N Е Aimautova
Full Text Available The article helms the reader to the results of the sociological services market observation. A basic selling scheme is outlined with the components of interactions space as well as the set of "must-have" psychological skills and competencies essential for the seller highlighted as factors of high priority. The principal stages of the selling process are identified. The notion of "offeror" who meets the desires of the client purchasing sociological services is introduced. The prominent role of psychological selling techniques is emphasized in the guidelines to be abided by the sociologist in order to prevent potential misunderstandings and conflicts as well as to establish new contacts and keep old ties with the client after making a deal.
Turner, Katrina M; Winder, Rachel; Campbell, John L; Gandhi, Manish; Dickens, Chris M; Richards, Suzanne
Objective To explore patients’ and nurses’ views on the feasibility and acceptability of providing psychological care within cardiac rehabilitation services. Design In-depth interviews analysed thematically. Participants 18 patients and 7 cardiac nurses taking part in a pilot trial (CADENCE) of an enhanced psychological care intervention delivered within cardiac rehabilitation programmes by nurses to patients with symptoms of depression. Setting Cardiac services based in the South West of England and the East Midlands, UK. Results Patients and nurses viewed psychological support as central to good cardiac rehabilitation. Patients’ accounts highlighted the significant and immediate adverse effect a cardiac event can have on an individual’s mental well-being. They also showed that patients valued nurses attending to both their mental and physical health, and felt this was essential to their overall recovery. Nurses were committed to providing psychological support, believed it benefited patients, and advocated for this support to be delivered within cardiac rehabilitation programmes rather than within a parallel healthcare service. However, nurses were time-constrained and found it challenging to provide psychological care within their existing workloads. Conclusions Both patients and nurses highly value psychological support being delivered within cardiac rehabilitation programmes but resource constraints raise barriers to implementation. Consideration, therefore, should be given to alternative forms of delivery which do not rely solely on nurses to enable patients to receive psychological support during cardiac rehabilitation. Trial registration number ISCTRN34701576. PMID:28864707
Turner, Katrina M; Winder, Rachel; Campbell, John L; Richards, David A; Gandhi, Manish; Dickens, Chris M; Richards, Suzanne
To explore patients' and nurses' views on the feasibility and acceptability of providing psychological care within cardiac rehabilitation services. In-depth interviews analysed thematically. 18 patients and 7 cardiac nurses taking part in a pilot trial (CADENCE) of an enhanced psychological care intervention delivered within cardiac rehabilitation programmes by nurses to patients with symptoms of depression. Cardiac services based in the South West of England and the East Midlands, UK. Patients and nurses viewed psychological support as central to good cardiac rehabilitation. Patients' accounts highlighted the significant and immediate adverse effect a cardiac event can have on an individual's mental well-being. They also showed that patients valued nurses attending to both their mental and physical health, and felt this was essential to their overall recovery. Nurses were committed to providing psychological support, believed it benefited patients, and advocated for this support to be delivered within cardiac rehabilitation programmes rather than within a parallel healthcare service. However, nurses were time-constrained and found it challenging to provide psychological care within their existing workloads. Both patients and nurses highly value psychological support being delivered within cardiac rehabilitation programmes but resource constraints raise barriers to implementation. Consideration, therefore, should be given to alternative forms of delivery which do not rely solely on nurses to enable patients to receive psychological support during cardiac rehabilitation. ISCTRN34701576. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Horwitz, Briana N.; Reynolds, Chandra A.; Charles, Susan T.
Emotional support from family and friends is associated with lower psychological distress. This study examined whether genetic and environmental influences explain associations among family support, friend support, and psychological distress. Data were drawn from the Midlife Development in the United States (MIDUS) study and included 947 pairs of MZ, same-sex DZ, and opposite-sex DZ twins. Results showed that a genetic factor explains the relationship between friend support and psychological ...
Michalski, Daniel S.; Kohout, Jessica L.
Numerous efforts to describe the health service provider or clinical workforce in psychology have been conducted during the past 30 years. The American Psychological Association (APA) has studied trends in the doctoral education pathway and the resultant effects on the broader psychology workforce. During this period, the creation and growth of…
A variable speed wind turbine is arranged to provide additional electrical power to counteract non-periodic disturbances in an electrical grid. A controller monitors events indicating a need to increase the electrical output power from the wind turbine to the electrical grid. The controller...
With a multidisciplinary team that included an external evaluator (Dr. Robert Durham), and an extended research team (Drs. Alan Peterson and Bret...21.7%) indicated being single. The sample of providers included 13 clinical psychologists (21.7%), 17 counselors or psychotherapists (28.3%), three...a sample of service members from Iraq and Afghanistan. Military Medicine, 172, 359–363. Figley, C. R. (2002). Compassion fatigue: Psychotherapists
Schrank, B; Brownell, T; Tylee, A; Slade, M
This paper reviews the literature on positive psychology with a special focus on people with mental illness. It describes the characteristics, critiques, and roots of positive psychology and positive psychotherapy, and summarises the existing evidence on positive psychotherapy. Positive psychology aims to refocus psychological research and practice on the positive aspects of experience, strengths, and resources. Despite a number of conceptual and applied research challenges, the field has rapidly developed since its introduction at the turn of the century. Today positive psychology serves as an umbrella term to accommodate research investigating positive emotions and other positive aspects such as creativity, optimism, resilience, empathy, compassion, humour, and life satisfaction. Positive psychotherapy is a therapeutic intervention that evolved from this research. It shows promising results for reducing depression and increasing well-being in healthy people and those with depression. Positive psychology and positive psychotherapy are increasingly being applied in mental health settings, but research evidence involving people with severe mental illness is still scarce. The focus on strengths and resources in positive psychology and positive psychotherapy may be a promising way to support recovery in people with mental illness, such as depression, substance abuse disorders, and psychosis. More research is needed to adapt and establish these approaches and provide an evidence base for their application.
Most individuals participate in some of the rituals and/or regular activities of religious institutions such as churches or synagogues. Through such involvements, people are offered vital assistance in dealing with developmental changes, opportunities for personal development and for group support, and more generally, a sense of continuity and of meaning in life. This paper deals with only one small aspect of Jewish observance, an aspect of the centuries-old required weekly prayer groups-the minyan. The prime emphasis resides in the rarely recognized, nonliturgical dimension of this small group experience. Using psychoanalysis in the sense of a general psychology as background, I have considered the minyan as combining elements of a psychological support system and of a small group. In addition to the gratification of affiliative needs (social hunger) and the countering of loneliness and of isolation, this group experience helps its members maintain an intergenerational sense of personal identity and of self-esteem. In the face of marked life stressors such as death in the family, religious institutions such as the minyan, with its prescribed ritual steps for grieving (i.e., kaddish), fulfill especially significant preventive and restitutive mental health functions. I have also hypothesized that on a covert, fantasy level, the caring and nurturing family-like weekday minyan may even represent a mother-symbol (mother group) in line with people's universal need to establish a psychological union with others, thus restoring an earlier, conflict-free state of the child-mother bond. In an extended societal sense, the earlier emphasis in Western cultures on the virtual worship of individuality, autonomy, and independence has given way recently to a renewed appreciation of cooperation, communalism, and altruism. The minyan, as a small religious communal aggregate with its inherent climate of mutuality, reciprocity, and continuity, has, in a sense, anticipated these new
In this research, to what extent the variables of perceived social support (family, friends and special people) and assertiveness predicted the psychological well-being levels of candidate psychological counselors. The research group of this study included totally randomly selected 308 candidate psychological counselors including 174 females…
Dures, Emma; Almeida, Celia; Caesley, Judy; Peterson, Alice; Ambler, Nicholas; Morris, Marianne; Pollock, Jon; Hewlett, Sarah
The consequences of inflammatory arthritis can include depression, anxiety and low mood, reducing patients' quality of life and increasing pressure on the healthcare system. Treatment guidelines recommend psychological support, but data are lacking on the provision available. A postal survey concerning psychological support provision was sent to rheumatology units in 143 acute trusts across England. Nurses from 73 rheumatology units (51%) responded. Overall, 73% rated their unit's psychological support provision as 'inadequate' and only 4% rated it as 'good'. Few units believed that psychological support did not fall within their remit (12%), yet only 8% had a psychologist in the team. Most units (68%) did not routinely screen patients to identify psychological difficulties. Referral to other service providers was reported in 42% of units, with 3% very satisfied with this provision. Within units, services containing elements of psychological support ranged from occupational therapy (81%) to psychology/counselling (14%). Psychological approaches used by team members ranged from shared decision making (77%) to cognitive-behavioural approaches (26%). The current barriers to providing psychological support were lack of clinical time and available training (86% and 74%, respectively), and delivery costs (74%). Future facilitators included management support (74%) and availability of skills training (74%). Rheumatology units viewed psychological support provision as part of their remit but rated their overall provision as inadequate, despite some team members using psychological skills. To improve provision, clinicians' training needs must be addressed and organizational support generated, and further research needs to define adequate psychological support provision from the patient perspective. © 2014 The Authors. Musculoskeletal Care published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Objective: The current study sought to investigate the association between age, gender, social support and the psychological wellbeing of people living with HIV and AIDS (PLHA) in Ghana. Method: Cross-sectional data containing information on demographics, social support and psychological well-being (stress, ...
Behrens, Troy T.
This document notes that the academic and emotional needs of undergraduates planning their futures in psychology are not often addressed. It proposes self-help support groups as a means of alleviating the tension and stress faced by psychology majors. The model for the support group described in this paper is adapted from Yalom's (1985) 11…
Full Text Available Supporting large amounts of spatial data is a significant characteristic of modern databases. However, unlike some mature relational databases, such as Oracle and PostgreSQL, most of current burgeoning NoSQL databases are not well designed for storing geospatial data, which is becoming increasingly important in various fields. In this paper, we propose a novel method to provide R-tree index, as well as corresponding spatial range query and nearest neighbour query functions, for MongoDB, one of the most prevalent NoSQL databases. First, after in-depth analysis of MongoDB’s features, we devise an efficient tabular document structure which flattens R-tree index into MongoDB collections. Further, relevant mechanisms of R-tree operations are issued, and then we discuss in detail how to integrate R-tree into MongoDB. Finally, we present the experimental results which show that our proposed method out-performs the built-in spatial index of MongoDB. Our research will greatly facilitate big data management issues with MongoDB in a variety of geospatial information applications.
Xiang, Longgang; Shao, Xiaotian; Wang, Dehao
Supporting large amounts of spatial data is a significant characteristic of modern databases. However, unlike some mature relational databases, such as Oracle and PostgreSQL, most of current burgeoning NoSQL databases are not well designed for storing geospatial data, which is becoming increasingly important in various fields. In this paper, we propose a novel method to provide R-tree index, as well as corresponding spatial range query and nearest neighbour query functions, for MongoDB, one of the most prevalent NoSQL databases. First, after in-depth analysis of MongoDB's features, we devise an efficient tabular document structure which flattens R-tree index into MongoDB collections. Further, relevant mechanisms of R-tree operations are issued, and then we discuss in detail how to integrate R-tree into MongoDB. Finally, we present the experimental results which show that our proposed method out-performs the built-in spatial index of MongoDB. Our research will greatly facilitate big data management issues with MongoDB in a variety of geospatial information applications.
CyberPsychology and Behavior 8, 3 (2005), 187-211.  T. Parsons & A.A. Rizzo, Affective Outcomes of Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy for Anxiety...VH System for Providing Healthcare Information and Support508  G. Riva, Virtual Reality in Psychotherapy: Review, CyberPsychology and Behavior 8...3 (2005), 220- 230.  F.D. Rose, B.M. Brooks & A.A. Rizzo, Virtual Reality in Brain Damage Rehabilitation: Review, CyberPsychology and Behavior
Fiorini, Rodolfo A; De Giacomo, Piero; L'Abate, Luciano
Reliably expanding our clinical practice and lowering our overhead with telepsychiatry, telepsychology, distance counseling and online therapy, requires resilient and antifragile system and tools. When utilized appropriately these technologies may provide greater access to needed services to include more reliable treatment, consultation, supervision, and training. The wise and proper use of technology is fundamental to create and boost outstanding social results. We present, as an example, the main steps to achieve application resilience and antifragility at system level, for diagnostic and therapeutic telepractice and telehealth support, devoted to psychiatry and psychology application. This article presents a number of innovations that can take psychotherapy treatment, supervision, training, and research forward, towards increased effectiveness application.
Yin, Min; Li, Xiao-Lin; Li, Jing; Huang, Xue-Hua; Tao, Qing-Lan; Luo, Xi
In the aftermath of the 7.0 earthquake that struck Lushan in China's Sichuan Province on April 20, 2013, a psychological crisis intervention working group was established in a hospital that was treating earthquake victims. Patients at this hospital received psychological first aid that was delivered in accordance with scientific, systematic, and standardized principles. This first aid employed a "rooting mode" methodology and was designed as a supportive psychological intervention. Mental assessment results showed that the general mental health, acute stress reactions, and anxiety and depression status of all of the 131 injured who received the psychological intervention had significantly improved (p < .05) during the two-week intervention period. This paper introduces the basic principles used to develop and provide this first aid, the approach used to organize the working groups, the main contents of the intervention, specific methods used, and intervention outcomes. This information is provided as a reference for providing localized psychological assistance in the aftermath of a disaster incident.
Liu, Danica W Y; Fairweather-Schmidt, A Kate; Burns, Richard; Roberts, Rachel M; Anstey, Kaarin J
Little is known about the role of resilience in the likelihood of suicidal ideation (SI) over time. We examined the association between resilience and SI in a young-adult cohort over 4 years. Our objectives were to determine whether resilience was associated with SI at follow-up or, conversely, whether SI was associated with lowered resilience at follow-up. Participants were selected from the Personality and Total Health (PATH) Through Life Project from Canberra and Queanbeyan, Australia, aged 28-32 years at the first time point and 32-36 at the second. Multinomial, linear, and binary regression analyses explored the association between resilience and SI over two time points. Models were adjusted for suicidality risk factors. While unadjusted analyses identified associations between resilience and SI, these effects were fully explained by the inclusion of other suicidality risk factors. Despite strong cross-sectional associations, resilience and SI appear to be unrelated in a longitudinal context, once risk/resilience factors are controlled for. As independent indicators of psychological well-being, suicidality and resilience are essential if current status is to be captured. However, the addition of other factors (e.g., support, mastery) makes this association tenuous. Consequently, resilience per se may not be protective of SI.
Petrov V. E.
Full Text Available The article analyzes the problems of the organizational providing of psychological work in divisions of the state traffic Inspectorate. Detailed the range of tasks that need to be implemented to psychologists, and specifics of the state traffic Inspectorate. The features of carrying out of activities of professional psychological selection of candidates for service, psychological training, prevention and other support activities. Potentially conflicting interaction of inspectors of traffic police with the participants of traffic, the inability to predict traffic situations and the psycho drivers necessitate treatment to psychological knowledge and the application of the constant efforts of specialists-psychologists. It is shown that the replacement of tenured psychologists psychologists state traffic Inspectorate of the territorial body of internal Affairs will not amount to nor the volume of work nor its quality. Psychological work with the personnel of the state traffic Inspectorate should only be carried out by psychologists of this unit. Eventually psychologist in the state traffic Inspectorate has expressed prospects and can not be replaced by the activities of other specialists.
Through a Space Act Agreement with Johnson Space Center, Paragon Space Development Corporation, of Tucson, Arizona, developed the Commercial Crew Transport-Air Revitalization System, designed to provide clean air for crewmembers on short-duration space flights. The technology is now being used to help save miners' lives in the event of an underground disaster.
Full Text Available The study aimed to discuss the possibility of providing psychological support for mothers of children with autism spectrum disorders via traditional Russian tea party. Questionnaire results, according to which mothers of children with ASD are essentially focused on receiving psychological counseling in the area of child development and education are presented. However personal problems of the woman, including psychological weightiness is usually taken a back seat. The research supports a hypothesis that informal format of tea party allows mothers decreasing psychological distance with psychologist, feeling at ease. The article includes an analysis of psychological meetings focused on personal life questions of participants. The results obtained in the research showed effectiveness of this approach. The Russian tea party is a meeting form that fosters the growth of confidence toward psychologist, expanding the range of personal questions that could be discussed. The mothers had the opportunity of open communication with each other, reported psychological safety valve.
Mitchell, Ian; Evans, Lynne; Rees, Tim; Hardy, Lew
limited regard for current conceptualizations of social support as well as injured athletes, psychological responses in the measurement strategies adopted and measures employed. What does this study add? Enhances our understanding of the stress-buffering effects of perceived and received social support in sport. Provides support for the functional aspects of perceived support when dealing with injury-related stressors. Has important implications for the design of social support interventions that aim to expedite injured athletes successful return to sport. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.
The study investigated stress events, perceived stress and social support in relation to various common health behaviours among black South African students. The sample included 624 students: 314 Grade 12 Secondary school students and 310 third year social science university students in South Africa. The study found ...
van der Zee, KI; Buunk, BP; Sanderman, R
Social support seems to be positively related to psychological well-being. Studies have shown that individual differences exist in the ability to mobilize and use sources of support. The current study focused on locus of control as a personality factor that might be related to this ability, In 2
Members of the helping professions are not immune from physical or psychological impairments that interfere with competent and ethical practice. The types of problems faced by psychologists and the help offered by one support program are presented. The purpose of the Psychologist Support Program (PSP) of the Ontario (Canada) Psychological…
Argon, Türkan; Ekinci, Serkan
This study aimed to determine the relationship between secondary school teachers' view regarding Organizational Support and Psychological Contract Violation. The study conducted with relational screening model included 230 secondary school teachers employed in Bolu central district in 2014-2015 academic year. Perceived Organizational Support Scale…
Full Text Available The Parent Child Psychological Support Program (PCPS was established in an area of South West Dublin in 2001. Since then until May 2008 it has offered its services to over 700 children and their parents. This preventative, parenting support service is available to all parents of children aged 3 to 18 months within its catchment area. During periodical visits, the infant’s development and growth are measured and parents receive specific information about their child’s progress. Parents are empowered in their parenting practices, thus promoting consistency and synchrony in parent-child interaction. Between 2001 and 2006, 538 parents and their infants participated in the Program. Out of these cases, 130 (24.16% were considered to require additional support and were included in the Monthly Meeting Case Review (MM based on initial concerns The aims of this study were: 1. to review the first five years of MM cases and to explore the socio-demographic profile of the MM cases in comparison to those not in need of additional support (non-MM and 2. To illustrate an approach to refining the case review process which will inform practice and provides the service providers with better understanding of the early detection of parent-child relation difficulties. In pursuing this goal the cases screened over five years of practice were analyzed to explore the structure of the different factors by using statistical techniques of data reduction, i.e. factor analysis. The results showed that the MM group differed on several socio-demographic dimensions from the non-MM group and there was a four factor structure underlying the case review decision process. Implications of this research are discussed.
Margrove, K. L.; Gustowska, M.; Grove, L. S.
There is increasing concern over the number of university students and university staff who require psychological support; however, little is known about the impact of this on higher education (HE) staff. University employees (n = 91) from two UK universities completed an anonymous survey which explored their experience of providing support for…
Beven, G.; Vander Ark, S. T.; Holland, A. W.
Since NASA began human presence on the International Space Station (ISS) in November 1998, crews have spent two to seven months onboard. In March 2015 NASA and Russia embarked on a new era of ISS utilization, with two of their crewmembers conducting a one-year mission onboard ISS. The mission has been useful for both research and mission operations to better understand the human, technological, mission management and staffing challenges that may be faced on missions beyond Low Earth Orbit. The work completed during the first 42 ISS missions provided the basis for the pre-flight, in-flight and post-flight work completed by NASA's Space Medicine Operations Division, while our Russian colleagues provided valuable insights from their long-duration mission experiences with missions lasting 10-14 months, which predated the ISS era. Space Medicine's Behavioral Health and Performance Group (BHP) provided pre-flight training, evaluation, and preparation as well as in-flight psychological support for the NASA crewmember. While the BHP team collaboratively planned for this mission with the help of all ISS international partners within the Human Behavior and Performance Working Group to leverage their collective expertise, the US and Russian BHP personnel were responsible for their respective crewmembers. The presentation will summarize the lessons and experience gained within the areas identified by this Working Group as being of primary importance for a one-year mission.
Addonizio, Frank Patrick
The purpose of this study was to describe the relationship among sources and levels of stress, coping patterns, sources and levels of social support, and psychological distress for MSW students. Stress is a common feeling experienced by people throughout life and it is important to understand the way they cope with their stressors. Most of the…
Chulkova, V A; Pesterëva, E V
In providing psychological care to an oncological patient a physician and a medical psychologist come from a variety of professional positions that require different approaches and methods. It is proposed a three-phase model of the dynamics of the psychological state of the person in the situation of cancer reflecting the process of psychological adaptation of a particular patient. Focusing on this model, the authors conclude that psychological care to cancer patient, performed by a doctor and a medical psychologist, are different kinds of psychological care that does not replace but complement each other.
... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What support we will provide. 404.1662 Section 404.1662 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND... support we will provide. Performance support may include, but is not limited to, any or all of the...
... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What support we will provide. 416.1062 Section 416.1062 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE... What support we will provide. Performance support may include, but is not limited to, any or all of the...
Lee, Carol Hj; Duck, Isabelle M; Sibley, Chris G
To explore the distribution of New Zealanders' support towards the legalisation of euthanasia and examine demographic and psychological factors associated with these attitudes. 15,822 participants responded to the 2014/15 New Zealand Attitudes and Values Study (NZAVS) survey. This survey included an item on people's attitudes towards euthanasia, and information on their demographic and psychological characteristics. The majority of New Zealanders expressed support for euthanasia, which was assessed by asking "Suppose a person has a painful incurable disease. Do you think that doctors should be allowed by law to end the patient's life if the patient requests it?" Non-religious, liberal, younger, employed, non-parents and those living in rural areas were more supportive. Those of Pacific or Asian ethnicity, with lower income and higher deprivation, education and socio-economic status were less supportive. Furthermore, those high on extraversion, conscientiousness and neuroticism showed more support, while those high on agreeableness and honesty-humility exhibited less support. There is strong public support for euthanasia when people are asked whether doctors should be allowed by law to end the life of a patient with a painful incurable disease upon their request. There are reliable demographic and personality differences in support for euthanasia.
Emm-Collison, Lydia G; Standage, Martyn; Gillison, Fiona B
Grounded within self-determination theory (SDT; Deci & Ryan, 2000; Ryan & Deci, in press), three studies were conducted to develop and psychometrically test a measure of adolescents' perceptions of psychological need support for exercise (viz., for autonomy, competence, and relatedness): the Adolescent Psychological Need Support in Exercise Questionnaire (APNSEQ). In Study 1, 34 items were developed in collaboration with an expert panel. Through categorical confirmatory factor analysis and item response theory, responses from 433 adolescents were used to identify the best fitting and performing items in Study 2. Here, a three-factor nine-item measure showed good fit to the data. In Study 3, responses from an independent sample of 373 adolescents provided further evidence for the nine-item solution as well as for internal consistency, criterion validity, and invariance across gender and social agent (friends, family, and physical education teacher). The APNSEQ was supported as a measure of adolescents' perceptions of psychological need support within the context of exercise.
Fleming, Pete; King, Lorraine; Royle, Jane
A service evaluation was performed exploring nurses' perceptions of a clinical psychology facilitated peer support group in a spinal injury rehabilitation setting. To determine whether staff found the meetings useful while, more broadly, to highlight the need to support and supervise nursing staff in psychological care appropriately. A questionnaire was developed and distributed to the 30 members of staff who worked on the ward. Seventeen questionnaires were returned (57%). Data was analysed using thematic analysis. The meetings were viewed as a place to discuss issues, and a safe protected space to share stresses. Staff felt the meetings aided team cohesion and helped them share ideas and draw up clinical strategies. Meetings aided stress management and confidence building. Staff considered the meetings to increase their psychological awareness and understanding. Staff involved in the acute care and rehabilitation of spinal injured patients are consistently exposed to highly demanding and stressful clinical environments. Support meetings where staff can discuss patient and ward issues are invaluable. Other clinical nursing areas would benefit from similar support systems.
Roohafza, Hamidreza; Feizi, Awat; Afshar, Hamid; Mazaheri, Mina; Behnamfar, Omid; Hassanzadeh-Keshteli, Ammar; Adibi, Peyman
AIM: To provide a structural model of the relationship between personality traits, perceived stress, coping strategies, social support, and psychological outcomes in the general population. METHODS: This is a cross sectional study in which the study group was selected using multistage cluster and convenience sampling among a population of 4 million. For data collection, a total of 4763 individuals were asked to complete a questionnaire on demographics, personality traits, life events, coping with stress, social support, and psychological outcomes such as anxiety and depression. To evaluate the comprehensive relationship between the variables, a path model was fitted. RESULTS: The standard electronic modules showed that personality traits and perceived stress are important determinants of psychological outcomes. Social support and coping strategies were demonstrated to reduce the increasing cumulative positive effects of neuroticism and perceived stress on the psychological outcomes and enhance the protective effect of extraversion through decreasing the positive effect of perceived stress on the psychological outcomes. CONCLUSION: Personal resources play an important role in reduction and prevention of anxiety and depression. In order to improve the psychological health, it is necessary to train and reinforce the adaptive coping strategies and social support, and thus, to moderate negative personality traits. PMID:27354968
Measham, Toby; Guzder, Jaswant; Rousseau, Cécile; Pacione, Laura; Blais-McPherson, Morganne; Nadeau, Lucie
The support of refugee children and their families is a worldwide concern. This article will highlight models of mental health care for refugee children and their families, focusing on collaborative care with primary care providers. Case vignettes are provided to illustrate how collaborative care can support refugee children׳s psychological well-being and positive adaptation following migration. Copyright © 2014 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Kozlov, Elissa; Eghan, Claude; Moran, Sheila; Herr, Keela; Reid, M Carrington
To investigate how inpatient palliative care teams nationwide currently screen for and treat psychological distress. A web-based survey was sent to inpatient palliative care providers of all disciplines nationwide asking about their practice patterns regarding psychological assessment and treatment. Descriptive statistics were used to characterize the sample and responses, and analysis of variance was conducted to determine whether certain disciplines were more likely to utilize specific treatment modalities. A total of N = 236 respondents were included in the final analyses. Providers reported that they encounter psychological distress regularly in their practice and that they screen for distress using multiple methods. When psychological distress is detected, providers reported referring patients to an average of 3 different providers (standard deviation = 1.46), most frequently a social worker (69.6%) or chaplain (65.3%) on the palliative care team. A total of 84.6% of physicians and 54.5% of nurse practitioners reported that they prescribe anxiolytics or selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors to patients experiencing psychological distress. This study revealed significant variability and redundancy in how palliative care teams currently manage psychological distress. The lack of consistency potentially stems from the variability in the composition of palliative care teams across care settings and the lack of scientific evidence for best practices in psychological care in palliative care. Future research is needed to establish best practices in the screening and treatment of psychological distress for patients receiving palliative care.
Goodman, M; Hess, B
Affective symptoms were examined retrospectively in 25 patients following placement of implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICD) which can produce intermittent shocks without warning in response to cardiac ventricular arrhythmias. The number of ICD random, uncontrollable discharge shocks and pre-ICD history of psychological distress (i.e., depression and/or anxiety) were documented in all patients using a demographics questionnaire and a standardized behavioral/psychological symptoms questionnaire (i.e., Symptom Checklist-90 Revised). ICD patients were dichotomized into two groups: those without a history of psychological distress prior to ICD (n = 18) and those with a history of psychological distress prior to ICD (n = 7). In ICD patients without a prior history, results indicated that quantity of ICD discharge shocks was significantly predictive of current reported depression (r = 0.45, p = 0.03) and current reported anxiety (r = 0.51, p = 0.02). Conversely, in patients with a reported history of psychological distress, there was no significant relationship found between quantity of discharge shocks and current reported depression or anxiety. This study may provide evidence in support of a human model of learned helplessness in that it supports the notion that exposure to an unavoidable and inescapable aversive stimulus was found to be related to patients' reported depression. Further studies may wish to prospectively consider a larger sample as well as a more comprehensive assessment of premorbid psychological symptoms.
Winefield, H R; Winefield, A H; Tiggemann, M
A large sample (N = 483) of community-living adults (M age = 23.6 years) responded to questions about the frequency and adequacy of emotional, practical, and informational support during the past month from three sources-confidants, peers, and supervisors-using the Multi-Dimensional Support Scale. Factor analysis was used to distinguish meaningful regularities in item responses, and the resulting five scales have high internal reliability. Scores correlated significantly with measures of self-esteem, depressive affect, and psychological disturbance according to the General Health Questionnaire. To investigate what contribution support measures could make to the prediction of psychological well-being, hierarchical regression analyses were carried out with stressors entered first and support scores entered second. As expected, respondents' psychological well-being was related to their level of life stress; however, the addition of social support measures doubled the explained variance in measures of psychological well-being. The support measure with the strongest association with well-being was the frequency of supportive behaviors toward the respondent by close family and friends.
Kisić, Tatjana; Konstantinidis, Nada; Kolarović, Jovanka; Kaćanski, Natasa
A family of a child with cancer needs continuous help and support from medical and other professionals, relatives, friends and community at the moment of making diagnosis and during the treatment. The goal of this study was to find out the most frequent sources of individual or community based psychological support, reported by parents of children suffering from malignant diseases. We focused on the help received at the moment of making diagnosis and within the first and second year of treatment. We analyzed data obtained by a questionnaire specially designed for parents of children suffering from different malignancies. The poll was conducted from April 2007 till October 2009 at the Hematology/Oncology Department of Children's Hospital of Novi Sad and it included 72 parents of both sexes, whose children were treated at our Department in the period from 2007 to 2009. The children were of different age. The parents selected the following forms of support as the most important: support given by the emotional partner and other family members (together with sick and healthy child), communication with and accessibility of hospital stuff (physicians at the first place, but also psychologists, nurses, other parents, support groups...). They also expressed their need for contacting friends, relatives and other close people. The selected forms of support are extremely important for the patients (regardless of age) and for their family. All forms of organized and professionally conducted psycho-social support of patients and their family result in higher quality of psychological survival during the treatment and further rehabilitation of patients after rejoining their primary social environment. Family is the primary and the most important social surrounding within which disease both happens and is resolved. Adequate support can help family to overcome such crises, thus leading to the positive outcome.
Romero, Daniel H; Riggs, Shelley A; Ruggero, Camilo
With rising numbers of student veterans on today's college campuses, multicultural competence in college counseling centers increasingly includes an understanding of military culture and its relation to the psychological health and functioning of student veterans. Research on interpersonal and intrapersonal factors associated with college student veterans' mental health is scarce. The current study examines the contributions of coping style and family social support on symptoms of anxiety, depression, and posttraumatic stress in a student veteran sample. We also tested the moderating role of family social support in the relationship between coping style and psychological symptoms. Data from 136 student veterans were analyzed by using path analysis. Results revealed that avoidant coping and family social support significantly predicted depressive and anxiety symptoms. Avoidant coping also significantly predicted posttraumatic stress symptoms. In addition, findings indicated that family social support moderated the relationship between problem-focused coping and depression, as well as between avoidant coping and symptoms of anxiety and depression but not posttraumatic stress. Implications of results for college and university counselors are discussed. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Wuyts, S.H.K.; Rindfleisch, A.; Citrin, A.
An increasing number of firms are outsourcing customer support to external service providers. This creates a triadic setting in which an outsourcing provider serves end customers on behalf of its clients. While outsourcing presents an opportunity to serve customers, service providers differ in their
Lehmann, Matheus; Barcellos, Marinho; Mauthe, Andreas Ulrich
Email Print Request Permissions Named Data Networking (NDN) is a novel architecture expected to overcome limitations of the current Internet. User mobility is one of the most relevant limitations to be addressed. NDN supports consumer mobility by design but fails to offer the same level of support for producer mobility. Existing approaches to extend NDN are host-centric, which conflicts with NDN principles, and provide limited support for producer mobility. This paper proposes a content-centr...
Dodds, Robin L; Singer, George H S
To examine selection criteria for Parent-to-Parent support parents trained to provide support to other parents of children with disabilities. Ten leaders of Parent-to-Parent programmes participated in telephone interviews to explore attributes associated with parents selected to be trained as support parents. Qualitative analysis reveals parents deemed "ready" to become support parents, build relationships, exhibit positivity, build capacities, have good communication skills and a future orientation and feel the need to give back. An additional set of attributes we have named, "red flags" are associated with parents not suitable to provide support are also presented. Parent-to-Parent support parents are informally identified by a set of characteristics that can be operationalized for screening purposes. Findings provide support for the positive influence of the peer support relationship and identify the need for a measure of parent "readiness" to assist in the recruitment of quality support parents for the Parent-to-Parent organization. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Student support is a major factor in distance education. This study was concerned with the use of ICT as a medium for providing student support at the University of Zambia. It was necessary to study the factors that would affect the application of ICT, in order to inform policy makers and managers of distance education which ...
Kitchingman, Taneile A; Wilson, Coralie J; Caputi, Peter; Wilson, Ian; Woodward, Alan
In order to respond to crises with appropriate intervention, crisis workers are required to manage their own needs as well as the needs of those they respond to. A systematic review of the literature was conducted to examine whether telephone crisis support workers experience elevated symptoms of psychological distress and are impaired by elevated symptoms. Studies were identified in April 2015 by searching three databases, conducting a gray literature search, and forward and backward citation chaining. Of 113 identified studies, seven were included in the review. Results suggest that that telephone crisis support workers experience symptoms of vicarious traumatization, stress, burnout, and psychiatric disorders, and that they may not respond optimally to callers when experiencing elevated symptoms of distress. However, definitive conclusions cannot be drawn due to the paucity and methodological limitations of available data. While the most comprehensive search strategy possible was adopted, resource constraints meant that conference abstracts were not searched and authors were not contacted for additional unpublished information. There is an urgent need to identify the impact of telephone crisis support workers' role on their well-being, the determinants of worker well-being in the telephone crisis support context, and the extent to which well-being impacts their performance and caller outcomes. This will help inform strategies to optimize telephone crisis support workers' well-being and their delivery of support to callers.
Stoyer, Michael Ryan
This study examined the relationship between course pedagogy and supportive group factors with variables of multicultural competency and multicultural counseling self-efficacy at the completion of a multicultural psychology course. The participants were students in graduate clinical psychology, counseling psychology, and school psychology programs…
Hayes, Ben; Frederickson, Norah
The role of the educational psychology service in crisis support is well established. This paper examines a key aspect of this role, the impact on psychologists themselves, and reviews literature on secondary stress, considering the term "stress" itself as part of the discussion. It examines recommendations for professional practice and self care…
Full Text Available A creative approach to the implementation of the Federal state standard of general education implies a supportive psychologically safe learning environment, professional readiness of educators to teaching, expressed in creativity, emotional stability, as well as reflection. The teachers’ creativity and psychological stability level can be improved by the use of certain forms of work: training and creative poetry workshops. The results of the author's research suggest that participation in the poetry workshops stimulates reflection, increases stress resistance and creativity of teachers. Our approach allows us to consider the problem of stimulating the development of teachers’ personality as members of creative poetic process in theoretical and practice oriented perspective.
Karol, Sven; Zschaler, Steffen
The composition and reuse of existing textual languages is a frequently re-occurring problem. One possibility of composing textual languages lies on the level of parser specifications which are mainly based on context-free grammars and regular expressions. Unfortunately most mainstream parser generators provide proprietary specification languages and usually do not provide strong abstractions for reuse. New forms of parser generators do support modular language development, but they can often...
Anstey, Erica H; Coulter, Martha; Jevitt, Cecilia M; Perrin, Kay M; Dabrow, Sharon; Klasko-Foster, Lynne B; Daley, Ellen M
Addressing suboptimal breastfeeding initiation and duration rates is a priority in the United States. To address challenges to improving these rates, the voices of the providers who work with breastfeeding mothers should be heard. Research aim: The purpose of this study was to explore lactation consultants' perceived barriers to managing early breastfeeding problems. This qualitative study was conducted with a grounded theory methodological approach. In-depth interviews were conducted with 30 International Board Certified Lactation Consultants across Florida. Lactation consultants were from a range of practice settings, including hospitals, Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children clinics, private practice, and pediatric offices. Data were digitally recorded, transcribed, and analyzed in Atlas.ti. A range of barriers was identified and grouped into the following categories/themes: indirect barriers (social norms, knowledge, attitudes); direct occupational barriers (institutional constraints, lack of coordination, poor service delivery); and direct individual barriers (social support, mother's self-efficacy). A model was developed illustrating the factors that influence the role enactment of lactation consultants in managing breastfeeding problems. Inadequate support for addressing early breastfeeding challenges is compounded by a lack of collaboration among various healthcare providers and the family. Findings provide insight into the professional management issues of early breastfeeding problems faced by lactation consultants. Team-based, interprofessional approaches to breastfeeding support for mothers and their families are needed; improving interdisciplinary collaboration could lead to better integration of lactation consultants who are educated and experienced in providing lactation support and management of breastfeeding problems.
Tekinerdogan, B.; Aksit, Mehmet; Demeyer, Serge; Bosch, H.G.P.; Bosch, Jan
In method-based software development, software engineers create artifacts based on the heuristic rules of the adopted method. Most CASE tools, however, do not actively assist software engineers in applying the heuristic rules. To provide an active support, the rules must be formalized, implemented
Jin, Lihua; Van Yperen, Nico W.; Sanderman, Robbert; Hagedoorn, Mariet
In this research, we argue and demonstrate that the association between enacted (un)supportive behaviour and depressive symptoms is a function of the providers' levels of unmitigated communion (UC). UC is characterized by overinvolvement in others' problems, self-neglect and externalized
Svetlák, M; Suchý, A
Health care professionals, especially those working in cancer care, represent a subgroup of helping professions that requires special psychological care. Recent findings clearly show that a lack of regular psychological care for oncologists and oncology nurses leads to higher rate of psychiatric and physical illness, poorer quality of life, higher employee fluctuation rates and lower quality of provided medical care. In spite of this, the special psychological care for cancer care professionals is still lacking and theoretical and practical level of their undergraduate and postgraduate education in psychology does not satisfy the demands of clinical practice. Regular group meetings seem to be an effective way of psychological care. They provide an opportunity for the participants to view own problems from a distance and to seek new options. It allows them to gain new insights from the discussed situations and to get support or feedback from colleagues. Regular group meetings also represent a key component of self-care and it is an important preventive factor of exhaustion that has been shown to cause medical or personal misconducts. In this context, the aim of the present paper is to describe the basic theoretical background for regular group meetings of oncologists and oncology nurses and to refer about the current practice within the Czech health care system.
Mohr, David C; Cuijpers, Pim; Lehman, Kenneth
The effectiveness of and adherence to eHealth interventions is enhanced by human support. However, human support has largely not been manualized and has usually not been guided by clear models. The objective of this paper is to develop a clear theoretical model, based on relevant empirical literature, that can guide research into human support components of eHealth interventions. A review of the literature revealed little relevant information from clinical sciences. Applicable literature was drawn primarily from organizational psychology, motivation theory, and computer-mediated communication (CMC) research. We have developed a model, referred to as "Supportive Accountability." We argue that human support increases adherence through accountability to a coach who is seen as trustworthy, benevolent, and having expertise. Accountability should involve clear, process-oriented expectations that the patient is involved in determining. Reciprocity in the relationship, through which the patient derives clear benefits, should be explicit. The effect of accountability may be moderated by patient motivation. The more intrinsically motivated patients are, the less support they likely require. The process of support is also mediated by the communications medium (eg, telephone, instant messaging, email). Different communications media each have their own potential benefits and disadvantages. We discuss the specific components of accountability, motivation, and CMC medium in detail. The proposed model is a first step toward understanding how human support enhances adherence to eHealth interventions. Each component of the proposed model is a testable hypothesis. As we develop viable human support models, these should be manualized to facilitate dissemination.
種市, 康太郎; 大塚, 泰正; 小杉, 正太郎
This study examined the effects of job event stressors and social support on psychological stress reactions. A total of 2,873 male employees in an industrial research institute completed a Job Events Check List (including job event stressors) and a Job Stress Scale (including social support and psychological stress reactions). Results showed that work support had buffering effects on 5 of the 14 relationships between job event stressors and psychological stress reactions. Non-work support had...
Longman, Huon; O'Connor, Erin; Obst, Patricia
Previous research examining players of massively multiplayer online games (MMOGs) suggests that players form meaningful relationships with each other. Other research indicates that people may derive social support from online sources, and this social support has been associated with greater well-being. This study used an online survey of players (N = 206) of the MMOG World of Warcraft (WoW) to examine if social support can be derived from MMOGs and to examine its relationship with negative psychological symptoms. Players of WoW were found to derive social support from playing and a positive relationship was found between game engagement and levels of in-game social support. Higher levels of in-game social support were associated with fewer negative psychological symptoms, although this effect was not maintained after accounting for social support derived from the offline sources. Additionally, a small subsample of players (n = 21) who played for 44 to 82 hours per week (M = 63.33) was identified. These players had significantly lower levels of offline social support and higher levels of negative symptoms compared to the rest of the sample. This study provides evidence that social support can be derived from MMOGs and the associated potential to promote well-being but also highlights the potential harm from spending excessive hours playing.
Benson, Paul R
This study examined the characteristics of the support networks of 106 mothers of children with ASD and their relationship to perceived social support, depressed mood, and subjective well-being. Using structural equation modeling, two competing sets of hypotheses were assessed: (1) that network characteristics would impact psychological adjustment directly, and (2) that network effects on adjustment would be indirect, mediated by perceived social support. Results primarily lent support to the latter hypotheses, with measures of network structure (network size) and function (proportion of network members providing emotional support) predicting increased levels of perceived social support which, in turn, predicted decreased depressed mood and increased well-being. Results also indicated that increased interpersonal strain in the maternal network was directly and indirectly associated with increased maternal depression, while being indirectly linked to reduced well-being. Study limitations and implications are discussed.
Moylan, Matthew M; Carey, Lindsay B; Blackburn, Ric; Hayes, Rick; Robinson, Priscilla
Community Men's Sheds (CMS) have been a unique approach within Australia for addressing and promoting men's health and well-being issues by providing biopsychosocial support. Given the decline of traditional religious influence, and the contemporary understanding of 'spirituality', it can be argued that CMS may also develop and demonstrate characteristics of a communal spirituality. This research aimed to explore the individual and community contribution of CMS in terms of men's health and well-being and subsequently whether CMS programmes satisfied the contemporary and consensus understanding of spirituality. A qualitative case study was undertaken combining both participant observation over a 6-month period and semi-structured in-depth interviews with 21 men of varying ages and occupations attending a Melbourne suburban CMS (Victoria, Australia). Thematic analysis indicated that the CMS provided a number of health and well-being benefits at individual, family, community and public health levels. These included increased self-esteem and empowerment, respite from families, a sense of belonging in the community and the opportunity to exchange ideas relating to personal, family, communal and public health issues. It is concluded that CMS, through the provision of an appropriate spatial context and organizational activities, encourage intra-personal and inter-personal reflection and interaction that subsequently results in men meaningfully, purposefully and significantly connecting with the moment, to self, to others and to their environment-and thus, CMS not only provides biopsychosocial support but can also deliver spiritual support.
Ai, Hongshan; Hu, Junmin
This study examined the moderator effect of psychological resilience on the relationship between social support and loneliness of the "left-behind" children. A total of 200 left-behind girls and 214 left-behind boys completed the measures of psychological resilience, social support, and loneliness. Hierarchical regression analysis showed that psychological resilience moderated the association between social support and loneliness. When left-behind children reported a low level of psychological resilience, those with high social support reported lower scores in loneliness than those with low social support. However, the impact of social support on loneliness was much smaller in the high psychological resilience group, compared with that in low psychological resilience group. © The Author(s) 2014.
Full Text Available This article describes the meaning of the terms „aggression“, „aggressive“ and „aggressive behavior“. It specifies the nature and basic principles of psychological counseling. It aims to present techniques and best practices for overcoming the consequences of aggressive behavior. It describes a number intervention methods such as separation of the role functions from the personal reactions; progressive muscle relaxation, pragmatism to the manifestations of undesirable behavior, breathing techniques, visualization of positive images, method of biological feedback, meditation, neuro-linguistic programming, realistic approach to events, situations and persons involved in them, clear definition of their capabilities and competencies. These ways of influence are illustrated by describing two specific cases. They are suitable for both individual and group counseling. An examination of the symptoms and consequences of the aggressive behavior provides essential information on the experiences of the counselor’s clients as well as their relationship to the past, present and future.
Sharma, Sunita; Martijn Bos, J; Tarrell, Robert F; Simon, Gyorgy J; Morlan, Bruce W; Ackerman, Michael J; Caraballo, Pedro J
Commonly used drugs in hospital setting can cause QT prolongation and trigger life-threatening arrhythmias. We evaluate changes in prescribing behavior after the implementation of a clinical decision support system to prevent the use of QT prolonging medications in the hospital setting. We conducted a quasi-experimental study, before and after the implementation of a clinical decision support system integrated in the electronic medical record (QT-alert system). This system detects patients at risk of significant QT prolongation (QTc>500ms) and alerts providers ordering QT prolonging drugs. We reviewed the electronic health record to assess the provider's responses which were classified as "action taken" (QT drug avoided, QT drug changed, other QT drug(s) avoided, ECG monitoring, electrolytes monitoring, QT issue acknowledged, other actions) or "no action taken". Approximately, 15.5% (95/612) of the alerts were followed by a provider's action in the pre-intervention phase compared with 21% (228/1085) in the post-intervention phase (p=0.006). The most common type of actions taken during pre-intervention phase compared to post-intervention phase were ECG monitoring (8% vs. 13%, p=0.002) and QT issue acknowledgment (2.1% vs. 4.1%, p=0.03). Notably, there was no significant difference for other actions including QT drug avoided (p=0.8), QT drug changed (p=0.06) and other QT drug(s) avoided (p=0.3). Our study demonstrated that the QT alert system prompted a higher proportion of providers to take action on patients at risk of complications. However, the overall impact was modest underscoring the need for educating providers and optimizing clinical decision support to further reduce drug-induced QT prolongation.
Magen, Eran; Konasewich, Paul A.
People in distress often turn to friends for emotional support. Ironically, although receiving emotional support contributes to emotional and physical health, providing emotional support may be distressing as a result of emotional contagion. Women have been found to be more susceptible than men to emotional contagion in certain contexts, but no…
Hoekstra-Weebers, JEHM; Jaspers, JPC; Kamps, WA; Klip, EC
Objective: To investigate levels of support and the concurrent and prospective effects of support on the psychological functioning of parents of children with cancer in a prospective longitudinal study. Methods: Parents' (n = 128) self-perceived level of psychological distress, quantity of support,
Ksiazek, J; Gaworska-Krzemińska, A; Piotrkowska, R
The care of a cancer patient undergoes considerable changes. Patients' most important need is a demand of support in dealing with somatic, psychological, emotional and social complaints. The purpose of this research is to analyse the realization of the psychological support of a cancer patient based on nursing care process records. The research analysis is based on 150 nursing care case histories of cancer children and adults treated in the Independent Public Clinical Hospital No 1 of the Academic Clinical Centre at the Medical University of Gdańsk in such wards as: Paediatric Haematology, Paediatric Chemotherapy, Adults' Haematology, Oncology and Radiotherapy, Thoracic Surgery. Evaluation chart of nursing care histories and statistical methods were tools in this research. The nursing case history evaluation chart created for this very research is successfully used by members of nursing records team in all of 61 wards. The results indicate that in all analysed wards the most problematic factor for nurses was taking the patients' (children's) habits and free time planning into account while establishing the plan of action. In numerous cases a stated nursing care diagnosis was not connected with the realization of psychological support. Providing patients with the feeling of safety and contact with family was positively assessed. In the care process nurses should pay more attention to the evaluation of patients and their families' need of social support.
Boucher, Nathan A; Kuchibhatla, Maragatha; Johnson, Kimberly S
Describe social goods and services for which hospices assist patients and families and the resources hospices use to do so. Basic social supports and services not routinely covered by insurers may be needed by terminally ill patients and their families. Little is known about hospices' provision of such social supports and services. A 2014-2015 cross-sectional survey of hospices nationwide. Participating hospices had been in operation for at least 3 years and were located in any of the 50 states or District of Columbia. Hospices were surveyed about availability and sources of internal funds and referral to obtain basic social supports for patients. Descriptive statistics, bivariate analysis, and categorization were used to describe hospice practices. Measures included frequency and nature of goods and services provision in the prior year; and extent to which hospices used internal funds or community referral for goods and services. Over 80% (n = 203) reported internal funds covered services not reimbursed by insurers; 78% used funds in last year. Hospices used internal funds for food (81.7%), shelter (57.8%), utility bills (73.5%), and funeral costs (50%). Hospices referred patients/families to community organizations to obtain a similar range of services, including transportation, clothing, linens/towels, furniture/appliances, home repairs, and caregiver support. Hospices are using internal resources and accessing community resources to provide patients with basic social needs not routinely covered by insurance.
Seçil BAL TAŞTAN
-EFFICACY PERCEPTION AND SOCIAL SUPPORTAbstract: The objective of this study is to examine the relationship between psychological empowerment and psychological well being. Additionally, it is aimed to find evidences about the mediating role of individuals’ self-efficacy perception and the moderating role of perceived supervisor social support on the relationship between psychological empowerment and psychological well-being at work. The effect of psychological empowerment on work-related psychological well-being and the roles of self-efficacy and social support were examined through a structured research survey which has been performed among teaching staff working in public primary schools in Istanbul-Kadıköy. The hypotheses were generated and empirically tested by the data obtained from the participants. The results have demonstrated that all four dimensions of the psychological empowerment had significantly positive relationships with psychological well-being states of the individuals. Moreover, the statistical findings have revealed that self-efficacy perception had a partial mediating role and perceived social support had a significant moderating role on the relationship between psychological empowerment and well-being. Furthermore, the findings of this study have provided insights to various public and private organizations from different sectors which aim to enhance psychological well-being of the individuals and try to improve their work-related positive affections at the workplace.
Hansen, Thomas; Slagsvold, Britt
The expected increasing demand for informal care in aging societies underscores the importance of understanding the psychological implications of caregiving. This study explores the effect of providing regular help with personal care to a partner on different aspects of psychological well-being. We use cross-sectional data from the Norwegian Life Course, Ageing and Generation study (n. ~15,000; age 40-84) and two-wave panel data from the Norwegian study on Life Course, Ageing and Generation (n. ~3000; age 40-84). To separate the effects of providing care from those of the partner's disability, caregivers are contrasted with non-caregivers with both disabled and nondisabled partners. We separate outcomes into cognitive well-being (life satisfaction), psychological functioning (self-esteem, mastery), and affective well-being (happiness, depression, loneliness). Findings show that caregiving has important cross-sectional and longitudinal detrimental psychological effects. These effects are fairly consistent across all aspects of well-being, demonstrating that caregiving has a broad-based negative impact. Among women, however, these effects are similar to if not weaker than the effects of a partner's disability. Caregiving effects are constant by age, education, and employment status, but stronger among caregivers with health problems. Providing personal care to a partner is associated with marked adverse psychological effects for men and women irrespective of age and socio-economic status. Hence, no sociodemographic group is immune from caregiving stress, so programs should be targeted generally. The results also suggest that the health needs of caregivers demand more attention.
Full Text Available The expected increasing demand for informal care in aging societies underscores the importance of understanding the psychological implications of caregiving. This study explores the effect of providing regular help with personal care to a partner on different aspects of psychological well-being. We use cross-sectional data from the Norwegian Life Course, Ageing and Generation study (n. ~15,000; age 40-84 and two-wave panel data from the Norwegian study on Life Course, Ageing and Generation (n. ~3000; age 40-84. To separate the effects of providing care from those of the partner’s disability, caregivers are contrasted with non-caregivers with both disabled and nondisabled partners. We separate outcomes into cognitive well-being (life satisfaction, psychological functioning (self-esteem, mastery, and affective well-being (happiness, depression, loneliness. Findings show that caregiving has important cross-sectional and longitudinal detrimental psychological effects. These effects are fairly consistent across all aspects of well-being, demonstrating that caregiving has a broad-based negative impact. Among women, however, these effects are similar to if not weaker than the effects of a partner’s disability. Caregiving effects are constant by age, education, and employment status, but stronger among caregivers with health problems. Providing personal care to a partner is associated with marked adverse psychological effects for men and women irrespective of age and socio-economic status. Hence, no socio-demographic group is immune from caregiving stress, so programs should be targeted generally. The results also suggest that the health needs of caregivers demand more attention.
Chatterley, Trish; Storie, Dale; Chambers, Thane; Buckingham, Jeanette; Shiri, Ali; Dorgan, Marlene
Healthcare practitioners in Alberta and across Canada have varying levels of access to information resources depending on their institutional and professional affiliations, yet access to current health information is critical for all. To determine what information resources and services are provided by Albertan and Canadian professional health associations to their members. Representatives of professional colleges and associations were interviewed regarding information resources and services offered to members and perceptions of their members' information needs. National-level associations are more likely to provide resources than provincial ones. There is a clear distinction between colleges and associations in terms of information offered: colleges provide regulatory information, while associations are responsible for provision of clinical information resources. Only half of the associations interviewed provide members with access to licensed databases, with cost being a major barrier. There is considerable variation in the number of electronic resources and the levels of information support provided by professional health associations in Alberta and Canada. Access and usage vary among the health professions. National licensing of resources or creation of a portal linking to freely available alternatives are potential options for increasing access and awareness. © 2012 The authors. Health Information and Libraries Journal © 2012 Health Libraries Group.
A subtheory of self-determination theory, basic needs theory (BNT), examines the ways in which social-environmental factors interact with athletes' physical and psychological wellness. When the three psychological needs (autonomy, competence and relatedness) identified in BNT are met in a sport setting, athletes' perceptions of well-being and…
Costa, Rosalia; Dunsford, Michael; Skagerberg, Elin; Holt, Victoria; Carmichael, Polly; Colizzi, Marco
Puberty suppression by gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogs (GnRHa) is prescribed to relieve the distress associated with pubertal development in adolescents with gender dysphoria (GD) and thereby to provide space for further exploration. However, there are limited longitudinal studies on puberty suppression outcome in GD. Also, studies on the effects of psychological support on its own on GD adolescents' well-being have not been reported. This study aimed to assess GD adolescents' global functioning after psychological support and puberty suppression. Two hundred one GD adolescents were included in this study. In a longitudinal design we evaluated adolescents' global functioning every 6 months from the first visit. All adolescents completed the Utrecht Gender Dysphoria Scale (UGDS), a self-report measure of GD-related discomfort. We used the Children's Global Assessment Scale (CGAS) to assess the psychosocial functioning of adolescents. At baseline, GD adolescents showed poor functioning with a CGAS mean score of 57.7 ± 12.3. GD adolescents' global functioning improved significantly after 6 months of psychological support (CGAS mean score: 60.7 ± 12.5; P effective in the clinical management of psychosocial functioning difficulties in GD adolescents. © 2015 International Society for Sexual Medicine.
April M. Whaley; Stacey M. L. Hendrickson; Ronald L. Boring; Jing Xing
This is the second of two papers that discuss the literature review conducted as part of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) effort to develop a hybrid human reliability analysis (HRA) method in response to Staff Requirements Memorandum (SRM) SRM-M061020. This review was conducted with the goal of strengthening the technical basis within psychology, cognitive science and human factors for the hybrid HRA method being proposed. An overview of the literature review approach and high-level structure is provided in the first paper, whereas this paper presents the results of the review. The psychological literature review encompassed research spanning the entirety of human cognition and performance, and consequently produced an extensive list of psychological processes, mechanisms, and factors that contribute to human performance. To make sense of this large amount of information, the results of the literature review were organized into a cognitive framework that identifies causes of failure of macrocognition in humans, and connects those proximate causes to psychological mechanisms and performance influencing factors (PIFs) that can lead to the failure. This cognitive framework can serve as a tool to inform HRA. Beyond this, however, the cognitive framework has the potential to also support addressing human performance issues identified in Human Factors applications.
Merrick, Alistair D; Grieve, Alan; Cogan, Nicola
Despite increased risk of experiencing challenging behaviour, psychological impacts on community and residential staff supporting adults with autistic spectrum conditions are under-explored. Studies examining related roles indicate protective psychological factors may help maintain staff well-being. This study investigated relationships between motivational orientation (eudaimonic or hedonic), challenging behaviour frequency and type (physical, verbal or self-injurious) and psychological impacts (anxiety, depression and life satisfaction). Participants (N = 99) were recruited from six organisations providing autism-specific adult services within Scotland. A series of binary logistic regressions demonstrated weekly challenging behaviour exposure (compared to monthly or daily) significantly increased the likelihood of anxiety caseness. Increased eudaimonic motivation significantly reduced the likelihood of anxiety caseness while also predicting higher life satisfaction. Furthermore, having high levels of eudaimonic motivation appeared to moderate the impact of weekly challenging behaviour exposure on anxiety. No motivational orientation or challenging behaviour factor significantly predicted depression. This sample also demonstrated higher anxiety, lower depression and equivalent life satisfaction levels compared with general population norms. The results highlight the need for considering staff's motivational orientations, their frequency of exposure to challenging behaviour, and both positive and negative psychological outcomes, if seeking to accurately quantify or improve well-being in this staff population.
Chen, Ji-Kang; Wei, Hsi-Sheng
Objectives: This paper examines how peer social support mediates the association between school victimization and student psychological health among junior-high students in an Asian context (Taiwan), and further examines how gender and ethnicity differ in the interrelationships of school violence, peer social support and psychological health.…
Nogami, Kentaro; Taniguchi, Shogo; Ichiyama, Tomoko
The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between basic life support skills in dentists who had completed the American Heart Association's Basic Life Support (BLS) Healthcare Provider qualification and time since course completion. Thirty-six dentists who had completed the 2005 BLS Healthcare Provider course participated in the study. We asked participants to perform 2 cycles of cardiopulmonary resuscitation on a mannequin and evaluated basic life support skills. Dentists who had previously completed the BLS Healthcare Provider course displayed both prolonged reaction times, and the quality of their basic life support skills deteriorated rapidly. There were no correlations between basic life support skills and time since course completion. Our results suggest that basic life support skills deteriorate rapidly for dentists who have completed the BLS Healthcare Provider. Newer guidelines stressing chest compressions over ventilation may help improve performance over time, allowing better cardiopulmonary resuscitation in dental office emergencies. Moreover, it may be effective to provide a more specialized version of the life support course to train the dentists, stressing issues that may be more likely to occur in the dental office.
Kowitt, Sarah D; Ayala, Guadalupe X; Cherrington, Andrea L; Horton, Lucy A; Safford, Monika M; Soto, Sandra; Tang, Tricia S; Fisher, Edwin B
Little research has examined the characteristics of peer support. Pertinent to such examination may be characteristics such as the distinction between nondirective support (accepting recipients' feelings and cooperative with their plans) and directive (prescribing "correct" choices and feelings). In a peer support program for individuals with diabetes, this study examined (a) whether the distinction between nondirective and directive support was reflected in participants' ratings of support provided by peer supporters and (b) how nondirective and directive support were related to depressive symptoms, diabetes distress, and Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c). Three hundred fourteen participants with type 2 diabetes provided data on depressive symptoms, diabetes distress, and HbA1c before and after a diabetes management intervention delivered by peer supporters. At post-intervention, participants reported how the support provided by peer supporters was nondirective or directive. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), correlation analyses, and structural equation modeling examined the relationships among reports of nondirective and directive support, depressive symptoms, diabetes distress, and measured HbA1c. CFA confirmed the factor structure distinguishing between nondirective and directive support in participants' reports of support delivered by peer supporters. Controlling for demographic factors, baseline clinical values, and site, structural equation models indicated that at post-intervention, participants' reports of nondirective support were significantly associated with lower, while reports of directive support were significantly associated with greater depressive symptoms, altogether (with control variables) accounting for 51% of the variance in depressive symptoms. Peer supporters' nondirective support was associated with lower, but directive support was associated with greater depressive symptoms.
Solutions. Project management accomplishments m) Hired and trained 4 new staff (Objectives 1, 2 & 3). Roman Cieslak, Ph.D. was hired in October 2011...diminish the salience and importance of stress inducing factors related to the financial crisis (e.g. media information about crisis, layoffs at...effect. 35 Appendix III Secondary Trauma and Burnout Open Call for Manuscripts Psychological Services The editorial staff at the APA
Osborne, Cara; Burton, Sheila
The Educational Psychology Service in this study has responsibility for providing group supervision to Emotional Literacy Support Assistants (ELSAs) working in schools. To date, little research has examined this type of inter-professional supervision arrangement. The current study used a questionnaire to examine ELSAs' views on the supervision…
Rousseau, Vincent; Salek, Salwa; Aubé, Caroline; Morin, Estelle M
Recent research has demonstrated that the perception of injustice at work may increase psychological health-related problems. The purpose of this study is to examine the moderating effect of coworker support and work autonomy on the relationships between both distributive and procedural justice and psychological distress. Results, on the basis of responses to questionnaires given to 248 prison employees, show that coworker support moderates the relationships between both forms of justice and psychological distress. Specifically, these relationships are weakened when employees benefit from a high level of coworker support. Furthermore, work autonomy moderates the relationship between procedural justice and psychological distress but not the relationship between distributive justice and psychological distress. Thus, procedural injustice is less likely to increase psychological distress when the level of work autonomy is high. (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved.
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present the data and the experience of the victim support service VDS info and victim support service in regard to the issue of psychological abuse at the work place. Data relates to the period from January 1st until December 31st 2008. The data presented in this paper refer to victims' characteristics as well as the ways of providing them assistance and support.
Case, Rosalind Jl; Anderson, Alastair; Walsh, Rodney
To examine the psychological and psychosocial service needs of mothers of children with craniofacial anomalies (CFAs). Mothers (n = 55) of children from newborn to 6 years with CFA completed self-report measures of psychological distress, quality of life and perceived social support. Mothers' psychological distress levels were significantly higher than those in a normative population. Mothers reported lower quality of life than the normative sample. Social support mediated the relationship between quality of life and psychological distress. While most mothers reported a willingness to receive formal psychological support for issues relating to their child's CFA, few had been offered such services. Mothers of children with CFAs may experience increased psychological distress in comparison with the general population. Increased social support may reduce the risk of psychological distress, thus enhancing quality of life among such mothers. The majority of mothers of children with CFAs in Australia may not be routinely offered psychological support services in spite of their elevated psychological risk. © 2017 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (The Royal Australasian College of Physicians).
van der Kaap-Deeder, Jolene; Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Soenens, Bart; Loeys, Tom; Mabbe, Elien; Gargurevich, Rafael
Autonomy-supportive parenting yields manifold benefits. To gain more insight into the family-level dynamics involved in autonomy-supportive parenting, the present study addressed three issues. First, on the basis of self-determination theory, we examined whether mothers' satisfaction of the psychological needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness related to autonomy-supportive parenting. Second, we investigated maternal autonomy support as an intervening variable in the mother-child similarity in psychological need satisfaction. Third, we examined associations between autonomy-supportive parenting and autonomy-supportive sibling interactions. Participants were 154 mothers (M age = 39.45, SD = 3.96) and their two elementary school-age children (M age = 8.54, SD = 0.89 and M age = 10.38, SD = 0.87). Although mothers' psychological need satisfaction related only to maternal autonomy support in the younger siblings, autonomy-supportive parenting related to psychological need satisfaction in both siblings and to an autonomy-supportive interaction style between siblings. We discuss the importance of maternal autonomy support for family-level dynamics. © 2015 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.
Kozlov, Elissa; Niknejad, Bahar; Reid, M C
Patients with advanced illness often have high rates of psychological symptoms. Many multicomponent palliative care intervention studies have investigated the efficacy of overall symptom reduction; however, little research has focused explicitly on how interventions address psychological symptoms associated with serious illness. The current study reviewed 59 multicomponent palliative care intervention articles and analyzed the mental health components of palliative care interventions and their outcomes in order to better understand the current state of psychological care in palliative care. The majority of articles (69.5%) did not provide any details regarding the psychological component delivered as part of the palliative care intervention. Most (54.2%) studies did not specify which provider on the team was responsible for providing the psychological intervention. Studies varied regarding the type of outcome measure utilized; multi-symptom assessment scales were used in 54.2% of studies, mental health scales were employed in 25.4%, quality of life and distress scales were used in 16.9%, and no psychological scales were reported in 28.8%. Fewer than half the studies (42.4%) documented a change in a psychological outcome. The majority of analyzed studies failed to describe how psychological symptoms were identified and treated, which discipline on the team provided the treatment, and whether psychological symptoms improved as a result of the intervention. Future research evaluating the effects of palliative care interventions on psychological symptoms will benefit from using reliable and valid psychological outcome measures and providing specificity regarding the psychological components of the intervention and who provides it.
Wang, Zhizhong; Koenig, Harold G; Ma, Hui; Al Shohaib, Saad
We examined the relationship between religious involvement and psychological distress and explored the mediating effects of social support and purpose in life in university students in western, mid-western, and eastern China. Cross-sectional survey of a representative sample of 1812 university students was conducted. The Purpose in Life scale, Duke Social Support Index, and Religious Commitment Inventory-10 were administered, along with Kessler's Psychological Distress Scale. Structural equation modeling was used to test two models of the mediation hypothesis, examining direct, indirect, and total effects. Model 1 (with direction of effect hypothesized from religiosity to psychological distress) indicated that religious involvement had a direct effect on increasing psychological distress (β = 0.23, p purpose in life and social support (β = -.40, p purpose in life and social support that then lead to lower psychological distress.
Kenny, Maureen E; Gallagher, Laura A; Alvarez-Salvat, Rose; Silsby, John
Study 1 examined the relationships between parental attachment, academic achievement, and psychological distress among a multiethnic sample of academically successful inner-city high school students (19 White, 54 Black, 9 Asian, 18 Hispanic). These students participated in an enrichment program designed to prepare high school students for college success. The results suggest that the affective quality of maternal attachment is positively associated with grade point average, and the affective quality of paternal attachment is negatively associated with depressive symptoms. In Study 2, case examples provide an examination of sources of support, life stress, and patterns of resilience. Implications for prevention and intervention are also discussed.
Bean, Corliss; Harlow, Meghan; Kendellen, Kelsey
Youth leadership programming has become an increasingly common context to foster basic psychological needs and promote youth development. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore strategies involved in fostering youth needs support within six leadership programs. Two leaders and 30 youth participated in semi-structured interviews to better understand the strategies used to foster needs support. Findings revealed that leaders were able to foster a sense of relatedness among youth through building trusting adult-youth relationships and nurturing an inclusive environment. Maximizing choice and negotiating youth voice helped to foster youth's autonomy. Finally, creating a task-oriented climate and providing intentional opportunities for skill-building helped to foster youth's competence. Findings suggest that training for leaders is critical in understanding what, and how strategies should be employed to help foster youth needs support in leadership programming. Limitations and future directions are outlined. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
van Eenennaam, Martijn; Heijenk, Geert
Vehicle-to-vehicle communications is a promising technique for driver support systems to increase traï¬ƒc safety and eï¬ƒciency. A proposed system is the Congestion Assistant , which aims at supporting drivers when approaching and driving in a traï¬ƒc jam. Studies have shown great potential for
Campos, Belinda; Ullman, Jodie B; Aguilera, Adrian; Dunkel Schetter, Christine
Familism, a cultural value that emphasizes warm, close, supportive family relationships and that family be prioritized over self, has been associated with psychological health. The goal of this work was to fill a gap in the literature on how familism contributes to psychological health. Drawing from conceptual links between familism and close relationship processes, we hypothesized that familism contributes to better psychological health by facilitating closeness and social support. A university sample of U.S. women and men of Latino (n = 173), European (n = 257), and Asian (n = 642) cultural backgrounds completed measures of familism, closeness to family members, general perceived social support, and psychological health as indexed by perceived stress, general mental health, and depressive symptoms. Structural equation multiple-group modeling analyses found direct effects of familism on closeness to family members and perceived social support and an indirect effect of familism on better psychological health via greater closeness to family members and greater perceived social support. These effects did not differ by cultural background. Consistent with previous research, however, Latinos reported the highest levels of familism of the three cultural groups, and women reported higher familism and support as well as poorer psychological health than men. Discussion is focused on the implications of these findings for understanding the association of familism with psychological health and the relevance of the familism construct for diverse U.S. groups.
N hasan neghad
Full Text Available Introduction: Psychological hardiness is a personal factor and social support is regarded as an environmental factor that can facilitate adjustment to disease. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between adaptation with psychological hardiness and social support in individuals with Multiple sclerosis (MS. Methods: Seventy two females with MS and 25 males with MSwere selected through randomized sampling from two MS centers. Main variables of the study including adaptation, psychological hardiness, and social supportwere assessed respectively by Adaptation Inventory, Personal Attitudes Survey, and Social Support Questionnaire. Results: Spearman correlation coefficients revealed that there are significant relationships between adaptation and psychological hardiness (p<0.0001, as well as between adaptation and social support (p<0.0001. In addition, Multiple linear Regression showed that psychological hardiness (β= -0.483 and social support (β= -0.240 can explain 35/1% of adaptation variance in individuals with MS. Psychological hardinessproved to have a more important role in adaptation of individuals with MS. Conclusion: The study data demonstrated that personal factors like psychological hardiness and environmental factors such as social support can predict adjustment in individuals with MS. In order to clarify mechanisms of these factors on adaptation in individuals with MS, morelongitudinal and experimental studiesare required. These results are alsoapplicable in designing therapeutic programs for individuals with MS.
Lee, Walter C., Jr.
In response to the student retention and diversity issues that have been persistent in undergraduate engineering education, many colleges have developed Engineering Student Support Centers (ESSCs) such as Minority Engineering Programs (MEPs) and Women in Engineering Programs (WEPs). ESSCs provide underrepresented students with co-curricular…
Zeleeva, Vera P.; Bykova, Svetlana S.; Varbanova, Silvia
The relevance of the study is due to the importance of psychological and pedagogical support for students in university that would prevent difficulties in learning activities and increase adaptive capacity through the development of relevant personal traits. Therefore, this article is aimed at solving the problem of arranging psychological and…
Carney-Crompton, Shawn; Tan, Josephine
Comparison of traditional (aged 18-22) and nontraditional (35-44) female college students (21 each) showed that traditional students had poorer psychological functioning (more depression and anxiety) when less satisfied with emotional support. Psychological functioning of nontraditional students was independent of emotional and instrumental…
cultural approach to academic writing support which was part of the inception of a broader orientation programme in a newly established Centre for Postgraduate Studies at a research intensive South African university. The role of writing ...
Odéssia Fernanda Gomes de Assis
Full Text Available This paper is a case study of a patient who came to us complaining of difficulties within the family due to the fact that he could not deny anything to people. The case was analyzed based on the framework of Analytical Psychology, founded mainly on Carl Gustav Jung. Psychological counseling sessions were held, and after the sessions, theoretical approaches have been made based on the material presented by the patient. The interventions were performed with the goal of enabling the patient and insights she sought other ways to position themselves in the world and to relate to the people around. Over the course of the sessions, the patient was able to construct a context in which allow and deny more in accordance with their abilities and possibilities.
Breen, Lauren J; O'Connor, Moira; Hewitt, Lauren Y; Lobb, Elizabeth A
Health professionals are vulnerable to occupational stress and tend to report high levels of secondary trauma and burnout; this is especially so for those working in "high-death" contexts such as cancer support and palliative care. In this study, 38 health professionals (psychologists, social workers, pastoral carers/chaplains, nurses, group facilitators, and a medical practitioner) who provide grief support and counseling in cancer and palliative care each participated in a semistructured interview. Qualitatively, a grounded theory analysis revealed four themes: (a) the role of health professionals in supporting people who are experiencing grief and loss issues in the context of cancer, (b) ways of working with patients with cancer and their families, (c) the unique qualities of cancer-related loss and grief experiences, and (d) the emotional demands of the work and associated self-care. The provision of psychological services in the context of cancer is colored by the specter of cancer, an unseen yet real phenomenon that contributes to secondary trauma and burnout. The participants' reported secondary trauma has serious repercussions for their well-being and may compromise the care they provide. The findings have implications for the retention and well-being of personnel who provide psychosocial care in cancer and the quality and delivery of services for people with cancer and their families. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.
Full Text Available Effective approaches and psychological support of pediatric patients provided by health professionals are complex processes. The negative reactions and fear that pediatric patients develop during their hospitalization hamper cooperation with health professionals. The pediatric nursing staff is called upon to apply appropriate techniques for managing these situations.The purpose of this paper was to investigate, through contemporary literature review, methods of technical and psychological support of pediatric patients, applied by nurses in everyday clinical practice. The management of negative reactions and fear of pediatric patients requires individualized approach, given the uniqueness of each one of them. However, there are some general measures which may bring the ultimate results. According to literature some of them are: creation of a sincere relationship through targeted discussion, application of documented interactive educational programs to familiarize with nursing and medical procedures, distraction during painful acts, such as venipuncture or bladder catheterization, and finally high perception to identify nonverbal reactions.Awareness and familiarization of health professionals with appropriate methods will improve the relationship between pediatric patients and healthcare providers.
‘Jading’ is a process of exhaustion in which apathy and cynicism replace the drive to be responsive and caring. ‘Burnout’ a term first coined in the psychology literature in 1974 was based on Graham Greene’s novel ‘A Burnt-Out Case1. It is the umbrella description for disengagement in the workplace setting characterised by withdrawal, denial and inefficiency. There is an alienation from the pressures of work. Marshall and Kasman2 defined it as ‘the loss of motivation for creative thought’. It is the opposite of engagement which is associated with energy and optimism. People who experience all 3 symptoms- emotional exhaustion, negative attitude towards patients, reduced sense of personal accomplishment- have the greatest degree of burnout. It doesn’t get better by being ignored. These processes have serious consequences for the individual involved and the hospital that they work in. The doctor underperforms and the Unit becomes dysfunctional There is decreased quality of care, increased absenteeism, and high staff turnover. There is an inability to make decisions and a failure to set priorities.
In February 2010, when CCAA's program leader visited a Malawi-based project team focusing on agricultural innovations, researchers explained how helpful they had found the program's training and mentoring in outcome mapping (OM). This support, organized in 2007 and 2008 by CCAA, helped them and their partners ...
A. V. Starkov
Full Text Available The essence of medical and psychological support is a continuous monitoring of functional and mental state of specialists and the system of mental health interventions aimed at maintaining the optimal level of occupational performance. The scientific basis of this direction is the idea of an integrated system of professional psychological and physiological adaptation in normal conditions, in condition of pre-pathology and pathology. Psychophysiological (professional and psychological examination of specialists is an integral part of medical and psychological support, and presents a set of measures aimed at in-depth study of individual psychological characteristics of personality and evaluation of the specialists' organism functional reserves in the process of their occupational duties implementation to determine the conformity of their professionally important qualities to the requirements of specific occupational activity.
Shiri, Shimon; Wexler, Isaiah D; Alkalay, Yasmin; Meiner, Zeev; Kreitler, Shulamith
Health care personnel treating victims of politically motivated violence are at risk for traumatic stress symptoms. Few studies have assessed the positive psychological impact of politically motivated violence on health care workers. In this study, the level of positive psychological impact among health care workers with recurrent exposure to victims of politically motivated violence was examined. A validated questionnaire survey of health care personnel treating victims of politically motivated violence during 2000-2005 in two hospital settings was conducted. Positive psychological impact was assessed by the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory and traumatic stress symptoms were assessed using the Revised Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Inventory. Subjects included physicians (surgeons and anesthesiologists), nurses, and psychotherapists. The rate of response to the mail-in questionnaires was 68.3% (n = 138). The sample consisted of 70 physicians, 37 nurses, and 31 hospital-based psychotherapists. Positive psychological impact was noted for the entire sample and among all professions. Traumatic stress symptoms predicted positive psychological impact for the entire sample and for each profession, and there was a curvilinear relationship between traumatic stress symptoms and positive psychological impact. Women experienced greater levels of positive psychological impact. Hospital-based health care providers treating victims of politically motivated violence experience both positive and negative psychological impact. Individuals who are more traumatized by their experience are more likely to also have a positive psychological impact. Copyright 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.
The study was conducted in the surgical ICUs of two private hospitals and one public hospital in the Durban metropolitan area. Findings. Four main themes emerged from the data: cultural awareness, communication challenges, providing assistance, and lack of training. Conclusion. These findings provide implications for ...
Nemeroff, Robin; Midlarsky, Elizabeth; Meyer, Joseph F.
Social support has been shown to buffer the relationship between life stress and psychological distress in late life. However, little attention has been paid to personality variables that are associated with the capacity to effectively utilize social support. Although the buffering effects of social support were replicated in our sample of 134…
Kotake, Kumiko; Suzukamo, Yoshimi; Kai, Ichiro; Iwanaga, Kazuyo; Takahashi, Aya
The objective is to clarify whether social support and acquisition of alternative voice enhance the psychological adjustment of laryngectomized patients and which part of the psychological adjustment structure would be influenced by social support. We contacted 1445 patients enrolled in a patient association using mail surveys and 679 patients agreed to participate in the study. The survey items included age, sex, occupation, post-surgery duration, communication method, psychological adjustment (by the Nottingham Adjustment Scale Japanese Laryngectomy Version: NAS-J-L), and the formal support (by Hospital Patient Satisfaction Questionnaire-25: HPSQ-25). Social support and communication methods were added to the three-tier structural model of psychological adjustment shown in our previous study, and a covariance structure analysis was conducted. Formal/informal supports and acquisition of alternative voice influence only the "recognition of oneself as voluntary agent", the first tier of the three-tier structure of psychological adjustment. The results suggest that social support and acquisition of alternative voice may enhance the recognition of oneself as voluntary agent and promote the psychological adjustment.
Ridder, Hanne Mette Ochsner
engagement and learning, and further affects cognitive reserve and the way we age. Music and musical elements affect listeners differently but seem to regulate our body and brain at a much deeper level than we are aware of. When music touches and engages us, a release of the neurotransmitter Norepinephrine....... In addition, through musical interaction, meaningful expression of psychosocial needs may indirectly lead to a reduction of behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia. For the person with severe dementia, with sensory and cognitive decline, this offers a healthy means of remaining active, autonomous......Music is much more than a simple stimulus bringing individual pleasure; it also facilitates interpersonal synchrony. In this chapter professor of music therapy, Hanne Mette Ridder, brings together evidence from various disciplines to provide a new perspective on how music stimulates social...
Allen, Brian; Brymer, Melissa J; Steinberg, Alan M; Vernberg, Eric M; Jacobs, Anne; Speier, Anthony H; Pynoos, Robert S
Psychological First Aid (PFA), developed by the National Child Traumatic Stress Network and the Department of Veterans Affairs National Center for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, has been widely disseminated both nationally and internationally, and adopted and used by a number of disaster response organizations and agencies after major catastrophic events across the United States. This study represents a first examination of the perceptions of providers who utilized PFA in response to a disaster. Study participants included 50 individuals who utilized PFA in their response to Hurricane Gustav or Ike. Findings indicated that participation in PFA training was perceived to increase confidence in working with adults and children. PFA was not seen as harmful to survivors, and was perceived as an appropriate intervention for responding in the aftermath of hurricanes.
children's social support can influence their post-trauma psychological outcomes. That parenting was associated with 6 month PTSD, even after controlling for the child's initial symptoms, suggests that parenting responses in the posttrauma period actively influence the child's poorer longer-term adjustment, rather than simply being a response to the child's initial distress. The results suggest that helping parents to provide fewer negative appraisals about the trauma/their child's response, and to encourage more adaptive coping styles, could be effective in improving child psychological outcomes. As emergency departments provide primary care and support for families affected by trauma, they could play an important role in making this advice available to parents. © 2017, Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Asikhia, Olubusayo Aduke; Mohangi, Kesh
Various studies have reported a huge increase in the numbers of orphaned adolescents in Sub-Saharan Africa and its effects on their psychological, emotional and behavioural development. Yet, their needs are seldom recognised or adequately addressed in policy and programmes.This article uses a qualitative study to report the experiences of 11 orphaned adolescents (5 boys and 6 girls aged between 15 and 18 years) affected by HIV and AIDS in a secondary school (in Atteridgeville, Pretoria, South Africa) and the school support provided by them. The primary data-generation strategies were informal interviews and the Beck Youth Inventories-II (BYI-II) (adopted to measure the participants' level of emotional, behavioural and psychological problems). All interview transcriptions with the participants were thematically analysed. BYI-II data were subjected to T scores (in percentages) to know the participant's psychological, behavioural and emotional problems in order to compare it with their perceptions on the degree of support provided by the school. Result shows that participants have a high prevalence of psychological, behavioural and emotional problems and that the school support provided to them (teachers' support, the general school environment and the degree of discrimination, labelling and bullying that exists in the school) was not sufficient. The participants, however, reported a high level of support from the principal. In conclusion, we have suggested the urgent need for teachers to acquire and possess basic knowledge and skills in caring and paying attention to learners affected by HIV and AIDS and for government agencies and NGOs working with HIV-and AIDS-affected children, to focus on proposals that address the psychological, behavioural and emotional problems in such affected adolescents.
Smyth, Bobby P; Ducray, Kevin; Cullen, Walter
Heroin-dependent adolescents demonstrate high rates of comorbid psychological problems. Among heroin-dependent adults, opiate substitution treatment (OST) programmes appear to reduce mental health problems. We sought to examine the impact of OST on psychological well-being in adolescents, as this is unknown. We conducted a prospective study examining psychological well-being in heroin dependent adolescents, aged 18 years or younger, engaged in outpatient psychologically supported OST. Patients were treated with either methadone or buprenorphine. This was complimented with individual key working, counselling (motivational interviewing and cognitive behavioral therapy) and group work focusing on life skills. The Beck Youth Inventory was used to measure psychological well-being at treatment entry and repeated after 4 months of treatment. Among 55 consecutive treatment episodes, we examined the 32 episodes where the patient persisted with the OST programme. Polysubstance use was the norm at treatment entry. At follow-up, the median doses of methadone and buprenorphine were 50 mgs and 8 mgs, respectively. Only three patients were treated with antidepressant medication. There was significant improvement in the mean depression (65.0 to 57.9, P = 0.001), anxiety (61.7 to 57.0, P = 0.006) and anger (57.8 to 54.6, P = 0.009) subscale scores. The self-concept and disruptive behaviour subscale scores did not improve significantly. In this relatively short-term follow-up, psychosocially assisted OST appears to be associated with improved psychological well-being in heroin-dependent adolescents, especially in the area of depressive and anxiety symptoms. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.
Harris, Roger; Simons, Michele; McCarthy, Carmel
This document was produced by the authors based on their research for the report, "Private Training Providers: Their Characteristics and Training Activities," [ED495181] and is an added resource for further information. That study examined the nature of the training activity of private registered training organisations (RTOs) offered to…
Maryam Sedaqat Far
Full Text Available The modern world with all the blessings of easier and more pleasant life is a world full of unsolved contradictions and complexities. industrialization of communities, the expansion of class gap and poverty, lack of proper management systems, lack of proper sanitation and lack of access to home and many other things have caused irreparable social damage on the body of society. One of these injuries is the problem of sexual violence against women and rape and deliberate and widespread harassment of women in different environments, including enterprises, community, neighborhood, streets and more. Rape is a wrong act and is punished hard in the Iranian criminal law or social convention. Yet, in the meantime, the women affected by this type of sexual violence not only do not enjoy the legal protections but also face identity crisis due to participation in family and community. So the issue of Psychiatric and psychological support for the female victims should be put on the priority of law and women's rights organization committed to ending violence. Methods: this study has been conducted via descriptive and analytical method and library and Internet tools. To describe the psychiatric and psychological support to reduce the psychological effects incurred to female victim in the crime of rape, female victims were interviewed using a case study. To complete the obtained information and analyze research findings using interview, some of the findings of provincial criminal court judges, public courts prosecutors, psychologists and psychiatrists were examined. Finding: The best legal action in support of women victim is psychiatric and psychological supports for these women in safe houses. Women who are suffering from this scourge often commit suicide or live with the fear of this event or their natural life is seriously disrupted. Therefore, it is incumbent on legislators to approve strong support rules in helping and supporting the victim and raped
Souesme, Guillaume; Martinent, Guillaume; Ferrand, Claude
Based on the self-determination theory, the aim of the present study was (1) to provide a better understanding of older people's psychological needs satisfaction in geriatric care units, then to link this information with depressive symptoms and apathy; (2) to examine whether the perceived autonomy support from health care professionals differs between needs satisfaction profiles; and (3) to investigate for all participants how each need satisfaction was related to depressive symptoms and apathy. Participants (N=100; Mage=83.33years, SD=7.78, 61% female) completed the measures of psychological needs satisfaction, perceived autonomy support, geriatric depression and apathy. Sociodemographic data were also collected. Cluster analyses showed three distinct profiles: one profile with low-moderate need satisfaction, one profile with high-moderate need satisfaction and one profile with high need satisfaction. These profiles are distinct, and did not differ in terms of participants' characteristics, except gender. Multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) revealed that participants with low-moderate need satisfaction profile have significantly higher level of depressive symptoms and apathy, and lower levels of perceived autonomy support than participants of the two other profiles. Moreover, for all participants, regression analyses revealed that both competence and relatedness needs satisfaction significantly and negatively explained 28% of the variance in depressive symptoms score and 44% of the variance in apathy score. Our results highlight the interest to examine more thoroughly the variables fostering autonomy-supportive environment in geriatric care units, and to deepen the relationship between competence and relatedness needs satisfaction and depressive symptoms and apathy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Jobeir, Houssine; Peton, Gabrielle; Brigand, Alain; Chatain, Carine; Sass, Catherine; Moulin, Jean-Jacques
Social vulnerability often leads to the expression of psychological distress. The Health Examination Center of Côtes d'Armor, in Quimper, experimented with the development and implementation of psychological counseling for a highly socio-economically vulnerable population. As part of a periodic health examination, the center offers psychological counseling to patients with pathological sleep disorders and who lack sufficient psychological support. The Health Examination Center's framework and the context of the periodic health examination have facilitated the establishment of a tailored non-stigmatizing intervention well-embedded within the institutional environment. Marginalized people in situations of psychological distress are offered an opportunity to be listened to, and to receive counseling, appropriate prevention services and access to care.
Escribà-Agüir, Vicenta; Ruiz-Pérez, Isabel; Montero-Piñar, María Isabel; Vives-Cases, Carmen; Plazaola-Castaño, Juncal; Martín-Baena, David
To determine the effect of two kinds of intimate partner violence (IPV) (physical and psychological) in the previous 12 months (current) and before the previous 12 months (past) on psychological well-being among women aged 18 to 70 years who attend primary healthcare centers in Spain; and to analyze the effect of the duration of lifetime IPV and social support on psychological well-being. A cross-sectional survey was carried out among 10,322 women randomly recruited in primary healthcare centers in Spain. Outcome variables were three indicators of psychological well-being (psychological distress, psychotropic drug use, and self-perceived health). Predictor variables were the different types of IPV, IPV timing (current and past), duration of lifetime IPV, and social support. Logistic regression models were fitted. Both types of IPV increased the probability of worse psychological well-being in both IPV timings (current and past). Longer duration of lifetime IPV, friends network size, and tangible support were independently associated with worse psychological well-being. However, an interaction between current IPV and family network size was found. The probability of poor self-perceived health status was reduced by 29% among women exposed to current IPV who had a large family network (odds ratio, 0.71; 95% confidence interval, 0.54-0.94). Psychological well-being was independently affected by IPV (types and duration) and social support (friends network size, tangible support). Only family network size mitigates the negative consequences of IPV on self-perceived health status.
Qadir, Farah; Khalid, Amna; Medhin, Girmay
This study aimed to identify prevalence rates of psychological distress among Pakistani women seeking help for primary infertility. The associations of social support, marital adjustment, and sociodemographic factors with psychological distress were also examined. A total of 177 women with primary infertility were interviewed from one hospital in Islamabad using a Self-Reporting Questionnaire, the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, and the Locke-Wallace Marital Adjustment Test. The data were collected between November 2012 and March 2013. The prevalence of psychological distress was 37.3 percent. The results of the logistic regression suggested that marital adjustment and social support were significantly negatively associated with psychological distress in this sample. These associations were not confounded by any of the demographic variables controlled in the multivariable regression models. The role of perceived social support and adjustment in marriage among women experiencing primary infertility are important factors in understanding their psychological distress. The results of this small-scale effort highlight the need for social and familial awareness to help tackle the psychological distress related to infertility. Future research needs to focus on the way the experience of infertility is conditioned by social structural realities. New ways need to be developed to better take into account the process and nature of the infertility experience.
Full Text Available The wetland has a strategic role in national development. The potential uses of the wetland are varied such as for agriculture, fisheries, industries, and forestry. The intensive use of the wetland for agricultural development in Sumatera, Kalimantan, Sulawesi, and Papua through transmigration projects has been run since in 1973. Unfortunately, not all the projects were well developed, causing the social, economic, and physical environmental problems. These problems resulted in the negative impact for the life of the transmigration people. For that reason, the community empowerment for the unlucky transmigration people by handling the physical and non physical aspects is very important. This paper will describe the importance of providing spatial data and information biophysical wetland as an initial step in empowering people who live in the wetland resource.
Neely, Jason C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Johnson, Jay [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gonzalez, Sigifredo [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lave, Matthew Samuel [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Delhotal, Jarod James [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
Increasing the penetration of distributed renewable sources, including photovoltaic (PV) sources, poses technical challenges for grid management. The grid has been optimized over decades to rely upon large centralized power plants with well-established feedback controls, but now non-dispatchable, renewable sources are displacing these controllable generators. This one-year study was funded by the Department of Energy (DOE) SunShot program and is intended to better utilize those variable resources by providing electric utilities with the tools to implement frequency regulation and primary frequency reserves using aggregated renewable resources, known as a virtual power plant. The goal is to eventually enable the integration of 100s of Gigawatts into US power systems.
Smeesters, Hannah; Skinner, Chas; Martin, Jo
A lack of knowledge in diabetes self management skills, such as insulin administration, glucose testing and diet, have been identified in a high percentage of adults with the condition ever since insulin treatment was first introduced (Watkins et al, 1967; Murata et al, 2003). Adult support weeke...
Miles, Belva A.
Bandura's (1986) social cognitive theory has been adapted by Lent, Brown, and Hackett (1994) to form social cognitive career theory (SCCT). The theory posits three interlocking steps in academic and career development: interest, choice goal, and choice goal action. Self-efficacy, outcome expectations, barriers, and supports are hypothesized to…
Kimberly A. Rapoza
Full Text Available This study investigated the extent to which perceived social support functioned as a protective factors, and dimensions of insecure attachment (i.e., avoidant and anxious functioned as risks factors for physical and psychological health. We explored whether insecure attachment was a mechanism that modified the relationship (i.e., protect against or increases risk between social support and adult health. Participants were 155 non-traditional adult college students from demographically diverse backgrounds. Students were approached in common areas on campus or in classrooms during break and were asked to complete the questionnaire. Bartholomew and Horowitz’s Attachment Questionnaire assessed avoidant and anxious attachment dimensions, the Brief Social Support Questionnaire assessed perceived social support, and the Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale measured physical and psychological symptoms. Model results indicated that the anxious dimension of insecure attachment was more directly and positively associated with poorer general physical health and psychological symptoms, whereas greater perceived social support was linked with better reported health. However, an interesting pattern emerged with avoidant attachment through a moderated relationship with social support. The absence of a satisfying supportive network was significantly related to poorer physical and psychological health outcomes for those low in avoidant attachment, but not for those high in avoidant attachment. Results from this work suggest that insecure attachment plays a detrimental role in adult health. Perceived social support does not necessarily function as a blanket protective factor for health, as it seemed to offer less benefit to those high in attachment avoidance.
Betts, Lucy R.; Cross, Amanda
While there are a number of technologies that have been used, with varying levels of success, to support visually impaired students, the purpose of this article is to reflect upon the authors' experiences of supporting a visually impaired student through a nine-month level two undergraduate biological psychology module. The authors developed a…
Chan, David W.
Examines teacher stress, self-efficacy, social support, and psychological distress in a sample of Chinese prospective teachers (n=83) in Hong Kong. Reports that the teachers experienced higher levels of symptoms in somatic problems followed by anxiety and dysphoria. Discusses self-efficacy and social support as protective factors for teacher…
Bohan, Jason; Friel, Niamh; Szymanek, Larissa
Here we report on a new initiative which supported first-year psychology undergraduates in developing their information literacy skills. These skills were taught in a small-group tutorial setting with tutor guidance and peer-supported activities. We measured student's Autonomous Learning and Academic Self-Efficacy before and after the teaching…
Benson, Paul R.
This study examined the characteristics of the support networks of 106 mothers of children with ASD and their relationship to perceived social support, depressed mood, and subjective well-being. Using structural equation modeling, two competing sets of hypotheses were assessed: (1) that network characteristics would impact psychological adjustment…
Gupta, Vishal; Agarwal, Upasna A; Khatri, Naresh
This study examines the factors that mediate and moderate the relationships of perceived organizational support with work engagement and organization citizenship behaviour. Specifically, affective commitment is posited to mediate and psychological contract breach to moderate the above relationships. Nurses play a critical role in delivering exemplary health care. For nurses to perform at their best, they need to experience high engagement, which can be achieved by providing them necessary organizational support and proper working environment. Data were collected via a self-reported survey instrument. A questionnaire was administered to a random sample of 750 nurses in nine large hospitals in India during 2013-2014. Four hundred and seventy-five nurses (63%) responded to the survey. Hierarchical multiple regression was used for statistical analysis of the moderated-mediation model. Affective commitment was found to mediate the positive relationships between perceived organizational support and work outcomes (work engagement, organizational citizenship behaviour). The perception of unfulfilled expectations (psychological contract breach) was found to moderate the perceived organizational support-work outcome relationships adversely. The results of this study indicate that perceived organizational support exerts its influence on work-related outcomes and highlight the importance of taking organizational context, such as perceptions of psychological contract breach, into consideration when making sense of the influence of perceived organizational support on affective commitment, work engagement and citizenship behaviours of nurses. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Gagné, Marie-Hélène; Melançon, Claudiane
The role of coping strategies (approach and avoidance) as a mediating factor between parental psychological violence and adolescent behavior problems, both internalized and externalized, as well as the protective role of social support were examined separately for boys and girls. A group of 278 adolescents (mean age: 14.2) were recruited in three high schools located in low, moderate, and high socioeconomic areas. Participants were in the seventh, eighth, and ninth grades, and each completed a self-administered questionnaire. The use of avoidant coping strategies partially mediated the link between parental psychological violence and behavior problems among girls. The use of approach coping strategies partially mediated the link between parental psychological violence and behavior problems among boys. In all cases, coping enhanced this link. No protective role of social support was found. On the contrary, this variable was found to increase the relationship between parental psychological violence and externalized behavior problems among boys. These findings suggest that interventions aimed at strengthening coping skills and social support in adolescents may not be effective in alleviating various behavioral symptoms associated with parental psychological violence. They highlight the importance of prevention of psychologically violent parental practices, instead of only reacting to the problem after it has occurred.
Hustache, Sarah; Moro, Marie-Rose; Roptin, Jacky; Souza, Renato; Gansou, Grégoire Magloire; Mbemba, Alain; Roederer, Thomas; Grais, Rebecca F; Gaboulaud, Valérie; Baubet, Thierry
Little is known about the impact of psychological support in war and transcultural contexts and in particular, whether there are lasting benefits. Here, we present an evaluation of the late effect of post-rape psychological support provided to women in Brazzaville, Republic of Congo. Women who attended the Médecins Sans Frontières program for sexual violence in Brazzaville during the conflict were selected to evaluate the psychological consequences of rape and the late effect of post-rape psychological support. A total of 178 patients met the eligibility criteria: 1) Women aged more than 15 years; 2) raped by unknown person(s) wearing military clothes; 3) admitted to the program between the 1/1/2002 and the 30/4/2003; and 4) living in Brazzaville. The initial diagnosis according to DSM criteria showed a predominance of anxious disorders (54.1%) and acute stress disorders (24.6%). One to two years after the initial psychological care, 64 women were evaluated using the Trauma Screening Questionnaire (TSQ), the Global Assessment of Functioning scale (GAF) and an assessment scale to address medico-psychological care in emergencies (EUMP). Two patients (3.1%) met the needed criteria for PTSD diagnosis from the TSQ. Among the 56 women evaluated using GAF both as pre and post-test, global functioning was significantly improved by initial post-rape support (50 women (89.3%) had extreme or medium impairment at first post-rape evaluation, and 16 (28.6%) after psychological care; p = 0.04). When interviewed one to two years later, the benefit was fully maintained (16 women (28.6%) presenting extreme or medium impairment). We found the benefits of post-rape psychological support to be present and lasting in this conflict situation. However, we were unable to evaluate all women for the long-term impact, underscoring the difficulty of leading evaluation studies in unstable contexts. Future research is needed to validate these findings in other settings.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the impact of psychological support in war and transcultural contexts and in particular, whether there are lasting benefits. Here, we present an evaluation of the late effect of post-rape psychological support provided to women in Brazzaville, Republic of Congo. Methods Women who attended the Médecins Sans Frontières program for sexual violence in Brazzaville during the conflict were selected to evaluate the psychological consequences of rape and the late effect of post-rape psychological support. A total of 178 patients met the eligibility criteria: 1 Women aged more than 15 years; 2 raped by unknown person(s wearing military clothes; 3 admitted to the program between the 1/1/2002 and the 30/4/2003; and 4 living in Brazzaville. Results The initial diagnosis according to DSM criteria showed a predominance of anxious disorders (54.1% and acute stress disorders (24.6%. One to two years after the initial psychological care, 64 women were evaluated using the Trauma Screening Questionnaire (TSQ, the Global Assessment of Functioning scale (GAF and an assessment scale to address medico-psychological care in emergencies (EUMP. Two patients (3.1% met the needed criteria for PTSD diagnosis from the TSQ. Among the 56 women evaluated using GAF both as pre and post-test, global functioning was significantly improved by initial post-rape support (50 women (89.3% had extreme or medium impairment at first post-rape evaluation, and 16 (28.6% after psychological care; p = 0.04. When interviewed one to two years later, the benefit was fully maintained (16 women (28.6% presenting extreme or medium impairment. Conclusion We found the benefits of post-rape psychological support to be present and lasting in this conflict situation. However, we were unable to evaluate all women for the long-term impact, underscoring the difficulty of leading evaluation studies in unstable contexts. Future research is needed to validate these
Bebanic, Vedrana; Clench-Aas, Jocelyne; Raanaas, Ruth Kjærsti; Bang Nes, Ragnhild
The aims of this study were to examine associations between reported exposure to psychological and physical violence and psychological distress (PD) among men and women, and to explore the possible mediating or moderating roles of sense of mastery and social support. We used data from the nationally representative Norwegian Health and Level of Living Survey in 2005 and 2012 (Weighted N = 19,386). PD was measured with the Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25, using the subscales for anxiety and depression separately and in combination. Analyses were conducted using hierarchical logistic regression with complex sample adjustment. Altogether, 3.8% of men and 5.4% of women reported psychological violence during the last 12 months, while 2.3% and 1.6% reported physical violence, respectively. Both forms of violence were associated with excess risk of comorbid anxiety and depressive symptoms above clinical cut-point (CAD) in men and women alike, and CAD occurred more frequently than anxiety or depressive problems separately. Sense of mastery, but not social support, partly mediated the association between both forms of violence and CAD in men, whereas both partly mediated the association between psychological violence and CAD in women. No moderator role was indicated. Overall, the results provide evidence for excess risk of PD, particularly CAD, in men and women reporting exposure to violence. Sense of mastery and to a lesser degree social support were shown to constitute significant mediators, underscoring the importance of systems for strengthening coping strategies and social support among violence victims, such as psychological and practical support by the health services. © The Author(s) 2015.
Younggren, Jeffrey N.; Boisvert, Jennifer A.; Boness, Cassandra L.
This article examines the role conflicts that psychologists may face in their practices related to the evaluation and certification of emotional support animals (ESAs). It reviews the legal differences between ESAs and service animals (SAs), outlines ethical guidelines and legal policies/regulations regarding the use of ESAs, and examines the potential role conflicts that exist when a treating psychologist is certifying the need for an ESA. Finally, it makes recommendations to assist psycholo...
In fact, it is deeply entrenched in their ways of life and they have various sayings encouraging and preaching social support e.g. “Eniyan laso mi, timo ba weyin timo reni mi, eniyan laso mi” meaning “people are my convering, when I look back and see my people, I know I am not naked”. Another one says, “Taja ba leni leyin, ...
Full Text Available Background & objectives: Diabetes mellitus is a common metabolic disorder that has negative effect on physical function, psychological condition, interpersonal, family and social relationship and in general, on psychological well being. The aim of this study was to investigate of psychological profile in diabetic patients and it's relatioship with social support. Methods: In this descriptive-correlational study, 120 diabetic patients have been selected among of those that systematically refered to Diabetes Clinic of Emam Khomeini Hospital in order to follow their therapeutic process in Ardabil . Data gathering was accomplished by two tests: SCL-90-R and Social Support Scale. Finally data were analyzed by Pearson correlation coefficient and T-test on SPSS-17 software and p-value less than 0.05 considered as significant. Results: Results showed that 70% of diabetic patients had problems in somatic complaint and obsession, 62.5% in sensitivity, 72.5% in depression, 62.5% in anxiety, 55% in hostility, 67.5% in paranoid thoughts, 27.5% in phobia and 37.5% in psychosis. Correlations between social support with somatic complaint, obsession, sensitivity, depression, anxiety, hostility and paranoid thoughts were negatively significant. Family support associated significantly with all of the psychological variables but friend Support had no significant correlation with them. Conclusion: The range of psychological problems experienced by diabetic patients is more extensive and these problems have significant relationship with social support. Thus, attention to different dimensions of psychological health is necessary and social support-based interventions can be more effective.
Hansen, Nina B.; Sara B. Eriksen; Elklit, Ask
Background: Research has documented severe mental health problems in female victims of intimate partner violence (IPV). Therefore, providing effective treatment is pivotal. Few studies have investigated the effects of intervention programs on reducing the harmful consequences of IPV.Objective: The present study examined the effects of a specific three-phase intervention program for female victims of IPV on psychological symptoms (PTSD, anxiety, and depression) and perceived social support. Gi...
DeFreese, J D; Smith, Alan L
Social support and negative social interactions have implications for athlete psychological health, with potential to influence the links of stress-related experiences with burnout and well-being over time. Using a longitudinal design, perceived social support and negative social interactions were examined as potential moderators of the temporal stress-burnout and burnout-well-being relationships. American collegiate athletes (N = 465) completed reliable and valid online assessments of study variables at four time points during the competitive season. After controlling for dispositional and conceptually important variables, social support and negative social interactions did not moderate the stress-burnout or burnout-well-being relationships, respectively, but did simultaneously contribute to burnout and well-being across the competitive season. The results showcase the importance of sport-related social perceptions to athlete psychological outcomes over time and inform development of socially driven interventions to improve the psychological health of competitive athletes.
Pesántez-Avilés, Fernando; Cevallos-León Wong, Verónica; Robles-Bykbaev, Vladimir; Borck-Vintimilla, Estefanía.; Flores-Andrade, Santiago; Pineda-Villa, Yenner; Pacurucu-Pacurucu, Ana
When children are taken apart from their parents because of many violence situations, they are taken to foster homes, where they share place with kids who have lived similar situations. United Nations Children's Fund (2014) refer that Children who have been abused or neglected, often may have low self-esteem and other emotional problems, which can lead, at worst, to risky behaviors and self-harm . They also could tend to internalize that behavior, repeating the pattern of violence and abuse as a response to their environment. In this line, the latest estimates provided by SOS Children's Village International show a global complex picture: around 24 million of children in the world live in foster homes, one billion of children live in conflict-affected areas; and, furthermore, there is a lack of mental health professionals in most of the countries. On those grounds, in this paper we propose an intelligent ecosystem to provide support for psychologists during the psychodiagnosis and intervention with children, especially the ones who are in foster homes. Currently, the system is able to automatically determine some psychological traits, according to responses provided by each patient. One part of the diagnostic system is based on two psychological tests: the Draw-A-Person test and the Draw-A-Family test. The results obtained on the first stage let the system establish different challenges according to the skills that the evaluated child needs to develop. Our proposed approach was tested in a population of 124 children (93 school students, and 31 living in shelters), and has achieved encouraging results (80% of precision in patient's profile determination).
Tatyana Gennadevna Pronyushkina
Full Text Available This article discusses the management of production team, in particular the developed theoretical model of socio-psychological support work processes for management of production team. The author of the research are formulated the purpose and objectives of social-psychological work on management of the production team. Developed in the study a theoretical model aimed at determining the conditions and the identification of features of effective management of the enterprise taking into account the socio-psychological characteristics of its staff. Tasks include: definition of the main characteristics of the production team and their severity, the analysis of these characteristics and identifying opportunities for their transformation, development of recommendations for management of social-psychological work on effects on the characteristics of the collective enterprise.Practical study of the activities of a number of businesses have shown the need to improve socio-psychological support of management processes production team: introducing a social and psychological planning team and develop the practice of sociological research on the state of the team, to ensure the smoothing of relations between workers and management through periodic meetings, creations of conditions for feedback, maintaining healthy competition among team members.
Aydede, Sema K; Komenda, Paul; Djurdjev, Ognjenka; Levin, Adeera
Chronic diseases, such as chronic kidney disease (CKD), are growing in incidence and prevalence, in part due to an aging population. Support provided through home care services may be useful in attaining a more efficient and higher quality care for CKD patients. A systematic review was performed to identify studies examining home care interventions among adult CKD patients incorporating all outcomes. Studies examining home care services as an alternative to acute, post-acute or hospice care and those for long-term maintenance in patients' homes were included. Studies with only a home training intervention and those without an applied research component were excluded. Seventeen studies (10 cohort, 4 non-comparative, 2 cross-sectional, 1 randomized) examined the support provided by home care services in 15,058 CKD patients. Fourteen studies included peritoneal dialysis (PD), two incorporated hemodialysis (HD) and one included both PD and HD patients in their treatment groups. Sixteen studies focused on the dialysis phase of care in their study samples and one study included information from both the dialysis and pre-dialysis phases of care. Study settings included nine single hospital/dialysis centers and three regional/metropolitan areas and five were at the national level. Studies primarily focused on nurse assisted home care patients and mostly examined PD related clinical outcomes. In PD studies with comparators, peritonitis risks and technique survival rates were similar across home care assisted patients and comparators. The risk of mortality, however, was higher for home care assisted PD patients. While most studies adjusted for age and comorbidities, information about multidimensional prognostic indices that take into account physical, psychological, cognitive, functional and social factors among CKD patients was not easily available. Most studies focused on nurse assisted home care patients on dialysis. The majority were single site studies incorporating
Full Text Available Problems of research considered in present article, is the study of the bases and guidelines of the organization and the content of the psychological support to teachers with signs of burnout. With the method of burnout diagnosis of V.V. Boyko surveyed 502 teachers, 264 of them - work in special (correctional educational institutions (average age 41,06 years, 238 - in general education (mean age 39,95 years. The symptoms of burnout and symptoms of its formation phase were analyezed (on the model of V. Boyko. Significant differences in the study groups of teachers are set on the basis of the experience of stressful circumstances, feeling "driven into the cage" and inadequate selective emotional response, as well as the frequency of occurrence of the parameter signs Resistance phase. On the basis of similarity of signs of dominance in the manifestations of burnout in teachers study groups concluded that there is basic opportunity of developing a single model of psychological assistance for teachers with signs of burnout, regardless of the type or kind of educational institution. A number of landmarks for the organization and content of the psychological work with the teachers were suggested, based on the creation of conditions for their psychological support and psychological support technology, built on the basis of the process approach.
Walker, Elizabeth Reisinger; Engelhard, George; Barmon, Christina; McGee, Robin E.; Sterk, Claire E.; DiIorio, Colleen; Thompson, Nancy
Social support is associated with improved self-management for people with chronic conditions, such as epilepsy; however, little is known about the perceived ease or difficulty of receiving and providing support for epilepsy self-management. We examined patterns of epilepsy self-management support from the perspectives of both people with epilepsy and their support persons. Fifty-three people with epilepsy and 48 support persons completed a survey on epilepsy self-management support. Of these...
Andrey Ivanovich Shutenko
Full Text Available The article describes psychological and pedagogical bases for carrying out successful integration of children with disabilities in general education system. Relying on the principle of a complementarity, authors develop the model of such integration in the form of the adaptive educational environment, represent the leading components of the organization of such environment (valeological, personal- focused, axiological, hermeneutical, interindividual, and also a number of the important pedagogical and psychological principles of its functioning in logic of fruitful socialization of children with disabilities in educational process.
Yin, Junmei; Wong, Rebecca; Au, Shimen; Chung, Harriet; Lau, Maggie; Lin, Laihar; Tsang, Chiuchi; Lau, Kampiu; Ozaki, Risa; So, Wingyee; Ko, Gary; Luk, Andrea; Yeung, Roseanne; Chan, Juliana C N
We examined the effects of participating in a "train-the-trainer" program and being a peer supporter on metabolic and cognitive/psychological/behavioral parameters in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes. In response to our invitation, 79 patients with fair glycemic control (HbA1c peer supporters. Of the 59 who completed the program successfully, 33 agreed to be peer supporters ("agreed trainees") and were each assigned to support 10 patients for 1 year, with a voluntary extension period of 3 additional years, while 26 trainees declined to be supporters ("refused trainees"). A group of 60 patients with fair glycemic control who did not attend the training program and were under usual care were selected as a comparison group. The primary outcome was the change in average HbA1c levels for the 3 groups from baseline to 6 months. At 6 months, HbA1c was unchanged in the trainees (at baseline, 7.1 ± 0.3%; at 6 months, 7.1 ± 1.1%) but increased in the comparison group (at baseline, 7.1 ± 0.5%; at 6 months, 7.3 ± 1.1%. P = .02 for between-group comparison). Self-reported self-care activities including diet adherence and foot care improved in the trainees but not the comparison group. After 4 years, HbA1c remained stable among the agreed trainees (at baseline, 7.0 ± 0.2%; at 4 years: 7.2 ± 0.6%), compared with increases in the refused trainees (at baseline, 7.1 ± 0.4%; at 4 years, 7.8 ± 0.8%) and comparison group (at baseline, 7.1 ± 0.5%; at 4 years, 8.1 ± 0.6%. P = .001 for between-group comparison). Patients with diabetes who engaged in providing ongoing peer support to other patients with diabetes improved their self-care while maintaining glycemic control over 4 years. © 2015 Annals of Family Medicine, Inc.
Educational psychology has recently experienced something of a revival in the provision of psychological therapy. This revival has aligned with general developments in evidence-based psychology. A product of this has been more frequent delivery of empirically supported therapies in practice settings, for example, anxiety reduction programmes in…
... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Support for services beyond the maximum supported distance for rural health care providers. 54.625 Section 54.625 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) UNIVERSAL SERVICE Universal Service Support for Health Care Providers § 54.625...
Full Text Available Rates of psychological distress are high following diagnosis and treatment of brain tumor. There can be multiple barriers to accessing psychological support, including physical and cognitive impairments and geographical limitations. Tele-based support could provide an effective and more flexible option for delivering psychological interventions. The present study aimed to investigate the feasibility and utility of a telephone-based psychotherapy intervention for people with brain tumor. A single-case multiple-baseline design was employed with a 4-7 week baseline phase, 10-week treatment phase and 5-week maintenance phase including a booster session. Four participants with a benign or malignant brain tumor (3 males & 1 female; aged 34 to 49 years, received 10 sessions of tele-based therapy and a booster session at four weeks post-treatment. Levels of depression, anxiety, and illness cognitions were monitored on a weekly basis throughout each phase whilst measures of quality of life, stress and self-concept were administered at the start and end of each phase. Weekly measures were analysed using a combination of both visual analysis and Tau-U statistics. Of the four participants, two of them demonstrated significant gains in mental health (depression and/or anxiety and a significant decrease in their levels of helplessness (p<.05. The other two participants did not show gains in mental health or change in illness cognitions. All participants reported improvement in quality of life post-treatment. The results of the study provide preliminary support concerning the feasibility and utility of tele-based therapy for some people with brain tumor. Further research examining factors influencing the outcomes of tele-based psychological support is needed.
Gagne, Marie-Helene; Melancon, Claudiane
The role of coping strategies (approach and avoidance) as a mediating factor between parental psychological violence and adolescent behavior problems, both internalized and externalized, as well as the protective role of social support were examined separately for boys and girls. A group of 278 adolescents (mean age: 14.2) were recruited in three…
Høybye, Mette Terp; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg; Christensen, Jane
observed no difference between the two groups in quality of life or psychological well-being, while coping to some extent seemed related to participation in internet support groups. CONCLUSION: This study adds to the discussion on social inequality in internet use by cancer patients, showing that patients...
Simsek, Omer Faruk; Demir, Meliksah
Past empirical research relying on self-determination theory (SDT) has consistently shown that parental support of basic psychological needs (BPN) is associated with adolescent happiness. Yet, the specific mechanisms accounting for this link are still undetermined. The present study aimed to address this gap in the literature by testing a…
Sun, Huimin; Zhang, Junjian; Fu, Xuedong
To investigate psychological status, coping, social support, and psychosocial factors associated with people living with HIV/AIDS in a highly HIV-infected area of central China. Cross-sectional descriptive correlation study. Of 200 individuals with HIV/AIDS registered at the "Warm Homestead" health care center (central China), all who met the eligibility criteria (n=103) were recruited; 94 of these completed questionnaires. Four anonymous self-administered questionnaires were used: (a) demographic data questionnaire, (b) Symptom Checklist-90 (SCL-90), (c) Medical Coping Modes Questionnaire, and (d) Perceived Social Support Scale questionnaire. Participants had low education levels and family incomes. The majority (n=87, 92.6%) had become infected due to improper procedures during plasma donations. Participants reported moderately high levels of perceived social support, but their high SCL-90 scores indicated high levels of psychological distress. The most frequently used coping style was confrontation. Both acceptance-resignation and avoidance coping styles were significantly correlated with high distress (high SCL-90 total and subscale scores). Public health personnel and AIDS professionals may consider further interventions to promote psychological health in HIV/AIDS-positive individuals in highly HIV-infected areas of China, as the available social support did not seem to be effective in decreasing psychological pathology or mobilizing their coping strategies.
Ruthig, Joelle C.; Haynes, Tara L.; Stupnisky, Robert H.; Perry, Raymond P.
The first year of college presents numerous challenges experienced as overwhelming by some freshmen who may become overly stressed and depressed. This longitudinal study examined perceived academic control (PAC) as a mediator of optimism and social support's buffering effects on freshman students' psychological health. Multiple regressions…
Hsieh, Hsiu-Fang; Wang, Jing-Jy; Yen, Maiofen; Liu, Tzu-Ti
Institutionalized elderly who are frail and dependent are vulnerable to be abused by overwhelmed caregivers especially caregiver psychological abusive behavior is a growing but hidden problem with few evidence-based interventions. The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of an educational support group in alleviating caregiver's…
Hulbert-Williams, Lee; Hastings, Richard P.; Crowe, Rachel; Pemberton, Jemma
Background: Several studies have reported relationships between life events and psychological problems in people with intellectual disabilities. In contrast to the general literature, data have consistently been collected via proxy informants and putative moderator variables such as social support have not been examined. Materials and Methods:…
Briki, Walid; den Hartigh, Ruud; Markman, Keith; Gernigon, Christophe
Objective:The present study examined changes in sport supporters’ psychological momentum (PM) during a simulated cycling competition through the lens of the dynamical systems approach. Design:Participants were asked to support one of two competing cyclists involved in a race that was displayed on a
Knisely, J E; Northouse, L
A descriptive exploratory design was used to examine the relationship between the level of social support, the level of psychological distress, and the extent of help-seeking behavior in a nonprobability sample of 53 hospitalized adult psychiatric patients. The subjects completed the Norbeck Social Support Questionnaire, the Brief Symptom Inventory, and a researcher-designed Help-Seeking Behavior Questionnaire. The Pearson Product Moment Correlation coefficients and t test were used to analyze the data. No significant correlation was found between the level of psychological distress and either the level of social support or the extent of help seeking. Social support and help seeking were highly correlated. These results have an implication for nursing practice pertaining to the focus of patient treatment both during hospitalization and in postdischarge planning.
Aims: The main aim of this thesis was to describe the psychological distress, coping and social support among women in the diagnostic and preoperative phase of breast cancer using quantitative and qualitative approaches in sequence. This included descriptions of relationships between demographic variables, social support, anxiety, coping and defence strategies among women with suspected breast cancer, as well as in-depth descriptions of the women’s experiences after having rece...
Yu, Chengfu; Li, Xian; Zhang, Wei
Problematic online game use (POGU) has become a serious global public health concern among adolescents. However, its influencing factors and mediating mechanisms remain largely unknown. This study provides the first longitudinal design to test stage-environment fit theory empirically in POGU. A total of 356 Chinese students reported on teacher autonomy support, basic psychological needs satisfaction, school engagement, and POGU in the autumn of their 7th-9th grade years. Path analyses supported the proposed pathway: 7th grade teacher autonomy support increased 8th grade basic psychological needs satisfaction, which in turn increased 9th grade school engagement, which ultimately decreased 9th grade POGU. Furthermore, 7th grade teacher autonomy support directly increased 9th grade school engagement, which in turn decreased 9th grade POGU. These findings suggest that teacher autonomy support is an important protective predictor of adolescent POGU, and basic psychological needs satisfaction and school engagement are the primary mediators in this association.
Full Text Available This study investigates the specific role of burnout as a mediator in the relationship between psychological capital and psychological well-being (PWB in direct support staff of specialist autism services. A time lagged design with three data-collection points was conducted to survey 56 professionals (direct support staff who work at a Spanish center specialized in autism. Participants completed measures of psychological capital, burnout and PWB. The hypothesized model was tested using structural equation modeling. Our findings show that psychological capital has a significant main effect on PWB. The results also show that psychological capital in the work environment should result in lower burnout which in turn, should lead to higher degrees of PWB in the direct support staff of autism services. Our results support that psychological capital is a key variable in the working life of the direct support staff of autism services. The findings suggest the need of implementing programmes which strengthen each individual's psychological capital in order to prevent burnout and achieve a greater PWB.
The literature on gender differences related to psychological health among in-theater service members who are deployed in a combatant role is limited. Much focuses on retrospective reports of service members who have returned from deployment. Potential key factors that contribute to gender differences in psychological health among combatants are found in literature across several topic areas, but integration of findings across disciplines is lacking. A growing body of literature on gender differences related to psychological health of postdeployment military populations suggests males and females respond differently to perceived levels of social support pre-and postdeployment. One study on service members who were deployed suggested no significant gender differences related to reported psychological health symptoms, but did appear to find significant gender differences related to reported perception of unit morale. In another related area, research explores how ostracism impacts physical and psychological health of individuals and organizations, and can result in perceptions of physical pain, although research on gender differences related to the impact of ostracism is scarce. Research has also begun to focus on sex differences in pain responses, and has identified multiple biopsychosocial, genetic, and hormonal factors that may contribute as potential underlying mechanisms. In this brief review, we focus on and begin to integrate relevant findings related to the psychological health of females in combat roles, gender differences in the impact of perception of social support on psychological health, the psychological and physical impact of ostracism on individuals and organizations, and the current literature on sex differences in pain perception. We conclude with a synthesis and discussion of research gaps identified through this review, implications for clinical practice, and potential future research directions. In conclusion, there appear to be gender
Full Text Available We consider the possibility of a crisis psychological aid to children with suicidal intentions by means of telephone counseling. We shows the profile of a typical adolescent, requesting assistance from the hotline on suicidal thoughts, intentions: it is an introverted girl aged 14 to 18 years, in a depressed mood with a predominance of anxiety, fears, related to traumatic situation, experiencing feelings of hopelessness, loneliness, thinking of the situation as hopeless, going through a break in romantic relationships. The most characteristic motifs of suicide is the desire to “get away from the pain” and/or to revenge the others, make them regret about her. We specified the main tasks of a helpline specialist solved in the course of counseling: prevention of suicidal behavior, information on the possible forms of psychological aid, direct work with a customer requesting aid on his formed suicidal intent.
Force that Increases with distance is different than dark energy as I am arguing for existence of force based on psychological and astronomical bases. Hubble shift, doppler shift, comet return, quasar zoo and quasars and psychological evidence of interest in distant objects lends support to a force like gravity, nuclear, weak, strong, virtual, decay, biological, growth forces which increases its intensity with distance unlike gravity which decreases in intensity with distance. Jane Frances Back Struck contributed to this finding with her request that her grandparents have "perfect justice" even though her grandparents had died before she was born; interest increasing with distance from grandparents.
Parcesepe, Angela; Tymejczyk, Olga; Remien, Robert; Gadisa, Tsigereda; Kulkarni, Sarah Gorrell; Hoffman, Susie; Melaku, Zenebe; Elul, Batya; Nash, Denis
Recent World Health Organization HIV treatment guideline expansion may facilitate timely antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation. However, large-scale success of universal treatment strategies requires a more comprehensive understanding of known barriers to early ART initiation. This work aims to advance a more comprehensive understanding of interrelationships among three known barriers to ART initiation: psychological distress, HIV-related stigma, and low social support. We analyzed cross-sectional interview data on 1175 adults initiating ART at six HIV treatment clinics in Ethiopia. Experience of each form of HIV-related stigma assessed (e.g., anticipatory, internalized, and enacted) was associated with increased odds of psychological distress. However, among those who reported enacted HIV-related stigma, there was no significant association between social support and psychological distress. Interventions to improve mental health among people living with HIV should consider incorporating components to address stigma, focusing on strategies to prevent or reduce the internalization of stigma, given the magnitude of the relationship between high internalized stigma and psychological distress. Interventions to increase social support may be insufficient to improve the mental health of people living with HIV who experienced enacted HIV-related stigma. Future research should examine alternative strategies to manage the mental health consequences of enacted HIV-related stigma, including coping skills training.
Full Text Available // Introduction: The impact of the diagnosis of an oncologic disease is well-known in terms of psychological adjustment and quality of life. On the other hand it is known that depressive symptoms may also overlap the physical symptoms of cancer and cancer treatment, which may interfere in their detection and appropriate treatment approach. Objectives: The aim of the current study was to explore the relationship between psychological adjustment to lung cancer, self-compassion, social support and emotional negative states in patients with lung cancer. Method: Fifty-five patients diagnosed with lung cancer (38 men and 17 women with ages ranging from 44 to 87 years old participated in the study. A set of self-report instruments was used: the Mini Mental Adjustment to Cancer Scale (MiniMac, the Self-compassion Scale (SCS; Neff, 2003, the Social Support Satisfaction Scale (SSSS and the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21. Results: Significant correlations were found between psychological adjustment, psychopathology, emotion regulation strategies (self-compassion, and social support. The predictive models for psychological adjustment and stress related symptomatology include self-compassion and social support as significant predictive variables. Regarding the predictive model for depressive symptomatology, mindfulness seems to be the only significant predictor. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that these patients may benefit, in their therapeutic approach, from the development of this kind of strategies (new ways of relating themselves with their emotional experiences and quality of their social networks in order to promote a better psychological adjustment to their clinical condition.
Du, Hongfei; Li, Xiaoming; Chi, Peilian; Zhao, Junfeng; Zhao, Guoxiang
Self-esteem can be derived from the relationships with significant others (relational self-esteem). However, it is unclear what the importance of relational self-esteem is for mental health and whether social support from others promotes relational self-esteem. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between relational self-esteem and a multitude of indicators of psychological well-being among children affected by HIV. We also examined how social support from others would affect relational self-esteem. Results indicated that relational self-esteem was positively associated with psychological well-being. Support from significant others rather than others predicted increased relational self-esteem. Implications and directions for future research are discussed. © The Author(s) 2014.
Östergren, Per-Olof; Canivet, Catarina; Moghadassi, Mahnaz; Lindeberg, Sara; Karasek, Robert; Isacsson, Sven-Olof
Purpose Little is known about the interaction between job control and social support at work on common mental disorders. To examine whether there is a synergistic interaction effect between job control and social support at work on general psychological distress and whether it differs by the level of job demands. Methods About 1,940 male and female workers from the Malmö Shoulder and Neck Study were chosen for this cross-sectional study. Job control, social support at work, and job demands were measured by the Swedish version of the Job Content Questionnaire, and general psychological distress was assessed by the General Health Questionnaire. Results A significant excessive risk increase for general psychological distress was observed when workers had both low job control and low social support at work in both men and women. The synergistic effect was stronger in women, when job demands were low (Rothman’s synergy index was 2.16 vs. 1.51 when job demands were high). However, in male workers, while a strong synergistic effect between job control and social support at work was found when job demands were low (synergy index was 9.25), there was an antagonistic effect when job demands were high (synergy index was 0.52). Conclusions There was a synergistic interaction effect between job control and social support at work on general psychological distress, but the synergistic effect or its effect size differed by the level of job demands and gender. An atomic, additive approach to the risk assessment of the psychosocial work characteristics on common mental disorders could be misleading or lead to a risk underestimation. PMID:20582551
Uyanik, Hatice; Shogren, Karrie A; Blanck, Peter
Purpose This article reviews existing literature on positive psychology, supported decision-making (SDM), employment, and disability. It examines interventions and assessments that have been empirically evaluated for the enhancement of decision-making and overall well-being of people with disabilities. Additionally, conceptual themes present in the literature were explored. Methods A systematic review was conducted across two databases (ERIC and PsychINFO) using various combination of keywords of 'disabilit*', work rehabilitation and employment terms, positive psychology terms, and SDM components. Seven database searches were conducted with diverse combinations of keywords, which identified 1425 results in total to be screened for relevance using their titles and abstracts. Database search was supplemented with hand searches of oft-cited journals, ancestral search, and supplemental search from grey literature. Results Only four studies were identified in the literature targeting SDM and positive psychology related constructs in the employment and job development context. Results across the studies indicated small to moderate impacts of the assessment and interventions on decision-making and engagement outcomes. Conceptually there are thematic areas of potential overlap, although they are limited in the explicit integration of theory in supported decision-making, positive psychology, disability, and employment. Conclusion Results suggest a need for additional scholarship in this area that focuses on theory development and integration as well as empirical work. Such work should examine the potential utility of considering positive psychological interventions when planning for SDM in the context of career development activities to enhance positive outcomes related to decision-making, self-determination, and other positive psychological constructs.
Stulz, Alexandra; Boinon, Diane; Dauchy, Sarah; Delaloge, Suzette; Brédart, Anne
This cross-sectional study for couples explores the relationship between the perceptions within the couple of the spouse's supportive behaviors and the psychological adjustment of both partners during treatment for breast cancer. Forty-eight women operated on for a non-metastatic breast cancer and their spouses completed questionnaires assessing psychological adjustment (STAI, BDI-SF), and the spouse's support behaviors during discussions about the disease (PSE). Support behaviors are positively valued by both partners, especially non-verbal comfort and concrete actions. Support by minimization is associated with fewer depressive symptoms in patients and spouses. For spouses, the positive perception of support by concrete action is associated with a lower depression score. Moreover, high adjustment difficulties for spouses are linked to greater perception differences between partners on emotional support and minimization. These results highlight the importance of non-verbal comfort and minimization for the perception of social support within the couple, and the usefulness of support by concrete actions proposed by spouses. Advices for professionals are available.
Rui, Jian Raymond; Chen, Yixin; Damiano, Amanda
Providing and seeking social support are important aspects of social exchange. New communication technologies, especially social network sites (SNSs), facilitate the process of support exchange. An increasing number of health organizations are using SNSs. However, how they provide and seek social support via SNSs has yet to garner academic attention. This study examined the types of social support provided and sought by health organizations on Twitter. A content analysis was conducted on 1,500 tweets sent by a random sample of 58 health organizations within 2 months. Findings indicate that providing informational and emotional support, as well as seeking instrumental support, were the main types of social support exchanged by health organizations through Twitter. This study provides a typology for studying social support exchanges by health organizations, and recommends strategies for health organizations regarding the effective use of Twitter.
Walker, Elizabeth Reisinger; Engelhard, George; Barmon, Christina; McGee, Robin E; Sterk, Claire E; Diiorio, Colleen; Thompson, Nancy J
Social support is associated with improved self-management for people with chronic conditions, such as epilepsy; however, little is known about the perceived ease or difficulty of receiving and providing support for epilepsy self-management. We examined patterns of epilepsy self-management support from the perspectives of both people with epilepsy and their support persons. Fifty-three people with epilepsy and 48 support persons completed a survey on epilepsy self-management support. Of these individuals, 22 people with epilepsy and 16 support persons completed an in-depth interview. Rasch measurement models were used to evaluate the degree of difficulty of receiving or providing support often for nine self-management tasks. We analyzed model-data fit, person and item location along the support latent variable and differential person and item functioning. Qualitative methods were used to provide context and insight into the quantitative results. The results demonstrated good model-data fit. Help with seizures was the easiest type of support to receive or provide more often, followed by rides to a doctor's appointments and help avoiding seizure triggers. The most difficult types of support to receive or provide more often were reminders, particularly for taking and refilling medications. While most participants' responses fit the model, responses of several individuals misfit the model. Person misfit generally occurred because the scale items did not adequately capture some individuals' behaviors. These results could be useful in designing interventions that use support as a means of improving self-management. Additionally, the results provide information to improve or expand current measures of support for epilepsy self-management to better assess the experiences of people with epilepsy and their support persons. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Asimakopoulou, Koula; Newton, Jonathon Tim; Daly, Blánaid; Kutzer, Yvonne; Ide, Mark
In a two arm randomized controlled trial this study compared the effects of a routine periodontal assessment consultation versus a routine consultation + individualized risk assessment communication intervention on patient thoughts and emotions about periodontal disease. Adults (N = 102) with moderate/advanced chronic periodontitis referred to a Periodontology Department of a large UK dental school, completed psychological measures before a periodontal assessment and again at the end of the visit. Intervention participants received an individualized calculation of their periodontal disease risk using PreViser Risk Calculator in addition to their routine assessment consultation. In routine care, patients' thoughts about periodontal disease seriousness (p periodontal disease. These effects were also seen in intervention participants. Additionally, the individualized risk communication intervention led to patients reporting i) periodontal disease treatment as more effective than they did pre-consultation (p periodontal management (p periodontal disease risk communication influences psychological variables that underpin adherence with periodontal instructions. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Sumo, Jen'nea; Dancy, Barbara; Julion, Wrenetha; Wilbur, JoEllen
African American grandmothers are known to be a major source of support for their children who are parenting adolescents, but little is known about why they provide support. The purpose of this study was to describe the kinds of support provided by African American maternal and paternal grandmothers to their parenting adolescents and the reasons…
... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Limitations on supported services for rural health care providers. 54.613 Section 54.613 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) UNIVERSAL SERVICE Universal Service Support for Health Care Providers § 54.613 Limitations on supported...
Intarakamhang, Ungsinun; Intarakamhang, Patrawut
The Comprehensive Lifestyle Intervention, which integrates behavioral therapy, is the main ideal management of the clients with obesity. Various socio-psychological factors can affect outcome of the program. THE PURPOSES: to determine the socio-psychological factors at the client and provider groups that affect health behavior modification (HBM) in obese clients, and to investigate the cross-level interaction of factors that affect HBM. The samples included 87 health providers and 412 clients using stratified random sampling. Hierarchical Linear Model was used to analyze in a questionnaire with reliability of 0.8-0.9. 1) for the clients: 1.1) Attitudes towards healthy behavior (AHB), health-related knowledge, and trust in the provider predicted self-efficacy at 49.40%; 1.2) AHB and support from the provider predicted self-regulation at 75.50%; and 1.3) AHB, trust in the provider and support from the provider predicted self-care at 26.6%. 2) for the health providers: 2.1) Health quotient (HQ), project management (PM), support from the team, and the team emotional quotient (EQ) predicted self-efficacy at 71.30%; 2.2) PM and HQ predicted self-regulation at 51.60%; and 2.3) PM, team EQ and HQ predicted self-care at 77.30%., 3) No cross-level interaction of factors between the clients and the providers was identified to affect HBM. the obese client's AHB is the factor that significantly influenced self-efficacy, self-regulation and self-care (3SELF). At the health provider level, both HQ and PM significantly influenced 3SELF. Behavioral.
Нина Львовна Сунгурова
Full Text Available The article presents the theoretical foundations of psychological researches of the process of informatization in education, is denoted the problem information and computer activity of students. Information-computer activity of students means a qualitatively special kind of activity. In the interaction of with the modern technologies there are changes and development the indicative and operational and technical components of the activity, the spatial and temporal boundaries are transformed, the motivation of applications is formed. Information-computer environment as the context activity of the subject becomes the new source of the psychic neoplasms. The article discusses the psychological effects of using of information technologies, the conditions for ensuring the success of information and computer activity of students are allocated. The author offers a program of psycho-pedagogical support of training of students in the information and educational environment. The technology includes the following areas: the diagnostic, consultative work of the teacher and students' own activity. The organization of student support enhances knowledge about the socio-psychological aspects of the of information technology, social valuable motivation is formed, skills of the avoidance negative consequences of informatization are developed. In the process of work monitoring is conducted, individual-typological features of personality of students in interaction with technology are studied, correction of deviations is held, the psychological readiness of the subject to a productive application of information and computer technology is formed, information competence develops.
Yusupov, V V; Ovchinnikov, B V; Korzunin, V A; Nagibovich, O A; Goncharenko, A Yu; Porozhnikov, P A
The authors analysed state and prospects of medical-and-psychological support of military servicemen, which is supposed to consider as a complex of measures aimed at monitoring of professional psychological health, professional-and-psychological expertise, psychophysiological and pharmacological, correction, and medical-and-psychological rehabilitation. Organisation and maintaince of the above mentioned measures should be carried out by specialists of medical--and-psychological support groups and medical-and-psychological correction.
Knoll, Nina; Schulz, Ute; Schwarzer, Ralf; Rosemeier, Hans Peter
Matching social support to the recipient's needs requires diagnostic sensitivity on the part of the provider. In particular, support needs to be responsive to the recipient's stress-related appraisals to be maximally effective. To assess the impact of bias in interpersonal stress assessment, medical students in 43 dyads reported on their own and each other's stress appraisals, social support, affect and performance during a 5-day preparation period culminating in a multiple choice examination. Less biased perceptions of loss appraisals by support providers within dyads were followed by support transactions associated with lower negative affect and better exam performance among recipients. More biased perceptions of threat appraisals were followed by increases in the recipients' negative affect. Results therefore suggest that support is more effective when the provider understands the recipient's concerns.
Nina B. Hansen
Full Text Available Background: Research has documented severe mental health problems in female victims of intimate partner violence (IPV. Therefore, providing effective treatment is pivotal. Few studies have investigated the effects of intervention programs on reducing the harmful consequences of IPV. Objective: The present study examined the effects of a specific three-phase intervention program for female victims of IPV on psychological symptoms (PTSD, anxiety, and depression and perceived social support. Given that many of the women dropped out before and during the intervention program, potential differences in initial levels of psychological symptoms, perceived social support, as well as descriptive variables were explored between the women who completed the whole program and the groups of women who dropped out prematurely. Method: The initial sample consisted of 212 female victims of IPV. Symptoms of PTSD, depression, anxiety, and level of perceived social support were measured with validated scales before the start of the intervention and after completion of each treatment phase. Results: Results showed a significant effect of the intervention program on reducing psychological symptoms and increasing levels of perceived social support. Effect sizes ranged from medium to very high. Significant positive effects were found for each of the treatment phases. There were no significant differences between the women who completed the whole program and those women who dropped out prematurely in terms of initial level of symptoms and perceived social support as well as descriptive characteristics. Conclusions: Specifically developed intervention programs for female victims of IPV are effective in reducing the harmful personal consequences of IPV. Future studies should consider employing controlled study designs and address the issue of high drop out rates found in intervention studies.
Full Text Available Background Divorce is a transition period in which divorcing individuals face restructuring of the family system and adjustment to changes. The psychological well-being of divorcees can serve as an important indicator of the adjustment process. The achievement of well-being does not come easily for many reasons, one of which is the experience related to a sense of loss associated with the marriage break-up. Social support is a major relational resource for overcoming the crisis and successfully adjusting to post-divorce life. Participants and procedure The sample consisted of 157 individuals after divorce: 120 women and 37 men (mean age = 41.29. Instruments employed in the study included the Sense of Loss Scale (DS, the Interpersonal Support Evaluation List (ISEL, the Oxford Happiness Questionnaire (OHQ-23, and sociodemographic data. Results Our results show that perceived social support is a partial mediator of the relationship between the sense of loss associated with divorce and the psychological well-being of individuals after divorce. For the vast majority of the respondents their parents, friends and acquaintances were the major source of support. About one third of the participants were given support by their siblings and their own children. Conclusions The study confirms the mediating role of support in building well-being after experiencing loss related to dissolution of marriage. This means that for divorced women and men perceived social support is one of the key resources that have a significant impact on achieving psychological well-being after divorce, since it is related to mitigating the negative impact of the sense of loss associated with marriage break-up.
Full Text Available The differential-cognitological point of view, giftedness is “a systemic quality of a personality that develops throughout life and determines their abilities to achieve exceptionally high results in one or more activities compared to those of other people”. Herewith, it is the fundamental concept of general aptitude, under which “the level of general abilities development that determines the range of activities in which a person can achieve great success” is understood. Within the structure of general aptitude intellectual giftedness is singled out as the level of development, as well as the type of organization of individual mental experience, which ensure an opportunity of creative intellectual activity, i. e. an activity, related to the creation of subjectively and objectively new ideas, to the use of innovative approaches to solving problems and openness to controversial aspects of the situation and so on. In order to identify talented children and adults the value of intellectual quotient (IQ is still most commonly used. Psychometric approach (the measurement of psychic phenomena with the help of standardized IQ tests to the diagnosis of intellectual giftedness, which is dominant in psychological diagnostics today, by definition, cannot “measure” the phenomena of an individual psyche, since the modern level of psychological science does not allow to proceed to psychological diagnosis, let alone prediction of a certain person`s behavior, on the basis of individual results in performing a psychological test (psychometric test of intelligence, personality questionnaire, projective methods etc. In our opinion, many problems in psychological and pedagogical support of gifted children could be avoided by making use of cognitive-style approach to diagnosis of intellectual giftedness, creative abilities, propensities and peculiar mental traits of a separate individuality. Objectivity of such an approach is corroborated by the results
Sanguanklin, Natthananporn; McFarlin, Barbara L; Finnegan, Lorna; Park, Chang Gi; Giurgescu, Carmen; White-Traut, Rosemary; Engstrom, Janet L
Most Thai women continue to work throughout their pregnancy; however, little is known about job strain and its relation to psychological distress. This study aimed to examine: (1) the direct effects of job strain, perceived workplace support, perceived family support, and coping strategies on psychological distress and (2) the moderating effect of perceived workplace support, perceived family support, and coping strategies on the relationship between job strain and psychological distress. Lazarus and Folkman's transactional model of stress and coping guided this cross-sectional study. Full-time employed pregnant women (N = 300) were recruited from three antenatal clinics in Thailand. Thai versions of the following instruments were used: the State-Anxiety Inventory and Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale (psychological distress), the Job Content Questionnaire (job strain and perceived workplace support), the Medical Outcome Study Social Support Survey (perceived family support), and the Ways of Coping Checklist-Revised (coping strategies). Job strain with other predictors explained 54% of the variance in psychological distress. In the separate hierarchical multiple linear regression models, two types of coping strategies, seeking social support and wishful thinking, moderated the effects of job strain on psychological distress. Perceived family support had a direct effect in reducing psychological distress. Job strain is a significant contributor to psychological distress. The average levels of seeking social support and wishful thinking were most beneficial in moderating the negative impact of job strain on psychological distress. Since perceived workplace and family support did not have moderating effects, stress management programs for decreasing the levels of job strain should be developed.
Ordin, Yaprak S; Karayurt, Özgül
Liver transplant recipients must adapt to a new life after transplant. We report the effects of a support group on physical and psychosocial adaptation of liver transplant recipients. The study used a quasi-experimental design, comparing an intervention group and a control group. Data were collected between January 2011 and May 2012 with 73 liver transplant recipients. A patient identification form, Modified Transplant Symptom Occurrence and Symptom Distress Scale - 58, and SF-36 were used for data collection. The intervention group attended support group meetings, while the control group received a routine follow-up. Data were analyzed with t test and The Repeated Measures ANOVA with 1 between-group factor. The results indicated that the support group intervention increases physical, psychological, and social adaptation of liver transplant recipients. Specifically, this effect of the support group was accrued after support group intervention and decreased 3 months after intervention. A support group intervention can have a positive effect on liver transplant recipients' physical, psychological, and social adaptations.
Luo, Yang; Wang, Honghong
The purpose of this study was to explore the factors affecting nurse students' psychological status, and the interactions between mental symptoms and stressful factors, coping style and social support in their early clinical experiences. We assessed clinically 288 college nurse students during their first period by adopting College Seniors Stress Scale (CSSS), Trait Coping Style Questionnaire (TCSQ), Support Questionnaire and Symptom checklist 90 (SCL-90). The result of this study was that (1) positive correlations were found between stressful events, negative coping style and the total scores of SCL-90 (r=0.487, 0.462, pcoping style, social support and the total scores of SCL-90 (r=-0.192, -00.135, pstressful factors, negative coping style and social support all have main effects on mental symptoms (F=34.062, 16.090, 20.898, Pcoping style has no main effect on mental symptoms (F=1.853, P>0.05), but interactions relate to stressful factors and positive coping style (F=14.579, Pcoping style and social support. In order to improve the psychological condition of nursing students, aside from reducing the stress incidents and avoiding negative coping, it is very necessary to enhance the social support systems and to encourage them to adopt the positive coping styles.
Kusuma Wijaya Ridi Putra
Full Text Available Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM is one of the leading causes of death and it is caused by genetics, nutrition, and unhealthy behaviors. Therefore, changes in lifestyle associated with eating behaviors in diabetes mellitus patients greatly impact on their quality of life. There are many factors related with changes in lifestyle of diabetes mellitus patients, especially eating behaviors. Purpose: This study aims to examine the relationships between self-efficacy, psychological stress, family support, and eating behaviors among type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM patients in Sidoarjo, Indonesia. Method: A total of 117 T2DM patients from the Sidoarjo Community Health Center were included in the analysis. Using SPSS IBM 21.0 program, Pearson product moment correlation was performed to analyze data. Results: The findings showed that self-efficacy and family support had positive relationship with eating behaviors (r = .692, p < .001; r = .683, p < .001, respectively. Psychological stress had negative relationship with eating behaviors (r = -.327, p < .001. Conclusion: Self-efficacy, family support, and psychological stress had relationship with eating behaviors. Nurses should pay attention to the factors to make T2DM patients into a long-term commitment toward healthy eating behaviors.
Mardon, Austin; Nichol, Kenneth; Mardon, Catherine
Time, too much of and the resulting boredom is a major psychological barrier to multi year inner solar system space missions. Cross training which could be facilitated by online in flight educational programs might serve mission purposes and distract astronauts from the natural multiyear boredom to and from Mars. The personnel selected will be motivated well educated and likely very intelligent. They might have even experience some educational online and computer based education during their educational history. Distance learning is become more and more common in the educational landscape in the world. The mission doctor might learn geology. The geologist might learn ship systems. The pilot might learn basic medical treatment. The advantage of having planned out learning schemes might have major morale boosting factors by giving the self motivated high achieving crew something to direct their energies toward. The time lag could be compensated for by AI spacecraft educational software. Also for recreational purposes archeology or cultural studies could be taught to give greater breadth of interest. Online educational institutions might even do curriculum for free if they could be used afterward and before. Many high achievers have diverse interests and this might boost morale by allowing them to learn about a field of study that they had always had an interest in but their career took them in a different direction
García-Dasí, M; Torres-Ortuño, A; Cid-Sabatel, R; Barbero, J
Persons with haemophilia, living with their condition from infancy, require attention from a biopsychosocial approach, in which both the biological and the biographical dimension are addressed. These patients and their environment may benefit greatly from having professionals to help them manage, pre-emptively if possible, to adapt to the disease, cope with the experience of suffering and overcome the difficulties caused by chronicity. The ultimate goal of the interventions was to achieve the best quality of life possible with tailored objectives throughout the patient's life, including disease control, addressing the particular difficulties, and achieving optimal empowerment. This article aims to describe the role of Health Psychology and its professionals in supporting the young patient with haemophilia and provide a brief guide that might be useful for health professionals involved in his care. From the psychological perspective, this paper focuses on communication of diagnosis, the role and support of the family, issues during infancy, childhood and adolescence and how the healthcare team can address them to provide successful support. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Nielsen, Ingrid; Newman, Alexander; Smyth, Russell; Hirst, Giles; Heilemann, Barbara
The influence of instructor support, family support and psychological capital (PsyCap) on the subjective well-being of postgraduate business students, including whether PsyCap mediates the proposed support--well-being relationship were examined in this study. It was further investigated whether family support moderates this proposed mediated…
Carhart-Harris, Robin L; Bolstridge, Mark; Rucker, James; Day, Camilla M J; Erritzoe, David; Kaelen, Mendel; Bloomfield, Michael; Rickard, James A; Forbes, Ben; Feilding, Amanda; Taylor, David; Pilling, Steve; Curran, Valerie H; Nutt, David J
Psilocybin is a serotonin receptor agonist that occurs naturally in some mushroom species. Recent studies have assessed the therapeutic potential of psilocybin for various conditions, including end-of-life anxiety, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and smoking and alcohol dependence, with promising preliminary results. Here, we aimed to investigate the feasibility, safety, and efficacy of psilocybin in patients with unipolar treatment-resistant depression. In this open-label feasibility trial, 12 patients (six men, six women) with moderate-to-severe, unipolar, treatment-resistant major depression received two oral doses of psilocybin (10 mg and 25 mg, 7 days apart) in a supportive setting. There was no control group. Psychological support was provided before, during, and after each session. The primary outcome measure for feasibility was patient-reported intensity of psilocybin's effects. Patients were monitored for adverse reactions during the dosing sessions and subsequent clinic and remote follow-up. Depressive symptoms were assessed with standard assessments from 1 week to 3 months after treatment, with the 16-item Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptoms (QIDS) serving as the primary efficacy outcome. This trial is registered with ISRCTN, number ISRCTN14426797. Psilocybin's acute psychedelic effects typically became detectable 30-60 min after dosing, peaked 2-3 h after dosing, and subsided to negligible levels at least 6 h after dosing. Mean self-rated intensity (on a 0-1 scale) was 0·51 (SD 0·36) for the low-dose session and 0·75 (SD 0·27) for the high-dose session. Psilocybin was well tolerated by all of the patients, and no serious or unexpected adverse events occurred. The adverse reactions we noted were transient anxiety during drug onset (all patients), transient confusion or thought disorder (nine patients), mild and transient nausea (four patients), and transient headache (four patients). Relative to baseline, depressive symptoms were markedly reduced 1
Yamada, Yukari; Klugar, Miloslav; Ivanova, Katerina; Oborna, Ivana
Psychological distress among medical students is commonly observed during medical education and is generally related to poor academic self-perception. We evaluated the role of peer social support at medical schools in the association between psychological distress and academic self-perception. An online survey was conducted in a medical degree program for 138 international students educated in English in the Czech Republic. The Medical Student Well-Being Index was used to define the students' psychological distress. Perceived peer social support was investigated with the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support. Poor academic self-perception was defined as the lowest 30% of a subscale score of the Dundee Ready Education Environment Measure. Analyses evaluated the presence of additive interactions between psychological distress and peer social support on poor academic self-perception, adjusted for possible confounders. Both psychological distress and low peer social support were negatively associated with poor academic self-perception, adjusted for local language proficiency and social support from family. Students with psychological distress and low peer social support had an odds ratio of 11.0 (95% confidence interval (CI): 2.1-56.6) for poor academic self-perception as compared with those without distress who had high peer social support. The presence of an additive interaction was confirmed in that the joint association was four times as large as what would have been expected to be on summing the individual risks of psychological distress and low peer social support (synergy index = 4.5, 95% CI: 1.3-14.9). Psychological distress and low peer social support may synergistically increase the probability of poor academic self-perception among international medical students. Promoting peer social relationships at medical school may interrupt the vicious cycle of psychological distress and poor academic performance.
Brocklehurst, Paul R
The aim of this paper is to introduce the reader to personal construct psychology as a theory to help understand the process of change in facilitative and mentoring relationships. Continuing professional development is critical if practitioners are to keep up to date with new ideas, techniques, and materials. However, is it important not only to consider what is learnt, it is also important to understand the how of learning in order to develop an approach that leads to lifelong learning. Mentoring, coaching, and appraisal are all facilitative processes that aim to encourage professionals to engage with their own development. This leads to differing degrees of both behavioural and attitudinal change. As a result, it is useful to have a theory that can help an individual to understand these changes and to identify any difficulties that are associated with them. Personal construct psychology has long been recognised as a potential framework for personal development. It has been used extensively in a broad range of domains, including clinical and educational psychology, management, and psychotherapy. Personal construct psychology is a useful theory for understanding the facilitative process because it enables the facilitator to form a conceptual framework to comprehend behavioural and attitudinal change. Its underlying philosophical approach also supports lifelong learning, given its emphasis on an enquiring mind and reflection, both of which are key to continuing professional development.
Cherry, Katie E; Sampson, Laura; Nezat, Pamela F; Cacamo, Ashley; Marks, Loren D; Galea, Sandro
Natural disasters are associated with catastrophic losses. Disaster survivors return to devastated communities and rebuild homes or relocate permanently, although the long-term psychological consequences are not well understood. The authors examined predictors of psychological outcomes in 219 residents of disaster-affected communities in south Louisiana. Current coastal residents with severe property damage from the 2005 Hurricanes Katrina and Rita, and exposure to the 2010 British Petroleum Deepwater Horizon oil spill were compared and contrasted with former coastal residents and an indirectly affected control group. Participants completed measures of storm exposure and stressors, religiosity, perceived social support, and mental health. Non-organizational religiosity was a significant predictor of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in bivariate and multivariate logistic regressions. Follow-up analyses revealed that more frequent participation in non-organizational religious behaviors was associated with a heightened risk of PTSD. Low income and being a coastal fisher were significant predictors of depression symptoms in bivariate and multivariate models. Perceived social support had a protective effect for all mental health outcomes, which also held for symptoms of depression and GAD in multivariate models. People who experienced recent and severe trauma related to natural and technological disasters are at risk for adverse psychological outcomes in the years after these events. Individuals with low income, low social support, and high levels of non-organizational religiosity are also at greater risk. Implications of these data for current views on the post-disaster psychological reactions and the development of age-sensitive interventions to promote long-term recovery are discussed.
Galina N. Zhulina
Full Text Available The aim of the research is to study the peculiarities of teenagers’ professional self-determination inclined to deviant behavior, the design of the psychological and pedagogical program of professional self-determination for adolescents. Methods. The methods involve theoretical analysis on the research problem, empirical methods and techniques (methods in diagnostics of tendency to deviant behavior (SOPS by A. N. Orel, questionnaire to determine the professional readiness by L. N. Kabardova; questionnaire «The knowledge about the world of professions» by E. A. Klimov; the questionnaire for determining personal professional perspective by N. S. Pryazhnikov, methods of mathematical statistics (the MannWhitney test. Results. The age differences of some components of adolescents’ professional self-determination are revealed. It is proved that there are differences for some components of professional self-determination of adolescents, inclined and not inclined to deviant behavior. The program project of psychological and pedagogical support of professional self-determination for adolescents is proposed. Scientific novelty and theoretical significance of the work consists in the expansion of scientific ideas about the psychological characteristics of adolescents who are prone to deviant forms of behavior. The study clarifies the scientific view of professional self-determination of a teenager and organization of psychological and pedagogical support of driving in instability of society. Practical significance. The results allow to solve practical problems of professional self-determination of adolescents. The obtained results can be used in advisory, developmental directions of practical psychologist in education, in building programs of prevention deviant behavior for teenagers. The results of the study served as the basis for designing the program of psycho-pedagogical support of adolescents’ professional self-determination.
Kong, G W S; Chung, T K H; Lok, I H
To assess the effectiveness of supportive counselling after miscarriage. Randomised controlled trial. University hospital. Two hundred and eighty women with miscarriage. Women were randomised to receive supportive counselling from a nurse (at diagnosis and 2 weeks later) or routine care. Psychological wellbeing was measured with the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Primary outcome measured the proportion of women suffering psychological distress (GHQ-12 score ≥4) at 3 months after miscarriage. Secondary outcomes were GHQ-12 and BDI scores at 6 weeks, 3 and 6 months. There was no difference in the proportion of women suffering psychological distress at 3 months after miscarriage (17.1% in counselling group versus 24.4% in control group; 95% CI -0.034 to 0.177; P = 0.19). However, for the subgroup of women (n = 152) with high baseline GHQ-12 scores, the median GHQ-12 score in the counselling group was significantly lower than the control group at 6 weeks (median score 3 versus 4.5 in counselling and control groups; P = 0.04) and 3 months (median score 1 versus 2.5 in counselling and control groups; P = 0.03). Similarly, for women with high baseline BDI scores (BDI > 12), the proportion for women continuing to score high was significantly lower in the counselling group 6 weeks after miscarriage (33.3 versus 61.1% in counselling group and control group; P = 0.03). Although the results of current study do not justify routine counselling of all women following miscarriage, a supportive counselling programme for selected women with high levels of psychological distress is promising and merits further investigation. © 2014 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.
Rueger, Sandra Yu; Malecki, Christine Kerres; Demaray, Michelle Kilpatrick
The current study investigated gender differences in the relationship between sources of perceived support (parent, teacher, classmate, friend, school) and psychological and academic adjustment in a sample of 636 (49% male) middle school students. Longitudinal data were collected at two time points in the same school year. The study provided psychometric support for the Child and Adolescent Social Support Scale (Malecki et al., A working manual on the development of the Child and Adolescent Social Support Scale (2000). Unpublished manuscript, Northern Illinois University, 2003) across gender, and demonstrated gender differences in perceptions of support in early adolescence. In addition, there were significant associations between all sources of support with depressive symptoms, anxiety, self-esteem, and academic adjustment, but fewer significant unique effects of each source. Parental support was a robust unique predictor of adjustment for both boys and girls, and classmates' support was a robust unique predictor for boys. These results illustrate the importance of examining gender differences in the social experience of adolescents with careful attention to measurement and analytic issues.
Field, Richard J.; Gallas, Jason A. C.; Schuldberg, David
Recent work has introduced social dynamic models of people's stress-related processes, some including amelioration of stress symptoms by support from others. The effects of support may be ;direct;, depending only on the level of support, or ;buffering;, depending on the product of the level of support and level of stress. We focus here on the nonlinear buffering term and use a model involving three variables (and 12 control parameters), including stress as perceived by the individual, physical and psychological symptoms, and currently active social support. This model is quantified by a set of three nonlinear differential equations governing its stationary-state stability, temporal evolution (sometimes oscillatory), and how each variable affects the others. Chaos may appear with periodic forcing of an environmental stress parameter. Here we explore this model carefully as the strength and amplitude of this forcing, and an important psychological parameter relating to self-kindling in the stress response, are varied. Three significant observations are made: 1. There exist many complex but orderly regions of periodicity and chaos, 2. there are nested regions of increasing number of peaks per cycle that may cascade to chaos, and 3. there are areas where more than one state, e.g., a period-2 oscillation and chaos, coexist for the same parameters; which one is reached depends on initial conditions.
del Valle, Jorge F.; Bravo, Amaia; Lopez, Monica
The authors carried out an assessment of social support networks with a sample of 884 Spanish adolescents aged 12 to 17. The main goal was to analyze the development of the figures of parents and peers as providers of social support in the two basic dimensions of emotional and instrumental support. In peers, they distinguished between the contexts…
Bornsheuer, Jennifer N.; Henriksen, Richard C.; Irby, Beverly J.
Spirituality and religion are integral parts of a person's belief system and support network. Although there are many avenues a person can take when seeking mental health care, conservative Protestant clients have a tendency to seek assistance through their church. There is a paucity of literature about conservative Protestant church members'…
Senneseth, Mette; Hauken, May A; Matthiesen, Stig B; Gjestad, Rolf; Laberg, Jon C
Partners of cancer patients report psychological distress and reduced quality of life. However, partners' mental health status and quality of life during child-rearing years and the influence of social support and hardiness on their well-being have not yet been studied. The aim of this study was to describe psychological distress, quality of life, social support, and hardiness of the partners facing spousal cancer during child-rearing years and investigate whether social support or hardiness moderated the relationship between psychological distress and quality of life. Cross-sectional data were collected in Norway from December 2013 to July 2015 as part of the Cancer-PEPSONE study. Five questionnaires were administered to 14 females and 21 males (n = 35). Participants reported more psychological distress and lower quality-of-life scores than other healthy Norwegian populations. Psychological distress seemed to be associated with their not being in control of their futures. Received social support moderated the effect of psychological distress on quality of life. Facing spousal cancer during child-rearing years seemed to have a substantial impact on partners' mental health and an adverse impact on their quality of life. Accordingly, these partners' self-care abilities may be reduced. Received social support may reduce the multiple burdens and consequently allow for enhancement of self-care. Interventions should aim to improve the social support provided to child-rearing partners, which may improve their quality of life. Providing adequate information about their partner's cancer illness and treatment may enhance their feelings of control, which may be beneficial for their mental health status.
Benishek, Lois A; Kirby, Kimberly C; Dugosh, Karen Leggett; Padovano, Alicia
This study assessed substance abuse treatment providers' beliefs about empirically supported treatments (ESTs) to determine if providing information about empirical support for interventions would change beliefs. Treatment providers (N=136) completed an interview regarding five interventions with varied empirical support: contingency management (CM), motivational interviewing (MI), relapse prevention (RP), 12-step approaches (TSA), and verbal confrontation (VC). Participants then read primers describing empirical support for each intervention prior to completing a repeat interview. Overall, providers reported positive beliefs about ESTs. Baseline beliefs about empirical support for each intervention were inflated relative to that of expert raters except for CM. After reading the primers, beliefs about efficacy changed in the direction of the experts for all interventions except MI, but continued to be inflated except for CM. Willingness to utilize interventions increased for RP, MI, and CM and decreased for TSA and VC, but remained higher than warranted by empirical support. Copyright 2009. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
This study employed content analysis to examine 3 popular middle-grades mathematics curricula in the USA on the support they provide for teachers to implement concepts associated with variables in school mathematics. The results indicate that each of the 3 curricula provides some type of support for teachers, but in a varied amount and quality.…
Full Text Available The article describes the aims, tasks and fundamental principles of psychological support of crime investigation with the involvement of minors as a one of the aspects of criminalistical support of the preliminary investigation in the Investigative Committee of the Russian Federation are revealed. Discusses the following areas of psychological support of investigation of criminal cases with participation of minors: participation of a psychologist in the investigative actions, the preliminary interviews with the aim of preparing minors for investigation, the business of the investigator in the choice of tactics of investigative actions and other issues, psychological examination of the minor, the receipt of additional information from minors using methods of applied psychology, compiling a subjective portrait of the alleged offender, psychological analysis of testimonies of minors and others. Also this article discusses the basic principles end actual techniques of interview of minor sexual abuses victims are examined including NICHD Protocol developed by the National Institute of Child Health & Human Development, NICHD.
Kent de Grey, Robert G; Uchino, Bert N; Smith, Timothy W; Baucom, Brian R W
Provider factors, such as anxiety, may be important in understanding effects of received social support (SS), which are less consistently positive than those of perceived SS. Due to the dyadic nature of support, anxiety on the part of the provider was predicted to influence the effectiveness of received SS. This laboratory study examined effects of SS provider anxiety within unacquainted dyads on cardiovascular reactivity during acute stress. 148 participants were assigned to support roles, and each dyad was randomized to low or high provider anxiety. Results include that SS provider anxiety resulted in greater blood pressure reactivity and less recovery toward baseline diastolic blood pressure within the dyad. Overall, it appears provider anxiety contributes to less effective SS for recipients and that health costs may accompany providing and receiving support under nonoptimal conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Tromp, D.M.; Rheede, van A.; Blomme, R.J.
Turnover of highly educated employees in the hospitality industry is growing rapidly. A predictor of turnover in the hospitality industry recently put forward, but not yet fully researched, is psychological strain. This chapter investigates the role of psychological strain and organizational support
van der Kaap-Deeder, Jolene; Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Soenens, Bart; Mabbe, Elien
This study examined the unique relations between multiple sources (i.e., mothers, teachers, and siblings) of perceived daily autonomy support and psychological control and children's basic psychological needs and well-being. During 5 consecutive days, 2 children from 154 families (M[subscript age] youngest child = 8.54 years; SD = 0.89 and…
Weinstein, Netta; Legate, Nicole; Ryan, William S; Sedikides, Constantine; Cozzolino, Philip J
Important others' perceptions influence self-perceptions. This presents a challenge for the critical developmental task of integrating all aspects of identity, as identities that are devalued or stigmatized by society are harder to own than valued ones. Across 3 studies, we tested the idea that conflictual or stigmatized identities are harder to own, or integrate into the self, than are nonconflictual ones, and we examine how receiving autonomy support for an identity-support for authentic identity exploration and expression-can facilitate ownership of that identity. Cross-sectional (n = 543), experience-sampling (n = 66), and experimental methods (n = 209) tested the dynamics of autonomy-supportive others on identity ownership. Data from these studies converge to show that conflictual identities are indeed harder to own than nonconflictual ones, but that autonomy support predicts greater ownership and psychological health, especially for conflictual identities. In the final study, we replicate these dynamics in 3 identities stigmatized by society: sexual minority, ethnic minority, and gender minority identities. Findings reveal the importance of integrating all aspects of identity-particularly those that are conflictual or stigmatized-into one's self-concept. We consider implications for counseling and clinical practice, as well as broadly for the psychological health of stigmatized individuals. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Bailey, Katherine Stallings
The Family and Medical Leave Act ("FMLA") recognizes an employee's right to take leave to care for a qualifying family member. In light of the Act's remedial nature, the intended scope of the care provision is broad, but its definitional details are sparse. As a result of the attendant interpretive discretion afforded to courts, the Seventh Circuit announced its rejection of the requirement-- first articulated by the Ninth Circuit--that care provided during travel be related to continuing medical treatment. A facial analysis of the resulting circuit split fails to appreciate the fundamental difference between the Seventh and Ninth Circuits' considerations: the distinction between physical and psychological care. Whereas physical care is readily measurable, psychological care is less defined and, consequently, ripe to facilitate FMLA abuse. Efforts to combat this potential lead courts to impose judicially devised limitations on psychological care, but judicial discretion still infuses some uncertainty into proceedings. For employers, the best remedy lies in the FMLA's optional certification provision, which requires medical validation of an employee’s need for leave. In requiring certification, employers should distinguish between physical and psychological care, maximize the FMLA’s informational requirements, and implement complete and consistent request and approval procedures.
Muhammad Farid Ilhamuddin
Full Text Available This study aims to know the relation between religiousity (X1 and psychological well being (Y, the relation between optimism (X2 and psychological well being (Y, as well as the relation between social support (X3 and psychological well being (Y of students of MAN in the entire Malang city. This study was a non-experimental study with causal relationship study plan. The result of this research showed that there was a positive significant between X1 and Y, X2 and Y, X3 and Y; X1, X2, X3 had strong linear relation with Y; the influence of the three independent logical well being (Y, optimism (X2 dan psychological well being (Y, social support (X3 and psychological well being (Y student of MAN se-Kota Malang. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui hubungan religiusitas (X1 dan psychological well being (Y, optimis (X2 dan psychological well being (Y, social support (X3 dan psychological well being (Y peserta didik MAN se-kota Malang. Pendekatan yang digunakan adalah non experimental research dengan jenis penelitian causal relationship study. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan ada hubungan positif signifikan antara X1 dan Y, X2 dan Y, X3 dan Y; X1, X2, X3 memiliki hubungan linear yang kuat dengan Y; pengaruh ketiga variabel independen psychological well being (Y, optimism (X2 dan psychological well being (Y, social support (X3 dan psychological well being (Y peserta didik MAN se-Kota Malang.
Anderson, Carina; Moxham, Lorna; Broadbent, Marc
This discussion paper poses the question 'What enables or deters Registered Nurses to take up their professional responsibility to support undergraduate nursing students through the provision of clinical education?'. Embedded within many nursing standards are expectations that Registered Nurses provide support and professional development to undergraduate nursing students undertaking clinical placements. Expectations within nursing standards that Registered Nurses provide support and professional development to nursing students are important because nursing students depend on Registered Nurses to help them to become competent practitioners. Contributing factors that enable and deter Registered Nurses from fulfilling this expectation to support nursing students in their clinical learning include; workloads, preparedness for the teaching role, confidence in teaching and awareness of the competency requirement to support students. Factors exist which can enable or deter Registered Nurses from carrying out the licence requirement to provide clinical education and support to nursing students.
Horita, Yuji; Otsuka, Yasumasa
In the NIOSH Generic Job Stress Model, social support is assumed to moderate the relationship between job stressors and stress responses. However, few studies have investigated how to enhance social support in the workplace. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships between interpersonal helping behavior, social support, job stressors, psychological stress responses, and vigor among Japanese workers. A total of 240 workers in manufacturing companies returned a questionnaire regarding their interpersonal helping behavior, social support, job stressors, psychological stress responses, and vigor (response rate = 96.0%). After excluding 40 participants due to missing responses, data from a total of 200 participants (163 male and 37 female, mean age = 40.3 yr) were used in the final analyses. Interpersonal helping behavior was assessed by the Japanese version of the Organizational Citizenship Behavior Scale. The Brief Job Stress Questionnaire was used to measure job stressors, psychological stress responses, social support, and vigor. Structured equation modeling was performed to examine the relationships between interpersonal helping behavior, social support, job stressors, psychological stress responses, and vigor. Interpersonal helping behavior had a statistically significant negative effect on psychological stress response through increasing social support. However, interpersonal helping behavior had a statistically significant positive effect on psychological stress response through increasing the quantitative workload. Of these two effects, the former was stronger than the latter. In addition, interpersonal helping behavior had a statistically significant positive effect on vigor through increasing social support. Although interpersonal helping behavior, which helps other workers may increase quantitative workload, leading to high levels of psychological stress responses, that same behavior strengthens trust and team spirit among workers and may
VandenBos, Gary R.; Stapp, Joy
Based on a survey of service provider psychologists, describes (1) their age, sex, ethnicity, years since degree licensure, state association membership, and "National Register" listing; (2) primary and secondary employment settings; (3) professional practices; and (4) aspects of independent practice. (GC)
Crockett, Lisa J; Iturbide, Maria I; Torres Stone, Rosalie A; McGinley, Meredith; Raffaelli, Marcela; Carlo, Gustavo
This study examined the relations between acculturative stress and psychological functioning, as well as the protective role of social support and coping style, in a sample of 148 Mexican American college students (67% female, 33% male; mean age = 23.05 years, SD = 3.33). In bivariate analyses, acculturative stress was associated with higher levels of anxiety and depressive symptoms. Moreover, active coping was associated with better adjustment (lower depression), whereas avoidant coping predicted poorer adjustment (higher levels of depression and anxiety). Tests of interaction effects indicated that parental support and active coping buffered the effects of high acculturative stress on anxiety symptoms and depressive symptoms. In addition, peer support moderated the relation between acculturative stress and anxiety symptoms. Implications for reducing the effects of acculturative stress among Mexican American college students are discussed. 2007 APA
Full Text Available The article is devoted to the socio-psychological support and re-socialization of adolescents who are in conflict with the law. Effective conditions for social and psychological support and re-socialization of adolescents in the situation of the offense, according to the authors, is directly related to the response mechanisms of the state and society on juvenile delinquency. Therefore, this article focuses on the analysis of different ways to respond to juvenile delinquency in the Russian and foreign governmental systems. A separate section is devoted to the practice of restorative justice, which is implemented on the border of the legal, social, educational and psychological areas and is an important component of social and psychological support to the teenager in the situation of the offense and a valuable resource to support system and creating conditions for the re-socialization of juvenile offenders
This column explores how peer support provider training is enhanced through collaborative learning. Collaborative learning is an approach that draws upon the "real life" experiences of individual learners and encompasses opportunities to explore varying perspectives and collectively construct solutions that enrich the practice of all participants. This description draws upon published articles and examples of collaborative learning in training and communities of practice of peer support providers. Similar to person-centered practices that enhance the recovery experience of individuals receiving services, collaborative learning enhances the experience of peer support providers as they explore relevant "real world" issues, offer unique contributions, and work together toward improving practice. Three examples of collaborative learning approaches are provided that have resulted in successful collaborative learning opportunities for peer support providers. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Al-Gamal, Ekhlas; Long, Tony
Cerebral palsy, with a prevalence in Europe of 2-2.5 per 1000 live births, is the most common severe physical disability affecting children. While many parents have positive perceptions of their disabled children, caring for a child with disability can be exhausting and stressful, and social support is an important coping resource. There is little evidence about how having a child with cerebral palsy affects Jordanian parents. The purpose of this study was to provide insight into the psychological distress and perceived support among Jordanian parents living with a child with cerebral palsy. In 2010, a cross-sectional, descriptive, correlational design was used with a nonprobability sample of 204 Jordanian parents. Both mothers and fathers, interviewed individually rather than in pairs, were recruited from health care centres that provided comprehensive care for children with cerebral palsy in Jordan and from designated schools for special education. The Gross Motor Function Classification System, the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), the Beck Depression Inventory, the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire and the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS) were administered to parents. Descriptive statistical analysis was applied. Bivariate correlation analysis was undertaken to examine the relationship between variables. More than 60% of parents often felt nervous and stressed. The mean score on the PSS was 27.0 (SD=9.33), and the mean score on the MSPSS was 58.9 (SD=15.1). Severe disability in the child was associated with high mental distress in the parent and linked to low support from friends. There was a significant negative correlation between parental stress, depression and social support. Parents with the most psychological distress were the least well supported. This study has implications for health professionals in terms of developing strategies for reducing parental stress. There are implications for policy to provide support for
Sturrock, Bonnie A; Xie, Jing; Holloway, Edith E; Lamoureux, Ecosse L; Keeffe, Jill E; Fenwick, Eva K; Rees, Gwyneth
The objective of this study was to identify the prevalence and determinants of desire for and use of psychological support in patients with low vision. The study was cross-sectional, utilizing telephone-administered interviews. Patients were recruited from Vision Australia and the Royal Victorian Eye and Ear Hospital with visual acuity of less than 6/12 in the better eye. Measures were the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire, Stigma Scale for Receiving Psychological Help, Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire, and Impact of Vision Impairment Questionnaire. Of the total 161 participants (mean ± SD, 69.94 ± 15.76 years; 67% female), 63% desired psychological support, but only 20% reported ever receiving this. Higher levels of depressive symptoms and poorer coping in relation to vision impairment were significantly associated with desire for psychological support. Younger age, experience/s of depression, and beliefs about depression and its treatment were associated with use of professional support. Many patients with low vision desired psychological support but were not receiving this, suggesting barriers to receipt of care. This highlights the need for early screening of emotional difficulties, depression education, and easy access to psychological support within low vision services.
Matheson, Katherine M; Barrett, Tessa; Landine, Jeff; McLuckie, Alan; Soh, Nerissa Li-Weh; Walter, Garry
The authors examine the prevalence of psychological distress, the stressors experienced, and the supports used by medical students and residents during their medical training at a Canadian university. This study used an online survey that included a standardized instrument to evaluate psychological distress (Kessler-10) and Likert-based survey items that examined stress levels related to family relationships, living accommodations, commuting, finances, and program requirements. Depressive symptoms, substance use, and suicidal ideation were also measured, as were supports accessed (e.g., counseling) and students' perceptions of the overall supportiveness of the university. Non-parametric descriptive statistics were used to examine the prevalence of psychological distress, sources of stress, and supports accessed. Surveys were received from 381 students (37% response). Most students (60%) reported normal levels of psychological distress on the K10 (M = 19.5, SD = 6.25), and a subgroup reported high to very high levels of psychological distress. A small number also reported substance use, symptoms of depression, and/or suicidal ideation. These results indicate that students experience psychological distress from a number of stressors and suggest that medical schools should act as key partners in supporting student well-being by promoting self-care, educating students on the risks of burnout, and developing programs to support at-risk students.
Boyle, Michael P
To compare adults who stutter with and without support group experience on measures of self-esteem, self-efficacy, life satisfaction, self-stigma, perceived stuttering severity, perceived origin and future course of stuttering, and importance of fluency. Participants were 279 adults who stutter recruited from the National Stuttering Association and Board Recognized Specialists in Fluency Disorders. Participants completed a Web-based survey comprised of various measures of well-being including the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, Generalized Self-Efficacy Scale, Satisfaction with Life Scale, a measure of perceived stuttering severity, the Self-Stigma of Stuttering Scale, and other stuttering-related questions. Participants with support group experience as a whole demonstrated lower internalized stigma, were more likely to believe that they would stutter for the rest of their lives, and less likely to perceive production of fluent speech as being highly or moderately important when talking to other people, compared to participants with no support group experience. Individuals who joined support groups to help others feel better about themselves reported higher self-esteem, self-efficacy, and life satisfaction, and lower internalized stigma and perceived stuttering severity, compared to participants with no support group experience. Participants who stutter as an overall group demonstrated similar levels of self-esteem, higher self-efficacy, and lower life satisfaction compared to averages from normative data for adults who do not stutter. Findings support the notion that self-help support groups limit internalization of negative attitudes about the self, and that focusing on helping others feel better in a support group context is linked to higher levels of psychological well-being. At the end of this activity the reader will be able to: (a) describe the potential psychological benefits of stuttering self-help support groups for people who stutter, (b) contrast between
Fransen, Mirjam P.; Beune, Erik J. A. J.; Baim-Lance, Abigail M.; Bruessing, Raynold C.; Essink-Bot, Marie-Louise
The aim of the present study was to explore perceptions and strategies of health care providers regarding diabetes self-management support for patients with low health literacy (LHL), and to compare their self-management support with the needs of patients with LHL and type 2 diabetes. This study
People seek and provide support through their personal social network, especially when they must cope with stress, deal with an emergency, or need help. Coping with a new culture or new environment is a stressful situation that sojourner students must face. Support through friendship plays an important role in facing such new situations. Focusing…
In this article, the author features the Children's Support Services (CSS) project in Lowell, Massachusetts, which is an interagency, multidisciplinary program that provides young children and their families a range of child development, mental health, and family support services. The CSS project, which was begun in September 2000, addresses the…
Jose, Rupa; Novaco, Raymond W
Social support has been found in many studies to be a protective factor for those exposed to intimate partner violence (IPV), but personal resilience has received far less attention. The present study concerns 136 female IPV victims seeking a temporary restraining order (TRO) from a Family Justice Center (FJC). The relationships between IPV victimization, social support, resilience, and psychological distress were examined. Hierarchical regressions found that both perceived social support and self-reported resilience were inversely associated with distress symptoms. Higher social support was associated with lower trauma symptoms, controlling for abuse history, demographics, and resilience. Higher resilience was associated with lower mood symptoms and lower perceived stress, controlling for abuse history, demographics, and social support. No significant associations were recorded for anger symptoms. These findings suggest that fostering resilience can have important health benefits for IPV victims, above and beyond the well-known benefits of social support. Ways that resilience might be cultivated in this population and other implications for practice are discussed. © The Author(s) 2015.
Liao, Mei-Nan; Chen, Shin-Cheh; Lin, Yung-Chang; Chen, Miin-Fu; Wang, Chao-Hui; Jane, Sui-Whi
Few studies have comprehensively examined the effectiveness of information and psychosocial support on all dimensions of cancer patients' supportive care needs. To investigate the effects of education and psychological support on anxiety, symptom distress, social support, and unmet supportive care needs of Taiwanese women newly diagnosed with breast cancer over 3 months after surgery. Two-group, non-randomised quasi-experimental design. The general surgical outpatient department of the largest teaching medical centre in northern Taiwan. Women newly diagnosed with breast cancer (N=80) were divided into experimental (n=40) and control (n=40) groups. The experimental group received education and psychological support in the form of individual face-to-face and telephone follow-up sessions; the control group received routine care. Data were collected during the patients' first postoperative visit (baseline), 1 month after surgery, and 3 months after surgery. After adjusting for covariates, the levels of symptom distress and unmet needs for participants in the experimental group were lower at 1 and 3 months after surgery than for those in the control group, with the results at 3 months achieving significance. However, the sexuality needs for both groups were not significantly different at 1 and 3 months. Furthermore, levels of state anxiety were significantly lower for the experimental group at 1 and 3 months than for the control group. The education and psychological support components of our intervention programme effectively improved the unmet supportive care needs of patients newly diagnosed with breast cancer 3 months after surgery. Following prolonged treatment, women with breast cancer still have physical, psychological, and information care needs. Thus, clinical healthcare personnel should continually and actively provide culturally sensitive, individualised, and accessible information and psychological support to these patients. Crown Copyright © 2013
Walker-Springett, Kate; Jefferson, Rebecca; Böck, Kerstin; Breckwoldt, Annette; Comby, Emeline; Cottet, Marylise; Hübner, Gundula; Le Lay, Yves-François; Shaw, Sylvie; Wyles, Kayleigh
The success or failure of environmental management goals can be partially attributed to the support for such goals from the public. Despite this, environmental management is still dominated by a natural science approach with little input from disciplines that are concerned with the relationship between humans and the natural environment such as environmental psychology. Within the marine and freshwater environments, this is particularly concerning given the cultural and aesthetic significance of these environments to the public, coupled with the services delivered by freshwater and marine ecosystems, and the vulnerability of aquatic ecosystems to human-driven environmental perturbations. This paper documents nine case studies which use environmental psychology methods to support a range of aquatic management goals. Examples include understanding the drivers of public attitudes towards ecologically important but uncharismatic river species, impacts of marine litter on human well-being, efficacy of small-scale governance of tropical marine fisheries and the role of media in shaping attitudes towards. These case studies illustrate how environmental psychology and natural sciences can be used together to apply an interdisciplinary approach to the management of aquatic environments. Such an approach that actively takes into account the range of issues surrounding aquatic environment management is more likely to result in successful outcomes, from both human and environmental perspectives. Furthermore, the results illustrate that better understanding the societal importance of aquatic ecosystems can reduce conflict between social needs and ecological objectives, and help improve the governance of aquatic ecosystems. Thus, this paper concludes that an effective relationship between academics and practitioners requires fully utilising the skills, knowledge and experience from both sectors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ussher, Jane; Kirsten, Laura; Butow, Phyllis; Sandoval, Mirjana
This qualitative study examined the questions of what cancer support groups provide that other supportive relationships do not, and what the self perceived consequences are of support group attendance. Nine representative Australian cancer peer support groups, consisting of a total of 93 interviewees, 75 women, and 18 men, with a mean age of 62, took part in participant observation and focus group interviews, with the data analysed using positioning theory. Support groups were positioned by participants as providing a unique sense of community, unconditional acceptance, and information about cancer and its treatment, in contrast to the isolation, rejection, and lack of knowledge about cancer frequently experienced outside the group. Groups were also positioned as occasionally emotionally challenging, in contrast to the experience of normalising support from family and friends. Increased empowerment and agency were positioned as the most significant consequences of group support, consisting of increased confidence and a sense of control in relation to self, living with cancer, and interactions with others, in particular the medical profession. The support group was also positioned as facilitating positive relationships with family and friends because of relieving their burden of care, by providing a safe space for the expression of emotion. No difference was found between professionally led and peer led support groups, suggesting that it is not the professional background of the leader which is of importance, but whether the group provides a supportive environment, mutuality, and a sense of belonging, and whether it meets the perceived needs of those attending. It is suggested that future research should examine the construction and experience of social support in those who drop out of, or who do not attend, cancer support groups, in order to provide further insight into the contrast between social support within groups and support in other contexts.
Uliukin, I M; Bolekhan, V N; Iusupov, V V; Bulan'kov, Iu I; Orlova, E S
The article contains the analysis of materials about HIV infection and the status of work on its early detection among soldiers. Currently, the figures have a tendency to stabilization, but there is an increase in the persantage of HIV-infected persons performing military service under the contract, as well as the actualization sexual way of infection. The insufficient effectiveness of the barrier screening during the laboratory examination of recruits may contribute the increase in the incidence of HIV infection. Have been reviewed the questions medical-diagnostic and medical-psychological support of HIV-infected soldiers. Been analyzed the social consequences of delays in seeking medical help of patients in this group, the opportunities and challenges of their dispensary observation. It was noted that early detection of HIV infection and proper medical and psychological support in the dynamics of pathological process helps to reduce the number of new cases and improve their outcomes and to reduce the period of efficiency recovery of military personnel.
Wei, Jie; Zhao, Ping; Chen, Li-Jun; Qin, Hui-Qing; Shi, Wang-Hong; Guo, Wei; Zhen, Ying
To explore the effects of social support and personality traits on psychological characteristic of patients with chronic cervicodynia and lumbodynia and improve the level of diagnosis and treatment. From August 2009 to April 2010, 231 patients (obtained 217 effective responses) with chronic cervicodynia and lumbodynia were recruited. Among the patients, there were 123 males and 94 females, with an average age of (38.00 +/- 5.67) years (ranged from 15 to 66 years). Social Support Rating Scale (SSRS), Cattell Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire (16PF) and Symptom Checklist 90 (SCL-90) were used to test social support and psychological characteristic and compared the difference of psychological, personality traits and norm, then analyzed the effect of social support and personality traits on psychological characteristic. Two hundred and seventeen (93.9%) patients completed the questionnaire. Compared with normal 16PF scores, there were significant differences in factor scores of intelligence, stability, excitability, perseverance,social boldness, vigilance, sophistication, experimental, independence and tonicity (P personality traits and psychological characteristic between patients with chronic cervicodynia and lumbodynia and norms. Improving social support level and optimizing personality traits can improve psychological profile of these patients.
Fahim, Christine; O'Sullivan, Tracey L; Lane, Dan
An earlier descriptive study exploring the various supports available to Canadian health and social service providers who deployed to the 2010 earthquake disaster in Haiti, indicated that when systems are compromised, professionals are at physical, emotional and mental risk during overseas deployment. While these risks are generally well-identified, there is little literature that explores the effectiveness of the supports in place to mitigate this risk. This study provides evidence to inform policy development regarding future disaster relief, and the effectiveness of supports available to responders assisting with international disaster response. This study follows Strauss and Corbin's 1990 structured approach to grounded theory to develop a framework for effective disaster support systems. N=21 interviews with Canadian health and social service providers, who deployed to Haiti in response to the 2010 earthquake, were conducted and analyzed. Resulting data were transcribed, coded and analysed for emergent themes. Three themes were identified in the data and were used to develop the evolving theory. The interview data indicate that the experiences of responders are determined based on an interaction between the individual's 'lens' or personal expectations, as well as the supports that an organization is able to provide. Therefore, organizations should consider the following factors: experience, expectations, and supports, to tailor a successful support initiative that caters to the needs of the volunteer workforce.
Bogdanovich N. V.
Full Text Available The article explores features of providing training in the approbated module “Prevention of Behavioural and Developmental Disorders” within the master’s programme in School Psychology. The programme was developed in accordance with the professional standard for educational psychologists. The article outlines the aims of the module and its place in the context of the programme in general and reveals the main ways of developing competencies specified in the educational standard but selected with respect to professional activities defined by the professional standard. The article also suggests some methodological principles of designing an educational module in practice-oriented training, among which the basic one is reflective activity-based networking. An activity-based content of the module is proposed basing on the psychological definition of prevention as one of the core activities in a psychologist’s work. Finally, the article describes educational outcomes in graduate students upon successful completion of the training, and reflects upon certain problems revealed during the approbation of the module.
Brunetto, Yvonne; Xerri, Matthew; Farr-Wharton, Ben; Shacklock, Kate; Farr-Wharton, Rod; Trinchero, Elisabetta
The aim of this study was to examine the impacts of nurses' psychological capital and managerial support, plus specific safety interventions (managerial safety priorities, safety training satisfaction), on nurses' in-role safety performance. Most hospitals in industrialized countries have adopted selective (often the least costly) aspects of safety, usually related to safety policies. However, patient safety remains a challenge in many countries. Research shows that training can be used to upskill employees in psychological capital, with statistically significant organizational and employee benefits, but this area is under-researched in nursing. Data were collected using a survey-based, self-report strategy. The emerging patterns of data were then compared with the findings of previous research. Quantitative survey data were collected during 2014 from 242 nurses working in six Australian hospitals. Two models were tested and analysed using covariance-based Structural Equation Modelling. Psychological capital and safety training satisfaction were important predictors of nurses' in-role safety performance and as predictors of nurses' perceptions of whether management implements what it espouses about safety ('managerial safety priorities'). Managerial support accounted for just under a third of psychological capital and together, psychological capital and managerial support, plus satisfaction with safety training, were important to nurses' perceptions of in-role safety performance. Organizations are likely to benefit from upskilling nurses and their managers to increase nurses' psychological capital and managerial support, which then will enhance nurses' satisfaction with training and in-role safety performance perceptions. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Baker, Sarah R; Owens, Jan; Stern, Melanie; Willmot, Derrick
To examine the role of parents' coping strategies and social support in the family impact of cleft lip and palate (CLP) and levels of adjustment and psychological distress and to investigate whether a child's age, type of cleft, or other reported medical problems influenced such outcomes. A cross-sectional study. One hundred three parents of children or young adults with CLP recruited from families attending a multidisciplinary cleft lip and palate clinic. Family impact, psychological distress, and positive adjustment were assessed using validated psychological questionnaires. Findings indicated that while there were many impacts of a child's CLP, negative outcomes (family impact, psychological distress) were not high. In contrast, parents reported high levels of positive adjustment or stress-related growth as a result of their child's condition. Participants also reported high levels of social support and relied more on the use of approach rather than avoidance-oriented coping strategies. Having more support from friends and family was associated with less negative family impact, lower psychological distress, and better adjustment. Greater use of approach coping was associated with more positive adjustment; whereas, avoidant coping was associated with a greater family impact and more psychological distress. Having a younger child and/or a child with medical problems in addition to CLP was associated with a greater impact on the family. How parents cope with their child's condition and the levels of support received may have implications for caregivers, the family unit, and the delivery of more family-oriented CLP services.
Full Text Available For families that are not capable to obtain necessary supplies to meet their needs, State’s social policy guidelines determine support for improving the quality of life for these families. However, it is concluded, that neither the state nor municipality’ provided support for families with children with special needs, does not meet the needs of families, because state social policy is not focused on the assessment of the family needs, as well as often families do not receive the support due to lack of necessary information and disinterest by social service workers, which in turn reflects the problems in social policy delivery mechanisms. The most necessary support that families need is concerned with lodging and financial security, lack of assistants/care at home, as well as – emotional support.
Stebbings, Juliette; Taylor, Ian M; Spray, Christopher M
Within the self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 2000) framework, research has considered the consequences of coaches' autonomy supportive and controlling behaviors on various athlete outcomes (e.g., motivation and performance). The antecedents of such behaviors, however, have received little attention. Coaches (N = 443) from a variety of sports and competitive levels completed a self-report questionnaire to assess their psychological need satisfaction, well-being and perceived interpersonal behaviors toward their athletes. Structural equation modeling demonstrated that coaches' competence and autonomy need satisfaction positively predicted their levels of psychological well-being, as indexed by positive affect and subjective vitality. In turn, coaches' psychological well-being positively predicted their perceived autonomy support toward their athletes, and negatively predicted their perceived controlling behaviors. Overall, the results highlight the importance of coaching contexts that facilitate coaches' psychological need satisfaction and well-being, thereby increasing the likelihood of adaptive coach interpersonal behavior toward athletes.
Byrne, J. L.; Davies, Melanie J; Willaing, I.
: The present study shows that healthcare professionals report being insufficiently equipped to provide diabetes self-management education, including emotional and psychological aspects of diabetes, and many are not receiving postgraduate training in any part (including medical care) of the management......Aims: To consider the global provision of self-management diabetes education and training for healthcare professionals using data from the second Diabetes Attitudes, Wishes and Needs (DAWN2) study. Methods: A total of 4785 healthcare professionals caring for people with diabetes were surveyed in 17...... in a domain was positively associated with a perceived need for further training. Communication skills, for example, listening (76.9%) and encouraging questions (76.1%), were the skills most widely used. Discussion of emotional issues was limited; 31–60% of healthcare professionals across the different...
Gao, Ni; Dolce, Joni; Rio, John; Heitzmann, Carma; Loving, Samantha
This column describes a goal-oriented, time-limited in vivo coaching/training approach for skills building among peer veterans vocational rehabilitation specialists of the Homeless Veteran Supported Employment Program (HVSEP). Planning, implementing, and evaluating the training approach for peer providers was intended, ultimately, to support veterans in their goal of returning to community competitive employment. The description draws from the training experience that aimed to improve the ability of peer providers to increase both rates of employment and wages of the homeless veterans using their services. Training peers using an in vivo training approach provided a unique opportunity for the veterans to improve their job development skills with a focus to support employment outcomes for the service users. Peers who received training also expressed that learning skills through an in vivo training approach was more engaging than typical classroom trainings. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Rosenthal, Beth Spenciner; Wilson, W. Cody
This empirical study investigated three mechanisms of protection (preventive, compensatory, buffering) for two factors (emotional social support, sense of personal control) in the relationship between exposure to community violence and psychological distress among 947 diverse, older adolescents. Findings indicate that social support and sense of…
VanderArk, Steve; Sipes, Walter; Holland, Albert; Cockrell, Gabrielle
The Behavioral Health and Performance group at NASA Johnson Space Center provides psychological support services and behavioral health monitoring for ISS astronauts and their families. The ISS began as an austere outpost with minimal comforts of home and minimal communication capabilities with family, friends, and colleagues outside of the Mission Control Center. Since 1998, the work of international partners involved in the Space Flight Human Behavior and Performance Working Group has prepared high-level requirements for behavioral monitoring and support. The "buffet" of services from which crewmembers can choose has increased substantially. Through the process of development, implementation, reviewing effectiveness and modifying as needed, the NASA and Wyle team have proven successful in managing the psychological health and well being of the crews and families with which they work. Increasing the crew size from three to six brought additional challenges. For the first time, all partners had to collaborate at the planning and implementation level, and the U.S. served as mentor to extrapolate their experiences to the others. Parity in available resources, upmass, and stowage had to be worked out. Steady progress was made in improving off-hours living and making provisions for new technologies within a system that has difficulty moving quickly on certifications. In some respect, the BHP support team fell victim to its previous successes. With increasing numbers of crewmembers in training, requests to engage our services spiraled upward. With finite people and funds, a cap had to placed on many services to ensure that parity could be maintained. The evolution of NASA BHP services as the ISS progressed from three- to six-crew composition will be reviewed, and future challenges that may be encountered as the ISS matures in its assembly-complete state will be discussed.
Park, Ki Tae
This study examines how levels of marital quality change the effect of social support on postpartum psychological distress among new Korean mothers using the Panel Study on Korean Children (N = 1585). In accord with findings from previous studies, this study shows that low marital quality negatively affects new mothers' mental health, but that social support alleviates psychological distress independent of marital quality. The main finding of this research is that the moderating effect of social support is contingent on levels of marital quality. Aggregated social support moderates the effects of marital quality on new mothers' mental health only when the level of marital quality is low. Furthermore, each dimension of social support (emotional, informational, and instrumental) only has a moderating effect when marital quality is low. The findings highlight the fact that the moderating effect of social support varies with the individual context and so customized social support that fits individual needs matters for the mental health of new mothers.
Honda, Ayumi; Date, Yutaka; Abe, Yasuyo; Aoyagi, Kiyoshi; Honda, Sumihisa
When compared with their older counterparts, younger women are more likely to have depressive symptoms because they more often experience interrupted work history and a heavy childrearing burden. The purposes of the present study were 1) to investigate the possible association of psychosocial work environment with psychological distress and 2) to examine the way by which communication and support in the workplace affect to psychological distress among young women. We studied 198 women aged 20 to 39 yr in a cross-sectional study. The Kessler Scale-10 (K10 Scale) was used to examine psychological distress. In employees who experienced interpersonal conflict, those who had little or no conversations with their supervisor and/or co-workers had a significantly increased risk of psychological distress (OR, 4.2), and those who received little or no support from their supervisor and/or co-workers had a significantly increased risk of psychological distress (OR, 3.8) compared to those who had more frequent communication and received more support. Harmonious communication in the workplace can help prevent psychological distress among employees, which in turn may enable them to be satisfied with their work.
Lamore, Kristopher; Kaci, Sandra S; Czernichow, Sébastien; Bretault, Marion; Bouillot, Jean-Luc; Naudé, Anne-Jeanne; Gribe-Ouaknine, Sandra; Carette, Claire; Flahault, Cécile
Pre-operative psychological assessment is recommended by international guidelines for bariatric surgery candidates. Thereby, service teams caring for bariatric patients should include at least one mental health provider (e.g., a psychologist or psychiatrist). The objective of this study was to evaluate the psychology and psychiatry resources and practices in the 37 specialized obesity centers (CSOs) created by the French Ministry of Health. CSO coordinators were contacted by e-mail to collect general information on the centers (e.g., number of bariatric operations). Secondly, psychologists and psychiatrists of each center completed an anonymous questionnaire assessing their professional practices and their organization of care pathways. The vast majority of CSO coordinators (81%, n = 26/32) answered our survey. These results show significant differences and shortages in terms of the psychology/psychiatry resources available. Most of the psychologists (n = 26/31) and psychiatrists (n = 10/10) stated that they systematically meet new patients only before surgery (56%) or both before and after the operation (30%); however, some psychologists and psychiatrists (14%) do not systematically meet all the patients (before and/or after surgery). Nevertheless, all the professionals provide psychology assessments, and about 75% of them offer a psychological follow-up, indicating a similarity regarding the practices of psychologists and psychiatrists. Our results highlight the place of psychological/psychiatric evaluations in French CSOs and emphasize the absence of mental health providers in several of these services. Post-operative psychological follow-up is not usually provided. It would be appropriate to create clear recommendations for post-operative psychological or psychiatric long-term follow-up.
In October of 2010, Serbian Association for Psycho-Oncology, in collaboration with the Ministry of Health of Serbia and the National Health Insurance has launched the first national telephone line for free psychological counseling and support for oncology patients and their families. The aim of this study was to present results of the first national telephone helpline for psychological support for oncological patients and their families. METHODS The telephone line for the psychological help and support was available from 10 a.m. to 10 p.m., seven days a week and on holidays. A total of 12 previously educated psychologists were involved, with two on duty in the mornings and two in the afternoons.The basic work principles of the Line were anonymity for users (if they wished), free of charge service available to patients from all of Serbia, careful listening, emphatic reflection on anything communicated by users and adequate counselling. Since the beginning of the project (October 2010 up to April 2011) we received a total of 2,748 calls from across Serbia. Almost half of these calls were repeated calls, as patients asked for continuous psychological counselling. Larger percent (63.9%) of women called, when compared to men (35.4%) who used the Line. Most (52.4%) conversations were categorized as "psychological support and counseling," and as continual psychological counseling work (21.1%). The large number of calls suggests that this kind of public, free service for psychosocial and psychological support to cancer patients is necessary in Serbia.
Since September 2010 the Apple laptops & desktops with Mac OS are recognized and supported at CERN by the IT department. Therefore, the “Macintosh support” procedure now follows the same ITIL*) schema as for all IT services, i.e.: All CERN users must address any request for support on Macintosh PCs to the Service Desk. The Service Desk will move on questions or problems they cannot solve to “IT 2nd level” support people, provided by the “computing support” contract managed by IT department. Mac OS being officially supported by the IT department, a 3rd level support is provided by CERN IT staff; they may give specialized expert assistance, within the scope described at the ITUM-2 presentation, for all incidents or requests which can be neither resolved nor fulfilled by the Service Desk (1st level) and the 2nd level support people. Therefore, users who have problems related to Mac OS should simply fill-in the appropriate form from th...
Lau, Denys T; Joyce, Brian; Clayman, Marla L; Dy, Sydney; Ehrlich-Jones, Linda; Emanuel, Linda; Hauser, Joshua; Paice, Judith; Shega, Joseph W
Managing and administering medications to relieve pain and symptoms are common, important responsibilities for informal caregivers of patients receiving end-of-life care at home. However, little is known about how hospice providers prepare and support caregivers with medication-related tasks. This qualitative study explores the key approaches that hospice providers use to facilitate medication management for caregivers. Semistructured, open-ended interviews were conducted with 22 providers (14 nurses, four physicians, and four social workers) from four hospice organizations around an urban setting in the midwestern U.S. Based on the interviews, the following five key approaches emerged, constituting how the hospice team collectively helped caregivers manage medications: 1) establishing trust; 2) providing information; 3) promoting self-confidence; 4) offering relief (e.g., provided in-home medication assistance, mobilized supportive resources, and simplified prescriptions); and 5) assessing understanding and performance. Each hospice discipline used multiple approaches. Nurses emphasized tailoring information to individual caregivers and patients, providing in-home assistance to help relieve caregivers, and assessing caregivers' understanding and performance of medication management during home visits. Physicians simplified medication prescriptions to alleviate burden and reassured caregivers using their perceived medical authority. Social workers facilitated medication management by providing emotional support to promote self-confidence and mobilizing resources in caregivers' support networks and the community at large. Hospice nurses, physicians, and social workers identified distinct, yet overlapping, approaches in aiding caregivers with medication management. These findings emphasize the importance of interdisciplinary teamwork among hospice providers. Future research should investigate how common, standardized, effective, and efficient these approaches are in
Waldron, Nancy L.; Redd, Lacy
Providing a full circle of support to teachers in an inclusive elementary school, the Newberry Elementary School (NES) principal and staff have worked for 5 years to ensure the inclusion of students with disabilities in general education classrooms. The authors would like to share their perceptions of how this full circle (the multiple systems) of…
Ingemarson, Maria; Bodin, Maria; Rubenson, Birgitta; Guldbrandsson, Karin
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate how teachers received and perceived the school programme Prevention in School (PS), a positive behavioural support programme; how did the teachers perceive the programme characteristics and themselves as providers; and how did this affect programme implementation? Design/methodology/approach:…
Hayden, Seth Christian Walter
Service providers are increasingly recognizing the need to develop effective methods for delivering supporting services to military families during deployment. Research suggests that military families experience increased levels of stress during the cycle of deployment. Bronfenbrenner (1979) conceptualized the family operating within the context…
The purpose of this quantitative correlation study was to examine the predictors of user behavioral intention on the decision of oncology care providers to adopt or reject the clinical decision support system. The Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) formed the foundation of the research model and survey instrument. The…
Han, Jeong Yeob; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Yoon, Hye Jin; Shim, Minsun; McTavish, Fiona M; Gustafson, David H
Despite the benefits and growing availability of online cancer support groups, many breast cancer patients still do not actively participate in them. To better understand cancer patients' online information- and support-seeking behaviors, this study explores how various social and psychological characteristics predict different levels of engagement with an online breast cancer support group: posters, lurkers, and nonusers. The study sample included 231 recently diagnosed breast cancer patients. Data included baseline survey scores of demographic, disease-related, and psychosocial factors and automatically collected discussion group use data over the 4-month intervention. Patterns of engagement with the cancer support group differed according to the patients' characteristics, suggesting that (a) cancer patients have very different orientations to and engagement with an online support group, and (b) deficits in social and psychological resources may not be barriers to participation in a cancer support group, but rather motivators to interact with other patients. The authors discuss the theoretical and practical implications of their findings.
Eagly, Alice H
Duarte et al.'s arguments for increasing political diversity in social psychology are based on mischaracterizations of social psychology as fundamentally flawed in understanding stereotype accuracy and the effects of attitudes on information processing. I correct their misunderstandings while agreeing with their view that political diversity, along with other forms of diversity, stands to benefit social psychology.
Gadalla, Tahany M
Gerontological social workers and other health professionals are often dealing with older adults in psychological distress. Greater clarity on the relationship between stress and psychological distress will enhance the efficacy of outreach and treatment initiatives for older adults. This study explored the underlying causal structure of the relationships of common life stressors and psychosocial resources for Canadians 65 years and older (542 men and 835 women). Using structural equation modeling of data collected in the National Population Health Survey in 2004-2005 and 2002-2003, the roles played by socioeconomic conditions, physical health, chronic stress, sense of mastery, and perceived social support in the stress-psychological distress relationship were estimated and compared. Findings revealed that chronic stress was the strongest determinant of the level of psychological distress for both genders; however its effect was higher for men compared to women. Poor physical health played a more important role in determining women's psychological distress compared to men. Higher levels of mastery and perceived social support were associated with lower levels of psychological distress for both men and women. These associations were somewhat stronger for men compared with women. Socio-economic conditions played a minor role in the stress-mental health relationship for both genders.
Morris, Sara M; King, Claire; Turner, Mary; Payne, Sheila
This study is based on people dying at home relying on the care of unpaid family carers. There is growing recognition of the central role that family carers play and the burdens that they bear, but knowledge gaps remain around how to best support them. The aim of this study is to review the literature relating to the perspectives of family carers providing support to a person dying at home. A narrative literature review was chosen to provide an overview and synthesis of findings. The following search terms were used: caregiver, carer, 'terminal care', 'supportive care', 'end of life care', 'palliative care', 'domiciliary care' AND home AND death OR dying. During April-May 2013, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Pubmed, Cochrane Reviews and Citation Indexes were searched. Inclusion criteria were as follows: English language, empirical studies and literature reviews, adult carers, perspectives of family carers, articles focusing on family carers providing end-of-life care in the home and those published between 2000 and 2013. A total of 28 studies were included. The overarching themes were family carers' views on the impact of the home as a setting for end-of-life care, support that made a home death possible, family carer's views on deficits and gaps in support and transformations to the social and emotional space of the home. Many studies focus on the support needs of people caring for a dying family member at home, but few studies have considered how the home space is affected. Given the increasing tendency for home deaths, greater understanding of the interplay of factors affecting family carers may help improve community services. © The Author(s) 2015.
The aim of this project was to identify the support required by registered nurses and unregistered healthcare support workers to provide palliative care for people with dementia in an acute hospital in England. A quantitative approach was taken and participants were asked to fill in a questionnaire. Data were collated and analysed to identify support needs and any emerging themes. Respondents were confident in identifying the different stages of dementia. There was less confidence in identifying a patient with dementia for palliative care referral compared with a patient without dementia. Further needs were identified by respondents in supporting the family/carer of the person with dementia and being aware of available support to facilitate palliative care for people with dementia and support for end of life care (EoLC) planning. The findings suggest that further work is required in relation to dementia and EoLC. Practical and educational collaboration with EoLC/palliative care practitioners and dementia leads would be beneficial.
Ciptayani, P. I.; Dewi, K. C.
Each library has its own criteria and differences in the importance of each criterion in choosing an e-book provider for them. The large number of providers and the different importance levels of each criterion make the problem of determining the e-book provider to be complex and take a considerable time in decision making. The aim of this study was to implement Decision support system (DSS) to assist the library in selecting the best e-book provider based on their preferences. The way of DSS works is by comparing the importance of each criterion and the condition of each alternative decision. SAW is one of DSS method that is quite simple, fast and widely used. This study used 9 criteria and 18 provider to demonstrate how SAW work in this study. With the DSS, then the decision-making time can be shortened and the calculation results can be more accurate than manual calculations.
Bosak, Kelly; Park, Shin Hye
Mobile health technology is rapidly evolving with the potential to transform health care. Self-management of health facilitated by mobile technology can maximize long-term health trajectories of adults. Little is known about the characteristics of adults seeking Web-based support from health care providers facilitated by mobile technology. This study aimed to examine the following: (1) the characteristics of adults who seek human support from health care providers for health concerns using mobile technology rather than from family members and friends or others with similar health conditions and (2) the use of mobile health technology among adults with chronic health conditions. Findings of this study were interpreted in the context of the Efficiency Model of Support. We first described characteristics of adults seeking Web-based support from health care providers. Using chi-square tests for categorical variables and t test for the continuous variable of age, we compared adults seeking Web-based and conventional support by demographics. The primary aim was analyzed using multivariate logistic regression to examine whether chronic health conditions and demographic factors (eg, sex, income, employment status, race, ethnicity, education, and age) were associated with seeking Web-based support from health care providers. The sample included adults (N=1453), the majority of whom were female 57.60% (837/1453), white 75.02% (1090/1453), and non-Hispanic 89.13% (1295/1453). The age of the participants ranged from 18 to 92 years (mean 48.6, standard deviation [SD] 16.8). The majority 76.05% (1105/1453) of participants reported college or higher level of education. A disparity was found in access to health care providers via mobile technology based on socioeconomic status. Adults with annual income of US $30,000 to US $100,000 were 1.72 times more likely to use Web-based methods to contact a health care provider, and adults with an annual income above US $100,000 were 2.41 to
Breen, L J; O'Connor, M
Research demonstrates considerable inequalities in service delivery and health outcomes for people with cancer living outside large metropolitan cities. Semi-structured interviews with 11 professionals providing grief and loss support for people with cancer and their families in rural, regional, and remote areas Western Australia revealed the challenges they faced in delivering such support. The data are presented in four themes - Inequity of regional versus metropolitan services, Strain of the 'Jack of all trades' role, Constraints to accessing professional development, and Challenges in delivering post-bereavement services. These challenges are likely to be of growing concern given that populations are declining in rural areas as Australia becomes increasingly urban. The findings have implications in enhancing the loss and grief support services available in rural, regional, and remote Western Australia, including those grieving the death of a loved one through cancer. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available Existing research has found that parental migration may negatively impact the psychological adjustment of left-behind children. However, limited longitudinal research has examined if and how future orientation (individual protective factor and social support (contextual protective factor are associated with the indicators of psychological adjustment (i.e., life satisfaction, school satisfaction, happiness, and loneliness of left-behind children. In the current longitudinal study, we examined the differences in psychological adjustment between left-behind children and non-left behind children (comparison children in rural areas, and explored the protective roles of future orientation and social support on the immediate (cross-sectional effects and subsequent (lagged effects status of psychological adjustment for both groups of children, respectively. The sample included 897 rural children (Mage = 14.09, SD = 1.40 who participated in two waves of surveys across six months. Among the participants, 227 were left-behind children with two parents migrating, 176 were with one parent migrating, and 485 were comparison children. Results showed that, (1 left-behind children reported lower levels of life satisfaction, school satisfaction, and happiness, as well as a higher level of loneliness in both waves; (2 After controlling for several demographics and characteristics of parental migration among left-behind children, future orientation significantly predicted life satisfaction, school satisfaction, and happiness in both cross-sectional and longitudinal regression models, as well as loneliness in the longitudinal regression analysis. Social support predicted immediate life satisfaction, school satisfaction, and happiness, as well as subsequent school satisfaction. Similar to left-behind children, comparison children who reported higher scores in future orientation, especially future expectation, were likely to have higher scores in most indicators of
Su, Shaobing; Li, Xiaoming; Lin, Danhua; Zhu, Maoling
Existing research has found that parental migration may negatively impact the psychological adjustment of left-behind children. However, limited longitudinal research has examined if and how future orientation (individual protective factor) and social support (contextual protective factor) are associated with the indicators of psychological adjustment (i.e., life satisfaction, school satisfaction, happiness, and loneliness) of left-behind children. In the current longitudinal study, we examined the differences in psychological adjustment between left-behind children and non-left behind children (comparison children) in rural areas, and explored the protective roles of future orientation and social support on the immediate (cross-sectional effects) and subsequent (lagged effects) status of psychological adjustment for both groups of children, respectively. The sample included 897 rural children (Mage = 14.09, SD = 1.40) who participated in two waves of surveys across six months. Among the participants, 227 were left-behind children with two parents migrating, 176 were with one parent migrating, and 485 were comparison children. Results showed that, (1) left-behind children reported lower levels of life satisfaction, school satisfaction, and happiness, as well as a higher level of loneliness in both waves; (2) After controlling for several demographics and characteristics of parental migration among left-behind children, future orientation significantly predicted life satisfaction, school satisfaction, and happiness in both cross-sectional and longitudinal regression models, as well as loneliness in the longitudinal regression analysis. Social support predicted immediate life satisfaction, school satisfaction, and happiness, as well as subsequent school satisfaction. Similar to left-behind children, comparison children who reported higher scores in future orientation, especially future expectation, were likely to have higher scores in most indicators of psychological
Wang, Xiu-feng; Zhang, Lei; Wu, Qing-hua; Min, Jian-Xin; Ma, Na; Luo, Lai-Cheng
Psychological stress has become a common and important cause of premature ovarian failure (POF). Therefore, it is very important to explore the mechanisms of POF resulting from psychological stress. Sixty SD rats were randomly divided into control and model groups. Biomolecules associated with POF (β-EP, IL-1, NOS, NO, GnRH, CRH, FSH, LH, E2, P, ACTH, and CORT) were measured in the control and psychologically stressed rats. The regulation relationships of the biomolecules were explored in the...
Bean, Roy A.; Barber, Brian K.; Crane, D. Russell
Associations among three dimensions of parenting (support, behavioral control, psychological control) and measures of adolescent depression, delinquency, and academic achievement were assessed in a sample of African American youth. All data were adolescent self-reports by way of school-administered questionnaires in random samples of classrooms in…
Li, Chieh; Li, Huijun
This study investigated Chinese immigrant parents' perspectives on Chinese immigrant children's psychological well-being, acculturative stress, and sources of support. We conducted focus groups with 22 Chinese immigrant parents of school-aged children (16 mothers and 6 fathers); obtained participants' sociocultural and linguistic backgrounds and…
Wang, Aiping; Chen, Lang; Zhao, Bo; Xu, Yan
This study investigates 311 first-year students' psychological and behavior adaptation to college and the mediate role of coping strategies and social support. The investigates reveal that: (1) first-year students who are from countryside, live in poor families, speak in dialects or major in science and engineering have poorer adaptation to…
Kim, Eun Sil; Kim, Byeong Seok
The purpose of this study was to explore how social support, mother's psychological status, and maternal sensitivity affected attachment security in children with disabilities by using the structural equation model (SEM). Subjects were 141 pairs of children with disabilities and theirs mothers. Empirical data was obtained through a series of…
Siu, Oi-Ling; Phillips, David R.
The "dual-channel" hypothesis (Lawton, 1996), which suggests the dual-antecedent pattern for positive and negative aspects of psychological well-being, was tested by examining the differential relationships between objective and subjective measures of family support (family contact, family quality, perceived importance of family) and…
Lowe, Sarah R.; Chan, Christian S.; Rhodes, Jean E.
Objective: In this study, we examined the influence of pre-disaster perceived social support on post-disaster psychological distress among survivors of Hurricane Katrina. Method: Participants (N = 386) were low-income mothers between 18 and 34 years of age at baseline (M = 26.4, SD = 4.43). The majority (84.8%) was African American; 10.4%…
Sisman, Fatma Nevin; Tok, Ozlem; Ergun, Ayse
Nail-biting is one of the most common behavioral problems in children. This study aimed to examine factors affecting nail-biting among adolescents and the effects of psychological state and social support on nail-biting. This cross-sectional study was conducted between January and May of 2014 in seven schools in Istanbul (N = 724). Data were…
This study examines the relationships among Taiwanese ninth graders' perceptions of autonomy support versus psychological control in the classroom context, work engagement versus academic burnout, and their avoidance of help seeking as well as self-handicapping behaviors. Four hundred and thirty-five ninth-grade Taiwanese students completed a…
Dunn, Marianne G.; O'Brien, Karen M.
This study examined the relative contributions of (a) gender, (b) perceived stress, (c) social support from family and significant other, and (d) positive and negative dimensions of religious coping to the prediction of the psychological health and meaning in life among 179 Central American immigrants from El Salvador and Guatemala. Findings…
Yau, Hon Keung; Cheng, Alison Lai Fong
There are three dimensions through which to measure university support for students' transition to university life: academic adjustment, social adjustment and psychological adjustment. Previous research studies show that there are relationships among those adjustments. However, less is known about gender differences in these relationships. The…
Williams-Hooker, Ruth; Adams, Marissa; Havrilla, David A; Leung, Wing; Roach, Robin R; Mosby, Terezie T
Many pediatric oncology patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) require nutritional support (NS) because of their inability to consume adequate caloric intake enough calories orally. Although NS can be provided either enteraly (EN) or parenteraly (PN), EN is the preferred method of NS as long as if the gastrointestinal tract is functioning. In this qualitative study, we determined the type of NS preferences and the reservations of caregivers of pediatric HSCT patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) as well as those of health care (HC) providers working on the HSCT unit. A survey was developed and completed anonymously by HC providers and caregivers. The hypothesis was that HC providers and caregivers would prefer PN because it is convenient to use in patients who already have a central line in place. Most caregivers preferred PN to EN, while most HC providers preferred EN to PN. The barrier between EN initiation and caregivers' approval was the caregivers' perception that EN was invasive and painful, most common obstacle for initiation of EN among caregivers was that it hurts/is invasive, while the barrier with HC providers was vomiting and/abdominal pain associated with EN. If caregivers were better educated about NS and the advantages/disadvantages of the different forms of NS, their preferences may change. There have been policy changes at St. Jude have been implemented since this study, and an outpatient dietitian now provides education to caregivers about NS during the pre-evaluation for HSCT. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Ellis, Sonja J; Kitzinger, Celia; Wilkinson, Sue
A questionnaire comprising two scales, the short form of the Attitudes Towards Lesbians and Gay Men Scale (ATLG-S; Herek, 1984) and the newly devised Support for Lesbian and Gay Human Rights Scale (SLGHR) were administered to 226 students taking undergraduate psychology courses at universities in the United Kingdom, to assess their attitudes towards lesbians and gay men, and their level of support for lesbian and gay human rights. The results indicated that whilst only a small percentage of respondents expressed negative attitudes towards lesbians and gay men on the ATLG-S, the sample as a whole did not overwhelmingly support lesbian and gay human rights. The lack of support for lesbian and gay human rights is discussed in relation to its implications for psychology students as future practitioners and policymakers.
Reczek, Corinne; Zhang, Zhe
Relationships with children are important for parents' psychological well-being, yet limited research addresses whether and how relationships with adult children matter for aging parents' psychological well-being in mid- to later life. We used four waves of national longitudinal data (Americans' Changing Lives, N = 1,692) and growth curve models to test how multiple dimensions of the intergenerational relationship-social support, strain, equity, and dissatisfaction-shape mid- to later life parents' psychological distress over time. Results showed that social support and strain were associated with parents' distress at baseline but not over time, while relationship equity and dissatisfaction affected change in parents' psychological distress over time. Findings further showed how the effects of dissatisfaction varied for mothers and fathers. This study adds to an understanding of the social context of aging by drawing attention to how specific dimensions of the parent-child tie matter longitudinally for mid- to later life parents' psychological distress. © The Author(s) 2015.
Full Text Available Over the last decade the UK’s joint Flood and Coastal Erosion Risk Management Research and Development programme has been developing methods to support a move to a risk-based approach to flood defence asset management. Looking to ensure investment is less ‘find and fix’ and made to those assets where the biggest risk reduction can be made for the money available. In addition, providing the capability to articulate the benefits of investing in these assets quantitatively and transparently. This paper describes how the Asset Performance Tools (APT project  is delivering practical methods, prototype tools and supporting guidance which, together with related initiatives such as the Environment Agency’s Creating Asset Management Capacity (CAMC strategic programme  and the ‘State of the Nation’ (SoN  supportive datasets, will enable a risk-based, ‘predict and protect’ approach to asset management. A key advance is the ability to bring in local knowledge to make national generic datasets locally relevant. The paper also highlights existing outputs that can already be used to support a more proactive approach to asset management. It will summarise the ongoing work which will further develop and fine tune performance assessment and investment decision processes within an integrated conceptual framework aligned with ISO55000, deliverable via CAMC and whose concepts can be used by all risk management authorities.
Allicock, Marlyn; Haynes-Maslow, Lindsey; Carr, Carol; Orr, Melinda; Kahwati, Leila C; Weiner, Bryan J; Kinsinger, Linda
The Veterans Health Administration (VHA) has implemented MOVE!, a weight-management program for veterans designed to address the increasing proportion of overweight and obese veterans. The objective of our study was to determine whether peer support employing motivational interviewing (MI) could positively influence lifestyle changes, thus expanding the reach of the MOVE! program. We describe the initial evaluation of the peer training program. We developed an MI peer ounselor training program for volunteer veterans, the "Buddies" program, to provide one-on-one telephone support for veterans enrolled in MOVE!. Buddies were recruited at 5 VHA sites and trained to provide peer support for the 6-month MOVE! intervention. We used a DVD to teach MI skills and followed with 2 to 3 booster sessions. We observed training, conducted pre- and posttraining surveys, and debriefed focus groups to assess training feasibility. Fifty-six Buddies were trained. Results indicate positive receipt of the program (89% reported learning about peer counseling and 87% reported learning communication skills). Buddies showed a small improvement in MI self-efficacy on posttraining surveys. We also identified key challenges to learning MI and training implementation. MI training is feasible to implement and acceptable to volunteer Buddies. Trainers must assess how effectively volunteers learn MI skills in order to enhance its effective use in health promotion.
Slater, Penelope J; Fielden, Philippa E; Bradford, Natalie K
The Oncology Family App supports families across the vast state of Queensland, Australia, with easy access to vital information, including management plans for a deteriorating child, patient specific information and other resources. This article describes the development and evaluation of this mobile app. The app was developed and tested in collaboration with parents, caregivers, and clinicians and released in November 2015. This first version featured "Statewide Hospital Contacts," including phone numbers, links to Google maps, and 24-hour emergency contacts with click to call functionality; "When to Call" describing symptoms to look out for in a deteriorating child; "Blood Results Table"; and "Information" listing recommended websites, health care team contacts, appointments, and notes. The app was evaluated through interviews with parents, caregivers and patients and download metrics. Six months after the app release, 68% of the 38 parents and caregivers surveyed had downloaded the app. The most used modules were "Blood Results Table," "When to Call," and "Statewide Hospital Contacts," but families reported using all features available. Families were enthusiastic about the support the app provided and gave useful feedback to direct future development. Using mobile health technology to support families is a novel, but rapidly growing concept. Family and caregiver feedback showed that the Oncology Family App was an efficient and convenient way to provide much needed information. A new version of the app is under development and evaluation of outcomes will be ongoing.
Tat Cheung, Kwong; Field, Laurence; Furano, Fabrizio
Volunteer computing has the potential to provide significant additional computing capacity for the LHC experiments. One of the challenges with exploiting volunteer computing is to support a global community of volunteers that provides heterogeneous resources. However, high energy physics applications require more data input and output than the CPU intensive applications that are typically used by other volunteer computing projects. While the so-called databridge has already been successfully proposed as a method to span the untrusted and trusted domains of volunteer computing and Grid computing respective, globally transferring data between potentially poor-performing residential networks and CERN could be unreliable, leading to wasted resources usage. The expectation is that by placing a storage endpoint that is part of a wider, flexible geographical databridge deployment closer to the volunteers, the transfer success rate and the overall performance can be improved. This contribution investigates the provision of a globally distributed databridge implemented upon a commercial cloud provider.
Bratt, Marilyn Meyer
Because of the high costs associated with new graduate nurse turnover, an academic-service partnership developed a nurse residency program that provides a comprehensive support system that spans 15 months. Now in its fourth year, involving more than 50 urban and rural hospitals of varying sizes and geographic locations, the program provides formalized preceptor training, monthly daylong educational sessions, and mentoring by clinical coaches. Key factors contributing to the success of this program are a dedicated, cohesive planning team of individuals who embrace a common agenda, stakeholder buy-in, appropriate allocation of resources, and clear articulation of measures of success, with associated data collection. Successful elements of the monthly educational sessions are the use of interactive teaching methods, inclusion of content tailored to the unique needs of the nurse residents, and storytelling to facilitate learning from practice. Finally, training to advance the skill development of preceptors, coaches, educators, and facilitators has provided organizations with enduring benefits. Copyright 2009, SLACK Incorporated.
Full Text Available Introduction. Psychosocial care provided to patients undergoing fertility treatment has focused on a small proportion of patients with major psychosocial problems, leaving the remaining patients impacted by psychosocial stressors without follow-up. Factors that could influence the ability or willingness of physicians treating infertility to assess and address patients’ psychosocial needs have not been investigated. This study aimed to identify the practice gaps and educational needs of physicians treating and managing patients with infertility, with the aim of informing future educational interventions. Methods. A cross-sectional, exploratory, mixed-methods study incorporating semi-structured qualitative telephone interviews and a quantitative online survey was designed and deployed to actively practising physicians treating infertile couples from 15 countries across the Americas, Europe, Asia, and the Middle East Region. Triangulation of qualitative and quantitative data was used to increase trustworthiness of findings. Results. Forty-five participants completed a qualitative interview and 271 participants completed the quantitative online survey (response rates were 4 and 9%, respectively. A majority (74% of respondents reported needing improvement in their psychological assessment skill, which was considered essential to the provision of optimal care by less than half (41% of respondents. A need for improvement in their skill to assess patients’ parenting skills was reported in 72% of respondents, and this skill was considered as essential by 32% of participants. Similarly, 72% reported needing improvement in their ability to identify the needs of patients for psychological and emotional support, and this ability was considered essential by 45%. Statistical differences were observed between countries (p<0.05. Conclusion. Addressing the gaps highlighted in this study, through educational or performance improvement activities, could
Ellis, S J; Kitzinger, C.; Wilkinson, S
A questionnaire comprising two scales, the short form of the Attitudes Towards Lesbians and Gay Men Scale (ATLG-S; Herek, 1984) and the newly devised Support for Lesbian and Gay Human Rights Scale (SLGHR) were administered to 226 students taking undergraduate psychology courses at universities in the United Kingdom, to assess their attitudes towards lesbians and gay men, and their level of support for lesbian and gay human rights. The results indicated that whilst only a small percentage of r...
Elangovan Aravind Raj
Full Text Available Background/Objectives: Caregivers of persons with schizophrenia experience more stress due to the nature of the symptoms as well as the prolonged duration of illness. The current study is an attempt to understand the subjective components of burden, distress, and social support in caregivers of patients with schizophrenia in Indian context and its linkage with their sociodemographic profile and patient′s illness profile. Methodology: Thirty-two caregivers of patients with schizophrenia from a psychiatric inpatient facility of a multidisciplinary hospital were studied using descriptive research design. Results: The result shows that negative symptoms of patients, subdomains of burden (burden on well-being, marital burden, burden on relations, and burden due to perceived severity were the predictors of subjective burden. Burden on well-being and respondent′s age were predictors of psychological distress. Conclusion: Inclusive treatment services would enhance the quality of life of the caregivers and would help them in ensuring long-term care for the patients with schizophrenia.
Tzelepis, Flora; Daly, Justine; Dowe, Sarah; Bourke, Alex; Gillham, Karen; Freund, Megan
Tobacco use during pregnancy is substantially higher among Aboriginal women compared to non-Aboriginal women in Australia. However, no studies have investigated the amount or type of smoking cessation care that staff from Aboriginal antenatal and postnatal services provide to clients who smoke or staff confidence to do so. This study examined Aboriginal antenatal and postnatal staff confidence, perceived role and delivery of smoking cessation care to Aboriginal women and characteristics associated with provision of such care. Staff from 11 Aboriginal Maternal and Infant Health Services and eight Aboriginal Child and Family Health services in the Hunter New England Local Health District in Australia completed a cross-sectional self-reported survey (n = 67, response rate = 97.1%). Most staff reported they assessed clients' smoking status most or all of the time (92.2%). However, only a minority reported they offered a quitline referral (42.2%), provided follow-up support (28.6%) or provided nicotine replacement therapy (4.7%) to most or all clients who smoked. Few staff felt confident in motivating clients to quit smoking (19.7%) and advising clients about using nicotine replacement therapy (15.6%). Staff confident with talking to clients about how smoking affected their health had significantly higher odds of offering a quitline referral [OR = 4.9 (1.7-14.5)] and quitting assistance [OR = 3.9 (1.3-11.6)] to clients who smoke. Antenatal and postnatal staff delivery of smoking cessation care to pregnant Aboriginal women or mothers with young Aboriginal children could be improved. Programs that support Aboriginal antenatal and postnatal providers to deliver smoking cessation care to clients are needed. Aboriginal antenatal and postnatal service staff have multiple opportunities to assist Aboriginal women to quit smoking during pregnancy and postpartum. However, staff confidence and practices of offering various forms of smoking cessation support to pregnant Aboriginal
Johnsen, Josephine; Glerup Lauridsen, Kasper; Løfgren, Bo
Background: Advanced life support (ALS) including resuscitation drugs improves return of spontaneous circulation after cardiac arrest. Resuscitation drugs are recommended to be administered at predefined time-points depending on whether the cardiac rhythm is shockable or non-shockable. Timing...... to administer drugs during shockable rhythm only. Similar, only one third knew when to administer drugs during non-shockable rhythm only. Knowledge on when to administer drugs in case of rhythm transition was poor (Figure 1).Conclusion: Advanced life support providers have poor knowledge of when to administer...... resuscitation drugs. Future studies should address methods to improve learning and skill retention of resuscitation drug administration.Author Disclosures: J. Johnsen: None. K.G. Lauridsen: None. B. Løfgren: None....
Ploeg, Jenny; Denton, Margaret; Hutchison, Brian; McAiney, Carrie; Moore, Ainsley; Brazil, Kevin; Tindale, Joseph; Wu, Amina; Lam, Annie
The purpose of the study examined in this article was to understand how non-physician health care professionals working in Canadian primary health care settings facilitate older persons' access to community support services (CSSs). The use of CSSs has positive impacts for clients, yet they are underused from lack of awareness. Using a qualitative description approach, we interviewed 20 health care professionals from various disciplines and primary health care models about the processes they use to link older patients to CSSs. Participants collaborated extensively with interprofessional colleagues within and outside their organizations to find relevant CSSs. They actively engaged patients and families in making these linkages and ensured follow-up. It was troubling to find that they relied on out-of-date resources and inefficient search strategies to find CSSs. Our findings can be used to develop resources and approaches to better support primary health care providers in linking older adults to relevant CSSs.
Fuller-Iglesias, Heather R.; Webster, Noah J.; Antonucci, Toni C.
This study examines the complex role of family networks in shaping adult psychological well-being over time. We examine the unique and interactive longitudinal influences of family structure (i.e., composition and size) and negative family relationship quality on psychological well-being among young (ages 18-34), middle-aged (ages 35-49), and…
Schepers, J.; de Jong, A.; Wetzels, M.; de Ruyter, K.
In this paper, the authors propose that psychological safety, a sense of interpersonal trust and being valued in a work team, is an important determinant of groupware technology adoption in an educational setting. They develop and test a model of antecedents and consequences of psychological safety. Data were collected from 361 university…
Flores Jennifer A
Full Text Available Abstract Background Clinical interventions based on collaborative models require effective communication between primary care providers (PCPs and collaborative support teams. Despite growing interest in collaborative care, we have identified no published studies describing how PCPs prefer to communicate and interact with collaborative support teams. This manuscript examines the communication and interaction preferences of PCPs participating in an ongoing randomized clinical trial of a collaborative intervention for chronic pain and depression. Methods The trial is being conducted in five primary care clinics of a Veterans Affairs Medical Center. Twenty-one PCPs randomized to the study intervention completed a survey regarding preferences for interacting with the collaborative support team. Results A majority of PCPs identified email (95% and telephone calls (68% as preferred modes for communicating with members of the support team. In contrast, only 29% identified in-person communications as preferred. Most PCPs preferred that the care manager and physician pain specialist assess patients (76% and make initial treatment changes (71% without first conferring with the PCP. One-half wanted to be designated cosigners of all support team notes in the electronic medical record, one-half wanted to receive brief and focused information rather than in-depth information about their patients, and one-half wanted their practice nurses automatically included in communications. Panel size was strongly associated (p Conclusion The substantial variation in PCP communication preferences suggests the need for knowledge of these preferences when designing and implementing collaborative interventions. Additional research is needed to understand relationships between clinician and practice characteristics and interaction preferences.
Bennecke, Elena; Werner-Rosen, Knut; Thyen, Ute; Kleinemeier, Eva; Lux, Anke; Jürgensen, Martina; Grüters, Annette; Köhler, Birgit
Disorders/diversity of sex development (dsd) is an umbrella term for congenital conditions often diagnosed within childhood. As most parents are unprepared for this situation, psychological support (PsySupp) is recommended. The aim of this study was to analyse the extent to which parents express a need for PsySupp. Three hundred twenty-nine parents of children with dsd were included; 40.4 % of the parents indicated to have a need for PsySupp, only 50 % of this group received it adequately. The diagnoses partial gonadal dysgenesis, partial androgen insensitivity syndrome (pAIS) and disorders of androgen synthesis are associated with a high need for PsySupp in parents (54, 65, and 50 %). Sex assignment surgery neither reduced nor increased the need for PsySupp. Taking a picture, radiography, laparoscopy, gonadal biopsy, gonadectomy and hormonal puberty induction are associated with a high need for PsySupp. There was no association between the need for PsySupp and the parents' perception of the appearance of the genitalia. Having a child with dsd is associated with a high need for PsySupp in parents. In particular, parents of children with XY-dsd with androgen effects other than hypospadias expressed a high need of PsySupp. PsySupp for parents should be an obligatory part of interdisciplinary care to reduce fears and concerns. What is known • In parents, having a child with dsd provokes insecurities and fears. Hence, psychological support is recommended as part of the interdisciplinary care. What is new • This is the first study investigating the subjective need for psychological support in a large sample of parents of children with dsd in Germany. We present data on the subjective need for psychological support of the parents, related diagnoses and factors, which should be considered in psychological counselling.
Behar-Horenstein, Linda S; Morris, Dustin R
A lack of curriculum time devoted to teaching dental students about the needs of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgendered (LGBT) health care patient needs and biases against LGBT students and faculty have been reported. Understanding dental school administrators' attitudes about LGBT students' needs might provide further insight into these long-standing issues. The aims of this study were to develop a survey to assess dental administrators' attitudes regarding the support services they believe LGBT-identified students need, to identify dental schools' current diversity inclusion policies, and to determine what types of support dental schools currently provide to LGBT students. A survey developed with the aid of a focus group, cognitive interviewing, and pilot testing was sent to 136 assistant and associate deans and deans of the 65 U.S. and Canadian dental schools. A total of 54 responses from 43 (66%) schools were received from 13 deans, 29 associate deans, and 11 assistant deans (one participant did not report a position), for a 40% response rate. The findings suggest there is a considerable lack of knowledge or acknowledgment of LGBT dental students' needs. Future studies are needed to show the importance of creating awareness about meeting the needs of all dental student groups, perhaps through awareness campaigns initiated by LGBT students.
Full Text Available Aims: This study was conducted to assess the efficiency of the basic life support (BLS training program provided for nurses in a university hospital. To evaluate the efficiency of the BLS training program provided for nurses in a university hospital. Methods: In this a quasi-experimental study, a total of 404 nurses who received BLS training were enrolled. The study was performed in two stages. In stage one, the participant nurses were given a pre-test that consisted of 25 questions, four points each, before the training on the first day of the 2-day BLS training. The post-test was conducted in addition to practical exams on manikins to determine nurses’ practice skills on BLS. Results: There was a statistically significant difference between the nurses with previous BLS training and the difference between their pre- and post-test results (p<0.05, and high statistically significant difference was found between the nurses with previous advanced life support (ALS training and the difference between their pre- and post-test results (p<0.001. Conclusion: Nurses should receive BLS training in hospitals and the training should be repeated on a regular basis. The BLS training that the nurses received in this study was effective and increased their knowledge level on BLS
Full Text Available Background There is a consensus among the halachic authorities that life-saving actions override Sabbath prohibitions. They are painstaking in securing that the sanctity of the Sabbath is maintained but that not a single life be lost. Objective This manuscript examines if and when a relative’s presence at the bedside of a seriously ill individual is potentially life-saving against the backdrop of the scientific literature. It specifically addresses the permissibility of traveling in a motorized vehicle, generally prohibited on the Sabbath, to be with one’s relative in hospital for the provision of emotional support. Methods Discourse of the halachic issues in the context of the scientific literature. Results Stress, mental or physical, has been determined as a potentially life-threatening condition in many disease entities. The literature attests to both the patient’s and the professionals’ perception of the curative potential of the presence of loved ones by advocating for the patient and relieving stress in the hospital experience. Emotional support from a loved one is perceived by some patients as vital to survival. There is halachic consensus that a patient’s perception of the emotional need for a relative’s presence is sufficient to permit overriding rabbinic prohibitions. Torah prohibitions, which may be overridden for medical needs, may be overridden for emotional support, providing a health professional or family member attests to the fulfilment of this specific need as diminishing the danger to the patient’s life. In certain cases, the latter contingency is unnecessary. Conclusions Emotional support has an impact on the patient’s health status; the degree to which its impact is strong enough to save life is still being studied. As more data from scientific studies emerge, they may be relevant to sharpening the halachic rulings with respect to the issue at hand.
Greenberger, Chaya; Mor, Pnina
There is a consensus among the halachic authorities that life-saving actions override Sabbath prohibitions. They are painstaking in securing that the sanctity of the Sabbath is maintained but that not a single life be lost. This manuscript examines if and when a relative's presence at the bedside of a seriously ill individual is potentially life-saving against the backdrop of the scientific literature. It specifically addresses the permissibility of traveling in a motorized vehicle, generally prohibited on the Sabbath, to be with one's relative in hospital for the provision of emotional support. Discourse of the halachic issues in the context of the scientific literature. Stress, mental or physical, has been determined as a potentially life-threatening condition in many disease entities. The literature attests to both the patient's and the professionals' perception of the curative potential of the presence of loved ones by advocating for the patient and relieving stress in the hospital experience. Emotional support from a loved one is perceived by some patients as vital to survival. There is halachic consensus that a patient's perception of the emotional need for a relative's presence is sufficient to permit overriding rabbinic prohibitions. Torah prohibitions, which may be overridden for medical needs, may be overridden for emotional support, providing a health professional or family member attests to the fulfilment of this specific need as diminishing the danger to the patient's life. In certain cases, the latter contingency is unnecessary. Emotional support has an impact on the patient's health status; the degree to which its impact is strong enough to save life is still being studied. As more data from scientific studies emerge, they may be relevant to sharpening the halachic rulings with respect to the issue at hand.
Chang, Che-Wei; Chiang, Chung-Wei; Gaffaney, Jon D; Chapman, Edwin R; Jackson, Meyer B
SNARE proteins catalyze many forms of biological membrane fusion, including Ca(2+)-triggered exocytosis. Although fusion mediated by SNAREs generally involves proteins anchored to each fusing membrane by a transmembrane domain (TMD), the role of TMDs remains unclear, and previous studies diverge on whether SNAREs can drive fusion without a TMD. This issue is important because it relates to the question of the structure and composition of the initial fusion pore, as well as the question of whether SNAREs mediate fusion solely by creating close proximity between two membranes versus a more active role in transmitting force to the membrane to deform and reorganize lipid bilayer structure. To test the role of membrane attachment, we generated four variants of the synaptic v-SNARE synaptobrevin-2 (syb2) anchored to the membrane by lipid instead of protein. These constructs were tested for functional efficacy in three different systems as follows: Ca(2+)-triggered dense core vesicle exocytosis, spontaneous synaptic vesicle exocytosis, and Ca(2+)-synaptotagmin-enhanced SNARE-mediated liposome fusion. Lipid-anchoring motifs harboring one or two lipid acylation sites completely failed to support fusion in any of these assays. Only the lipid-anchoring motif from cysteine string protein-α, which harbors many lipid acylation sites, provided support for fusion but at levels well below that achieved with wild type syb2. Thus, lipid-anchored syb2 provides little or no support for exocytosis, and anchoring syb2 to a membrane by a TMD greatly improves its function. The low activity seen with syb2-cysteine string protein-α may reflect a slower alternative mode of SNARE-mediated membrane fusion. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.
Reports an error in "A longitudinal person-centered perspective on youth social support: Relations with psychological wellbeing" by Joseph Ciarrochi, Alexandre J. S. Morin, Baljinder K. Sahdra, David Litalien and Philip D. Parker ( Developmental Psychology , 2017[Jun], Vol 53, 1154-1169). In the article, the approach utilized (and illustrated in the authors' online supplements) for tests of distributional similarity conducted in the context of Latent Transition Analyses (LTA) is suboptimal, and has been recently optimized in a webnote prepared by Morin and Litalien (2017). This webnote should be consulted by anyone thinking to rely on similar methodologies in the LTA context. Importantly, distributional similarity was not supported in Ciarrochi et al. (2017) using either the initial or optimized method, so that the application of the optimized method results in no change in the reported results. As part of this correction, the online supplemental materials have been updated to direct readers to the webnote. The reference for the Morin and Litalien (2017) webnote is included in the erratum. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2017-17082-001.) Past research suggests that perceived social support from parents, teachers, and peers are all positively associated with wellbeing during adolescence. However, little longitudinal research has examined the implications of distinctive combinations of social support for developing adolescents. To address this limitation, we measured multiple dimensions of social support, psychological ill-health, and wellbeing in a sample of 2034 Australian adolescents (M age = 13.7; 49.6% male) measured in Grades 8 and 11. Latent transition analyses identified a 6-profile solution for both waves of data, and revealed substantial inequality in perceived social support. Two "socially rich" profiles corresponded to 7% of the sample and had high social support (>1SD above sample mean) from at least two sources
Bean, Roy A.; Bush, Kevin R.; McKenry, Patrick C.; Wilson, Stephan M.
Relationships between adolescent functioning and parent support, behavioral control, and psychological control were examined among European American and African American adolescents. A number of correlations were significant, including maternal support and academic achievement and self-esteem, and paternal psychological control and self-esteem.…
radiology surgery urology ophthalmology otorhinolaryngology anesthesiology obstetrics/gynecology physical medicine psychiatry internal medicine oncology...aerospace physiology clinical psychology clinical social work alcohol rehabilitation dietitian occupational theraphy pharmacy optometry podiatry...Psychologist - Psychologist - Social worker Air Force 56 b) PA Pod Opt Phy Oc (92XX) includes: - Occupational Therapist - Physical Therapist
Hollon, Steven D; Ponniah, Kathryn
The mood disorders are prevalent and problematic. We review randomized controlled psychotherapy trials to find those that are empirically supported with respect to acute symptom reduction and the prevention of subsequent relapse and recurrence. We searched the PsycINFO and PubMed databases and the reference sections of chapters and journal articles to identify appropriate articles. One hundred twenty-five studies were found evaluating treatment efficacy for the various mood disorders. With respect to the treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD), interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT), cognitive behavior therapy (CBT), and behavior therapy (BT) are efficacious and specific and brief dynamic therapy (BDT) and emotion-focused therapy (EFT) are possibly efficacious. CBT is efficacious and specific, mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) efficacious, and BDT and EFT possibly efficacious in the prevention of relapse/recurrence following treatment termination and IPT and CBT are each possibly efficacious in the prevention of relapse/recurrence if continued or maintained. IPT is possibly efficacious in the treatment of dysthymic disorder. With respect to bipolar disorder (BD), CBT and family-focused therapy (FFT) are efficacious and interpersonal social rhythm therapy (IPSRT) possibly efficacious as adjuncts to medication in the treatment of depression. Psychoeducation (PE) is efficacious in the prevention of mania/hypomania (and possibly depression) and FFT is efficacious and IPSRT and CBT possibly efficacious in preventing bipolar episodes. The newer psychological interventions are as efficacious as and more enduring than medications in the treatment of MDD and may enhance the efficacy of medications in the treatment of BD. Depression and Anxiety, 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Roz Shafran; Sophie D Bennett; Mhairi McKenzie Smith
There are strong calls from many national and international bodies for there to be a ‘holistic’ and integrated approach to the understanding and management of psychological and physical health needs...
Are there more than cross-sectional relationships of social support and support networks with functional limitations and psychological distress in early rheumatoid arthritis? the European Research on Incapacitating Diseases and Social Support Longitudinal
Demange, V.; Guillemin, F.; Suurmeijer, T.P.; Moum, T.; Doeglas, D.; Briancon, S.; van den Heuvel, W.J.
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether greater social support and support network are cross-sectionally associated with less functional limitations and psychological distress in patients with early rheumatoid arthritis (RA); whether this association is constant over time; and whether increases in social
Smith, April R; Dodd, Dorian R; Forrest, Lauren N; Witte, Tracy K; Bodell, Lindsay; Ribeiro, Jessica D; Goodwin, Natalie; Siegfried, Nicole; Bartlett, Mary
The current study tested whether the Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicide (IPTS) provides a useful framework for understanding elevated suicide rates among individuals with eating disorders (EDs). Based on predictions of the IPTS, we tested whether the combination of thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness was associated with suicidal desire, and whether the combination of thwarted belongingness, perceived burdensomeness, and fearlessness about death was associated with past suicide attempts in an ED sample (n = 100). We also compared these IPTS constructs in an ED sample versus general psychiatric inpatients (n = 85) and college students (i.e., non-clinical comparison group; n = 93). Within the ED sample, no hypothesized interactions were found, but perceived burdensomeness was associated with suicidal desire, and perceived burdensomeness and fearlessness about death were associated with past suicide attempts. The ED and psychiatric samples had greater thwarted belongingness, perceived burdensomeness, and suicidal desire than the non-clinical comparison group. The IPTS constructs of perceived burdensomeness and fearlessness about death appear to explain some facets of suicidality among people with EDs, but overall, support for the IPTS was limited. Future research on EDs and suicidality should look beyond the IPTS and consider other biological and sociocultural factors for suicide. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. (Int J Eat Disord 2016; 49:1082-1086). © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Singh, Shipra; McBride, Kimberly; Kak, Vivek
This study examined the impact of acculturative stress and social support (family and friend) on psychological distress among Asian American immigrants and three Asian sub-groups (Vietnamese, Filipino and Chinese) immigrants. The National Latino and Asian American Study 2002-2003 dataset was used. The study findings were: (1) among all Asian American immigrants high language barrier and discrimination stress were associated with increased level of psychological distress, but similar association was not present for legal stress; (2) among all Asian American immigrants high family social support decreased the levels of psychological distress, and in addition, friend social support buffered the relationship of discrimination and psychological distress; and (3) among Vietnamese, Filipino, and Chinese, differential association of social support and acculturative stress to psychological distress were observed. These findings highlight the importance of social support among Asian American immigrants, while also paying attention to the variation that may exist between different sub-groups.
Wenzel, Suzanne L; Henwood, Benjamin; Harris, Taylor; Winetrobe, Hailey; Rhoades, Harmony
Permanent supportive housing (PSH) is an evidence-based solution to homelessness for persons experiencing chronic or long-term homelessness and one or more physical or behavioral health problems. Health services through PSH typically focus on physical and behavioral health. With the exception of programs specifically designed for persons living with HIV/AIDS, little attention has focused on services through PSH to prevent transmission of HIV or other sexually transmitted infections (STIs), yet sexual risk behavior continues after homeless persons move into PSH. The purpose of this study was to investigate how PSH providers approach HIV prevention and the challenges they perceive surrounding HIV prevention in PSH. Results serve as a critical first step toward addressing the acceptability and feasibility of providing HIV/STI prevention services to PSH residents. As part of a longitudinal mixed methods study examining HIV risk and prevention behavior among homeless unaccompanied adults moving into PSH in Los Angeles, we conducted eleven focus groups with a total of 60 frontline staff across 10 PSH agencies. Thirty-three percent of focus group participants were African American, 32% were Hispanic, and 55% were women. Results suggest that provider awareness and knowledge of PrEP is very limited, and provision of formal HIV prevention programing for residents is perceived as challenging. Informal, ad hoc conversations with residents about sexual risk and HIV prevention do occur when providers have rapport with clients and perceive risk. There are significant gaps in HIV prevention services through PSH but also opportunities to enhance providers' efforts to promote the health of residents through prevention.
Full Text Available In the last 10 years sport psychology expanded its applicability in a variety of fields which have helped to address some of the challenges related to high level performance and sport competition. When we talk about performance in its wider sense, sport psychology is able to help develop a better understanding on how strategies can be adopted in improving general human performance levels. This includes increasing the knowledge of key concepts such as motivation, self-confidence and resilience. Furthermore performance in its wider sense helps in the understanding of the impact of stress and arousal and how these can affect both positively and negatively performance levels including appreciating individual differences as well as dynamics between groups of individuals. In this paper performance rather than solely be related to the field of competitive or professional sport has been discussed in people with ASCs and aims to explore how by adopting a positive psychological model in the formulation of individual assessments and subsequent interventions have led to improvement in individual skills, participation, engagement and ultimately quality of life. Positive psychological principles, such as the role of wellbeing and wellness, the PERMA Model has increased our understanding of human potentials, performance and wellbeing. The aim of this paper is to present and reflect on the applicability and benefits of adopting sport psychology models, the PERMA model and positive psychological principles in special education and care settings with the presentation and discussion of their theoretical and some practical implementation in two case studies.
Diamond-Smith, Nadia; Sudhinaraset, May; Melo, Jason; Murthy, Nirmala
a growing body of literature has highlighted the prevalence of mistreatment that women experience around the globe during childbirth, including verbal and physical abuse, neglect, lack of support, and disrespect. Much of this has been qualitative. Research around the world suggests that support during childbirth can improve health outcomes and behaviours, and improve experiences. Support can be instrumental, informational, or emotional, and can be provided by a variety of people including family (husbands, mothers) or health providers of various professional levels. This study explores women's reported experiences of mistreatment during childbirth quantitatively, and how these varied by specific types of support available and provided by specific individuals. participants were women age 16-30 who had delivered infants in a health facility in the previous five years and were living in slums of Lucknow India. Data were collected on their experiences of mistreatment, the types of support they received, and who provided that support. women who reported lack of support were more likely to report mistreatment. Lack of support in regards to discussions with providers and provider information were most strongly associated with a higher mistreatment score. Women who received any type of support from their husband or a health worker were significantly more likely to report lower mistreatment scores. Receiving informational support from a mother/mother-in-law or emotional support from a health worker was also associated with lower mistreatment scores. However, receiving emotional support from a friend/neighbour/other family member was associated with a higher mistreatment score. women rely on different people to provide different types of support during childbirth in this setting. Some of these individuals provide specific types of support that ultimately improve a woman's overall experience of her childbirth. Interventions aiming to reduce mistreatment to women during
Beach, A. L., III; Northup, E. A.; Early, A. B.; Chen, G.
Airborne field studies are an effective way to gain a detailed understanding of atmospheric processes for scientific research on climate change and air quality relevant issues. One major function of airborne project data management is to maintain seamless data access within the science team. This allows individual instrument principal investigators (PIs) to process and validate their own data, which requires analysis of data sets from other PIs (or instruments). The project's web platform streamlines data ingest, distribution processes, and data format validation. In May 2016, the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) Atmospheric Science Data Center (ASDC) developed a new data management capability to help support the Korea U.S.-Air Quality (KORUS-AQ) science team. This effort is aimed at providing direct NASA Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC) support to an airborne field study. Working closely with the science team, the ASDC developed a scalable architecture that allows investigators to easily upload and distribute their data and documentation within a secure collaborative environment. The user interface leverages modern design elements to intuitively guide the PI through each step of the data management process. In addition, the new framework creates an abstraction layer between how the data files are stored and how the data itself is organized(i.e. grouping files by PI). This approach makes it easy for PIs to simply transfer their data to one directory, while the system itself can automatically group/sort data as needed. Moreover, the platform is "server agnostic" to a certain degree, making deployment and customization more straightforward as hardware needs change. This flexible design will improve development efficiency and can be leveraged for future field campaigns. This presentation will examine the KORUS-AQ data portal as a scalable solution that applies consistent and intuitive usability design practices to support ingest and management of airborne
Shearer, David S; Harmon, S Cory; Seavey, Brian M; Tiu, Alvin Y
Family medicine providers at a large family medicine clinic were surveyed regarding their impression of the impact, utility and safety of the Primary Care Prescribing Psychologist (PCPP) model in which a prescribing psychologist is embedded in a primary care clinic. This article describes the model and provides indications of its strengths and weaknesses as reported by medical providers who have utilized the model for the past 2 years. A brief history of prescribing psychology and the challenges surrounding granting psychologists the authority to prescribe psychotropic medication is summarized. Results indicate family medicine providers agree that having a prescribing psychologist embedded in the family medicine clinic is helpful to their practice, safe for patients, convenient for providers and for patients, and improves patient care. Potential benefits of integrating prescribing psychology into primary care are considered and directions for future research are discussed.
Yang, Chih-Wei; Yen, Zui-Shen; McGowan, Jane E; Chen, Huiju Carrie; Chiang, Wen-Chu; Mancini, Mary E; Soar, Jasmeet; Lai, Mei-Shu; Ma, Matthew Huei-Ming
Advanced life support (ALS) guidelines are widely adopted for healthcare provider training with recommendations for retraining every two years or longer. This systematic review studies the retention of adult ALS knowledge and skills following completion of an ALS course in healthcare providers. We retrieved original articles using Medline, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, and PubMed, and reviewed reference citations to identify additional studies. We extracted data from included articles using a structured approach and organized outcomes by evaluation method, and knowledge and skills retention. Among 336 articles retrieved, 11 papers were included. Most studies used multiple-choice questionnaires to evaluate knowledge retention and cardiac arrest simulation or other skills tests to evaluate skills retention. All studies reported variable rates of knowledge or skills deterioration over time, from 6 weeks to 2 years after training. Two studies noted retention of knowledge at 18 months and up to 2 years, and one reported skills retention at 3 months. Clinical experience, either prior to or after the courses, has a positive impact on retention of knowledge and skills. There is a lack of large well-designed studies examining the retention of adult ALS knowledge and skills in healthcare providers. The available evidence suggests that ALS knowledge and skills decay by 6 months to 1 year after training and that skills decay faster than knowledge. Additional studies are needed to help provide evidence-based recommendations for assessment of current knowledge and skills and need for refresher training to maximize maintenance of ALS competency. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of an intervention to support the basic psychological needs on the satisfaction of these needs, intrinsic motivation, intention to be physically active and some enjoyment-related outcomes in Physical Education. The present study incorporated strategies presented by Standage and Ryan (2012 in a previous study. A quasi-experimental study was conducted with two groups (nexperimental = 30; ncontrol = 23 of 2nd year Secondary Education students aged between 13 and 15 (M = 13.35, SD = .62 by delivering 24 physical education classes. The teacher in the experimental group underwent prior and continual training. The results revealed that the students from the experimental group showed a significant increase in the perception of autonomy and competence. Furthermore, the experimental group showed a greater perception than the control group in the enjoyment related to learning and contents. These results provide information about the efficacy of an intervention programme based on the strategies presented by Standage and Ryan (2012 to foster satisfaction of basic psychological needs and facilitate support for basic psychological needs to promote the development of positive learning-related outcomes.
Giuse, D A
To describe the evolution of a provider order entry system with integrated decision support, from a research prototype to full implementation at one academic center, and finally to a commercial product. Describe the institutional environment and planning process in which the system originated. Highlight the historical evolution of the provider entry system, and analyze its system architecture and functionality. Describe the requirements for successful design and deployment both within a single health care organization and as part of a commercial product line. Over a period of eight years the system evolved from a research prototype to a fully integrated order entry system in routine use on most inpatient units of a large academic medical center. Around 12,000 orders are entered every day into the computer system; 70% of those are entered directly by the responsible physician. The system embeds best-of-care practice guidelines, and is used to reduce resource utilization by limiting unnecessary testing and suggesting more effective or less costly therapeutic replacements. The system was recently acquired by a large HIS software vendor and is being rapidly implemented at numerous customer sites. Large-scale development or deployment of complex health information systems requires considerable organizational agreement and resources, as well as close attention to iterative system design that explicitly includes constant feedback from the user community. The transformation of such a system from a single-site success to a widely deployed product requires convergence of resources and needs.
Full Text Available Childhood vaccination is widely considered to be one of the most successful public health interventions. Yet, the effective delivery of vaccination depends upon public willingness to vaccinate. Recently, many countries have faced problems with vaccine hesitancy, where a growing number of parents perceive vaccination to be unsafe or unnecessary, leading some to delay or refuse vaccines for their children. Effective intervention strategies for countering this problem are currently sorely lacking, however. Here, we propose that this may be because existing strategies are grounded more in intuition than insights from psychology. Consequently, such strategies are sometimes at variance with basic psychological principles and assumptions. By going against the grain of cognition, such strategies potentially run the risk of undermining persuasive efforts to reduce vaccine hesitancy. We demonstrate this by drawing on key insights from cognitive and social psychology to show how various known features of human psychology can lead many intuitively appealing intervention strategies to backfire, yielding unintended and undesirable repercussions. We conclude with a summary of potential avenues of investigation that may be more effective in addressing vaccine hesitancy. Our key message is that intervention strategies must be crafted that go with the grain of cognition by incorporating key insights from the psychological sciences.
Stepanenko, N P; Levitskaia, T E; Matveeva, E A; Zaĭtsev, A A; Konovalov, A B; Tren'kaeva, N A; Akimova, K K; Kremeno, S V; Dostovalova, O V; Merzliakova, N V
To study dynamics of the indicators of the hormonal and psychological status as well as psychological features of significance for the sportive performance under conditions of rehabilitative treatment during training and post-training periods in the child athlete engaged in rhythmic gymnastics. The study included 42 child athletes at the age from 8 to 15 years engaged in rhythmic gymnastics. The children of the study group (group 1, n=17) received the combined restorative treatment under conditions of regular training while those comprising group 2 group (n=25) were given a similar treatment in the absence of the training load. All athletes underwent clinical and laboratory examination before and after the treatment for the assessment of their psychological status. The study has demonstrated that additional physical activities were responsible for the development of negative changes in the hormonal and psychological spheres of the child athletes. As a result, they experienced the impairment of certain qualities significant for their sportive performance. The rehabilitative measures during different periods of the training cycle promote normalization of all parameters of the hormonal, psychological, and physical status of the child athletes; moreover, they improve the adaptive capacity of the children.
Jones, Allan; Vallis, Michael; Cooke, Debbie; Pouwer, F.
The quality of the "patient-carer" relationship is the foundation of self-management support and has been shown to influence treatment outcome in relation to psychological and somatic illness, including diabetes. It has long been accepted within applied psychology that the quality of the
Van Cleave, Jeanne; Holifield, Chloe; Perrin, James M
The Massachusetts Child Psychiatry Access Project (MCPAP) provides telephone support from mental health specialists to primary care providers (PCPs). Understanding PCPs' use may inform implementation of similar programs. We sought to examine PCPs' decision-making process to use or not use MCPAP when encountering mental health problems. We analyzed data regarding calls from PCPs to MCPAP from October 1, 2010, to July 31, 2011, and interviewed 14 PCPs with frequent use (≥7 calls) and infrequent use (≤4 calls). PCPs were asked about recent patients with mental health problems, and they were asked to describe reasons for calling or not calling MCPAP. Frequent callers were asked what sustained use; infrequent callers were asked about alternative management strategies. Comparisons were made between these groups in qualitative analysis. PCPs (n = 993) made 6526 calls (mean = 6.6; median = 3). Factors influencing calling included: MCPAP's guidance is timely and tailored to individual scope of practice; MCPAP's ability to arrange therapy referrals exceeds PCPs' ability; providing a plan at point of care relieves anxious families; and MCPAP's assistance helps accommodate families' preference to keep mental health in primary care. Some infrequent callers had gained skills through MCPAP before 2010 and now called only for complex cases. Other reasons for infrequent calling: PCPs have other consultation sources, have fear of being asked to manage more than they are comfortable, or have misperceptions of MCPAP's offerings. MCPAP enhanced PCPs' ability to deliver mental health care consistent with families' preferences. PCPs applied knowledge gained from calls to subsequent patients. Promoting MCPAP components through outreach and tailoring guidance to PCPs' scope of practice may entice greater use. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Voltolini, Alessandra; Minotti, Anna; Verde, Alessandro; Cipriani, Manlio; Garascia, Andrea; Turazza, Fabio; Macera, Francesca; Perna, Enrico; Russo, Claudio F; Fumagalli, Emilia; Frigerio, Maria
Heart disease has an impact on patient's identity and self-perception. Taking into account the wide literature about psychological aspects before and after heart transplant, it clearly emerges that there is a lack of data and results for patients up to implantation of ventricular assist devices (VAD). The aim of the present study was to explore quality of life and factors correlated with psychological adjustment in patients supported with VAD. From February 2013 to August 2014, 18 patients (17 male, mean age 57 years) under clinical evaluation before and after VAD implantation were enrolled. During interviews, patients were assessed with EuroQoL-5D questionnaire to monitor improvement of quality of life before implantation and at 3 and 6 months; critical issues, needs and point of views of patients have been described. A significant improvement in the quality of life score was observed at 3 (score 38 [interquartile range 30-40] vs 75 [60-80], ppsychological state investigated by the test showed a clear and positive trend. All patients need to empower through complete information about the device, related risks and life expectancy. Interdisciplinary approach improved compliance with therapy. Successful treatment and efficient psychological care are closely related to assessment and continuous clinical support. This approach ensures a better selection of patients and improves their compliance. Further data are needed to support our preliminary observations and to explore long-term quality of life.
Nam, Soohyun; Song, Youngshin
Psychological insulin resistance (PIR) affects patients’ self-care behaviors and quality of life due to the delay of insulin treatment for optimal glycemic control. Although effective patient-provider communication and relationships have been shown to improve patients’ overall treatment adherence and attitude toward treatment, little is known about the potential mechanisms by which effective patient-provider communication and relationships decrease PIR and whether these relationships are medi...
Azcona, Luis Am; Gutierrez, Guillermo E O; Fernandez, Cesar J P; Natera, Octavio M; Ruiz-Speare, Octavio; Ali, Jameel
Mexico has had the Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) program since 1986. We assessed the attrition of ATLS skills among ATLS providers and instructors in this country. Three groups (S, 16 students [new medical graduates enrolled for an ATLS course]; P, 33 providers; and I, 26 instructors [who had completed courses previously]) were evaluated. Group S read the manual before pretesting. Groups P and I were subdivided based on the length of time since the course had been completed: P1, less than 2 years (n = 22); P2, more than 2 years (n = 11); I1, less than 2 years (n = 16); and I2, more than 2 years (n = 10). Multiple-choice and psychomotor testing using ATLS scoring criteria were used. Affect was assessed post-ATLS for motivational factors, interactivity, and attitude toward trauma care. Multiple-choice test scores (means +/- SD) out of a maximum of 40 were as follows: S, 24.3 +/- 2.6; P1, 24.0 +/- 5.7; P2, 21.3 +/- 8.0; I1, 23.2 +/- 8.2; and I2, 24.0 +/- 7.2. Group S all passed the post-ATLS multiple-choice test (with correct answer percentages of 60.3% +/- 6.6% pre-ATLS versus 88.8% +/- 5.6% post-ATLS). An ATLS passing score of 80% correct answers was achieved in 2 of 33 for group P and 8 of 26 for group I (p ATLS group than in the P and I groups (p ATLS attitude to trauma care. Reading the manual alone yields similar cognitive but inferior psychomotor performance compared with subjects who completed the course previously. The majority of previous providers and instructors did not obtain a passing score (80%) in the multiple-choice test, but all the new providers passed the post-ATLS multiple-choice test, suggesting major attrition of cognitive skills but maintenance of psychomotor skills. Instructors had superior cognitive performance versus providers with worsening performance over time, but clinical skills performance was maintained at an equally high level by all groups. A very positive attitude toward ATLS prevailed among all participants.
Diehl, Scott R; Kuo, Fengshen; Hart, Thomas C
It has been proposed that the PST and PerioPredict genetic tests that are based on polymorphisms in interleukin 1 (IL-1) genes identify a subset of patients who experience fewer tooth extractions if provided with 2 annual preventive visits. Economic analyses indicate rationing preventive care to only "high-risk" genotypes, smokers, patients with diabetes, or combinations of these risk factors would reduce the cost of dental care by $4.8 billion annually in the United States. Data presented in the study that claimed clinical utility for the PST and PerioPredict tests were obtained for reanalysis using logistic regression to assess whether the PST genetic test, smoking, diabetes, or number of preventive visits were risk factors for tooth extraction during a span of 16 years. Consistency of risk classification by the PST (version 1) and PerioPredict (version 2) genetic tests was evaluated in different ethnic groups from the 1000 Genomes database. Multivariate analyses revealed association of tooth extraction with diabetes (P preventive visits (P = .004), but no support for the PST genetic test (P = .96) nor indication that the benefit of 2 preventive visits was affected by this genetic test (P = .58). Classification of risk was highly inconsistent between the PST (version 1) and PerioPredict (version 2) genetic tests. Two annual preventive visits were supported as beneficial for all patients, and there was no evidence that the IL-1 PST genetic test has any effect on tooth extraction risk or influences the benefits of 2 annual preventive visits. Neither IL-1 PST nor PerioPredict genetic tests are useful for rationing preventive dental care. Further research is needed to identify genetic biomarkers with robust clinical validity and clinical utility to effectively personalize the practice of dentistry. Copyright © 2015 American Dental Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Scholarly publishing is no longer about simply producing and packaging articles and sending out to subscribers. To be successful, as well as being global and digital, Publishers and their journals need to be fully engaged with their stakeholders (authors, readers, funders, libraries etc), and constantly developing new products and services to support their needs in the ever-changing environment that we work in.Astronomy & Astrophysics (A&A) is a high quality, major international Journal that belongs to the astronomical communities of a consortium of European and South American countries supported by ESO who sponsor the journal. EDP Sciences is a non-profit publisher belonging to several learned societies and is appointed by ESO to publish the journal.Over the last decade, as well as publishing the results of worldwide astronomical and astrophysical research, A&A and EDP Sciences have worked in partnership to develop a wide range of services for the authors and readers of A&A:- A specialist language editing service: to provide a clear and excellent level of English ensuring full understanding of the high-quality science.- A flexible and progressive Open Access Policy including Gold and Green options and strong links with arXiv.- Enriched articles: authors are able to enhance their articles using a wide range of rich media such as 3D models, videos and animations.Multiple publishing formats: allowing readers to browse articles on multiple devices including eReaders and Kindles.- “Scientific Writing for Young Astronomers”: In 2008 EDP Sciences and A&A set up the Scientific Writing for Young Astronomers (SWYA) School with the objective to teach early PhD Students how write correct and efficient scientific papers for different mediums (journals, proceedings, thesis manuscripts, etc.).
The purpose of the study was to examine the systems of support that principals establish at their school sites to support teachers with the academic achievement of the English learner population. Two schools from a single district were selected. Specific strategies, structures, and processes that support teachers and principals of English learners…
Aitken, Leanne M; Rattray, Janice; Kenardy, Justin; Hull, Alastair M; Ullman, Amanda J; Le Brocque, Robyne; Mitchell, Marion; Davis, Chelsea; Castillo, Maria I; Macfarlane, Bonnie
Diaries summarizing intensive care are routine practice in some countries, although evidence to support diary use is limited. The purpose of this study was to identify whether distress post-intensive care influences patients' and relatives' choice as to whether they would like to receive a diary and what information delivery method is preferred. Intensive care patients admitted for at least 3 days and their relatives participated in an exploratory mixed methods study. Interviews were conducted 3 to 5 months after discharge. Psychological distress was assessed using Kessler-10 and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptom Checklist - 5. Perceptions of benefit of diaries were assessed using a 4-point Likert scale. Differences were examined using Fisher exact test (PPsychological distress was evident in 25 (47%) patients and 5 (23%) relatives. Participants' psychological health was similar for those who perceived diaries as beneficial, and those who did not. Themes included memory, process, and impact, although opinions were diverse. Patient and relative preferences of receiving a diary are not related to psychological distress. Diverse opinions around common themes suggest the need for a range of interventions to aid psychological recovery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available forward has been accomplished in that it is now possible to use the same rational procedure for the design of tunnel support as is classically employed for the design of structures or machine components in more rigorous and precise engineering disciplines...
Full Text Available This research examined the role of psychological availability as a means of psychological engagement between self-initiated expatriates (SIEs and their host-country nationals (HCNs colleagues during their work and interaction adjustment. To reveal this process, this study presented the concept of psychological availability, which refers to an individual’s belief that they are physically, cognitively, and emotionally ready or confident to engage the self with their colleagues, as a mediator between proactive personality and adjustment. Also, it investigated the relationship between proactive personality and psychological availability and how it was moderated by supportive supervisor relations. We hypothesized, this relationship would be weakened/strengthened when SIEs and HCNs received low/high level of support from their supervisor. This study was conducted as a quantitative study, data was used from 342 SIEs and 342 HCNs working in mainland China. Our finding supported the hypothesis that psychological availability mediated the relationship between proactive personality and their adjustment to an international work environment; in addition, the relationship between proactive personality and psychological availability would be stronger when the level of superiors relations support is high between SIEs and HCNs. This study demonstrated the value of proactive personality as an antecedent effect and supportive supervisor relations as a moderating effect, and investigated how these factors can lead to a sense of psychological availability and boost psychological engagement between SIEs and HCNs in order to improve the adjustment between them.
Jannesari, Milad; Wang, Zhongming; McCall, Jacob; Zheng, Boyang
This research examined the role of psychological availability as a means of psychological engagement between self-initiated expatriates (SIEs) and their host-country nationals (HCNs) colleagues during their work and interaction adjustment. To reveal this process, this study presented the concept of psychological availability, which refers to an individual’s belief that they are physically, cognitively, and emotionally ready or confident to engage the self with their colleagues, as a mediator between proactive personality and adjustment. Also, it investigated the relationship between proactive personality and psychological availability and how it was moderated by supportive supervisor relations. We hypothesized, this relationship would be weakened/strengthened when SIEs and HCNs received low/high level of support from their supervisor. This study was conducted as a quantitative study, data was used from 342 SIEs and 342 HCNs working in mainland China. Our finding supported the hypothesis that psychological availability mediated the relationship between proactive personality and their adjustment to an international work environment; in addition, the relationship between proactive personality and psychological availability would be stronger when the level of superiors relations support is high between SIEs and HCNs. This study demonstrated the value of proactive personality as an antecedent effect and supportive supervisor relations as a moderating effect, and investigated how these factors can lead to a sense of psychological availability and boost psychological engagement between SIEs and HCNs in order to improve the adjustment between them. PMID:29225587
Landis-Lewis, Zach; Douglas, Gerald P; Hochheiser, Harry; Kam, Matthew; Gadabu, Oliver; Bwanali, Mwatha; Jacobson, Rebecca S
Although performance feedback has the potential to help clinicians improve the quality and safety of care, healthcare organizations generally lack knowledge about how this guidance is best provided. In low-resource settings, tools for theory-informed feedback tailoring may enhance limited clinical supervision resources. Our objectives were to establish proof-of-concept for computer-supported feedback message tailoring in Malawi, Africa. We conducted this research in five stages: clinical performance measurement, modeling the influence of feedback on antiretroviral therapy (ART) performance, creating a rule-based message tailoring process, generating tailored messages for recipients, and finally analysis of performance and message tailoring data. We retrospectively generated tailored messages for 7,448 monthly performance reports from 11 ART clinics. We found that tailored feedback could be routinely generated for four guideline-based performance indicators, with 35% of reports having messages prioritized to optimize the effect of feedback. This research establishes proof-of-concept for a novel approach to improving the use of clinical performance feedback in low-resource settings and suggests possible directions for prospective evaluations comparing alternative designs of feedback messages. PMID:26958217
Full Text Available The purpose of this editorial is to introduce the quantitative literacy community to the newly published A Handbook for Directors of Quantitative and Mathematics Centers. QMaSCs (pronounced “Q-masks” can be broadly defined as centers that have supporting students in quantitative fields of study as part of their mission. Some focus only on calculus or mathematics; others concentrate on numeracy or quantitative literacy, and some do all of that. A QMaSC may be embedded in a mathematics department, or part of a learning commons, or a stand-alone center. There are hundreds of these centers in the U.S. The new handbook, which is the outgrowth of a 2013 NSF-sponsored, national workshop attended by 23 QMaSC directors from all quarters of the U.S., is available open access on the USF Scholar Commons and in hard copy from Amazon.com. This editorial by the handbook’s editors provides background and overview of the 20 detailed chapters on center leadership and management; community interactions; staffing, hiring and training; center assessment; and starting a center; and then a collection of ten case studies from research universities, four-year state colleges, liberal arts colleges, and a community college. The editorial ends by pointing out the need and potential benefits of a professional organization for QMaSC directors.
Davey, Amanda; Bouman, Walter P; Arcelus, Jon; Meyer, Caroline
There is a paucity of research in the area of social support and psychological well-being among people with gender dysphoria. The present study aimed to investigate levels of social support among individuals with gender dysphoria compared with a matched control group. It also aimed to examine the relationship between social support and psychological well-being. Participants were 103 individuals diagnosed with gender dysphoria (according to ICD-10 criteria) attending a national gender identity clinic and an age- and gender-matched nonclinical control group recruited via social networking websites. All participants completed measures of social support (Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, MSPSS), psychopathology (Symptom Checklist 90 Revised, SCL), quality of life (Short Form 36 version 2, SF), and life satisfaction (Personal Wellbeing Index, PWI). Trans women reported significantly lower MSPSS total and MSPSS family scores compared with control women, although these differences in levels of social support were no longer significant when SCL depression was controlled for. No significant differences were found between trans men and any other group. MSPSS scores did not significantly predict SCL subscales but did predict both SF subscales and PWI total scores. Trans women perceived themselves to be lacking social support. Given that social support is beneficial to quality of life and life satisfaction in those with gender dysphoria, this is of great concern. Though these findings have been derived from correlational results, extended research may highlight the value of clinicians helping trans women to seek out and maintain social support. Additionally, efforts could be made to educate and challenge attitudes of nontrans people towards those with gender dysphoria. © 2014 International Society for Sexual Medicine.
Adolescents with homosexual and bisexual orientations have higher levels of psychological distress than other adolescents. Drawing from previous studies, I hypothesize that this epidemiological pattern is due largely to the interpersonal problems that sexual minorities experience at home and at school. Analysis of longitudinal data based on a…
de Wit, M.; Pulgaron, E.R.; Pattino-Fernandez, A.M.; Delamater, A.M.
The significant role of psychosocial factors in the management of type 1 diabetes in youth has been well documented. The International Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Diabetes (ISPAD) therefore published the Clinical Practice Consensus Guidelines for psychological care of young patients.
Benka, Jozef; Nagyova, Iveta; Rosenberger, Jaroslav; Calfova, Anna; Macejova, Zelmira; Middel, Berrie; Lazurova, Ivica; van Dijk, Jitse P.; Groothoff, Johan W.
Introduction: The objective of the study was to investigate the course of psychological distress in early rheumatoid arthritis patients and to explore the strength of its associations with disease-related variables over time. A further aim focused specifically on the associations between social
Rini, Christine; Redd, William H.; Austin, Jane; Mosher, Catherine E.; Meschian, Yeraz Markarian; Isola, Luis; Scigliano, Eileen; Moskowitz, Craig H.; Papadopoulos, Esperanza; Labay, Larissa E.; Rowley, Scott; Burkhalter, Jack E.; Schetter, Christine Dunkel; DuHamel, Katherine N.
Objective: Hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) survivors who are 1 to 3 years posttransplant are challenged by the need to resume valued social roles and activities--a task that may be complicated by enduring transplant-related psychological distress common in this patient population. The present study investigated whether transplant…
The present study used an ecological framework to examine the relationships among adolescents' perceptions of school climate, social competence, and behavioral and psychological adjustment in the middle school years. This study improved upon prior studies by using "structural equation modeling" to investigate the hypothesized mediating…
Chang, Yia-Ling; Chiou, Ai-Fu; Cheng, Shu-Meng; Lin, Kuan-Chia
Up to 74% of patients with heart failure report poor sleep in Taiwan. Poor symptom management or sleep hygiene may affect patients' sleep quality. An effective educational programme was important to improve patients' sleep quality and psychological distress. However, research related to sleep disturbance in patients with heart failure is limited in Taiwan. To examine the effects of a tailored educational supportive care programme on sleep disturbance and psychological distress in patients with heart failure. randomised controlled trial. Eighty-four patients with heart failure were recruited from an outpatient department of a medical centre in Taipei, Taiwan. Patients were randomly assigned to the intervention group (n=43) or the control group (n=41). Patients in the intervention group received a 12-week tailored educational supportive care programme including individualised education on sleep hygiene, self-care, emotional support through a monthly nursing visit at home, and telephone follow-up counselling every 2 weeks. The control group received routine nursing care. Data were collected at baseline, the 4th, 8th, and 12th weeks after patients' enrollment. Outcome measures included sleep quality, daytime sleepiness, anxiety, and depression. The intervention group exhibited significant improvement in the level of sleep quality and daytime sleepiness after 12 weeks of the supportive nursing care programme, whereas the control group exhibited no significant differences. Anxiety and depression scores were increased significantly in the control group at the 12th week (pcare programme (p>.05). Compared with the control group, the intervention group had significantly greater improvement in sleep quality (β=-2.22, pcare programme could effectively improve sleep quality and psychological distress in patients with heart failure. We suggested that this supportive nursing care programme should be applied to clinical practice in cardiovascular nursing. Copyright © 2016
Bhui, Kamaldeep; Silva, Maria Joao; Harding, Seeromanie; Stansfeld, Stephen
The purpose of the study is to test whether bullying in adolescents relates to poor mental health and whether social support mitigated this effect. In 2001, 28 schools in East London were randomly selected for surveys of two representative mixed ability classes: year 7 (11-12 years) and year 9 (13-14 years). Repeated measures were obtained from the same pupils 2 years later, using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (total difficulties score [TDS]) as a measure of psychological distress. A simple one-level random intercepts model with measurements nested within pupils was used to investigate the effects of bullying and social support from friends and family on TDS. We also assessed whether culturally congruent friendships offered a mental health advantage. Bullying was associated with a higher mean TDS (coefficient, 95% confidence interval: White British: 2.15, 1.41-2.88; Bangladeshi: 1.65, .91-2.4); a high level of family social support was associated with a lower TDS (White British: -2.36, -3.33 to -1.39; Bangladeshi: -2.34, -3.15 to -.149). Social support from friends was helpful for White British adolescents (-1.06, -2.07 to -.04). Culturally congruent friendships offered no general advantage. Bullying is associated with psychological distress; family social support is independently associated with less psychological distress. Copyright © 2017 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Joseph, Stephen; Linley, P. Alex
Comments on "Positive psychology progress: Empirical validation of interventions" by Seligman, Steen, Park, and Peterson (see record 2005-08033-003). Seligman and colleagues provided a progress report on positive psychology, reviewing the impressive developments over the past five years. We wholeheartedly support the positive psychology movement…
Shaku, Fumio; Tsutsumi, Madoka
Decision making in terminal illness has recently received increased attention. In Japan, patients and their families typically make decisions without understanding either the severity of illness or the efficacy of life-supporting treatments at the end of life. Japanese culture traditionally directs the family to make decisions for the patient. This descriptive study examined the influence of the experiences of 391 Japanese nurses caring for dying patients and family members and how that experience changed their decision making for themselves and their family members. The results were mixed but generally supported the idea that the more experience nurses have in caring for the dying, the less likely they would choose to institute lifesupport measures for themselves and family members. The results have implications for discussions on end-of-life care. © The Author(s) 2016.
Adanir, T; Erdogan, I; Hunerli, G; Unveren, G; Dasci, H; Cetin, H Y; Ozsan, I; Aydin, U
We searched to see whether psychological support for relatives of intensive care unit patients helps them to donate organs of their brain-dead relatives. After receiving ethics committee permission, first-degree relatives of 200 general intensive care unit patients were enrolled in the study. The participants were divided into 2 groups randomly: an interview group (n = 100) and a control group (n = 100). Participants were asked to complete a questionnaire. Interviews with the psychologist and patients' relatives in the interview group were therapeutic in nature and were conducted according to the relatives' psychosocial needs in an unstructured format. In the control group, the psychologist and patients' relatives were not interviewed. The study utilized demographic data, the questionnaire for relatives of patients to mention their attitude on organ donation and the reasons for this choice, and the Participant Information Form to record demographic data and relatives' degree of relationship with the patient. There was no statistically significant difference between the 2 groups when compared according to sex ratio, patient age, and duration of patients' hospital stay. Whereas in the interview group, 75% agreed to allow their relatives to be organ donors, only 32% in the control group agreed (P psychological support for the relatives of the potential brain-dead donor to cope with the psychological problems to be faced can improve the rate of organ donation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available This study investigated the prevalence of psychological distress among parents in Western Sydney households and examined its relationship with household financial, family and life stressors, and potential resilience factors. As part of a longer-term study, parents from Western Sydney, New South Wales (NSW, completed computer-assisted telephone interviews (CATI in May 2011 (N=439. Respondents were primary caregivers of at least one child (aged 4–16. Responses were weighted to reflect the Western Sydney population. Multivariate analyses were conducted to examine the relationship between parent experiences of stressor and resilience factors and reported psychological distress. Overall, 10.7% (95% CI: 7.8, 14.5 reported experiencing high/very high levels of psychological distress. Multivariate analysis indicated that financial hardship factors formed the strongest associations with psychological distress particularly housing and job security factors and, specifically, inability to meet mortgage/rent payments (OR=5.15, 95% CI: 1.74–15.25, p=0.003, poor self-rated health (OR=4.48, 95% CI: 1.88–10.64, p=0.001, adult job loss (OR=3.77, 95% CI: 1.33–10.66, p=0.013, and other family/life events (OR=2.30, 95% CI: 1.05–5.03, p=0.037. High personal resilience was common within this parent population and was a significant protective factor for high psychological distress (OR=0.14, 95% CI: 0.06–0.34, p<0.001. The findings support the development of targeted interventions to promote parent coping strategies in the context of household financial hardship.
S. Mahmoud Mirzamani
Full Text Available Following a personal, community or national crisis or disaster there is a need to provide some form of early intervention and crisis support. The essential components of successful early interventions include planning, education, training and support for those affected. The goal of all early interventions should be to maximize the likelihood of a positive mental health outcome using the person’s own adaptive coping mechanisms and support structures. Psychological debriefing (PD has been described as an intervention conducted by trained professionals shortly after a catastrophe, allowing victims to talk about their experience and receive information on “normal” types of reactions to such an event. Psychological debriefing has been developed and has been at the centre of significant levels of controversy during the past 15 years. Talking through traumatic or stressful events may help the psychological recovery of those who have suffered psychological insults.
Fiorini, Rodolfo A; De Giacomo, Piero; L'Abate, Luciano
Human beings have increasingly shown a willingness to adopt Internet, mHealth and telehealth applications as a part of managing their health. Recent technological advances in the use of the Internet and video technologies has greatly impacted the provision of psychotherapy and other clinical services as well as how the training of psychotherapists may be conducted. When utilized appropriately these technologies may provide greater access to needed services to include treatment, consultation, supervision, and training. The major issue in such a development is whether online interventions will be structured or unstructured. The proper use of technology is fundamental to create and boost outstanding results. We present a strategic review and, as an example, the main steps to develop and achieve application resilience and antifragility at system level, for diagnostic and therapeutic telepractice and telehealth support. This article presents a number of innovations that can take psychotherapy treatment, supervision, training, and research forward, towards increased effectiveness application.
Han, Bong-Gyoon [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Watson, Zoe [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Cate, Jamie H. D. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Glaeser, Robert M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
Analysis of images of biotinylated Escherichia coli 70S ribosome particles, bound to streptavidin affinity grids, demonstrates that the image-quality of particles can be predicted by the image-quality of the monolayer crystalline support film. Also, the quality of the Thon rings is a good predictor of the image-quality of particles, but only when images of the streptavidin crystals extend to relatively high resolution. When the estimated resolution of streptavidin was 5 Å or worse, for example, the ribosomal density map obtained from 22,697 particles went to only 9.5 Å, while the resolution of the map reached 4.0 Å for the same number of particles, when the estimated resolution of streptavidin crystal was 4 Å or better. It thus is easy to tell which images in a data set ought to be retained for further work, based on the highest resolution seen for Bragg peaks in the computed Fourier transforms of the streptavidin component. The refined density map obtained from 57,826 particles obtained in this way extended to 3.6 Å, a marked improvement over the value of 3.9 Å obtained previously from a subset of 52,433 particles obtained from the same initial data set of 101,213 particles after 3-D classification. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that interaction with the air-water interface can damage particles when the sample becomes too thin. Finally, streptavidin monolayer crystals appear to provide a good indication of when that is the case.
Epp, Carrie Demmans
Our current understanding of how migrants use mobile tools to support their communication and language learning is inadequate. This study, therefore, explores the learner-initiated use of technologies to support their comprehension, production, and acquisition of English following migration to Canada. Information about migrant use of technologies…
Widanski, Bozena; Thompson, Jo Ann; Foran-Mulcahy, Katie; Abafo, Amy
A two-semester-long interdisciplinary support effort to improve student posters in organic chemistry lab is described. In the first semester, students' literature search report is supported by a workshop conducted by an Instruction Librarian. During the subsequent semester, a second workshop is presented by the Instruction Librarian, an English…
Raassens, N.; Wuyts, S.H.K.; Geyskens, I.
Recent discussions in the business press query the contribution of customer-support outsourcing to firm performance. Despite the controversy surrounding its performance implications, customer-support outsourcing is still on the rise, especially to emerging markets. Against this backdrop, we study
Didem Rodoplu Şahin
Full Text Available The relation with the work and the role of managers and organizational factors are effective on psychological capital and individual performance of employees. This article investigates the impact of the work engagement, performanmce, empowerment, organizational support and transformational leadership on psychological capital using survey data.
Lovell, Brian; Moss, Mark; Wetherell, Mark A.
Elevated psychological distress and concomitant dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis has been implicated as one pathway that links the stress of caregiving with adverse health outcomes. This study assessed whether perceived social support might mitigate the psychological, endocrine and health consequences of caregiver…
Elbe, Anne-Marie; Overbye, Marie
to the control as well as to the way in which the doping control officer (DCO) conducts the procedure. Negative experiences can lead to short- and long-term effects on athletes' well-being and potentially also performance. The article outlines a number of strategies that can be applied to minimize negative......This article outlines the challenges and negative experiences athletes encounter during urine doping controls and how they can be dealt with. Negative experiences can be caused by physiological (e.g., inability to urinate) and psychological (e.g., feelings of embarrassment) factors relating...... experiences of urine doping controls. Furthermore, recommendations for how policy regarding urine doping tests could be changed are given....
Venema, E; Otten, S; Vlaskamp, C
Various studies have found that direct support professionals (DSPs) play an important role in determining the degree to which people with intellectual disabilities (ID) are included in society. However, less research has been conducted on the psychological processes that may influence the behavioural intentions of DSPs to actually engage with and invest effort in supporting their clients' inclusion. Five possible psychological variables are identified in the literature: attitudes, social norms, experienced competencies, identity and meta-evaluation. In our research, we tested whether these processes influence the (intended) efforts DSPs make to facilitate their clients' inclusion. A structured questionnaire was sent to 927 DSPs working in one of three different locations (an ordinary non-segregated setting, a reversed non-segregated setting and a residential facility). Of these, 336 DSPs completed the questionnaire. Several variables revealed differences between the three locations, specifically in efforts to facilitate inclusion, attitudes, social norms, experienced competencies and professional identity. Looking at the overall means, we found (relatively) high scores for the experienced competencies, role identity and meta-evaluation. In contrast, the means were relatively negative regarding the DSPs' attitudes to inclusion and their assumed social norms. Direct support professionals' efforts to facilitate inclusion depend on their attitude towards inclusion, the experienced competencies, their role identity, the DSPs' meta-evaluation and, indirectly through attitudes, also on the assumed social norms of the relevant stakeholders. Organizations responsible for supporting people with ID and which may want their DSPs to make greater efforts to facilitate inclusion should pay attention to these psychological variables. © 2015 MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Kusuma Wijaya Ridi Putra; Chanandchidadussadee Toonsiri; Suwanna Junprasert
Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is one of the leading causes of death and it is caused by genetics, nutrition, and unhealthy behaviors. Therefore, changes in lifestyle associated with eating behaviors in diabetes mellitus patients greatly impact on their quality of life. There are many factors related with changes in lifestyle of diabetes mellitus patients, especially eating behaviors. Purpose: This study aims to examine the relationships between self-efficacy, psychological stress, fa...
„We shape our buildings and afterwards, our buildings shape us,” is a quote by W. Churchill that illustrates the importance of the person – environment – well being relationship. Although there is no environmental determinism, our surrounding is an important factor in the way we feel and perform in build spaces. Environmental psychology developed numerous tools for analysing and evaluating these influences. Not all of these findings come to the attention of architects or designers or people i...
Kiebles, Jennifer L; Doerfler, Bethany; Keefer, Laurie
Adjustment to chronic disease is a multidimensional construct described as successful adaptation to disease-specific demands, preservation of psychological well-being, functional status, and quality of life. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) can be particularly challenging due to the unpredictable, relapsing and remitting course of the disease. All participants were patients being treated in an outpatient gastroenterology clinic at a university medical center. Participants completed a survey of questionnaires assessing illness perceptions, stress, emotional functioning, disease acceptance, coping, disease impact, and disease-specific and health-related quality of life. Adjustment was measured as a composite of perceived disability, psychological functioning, and disease-specific and health-related quality of life. Participants were 38 adults with a diagnosis of either Crohn's disease (45%) or ulcerative colitis (55%). We observed that our defined adjustment variables were strongly correlated with disease characteristics (r = 0.33-0.80, all P disease acceptance (r = 0.34-0.74, P adjustment was associated with greater bowel and systemic health, increased activities engagement and symptom tolerance, less pain, less perceived stress, and fewer gastroenterologist visits. All adjustment variables were highly correlated (r = 0.40-0.84, P disease management including cognitive, emotional, and behavioral factors beyond the traditional medical and psychological (depression and anxiety) components.
Abidi, Samina; Vallis, Michael; Piccinini-Vallis, Helena; Imran, Syed Ali; Abidi, Syed Sibte Raza
We present Diabetes Web-Centric Information and Support Environment (D-WISE) that features: (a) Decision support tool to assist family physicians to administer Behavior Modification (BM) strategies to patients; and (b) Patient BM application that offers BM strategies and motivational interventions to engage patients. We take a knowledge management approach, using semantic web technologies, to model the social cognition theory constructs, Canadian diabetes guidelines and BM protocols used locally, in terms of a BM ontology that drives the BM decision support to physicians and BM strategy adherence monitoring and messaging to patients. We present the qualitative analysis of D-WISE usability by both physicians and patients.
Ma, Gloria Y K; Mak, Winnie W S
The present study tested a model on the relationship between functional status of children with physical disability, caregiving-specific worry, affiliate stigma, and psychological distress among their caregivers. One hundred thirty-one caregivers of children with physical disability in Hong Kong completed a self-report questionnaire. Structural equation modeling showed that the final model had good fit to the data: χ2 = 102.05, (df = 83, p = .08), comparative fit index = .98, nonnormed fit index = .98, standardized root mean square residual = .08, root mean square error of approximation = .04. Caregivers whose children had a lower functional status reported more caregiving-specific worry. Affiliate stigma had significant and positive indirect effect on psychological distress through increasing worry. Results also supported the direct and indirect effects of perceived social support in ameliorating worry, affiliate stigma, and psychological distress. Findings suggested that health care and social service providers should consider the functional impairment of each child when designing stress reduction interventions for their caregivers. Findings implicate the importance of establishing barrier-free environment and public facilities in the society. Caregivers are encouraged to distinguish those worries that are actionable and convert them into problem solving plans and to actively engage in peer support and social activities to reduce their affiliate stigma. To truly promote inclusion and well-being of individuals with disability and their caregivers, the scope and targets of social services and stigma reduction programs by the government should include not only the persons with disabilities, but also their caregivers and family members who play essential roles in the rehabilitation journey. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
FRA Task Order 314 upgraded the Positive Train Control (PTC) Test Bed at the Transportation Technology Center to support : testing of PTC systems, components, and related equipment associated with the Advanced Civil Speed Enforcement System : (ACSES)...
Greenberger, Chaya; Mor, Pnina
.... It specifically addresses the permissibility of traveling in a motorized vehicle, generally prohibited on the Sabbath, to be with one's relative in hospital for the provision of emotional support...
Or-Bach, R.; Bredeweg, B.
Science educators strongly advocate the importance of scientific modeling within science education. Although widely advocated for students, modeling is a complex task involving integration of topics, "languages" and abstraction levels. Thus support for the modeling task and for developing modeling
Schechter, Matthew Adam; Ganapathi, Asvin M; Englum, Brian R; Speicher, Paul J; Daneshmand, Mani A; Davis, R Duane; Hartwig, Matthew G
Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is being increasingly used as a bridge to lung transplantation. Small, single-institution series have described increased success using ECMO in spontaneously breathing patients compared with patients on ECMO with mechanical ventilation, but this strategy has not been evaluated on a large scale. Using the United Network for Organ Sharing database, all adult patients undergoing isolated lung transplantation from May 2005 through September 2013 were identified. Patients were categorized by their type of pretransplant support: no support, ECMO only, invasive mechanical ventilation (iMV) only, and ECMO + iMV. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis with log-rank testing was performed to compare survival based on type of preoperative support. A Cox regression model was used to determine whether type of preoperative support was independently associated with survival, using previously established predictors of survival as covariates. Approximately 12,403 primary adult pulmonary transplantations were included in this analysis. Sixty-five patients (0.52%) were on ECMO only, 612 (4.93%) required only iMV, 119 (0.96%) were on ECMO + iMV, and the remaining 11,607 (94.6%) required no invasive support before transplantation. One-year survival was decreased in all patients requiring support, regardless of type. However, mid-term survival was similar between patients on ECMO alone and those not on support but significantly worse with patients requiring iMV only or ECMO + iMV. In multivariable analysis, ECMO + iMV and iMV alone were independently associated with decreased survival compared with nonsupport patients, whereas ECMO alone was not significant. In patients with worsening pulmonary disease awaiting lung transplantation, those supported via ECMO with spontaneous breathing demonstrated improved survival compared with other bridging strategies.
Employers' duties of care under both common and statute law include the need to take reasonable care of the health and safety of the workforce. This includes both the moral and legal duties to consider the psychological needs of personnel following exposure to traumatic events related to the workplace. While this has been recognized within many high-risk occupations such the police, fire and rescue services and the military, there is also evidence that post-trauma support in the workplace is increasingly commonly provided not only among health and social services agencies, but within many private sector organizations. Over the past decade, however, there has been considerable controversy over the provision of early psychological support to personnel in the form of critical incident stress management (CISM) processes. In particular, one aspect of CISM, the use of psychological debriefing (PD) has come under scrutiny and criticism as two studies indicated that PD was ineffective and had the potential to do harm. Inevitably, this has provoked much uncertainty and confusion among some organizations as what should be the most appropriate support. It has also led to misconceptions and misunderstandings as to the aims and purpose of PD, together with inaccuracies of terminology, for example describing PD as 'counselling'. Despite the controversy, both CISM and PD continue to be provided on a widespread basis, often utilizing a framework of voluntary peer group support. This paper intends to (i) present a review of the current status of CISM practices, including the use of PD within various organizations in the UK and (ii) provide a clear framework and understanding of the main issues and to clarify conceptual misunderstandings. The history, principles and background of the use of post-trauma support in the workplace, charting trends over the past two decades, previous research, problems with the evidence base and current thinking and practice in the field are reviewed
Lukowski, Angela F; Phung, Janice N; Milojevich, Helen M
Adult-provided supportive language facilitates memory for the past in preverbal and verbal children. Work conducted with 18-month-olds indicates that children benefit from supportive adult language when tested after a 4-week delay but not when tested immediately after sequence demonstration; moreover, findings reveal that supportive language provided only at test may be more facilitative of recall after a delay relative to supportive language provided only at encoding. In the present study, we examined whether child language comprehension abilities moderated the extent to which preverbal children benefitted from supportive language provided at encoding and test. The findings indicated that child language comprehension and supportive language provided at encoding were unassociated with performance at baseline or immediate imitation; however, the moderating effect of child language comprehension on adult-provided supportive language at encoding and test was observed after a 1-week delay. Correlations revealed continuous associations between general comprehension scores and recall performance after the 1-week delay on sequences presented in the most supportive condition at encoding. Taken together, the presented findings reveal that the complex interplay between language and cognition is established in early childhood, with foundational relations emerging before children are capable of verbally reporting on the past.
Goldberg, Abbie E.; Smith, JuliAnna Z.
This study examines predictors of social support and mental health among 36 lesbian and 39 heterosexual couples who were waiting to adopt. Lesbian preadoptive partners perceived less support from family than heterosexual partners but similar levels of support from friends. Lesbian and heterosexual partners reported similar levels of well-being.…
Gregory, Alison; Feder, Gene; Taket, Ann; Williamson, Emma
Domestic violence (DV) is hazardous to survivors' health, from injuries sustained and from resultant chronic physical and mental health problems. Support from friends and relatives is significant in the lives of DV survivors; research shows associations between positive support and the health, well-being and safety of survivors. Little is known about how people close to survivors are impacted. The aim of this study was exploratory, with the following research question: what are the health and well-being impacts on adults who provide informal support to female DV survivors? A qualitative study using semistructured interviews conducted face to face, by telephone or using Skype. A thematic analysis of the narratives was carried out. Community-based, across the UK. People were eligible to take part if they had had a close relationship (either as friend, colleague or family member) with a woman who had experienced DV, and were aged 16 or over during the time they knew the survivor. Participants were recruited via posters in community venues, social media and radio advertisement. 23 participants were recruited and interviewed; the majority were women, most were white and ages ranged from mid-20s to 80. Generated themes included: negative impacts on psychological and emotional well-being of informal supporters, and related physical health impacts. Some psychological impacts were over a limited period; others were chronic and had the potential to be severe and enduring. The impacts described suggested that those providing informal support to survivors may be experiencing secondary traumatic stress as they journey alongside the survivor. Friends and relatives of DV survivors experience substantial impact on their own health and well-being. There are no direct services to support this group. These findings have practical and policy implications, so that the needs of informal supporters are legitimised and met. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to
France. E-mail: email@example.com Capt Psy José Puente Inspección General de Sanidad-Unidad de Psicologia [Joint Medical Office-Unit of...subgroup was to design a survey to be carried out by individual member nations to gather the opinions/attitudes of operational leaders with some...order to cope with any psychological or stress-related problems that might occur during the operation/mission? At least one individual from every
Linton, John C
Psychologists have made important contributions in academic health centers (AHC), but the reputation of psychology as a discipline has been mixed, by turns viewed as a superfluous soft science, or seen as an important contributor to the AHC mission. AHCs currently face exceptional challenges to the viability of AHCs, including: planned alterations from fee-for-service to value-based funding that requires high quality at lower cost; and rising demands to demonstrate competence in trainees. Now more than ever, psychologists can and must help AHCs to meet these challenges.
Hodge, Lauren M; Turner, Karen M T; Sanders, Matthew R; Forster, Michell
This paper evaluates program, workplace and process factors associated with implementation and sustainment of an evidence-based parenting support program (EBP) in disadvantaged communities. Correlation analyses and binary logistic regressions were used to assess the associations between key implementation support factors and program implementation (at 18 months) and sustainment (at 36 months) post training with (N=35) Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander family support providers using the Triple P - Positive Parenting Program in Indigenous child protection agencies. This study demonstrated that for implementation at 18 months, there was a trend for implementing providers to report higher levels of partnership support, perceived program benefit, workplace support and workplace cohesion. However, the only significant relationship was with partnership support (r=.31 pprogram implementation. For sustained implementation at 36 months, no relationship was found between sustainment and program characteristics, workplace characteristics, supervision and peer support or sustainability planning. Supportive coaching was the only significant correlate (r=0.46, pp=0.009] in the program sustainment model. Overall, these findings suggest the need for further exploration of program and workplace variables and provide evidence to consider incorporating partnership support and supportive coaching in real world implementation models to improve the likelihood of EBP implementation and sustainment in Indigenous communities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Winning, Adrien M; Merandi, Jenna M; Lewe, Dorcas; Stepney, Lois M C; Liao, Nancy N; Fortney, Christine A; Gerhardt, Cynthia A
To examine the impact of errors or adverse events on emotional distress and professional quality of life in healthcare providers in the neonatal intensive care unit, and the moderating role of coworker support. Errors or adverse events can result in negative outcomes for healthcare providers. However, the role of coworker support in improving emotional and professional outcomes has not been examined. A cross-sectional online survey from a quality improvement initiative to train peer supporters in a neonatal intensive care unit. During 2015, 463 healthcare providers in a neonatal intensive care unit completed a survey assessing their experiences with an error or adverse event, anxiety, depression, professional quality of life and coworker support. Compared with those who did not experience an error or adverse event (58%), healthcare providers who observed (23%) or were involved (19%) in an incident reported higher levels of anxiety and secondary traumatic stress. Those who were involved in an event reported higher levels of depression and burnout. Differences between the three groups (no event, observation and involvement) for compassion satisfaction were non-significant. Perceived coworker support moderated the association between experiencing an event and both anxiety and depression. Specifically, experiencing an event was associated with higher levels of anxiety and depression when coworkers were perceived as low in supportiveness, but not when they were viewed as highly supportive. Findings suggest that errors or adverse events can have a harmful impact on healthcare providers and that coworker support may reduce emotional distress. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Green, Gina; Osborne, J. Grayson
Examines the theories of Aronfreed, Bandura, Berger, and Hygge. Also reviews experimental evidence published since 1962 which supports theories of observational learning of emotional behavior. While the theories posit that different conditions are necessary to vicarious instigation, most research does not test the theories in any direct way.…
Dias, F. G.; Luo, Y.; Mohanpurkar, M.; Hovsapian, R.; Scoffield, D.
Since the modern-day introduction of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs), scientists have proposed leveraging PEV battery packs as distributed energy resources for the electric grid. PEV charging can be controlled not only to provide energy for transportation but also to provide grid services and to facilitate the integration of renewable energy generation. With renewable generation increasing at an unprecedented rate, most of which is non-dispatchable and intermittent, the concept of using PEVs as controllable loads is appealing to electric utilities. This additional functionality could also provide value to PEV owners and drive PEV adoption. It has been widely proposed that PEVs can provide valuable grid services, such as load shifting to provide voltage regulation. The objective this work is to address the degree to which PEVs can provide grid services and mutually benefit the electric utilities, PEV owners, and auto manufacturers.
Ballesteros, Francisco; Labrador, Francisco J
The aim of this work is to study the sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of patients diagnosed with Panic Disorder with Agoraphobia (PD/Ag), as well as the characteristics of the treatment and its results and cost in a University Psychology Clinic. Fifty patients demanded psychological assistance for PD/Ag; 80% were women, with an average age of 29.22 years (SD = 9.03). Mean number of evaluation sessions was 3.26 (SD = 1.03), and of treatment sessions, 13.39 (SD = 9.237). Of the patients, 83.33% were discharged (that is, questionnaire scores were below the cut-off point indicated by the authors, and no PD/Ag was observed at readministration of the semistructured interview), 5.5% refused treatment, and 11% were dropouts. The average number of treatment sessions of patients who achieved therapeutic success was 15.13 (SD = 8.98). Effect sizes (d) greater than 1 were obtained in all the scales. Changes in all scales were significant (p < .05). The estimated cost of treatment for patients who achieved therapeutic success was 945.12€. The treatment results are at least similar to those of studies of efficacy and effectiveness for PD/Ag. The utility of generalizing treatments developed in research settings to a welfare clinic is discussed.
Full Text Available The study employed a self-determination theory (SDT framework to explore pre-service teachers’ perceptions of their professional training in relation to motivational outcomes. We hypothesized that students’ perceptions of basic psychological need support will be positively associated with their sense of relatedness, competence, and autonomous motivation and negatively associated with controlled motivation. Sense of relatedness, competence, and autonomous motivation were hypothesized to be positively associated with personal accomplishment, engagement, and self-exploration and negatively associated with emotional exhaustion. The study was conducted within a multicultural context, which enabled exploration of the hypotheses among students from two different cultural backgrounds. Based on the universality of SDT, we expected that the general models would be similar for both cultures, although some mean level and correlational paths may be different. The sample (N = 308; mean age 23.4 consisted of Muslim Arab-Bedouin (55.3% and Jewish (44.7% pre-service teachers enrolled in the same teachers’ college in Israel. The participants completed self-report surveys assessing their sense of basic psychological need support, autonomous and controlled motivation, self-accomplishment, engagement, self-exploration, and emotional exhaustion. Multiple-group structural equation modeling revealed that need support contributed positively to autonomous motivation, sense of relatedness, and sense of competence in both cultures. Autonomous motivation contributed positively to sense of self-accomplishment, engagement, and self-exploration. Competence in turn was positively related to engagement and negatively related to emotional exhaustion, and relatedness was associated with engagement only among the Bedouin students, and with self-accomplishment only among the Jewish students. These results indicate that sense of need support is highly important regardless
Brannen, Michelle H.; Milewski, Steven; Mack, Thura
This case study explores services academic libraries provide to students with disabilities and the impact these can have on the success and experience of these students. The study focuses on staff training and outreach programming. The authors examine the academic library literature surrounding these topics, provide examples of programming…
Lynch, Meghan; Batal, Malek
Recent research has revealed child care settings and providers to be important influences on children's developing behaviors. Yet most research on children's nutritional development has focused on home settings and parents. Thus, through semistructured interviews with child care providers, this study aimed to develop a better understanding of the…
Read, Kevin; LaPolla, Fred Willie Zametkin
REDCap, an electronic data capture tool, supports good research data management, but many researchers lack familiarity with the tool. While a REDCap administrator provided technical support and a clinical data management support unit provided study design support, a service gap existed. Librarians with REDCap expertise sought to increase and improve usage through outreach, workshops, and consultations. In collaboration with a REDCap administrator and the director of the clinical data management support unit, the role of the library was established in providing REDCap training and consultations. REDCap trainings were offered to the medical center during the library's quarterly data series, which served as a springboard for offering tailored REDCap support to researchers and research groups. Providing REDCap support has proved to be an effective way to associate the library with data-related activities in an academic medical center and identify new opportunities for offering data services in the library. By offering REDCap services, the library established strong partnerships with the Information Technology Department, Clinical Data Support Department, and Compliance Office by filling in training gaps, while simultaneously referring users back to these departments when additional expertise was required. These new partnerships continue to grow and serve to position the library as a central data hub in the institution.
Barker, Gerry J.; Epstein, Joel B.; Williams, Karen B.; Gorsky, Meir; Raber-Durlacher, Judith E.
The Oral Care Study Section of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer (MASCC) and the International Society for Oral Oncology (ISOO) conducted a survey on clinical practices of oral/dental management of cancer patients among supportive health care providers. The main purpose was
The Relationship between Environmental Turbulence, Management Support, Organizational Collaboration, Information Technology Solution Realization, and Process Performance, in Healthcare Provider Organizations
Muglia, Victor O.
The Problem: The purpose of this study was to investigate relationships between environmental turbulence, management support, organizational collaboration, information technology solution realization, and process performance in healthcare provider organizations. Method: A descriptive/correlational study of Hospital medical services process…
Volunteer organizations can potentially partner with mainstream professional services to provide better parenting support to immigrant parents. This qualitative study of cooperation between professional agencies and volunteer organizations known as migrant volunteer and community organizations
-based solutions. The restricted ability of the organizations to have desired alignment of tools with software engineering and development processes results in administrative and managerial overhead that incur increased development cost and poor product quality. Moreover, stakeholders involved in the projects have......Global Software Development (GSD) teams encounter challenges that are associated with distribution of software development activities across multiple geographic regions. The limited support for performing collaborative development and engineering activities and lack of sufficient support...... specific constraints regarding availability and deployments of the tools. The artifacts and data produced or consumed by the tools need to be governed according to the constraints and corresponding quality of service (QoS) parameters. In this paper, we present the research agenda to leverage cloud...
Allicock, Marlyn; Haynes-Maslow, Lindsey; Carr, Carol; Orr, Melinda; Kahwati, Leila C; Weiner, Bryan J.; Kinsinger, Linda
Introduction The Veterans Health Administration (VHA) has implemented MOVE!, a weight-management program for veterans designed to address the increasing proportion of overweight and obese veterans. The objective of our study was to determine whether peer support employing motivational interviewing (MI) could positively influence lifestyle changes, thus expanding the reach of the MOVE! program. We describe the initial evaluation of the peer training program. Methods We developed an MI peer cou...
Full Text Available Martin Dahinden’s article on “Democracy Promotion at the local level: Experiences, Perspectives and Policy of Swiss International Cooperation” comes at the right time. Democracy promotion is not a new topic on the agenda of the international (European community. Since the democratisation wave of the early 1990s that swept across the developing world, a wide range of donor-supported programmes, mobilising substantial funds, have sought to build institutions and nurture democratic values in hu...
Archard, P J; Murphy, D
Homeless persons are known to be highly vulnerable to psychological trauma, in events triggering periods of homelessness and the considerable social isolation and adversity suffered when homeless. This study provides an account of how mental health support work is experienced by homeless service users when it is informed by a person-centred, non-directive approach and implemented by trainee health and social care professionals under the auspices of a specialized psychological trauma service. The study draws upon material gathered from interviews with service users domiciled in supported housing for homeless persons and support workers who practiced on the programme. The service users who participated in the study valued support work that combined practical and relational elements, but would have preferred a longer-term involvement. They also spoke of feelings of disconnection and estrangement from others including their peers in supported housing. The support worker participants valued the flexibility they had when working on the programme to tailor their intervention to service users' individual needs. Practice implications of the study are discussed. These include the need to minimize barriers to accessing support, facilitate informal time between professionals and homeless service users, and manage intervention endings sensitively when temporary staffing arrangements are in place. Homeless people are a population known to be highly vulnerable to trauma, in triggering events to becoming homeless and the considerable social isolation, discrimination, and adversity suffered when homeless. Currently, there is a paucity of research into mental health service delivery to homeless persons and the influence it imparts in individual lives. This article presents a qualitative 'practice research' study into a pilot programme of social support work delivered in a specialized psychological trauma service to homeless service users. The programme was grounded in a non
Goins, R Turner; Noonan, Carolyn; Gonzales, Kelly; Winchester, Blythe; Bradley, Vickie L
Among older American Indian women with type 2 diabetes (T2DM), we examined the association between mental health and T2DM control and if social support modifies the association. Survey data were linked to T2DM medical record information. Mental health measures were the Center for Epidemiologic Studies - Depression Scale and the National Anxiety Disorders Screening Day instrument. T2DM control was all HbA1c values taken post mental health measures. There was not a significant association between depressive symptomatology and higher HbA1c although increased depressive symptomatology was associated with higher HbA1c values among participants with low social support. There was a significant association between psychological trauma and higher HbA1c values 12months [mean 7.5, 95% CI 7.0-8.0 for no trauma vs. mean 7.0, 95% CI 6.3-7.6 for trauma with no symptoms vs. mean 8.4, 95% CI 7.7-9.1 for trauma with ≥1 symptom(s)] and 6months later [mean 7.2, 95% CI 6.7-7.7 for no trauma vs. mean HbA1c 6.8, 95% CI 6.2-7.4 for trauma with no symptoms vs. mean 8.4, 95% CI 7.6-9.2 for trauma with ≥1 symptom(s)]. High social support attenuated the association between psychological trauma and HbA1c values. T2DM programs may consider activities that would strengthen participants' social support and thereby building on an intrinsic community strength. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hoad-Reddick, Gillian; Theaker, Elizabeth
The introduction of problem-based learning (PBL) into any programme demands a period of adjustment on the part of faculty. Similarly, students new to PBL take time to adapt to what is, for the majority of them, an unfamiliar mode of learning. At Manchester, closed loop PBL is used throughout the first and second years of the dental programme; the method is interdisciplinary; there are no subject boundaries. Dental students work in groups of between 10 and 15, facilitated by a tutor from the Department of Biological Sciences, to research topics and share information in a mutually supportive environment. Each week a different problem forms the focus for learning. In this paper, we seek to describe the measures introduced in response to student feedback collected via routine meetings with the senior tutor, after meetings with their academic or personal tutors and through discussion at the staff students' committee, which we at Manchester have taken to facilitate the process of adaptation to PBL. Changes have been made in the areas of recruitment, pre-admission interviewing, induction (development of an induction booklet and communication skills module) and tutorial support (overhaul of personal tutor system and introduction of peer-assisted study (PAS) and personal and academic development programmes (PADPs)). Feedback on these changes, gathered via the routes described above, has been positive and continues to be central to our processes of development in these areas. Although the various ways in which PBL has been implemented worldwide may place limits on the transferability of our methods, this paper serves to illustrate some of the means available to support students in the transition to self-directed learning. The latter is not only an essential component of PBL but also something we should be seeking to foster in all students, no matter what philosophy and method of course delivery are utilized.
Heusinkveld, J; Geissbuhler, A; Sheshelidze, D; Miller, R
The authors have developed a simple method for specifying rules to be applied to information on HTML forms. This approach allows clinical experts, who lack the programming expertise needed to write CGI scripts, to construct and maintain domain-specific knowledge and ordering capabilities within WizOrder, the order-entry and decision support system used at Vanderbilt Hospital. The clinical knowledge base maintainers use HTML editors to create forms and spreadsheet programs for rule entry. A test environment has been developed which uses Netscape to display forms; the production environment displays forms using an embedded browser.
Michael Schuckers; Mary B. O'Neill; Grace Coulombe
The purpose of this editorial is to introduce the quantitative literacy community to the newly published A Handbook for Directors of Quantitative and Mathematics Centers. QMaSCs (pronounced “Q-masks”) can be broadly defined as centers that have supporting students in quantitative fields of study as part of their mission. Some focus only on calculus or mathematics; others concentrate on numeracy or quantitative literacy, and some do all of that. A QMaSC may be embedded in a mathematics departm...
Hill, T. M.; Beane, R. J.; Macdonald, H.; Manduca, C. A.; Tewksbury, B. J.; Allen-King, R. M.; Yuretich, R.; Richardson, R. M.; Ormand, C. J.
A vital strategy to educate future geoscientists is to support faculty at the beginning of their careers, thus catalyzing a career-long impact on the early-career faculty and on their future students. New faculty members are at a pivotal stage in their careers as they step from being research-focused graduate students and post-doctoral scholars, under the guidance of advisors, towards launching independent careers as professors. New faculty commonly, and not unexpectedly, feel overwhelmed as they face challenges to establish themselves in a new environment, prepare new courses, begin new research, and develop a network of support. The workshop for Early Career Geoscience Faculty: Teaching, Research, and Managing Your Career has been offered annually in the U.S. since 1999. The workshop is currently offered through the National Association of Geoscience Teachers On the Cutting Edge professional development program with support from the NSF, AGU and GSA. This five-day workshop, with associated web resources, offers guidance for incorporating evidence-based teaching practices, developing a research program, and managing professional responsibilities in balance with personal lives. The workshop design includes plenary and concurrent sessions, individual consultations, and personalized feedback from workshop participants and leaders. Since 1999, more than 850 U.S. faculty have attended the Early Career Geoscience Faculty workshop. Participants span a wide range of geoscience disciplines, and are in faculty positions at two-year colleges, four-year colleges, comprehensive universities and research universities. The percentages of women (~50%) and underrepresented participants (~8%) are higher than in the general geoscience faculty population. Multiple participants each year are starting positions after receiving all or part of their education outside the U.S. Collectively, participants report that they are better prepared to move forward with their careers as a result of
Full Text Available DESCRIPTION The book introduces the undergraduate psychology student to both academic and professional aspects of Sport and Exercise Psychology. It uses up to date research evidence, established theory and a variety of activities that help the student consider and understand academic and professional aspects of this particular academic discipline. PURPOSE The book aims to provide the undergraduate psychology student with a structured introduction to the subject area and an insight into the theoretical evidence and practical suggestions that underpin what a Sport and Exercise psychologist does. The book also aims to support one term or one semester courses in Sport and Exercise Psychology. It is also appropriate for Masters level courses. FEATURES The book begins with a chapter on applied sports psychology to give the reader an insight into the domain of sport psychology, providing an overview of the techniques that could be used. The next three chapters focus on mood, anxiety and self confidence, which influence performance. This leads on to four chapters that focus on managing psychological states. There is also a chapter on leadership which interestingly includes leadership development in coaches and in athletes. Two chapters focus on the effects of exercise on psychological states, providing a balance between the benefits and potential drawbacks. The final chapter examines the issue of placebo effects. Throughout each chapter there are useful activities than can help the reader's understanding of practical and theoretical issues. These also have practical implications for the work of a Sport and Exercise Psychologist. Key ethical issues are raised on a regular basis throughout the text. The book offers an excellent blend of theory and practical suggestions which are critically discussed thus giving valuable insights regarding the research process and applied practice which is often lacking in the more well known standard textbooks for Sport
Roscigno, Cecelia I.
Objective A child’s severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) creates a family crisis requiring extensive cultural, informational, psychological, and environmental support. Nurses need to understand parents’ expectations of caring in early acute care so they can tailor their attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors appropriately to accommodate the family’s needs. Methods In a previous qualitative study of 42 parents or caregivers from 37 families of children with moderate to severe TBI, parents of children with severe TBI (n = 25) described their appraisals of nurse caring and uncaring behaviors in early acute care. Swanson’s theory of caring was used to categorize parents’ descriptions in order to inform nursing early acute care practices and family-centered care. Results Caring nurse encounters included: (a) involving parents in the care of their child and reflecting on all socio-cultural factors shaping family resources and responses (knowing); (b) respecting that family grief can be co-mingled with resilience, and that parents are typically competent to be involved in decision-making (maintaining belief); (d) actively listening and engaging parents in order to fully understand family values and needs (being with); (e) decreasing parents’ workload to get information, emotional support, and providing a safe cultural, psychological, and physical environment for the family (doing for), and; (f) providing anticipatory guidance to navigate the early acute care system and giving assistance to learn and adjust to their situation (enabling). Conclusion Application of Swanson’s caring theory is prescriptive in helping individual nurses and early acute care systems to meet important family needs following children’s severe TBI. PMID:26871242
Åslund, Cecilia; Larm, Peter; Starrin, Bengt; Nilsson, Kent W
Financial stress is an important source of distress and is related to poor mental and physical health outcomes. The present study investigated whether tangible social support could buffer the effect of financial stress on psychological and psychosomatic health. Two separate postal surveys were sent to random samples in five counties in Sweden in 2004 and 2008, with a total of 84 263 respondents. The questionnaires included questions about financial stress, tangible social support, psychosomatic symptoms, and psychological well-being (General Health Questionnaire-12). Individuals with high financial stress and low tangible social support had six to seven times increased odds ratios for low psychological well-being and many psychosomatic symptoms. By contrast, individuals with high financial stress and high tangible social support had only two to three times increased odds ratios for low psychological well-being and three to four times increased odds ratios for many psychosomatic symptoms, suggesting a buffering effect of tangible social support. Consistent with the buffering hypothesis, there were significant interactions between financial stress and social support, particularly in relation to low psychological well-being. Social support had its strongest effect at high levels of financial stress. The question whether the altering of our social networks may improve physical health is important for the prevention of ill health in people experiencing financial stress. Strengthening social networks may have the potential to influence health-care costs and improve quality of life.
Taylor, Ian M; Lonsdale, Chris
Using basic psychological needs theory (BPNT; Ryan & Deci, 2000) as our guiding framework, we explored cultural differences in the relationships among physical education students' perceptions of teacher autonomy support, psychological need satisfaction, subjective vitality and effort in class. Seven hundred and fifteen students (age range from 13 to 15 years) from the U.K. and Hong Kong, China, completed a multisection inventory during a timetabled physical education class. Multilevel analyses revealed that the relationships among autonomy support, subjective vitality and effort were mediated by students' perceptions of psychological need satisfaction. The relationship between autonomy support and perceptions of competence was stronger in the Chinese sample, compared with the U.K. sample. In addition, the relationship between perceptions of relatedness and effort was not significant in the Chinese students. The findings generally support the pan-cultural utility of BPNT and imply that a teacher-created autonomy supportive environment may promote positive student experiences in both cultures.
Dickey, Lore M; Singh, Anneliese A
This article explores some of the challenges faced by trans and gender diverse (TGD) individuals who not only are attempting to access trans-affirmative care, but who are also members of the very profession from which they are seeking services. The authors explore challenges related to finding supervision, accessing care for assessment services, and finding a provider for personal counseling. With each example, the authors unpack the challenges and also address the implications for training for all involved. Based on these challenges that TGD psychologists and trainees face in attempting to access care, the authors provide recommendations related to trans-affirmative training for psychologists. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Shane M O‘Mara
Full Text Available The anterior thalamic nuclei, a central component of Papez’ circuit, are generally assumed to be key constituents of the neural circuits responsible for certain categories of learning and memory. Supporting evidence for this contention is that damage to either of two brain regions, the medial temporal lobe and the medial diencephalon, is most consistently associated with anterograde amnesia. Within these respective regions, the hippocampal formation and the anterior thalamic nuclei (anteromedial, anteroventral, anterodorsal are the particular structures of interest. The extensive direct and indirect hippocampal-anterior thalamic interconnections and the presence of theta-modulated cells in both sites further support the hypothesis that these structures constitute a neuronal network crucial for memory and cognition. The major tool in understanding how the brain processes information is the analysis of neuronal output at each hierarchical level along the pathway of signal propagation coupled with neuroanatomical studies. Here, we discuss the electrophysiological properties of cells in the anterior thalamic nuclei with an emphasis on their role in spatial navigation. In addition, we describe neuroanatomical and functional relationships between the anterior thalamic nuclei and hippocampal formation.
Bernabé, Miguel; Botia, José Manuel
This study's objective is to examine the relationship between emotional demands and emotional social support at work, and the impact of resilience on health. A cross-sectional study of 156 firefighters was conducted. Descriptive analyses of the study's variables were performed, along with structural equation analysis and hierarchical regression analysis. The results suggest statistically significant relationships among the study's variables. Social support from one's boss and intense emotional demands were found to have an interaction effect on firefighters' resilience. The findings confirm the mediating role of resilience and the relationship with emotional social support from the boss on firefighters' occupational health. © The Author(s) 2015.
Adel F. Almutairi
Full Text Available In Western forms of health care delivery around the globe, research tells us that nurses experience excessive workloads as they face increasingly complex needs in the populations they serve, professional conflicts, and alienation from leadership in health care bureaucracies. These problems are practical and ethical as well as cultural. Cultural conflicts can arise when health care providers and the populations they serve come from diverse economic, ethnic, and cultural backgrounds. The purpose in this paper is to draw from Almutairiâs research with health care teams in Saudi Arabia to show the complexity of culturally and morally laden interactions between health care providers and patients and their families. Then, I will argue for interventions that promote social justice and cultural safety for nurses, other health care providers, and the individuals, families, and communities they serve. This will include addressing international implications for nursing practice, leadership, policy and research. Keywords: Moral climate, Social justice, Equity, Cultural diversity
Weaver, Ruth Harding
Examined the personal characteristics and resources in 65 licensed family child care providers' lives that influence developmentally enhancing caregiving and professional commitment. Unique predictors to higher quality of care were higher levels of formal education and training, college coursework in early childhood education, higher psychological…
Nolan, Kevin J., Jr.
As one of the premier pediatric hospitals in the United States, Boston Children's Hospital serves a wide range of children and provides top quality medical care, including a program for deaf and hard of hearing children that extends services beyond the medical scope. Within this program is a unique and particularly critical position--that of…
This article discusses the issue of social enterprises gaining access to public procurement processes and contracts at the EU and national level. It primarily examines the opportunities for social enterprises to access public procurement contracts provided for in the Public Procurement Directive
repair, production, transportation, etc.) must provide customers with what they need when they need it. It must also minimize the cost to the customer . What...repair, produce or purchase things based on forecasted demands. However, in order to minimize the cost to the customer , the logistics system must repair
McGee, John J.; Lin, Fan-Yu
Many factors cause student disengagement from school that subsequently result in high dropout rates. Alternative education (AE) programs provide a different pathway for at-risk youths who do not meet the goals, standards, and requirements of traditional educational settings. However, educational agencies have vastly different interpretations…
Morris, Laura; Cronk, Nikole J; Washington, Karla T
Parenting during family medicine residency is increasingly common. Relatively little is known about how the competing demands of work and family life affect residents. We conducted an exploratory qualitative study of parenting family medicine residents at one program in the Midwest utilizing focus groups to understand residents' perceptions of the positive and negative characteristics of their roles as physicians and parents. We used consensus coding to identify themes in the data and then developed a model to illustrate the relationships among the identified themes. Competing demands on their time require parenting family medicine residents to often make difficult choices, which result in both positive and negative outcomes for residents, their families, and their residency experience. Parenting family medicine residents experience numerous conflicts in their concurrent roles of learner, physician, and parent. Parenting-friendly residency training programs would likely offer valuable support for these individuals during this stressful life period.
Fettig, Angel; Barton, Erin E.; Carter, Alice S.; Eisenhower, Abbey S.
This study examined the effects of e-coaching on the implementation of a functional assessment-based intervention delivered by an early intervention provider in reducing challenging behaviors during home visits. A multiple baseline design across behavior support plan components was used with a provider-child dyad. The e-coaching intervention…
Wan, Y H; Ma, S S; Xu, S J; Zhang, S C; Hao, J H; Tao, F B
Objective: To explore the relationship between adverse experience in childhood, social support, and physical and psychological sub-health status among middle school students in 3 cities in China. Methods: 15 278 adolescents were selected as subjects from 20 junior and senior middle schools located in 3 cities of China by stratified cluster sampling method. The survey collected the demographic information, ACEs, social support and physical-psychological status. A total of 14 820 valid questionnaires were retained for analysis. We assessed ACE score (count of six categories of childhood adversity), social support (adolescent social support questionnaire), and the prevalence of two outcomes: physiological and psychological sub-health status. Logistic regression was used to analyze the relationship between adverse childhood experiences, social support, and physiological and psychological sub-health status. Results: The prevalence of physiological and psychological sub-health status were 26.4% (3 917/14 820) and 24.1%(3 572/14 820), respectively. A total of 89.4% (13 247/14 820) reported at least 1 adverse childhood experiences. The rates of physiological and psychological sub-health status were higher among girls (28.1%(2 092/7 443), 26.0%(1 932/7 443)) than boys (24.7%(1 825/7 377), 22.2%(1 640/7 377)). Among adolescents without ACEs, the rate of physiological and psychological sub-health status were 15.4%(243/1 573) and 10.4%(163/1 573), for those with 5-6 ACEs, the rate were 40.9%(636/1 556) and 43.6%(678/1 556). Among adolescents with higher social support, the rate of physiological and psychological sub-health status were 19.9%(724/3 635) and 13.0%(474/3 635) for those with lower social support, the rate of physiological and psychological sub-health status were 35.9%(1 403/3 913) and 39.0%(1 528/3 913). The rates of physiological and psychological sub-health status were higher with more ACE exposure or less social support. At each level of ACE exposure
Pagán-Ortiz, Marta E.; Dharma E. Cortés; Rudloff, Noelle; Weitzman, Patricia; Levkoff, Sue
One challenge faced by many family members caring for persons with dementia is lack of information about how to take care of others and themselves. This is especially important for persons from ethnic minority groups, since linguistically and culturally appropriate information is often not available. In response to these needs, we developed a website for Spanish-speaking caregivers. Cuidatecuidador.com provides bilingual information on dementia and caregiver issues. Content was developed and ...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis who are considering spinal surgery face a major decision that requires access to in-depth information and support. Unfortunately, most online resources provide incomplete and inconsistent information and minimal social support. The aim of this study was to develop an online information and support resource for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS patients considering spinal surgery. Prior to website development, a user-based needs assessment was conducted. The needs assessment involved a total of six focus groups with three stakeholder groups: (1 post-operative AIS patients or surgical candidates (10-18 years (n = 11, (2 their parents (n = 6 and (3 health care providers (n = 11. This paper reports on the findings from focus groups with health care providers. Methods Focus group methodology was used to invite a range of perspectives and stimulate discussion. During audio-recorded focus groups, an emergent table of website content was presented to participants for assessment of relevance, viability and comprehensiveness in targeting global domains of need. Specifically, effective presentation of content, desired aspects of information and support, and discussions about the value of peer support and the role of health professionals were addressed. Focus group transcripts were then subject to content analysis through a constant comparative review and analysis. Results Two focus groups were held with health care providers, consisting of 5 and 6 members respectively. Clinicians provided their perceptions of the information and support needs of surgical patients and their families and how this information and support should be delivered using internet technology. Health care providers proposed four key suggestions to consider in the development of this online resource: (1 create the website with the target audience in mind; (2 clearly state the purpose of the website and organize website content
Macculloch, Radha; Nyhof-Young, Joyce; Nicholas, David; Donaldson, Sandra; Wright, James G
Adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis who are considering spinal surgery face a major decision that requires access to in-depth information and support. Unfortunately, most online resources provide incomplete and inconsistent information and minimal social support. The aim of this study was to develop an online information and support resource for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) patients considering spinal surgery. Prior to website development, a user-based needs assessment was conducted. The needs assessment involved a total of six focus groups with three stakeholder groups: (1) post-operative AIS patients or surgical candidates (10-18 years) (n = 11), (2) their parents (n = 6) and (3) health care providers (n = 11). This paper reports on the findings from focus groups with health care providers. Focus group methodology was used to invite a range of perspectives and stimulate discussion. During audio-recorded focus groups, an emergent table of website content was presented to participants for assessment of relevance, viability and comprehensiveness in targeting global domains of need. Specifically, effective presentation of content, desired aspects of information and support, and discussions about the value of peer support and the role of health professionals were addressed. Focus group transcripts were then subject to content analysis through a constant comparative review and analysis. Two focus groups were held with health care providers, consisting of 5 and 6 members respectively. Clinicians provided their perceptions of the information and support needs of surgical patients and their families and how this information and support should be delivered using internet technology. Health care providers proposed four key suggestions to consider in the development of this online resource: (1) create the website with the target audience in mind; (2) clearly state the purpose of the website and organize website content to support the user; (3) offer a
Mason, Craig A.; Lombard, Joanna L.; Martinez, Frank; Plater-Zyberk, Elizabeth; Spokane, Arnold R.; Newman, Frederick L.; Pantin, Hilda; Szapocznik, José
Background Research on contextual and neighborhood effects increasingly includes the built (physical) environment's influences on health and social well-being. A population-based study examined whether architectural features of the built environment theorized to promote observations and social interactions (e.g., porches, windows) predict Hispanic elders’ psychological distress. Methods Coding of built environment features of all 3,857 lots across 403 blocks in East Little Havana, Florida, and enumeration of elders in 16,000 households was followed by assessments of perceived social support and psychological distress in a representative sample of 273 low socioeconomic status (SES) Hispanic elders. Structural-equation modeling was used to assess relationships between block-level built environment features, elders’ perceived social support, and psychological distress. Results Architectural features of the front entrance such as porches that promote visibility from a building's exterior were positively associated with perceived social support. In contrast, architectural features such as window areas that promote visibility from a building's interior were negatively associated with perceived social support. Perceived social support in turn was associated with reduced psychological distress after controlling for demographics. Additionally, perceived social support mediated the relationship of built environment variables to psychological distress. Conclusions Architectural features that facilitate direct, in-person interactions may be beneficial for Hispanic elders’ mental health. PMID:19196696
Brown, Scott C; Mason, Craig A; Lombard, Joanna L; Martinez, Frank; Plater-Zyberk, Elizabeth; Spokane, Arnold R; Newman, Frederick L; Pantin, Hilda; Szapocznik, José
Research on contextual and neighborhood effects increasingly includes the built (physical) environment's influences on health and social well-being. A population-based study examined whether architectural features of the built environment theorized to promote observations and social interactions (e.g., porches, windows) predict Hispanic elders' psychological distress. Coding of built environment features of all 3,857 lots across 403 blocks in East Little Havana, Florida, and enumeration of elders in 16,000 households was followed by assessments of perceived social support and psychological distress in a representative sample of 273 low socioeconomic status (SES) Hispanic elders. Structural-equation modeling was used to assess relationships between block-level built environment features, elders' perceived social support, and psychological distress. Architectural features of the front entrance such as porches that promote visibility from a building's exterior were positively associated with perceived social support. In contrast, architectural features such as window areas that promote visibility from a building's interior were negatively associated with perceived social support. Perceived social support in turn was associated with reduced psychological distress after controlling for demographics. Additionally, perceived social support mediated the relationship of built environment variables to psychological distress. Architectural features that facilitate direct, in-person interactions may be beneficial for Hispanic elders' mental health.
Liu, Li; Wen, Fengting; Xu, Xin; Wang, Lie
This study aimed to examine the potential effects of perceived organizational support (POS) and psychological capital (PsyCap) on combating depressive and anxious symptoms among Chinese underground coal miners. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in a coal-mining population in northeast China. The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) Scale, the Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS), the Survey of Perceived Organizational Support (SPOS) scale and the Psychological Capital Questionnaire (PCQ), which measure depressive and anxious symptoms, POS and PsyCap were distributed to 2,500 underground coal miners (1,925 effective respondents). Hierarchical linear regression was performed to examine the associations of POS and PsyCap (self-efficacy, hope, resilience and optimism) with depressive and anxious symptoms and the moderating roles of PsyCap and its components. The mediating roles of PsyCap and its components were examined using asymptotic and resampling strategies. The mean levels of depressive and anxious symptoms were 19.91 and 49.69, respectively. POS, PsyCap, hope, resilience, optimism and POS × PsyCap were negatively associated with depressive symptoms. POS, PsyCap, resilience, POS × PsyCap and POS × resilience were negatively associated with anxious symptoms. PsyCap, hope, resilience and optimism partially mediated the association between POS and depressive symptoms. PsyCap and resilience partially mediated the association between POS and anxious symptoms. POS, PsyCap, hope, resilience and optimism could be effective resources for reducing depressive and anxious symptoms. PsyCap, hope, resilience and optimism act as moderators and mediators in the associations of POS with depressive and anxious symptoms. Managers should promote supportive settings and investment in PsyCap to improve workers' mental health.
Tomcikova, Z; Madarasova Geckova, A; Orosova, O; van Dijk, J P; Reijneveld, S A
The aim of this cross-sectional study was to explore the association between parental divorce and adolescent drunkenness in the last 4 weeks and the contribution of socioeconomic position, family structure, social support from family and well-being to this association. We obtained data on 3,694 elementary school students from several cities in Slovakia (mean age 14.3, 49.0% males; response rate 93%). Respondents completed questionnaires on how often they had been drunk in the last 4 weeks, whether their parents were divorced, their socioeconomic position (education of parents, family affluence), the composition of the household (one or two parents/step-parents), social support from the family and their own well-being. Parental divorce was found to have an effect on adolescent drunkenness in the last 4 weeks, as well as high socioeconomic position, low social support from the family and high depression/anxiety. The effect of divorce on drunkenness decreased only slightly after adding social support into the model. Our findings indicate that parental divorce has a persistent influence on risk behavior independent of the influence of socioeconomic position and well-being. Parental divorce may increase the likelihood of drunkenness more than other factors such as low parental support and poor socioeconomic position. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Riotte, Clare O; Kukora, Stephanie K; Keefer, Patricia M; Firn, Janice I
Despite the number of interprofessional team members caring for children at the end of life, little evidence exists on how institutions can support their staff in providing care in these situations. We sought to evaluate which aspects of the hospital work environment were most helpful for multidisciplinary team members who care for patients at the end of life and identify areas for improvement to better address staff needs. Qualitative thematic analysis was completed of free-text comments from a survey distributed to interprofessional staff members involved in the care of a recently deceased pediatric patient. A total of 2701 surveys were sent; 890 completed. Free-text responses were provided by 306 interprofessional team members. Interprofessional team members involved in the care of a child who died at a 348 bed academic children's hospital in the Midwestern United States. Realist thematic analysis of free-text responses was completed in Dedoose using a deductive and inductive approach with line-by-line coding. Descriptive statistics of demographic information was completed using Excel. Thematic analysis of the 306 free-text responses identified three main support-related themes. Interprofessional team members desire to have (1) support through educational efforts such as workshops, (2) support from colleagues, and (3) support through institutional practices. Providers who participate in end-of-life work benefit from ongoing support through education, interpersonal relationships, and institutional practices. Addressing these areas from an interprofessional perspective enables staff to provide the optimal care for patients, patients' families, and themselves.
Bittermann, Vincent; Deker, Guy; Sassus, Pierre; Mielnik, Jean-Christophe; Jud, Jean-Marie
Decision-aid systems, likely to appear in future aircraft generations, could play a central role in the cockpit thanks to the broad spectrum of functionalities and decision support facilities they will offer to the crew. As part of such systems, the exploratory FINDER mock-up is a knowledge based system (KBS) designed to help crew members continually optimize their flight plan by suggesting solutions considering exhaustive information related to flight context, either on pilot request or upon external information occurrence. The successful evaluation by Air France pilots of that first mock-up dedicated to diversion procedure on pilot request has led to the current development of an enhanced system with nominal enroute operations and real-time capabilities. Nominal enroute operations concern the optimization with respect to an evolutive constraining of favoring environment (due to weather, traffic or regulated areas, and ETOPS constraints). This study paves the way for a future flight assistant system concept which is already under investigation and may take place in SEXTANT Avionique's future development steps.
Håkanson, Cecilia; Sandberg, Jonas; Ekstedt, Mirjam; Kenne Sarenmalm, Elisabeth; Christiansen, Mats; Öhlén, Joakim
Despite high frequencies of multiple, life-limiting conditions relating to palliative care needs, people who are homeless are one of the most underserved and rarely encountered groups in palliative care settings. Instead, they often die in care places where palliative competence is not available. In this qualitative single-case study, we explored the conditions and practices of palliative care from the perspective of staff at a Swedish support home for homeless people. Interpretive description guided the research process, and data were generated from repeated reflective conversations with staff in groups, individually, and in pairs. The findings disclose a person-centered approach to palliative care, grounded in the understanding of the person's health/illness and health literacy, and how this is related to and determinant on life as a homeless individual. Four patterns shape this approach: building trustful and family-like relationships, re-dignifying the person, re-considering communication about illness and dying, and re-defining flexible and pragmatic care solutions. © The Author(s) 2015.
Full Text Available While flood risk is evolving as one of the most imminent natural hazards and the shift from a reactive decision environment to a proactive one sets the basis of the latest thinking in flood management, the need to equip decision makers with necessary tools to think about and intelligently select options and strategies for flood management is becoming ever more pressing. Within this context, the Preparing for Extreme and Rare Events in Coastal Regions (PEARL intelligent knowledge-base (PEARL KB of resilience strategies is presented here as an environment that allows end-users to navigate from their observed problem to a selection of possible options and interventions worth considering within an intuitive visual web interface assisting advanced interactivity. Incorporation of real case studies within the PEARL KB enables the extraction of (evidence-based lessons from all over the word, while the KB’s collection of methods and tools directly supports the optimal selection of suitable interventions. The Knowledge-Base also gives access to the PEARL KB Flood Resilience Index (FRI tool, which is an online tool for resilience assessment at a city level available to authorities and citizens. We argue that the PEARL KB equips authorities with tangible and operational tools that can improve strategic and operational flood risk management by assessing and eventually increasing resilience, while building towards the strengthening of risk governance. The online tools that the PEARL KB gives access to were demonstrated and tested in the city of Rethymno, Greece.
Full Text Available Alessandra N Bazzano,1 Lisa Littrell,1 Amelia Brandt,1 Shelley Thibeau,2 Kamala Thriemer,3 Katherine P Theall1 1Department of Global Community Health and Behavioral Sciences, Tulane University School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, 2Ochsner Health System, New Orleans, LA, USA; 3MLT EpiConsult, Jingili, NT, Australia Background: Exclusive breastfeeding for infants up to 6 months is widely recommended, yet breastfeeding rates are relatively low in the US. The most common reason women stop breastfeeding early is a perceived insufficiency of milk. Galactagogues are herbal and pharmaceutical products that can help increase milk supply; however, data on their efficacy and safety is limited. Lactation consultants, obstetricians, and other health providers are an important point of contact for breastfeeding women experiencing challenges with lactation. This study explored providers’ perceptions, experiences, and practices in relation to galactagogue recommendation. Method: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among a convenience sample of English-speaking health providers in the US who counsel breastfeeding women and their infants. Results: More than 70% of respondents reported to recommend galactagogues. The most frequently recommended galactagogue was fenugreek with respondents indicating that they recommend it either ‘always’ (8.5% or ‘most of the time’ (14.9% and ‘sometimes’ (46.8%. More than 80% of the respondents indicated that galactagogues were useful for their clients and only one-third reported side effects. Reasons for refraining from recommending galactagogues were insufficient evidence of its efficacy and safety. Respondents reported a wide variety of sources of information used for their own education about galactagogues. Discussion: Despite little evidence regarding safety and efficacy, some galactagogues are widely recommended and often perceived to be useful. However, concerns about their efficacy and safety
Pagán-Ortiz, Marta E; Cortés, Dharma E; Rudloff, Noelle; Weitzman, Patricia; Levkoff, Sue
One challenge faced by many family members caring for persons with dementia is lack of information about how to take care of others and themselves. This is especially important for persons from ethnic minority groups, because linguistically and culturally appropriate information is often not available. In response to these needs, we developed a web site for Spanish-speaking caregivers. Cuidatecuidador.com provides bilingual information on dementia and caregiver issues. Content was developed and then evaluated by caregivers residing in 3 countries. Findings suggest trends that exposure to information may be related to a higher sense of mastery and a reduction of depressive symptomatology.
Huber, Sigbert; Baumgarten, Andreas; Birli, Barbara; Englisch, Michael; Tulipan, Monika; Zechmeister-Boltenstern, Sophie
The Austrian Soil Science Society (ASSS), founded in 1954, is a non-profit organisation aiming at furthering all branches of soil science in Austria. The ASSS provides information on the current state of soil research in Austria and abroad. It organizes annual conferences for scientists from soil and related sciences to exchange their recent studies and offers a journal for scientific publications. Annually, ASSS awards the Kubiena Research Prize for excellent scientific studies provided by young scientists. In order to conserve and improve soil science in the field, excursions are organized, also in cooperation with other scientific organisations. Due to well-established contacts with soil scientists and soil science societies in many countries, the ASSS is able to provide its members with information about the most recent developments in the field of soil science. This contributes to a broadening of the current scientific knowledge on soils. The ASSS also co-operates in the organisation of excursions and meetings with neighbouring countries. Several members of the ASSS teach soil science at various Austrian universities. More detail on said conferences, excursions, publications and awards will be given in the presentation. Beside its own scientific journal, published once or twice a year, and special editions such as guidebooks for soil classification, the ASSS runs a website providing information on the Society, its activities, meetings, publications, awards and projects. Together with the Environment Agency Austria the ASSS runs a soil platform on the internet. It is accessible for the public and thus informs society about soil issues. This platform offers a calendar with national and international soil events, contacts of soil related organisations and networks, information on national projects and publications. The society has access to products, information material and information on educational courses. Last but not least information on specific soil
Hallfors, Denise D; Cho, Hyunsan; Iritani, Bonita J; Mapfumo, John; Mpofu, Elias; Luseno, Winnie K; January, James
The paper examines the influence of religion on attitudes, behaviors, and HIV infection among rural adolescent women in Zimbabwe. We analyzed data from a 2007 to 2010 randomized controlled trial in rural eastern Zimbabwe testing whether school support can prevent HIV risk behaviors and related attitudes among rural adolescent orphan girls; supplementary data from the 2006 Zimbabwe Demographic and Health Survey (ZDHS) were also analyzed. The present study design is largely cross-sectional, using the most recent available survey data from the clinical trial to examine the association between religious affiliation and religiosity on school dropout, marriage, and related attitudes, controlling for intervention condition, age and orphan type. The ZDHS data examined the effect of religious denomination on marriage and HIV status among young rural women, controlling for age. Apostolic Church affiliation greatly increased the likelihood of early marriage compared to reference Methodist Church affiliation (odds ratio = 4.5). Greater religiosity independently reduced the likelihood of school dropout, increased gender equity attitudes and disagreement with early sex, and marginally reduced early marriage. Young rural Apostolic women in the ZDHS were nearly four times as likely to marry as teenagers compared to Protestants, and marriage doubled the likelihood of HIV infection. Findings contradict an earlier seminal study that Apostolics are relatively protected from HIV compared to other Christian denominations. Young Apostolic women are at increased risk of HIV infection through early marriage. The Apostolic Church is a large and growing denomination in sub-Saharan Africa and many Apostolic sects discourage medical testing and treatment in favor of faith healing. Since this can increase the risk of undiagnosed HIV infection for young married women and their infants in high prevalence areas, further study is urgently needed to confirm this emerging public health problem
Colom, Roberto; Burgaleta, Miguel; Román, Francisco J; Karama, Sherif; Alvarez-Linera, Juan; Abad, Francisco J; Martínez, Kenia; Quiroga, Ma Ángeles; Haier, Richard J
Evidence from neuroimaging studies suggests that intelligence differences may be supported by a parieto-frontal network. Research shows that this network is also relevant for cognitive functions such as working memory and attention. However, previous studies have not explicitly analyzed the commonality of brain areas between a broad array of intelligence factors and cognitive functions tested in the same sample. Here fluid, crystallized, and spatial intelligence, along with working memory, executive updating, attention, and processing speed were each measured by three diverse tests or tasks. These twenty-one measures were completed by a group of one hundred and four healthy young adults. Three cortical measures (cortical gray matter volume, cortical surface area, and cortical thickness) were regressed against psychological latent scores obtained from a confirmatory factor analysis for removing test and task specific variance. For cortical gray matter volume and cortical surface area, the main overlapping clusters were observed in the middle frontal gyrus and involved fluid intelligence and working memory. Crystallized intelligence showed an overlapping cluster with fluid intelligence and working memory in the middle frontal gyrus. The inferior frontal gyrus showed overlap for crystallized intelligence, spatial intelligence, attention, and processing speed. The fusiform gyrus in temporal cortex showed overlap for spatial intelligence and attention. Parietal and occipital areas did not show any overlap across intelligence and cognitive factors. Taken together, these findings underscore that structural features of gray matter in the frontal lobes support those aspects of intelligence related to basic cognitive processes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Virudhagirinathan, Baboo Sankar; Karunanidhi, Subbiah
This paper provides an overview of the social and cultural context for the emergence and development of psychology in India and also more specifically of the development of clinical psychology. It details the range of universities offering psychology programmes and the various bodies involved in supporting the development of the psychology. The paper also describes the development of clinical psychology in India and the variety of roles undertaken by clinical psychologists. Finally, it raises a number of issues facing the development of Indian psychology into the future.
Pahlevan Sharif, Saeed; Ahadzadeh, Ashraf Sadat; Sharif Nia, Hamid
To examine the relationship between organizational support for nursing practice and nurse-assessed quality of care and nurses' job satisfaction in hospital settings and to investigate the mediating role of psychological well-being in the aforementioned relationships. There has been growing concern about quality of care in healthcare organizations. The past research has documented the effect of nurse practice environment on nurses' quality of care and job satisfaction. However, little is known about the underlying mechanism behind these associations. A cross-sectional survey was undertaken. Data were collected from two large public hospitals in Iran between February - March 2017. A sample of 345 nurses participated in the study. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics and partial least squared-structural equation modelling. The results showed that nurses' perception of organizational support was related to their quality of care, job satisfaction and psychological well-being. Also, there was a positive relationship between nurses' psychological well-being and their quality of care and job satisfaction. Moreover, psychological well-being partially mediated the relationship between organizational support with nurse-assessed quality of care and nurses' job satisfaction. The findings suggest that organizational support for nursing practice and psychological well-being are two factors that contribute to caring behaviour of nurses and their job satisfaction. Also, positively perceived organizational support generates favourable psychological well-being which in turn enhances nurses' quality of care and job satisfaction. The findings highlight the importance of establishing a supportive nurse practice environment and paying attention to the nurses' psychological well-being in healthcare sectors. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
N. V. Mazurova
Full Text Available Study aim: to study the peculiarities of parents' emotional responses to the stress caused by their child’s hospitalization and operation to distinguish risk factors of losing personality potential by family members. Study participants and methods. The empirical study involved 82 parents (15 fathers and 67 mothers and 76 children of preschool, primary school and juvenile age. A package of techniques involving analysis of medical cards, observation, structured conversation, mental stress calculation questionnaire, the “Incomplete sentences” technique, systematization of results and mathematical data treatment methods was defined. Theoretical analysis of the issue of emotional response of parents to stressful situations connected with their child’s congenital malformations and the need in operative intervention was made. Results. It was shown that all members of a family as a single system are subject to stress. The reaction of parents to their child’s operation depends on their personal characteristics, system of beliefs and life attitudes. Conclusions. The emotional condition of parents influences their child’s psychological condition and the efficacy of treatment. Supporting the family psychologically during pre- and post-operative stages allows to reduce the level of emotional discomfort of children and their parents.
Taylor, Ronald D.; Seaton, Eleanor; Dominguez, Antonio
The association of kin social support with mothers' adjustment and family relations was assessed among 204 African American mothers and adolescents who were on average 14.45 years of age. Also examined was the association of mothers' adjustment with family relations and adolescents' adjustment. Findings revealed that kin social and emotional…
Tomcikova, Z.; Geckova, A. Madarasova; Orosova, O.; van Dijk, J. P.; Reijneveld, S. A.
Background: The aim of this cross-sectional study was to explore the association between parental divorce and adolescent drunkenness in the last 4 weeks and the contribution of socioeconomic position, family structure, social support from family and well-being to this association. Methods: We
Full Text Available We discuss the features of development and implementation of programs of social and psychological support of adolescents in domestic and foreign practice. The priority in the field of prevention of social risks among young people is to provide systematic, comprehensive, accurate information about the consequences of substance use, adolescent training in self-care and self-regulation, the use of health-care technology, the formation of stable personal negative attitude to the problem of substance abuse. The effectiveness of preventive anti-drug programs is caused by the identification of the target group (including psychophysiological age characteristics, development of a set of preventive measures based on interagency cooperation with involvement of the minors’ parents (legal representatives.
Kamerlin, Shina C L; Sharma, Pankaz K; Chu, Zhen T; Warshel, Arieh
One of the best systems for exploring the origin of enzyme catalysis has been the reaction of ketosteroid isomerase (KSI). Studies of the binding of phenolates to KSI have been taken as proof that the electrostatic preorganization effect only makes a minor contribution to the binding of the real, multiring, transition state (TS). However, our simulation study has determined that the difference between the phenolates and the TS arises from the fact that the nonpolar state of the phenolate can rotate freely relative to the oxyanion hole and thus loses the preorganization contribution. A recent study explored the reactivity of both small and multiring systems and concluded that their similar reactivity contradicts our preorganization idea. Herein, we establish that the available experiments in fact provide what is perhaps the best proof and clarification of the preorganization idea and its crucial role in enzyme catalysis. First, we analyze the binding energy and the pK(a) of equilenin and identify direct experimental evidence for our prediction about the differential electrostatic stabilization of the large TS and the small phenolates. Subsequently, we show that the similar reactivity of the small and large systems is also due to an electrostatic preorganization effect but that this effect only appears in the intermediate state because the TS is not free to rotate. This establishes the electrostatic origin of enzyme catalysis. We also clarify the crucial importance of having a well-defined physical concept when examining catalytic effects and the need for quantitative tools for analyzing such effects.
Jackson, Chris; Salomaki, Eric D; Lane, Christopher E; Saunders, Gary W
If ever there were "charismatic megaflora" of the sea, the Laminariales (kelp) would undoubtedly meet that designation. From the Northeast Pacific kelp forests to the less diverse, but nonetheless dense, kelp beds ranging from the Arctic to the cold temperate waters of the Southern Hemisphere, kelp provide habitat structure and food for a variety of productive marine systems. Consequently, kelp are well represented in the literature, however, understanding their evolution has proven challenging. We used a 152-gene phylogenomics approach to better resolve the phylogeny of the "derived" kelp families (viz., Agaraceae, Alariaceae, Laminariaceae, and Lessoniaceae). The formerly unresolved Egregia menziesii firmly joined a significantly expanded Arthrothamnaceae including Arthrothamnus, Cymathaere, Ecklonia, Macrocystis, Nereocystis, Pelagophycus, Postelsia, Pseudolessonia, Saccharina, and Streptophyllopsis, which rendered both the Laminariaceae and Lessoniaceae monogeneric. A published eight-gene alignment, the most marker-rich prior to this study, was expanded and analyzed to facilitate inclusion of Aureophycus. Although the topology was unchanged at the family level between the transcriptome data set relative to eight-gene analyses, the superior resolving power of the former was clearly established. © 2016 Phycological Society of America.
Trochim, S; Weidenbach, M; Pieper, S; Wick, C; Berlage, T
Echocardiography requires the integrated application of a broad spectrum of cognitive and practical skills, e.g. diagnostic knowledge (symbolic), image interpretation (visual perception) and handling of the ultrasound probe (sensorimotor). This complex expertise is acquired through extensive practical training guided by a skilled cardiologist that is often incompatible with clinical reality. Especially for beginners, the most critical point during an echocardiographic examination is the steering of the ultrasound probe to navigate between different cardiological standard planes (sensorimotor skill) without loosing orientation. These transitions or "standard trajectories" can roughly be described by specific movement patterns. We propose an enabling system based on an Augmented Reality simulator for two-dimensional echocardiography imitating this apprenticeship -. During a simulated ultrasound examination the system monitors the activities of the trainee and analyzes the motion pattern of the ultrasound probe. The simulator reacts by mapping the motion patterns onto cognitive orientation demands and providing adaptive feedback in the form of context sensitive help (animations). It partly takes the role of the critical teacher.
Sakamoto, Nobuhiro; Takiguchi, Shuji; Komatsu, Hirokazu; Okuyama, Toru; Nakaguchi, Tomohiro; Kubota, Yosuke; Ito, Yoshinori; Sugano, Koji; Wada, Makoto; Akechi, Tatsuo
Although currently many advanced colorectal cancer patients continuously receive chemotherapy, there are very few findings with regard to the supportive care needs of such patients. The purposes of this study were to investigate the patients' perceived needs and the association with psychological distress and/or quality of life, and to clarify the characteristics of patients with a high degree of unmet needs. Ambulatory colorectal cancer patients who were receiving chemotherapy were asked to complete the Short-Form Supportive Care Needs Survey questionnaire, which covers five domains of need (health system and information, psychological, physical, care and support, and sexuality needs), the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire. Complete data were available for 100 patients. Almost all of the top 10 most common unmet needs belonged to the psychological domain. The patients' total needs were significantly associated with both psychological distress (r = 0.65, P psychological distress and/or quality of life suggest that interventions that respond to patients' needs may be one possible strategy for ameliorating psychological distress and enhancing quality of life. Female patients' needs should be evaluated more carefully.
Perreira, Tyrone A; Berta, Whitney; Laporte, Audrey; Ginsburg, Liane; Deber, Raisa; Elliott, Gillian; Lum, Janet
Health Support Workers (HSWs) provide up to 80% of care to residents and clients in the long-term care (LTC) and home and community care (HCC) sectors but have received little research attention compared with the regulated professions. The authors explore similarities and differences in the work psychology of HSWs employed in LTC and HCC settings. Data were collected via survey from 276 LTC and 184 HCC HSWs. Descriptive statistics and path analyses were conducted. HSWs in LTC and HCC settings have significant, positive associations between organizational citizenship behaviors directed toward the organization (OCB-Os) and psychological empowerment, as well as intention to stay (ITS) and job satisfaction. For LTC sector HSWs, there are significant relationships between OCB-Os and quality of work life (QWL), ITS and work engagement, and individual performance and both job satisfaction and QWL. For the HCC sector, OCB-Os and ITS are significantly and directly related to organizational commitment. This study has implications for organizations interested in developing targeted interventions to improve the retention of HSWs.
Taylor, Francesca; Combes, Gill; Hare, Jennifer
Many patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) need and want improved emotional and psychological support. Explicit attention to patients' emotional issues during consultations can help, yet renal consultants rarely address emotional problems. This qualitative study aimed to evaluate whether two different low-cost interventions could individually enable consultants to talk with patients about their emotional concerns during routine outpatient consultations. One intervention involved patients using a Patient Issues Sheet to identify two to three issues they would like to talk about in their consultation and the second involved consultants asking patients a direct question about their emotional feelings. Consultants were trained to handle any emotional issues raised. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with five consultants and 36 ESRD patients from two UK renal units. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed using the constant comparative method. Although consultants and patients tended to use the two interventions in different ways, they expressed generally positive views about how helpful the interventions were in promoting discussion of emotional issues. Consultants appreciated the training for facilitating empathetic handling of patients' emotional disclosures and containment of discussion. Most patients who raised emotional concerns were satisfied with their consultant's responses, while others were dissuaded from more explicit discussion by their consultant's concentration on physical considerations. These qualitative study findings suggest that both interventions are feasible and acceptable and have the potential to help consultants improve emotional and psychological patient care, providing cognitive and behavioural tools to enable discussion of emotional issues during routine outpatient consultations.
Stutter, Marc; Ibiyemi, Adekunle; Wang, Chen
The connectivity of sources of pollution in catchments has been well studied and brings concepts such as pollution hotspots and critical source areas. However, consideration of the placement of other structures combating rising pollution impacts has been less considered. One such area that is receiving developing focus is the layout of riparian management and buffer strips. However, there are wider aspects of connectivity and landscape structure that can bring benefits to delivery and in-stream processing of pollution. These include wetlands, forests and the distribution of soils of differing connectivity of organic matter varying in bioavailability. Organic matter is a great modulator of catchment processes from controlling the potential of land use (e.g. constraints of soil organic matter and wetness on agricultural use), to the amount and form of nutrients leached from soils, to controls of dissolved organic matter on in-stream biology that responds to nutrient concentrations. As the fundamental control of ecosystem energy available for many heterotrophic processes it mediates uptake, recycling and speciation of N, P at many stages of the catchment from soils to waters; as such DOM can be considered as a nature-based solution exerting a background level of control on inorganic nutrients. This poster explores the role of different structural aspects of catchments that provide beneficial organic matter inputs to rivers. At the fine scale the lability of riparian soil and leaf litter DOC are considered. At a riparian management scale the local changes in buffer strip soil C and DOC relative to field soils are considered. At the largest scale spatial data are explored for riparian structure, forests, wetlands and soils differing in delivery and forms of C across major Scottish rivers and used as co-variates to explain differences in in-stream processing of nutrients.
Ter Maten-Speksnijder, Ada J; Dwarswaard, Jolanda; Meurs, Pauline L; van Staa, AnneLoes
To describe how nurse practitioners enact their role in outpatient consultations, and how this compares to their perception of their responsibility for patients with chronic conditions. Nurse practitioners working with patients with chronic conditions seek to support them in self-managing their diseases. An ethnographic study. Episodic participant observations (in total 48 hours) were carried out combined with formal interviews. The study population consisted of a purposive sample of nurse practitioners working in five outpatient clinics related to chronic care in one university medical centre in the Netherlands. Two different types of clinics were selected, namely (1) for patients with episodic flare-ups and (2) for patients with diseases requiring life-saving procedures. The nurse practitioners perceived the monitoring of patients' treatment as their main professional responsibility. Four monitoring strategies could be distinguished: 'assessing health conditions', 'connecting with patients', 'prioritising treatment in daily living' and 'educating patients'. While nurse practitioners considered building a relationship with their patients of utmost importance, their consultations were mostly based on a conventional medical model of medical history taking. Little attention was paid to the social, psychological and behavioural dimensions of illness. Nurse practitioners in this study seemed quite successful in their extension into medical territory, but moving patients' illness perceptions to the background was not conducive to self-management support. By their medical subspecialty expertise, nurse practitioners have a major role in the longitudinal process of the management of chronic diseases' treatment. Supporting patients to reduce the impact of the disease and its complications requires nurse practitioners to develop new coaching strategies designed to meet patients' individual needs. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Anand, Neel; Baron, Eli M; Khandehroo, Babak
Spinal fusion to the sacrum, especially in the setting of deformity and long constructs, is associated with high complication and pseudarthrosis rates. Transsacral discectomy, fusion, and fixation is a minimally invasive spine surgery technique that provides very rigid fixation. To date, this has been minimally studied in the setting of spinal deformity correction. We determined (1) the fusion rate of long-segment arthrodeses, (2) heath-related quality-of-life (HRQOL) outcomes (VAS pain score, Oswestry Disability Index [ODI], SF-36), and (3) the common complications and their frequency in adult patients with scoliosis undergoing transsacral fixation without supplemental pelvic fixation. Between April 2007 and May 2011, 92 patients had fusion of three or more segments extending to the sacrum for spinal deformity. Transsacral L5-S1 fusion without supplemental pelvic fixation was performed in 56 patients. Of these, 46 with complete data points and a minimum of 2 years of followup (mean, 48 months; range, 24-72 months; 18% of patients lost to followup) were included in this study. Nineteen of the 46 (41%) had fusions extending above the thoracolumbar junction, with one patient having fusion into the proximal thoracic spine (T3-S1). General indications for the use of transsacral fixation were situations where the fusion needed to be extended to the sacrum, such as spondylolisthesis, prior laminectomy, stenosis, oblique take-off, and disc degeneration at L5-S1. Contraindications included anatomic variations in the sacrum, vascular anomalies, prior intrapelvic surgery, and rectal fistulas or abscesses. Fusion rates were assessed by full-length radiographs and CT scanning. HRQOL data, including VAS pain score, ODI, and SF-36 scores, were assessed at all pre- and postoperative visits. Intraoperative and postoperative complications were noted. Forty-one of 46 patients (89%) developed a solid fusion at L5-S1. There were significant improvements in all HRQOL parameters. Eight
Moscato, Alba; Varescon, Isabelle
Very little research is made on professional home caregivers in support of seniors, especially those dealing with alcohol misuse. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between professional home caregivers and seniors with alcohol misuse, in terms of job satisfaction, professional life and emotional exhaustion. 99 professional home caregivers completed a professional data questionnaire (ESVP) and an inventory of professional burnout (MBI). Demographic and professional data, as well as dimensions of professional life satisfaction and professional exhaustion questionnaires were analyzed. Out of the 99 participants, 36 professional home caregivers reported difficulties dealing with alcohol misuse in seniors. The mean age of the home caregivers was 35 years old and half of them did not receive any training for support. The majority of them qualified the relationship with the aged as "distant and nonexistent". In contrast, most of them were satisfied with regard to the relationship with the relatives of the subjects, and were almost as many to call it "cordial" as well as "cold distant, non-existent". Job satisfaction was positively correlated with the satisfaction of the relationship with the relatives. Emotional exhaustion was negatively correlated with their job satisfaction in the support of the subjects. This study is, to our knowledge, the first one to highlight the importance for professional home caregivers to have good relationships with the relatives of seniors with alcohol misuse. Research in this area is scarce, despite the development of home care for the elderly, whatever their pathologies, and at the early start of a French ministerial plan on society's adaptation to ageing.
Georgiou, Andrew; Tariq, Amina; Prgomet, Mirela; Warland, Andrew; Armour, Pauline; Westbrook, Johanna I
Introduction: There is limited evidence of the benefits of information and communication technology (ICT) to support integrated aged care services. Objectives: We undertook a case study to describe carelink+, a centralised client service management ICT system implemented by a large aged and community care service provider, Uniting. We sought to explicate the care-related information exchange processes associated with carelink+ and identify lessons for organisations attempting to use ICT to support service integration. Methods: Our case study included seventeen interviews and eleven observation sessions with a purposive sample of staff within the organisation. Inductive analysis was used to develop a model of ICT-supported information exchange. Results: Management staff described the integrated care model designed to underpin carelink+. Frontline staff described complex information exchange processes supporting coordination of client services. Mismatches between the data quality and the functions carelink+ was designed to support necessitated the evolution of new work processes associated with the system. Conclusions: There is value in explicitly modelling the work processes that emerge as a consequence of ICT. Continuous evaluation of the match between ICT and work processes will help aged care organisations to achieve higher levels of ICT maturity that support their efforts to provide integrated care to clients. PMID:29042851
Hakio, Nora; Rantanen, Anja; Åstedt-Kurki, Päivi; Suominen, Tarja
The objective of this study was to describe parents' experiences of family functioning, health and social support provided by nursing personnel, while their child was in intensive care, and to determine how social support was associated with family functioning and family health. Cross-sectional study. The data were collected by a self-administered questionnaire from 31 parents of critically ill children from 2010 to 2011. The data were analysed statistically. The parents considered their family functioning, health and social support provided by the nursing personnel to be good. The sub-area of family functioning that rated the lowest was strengths of family, whereas the lowest rated sub-area of family health was ill-being. Child's previous hospital treatments were associated with family health. Parents, whose child had already been in hospital care, reported more well-being and less ill-being than parents with children hospitalised for the first time. Parents' education was associated with family functioning, family health and social support given by the nurses. Weak positive correlation was also found between social support given by nurses and family health experienced by parents. There is a need to discuss how nursing care can further support parental resources. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Douglas, Heather E; Georgiou, Andrew; Tariq, Amina; Prgomet, Mirela; Warland, Andrew; Armour, Pauline; Westbrook, Johanna I
There is limited evidence of the benefits of information and communication technology (ICT) to support integrated aged care services. We undertook a case study to describe carelink+, a centralised client service management ICT system implemented by a large aged and community care service provider, Uniting. We sought to explicate the care-related information exchange processes associated with carelink+ and identify lessons for organisations attempting to use ICT to support service integration. Our case study included seventeen interviews and eleven observation sessions with a purposive sample of staff within the organisation. Inductive analysis was used to develop a model of ICT-supported information exchange. Management staff described the integrated care model designed to underpin carelink+. Frontline staff described complex information exchange processes supporting coordination of client services. Mismatches between the data quality and the functions carelink+ was designed to support necessitated the evolution of new work processes associated with the system. There is value in explicitly modelling the work processes that emerge as a consequence of ICT. Continuous evaluation of the match between ICT and work processes will help aged care organisations to achieve higher levels of ICT maturity that support their efforts to provide integrated care to clients.
Weidlich, Christopher P; Ugarriza, Doris N
The Care Provider Support Program (CPSP) was created as a way to improve the resiliency of military health care providers. The purpose of this pilot study was to update what is currently known about the resiliency, coping, and compassion fatigue of military and civilian registered nurses, licensed practical nurses (LPNs), and medics who treat wounded Soldiers and whether these factors can be improved over a sustained period of time. A prospective cohort pilot study was implemented to investigate the long-term effects of CPSP training on military and civilian nurses, LPNs, and medics (n = 93) at an Army Medical Center utilizing the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale, the Ways of Coping Questionnaire, and Professional Quality of Life Questionnaire. Twenty-eight participants returned follow-up questionnaires. CPSP was significant in reducing burnout as measured by the Professional Quality of Life questionnaire, leading to decreased compassion fatigue. CPSP training did not affect resiliency scores on the Connor-Davidson resilience scale or coping scores as measured by the Ways of Coping Questionnaire. on the basis of the results of this study, CPSP training was effective in reducing burnout, which often leads to decreased compassion fatigue in a group of military and civilian registered nurses, LPNs, and medics. Reprint & Copyright © 2015 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.
Cason, Carolyn L; Kardong-Edgren, Suzan; Cazzell, Mary; Behan, Deborah; Mancini, Mary Elizabeth
Providing cardiopulmonary resuscitation is an essential competency for nurses. Nurse educators involved in staff development and continuing education spend numerous hours offering basic life support courses and conducting performance improvement activities such as mock codes. This study provides evidence that cardiopulmonary resuscitation performance skills using self-directed learning methods are as good as or, on a number of parameters, better than those achieved with a more resource- and time-intensive traditional approach.
Lucariello, Joan M.; Nastasi, Bonnie K.; Anderman, Eric M.; Dwyer, Carol; Ormiston, Heather; Skiba, Russell
Psychological science has much to contribute to preK-12 education because substantial psychological research exists on the processes of learning, teaching, motivation, classroom management, social interaction, communication, and assessment. This article details the psychological science that led to the identification, by the American Psychological…
Golden, Jeannette; Conroy, Ronán M; Lawlor, Brian A
Social networks have been associated with a wide variety of health outcomes in older people. We examined the dimensions underlying the Wenger social support network type assessment to identify dimensions associated with mental and physical health. We interviewed 1334 community-dwelling participants aged 65+. The Geriatric Mental State automated geriatric examination for computer-assisted taxonomy interview was used to rate psychiatric symptoms and quality of life. Cognitive impairment was defined as a score of social support network domains: family (distance from and contact with relatives) and social engagement. Social engagement was associated with a lower age- and sex-adjusted prevalence of depression (odds ratio for a one-tertile increase 0.48), generalised anxiety disorder (OR 0.60), cognitive impairment (OR 0.68) and physical disability (OR 0.62) all p social engagement domain was also associated with better quality of life (OR 1.5) self-rated happiness (OR 1.3) and rating life as worth living (OR 1.4). The family domain, on the other hand, was not significantly associated with any health outcome. The results suggest that elective relationships and social engagement are the 'active ingredients' of social networks which promote health in later life.
... learn to cope with psychological stress? Emotional and social support can help patients learn to cope with psychological stress. Such support can reduce levels of depression, anxiety, and disease- and treatment-related symptoms among patients. Approaches can include the ...
Moon, Sherril; Simonsen, Monica L.; Neubert, Debra A.
The purpose of this exploratory study was to survey community rehabilitation providers (CRPs) to determine their perceptions of the skills, experiences, and information that transitioning youth with developmental disabilities (DD) and their families need to access supported employment (SE) services. Supervisors of SE from 12 CRPs across one state…
Full Text Available The objective of this study is to examine the status of Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) policies in supporting lecturers when providing mobile centric services to students. The research was undertaken as a single case study within the Open...
Wang, Qian; Chan, Hoi-Wing; Lin, Li
Despite ample evidence for the benefits of parental autonomy support and the harms of parental psychological control to Chinese adolescents' well-being, little is known about what foreshadows these parenting behaviors among Chinese parents. The current research addressed this gap in the literature. It tested the hypothesis that parents' endorsement of self-development socialization goals (i.e., regarding a positive sense of self in terms of holding optimistic attitudes toward oneself, feeling autonomous in one's actions, and establishing one's independence from others, as important for adolescents to develop) and adolescents' school performance may interact to predict parental autonomy support and psychological control in urban China. Three hundred and forty-one Chinese seventh graders (mean age = 13.30 years, 58 % female) and their parents (186 mothers and 155 fathers) participated. Parents reported on their own and their spouses' endorsement of self-development socialization goals; adolescents reported on parental autonomy support and psychological control; and adolescents' grades were obtained from school records. Significant interactions were found between parents' socialization goals and adolescents' grades in predicting parenting behaviors. When adolescents were doing well at school, the stronger parents' endorsement of self-development socialization goals, the greater their autonomy support and the lesser their psychological control; when adolescents were doing poorly at school, regardless of parents' socialization goals, their autonomy support was relatively low and their psychological control was relatively high. These findings highlight a tension between parental concerns over adolescents' self-development and academic success, which needs to be resolved to promote autonomy support and prevent psychological control among urban Chinese parents.
Eynon, Julia; Carrier, Judith; Rees, Sally; Cartwright, Annie
Domestic violence has been described as a public health epidemic, with victims of domestic violence encountered in all health care settings. Within the United Kingdom the role of the health visitor (specialist community public health nurse) is to promote health in the whole community; every family with a child under five years has a named health visitor. Preparation for the health visitor role is unique to the United Kingdom. Health visitors are particularly well placed to identify and support mothers who are experiencing domestic violence. The objective of this review was to synthesise the best available evidence relating to support provided by UK health visitors for mothers who have experienced domestic violence, from both the mothers and the health visitors' perspectives. The participants of interest were mothers who have experienced domestic violence and health visitors who offer support to those mothers.The self reported experiences of health visitor support provided to mothers who have experienced domestic violence, from the perspective of both the mothers and the health visitors providing the support.This review considered studies that focus on qualitative data including, but not limited to, designs such as ethnography, phenomenology, grounded theory, action research and feminist research. Studies published up to April 2011 were included in the review. The search was restricted to English language studies. The databases searched were: Medline, CINAHL, PsycINFO, PsycARTICLES, EMBASE, British Nursing Index and Archive, ASSIA and TRIP. Studies were assessed for methodological quality using the standardised critical appraisal instruments from the Joanna Briggs Institute. Data were extracted using standardised data extraction tools from the Joanna Briggs Institute. Data synthesis used the Joanna Briggs Institute approach for meta-synthesis by meta-aggregation. Findings were synthesised into categories, which were aggregated into synthesised findings. Four
Courcy, François; Morin, Alexandre J S; Madore, Isabelle
Exposure to workplace violence has been identified as a serious and universal issue facing modern organizations. The present study focuses more specifically on exposure to psychological violence, and its association with turnover intentions as mediated by workplace affective commitment. In addition, we also explore the moderating role of various facets of job demands (role stressors) and resources (social support) on the aforementioned relations. Data collected from 1,228 university employees indicated that experiencing psychological violence at work was associated with lower levels of workplace affective commitment and higher levels of turnover intentions, and that the relation between psychological violence and turnover intentions was partially mediated by commitment. Furthermore, role stressors and social support were found to moderate the negative relation between exposure to psychological violence and workplace affective commitment, as well as between commitment and turnover intentions, but not the direct relation between psychological violence and turnover intentions. Theoretical and research implications for the literature on psychological violence and practical suggestions for minimizing its damaging consequences are proposed.
Nam, Soohyun; Nam, Soohyun; Song, Youngshin
Psychological insulin resistance (PIR) affects patients' self-care behaviors and quality of life due to the delay of insulin treatment for optimal glycemic control. Although effective patient-provider communication and relationships have been shown to improve patients' overall treatment adherence and attitude toward treatment, little is known about the potential mechanisms by which effective patient-provider communication and relationships decrease PIR and whether these relationships are mediated by diabetes self-efficacy. The purpose of this study is to examine whether diabetes self-efficacy among patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) mediates the relationships between PIR and perceived patient-provider relationships. A total of 178 patients with T2D participated in a cross-sectional study. Data were obtained by patient interview using validated measures of diabetes attitude, diabetes knowledge, self-efficacy, and patient-provider communication. PIR was measured by using a validated measure, Barriers to Insulin Treatment. A structural equation model was developed to estimate direct and indirect effects of patient-provider relationship on PIR when self-efficacy was controlled as a mediator. Diabetes knowledge and attitude were not significantly associated with PIR. Better patient-provider relationship was directly associated with lower PIR (β = -.40, p = 0.008). When diabetes self-efficacy was included as a mediator, the direct effect between patient-provider relationship and PIR changed (β = -.27, p = 0.034), indicating that better patient-provider relationship that reduces PIR is due to greater diabetes self-efficacy. The findings suggest that development of intervention programs aimed at improving diabetes self-efficacy-which may be positively correlated with better patient-provider relationship-is needed to reduce PIR.
Hurd, Noelle M; Albright, Jamie; Wittrup, Audrey; Negrete, Andrea; Billingsley, Janelle
The current study explored whether cumulative appraisal support from as many as five natural mentors (i.e., nonparental adults from youth's pre-existing social networks who serve a mentoring role in youth's lives) led to reduced symptoms of depression and anxiety via improved global self-worth among underrepresented college students. Participants in the current study included 340 college students (69% female) attending a 4-year, predominantly White institution of higher education. Participants were first-generation college students, students from economically disadvantaged backgrounds, and/or students from underrepresented racial/ethnic minority groups. Participants completed surveys during the Fall and Spring of their first year of college and in the Spring of their second and third years of college. Results of the structural equation model (including gender, race/ethnicity, and extraversion as covariates) indicated that greater total appraisal support from natural mentoring relationships predicted decreases in students' psychological distress via increases in self-worth (indirect effects assessed via boot-strapped confidence intervals; 95% CI). The strength of association between appraisal support and self-worth was not moderated by the proportion of academic natural mentors. Findings from the current study extend previous research by measuring multiple natural mentoring relationships and pinpointing supportive exchanges that may be of particular consequence for the promotion of healthy youth development. Institutional efforts to reinforce pre-existing natural mentoring relationships and encourage the onset of new natural mentoring relationships may serve to bolster the well-being and success of underrepresented students attending predominantly White universities.
van Driessche, Anne; Jotheeswaran, A T; Murthy, G V S; Pilot, Eva; Sagar, Jayanthi; Pant, Hira; Singh, Vivek; Dpk, Babu
Parents of children with hearing impairment are at increased risk of mental health morbidities. We examined the predictive factors associated with caregiver's strain and psychological morbidities in parents and family caregivers of children with hearing impairment. In total, n = 201 parents and family caregivers of children with and without hearing impairment aged 3 to 16 years were recruited. Caregiver's strain and psychological morbidities were measured using the Zarit Burden scale and the World Health Organization's Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20). Presence of behavioural problems in children was measured using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. After adjustment, low educational attainment and domestic violence were found to be associated with caregiving strain, whereas dissatisfaction with social support from family, behavioural problems in children, and domestic violence strongly predicted psychological morbidities. Addressing the mental healthcare needs of parents may help in downsizing the impact of psychological morbidities on the well-being of children with hearing impairment.
Full Text Available This study aimed to explore the associations of occupational stressors (extrinsic effort, reward, and overcommitment, perceived organizational support (POS, and psychological capital (PsyCap and its components (self-efficacy, hope, resilience, and optimism with work engagement and the mediating roles of PsyCap and its components among Chinese female nurses within the framework of the job demands-resources (JD-R model. A cross-sectional sample (1,330 completed the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale, Effort-Reward Imbalance Scale, Survey of POS, and PsyCap Questionnaire, and effective respondents were 1,016 (76.4%. Hierarchical regression analysis and Preacher and Hayes’ asymptotic and resampling strategies were used. Extrinsic effort was negatively associated with vigor, dedication, and absorption, while POS, PsyCap, and hope were positively associated with them. Reward and overcommitment were positively associated with dedication and absorption. Optimism was positively associated with vigor and dedication. Optimism mediated the associations of extrinsic effort, reward, and POS with vigor and dedication. PsyCap and hope mediated the associations of POS with vigor, dedication, and absorption. There is a low level of work engagement among Chinese female nurses. Extrinsic effort could reduce work engagement, while reward, overcommitment, POS, PsyCap, hope, and optimism could enhance work engagement. Hospital managers should develop the PsyCap of female nurses through controlling occupational stressors and establishing supportive organizational climate to enhance their work engagement.
Wang, Xiaoxi; Liu, Li; Zou, Futing; Hao, Junhui; Wu, Hui
This study aimed to explore the associations of occupational stressors (extrinsic effort, reward, and overcommitment), perceived organizational support (POS), and psychological capital (PsyCap) and its components (self-efficacy, hope, resilience, and optimism) with work engagement and the mediating roles of PsyCap and its components among Chinese female nurses within the framework of the job demands-resources (JD-R) model. A cross-sectional sample (1,330) completed the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale, Effort-Reward Imbalance Scale, Survey of POS, and PsyCap Questionnaire, and effective respondents were 1,016 (76.4%). Hierarchical regression analysis and Preacher and Hayes' asymptotic and resampling strategies were used. Extrinsic effort was negatively associated with vigor, dedication, and absorption, while POS, PsyCap, and hope were positively associated with them. Reward and overcommitment were positively associated with dedication and absorption. Optimism was positively associated with vigor and dedication. Optimism mediated the associations of extrinsic effort, reward, and POS with vigor and dedication. PsyCap and hope mediated the associations of POS with vigor, dedication, and absorption. There is a low level of work engagement among Chinese female nurses. Extrinsic effort could reduce work engagement, while reward, overcommitment, POS, PsyCap, hope, and optimism could enhance work engagement. Hospital managers should develop the PsyCap of female nurses through controlling occupational stressors and establishing supportive organizational climate to enhance their work engagement.
Full Text Available Mobile health (mHealth could be widely used in the population to improve access to psychological treatment. In this paper, we describe the development of a mHealth intervention on the basis of supportive self-monitoring and describe the protocol for a randomized controlled trial to evaluate its effectiveness among smartphone users with psychological distress. Based on power analysis, a representative quota sample of N = 186 smartphone users will be recruited, with an over-sampling of persons with moderate to high distress. Over a 4-week period, the intervention will be compared to a self-monitoring without intervention group and a passive control group. Telephone interviews will be conducted at baseline, post-intervention (4 weeks, and 12-week follow-up to assess study outcomes. The primary outcome will be improvement of mental health. Secondary outcomes will include well-being, intentions toward help-seeking and help-seeking behavior, user activation, attitudes toward mental-health services, perceived stigmatization, smartphone app quality, user satisfaction, engagement, and adherence with the intervention. Additionally, data from the user’s daily life as collected during self-monitoring will be used to investigate risk and protective factors of mental health in real-world settings. Therefore, this study will allow us to demonstrate the effectiveness of a smartphone application as a widely accessible and low-cost intervention to improve mental health on a population level. It also allows to identify new assessment approaches in the field of psychiatric epidemiology.
Beiwinkel, Till; Hey, Stefan; Bock, Olaf; Rössler, Wulf
Mobile health (mHealth) could be widely used in the population to improve access to psychological treatment. In this paper, we describe the development of a mHealth intervention on the basis of supportive self-monitoring and describe the protocol for a randomized controlled trial to evaluate its effectiveness among smartphone users with psychological distress. Based on power analysis, a representative quota sample of N = 186 smartphone users will be recruited, with an over-sampling of persons with moderate to high distress. Over a 4-week period, the intervention will be compared to a self-monitoring without intervention group and a passive control group. Telephone interviews will be conducted at baseline, post-intervention (4 weeks), and 12-week follow-up to assess study outcomes. The primary outcome will be improvement of mental health. Secondary outcomes will include well-being, intentions toward help-seeking and help-seeking behavior, user activation, attitudes toward mental-health services, perceived stigmatization, smartphone app quality, user satisfaction, engagement, and adherence with the intervention. Additionally, data from the user's daily life as collected during self-monitoring will be used to investigate risk and protective factors of mental health in real-world settings. Therefore, this study will allow us to demonstrate the effectiveness of a smartphone application as a widely accessible and low-cost intervention to improve mental health on a population level. It also allows to identify new assessment approaches in the field of psychiatric epidemiology.
Hall, Jane; Kenny, Patricia; Hossain, Ishrat; Street, Deborah J; Knox, Stephanie A
The trend for terminally ill patients to receive much of their end-of-life care at home necessitates the design of services to facilitate this. Care at home also requires that informal care be provided by family members and friends. This study investigated informal carers' preferences for support services to aid the development of end-of-life health care services. This cross-sectional study used 2 discrete choice experiments to ascertain the preferences of carers supporting patients with different levels of care need, determined by the assistance needed with personal care and labeled High Care (HC) and Low Care (LC). The sample included 168 informal carers of people receiving palliative care at home from 2 palliative care services in Sydney, Australia. Data were collected in face-to-face interviews; carers chose between 2 hypothetical plans of support services and their current services. Data were analyzed with generalized multinomial logit models that were used to calculate the impact of each attribute on the probability of a carer choosing a service plan. Preferred support included nursing services; the probability of choosing a plan increased significantly if it included nurse home visits and phone advice (P situation. The most valued services are those that support carers in their caregiving role; however, supportive care preferences vary with the different circumstances of patients and carers. © The Author(s) 2013.
Stock, Nicola Marie; Feragen, Kristin Billaud; Rumsey, Nichola
Cleft in the lip and/or the palate (CL/P) is considered to be a lifelong condition, yet relatively little is known about the long-term outcomes for patients. Existing literature is largely outdated and conflicted, with an almost exclusive focus on medical aspects and deficits. To explore the psychological adjustment and possible support needs of a large number of adults born with CL/P from their own perspective. Fifty-two individual telephone interviews eliciting qualitative data. Qualitative analysis identified five themes. Participants reported a range of challenges in relation to discharge from the service, additional surgery as an adult, social and romantic relationships, higher education, vocational achievement, and access to psychological support. The findings imply that most adults with a cleft adjust well to these challenges and report many positive outcomes. For a minority of patients, issues attributed to the cleft may continue to cause distress in adulthood. Adults with CL/P may require psychological support, information about the heritability of cleft, signposting and referrals from nonspecialists, support regarding further treatment, and opportunities to take part in research and activities. New issues arising in adulthood, such as entering the workplace, forming long-term relationships, and starting a family, may warrant both further investigation and additional support. Further work is needed to identify the factors that contribute to psychological distress and resilience, as well as the timing of particular points of risk and opportunity for personal growth.
van der Kaap-Deeder, Jolene; Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Soenens, Bart; Verstuyf, Joke; Boone, Liesbet; Smets, Jos
Although several studies have established the beneficial effects of self-endorsed forms of motivation for lasting therapeutic change, the way patients with an eating disorder can be encouraged to volitionally pursue change has received less attention. On the basis of Self-Determination Theory, this longitudinal study addressed the role of an autonomy-supportive environment and psychological need satisfaction in fostering self-endorsed motivation for change and subsequent weight gain. Female inpatients (n = 84) with mainly anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa filled out questionnaires at the onset of, during, and at the end of treatment regarding their perceived autonomy support from parents, staff members, and fellow patients, their psychological need satisfaction, and their reasons for undertaking change. Furthermore, the body mass index (BMI) of the patients at the onset and end of treatment was assessed by the staff. Path analyses were used to investigate the relations between these constructs. At the start of treatment, perceived parental autonomy support related positively to self-endorsed motivation through psychological need satisfaction. Perceived staff and fellow patients autonomy support related to changes in self-endorsed motivation over the course of treatment through fostering change in psychological need satisfaction. Finally, relative increases in self-endorsed motivation related to relative increases in BMI throughout treatment in a subgroup of patients with anorexia nervosa. These results point to the importance of an autonomy-supportive context for facilitating self-endorsed motivation. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Vanderkruik, Rachel; Lemon, Elizabeth; Dimidjian, Sona
Appropriate attention to maternal mental health is missing in many public health breastfeeding promotion efforts. Although there are many benefits to breastfeeding for both mom and infant, the relationship between maternal mental health and breastfeeding is complex. Breastfeeding may not be the most effective or feasible option for all mothers. We highlight a key international breastfeeding promotion program and argue that consideration for maternal mental health could be further incorporated into the initiative. We provide examples of how this could be done and also state that further guidance on the best alternative feeding practices to ensure the healthy development of infants is needed. There is an opportunity to enhance public health breastfeeding initiatives by integrating a perinatal mental health perspective into their guidelines and accompanying resources.
Sieverding, Maia; Liu, Jenny; Beyeler, Naomi
The social and institutional environments in which informal healthcare providers operate shape their health and business practices, particularly in contexts where regulatory enforcement is weak. In this study, we adopt a social capital perspective to understanding the social networks on which proprietary and patent medicine vendors (PPMVs) in Nigeria rely for support in the operation of their shops. Data are drawn from 70 in-depth interviews with PPMVs in three states, including interviews with local leaders of the PPMV professional association. We find that PPMVs primarily relied on more senior colleagues and formal healthcare professionals for informational support, including information about new medicines and advice on how to treat specific cases of illness. For instrumental support, including finance, start-up assistance, and intervention with regulatory agencies, PPMVs relied on extended family, the PPMVs with whom they apprenticed, and the leaders of their professional association. PPMVs' networks also provided continual reinforcement of what constitutes good PPMV practice through admonishments to follow scope of practice limitations. These informal reminders, as well as monitoring activities conducted by the professional association, served to reinforce PPMVs' concern with avoiding negative customer health outcomes, which were perceived to be detrimental to their business reputations. That PPMVs' networks both encouraged practices to reduce the likelihood of poor health outcomes, and provided advice regarding customers' health conditions, highlights the potential impact of informal providers' access to different forms of social capital on their delivery of health services, as well as their success as microenterprises. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Staats, Arthur W.
Paradigmatic or psychological behaviorism (PB), in a four-decade history of development, has been shaped by its goal, the establishment of a behaviorism that can also serve as the approach in psychology (Watson's original goal). In the process, PB has become a new generation of behaviorism with abundant heuristic avenues for development in theory, philosophy, methodology, and research. Psychology has resources, purview and problem areas, and nascent developments of many kinds, gathered in chaotic diversity, needing unification (and other things) that cognitivism cannot provide. Behaviorism can, within PB's multilevel framework for connecting and advancing both psychology and behaviorism. PMID:22478175
Staats, A W
Paradigmatic or psychological behaviorism (PB), in a four-decade history of development, has been shaped by its goal, the establishment of a behaviorism that can also serve as the approach in psychology (Watson's original goal). In the process, PB has become a new generation of behaviorism with abundant heuristic avenues for development in theory, philosophy, methodology, and research. Psychology has resources, purview and problem areas, and nascent developments of many kinds, gathered in chaotic diversity, needing unification (and other things) that cognitivism cannot provide. Behaviorism can, within PB's multilevel framework for connecting and advancing both psychology and behaviorism.
Ericson, Jenny; Eriksson, Mats; Hellström-Westas, Lena; Hagberg, Lars; Hoddinott, Pat; Flacking, Renée
Although breast milk has numerous benefits for infants' development, with greater effects in those born preterm (at breastfeeding duration than mothers of term infants. One of the explanations proposed is the difficulties in the transition from a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) to the home environment. A person-centred proactive telephone support intervention after discharge from NICU is expected to promote mothers' sense of trust in their own capacity and thereby facilitate breastfeeding. A multicentre randomized controlled trial has been designed to evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of person-centred proactive telephone support on breastfeeding outcomes for mothers of preterm infants. Participating mothers will be randomized to either an intervention group or control group. In the intervention group person-centred proactive telephone support will be provided, in which the support team phones the mother daily for up to 14 days after hospital discharge. In the control group, mothers are offered a person-centred reactive support where mothers can phone the breastfeeding support team up to day 14 after hospital discharge. The intervention group will also be offered the same reactive telephone support as the control group. A stratified block randomization will be used; group allocation will be by high or low socioeconomic status and by NICU. Recruitment will be performed continuously until 1116 mothers (I: 558 C: 558) have been included. proportion of mothers exclusively breastfeeding at eight weeks after discharge. proportion of breastfeeding (exclusive, partial, none and method of feeding), mothers satisfaction with breastfeeding, attachment, stress and quality of life in mothers/partners at eight weeks after hospital discharge and at six months postnatal age. Data will be collected by researchers blind to group allocation for the primary outcome. A qualitative evaluation of experiences of receiving/providing the intervention will also be
Muñoz, Karen; Nelson, Lauri; Blaiser, Kristina; Price, Tanner; Twohig, Michael
When proper protocols are followed, children who are identified with a permanent hearing loss early in life have opportunities to develop language on par with their typical hearing peers. Young children with hearing loss are dependent on their parents to manage intervention during early years critical to their development, and parents' ability to effectively integrate recommendations in daily life is foundational for intervention success. Audiologists and early intervention professionals not only need to provide current evidence-based services, but also must address parents' emotional and learning needs related to their child's hearing loss. This study explored practice patterns related to education and support provided to parents of children with hearing loss and the influence of an in-service training on provider attitudes. This study used a prepost design with a self-report questionnaire to identify practice patterns related to communication skills and support used by providers when working with parents of children with hearing loss. A total of 45 participants (21 professionals and 24 graduate students) currently working with children completed the pretraining questionnaire, and 29 participants (13 professionals and 16 graduate students) completed the postquestionnaire. Data were collected using an online questionnaire before the training and 1 mo after training. Descriptive analyses were done to identify trends, and paired-samples t-tests were used to determine changes pretraining to posttraining. Findings revealed that professionals most frequently teach skills to mothers (91%) and infrequently teach skills to fathers (19%) and other caregivers (10%). Professionals reported frequently collaborating with other intervention providers (76%) and infrequently collaborating with primary care physicians (19%). One-third of the professionals reported addressing symptoms of depression and anxiety as an interfering factor with the ability to implement management
James, Jayne; Cottle, Elita; Hodge, Reverend Debbie
To provide an in-depth exploration regarding the Registered Nurse (RN) and Healthcare Chaplains' (HCC) perspective of the role of the family support person (FSP) during family witnessed resuscitation (FWR). A phenomenological approach utilising in-depth interviews were undertaken outside of the work setting. A purposive sample of 4 RN's and 3 HCC were recruited from four sites within the United Kingdom. All interviews were tape recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed utilising Husserl's framework. Seven key themes emerged which included assessment, managing choice, navigating the setting, on-going commentary, coming to terms with death, conflicts and support. This study has provided an insight regarding the intense clinical engagement associated with the role of the FSP and highlighted the importance of this role for family member's optimal care and support. It is vital that adequate professional development is instigated and that support mechanisms are in place for those health care professionals (HCP) undertaking this role in order to help family members through this difficult experience. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Shanley, Christopher; Fetherstonhaugh, Deirdre; McAuliffe, Linda; Bauer, Michael; Beattie, Elizabeth
The prevalence of dementia will continue to increase with the ageing of the population. Many people living with dementia will reach a stage where surrogate decision-makers-mostly family carers-will need to make a range of decisions on their behalf. The aim of this study was to learn from surrogate decision-makers how they can be most effectively supported in this role. The study employed a qualitative design using semi-structured face-to-face or telephone interviews with a purposive sample of 34 surrogate decision-makers of people living with dementia. Transcripts of participant interviews were reviewed using a thematic approach to analysis. Four main themes were identified from this analysis: needing greater community awareness of dementia and its impact; intervening early in cognitive decline; relying on health professionals for ongoing support; and seeking and using support from wherever is relevant for each person. Based on this analysis and a review of the literature, we propose a wholistic set of recommendations for the support of surrogate decision-makers. Healthcare professionals need to help family carers understand the likely trajectory of dementia, including the significance of surrogate decision-making. They can support the person living with dementia and their surrogates to undertake advance care planning and they can act as empathic guides during this process. Health and community care organisations need to provide a "key worker" model wherever possible so that the person living with dementia and their surrogate decision-maker do not have to seek support from multiple staff members or organisations. Carer support programmes can routinely include information and resources about surrogate decision-making. Community and government organisations can help people prepare for the possibility of becoming surrogate decision-makers by promoting a greater public awareness and understanding of both dementia and advance care planning. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
William E. Cayley Jr
Full Text Available The Advanced Cardiac Life Support for the Experienced Provider (ACLS-EP course uses a case-based curriculum to teach emergency resuscitation principles to experienced health care professionals. This article describes the adaptation of the ACLS-EP curriculum to be used in a family medicine training programme in Rwanda, including lessons learned and recommendations for future use of this material for emergency care education in the African setting.
Fazel, Maryam T; Fazel, Mohammad; Bedrossian, Nora L; Picazo, Fernando; Sobel, Julia D; Fazel, Mahdieh; Te, Charisse; Pendergrass, Merri L
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of supplemental diabetes-related training modalities and volunteer activities in increasing first-year medical students' knowledge/comfort in providing diabetes self-management education and support (DSMES) to patients. A group of medical students developed supplemental diabetes-related training/volunteer programs. The training modalities included an optional 7-session interprofessionally taught Diabetes Enrichment Elective and a 3-hour endocrinologist-led training session intended to prepare students for involvement in an inpatient DSMES volunteer program. The volunteer program provided the students with the opportunity to provide DSMES to patients with diabetes admitted to an academic medical center. Those participating in any of the stated programs were compared to those with no such training regarding confidence in providing DSMES using an optional online survey. The results were analyzed by using Mann-Whitney U test and descriptive analyses. A total of 18 first-year medical students responded to the optional survey with a response rate of ~30% (10 of 33) among participants in any training/volunteer program. First-year medical students who attended any of the offered optional programs had statistically significant higher comfort level in 4 of the 6 areas assessed regarding providing DSMES compared with those with no such training (ptraining modalities/volunteer programs can provide benefit in providing medical students with practical knowledge while improving their confidence in providing DSMES to patients with diabetes.
Karim, Sarah A; Ibrahim, Baharudin; Tangiisuran, Balamurugan; Davies, J Graham
Malnutrition is one of the health problems that can be prevented by appropriate nutrition care provided by healthcare providers. However, this practice is still lacking possibly because of the providers' inadequate knowledge. The aim of this study was to evaluate the self-reported knowledge, attitudes, and practices of pharmacists and doctors toward nutrition support in a tertiary care hospital setting. A validated questionnaire was distributed to all the doctors and pharmacists working in a tertiary hospital in Penang, Malaysia. Seven individuals including academics, general surgeons, and pharmacists performed the face and content validity. The questionnaire was piloted using 24 healthcare providers at a different hospital. Of 400 surveyed, 158 doctors and 72 pharmacists from various grades completed the questionnaire. More doctors (31.6%) than pharmacists (15.3%) reported adequate knowledge to perform patients' nutrition screening. However, in the knowledge assessment, pharmacists had a higher mean score (6.07 ± 1.77) than the doctors did (4.59 ± 1.87; P doctors have ambivalent attitudes toward nutrition support. Only 31.3% stated that they perform nutrition screening on admission, and half of them performed nutrition assessment during hospitalization. Inappropriate nutrition care might be due to the lack of guidelines and insufficient knowledge among doctors and pharmacists. Special nutrition training and education for both pharmacists and doctors should be established. © 2014 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.
Wallace, Andrea; Papke, Todd; Davisson, Erica; Spooner, Kara; Gassman, Laura
Despite over three decades of research linking social support and optimal health outcomes, social support is not systematically assessed or addressed during clinical care. This study sought input from health care providers to inform the design of an intervention intended to facilitate assessment of social support in a way that could aid in anticipatory planning during the process of hospital discharge. Using a purposive sampling strategy, data were collected from providers in two acute care settings serving rural patients, one academic and one community based. Opinions about what an assessment of social support would seek to accomplish, what is currently done and by whom, and the preferred format for delivery were elicited during a series of individual and group interviews. During phase two, feasibility was assessed with three inpatient nurses over 3 clinical days. Field notes were analyzed throughout the project using rapid data analysis techniques. Health care providers endorsed the creation of an assessment and stated that target users would include all members of the discharge team (e.g., clinical nurses, case managers, discharge coordinators, hospitalists, and specialty care). They identified the need for a patient-family resource (vs. a traditional provider-facing assessment). Participants stated that, although both the information collected and the interview process would meet a need to increase patient engagement in inpatient settings, competing clinical demands would require a tool that was easily completed by patients and family and seen as directly informing clinical activities. To this end, although focusing on the eventual development of an electronic tool seemed valuable, a hard-copy resource was considered more feasible for patient use at the present time. The preliminary test of the resulting hard-copy "Going Home Toolkit" demonstrated potential feasibility and usefulness during clinical practice. There is need for not only assessing patients
Boudreault-Bouchard, Anne-Marie; Dion, Jacinthe; Hains, Jennifer; Vandermeerschen, Jill; Laberge, Luc; Perron, Michel
This study aims at investigating the impact of parental practices on youths' adjustment. In all, 605 adolescents completed questionnaires at ages 14, 16 and 18. Self-esteem, psychological distress as well as parental emotional support and coercive control were measured. Analyses based on individual growth models revealed that self-esteem increased with age, but psychological distress remained stable over time. Boys reported higher levels of self-esteem and lower levels of psychological distress than girls. Maternal and paternal emotional support reinforced self-esteem over time. Maternal coercive control undermined self-esteem, but only at ages 16 and 18. Psychological distress decreased with parental emotional support but increased with parental coercive control at ages 14, 16 and 18. Overall, these results indicate that positive parental practices are related to youths' well-being. These findings support the importance of establishing intervention strategies designed to promote best practices among parents of teenagers to help them develop into well-adjusted adults. Copyright © 2013 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Van der Heijden, Beatrice I J M; Mulder, Regina H; König, Christoph; Anselmann, Veronika
Given the lack of active nurses in industrialized countries throughout the world, in combination with demographic changes, it is of utmost importance to protect nurses' well-being and to prevent psychological distress, because of their strong association with premature occupational leave. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of quality of leadership and social support at work on well-being and psychological distress of nurses and to determine whether nurses' overcommitment mediates the relationship between the abovementioned determinants and the outcomes. A cross-sectional survey design was used to gather our data. This study utilized part of the database of the Nurses' Early Exit Study. A total of 34,771 nurses (covering all nurse qualifications) working in hospitals, nursing homes, and home-care institutions in 8 European countries filled out a questionnaire (response rate = 51.4%). For all model variables (job satisfaction, satisfaction with salary, positive affectivity, personal burnout, negative affectivity, quality of leadership, social support from immediate supervisor, social support from near colleagues, and overcommitment), psychometrically sound, that is, valid and reliable measures were used. Outcomes from testing a structural equation mediation model indicated that, respectively, positive and negative influences of leadership quality and social support from supervisor and colleagues on nurses' well-being and psychological distress are partially mediated, that is, reduced, by nurses' overcommitment. Social work environment is highly important in relation to nurses' well-being and psychological distress.
Wijnberg-Williams, Barbara J.; Kamps, Willem A.; Klip, C.; Hoekstra-Weebers, Josette E. H. M.
Objective To explore the effects of social support on psychological distress of parents of pediatric cancer patients using a prospective design over a 5-year period. Methods Parents of children diagnosed with cancer participated at diagnosis (T1), 6 months (T2), 12 months (T3), and 5 years later
Atsuhiko Ota; Hiroshi Yatsuya; Junji Mase; Yuichiro Ono
Evidence is limited concerning the influences of high psychological job strain and low social support at work on daytime secretion of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), which demonstrates anti-cortisol effects. We carried out a cross-sectional study to examine the associations of job strain and social support with daytime secretion amounts of DHEA and cortisol and daytime variation of the cortisol-to-DHEA ratio (C/D ratio) in healthy female workers. Study subjects comprised 115 healthy female nur...
Park, Eunyoung; Yoon, Junghee; Choi, Eun-Kyung; Kim, Im Ryung; Kang, Danbee; Lee, Se-Kyung; Lee, Jeong Eon; Nam, Seok Jin; Ahn, Jin Seok; Visser, Adriaan; Cho, Juhee
The objective of this study is to develop, implement, and evaluate a training program for healthcare providers to improve ability to provide psychosocial support to breast cancer survivors in Korea. Based on a needs assessment survey and in-depth interviews with breast cancer survivors, a multidisciplinary team developed two-day intensive training program as well as education materials and counseling notes. Participants' overall satisfaction was evaluated after the training. The training program included a total of 16 lectures held over the course of seven sessions. Forty-one nurses and 3 social workers participated in the training program. Mean age was 37.5(± 6.4) years, and on average, they had 11.1 (± 5.6) years of experience. Participants' overall satisfaction was good as following: program contents (4.04), trainee guidebook (3.82), location and environment (4.10), and program organization (4.19). Among the participants, 31 (70.4%) received certification after submitting real consultation cases after the training. Two day intensive training can provide a comprehensive and coordinated education to healthcare professionals for implementing survivorship care with an emphasis on psychosocial support. Furthermore, the program should resume as a periodic continuing education course for healthcare providers. Similar education for graduate students in oncology nursing would be beneficial.
Larsen, Sara; Hamilton, Stuart; Lucido, Jessica M.; Garner, Bradley D.; Young, Dwane
Shared, trusted, timely data are essential elements for the cooperation needed to optimize economic, ecologic, and public safety concerns related to water. The Open Water Data Initiative (OWDI) will provide a fully scalable platform that can support a wide variety of data from many diverse providers. Many of these will be larger, well-established, and trusted agencies with a history of providing well-documented, standardized, and archive-ready products. However, some potential partners may be smaller, distributed, and relatively unknown or untested as data providers. The data these partners will provide are valuable and can be used to fill in many data gaps, but can also be variable in quality or supplied in nonstandardized formats. They may also reflect the smaller partners' variable budgets and missions, be intermittent, or of unknown provenance. A challenge for the OWDI will be to convey the quality and the contextual “fitness” of data from providers other than the most trusted brands. This article reviews past and current methods for documenting data quality. Three case studies are provided that describe processes and pathways for effective data-sharing and publication initiatives. They also illustrate how partners may work together to find a metadata reporting threshold that encourages participation while maintaining high data integrity. And lastly, potential governance is proposed that may assist smaller partners with short- and long-term participation in the OWDI.
Krotee, March L.
Sport psychology is defined in terms of human behavior in athletic situations. The psychosocial cross-cultural setting provides a model for studying trait and state psychosocial attributes and suggests issues and concerns for further study. (JMF)
Mohammed, Abdulaziz; Sheikh, Taiwo Lateef; Gidado, Saheed; Poggensee, Gabriele; Nguku, Patrick; Olayinka, Adebola; Ohuabunwo, Chima; Waziri, Ndadilnasiya; Shuaib, Faisal; Adeyemi, Joseph; Uzoma, Ogbonna; Ahmed, Abubakar; Doherty, Funmi; Nyanti, Sarah Beysolow; Nzuki, Charles Kyalo; Nasidi, Abdulsalami; Oyemakinde, Akin; Oguntimehin, Olukayode; Abdus-Salam, Ismail Adeshina; Obiako, Reginald O
By September 2014, an outbreak of Ebola Viral Disease (EVD) in West African countries of Guinea, Liberia, Sierra Leone, Senegal and Nigeria, had recorded over 4500 and 2200 probable or confirmed cases and deaths respectively. EVD, an emerging infectious disease, can create fear and panic among patients, contacts and relatives, which could be a risk factor for psychological distress. Psychological distress among this subgroup could have public health implication for control of EVD, because of potential effects on patient management and contact tracing. We determined the Prevalence, pattern and factors associated with psychological distress among survivors and contacts of EVD and their relatives. In a descriptive cross sectional study, we used General Health Questionnaire to assess psychological distress and Oslo Social Support Scale to assess social support among 117 participants who survived EVD, listed as EVD contacts or their relatives at Ebola Emergency Operation Center in Lagos, Nigeria. Factors associated with psychological distress were determined using chi square/odds ratio and adjusted odds ratio. The mean age and standard deviation of participants was 34 +/ - 9.6 years. Of 117 participants, 78 (66.7%) were females, 77 (65.8%) had a tertiary education and 45 (38.5%) were health workers. Most frequently occurring psychological distress were inability to concentrate (37.6%) and loss of sleep over worry (33.3%). Losing a relation to EVD outbreak (OR = 6.0, 95% CI, 1.2-32.9) was significantly associated with feeling unhappy or depressed while being a health worker was protective (OR = 0.4, 95% CI, 0.2-0.9). Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) showed losing a relation (AOR = 5.7, 95% CI, 1.2-28.0) was a predictor of "feeling unhappy or depressed", loss of a relation (AOR = 10.1, 95% CI, 1.7-60.7) was a predictor of inability to concentrate. Survivors and contacts of EVD and their relations develop psychological distress. Development of psychological distress could be
Full Text Available This study aimed to assess the association between perceived social support (PSS and fatigue and the roles of hope, optimism, general self-efficacy and resilience as mediators or moderators on PSS-fatigue association among Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA patients in China.A multi-center, cross-sectional study was conducted withinpatients diagnosed with RA in northeast China, in which 305 eligible inpatients were enrolled. The Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory, Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, Herth Hope Index, Life Orientation Test Revised, General Self-Efficacy Scale and Ego-Resiliency Scale were completed. The associations of PSS, hope, optimism, general self-efficacy and resilience with fatigue and the moderating roles of these positive psychological constructs were tested by hierarchical linear regression. Asymptotic and resampling strategies were utilized to assess the mediating roles of hope, optimism, general self-efficacy and resilience.The mean score of the MFI was 57.88 (SD = 9.50. PSS, hope, optimism and resilience were negatively associated with RA-related fatigue, whereas DAS28-CRP was positively associated. Only resilience positively moderated the PSS-fatigue association (B = 0.03, β = 0.13, P<0.01. Hope, optimism and resilience may act as partial mediators in the association between PSS and fatigue symptoms (hope: a*b = -0.16, BCa 95%CI: -0.27, -0.03; optimism: a*b = -0.20, BCa 95%CI: -0.30, -0.10; resilience: a*b = -0.12, BCa 95%CI: -0.21-0.04.Fatigue is a severe symptom among RA patients. Resilience may positively moderate the PSS-fatigue association. Hope, optimism and resilience may act as partial mediators in the association. PSS, hope, optimism and resilience may contribute as effective recourses to alleviate fatigue, upon which PSS probably has the greatest effect.
Schulte, Marya; Liang, Di; Wu, Fei; Lan, Yu-Ching; Tsay, Wening; Du, Jiang; Zhao, Min; Li, Xu; Hser, Yih-Ing
Smartphone-based interventions are increasingly used to support self-monitoring, self-management, and treatment and medication compliance in order to improve overall functioning and well-being. In attempting to develop a smartphone application (S-Health) that assists heroin-dependent patients in recovery, a series of focus groups (72 patients, 22 providers) were conducted in China, Taiwan, and the USA to obtain their perspectives on its acceptance and potential adoption. Data were analyzed according to the Diffusion of Innovation (DOI) theory of characteristics important to the adoption of innovation. Important to Relative Advantage, USA participants cited S-Health's potential ability to overcome logistical barriers, while those in China and Taiwan valued its potential to supplement currently limited services. In terms of Compatibility, participants across sites reported recovery needs and goals that such an application could be helpful in supporting; however, its utility during strong craving was questioned in China and Taiwan. Important factors relevant to Complexity included concerns about smartphone access and familiarity, individualization of content, and particularly in China and Taiwan, participants wanted assurance of privacy and security. The study results suggest a general acceptance, but also indicate cultural variations in access to therapeutic and other social support systems, legal repercussions of substance use, societal perceptions of addiction, and the role of family and other social support in recovery. Taking these factors into consideration is likely to increase diffusion as well as effectiveness of these smartphone-based interventions.
MacLennan, S J; Murdoch, S E; Cox, T
There is a growing body of evidence on the importance of work following a diagnosis of cancer and the need to provide better information, advice and related support to patients on work engagement. The aim of this study was to better understand the nature of those needs and to identify better ways to meet these for those with a urological cancer. The focus was on the issues that were common to three key stakeholder groups. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with stakeholders in North East Scotland: 12 individuals with kidney, bladder or prostate cancer, 10 healthcare providers and 10 managers from large organisations. Five key themes emerged from the Framework Analysis: perceived importance of work engagement; decision-making: treatment, work and cancer; roles and responsibilities; education and training; information, advice and support resources. The data confirmed that work engagement is important to those with urological cancer. It also made clear that the current provision of information and advice could be improved. Any such interventions should involve all three key stakeholder groups with greater clarity on their respective roles and responsibilities. Finally, any new system would be best integrated with existing care provision and supported by adequate education and training of those involved. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
assess teenagers and adults who are working or to make a performance appraisal. 1...for copies) Briere, J. (1997). Psychological assessment of adult posttraumatic states. Washington D.C.: American Psychological Association...deployment and the nation represented by the respondent. Other communication devices included the use of the internet and webcams . Communication about the
Manne, Sharon; Sherman, Marne; Ross, Stephanie; Ostroff, Jamie; Heyman, Richard E.; Fox, Kevin
This study examined associations between couple communication about cancer and psychological distress and relationship satisfaction of women diagnosed with early stage breast cancer. One hundred forty-eight couples completed a videotaped discussion of a cancer-related issue and a general issue. Patients completed measures of psychological distress…
Grapin, Sally L.; Lee, Erica T.; Jaafar, Dounia
The lack of cultural diversity among practitioners and trainers in the field of school psychology has been recognized as a longstanding problem. In particular, individuals from racial, ethnic, and linguistic minority and international backgrounds often encounter a range of barriers to pursuing graduate study in school psychology. Given the urgent…
Reinder Pieters; Stef Weijers; Hans-Heinrich Glöckner
Decision Support Models could help Logistic Service Providers as a means to make transportation more sustainable. When researching this hypothesis, we discovered that Logistic Service Providers were reluctant to use Decision Support Models when making transportation more sustainable.
Bergeron, Félix-Antoine; Blais, Martin; Hébert, Martine
Introduction Sexual-minority youths (SMY) report high rates of psychological distress such as depression, anxiety and suicidal ideation (Burton, Marshal, Chisolm, Sucato et Friedman, 2013; Williams & Chapman, 2011). Several studies confirm that the poor mental health outcomes are partly related to their high likelihood of experiencing homophobic victimization (Blais, Gervais, Boucher, Hébert & Lavoie, 2013; Taylor & Peter, 2011; Hughes, McCabe, Wilsnack, West & Boyd, 2010; Chamberland, Richard & Bernier, 2013). Whereas the development of a positive sexual minority identity is crucial for the mental health of SMY (Chamberland, Richard & Chevrier, 2011; Rosario, Schrimshaw & Hunter, 2011; Luhtanen, 2002), the victimization they experience put them at risk of internalizing societal homophobia and heterosexism (Meyer, 2003; Hatzenbuehler, 2009). It is important to identify variables that may influence the impact of distal and proximal factors that impact SMY's mental health.Objectives The objectives of this paper are 1) to document different forms of homophobic victimization experienced by SMY, according to gender and age, and 2) to test the potential moderating effect of parental support in the relationship between homophobic victimization, internalized homophobia and psychological distress.Method Data come from 228 SMY aged 14 to 22 years old recruited through online means as part of the Quebec Youth's Romantic Relationships Survey. The impact of homophobic victimization, parental support, and internalized homophobia on psychological distress is explored by a linear regression model including moderated mediation effects.Results Results show the relationship between homophobic victimization and psychological distress as well as indirect significant relationship through internalized homophobia. The moderated mediation analysis also confirms the moderating role of parental support in the relationship between homophobic victimization and psychological distress. Thus
Gritsenko Valentina Vasilievna
Full Text Available The purpose of this work is to describe the psychological characteristics of communication of forum members concerning the situation of forced separation of married couples in a situation of labor migration. Practical relevance and novelty of the work is to identify opportunities of the Internet environment for psychological support for migrant workers’ families. Through the method of content analysis of materials of the Internet forums, the motives for applying for psychological support of family members to the participants of virtual communication in the situations of labor migration are identified, the reactions of the forum members on the suggested topics are analyzed. It is noted that the actuality of applying to the Internet resources often occurs at the stage of taking a decision of labor migration, rarely - at the stage of separation, as a rule, by the remaining partner. Most forum members assess a situation of going of one of the partners to work critically, describing negative scenarios. The article deals with coping strategies described on the forum which are estimated as the point of support, the expansion of psychological experience in a situation of forced separation. The examples of adaptive, not adaptive or relatively adaptive coping mechanisms implemented by the Forum members are given. The final conclusion of the article is an overview of possibility of communication in the Internet forums to search for effective strategies for coping with the situation of forced separation due to migration.
This study outlines how consensus in the development of an online intervention designed to support midwives in work-related psychological distress may be achieved. Study outcomes will steer the design and development of an intervention, and highlight the most salient themes and elements to be included within an online intervention to support midwives. Midwives are entitled to psychological support, yet this is an area in which a paucity of knowledge in relation to their needs resides. This early research is the first of its kind to highlight the needs of midwives. Its’ vision is to develop an evidence based solution to improve the health and well-being of midwives, as they, in turn, care for our mothers and babies.
The National Standards for High School Psychology Curricula attempts to represent current knowledge in the field of psychology in developmentally appropriate ways. Psychology is a popular high school course, one that can introduce students to scientific ideas and engage students in the learning process. However, it is difficult for even the best of teachers to present all of psychology in a single course for students who begin with virtually no formal knowledge of psychology. The standards presented here constitute the first of two reports in this issue of the American Psychologist (January 2013) representing recent American Psychological Association (APA) policies that support high-quality instruction in the teaching of high school psychology. These standards provide curricular benchmarks for student learning in the high school course.
Comorbidity structure of psychological disorders in the online e-PASS data as predictors of psychosocial adjustment measures: psychological distress, adequate social support, self-confidence, quality of life, and suicidal ideation.
Al-Asadi, Ali M; Klein, Britt; Meyer, Denny
A relative newcomer to the field of psychology, e-mental health has been gaining momentum and has been given considerable research attention. Although several aspects of e-mental health have been studied, 1 aspect has yet to receive attention: the structure of comorbidity of psychological disorders and their relationships with measures of psychosocial adjustment including suicidal ideation in online samples. This exploratory study attempted to identify the structure of comorbidity of 21 psychological disorders assessed by an automated online electronic psychological assessment screening system (e-PASS). The resulting comorbidity factor scores were then used to assess the association between comorbidity factor scores and measures of psychosocial adjustments (ie, psychological distress, suicidal ideation, adequate social support, self-confidence in dealing with mental health issues, and quality of life). A total of 13,414 participants were assessed using a complex online algorithm that resulted in primary and secondary Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fourth Edition, Text Revision) diagnoses for 21 psychological disorders on dimensional severity scales. The scores on these severity scales were used in a principal component analysis (PCA) and the resulting comorbidity factor scores were related to 4 measures of psychosocial adjustments. A PCA based on 17 of the 21 psychological disorders resulted in a 4-factor model of comorbidity: anxiety-depression consisting of all anxiety disorders, major depressive episode (MDE), and insomnia; substance abuse consisting of alcohol and drug abuse and dependency; body image-eating consisting of eating disorders, body dysmorphic disorder, and obsessive-compulsive disorders; depression-sleep problems consisting of MDE, insomnia, and hypersomnia. All comorbidity factor scores were significantly associated with psychosocial measures of adjustment (Psocial support, self-confidence, and quality of life. This
Christi Duette Luby
Full Text Available Due to U.S. military Base Realignment and Closure (BRAC efforts and ongoing Overseas Contingency Operations, the number of military servicemembers and veterans seeking civilian-based services has increased. As the military presence grows in previously underrepresented areas, the need for culturally competent providers will also increase both on and off military installations. The purpose of this article is to promote military cultural awareness, while suggesting ways to enhance existing community behavioral health and social support services. It builds on a review of the extant literature and findings from a community assessment to introduce civilian providers to some specific issues affecting servicemembers and their families. A framework describes ways to increase military cultural competence and build community capacity to enhance civilian-based services. In addition, two appendices list some common military terminology and multiple training resources available through military organizations and websites.
Magliano, Lorenza; Scutifero, Marianna; Patalano, Melania; Sagliocchi, Alessandra; Zaccaro, Antonella; Civati, Federica; Brighina, Erika; Vita, Gianluca; Messina, Sonia; Sframeli, Maria; Lombardo, Maria Elena; Scalise, Roberta; Colia, Giulia; Catteruccia, Maria; Berardinelli, Angela; Motta, Maria Chiara; Gaiani, Alessandra; Semplicini, Claudio; Bello, Luca; Astrea, Guja; Ricci, Giulia; D'Angelo, Maria Grazia; Vita, Giuseppe; Pane, Marika; D'Amico, Adele; Balottin, Umberto; Angelini, Corrado; Battini, Roberta; Politano, Luisa
This paper describes the psycho-social treatments received by 502 patients with MDs and their relatives, and the costs for care sustained by the families in the previous six month period. Data were collected by the MD-Care Schedule (MD-CS) and the Family Problems Questionnaire (FPQ). Psycho-educational interventions were provided to 72 patients (14.3%), and social/welfare support to 331 patients (65.9%). Social/welfare support was higher in patients with DMD or LGMD, in those showing more severe disability, and in patients who were in contact with centres located in Northern Italy. Psycho-educational interventions were received by 156 (31%) relatives, and social/welfare support by 55 (10.9%) and mainly provided by Family/Patients Associations (83.6%). Relatives with higher educational levels, who spent more daily hours in the assistance of patients with DMD, and in contact with centres in Central Italy more frequently benefited from psycho-educational interventions. In the previous year, costs for care were sustained by 314 (63.9%) relatives. Financial difficulties related to patient's condition, were higher in families of patients who needed more intensive rehabilitation and daily hours of caregiving, and in families who lived further away from the reference's centre. These results showed that psycho-social aspects of MDs care are only partially met in Italy, and that ad hoc supportive interventions for these patients and their families should be potentiated.
Holstiege, Jakob; Mathes, Tim; Pieper, Dawid
To assess the effectiveness of computer-aided clinical decision support systems (CDSS) in improving antibiotic prescribing in primary care. A literature search utilizing Medline (via PubMed) and Embase (via Embase) was conducted up to November 2013. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and cluster randomized trials (CRTs) that evaluated the effects of CDSS aiming at improving antibiotic prescribing practice in an ambulatory primary care setting were included for review. Two investigators independently extracted data about study design and quality, participant characteristics, interventions, and outcomes. Seven studies (4 CRTs, 3 RCTs) met our inclusion criteria. All studies were performed in the USA. Proportions of eligible patient visits that triggered CDSS use varied substantially between intervention arms of studies (range 2.8-62.8%). Five out of seven trials showed marginal to moderate statistically significant effects of CDSS in improving antibiotic prescribing behavior. CDSS that automatically provided decision support were more likely to improve prescribing practice in contrast to systems that had to be actively initiated by healthcare providers. CDSS show promising effectiveness in improving antibiotic prescribing behavior in primary care. Magnitude of effects compared to no intervention, appeared to be similar to other moderately effective single interventions directed at primary care providers. Additional research is warranted to determine CDSS characteristics crucial to triggering high adoption by providers as a perquisite of clinically relevant improvement of antibiotic prescribing. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.orgFor numbered affiliations see end of article.
Telles-Silveira, Mariana; Tonetto-Fernandes, Vânia F; Schiller, Paulo; Kater, Claudio E
To identify relevant questions related to sex definition and re-designation and reconstructive surgery in patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), and to understand the role of the psychologist in providing care for these patients. We selected 21 subjects: 7 pediatric endocrinologists from 5 Brazilian Public Health System institutions, 9 parents and 6 patients with CAH, according to a qualitative research model. In this paper, 3 of the studied categories are analyzed: 'sex definition and re-designation', 'reconstructive surgery/vaginal dilation', and 'psychology'. Parents' main anguish relates to the situation of an unnamed sex at birth, whereas sex re-designation was distressful to physicians. A sense of loneliness when dealing with the disease and treatment was a common anguish among patients; dilation procedures were the major complaint. In general, physicians recommend that genital reconstructive surgery be performed early on to avoid future trauma. In such a complex scenario, it is remarkable that not all the reference service staff have a psychologist on duty. Difficulties to deal with questions involving sexuality were evident and dilation procedures are an additional source of trauma for these patients.
Northcott, Sarah; Simpson, Alan; Moss, Becky; Ahmed, Nafiso; Hilari, Katerina
Background: People with aphasia are at risk of becoming depressed and isolated. Online surveys have found that the majority of speech and language therapists (SLTs) lack confidence in addressing the psychological needs of people with aphasia. Aims: To explore how SLTs conceptualize the scope of their role; barriers and facilitators to SLTs…
Horney, Jennifer A; Markiewicz, Milissa; Meyer, Anne Marie; Macdonald, Pia D M
Since 2001, many states have created regional structures in an effort to better coordinate/public health preparedness and response efforts, consolidate services, and supplement local government capacity. While several studies have identified specific benefits to regionalization, including enhanced networking, coordination, and communication, little research has examined the effect of regionalization on specific preparedness and response activities. To better understand the impact of regionalizing public health workforce assets in North Carolina, a survey aimed at documenting specific support and services that Public Health Regional Surveillance Teams(PHRSTs) provide to local health departments (LHDs) was developed and administered by the North Carolina Preparedness and Emergency Response Research Center, located at the North Carolina Institute for Public Health. Of80 potential types of assistance, 26 (33%) were received by 75% or more LHDs, including 9 related to communication and 7 related to exercises. There was significant variation by PHRST region in both the quantity and quality of support and services reported by LHDs. This variation could not be explained by county- or LHD-level variables. PHRST assistance to LHDs is largely focused on communication and liaison activities, regional exercises, and planning. On the basis of these findings, regionalization may provide North Carolina with benefits consistent with those found in other studies such as improved networking and coordination. However, further research is needed to identify whether regional variation is the result of varying capacity or priorities of the PHRSTs or LHDs and to determine how much variation is acceptable.
Background The development, implementation and evaluation of community interventions are important for reducing child violence and injuries in low- to middle-income contexts, with successful implementation critical to effective intervention outcomes. The assessment of implementation processes is required to identify the factors that influence effective implementation. This article draws on a child safety, peace and health initiative to examine key factors that enabled or hindered its implementation, in a context characterised by limited resources. Methods A case study approach was employed. The research team was made up of six researchers and intervention coordinators, who led the development and implementation of the Ukuphepha Child Study in South Africa, and who are also the authors of this article. The study used author observations, reflections and discussions of the factors perceived to influence the implementation of the intervention. The authors engaged in an in-depth and iterative dialogic process aimed at abstracting the experiences of the intervention, with a recursive cycle of reflection and dialogue. Data were analysed utilising inductive content analysis, and categorised using classification frameworks for understanding implementation. Results The study highlights key factors that enabled or hindered implementation. These included the community context and concomitant community engagement processes; intervention compatibility and adaptability issues; community service provider perceptions of intervention relevance and expectations; and the intervention support system, characterised by training and mentorship support. Conclusions This evaluation illustrated the complexity of intervention implementation. The study approach sought to support intervention fidelity by fostering and maintaining community endorsement and support, a prerequisite for the unfolding implementation of the intervention. PMID:25081088
Dennis, Michael L; Scott, Christy K; Funk, Rodney R; Nicholson, Lisa
Smartphone applications can potentially provide recovery monitoring and support in real-time, real-life contexts. Study aims included determining feasibility of (a) adolescents completing ecological momentary assessments (EMAs) and utilizing phone-based ecological momentary interventions (EMIs); and (b) using EMA and EMI data to predict substance use in the subsequent week. Twenty-nine adolescents were recruited at discharge from residential treatment, regardless of their discharge status or length of stay. During the 6-week pilot, youth were prompted to complete an EMA at 6 random times per day and were provided access to a suite of recovery support EMI. Youth completed 87% of the 5580 EMAs. Based on use in the next 7 days, EMA observations were classified into 3 risk groups: "Current Use" in the past 30 minutes (3% of observations), "Unrecognized Risk" (42%), or "Recognized Risk" (55%). All youth had observations in 2 or more risk groups and 38% in all 3. Youth accessed an EMI on average 162 times each week. Participants were 31% female, 48% African American, 21% Caucasian, 7% Hispanic, and 24% Mixed/Other; average age was 16.6 years. During the 90 days prior to entering treatment, youth reported using alcohol (38%), marijuana (41%), and other drugs (7%). When compared with the "Recognized Risk" group's use in the following week (31%), both the "Unrecognized Risk" (50%, odds ratio [OR]=2.08) and "Current Use" (96%, OR=50.30) groups reported significantly higher rates of use in the next week. When an EMI was accessed 2 or more times within the hour following an EMA, the rate of using during the next week was significantly lower than when EMIs were not accessed (32% vs. 43%, OR=0.62). Results demonstrate the feasibility of using smartphones for recovery monitoring and support with adolescents, with potential to reduce use.
Catie CW Lai
Full Text Available While literature has displayed a link between psychological well-being (i.e. depression, hopelessness, and life satisfaction and health-risk behaviors (i.e. smoking, drinking, suicide, and physical inactivity, the mechanisms underlying this relationship have received little empirical attention. This study examines the mediation effects of social support (from family, friends, and significant others that accounted for the link. Participants were 2023 university students (47.7% male. Structural equation modeling showed partial mediation effect of social support between psychological well-being and health-risk behaviors. In particular, social support from family and friends jointly mediated about 80 percent of the effect of life satisfaction and hopelessness on drinking. These results offered novel evidence that helps improve theorizing the mechanisms of the relationship between psychological well-being and health-risk behaviors. They also highlighted the potential benefits of social support for university students to help them stay healthy. The implications of these results are discussed.
Aitken, Peter; Leggat, Peter; Harley, Hazel; Speare, Richard; Leclercq, Muriel
Background It is likely that calls for disaster medical assistance teams (DMATs) continue in response to international disasters. As part of a national survey, the present study was designed to evaluate the Australian DMAT experience and the need for logistic support. Methods Data were collected via an anonymous mailed survey distributed via State and Territory representatives on the Australian Health Protection Committee, who identified team members associated with Australian DMAT deployments from the 2004 Asian Tsunami disaster. Results The response rate for this survey was 50% (59/118). Most of the personnel had deployed to the South East Asian Tsunami affected areas. The DMAT members had significant clinical and international experience. There was unanimous support for dedicated logistic support with 80% (47/59) strongly agreeing. Only one respondent (2%) disagreed with teams being self sufficient for a minimum of 72 hours. Most felt that transport around the site was not a problem (59%; 35/59), however, 34% (20/59) felt that transport to the site itself was problematic. Only 37% (22/59) felt that pre-deployment information was accurate. Communication with local health providers and other agencies was felt to be adequate by 53% (31/59) and 47% (28/59) respectively, while only 28% (17/59) felt that documentation methods were easy to use and reliable. Less than half (47%; 28/59) felt that equipment could be moved easily between areas by team members and 37% (22/59) that packaging enabled materials to be found easily. The maximum safe container weight was felt to be between 20 and 40 kg by 58% (34/59). Conclusions This study emphasises the importance of dedicated logistic support for DMAT and the need for teams to be self sufficient for a minimum period of 72 hours. There is a need for accurate pre deployment information to guide resource prioritisation with clearly labelled pre packaging to assist access on site. Container weights should be restricted to between
Han, Jeong Yeob; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Yoon, Hye Jin; Shim, Minsun; McTavish, Fiona M.; Gustafson, David H.
Despite the benefits and growing availability of online cancer support groups, many breast cancer patients still do not actively participate in the support groups. To better understand cancer patients’ online information and support seeking behaviors, this study explores how various social and psychological characteristics predict different levels of engagement with an online breast cancer support group: posters, lurkers, and non-users. The study sample included 231 recently diagnosed breast cancer patients. Data included baseline survey scores of demographic, disease-related, and psychosocial factors and automatically collected discussion group use data over the 4-month intervention. Patterns of engagement with the cancer support group differed according to the patients’ characteristics, suggesting that (1) cancer patients have very different orientations to and engagement with an online support group, and (2) ‘deficits’ in social and psychological resources may not be barriers to participation in a cancer support group, but rather motivators to interact with other patients. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:22085215
Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known of the importance of social support in the associations between psychological distress and somatic health problems and socio-economic factors among older adults living at home. The objectives of the present study were to investigate the associations of social support, somatic health problems and socio-economic factors with psychological distress. We also examined changes in the association of somatic health problems and socio-economic factors with psychological distress after adjusting for social support. Methods A random sample of 4,000 persons aged 65 years or more living at home in Oslo was drawn. Questionnaires were sent by post, and the total response was 2,387 (64%. Psychological distress was assessed using Hopkins Symptom Checklist (HSCL-10 and social support with the Oslo-3 Social Support Scale (OSS-3. A principal component analysis (PCA included all items of social support and psychological distress. Partial correlations were used, while associations were studied by logistic regression. Results After adjusting for socio-demographics and somatic health problems, we reported a statistically significant association between psychological distress and social support: “Number of close friends”, OR 0.61; 95% CI 0.47-0.80; “Concern and interest”, OR 0.68; 95% CI 0.55-0.84. A strong association between lack of social support and psychological distress, irrespective of variables adjusted for, indicated a direct effect. The associations between psychological distress and physical impairments were somewhat reduced when adjusted for social support, particularly for hearing, whereas the associations between somatic diagnoses and psychological distress were more or less eliminated. Income was found to be an independent determinant for psychological distress. Conclusions Lack of social support and somatic health problems were associated with psychological distress in elders. Social support acted as a
Burgos, Jose L.; Yee, Daniel; Csordas, Thomas; Vargas-Ojeda, Adriana C.; Segovia, Luis A.; Strathdee, Steffanie A.; Olivares-Nevarez, Jose A.; Ojeda, Victoria D.
Background The sizeable US Latino population calls for increasing the pipeline of minority and bilingual physicians who can provide culturally competent care. Currently, only 5.5% of US providers are Hispanic/Latino, compared with 16% of the US population (i.e., >50.5 million persons). By 2060, it is predicted that about one-third of all US residents will be of Latino ethnicity. Activities and outcomes This article describes the Health Frontiers in Tijuana Undergraduate Internship Program (HFiT-UIP), a new quarterly undergraduate internship program based at a US–Mexico binational student-run free clinic and sponsored by the University of California, San Diego School of Medicine and the Universidad Autónoma de Baja California in Tijuana, Mexico. The HFiT-UIP provides learning opportunities for students and underrepresented minorities interested in medical careers, specifically Latino health. Discussion The HFiT-UIP might serve as a model for other educational partnerships across the US–Mexico border region and may help minority and other undergraduates seeking academic and community-based enrichment experiences. The HFiT-UIP can also support students’ desires to learn about Latino, border, and global health within resource-limited settings. PMID:26088189
Jose L. Burgos
Full Text Available Background: The sizeable US Latino population calls for increasing the pipeline of minority and bilingual physicians who can provide culturally competent care. Currently, only 5.5% of US providers are Hispanic/Latino, compared with 16% of the US population (i.e., >50.5 million persons. By 2060, it is predicted that about one-third of all US residents will be of Latino ethnicity. Activities and outcomes: This article describes the Health Frontiers in Tijuana Undergraduate Internship Program (HFiT-UIP, a new quarterly undergraduate internship program based at a US–Mexico binational student-run free clinic and sponsored by the University of California, San Diego School of Medicine and the Universidad Autónoma de Baja California in Tijuana, Mexico. The HFiT-UIP provides learning opportunities for students and underrepresented minorities interested in medical careers, specifically Latino health. Discussion: The HFiT-UIP might serve as a model for other educational partnerships across the US–Mexico border region and may help minority and other undergraduates seeking academic and community-based enrichment experiences. The HFiT-UIP can also support students’ desires to learn about Latino, border, and global health within resource-limited settings.
Burgos, Jose L; Yee, Daniel; Csordas, Thomas; Vargas-Ojeda, Adriana C; Segovia, Luis A; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Olivares-Nevarez, Jose A; Ojeda, Victoria D
The sizeable US Latino population calls for increasing the pipeline of minority and bilingual physicians who can provide culturally competent care. Currently, only 5.5% of US providers are Hispanic/Latino, compared with 16% of the US population (i.e., >50.5 million persons). By 2060, it is predicted that about one-third of all US residents will be of Latino ethnicity. This article describes the Health Frontiers in Tijuana Undergraduate Internship Program (HFiT-UIP), a new quarterly undergraduate internship program based at a US-Mexico binational student-run free clinic and sponsored by the University of California, San Diego School of Medicine and the Universidad Autónoma de Baja California in Tijuana, Mexico. The HFiT-UIP provides learning opportunities for students and underrepresented minorities interested in medical careers, specifically Latino health. The HFiT-UIP might serve as a model for other educational partnerships across the US-Mexico border region and may help minority and other undergraduates seeking academic and community-based enrichment experiences. The HFiT-UIP can also support students' desires to learn about Latino, border, and global health within resource-limited settings.
Paxton, Avery B; Pickering, Emily A; Adler, Alyssa M; Taylor, J Christopher; Peterson, Charles H
Structural complexity, a form of habitat heterogeneity, influences the structure and function of ecological communities, generally supporting increased species density, richness, and diversity. Recent research, however, suggests the most complex habitats may not harbor the highest density of individuals and number of species, especially in areas with elevated human influence. Understanding nuances in relationships between habitat heterogeneity and ecological communities is warranted to guide habitat-focused conservation and management efforts. We conducted fish and structural habitat surveys of thirty warm-temperate reefs on the southeastern US continental shelf to quantify how structural complexity influences fish communities. We found that intermediate complexity maximizes fish abundance on natural and artificial reefs, as well as species richness on natural reefs, challenging the current paradigm that abundance and other fish community metrics increase with increasing complexity. Naturally occurring rocky reefs of flat and complex morphologies supported equivalent abundance, biomass, species richness, and community composition of fishes. For flat and complex morphologies of rocky reefs to receive equal consideration as essential fish habitat (EFH), special attention should be given to detecting pavement type rocky reefs because their ephemeral nature makes them difficult to detect with typical seafloor mapping methods. Artificial reefs of intermediate complexity also maximized fish abundance, but human-made structures composed of low-lying concrete and metal ships differed in community types, with less complex, concrete structures supporting lower numbers of fishes classified largely as demersal species and metal ships protruding into the water column harboring higher numbers of fishes, including more pelagic species. Results of this study are essential to the process of evaluating habitat function provided by different types and shapes of reefs on the seafloor
Avery B Paxton
Full Text Available Structural complexity, a form of habitat heterogeneity, influences the structure and function of ecological communities, generally supporting increased species density, richness, and diversity. Recent research, however, suggests the most complex habitats may not harbor the highest density of individuals and number of species, especially in areas with elevated human influence. Understanding nuances in relationships between habitat heterogeneity and ecological communities is warranted to guide habitat-focused conservation and management efforts. We conducted fish and structural habitat surveys of thirty warm-temperate reefs on the southeastern US continental shelf to quantify how structural complexity influences fish communities. We found that intermediate complexity maximizes fish abundance on natural and artificial reefs, as well as species richness on natural reefs, challenging the current paradigm that abundance and other fish community metrics increase with increasing complexity. Naturally occurring rocky reefs of flat and complex morphologies supported equivalent abundance, biomass, species richness, and community composition of fishes. For flat and complex morphologies of rocky reefs to receive equal consideration as essential fish habitat (EFH, special attention should be given to detecting pavement type rocky reefs because their ephemeral nature makes them difficult to detect with typical seafloor mapping methods. Artificial reefs of intermediate complexity also maximized fish abundance, but human-made structures composed of low-lying concrete and metal ships differed in community types, with less complex, concrete structures supporting lower numbers of fishes classified largely as demersal species and metal ships protruding into the water column harboring higher numbers of fishes, including more pelagic species. Results of this study are essential to the process of evaluating habitat function provided by different types and shapes of