifying ways to promote child executive functioning is an important direction for improving school readiness. PMID:26335047

  1. [Formula: see text]Higher cortisol is associated with poorer executive functioning in preschool children: The role of parenting stress, parent coping and quality of daycare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Shannon L; Cepeda, Ivan; Krieger, Dena; Maggi, Stefania; D'Angiulli, Amedeo; Weinberg, Joanne; Grunau, Ruth E

    2016-01-01

    Child executive functions (cognitive flexibility, inhibitory control, working memory) are key to success in school. Cortisol, the primary stress hormone, is known to affect cognition; however, there is limited information about how child cortisol levels, parenting factors and child care context relate to executive functions in young children. The aim of this study was to examine relationships between child cortisol, parenting stress, parent coping, and daycare quality in relation to executive functions in children aged 3-5 years. We hypothesized that (1) poorer executive functioning would be related to higher child cortisol and higher parenting stress, and (2) positive daycare quality and positive parent coping style would buffer the effects of child cortisol and parenting stress on executive functions. A total of 101 children (53 girls, 48 boys, mean age 4.24 years ±0.74) with complete data on all measures were included. Three saliva samples to measure cortisol were collected at the child's daycare/preschool in one morning. Parents completed the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function - Preschool Version (BRIEF-P), Parenting Stress Index (PSI), and Ways of Coping Questionnaire (WCQ). The Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale - Revised (ECERS-R) was used to measure the quality of daycare. It was found that children with poorer executive functioning had higher levels of salivary cortisol, and their parents reported higher parenting stress. However, parent coping style and quality of daycare did not modulate these relationships. Identifying ways to promote child executive functioning is an important direction for improving school readiness.

  2. The informative value of motor, mental, and moral qualities in the personality structure of preschool children aged 4 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pangelova N.E.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The study was to determine the presence or usefulness of the main components of the relationship of physical and psycho-physiological state in the personality structure of children of preschool age. The experiment involved 107 children aged 4 years (54 male, 53 female. Factor analysis of the structure of the motor system, the intellectual and moral sphere of children. Found that it is determined six orthogonal factors. The results give reason to believe that the development of the physical, intellectual and moral sphere of children of this age is complex. The interpretation of these data in the pedagogical aspect suggests that pre-school children are becoming a person under the influence of biological and psychological factors. Their activation is possible in the process of physical education.

  3. Providing Total Quality Fundamentals: 1995 Workshops for the NASA Lewis Research Center's Technical Services Directorate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antczak, Paul; Jacinto,Gilda; Simek, Jimmy

    1997-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) agency-wide movement to cultivate a quality workplace is the basis for Lewis Research Center to implement Total Quality Fundamentals (TQF) initiatives. The Lewis Technical Services Directorate (TSD) introduced the Total Quality Fundamentals (TQF) workshops to its work force as an opportunity to introduce the concepts and principles of TQF. These workshops also provided the participants with the opportunity to dialogue with fellow TSD employees and managers. This report describes, through the perspective of the Lewis TSD TQF Coaches, how the TQF work- shop process was accomplished in TSD. It describes the structure for addressing the need, implementation process, input the TSD Coaches provided, common themes and concerns raised, conclusions, and recommendations. The Coaches concluded that these types of workshops could be the key to open the communication channels that are necessary to help everyone at Lewis understand where they fit in the organization. TQF workshops can strengthen the participant's connection with the Mission, Vision of the Center, and Vision of the Agency. Reconunendations are given based on these conclusions that can help the TSD Quality Board develop attainable measures towards a quality workplace.

  4. Impact of oral health problems on the quality of life of preschool children: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firmino, Ramon Targino; Gomes, Monalisa Cesarino; Clementino, Marayza Alves; Martins, Carolina Castro; Paiva, Saul Martins; Granville-Garcia, Ana Flávia

    2016-07-01

    There is a need for investigations into the impact of oral problems on OHRQoL with study designs that offer greater strength of evidence. To evaluate the impact of dental caries and traumatic dental injury (TDI) on the OHRQoL of Brazilian preschool children. A population-based, matched, case-control study was conducted involving 415 children aged 3-5 years enrolled at public and private preschools. The case group (impact on OHRQoL) and control group (no impact on OHRQoL) were matched for age, sex, and monthly household income at a 1 : 4 ratio (83 cases and 332 controls). Impact on OHRQoL was assessed using the B-ECOHIS. Dental caries and TDI were determined through clinical oral examinations. Data analysis involved descriptive statistics and conditional logistic regression analysis (P ≤ 0.05; 95% CI). The most frequent responses on the B-ECOHIS were 'felt pain' (79.7%) and 'difficulty in eating' (35.0%). The following variables were significantly associated with impact on OHRQoL: caries severity (OR = 12.58; 95% CI: 5.31-29.79) and TDI (OR: 2.11; 95% CI: 1.23-3.62). Caries severity and TDI impacted the OHRQoL of preschool children. © 2015 BSPD, IAPD and John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Impact of traumatic dental injuries on oral health-related quality of life of preschool children: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tássia Silvana Borges

    Full Text Available Observational studies have suggested that traumatic dental injuries (TDI can lead to pain, loss of function and esthetic problems, with physical, emotional and social consequences for children and their families. However, population-based studies that investigate the impact of TDI on oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL among preschool children are scarce and offer conflicting results. The aim of the systematic review and meta-analysis was to evaluate the impact of TDI on OHRQoL among preschool children (PROSPERO-CRD42015032513.An electronic search of six databases was performed in PubMed (MEDLINE, ISI Web of Science, Scopus, Science Direct, EMBASE and Google Scholar, with no language or publication date restrictions. The eligibility criteria were TDI as the exposure variable, OHRQoL as the outcome and a population of children up to six years of age. RevMan software was used for data analysis. Results are expressed as odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals for the total score of the Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale (ECOHIS as well as the scores of the Child Impact Section (CIS and Family Impact Section (FIS. The random effect model was chosen and heterogeneity was evaluated using the I2 test.2,013 articles were initially retrieved; 1,993 articles were excluded based on title and abstracts; 10 articles excluded after full-text analysis. Ten studies comprising a population of 7,461 preschool children were included in the systematic review and nine studies were included in the meta-analysis. TDI caused a negative impact on OHRQoL based on the overall ECOHIS (OR: 1.24; 95% CI: 1.08-1.43 and CIS (OR: 1.23; 95% CI: 1.07-1.41, but not the FIS (OR: 1.09; 95% CI: 0.90-1.32.TDI negatively impacted on OHRQoL of preschool children. The present findings indicate the need for TDI prevention and treatment programs in early childhood.

  6. Evaluation of Oral Health-Related Quality of Life to Assess Dental Treatment in Preschool Children with Early Childhood Caries: A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollú, Ana Lúcia; da Costa, Maria da Encarnação Perez Requejo; Maia, Lucianne Cople; Fonseca-Gonçalves, Andréa

    2018-01-01

    The oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) of preschool children with Early Childhood Caries (ECC) was used to assess the outcome of dental treatment. Children (3.56±1.31years) affected by ECC were selected. Anamnesis, clinical and radiographic exams were performed. Data about sociodemographic aspects, OHRQoL and dmf-t index were collected. The Brazilian version of Early Childhood Oral health Impact Scale (B-ECOHIS) was applied in two time intervals: before and after 30 days of treatment. B-ECOHIS scores and effect size (ES) were used to evaluate the OHRQoL of preschool children. The Student's-t test was used for comparison between the B-ECOHIS averages, considering the following aspects: gender, age, socioeconomic status, severity of caries and type of treatment. The mean dmf-t was 6.25±4.20 and no differences between boys (6.00±4.32) and girls (6.83±4.35) (p=0,942) were found. Pain and psychological problems among children and parents feeling upset and guilty were the most frequently reported impacts at baseline. There was a greater impact on girls (17.67±8.68) than on boys (13.30±10.53) (p<0.001); and on children younger than 4 years (16.71±9.96) (p<0.05). The highest B-ECOHIS scores were observed in treatments involving dental extractions and space maintainers. There was no difference between the total B-ECOHIS scores of subjects from middle (16.24±10.30) and lower socioeconomic classes (15.97±10.26). The total scores of B-ECOHIS and its domains decreased after 30-day follow-up. Dental rehabilitation of preschool children showed a large effect size for these subjects (ES=1.19) and their families (ES=1.00). Dental treatment resulted in significant improvement of the preschool children's OHRQoL.

  7. Impact of traumatic dental injuries on oral health-related quality of life of preschool children: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Tássia Silvana; Vargas-Ferreira, Fabiana; Kramer, Paulo Floriani; Feldens, Carlos Alberto

    2017-01-01

    Observational studies have suggested that traumatic dental injuries (TDI) can lead to pain, loss of function and esthetic problems, with physical, emotional and social consequences for children and their families. However, population-based studies that investigate the impact of TDI on oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) among preschool children are scarce and offer conflicting results. The aim of the systematic review and meta-analysis was to evaluate the impact of TDI on OHRQoL among preschool children (PROSPERO-CRD42015032513). An electronic search of six databases was performed in PubMed (MEDLINE), ISI Web of Science, Scopus, Science Direct, EMBASE and Google Scholar, with no language or publication date restrictions. The eligibility criteria were TDI as the exposure variable, OHRQoL as the outcome and a population of children up to six years of age. RevMan software was used for data analysis. Results are expressed as odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals for the total score of the Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale (ECOHIS) as well as the scores of the Child Impact Section (CIS) and Family Impact Section (FIS). The random effect model was chosen and heterogeneity was evaluated using the I2 test. 2,013 articles were initially retrieved; 1,993 articles were excluded based on title and abstracts; 10 articles excluded after full-text analysis. Ten studies comprising a population of 7,461 preschool children were included in the systematic review and nine studies were included in the meta-analysis. TDI caused a negative impact on OHRQoL based on the overall ECOHIS (OR: 1.24; 95% CI: 1.08-1.43) and CIS (OR: 1.23; 95% CI: 1.07-1.41), but not the FIS (OR: 1.09; 95% CI: 0.90-1.32). TDI negatively impacted on OHRQoL of preschool children. The present findings indicate the need for TDI prevention and treatment programs in early childhood.

  8. Quality dementia care: Prerequisites and relational ethics among multicultural healthcare providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellevold, Gerd Sylvi; Egede-Nissen, Veslemøy; Jakobsen, Rita; Sørlie, Venke

    2017-01-01

    Many nursing homes appear as multicultural workplaces where the majority of healthcare providers have an ethnic minority background. This environment creates challenges linked to communication, interaction and cultural differences. Furthermore, the healthcare providers have varied experiences and understanding of what quality care of patients with dementia involves. The aim of this study is to illuminate multi-ethnic healthcare providers' lived experiences of their own working relationship, and its importance to quality care for people with dementia. The study is part of a greater participatory action research project: 'Hospice values in the care for persons with dementia'. The data material consists of extensive notes from seminars, project meetings and dialogue-based teaching. The text material was subjected to phenomenological-hermeneutical interpretation. Participants and research context: Participants in the project were healthcare providers working in a nursing home unit. The participants came from 15 different countries, had different formal qualifications, varied backgrounds and ethnic origins. Ethical considerations: The study is approved by the Norwegian Regional Ethics Committee and the Norwegian Social Science Data Services. The results show that good working relationships, characterized by understanding each other's vulnerability and willingness to learn from each other through shared experiences, are prerequisites for quality care. The healthcare providers further described ethical challenges as uncertainty and different understandings. The results are discussed in the light of Lögstrup's relational philosophy of ethics and the concepts of vulnerability, ethic responsibility, trust and openness of speech. The prerequisite for quality care for persons with dementia in a multicultural working environment is to create arenas for open discussions between the healthcare providers. Leadership is of great importance.

  9. [Do nursing homes with higher quality ratings provide a better quality of care? : Empirical study based on administrative data].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przylog, Adam; Stroka, Magdalena A; Engel, Susanne; Linder, Roland

    2016-06-01

    In 2009 a new system for the objective evaluation of nursing homes was introduced in Germany. The so-called nursing transparency agreement (Pflege-Transparenzvereinbarungen) was introduced to provide a reliable tool for an objective comparison of inpatient (PTVS) and outpatient (PTVA) care; however, the new regulations have been the subject of a broad discussion regarding reliability, efficiency and objectivity. To overcome the lack of objective health outcomes, this study used administrative data from Germany's largest health insurance fund, the Techniker Krankenkasse, in order to analyze the association between the quality ratings and objective quality measures on an individual level. This is the first study that provides empirical evidence on this topic using administrative data. The administrative dataset contained information on several individual characteristics as well as data on injuries, poisoning and other extrinsic effects on care-dependent individuals over the age of 64 years who were living in a nursing home in 2009. Based on these data an objective measure was constructed to test whether higher quality ratings of nursing homes led to a better quality of care of the respective patients using non-linear regression models. The results of the estimated models showed no significant evidence of such a relationship, neither considering the probability nor the number of injuries, poisoning and other extrinsic effects. Significant effects were only observed for gender and specific diseases. The results of this study support the argument that the current rating procedure for nursing homes has to be refined. Using quality indicators in combination with the administrative data could possibly contribute to such an enhancement.

  10. Measuring the quality of provided services for patients with chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahadori, Mohammadkarim; Raadabadi, Mehdi; Heidari Jamebozorgi, Majid; Salesi, Mahmood; Ravangard, Ramin

    2014-09-01

    The healthcare organizations need to develop and implement quality improvement plans for their survival and success. Measuring quality in the healthcare competitive environment is an undeniable necessity for these organizations and will lead to improved patient satisfaction. This study aimed to measure the quality of provided services for patients with chronic kidney disease in Kerman in 2014. This cross-sectional, descriptive-analytic study was performed from 23 January 2014 to 14 February 2014 in four hemodialysis centers in Kerman. All of the patients on chronic hemodialysis (n = 195) who were referred to these four centers were selected and studied using census method. The required data were collected using the SERVQUAL questionnaire, consisting of two parts: questions related to the patients' demographic characteristics, and 28 items to measure the patients' expectations and perceptions of the five dimensions of service quality, including tangibility, reliability, responsiveness, assurance, and empathy. The collected data were analyzed using SPSS 21.0 through some statistical tests, including independent-samples t test, one-way ANOVA, and paired-samples t test. The results showed that the means of patients' expectations were more than their perceptions of the quality of provided services in all dimensions, which indicated that there were gaps in all dimensions. The highest and lowest means of negative gaps were related to empathy (-0.52 ± 0.48) and tangibility (-0.29 ± 0.51). In addition, among the studied patients' demographic characteristics and the five dimensions of service quality, only the difference between the patients' income levels and the gap in assurance were statistically significant (P < 0.001). Overall, the results of the present study showed that the expectations of patients on hemodialysis were more than their perceptions of provided services. The healthcare providers and employees should pay more attention to the patients' opinions and

  11. Bilingual Preschools. Volume I: Learning and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersten, Kristin, Ed.; Rohde, Andreas, Ed.; Schelletter, Christina, Ed.; Steinlen, Anja K., Ed.

    2010-01-01

    Drawing on data from eleven preschools in four European countries (Germany, Belgium, Sweden, and the UK), this edited volume explores the progress of preschool children learning English over a period of two years. In the first volume, children's lexical and grammatical comprehension, the quality of L2 input, the effect of immersion on L1…

  12. Providing quality nutrition care in acute care hospitals: perspectives of nutrition care personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, H H; Vesnaver, E; Davidson, B; Allard, J; Laporte, M; Bernier, P; Payette, H; Jeejeebhoy, K; Duerksen, D; Gramlich, L

    2014-04-01

    Malnutrition is common in acute care hospitals worldwide and nutritional status can deteriorate during hospitalisation. The aim of the present qualitative study was to identify enablers and challenges and, specifically, the activities, processes and resources, from the perspective of nutrition care personnel, required to provide quality nutrition care. Eight hospitals participating in the Nutrition Care in Canadian Hospitals study provided focus group data (n = 8 focus groups; 91 participants; dietitians, dietetic interns, diet technicians and menu clerks), which were analysed thematically. Five themes emerged from the data: (i) developing a nutrition culture, where nutrition practice is considered important to recovery of patients and teams work together to achieve nutrition goals; (ii) using effective tools, such as screening, evidence-based protocols, quality, timely and accurate patient information, and appropriate and quality food; (iii) creating effective systems to support delivery of care, such as communications, food production and delivery; (iv) being responsive to care needs, via flexible food systems, appropriate menus and meal supplements, up to date clinical care and including patient and family in the care processes; and (v) uniting the right person with the right task, by delineating roles, training staff, providing sufficient time to undertake these important tasks and holding staff accountable for their care. The findings of the present study are consistent with other work and provide guidance towards improving the nutrition culture in hospitals. Further empirical work on how to support successful implementation of nutrition care processes is needed. © 2013 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  13. Predictive value of general movements' quality in low-risk infants for minor neurological dysfunction and behavioural problems at preschool age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennema, Anne N; Schendelaar, Pamela; Seggers, Jorien; Haadsma, Maaike L; Heineman, Maas Jan; Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    2016-03-01

    General movement (GM) assessment is a well-established tool to predict cerebral palsy in high-risk infants. Little is known on the predictive value of GM assessment in low-risk populations. To assess the predictive value of GM quality in early infancy for the development of the clinically relevant form of minor neurological dysfunction (complex MND) and behavioral problems at preschool age. Prospective cohort study. A total of 216 members of the prospective Groningen Assisted Reproductive Techniques (ART) cohort study were included in this study. ART did not affect neurodevelopmental outcome of these relatively low-risk infants born to subfertile parents. GM quality was determined at 2 weeks and 3 months. At 18 months and 4 years, the Hempel neurological examination was used to assess MND. At 4 years, parents completed the Child Behavior Checklist; this resulted in the total problem score (TPS), internalizing problem score (IPS), and externalizing problem score (EPS). Predictive values of definitely (DA) and mildly (MA) abnormal GMs were calculated. DA GMs at 2 weeks were associated with complex MND at 18 months and atypical TPS and IPS at 4 years (all pvalue of DA GMs at 2 weeks were rather low (13%-60%); specificity and negative predictive value were excellent (92%-99%). DA GMs at 3 months occurred too infrequently to calculate prediction. MA GMs were not associated with outcome. GM quality as a single predictor for complex MND and behavioral problems at preschool age has limited clinical value in children at low risk for developmental disorders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Development and Validation of Quality Criteria for Providing Patient- and Family-centered Injury Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Jamie M; Burton, Rachael; Butler, Barb L; Dyer, Dianne; Evans, David C; Felteau, Melissa; Gruen, Russell L; Jaffe, Kenneth M; Kortbeek, John; Lang, Eddy; Lougheed, Val; Moore, Lynne; Narciso, Michelle; Oxland, Peter; Rivara, Frederick P; Roberts, Derek; Sarakbi, Diana; Vine, Karen; Stelfox, Henry T

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate the content validity of quality criteria for providing patient- and family-centered injury care. Quality criteria have been developed for clinical injury care, but not patient- and family-centered injury care. Using a modified Research AND Development Corporation (RAND)/University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) Appropriateness Methodology, a panel of 16 patients, family members, injury and quality of care experts serially rated and revised criteria for patient- and family-centered injury care identified from patient and family focus groups. The criteria were then sent to 384 verified trauma centers in the United States, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand for evaluation. A total of 46 criteria were rated and revised by the panel over 4 rounds of review producing 14 criteria related to clinical care (n = 4; transitions of care, pain management, patient safety, provider competence), communication (n = 3; information for patients/families; communication of discharge plans to patients/families, communication between hospital and community providers), holistic care (n = 4; patient hygiene, kindness and respect, family access to patient, social and spiritual support) and end-of-life care (n = 3; decision making, end-of-life care, family follow-up). Medical directors, managers, or coordinators representing 254 trauma centers (66% response rate) rated 12 criteria to be important (95% of responses) for patient- and family-centered injury care. Fewer centers rated family access to the patient (80%) and family follow-up after patient death (65%) to be important criteria. Fourteen-candidate quality criteria for patient- and family-centered injury care were developed and shown to have content validity. These may be used to guide quality improvement practices.

  15. Home-Based Child Care Provider Education and Specialized Training: Associations with Caregiving Quality and Toddler Social-Emotional and Cognitive Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaack, Diana D.; Le, Vi Nhuan; Messan Setodji, Claude

    2017-01-01

    Research Findings: Although there has been considerable research on the associations between the qualifications of teachers in center-based settings and preschool-age children's developmental outcomes, very little is known about the relationships between home provider qualifications and the developmental outcomes of toddlers who attend licensed…

  16. Preschool Needle Pain Responding: Establishing 'Normal'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waxman, Jordana A; DiLorenzo, Miranda G; Pillai Riddell, Rebecca R; Flora, David B; Greenberg, Saul; Garfield, Hartley

    2017-06-01

    The current study sets forth to provide descriptive data for preschool vaccination pain responding as well as examine longitudinal relationships over early childhood. Growth mixture modeling was first used to describe stable subgroups of preschoolers on the basis of their pain response patterns over 2-minutes post-needle. Secondly, a parallel-process growth curve model was used to assess the stability of acute pain responding from 12 months of age to preschool age. Specifically, we examined whether preschool pain-related distress or regulation could be predicted from 12-month acute pain responding. Preschool participants were part of a Canadian longitudinal cohort (The Opportunities to Understand Childhood Hurt [OUCH] cohort; N = 302). Growth mixture modeling analyses discerned 3 distinct groups of preschoolers, with an important minority not regulating to low-no pain by 2 minutes post-needle. There were no significant associations between 12-month and preschool pain responding. These results highlight the steep trajectory of development between these different stages of early childhood and the variability of pain responding at the preschool vaccination. This study provides descriptive data for preschool vaccination pain responding as well as examines longitudinal relationships over early childhood. Demonstrating significantly different pain patterns from infancy, 25% of preschoolers are displaying suboptimal regulation trajectories. This considerable minority poses a significant concern because of the established trajectory of phobia onset in middle childhood. Copyright © 2017 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Developing Indicators of Service Quality Provided for Cardiovascular Patients Hospitalized in Cardiac Care Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saber Azami-Aghdash

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cardiovascular diseases are among the most prevalent chronic diseases leading to high degrees of mortality and morbidity worldwide and in Iran. The aim of the current study was to determine and develop appropriate indicators for evaluating provided service quality for cardiovascular patients admitted to Cardiac Care Units (CCU in Iran. Methods: In order to determine the indicators for evaluating provided service quality, a four-stage process including reviewing systematic review articles in premier bibliographic databases, interview, performing two rounds of Delphi technique, and holding experts panel by attendance of experts in different fields was adopted. Finally, after recognizing relevant indicators in resources, these indicators were finalized during various stages using ideas of 27 experts in different fields. Results: Among 2800 found articles in the text reviewing phase, 21 articles, which had completely mentioned relevant indicators, were studied and 48 related indicators were extracted. After two interviews with a cardiologist and an epidemiologist, 32 items of the indicators were omitted and replaced by 27 indicators coping with the conditions of Iranian hospitals. Finally, 43 indicators were added into the Delphi phase and after 2 rounds of Delphi with 18 specialists, 7 cases were excluded due to their low scores of applicability. In the experts’ panel stage, 6 items were also omitted and 10 new indicators were developed to replace them. Eventually, 40 indicators were finalized. Conclusion: In this study, some proper indicators for evaluating provided service quality for CCU admissions in Iran were determined. Considering the informative richness of these indicators, they can be used by managers, policy makers, health service providers, and also insurance agencies in order to improve the quality of services, decisions, and policies.

  18. Health-related quality of life and working conditions among nursing providers

    OpenAIRE

    Amanda Aparecida Silva; José Maria Pacheco de Souza; Flávio Notarnicola da Silva Borges; Frida Marina Fischer

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate working conditions associated with health-related quality of life (HRQL) among nursing providers. METHODS: Cross-sectional study conducted in a university hospital in the city of São Paulo, Southeastern Brazil, during 2004-2005. The study sample comprised 696 registered nurses, nurse technicians and nurse assistants, predominantly females (87.8%), who worked day and/or night shifts. Data on sociodemographic information, working and living conditions, lifestyles, and hea...

  19. Women's and care providers' perspectives of quality prenatal care: a qualitative descriptive study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sword Wendy

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Much attention has been given to the adequacy of prenatal care use in promoting healthy outcomes for women and their infants. Adequacy of use takes into account the timing of initiation of prenatal care and the number of visits. However, there is emerging evidence that the quality of prenatal care may be more important than adequacy of use. The purpose of our study was to explore women's and care providers' perspectives of quality prenatal care to inform the development of items for a new instrument, the Quality of Prenatal Care Questionnaire. We report on the derivation of themes resulting from this first step of questionnaire development. Methods A qualitative descriptive approach was used. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 40 pregnant women and 40 prenatal care providers recruited from five urban centres across Canada. Data were analyzed using inductive open and then pattern coding. The final step of analysis used a deductive approach to assign the emergent themes to broader categories reflective of the study's conceptual framework. Results The three main categories informed by Donabedian's model of quality health care were structure of care, clinical care processes, and interpersonal care processes. Structure of care themes included access, physical setting, and staff and care provider characteristics. Themes under clinical care processes were health promotion and illness prevention, screening and assessment, information sharing, continuity of care, non-medicalization of pregnancy, and women-centredness. Interpersonal care processes themes were respectful attitude, emotional support, approachable interaction style, and taking time. A recurrent theme woven throughout the data reflected the importance of a meaningful relationship between a woman and her prenatal care provider that was characterized by trust. Conclusions While certain aspects of structure of care were identified as being key dimensions of

  20. Information provided for ecological quality management of production on microeconomic level under conditions of sustainable development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zamula I.V.

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, economic development is characterized by increasing of contradictions between ecological and economic systems. As a result, the necessity of unity achievement is growing in the existence of ecological and economic values as one of the main conditions of the concept of sustainable development. For this purpose it is important to implement and create an ecological and economic management system at the enterprise to ensure ecological and economic efficiency. There is a need to improve accounting as a system of measuring economic phenomena and processes for a high level of ecological and economic management. The research is aimed at the development of theoretical and methodological approaches to accounting management for ecological quality of products based on the definition of the essence of the concept as an object of management under conditions of sustainable development, identification and systematization of factors of increasing the ecological quality of products and their management features, accounting identification of costs for ecological quality of products. According to the results of the research, it is established that the ecological quality of products is a combination of properties, which ensure excellent performance of assigned functions and the presence in products of those properties and characteristics that promote the maximum satisfaction of consumer needs and inquiries. The existing order of organization of accounting in Ukraine does not provide the provision of necessary information for the management of the ecological quality of products. The proposed directions of development of elements of the expense accounting method for the ecological quality of products will promote the expansion of information support for the adoption of substantiated and effective management decisions regarding the activities of business entities in accordance with the provisions of the concept of sustainable development.

  1. Providing high-quality care in primary care settings: how to make trade-offs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaulieu, Marie-Dominique; Geneau, Robert; Del Grande, Claudio; Denis, Jean-Louis; Hudon, Eveline; Haggerty, Jeannie L; Bonin, Lucie; Duplain, Réjean; Goudreau, Johanne; Hogg, William

    2014-05-01

    To gain a deeper understanding of how primary care (PC) practices belonging to different models manage resources to provide high-quality care. Multiple-case study embedded in a cross-sectional study of a random sample of 37 practices. Three regions of Quebec. Health care professionals and staff of 5 PC practices. Five cases showing above-average results on quality-of-care indicators were purposefully selected to contrast on region, practice size, and PC model. Data were collected using an organizational questionnaire; the Team Climate Inventory, which was completed by health care professionals and staff; and 33 individual interviews. Detailed case histories were written and thematic analysis was performed. The core common feature of these practices was their ongoing effort to make trade-offs to deliver services that met their vision of high-quality care. These compromises involved the same 3 areas, but to varying degrees depending on clinic characteristics: developing a shared vision of high-quality care; aligning resource use with that vision; and balancing professional aspirations and population needs. The leadership of the physician lead was crucial. The external environment was perceived as a source of pressure and dilemmas rather than as a source of support in these matters. Irrespective of their models, PC practices' pursuit of high-quality care is based on a vision in which accessibility is a key component, balanced by appropriate management of available resources and of external environment expectations. Current PC reforms often create tensions rather than support PC practices in their pursuit of high-quality care. Copyright© the College of Family Physicians of Canada.

  2. Do water quality criteria based on nonnative species provide appropriate protection for native species?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xiaowei; Wang, Zijian; Wang, Yeyao; Lv, Yibing; Rao, Kaifeng; Jin, Wei; Giesy, John P; Leung, Kenneth M Y

    2015-08-01

    The potential use of toxicity data for nonnative species to derive water quality criteria is controversial because it is sometimes questioned whether criteria based on species from one geographical region provide appropriate protection for species in a different region. However, this is an important concept for the development of Chinese water quality criteria or standards. Data were assembled on 38 chemicals for which values were available for both native and nonnative species. Sensitivities of these organisms were compared based on the 5% hazardous concentration values and the species sensitivity distribution from a literature review. Results of the present study's analysis showed that there is approximately 74% certainty that use of nonnative species to generate water quality criteria would be sufficiently protective of aquatic ecosystems in China. Without applying any assessment factor to the water quality criteria generated from nonnative species, the uncertainty would be 26% when the native Chinese species might be under protection. Applying an assessment factor of 10 would offer adequate protection to native Chinese species for approximately 90% of tested chemicals and thus reduce the uncertainty from 26% to 10%. © 2015 SETAC.

  3. 'Quality signposting': the role of online information prescription in providing patient information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewster, Liz; Sen, Barbara

    2011-03-01

      Information prescriptions (IPs) are part of a Department of Health (DH) initiative to improve patient care. IPs aim to meet health information needs by providing personalised, high quality patient information about conditions and treatment.   This paper identifies current online IP provision and evaluates a sample of IP websites against the original DH aims of IP provision; British Medical Association usability criteria; and information seeking vignettes.   Five UK and one international IP website were randomly selected as a sample. Two checklists designed to appraise the websites were used to review each IP provider. Two patient information seeking vignettes were developed to enable the websites to be assessed from a patient-centred perspective.   Information prescriptions currently vary in content, accessibility and quality. National IP websites score more highly than local IP websites, which are often weak on content for specific conditions and poorly designed but strong on signposting to local services.   Guidelines for IP provision need to be improved to ensure higher quality, more easily accessible information is available. A synthesis of expertise included in national and local websites would improve usability for patients. IP websites should conform to standards of web design and accessibility. © 2010 The authors. Health Information and Libraries Journal © 2010 Health Libraries Group.

  4. The Impact of Quality Service Provided by SRM Hospital on Outpatients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Amoah-Binfoh

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Consumer’s perceptions about the health care services play an important role when choosing a hospital. The quality of service is crucial to both the outpatients and the service providers. The dimensions of the service quality are reliability, responsiveness, assurance, empathy, and tangibles. Customer’s expectations and experiences vary with services. When there is a shortfall between expectation of service level and perception of actual service delivery, it is called customer gap. The causes of customer gap include; not knowing what customers expect, not selecting the right service designs and standards, not delivering to service standards and not matching performance to promises. This paper focuses on the level of service quality rendered by SRM’s hospital, the patient-physicians’ relationship and to examine the pre and post service of outpatients in the SRM’s hospital. A structured questionnaires and interviews were constructed to provide answers to the research questions using a sample size of 50 [employees and outpatients]. It was found out that some outpatients were satisfied with the services rendered by the hospital with reservations for more improvement. It was also found out that, there were gaps between the outpatients’ expectation and perception about the service rendered by the hospital. It was recommended that a competent marketing executive should be employed since marketing is the voice of the healthcare industry.

  5. Association of mandated language access programming and quality of care provided by mental health agencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClellan, Sean R; Snowden, Lonnie

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the association between language access programming and quality of psychiatric care received by persons with limited English proficiency (LEP). In 1999, the California Department of Mental Health required county Medicaid agencies to implement a "threshold language access policy" to meet the state's Title VI obligations. This policy required Medi-Cal agencies to provide language access programming, including access to interpreters and translated written material, to speakers of languages other than English if the language was spoken by at least 3,000, or 5%, of the county's Medicaid population. Using a longitudinal study design with a nonequivalent control group, this study examined the quality of care provided to Spanish speakers with LEP and a severe mental illness before and after implementation of mandatory language access programming. Quality was measured by receipt of at least two follow-up medication visits within 90 days or three visits within 180 days of an initial medication visit over a period of 38 quarter-years. On average, only 40% of Spanish-speaking clients received at least three medication follow-up visits within 180 days. In multivariate analyses, language access programming was not associated with receipt of at least two medication follow-up visits within 90 days or at least three visits within 180 days. This study found no evidence that language access programming led to increased rates of follow-up medication visits for clients with LEP.

  6. Impact of Provider Incentives on Quality and Value of Health Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doran, Tim; Maurer, Kristin A; Ryan, Andrew M

    2017-03-20

    The use of financial incentives to improve quality in health care has become widespread. Yet evidence on the effectiveness of incentives suggests that they have generally had limited impact on the value of care and have not led to better patient outcomes. Lessons from social psychology and behavioral economics indicate that incentive programs in health care have not been effectively designed to achieve their intended impact. In the United States, Medicare's Hospital Readmission Reduction Program and Hospital Value-Based Purchasing Program, created under the Affordable Care Act (ACA), provide evidence on how variations in the design of incentive programs correspond with differences in effect. As financial incentives continue to be used as a tool to increase the value and quality of health care, improving the design of programs will be crucial to ensure their success.

  7. Cloud infrastructure for providing tools as a service: quality attributes and potential solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chauhan, Muhammad Aufeef; Ali Babar, Muhammad

    2012-01-01

    Cloud computing is being increasingly adopted in various domains for providing on-demand infrastructure and Software as a service (SaaS) by leveraging the utility computing model and virtualization technologies. One of the domains, where cloud computing is expected to gain huge traction is Global...... projects. Through an extensive review of the relevant literature on GSD and Cloud Computing, we have identified a set of quality attributes and potential architectural solutions for a cloud-based infrastructure that can provide TaaS to GSD teams. This paper outlines the promised benefits of TaaS to GSD...... efficiently and cost-effectively. Moreover, variations in tools available/used by different GSD team members can also pose challenges. We assert that providing Tools as a Service (TaaS) to GSD teams through a cloud-based infrastructure can be a promising solution to address the tools related challenges in GSD...

  8. Looking for Theory in Preschool Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen, Christine

    2012-01-01

    This paper sets out to examine the place of theory in preschool education, considering the theories to which practitioners and providers have access and which provide a rationale for everyday practices and shape the experiences of young children. The paper reflects the circumstances of preschool provision, practices and thinking in the UK in…

  9. Changes in household food insecurity are related to changes in BMI and diet quality among Michigan Head Start preschoolers in a sex-specific manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Erica C; Kasper, Nicole; Lumeng, Julie C; Brophy Herb, Holly E; Horodynski, Mildred A; Miller, Alison L; Contreras, Dawn; Peterson, Karen E

    2017-05-01

    Children living in households that have recently become food insecure may be particularly vulnerable to adverse weight and dietary changes, but longitudinal studies examining these associations are lacking. Using data from 501 Head Start preschoolers from Michigan (48% male) who were followed during one school year as a part of a randomized obesity prevention trial, we examined changes in children's adiposity indices and dietary quality according to changes in household food insecurity. Household food insecurity change status was categorized as persistently food secure, became food secure, persistently food insecure, or became food insecure. Linear mixed effects models were used to estimate relative changes in BMI-for-age z scores (BAZ), triceps skinfolds-for-age z scores (TAZ), or diet quality (assessed with the 2010 Healthy Eating Index) over the school year according to food insecurity category. We found that girls from households that became food insecure over the year had a 0.21 unit higher gain in BAZ than girls from households that were persistently food secure, after adjustment for potential confounders (95% CI 0.02 to 0.39, P = 0.03). Girls from households that became food secure had improvements in dietary quality over the year compared to girls from persistently food insecure households (adjusted difference in Healthy Eating Index score change = 9.1 points; 95% CI 3.0 to 15.0; p = 0.003). There were no statistically significant associations with changes in TAZ. Among boys, there were no associations between changes in household food insecurity and changes in BAZ, TAZ, or dietary quality. In summary, we found that BMI and diet quality changes of Head Start preschool girls were correlated with short-term changes in household food insecurity. Continued research efforts should focus on identifying the most effective ways to promote the health of children in food insecure households, especially those who may have recently transitioned or are

  10. Primary Care Provider Perceptions of Colorectal Cancer Screening Barriers: Implications for Designing Quality Improvement Interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer M. Weiss

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. Colorectal cancer (CRC screening is underutilized. Increasing CRC screening rates requires interventions targeting multiple barriers at each level of the healthcare organization (patient, provider, and system. We examined groups of primary care providers (PCPs based on perceptions of screening barriers and the relationship to CRC screening rates to inform approaches for conducting barrier assessments prior to designing and implementing quality improvement interventions. Methods. We conducted a retrospective cohort study linking EHR and survey data. PCPs with complete survey responses for questions addressing CRC screening barriers were included (N=166 PCPs; 39,430 patients eligible for CRC screening. Cluster analysis identified groups of PCPs. Multivariate logistic regression estimated odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for predictors of membership in one of the PCP groups. Results. We found two distinct groups: (1 PCPs identifying multiple barriers to CRC screening at patient, provider, and system levels (N=75 and (2 PCPs identifying no major barriers to screening (N=91. PCPs in the top half of CRC screening performance were more likely to identify multiple barriers than the bottom performers (OR, 4.14; 95% CI, 2.43–7.08. Conclusions. High-performing PCPs can more effectively identify CRC screening barriers. Targeting high-performers when conducting a barrier assessment is a novel approach to assist in designing quality improvement interventions for CRC screening.

  11. Assessing quality of care provided by Indonesian village midwives with a confidential enquiry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Ambruoso, Lucia; Achadi, Endang; Adisasmita, Asri; Izati, Yulia; Makowiecka, Krystyna; Hussein, Julia

    2009-10-01

    to conduct a confidential enquiry to assess the quality of care provided by Indonesian village midwives and to identify opportunities for improvement. local health-care practitioners assessed village-based care in obstetric emergencies in 13 cases of maternal death and near-miss from rural villages in West Java. The study focused on clinical quality of care, but also investigated the influence of the health system and social factors. The reviews were based on transcripts of interviews with health-care providers, family and community members involved in the cases. Both favourable and adverse factors were identified in order to recognise positive contributions, where they occurred. At the end of a series of case reviews, recommendations for practice were generated and disseminated. in the cases reviewed, midwives facilitated referral effectively, reducing delays in reaching health facilities. Midwives' emergency diagnostic skills were accurate but they were less capable in the clinical management of complications. Coverage was poor; in some locations, midwives were responsible for up to five villages. Village midwives were also perceived as unacceptable to women and their families. Families and communities did not prepare for emergencies with finances or transport, partly due to a poorly understood health insurance system. The enquiry had learning effects for those involved. village midwives should: receive appropriate support for the management of obstetric emergencies; engage with communities to promote birth preparedness; and work in partnership with formal and informal providers in the community. The enquiry was a diagnostic tool to identify opportunities for improving care. Practitioners had a unique insight into factors that contribute to quality care and how feasible interventions might be made.

  12. Research-Based Options for Education Policymaking: Preschool Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathis, William

    2012-01-01

    Publicly supported, high-quality preschool education is among the most successful and well-documented of education reforms. There is near-universal agreement that high-quality preschool programs more than pay for themselves in economic and social benefits. Program quality is absolutely critical. While no one factor can be considered determinative,…

  13. Provider-Payer Partnerships as an Engine for Continuous Quality Improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balfour, Margaret E; Zinn, Tylar E; Cason, Karena; Fox, Jerimya; Morales, Myra; Berdeja, Cesar; Gray, Jay

    2018-03-01

    The authors describe a quality improvement approach in which a crisis center and a payer collaborate to improve care. Each crisis visit is considered as a potentially missed opportunity for community stabilization. Daily data on crisis visits are sent to the payer for a more up-to-date analysis of trends than is possible with financial claims data, which may lag behind services provided by up to 90 days. Using these trend data, the two organizations collaborate to identify patterns that lead to opportunities for improvement and develop multiple rapid-cycle projects for better management of services, resulting in significant decreases in readmissions and in the number of high utilizers.

  14. THE RELATIONSHIP OF THE EDUCATIONAL STAFF TOWARDS CHILDREN WITH DEVE LOPMENTAL DISORDERS-AN IMPORTANT FACTOR FOR THEIR QUALITY TREATMENT IN THE PRE-SCHOOL INSTITUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snezana MATOVSKA

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction· The purpose for the integration in the preschool institution· The need for the integration in the preschool institution· The results of the integration in the preschool institutionPersonal experience from the integration in the preschool institution· The relationship of the educational and upbringing staff towards the child· The relationship of the child towards the preschool institution· (the relationship towards the other children and the relationship towards the staff Proposal and suggestions for solving the present situation· The completion of legislative and its carrying out in practice· The creation of space and staff possibilities for active integration of the children with developmental disorders in the preschool institutions· The preparation of didactic material and the devices for carrying out the working program.

  15. Providing Quality Therapeutics in Switzerland: Role of the Stakeholders and Recent Incentives for Further Improvements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besson, Marie; Samer, Caroline; Rollason, Victoria; Dayer, Pierre; Desmeules, Jules

    2015-07-01

    Quality therapeutics play an important role in Switzerland's health care and economy. Switzerland holds a key position in the world of research and development, as well as in drug production. Recently, new emphasis has been placed on promoting clinical research and maintaining Switzerland's position as a center of excellence in the field. Recent revisions to the law regarding medical trials in human research allow for better allocation of regulatory resources and simplified procedures for drugs already authorized in Switzerland. The country has its own regulatory agency, the Swiss Agency for Therapeutic Products (Swissmedic), which is a public institution of the Swiss government. Swissmedic is responsible for ensuring safety in medicines, particularly regarding authorizations and market surveillance in the sector of medicinal products and medical devices. Although the centralized authorization procedure of the European Union for medicines does not apply to Switzerland, there are mutual recognition mechanisms between the Swiss medicine regulatory authority and the European Medicines Agency. Swissmedic is also in charge of postmarketing safety and oversees the national pharmacovigilance center, which collaborates closely with the World Health Organization center in Uppsala. In addition, university hospital-based clinical pharmacologists, who are involved in basic science and clinical research, regulatory affairs, ethics committees, and pharmacovigilance, promote quality therapeutics. This article discusses the role of the various stakeholders and the recent efforts made to provide a better allocation of resources aimed at further improving quality therapeutics in Switzerland. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier HS Journals, Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. [Quality of service provided to heart surgery patients of the Unified Health System-SUS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Juliana Bassalobre Carvalho; Carvalho, Sebastião Marcos Ribeiro de; Silva, Marcos Augusto de Moraes

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the service quality provided to heart surgery patients during their hospital stay, identifying the patient's expectations and perceptions. To associate service quality with: gender, age and the use of extracorporeal circulation. We studied 82 elective heart surgery patients (52.4% females and 47.6% males), operated by midsternal thoracotomy, age: 31 to 83 years (60.4 +/- 13.2 years); period: March to September 2006. Service quality was evaluated in two instances: the expectations at pre-operative and the perceptions of the service received on the 6th post-operative; through the application of the modified SERVQUAL scale (SERVQUAL-Card). The result was obtained by the difference of the sum of the scores on perception minus those of the expectations, and through statistical analysis. The SERVQUAL-Card scale was statistically validated, showing adequate level of internal consistency. We found a higher frequency of myocardial revascularization 55 (67.0%); first heart surgery 72 (87.8%) and the use of ECC 69 (84.1%). We noticed high mean values for expectations and perceptions with significant results (PSERVQUAL scale.

  17. Professional quality of life of Japanese nurses/midwives providing abortion/childbirth care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Maki; Kinefuchi, Emiko; Kimura, Rumiko; Tsuda, Akiko

    2013-08-01

    This study explored the relationship between professional quality of life and emotion work and the major stress factors related to abortion care in Japanese obstetric and gynecological nurses and midwives. Between October 2011 and January 2012, questionnaires that included questions concerning eight stress factors, the Professional Quality of Life Scale, and the Japanese version of the Frankfurt Emotional Work Scale, were answered by 255 nurses and midwives working in abortion and childbirth services. Professional Quality of Life scores (compassion fatigue, compassion satisfaction, burnout) were significantly associated with stress factors and emotion work. Multiple regression analysis revealed that of all the evaluated variables, the Japanese version of the Frankfurt Emotional Work Scale score for negative emotions display was the most significant positive predictor of compassion fatigue and burnout. The stress factors "thinking that the aborted fetus deserved to live" and "difficulty in controlling emotions during abortion care" were associated with compassion fatigue. These findings indicate that providing abortion services is a highly distressing experience for nurses and midwives.

  18. Male facial attractiveness and masculinity may provide sex- and culture-independent cues to semen quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler, C; Kekäläinen, J; Núñez, M; Sancho, M; Álvarez, J G; Núñez, J; Yaber, I; Gutiérrez, R

    2014-09-01

    Phenotype-linked fertility hypothesis (PLFH) predicts that male secondary sexual traits reveal honest information about male fertilization ability. However, PLFH has rarely been studied in humans. The aim of the present study was to test PLFH in humans and to investigate whether potential ability to select fertile partners is independent of sex or cultural background. We found that on the contrary to the hypothesis, facial masculinity was negatively associated with semen quality. As increased levels of testosterone have been demonstrated to impair sperm production, this finding may indicate a trade-off between investments in secondary sexual signalling (i.e. facial masculinity) and fertility or status-dependent differences in investments in semen quality. In both sexes and nationalities (Spanish and Colombian), ranked male facial attractiveness predicted male semen quality. However, Spanish males and females estimated facial images generally more attractive (gave higher ranks) than Colombian raters, and in both nationalities, males gave higher ranks than females. This suggests that male facial cues may provide culture- and sex-independent information about male fertility. However, our results also indicate that humans may be more sensitive to facial attractiveness cues within their own populations and also that males may generally overestimate the attractiveness of other men to females. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2014 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  19. Affordances of Ditches for Children in Preschool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lerstrup, Inger Elisabeth; Møller, Maja Steen

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to expand understanding of the affordances provided by ditches in a Danish preschool context. Affordances are defined as the meaningful action possibilities of the environment. At a forest preschool, a group of 21 children aged approximately 3to 6.5 years accompanied by two to three...... offered varied and changing action possibilities for the preschool children. The paper discusses the possible incorporation of this largely unrecognized design element by planners and managers of green spaces and playgrounds for children in preschool....

  20. Current state of swimming teaching to preschool children in Prague

    OpenAIRE

    Krischová, Jitka

    2012-01-01

    Abstraction The subject of the bachelor thesis is the current situation of swimming courses for kindergartens. The paper aims to study the quality and conditions of teaching basic swimming skills in selected swimming schools and provides approximate number and age of children participating in the courses in Prague. The theoretical part of the thesis deals with swimming and its importance in general and describes methodological and organizational specifics of swimming teaching at preschool age...

  1. Monolayer-crystal streptavidin support films provide an internal standard of cryo-EM image quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Bong-Gyoon [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Watson, Zoe [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Cate, Jamie H. D. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Glaeser, Robert M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-03-01

    Analysis of images of biotinylated Escherichia coli 70S ribosome particles, bound to streptavidin affinity grids, demonstrates that the image-quality of particles can be predicted by the image-quality of the monolayer crystalline support film. Also, the quality of the Thon rings is a good predictor of the image-quality of particles, but only when images of the streptavidin crystals extend to relatively high resolution. When the estimated resolution of streptavidin was 5 Å or worse, for example, the ribosomal density map obtained from 22,697 particles went to only 9.5 Å, while the resolution of the map reached 4.0 Å for the same number of particles, when the estimated resolution of streptavidin crystal was 4 Å or better. It thus is easy to tell which images in a data set ought to be retained for further work, based on the highest resolution seen for Bragg peaks in the computed Fourier transforms of the streptavidin component. The refined density map obtained from 57,826 particles obtained in this way extended to 3.6 Å, a marked improvement over the value of 3.9 Å obtained previously from a subset of 52,433 particles obtained from the same initial data set of 101,213 particles after 3-D classification. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that interaction with the air-water interface can damage particles when the sample becomes too thin. Finally, streptavidin monolayer crystals appear to provide a good indication of when that is the case.

  2. The effect of financial incentives on the quality of health care provided by primary care physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Anthony; Sivey, Peter; Ait Ouakrim, Driss; Willenberg, Lisa; Naccarella, Lucio; Furler, John; Young, Doris

    2011-09-07

    The use of blended payment schemes in primary care, including the use of financial incentives to directly reward 'performance' and 'quality' is increasing in a number of countries. There are many examples in the US, and the Quality and Outcomes Framework (QoF) for general practitioners (GPs) in the UK is an example of a major system-wide reform. Despite the popularity of these schemes, there is currently little rigorous evidence of their success in improving the quality of primary health care, or of whether such an approach is cost-effective relative to other ways to improve the quality of care. The aim of this review is to examine the effect of changes in the method and level of payment on the quality of care provided by primary care physicians (PCPs) and to identify:i) the different types of financial incentives that have improved quality;ii) the characteristics of patient populations for whom quality of care has been improved by financial incentives; andiii) the characteristics of PCPs who have responded to financial incentives. We searched the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care (EPOC) Trials Register, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (CDSR) (The Cochrane Library), MEDLINE, HealthSTAR, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsychLIT, and ECONLIT. Searches of Internet-based economics and health economics working paper collections were also conducted. Finally, studies were identified through the reference lists of retrieved articles, websites of key organisations, and from direct contact with key authors in the field. Articles were included if they were published from 2000 to August 2009. Randomised controlled trials (RCT), controlled before and after studies (CBA), and interrupted time series analyses (ITS) evaluating the impact of different financial interventions on the quality of care delivered by primary healthcare physicians (PCPs). Quality of care was defined as patient reported outcome

  3. Perceived quality of care for common childhood illnesses: facility versus community based providers in Uganda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes Nanyonjo

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare caretakers' perceived quality of care (PQC for under-fives treated for malaria, pneumonia and diarrhoea by community health workers (CHWs and primary health facility workers (PHFWs. METHODS: Caretaker rated PQC for children aged (2-59 months treated by either CHWs or PHFWs for a bought of malaria, pneumonia or diarrhoea was cross-sectionally compared in quality domains of accessibility, continuity, comprehensiveness, integration, clinical interaction, interpersonal treatment and trust. Child samples were randomly drawn from CHW (419 and clinic (399 records from eight Midwestern Uganda districts. An overall PQC score was predicted through factor analysis. PQC scores were compared for CHWs and PHFWs using Wilcoxon rank-sum test. Multinomial logistic regression models were used to specify the association between categorized PQC and service providers for each quality domain. Finally, overall PQC was dichotomized into "high" and "low" based on median score and relative risks (RR for PQC-service provider association were modeled in a "modified" Poisson regression model. RESULTS: Mean (SD overall PQC was significantly higher for CHWs 0.58 (0 .66 compared to PHFWs -0.58 (0.94, p<0.0001. In "modified" Poisson regression, the proportion of caretakers reporting high PQC was higher for CHWS compared to PHFWs, RR=3.1, 95%CI(2.5-3.8. In multinomial models PQC was significantly higher for CHWs compared to PHFWs in all domains except for continuity. CONCLUSION: PQC was significantly higher for CHWs compared to PHFWs in this resource constrained setting. CHWs should be tapped human resources for universal health coverage while scaling up basic child intervention as PQC might improve intervention utilization.

  4. PROVIDING QUALITY OF ELECTRIC POWER IN ELECTRIC POWER SYSTEM IN PARALLEL OPERATION WITH WIND TURBINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. A. Rolik

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of providing electric power quality in the electric power systems (EPS that are equipped with sufficiently long air or cable transmission lines is under consideration. This problem proved to be of particular relevance to the EPS in which a source of electrical energy is the generator of wind turbines since the wind itself is an instable primary energy source. Determination of the degree of automation of voltage regulation in the EPS is reduced to the choice of methods and means of regulation of power quality parameters. The concept of a voltage loss and the causes of the latter are explained by the simplest power system that is presented by a single-line diagram. It is suggested to regulate voltage by means of changing parameters of the network with the use of the method of reducing loss of line voltage by reducing its reactance. The latter is achieved by longitudinal capacitive compensation of the inductive reactance of the line. The effect is illustrated by vector diagrams of currents and voltages in the equivalent circuits of transmission lines with and without the use of longitudinal capacitive compensation. The analysis of adduced formulas demonstrated that the use of this method of regulation is useful only in the systems of power supply with a relatively low power factor (cosφ < 0.7 to 0.9. This power factor is typical for the situation of inclusion the wind turbine with asynchronous generator in the network since the speed of wind is instable. The voltage regulation fulfilled with the aid of the proposed method will make it possible to provide the required quality of the consumers’ busbars voltage in this situation. In is turn, it will make possible to create the necessary conditions for the economical transmission of electric power with the lowest outlay of reactive power and the lowest outlay of active power losses.

  5. CESAME: Providing High Quality Professional Development in Science and Mathematics for K-12 Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickman, Paul

    2002-04-01

    It is appropriate that after almost half a century of Science and Mathematics education reform we take a look back and a peek forward to understand the present state of this wonderfully complex system. Each of the components of this system including teaching, professional development, assessment, content and the district K-12 curriculum all need to work together if we hope to provide quality science, mathematics and technology education for ALL students. How do the state and national standards drive the system? How do state policies on student testing and teacher licensure come into play? How do we improve the preparation, retention and job satisfaction of our K-12 teachers? What initiatives have made or are making a difference? What else needs to be done? What can the physics community do to support local efforts? This job is too big for any single organization or individual but we each can contribute to the effort. Our Center at Northeastern University, with support from the National Science Foundation, has a sharply defined focus: to get high quality, research-based instructional materials into the hands of K-12 classroom teachers and provide the support they need to use the materials effectively in their classrooms.

  6. Influences on preschool children's oral health-related quality of life as reported by English and Spanish-speaking parents and caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Born, Catherine D; Divaris, Kimon; Zeldin, Leslie P; Rozier, R Gary

    2016-09-01

    This study examined young, preschool children's oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) among a community-based cohort of English and Spanish-speaking parent-child dyads in North Carolina, and sought to quantify the association of parent/caregiver characteristics, including spoken language, with OHRQoL impacts. Data from structured interviews with 1,111 parents of children aged 6-23 months enrolled in the Zero-Out Early Childhood Caries study in 2010-2012 were used. OHRQoL was measured using the overall score (range: 0-52) of the Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale (ECOHIS). We examined associations with parents' sociodemographic characteristics, spoken language, self-reported oral and general health, oral health knowledge, children's dental attendance, and dental care needs. Analyses included descriptive, bivariate, and multivariate methods based upon zero-inflated negative binomial regression. To determine differences between English and Spanish speakers, language-stratified model estimates were contrasted using homogeneity χ2 tests. The mean overall ECOHIS score was 3.9 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 3.6-4.2]; 4.7 among English-speakers and 1.5 among Spanish speakers. In multivariate analyses, caregivers' education showed a positive association with OHRQoL impacts among Spanish speakers [prevalence ratio (PR) = 1.12 (95% CI = 1.03-1.22), for every added year of schooling], whereas caregivers' fair/poor oral health showed a positive association among English speakers (PR = 1.20; 95% CI = 1.02-1.41). The overall severity of ECOHIS impacts was low among this population-based sample of young, preschool children, and substantially lower among Spanish versus English speakers. Further studies are warranted to identify sources of these differences in - actual or reported - OHRQoL impacts. © 2016 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  7. Review of the studies on nutrition in Polish preschool children. Part 1. Preschool menus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkiel, Sylwia; Chalcarz, Wojciech

    The last review of the literature on nutrition in Polish children covered the years 1980-1995. From that time living conditions in Poland have changed due to political and economic changes. Attitudes toward eating and healthy life-style have also changed. Therefore, it is necessary to summarise current knowledge about what Polish preschool children eat. The aim of this article was to present the areas of research on nutrition in Polish preschool children based on the review of the literature, and to present and summarise the results of the studies on the assessment of preschool menus. The review of the literature showed two main areas of research on nutrition in Polish preschool children: the assessment of meals planned and served to children at preschools, and the assessment of food behaviour and daily food and nutrient intake in preschool children. Studies on energy and nutrient content of preschool menus should be carried out regularly in order to improve nutrition of children during their stay at preschool and vegetarian menus should be studied to fill the gap in the literature. The methodology of assessing preschool meals should be the same in order to provide the possibility to compare both the results and the conclusions. Preschool menus should be adjusted to the needs of 3-year-old children and 4-6-year-old children separately. The nation-wide education programme for preschool staff should be worked out and implemented in order to teach the preschool staff about the current nutrition recommendations for children, as well as the nutritional needs of 3-year-old children and 4-6-year-old children. preschool children, nutrition, preschool menus, energy content, nutrient content.

  8. 45 CFR 84.38 - Preschool and adult education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Preschool and adult education. 84.38 Section 84.38..., and Secondary Education § 84.38 Preschool and adult education. A recipient to which this subpart applies that provides preschool education or day care or adult education may not, on the basis of handicap...

  9. Factors Influencing Implementation of a Preschool-Based Physical Activity Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Erica Y.; Saunders, Ruth P.; Beets, Michael W.; Cai, Bo; Pate, Russell R.

    2017-01-01

    Examining factors that influence implementation of key program components that underlie an intervention's success provides important information to inform the development of effective dissemination strategies. We examined direct and indirect effects of preschool capacity, quality of prevention support system and teacher characteristics on…

  10. Short Research Report: Exploring Resilience Development in a Taiwanese Preschooler's Narrative--An Emerging Theoretical Mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Kuan-Ling Olivia

    2016-01-01

    It is important to foster resilience in early childhood as this quality is, according to this author, "an individual's progressing development to adjust to life difficulties." This narrative study provides a cultural perspective by investigating a Taiwanese context and shifts the attention to preschoolers' resilience development in both…

  11. Discrimination as a Contextualized Obstacle to the Preschool Teaching of Young Latino Children of Immigrants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adair, Jennifer Keys

    2012-01-01

    This article explores how discrimination acts as a barrier to providing the highest quality education to young Latino children of immigrants. Preschool teachers' concerns emerged from focus group data with 40 teachers in four US cities, collected as part of the international Children Crossing Borders study of immigration and early childhood…

  12. Quality of assistance provided to children with sickle cell disease by primary healthcare services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmila Mourão Xavier Gomes

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the quality of healthcare provided to sickle cell disease children by primary healthcare services in a region of high prevalence. METHODS: A cross-sectional, descriptive study was performed by interviewing members of families with sickle cell disease children. The children had been identified from the Neonatal Screening Program in Minas Gerais state over the last 12 years in towns of the Montes Claros-Bocaiuva microregion. A structured questionnaire specially developed for this study and based on three axes was used: indicators of the child's health (immunization, growth and development, prophylaxis antibiotic therapy, perception of care by the family (health education and accessibility and knowledge of the family about the disease. RESULTS: Sixty-three of 71 families with children identified as having sickle cell disease were interviewed. The predominant genotypes were Hb SS (44.4% and Hb SC (41.2%. Adequate monitoring of growth and development was recorded for the first year of life in 23 children (36.6% and for the second year of life in 18 children (28.6%. The basic vaccination schedule was completed by 44 children (69.8% but 62 vaccination record cards (98.4% identified delays of special vaccines. Regular use of prophylactic penicillin was reported by 55 caregivers (87.3%. The family's perception of the care provided suggests poor accessibility to health services and lack of opportunities to answer doubts. The average performance of families in knowledge testing was 59.8%. CONCLUSION: The quality of healthcare is unsatisfactory. The care provided to children with sickle cell disease in primary healthcare services needs improvements.

  13. Privately Provided Accommodation Service Quality and Customer Satisfaction: The Case of Nsamizi Training Institute of Social Development

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mugambwa, Joshua; Mugerwa, George William; Mutumba, Wilson Williams; Muganzi, Claire; Namubiru, Bridget; Waswa, Yusuf; Kayongo, Isaac Newton

    2016-01-01

    .... This research took a case study of Nsamizi Training Institute of Social Development (NTISD) to determine the relationship between privately provided accommodation service quality and customer satisfaction...

  14. Influences of preschool policies and practices on children's physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowda, Marsha; Pate, Russell R; Trost, Stewart G; Almeida, M Joăo C A; Sirard, John R

    2004-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) of 3-5 year old preschool children varied with differences in policies/practices, and overall quality of preschools. A total of 266 children (47% males, 60% African American) from 9 preschools were observed for 1 hour on 3 different days. PA of children was observed twice per minute and scored as 1-5, with 1 for stationary/motionless and 5 for fast movement. Summary MVPA was calculated over the 3 days as percent of times observed at levels of 4 or 5, and percent of time at levels 1 or 2 as sedentary activity. A structured interview about PA policies was conducted with an administrator at each preschool and overall quality of the preschool was assessed using Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale-Revised Edition (ECERS-R). Preschools were divided into groups according to whether a specific policy/practice that would be logically hypothesized to promote PA was in place at the school. MVPA differences between groups of children was assessed using mixed ANOVA controlling for preschool. When preschools offered more field trips, and more college educated teachers, the children participated in more MVPA. Children who attended preschools with lower quality spent more time in sedentary activity. In conclusion, children in preschools which may have more resources and better quality appear to show both more sedentary behavior and more MVPA.

  15. Kvalita reflexe v profesním myšlení učitelek mateřských škol / The quality of reflection in professional thinking of pre-school teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zora Syslová

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The given study brings the view of professional thinking of pre-school teachers into the professional discourse about professionalization of teaching with the aim to find out about the quality of reflection of pre-school teachers with different levels of qualification. In the foreword chapters, the authors consider the relationship between professionalism and qualification and summarize with introducing three dimensions of professional thinking – cognitive, reflective and subjective dimension. In the paper, the authors concentrate only on the reflective dimension which represents the central point of investigation of the nature of thinking of (female preschool teachers with different levels of qualification (ISCED 3A and ISCED 5B. They present the models of reflection (Eby, 2000; Korthagen, 2011; Píšová, 2005 that were used in the research. The following part of the paper focuses on the research methodology and findings. The results show that some positive evaluation statements of the respondents about their work are in the contrast to the results of the video analysis. The results of the research investigation have shown that the teachers who had been involved in focused reflection and realization of self reflection techniques use a higher level of cognitive thinking. Therefore the authors’ view on professional thinking and its development through systematic implementation of reflection already during preservice pre-school teacher education at Faculties of Education has been supported.

  16. The influence of system quality characteristics on health care providers' performance: Empirical evidence from Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Salleh, Mohd Idzwan; Zakaria, Nasriah; Abdullah, Rosni

    The Ministry of Health Malaysia initiated the total hospital information system (THIS) as the first national electronic health record system for use in selected public hospitals across the country. Since its implementation 15 years ago, there has been the critical requirement for a systematic evaluation to assess its effectiveness in coping with the current system, task complexity, and rapid technological changes. The study aims to assess system quality factors to predict the performance of electronic health in a single public hospital in Malaysia. Non-probability sampling was employed for data collection among selected providers in a single hospital for two months. Data cleaning and bias checking were performed before final analysis in partial least squares-structural equation modeling. Convergent and discriminant validity assessments were satisfied the required criterions in the reflective measurement model. The structural model output revealed that the proposed adequate infrastructure, system interoperability, security control, and system compatibility were the significant predictors, where system compatibility became the most critical characteristic to influence an individual health care provider's performance. The previous DeLone and McLean information system success models should be extended to incorporate these technological factors in the medical system research domain to examine the effectiveness of modern electronic health record systems. In this study, care providers' performance was expected when the system usage fits with patients' needs that eventually increased their productivity. Copyright © 2016 King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Perceived quality in a dementia unit: patients' caregivers as information providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Picazo, J J; de Dios Cánovas-García, J; Antúnez, C; Marín, J; Antequera, M M; Vivancos, L; Martínez, B; Legaz, A; Navarro, D; Leal, M

    2016-10-22

    Dementia units (DU) provide comprehensive and specialised care to patients with dementia. However, assessment in these units normally focuses on patient management. The aim of this study was to determine satisfaction of the caregivers of patients managed in a DU and how they rated DU care. We created a self-administered questionnaire which was completed by 236 caregivers visiting the DU in 2015. The questionnaire included 6 dimensions (accessibility, organisation, professionalism, relationship with staff, information, and facilities); data were analysed using problem rates. A total of 53.4% caregivers completed the questionnaire; most were women, patients' spouses, or first-degree relatives. The overall problem rates was 15.0% (95% CI, 13.9-16.1), with sizeable differences between dimensions: from 0.1% (95% CI, 0.0-0.4) for 'relationship with staff' and 'professionalism' to 49.3% (95% CI, 45.4-53.2) for 'information'. Waiting times over 30minutes were perceived as excessive. Information problems were not directly related to patient management. Satisfaction was scored 8.29/10 (median 8; SD 1.45); 77.3% (95% CI, 69.8-74.8) of respondents were highly satisfied. Ninety-nine percent of the caregivers stated that they would recommend the DU. This questionnaire provides interesting data on care quality as perceived by patients' caregivers. Our results have allowed us to identify problems and implement corrective actions. Our questionnaire has proved to be a useful tool for evaluating and improving care quality in DUs. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Quality of integrated chronic disease care in rural South Africa: user and provider perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameh, Soter; Klipstein-Grobusch, Kerstin; D'ambruoso, Lucia; Kahn, Kathleen; Tollman, Stephen M; Gómez-Olivé, Francesc Xavier

    2017-03-01

    The integrated chronic disease management (ICDM) model was introduced as a response to the dual burden of HIV/AIDS and non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in South Africa, one of the first of such efforts by an African Ministry of Health. The aim of the ICDM model is to leverage HIV programme innovations to improve the quality of chronic disease care. There is a dearth of literature on the perspectives of healthcare providers and users on the quality of care in the novel ICDM model. This paper describes the viewpoints of operational managers and patients regarding quality of care in the ICDM model. In 2013, we conducted a case study of the seven PHC facilities in the rural Agincourt sub-district in northeast South Africa. Focus group discussions (n = 8) were used to obtain data from 56 purposively selected patients ≥18 years. In-depth interviews were conducted with operational managers of each facility and the sub-district health manager. Donabedian’s structure, process and outcome theory for service quality evaluation underpinned the conceptual framework in this study. Qualitative data were analysed, with MAXQDA 2 software, to identify 17 a priori dimensions of care and unanticipated themes that emerged during the analysis. The manager and patient narratives showed the inadequacies in structure (malfunctioning blood pressure machines and staff shortage); process (irregular prepacking of drugs); and outcome (long waiting times). There was discordance between managers and patients regarding reasons for long patient waiting time which managers attributed to staff shortage and missed appointments, while patients ascribed it to late arrival of managers to the clinics. Patients reported anti-hypertension drug stock-outs (structure); sub-optimal defaulter-tracing (process); rigid clinic appointment system (process). Emerging themes showed that patients reported HIV stigmatisation in the community due to defaulter-tracing activities of home-based carers, while

  19. Parents' Selection Factors when Choosing Preschool Programs for Their Children with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn-Applegate, Katherine; Pentimonti, Jill; Justice, Laura M.

    2011-01-01

    Parents, including parents of children with disabilities, are often challenged to find preschools that meet their families' various needs and desires. Research on preschool quality is prevalent, but these studies rarely consider how parents perceive quality. This descriptive study asked what parents value most when choosing a preschool for their…

  20. Demographic Factors, Temperament and the Quality of the Preschool Environment as Predictors of Daily Cortisol Changes among Finnish Six-Year-Old Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajaniemi, Nina; Suhonen, Eira; Hotulainen, Risto; Tormanen, Minna; Alijoki, Alisa; Nislin, Mari; Kontu, Elina

    2014-01-01

    A young child's stress-sensitive neurobiological system is immature and open to being shaped by experience. When children enter preschool, external demands on them to adjust are different from the demands they experience at day care. In Finland, the last year before children transfer to the comprehensive school is called preschool. The preschool…

  1. Em busca da qualidade educacional na pré-escola: uma experiência mexicana In search of educational quality in preschools: a Mexican experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Myers

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo é relatar um trabalho de elaboração e aplicação de instrumentos para avaliar a qualidade da educação pré-escolar em curso no México. Após breve apresentação do contexto do trabalho, descreve-se a trajetória seguida para desenvolver um instrumento que representa uma definição operacional de qualidade e uma metodologia que o incorpora à pesquisa e à avaliação. Apresentam-se a seguir exemplos da aplicação do instrumento em dois estudos e alguns de seus resultados, e finaliza-se com algumas conclusões e implicações para o planejamento de políticas públicasThe purpose of this paper is to acquaint the reader with on-going work in Mexico to create and apply instruments for evaluating the quality of preschool education. In the first section, the context for this work will be presented briefly. This is followed by a description of the process adopted to arrive at an instrument representing an operational definition of quality as well as a methodology that incorporates the instrument into research and evaluation. Application of the definition and methodology in two studies is offered, with a sampling of results. The paper closes with some conclusions and implications for policy and programming

  2. Improving teacher-child relationship quality and teacher-rated behavioral adjustment amongst externalizing preschoolers: effects of a two-component intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vancraeyveldt, Caroline; Verschueren, Karine; Wouters, Sofie; Van Craeyevelt, Sanne; Van den Noortgate, Wim; Colpin, Hilde

    2015-02-01

    The school-based Playing-2-gether is a 12-week intervention with two components aimed at decreasing child externalizing behavior through improving teacher-child interactions. The first component is rooted in attachment theory and aimed at enhancing teacher-child relationship quality, and the second is based on learning theory and aimed at improving teachers' behavior management. In this three-wave randomized study, effects of Playing-2-gether on the teacher-child relationship quality and on teacher-rated child behavioral adjustment were investigated. To this aim, 175 dyads consisting of male preschoolers with relatively high levels of externalizing problem behavior and their teachers were randomly assigned to Playing-2-gether (n = 89) or an education-as-usual control condition (n = 86). Teacher-rated questionnaires were collected at pre-test, after the first intervention component, and at post-test. At post-test, the intervention group showed a larger decrease in teacher-child conflict, child conduct problems, and child hyperactivity/inattention. Supplementary analyses showed that all positive effects were already visible after the first intervention component and that teacher-child conflict, child conduct problems and hyperactivity/inattention did not further reduce during the second component. In addition, an increase in closeness was found following the first component, but subsequently disappeared at post-test.

  3. Brazilian infant and preschool children feeding: literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Santos Mello

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To assess the feeding profile of Brazilian infants and preschool children aged 6 months to 6 years, based on the qualitative and quantitative analysis of food and nutrient intake. Data source This review analyzed studies carried out in Brazil that had food survey data on infants and preschool children. The search was limited to publications from the last 10 years included in the LILACS and MEDLINE electronic databases. Data summary The initial search identified 1480 articles, of which 1411 were excluded after the analysis of abstracts, as they were repeated or did not meet the inclusion criteria. Of the 69 articles assessed in full, 31 articles contained data on food survey and were selected. Only three studies concurrently assessed children from different Brazilian geographical regions. Of the assessed articles, eight had qualitative data, with descriptive analysis of food consumption frequency, and 23 had predominantly quantitative data, with information on energy and nutrient consumption. Conclusions The articles assessed in this review showed very heterogeneous results, making it difficult to compare findings. Overall, the feeding of infants and preschool children is characterized by low consumption of meat, fruits, and vegetables; high consumption of cow's milk and inadequate preparation of bottles; as well as early and high intake of fried foods, candies/sweets, soft drinks, and salt. These results provide aid for the development of strategies that aim to achieve better quality feeding of Brazilian infants and preschoolers.

  4. Communication patterns in preschool education institutions - practical examples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radic-Hozo, Endica

    2014-10-01

    Proper communication in pre-school institutions for education is undeniable importance to the development of the child, as evidenced by numerous studies. After the child's birth follows the most complex phase in its early phases - preschool education. Only high-quality, synergistic relationship triad: parent-child-educator and the modern postulates of preschool child education, warrants successful preschool child education. Description, with examples from daily practice in a large institution for preschool education, marked were the critical points on the complex way in child education, many pitfalls encountered by both parents and educators. Considered are the errors in communication with the proposed solution to avoid the same in practice. Proper, daily communication in the preschool institution for education, within a relationship between parent-child-educator, mutual consultation, respect, acceptance, facilitation, resulting in successful common goal - the proper education and socialization of children in institutions for preschool education.

  5. Heterogeneity in Maltreated and Non-maltreated Preschool Children's Inhibitory Control: The Interplay Between Parenting Quality and Child Temperament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipriano-Essel, Elizabeth; Skowron, Elizabeth A; Stifter, Cynthia A; Teti, Douglas M

    2013-09-01

    This study examined the contribution of child temperament, parenting, and their interaction on inhibitory control development in a sample of maltreated and non-maltreated preschool children. One hundred and eighteen mother-child dyads were drawn from predominantly low-income, rural communities. Dyads participated in a laboratory session in which maternal warm autonomy support, warm guidance, and strict/hostile control were observationally coded during a joint teaching task. Independent assessments of children's inhibitory control were obtained, and observers rated children's temperament. After relevant covariates, including income, maternal education, and child age and IQ were controlled for, there were no differences between the maltreatment and non-maltreatment groups in either children's inhibitory control or mothers' behaviours in the laboratory session. Even after much of the variance in children's inhibitory control was accounted for from the covariates, children's temperamental negativity moderated the effects of warm autonomy support on inhibitory control in both maltreatment and non-maltreatment groups. Temperamentally negative children whose mothers displayed more warm autonomy support showed greater inhibitory control, at levels on par with low-negative children. Findings suggest that heterogeneity in children's self-regulation may be due in part to individual differences in sensitivity to caregiver support for children's independence, even among those exposed to maltreatment.

  6. Providing assistive technology in Italy: the perceived delivery process quality as affecting abandonment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federici, Stefano; Borsci, Simone

    2016-01-01

    The study brings together three aspects rarely observed at once in assistive technology (AT) surveys: (i) the assessment of user interaction/satisfaction with AT and service delivery, (ii) the motivational analysis of AT abandonment, and (iii) the management/design evaluation of AT delivery services. 15 health professionals and 4 AT experts were involved in modelling and assessing four AT Local Health Delivery Service (Centres) in Italy through a SWOT analysis and a Cognitive Walkthrough. In addition 558 users of the same Centres were interviewed in a telephone survey to rate their satisfaction and AT use. The overall AT abandonment was equal to 19.09%. Different Centres' management strategies resulted in different percentages of AT disuse, with a range from 12.61% to 24.26%. A significant difference between the declared abandonment and the Centres' management strategies (p = 0.012) was identified. A strong effect on abandonment was also found due to professionals' procedures (p = 0.005) and follow-up systems (p = 0.002). The user experience of an AT is affected not only by the quality of the interaction with the AT, but also by the perceived quality of the Centres in support and follow-up. Implications for Rehabilitation AT abandonment surveys provide useful information for modelling AT assessment and delivery process. SWOT and Cognitive Walkthrough analyses have shown suitable methods for exploring limits and advantages in AT service delivery systems. The study confirms the relevance of person centredness for a successful AT assessment and delivery process.

  7. Variation in Quality of Urgent Health Care Provided During Commercial Virtual Visits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenfeld, Adam J; Davies, Jason M; Marafino, Ben J; Dean, Mitzi; DeJong, Colette; Bardach, Naomi S; Kazi, Dhruv S; Boscardin, W John; Lin, Grace A; Duseja, Reena; Mei, Y John; Mehrotra, Ateev; Dudley, R Adams

    2016-05-01

    .4%). No statistically significant variation in guideline adherence by mode of communication (videoconference vs telephone vs webchat) was found. Significant variation in quality was found among companies providing virtual visits for management of common acute illnesses. More variation was found in performance for some conditions than for others, but no variation by mode of communication.

  8. Preschool Teachers' Endorsement of Instructional Practices: An Interprofessional Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutsoftas, Anthony D.; Dubasik, Virginia L.; Moss DiDonato, Alicia

    2017-01-01

    Background: Preschool teacher's instructional practices are one component of high-quality early education classrooms that have the potential to directly influence young children's school readiness and success; therefore, the type and quality of instructional practices used by preschool teachers should be explored. Purpose: The purpose of this…

  9. Providing effective trauma care: the potential for service provider views to enhance the quality of care (qualitative study nested within a multicentre longitudinal quantitative study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckett, Kate; Earthy, Sarah; Sleney, Jude; Barnes, Jo; Kellezi, Blerina; Barker, Marcus; Clarkson, Julie; Coffey, Frank; Elder, Georgina; Kendrick, Denise

    2014-07-08

    To explore views of service providers caring for injured people on: the extent to which services meet patients' needs and their perspectives on factors contributing to any identified gaps in service provision. Qualitative study nested within a quantitative multicentre longitudinal study assessing longer term impact of unintentional injuries in working age adults. Sampling frame for service providers was based on patient-reported service use in the quantitative study, patient interviews and advice of previously injured lay research advisers. Service providers' views were elicited through semistructured interviews. Data were analysed using thematic analysis. Participants were recruited from a range of settings and services in acute hospital trusts in four study centres (Bristol, Leicester, Nottingham and Surrey) and surrounding areas. 40 service providers from a range of disciplines. Service providers described two distinct models of trauma care: an 'ideal' model, informed by professional knowledge of the impact of injury and awareness of best models of care, and a 'real' model based on the realities of National Health Service (NHS) practice. Participants' 'ideal' model was consistent with standards of high-quality effective trauma care and while there were examples of services meeting the ideal model, 'real' care could also be fragmented and inequitable with major gaps in provision. Service provider accounts provide evidence of comprehensive understanding of patients' needs, awareness of best practice, compassion and research but reveal significant organisational and resource barriers limiting implementation of knowledge in practice. Service providers envisage an 'ideal' model of trauma care which is timely, equitable, effective and holistic, but this can differ from the care currently provided. Their experiences provide many suggestions for service improvements to bridge the gap between 'real' and 'ideal' care. Using service provider views to inform service design

  10. Surgery and trauma care providers' perception of the impact of dual-practice employment on quality of care provided in an Andean country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaGrone, L N; Isquith-Dicker, L N; Huaman Egoavil, E; Herrera-Matta, J J; Fuhs, A K; Ortega Checa, D; Revoredo, F; Rodriguez Castro, M J A; Mock, C N

    2017-05-01

    Dual-practice, simultaneous employment by healthcare workers in the public and private sectors is pervasive worldwide. Although an estimated 30 per cent of the global burden of disease is surgical, the implications of dual practice on surgical care are not well understood. Anonymous in-depth individual interviews on trauma quality improvement practices were conducted with healthcare providers who participate in the care of the injured at ten large hospitals in Peru's capital city, Lima. A grounded theory approach to qualitative data analysis was employed to identify salient themes. Fifty interviews were conducted. A group of themes that emerged related to the perceived negative and positive impacts of dual practice on the quality of surgical care. Participants asserted that the majority of physicians in Lima working in the public sector also worked in the private sector. Dual practice has negative impacts on physicians' time, quality of care in the public sector, and surgical education. Dual practice positively affects patient care by allowing physicians to acquire management and quality improvement skills, and providing incentives for research and academic productivity. In addition, dual practice provides opportunities for clinical innovations and raises the economic status of the physician. Surgeons in Peru report that dual practice influences patient care negatively by creating time and human resource conflicts. Participants assert that these conflicts widen the gap in quality of care between rich and poor. This practice warrants redirection through national-level regulation of physician schedules and reorganization of public investment in health via physician remuneration. © 2017 BJS Society Ltd Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Organization Complexity and Primary Care Providers' Perceptions of Quality Improvement Culture Within the Veterans Health Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korom-Djakovic, Danijela; Canamucio, Anne; Lempa, Michele; Yano, Elizabeth M; Long, Judith A

    2016-01-01

    This study examined how aspects of quality improvement (QI) culture changed during the introduction of the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) patient-centered medical home initiative and how they were influenced by existing organizational factors, including VHA facility complexity and practice location. A voluntary survey, measuring primary care providers' (PCPs') perspectives on QI culture at their primary care clinics, was administered in 2010 and 2012. Participants were 320 PCPs from hospital- and community-based primary care practices in Pennsylvania, West Virginia, Delaware, New Jersey, New York, and Ohio. PCPs in community-based outpatient clinics reported an improvement in established processes for QI, and communication and cooperation from 2010 to 2012. However, their peers in hospital-based clinics did not report any significant improvements in QI culture. In both years, compared with high-complexity facilities, medium- and low-complexity facilities had better scores on the scales assessing established processes for QI, and communication and cooperation. © The Author(s) 2014.

  12. Complementary ecosystem services provided by pest predators and pollinators increase quantity and quality of coffee yields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Classen, Alice; Peters, Marcell K; Ferger, Stefan W; Helbig-Bonitz, Maria; Schmack, Julia M; Maassen, Genevieve; Schleuning, Matthias; Kalko, Elisabeth K V; Böhning-Gaese, Katrin; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf

    2014-03-22

    Wild animals substantially support crop production by providing ecosystem services, such as pollination and natural pest control. However, the strengths of synergies between ecosystem services and their dependencies on land-use management are largely unknown. Here, we took an experimental approach to test the impact of land-use intensification on both individual and combined pollination and pest control services in coffee production systems at Mount Kilimanjaro. We established a full-factorial pollinator and vertebrate exclosure experiment along a land-use gradient from traditional homegardens (agroforestry systems), shaded coffee plantations to sun coffee plantations (total sample size = 180 coffee bushes). The exclusion of vertebrates led to a reduction in fruit set of ca 9%. Pollinators did not affect fruit set, but significantly increased fruit weight of coffee by an average of 7.4%. We found no significant decline of these ecosystem services along the land-use gradient. Pest control and pollination service were thus complementary, contributing to coffee production by affecting the quantity and quality of a major tropical cash crop across different coffee production systems at Mount Kilimanjaro.

  13. The Obesogenic Quality of the Home Environment: Associations with Diet, Physical Activity, TV Viewing, and BMI in Preschool Children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Schrempft

    Full Text Available The home environment is thought to play a key role in early weight trajectories, although direct evidence is limited. There is general agreement that multiple factors exert small individual effects on weight-related outcomes, so use of composite measures could demonstrate stronger effects. This study therefore examined whether composite measures reflecting the 'obesogenic' home environment are associated with diet, physical activity, TV viewing, and BMI in preschool children.Families from the Gemini cohort (n = 1096 completed a telephone interview (Home Environment Interview; HEI when their children were 4 years old. Diet, physical activity, and TV viewing were reported at interview. Child height and weight measurements were taken by the parents (using standard scales and height charts and reported at interview. Responses to the HEI were standardized and summed to create four composite scores representing the food (sum of 21 variables, activity (sum of 6 variables, media (sum of 5 variables, and overall (food composite/21 + activity composite/6 + media composite/5 home environments. These were categorized into 'obesogenic risk' tertiles.Children in 'higher-risk' food environments consumed less fruit (OR; 95% CI = 0.39; 0.27-0.57 and vegetables (0.47; 0.34-0.64, and more energy-dense snacks (3.48; 2.16-5.62 and sweetened drinks (3.49; 2.10-5.81 than children in 'lower-risk' food environments. Children in 'higher-risk' activity environments were less physically active (0.43; 0.32-0.59 than children in 'lower-risk' activity environments. Children in 'higher-risk' media environments watched more TV (3.51; 2.48-4.96 than children in 'lower-risk' media environments. Neither the individual nor the overall composite measures were associated with BMI.Composite measures of the obesogenic home environment were associated as expected with diet, physical activity, and TV viewing. Associations with BMI were not apparent at this age.

  14. The Obesogenic Quality of the Home Environment: Associations with Diet, Physical Activity, TV Viewing, and BMI in Preschool Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrempft, Stephanie; van Jaarsveld, Cornelia H M; Fisher, Abigail; Wardle, Jane

    2015-01-01

    The home environment is thought to play a key role in early weight trajectories, although direct evidence is limited. There is general agreement that multiple factors exert small individual effects on weight-related outcomes, so use of composite measures could demonstrate stronger effects. This study therefore examined whether composite measures reflecting the 'obesogenic' home environment are associated with diet, physical activity, TV viewing, and BMI in preschool children. Families from the Gemini cohort (n = 1096) completed a telephone interview (Home Environment Interview; HEI) when their children were 4 years old. Diet, physical activity, and TV viewing were reported at interview. Child height and weight measurements were taken by the parents (using standard scales and height charts) and reported at interview. Responses to the HEI were standardized and summed to create four composite scores representing the food (sum of 21 variables), activity (sum of 6 variables), media (sum of 5 variables), and overall (food composite/21 + activity composite/6 + media composite/5) home environments. These were categorized into 'obesogenic risk' tertiles. Children in 'higher-risk' food environments consumed less fruit (OR; 95% CI = 0.39; 0.27-0.57) and vegetables (0.47; 0.34-0.64), and more energy-dense snacks (3.48; 2.16-5.62) and sweetened drinks (3.49; 2.10-5.81) than children in 'lower-risk' food environments. Children in 'higher-risk' activity environments were less physically active (0.43; 0.32-0.59) than children in 'lower-risk' activity environments. Children in 'higher-risk' media environments watched more TV (3.51; 2.48-4.96) than children in 'lower-risk' media environments. Neither the individual nor the overall composite measures were associated with BMI. Composite measures of the obesogenic home environment were associated as expected with diet, physical activity, and TV viewing. Associations with BMI were not apparent at this age.

  15. One Year of Preschool or Two - Is It Important for Adult Outcomes? Results from the Chicago Longitudinal Study of the Child-Parent Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arteaga, Irma; Humpage, Sarah; Reynolds, Arthur J; Temple, Judy A

    2014-05-01

    Until the last year, public funding for preschool education had been growing rapidly over a decade with most state programs providing one year of preschool for four year olds. Fewer three year olds are enrolled in preschool. To investigate the importance of enrollment duration, this study is the first to estimate long-term dosage effects of years of preschool. We use data from a cohort of 1,500 students in the Chicago Longitudinal Study who enrolled in the Chicago Public Schools in the mid-1980s. Many of these students participated in a high-quality preschool program called Child-Parent Centers (CPC) for one or two years. To address selection with multiple treatments, we employ inverse propensity score weighting. Relative to children who attended one year of CPC preschool, the two-year group is significantly less likely to receive special education or be abused or neglected or to commit crimes. The findings provide support for the long-term benefits of greater exposure to preschool.

  16. One Year of Preschool or Two – Is It Important for Adult Outcomes? Results from the Chicago Longitudinal Study of the Child-Parent Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arteaga, Irma; Humpage, Sarah; Reynolds, Arthur J.; Temple, Judy A.

    2015-01-01

    Until the last year, public funding for preschool education had been growing rapidly over a decade with most state programs providing one year of preschool for four year olds. Fewer three year olds are enrolled in preschool. To investigate the importance of enrollment duration, this study is the first to estimate long-term dosage effects of years of preschool. We use data from a cohort of 1,500 students in the Chicago Longitudinal Study who enrolled in the Chicago Public Schools in the mid-1980s. Many of these students participated in a high-quality preschool program called Child-Parent Centers (CPC) for one or two years. To address selection with multiple treatments, we employ inverse propensity score weighting. Relative to children who attended one year of CPC preschool, the two-year group is significantly less likely to receive special education or be abused or neglected or to commit crimes. The findings provide support for the long-term benefits of greater exposure to preschool. PMID:26823640

  17. Impact of functional constipation on health-related quality of life in preschool children and their families in Xi'an, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Changjun; Shang, Lei; Zhang, Yuhai; Tian, Jiao; Wang, Baoxi; Yang, Xianjun; Sun, Lijun; Du, Chunyan; Jiang, Xun; Xu, Yongyong

    2013-01-01

    Functional constipation (FC) is one of the common diseases among children. The aim of this study was to investigate the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in preschool children diagnosed with FC and the impact of the condition on affected families. In this cross-sectional, case-control study, 152 children aged 3-6 years with FC, 176 healthy children aged 3-6 years without FC, and their primary caregivers were selected. Chinese versions of the PedsQL™ 4.0 Generic Core Scale and the Family Impact Module (FIM) were used to assess childhood HRQOL and the impact of FC on family members, respectively. HRQOL scores were compared between children with FC and healthy children. In addition, a multiple step-wise regression with demographic variables of children and their caregivers, family economic status, duration and symptoms of FC, as independent variables, was used to determine factors that influenced HRQOL in children and had impacted caregivers. Scores of physical, emotional, social and school functions, and summary scales were significantly lower in children with FC than in healthy children (p impact on HRQOL of affected children and their caregivers, as well as their family functions. Social characteristics of children and caregivers, duration and symptoms of FC and family economic status significantly affected HRQOL of children and caregivers, as well as family functions of children with FC.

  18. Quality of Care in Contraceptive Services Provided to Young People in Two Ugandan Districts: A Simulated Client Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalwadda, Gorrette; Tumwesigye, Nazarius M.; Faxelid, Elisabeth; Byamugisha, Josaphat; Mirembe, Florence

    2011-01-01

    Background Low and inconsistent use of contraceptives by young people contributes to unintended pregnancies. This study assessed quality of contraceptive services for young people aged 15–24 in two rural districts in Uganda. Methods Five female and two male simulated clients (SCs) interacted with 128 providers at public, private not-for-profit (PNFP), and private for profit (PFP) health facilities. After consultations, SCs were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. Six aspects of quality of care (client's needs, choice of contraceptive methods, information given to users, client-provider interpersonal relations, constellation of services, and continuity mechanisms) were assessed. Descriptive statistics and factor analysis were performed. Results Means and categorized quality scores for all aspects of quality were low in both public and private facilities. The lowest quality scores were observed in PFP, and medium scores in PNFP facilities. The choice of contraceptive methods and interpersonal relations quality scores were slightly higher in public facilities. Needs assessment scores were highest in PNFP facilities. All facilities were classified as having low scores for appropriate constellation of services. Information given to users was suboptimal and providers promoted specific contraceptive methods. Minority of providers offered preferred method of choice and showed respect for privacy. Conclusions The quality of contraceptive services provided to young people was low. Concurrent quality improvements and strengthening of health systems are needed. PMID:22132168

  19. Physicians' assessments of their ability to provide high-quality care in a changing health care system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reschovsky, J; Reed, M; Blumenthal, D; Landon, B

    2001-03-01

    With the growth of managed care, there are increasing concerns but inconclusive evidence regarding deterioration in the quality of medical care. To assess physicians' perceptions of their ability to provide high-quality care and explore what factors, including managed care, affect these perceptions. Bivariate and multivariate analyses of the Community Tracking Study Physician Survey, a cross-sectional, nationally representative telephone survey of 12,385 patient-care physicians conducted in 1996/1997. The response rate was 65%. Physicians who provide direct patient care for > or =20 h/wk, excluding federal employees and those in selected specialties. Level of agreement with 4 statements: 1 regarding overall ability to provide high-quality care and 3 regarding aspects of care delivery associated with quality. Between 21% and 31% of physicians disagreed with the quality statements. Specialists were generally 50% more likely than primary care physicians to express concerns about their ability to provide quality care. Generally, the number of managed care contracts, but not the percent of practice revenue from managed care, was negatively associated with perceived quality. Market-level managed care penetration independently affected physicians' perceptions. Practice setting affected perceptions of quality, with physicians in group settings less likely to express concerns than physicians in solo and 2-physician practices. Specific financial incentives and care management tools had limited positive or negative associations with perceived quality. Managed care involvement is only modestly associated with reduced perceptions of quality among physicians, with some specific tools enhancing perceived quality. Physicians may be able to moderate some negative effects of managed care by altering their practice arrangements.

  20. Diverse Pathways in Early Childhood Professional Development: An Exploration of Early Educators in Public Preschools, Private Preschools, and Family Child Care Homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuligni, Allison Sidle; Howes, Carollee; Lara-Cinisomo, Sandraluz; Karoly, Lynn

    2009-05-01

    This paper presents a naturalistic investigation of the patterns of formal education, early childhood education training, and mentoring of a diverse group of urban early childhood educators participating in the Los Angeles: Exploring Children's Early Learning Settings (LA ExCELS) study. A total of 103 preschool teachers and family child care providers serving primarily low-income 3- and 4-year-old children in Los Angeles County provided data on their education, training, and beliefs about teaching. This sample worked in public center based preschool programs including Head Start classrooms and State preschool classrooms (N=42), private non-profit preschools including community based organizations and faith-based preschools (N=42), and licensed family child care homes (N=19). This study uses a person-centered approach to explore patterns of teacher preparation, sources of support, supervision, and mentoring across these 3 types of education settings, and how these patterns are associated with early childhood educators' beliefs and practices. Findings suggest a set of linkages between type of early education setting, professional development, and supervision of teaching. Public preschools have the strongest mandates for formal professional development and typically less variation in levels of monitoring, whereas family child care providers on average have less formal education and more variability in their access to and use of other forms of training and mentorship. Four distinct patterns of formal education, child development training, and ongoing mentoring or support were identified among the educators in this study. Associations between professional development experiences and teachers' beliefs and practices suggested the importance of higher levels of formal training for enhancing the quality of teacher-child interactions. Implications of the findings for changing teacher behaviors are discussed with respect to considering the setting context.

  1. Quality of healthcare services provided in disaster shelters: An integrative literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veenema, Tener Goodwin; Rains, Adam B; Casey-Lockyer, Mary; Springer, Janice; Kowal, Mary

    2015-07-01

    Globally, shelters are a resource to promote critical health and safety in disasters, particularly for vulnerable populations (e.g., children, elderly, chronically ill). This study examines the nature and quality of healthcare services rendered in disaster and emergency shelters. To determine based upon systematic and accurate measurement the scope and quality of health care services rendered in disaster shelters and to describe the health outcomes experienced by shelter residents. An integrative review of English-language literature pertaining to the assessment, evaluation, and systematic measurement of healthcare quality and client outcomes in disaster and emergency shelters was undertaken. Articles were identified using a structured search strategy of six databases and indexing services (PubMed, CINAHL, EMBase, Scopus, Web of Science, and Google Scholar). Limited literature exists pertaining specifically to metrics for quality of health care in acute disaster and emergency shelters, and the literature that does exist is predominately U.S. based. Analysis of the existing evidence suggests that nurse staffing levels and staff preparedness, access to medications/medication management, infection control, referrals, communication, and mental health may be important concepts related to quality of disaster health care services. A small number of population-based and smaller, ad hoc outcomes-based evaluation efforts exist; however the existing literature regarding systematic outcomes-based quality assessment of disaster sheltering healthcare services is notably sparse. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. FACTORS INFLUENCING THE QUALITY OF PROVIDED SERVICES IN THE VISION OF TRAVEL AGENTS IN SUCEAVA MUNICIPALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Valentin HAPENCIUC

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Taking into account its pragmatic meaning, the success of a travel agency frequently relies on the activity of travel agents. In the process of promoting and selling flat voyages, customer service can be directly influenced by the interaction of factors such as: offer accuracy, sales representatives quality, employee timeliness, politeness of the travel agent, maintaining eye contact etc., all of which are components of the offered product. Thereby, we conducted, within the period 5 - 15 March 2015, a research based on interviews with 26 travel agents from 20 different units, in order to determine their awareness about potential factors that may have an influence on the quality of offered services. By the instrumentality of a questionnaire, we attempted to assess the integrity and loyalty of employees, their attitude regarding the activities they carry, their dissatisfaction, negative and  positive factors influencing service quality, and their positioning to the organization and brand.

  3. Measurement Invariance of a School Readiness Screener for Use in Preschool and Kindergarten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edyburn, Kelly L.; Quirk, Matthew; Furlong, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Research Findings: Public policy has increasingly focused on expansion of preschool access for underserved students and systematic evaluation of preschool quality and students' readiness for school. However, such evaluation is limited by a lack of thoroughly validated assessments for use with preschool populations. The present study examined the…

  4. Gifted Education in Preschool: Perceived Barriers and Benefits of Program Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kettler, Todd; Oveross, Mattie E.; Bishop, James C.

    2017-01-01

    Substantial evidence supports the benefits of quality preschool education for children of all levels and backgrounds. However, early childhood gifted education services rarely exist in preschool centers. This study included 263 preschool centers representing geographic diversity in a southern state in the United States. Narrative data were…

  5. Preschoolers Know, but How Do They Know? Developing a Framework for Early Epistemology Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winsor, Denise L.; Blake, Sally

    2009-01-01

    Two areas that are lacking for the purpose of training high-quality preschool teachers; and constructing developmentally appropriate learning standards and curriculum for preschool children are awareness of early epistemic development (beliefs about knowledge and knowing) and understanding preschoolers' cognitive processes during epistemic…

  6. Academic Language in Preschool: Research and Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael Luna, Sara

    2017-01-01

    Developing and scaffolding academic language is an important job of preschool teachers. This Teaching Tip provides five strategies that extend the topic of academic language by integrating previous research and field-based data into classroom practice.

  7. [Data from automated external defibrillators provide important information on the quality of in-hospital resuscitation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vestergård, Lone Due; Løfgren, Bo; Krarup, Niels Henrik Vinther; Holm, Tina; Andersen, Lone Kærslund

    2014-09-01

    International guidelines recommend monitoring the outcome following in-hospital cardiac arrest. Using data from automatic external defibrillators (AED) prospectively collected during a three-year period in a regional hospital, we evaluated the treatment quality of resuscitation. Time to defibrillation was acceptable, but quality of chest compressions did not comply with current international recommendations. AED use led to a high fraction of time with no chest compressions. Survival to discharge was 11%. Consequently, training in basic and advanced life support of hospital staff has been modified.

  8. When Does Preschool Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Weiland, Christina; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2016-01-01

    We have many reasons to invest in preschool programs, including persistent gaps in school readiness between children from poorer and wealthier families, large increases in maternal employment over the past several decades, and the rapid brain development that preschool-age children experience. But what do we know about preschool education's…

  9. What Are the Characteristics of Nature Preschools in Norway, and How Do They Organize Their Daily Activities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lysklett, Olav B.; Berger, Henrik W.

    2017-01-01

    This study provides basic information about how Norwegian nature preschools differ from other Norwegian preschools and how they organize their daily activities. Fifty-six nature preschools and 52 other preschools were included in the study. A total of 106 headmasters and 98 pedagogical leaders filled out questionnaires about the characteristics of…

  10. A multidisciplinary intervention programme has positive effects on quality of life in overweight and obese preschool children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bocca, Gianni; Kuitert, M.W.B.; Sauer, P.J.J.; Stolk, R.P.; Flapper, B.C.; Corpeleijn, E.

    AIM: Up to 18.1% of Dutch children aged three to five are overweight and up to 3.3% are obese, with higher levels in girls. This study assessed the effect of a multidisciplinary intervention programme on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in this patient group. METHODS: We randomised 75 children

  11. Experimental Impacts of a Teacher Professional Development Program in Chile on Preschool Classroom Quality and Child Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Leyva, Diana; Snow, Catherine E.; Treviño, Ernesto; Barata, M. Clara; Weiland, Christina; Gomez, Celia J.; Moreno, Lorenzo; Rolla, Andrea; D'Sa, Nikhit; Arbour, Mary Catherine

    2015-01-01

    We assessed impacts on classroom quality and on 5 child language and behavioral outcomes of a 2-year teacher professional-development program for publicly funded prekindergarten and kindergarten in Chile. This cluster-randomized trial included 64 schools (child N = 1,876). The program incorporated workshops and in-classroom coaching. We found…

  12. Peer Play Interactions and Learning for Low-Income Preschool Children: The Moderating Role of Classroom Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulotsky-Shearer, Rebecca J.; Bell, Elizabeth R.; Carter, Tracy M.; Dietrich, Sandy L. R.

    2014-01-01

    Research Findings: The present study examined the degree to which the association between interactive peer play and academic skills was dependent upon the level of classroom quality for a representative sample of culturally and linguistically diverse urban Head Start children (N = 304 children across 53 classrooms). Peer play interactions within…

  13. Can branding by health care provider organizations drive the delivery of higher technical and service quality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snihurowych, Roman R; Cornelius, Felix; Amelung, Volker Eric

    2009-01-01

    Despite the widespread use of branding in nearly all other major industries, most health care service delivery organizations have not fully embraced the practices and processes of branding. Facilitating the increased and appropriate use of branding among health care delivery organizations may improve service and technical quality for patients. This article introduces the concepts of branding, as well as making the case that the use of branding may improve the quality and financial performance of organizations. The concepts of branding are reviewed, with examples from the literature used to demonstrate their potential application within health care service delivery. The role of branding for individual organizations is framed by broader implications for health care markets. Branding strategies may have a number of positive effects on health care service delivery, including improved technical and service quality. This may be achieved through more transparent and efficient consumer choice, reduced costs related to improved patient retention, and improved communication and appropriateness of care. Patient satisfaction may be directly increased as a result of branding. More research into branding could result in significant quality improvements for individual organizations, while benefiting patients and the health system as a whole.

  14. Leadership qualities when providing therapy for women who suffer from eating difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rørtveit, Kristine; Severinsson, Elisabeth

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this study was to reflect on aspects of mental health nursing leadership qualities with special focus on the therapeutic process for women who suffer from eating difficulties (ED). Therapy for patients with ED involves motivating them to make meaningful changes. Leadership qualities in MHN should focus on the relationship with the patient and positive empowerment processes. In-depth interviews were conducted with six women suffering from ED who had participated in art therapy. The interviews were analysed by means of an interpretative hermeneutic approach. A main theme 'The mental health nurse as a formative and mindful leader in a group therapeutic relationship' and two themes 'Leading sensitively towards awakening the patients' awareness of their pre-understanding' and 'Leading dialectically towards solving patients' existential dilemmas' were developed and comprised two aspects of leadership. The nurse-patient relationship is influenced by the patients' pre-understanding and existential dilemmas. Leadership qualities associated with being formative and mindful represent important aspects of this relationship and should be investigated and thematically described in greater detail in future research. The nurse-patient relationship should focus on clinical supervision, in order to strengthen the nurses' leadership qualities in terms of being aware and dialectical. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. Quality of provided care in vascular surgery : outcome assessment & improvement strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flu, Hans Christiaan

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to evaluate the quality of care in vascular surgery in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD): intermittent claudication (IC) and critical lower limb ischaemia (CLI) patients. Therefore firstly it focused on the improvement of the

  16. The quality of mobile phone services provided by Romanian operators, from consumers` perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doru Alexandru Pleşea

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The mobile services are distinguished through their quality, either we speak about the way the client is approached and placed in the centre of the operator's actions, or about the services the client benefits in his capacity as a client. The Romanian mobile operators’ services have greatly evolved from their launch in 1997. Along these times, the mobile operators brought more value to these services, due to their need to meet the consumers' expectations with services of high quality and competitiveness. Usually the Romanian consumers place the price in the forefront of their service/mobile phone services acquisition, but an objective analyze of the quality of the mobile phone services has to take into account both technical aspects of the services and the interfacing services too. Therefore, this paper takes into account technical characteristics of the services such as national telephony coverage, data transmission services coverage, the signal quality, maximum speed of data transfer as well as related services such as distribution network, sales and support sales services, after-sales services, and range of available terminals. Based on mobile services comprehensive analysis made available to consumers by the major players on the Romanian market, this paper aims to highlight the main reasons of the consumers’ satisfaction and dissatisfaction.

  17. Herbal therapy and quality of life in hypertension patients at health facilities providing complementary therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurhayati Nurhayati

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Latar belakang: Hipertensi merupakan faktor risiko utama penyakit kardiovaskular yang berpengaruh penting terhadap beberapa organ (jantung, otak, ginjal dan pembuluh darah. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk untuk mengidentifikasi faktor dominan yang berhubungan dengan kualitas hidup penderita hipertensi. Metode: Disain penelitian ini adalah cross-sectional. Data berasal dari catatan medis pasien hipertensi yang diberikan pengobatan komplementer di fasilitas kesehatan di provinsi: DKI Jakarta, Jawa Tengah, Jawa Barat, Jawa Timur, Bali, Banten, dan Sumatera. Wawancara dan pencatatan catatan medis pasien dilakukan oleh 77 dokter praktek jamu. Pengukuran kualitas hidup pada pasien hipertensi dengan menggunakan kuesioner Short Form 36 WHO. Faktor risiko yang berhubungan dengan kualitas hidup pada pasien hipertensi dianalisis menggunakan regresi Cox. Hasil: Sebanyak 189 subjek pada penelitian ini. Proporsi subjek yang memiliki kualitas hidup yang baik adalah 51,9% (97/187. Faktor risiko dominan yang berhubungan dengan kualitas hidup pada pasien hipertensi adalah tingkat pendidikan dan jenis pengobatan. Dibandingkan dengan subjek yang memiliki tingkat pendidikan rendah, subjek yang tingkat pendidikan menengah dan tinggi memiliki risiko 83% lebih tinggi mempunyai kualitas hidup yang baik. Subjek yang  mendapatkan jenis pengobatan konvensional dan herbal/tradisional berisiko 29% lebih tinggi mempunyai kualitas hidup yang baik. Kesimpulan: Subjek yang memiliki tingkat pendidikan yang lebih tinggi dan mendapatkan pengobatan konvensional dan herbal/tradisional berisiko mempunyai kualitas hidup yang baik.Kata kunci: kualitas hidup, pasien hipertensi Abstract Background: Hypertension is a major cardiovascular risk factor that had serious consequences to some organs (heart, brain, kidneys and blood vessels. This study aimed to investigate the dominant risk factors that related to quality of life in hypertension subjects. Methods: This cross

  18. Scientifically Based Reading Research Strategies in the Preschool Classroom: An Investigation into Quality Early Childhood Reading Practices and Literacy Acquisition in One Northern Michigan Early Reading First Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCool, Yvonne Donohoe

    2013-01-01

    A growing body of research has emerged to support the concept of providing early childhood education as a quality investment for our children, unlocking early potential and creating lasting impacts related to school success and beyond. Several landmark studies indicated that a quality education targeted at our youngest learners has the ability to…

  19. Evaluation of quality of life in caregivers who are providing home care to cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubukcu, Mahcube

    2017-11-21

    The author aimed to evaluate the quality of life and the factors affecting the caregivers of cancer patients receiving home care. This cross-sectional descriptive study was performed in 48 cancer patients who were served from home care unit and 48 caregivers between 01 and 28 February 2014. Patients' functional status was evaluated with Katz Index for Activities of Daily Living and the Lawton Scale for Instrumental Activities of Daily Living. The levels of quality of life of caregivers of patients with cancer were determined with Caregiver Quality of Life Index-Cancer (CQOLC). The mean age of forty-eight patients was 69.79 ± 16.09 years; 62.5% of them were female. The mean duration of home care was 5.99 ± 5.26 years; 25% of patients were fully dependent on the bed. 83.3% of caregivers were female, mean age of caregivers was 50.75 ± 14.89 years, and 77.1% of them were family members. The mean CQOLC score was 74.43 ± 24.45. The highest score was detected in the financial distress and the lowest score was detected in the positive adaptation. The quality of life is increasing as the length of care is reduced and income status increased. The quality of life of caregivers is very low. Each characteristic of the caregiver will affect the care he/she gives. From this point of view, it is important to consider the characteristics of caregivers in improving the care given to cancer patients. In this respect, there is a need to support caregivers both materially and spiritually.

  20. Noise and stress effects on preschool personnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredrik Sjödin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to analyze the presence of stress-related health problems among preschool employees and the way in which these reactions are related to noise and other work parameters. The investigation included 101 employees at 17 preschools in Umeå County, located in northern Sweden. Individual noise recordings and recordings in dining rooms and play halls were made at two departments from each preschool. The adverse effects on the employees were analyzed by use of different validated questionnaires and by saliva cortisol samples. Stress and energy output were pronounced among the employees, and about 30% of the staff experienced strong burnout syndromes. Mental recovery after work was low, indicated by remaining high levels of stress after work. The burnout symptoms were associated with reduced sleep quality and morning sleepiness. Cortisol levels supported the conclusion about pronounced daily stress levels of the preschool employees.

  1. The role of health care providers and significant others in evaluating the quality of life of patients with chronic disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sneeuw, Kommer C. A.; Sprangers, Mirjam A. G.; Aaronson, Neil K.

    2002-01-01

    Health-related quality of life (HRQL) studies sometimes rely, in part, on proxy information obtained from patients' significant others (spouse or close companion) or health care providers. This review: (1) provides a quantitative analysis of the results that have been reported in recent studies

  2. Providing high-quality care for limited English proficient patients: the importance of language concordance and interpreter use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo-Metzger, Quyen; Sorkin, Dara H; Phillips, Russell S; Greenfield, Sheldon; Massagli, Michael P; Clarridge, Brian; Kaplan, Sherrie H

    2007-11-01

    Provider-patient language discordance is related to worse quality care for limited English proficient (LEP) patients who speak Spanish. However, little is known about language barriers among LEP Asian-American patients. We examined the effects of language discordance on the degree of health education and the quality of interpersonal care that patients received, and examined its effect on patient satisfaction. We also evaluated how the presence/absence of a clinic interpreter affected these outcomes. Cross-sectional survey, response rate 74%. A total of 2,746 Chinese and Vietnamese patients receiving care at 11 health centers in 8 cities. Provider-patient language concordance, health education received, quality of interpersonal care, patient ratings of providers, and the presence/absence of a clinic interpreter. Regression analyses were used to adjust for potential confounding. Patients with language-discordant providers reported receiving less health education (beta = 0.17, p interpreter. Patients with language-discordant providers also reported worse interpersonal care (beta = 0.28, p interpreter did not mitigate these effects and in fact exacerbated disparities in patients' perceptions of their providers. Language barriers are associated with less health education, worse interpersonal care, and lower patient satisfaction. Having access to a clinic interpreter can facilitate the transmission of health education. However, in terms of patients' ratings of their providers and the quality of interpersonal care, having an interpreter present does not serve as a substitute for language concordance between patient and provider.

  3. Effectiveness of a Danish early year preschool program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bente; Holm, Anders; Bremberg, Sven

    2013-01-01

    A significant number of studies indicate that early year preschool programs lead to positive long-term effects. Systematic quality improvement of early year preschool may enhance these outcomes. The ASP Program was built on this principle. In this program preschool staff are supported...... in their efforts to critically reflect on current practices and to change these. A randomized controlled study was carried out in Denmark from September 2006 to May 2008. The study encompassed 2323 children in 59 preschools in two municipalities. Children were assessed using the Strength and Difficulties...

  4. The role of context in preschool learning: a multilevel examination of the contribution of context-specific problem behaviors and classroom process quality to low-income children's approaches to learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez, Ximena; Vitiello, Virginia E; Fuccillo, Janna M; Greenfield, Daryl B; Bulotsky-Shearer, Rebecca J

    2011-04-01

    Research suggests that promoting adaptive approaches to learning early in childhood may help close the gap between advantaged and disadvantaged children. Recent research has identified specific child-level and classroom-level variables that are significantly associated with preschoolers' approaches to learning. However, further research is needed to understand the interactive effects of these variables and determine whether classroom-level variables buffer the detrimental effects of child-level risk variables. Using a largely urban and minority sample (N=275) of preschool children, the present study examined the additive and interactive effects of children's context-specific problem behaviors and classroom process quality dimensions on children's approaches to learning. Teachers rated children's problem behavior and approaches to learning and independent assessors conducted classroom observations to assess process quality. Problem behaviors in structured learning situations and in peer and teacher interactions were found to negatively predict variance in approaches to learning. Classroom process quality domains did not independently predict variance in approaches to learning. Nonetheless, classroom process quality played an important role in these associations; high emotional support buffered the detrimental effects of problem behavior, whereas high instructional support exacerbated them. The findings of this study have important implications for classroom practices aimed at helping children who exhibit problem behaviors. Copyright © 2010 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Impact of Functional Constipation on Health-Related Quality of Life in Preschool Children and Their Families in Xi’an, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuhai; Tian, Jiao; Wang, Baoxi; Yang, Xianjun; Sun, Lijun; Du, Chunyan; Jiang, Xun; Xu, Yongyong

    2013-01-01

    Aim Functional constipation (FC) is one of the common diseases among children. The aim of this study was to investigate the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in preschool children diagnosed with FC and the impact of the condition on affected families. Methods In this cross-sectional, case-control study, 152 children aged 3–6 years with FC, 176 healthy children aged 3–6 years without FC, and their primary caregivers were selected. Chinese versions of the PedsQLTM 4.0 Generic Core Scale and the Family Impact Module (FIM) were used to assess childhood HRQOL and the impact of FC on family members, respectively. HRQOL scores were compared between children with FC and healthy children. In addition, a multiple step-wise regression with demographic variables of children and their caregivers, family economic status, duration and symptoms of FC, as independent variables, was used to determine factors that influenced HRQOL in children and had impacted caregivers. Results Scores of physical, emotional, social and school functions, and summary scales were significantly lower in children with FC than in healthy children (p children with FC, were significantly lower than those of caregivers and families with healthy children (p Children’s ages, duration of FC, symptoms of FC, the child-caregiver relationship, family economic status, and caregiver education level emerged as the main factors influencing HRQOL in children, caregivers, and family members. Conclusions FC had a significant impact on HRQOL of affected children and their caregivers, as well as their family functions. Social characteristics of children and caregivers, duration and symptoms of FC and family economic status significantly affected HRQOL of children and caregivers, as well as family functions of children with FC. PMID:24130872

  6. The cost-effectiveness of using financial incentives to improve provider quality: a framework and application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meacock, R.; Kristensen, Søren Rud; Sutton, M.

    2014-01-01

    , and whether performance improvement is a transitory or investment activity. Our application to the Advancing Quality initiative demonstrates that the incentive payments represented less than half of the 13m pound total programme costs. By generating approximately 5200 quality-adjusted life years and 4.4m......Despite growing adoption of pay-for-performance (P4P) programmes in health care, there is remarkably little evidence on the cost-effectiveness of such schemes. We review the limited number of previous studies and critique the frameworks adopted and the narrow range of costs and outcomes considered......, before proposing a new more comprehensive framework, which we apply to the first P4P scheme introduced for hospitals in England. We emphasise that evaluations of cost-effectiveness need to consider who the residual claimant is on any cost savings, the possibility of positive and negative spillovers...

  7. Evaluating Quality Management of Acute Low Back Problems Provided By Air Force Nurse Practitioners

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-05-01

    in males less that 20 years old and abdominal aortic aneurysms are to be contemplated if the patient is older than 50 years old. If any critical...resources limited by cost. Bergman (1995) discussed how financial objectives can be achieved without compromising the quality of care in the pediatric arena...Although his article focused on the pediatric population, the issues discussed apply to medical practice in general. The author stated how the

  8. The Traditional in Contemporary Curricula of Preschool Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopas-Vukašinovic, Emina; Savovic, Margit

    2016-01-01

    Contemporary curricula of preschool education are the result of the improvement of pedagogical and didactic theories. They imply a technical plan with which it is possible to achieve measurable objectives of preschool education. The curriculum is also defined as a tool for quality and equal education for all. It represents a reflection of the…

  9. Versión española del TAPQOL: Calidad de vida relacionada con la salud en niños de 3 meses a 5 años [Spanish version of the TNO-AZL preschool children quality of life questionnaire (TAPQOL)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sardón Prado, O.; Morera, G.; Herdman, M.; Moreno Galdó, A.; Pérez-Yarza, E.G.; Detmar, S.; Fekkes, M.; Rajmil, L.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: To obtain a Spanish version of the TNO-AZL Preschool Children Quality of Life Questionnaire (TAPQOL) that would be both semantically and culturally equivalent to the original. Material and methods: The TAPQOL questionnaire was designed to measure health-related quality of life in

  10. Development of quality indicators for low-risk labor care provided by midwives using a RAND-modified Delphi method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Kayo; Ohtera, Shosuke; Kaso, Misato; Nakayama, Takeo

    2017-09-22

    In childbirth, most deliveries are low-risk, defined as spontaneous labor at full term without special high-risk facts or complications, especially in high-resource countries where maternal and perinatal mortality rates are very low. Indeed, the majority of mothers and infants have no serious conditions during labor. However, the quality of care provided is not assured, and performance may vary by birthing facility and provider. The overuse of technology in childbirth in some parts of the world is almost certainly based on assumptions like, "something can go wrong at any minute." There is a need to assess the quality of care provided for mothers and infants in low-risk labor. We aimed to develop specific quality indicators for low-risk labor care provided primarily by midwives in Japan. We used a RAND-modified Delphi method, which integrates evidence review with expert consensus development. The procedure comprises five steps: (1) literature review, including clinical practice guidelines, to extract and develop quality indicator candidates; (2) formation of a multidisciplinary panel; (3) independent panel ratings (Round 1); (4) panel meeting and independent panel ratings (Round 2); and (5) independent panel ratings (Round 3). The three independent panel ratings (Rounds 1-3) were held between July and December 2012. The assembled multidisciplinary panel comprised eight clinicians (two pediatricians, three obstetricians, and three midwives) and three mothers who were nonclinicians. Evidentiary review extracted 166 key recommendations from 32 clinical practice guidelines, and 31 existing quality indicators were added. After excluding duplicate recommendations and quality indicators, the panel discussed 25 candidate indicators. Of these, 18 were adopted, one was modified, six were not adopted, and four were added during the meeting, respectively. We established 23 quality indicators for low-risk labor care provided by midwives in labor units in Japan.

  11. Patient satisfaction with the quality of dental treatment provided by interns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun-Tsung Lee

    2013-06-01

    Conclusion: Medical centers should guide interns in clinical cases and provide structured training. These measures could enhance the public's confidence in interns and improve patient satisfaction with interns through improved clinical skills, and provide an excellent work force for the dental field.

  12. Providing better thermal and air quality conditions in school classrooms would be cost-effective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wargocki, Pawel; Wyon, David Peter

    2013-01-01

    codes stipulate that they should be. This is sometimes because financial resources for the maintenance and upgrade of school buildings are inadequate, but it is also because schools are increasingly allowing classroom temperatures to drift above the recommended range of 20–22 °C in warm weather......This paper is an overall summary of research by the authors on how classroom conditions affect the performance of schoolwork by children, motivated by the fact that the thermal and air quality conditions in school classrooms are now almost universally worse than the relevant standards and building...

  13. SEAFOODplus - how to provide health promoting, safe seafood of high eating quality to consumers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børresen, Torger

    2008-01-01

    of raw materials from aquaculture and from traditional fisheries. The aquaculture component will study the effects of dietary modulation, husbandry, fish physiology, genetics and pre-slaughter conditions. Validated traceability systems are assessed to make it possible to apply a total chain approach from......, by identifying risk factors and avoiding risks caused by viral and bacterial contamination and biogenic amines in seafood. The total value chain is addressed by developing consumer driven tailor-made, functional seafood products to improve health and to ensure nutritional quality and safety by full utilisation...

  14. What Prevents Quality Midwifery Care? A Systematic Mapping of Barriers in Low and Middle Income Countries from the Provider Perspective.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Filby

    Full Text Available Quality of care is essential for further progress in reducing maternal and newborn deaths. The integration of educated, trained, regulated and licensed midwives into the health system is associated with improved quality of care and sustained decreases in maternal and newborn mortality. To date, research on barriers to quality of care for women and newborns has not given due attention to the care provider's perspective. This paper addresses this gap by presenting the findings of a systematic mapping of the literature of the social, economic and professional barriers preventing midwifery personnel in low and middle income countries (LMICs from providing quality of care.A systematic search of five electronic databases for literature published between January 1990 and August 2013. Eligible items included published and unpublished items in all languages. Items were screened against inclusion and exclusion criteria, yielding 82 items from 34 countries. 44% discussed countries or regions in Africa, 38% in Asia, and 5% in the Americas. Nearly half the articles were published since 2011. Data was extracted and presented in a narrative synthesis and tables. Items were organized into three categories; social; economic and professional barriers, based on an analytical framework. Barriers connected to the socially and culturally constructed context of childbirth, although least reported, appear instrumental in preventing quality midwifery care.Significant social and cultural, economic and professional barriers can prevent the provision of quality midwifery care in LMICs. An analytical framework is proposed to show how the overlaps between the barriers reinforce each other, and that they arise from gender inequality. Links are made between burn out and moral distress, caused by the barriers, and poor quality care. Ongoing mechanisms to improve quality care will need to address the barriers from the midwifery provider perspective, as well as the underlying

  15. Patient and provider perspectives on quality and health system effectiveness in a transition economy: evidence from Ukraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luck, J; Peabody, J W; DeMaria, L M; Alvarado, C S; Menon, R

    2014-08-01

    Facing a severe population health crisis due to noncommunicable diseases, Ukraine and other former Soviet republics and Eastern European countries have a pressing need for more effective health systems. Policies to enhance health system effectiveness should consider the perspectives of different stakeholder groups, including providers as well as patients. In addition, policies that directly target the quality of clinical care should be based on objective performance measures. In 2009 and 2010 we conducted a coordinated series of household and facility-level surveys to capture the perspectives of Ukrainian household members, outpatient clinic patients, and physicians regarding the country's health system overall, as well as the quality, access, and affordability of health care. We objectively measured the quality of care for heart failure and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease using CPV(®) vignettes. There was broad agreement among household respondents (79%) and physicians (95%) that Ukraine's health system should be reformed. CPV(®) results indicate that the quality of care for common noncommunicable diseases is poor in all regions of the country and in hospitals as well as polyclinics. However, perspectives about the quality of care differ, with household respondents seeing quality as a serious concern, clinic patients having more positive perceptions, and physicians not viewing quality as a reform priority. All stakeholder groups viewed affordability as a problem. These findings have several implications for policies to enhance health system effectiveness. The shared desire for health system reform among all stakeholder groups provides a basis for action in Ukraine. Improving quality, strengthening primary care, and enhancing affordability should be major goals of new health policies. Policies to improve quality directly, such as pay-for-performance, would be mutually reinforcing with purchasing reforms such as transparent payment mechanisms. Such policies

  16. A haemovigilance team provides both significant financial and quality benefits in a University Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decadt, Ine; Costermans, Els; Van de Poel, Maai; Kesteloot, Katrien; Devos, Timothy

    2017-04-01

    Haemovigilance is the process of surveillance of blood transfusion procedures including unexpected hazards and reactions during the transfusion pathway in both donors and recipients. The haemovigilance team aims to increase blood transfusion safety and to decrease both morbidity and mortality in donors and recipients. The team collects data about transfusion reactions and incidents, instructs the involved health workers and assures the tracing of blood components. The haemovigilance team at the University Hospitals Leuven has played a pioneering role in the development of haemovigilance in Belgium Although the literature about safety and quality improvements by haemovigilance systems is abundant, there are no published data available measuring their financial impact in a hospital. Therefore, we studied the costs and returns of the haemovigilance team at the University Hospitals Leuven. This study has a descriptive explorative design. Research of the current costs and returns of the haemovigilance team were based upon data from the Medical Administration of the hospital. Data were analyzed descriptively. The haemovigilance team of the University Hospitals Leuven is financially viable: the direct costs are covered by the annual financial support of the National Public Health Service. The indirect returns come from two important tasks of the haemovigilance team itself: correction of the electronic registration of administered blood component and improvement of the return of conform preserved blood components to the blood bank. Besides safety and quality improvement, which are obviously their main goals, the haemovigilance team also implies a financial benefit for the hospital. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Perception of CPR quality: Influence of CPR feedback, Just-in-Time CPR training and provider role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Adam; Overly, Frank; Kessler, David; Nadkarni, Vinay M; Lin, Yiqun; Doan, Quynh; Duff, Jonathan P; Tofil, Nancy M; Bhanji, Farhan; Adler, Mark; Charnovich, Alex; Hunt, Elizabeth A; Brown, Linda L

    2015-02-01

    Many healthcare providers rely on visual perception to guide cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), but little is known about the accuracy of provider perceptions of CPR quality. We aimed to describe the difference between perceived versus measured CPR quality, and to determine the impact of provider role, real-time visual CPR feedback and Just-in-Time (JIT) CPR training on provider perceptions. We conducted secondary analyses of data collected from a prospective, multicenter, randomized trial of 324 healthcare providers who participated in a simulated cardiac arrest scenario between July 2012 and April 2014. Participants were randomized to one of four permutations of: JIT CPR training and real-time visual CPR feedback. We calculated the difference between perceived and measured quality of CPR and reported the proportion of subjects accurately estimating the quality of CPR within each study arm. Participants overestimated achieving adequate chest compression depth (mean difference range: 16.1-60.6%) and rate (range: 0.2-51%), and underestimated chest compression fraction (0.2-2.9%) across all arms. Compared to no intervention, the use of real-time feedback and JIT CPR training (alone or in combination) improved perception of depth (pPerception of depth is more accurate in CPR providers versus team leaders (27.8% vs. 7.4%; p=0.043) when using real-time feedback. Healthcare providers' visual perception of CPR quality is poor. Perceptions of CPR depth are improved by using real-time visual feedback and with prior JIT CPR training. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. THE COMPUTER SYSTEM PROVIDES A SIMPLER QUALITY SERVICES IN THE CUSTOMS PROCEDURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanka Preskar

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available With Slovenia joining the EU the need for higher quality and faster transit transport of goods through customs procedures has increased. This paper presents the recent logistics approach, which allows a better link between transportation and freight forwarding. Modern computer programs used by forwarding companies have contributed to this. Forwarder companies may have a role of organizer or a place using the transport services of customs clearance of goods at the entry / exit to / from the European Union. Each type of transport has a role to play, but gets even stronger when combined under one category. This is a multimodal transport. As an example we use logistic work in a logistic company. Here the work is divided in to transit of goods, customs clearance of goods, but also touching the law and the ranking of goods by tariff codes.

  19. Effectively teaching self-assessment: preparing the dental hygiene student to provide quality care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Sarah C; Murff, Elizabeth J Tipton

    2011-02-01

    Literature on self-assessment presents substantial evidence regarding the impact of self-assessment on dental practitioners and quality of care. Related dental hygiene research documents a need to enhance self-assessment curricula; however, no published curriculum module exists to effectively teach self-assessment. The purpose of this study was to explore the impact of a self-assessment educational module for dental hygiene curricula designed using adult learning principles. This module was implemented with thirty-three dental hygiene students in their junior year using a one-group, pretest-posttest design. Results analyzed using matched pairs Wilcoxon signed-rank test indicated the self-assessment module was effective (pforms was also enhanced after module implementation (peffective. Findings indicate a self-assessment educational module enhanced these dental hygiene students' self-assessment perceptions and skills.

  20. The diet quality index evaluates the adequacy of energy provided by dietary macronutrients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline MENDES

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the relationship between macronutrient intake adequacy and the national diet quality index score. Methods The study analyzed a representative sample of 1,662 individuals from the municipality of São Paulo who participated in a cross-sectional study called Health Survey-Capital (2008/2009. Two 24-hour recalls were collected. Habitual intake was determined by the Multiple Source Method. The Brazilian index was calculated as suggested, and macronutrient adequacy was given by the World Health Organization and Food and Agriculture Organization recommendations. A generalized linear model verified the relationship between the Brazilian index and macronutrient adequacy. All analyses with a descriptive level below 0.05 were considered significant. The analyses were performed by the software Stata 12.0, survey mode. Results The vast majority (91% of the population had inappropriate macronutrient intakes, and the total median Brazilian index score was 61.3 points (interquartile range=10.1. The total Brazilian index score of individuals with high lipid intake was worse than that of individuals with proper lipid intake (β=0,96; p=0,004, while those with high protein intake had a better score (β=1,10; p=0,003 than those with proper protein intake. Conclusion The revised Brazilian Healthy Eating Index assesses diet quality properly regarding high lipid intake, but it has some limitations regarding high protein intake according to the World Health Organization and Food and Agriculture Organization recommendations. New studies should investigate the possibility of adapting this index to the World Health Organization and Food and Agriculture Organization recommendations.

  1. Supporting diverse data providers in the open water data initiative: Communicating water data quality and fitness of use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Sara; Hamilton, Stuart; Lucido, Jessica M.; Garner, Bradley D.; Young, Dwane

    2016-01-01

    Shared, trusted, timely data are essential elements for the cooperation needed to optimize economic, ecologic, and public safety concerns related to water. The Open Water Data Initiative (OWDI) will provide a fully scalable platform that can support a wide variety of data from many diverse providers. Many of these will be larger, well-established, and trusted agencies with a history of providing well-documented, standardized, and archive-ready products. However, some potential partners may be smaller, distributed, and relatively unknown or untested as data providers. The data these partners will provide are valuable and can be used to fill in many data gaps, but can also be variable in quality or supplied in nonstandardized formats. They may also reflect the smaller partners' variable budgets and missions, be intermittent, or of unknown provenance. A challenge for the OWDI will be to convey the quality and the contextual “fitness” of data from providers other than the most trusted brands. This article reviews past and current methods for documenting data quality. Three case studies are provided that describe processes and pathways for effective data-sharing and publication initiatives. They also illustrate how partners may work together to find a metadata reporting threshold that encourages participation while maintaining high data integrity. And lastly, potential governance is proposed that may assist smaller partners with short- and long-term participation in the OWDI.

  2. Social and Ideological Entanglements of Preschool Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urszula Dzikiewicz-Gazda

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In this article I address a phenomenon that I call “neo-liberal entanglements” of preschool education, clearly observable in the project “Enterprising Preschooler” currently underway in Wroclaw's preschools. I provide a critical analysis of the project, exposing the ideological mechanisms that contribute to the commercialization of children’s life worlds and their early socialization into the mechanisms of market consumerism.

  3. What Prevents Quality Midwifery Care? A Systematic Mapping of Barriers in Low and Middle Income Countries from the Provider Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConville, Fran; Portela, Anayda

    2016-01-01

    Background Quality of care is essential for further progress in reducing maternal and newborn deaths. The integration of educated, trained, regulated and licensed midwives into the health system is associated with improved quality of care and sustained decreases in maternal and newborn mortality. To date, research on barriers to quality of care for women and newborns has not given due attention to the care provider’s perspective. This paper addresses this gap by presenting the findings of a systematic mapping of the literature of the social, economic and professional barriers preventing midwifery personnel in low and middle income countries (LMICs) from providing quality of care. Methods and Findings A systematic search of five electronic databases for literature published between January 1990 and August 2013. Eligible items included published and unpublished items in all languages. Items were screened against inclusion and exclusion criteria, yielding 82 items from 34 countries. 44% discussed countries or regions in Africa, 38% in Asia, and 5% in the Americas. Nearly half the articles were published since 2011. Data was extracted and presented in a narrative synthesis and tables. Items were organized into three categories; social; economic and professional barriers, based on an analytical framework. Barriers connected to the socially and culturally constructed context of childbirth, although least reported, appear instrumental in preventing quality midwifery care. Conclusions Significant social and cultural, economic and professional barriers can prevent the provision of quality midwifery care in LMICs. An analytical framework is proposed to show how the overlaps between the barriers reinforce each other, and that they arise from gender inequality. Links are made between burn out and moral distress, caused by the barriers, and poor quality care. Ongoing mechanisms to improve quality care will need to address the barriers from the midwifery provider perspective

  4. Physicians cite hurdles ranging from lack of coverage to poor communication in providing high-quality care to latinos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas Bustamante, Arturo; Chen, Jie

    2011-10-01

    We surveyed physicians about their ability to provide high-quality care to patients from diverse ethnic backgrounds. Primarily, we wanted to explore the challenges faced by physicians treating Latino patients compared to physicians whose patients were primarily white and non-Latino. We found that physicians treating Latinos, particularly those who worked in primary care in comparison to specialists, were less likely than physicians treating primarily white patients to believe in their ability to provide high-quality care. They cited problems of inadequate time with patients, patients' ability to pay, patients' nonadherence to recommended treatment, difficulties communicating with patients, relative lack of specialist availability, and lack of timely transmission of reports among physicians. Insurance expansions and complementary reforms mandated by the Affordable Care Act of 2010 and other recent legislation should aid physicians in closing some of these gaps in quality.

  5. How Do District Management and Implementation Strategies Relate to the Quality of the Professional Development That Districts Provide to Teachers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desimone, Laura; Porter, Andrew C.; Birman, Beatrice F.; Garet, Michael S.; Yoon, Kwang Suk

    2002-01-01

    Examined policy mechanisms and processes that districts used to provide high quality inservice professional development to teachers. Data from a national probability sample of professional development coordinators in districts that received federal funding for professional development highlighted specific management and implementation strategies…

  6. A feedback system in residency to evaluate CanMEDS roles and provide high-quality feedback : Exploring its application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renting, Nienke; Gans, Rijk O. B.; Borleffs, Jan C. C.; Van Der Wal, Martha A.; Jaarsma, A. Debbie C.; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke

    Introduction: Residents benefit from regular, high quality feedback on all CanMEDS roles during their training. However, feedback mostly concerns Medical Expert, leaving the other roles behind. A feedback system was developed to guide supervisors in providing feedback on CanMEDS roles. We analyzed

  7. Satisfaction of osteoarthritis patients with provided care is not related to the disease-specific quality of life.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosemann, T.J.; Wensing, M.J.P.; Szecsenyi, J.; Grol, R.P.T.M.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Osteoarthritis (OA) has a high prevalence in primary care. Patient satisfaction is an important indicator for the quality of care provided to OA patients. Little is known about satisfaction of patients with this condition in a primary care setting in Germany. The aim of the study was to

  8. Impact of Providing Compassion on Job Performance and Mental Health: The Moderating Effect of Interpersonal Relationship Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Li-Chuan

    2017-07-01

    To examine the relationships of providing compassion at work with job performance and mental health, as well as to identify the role of interpersonal relationship quality in moderating these relationships. This study adopted a two-stage survey completed by 235 registered nurses employed by hospitals in Taiwan. All hypotheses were tested using hierarchical regression analyses. The results show that providing compassion is an effective predictor of job performance and mental health, whereas interpersonal relationship quality can moderate the relationships of providing compassion with job performance and mental health. When nurses are frequently willing to listen, understand, and help their suffering colleagues, the enhancement engendered by providing compassion can improve the provider's job performance and mental health. Creating high-quality relationships in the workplace can strengthen the positive benefits of providing compassion. Motivating employees to spontaneously exhibit compassion is crucial to an organization. Hospitals can establish value systems, belief systems, and cultural systems that support a compassionate response to suffering. In addition, nurses can internalize altruistic belief systems into their own personal value systems through a long process of socialization in the workplace. © 2017 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  9. Preschool teachers’ reasoning about interactive whiteboard embedded in Swedish preschools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Bourbour

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to investigate the ways in which teachers enact the interactive whiteboard (IWB in Swedish preschools in relation to preschool children’s mathematical learning. Data collected from interviews with four preschool teachers have provided the opportunity to consider the potential of IWB to facilitate a creative approach to young children’s mathematic education. The findings suggest that IWB use in preschool is mostly viewed as “Space for children to involve in problem-solving situations”, “Supporting collaborative learning and mutual negotiation”, “Goal-oriented mathematics learning facilitated by IWB” and “Retaining children’s interest in learning activities”. This study also highlights the importance of teachers’ technological knowledge and skills in mediating the interaction and facilitating the use of IWB in preschool pedagogical practices. Normal 0 21 false false false SV JA X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Normal tabell"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:12.0pt; font-family:"Cambria","serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Cambria; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Cambria; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;}

  10. Quality-of-life metrics with vagus nerve stimulation for epilepsy from provider survey data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englot, Dario J; Hassnain, Kevin H; Rolston, John D; Harward, Stephen C; Sinha, Saurabh R; Haglund, Michael M

    2017-01-01

    Drug-resistant epilepsy is a devastating disorder associated with diminished quality of life (QOL). Surgical resection leads to seizure freedom and improved QOL in many epilepsy patients, but not all individuals are candidates for resection. In these cases, neuromodulation-based therapies such as vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) are often used, but most VNS studies focus exclusively on reduction of seizure frequency. QOL changes and predictors with VNS remain poorly understood. Using the VNS Therapy Patient Outcome Registry, we examined 7 metrics related to QOL after VNS for epilepsy in over 5000 patients (including over 3000 with ≥12months follow-up), as subjectively assessed by treating physicians. Trends and predictors of QOL changes were examined and related to post-operative seizure outcome and likelihood of VNS generator replacement. After VNS therapy, physicians reported patient improvement in alertness (58-63%, range over follow-up period), post-ictal state (55-62%), cluster seizures (48-56%), mood change (43-49%), verbal communication (38-45%), school/professional achievements (29-39%), and memory (29-38%). Predictors of net QOL improvement included shorter time to implant (odds ratio [OR], 1.3; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1-1.6), generalized seizure type (OR, 1.2; 95% CI, 1.0-1.4), female gender (OR, 1.2; 95% CI, 1.0-1.4), and Caucasian ethnicity (OR, 1.3; 95% CI, 1.0-1.5). No significant trends were observed over time. Patients with net QOL improvement were more likely to have favorable seizure outcomes (chi square [χ 2 ]=148.1, pmetrics subjectively rated by physicians. QOL improvement is associated with favorable seizure outcome and a higher likelihood of generator replacement, suggesting satisfaction with therapy. It is important to consider QOL metrics in neuromodulation for epilepsy, given the deleterious effects of seizures on patient QOL. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Assessment of provider competence and quality of maternal/newborn care in selected Latin American and Caribbean countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Joyce E; Land, Sandra; Camacho-Hubner, Alma Virginia; Fullerton, Judith T

    2015-05-01

    To obtain a snapshot of the maternal and newborn care provided by different types of maternal and child health providers in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) to 1) better inform advocacy and programmatic strategies and interventions to improve the quality of those services in the region, and 2) determine the need for more rigorous study of the issues. A rapid assessment of 83 health workers providing antepartum, intrapartum, and immediate postpartum and newborn care (within two hours of birth) in eight LAC countries was conducted in November and December of 2011. Health workers were observed by two-person expert maternal/newborn clinician teams using pretested forms based on international quality-of-care standards. A total of 105 care encounters were observed, primarily in urban, public, referral-level settings. Providers of care included obstetricians, midwives, generalist physicians, medical residents, registered nurses, auxiliary nurses, and students of medicine, midwifery, and nursing. Hand washing, as an indicator of quality of antepartum care, was observed in only 41% of the observed encounters. Labor management often lacked certain elements of respectful maternity care across all provider groups. Several clinical tasks of high importance in the identification and prevention of common complications of antepartum, intrapartum, and immediate postpartum/newborn care were not documented as performed during the observation periods. Providers self-reported limited competence (ability to perform to a defined level of proficiency) in manual removal of the placenta, bimanual compression of the uterus, and newborn resuscitation. The findings suggest that 1) the quality of maternal and newborn care and 2) the competence of maternal and child health providers in the diverse selection of LAC countries that were studied require substantial attention.

  12. Professional Quality of Life of Veterans Affairs Staff and Providers in a Patient-Centered Care Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locatelli, Sara M; LaVela, Sherri L

    2015-01-01

    Changes to the work environment prompted by the movement toward patient-centered care have the potential to improve occupational stress among health care workers by improving team-based work activities, collaboration, and employee-driven quality improvement. This study was conducted to examine professional quality of life among providers at patient-centered care pilot facilities. Surveys were conducted with 76 Veterans Affairs employees/providers at facilities piloting patient-centered care interventions, to assess demographics, workplace practices and views (team-based environment, employee voice, quality of communication, and turnover intention), and professional quality of life (compassion satisfaction, burnout, and secondary traumatic stress).Professional quality-of-life subscales were not related to employee position type, age, or gender. Employee voice measures were related to lower burnout and higher compassion satisfaction. In addition, employees who were considering leaving their position showed higher burnout and lower compassion satisfaction scores. None of the work practices showed relationships with secondary traumatic stress.

  13. Parental Conceptions of Quality in Greek Early Childhood Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grammatikopoulos, Vasilis; Gregoriadis, Athanasios; Tsigilis, Nikolaos; Zachopoulou, Evridiki

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to examine the assessments of parents of the quality of early childhood education (ECE) in Greece. Five hundred and fifty three preschoolers' parents participated in this study providing quality and importance ratings based on the Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale Parent Questionnaire (ECERSPQ) for the…

  14. Software project estimation the fundamentals for providing high quality information to decision makers

    CERN Document Server

    Abran, Alain

    2015-01-01

    Software projects are often late and over-budget and this leads to major problems for software customers. Clearly, there is a serious issue in estimating a realistic, software project budget. Furthermore, generic estimation models cannot be trusted to provide credible estimates for projects as complex as software projects. This book presents a number of examples using data collected over the years from various organizations building software. It also presents an overview of the non-for-profit organization, which collects data on software projects, the International Software Benchmarking Stan

  15. Providing informal home care for pressure ulcer patients: how it affects carers' quality of life and burden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Alexandre M; Ferreira, Pedro L; Ferré-Grau, Carmen

    2016-10-01

    To evaluate the quality of life of informal caregivers of patients with pressure ulcer; to assess their levels of burden; to analyse the variables influencing both their quality of life and burden. Informal caregivers of pressure ulcer patients, besides coping with the natural dependency of these patients, deal with the specificity of caring these types of wounds. This situation has an impact on not only the quality of life and burden felt by informal caregivers but also on individual and familiar dynamics. Descriptive and correlational study. This study focused on 145 informal caregivers providing home care. Measurement instruments were: SF-36v2 and the Burden Interview Scale. Descriptive analysis of the quantitative variables was carried out according to measures of central tendency, and the qualitative variables were described using absolute and relative frequencies. The relationships or associations between variables were explored through correlational analysis and, whenever the data allowed, multivariate techniques were used. Informal caregivers showed low levels of quality of life and, most of them, significant burden. Quality of life decreased with overload, with the increasing number of pressure ulcer and with less experience of informal caregivers, with lack of financial remuneration, with unemployment, with patient positioning and with the direct care of the wound. The burden increased with the number of pressure ulcer in each patient and with the lack of financial remuneration. These informal caregivers have low quality of life and are overburdened. Both situations are positively and negatively influenced by factors related to the pressure ulcer and to the patients' sociodemographic data. The results of this study allow more effective monitoring by health professionals of levels of burden and quality of life encountered in pressure ulcer informal caregivers, as well as direct interventions to inhibit the factors inducing burden and enhance those that

  16. Pedagogy, policy and preschool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kornerup, Ida; Schrøder, Vibeke

    The aim of this study is to conduct a discourse analysis on how global, national and local policy documents influence preschool teacher education and the practical pedagogical work in preschools. The study is part of a larger Nordic research study (Gjems, Vatne, Schrøder and Kornerup). Previous...... studies of preschool teacher education (Vatne, Gjems 2014) shows that professional knowledge vary according to the consolidation act of education and that there seems to be connections between both global and national policy and the educational field (Kornerup, 2011). The discourse analysis...... of the implementation of the learning curriculum in Danish preschools. This focus has affected both preschools and education. During this century, the preschool teacher education has been revised three times....

  17. Ensuring that the Sentinel-3A altimeter provides climate-quality data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quartly, G. D.; Nencioli, F.; Labroue, S.; Femenias, P.; Scharroo, R.; Abdalla, S.; Bonnefond, P.; Cancet, M.; Frery, M.-L.; Raynal, M.; Baker, S.; Muir, A.; Brockley, D.; Shepherd, A.; Garcia, P.; Roca, M.; Calmant, S.; Cretaux, J.-F.

    2017-10-01

    Sentinel-3A, launched in February 2016, is part of ESA's long-term commitment to climate monitoring from space. Its suite of instruments for measuring surface topography includes a Microwave Radiometer (MWR) and SRAL, the first delay-Doppler instrument to provide global coverage. SRAL promises fine spatial resolution and reduced noise levels that should together lead to improved performance over all Earth surfaces. The Sentinel-3 Mission Performance Centre (S3MPC) has been developing the methodology to evaluate the accuracy of retrievals, monitor any changes and develop solutions to known problems. The S3MPC monitors internal temperatures, path delays and the shape of the generated pulses to assess the instruments health. The MWR records over known reference surfaces are compared with those from other spaceborne instruments. Over the ocean the SRAL's return pulses are analysed to give range to the sea surface, wave height and signal strength (which can be interpreted as wind speed). The metocean data are regularly contrasted with records from in situ measurements and the output from meteorological models, which rapidly highlights the effects of any changes in processing. Range information is used to give surface elevation, which is assessed in three ways. First, flights over a dedicated radar transponder provide an estimate of path delay to within 10 mm (r.m.s.). Second, measurements are compared to GPS-levelled surfaces near Corsica and over Lake Issyk-kul. Third, there are consistency checks between ascending and descending passes and with other missions. Further waveform analysis techniques are being developed to improve the retrieval of information over sea-ice, land-ice and inland waters.

  18. Physical Activity at Daycare: Childcare Providers' Perspectives for Improvements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Patricia; van Zandvoort, Melissa M.; Burke, Shauna M.; Irwin, Jennifer D.

    2011-01-01

    In London, Ontario, approximately 45 percent of preschoolers are insufficiently active.With the large number of preschoolers who attend childcare (54%), and the low levels of physical activity among preschool-aged children, daycare centers may be an appropriate avenue to intervene. This study sought to collect childcare providers' suggestions for…

  19. Identification of developmentally appropriate screening items for disruptive behavior problems in preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studts, Christina R; van Zyl, Michiel A

    2013-08-01

    Screening preschool-aged children for disruptive behavior disorders is a key step in early intervention. The study goal was to identify screening items with excellent measurement properties at sub-clinical to clinical levels of disruptive behavior problems within the developmental context of preschool-aged children. Parents/caregivers of preschool-aged children (N = 900) were recruited from four pediatric primary care settings. Participants (mean age = 31, SD = 8) were predominantly female (87 %), either white (55 %) or African-American (42 %), and biological parents (88 %) of the target children. In this cross-sectional survey, participants completed a sociodemographic questionnaire and two parent-report behavioral rating scales: the PSC-17 and the BPI. Item response theory analyses provided item parameter estimates and information functions for 18 externalizing subscale items, revealing their quality of measurement along the continuum of disruptive behaviors in preschool-aged children. Of 18 investigated items, 5 items measured only low levels of disruptive behaviors among preschool-aged children. The remaining 13 items measured sub-clinical to clinical levels of disruptive behavior problems (i.e., >1.5 SD); however, 5 of these items offered less information, suggesting unreliable measurement. The remaining 8 items had high discrimination and difficulty parameters, offering considerable measurement information at sub-clinical to clinical levels of disruptive behavior problems. Behaviors measured by the 8 selected parent-report items were consistent with those identified in recent efforts to distinguish developmentally typical misbehaviors from clinically concerning behaviors among preschool-aged children. These items may have clinical utility in screening young children for disruptive behavior disorders.

  20. Letter to Editor: Electronic Medical Record, Step toward Improving the Quality of Healthcare Services and Treatment Provided to Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elahe Gozali

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Information technology can increase the quality of medical care and is a target for many of the pioneers in the development of clinical or medical information. Electronic medical record (EMR, one of such technologies, is a well-known and valuable system to access patient information in hospitals. Electronic medical records which are used for the purpose of providing basic health care are available through a network of computers. All units of the hospital such as examination room, conference room, emergency, patient care units, nursing stations, operating rooms, recovery units, laboratory, radiology, pharmacy and medical records should have access to it. Among its advantages are improved quality of care provided to patients, better organized information, improvement in the timeliness of the process, accuracy and completeness of documentation, patient access to electronic copies of records, prevention of medication errors and allergies, reduced medical errors, immediate access to information in different places, decision support technology and improvement in the process of doing . S urely the use of electronic medical records has created a new dimension to patient care and clinical practice and will provide a comprehensive system to support people in the community and enhance the quality of services provided to them.

  1. The Nutritional Quality of Food Provided from Food Pantries: A Systematic Review of Existing Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmet, Anja; Depa, Julia; Tinnemann, Peter; Stroebele-Benschop, Nanette

    2017-04-01

    In many affluent countries, food-insecure households use food pantries to keep their family fed. The long-term dependence of many users on these programs calls for a systematic review of studies on the nutritional quality of food provided by food pantries. The purpose of this systematic review was to summarize the current scientific evidence about the nutritional quality of food bags distributed by food pantries. A systematic literature search was conducted in the electronic databases PubMed, PsycINFO, PsycARTICLES, and Psychology Behavioral Sciences Collection to identify cross-sectional, cohort, and intervention studies reporting baseline data conducted in high-income countries and published between 1980 and 2015, which reported the nutritional quality of food bags distributed by food pantries. Identified citations were screened in two stages and data were independently extracted by two authors using a predefined data sheet. The quality of included studies was evaluated using criteria of an adapted Ottawa Scale. The systematic review was reported in accordance to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement. Applying the two-stage screening, 9 of 1,546 articles were identified for inclusion. Nutritional quality of food bags varied widely between and within studies. Milk products, vitamins A and C, and calcium were provided in particularly low amounts. None of the studies were nationally representative and only a few studies controlled for the household composition of the recipients of food bags. Food pantries likely have a strong influence on users' diets, but the food pantries examined in the selected studies were largely unable to support healthy diets. The distribution of more perishable foods would increase users' diet quality and may have an immense potential to address malnutrition in vulnerable population groups. Copyright © 2017 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Nutritional practices in full-day-care pre-schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, A; McEvoy, S; Corish, C

    2011-06-01

    Full-day-care pre-schools contribute significantly to the nutritional intake and acquisition of dietary habits of the pre-school child. The present study investigated nutritional practices in full-day-care pre-schools in Dublin, Ireland, aiming to determine the nutritional support that pre-school managers deem necessary, thereby facilitating the amelioration of existing pre-school nutritional training and practices. A telephone questionnaire completed by pre-school managers (n=54) examined pre-school dietary practices, food provision and the association between these and pre-school size, nutritional training attendance, possession of the Food and Nutrition Guidelines for Pre-school Services and having a healthy eating policy. Nutritional training needs were also investigated. Twenty-five pre-schools provided all food for attending children; parents were sole providers in six. Thirty-four pre-schools had a written healthy eating policy. Attendance at nutritional training was reported by 40. Possession of the Guidelines (n=40) did not consistently result in their use. Poor parental and staff involvement in policy and menu development was cited. Although the delayed introduction of iron-containing foods and a feeding beaker in infants was clearly evident, inappropriate beverages and snacks were served to children aged 1-5 years in 43 and 37 pre-schools, respectively. Training priorities cited by managers included parental education and the provision of information regarding menu planning and healthy food choices. Nutritional training should advocate whole staff familiarity with and use of current guidelines, in addition to encouraging nutritional policy development and enforcement. Parental education is warranted. Dietary education should focus specifically on appropriate weaning practices, healthy beverage and snack provision and menu planning. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics © 2011 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  3. The Effect of Primary Care Provider Turnover on Patient Experience of Care and Ambulatory Quality of Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Ashok; Pollack, Craig E; Asch, David A; Canamucio, Anne; Werner, Rachel M

    2015-07-01

    Primary care provider (PCP) turnover is common and can disrupt patient continuity of care. Little is known about the effect of PCP turnover on patient care experience and quality of care. To measure the effect of PCP turnover on patient experiences of care and ambulatory care quality. Observational, retrospective cohort study of a nationwide sample of primary care patients in the Veterans Health Administration (VHA). We included all patients enrolled in primary care at the VHA between 2010 and 2012 included in 1 of 2 national data sets used to measure our outcome variables: 326,374 patients in the Survey of Healthcare Experiences of Patients (SHEP; used to measure patient experience of care) associated with 8441 PCPs and 184,501 patients in the External Peer Review Program (EPRP; used to measure ambulatory care quality) associated with 6973 PCPs. Whether a patient experienced PCP turnover, defined as a patient whose provider (physician, nurse practitioner, or physician assistant) had left the VHA (ie, had no patient encounters for 12 months). Five patient care experience measures (from SHEP) and 11 measures of quality of ambulatory care (from EPRP). Nine percent of patients experienced a PCP turnover in our study sample. Primary care provider turnover was associated with a worse rating in each domain of patient care experience. Turnover was associated with a reduced likelihood of having a positive rating of their personal physician of 68.2% vs 74.6% (adjusted percentage point difference, -5.3; 95% CI, -6.0 to -4.7) and a reduced likelihood of getting care quickly of 36.5% vs 38.5% (adjusted percentage point difference, -1.1; 95% CI, -2.1 to -0.1). In contrast, PCP turnover was not associated with lower quality of ambulatory care except for a lower likelihood of controlling blood pressure of 78.7% vs 80.4% (adjusted percentage point difference, -1.44; 95% CI, -2.2 to -0.7). In 9 measures of ambulatory care quality, the difference between patients who experienced no

  4. Quality of information about success rates provided on assisted reproductive technology clinic websites in Australia and New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammarberg, Karin; Prentice, Tess; Purcell, Isabelle; Johnson, Louise

    2017-11-12

    Many factors influence the chance of having a baby with assisted reproductive technologies (ART). A 2016 Australian Competition and Consumer Commission (ACCC) investigation concluded that ART clinics needed to improve the quality of information they provide about chance of ART success. To evaluate changes in the quality of information about success rates provided on the websites of ART clinics in Australia and New Zealand before and after the ACCC investigation. Desktop audits of websites of ART clinics in Australia and New Zealand were conducted in 2016 and 2017 and available information about success rates was scored using a matrix with eight variables and a possible range of scores of 0-9. Of the 54 clinic websites identified in 2016, 32 had unique information and were eligible to be audited. Of these, 29 were also eligible to be audited in 2017. While there was a slight improvement in the mean score from 2016 to 2017 (4.93-5.28), this was not statistically significantly different. Of the 29 clinics, 14 had the same score on both occasions, 10 had a higher and five a lower information quality score in 2017. To allow people who consider ART to make informed decisions about treatment they need comprehensive and accurate information about what treatment entails and what the likely outcomes are. As measured by a scoring matrix, most ART clinics had not improved the quality of the information about success rates following the ACCC investigation. © 2017 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  5. Peculiarities of the Collaboration between the Family and the Pre-school Educational Institution: the Qualitative Aspect [Charakterystyka współpracy pomiędzy rodziną a instytucjami wychowania przedszkolnego w aspekcie jakościowym

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inesa VIETIENĖ

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The attitude of family members towards the process of collaboration, as well as its peculiarities in the pre-school educational institution, is analysed in the article. The most efficient ways and forms that allow one to ensure the quality of this process are distinguished. It was revealed by the the analysis of scientific literature that recently it discussed more and more often about children’s successful socialization and highquality self-development which can be achieved through sustainable collaboration between the members of the pre-school educational institution. In recent years highquality collaboration in the pre-school educational institutions is considered valuable and aspirational. The results of empirical study showed that the most effective forms of collaboration in pre-school educational institutions distinguished by the family (parents of a pupil encompass individual conversations, teacher-parent meetings, various festive and afternoon get-togethers organized by pre-school educators as well as consultations with specialists. According to parents, a positive microclimate in a pre-school educational institution combined with the cooperative work of the staff provides favourable conditions for the establishment and development of a sufficient collaborative process in the pre-school educational institution.

  6. Preschool Daily Patterns of Physical Activity Driven by Location and Social Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlechter, Chelsey R.; Rosenkranz, Richard R.; Fees, Bronwyn S.; Dzewaltowski, David A.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Preschool children are recommended to spend at least 15 minutes/hour (25% time) in light-to-vigorous physical activity (total physical activity, TPA). Preschool provider practices, such as whether children are put in small group or whole-group activities, are likely to affect children's TPA levels during preschool. The current study…

  7. The value of (pre)school playgrounds for children's physical activity level: A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekhuizen, K.; Scholten, A.M.; Vries, S.I. de

    2014-01-01

    The (pre)school environment is an important setting to improve children's health. Especially, the (pre)school playground provides a major opportunity to intervene. This review presents an overview of the existing evidence on the value of both school and preschool playgrounds on children's health in

  8. Nurses' perception of the quality of care they provide to hospitalized drug addicts: testing the theory of reasoned action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natan, Merav Ben; Beyil, Valery; Neta, Okev

    2009-12-01

    A correlational design was used to examine nursing staff attitudes and subjective norms manifested in intended and actual care of drug users based on the Theory of Reasoned Action. One hundred and thirty-five nursing staff from three central Israeli hospitals completed a questionnaire examining theory-based variables as well as sociodemographic and professional characteristics. Most respondents reported a high to very high level of actual or intended care of drug users. Nurses' stronger intentions to provide quality care to drug users were associated with more positive attitudes. Nursing staff members had moderately negative attitudes towards drug users. Nurses were found to hold negative stereotypes of drug addict patients and most considered the management of this group difficult. Positive attitudes towards drug users, perceived expectations of others and perceived correctness of the behaviour are important in their effect on the intention of nurses to provide high-quality care to hospitalized patients addicted to drugs.

  9. No Preschooler Left behind: Preschool Policies in the NCLB World

    Science.gov (United States)

    DellaMattera, Julie

    2010-01-01

    Current preschool learning guidelines, created in response to NCLB requirements, focus on three areas of human development in an effort to ensure that preschoolers are ready for kindergarten. This study examined four New England states' preschool learning guidelines, looking at how each detailed its support for preschoolers' development. The…

  10. Comparison of Quality Oncology Practice Initiative (QOPI) Measure Adherence Between Oncology Fellows, Advanced Practice Providers, and Attending Physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jason; Zhang, Tian; Shah, Radhika; Kamal, Arif H; Kelley, Michael J

    2015-12-01

    Quality improvement measures are uniformly applied to all oncology providers, regardless of their roles. Little is known about differences in adherence to these measures between oncology fellows, advance practice providers (APP), and attending physicians. We investigated conformance across Quality Oncology Practice Initiative (QOPI) measures for oncology fellows, advance practice providers, and attending physicians at the Durham Veterans Affairs Medical Center (DVAMC). Using data collected from the Spring 2012 and 2013 QOPI cycles, we abstracted charts of patients and separated them based on their primary provider. Descriptive statistics and the chi-square test were calculated for each QOPI measure between fellows, advanced practice providers (APPs), and attending physicians. A total of 169 patients were reviewed. Of these, 31 patients had a fellow, 39 had an APP, and 99 had an attending as their primary oncology provider. Fellows and attending physicians performed similarly on 90 of 94 QOPI metrics. High-performing metrics included several core QOPI measures including documenting consent for chemotherapy, recommending adjuvant chemotherapy when appropriate, and prescribing serotonin antagonists when prescribing emetogenic chemotherapies. Low-performing metrics included documentation of treatment summary and taking action to address problems with emotional well-being by the second office visit. Attendings documented the plan for oral chemotherapy more often (92 vs. 63%, P=0.049). However, after the chart audit, we found that fellows actually documented the plan for oral chemotherapy 88% of the time (p=0.73). APPs and attendings performed similarly on 88 of 90 QOPI measures. The quality of oncology care tends to be similar between attendings and fellows overall; some of the significant differences do not remain significant after a second manual chart review, highlighting that the use of manual data collection for QOPI analysis is an imperfect system, and there may

  11. How Students of Preschool Education Perceive Their Play Competences--An Analysis of Their Involvement in Children's Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorkapic, Sanja Tatalovic; Katic, Vesna

    2015-01-01

    Preschool teachers play a very important but highly sensitive role in preschool children's play. It is therefore very important to build their play competences in a quality way. As this is not easily achieved, the main objective of the present study was to analyse the roles of students of preschool education in children's play. The study included…

  12. A Research About the Reading Habit Readiness Situations of Preschool Children: Hacettepe University Beytepe Preschool Sample

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    Tolga Çakmak

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Reading habit is generally gained in childhood and especially in primary school years. Although this capability is gained in primary school years, it is seen that there are some factors that affect gaining reading habit in preschool period. These factors are family, environment and preschool institutions. This study enables an insight about effects of these factors on gaining reading habit of preschool children. It also emphasizes some research results that are obtained from Hacettepe University Beytepe Preschool (HÜBA. Data are collected from peer to peer questionnaire studies with 50 children at the age of six which is the closest group to the primary school. Within the scope of the research, information is also enabled from observations of environment and structured interview with preschool educators about reading habit readiness activities of Hacettepe University Beytepe Preschool. Finally, results that are elaborated from the analyses are evaluated within the framework of the factors that have some effects on preschool children’s obtainment of reading habit and reading readiness. According to evaluations, it was seen that families have a major role on creating reading environment and providing reading readiness of children. Besides families; friends, environmental factors and instructors are other important elements for children’s reading readiness situations.

  13. The inclusion of disadvantaged children in preschool programs: The children’s rights and social responsibility

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    Jager Jerneja

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Participation of at least 95% of children between the ages of 4 and the mandatory school age in high-quality preschool programs represents an important contribution to the achievement of the Europe 2020 strategy. Slovenia is not far from achieving this objective; however, if we consider participation in preschool programs from the perspective of the entire population of preschool children and the realisation of children’s rights, we note that nearly a quarter of children - among them (at least in the wider European area the most disadvantaged - have not realised the right to education. We studied the awareness of the importance of ensuring access to preschool programs for all children on a representative sample of 106 Slovenian preschool principals by means of quantitative pedagogical research. The results show a high percentage of disadvantaged children in the preschool areas and in the preschools themselves; on the other hand, only a low percentage (only one-third of preschools collect data about disadvantaged children and implement preschool programs for them; only one-fifth of preschools implement preschool programs for disadvantaged children. In order to act responsibly and enable all children the right to education, we must start devoting greater attention to identifying and including disadvantaged children in preschool programs.

  14. Heterogeneity in Maltreated and Non-maltreated Preschool Children’s Inhibitory Control: The Interplay Between Parenting Quality and Child Temperament

    OpenAIRE

    Cipriano-Essel, Elizabeth; Skowron, Elizabeth A.; Stifter, Cynthia A.; Teti, Douglas M.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the contribution of child temperament, parenting, and their interaction on inhibitory control development in a sample of maltreated and non-maltreated preschool children. One hundred and eighteen mother–child dyads were drawn from predominantly low-income, rural communities. Dyads participated in a laboratory session in which maternal warm autonomy support, warm guidance, and strict/hostile control were observationally coded during a joint teaching task. Independent assess...

  15. Understanding and Enhancing Multicultural Teaching in Preschool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Chi-Hung; Hue, Ming-Tak

    2017-01-01

    Preschool teachers are an important element of high-quality, developmentally and multiculturally appropriate early childhood programmes. 7.5% of the total 160,000 children enrolled in Hong Kong kindergartens are ethnic-minority students and they are neglected in the Hong Kong education system until 2008. This study investigated the perceptions of…

  16. The Traditional in Contemporary Curricula of Preschool Education

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    Kopas-Vukašinović Emina

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary curricula of preschool education are the result of the improvement of pedagogical and didactic theories. They imply a technical plan with which it is possible to achieve measurable objectives of preschool education. The curriculum is also defined as a tool for quality and equal education for all. It represents a reflection of the time, society and culture in which it exists, but also a model for future society and education. Thus an important research question arises as to what extent we recognize traditional ideas about learning and the development of a preschool child in contemporary preschool programs. Are traditional ideas about educating young children unjustly neglected or do we recognize them in contemporary pedagogical theory even today, at the same time forgetting about the past and declaring them innovations? This paper deals with the starting points for the development of a curriculum. The goal of the research was to determine to what extent can the starting points for the development of preschool children, which have existed in the first preschool programs in Serbia in the late 19th century, be recognized in contemporary preschool programs. A descriptive method was applied as well as a procedure for content analysis of program documents. Research results confirm that the elements of the first preschool programs, which remain relevant until today, can be recognized in contemporary preschool programs. They are related to target orientations, principles and functions of preschool education. However, these ideas are defined as contemporary tendencies, and the fact that they existed in preschool programs that were developed a long time ago is unjustly ignored.

  17. Frequency of high-quality communication behaviors used by primary care providers of heterozygous infants after newborn screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Michael H; Christopher, Stephanie A

    2013-02-01

    To examine the quality of communication likely to be experienced by parents when being first informed about how newborn screening identified heterozygous "carrier" status for cystic fibrosis or sickle cell disease. Primary care providers (PCPs) of infants found to have carrier status were telephoned over a 48-month period, and asked to rehearse with a standardized patient how they would inform the infants' parent(s). 214 rehearsal transcripts were abstracted using explicit criteria methods to measure the frequency of five categories of high-quality communication behaviors. Overall, PCPs used large amounts of jargon and failed to use high quality communication behaviors. On average, PCPs used 18.6 total jargon words (8.7 unique words), but explained 2.4 jargon words. The most frequent assessment of understanding was the close-ended version, although it was only seen in 129 of 214 transcripts. The most common organizing behavior was importance emphasis (121/214). Precautionary empathy was rare; the most frequent behavior was "instruction about emotion" (33/214). The limited use of high-quality communication behaviors in rehearsals raises concern about parental understanding, decision-making, and psychosocial outcomes after newborn screening. Measurement of specific behaviors may help PCPs to improve communication, and thereby improve the patient experience. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Critical Analysis of the Quality, Readability, and Technical Aspects of Online Information Provided for Neck-Lifts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayess, Hani; Zuliani, Giancarlo F; Gupta, Amar; Svider, Peter F; Folbe, Adam J; Eloy, Jean Anderson; Carron, Michael A

    2017-03-01

    The number of patients using the internet to obtain health information is growing. This material is unregulated and heterogeneous and can influence patient decisions. To compare the quality, readability, and technical aspects of online information about neck-lifts provided by private practice websites vs academic medical centers and reference sources. In this cross-sectional analysis conducted between November 2015 and January 2016, a Google search of the term neck-lift was performed, and the first 45 websites were evaluated. The websites were categorized as private practice vs other. Private websites (PWs) included sites created by private practice physicians. Other websites (OWs) were created by academic medical centers or reference sources. Quality, readability, and technical aspects of online websites related to neck-lifts. Quality was assessed using the DISCERN criteria and the Health on the Net principles (HONcode). Readability was assessed using 7 validated and widely used criteria. Consensus US reading grade level readability was provided by a website (readabilityformulas.com). Twelve technical aspects were evaluated based on criteria specified by medical website creators. Forty-five websites (8 OWs [18%] and 37 PWs [82%]) were analyzed. There was a significant difference in quality between OWs and PWs based on the DISCERN criteria and HONcode principles. The DISCERN overall mean (SD) scores were 2.3 (0.5) for OWs and 1.3 (0.3) for PWs (P analysis, the mean (SD) was 8.6 (1.8) (range, 5-11) for OW, and the mean (SD) was 5.8 (1.7) (range, 2-9) for PW. The mean (SD) readability consensus reading grade level scores were 11.7 (1.9) for OWs and 10.6 (1.9) for PWs. Of a total possible score of 12, the mean (SD) technical scores were 6.3 (1.8) (range, 4-9) for OWs and 6.4 (1.5) (range, 3-9) for PWs. Compared with PWs, OWs had a significantly higher quality score based on both the DISCERN criteria and HONcode principles. The mean readability for OWs and PWs was

  19. How Do I Write…? Scaffolding Preschoolers' Early Writing Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabell, Sonia Q.; Tortorelli, Laura S.; Gerde, Hope K.

    2013-01-01

    Providing preschoolers with rich writing experiences can help to lay a foundation for their later reading and writing success. Early writing experiences can be greatly enhanced by how preschool teachers answer young children's questions about writing and engage them in productive writing instruction. With appropriate scaffolding, early writing…

  20. Supporting Children's Oral Language Development in the Preschool Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whorrall, Jennifer; Cabell, Sonia Q.

    2016-01-01

    Supporting children's oral language development during the preschool years is critical for later reading success. Research shows that preschool teachers may be missing opportunities to engage children in the kinds of conversations that foster the development of rich oral language skills. Teachers hoping to support these skills can provide children…

  1. The Relation between Television Exposure and Executive Function among Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathanson, Amy I.; Aladé, Fashina; Sharp, Molly L.; Rasmussen, Eric E.; Christy, Katheryn

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the relations between television exposure during the preschool years and the development of executive function (EF). Data were gathered from 107 parents of preschoolers who provided information on children's television viewing, background television exposure, exposure to specific televised content, and the age at which…

  2. Occupational Therapy in Preschools: A Synthesis of Current Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasmin, Emmanuelle; Gauthier, Anne; Julien, Marjorie; Hui, Caroline

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents a synthesis of current knowledge about occupational therapy in preschools (for 3-6 year olds) in order to provide a better understanding of this field of practice and to guide the implementation or programming of this service. In the literature, occupational therapy in preschools has been documented mainly in the USA. Results…

  3. Parents Support Preschoolers' Use of a Novel Interactive Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Rachel M.; Richert, Rebekah A.

    2015-01-01

    Past research has found that preschool children's ability to learn educational content from interactive media may be hindered by needing to learn how to use a new interactive device. However, little research has examined the instructional supports parents provide while their children use interactive media. Forty-six preschool children and their…

  4. Diversity Management in Preschools Using a Critical Incident Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stier, Jonas; Tryggvason, Marja-Terttu; Sandstrom, Margareta; Sandberg, Anette

    2012-01-01

    Using the critical incident approach, preschool teachers at 10 preschools in Sweden were asked to describe their work with respect to ethnic and cultural diversity. The study attempted to provide insights that go beyond commonly used models of intercultural sensitivity and intercultural competence (e.g. Gudykunst and Kim; Landis, Bennett, and…

  5. Writing Workshop in Preschool

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Kelly A.

    2012-01-01

    Preschoolers may be novices in the area of writing but, as this article highlights, they are indeed writers. In a year-long ethnography of preschoolers during structured writing time the teacher/researcher explored how students adapted to a writing workshop format. Students participated in daily journal writing and sharing, and weekly conference…

  6. Cultivar choice provides options for local production of organic and conventionally produced tomatoes with higher quality and antioxidant content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldrich, Heather Troxell; Salandanan, Karen; Kendall, Patricia; Bunning, Marisa; Stonaker, Frank; Külen, Oktay; Stushnoff, Cecil

    2010-12-01

    Tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum L.) are widely consumed and well known for their health benefits, many of which have been associated with the high levels of antioxidants present in tomatoes. With a growing interest in local and organic foods, it would be helpful to determine whether farmers could naturally improve the quality and antioxidant content of tomatoes for sale in local markets. This study evaluated antioxidant properties, quality attributes, and yield for 10 tomato cultivars grown for 2 years using certified organic and conventional practices. Cultivar and year effects impacted (P < 0.05) all tests conducted, while growing method influenced (P < 0.05) yield, soluble solids content, ascorbic acid, and antioxidant radical scavenging capacity. Even when accounting for year-to-year variability, cultivars in the highest groups had 1.35- to 1.67-fold higher antioxidant levels than cultivars in the lowest groups. 'New Girl', 'Jet Star', 'Fantastic', and 'First Lady' were always in the highest groups, while 'Roma' and 'Early Girl' consistently had the lowest antioxidant content. Compared to production practices and environmental effects of years that are generally beyond the control of small-scale producers, choice of cultivar provides the simplest and most effective means of increasing antioxidant properties. Knowledge of tomato cultivars with naturally higher antioxidant levels could assist smaller-scale producers to grow fruit that may provide a competitive advantage and the opportunity to capitalize on the increasing popularity of locally grown, high-quality fresh produce. Copyright © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Continuous quality improvement programs provide new opportunities to drive value innovation initiatives in hospital-based radiology practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Joseph R; Schomer, Don F

    2009-07-01

    Imaging services constitute a huge portion of the of the total dollar investment within the health care enterprise. Accordingly, this generates competition among medical specialties organized along service lines for their pieces of the pie and increased scrutiny from third-party payers and government regulators. These market and political forces create challenge and opportunity for a hospital-based radiology practice. Clearly, change that creates or builds greater value for patients also creates sustainable competitive advantage for a radiology practice. The somewhat amorphous concept of quality constitutes a significant value driver for innovation in this scenario. Quality initiatives and programs seek to define and manage this amorphous concept and provide tools for a radiology practice to create or build more value. Leadership and the early adoption of these inevitable programs by a radiology practice strengthens relationships with hospital partners and slows the attrition of imaging service lines to competitors.

  8. Narrative review of provider behavior in primary care behavioral health: How process data can inform quality improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beehler, Gregory P; Lilienthal, Kaitlin R; Possemato, Kyle; Johnson, Emily M; King, Paul R; Shepardson, Robyn L; Vair, Christina L; Reyner, Jacqueline; Funderburk, Jennifer S; Maisto, Stephen A; Wray, Laura O

    2017-09-01

    Primary care behavioral health (PCBH) is a population-based approach to delivering mental and behavioral health care in the primary care setting. Implementation of the PCBH model varies across practice settings, which can impact how PCBH providers deliver services to patients and in turn may predict a variety of important outcomes. This article aims to characterize PCBH provider engagement in key processes of integrated care as demonstrated in results from empirical studies of real-world clinical practice. For this narrative review of published studies on PCBH provider engagement in processes of care, PubMed and PsycINFO databases were searched from January 1990 through May 2016 to identify relevant articles. Provider adherence to the brief, time-limited treatment model appears suboptimal. Common mental health conditions, such as depression, were often the primary focus of provider attention, with less consistent emphasis on behavioral medicine concerns. Whereas providers regularly conducted qualitative functional assessments with patients, routine use of standardized measures was low. Engagement in interprofessional collaboration with the primary care team was also low, but engagement in behaviors that fostered therapeutic relationships was high. This review identified several strengths and weaknesses of typical PCBH provider practices. Results are discussed in relation to their value as areas for future quality improvement initiatives that can improve PCBH service delivery and, ultimately, patient outcomes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Providing Doctors With High-Quality Information: An Updated Evaluation of Web-Based Point-of-Care Information Summaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwag, Koren Hyogene; González-Lorenzo, Marien; Banzi, Rita; Bonovas, Stefanos; Moja, Lorenzo

    2016-01-19

    The complexity of modern practice requires health professionals to be active information-seekers. Our aim was to review the quality and progress of point-of-care information summaries-Web-based medical compendia that are specifically designed to deliver pre-digested, rapidly accessible, comprehensive, and periodically updated information to health care providers. We aimed to evaluate product claims of being evidence-based. We updated our previous evaluations by searching Medline, Google, librarian association websites, and conference proceedings from August 2012 to December 2014. We included Web-based, regularly updated point-of-care information summaries with claims of being evidence-based. We extracted data on the general characteristics and content presentation of products, and we quantitatively assessed their breadth of disease coverage, editorial quality, and evidence-based methodology. We assessed potential relationships between these dimensions and compared them with our 2008 assessment. We screened 58 products; 26 met our inclusion criteria. Nearly a quarter (6/26, 23%) were newly identified in 2014. We accessed and analyzed 23 products for content presentation and quantitative dimensions. Most summaries were developed by major publishers in the United States and the United Kingdom; no products derived from low- and middle-income countries. The main target audience remained physicians, although nurses and physiotherapists were increasingly represented. Best Practice, Dynamed, and UptoDate scored the highest across all dimensions. The majority of products did not excel across all dimensions: we found only a moderate positive correlation between editorial quality and evidence-based methodology (r=.41, P=.0496). However, all dimensions improved from 2008: editorial quality (P=.01), evidence-based methodology (P=.015), and volume of diseases and medical conditions (PUptoDate scored the highest across all dimensions, while others that were marketed as evidence

  10. Assessment of the impact of quality improvement interventions on the quality of sick child care provided by Health Extension Workers in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Nathan P; Amouzou, Agbessi; Hazel, Elizabeth; Legesse, Hailemariam; Degefie, Tedbabe; Tafesse, Mengistu; Black, Robert E; Bryce, Jennifer

    2016-12-01

    Ethiopia has scaled up integrated community case management of childhood illness (iCCM), including several interventions to improve the performance of Health Extension Workers (HEWs). We assessed associations between interventions to improve iCCM quality of care and the observed quality of care among HEWs. We assessed iCCM implementation strength and quality of care provided by HEWs in Ethiopia. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to assess associations between interventions to improve iCCM quality of care and correct management of iCCM illnesses. Children who were managed by an HEW who had attended a performance review and clinical mentoring meeting (PRCMM) had 8.3 (95% confidence interval (CI) 2.34-29.51) times the odds of being correctly managed, compared to children managed by an HEW who did not attend a PRCMM. Management by an HEW who received follow-up training also significantly increased the odds of correct management (odds ratio (OR) = 2.09, 95% CI 1.05-4.18). Supervision on iCCM (OR = 0.63, 95% CI 0.23-1.72) did not significantly affect the odds of receiving correct care. These results suggest PRCMM and follow-up training were effective interventions, while implementation of supportive supervision needs to be reviewed to improve impact.

  11. Providing High Quality Care in Low-Income Areas of Maryland: Definitions, Resources, and Challenges from Parents and Child Care Providers' Perspectives. Publication #2012-45

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forry, Nicole; Simkin, Shana; Wessel, Julia; Rodrigues, Katherine

    2012-01-01

    Early life experiences are critical to a child's development. Research has shown that, for a variety of reasons, children born into low-income families are at a disadvantage when compared to their higher-income peers. Fortunately, research has also shown a positive association between high quality child care and the academic and social-emotional…

  12. IMPORTANCE OF COMPUTER TECHNOLOGY IN REALIZATION OF CULTURAL AND EDUCATIONAL TASKS OF PRESCHOOL INSTITUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zvezdan Arsić

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The rapid scientific and technological development imposes numerous changes in all spheres of life and work. In such circumstances, a computer has become a part of all aspects of life: economy, education, free time, family. Since children in contemporary society increasingly acquire knowledge before the school age, the question is how to prepare them for the world in which we live, bearing in mind how significantly different it is from the world in which the previous generations grew up. The research was aimed at examining the attitudes of preschool teachers about the importance of computers in the realization of educational activities in preschool institutions. The study included 54 teachers from Kosovo and Metohija: Kosovska Mitrovica, Donja Gušterica and Ropotovo. The research results indicate that digital technology is a very important and a useful didactic tool in the realization of educational activities in preschool institutions and that preschool teachers have the required competence to implement the technology. However, they are not satisfied with the quality of their ICT education and training during their studies; they also feel that their institutions do not provide adequate working conditions for the use of computers in the realization of educational tasks.

  13. Feasibility study to objectively assess activity and location of Hispanic preschoolers: a short communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresia M. O’Connor

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Both physical and social environmental factors influence young children’s physical activity, yet little is known about where Hispanic children are more likely to be active. We assessed the feasibility of simultaneously measuring, then processing objective measures of location and physical activity among Hispanic preschool children. Preschool-aged Hispanic children (n = 15 simultaneously wore QStarz BT100X global positioning system (GPS data loggers and Actigraph GT3X accelerometers for a 24- to 36-hour period, during which time their parents completed a location and travel diary. Data were aggregated to the minute and processed using the personal activity location measurement system (PALMS. Children successfully wore the GPS data loggers and accelerometers simultaneously, 12 of which yielded data that met quality standards. The average percent correspondence between GPS- and diary-based estimates of types of location was high and Kappa statistics were moderate to excellent, ranging from 0.49-0.99. The between-method (GPS monitor, parent-reported diary correlations of estimated participant-aggregated minutes spent on vehicle-based trips were strong. The simultaneous use of GPS and accelerometers to assess Hispanic preschool children’s location and physical activity is feasible. This methodology has the potential to provide more precise findings to inform environmental interventions and policy changes to promote physical activity among Hispanic preschool children.

  14. Feasibility study to objectively assess activity and location of Hispanic preschoolers: a short communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Teresia M; Cerin, Ester; Robles, Jessica; Lee, Rebecca E; Kerr, Jacqueline; Butte, Nancy; Mendoza, Jason A; Thompson, Deborah; Baranowski, Tom

    2013-05-01

    Both physical and social environmental factors influence young children's physical activity, yet little is known about where Hispanic children are more likely to be active. We assessed the feasibility of simultaneously measuring, then processing objective measures of location and physical activity among Hispanic preschool children. Preschool-aged Hispanic children (n = 15) simultaneously wore QStarz BT100X global positioning system (GPS) data loggers and Actigraph GT3X accelerometers for a 24- to 36-hour period, during which time their parents completed a location and travel diary. Data were aggregated to the minute and processed using the personal activity location measurement system (PALMS). Children successfully wore the GPS data loggers and accelerometers simultaneously, 12 of which yielded data that met quality standards. The average percent correspondence between GPS- and diary-based estimates of types of location was high and Kappa statistics were moderate to excellent, ranging from 0.49-0.99. The between-method (GPS monitor, parent-reported diary) correlations of estimated participant-aggregated minutes spent on vehicle-based trips were strong. The simultaneous use of GPS and accelerometers to assess Hispanic preschool children's location and physical activity is feasible. This methodology has the potential to provide more precise findings to inform environmental interventions and policy changes to promote physical activity among Hispanic preschool children.

  15. Informal cash payments for birth in Hungary: Are women paying to secure a known provider, respect, or quality of care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baji, Petra; Rubashkin, Nicholas; Szebik, Imre; Stoll, Kathrin; Vedam, Saraswathi

    2017-09-01

    In Central and Eastern Europe, many women make informal cash payments to ensure continuity of provider, i.e., to have a "chosen" doctor who provided their prenatal care, be present for birth. High rates of obstetric interventions and disrespectful maternity care are also common to the region. No previous study has examined the associations among informal payments, intervention rates, and quality of maternity care. We distributed an online cross-sectional survey in 2014 to a nationally representative sample of Hungarian internet-using women (N = 600) who had given birth in the last 5 years. The survey included items related to socio-demographics, type of provider, obstetric interventions, and experiences of care. Women reported if they paid informally, and how much. We built a two-part model, where a bivariate probit model was used to estimate conditional probabilities of women paying informally, and a GLM model to explore the amount of payments. We calculated marginal effects of the covariates (provider choice, interventions, respectful care). Many more women (79%) with a chosen doctor paid informally (191 euros on average) compared to 17% of women without a chosen doctor (86 euros). Based on regression analysis, the chosen doctor's presence at birth was the principal determinant of payment. Intervention and procedure rates were significantly higher for women with a chosen doctor versus without (cesareans 45% vs. 33%; inductions 32% vs. 19%; episiotomy 75% vs. 62%; epidural 13% vs. 5%), but had no direct effect on payments. Half of the sample (42% with a chosen doctor, 62% without) reported some form of disrespectful care, but this did not reduce payments. Despite reporting disrespect and higher rates of interventions, women rewarded the presence of a chosen doctor with informal payments. They may be unaware of evidence-based standards, and trust that their chosen doctor provided high quality maternity care. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Self-perceptions and social–emotional classroom engagement following structured physical activity among preschoolers: A feasibility study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spyridoula Vazou

    2017-06-01

    Conclusion: This study demonstrates the feasibility of providing structured PA program to preschoolers. Moreover, these initial findings suggest that purposely designed, structured PA may help advance the social–emotional engagement and perceived competence of preschool children.

  17. Surgical innovation-enhanced quality and the processes that assure patient/provider safety: A surgical conundrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruny, Jennifer; Ziegler, Moritz

    2015-12-01

    Innovation is a crucial part of surgical history that has led to enhancements in the quality of surgical care. This comprises both changes which are incremental and those which are frankly disruptive in nature. There are situations where innovation is absolutely required in order to achieve quality improvement or process improvement. Alternatively, there are innovations that do not necessarily arise from some need, but simply are a new idea that might be better. All change must assure a significant commitment to patient safety and beneficence. Innovation would ideally enhance patient care quality and disease outcomes, as well stimulate and facilitate further innovation. The tensions between innovative advancement and patient safety, risk and reward, and demonstrated effectiveness versus speculative added value have created a contemporary "surgical conundrum" that must be resolved by a delicate balance assuring optimal patient/provider outcomes. This article will explore this delicate balance and the rules that govern it. Recommendations are made to facilitate surgical innovation through clinical research. In addition, we propose options that investigators and institutions may use to address competing priorities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Trifocal intraocular lenses: a comparison of the visual performance and quality of vision provided by two different lens designs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gundersen KG

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Kjell G Gundersen,1 Rick Potvin2 1IFocus Øyeklinikk AS, Haugesund, Norway; 2Science in Vision, Akron, NY, USA Purpose: To compare two different diffractive trifocal intraocular lens (IOL designs, evaluating longer-term refractive outcomes, visual acuity (VA at various distances, low contrast VA and quality of vision.Patients and methods: Patients with binocularly implanted trifocal IOLs of two different designs (FineVision [FV] and Panoptix [PX] were evaluated 6 months to 2 years after surgery. Best distance-corrected and uncorrected VA were tested at distance (4 m, intermediate (80 and 60 cm and near (40 cm. A binocular defocus curve was collected with the subject’s best distance correction in place. The preferred reading distance was determined along with the VA at that distance. Low contrast VA at distance was also measured. Quality of vision was measured with the National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire near subset and the Quality of Vision questionnaire.Results: Thirty subjects in each group were successfully recruited. The binocular defocus curves differed only at vergences of −1.0 D (FV better, P=0.02, −1.5 and −2.00 D (PX better, P<0.01 for both. Best distance-corrected and uncorrected binocular vision were significantly better for the PX lens at 60 cm (P<0.01 with no significant differences at other distances. The preferred reading distance was between 42 and 43 cm for both lenses, with the VA at the preferred reading distance slightly better with the PX lens (P=0.04. There were no statistically significant differences by lens for low contrast VA (P=0.1 or for quality of vision measures (P>0.3.Conclusion: Both trifocal lenses provided excellent distance, intermediate and near vision, but several measures indicated that the PX lens provided better intermediate vision at 60 cm. This may be important to users of tablets and other handheld devices. Quality of vision appeared similar between the two lens designs

  19. Can a mobile app improve the quality of patient care provided by trainee doctors? Analysis of trainees' case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Katie; Bullock, Alison; Dimond, Rebecca; Stacey, Mark

    2016-09-21

    To explore how a medical textbook app ('iDoc') supports newly qualified doctors in providing high-quality patient care. The iDoc project, funded by the Wales Deanery, provides new doctors with an app which gives access to key medical textbooks. Participants' submitted case reports describing self-reported accounts of specific instances of app use. The size of the data set enabled analysis of a subsample of 'complex' case reports. Of the 568 case reports submitted by Foundation Year 1s (F1s)/Year 2s (F2s), 142 (25%) detailed instances of diagnostic decision-making and were identified as 'complex'. We analysed these data against the Quality Improvement (QI) Framework using thematic content analysis. Clinical settings across Wales, UK. Newly qualified doctors (2012-2014; n=114), F1 and F2. The iDoc app, powered by Dr Companion software, provided newly qualified doctors in Wales with a selection of key medical textbooks via individuals' personal smartphone. Doctors' use of the iDoc app supported 5 of the 6 QI elements: efficiency, timeliness, effectiveness, safety and patient-centredness. None of the case reports were coded to the equity element. Efficiency was the element which attracted the highest number of case report references. We propose that the QI Framework should be expanding to include 'learning' as a 7th element. Access to key medical textbooks via an app provides trusted and valuable support to newly qualified doctors during a period of transition. On the basis of these doctors' self-reported accounts, our evidence indicates that the use of the app enhances efficiency, effectiveness and timeliness of patient-care in addition consolidating a safe, patient-centred approach. We propose that there is scope to extend the QI Framework by incorporating 'learning' as a 7th element in recognition of the relationship between providing high-quality care through educational engagement. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not

  20. Preschool psychiatric disorders: homotypic and heterotypic continuity through middle childhood and early adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finsaas, Megan C; Bufferd, Sara J; Dougherty, Lea R; Carlson, Gabrielle A; Klein, Daniel N

    2018-01-16

    Many preschool-age children meet criteria for psychiatric disorders, and rates approach those observed in later childhood and adolescence. However, there is a paucity of longitudinal research examining the outcomes of preschool diagnoses. Families with a 3-year-old child (N = 559) were recruited from the community. Primary caregivers were interviewed using the Preschool Age Psychiatric Assessment when children were 3 years old (n = 541), and, along with children, using the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children Present and Lifetime Version when children were 9 and 12 years old. Rates of disruptive behavior disorders (DBD) decreased from preschool to middle childhood and early adolescence, whereas rates of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) increased. Rates of any psychiatric disorder and depression increased from preschool to early adolescence only. Preschoolers with a diagnosis were over twice as likely to have a diagnosis during later periods. Homotypic continuity was present for anxiety disorders from preschool to middle childhood, for ADHD from preschool to early adolescence, and for DBD through both later time points. There was heterotypic continuity between preschool anxiety and early adolescent depression, and between preschool ADHD and early adolescent DBD. Dimensional symptom scores showed homotypic continuity for all diagnostic categories and showed a number of heterotypic associations as well. Results provide moderate support for the predictive validity of psychiatric disorders in preschoolers. Psychopathology in preschool is a significant risk factor for future psychiatric disorders during middle childhood and early adolescence.

  1. Editorial: Advances in healthcare provider and patient training to improve the quality and safety of patient care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth M. Borycki

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This special issue of the Knowledge Management & E-Learning: An International Journal is dedicated to describing “Advances in Healthcare Provider and Patient Training to Improve the Quality and Safety of Patient Care.” Patient safety is an important and fundamental requirement of ensuring the quality of patient care. Training and education has been identified as a key to improving healthcare provider patient safety competencies especially when working with new technologies such as electronic health records and mobile health applications. Such technologies can be harnessed to improve patient safety; however, if not used properly they can negatively impact on patient safety. In this issue we focus on advances in training that can improve patient safety and the optimal use of new technologies in healthcare. For example, use of clinical simulations and online computer based training can be employed both to facilitate learning about new clinical discoveries as well as to integrate technology into day to day healthcare practices. In this issue we are publishing papers that describe advances in healthcare provider and patient training to improve patient safety as it relates to the use of educational technologies, health information technology and on-line health resources. In addition, in the special issue we describe new approaches to training and patient safety including, online communities, clinical simulations, on-the-job training, computer based training and health information systems that educate about and support safer patient care in real-time (i.e. when health professionals are providing care to patients. These educational and technological initiatives can be aimed at health professionals (i.e. students and those who are currently working in the field. The outcomes of this work are significant as they lead to safer care for patients and their family members. The issue has both theoretical and applied papers that describe advances in patient

  2. Research on customer satisfaction with the quality of services provided by public utilities of the city of Belgrade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živković Radmila

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Monopoly market conditions, in which public companies used to operate ten to twenty years ago, substantially dictated the way of considering and creating business of public companies in Serbia. However, introduction of changes to the environment, such as more intensive competition and changes of needs and demands of the customers requires abandoning old orientations to business. Public companies are in position to create and offer a higher level of service quality, based on better and more intensified communication with their customers. Public enterprises are monitored by public authorities, especially in the areas of restrictions on the choice of business strategies, pricing and price restrictions, selection of suppliers and the like. On the other hand, there is a branch competition occurring, on which public companies must count. In such an environment, creating effective services should be the key strategic objective for the development of public utility companies of the city of Belgrade. Service companies should be modern service companies, able to actively participate in the market, looking upon customers - citizens as users of their services. The aim of the research is to determine the perception of value and customer satisfaction with the services provided by the public utilities of Belgrade. The results of the study indicate that respondents are not satisfied with provided services and do not have clearly defined attitudes towards key aspects of public enterprises, which are supposed to be important for positioning and improving the quality of services in the market.

  3. Dissemination Approaches to Participating Primary Care Providers in a Quality Improvement Program Addressing Opioid Use in Central Appalachia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardarelli, Roberto; Workman, Charlotte Sue; Weatherford, Sarah; Whanger, Stacey; King, Dana E

    2017-06-01

    Practice-based research networks (PBRNs) have been described as new clinical laboratories for primary care research and dissemination. PBRNs, however, have struggled to disseminate research results in a meaningful way to participating providers and clinics. The Central Appalachia Inter-Professional Pain Education Collaborative was developed to work with PBRN clinics using quality improvement methods, deliver statewide continuing education activities to address the issue of opioid use in patients with chronic pain, and develop a multimodal mechanism to disseminate project results to clinics and participating providers. Successful change in the delivery of chronic pain care was dependent on the clinic's commitment to a team-based, patient-centered approach. Statistically significant improvements were shown in 10 of 16 process measures, and 80% of the participants agreed that the quality improvement process activity increased their knowledge and would improve their performance in managing patients with chronic pain, as well as patient outcomes in their practice. The Central Appalachia Inter-Professional Pain Education Collaborative project used an extensive and innovative dissemination plan under the rubric of "continual dissemination." Unlike traditional dissemination efforts that focus on summary presentations, this initiative used a continual dissemination approach that updated participants quarterly through multiple means throughout the project, which improved engagement in the project.

  4. Preschool Teachers' Attitudes and Beliefs Toward Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Sharon Henry

    In the United States, a current initiative, Advancing Active STEM Education for Our Youngest Learners, aims to advance science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) education in early childhood. The purpose of this study was to understand preschool teachers' proficiency with science and address the problem of whether or not science learning opportunities are provided to young children based on teachers' attitudes and beliefs. A theoretical framework for establishing teachers' attitudes toward science developed by van Aalderen-Smeets, van der Molen, and Asma, along with Bandura's theory of self-efficacy were the foundations for this research. Research questions explored preschool teachers' attitudes and beliefs toward science in general and how they differed based on education level and years of preschool teaching experience. Descriptive comparative data were collected from 48 preschool teacher participants using an online format with a self-reported measure and were analyzed using nonparametric tests to describe differences between groups based on identified factors of teacher comfort, child benefit, and challenges. Results indicated that the participants believed that early childhood science is developmentally appropriate and that young children benefit from science instruction through improved school-readiness skills. Preschool teachers with a state credential or an associate's degree and more teaching experience had more teacher comfort toward science based on attitudes and beliefs surveyed. The data indicated participating preschool teachers experienced few challenges in teaching science. The study may support positive social change through increased awareness of strengths and weaknesses of preschool teachers for the development of effective science professional development. Science is a crucial component of school-readiness skills, laying a foundation for success in later grades.

  5. Advancing a multidimensional, developmental spectrum approach to preschool disruptive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakschlag, Lauren S; Briggs-Gowan, Margaret J; Choi, Seung W; Nichols, Sara R; Kestler, Jacqueline; Burns, James L; Carter, Alice S; Henry, David

    2014-01-01

    Dimensional approaches are gaining scientific traction. However, their potential for elucidating developmental aspects of psychopathology has not been fully realized. The goal of this article is to apply a multidimensional, developmental framework to model the normal-abnormal spectrum of preschool disruptive behavior. The Multidimensional Assessment of Preschool Disruptive Behavior (MAP-DB), a novel measure, was used to model dimensional severity across developmental parameters theorized to distinguish the normative misbehavior of early childhood from clinically salient disruptive behavior. The 4 MAP-DB dimensions are Temper Loss, Noncompliance, Aggression, and Low Concern for Others. Parents of a diverse sample of 1,488 preschoolers completed the MAP-DB. Multidimensional item response theory (IRT) was used for dimensional modeling. The 4-dimensional, developmentally informed model demonstrated excellent fit. Its factor loadings did not differ across demographic subgroups. All dimensions provided good coverage of the abnormal end of the severity continuum, but only Temper Loss and Noncompliance provided good coverage of milder, normatively occurring behaviors. The developmental expectability and quality of behaviors distinguished normative from atypical behaviors. The point at which frequency of behaviors was atypical varied based on dimensional location for Temper Loss, Noncompliance, and Aggression. The MAP-DB provides an innovative method for operationalizing developmentally specified, dimensional phenotypes in early childhood. Establishing the validity of these dimensional phenotypes in relation to clinical outcomes, neurocognitive substrates, and etiologic pathways will be a crucial test of their clinical utility. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Trajectories of Preschool Disorders to Full DSM Depression at School Age and Early Adolescence: Continuity of Preschool Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luby, Joan L.; Gaffrey, Michael S.; Tillman, Rebecca; April, Laura M.; Belden, Andy C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Preschool-onset depression, a developmentally adapted form of depression arising between the ages of 3–6, has demonstrated numerous features of validity including characteristic alterations in stress reactivity and brain function. Notably, this validated syndrome with multiple clinical markers is characterized by sub-threshold DSM Major Depressive Disorder criteria, raising questions about its clinical significance. To clarify the utility and public health significance of the preschool-onset depression construct, diagnostic outcomes of this group at school age and adolescence were investigated. Methods We investigated the likelihood of meeting full DSM Major Depressive Disorder criteria in later childhood (i.e., ≥ age 6) as a function of preschool depression, other preschool Axis I disorders, maternal depression, parenting non-support and traumatic life events in a longitudinal prospective study of preschool children. Results Preschool-onset depression emerged as a robust predictor of DSM-5 Major Depressive Disorder in later childhood even after accounting for the effect of maternal depression and other risk factors. Preschool-onset conduct disorder also predicted DSM-5 Major Depressive Disorder in later childhood, but this association was partially mediated by maternal non-support, reducing the effect of preschool conduct disorder in predicting DSM depression by 21%. Discussion Study findings provide evidence that this preschool depressive syndrome is a robust risk factor for meeting full DSM criteria for Major Depressive Disorder in later childhood over and above other established risk factors. Preschool conduct disorder also predicted Major Depressive Disorder but was mediated by maternal non-support. Findings suggest that attention to preschool depression and conduct disorder in addition to maternal depression and exposure to trauma should now become an important factor for identification of young children at highest risk for later MDD who should

  7. Combining QOF data with the care bundle approach may provide a more meaningful measure of quality in general practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Wet Carl

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A significant minority of patients do not receive all the evidence-based care recommended for their conditions. Health care quality may be improved by reducing this observed variation. Composite measures offer a different patient-centred perspective on quality and are utilized in acute hospitals via the ‘care bundle’ concept as indicators of the reliability of specific (evidence-based care delivery tasks and improved outcomes. A care bundle consists of a number of time-specific interventions that should be delivered to every patient every time. We aimed to apply the care bundle concept to selected QOF data to measure the quality of evidence-based care provision. Methods Care bundles and components were selected from QOF indicators according to defined criteria. Five clinical conditions were suitable for care bundles: Secondary Prevention of Coronary Heart Disease (CHD, Stroke & Transient Ischaemic Attack (TIA, Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD, Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD and Diabetes Mellitus (DM. Each bundle has 3-8 components. A retrospective audit was undertaken in a convenience sample of nine general medical practices in the West of Scotland. Collected data included delivery (or not of individual bundle components to all patients included on specific disease registers. Practice level and overall compliance with bundles and components were calculated in SPSS and expressed as a percentage. Results Nine practices (64.3% with a combined patient population of 56,948 were able to provide data in the format requested. Overall compliance with developed QOF-based care bundles (composite measures was as follows: CHD 64.0%, range 35.0-71.9%; Stroke/TIA 74.1%, range 51.6-82.8%; CKD 69.0%, range 64.0-81.4%; and COPD 82.0%, range 47.9-95.8%; and DM 58.4%, range 50.3-65.2%. Conclusions In this small study compliance with individual QOF-based care bundle components was high, but overall (‘all or nothing’ compliance was

  8. Health related quality of life in Dutch infants, toddlers, and young children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schepers, S. A.; van Oers, H. A.; Maurice-Stam, H.; Huisman, J.; Verhaak, C. M.; Grootenhuis, M. A.; Haverman, L.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to provide Dutch normative data and to assess internal consistency and known-groups validity for the TNO AZL Preschool Children Quality of Life (TAPQOL) and the acute version of the generic Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL 4.0) in Dutch young children aged 0-7

  9. Prevalence and comorbidity of allergic diseases in preschool children

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Hyeong Yun; Kwon, Eun Byul; Baek, Ji Hyeon; Shin, Youn Ho; Yum, Hye Yung; Jee, Hye Mi; Yoon, Jung Won; Han, Man Yong

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Allergic disease and its comorbidities significantly influence the quality of life. Although the comorbidities of allergic diseases are well described in adult populations, little is known about them in preschool children. In the present study, we aimed to assess the prevalence and comorbidity of allergic diseases in Korean preschool children. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study comprising 615 Korean children (age, 3 to 6 years). Symptoms of allergic diseases were assessed us...

  10. Do childcare menus meet nutrition guidelines? Quantity, variety and quality of food provided in New Zealand Early Childhood Education services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerritsen, Sarah; Dean, Brianna; Morton, Susan M B; Wall, Clare R

    2017-08-01

    To describe food provision and evaluate menus in New Zealand childcare services, determining associations with service characteristics and/or cost of menu. Licensed services in three regions of New Zealand participated in an online survey, uploading a weekly menu where applicable. Menus were scored for compliance with guidelines on quantity, variety and quality of foods served. Bivariate and multivariate associations between menu score and service characteristics were analysed. A total of 257 services participated (30% of 847 services invited). Food was provided daily in 56%, with 34% providing lunch and snacks daily. Of the 57 full menus analysed, only three (5%) met all 10 scoring criteria (mean score of 6.8/10). Higher menu scores were statistically associated with employing a cook, high and low (not medium) neighbourhood deprivation, the Heart Foundation's Healthy Heart Award program; there was no association with food costs. The Healthy Heart Award remained statistically associated with higher menu score after adjustment for other service characteristics. Most menus did not meet current nutrition guidelines for quantity, variety, and limiting 'sometimes' and 'occasional' foods. Implications for public health: This study provides a baseline for monitoring menu compliance in New Zealand and evidence for nutrition promotion and menu improvement programmes in early education. © 2017 The Authors.

  11. Impact of a service provider incentive payment scheme on quality of reproductive and child-health services in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntington, Dale; Zaky, Hassan H M; Shawky, Sherine; Fattah, Faten Abdel; El-Hadary, Eman

    2010-06-01

    A case-control, quasi-experimental study was designed (post-test only) to investigate the effect of a performance-based incentive payment scheme on behaviours of public-sector service providers in delivering a basic package of maternal and child-health services in Egyptian primary healthcare units. The results showed significant improvements in the quality of family-planning, antenatal care, and child-care services as reported by women seen in clinics where the incentive payment scheme was in operation as measured by various indicators, including both technical and inter-personal communication content. An analysis of characteristics of the service providers and clients found no significant or meaningful differences between the study groups, and the facilities of both the study groups were essentially the same. Some findings are suggestive of other influences on behaviours of the service providers not captured by the data-collection instruments of the study. Subsequent to this study, the payment scheme has been rolled out to other districts in Egypt.

  12. Analysis and proposed model of family caregivers' relationships with home health providers and perceptions of the quality of formal services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, Laura; Stajduhar, Kelli

    2013-03-01

    Relationships between families and home health nurses promote effective care and service access for those at end of life, positive caregiver experiences, and satisfaction with care. This study explores family caregivers' accounts of relationships with home care nurses; findings inform a model of relationships and satisfaction with home health services. Ethnographic, qualitative interviews were conducted with 26 bereaved caregivers in one Western Canadian regional health agency. Data analysis was informed by symbolic interactionism. Participants described their relationships with home care nurses and spoke about their assessments of the care provided. Findings highlighted the importance of the length, frequency, and continuity of contact, conversation, socializing, and sharing information. Participants were cognizant of their own and care recipients' roles in building relationship. Nurse behaviors demonstrating affection, acknowledgment, commitment, and understanding were appreciated. A model links relationship preconditions, relational demonstrations, and perceived care quality and may be used to identify points of intervention.

  13. A longitudinal study of the role of children's altruism and forgiveness in the relation between parental aggressive discipline and anxiety of preschoolers in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, Sylvia Y C L; Gu, Minmin; Cheung, Andy P S

    2017-03-01

    Using data collected over a 1-year period on a stratified random sample of 368 parents with children studying in nurseries (mean age=3.97years), this study assessed the predictive effects of parental corporal punishment, parental psychological aggression, preschoolers' altruism, and preschoolers' forgiveness on preschoolers' anxiety symptoms in Hong Kong, China. Results of hierarchical regression analyses showed that parental psychological aggression, preschoolers' altruism and preschoolers' forgiveness at Time 1 significantly predicted preschoolers' anxiety at Time 2, when controlling for the initial level of preschoolers' anxiety and important demographic variables that co-vary with preschoolers' anxiety. Moreover, preschoolers' altruism moderated the predictive effect of parental psychological aggression on preschoolers' anxiety symptoms. The study has several significant contributions. First, the study supports the predictive effect of parental aggressive discipline on preschoolers' anxiety. Second, we provide evidence that preschoolers' altruism and forgiveness negatively predict preschoolers' anxiety symptoms. Third, preschoolers' altruism and forgiveness are shown to protect them against parental psychological aggression. A dual-focus approach to intervention and prevention is proposed to reduce aggressive discipline by parents as well as to enhance altruism and forgiveness in children. Parent training programs could be provided to teach parents positive discipline strategies. Home-based or school-based interventions could be designed for preschool children to foster and enhance their altruism and forgiveness. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Electronic symptom reporting between patient and provider for improved health care service quality: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials. part 2: methodological quality and effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, Monika Alise; Berntsen, Gro K Rosvold; Schuster, Tibor; Henriksen, Eva; Horsch, Alexander

    2012-10-03

    We conducted in two parts a systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on electronic symptom reporting between patients and providers to improve health care service quality. Part 1 reviewed the typology of patient groups, health service innovations, and research targets. Four innovation categories were identified: consultation support, monitoring with clinician support, self-management with clinician support, and therapy. To assess the methodological quality of the RCTs, and summarize effects and benefits from the methodologically best studies. We searched Medline, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and IEEE Xplore for original studies presented in English-language articles between 1990 and November 2011. Risk of bias and feasibility were judged according to the Cochrane recommendation, and theoretical evidence and preclinical testing were evaluated according to the Framework for Design and Evaluation of Complex Interventions to Improve Health. Three authors assessed the risk of bias and two authors extracted the effect data independently. Disagreement regarding bias assessment, extraction, and interpretation of results were resolved by consensus discussions. Of 642 records identified, we included 32 articles representing 29 studies. No articles fulfilled all quality requirements. All interventions were feasible to implement in a real-life setting, and theoretical evidence was provided for almost all studies. However, preclinical testing was reported in only a third of the articles. We judged three-quarters of the articles to have low risk for random sequence allocation and approximately half of the articles to have low risk for the following biases: allocation concealment, incomplete outcome data, and selective reporting. Slightly more than one fifth of the articles were judged as low risk for blinding of outcome assessment. Only 1 article had low risk of bias for blinding of participants and personnel. We excluded 12

  15. THE FORMATION OF PROFESSIONAL COMPETENCE OF THE TEACHER OF PRESCHOOL EDUCATION IN THE SYSTEM OF ADDITIONAL EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galiya H. Vakhitova

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to consider the issues of professional competence formation of the teacher of preschool education in the system of additional education; the necessity of educational space extension of preschool children is proved. Methods. The author relies on the technique of the competency approach to teacher preparation pre-school education, while using both theoretical and empirical research methods. The methods involve the retrospective analysis of research works of Russian scholars on pedagogics and psychology; empirical methods – pedagogical diagnostics on the basis of questioning, analysis of psychopedagogical diagnosis. Results. In the course of pedagogical diagnostics in order to determine whether the content of teacher competence features educational activities in terms of pre-school education it was found that among the most important qualities required of a teacher of preschool education, the respondents allocate humanely-personal and communication skills, functional literacy and reflective skills; majority of respondents found it difficult and/or do not know how to put into practice the polysubjective principle, which is very important at the level of pre-school education. The process of skills formation is described to carry out student teaching on the basis of the proposed principle. It is suggested to put students – the future teachers into the teaching process or real professional work in phases. Scientific novelty and practical significance. The author gives the classification of groups of professional competence indicators of the teacher of preschool education. Ways for the decision of the priority problems defined in Federal State Educational Standard of Pre-school Education (FSES PE in a context of the polysubjective approach are shown; each participant of educational process acts as its active member. The author of article considers additional education as a perspective direction of development of

  16. THE FORMATION OF PROFESSIONAL COMPETENCE OF THE TEACHER OF PRESCHOOL EDUCATION IN THE SYSTEM OF ADDITIONAL EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galiya H. Vakhitova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available RETRACTED ARTICLEThe aim of the article is to consider the issues of professional competence formation of the teacher of preschool education in the system of additional education; the necessity of educational space extension of preschool children is proved. Methods. The author relies on the technique of the competency approach to teacher preparation pre-school education, while using both theoretical and empirical research methods. The methods involve the retrospective analysis of research works of Russian scholars on pedagogics and psychology; empirical methods – pedagogical diagnostics on the basis of questioning, analysis of psychopedagogical diagnosis. Results. In the course of pedagogical diagnostics in order to determine whether the content of teacher competence features educational activities in terms of pre-school education it was found that among the most important qualities required of a teacher of preschool education, the respondents allocate humanely-personal and communication skills, functional literacy and reflective skills; majority of respondents found it difficult and/or do not know how to put into practice the polysubjective principle, which is very important at the level of pre-school education. The process of skills formation is described to carry out student teaching on the basis of the proposed principle. It is suggested to put students – the future teachers into the teaching process or real professional work in phases. Scientific novelty and practical significance. The author gives the classification of groups of professional competence indicators of the teacher of preschool education. Ways for the decision of the priority problems defined in Federal State Educational Standard of Pre-school Education (FSES PE in a context of the polysubjective approach are shown; each participant of educational process acts as its active member. The author of article considers additional education as a perspective direction of

  17. Pre-school contributions to future achievements

    OpenAIRE

    Gamboa , Luis Fernando

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides recent evidence about the beneÖts of attending preschool on future performance. A non-parametric matching procedure is used over two outcomes: math and verbal scores at a national mandatory test (Saber11) in Colombia. It is found that students who had the chance of attending preschool obtain higher scores in math (6.7%) and verbal (5.4%) than those who did not. A considerable fraction of these gaps comes from the upper quintiles of studentís performance, suggesting that pr...

  18. Training Sessional Academic Staff to Provide Quality Feedback on University Students' Assessment: Lessons from a Faculty of Law Learning and Teaching Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Kelly; Bell, Tamara; Dwyer, Angela

    2017-01-01

    The quality of feedback provided to university students has long been recognised as the most important predictor of student learning and satisfaction. However, providing quality feedback to students is challenging in the current context, in which universities increasingly rely on casualised and inexperienced academic staff to assess undergraduate…

  19. Understanding the Rationale for Preschool Physical Education: Implications for Practitioners' and Children's Embodied Practices and Subjectivity Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEvilly, Nollaig; Atencio, Matthew; Verheul, Martine; Jess, Mike

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of selected academic research literature that underpins contemporary preschool physical education. We highlight and interrogate diverse rationales and beliefs that serve to influence and structure preschool physical education in various forms. We speculate as to how preschool practitioners and children might engage…

  20. The value of (pre)school playgrounds for children’s physical activity level : a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.I. (Sanne) de Vries; Karen Broekhuizen; Anne-Marie Scholten

    2014-01-01

    The (pre)school environment is an important setting to improve children’s health. Especially, the (pre)school playground provides a major opportunity to intervene. This review presents an overview of the existing evidence on the value of both school and preschool playgrounds on children’s health in

  1. Preventing Obesity among Preschool Children: How Can Child-Care Settings Promote Healthy Eating and Physical Activity? Research Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Nicole; Ward, Dianne; Neelon, Sara Benjamin; Story, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Child-care settings provide numerous opportunities to promote healthy eating and physical activity behaviors among preschool children. The majority of U.S. children are placed in some form of non-parental care during their preschool years. While approximately 15 percent of preschool children are primarily cared for by their relatives, most…

  2. Preschooler test or procedure preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preparing preschoolers for test/procedure; Test/procedure preparation - preschooler ... Preparing children for medical tests can reduce their anxiety. It can also make them less likely to cry and resist the procedure. Research shows that ...

  3. Combining tissue-phantom ratios to provide a beam-quality specifier for flattening filter free photon beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalaryd, Mårten; Knöös, Tommy; Ceberg, Crister

    2014-11-01

    mean square deviation (RMSD) of 0.0028 with a maximum deviation of 0.0043 (0.39%) from Monte Carlo calculated values. For all beams in this study, the RMSD between the proposed model and the Monte Carlo calculated values was 0.0006 with a maximum deviation of 0.0013 (0.1%). Using an earlier proposed relationship [Xiong and Rogers, Med. Phys. 35, 2104-2109 (2008)] between %dd(10)x and L̄/ρair (water) gave a RMSD of 0.0018 with a maximum deviation of 0.0029 (0.26%) for all beams in this study (compared to RMSD 0.0015 and a maximum deviation of 0.0048 (0.47%) for the relationship used in AAPM TG-51 published by Almond et al. [Med. Phys. 26, 1847-1870 (1999)]). Using TPR20,10 as a beam-quality specifier, for the flattening filter free beams used in this study, gave a maximum difference of 0.39% between L̄/ρair (water) predicted using IAEA TRS-398 and Monte Carlo calculations. An additional parameter for determining L̄/ρair (water) has been presented. This parameter is easy to measure; it requires only an additional dose measurement at 5 cm depth with SSD 95 cm, and provides information for accurate determination of the L̄/ρair (water) ratio for beams both with and without a flattening filter at the investigated energies.

  4. A decision tree model to estimate the value of information provided by a groundwater quality monitoring network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khader, A. I.; Rosenberg, D. E.; McKee, M.

    2013-05-01

    Groundwater contaminated with nitrate poses a serious health risk to infants when this contaminated water is used for culinary purposes. To avoid this health risk, people need to know whether their culinary water is contaminated or not. Therefore, there is a need to design an effective groundwater monitoring network, acquire information on groundwater conditions, and use acquired information to inform management options. These actions require time, money, and effort. This paper presents a method to estimate the value of information (VOI) provided by a groundwater quality monitoring network located in an aquifer whose water poses a spatially heterogeneous and uncertain health risk. A decision tree model describes the structure of the decision alternatives facing the decision-maker and the expected outcomes from these alternatives. The alternatives include (i) ignore the health risk of nitrate-contaminated water, (ii) switch to alternative water sources such as bottled water, or (iii) implement a previously designed groundwater quality monitoring network that takes into account uncertainties in aquifer properties, contaminant transport processes, and climate (Khader, 2012). The VOI is estimated as the difference between the expected costs of implementing the monitoring network and the lowest-cost uninformed alternative. We illustrate the method for the Eocene Aquifer, West Bank, Palestine, where methemoglobinemia (blue baby syndrome) is the main health problem associated with the principal contaminant nitrate. The expected cost of each alternative is estimated as the weighted sum of the costs and probabilities (likelihoods) associated with the uncertain outcomes resulting from the alternative. Uncertain outcomes include actual nitrate concentrations in the aquifer, concentrations reported by the monitoring system, whether people abide by manager recommendations to use/not use aquifer water, and whether people get sick from drinking contaminated water. Outcome costs

  5. A decision tree model to estimate the value of information provided by a groundwater quality monitoring network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Khader

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater contaminated with nitrate poses a serious health risk to infants when this contaminated water is used for culinary purposes. To avoid this health risk, people need to know whether their culinary water is contaminated or not. Therefore, there is a need to design an effective groundwater monitoring network, acquire information on groundwater conditions, and use acquired information to inform management options. These actions require time, money, and effort. This paper presents a method to estimate the value of information (VOI provided by a groundwater quality monitoring network located in an aquifer whose water poses a spatially heterogeneous and uncertain health risk. A decision tree model describes the structure of the decision alternatives facing the decision-maker and the expected outcomes from these alternatives. The alternatives include (i ignore the health risk of nitrate-contaminated water, (ii switch to alternative water sources such as bottled water, or (iii implement a previously designed groundwater quality monitoring network that takes into account uncertainties in aquifer properties, contaminant transport processes, and climate (Khader, 2012. The VOI is estimated as the difference between the expected costs of implementing the monitoring network and the lowest-cost uninformed alternative. We illustrate the method for the Eocene Aquifer, West Bank, Palestine, where methemoglobinemia (blue baby syndrome is the main health problem associated with the principal contaminant nitrate. The expected cost of each alternative is estimated as the weighted sum of the costs and probabilities (likelihoods associated with the uncertain outcomes resulting from the alternative. Uncertain outcomes include actual nitrate concentrations in the aquifer, concentrations reported by the monitoring system, whether people abide by manager recommendations to use/not use aquifer water, and whether people get sick from drinking contaminated water

  6. Uso do Índice de Qualidade da Dieta Infantil Revisado para avaliar a dieta alimentar de pré-escolares, seus preditores sociodemográficos e sua associação com peso corporal Use of the Revised Children's Diet Quality Index to assess preschooler's diet quality, its sociodemographic predictors, and its association with body weight status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibylle Kranz

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar o nível de qualidade global da dieta, preditores sociodemográficos de qualidade da dieta e a associação entre qualidade da dieta e peso corporal em uma amostra nacionalmente representativa de pré-escolares. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal utilizando uma amostra de crianças de 2 a 5 anos com dados sociodemográficos, alimentares e antropométricos (n = 1.521 do National Health and Examination Survey 1999-2002. A qualidade global da dieta foi determinada através do Índice de Qualidade da Dieta Infantil Revisado. Preditores sociodemográficos (idade, sexo, grupo sociodemográfico e étnico, renda domiciliar, freqüência escolar, participação em programa federal de alimentação de qualidade da dieta foram determinados através de modelos de regressão linear múltipla na amostra total e estratificados por renda domiciliar para aquelas elegíveis no programa Food Stamp (OBJECTIVE: To determine the level of overall diet quality, sociodemographic predictors of diet quality, and the association between diet quality and body weight status in a nationally representative sample of preschoolers. METHODS: Cross-sectional study using a sample of 2-5 years old with sociodemographic, dietary, and anthropometric data (n = 1,521 in the National Health and Examination Survey 1999-2002. Overall diet quality was determined using the Revised Children's Diet Quality Index. Sociodemographic predictors (age, sex, sociodemographic, ethnic group, household income, preschool attendance, federal food program participation of diet quality were determined using multiple linear regression models in the total sample and stratified by household income for Food Stamp eligible (< 1.3 of the poverty income ratio or Special Supplemental Program for Women, Infants, and Children eligible (poverty income ratio < 1.85. Association between diet quality and prevalence of childhood obesity was assessed with Pearson chi-square tests. Statistical significance

  7. Evaluation of quality of TB control services by private health care providers in Plateau state, Nigeria; 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Luka Mangveep; Oleribe, Obinna O; Nguku, Patrick; Tongwong, Gabriel Chukwak; Mato, Lakda Gonen; Longkyer, Musa Istifanus; Ogiri, Samuel; Nsubuga, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is public health concern in Nigeria. The country uses the Directly Observed Treatment Short course (DOTS) strategy for its control. Plateau state started using the DOTS strategy in 2001 and had the Private health facilities (PHF) as an important stakeholder. We evaluated their contributions to case finding and quality of the services to identify gaps in monitoring and evaluation in the TB control services within the PHF to plan for intervention so as to meet the set target for TB control in the state. We used the logical framework approach to identify and analyze the problem. We drew up an objective tree and from the objective tree developed a logical framework matrix including evaluation plan. We also conducted desk review to extract data on case findings, case management and outcomes of the treatment. We interviewed TB focal persons and laboratory personnel using structured questionnaire. The data was analyzed using excel spread sheet. Of the 127 health facilities with TB patients on treatment 27 (21.3%) were PHF. The PHF reported 54.6% (1494) of TB cases in 2011. The sputum conversion rates, cured rate, treatment success rate, and default rates were 85%, 73%, 81.4% and 6.6% respectively. The discordant rates were 3.1% and 1.2% for the state and private health facilities respectively. Log frame approach is a useful tool for evaluation of TB control services and helps provide evidence for decision making to improve quality of the TB services in the public and private health facilities in the state.

  8. Temper tantrums in healthy versus depressed and disruptive preschoolers: defining tantrum behaviors associated with clinical problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belden, Andy C; Thomson, Nicole Renick; Luby, Joan L

    2008-01-01

    To investigate whether differences in the tantrum behaviors of healthy versus mood and disruptive disordered preschoolers can be detected. Caregivers of 279 preschool children (3 to 6 years old) completed the Preschool-Age Psychiatric Assessment (Egger HL, Ascher B, Angold A. Preschool Age Psychiatric Assessment (PAPA): version1.1. Durham, NC: Center for Developmental Epidemiology, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Duke University Medical Center; 1999), which was used to determine preschoolers' diagnostic classification and to measure tantrum behaviors. Preschoolers were placed in 1 of 4 diagnostic groups, healthy, pure depressed, pure disruptive, and comorbid depressed/disruptive, on the basis of the application of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition algorithms. Parametric and non-parametric analyses were used to examine characteristics of children's tantrums: intensity, frequency, context, and recovery ability. Disruptive preschoolers displayed violence during tantrums significantly more often than the depressed and healthy groups. The disruptive group had significantly more tantrums at school/daycare than the depressed and healthy groups. The disruptive group had a more difficult time recovering from tantrums than healthy preschoolers. In addition, depressed preschoolers were more aggressive toward objects and other people than healthy children. Finally, depressed preschoolers displayed significantly more self-harmful tantrum behaviors than preschoolers in the healthy and disruptive groups. These findings provide preliminary guidelines to parents, teachers, and practitioners in identifying tantrum behaviors that may be markers of a psychiatric disorder and therefore require mental health referral.

  9. Auditory Assessment of Visually Impaired Preschoolers: A Team Effort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleason, Deborah

    1984-01-01

    The paper provides an overview of audiological terms and types of hearing impairments to help teachers of visually impaired preschoolers work more effectively with audiologists. Both functional auditory assessment and formal audiometric evaluations are discussed. (Author/CL)

  10. The Heteroglossic World of Preschoolers' Pretend Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Lynn E.

    2009-01-01

    This inquiry applied Bakhtin's dialogic process to the pretend play of preschool children using an interpretive approach. It used vignettes from videotaped data and Bakhtin's theories of dialogism and heteroglossia to provide an understanding of how children appropriate social roles and rules in pretend play and use a variety of "voices"…

  11. Values Education in Nordic Preschools: A Commentary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornberg, Robert

    2016-01-01

    The six papers in this special issue focus on how values and values education are embedded in the everyday life at Nordic preschools. The studies in this special issue provide stimulating theoretical and methodological knowledge to inform further study of values education internationally. A key contribution of the papers is that there is…

  12. The Preschool Child Who is Blind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office of Child Development (DHEW), Washington, DC.

    The pamphlet contains general information and guidelines for parents of a preschool blind child. It is explained that a blind child needs what every child needs: love, good health, attention. Parents are urged to play with their blind child, give him opportunities to explore and grow, and to provide many and varied experiences for him. Although…

  13. Relating family satisfaction to the care provided in intensive care units: quality outcomes in Saudi accredited hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahrous, Mohamed Saad

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to identify the satisfaction levels of the family members of patients in intensive care units. This is a cross-sectional analytical study. General intensive care units offer a variety of services to clinical and surgical patients. For the purpose of this study, a trained interviewer communicated with the families of patients, either before or after visiting hours. The study included 208 participants: 119 (57.2%) males and 89 (42.8%) females. Seventy-three (35.1%) of the patients attended a private hospital, and 135 (64.9%) attended a public hospital in the city of Al Madinah Al- Munawarah. All of the participants were either family members or friends of patients admitted to the intensive care units at the hospitals. The responses of both groups yielded low scores on the satisfaction index. However, a relatively high score was noted in response to questions 2, 6, and 10, which concerned the care that was extended by the hospital staff to their patients, the courteous attitude of intensive care unit staff members towards patients, and patients' satisfaction with the medical care provided, respectively. A very low score was obtained for item 11, which was related to the possibility for improvements to the medical care that the patients received. Overall, greater satisfaction with the services offered by the public intensive care units was reported compared to the satisfaction with the services offered by the private intensive care units. An overall low score on the satisfaction index was obtained, and further studies are recommended to assess the current situation and improve the satisfaction and quality of care provided by intensive care units.

  14. Health-Related Quality of Life after Pediatric Liver Transplantation: A Qualitative Analysis of the Perspectives of Health Care Providers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mar Miserachs

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With improved survival outcomes after pediatric liver transplantation (LT, health-related quality of life (HRQoL is an important outcome metric. Understanding the elements contributing to HRQoL after LT in children would enable more targeted strategies towards optimizing best outcomes. This qualitative study aimed to explore health care providers (HCP perceptions about HRQoL after pediatric LT. Thirteen experienced HCP participated in two focus group discussions. Data analysis via a thematic analysis approach revealed 4 major themes: “LT as a facilitator of better HRQoL,” “coping and adapting to LT,” “living with a transplanted liver,” and “the family context.” HCP identified elements that both enhance (improved physical health, peer relationship, and activities of daily living and challenge (need for immunosuppression, transplant follow-up, and restrictions the multidimensional domains of HRQoL. HCP perceived LT to be a stressful life-changing event for children and their families. Patients and their parents’ ability to cope and adjust positively to LT was perceived as a key contributor to better HRQoL. HCP perspective highlights the importance of promoting psychosocial support and a family-centered care delivery model towards the overarching goal of optimizing durable outcomes.

  15. Parallel experimental design and multivariate analysis provides efficient screening of cell culture media supplements to improve biosimilar product quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brühlmann, David; Sokolov, Michael; Butté, Alessandro; Sauer, Markus; Hemberger, Jürgen; Souquet, Jonathan; Broly, Hervé; Jordan, Martin

    2017-07-01

    Rational and high-throughput optimization of mammalian cell culture media has a great potential to modulate recombinant protein product quality. We present a process design method based on parallel design-of-experiment (DoE) of CHO fed-batch cultures in 96-deepwell plates to modulate monoclonal antibody (mAb) glycosylation using medium supplements. To reduce the risk of losing valuable information in an intricate joint screening, 17 compounds were separated into five different groups, considering their mode of biological action. The concentration ranges of the medium supplements were defined according to information encountered in the literature and in-house experience. The screening experiments produced wide glycosylation pattern ranges. Multivariate analysis including principal component analysis and decision trees was used to select the best performing glycosylation modulators. Subsequent D-optimal quadratic design with four factors (three promising compounds and temperature shift) in shake tubes confirmed the outcome of the selection process and provided a solid basis for sequential process development at a larger scale. The glycosylation profile with respect to the specifications for biosimilarity was greatly improved in shake tube experiments: 75% of the conditions were equally close or closer to the specifications for biosimilarity than the best 25% in 96-deepwell plates. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2017;114: 1448-1458. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. An Analysis of Preschool Teachers' Sense of Efficacy: A Case of TRNC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toran, Mehmet

    2017-01-01

    Determining the factors that affect teachers' competences has a decisive role in revealing the quality of teaching process. In this context, it is important to identify professional variables affecting the self-efficacy of preschool teachers. For this reason, it is aimed to investigate which professional variables influence preschool teachers'…

  17. Towards Designing Effective Preschool Education Programmes in Tanzania: What Can We Learn from Theories?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitta, Septimi; Kapinga, Orestes Silverius

    2015-01-01

    Pre-school education, which ordinarily is supposed to be the foundation stone of our education system, is wholly left in the hands of private operators to manage with no supervisory authority over them, a situation that has led to poor standards and quality. It was emphasised that if pre-school education is to serve its stated purposes of making…

  18. A Comparison of Preschool Teachers' Talk during Storybook and Information Book Read-Alouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Lisa Hammett; Bradley, Barbara A.; Smith, Jana Michele

    2012-01-01

    Storybooks are the most frequently chosen genre for read alouds in preschool classrooms. However, growing evidence suggests that genre may influence the quantity and quality of talk produced outside of the text. The current study compared twenty preschool teachers' extratextual talk across read-aloud sessions with a storybook and an information…

  19. Home and Preschool Learning Environments and Their Relations to the Development of Early Numeracy Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anders, Yvonne; Rossbach, Hans-Gunther; Weinert, Sabine; Ebert, Susanne; Kuger, Susanne; Lehrl, Simone; von Maurice, Jutta

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the influence of the quality of home and preschool learning environments on the development of early numeracy skills in Germany, drawing on a sample of 532 children in 97 preschools. Latent growth curve models were used to investigate early numeracy skills and their development from the first (average age: 3 years) to the third…

  20. "A Big Door Opened for Us": Parents' Perceptions of Comprehensive Preschool

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMulder, Elizabeth K.; Stribling, Stacia M.

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative research study was designed to explore the perceptions of parents with low income regarding the effects of involvement in a comprehensive preschool program on their children's development and on the families' quality of life. A purposeful sample of parents who became actively involved in the preschool community was interviewed…

  1. The Promise of Preschool: Why We Need Early Education for All

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, W. Steven; Frede, Ellen

    2010-01-01

    It's fairly well known that high-quality preschool programs can have life-altering impacts on disadvantaged children, including reductions in school dropout and crime, and increased earnings. Not as well known is that terrific preschool programs have important academic and social benefits for middle-class children too. Decades of research indicate…

  2. Ambientes de lenguaje y alfabetizacion en programas preescolares (Language and Literacy Environments in Preschools). ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, Catherine E.; Burns, M. Susan; Griffin, Peg

    Because of the variation in support for literacy development in different homes, many children need high-quality preschool and school environments and excellent primary instruction to be sure of reading success. This Spanish-language Digest discusses the research on preschool literacy environments and their contributions to reading skills…

  3. Relationship between Preschool Teachers' Reports of Children's Behavior and their Behavior toward those Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobbs, Jennifer; Arnold, David H.

    2009-01-01

    The relationships between preschool children and their teachers are an important component of the quality of the preschool experience. This study used attribution theory as a framework to better understand these relationships, examining the connection between teachers' perceptions of children's behavior and teachers' behavior toward those…

  4. SU-E-T-571: Newly Emerging Integrated Transmission Detector Systems Provide Online Quality Assurance of External Beam Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, D; Chung, E; Hess, C; Stern, R; Benedict, S [UC Davis Cancer Center, Sacramento, CA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Two newly emerging transmission detectors positioned upstream from the patient have been evaluated for online quality assurance of external beam radiotherapy. The prototype for the Integral Quality Monitor (IQM), developed by iRT Systems GmbH (Koblenz, Germany) is a large-area ion chamber mounted on the linac accessory tray to monitor photon fluence, energy, beam shape, and gantry position during treatment. The ion chamber utilizes a thickness gradient which records variable response dependent on beam position. The prototype of Delta4 Discover™, developed by ScandiDos (Uppsala, Sweden) is a linac accessory tray mounted 4040 diode array that measures photon fluence during patient treatment. Both systems are employable for patient specific QA prior to treatment delivery. Methods: Our institution evaluated the reproducibility of measurements using various beam types, including VMAT treatment plans with both the IQM ion chamber and the Delta4 Discover diode array. Additionally, the IQM’s effect on photon fluence, dose response, simulated beam error detection, and the accuracy of the integrated barometer, thermometer, and inclinometer were characterized. The evaluated photon beam errors are based on the annual tolerances specified in AAPM TG-142. Results: Repeated VMAT treatments were measured with 0.16% reproducibility by the IQM and 0.55% reproducibility by the Delta4 Discover. The IQM attenuated 6, 10, and 15 MV photon beams by 5.43±0.02%, 4.60±0.02%, and 4.21±0.03% respectively. Photon beam profiles were affected <1.5% in the non-penumbra regions. The IQM’s ion chamber’s dose response was linear and the thermometer, barometer, and inclinometer agreed with other calibrated devices. The device detected variations in monitor units delivered (1%), field position (3mm), single MLC leaf positions (13mm), and photon energy. Conclusion: We have characterized two new transmissions detector systems designed to provide in-vivo like measurements upstream

  5. THE PROGRAM OF DEVELOPMENT OF THE SCHOOL AS A CONDITION OF PROVIDING NEW QUALITY OF EDUCATION: THE PROJECT APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa N. Paskhalova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the investigation is to generalize the experience on implementation of the Program of development of educational institution that allows providing high quality of education in the conditions of introduction of Federal Educational Standards of New Generation. Methods. Traditional psychological and pedagogical methods involve: stating, developing and control. Analysis of the average data and dynamics of educational results, an expert estimation, interrogations and questioning are used. Results. Transition of a gymnasium to educational institution of new type has become result of introduction of the Program of development. The unique profile of establishment is created and priority positions are taken in the educational environment of the region; in response to an implementation of the program of the development focused on the social procurement. Efficiency of the Program is confirmed with intermediate results of monitoring concerning all subjects of educational space: trained, teachers and parents. The program allows all participants of educational process to be involved in process of introduction of new quality of education via the mechanism of realization of system. The program represents improvement of activity of structures of educational space of a gymnasium, development of resource base, and also a control system as a factor of ensuring stability of functioning and innovative development of a gymnasium. Scientific novelty. The possibility of implementation of the Program of development of educational institution through introduction of system-activity and project-based approach which connected nine sub-programmes in one complex (structured in three modules is shown. It includes introduction of Federal State Educational Standard (FSES, an international exam, development of a progymnasium, formation of the personality, ongoing support to gifted children, extension of innovative culture of teachers, efficiency of management and

  6. The quality of health care services provided in health care centers of Khorramabad using SERVQUAL model in 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mohammad javad tarrahi

    2012-06-01

    Conclusion: Expectations of the clients in all aspects of offering services are beyond than their perceptions, and needed to improve the quality of offering services in these centers in all the dimensions especially empathy dimension. It is recommended that the quality of the offering services be assessed periodically in these centers and intervene to improve the delivering of health services.

  7. Prenatal Testosterone and Preschool Disruptive Behavior Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Bethan A; Martel, Michelle M

    2013-11-01

    Disruptive Behaviors Disorders (DBD), including Oppositional-Defiant Disorder (ODD) and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), are fairly common and highly impairing childhood behavior disorders that can be diagnosed as early as preschool. Prenatal exposure to testosterone may be particularly relevant to these early-emerging DBDs that exhibit a sex-biased prevalence rate favoring males. The current study examined associations between preschool DBD symptom domains and prenatal exposure to testosterone measured indirectly via right 2D:4D finger-length ratios. The study sample consisted of 109 preschool-age children between ages 3 and 6 (64% males;72% with DBD) and their primary caregivers. Primary caregivers completed a semi-structured interview (i.e., Kiddie Disruptive Behavior Disorder Schedule), as well as symptom questionnaires (i.e., Disruptive Behavior Rating Scale, Peer Conflict Scale); teachers and/or daycare providers completed symptom questionnaires and children provided measures of prenatal testosterone exposure, measured indirectly via finger-length ratios (i.e., right 2D:4D). Study results indicated a significant association of high prenatal testosterone (i.e., smaller right 2D:4D) with high hyperactive-impulsive ADHD symptoms in girls but not boys, suggesting that the effect may be driven by, or might only exist in, girls. The present study suggests that prenatal exposure to testosterone may increase risk for early ADHD, particularly hyperactivity-impulsivity, in preschool girls.

  8. Heterogeneity in Maltreated and Non-maltreated Preschool Children’s Inhibitory Control: The Interplay Between Parenting Quality and Child Temperament

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipriano-Essel, Elizabeth; Skowron, Elizabeth A.; Stifter, Cynthia A.; Teti, Douglas M.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the contribution of child temperament, parenting, and their interaction on inhibitory control development in a sample of maltreated and non-maltreated preschool children. One hundred and eighteen mother–child dyads were drawn from predominantly low-income, rural communities. Dyads participated in a laboratory session in which maternal warm autonomy support, warm guidance, and strict/hostile control were observationally coded during a joint teaching task. Independent assessments of children’s inhibitory control were obtained, and observers rated children’s temperament. After relevant covariates, including income, maternal education, and child age and IQ were controlled for, there were no differences between the maltreatment and non-maltreatment groups in either children’s inhibitory control or mothers’ behaviours in the laboratory session. Even after much of the variance in children’s inhibitory control was accounted for from the covariates, children’s temperamental negativity moderated the effects of warm autonomy support on inhibitory control in both maltreatment and non-maltreatment groups. Temperamentally negative children whose mothers displayed more warm autonomy support showed greater inhibitory control, at levels on par with low-negative children. Findings suggest that heterogeneity in children’s self-regulation may be due in part to individual differences in sensitivity to caregiver support for children’s independence, even among those exposed to maltreatment. PMID:24729743

  9. Changes in sexual roles and quality of life for gay men after prostate cancer: challenges for sexual health providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Tae L; Coon, David W; Kowalkowski, Marc A; Zhang, Karen; Hersom, Justin I; Goltz, Heather H; Wittmann, Daniela A; Latini, David M

    2014-09-01

    Gay men with prostate cancer (GMPCa) may have differential health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and sexual health outcomes than heterosexual men with prostate cancer (PCa), but existing information is based on clinical experience and small studies. Our goals were to: (i) describe HRQOL and examine changes in sexual functioning and bother; (ii) explore the psychosocial aspects of sexual health after PCa; and (iii) examine whether there were significant differences on HRQOL and sexual behavior between GMPCa and published norms. A convenience sample of GMPCa completed validated disease-specific and general measures of HRQOL, ejaculatory function and bother, fear of cancer recurrence, and satisfaction with prostate cancer care. Measures of self-efficacy for PCa management, illness intrusiveness, and disclosure of sexual orientation were also completed. Where possible, scores were compared against published norms. Main outcome measures were self-reported sexual functioning and bother on the Expanded Prostate Cancer Index. Compared with norms, GMPCa reported significantly worse functioning and more severe bother scores on urinary, bowel, hormonal symptom scales (Ps sexual functioning scores (P sexual bother scores were similar to that of published samples. GMPCa tended to be more "out" about their sexual orientation than other samples of gay men. GMPCa reported substantial changes in sexual functioning after PCa treatment. They also reported significantly worse disease-specific and general HRQOL, fear of recurrence, and were less satisfied with their medical care than other published PCa samples. Sexual health providers must have an awareness of the unique functional and HRQOL differences between gay and heterosexual men with PCa. © 2014 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  10. Development of quality indicators for transition from pediatric to adult care in sickle cell disease: A modified Delphi survey of adult providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobota, Amy E; Shah, Nishita; Mack, Jennifer W

    2017-06-01

    Transition from pediatric to adult care is a vulnerable time for young adults with sickle cell disease (SCD); however, improvements in transition are limited by a lack of quality indicators. The purpose of this study was to establish quality indicators for transition in SCD and to determine the optimal timing between the final pediatric visit and the first adult provider visit. We conducted a modified Delphi survey to reach a consensus on which quality indicators are most important for a successful transition. Our expert panel consisted of members of the Sickle Cell Adult Provider Network. In the first round, the participants ranked a list of quality indicators by importance. In the second round, the participants chose their "top 5" quality indicators in terms of importance and also ranked them on feasibility. The response rates for the two rounds were 68 and 96%, respectively. Nine quality indicators were chosen as "top 5" by a majority of respondents, including communication between pediatric and adult providers, timing of first adult visit, patient self-efficacy, quality of life, and trust with their adult provider. Based on the comments from round 1, respondents were also asked for the optimal timing between leaving pediatric care and entering adult care. Most recommended a first adult visit within 2 months of the final pediatric visit. By using these quality indicators chosen by the majority of respondents, we can better develop and evaluate transition programs for young adults with SCD and improve health outcomes for these vulnerable patients. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Delivering Service Quality in Alcohol Treatment: A Qualitative Comparison of Public and Private Treatment Centres by Service Users and Service Providers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnick, Sheilagh M.; Griffiths, Mark D.

    2012-01-01

    In the UK, quality of care has now been placed at the centre of the National Health Service (NHS) modernisation programme. To date, there has been little research on the service quality delivery of alcohol treatment services from the perspective of both the service user and service provider. Therefore, this qualitative study explored the…

  12. High-Protein and High-Dietary Fiber Breakfasts Result in Equal Feelings of Fullness and Better Diet Quality in Low-Income Preschoolers Compared with Their Usual Breakfast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranz, Sibylle; Brauchla, Mary; Campbell, Wayne W; Mattes, Rickard D; Schwichtenberg, Amy J

    2017-03-01

    Background: In the United States, 17% of children are currently obese. Increasing feelings of fullness may prevent excessive energy intake, lead to better diet quality, and promote long-term maintenance of healthy weight.Objective: The purpose of this study was to develop a fullness-rating tool (aim 1) and to determine whether a high-protein (HP), high-fiber (HF), and combined HP and HF (HPHF) breakfast increases preschoolers' feelings of fullness before (pre) and after (post) breakfast and pre-lunch, as well as their diet quality, as measured by using a composite diet quality assessment tool, the Revised Children's Diet Quality Index (aim 2).Methods: Children aged 4 and 5 y (n = 41; 22 girls and 19 boys) from local Head Start centers participated in this randomized intervention trial. Sixteen percent of boys and 32% of girls were overweight or obese. After the baseline week, children rotated through four 1-wk periods of consuming ad libitum HP (19-20 g protein), HF (10-11 g fiber), HPHF (19-21 g protein, 10-12 g fiber), or usual (control) breakfasts. Food intake at breakfast was estimated daily, and for breakfast, lunch, and snack on day 3 of each study week Student's t tests and ANOVA were used to determine statistical differences.Results: Children's post-breakfast and pre-lunch fullness ratings were ≥1 point higher than those of pre-breakfast (aim 1). Although children consumed, on average, 65 kcal less energy during the intervention breakfasts (P < 0.007) than during the control breakfast, fullness ratings did not differ (P = 0.76). Relative to the control breakfast, improved diet quality (12%) was calculated for the HP and HF breakfasts (P < 0.027) but not for the HPHF breakfast (aim 2).Conclusions: Post-breakfast fullness ratings were not affected by the intervention breakfasts relative to the control breakfast. HP and HF breakfasts resulted in higher diet quality. Serving HP or HF breakfasts may be valuable in improving diet quality without lowering

  13. Does Professional Development of Preschool Teachers Improve Child Socio-Emotional Outcomes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bente; Jensen, Peter; Rasmussen, Astrid Würtz

    From 2011 to 2013 a randomized controlled trial has been run in Danish preschools to obtain evidence on improvements of early childhood education by providing training to the preschool teachers. The purpose of the intervention is to improve child socio-emotional outcomes (measured by SDQ), especi......From 2011 to 2013 a randomized controlled trial has been run in Danish preschools to obtain evidence on improvements of early childhood education by providing training to the preschool teachers. The purpose of the intervention is to improve child socio-emotional outcomes (measured by SDQ...

  14. CREATIVITY OF PRESCHOOL AND ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHERS AND THEIR STUDENTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sali, Güneş; Akyol, Aysel Köksal

    2015-12-01

    Although creativity provides a considerable number of advantages, many teachers have direct and indirect prejudices against creative students since they may display distracting and disruptive behaviors toward teachers and classmates. To determine how teachers' creativity affects their students' creative development, 90 preschool and elementary school teachers and 90 pupils were assessed for creative thinking. The children's sex was not correlated with creativity scores. There were small, significant relationships between various measures of preschool teachers' and students' creativity.

  15. METHODIC OF DEVELOPMENT OF MOTOR GIFTEDNESS OF PRESCHOOL CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedorova Svetlana Yurievna

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Education and training of gifted children today appropriate to consider as an important strategic task of modern society. In this context, the purpose of research is the development motor giftedness, which is particularly relevant at the stage of pre-school education, which is caused by age-preschoolers. Preschoolers' motor giftedness is considered by the author as developing integrated quality, including psychomotor skills, inclinations, increased motivation for motor activity. In the process of study the following methods are used: the study and analysis of the scientific and methodological literature on studies, questioning, interview, testing of physical fitness, statistical data processing. The result of research work is methodic of development of motor giftedness on physical education in preschool. The author's methodic consists of four steps: diagnostic, prognostic, practice and activity, social and pedagogical. Each step determines the inclusion of preschool children in sports and developing environment that meets his or her abilities and needs through the creation of certain social and educational conditions. The area of using results of the author's methodic is preschool and the system of improvement professional skill of teachers.

  16. METHODIC OF DEVELOPMENT OF MOTOR GIFTEDNESS OF PRESCHOOL CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Светлана Юрьевна Федорова

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Education and training of gifted children today appropriate to consider as an important strategic task of modern society. In this context, the purpose of research is the development motor giftedness, which is particularly relevant at the stage of pre-school education, which is caused by age-preschoolers. Preschoolers' motor giftedness is considered by the author as developing integrated quality, including psychomotor skills, inclinations, increased motivation for motor activity. In the process of study the following methods are used:  the study and analysis of the scientific and methodological literature on studies, questioning, interview, testing of physical fitness, statistical data processing.The result of research work is methodic of development of motor giftedness on physical education in preschool. The author's methodic consists of four steps:  diagnostic, prognostic, practice and activity, social and pedagogical. Each step determines the inclusion of preschool children in sports and developing environment that meets his or her abilities and needs through the creation of certain social and educational conditions.The area of using results of the author's methodic is preschool and the system of improvement professional skill of teachers. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-4-31

  17. What do children learn at Swedish Preschools?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lindström, Lisbeth

    2013-01-01

    ...’ perception of what children enrolled in preschools learn and how they learn it; and second, to highlight and illuminate what abilities preschool teachers perceive that children can develop during their stay at preschool...

  18. Do Space Requirement Applicable in Private Preschools?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salleh Naziah Muhamad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Working or studying in a comfortable environment enhances not only well-being, but also satisfaction and therefore increase the productivity and learning. The numbers of private preschool in Malaysia boost every year. Frequently they operate in premises that have been fully refurbished. This has invited the questions on the building capability and space condition to provide a good environment to the children during the learning activities. Most of the building was refurbished to enhance it applicability as a school. Yet, these adaptive-reused buildings are doubtful. This research focused to identify the characteristics of the buildings’ physical and condition as well as the scenario of refurbished private preschool in accordance with the standard. Observation particularly on space and pupils density either it is reckoning with the authorities’ requirements. Most of the building was refurbished to enhance it applicability as a school. The data obtained from the observation and staff’s interview to 237 preschool (771 classrooms. The data revealed in most of preschools, the occupants in the classrooms were over the limit regulating by the authority. The data obtained was analyzed to become a reference and benchmark to the authorities to prepare the private preschool’s applications.

  19. Assessment of Attention in Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahone, E.M.; Schneider, H.E.

    2012-01-01

    In the past two decades, there has been an increased interest in the assessment and treatment of preschool children presenting with concerns about attention problems. This article reviews the research and clinical literature involving assessment of attention and related skills in the preschool years. While inattention among preschoolers is common, symptoms alone do not necessarily indicate a disorder, and most often represent a normal variation in typical preschool child development. Thus, accurate identification of “disordered” attention in preschoolers can be challenging, and development of appropriate, norm-referenced tests of attention for preschoolers is also difficult. The current review suggests that comprehensive assessment of attention and related functions in the preschool child should include thorough review of the child’s history, planned observations, and formal psychometric testing. The three primary methods of psychometric assessment that have been used to characterize attentional functioning in preschool children include performance-based tests, structured caregiver interviews, and rating scales (parent, teacher, and clinician). Among performance-based methods for measurement of attention in the preschool years, tests have been developed to assess sustained attention, selective (focused) attention, span of attention (encoding/manipulation), and (top-down) controlled attention—including freedom from distractibility and set shifting. Many of these tests remain experimental in nature, and review of published methods yields relatively few commercially available, nationally normed tests of attention for preschoolers, and an overall dearth of reliability and validity studies on the available measures. PMID:23090646

  20. Montessori Preschool Elevates and Equalizes Child Outcomes: A Longitudinal Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angeline S. Lillard

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Quality preschool programs that develop the whole child through age-appropriate socioemotional and cognitive skill-building hold promise for significantly improving child outcomes. However, preschool programs tend to either be teacher-led and didactic, or else to lack academic content. One preschool model that involves both child-directed, freely chosen activity and academic content is Montessori. Here we report a longitudinal study that took advantage of randomized lottery-based admission to two public Montessori magnet schools in a high-poverty American city. The final sample included 141 children, 70 in Montessori and 71 in other schools, most of whom were tested 4 times over 3 years, from the first semester to the end of preschool (ages 3–6, on a variety of cognitive and socio-emotional measures. Montessori preschool elevated children’s outcomes in several ways. Although not different at the first test point, over time the Montessori children fared better on measures of academic achievement, social understanding, and mastery orientation, and they also reported relatively more liking of scholastic tasks. They also scored higher on executive function when they were 4. In addition to elevating overall performance on these measures, Montessori preschool also equalized outcomes among subgroups that typically have unequal outcomes. First, the difference in academic achievement between lower income Montessori and higher income conventionally schooled children was smaller at each time point, and was not (statistically speaking significantly different at the end of the study. Second, defying the typical finding that executive function predicts academic achievement, in Montessori classrooms children with lower executive function scored as well on academic achievement as those with higher executive function. This suggests that Montessori preschool has potential to elevate and equalize important outcomes, and a larger study of public Montessori

  1. Montessori Preschool Elevates and Equalizes Child Outcomes: A Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillard, Angeline S; Heise, Megan J; Richey, Eve M; Tong, Xin; Hart, Alyssa; Bray, Paige M

    2017-01-01

    Quality preschool programs that develop the whole child through age-appropriate socioemotional and cognitive skill-building hold promise for significantly improving child outcomes. However, preschool programs tend to either be teacher-led and didactic, or else to lack academic content. One preschool model that involves both child-directed, freely chosen activity and academic content is Montessori. Here we report a longitudinal study that took advantage of randomized lottery-based admission to two public Montessori magnet schools in a high-poverty American city. The final sample included 141 children, 70 in Montessori and 71 in other schools, most of whom were tested 4 times over 3 years, from the first semester to the end of preschool (ages 3-6), on a variety of cognitive and socio-emotional measures. Montessori preschool elevated children's outcomes in several ways. Although not different at the first test point, over time the Montessori children fared better on measures of academic achievement, social understanding, and mastery orientation, and they also reported relatively more liking of scholastic tasks. They also scored higher on executive function when they were 4. In addition to elevating overall performance on these measures, Montessori preschool also equalized outcomes among subgroups that typically have unequal outcomes. First, the difference in academic achievement between lower income Montessori and higher income conventionally schooled children was smaller at each time point, and was not (statistically speaking) significantly different at the end of the study. Second, defying the typical finding that executive function predicts academic achievement, in Montessori classrooms children with lower executive function scored as well on academic achievement as those with higher executive function. This suggests that Montessori preschool has potential to elevate and equalize important outcomes, and a larger study of public Montessori preschools is warranted.

  2. Trans-Friendly Preschool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dykstra, Laurel A.

    2005-01-01

    Transgender kids and kids from trans families attend preschool and kindergarten. For the safety, comfort, and optimum learning of these students, trans-positive early childhood education environments are necessary. Through simple changes to existing curricula and equipment, teachers, parents, and administrators can create a trans-positive setting…

  3. Preschool Children's School Readiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekdogan, Serpil; Akgül, Esra

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine preschool teachers' perspectives about children's school readiness. Qualitative and quantitative research methods were used in the study as a mixed method research. Data, in the quantitative aspects of the research, were collected through the use of "School Readiness Form" developed by Boz (2004)…

  4. Child Development: Preschool Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiam, Heng Keng, Ed.

    This book reports some of the results of an extensive study of the physical, cognitive, language, social, and emotional development of Malaysian children. Chapter 1 of the book describes the demographics of the sample. Subjects were 3,099 preschool children in the state of Selangor and the federal district of Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Data is…

  5. Educational Psychotherapy of Preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Myron; Ronald, Doris

    Educational psychotherapy for preschool children and its functioning are described in detail. Also described is the process of training teachers to do this work. The educational psychotherapy process attempts to operate at the interface between education and psychotherapy. The components of catharsis, recall, sharpening and correcting of…

  6. Association of State-Level Restrictions in Nurse Practitioner Scope of Practice With the Quality of Primary Care Provided to Medicare Beneficiaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perloff, Jennifer; Clarke, Sean; DesRoches, Catherine M; O'Reilly-Jacob, Monica; Buerhaus, Peter

    2017-09-01

    State scope of practice (SoP) laws impose significant restrictions on the services that a nurse practitioner (NP) may provide in some states, yet evidence about SoP limitations on the quality of primary care is very limited. This study uses six different classifications of state regulations and bivariate and multivariate analyses to compare beneficiaries attributed to primary care nurse practitioners and primary care physicians in 2013 testing two hypotheses: (1) chronic disease management, cancer screening, preventable hospitalizations, and adverse outcomes of care provided by primary care nurse practitioners are better in reduced and restricted practice states compared to states without restrictions and (2) by decreasing access to care, SoP restrictions negatively affect the quality of primary care. Results show a lack of consistent association between quality of primary care provided by NPs and state SoP restrictions. State regulations restricting NP SoP do not improve the quality of care.

  7. Preschool teacher's role in helping preschoolers develop healthy eating habits

    OpenAIRE

    Pellis, Mateja

    2016-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the preschool teacher's role in helping preschoolers develop healthy eating habits. An attempt was made to determine her or his attitude toward the principle of choice and diversity, the principle of equal opportunities and recognizing diversity among children, as well as the principle of multiculturalism. The theoretical sections deal with the criteria of healthy nutrition in the preschool period and the forming of eating habits in early childhood – these manifest ...

  8. Factors of the active listening of preschool children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purić Daliborka S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Active listening is a communication skill which is crucial for the development of cooperative relationships in the group, culture of friendship and fellowship, it is also important for the development of literacy skills and talent for speaking. Furthermore, it contributes to the improvement of the level of knowledge, skills and school achievement, as well as to the development of self-confidence of children. Developing of active listening is an important task in the activities with children of preschool age. In this paper, the author, wanting to determine the importance of the factors of active listening of preschool children, examines how preschool teachers (N = 198: (a evaluate the importance of certain elements of active listening that relate to the speaker and the listener, and (b estimate their role in the process of developing active listening skills of preschool children as an essential element of successful interpersonal communication. Results of the survey show that preschool teachers attach greater importance to the factors of active listening related to the listener (attention, listening skill, interest in the subject, than to the factors related to the speaker (motivation for listening, quality of the narrative. More than two-thirds of surveyed preschool teachers (172 or 86.9% define its impact on the stimulation of active listening of children as significant. Work experience and professional qualifications as independent variables significantly influence the attitudes of preschool teachers about the importance of their impact in stimulating active listening. Preschool teacher is a key element of the training of preschool children in the area of the basic communication skills of active listening. In this sense, the results of our survey show that in the context of academic study programs for education of preschool teachers special attention is given to the communication skills and to their role in the development of active listening

  9. A Cost-Benefit Analysis of Universal Preschool Education: Evidence from a Spanish Reform

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Huizen, T.M.; Dumhs, E.; Plantenga, J.

    2016-01-01

    This study provides a cost-benefit analysis of expanding access to universal preschool education. We focus on a Spanish reform that lowered the age of eligibility for publicly provided universal preschool from age 4 to age 3. We extrapolate the benefits in terms of maternal employment and child

  10. Correlates of child-father and child-mother attachment in the preschool years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bureau, Jean-François; Martin, Jodi; Yurkowski, Kim; Schmiedel, Sabrina; Quan, Jeffry; Moss, Ellen; Deneault, Audrey-Ann; Pallanca, Dominique

    2017-04-01

    The increase in fathers' involvement in childrearing, particularly beyond infancy, warrants research exploring factors influencing the quality of child-father attachment relationships, and the impact of these relationships on children's social development. The current investigation explored various correlates of preschoolers' child-father attachment security to both parents, including contextual factors (i.e., socioeconomic status, child temperament, parenting stress), parental play sensitivity, and child social adaptation. Participants included 107 preschool-aged children (59 girls; M = 46.67 months, SD = 8.57) and their fathers and mothers. Results revealed that both mothers' and fathers' play sensitivity were associated with child attachment security after controlling for different contextual factors. Furthermore, the magnitude of the association between child conduct problems and child-father attachment insecurity was stronger than the corresponding association with child-mother attachment insecurity. Findings provide important information on caregiving factors associated with child-father attachment security in the preschool years and the importance of this bond to children's social adaptation.

  11. 75 FR 44971 - Medicaid Program; Request for Comments on Legislative Changes To Provide Quality of Care to Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-30

    ... conditions. + Chronic health care. + Health services to ameliorate the effects of physical and mental... these factors affecting the quality of care given to children under titles XIX and XXI, the Secretary is... Doc No: 2010-18140] DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services...

  12. Computerized Provider Order Entry and Health Care Quality on Hospital Level among Pediatric Patients during 2006-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liya

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the association between Computerized Physician Order Entry (CPOE) application and healthcare quality in pediatric patients at hospital level. This was a retrospective study among 1,428 hospitals with pediatric setting in Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP) Kid's Inpatient Database (KID) and Health Information and…

  13. Providing High-Quality Support Services to Home-Based Child Care: A Conceptual Model and Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromer, Juliet; Korfmacher, Jon

    2017-01-01

    Research Findings: Home-based child care accounts for a significant proportion of nonparental child care arrangements for young children in the United States. Yet the early care and education field lacks clear models or pathways for how to improve quality in these settings. The conceptual model presented here articulates the components of…

  14. Health Care of Latino Children with Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities: Quality of Provider Interaction Mediates Utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parish, Susan; Magana, Sandra; Rose, Roderick; Timberlake, Maria; Swaine, Jamie G.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines access to, utilization of, and quality of health care for Latino children with autism and other developmental disabilities. We analyze data from the National Survey of Children with Special Health Care Needs (N = 4,414 children with autism and other developmental disabilities). Compared with White children, Latino children with…

  15. The Effect of Cognitive Appraisal on Quality of Life of Providers of Home Care for Patients With Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, Hsiang-Chu; Tsai, Yi-Chen

    2016-02-01

    Stroke is a major cause of long-term disability. Most stroke survivors return to their own home and need to be cared for by family members, most of whom are informal caregivers. The aim of this study was to identify whether cognitive appraisal influences health-related quality of life. A cross-sectional, descriptive, correlational design was used. Participants included 77 primary support persons, mean age = 59.47 years, who were younger than stroke survivors (mean age = 78.13 years). Data were collected between March-November 2012 and obtained through face-to-face interviews, using the Short-Form-36 Health Survey, Caregiver Burden Inventory, and five cognitive appraisal questions. In addition, the Barthel Index, Modified Rankin Scale, and Glasgow Coma Scale were used to assess patient disease severity. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis was used to identify predictors of health-related quality of life. The results indicated that 61% of participants rated their health as poor or fair. Patient severity, gender of primary support person, age, employment, burden, and cognitive appraisal impact accounted for 45.8% of the variance in primary support persons' physical component summary of health-related quality of life, with age, burden, and appraisal impact being the strongest of six predictors. In addition, burden and appraisal impact were the strongest of six predictors, explaining 18.1% of the variance in primary support persons' mental component summary of health-related quality of life. The results of the current study further highlight the importance of cognitive appraisal on the stroke survivor's primary support person's health-related quality of life.

  16. Improving the quality of paediatric malaria diagnosis and treatment by rural providers in Myanmar: an evaluation of a training and support intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aung, Tin; Longfield, Kim; Aye, Nyo Me; San, Aung Kyaw; Sutton, Thea S; Montagu, Dominic

    2015-10-09

    This study evaluates the effectiveness of a training programme for improving the diagnostic and treatment quality of the most complex service offered by Sun Primary Health (SPH) providers, paediatric malaria. The study further assesses whether any quality improvements were sustained over the following 12 months. The study took place in 13 townships in central Myanmar between January 2011 and October 2012. A total of 251 community health workers were recruited and trained in the provision of paediatric and adult malaria diagnosis and treatment; 197 were surveyed in all three rounds: baseline, 6 and 12 months. Townships were selected based on a lack of alterative sources of medical care, averaging 20 km from government or private professional health care treatment facilities. Seventy percent of recruits were assistant nurse midwives or had other basic health training; the rest had no health training experience. Recruits were evaluated on their ability to properly diagnosis and treat a simulated 5-year-old patient using a previously validated method known as Observed Simulated Patient. A trained observer scored SPH providers on a scale of 1-100, based on WHO and Myanmar MOH established best practices. During a pilot test, 20 established private physicians operating in malaria-endemic areas of Myanmar scored an average of 70/100. Average quality scores of newly recruited SPH providers prior to training (baseline) were 12/100. Six months after training, average quality scores were 48/100. This increase was statistically significant (p training, providers were retested and average quality scores were 45/100 (R3-R1, p training programme was able to improve the quality of paediatric malaria care significantly, and to maintain that improvement over time. Quality of care remains lower than that of trained physicians; however, SPH providers operate in rural areas where no trained physicians operate. More research is needed to establish acceptable and achievable levels of

  17. Assessment of the quality of antenatal care services provided by health workers using a mobile phone decision support application in northern Nigeria: a pre/post-intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNabb, Marion; Chukwu, Emeka; Ojo, Oluwayemisi; Shekhar, Navendu; Gill, Christopher J; Salami, Habeeb; Jega, Farouk

    2015-01-01

    Given the shortage of skilled healthcare providers in Nigeria, frontline community health extension workers (CHEWs) are commonly tasked with providing maternal and child health services at primary health centers. In 2012, we introduced a mobile case management and decision support application in twenty primary health centers in northern Nigeria, and conducted a pre-test/post-test study to assess whether the introduction of the app had an effect on the quality of antenatal care services provided by this lower-level cadre. Using the CommCare mobile platform, the app dynamically guides CHEWs through antenatal care protocols and collects client data in real time. Thirteen health education audio clips are also embedded in the app for improving and standardizing client counseling. To detect changes in quality, we developed an evidence-based quality score consisting of 25 indicators, and conducted a total of 266 client exit interviews. We analyzed baseline and endline data to assess changes in the overall quality score as well as changes in the provision of key elements of antenatal care. Overall, the quality score increased from 13.3 at baseline to 17.2 at endline (peducation. These study results suggest that the introduction of a low-cost mobile case management and decision support application can spur behavior change and improve the quality of services provided by a lower level cadre of healthcare workers. Future research should employ a more rigorous experimental design to explore potential longer-term effects on client health outcomes.

  18. Play or hard work: unpacking well-being at preschool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy-Behr, A; Rodger, S; Mickan, S

    2015-03-01

    Well-being or quality of life is thought to give a more accurate picture of the impact a condition has on day-to-day functioning than traditional outcome measures. This study sought to examine the relationship between engagement in play and well-being for preschool children with and without developmental coordination disorder (DCD). A quasi-experimental design was used with two independent groups of preschool children aged 4-6 years with (n=32) and without (n=31) probable DCD. Play skills were assessed using the Play Observation Scale based on 30min of videotape of free-play at preschool. Well-being was assessed using a parent-proxy version of the Revised Children Quality of Life Questionnaire (KINDL(R)). Spearman rho correlations were performed to examine the relationship between play and well-being. Well-being at preschool was significantly lower for the children in the DCD group however overall well-being was not significantly different. Engagement in type of social play (solitary, parallel or group) was found to predict well-being for the typically developing children. For the children with DCD, engagement in group play was not associated with well-being. An explanation for this difference may be that children with DCD may not experience free-play at preschool as "play" but rather as hard work. Further research is needed to determine why children with DCD experience lower well-being at preschool than their peers and to investigate children's perceptions of free-play. This may enable teachers and therapists to better support children with DCD in the preschool environment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Mathematics and Science Learning Opportunities in Preschool Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piasta, Shayne B.; Pelatti, Christina Yeager; Miller, Heather Lynnine

    2014-01-01

    Research findings The present study observed and coded instruction in 65 preschool classrooms to examine (a) overall amounts and (b) types of mathematics and science learning opportunities experienced by preschool children as well as (c) the extent to which these opportunities were associated with classroom and program characteristics. Results indicated that children were afforded an average of 24 and 26 minutes of mathematics and science learning opportunities, respectively, corresponding to spending approximately 25% of total instructional time in each domain. Considerable variability existed, however, in the amounts and types of mathematics and science opportunities provided to children in their classrooms; to some extent, this variability was associated with teachers’ years of experience, teachers’ levels of education, and the socioeconomic status of children served in the program. Practice/policy Although results suggest greater integration of mathematics and science in preschool classrooms than previously established, there was considerable diversity in the amounts and types of learning opportunities provided in preschool classrooms. Affording mathematics and science experiences to all preschool children, as outlined in professional and state standards, may require additional professional development aimed at increasing preschool teachers’ understanding and implementation of learning opportunities in these two domains in their classrooms. PMID:25489205

  20. Systematic review and proposal of a field-based physical fitness-test battery in preschool children: the PREFIT battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Francisco B; Cadenas-Sánchez, Cristina; Sánchez-Delgado, Guillermo; Mora-González, José; Martínez-Téllez, Borja; Artero, Enrique G; Castro-Piñero, Jose; Labayen, Idoia; Chillón, Palma; Löf, Marie; Ruiz, Jonatan R

    2015-04-01

    tests: the 20 m shuttle-run test for assessing cardiorespiratory fitness, the handgrip-strength and the standing long-jump tests for assessing musculoskeletal fitness, and the 4 × 10 m shuttle run and the one-leg-stance tests for assessing motor fitness, i.e. speed/agility and balance, respectively. The rationale for the selection of each of the tests included in the PREFIT battery is provided in this review, as well as directions for future research. Levels of evidence based on quality assessment of selected studies could not be constructed due to the limited number of studies identified for each test. The present systematic review has identified a need for further research on the validity of fitness tests in preschool children, as well as on their relationship with health. Due to this limited information, the PREFIT battery hereby proposed is based on the output of the current systematic review in preschool children, together with existing evidence in older children and adolescents. While we wait for more evidence to be accumulated in preschool children, the PREFIT battery hereby proposed is a useful tool for assessing physical fitness in children aged 3-5 years.

  1. Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy: Reviewing Current Best Practice to Provide High-Quality Extracorporeal Therapy to Critically Ill Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, Michael J; Karakala, Nithin

    2017-07-01

    Continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) use continues to expand globally. Despite improving technology, CRRT remains a complex intervention. Delivery of high-quality CRRT requires close collaboration of a multidisciplinary team including members of the critical care medicine, nephrology, nursing, pharmacy, and nutrition support teams. While significant gaps in medical evidence regarding CRRT persist, the growing evidence base supports evolving best practice and consensus to define high-quality CRRT. Unfortunately, there is wide variability in CRRT operating characteristics and limited uptake of these best practices. This article will briefly review the current best practice on important aspects of CRRT delivery including CRRT dose, anticoagulation, dialysis vascular access, fluid management, and drug dosing in CRRT. Copyright © 2017 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. [Providing quality pharmaceutical services in Brazil: items pending the unified health on the Unified Health System's agenda].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Fabiola Sulpino

    2008-08-01

    To identify items on the agenda of Brazil's Unified Health System that are related to the quality of pharmaceutical services and have not yet been implemented. Data were collected from the inspection reports issued by the federal government's controllership office. Inspection reports completed from August 2004-July 2006, available on the Internet, were reviewed. The issues identified were classified into 15 categories. Of the 660 inspections that were carried out, 659 were analyzed (one was unavailable). In 62 cities pharmaceutical assistance services had not been audited, therefore, a the final sample of 597 cities was analyzed (10.7% of Brazil's municipalities). Of these, 90.3% had issues associated with the management of resources or services. In 71% of the municipalities, the reports indicated lack of or deficient inventory control, and in 39%, inadequate storage conditions. A shortage of drugs was observed in 24% of the municipalities. The goals of Brazil's national drug and pharmaceutical assistance policies are far from being met. Quality pharmaceutical services must again be included on the agenda at all three government levels since it is impossible to have effective health care without quality pharmaceutical services.

  3. The use of microbead-based spoligotyping for Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex to evaluate the quality of the conventional method: providing guidelines for Quality Assurance when working on membranes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abadia, E.; Zhang, Jian; Ritacco, V.; Kremer, K.; Ruimy, R.; Rigouts, L.; Gomes, H.M.; Elias, A.R.; Fauville-Dufaux, M.; Stoffels, K.; Rasolofo-Razanamparany, V.; rcia de Viedma, D. Ga; Herranz, M.; Al-Hajoj, S.; Rastogi, N.; Garzelli, C.; Tortoli, E.; Suffys, P.N.; Soolingen, D. van; Refregier, G.; Sola, C.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The classical spoligotyping technique, relying on membrane reverse line-blot hybridization of the spacers of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis CRISPR locus, is used world-wide (598 references in Pubmed on April 8th, 2011). However, until now no inter-laboratory quality control study had

  4. Oscillometric and Spirometric Bronchodilator Response in Preschool Children with and without Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youn Ho Shin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bronchodilator responses (BDR are routinely used in the diagnosis and management of asthma; however, their acceptability and repeatability have not been evaluated using quality control criteria for preschool children.

  5. Assessment of the quality of antenatal care services provided by health workers using a mobile phone decision support application in northern Nigeria: a pre/post-intervention study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion McNabb

    Full Text Available Given the shortage of skilled healthcare providers in Nigeria, frontline community health extension workers (CHEWs are commonly tasked with providing maternal and child health services at primary health centers. In 2012, we introduced a mobile case management and decision support application in twenty primary health centers in northern Nigeria, and conducted a pre-test/post-test study to assess whether the introduction of the app had an effect on the quality of antenatal care services provided by this lower-level cadre.Using the CommCare mobile platform, the app dynamically guides CHEWs through antenatal care protocols and collects client data in real time. Thirteen health education audio clips are also embedded in the app for improving and standardizing client counseling. To detect changes in quality, we developed an evidence-based quality score consisting of 25 indicators, and conducted a total of 266 client exit interviews. We analyzed baseline and endline data to assess changes in the overall quality score as well as changes in the provision of key elements of antenatal care.Overall, the quality score increased from 13.3 at baseline to 17.2 at endline (p<0.0001, out of a total possible score of 25, with the most significant improvements related to health counseling, technical services provided, and quality of health education.These study results suggest that the introduction of a low-cost mobile case management and decision support application can spur behavior change and improve the quality of services provided by a lower level cadre of healthcare workers. Future research should employ a more rigorous experimental design to explore potential longer-term effects on client health outcomes.

  6. Preschool Teachers' Emotional Socialization Responses to 4-6 Year-Old Turkish Preschoolers' Emotional Expressions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilic, Sukran

    2015-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to investigate preschool teachers' emotion socialization responses to Turkish preschoolers' emotional expressions based on children's age and gender. The participants in the current study were 12 preschool full time teachers from 4 preschool and 288 preschoolers ranging in age from 4 to 6 years in Aksaray. In…

  7. Preschool Movement Education in Turkey: Perceptions of Preschool Administrators and Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevimli-Celik, Serap; Kirazci, Sadettin; Ince, Mustafa Levent

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the perceptions of preschool administrators and parents about preschool movement education and movement practices in preschools. Participants were 8 preschool administrators and 21 parents from 8 randomly selected private preschools in one of the municipalities in Ankara, Turkey. Semi-structured interviews,…

  8. Child Sexual Abuse at Preschools--A Research Review of a Complex Issue for Preschool Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergström, Helena; Eidevald, Christian; Westberg-Broström, Anna

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this research review is to synthesize research published between 2000 and 2015 regarding child sexual abuse, preschool and preschool teachers. The review identifies themes relevant for the preschool teacher profession: child sexual abuse at preschools, suspicions and consequences for the preschool sector, preventing techniques and…

  9. Features diagnostics gifted preschoolers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadiia Lazarovych

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Authors of the article analyze the problem of development of mathematical speech fromthe side of P. Galperin intellectual actions formation theory. The role of first and secondsignal systems in child’s learning of mathematical definitions is being validated and specialtraits learning of mathematical terms and definitions by children of early and preschool age isbeing comprehended: figure, quantity, scope, form, etc. Based on step-by-step theory ofintellectual actions, publication authors explain their own approach to provision of activemathematical speech development; by the example of integrated didactic module special traitsof comprehension by children of senior preschool age of logical operations, word terms, word’constructions are being commented; games and game exercises of logic-mathematicaldirectivity.Key words: intellectual actions formation steps, first and second signal systems,preschooler’s mathematical speech , mathematical development, integrated didactic module.

  10. Neck Circumference to Assess Obesity in Preschool Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondolot, Meda; Horoz, Duygu; Poyrazoğlu, Serpil; Borlu, Arda; Öztürk, Ahmet; Kurtoğlu, Selim; Mazıcıoğlu, Mümtaz M

    2017-03-01

    Limited information is available about the use of neck circumference (NC) to assess obesity in preschool children. This study aims to provide NC percentiles and determine the cut-off levels of NC as a measure to assess obesity in preschool children. The data were obtained from the Anthropometry of Turkish Children aged 0-6 years (ATCA-06) study database. A total of 21 family health centers were chosen and children aged 2-6 years old from all socioeconomic levels were randomly selected from the lists of district midwives; 1766 children (874 male and 892 female; 88.3% of sample size) were included in the study. The smoothed centile curves of NC were constructed by the LMS method. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed to calculate cut-off points for NC using body mass index ≥95 th percentile. Mean NC was greater in males than females. Cut-off values for obesity were found to be statistically significant in both genders other than 3 years old boys. The NC percentiles of Turkish preschool children were slightly greater than those of other European preschool children in both genders. This difference disappeared around the adiposity rebound period. The 97th percentile values for Turkish preschool children continue to be greater in both genders. NC may be useful to define obesity in preschool children. Since ethnic and various other factors may have a role in incidence of obesity, local reference data are important in assessment of obesity.

  11. Preschool Teachers' Perspectives on Planning and Documentation in Preschool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvestad, Torgeir; Sheridan, Sonja

    2015-01-01

    This article is based on a research project focusing on Norwegian teachers' planning and documentation of children's learning in preschool. Norwegian preschools follow a national curriculum and teachers are obliged to document both professional practice and learning outcomes. The aim of the article is to investigate teachers' experiences of…

  12. Domiciliary immunisation for preschool child defaulters.

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, A. E.

    1984-01-01

    A selective domiciliary immunisation service has been introduced for preschool children living in the Central Manchester Health District. The service is provided for the children of parents who have given written consent for immunisation but have subsequently failed to bring their children to the clinic or their general practitioner's surgery to start or complete the basic course of immunisation against diphtheria, tetanus, whooping cough, poliomyelitis, and measles. This failure has occurred...

  13. Quality and safety of hospital discharge: a study on experiences and perceptions of patients, relatives and care providers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselink, G.J.; Schoonhoven, L.; Plas, M. van der; Wollersheim, H.C.H.; Vernooij-Dassen, M.J.F.J.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify barriers experienced and perceived at discharge by physicians, nurses, patients and relatives. DESIGN: We developed questionnaires based on focus group interviews with hospital and community care providers, and individual interviews with patients and relatives. A survey was

  14. Psychometric Properties of the Beach Center Family Quality of Life in French-Speaking Families with a Preschool-Aged Child Diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivard, Mélina; Mercier, Céline; Mestari, Zakaria; Terroux, Amélie; Mello, Catherine; Bégin, Jean

    2017-01-01

    The Beach Center Family Quality of Life Scale (Beach Center FQOL) is used to evaluate and develop family-centered intervention services. However, its use with families of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and in non-English speaking populations requires further investigation. The present study sought to assess the psychometric…

  15. 2D XD-GRASP provides better image quality than conventional 2D cardiac cine MRI for patients who cannot suspend respiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piekarski, Eve; Chitiboi, Teodora; Ramb, Rebecca; Latson, Larry A; Bhatla, Puneet; Feng, Li; Axel, Leon

    2017-01-01

    Object Residual respiratory motion degrades image quality in conventional cardiac cine MRI (CCMR). We evaluated whether a free-breathing (FB) radial imaging CCMR sequence with compressed sensing reconstruction (eXtra-Dimension (e.g. cardiac and respiratory phases) Golden-angle RAdial Sparse Parallel, or XD-GRASP) could provide better image quality than a conventional Cartesian breath-held (BH) sequence, in an unselected population of patients undergoing clinical CCMR. Material and Methods 101 patients who underwent BH and FB imaging in a mid-ventricular short-axis plane at a matching location were included. Visual and quantitative image analysis was performed by two blinded experienced readers, using a 5-point qualitative scale to score overall image quality and visual signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) grade, with measures of noise and sharpness. End-diastole (ED) and end-systole (ES) left-ventricular areas were also measured and compared for both BH and FB images. Results Image quality was generally better with the BH cines (overall quality grade BH vs FB: 4 vs 2.9, pcine in general, it provided improved image quality in the subgroup of patients presenting respiratory motion-induced artifacts on breath-held images. PMID:29067539

  16. Perceptions of final-year nursing students on the facilities, resources and quality of education provided by schools in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güner, Perihan

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the perceptions of final-year nursing students regarding the adequacy of education, resources and internships in preparation for graduation. The study design was a descriptive cross-sectional study of nursing students (n: 1804) in their final year of education and questionnaires were used to collect data. Information related to student-to-instructor ratios and internships was obtained from each institution. Most students reported receiving instruction or supervision by lecturers and clinicians who did not specialise in the field. Overall, students did not find the facilities, educational or technological resources and the quality of education offered by their respective schools adequate. The proportion of students who found the level of theoretical education, clinical practice and instructor support adequate was higher in state university colleges of nursing/faculties of health sciences than in state university schools of health sciences.

  17. A high-quality carrot genome assembly provides new insights into carotenoid accumulation and asterid genome evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iorizzo, Massimo; Ellison, Shelby; Senalik, Douglas; Zeng, Peng; Satapoomin, Pimchanok; Huang, Jiaying; Bowman, Megan; Iovene, Marina; Sanseverino, Walter; Cavagnaro, Pablo; Yildiz, Mehtap; Macko-Podgórni, Alicja; Moranska, Emilia; Grzebelus, Ewa; Grzebelus, Dariusz; Ashrafi, Hamid; Zheng, Zhijun; Cheng, Shifeng; Spooner, David; Van Deynze, Allen; Simon, Philipp

    2016-06-01

    We report a high-quality chromosome-scale assembly and analysis of the carrot (Daucus carota) genome, the first sequenced genome to include a comparative evolutionary analysis among members of the euasterid II clade. We characterized two new polyploidization events, both occurring after the divergence of carrot from members of the Asterales order, clarifying the evolutionary scenario before and after radiation of the two main asterid clades. Large- and small-scale lineage-specific duplications have contributed to the expansion of gene families, including those with roles in flowering time, defense response, flavor, and pigment accumulation. We identified a candidate gene, DCAR_032551, that conditions carotenoid accumulation (Y) in carrot taproot and is coexpressed with several isoprenoid biosynthetic genes. The primary mechanism regulating carotenoid accumulation in carrot taproot is not at the biosynthetic level. We hypothesize that DCAR_032551 regulates upstream photosystem development and functional processes, including photomorphogenesis and root de-etiolation.

  18. Children's Storytelling: The Effect of Preschool and Family Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fekonja-Peklaj, Urska; Marjanovic-Umek, Ljubica; Kranjc, Simona

    2010-01-01

    Storytelling reflects children's pragmatic language ability, which develops rapidly in early childhood and is related to various characteristics of the child's environment. This study examines the effect of preschool, maternal education and quality of the home environment on children's storytelling skills. The sample included 229 Slovenian…

  19. Preschool Education: Delivering on the Promise for Latino Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltran, Erika

    2011-01-01

    This publication highlights opportunities to improve the educational outcomes of Hispanic children at an early age, a time that is critical to setting up the academic success of children. Specifically, this paper examines barriers to quality and access that limit the participation of Latino children and families in preschool and offers…

  20. Pre-school wheeze: determinants and health care effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Gugten, A.C.

    2012-01-01

    Wheezing illnesses are an important health problem in children and are a threat to the quality of life of children and their families and account for a large number of primary healthcare consultations in the first years of life. Pre-school wheeze is a symptom that can precede the development of

  1. Evaluation of input and process components of quality of child health services provided at 24 × 7 primary health centers of a district in Central Gujarat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavda, Paragkumar; Misra, Shobha

    2015-01-01

    With the critical Indian challenge on child survival and health, time is ripe to initiate focus on quality of services apart from measuring coverage, to bring about improvements. To assess the quality of child health services provided at 24 × 7 Primary Health Centers of Vadodara District in Gujarat in terms of Input and Process Indicators. The study was carried out in 12 randomly chosen 24 × 7 Primary Health Centers (PHCs) of Vadodara district using a modified quality assessment checklist of the Program on District Quality Assurance for Reproductive and Child Health (RCH) services with use of scores from May 2010 to June 2011. Inputs assessment was done by facility survey. Process assessment for the four child health service components used actual observation of service, review of records and interview of service providers and clients. The mean obtained score for facilities in Input section was 65%. Highest score was obtained for Drugs and Consumables (86%) followed by Equipments and Supplies (74%). The score obtained for Infrastructure facility was 65%, Personnel and training was 56% and Essential protocols and guidelines scored 43%. The mean obtained score in the process section was 55%. Highest scores were obtained for immunization at 76%. This was followed by newborn care (52%), growth monitoring (52%). management of sick child (41%). Quality improvement efforts should focus not only on resource-intensive structural improvements, but also on cost-effective measures at improving service delivery process, especially adherence to service guidelines by providers.

  2. Motivations and Barriers in Promoting Preschool Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küçükturan, A. Güler; Akbaba Altun, Sadegül

    2017-01-01

    This study is designed to explore the reasons for sending and not sending preschool age children to preschools at an early age by exploring the motivations for and barriers towards promoting preschool education in Turkey. It aimed to determine various stakeholders' perceptions, attitudes, and knowledge related to preschool education in order to…

  3. What Do Children Learn at Swedish Preschools?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindström, Lisbeth

    2013-01-01

    The purposes of this research are, first, to make visible, examine, and illuminate preschool teachers' perception of what children enrolled in preschools learn and how they learn it; and second, to highlight and illuminate what abilities preschool teachers perceive that children can develop during their stay at preschools. As a theoretical…

  4. Direct Vocabulary Instruction in Preschool: A Comparison of Extended Instruction, Embedded Instruction, and Incidental Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loftus-Rattan, Susan M.; Mitchell, Alison M.; Coyne, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    Based on its coincidence with a significant period in language development for children, preschool provides a favorable setting to foster vocabulary growth. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of two instructional conditions and an incidental exposure condition for teaching targeted vocabulary words to preschool students…

  5. Case Study on Teachers' Contribution to Children's Participation in Finnish Preschool Classrooms during Structured Learning Sessions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salminen, Jenni Elina

    2013-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to identify different teaching practices and explore the types of opportunities that they provide for children's participation in four different Finnish preschool classrooms for 6-year olds during structured learning sessions. Observational data of four preschool teachers were analyzed according to the principles of…

  6. Experiences and Outcomes of Preschool Physical Education: An Analysis of Developmental Discourses in Scottish Curricular Documentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEvilly, Nollaig

    2014-01-01

    This article provides an analysis of developmental discourses underpinning preschool physical education in Scotland's Curriculum for Excellence. Implementing a post-structural perspective, the article examines the preschool experiences and outcomes related to physical education as presented in the Curriculum for Excellence "health and…

  7. The Self-Efficacy Scale for Preschool Teachers Regarding Asthma Care: Instrument Development and Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gau, Bih-Shya; Hung, Chao-Chia

    2014-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to develop and test the psychometric properties of a questionnaire that assesses preschool teachers' self-efficacy in providing asthma care. Methods: A total of 407 teachers from 54 preschools in Taiwan participated in the study by completing the asthma management self-efficacy scale. We assessed validity…

  8. Drawing Children into Reading: A Qualitative Case Study of a Preschool Drawing Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFauw, Danielle L.

    2016-01-01

    This article details a qualitative case study of 24 preschool children engaged with step-by-step drawing instruction provided by five educators as they developed their fine motor skills and drew detailed objects using the Drawing Children Into Reading curriculum (Halperin, W. A. (2011a). "Project 50 preschool manual." South Haven, MI:…

  9. Parent Attachment, Childrearing Behavior, and Child Attachment: Mediated Effects Predicting Preschoolers' Externalizing Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roskam, Isabelle; Meunier, Jean-Christophe; Stievenart, Marie

    2011-01-01

    Attachment theory provides an interesting background for thinking about externalizing behavior (EB) in early childhood and for understanding how parenting influences the child's outcomes. The study examined how attachment and parenting could be combined to explain preschoolers' EB. Data were collected from 117 preschoolers aged from 4 to 6…

  10. Two-dimensional XD-GRASP provides better image quality than conventional 2D cardiac cine MRI for patients who cannot suspend respiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piekarski, Eve; Chitiboi, Teodora; Ramb, Rebecca; Latson, Larry A; Bhatla, Puneet; Feng, Li; Axel, Leon

    2017-10-24

    Residual respiratory motion degrades image quality in conventional cardiac cine MRI (CCMRI). We evaluated whether a free-breathing (FB) radial imaging CCMRI sequence with compressed sensing reconstruction [extradimensional (e.g. cardiac and respiratory phases) golden-angle radial sparse parallel, or XD-GRASP] could provide better image quality than a conventional Cartesian breath-held (BH) sequence in an unselected population of patients undergoing clinical CCMRI. One hundred one patients who underwent BH and FB imaging in a midventricular short-axis plane at a matching location were included. Visual and quantitative image analysis was performed by two blinded experienced readers, using a five-point qualitative scale to score overall image quality and visual signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) grade, with measures of noise and sharpness. End-diastolic and end-systolic left ventricular areas were also measured and compared for both BH and FB images. Image quality was generally better with the BH cines (overall quality grade for BH vs FB images 4 vs 2.9, p images regarding end-diastolic or end-systolic areas (p = 0.35 and p = 0.12). Eighteen of the 101 patients had poor BH image quality (grade 1 or 2). In this subgroup, the quality of the FB images was better (p = 0.0032), as was the SNR grade (p = 0.003), but there were no significant differences regarding noise and sharpness (p = 0.45 and p = 0.47). Although FB XD-GRASP CCMRI was visually inferior to conventional BH CCMRI in general, it provided improved image quality in the subgroup of patients with respiratory-motion-induced artifacts on BH images.

  11. Defining Nature-Based Preschools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larimore, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    Nature-based early childhood education. Nature-based preschool. Nature preschool. Forest kindergarten. Nature kindergarten. Waldkindergarten. Forest school. These are a few of the program terms currently being discussed among early childhood environmental education professionals in the United States. Why is there so much discussion about the names…

  12. The use of microbead-based spoligotyping for Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex to evaluate the quality of the conventional method: Providing guidelines for Quality Assurance when working on membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garzelli Carlo

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The classical spoligotyping technique, relying on membrane reverse line-blot hybridization of the spacers of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis CRISPR locus, is used world-wide (598 references in Pubmed on April 8th, 2011. However, until now no inter-laboratory quality control study had been undertaken to validate this technique. We analyzed the quality of membrane-based spoligotyping by comparing it to the recently introduced and highly robust microbead-based spoligotyping. Nine hundred and twenty-seven isolates were analyzed totaling 39,861 data points. Samples were received from 11 international laboratories with a worldwide distribution. Methods The high-throughput microbead-based Spoligotyping was performed on CTAB and thermolyzate DNA extracted from isolated Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC strains coming from the genotyping participating centers. Information regarding how the classical Spoligotyping method was performed by center was available. Genotype discriminatory analyses were carried out by comparing the spoligotypes obtained by both methods. The non parametric U-Mann Whitney homogeneity test and the Spearman rank correlation test were performed to validate the observed results. Results Seven out of the 11 laboratories (63 %, perfectly typed more than 90% of isolates, 3 scored between 80-90% and a single center was under 80% reaching 51% concordance only. However, this was mainly due to discordance in a single spacer, likely having a non-functional probe on the membrane used. The centers using thermolyzate DNA performed as well as centers using the more extended CTAB extraction procedure. Few centers shared the same problematic spacers and these problematic spacers were scattered over the whole CRISPR locus (Mostly spacers 15, 14, 18, 37, 39, 40. Conclusions We confirm that classical spoligotyping is a robust method with generally a high reliability in most centers. The applied DNA extraction procedure (CTAB

  13. Using a quality improvement model to enhance providers' performance in maternal and newborn health care : a post-only intervention and comparison design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ayalew, Firew; Eyassu, Gizachew; Seyoum, Negash; van Roosmalen, Jos; Bazant, Eva; Kim, Young Mi; Tekleberhan, Alemnesh; Gibson, Hannah; Daniel, Ephrem; Stekelenburg, Jelle

    2017-01-01

    Background: The Standards Based Management and Recognition (SBM-R (R)) approach to quality improvement has been implemented in Ethiopia to strengthen routine maternal and newborn health (MNH) services. This evaluation assessed the effect of the intervention on MNH providers' performance of routine

  14. A reduced factor structure for the PROQOL-HIV questionnaire provided reliable indicators of health-related quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalanne, Christophe; Chassany, Olivier; Carrieri, Patrizia; Marcellin, Fabienne; Armstrong, Andrew R; Lert, France; Spire, Bruno; Dray-Spira, Rosemary; Duracinsky, Martin

    2016-04-01

    To identify a simplified factor structure for the PROQOL-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) questionnaire to improve the measurement of the health-related quality of life (HRQL) of HIV-positive patients in clinical care and research settings. HRQL data were collected using the eight-dimension PROQOL-HIV questionnaire from 2,537 patients (VESPA2 study). Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) validated a simpler four-factor structure and assessed measurement invariance (MI). Multigroup analysis assessed the effect of sex, age, and antiretroviral therapy (ART) on the resulting factor scores. Correlations with symptom and Short Form (SF)-12 self-reports assessed convergent validity. Item analysis, EFA, and CFAs confirmed the validity [comparative fit index (CFI), 0.948; root mean square error of approximation, 0.064] and reliability (α's ≥ 0.8) of four dimensions: physical health and symptoms, health concerns and mental distress, social and intimate relationships, and treatment-related impact. Strong MI was demonstrated across sex and age (decrease in CFI indicator model indicated that HRQL correlated as expected with sex, age, and the ART status. Correlations of HRQL, symptom reports, and SF-12 scores evidenced convergent validity criterion. The simplified factor structure and scoring scheme for PROQOL-HIV will allow clinicians to monitor with greater reliability the HRQL of patients in clinical care and research settings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Triggering Parental Involvement for Parents of Different Language Backgrounds: The Role of Types of Partnership Activities and Preschool Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hachfeld, Axinja; Anders, Yvonne; Kuger, Susanne; Smidt, Wilfried

    2016-01-01

    Home and educational institutions are children's most important external influences and a positive partnership between the two can positively affect children's cognitive and non-cognitive development. Quality of family-preschool partnership (FPP) can depend on preschool and family characteristics. For Germany, studies show that immigrant parents…

  16. Understanding disruptive behavior problems in preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitenstein, Susan M; Hill, Carri; Gross, Deborah

    2009-02-01

    Disruptive behavior problems in young children are the number one reason for referral to mental health agencies. However, owing to difficulties differentiating clinically significant disruptive behaviors from typical development, a significant proportion of young children with disruptive behavior problems go unidentified and untreated. Research supports the existence of disruptive behavior disorders in young children, and early identification and treatment are critical to interrupt the trajectory of early problems to more significant and impairing difficulties. The purposes of this article were to identify and discuss disruptive behavior problems in preschool children and to introduce readers to current definitions of disruptive behavior problems and emotion regulation. A review of risk factors and underlying emotion and behavior regulation difficulties implicated in the development of disruptive behavior problems is provided. Furthermore, clinical implications for nurses in the identification of disruptive behavior problems in preschool children for pediatric nurses are discussed.

  17. A Quality Improvement Project to Improve Education Provided by Nurses to ED Patients Prescribed Opioid Analgesics at Discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waszak, Daria L; Mitchell, Ann M; Ren, Dianxu; Fennimore, Laura A

    2017-10-27

    The opioid crisis continues to take an unprecedented number of lives and is the top cause of injury death in the United States. The emergency department is a setting where patients with pain seek care and may be prescribed an opioid, yet many patients do not receive evidence-based education about taking their opioid safely. Like many communities across the country, Allegheny County, Pennsylvania, has experienced an increased rate of opioid overdoses; from 2015-2016, the number of opioid-related overdose deaths in the county increased by 44%. This quality improvement project is the implementation of a nurse-delivered, evidence-based education initiative for patients prescribed an opioid in an emergency department. Nurses were briefly trained on opioid safety and patient education, then over 12 weeks, delivered the dual-modal (verbal and written) education with a patient teach-back to verify comprehension. Nurses who completed the project training on opioid safety and patient education had a statistically significant improvement in their knowledge. Patient satisfaction surveys showed 100% of patients reported clear understanding of how to take their pain medication, and out of the patients receiving the opioid pain education for the first time, 88.2% learned something new about how to safely take, store, or dispose of their pain medication. Improving the delivery of opioid prescription education at emergency department discharge will enhance patient knowledge and promote safety, which may help mitigate the opioid crisis by reducing the rate of opioid use disorder and accidental overdoses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Adoption and Usage of mHealth Technology on Quality and Experience of Care Provided by Frontline Workers: Observations From Rural India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaphle, Sangya; Chaturvedi, Sharad; Chaudhuri, Indrajit; Krishnan, Ram; Lesh, Neal

    2015-05-28

    mHealth apps are deployed with the aim of improving access, quality, and experience of health care. It is possible that any mHealth intervention can yield differential impacts for different types of users. Mediating and determining factors, including personal and socioeconomic factors, affect technology adoption, the way health workers leverage and use the technology, and subsequently the quality and experience of care they provide. To develop a framework to assess whether mHealth platforms affect the quality and experience of care provided by frontline workers, and whether these effects on quality and experience are different depending on the level of technology adoption and individual characteristics of the health worker. Literacy, education, age, and previous mobile experience are identified as individual factors that affect technology adoption and use, as well as factors that affect the quality and experience of care directly and via the technology. Formative research was conducted with 15 community health workers (CHWs) using CommCare, an mHealth app for maternal and newborn care, in Bihar, India. CHWs were first classified on the level of CommCare adoption using data from CommCareHQ and were then shadowed on home visits to evaluate their levels of technology proficiency, and the quality and experience of care provided. Regression techniques were employed to test the relationships. Out of all the CHWs, 2 of them refused to participate in the home visits, however, we did have information on their levels of technology adoption and background characteristics, which were included in the analysis as relevant. Level of technology adoption was important for both quality and experience of care. The quality score for high users of CommCare was higher by 33.4% (P=.04), on average, compared to low users of CommCare. Those who scored higher on CommCare proficiency also provided significantly higher quality and experience of care, where an additional point in Comm

  19. Promoting Student-Teacher Interactions: Exploring a Peer Coaching Model for Teachers in a Preschool Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Stacy R; Finlon, Kristy J; Kobak, Roger; Izard, Carroll E

    2017-07-01

    Peer coaching provides an attractive alternative to traditional professional development for promoting classroom quality in a sustainable, cost-effective manner by creating a collaborative teaching community. This exploratory study describes the development and evaluation of the Colleague Observation And CoacHing (COACH) program, a peer coaching program designed to increase teachers' effectiveness in enhancing classroom quality in a preschool Head Start setting. The COACH program consists of a training workshop on coaching skills and student-teacher interactions, six peer coaching sessions, and three center meetings. Pre-post observations of emotional support, classroom organization, and instructional support using the Classroom Assessment Scoring System of twelve classrooms assigned to peer coaching were compared to twelve control classrooms at baseline and following the intervention. Findings provide preliminary support that the peer coaching program is perceived as acceptable and feasible by the participating preschool teachers and that it may strengthen student-teacher interactions. Further program refinement and evaluation with larger samples is needed to enhance student-teacher interactions and, ultimately, children's adaptive development.

  20. Nurse-midwifery education through graduate programs to provide a sufficient number of high quality nurse-midwives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung Hye Lee

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available There is a decrease in the number of new midwives, resulting from the shutdown of midwifery education program in hospitals due to a decrease in birthrate in the Republic of Korea. To solve this problem, the current medical laws on midwifery education system in Korea should be revised; nurse-midwifery specialist programs must be established in educational institutes with nursing programs. To support this argument, the midwifery education programs of America, Europe, Australia, and Japan have been discussed, and a nurse-midwifery specialist curriculum at the master s level, based on the nurse-practitioner system of Korea, has been suggested. Since this assertion is very important and urgent for solving the future population problem of Korea and providing health care for women and children, it should be realized into action immediately.