WorldWideScience

Sample records for providing proper investigation

  1. Investigating Coherent Structures in the Standard Turbulence Models using Proper Orthogonal Decomposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eliassen, Lene; Andersen, Søren Juhl

    2016-01-01

    , especially for offshore floating wind turbines. In this study the spatial distributions of the two turbulence models are investigated using Proper Orthogonal Decomposition, which is used to characterize large coherent structures. The main focus has been on the structures that contain the most energy, which......The wind turbine design standards recommend two different methods to generate turbulent wind for design load analysis, the Kaimal spectra combined with an exponential coherence function and the Mann turbulence model. The two turbulence models can give very different estimates of fatigue life...... turbulence models can be the reason for differences in fatigue life estimates for wind turbines....

  2. Investigating Coherent Structures in the Standard Turbulence Models using Proper Orthogonal Decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliassen, Lene; Andersen, Søren

    2016-09-01

    The wind turbine design standards recommend two different methods to generate turbulent wind for design load analysis, the Kaimal spectra combined with an exponential coherence function and the Mann turbulence model. The two turbulence models can give very different estimates of fatigue life, especially for offshore floating wind turbines. In this study the spatial distributions of the two turbulence models are investigated using Proper Orthogonal Decomposition, which is used to characterize large coherent structures. The main focus has been on the structures that contain the most energy, which are the lowest POD modes. The Mann turbulence model generates coherent structures that stretches in the horizontal direction for the longitudinal component, while the structures found in the Kaimal model are more random in their shape. These differences in the coherent structures at lower frequencies for the two turbulence models can be the reason for differences in fatigue life estimates for wind turbines.

  3. Investigating differences between proper and common nouns using novel word learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasiya Romanova

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Empirical studies have shown higher rates of tip-of-the-tongue states for proper nouns, in comparison to common nouns, in non-brain-damaged speakers (e.g., Valentine & Moore, 1995, and higher retrieval failure rates for proper nouns relative to common nouns in people with aphasia (e.g., Semenza, 2009. Some authors suggest the source of these differences lies in logical properties (e.g., Semenza, 2009. That is, common nouns refer to a category of beings or objects that share certain semantic properties, while proper nouns designate specific individual beings or objects with unique features. Other authors attribute the distinction in processing to a number of statistical properties that differ across common and proper nouns (Kay, Hanley, & Miles, 2001. The aims of the present study were: 1 to dissociate the effects of logical and statistical properties by using novel words with equal statistical properties; 2 to determine whether people with aphasia show disproportionate impairments in learning proper nouns relative to common nouns, compared to aged-matched subjects. Methods We tested young (n=16 and elderly (n=14 adult non-brain-damaged participants and people with aphasia (n=2. Items-to-be-learnt were given as representatives of an unknown species (n=10 in the common noun condition, or as individual creatures (n=10 in the proper noun condition. The experiment consisted of 5 sessions. Each session included a learning phase and a test phase with naming and word-picture verification tasks. Results and Discussion Preliminary analysis showed learning of both common and proper nouns for both younger (F(4=140.68, p<.01 and elderly (F(4=34.87, p<.01 non-brain-damaged participants, with learning being significantly better for the younger group (F(4=6.5, p<.01. Contrary to expectations, performance on proper nouns was better than that for common nouns for both young and elderly subjects (F(1=6.47, p=.02 and F(1=9.75, p<.01, respectively, possibly due to

  4. Proper protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Arbab (Farhad)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractTreating interaction as an explicit first-class concept, complete with its own composition operators, leads to a model of concurrency that allows direct specification and manipulation of protocols as proper mathematical objects. Reo [2,5,6,8] serves as a premier example of such an

  5. Investigation of the Knowledge and Skill of Proper Consumption of Fruit and Vegetables among Shahrekord Adolescent Girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ramezankhani

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The life style is formed and stabilized in adolescence. Since consumption of fruits and vegetables may affect the risk of chronic diseases, their low consumption during adolescence is very important. Knowledge and skill is considered as one of the main determinants of this behavior. This study aimed to investigate the Knowledge and skill of proper consumption of fruit and vegetables among adolescent girls in Shahrekord, Iran. Materials and Methods: This study was a descriptive-analytic investigation conducted on high school girls in Shahrekord city during 2013 to 2014. 308 female students were selected randomly from 8 high schools and a researcher made questionnaire was used to collect the demographic, Knowledge and skill related data. Validity and reliability of the questionnaire was evaluated by internal consistency method (Cronbach's alpha = 0.70, Cronbach's alpha= 0.76, respectively. The collected data was analyzed by SPSS-21 software. Results: The mean age of students was 13.86 ± 1.3 years. There was no statistically significant association between consumption of fruit and vegetables and fathers’ education level, mothers’ job and parents’ age. However, there was a significant association between fathers’ job and adolescents’ skill of fruit and vegetables consumption (P< 0.05. In addition, a significant association between mothers’ education level and adolescents’ knowledge and skill of fruit and vegetables consumption was observed (P

  6. Investigation of the Effects of Length to Depth Ratio on Open Supersonic Cavities Using CFD and Proper Orthogonal Decomposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Yilmaz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Simulations of supersonic turbulent flow over an open rectangular cavity are performed to observe the effects of length to depth ratio (L/D of the cavity on the flow structure. Two-dimensional compressible time-dependent Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations with k-ω turbulence model are solved. A reduced order modeling approach, Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD method, is used to further analyze the flow. Results are obtained for cavities with several L/D ratios at a Mach number of 1.5. Mostly, sound pressure levels (SPL are used for comparison. After a reduced order modeling approach, the number of modes necessary to represent the systems is observed for each case. The necessary minimum number of modes to define the system increases as the flow becomes more complex with the increase in the L/D ratio. This study provides a basis for the control of flow over supersonic open cavities by providing a reduced order model for flow control, and it also gives an insight to cavity flow physics by comparing several simulation results with different length to depth ratios.

  7. Healthcare provider and patient perspectives on diagnostic imaging investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makanjee, Chandra R; Bergh, Anne-Marie; Hoffmann, Willem A

    2015-05-20

    Much has been written about the patient-centred approach in doctor-patient consultations. Little is known about interactions and communication processes regarding healthcare providers' and patients' perspectives on expectations and experiences of diagnostic imaging investigations within the medical encounter. Patients journey through the health system from the point of referral to the imaging investigation itself and then to the post-imaging consultation. AIM AND SETTING: To explore healthcare provider and patient perspectives on interaction and communication processes during diagnostic imaging investigations as part of their clinical journey through a healthcare complex. A qualitative study was conducted, with two phases of data collection. Twenty-four patients were conveniently selected at a public district hospital complex and were followed throughout their journey in the hospital system, from admission to discharge. The second phase entailed focus group interviews conducted with providers in the district hospital and adjacent academic hospital (medical officers and family physicians, nurses, radiographers, radiology consultants and registrars). Two main themes guided our analysis: (1) provider perspectives; and (2) patient dispositions and reactions. Golden threads that cut across these themes are interactions and communication processes in the context of expectations, experiences of the imaging investigations and the outcomes thereof. Insights from this study provide a better understanding of the complexity of the processes and interactions between providers and patients during the imaging investigations conducted as part of their clinical pathway. The interactions and communication processes are provider-patient centred when a referral for a diagnostic imaging investigation is included.

  8. Healthcare provider and patient perspectives on diagnostic imaging investigations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandra R. Makanjee

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Much has been written about the patient-centred approach in doctor–patient consultations. Little is known about interactions and communication processes regarding healthcare providers’ and patients’ perspectives on expectations and experiences of diagnostic imaging investigations within the medical encounter. Patients journey through the health system from the point of referral to the imaging investigation itself and then to the post-imaging consultation.Aim and setting: To explore healthcare provider and patient perspectives on interaction and communication processes during diagnostic imaging investigations as part of their clinical journey through a healthcare complex.Methods: A qualitative study was conducted, with two phases of data collection. Twenty-four patients were conveniently selected at a public district hospital complex and were followed throughout their journey in the hospital system, from admission to discharge. The second phase entailed focus group interviews conducted with providers in the district hospital and adjacent academic hospital (medical officers and family physicians, nurses, radiographers, radiology consultants and registrars.Results: Two main themes guided our analysis: (1 provider perspectives; and (2 patient dispositions and reactions. Golden threads that cut across these themes are interactions and communication processes in the context of expectations, experiences of the imaging investigations and the outcomes thereof.Conclusion: Insights from this study provide a better understanding of the complexity of the processes and interactions between providers and patients during the imaging investigations conducted as part of their clinical pathway. The interactions and communication processes are provider–patient centred when a referral for a diagnostic imaging investigation is included.

  9. How are 'Barack Obama' and 'President Elect' differentially stored in the brain? An ERP investigation on the processing of proper and common noun pairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proverbio, Alice Mado; Mariani, Serena; Zani, Alberto; Adorni, Roberta

    2009-09-23

    One of the most debated issues in the cognitive neuroscience of language is whether distinct semantic domains are differentially represented in the brain. Clinical studies described several anomic dissociations with no clear neuroanatomical correlate. Neuroimaging studies have shown that memory retrieval is more demanding for proper than common nouns in that the former are purely arbitrary referential expressions. In this study a semantic relatedness paradigm was devised to investigate neural processing of proper and common nouns. 780 words (arranged in pairs of Italian nouns/adjectives and the first/last names of well known persons) were presented. Half pairs were semantically related ("Woody Allen" or "social security"), while the others were not ("Sigmund Parodi" or "judicial cream"). All items were balanced for length, frequency, familiarity and semantic relatedness. Participants were to decide about the semantic relatedness of the two items in a pair. RTs and N400 data suggest that the task was more demanding for common nouns. The LORETA neural generators for the related-unrelated contrast (for proper names) included the left fusiform gyrus, right medial temporal gyrus, limbic and parahippocampal regions, inferior parietal and inferior frontal areas, which are thought to be involved in the conjoined processing a familiar face with the relevant episodic information. Person name was more emotional and sensory vivid than common noun semantic access. When memory retrieval is not required, proper name access (conspecifics knowledge) is not more demanding. The neural generators of N400 to unrelated items (unknown persons and things) did not differ as a function of lexical class, thus suggesting that proper and common nouns are not treated differently as belonging to different grammatical classes.

  10. [Repetitive syncopale loss of consciousness by properly functioning pacemaker. Ophthalmodynamographic, ophthalmodynamometric, and cerebral-scinitigraphic investigations (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidrich, H; Mebes, W; Kypke, W; Haubold, U; Soulier, W

    1977-10-01

    In spite of an intact pacemaker function, 3.8% of 444 patients with an implanted cardiac pacemaker taking part in a regular follow-up program had repetitive syncopes. The investigation thereafter, whether or not these attacks were symptoms of occlusive vascular disease of the carotid arteries, included a thorough physical and angiological examination, ophthalmodynamometry (ODM), ophthalmodynamography (ODG), and radionuclide angiography. The results were compared to those of a group of 46 cardiac pacemaker patients without syncopes after the implantation of the pacemaker: 29% of the patients with syncopes and 15% of the patients without syncopes showed ODM-, ODG-, and radionuclide angiography results compatible with carotid artery insufficiency; statistically, however, the group differences were insignificant. The reasons are discussed why ODM, ODG, and radionuclide angiography appear to be ineffective for the diagnosis of carotid artery occlusion in patients with an implanted cardiac pacemaker.

  11. Provider documentation of patient education: a lean investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean P. Shipman, MSLS, AHIP, FMLA

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The study evaluates how providers give patient education materials and identifies improvements to comply with Meaningful Use (MU requirements. Methods: Thirty-eight patient-provider interactions in two health care outpatient clinics were observed. Results: Providers do not uniformly know MU patient education requirements. Providers have individual preferences and find gaps in what is available. Accessing and documenting patient education varies among providers. Embedded electronic health record (EHR materials, while available, have technical access barriers. Conclusions: Providers’ EHR skills and knowledge levels contribute to non-standardized patient education delivery.

  12. An investigation into e-learning practices: Implications for providers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The last decade has seen a considerable growth in the application of e-learning courses in most higher education institutions and in companies that provide inhouse training for employees. Hereby recognition is given that modern information and telecommunication technologies can help educators to meet the dual

  13. 32 CFR 154.35 - Personal data provided by the subject of the investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Personal data provided by the subject of the... Investigations § 154.35 Personal data provided by the subject of the investigation. (a) To conduct the required investigation, it is necessary that the investigative agency be provided certain relevant data concerning the...

  14. PROMOTIONS: PROper MOTION Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caleb Wherry, John; Sahai, R.

    2009-05-01

    We report on the development of a software tool (PROMOTIONS) to streamline the process of measuring proper motions of material in expanding nebulae. Our tool makes use of IDL's widget programming capabilities to design a unique GUI that is used to compare images of the objects from two epochs. The software allows us to first orient and register the images to a common frame of reference and pixel scale, using field stars in each of the images. We then cross-correlate specific morphological features in order to determine their proper motions, which consist of the proper motion of the nebula as a whole (PM-neb), and expansion motions of the features relative to the center. If the central star is not visible (quite common in bipolar nebulae with dense dusty waists), point-symmetric expansion is assumed and we use the average motion of high-quality symmetric pairs of features on opposite sides of the nebular center to compute PM-neb. This is then subtracted out to determine the individual movements of these and additional features relative to the nebular center. PROMOTIONS should find wide applicability in measuring proper motions in astrophysical objects such as the expanding outflows/jets commonly seen around young and dying stars. We present first results from using PROMOTIONS to successfully measure proper motions in several pre-planetary nebulae (transition objects between the red giant and planetary nebula phases), using images taken 7-10 years apart with the WFPC2 and ACS instruments on board HST. The authors are grateful to NASA's Undergradute Scholars Research Program (USRP) for supporting this research.

  15. Proper Islamic Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Johan

    '[T]his book is an excellent study that is lucidly written, strongly informed by theory, rich in ethnography, and empirically grounded. It has blazed a new trail in employing the tools of both religious studies and cultural studies to dissect the complex subject of “proper Islamic consumption......”. It is a must-read for researchers and students alike, especially those who want to pursue their study on the middle class, Islam and consumption.' Reviewed by Prof. Abdul Rahman Embong, Asian Anthropology    'This volume does make an important contribution to our understanding of the responses of socially...... spite of a long line of social theory analyzing the spiritual in the economic, and vice versa, very little of the recent increase in scholarship on Islam addresses its relationship with capitalism. Johan Fischer’s book,Proper Islamic Consumption, begins to fill this gap. […] Fischer’s detailed...

  16. Principles of Proper Validation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbensen, Kim; Geladi, Paul

    2010-01-01

    of proper validation objectives implies that there is one valid paradigm only: test set validation. (iii) Contrary to much contemporary chemometric practices (and validation myths), cross-validation is shown to be unjustified in the form of monolithic application of a one-for-all procedure (segmented cross...... to suffer from the same deficiencies. The PPV are universal and can be applied to all situations in which the assessment of performance is desired: prediction-, classification-, time series forecasting-, modeling validation. The key element of PPV is the Theory of Sampling (TOS), which allow insight...

  17. Assessing patient awareness of proper hand hygiene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busby, Sunni R; Kennedy, Bryan; Davis, Stephanie C; Thompson, Heather A; Jones, Jan W

    2015-05-01

    The authors hypothesized that patients may not understand the forms of effective hand hygiene employed in the hospital environment. Multiple studies demonstrate the importance of hand hygiene in reducing healthcare-associated infections (HAIs). Extensive research about how to improve compliance has been conducted. Patients' perceptions of proper hand hygiene were evaluated when caregivers used soap and water, waterless hand cleaner, or a combination of these. No significant differences were observed, but many patients reported they did not notice whether their providers cleaned their hands. Educating patients and their caregivers about the protection afforded by proper, consistent hand hygiene practices is important. Engaging patients to monitor healthcare workers may increase compliance, reduce the spread of infection, and lead to better overall patient outcomes. This study revealed a need to investigate the effects of patient education on patient perceptions of hand hygiene. Results of this study appear to indicate a need to focus on patient education and the differences between soap and water versus alcohol-based hand sanitizers as part of proper hand hygiene. Researchers could be asking: "Why have patients not been engaged as members of the healthcare team who have the most to lose?"

  18. Kosambi and Proper Orthogonal Decomposition

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 16; Issue 6. Kosambi and the Proper Orthogonal Decomposition. Roddam Narasimha. General ... Keywords. Proper orthogonal decomposition; Karhunen–Loéve expansion; statistics in function space; characteristic eddies; special calculating machines.

  19. Mold Allergy: Proper Humidifier Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Training Home Conditions Allergy Allergy: Overview Allergy: Allergens Mold Allergy Proper Humidifier Care Proper Humidifier Care Make ... neglected humidifier can be a major source of mold and mold spores. Learn how to keep a ...

  20. Beyond Compassion: Replacing a Blame Culture With Proper Emotional Support and Management; Comment on “Why and How Is Compassion Necessary to Provide Good Quality Healthcare?”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiannis Gabriel

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The absence of compassion, argues the author, is not the cause of healthcare failures but rather a symptom of deeper systemic failures. The clinical encounter arouses strong emotions of anxiety, fear, and anger in patients which are often projected onto the clinicians. Attempts to protect clinicians through various bureaucratic devices and depersonalization of the patient, constitute as Menzies noted in her classic work, social defences, aimed at containing the anxieties of clinicians but ending up in reinforcing these anxieties. Instead of placing additional burdens on clinicians by bureaucratizing and benchmarking compassion, the author argues that proper emotional management and support is a precondition for a healthcare system that offers humane and effective treatment to patients and a humane working environment for those who work in it.

  1. Computation of Asteroid Proper Elements: Recent Advances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knežević, Z.

    2017-12-01

    The recent advances in computation of asteroid proper elements are briefly reviewed. Although not representing real breakthroughs in computation and stability assessment of proper elements, these advances can still be considered as important improvements offering solutions to some practical problems encountered in the past. The problem of getting unrealistic values of perihelion frequency for very low eccentricity orbits is solved by computing frequencies using the frequency-modified Fourier transform. The synthetic resonant proper elements adjusted to a given secular resonance helped to prove the existence of Astraea asteroid family. The preliminary assessment of stability with time of proper elements computed by means of the analytical theory provides a good indication of their poorer performance with respect to their synthetic counterparts, and advocates in favor of ceasing their regular maintenance; the final decision should, however, be taken on the basis of more comprehensive and reliable direct estimate of their individual and sample average deviations from constancy.

  2. On Identifying Proper Security Mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Breier, Jakub; Hudec, Ladislav

    2013-01-01

    Part 2: Asian Conference on Availability, Reliability and Security (AsiaARES); International audience; Selection of proper security mechanisms that will protect the organization’s assets against cyber threats is an important non-trivial problem. This paper introduces the approach based on statistical methods that will help to choose the proper controls with respect to actual security threats. First, we determine security mechanisms that support control objectives from ISO/IEC 27002 standard a...

  3. Comparative transcriptome analysis reveals that lactose acts as an inducer and provides proper carbon sources for enhancing exopolysaccharide yield in the deep-sea bacterium Zunongwangia profunda SM-A87.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Qi-Long; Li, Yi; Sun, Mei-Ling; Rong, Jin-Cheng; Liu, Sheng-Bo; Chen, Xiu-Lan; Su, Hai-Nan; Zhou, Bai-Cheng; Xie, Bin-Bin; Zhang, Yu-Zhong; Zhang, Xi-Ying

    2015-01-01

    Many marine bacteria secrete exopolysaccharides (EPSs) that have important ecological and physiological functions. Numerous nutritional and environmental factors influence bacterial EPS production. However, the regulatory mechanisms of EPS production are poorly understood. The deep-sea Bacteroidetes bacterium Zunongwangia profunda SM-A87 can produce high quantities of EPS, and its EPS production is enhanced significantly by lactose. Here, we studied the reasons behind the significant advantage that lactose has over other carbon sources in EPS production in SM-A87. RNA-seq technologies were used to study lactose-regulated genes in SM-A87. The expression level of genes within the EPS gene cluster was up-regulated when lactose was added. Supplement of lactose also influenced the expression of genes located outside the EPS gene cluster that are also involved in EPS biosynthesis. The major glycosyl components of SM-A87 EPS are mannose, glucose and galactose. Genomic metabolic pathway analyses showed that the EPS precursor GDP-mannose can be synthesized from glucose, while the precursor UDP-glucose must be synthesized from galactose. Lactose can provide glucose and galactose simultaneously and prevent glucose inhibition. Lactose can also greatly stimulate the growth of SM-A87. Taken together, lactose acts not only as an inducer but also as a carbohydrate source for EPS production. This research broadens our knowledge of the regulation of EPS production in marine bacteria.

  4. GSM Marketing Service Providers Operations and Customers Satisfaction in Nigeria: An Empirical Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adebisi Sunday Abayomi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study has been carried out on the GSM arm of the Nigerian Telecomunication sectorto primarily investigate the level of satisfaction that the subscribers of GSM service providers haveenjoyed in the seven years of operations in Nigeria. In testing this empirically, MTN, GLOBACOMand ZAIN were selected as case studies. 600 questionnaires were administered on the subscribers ofthese GSM service providers in the Six States of the South-Western Nigeria using the purposivesampling technique. In analyzing the collated data, three hypotheses were tested with the use ofPercentages, T-test, F-test, [at 95% confidence limit], Cross-tabulation [using the ‘Eta’ Directionalmeasure] and statistical charts. The results from the SPSS 16 output rejected the Null hypotheses.This further indicated that, the various factors that determined the level of subscribers’ satisfactionwere statistically significant. The study therefore concluded that, subscribers in Nigeria aredissatisfied with the services of their service providers hence, the need for the regulatory body; NCCto ensure that subscribers interests are protected. The study then suggested that,, the GSM serviceproviders should reposition themselves to give adequate value to subscribers money incommensuration with their own gains from the Nigeria Telecommunications market.

  5. Spinfoam cosmology with the proper vertex amplitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilensky, Ilya

    2017-11-01

    The proper vertex amplitude is derived from the Engle-Pereira-Rovelli-Livine vertex by restricting to a single gravitational sector in order to achieve the correct semi-classical behaviour. We apply the proper vertex to calculate a cosmological transition amplitude that can be viewed as the Hartle-Hawking wavefunction. To perform this calculation we deduce the integral form of the proper vertex and use extended stationary phase methods to estimate the large-volume limit. We show that the resulting amplitude satisfies an operator constraint whose classical analogue is the Hamiltonian constraint of the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker cosmology. We find that the constraint dynamically selects the relevant family of coherent states and demonstrate a similar dynamic selection in standard quantum mechanics. We investigate the effects of dynamical selection on long-range correlations.

  6. Strategy Guideline. Proper Water Heater Selection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeschele, M. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States); Springer, D. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States); German, A. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States); Staller, J. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States); Zhang, Y. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States)

    2015-04-09

    This Strategy Guideline on proper water heater selection was developed by the Building America team Alliance for Residential Building Innovation to provide step-by-step procedures for evaluating preferred cost-effective options for energy efficient water heater alternatives based on local utility rates, climate, and anticipated loads.

  7. Strategy Guideline: Proper Water Heater Selection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeschele, M. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation, Davis, CA (United States); Springer, D. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation, Davis, CA (United States); German, A. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation, Davis, CA (United States); Staller, J. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation, Davis, CA (United States); Zhang, Y. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation, Davis, CA (United States)

    2015-04-01

    This Strategy Guideline on proper water heater selection was developed by the Building America team Alliance for Residential Building Innovation to provide step-by-step procedures for evaluating preferred cost-effective options for energy efficient water heater alternatives based on local utility rates, climate, and anticipated loads.

  8. Proteome Exploration to Provide a Resource for the Investigation of Ganoderma lucidum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Guo-Jun; Yin, Ya-Lin; Yu, Wen-Hui; Liu, Wei; Jin, Yan-Xia; Shrestha, Alok; Yang, Qing; Ye, Xiang-Dong; Sun, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Ganoderma lucidum is a basidiomycete white rot fungus that has been used for medicinal purposes worldwide. Although information concerning its genome and transcriptome has recently been reported, relatively little information is available for G. lucidum at the proteomic level. In this study, protein fractions from G. lucidum at three developmental stages (16-day mycelia, and fruiting bodies at 60 and 90 days) were prepared and subjected to LC-MS/MS analysis. A search against the G. lucidum genome database identified 803 proteins. Among these proteins, 61 lignocellulose degrading proteins were detected, most of which (49 proteins) were found in the 90-day fruiting bodies. Fourteen TCA-cycle related proteins, 17 peptidases, two argonaute-like proteins, and two immunomodulatory proteins were also detected. A majority (470) of the 803 proteins had GO annotations and were classified into 36 GO terms, with “binding”, “catalytic activity”, and “hydrolase activity” having high percentages. Additionally, 357 out of the 803 proteins were assigned to at least one COG functional category and grouped into 22 COG classifications. Based on the results from the proteomic and sequence alignment analyses, a potentially new immunomodulatory protein (GL18769) was expressed and shown to have high immunomodulatory activity. In this study, proteomic and biochemical analyses of G. lucidum were performed for the first time, revealing that proteins from this fungus can play significant bioactive roles and providing a new foundation for the further functional investigations that this fungus merits. PMID:25756518

  9. Pre-feasibility investigation to provide an early warning of roof falls prior to support installation.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Du Plessis, JA

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available This research report describes the investigation of the association of electromagnetic emissions with rock failure. The possible presence of electromagnetic emissions as a result of material or rock failure has tremendous potential...

  10. An Empirical Investigation of Factors Determining the Consumers’ Choice of Mobile Service Providers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikas Gautam

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available After the implementation of government policies on globalization and liberalization, the consumers have become more critical about the selection of service providers. Consumers are now very much aware of the alternatives available in relation to services and the provider organizations. Expectations of consumers are rising and the provider organizations should be aware of these expectations. The objective of the present study is to examine the factors responsible for helping the consumers to choose mobile telecommunication service provider among the competitors in the market. The primary statistical techniques used in the study are Exploratory Factor Analysis, and Structural Equation Modeling. The data was collected with the help of structured questionnaire consisting of different questions related to demographics, service quality, product quality and availability, promotion and price in order to study perceptions of consumers. In order to examine these above mentioned variables and to derive meaningful conclusions, use of structural equation modelling was imperative. AMOS (Analysis of Moment Structure version 16.0 was employed in the research to test the underlying hypotheses of the study. Results showed that the paths are significantly related to the casual processes. Price was found to be the most important factor followed by product quality and availability, service quality, and promotion in determining perceptions of customers towards mobile telecommunication services. It is expected that the findings of the study may provide meaningful insights to the service providers and contribute in improving their strategies and marketing operations.

  11. Investigating Learning through Work: The Development of the "Provider Learning Environment Scale"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappell, Clive; Hawke, Geof

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this research activity was to investigate contemporary understandings of the connections between learning and work. This initial work was then used to inform the development of an organisational tool that registered training organisations (RTOs) could use to identify organisational practices likely to lead to greater learning at…

  12. RELIABILITY OF FLIGHT DATA PROVIDED BY PORTABLE GPS RECEIVERS DURING AIR ACCIDENT INVESTIGATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Rukhlinskiy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article considers the problem of assessment of data authenticity related to reliability of the flight data obtained in processing the information of portable GPS receivers’ during air accident investigations, which are characterized by the lack of standard flight data recording systems. Appropriate recommendations the improvement improving of the newly developed GPS receivers have been developed and implemented.

  13. General practitioners' knowledge, attitudes and views of providing preconception care: a qualitative investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Ojukwu, O; Patel, D.; Stephenson, J; Howden, B; Shawe, J

    2016-01-01

    Background: Preconception health and care aims to reduce parental risk factors before pregnancy through health promotion and intervention. Little is known about the preconception interventions that general practitioners (GPs) provide. The aim of this study was to examine GPs’ knowledge, attitudes, and views towards preconception health and care in the general practice setting. Methods: As part of a large mixed-methods study to explore preconception care in England, we surveyed 1,173 women...

  14. Neuroimaging to Investigate Multisystem Involvement and Provide Biomarkers in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre-François Pradat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Neuroimaging allows investigating the extent of neurological systems degeneration in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS. Advanced MRI methods can detect changes related to the degeneration of upper motor neurons but have also demonstrated the participation of other systems such as the sensory system or basal ganglia, demonstrating in vivo that ALS is a multisystem disorder. Structural and functional imaging also allows studying dysfunction of brain areas associated with cognitive signs. From a biomarker perspective, numerous studies using diffusion tensor imaging showed a decrease of fractional anisotropy in the intracranial portion of the corticospinal tract but its diagnostic value at the individual level remains limited. A multiparametric approach will be required to use MRI in the diagnostic workup of ALS. A promising avenue is the new methodological developments of spinal cord imaging that has the advantage to investigate the two motor system components that are involved in ALS, that is, the lower and upper motor neuron. For all neuroimaging modalities, due to the intrinsic heterogeneity of ALS, larger pooled banks of images with standardized image acquisition and analysis procedures are needed. In this paper, we will review the main findings obtained with MRI, PET, SPECT, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy in ALS.

  15. Neuroimaging to Investigate Multisystem Involvement and Provide Biomarkers in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradat, Pierre-François; El Mendili, Mohamed-Mounir

    2014-01-01

    Neuroimaging allows investigating the extent of neurological systems degeneration in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Advanced MRI methods can detect changes related to the degeneration of upper motor neurons but have also demonstrated the participation of other systems such as the sensory system or basal ganglia, demonstrating in vivo that ALS is a multisystem disorder. Structural and functional imaging also allows studying dysfunction of brain areas associated with cognitive signs. From a biomarker perspective, numerous studies using diffusion tensor imaging showed a decrease of fractional anisotropy in the intracranial portion of the corticospinal tract but its diagnostic value at the individual level remains limited. A multiparametric approach will be required to use MRI in the diagnostic workup of ALS. A promising avenue is the new methodological developments of spinal cord imaging that has the advantage to investigate the two motor system components that are involved in ALS, that is, the lower and upper motor neuron. For all neuroimaging modalities, due to the intrinsic heterogeneity of ALS, larger pooled banks of images with standardized image acquisition and analysis procedures are needed. In this paper, we will review the main findings obtained with MRI, PET, SPECT, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy in ALS. PMID:24949452

  16. An exploratory investigation of hospice marketing: How are palliative care providers marketing their services?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Michael; Peters, Cara; Lawson, Stephanie

    2017-01-01

    Hospice and palliative care is a recent, but fast growing, industry in healthcare. Demographics suggest that hospice care will only increase. The purpose of this article is to examine strategic marketing initiatives hospice organizations currently employ. Data were collected at a hospice regional conference, capturing opinions from hospice organizations located in North and South Carolina. The results show that many hospice organizations do not have a dedicated marketing staff person, have a limited marketing budget, do not fully utilize all strategic planning tools, and have yet to differentiate themselves via branding. Implications of these findings for hospice providers are discussed.

  17. PLATO software provides analytic framework for investigating complexity beyond genome-wide association studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Molly A; Wallace, John; Lucas, Anastasia; Kim, Dokyoon; Basile, Anna O; Verma, Shefali S; McCarty, Cathy A; Brilliant, Murray H; Peissig, Peggy L; Kitchner, Terrie E; Verma, Anurag; Pendergrass, Sarah A; Dudek, Scott M; Moore, Jason H; Ritchie, Marylyn D

    2017-10-27

    Genome-wide, imputed, sequence, and structural data are now available for exceedingly large sample sizes. The needs for data management, handling population structure and related samples, and performing associations have largely been met. However, the infrastructure to support analyses involving complexity beyond genome-wide association studies is not standardized or centralized. We provide the PLatform for the Analysis, Translation, and Organization of large-scale data (PLATO), a software tool equipped to handle multi-omic data for hundreds of thousands of samples to explore complexity using genetic interactions, environment-wide association studies and gene-environment interactions, phenome-wide association studies, as well as copy number and rare variant analyses. Using the data from the Marshfield Personalized Medicine Research Project, a site in the electronic Medical Records and Genomics Network, we apply each feature of PLATO to type 2 diabetes and demonstrate how PLATO can be used to uncover the complex etiology of common traits.

  18. To laugh is proper to the man

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Arthur R. do Nascimento

    1999-01-01

    Este pequeno texto tenta investigar as origens do conhecido exemplo "o riso é o próprio do homem". Conclui-se que, se não a origem, a difusão do exemplo encontra-se na Isagoge de Porfírio.This brief paper attempts to investigate the origins of the well-known example "laughter is the proper of man". It is concluded that the diffusion of this example, if not its origins, stems from Porphyry's Isagoge.

  19. Chemical elemental distribution and soil DNA fingerprints provide the critical evidence in murder case investigation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Concheri

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The scientific contribution to the solution of crime cases, or throughout the consequent forensic trials, is a crucial aspect of the justice system. The possibility to extract meaningful information from trace amounts of samples, and to match and validate evidences with robust and unambiguous statistical tests, are the key points of such process. The present report is the authorized disclosure of an investigation, carried out by Attorney General appointment, on a murder case in northern Italy, which yielded the critical supporting evidence for the judicial trial. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The proportional distribution of 54 chemical elements and the bacterial community DNA fingerprints were used as signature markers to prove the similarity of two soil samples. The first soil was collected on the crime scene, along a corn field, while the second was found in trace amounts on the carpet of a car impounded from the main suspect in a distant location. The matching similarity of the two soils was proven by crossing the results of two independent techniques: a elemental analysis via inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS and optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES approaches, and b amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis by gel electrophoresis (ARDRA. CONCLUSIONS: Besides introducing the novel application of these methods to forensic disciplines, the highly accurate level of resolution observed, opens new possibilities also in the fields of soil typing and tracking, historical analyses, geochemical surveys and global land mapping.

  20. Chains as proper enrichment for intensively-farmed pigs?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bracke, M.B.M.

    2017-01-01

    This chapter primarily compiles work in which the author (Marc Bracke) has been involved with providing science-based decision support on the question of what is proper enrichment material for intensively-farmed pigs as required by EC Directive 2001/93/EC. Proper manipulable material should

  1. Proper alignment of the microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rottenfusser, Rudi

    2013-01-01

    The light microscope is merely the first element of an imaging system in a research facility. Such a system may include high-speed and/or high-resolution image acquisition capabilities, confocal technologies, and super-resolution methods of various types. Yet more than ever, the proverb "garbage in-garbage out" remains a fact. Image manipulations may be used to conceal a suboptimal microscope setup, but an artifact-free image can only be obtained when the microscope is optimally aligned, both mechanically and optically. Something else is often overlooked in the quest to get the best image out of the microscope: Proper sample preparation! The microscope optics can only do its job when its design criteria are matched to the specimen or vice versa. The specimen itself, the mounting medium, the cover slip, and the type of immersion medium (if applicable) are all part of the total optical makeup. To get the best results out of a microscope, understanding the functions of all of its variable components is important. Only then one knows how to optimize these components for the intended application. Different approaches might be chosen to discuss all of the microscope's components. We decided to follow the light path which starts with the light source and ends at the camera or the eyepieces. To add more transparency to this sequence, the section up to the microscope stage was called the "Illuminating Section", to be followed by the "Imaging Section" which starts with the microscope objective. After understanding the various components, we can start "working with the microscope." To get the best resolution and contrast from the microscope, the practice of "Koehler Illumination" should be understood and followed by every serious microscopist. Step-by-step instructions as well as illustrations of the beam path in an upright and inverted microscope are included in this chapter. A few practical considerations are listed in Section 3. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  2. 7 CFR 29.112 - Proper light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Proper light. 29.112 Section 29.112 Agriculture... INSPECTION Regulations Inspectors, Samplers, and Weighers § 29.112 Proper light. Tobacco shall not be inspected or sampled for the purposes of the Act except when displayed in proper light for correct...

  3. Towards proper name generation : A corpus analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castro Ferreira, Thiago; Wubben, Sander; Krahmer, Emiel

    We introduce a corpus for the study of proper name generation. The corpus consists of proper name references to people in webpages, extracted from the Wikilinks corpus. In our analyses, we aim to identify the different ways, in terms of length and form, in which a proper names are produced

  4. Measuring the cosmic proper distance from fast radio bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, H.; Wang, F. Y.

    2017-09-01

    The cosmic proper distance dP is a fundamental distance in the Universe. Unlike the luminosity and angular diameter distances, which correspond to the angular size, the proper distance is the length of light path from the source to observer. However, the proper distance has not been measured before. The recent redshift measurement of a repeat fast radio burst (FRB) can shed light on the proper distance. We show that the proper distance-redshift relation can indeed be derived from dispersion measures (DMs) of FRBs with measured redshifts. From Monte Carlo simulations, we find that about 500 FRBs with DM and redshift measurements can tightly constrain the proper distance-redshift relation. We also show that the curvature of our Universe can be constrained with a model-independent method using this derived proper distance-redshift relation and the observed angular diameter distances. Owing to the high event rate of FRBs, hundreds of FRBs can be discovered in the future by upcoming instruments. The proper distance will play an important role in investigating the accelerating expansion and the geometry of the Universe.

  5. Principal Investigator and Department Administrator Perceptions of Services Provided by Offices of Research Administration at Research Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Kimberley W.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this research study was to determine what service attributes were perceived as important factors for a successful Office of Research Administration (ORA) to provide to principal investigators and department administrators. Initially established more than 50 years ago, The Office of Research Administration (ORA) has evolved into an…

  6. Ethnology and the Study of Proper Names.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, Susan S.

    1980-01-01

    Discusses the importance of uncovering the universal features of proper names and relating them to different naming systems. Suggests that this viewpoint may lead to an appreciation of proper names as a sociolinguistic universal and a cultural variable, beyond the particulars on which most of the literature has focused. (MES)

  7. Towards proper cultural resource management for sustainable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The place of proper management of cultural resources in the overall developmental process of a multi-ethnic and heterogeneous country like Nigeria cannot be underestimated. This study stresses the compelling need for proper harnessing and management of cultural resources in Nigeria for sustainable development.

  8. New characterizations of proper interval bigraphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Kumar Das

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A proper interval bigraph is a bigraph where to each vertex we can assign a closed interval such that the intervals can be chosen to be inclusion free and vertices in the opposite partite sets are adjacent when the corresponding intervals intersect. In this paper, we introduce the notion of astral triple of edges and along the lines of characterization of interval graphs via the absence of asteroidal triple of vertices we characterize proper interval bigraphs via the absence of astral triple of edges. We also characterize proper interval bigraphs in terms of dominating pair of vertices as defined by Corneil et al. Tucker characterized proper circular arc graphs in terms of circularly compatible 1’s of adjacency matrices. Sen and Sanyal characterized adjacency matrices of proper interval bigraphs in terms of monotone consecutive arrangement. We have shown an interrelation between these two concepts.

  9. Some Remarks on Bonjour on Warrant, Proper Function, and Defeasibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin P. Ruloff

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available A number of counterexamples have recently been leveled against Alvin Plantinga's Proper Functionalism, counterexamples aimed at showing that Plantinga's theory fads to provide sufficient conditions for warrant — that elusive epistemic property which together with true belief yields knowledge Among these counterexamples, Laurence Bonjour s is perhaps the most formidable and, if successful, shows that Proper Functionalism is simply too weak to serve as an acceptable theory of warrant In this paper, I argue that, contrary to initial appearances, BonJour's counterexample is not successful More exactly, I argue that, once it is recognized that a defeasibility constraint is deeply embedded within Plantinga's proper function condition for warrant — a constraint which says, in effect, that a belief B is warranted for an agent S only of S does not possess any defeaters against B — BonJour's counterexample to Proper Functionalism can be handled quite straightforwardly

  10. An ethnographic investigation of healthcare providers' approaches to facilitating person-centredness in group-based diabetes education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenov, Vibeke; Hempler, Nana Folmann; Reventlow, Susanne

    2017-01-01

    AIM: To investigate approaches among healthcare providers (HCPs) that support or hinder person-centredness in group-based diabetes education programmes targeting persons with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: Ethnographic fieldwork in a municipal and a hospital setting in Denmark. The two programmes....... Applying person-centredness in practice requires continuous training and supervision, but HCPs often have minimum support for developing person-centred communication skills. Techniques based on motivational communication, psychosocial methods and facilitating group processes are effective person......-centred approaches in a group context. CONCLUSION: Teacher-centredness undermined person-centredness because HCPs primarily delivered disease-specific recommendations, leading to biomedical information overload for participants....

  11. An investigation into Danish midwives’ perception of their own professional identity and the care they provide to women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Marie Louise Mastrup

    in the midwifery profession. Objective: To investigate Danish midwives’ construction and perception of their own professional identity and the care they provide to women. Method: An exploratory qualitative method was used. Five focus group/mini group interviews were performed. A purposeful sampling of 16 midwives...... through the relationship with the woman, but also through actions that would justify their role in the health care system. A strong conviction about their own expertise and abilities supported midwives in justifying their role but at the same time they needed acknowledgment from other professionals...

  12. Preliminary Investigation of Workplace-Provided Compressed Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction with Pediatric Medical Social Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trowbridge, Kelly; Mische Lawson, Lisa; Andrews, Stephanie; Pecora, Jodi; Boyd, Sabra

    2017-11-01

    Mindfulness practices, including mindfulness meditation, show promise for decreasing stress among health care providers. This exploratory study investigates the feasibility of a two-day compressed mindfulness-based stress reduction (cMBSR) course provided in the hospital workplace with pediatric health care social workers. The standard course of Jon Kabat-Zinn's MBSR requires a participant commitment to eight weeks of instruction consisting of one 2.5-hour-per-week class, a single day retreat, and 45 minutes of practice for six of seven days each week. Commitments to family, work, caregiving, education, and so on, as well as limitations such as distance, may prevent health care providers from participating in a standard MBSR course. Using t tests, researchers measured the effect of cMBSR on (a) positive and negative experiences in pediatric social work, (b) perceived stress, (c) mindfulness, and (d) caring self-efficacy (as a component of patient- and family-centered care). Results included significant differences between the pre- and post-intervention outcome variables on the Professional Quality of Life Secondary Traumatic Stress subscale, the Mindful Attention and Awareness Scale, and the Caring Efficacy Scale. Findings found adequate evidence for the feasibility of cMBSR design and for a need of a more rigorous study of the effects of the cMBSR intervention. © 2017 National Association of Social Workers.

  13. Chains as proper enrichment for intensively-farmed pigs?

    OpenAIRE

    Bracke, M.B.M.

    2017-01-01

    This chapter primarily compiles work in which the author (Marc Bracke) has been involved with providing science-based decision support on the question of what is proper enrichment material for intensively-farmed pigs as required by EC Directive 2001/93/EC. Proper manipulable material should primarily provide occupation (i.e. reduce boredom), and preferably reduce tail biting.The RICHPIG model was built expressing enrichment value as a score on a scale from 0 to 10. Metal objects like short me...

  14. An investigation into the use of 3G mobile communications to provide telehealth services in rural KwaZulu-Natal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Malcolm; Mars, Maurice

    2015-02-01

    We investigated the use of third-generation (3G) mobile communications to provide telehealth services in remote health clinics in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. We specified a minimal set of services as our use case that would be representative of typical activity and to provide a baseline for analysis of network performance. Services included database access to manage chronic disease, local support and management of patients (to reduce unnecessary travel to the hospital), emergency care (up to 8 h for an ambulance to arrive), e-mail, access to up-to-date information (Web), and teleclinics. We made site measurements at a representative set of health clinics to determine the type of coverage (general packet radio service [GPRS]/3G), its capabilities to support videoconferencing (H323 and Skype™ [Microsoft, Redmond, WA]) and audio (Skype), and throughput for transmission control protocol (TCP) to gain a measure of application performance. We found that none of the remote health clinics had 3G service. The GPRS service provided typical upload speed of 44 kilobits per second (Kbps) and download speed of 64 Kbps. This was not sufficient to support any form of videoconferencing. We also observed that GPRS had significant round trip time (RTT), in some cases in excess of 750 ms, and this led to slow start-up for TCP applications. We found audio was always so broken as to be unusable and further observed that many applications such as Web access would fail under conditions of very high RTT. We found some health clinics were so remote that they had no mobile service. 3G, where available, had measured upload speed of 331 Kbps and download speed of 446 Kbps and supported videoconferencing and audio at all sites, but we frequently experienced 3G changing to GPRS. We conclude that mobile communications currently provide insufficient coverage and capability to provide reliable clinical services and would advocate dedicated wireless services where reliable

  15. Properly even harmonious labelings of disconnected graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph A. Gallian

    2015-11-01

    We study a variant of harmonious labeling. A function f is said to be a properly even harmonious labeling of a graph G with q edges if f is an injection from the vertices of G to the integers from 0 to 2(q−1 and the induced function f∗ from the edges of G to 0,2,…,2(q−1 defined by f∗(xy=f(x+f(y(mod2q is bijective. This paper focuses on the existence of properly even harmonious labelings of the disjoint union of cycles and stars, unions of cycles with paths, unions of squares of paths, and unions of paths.

  16. Improved Industrial Development In Nigeria Through Proper ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper noted that most industrial development strategies in Nigeria did not give attention to technology education. And that technology education as recognized by few of the strategies were not only properly articulated for the tertiary institutions, but also poorly implemented. Therefore, to put technology and thus ...

  17. Providing web-based feedback and social norms information to reduce student alcohol intake: a multisite investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bewick, Bridgette M; West, Robert; Gill, Jan; O'May, Fiona; Mulhern, Brendan; Barkham, Michael; Hill, Andrew J

    2010-12-19

    Unhealthy alcohol use among university students is cause for concern, yet the level of help seeking behavior for alcohol use is low within the student population. Electronic brief interventions delivered via the Internet present an alternative to traditional treatments and could enable the delivery of interventions on a population basis. Further evidence is needed of the effectiveness of Internet-delivered interventions and of their generalizability across educational institutions. Our objective was to evaluate the effectiveness across 4 UK universities of a Web-based intervention for student alcohol use. In total, 1112 participants took part. Participants were stratified by educational institution, gender, age group, year of study, and self-reported weekly consumption of alcohol and randomly assigned to either the control arm or to the immediate or delayed intervention arms. Intervention participants gained access to the intervention between weeks 1 to 7 or weeks 8 to 15, respectively. The intervention provided electronic personalized feedback and social norms information on drinking behavior accessed by logging on to a website. Participants registered interest by completing a brief screening questionnaire and were then asked to complete 4 further assessments across the 24 weeks of the study. Assessments included a retrospective weekly drinking diary, the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), and a readiness-to-change algorithm. The outcome variable was the number of units of alcohol consumed in the last week. The effect of treatment arm and time on units consumed last week and average units consumed per drinking occasion were investigated using repeated measures multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA). In addition, the data were modeled using a longitudinal regression with time points clustered within students. MANCOVA revealed a main effect of time on units of alcohol consumed over the last week. A longitudinal regression model showed an

  18. Opening a Pandora's Box: Proper Names in English Phraseology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierini, Patrizia

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the linguistic-cultural aspects and usage of phraseological units involving personal and place names in English. The introductory sections outline the linguistic features of proper names and phraseological units. The qualitative part of this study provides a list of units belonging to four phraseological types (idioms, stereotyped similes, binomials, formulae, drawn from idiom dictionaries. An investigation of the sources of names shows that the personal and place names involved are historically, socially or culturally prominent in British culture. Here is noted a predominance of personal over place names, and within the former, a predominance of male over female names, and first names over family names, with a number of hypocorisms. The quantitative part of the study consists of a corpus search of the selected units in the British National Corpus in order to find their frequency and distribution across registers. The search reveals that they have very low levels of occurrence, and are more commonly used in written registers, in particular, in fiction, journalism and miscellaneous texts.

  19. Boltzmann babies in the proper time measure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bousso, Raphael; Bousso, Raphael; Freivogel, Ben; Yang, I-Sheng

    2007-12-20

    After commenting briefly on the role of the typicality assumption in science, we advocate a phenomenological approach to the cosmological measure problem. Like any other theory, a measure should be simple, general, well defined, and consistent with observation. This allows us to proceed by elimination. As an example, we consider the proper time cutoff on a geodesic congruence. It predicts that typical observers are quantum fluctuations in the early universe, or Boltzmann babies. We sharpen this well-known youngness problem by taking into account the expansion and open spatial geometry of pocket universes. Moreover, we relate the youngness problem directly to the probability distribution for observables, such as the temperature of the cosmic background radiation. We consider a number of modifications of the proper time measure, but find none that would make it compatible with observation.

  20. Proper motions of the HH 1 jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raga, A. C.; Reipurth, B.; Esquivel, A.; Castellanos-Ramírez, A.; Velázquez, P. F.; Hernández-Martínez, L.; Rodríguez-González, A.; Rechy-García, J. S.; Estrella-Trujillo, D.; Bally, J.; González-Gómez, D.; Riera, A.

    2017-10-01

    We describe a new method for determining proper motions of extended objects, and a pipeline developed for the application of this method. We then apply this method to an analysis of four epochs of [S II] HST images of the HH 1 jet (covering a period of ≈20 yr). We determine the proper motions of the knots along the jet, and make a reconstruction of the past ejection velocity time-variability (assuming ballistic knot motions). This reconstruction shows an "acceleration" of the ejection velocities of the jet knots, with higher velocities at more recent times. This acceleration will result in an eventual merging of the knots in ≈450 yr and at a distance of ≈80'' from the outflow source, close to the present-day position of HH 1.

  1. Proper motions of molecular hydrogen outflows in the ρ Ophiuchi molecular cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, M.; Brandner, W.; Wang, H.; Gennaro, M.; Bik, A.; Henning, Th.; Gredel, R.; Smith, M.; Stanke, Th.

    2013-05-01

    Context. Proper motion measurements provide unique and powerful means to identify the driving sources of mass outflows, which are of particular importance in regions with complex star formation activity and deeply embedded protostars. They also provide the necessary kinematic information to study the dynamics of mass outflows, the interaction between outflows and the ambient medium, and the evolution of outflows with the age of the driving sources. Aims: We aim to take a census of molecular hydrogen emission line objects (MHOs) in the ρ Ophiuchi molecular cloud and to make the first systematic proper motion measurements of these objects in this region. The driving sources are identified based on the measured proper motions, and the outflow properties are characterized. The relationship between outflow properties and the evolutionary stages of the driving sources are also investigated. Methods: Deep H2 near-infrared imaging is performed to search for molecular hydrogen emission line objects. Multi-epoch data are used to derive the proper motions of the features of these objects, and the lengths and opening angles of the molecular hydrogen outflows. Results: Our imaging covers an area of ~0.11 deg2 toward the L1688 core in the ρ Ophiuchi molecular cloud. In total, six new MHOs are discovered, 32 previously known MHOs are detected, and the proper motions for 86 features of the MHOs are measured. The proper motions lie in the range of 14 to 247 mas/yr, corresponding to transversal velocities of 8 to 140 km s-1 with a median velocity of about 35 km s-1. Based on morphology and proper motion measurements, 27 MHOs are ascribed to 21 driving sources. The molecular hydrogen outflows have a median length of ~0.04 pc and random orientations. We find no obvious correlation between H2 jet length, jet opening angle, and the evolutionary stage of the driving sources as defined by their spectral indices. We find that the fraction of protostars (23%) that drive molecular hydrogen

  2. The influence of parents and the home environment on preschoolers' physical activity behaviours: a qualitative investigation of childcare providers' perspectives

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tucker, Patricia; van Zandvoort, Melissa M; Burke, Shauna M; Irwin, Jennifer D

    2011-01-01

    .... This study sought to examine childcare providers' perspectives of the importance of parents and the home environment for supporting the physical activity behaviours of preschool-aged children (aged 2.5-5 years...

  3. Treatment of Proper Name Retrieval Deficits in an Individual with Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minkina, Irene; Ojemann, Jeffrey G.; Grabowski, Thomas J.; Silkes, JoAnn P.; Phatak, Vaishali; Kendall, Diane L.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Studies investigating language deficits in individuals with left temporal-lobe epilepsy have consistently demonstrated impairments in proper name retrieval. The aim of this Phase I rehabilitation study was to investigate the effects of a linguistically distributed word retrieval treatment on proper name retrieval in an individual with…

  4. Fundamental Principles of Proper Space Kinematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Sean

    It is desirable to understand the movement of both matter and energy in the universe based upon fundamental principles of space and time. Time dilation and length contraction are features of Special Relativity derived from the observed constancy of the speed of light. Quantum Mechanics asserts that motion in the universe is probabilistic and not deterministic. While the practicality of these dissimilar theories is well established through widespread application inconsistencies in their marriage persist, marring their utility, and preventing their full expression. After identifying an error in perspective the current theories are tested by modifying logical assumptions to eliminate paradoxical contradictions. Analysis of simultaneous frames of reference leads to a new formulation of space and time that predicts the motion of both kinds of particles. Proper Space is a real, three-dimensional space clocked by proper time that is undergoing a densification at the rate of c. Coordinate transformations to a familiar object space and a mathematical stationary space clarify the counterintuitive aspects of Special Relativity. These symmetries demonstrate that within the local universe stationary observers are a forbidden frame of reference; all is in motion. In lieu of Quantum Mechanics and Uncertainty the use of the imaginary number i is restricted for application to the labeling of mass as either material or immaterial. This material phase difference accounts for both the perceived constant velocity of light and its apparent statistical nature. The application of Proper Space Kinematics will advance more accurate representations of microscopic, oscopic, and cosmological processes and serve as a foundation for further study and reflection thereafter leading to greater insight.

  5. Investigating Effective Components of Higher Education Marketing and Providing a Marketing Model for Iranian Private Higher Education Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasmaee, Roya Babaee; Nadi, Mohammad Ali; Shahtalebi, Badri

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to study and identify the effective components of higher education marketing and providing a marketing model for Iranian higher education private sector institutions. Design/methodology/approach: This study is a qualitative research. For identifying the effective components of higher education marketing and…

  6. Qualitative study investigating the commissioning process for older people's services provided by third sector organisations: SOPRANO study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sands, Gina; Chadborn, Neil; Craig, Chris; Gladman, John

    2016-05-18

    The commissioning of third sector services for older people may influence the quality, availability and coordination of services for older people. The SOPRANO study aims to understand the relationships between and processes of commissioning bodies and third sector organisations providing health and social care services for older people. This qualitative study will be based in the East Midlands region of England. An initial scoping survey of commissioners will give an overview of services to maintain the health and well-being of older people in the community that are commissioned. Following this, semistructured interviews will be conducted with 4 sample groups: health and social care commissioners, service provider managers, service provider case workers and older service users. A sample size of 10-15 participants in each of the 4 groups is expected to be sufficient to reach data saturation, resulting in a final expected sample size of 40-60 participants. Informed consent will be gained from all participants, and those unable to provide informed consent will be excluded. The interview data will be analysed by 2 researchers using framework content analysis. Approval for the study has been gained from the University of Nottingham School of Medicine ethical review board, and the relevant approvals have been gained from the National Health Service (NHS) research and development departments for interviewing NHS staff. Early engagement with a wide range of stakeholders will ensure that the research findings are extensively disseminated to relevant stakeholders (including commissioners and third sector providers) in an accessible format using the extensive communication networks available to the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Collaboration for Leadership in Applied Health Research and Care CLAHRCs (applied health research organisations covering all of England). The study will also be disseminated through academic routes such as conference presentations and

  7. The influence of parents and the home environment on preschoolers' physical activity behaviours: A qualitative investigation of childcare providers' perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irwin Jennifer D

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical activity offers numerous physiological and psychological benefits for young children; however, many preschool-aged children are not engaging in sufficient activity. The home environment, inclusive of parent role modeling, has been identified as influencing preschoolers' physical activity. This study sought to examine childcare providers' perspectives of the importance of parents and the home environment for supporting the physical activity behaviours of preschool-aged children (aged 2.5-5 years attending childcare. Methods A heterogeneous sample of childcare providers (n = 84; response rate 39% working at childcare facilities in London, Ontario participated. Thirteen semi-structured focus groups were conducted in London centres between February 2009 and February 2010. Focus groups were audio recorded and transcribed verbatim and inductive content analysis was used to code and classify themes. A number of strategies were used to verify the trustworthiness of the data. Results Childcare providers acknowledged their reliance on parents/guardians to create a home environment that complements the positive physical activity messaging children may receive in childcare. Moreover, childcare staff highlighted the need for positive parent role modeling and parent support to encourage active healthy lifestyles among young children. Conclusion This study's findings highlight the need for increased parent-caregiver partnering in terms of communication and cooperation in service of promoting appropriate amounts of physical activity among London preschoolers.

  8. [Knowledge regarding Proper Use Guidelines for Benzodiazepines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inada, Ken

    2016-01-01

      Benzodiazepines (BZs) work by agonising gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-BZ-receptor complex and thereby produce sedation and anti-anxiety effects. BZs are commonly used in several clinical areas as hypnotics or anti-anxiety drugs. However, these drugs once supplied by medical institutions often lead to abuse and dependence. Thus it is important for institutions to supply and manage BZs properly. At Tokyo Women's Medical University Hospital educational activities about proper use of BZs are performed by not only medical doctors but also pharmacists. We coordinate distribution of leaflets and run an educational workshop. As a result of these activities, the number of patients receiving BZ prescriptions was reduced. Performing these activities, pharmacists were required to work for patients, doctors, and nurses; they acquired knowledge about BZs such as action mechanisms, efficacy, adverse effects, problems about co-prescription, and methods of discontinuing BZs, as well as information on coping techniques other than medication. The most important point to attend the patients is to answer their anxieties.

  9. The recovery of ancient DNA from Dasypus bellus provides new possibilities for investigating late Pleistocene mammal response to climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letts, Brandon; Shapiro, Beth

    2010-05-01

    Dasypus bellus, the 'beautiful armadillo,' is well known as a casualty of the Pleistocene megafaunal mass extinction event. Appearing in the fossil record about 2.5 Mya, D. bellus was widespread throughout the mid to southern United States and Mexico until it went extinct by about 10 kya. It was replaced by D. novemcinctus, the nine-banded armadillo, which is morphologically identical but smaller. The exact taxonomic status of D. bellus and its phylogenetic relationship with D. novemcinctus has been a subject of debate. In particular, it remains unresolved whether D. bellus was more closely related to North American than South American D. novemcinctus. To address this, we extracted and sequenced fragments of ancient mitochondrial DNA from surprisingly well-preserved remains of D. bellus recovered from Mefford Cave in Florida. Our results reveal a surprisingly close relationship between the extinct D. bellus and North American D. novemcinctus. Although southern climates have been considered inhospitable for the preservation of ancient DNA, thousands of bones per individual and the propensity of the armadillo to seek out shelter in caves makes preservation more likely than for other organisms. The armadillo may therefore make an excellent proxy organism for investigating the influence of climate change on animal populations south of the cold permafrost regions.

  10. Proper body mechanics from an engineering perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr, Edward G

    2010-04-01

    The economic viability of the manual therapy practitioner depends on the number of massages/treatments that can be given in a day or week. Fatigue or injuries can have a major impact on the income potential and could ultimately reach the point which causes the practitioner to quit the profession, and seek other, less physically demanding, employment. Manual therapy practitioners in general, and massage therapists in particular, can utilize a large variety of body postures while giving treatment to a client. The hypothesis of this paper is that there is an optimal method for applying force to the client, which maximizes the benefit to the client, and at the same time minimizes the strain and effort required by the practitioner. Two methods were used to quantifiably determine the effect of using "poor" body mechanics (Improper method) and "best" body mechanics (Proper/correct method). The first approach uses computer modeling to compare the two methods. Both postures were modeled, such that the biomechanical effects on the practitioner's elbow, shoulder, hip, knee and ankle joints could be calculated. The force applied to the client, along with the height and angle of application of the force, was held constant for the comparison. The second approach was a field study of massage practitioners (n=18) to determine their maximal force capability, again comparing methods using "Improper and Proper body mechanics". Five application methods were tested at three different application heights, using a digital palm force gauge. Results showed that there was a definite difference between the two methods, and that the use of correct body mechanics can have a large impact on the health and well being of the massage practitioner over both the short and long term. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The RECONS Effort to Characterize the Highest Proper Motion Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jao, W. C.; Subasavage, J. P.; Henry, T. J.; Williams, C.; Costa, E.; Ianna, P. A.; Mendez, R. A.; RECONS Team

    2001-12-01

    High proper motion is a method used for selecting probable nearby stars. There currently are 601 stars (502 systems) with proper motion faster than 1 arcsec/year (hereafter, the MOTION stars). There are 271 systems known in the northern sky and 231 systems in the southern sky. The predominance of systems in the north is because historically more proper motion surveys have been carried out in northern hemisphere. In the complete MOTION sample, 75 estimated to lie within 25 pc of the Sun, the adopted horizon for NASA's NStars (Nearby Stars) Project. Based on available photometric and parallax observations, we know that MOTION members are primarily late type main sequence stars, with a few white dwarfs and subdwarfs. Nonetheless, it is remarkable that 16 not yet have parallax measurements. In addition, nearly 40 of the systems do not have complete VRI photometry on a standard system. In an effort to understand the complete MOTION sample, and to discover new members of the solar neighborhood, we present both astrometric and photometric results for the MOTION stars from our extensive NOAO Surveys Program known as CTIOPI (CTIO Parallax Investigation). The support of NOAO, CTIO, the NASA-Ames Astrobiology Institute and the NASA's Space Interferometry Mission have been the crucial to the success of this research.

  12. Torsion bar antenna in the proper reference frame with rotation

    CERN Document Server

    Nakamura, Kouji

    2014-01-01

    The resultant response of the rotating torsion bar antenna for gravitational waves discussed in [M. Ando et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. {\\bf 105} (2010), 161101.] is re-investigate from a general-relativistic point of view. To do this, the equation of motion of a free falling particle in the proper reference frame of a rotating observer is used. As a result, the resultant response derived in the above paper is also valid even when $\\omega_{g}\\sim\\Omega$, where $\\omega_{g}$ and $\\Omega$ are the angular frequencies of gravitational waves and the rotation of the antenna, respectively.

  13. Proper Treatment of Acute Mesenteric Ischemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sung Kwan; Han, Young Min [Dept. of Radiology, Chonbuk National University Hospital and School of Medicine, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of); Kwak, Hyo Sung [Research Institue of Clinical Medicine, Chonbuk National University Hospital and School of Medicine, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of); Yu, Hee Chul [Dept. of Radiology, Chonbuk National University Hospital and School of Medicine, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-10-15

    To evaluate the effectiveness of treatment options for Acute Mesenteric Ischemia and establish proper treatment guidelines. From January 2007 to May 2010, 14 patients (13 men and 1 woman, mean age: 52.1 years) with acute mesenteric ischemia were enrolled in this study. All of the lesions were detected by CT scan and angiography. Initially, 4 patients underwent conservative treatment. Eleven patients were managed by endovascular treatment. We evaluated the therapeutic success and survival rate of each patient. The causes of ischemia included thromboembolism in 6 patients and dissection in 8 patients. Nine patients showed bowel ischemia on CT scans, 4 dissection patients underwent conservative treatment, 3 patients had recurring symptoms, and 5 dissection patients underwent endovascular treatment. Overall success and survival rate was 100%. However, overall success was 83% and survival rate was 40% in the 6 thromboembolism patients. The choice of 20 hours as the critical time in which the procedure is ideally performed was statistically significant (p = 0.0476). A percutaneous endovascular procedure is an effective treatment for acute mesenteric ischemia, especially in patients who underwent treatment within 20 hours. However, further study and a long term follow-up are needed.

  14. Editorial: The proper place for knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yngve Nordkvelle

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge is an interesting word, which never goes out of fashion. In the political context, knowledge is something everyone hails and cherishes. An example is that the Socialist Government in Norway renamed its "Ministry of Education and Research" to the "Ministry of Knowledge". It would probably be politically wrong to defy the word "knowledge". The word "knowledge" stirs, however, different sentiments in people. In modern education, the word signifies something notable, discernable, visual or at least possible to distinguish from what it is not. In learning in higher education, knowledge is most often considered as the raw material for learning, with the little extra that distinguishes it from "information". Knowledge is information with a direction, a purpose and meaning, but without the implied cultivation of a teaching and learning process. Given knowledge is used for educational purposes, the processing of knowledge from its basic concepts to embodied and reflected knowledge, properly understood and reconceptualised by the learner, transforms not only the learner, but also the knowledge. In a peripatetic tradition, one likes to think of knowledge as foundation elements for constructions of ethical wisdom as its highest reflective level. Probably we will never see a "Ministry of Wisdom" established, because what is "wisdom" is probably so much more politically charged than "Knowledge". One can only wonder why anyone would degrade a ministry for education to something less. In Europe a rewriting of university curricula is underway all over the continent, because "knowledge" is a key concept in the writing of "learning outcomes". It appears every college is absorbed in sorting out what knowledge is and how knowledge can be classified in categories and levels, and then composed to readable descriptions of syllabi, course descriptions and schemes. Let us hope they are more able than what has been the case. Professor Ronald Barnett of the

  15. Combining malaria control with house electrification: adherence to recommended behaviours for proper deployment of solar-powered mosquito trapping systems, Rusinga Island, western Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oria, P.A.; Alaii, J.; Ayugi, M.; Takken, W.; Leeuwis, C.

    2015-01-01

    objective To investigate community adherence to recommended behaviours for proper deployment of solar-powered mosquito trapping systems (SMoTS) after 3- to 10-week use. methods Solar-powered mosquito trapping system, which also provided power for room lighting and charging mobile phones, were

  16. Taxonomic and Thematic Organisation of Proper Name Conceptual Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian J. Crutch

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the investigation of the organisation of proper names in two aphasic patients (NBC and FBI. The performance of both patients on spoken word to written word matching tasks was inconsistent, affected by presentation rate and semantic relatedness of the competing responses, all hallmarks of a refractory semantic access dysphasia. In a series of experiments we explored the semantic relatedness effects within their proper name vocabulary, including brand names and person names. First we demonstrated the interaction between very fine grain organisation and personal experience, with one patient with a special interest in the cinema demonstrating higher error rates when identifying the names of actors working in a similar film genre (e.g. action movies: Arnold Schwarzenegger, Bruce Willis, Sylvester Stallone, Mel Gibson than those working in different genres (e.g. Arnold Schwarzenegger, Gregory Peck, Robin Williams, Gene Kelly. Second we compared directly two potential principles of semantic organisation – taxonomic and thematic. Furthermore we considered these principles of organisation in the context of the individuals' personal knowledge base. We selected topics matching the interests and experience of each patient, namely cinema and literature (NBC and naval history (FBI. The stimulus items were arranged in taxonomic arrays (e.g. Jane Austen, Emily Bronte, Agatha Christie, thematic arrays (e.g. Jane Austen, Pride and Prejudice, Mr Darcy, and unrelated arrays (e.g. Jane Austen, Wuthering Heights, Hercule Poirot. We documented that different patterns of taxonomic and thematic organisation were constrained by whether the individual has limited knowledge, moderate knowledge or detailed knowledge of a particular vocabulary. It is suggested that moderate proper name knowledge is primarily organised by taxonomy whereas extensive experience results in a more detailed knowledge base in which theme is a powerful organising principle.

  17. Taxonomic and thematic organisation of proper name conceptual knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crutch, Sebastian J; Warrington, Elizabeth K

    2011-01-01

    We report the investigation of the organisation of proper names in two aphasic patients (NBC and FBI). The performance of both patients on spoken word to written word matching tasks was inconsistent, affected by presentation rate and semantic relatedness of the competing responses, all hallmarks of a refractory semantic access dysphasia. In a series of experiments we explored the semantic relatedness effects within their proper name vocabulary, including brand names and person names. First we demonstrated the interaction between very fine grain organisation and personal experience, with one patient with a special interest in the cinema demonstrating higher error rates when identifying the names of actors working in a similar film genre (e.g., action movies: Arnold Schwarzenegger, Bruce Willis, Sylvester Stallone, Mel Gibson) than those working in different genres (e.g., Arnold Schwarzenegger, Gregory Peck, Robin Williams, Gene Kelly). Second we compared directly two potential principles of semantic organisation - taxonomic and thematic. Furthermore we considered these principles of organisation in the context of the individuals' personal knowledge base. We selected topics matching the interests and experience of each patient, namely cinema and literature (NBC) and naval history (FBI). The stimulus items were arranged in taxonomic arrays (e.g., Jane Austen, Emily Bronte, Agatha Christie), thematic arrays (e.g., Jane Austen, Pride and Prejudice, Mr Darcy), and unrelated arrays (e.g., Jane Austen, Wuthering Heights, Hercule Poirot). We documented that different patterns of taxonomic and thematic organisation were constrained by whether the individual has limited knowledge, moderate knowledge or detailed knowledge of a particular vocabulary. It is suggested that moderate proper name knowledge is primarily organised by taxonomy whereas extensive experience results in a more detailed knowledge base in which theme is a powerful organising principle.

  18. Review & Peer Review of “Parameters for Properly Designed and Operated Flares” Documents

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page contains two 2012 memoranda on the review of EPA's parameters for properly designed and operated flares. One details the process of peer review, and the other provides background information and specific charge questions to the panel.

  19. Possible Solution to Publication Bias Through Bayesian Statistics, Including Proper Null Hypothesis Testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Konijn, Elly A.; van de Schoot, Rens; Winter, Sonja D.; Ferguson, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    The present paper argues that an important cause of publication bias resides in traditional frequentist statistics forcing binary decisions. An alternative approach through Bayesian statistics provides various degrees of support for any hypothesis allowing balanced decisions and proper null

  20. A Spectroscopic Catalog of Nearby, High Proper Motion M subdwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hejazi, Neda; Lepine, Sebastien; Homeier, Derek

    2018-01-01

    We present a catalog of 350 metal-poor M subdwarfs, most of them likely from the local Galactic halo population, assembled from medium-resolution observations made at the MDM observatory. All objects are high proper motion stars, with 257 of them having proper motions > 0.4"/yr. We have identified the brightest prototypes for each bin of a grid of 14 spectral subtypes (M0, M0.5, M1, … M6.5) and 9 metallicity bins that go from the moderately metal-poor subdwarfs (sdM), to the more metal-poor extreme subdwarfs (esdM), to the most metal-poor ultra subdwarfs (usdM), each of which is subdivided into three finer metallicity subclasses. The spectral classification by subtype and metallicity class has been determined by a template-fit method, and confirmed by synthetic-model fitting using the BT-Settl spectral grid. We provide the list of the brightest prototypes for each subtype/subclass, as a guide for future high-resolution surveys of low-mass, metal-poor stars.

  1. The Need for Proper Military Dissent

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-03

    War College Class of 2012 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT: A Approved for Public Release Distribution is Unlimited This manuscript is submitted in...potential perils of this conundrum? Since World War II , tremendous academic thought has provided a rich body of thought on dissent. Specifically...Defense. Prior to the attacks of September 11th, 2001, misgivings about the Army‘s headgear change to the black beret and private battles over force

  2. POSTOPERATIVE AND CANCER PAIN NEED PROPER ANALGESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay Yanev

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The authors surveyed the clinical data and reviewed the literature on the management of post-operative and cancer pain. The conclusion was made that pain management during post-operative period or in status of advanced cancer necessitates effective pharmacotherapy with non-opioid and opioid analgesics. Data for pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of widely used analgesic drugs are listed. The authors provide practical guidelines for the management of post-operative and cancer pain in clinical wards as well as in outpatients departments.

  3. An investigation into dentists' perceptions of barriers to providing care of dental trauma to permanent maxillary incisors in children in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeng, T; Parashos, P

    2007-09-01

    Perceived barriers in the treatment of dental trauma may influence the optimum management of dental trauma. Any hesitation that dentists might have in managing dental trauma is important to investigate. The aim of this study was to investigate dentists' perceptions of barriers to providing care of dental trauma to permanent maxillary incisors in children. A self-completion questionnaire survey containing six questions on demographic data and 15 questions relating to barriers to treating dental trauma was mailed to 693 dentists in Victoria, Australia. The response rate achieved was 61 per cent. Of the respondents, 90 per cent had no hesitation in treating dental injuries and 80 per cent of these frequently agreed that dentists should treat all dental trauma. Approximately half the dentists (51.5 per cent) frequently found uncooperative children to be the main barrier to providing care. The overall consensus from the present study was that treating dental trauma is not unappealing for dentists in general practice.

  4. Social inequalities in health: a proper concern of epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmot, Michael; Bell, Ruth

    2016-04-01

    Social inequalities are a proper concern of epidemiology. Epidemiological thinking and modes of analysis are central, but epidemiological research is one among many areas of study that provide the evidence for understanding the causes of social inequalities in health and what can be done to reduce them. Understanding the causes of health inequalities requires insights from social, behavioral and biological sciences, and a chain of reasoning that examines how the accumulation of positive and negative influences over the life course leads to health inequalities in adult life. Evidence that the social gradient in health can be reduced should make us optimistic that reducing health inequalities is a realistic goal for all societies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. A Factor Analytic Investigation of the Person-in-Recovery and Provider Versions of the Revised Recovery Self-Assessment (RSA-R).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konkolÿ Thege, Barna; Ham, Elke; Ball, Laura C

    2017-12-01

    Recovery is understood as living a life with hope, purpose, autonomy, productivity, and community engagement despite a mental illness. The aim of this study was to provide further information on the psychometric properties of the Person-in-Recovery and Provider versions of the Revised Recovery Self-Assessment (RSA-R), a widely used measure of recovery orientation. Data from 654 individuals were analyzed, 519 of whom were treatment providers (63.6% female), while 135 were inpatients (10.4% female) of a Canadian tertiary-level psychiatric hospital. Confirmatory and exploratory techniques were used to investigate the factor structure of both versions of the instrument. Results of the confirmatory factor analyses showed that none of the four theoretically plausible models fit the data well. Principal component analyses could not replicate the structure obtained by the scale developers either and instead resulted in a five-component solution for the Provider and a four-component solution for the Person-in-Recovery version. When considering the results of a parallel analysis, the number of components to retain dropped to two for the Provider version and one for the Person-in-Recovery version. We can conclude that the RSA-R requires further revision to become a psychometrically sound instrument for assessing recovery-oriented practices in an inpatient mental health-care setting.

  6. PROPER: Performance visualization for optimizing and comparing ranking classifiers in MATLAB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahandideh, Samad; Sharifi, Fatemeh; Jaroszewski, Lukasz; Godzik, Adam

    2015-01-01

    One of the recent challenges of computational biology is development of new algorithms, tools and software to facilitate predictive modeling of big data generated by high-throughput technologies in biomedical research. To meet these demands we developed PROPER - a package for visual evaluation of ranking classifiers for biological big data mining studies in the MATLAB environment. PROPER is an efficient tool for optimization and comparison of ranking classifiers, providing over 20 different two- and three-dimensional performance curves.

  7. Deterministic Bidirectional Remote State Preparation of a- and Symmetric Quantum States with a Proper Quantum Channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yi; Ni, Jiang-Li; Wang, Zhang-Yin; Lu, Yan; Han, Lian-Fang

    2017-10-01

    We present a new scheme for deterministically realizing the mutual interchange of quantum information between two distant parties via selected quantum states as the shared entangled resource. We first show the symmetric bidirectional remote state preparation (BRSP), where two single-qubit quantum states will be simultaneously exchanged in a deterministic manner provided that each of the users performs single-qubit von Neumann measurements with proper measurement bases as well as appropriate unitary operations, depending essentially on the outcomes of the prior measurements. Then we consider to extend the symmetric protocol to an asymmetric case, in which BRSP of a general single-qubit state and an arbitrary two-qubit state is investigated successfully. The necessary quantum operations and the employed quantum resources are feasible according to the present technology, resulting in that this protocol may be realizable in the realm of current physical experiment.

  8. Morphology and semantics of proper names in Northern Sotho ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this article is to present the identifying features of the Northern Sotho proper name as a subcategory of the broader word category N (noun). The article analyses the identifying morphological features and semantic interpretations of two types of the proper name, namely, personal and place names in ...

  9. 29 CFR 1404.20 - Proper use of expedited arbitration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Proper use of expedited arbitration. 1404.20 Section 1404... ARBITRATION SERVICES Expedited Arbitration § 1404.20 Proper use of expedited arbitration. (a) FMCS reserves the right to cease honoring request for Expedited Arbitration if a pattern of misuse of this becomes...

  10. Comparison of Methods of Teaching Children Proper Lifting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: This study was designed to determine the effects of three teaching methods on children\\'s ability to demonstrate and recall their mastery of proper lifting techniques. Method: Ninety-three primary five and six public school children who had no knowledge of proper lifting technique were assigned into three equal ...

  11. Beyond categories, proper names, types and norms toward a fragile ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-01-16

    Jan 16, 2012 ... disastrous method of capitalising cultural-political names, moving beyond such capitalisation of 'proper' names toward ...... referents, then theopoetics will have to refer to strategies of human signification in the .... will ever grasp (Begreifen) the Other in the same of proper names and thus it is playful dance in.

  12. 16 CFR 682.3 - Proper disposal of consumer information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Proper disposal of consumer information. 682.3 Section 682.3 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION THE FAIR CREDIT REPORTING ACT DISPOSAL OF CONSUMER REPORT INFORMATION AND RECORDS § 682.3 Proper disposal of consumer information. (a...

  13. Aeroelastic System Development Using Proper Orthogonal Decomposition and Volterra Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucia, David J.; Beran, Philip S.; Silva, Walter A.

    2003-01-01

    This research combines Volterra theory and proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) into a hybrid methodology for reduced-order modeling of aeroelastic systems. The out-come of the method is a set of linear ordinary differential equations (ODEs) describing the modal amplitudes associated with both the structural modes and the POD basis functions for the uid. For this research, the structural modes are sine waves of varying frequency, and the Volterra-POD approach is applied to the fluid dynamics equations. The structural modes are treated as forcing terms which are impulsed as part of the uid model realization. Using this approach, structural and uid operators are coupled into a single aeroelastic operator. This coupling converts a free boundary uid problem into an initial value problem, while preserving the parameter (or parameters) of interest for sensitivity analysis. The approach is applied to an elastic panel in supersonic cross ow. The hybrid Volterra-POD approach provides a low-order uid model in state-space form. The linear uid model is tightly coupled with a nonlinear panel model using an implicit integration scheme. The resulting aeroelastic model provides correct limit-cycle oscillation prediction over a wide range of panel dynamic pressure values. Time integration of the reduced-order aeroelastic model is four orders of magnitude faster than the high-order solution procedure developed for this research using traditional uid and structural solvers.

  14. Supporting students' scientific explanations: A case study investigating the synergy focusing on a teacher's practices when providing instruction and using mobile devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delen, Ibrahim

    Engage students in constructing scientific practices is a critical component of science instruction. Therefore a number of researchers have developed software programs to help students and teachers in this hard task. The Zydeco group, designed a mobile application called Zydeco, which enables students to collect data inside and outside the classroom, and then use the data to create scientific explanations by using claim-evidence-reasoning framework. Previous technologies designed to support scientific explanations focused on how these programs improve students' scientific explanations, but these programs ignored how scientific explanation technologies can support teacher practices. Thus, to increase our knowledge how different scaffolds can work together, this study aimed to portray the synergy between a teacher's instructional practices (part 1) and using supports within a mobile devices (part 2) to support students in constructing explanations. Synergy can be thought of as generic and content-specific scaffolds working together to enable students to accomplish challenging tasks, such as creating explanations that they would not normally be able to do without the scaffolds working together. Providing instruction (part 1) focused on understanding how the teacher scaffolds students' initial understanding of the claim-evidence-reasoning (CER) framework. The second component of examining synergy (part 2: using mobile devices) investigated how this teacher used mobile devices to provide feedback when students created explanations. The synergy between providing instruction and using mobile devices was investigated by analyzing a middle school teacher's practices in two different units (plants and water quality). Next, this study focused on describing how the level of synergy influenced the quality of students' scientific explanations. Finally, I investigated the role of focused teaching intervention sessions to inform teacher in relation to students' performance. In

  15. Collaborative efforts are needed to ensure proper knowledge dissemination of telemedicine projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsen, Neel Kolthoff; Jensen, Lena Sundby; Kayser, Lars

    2014-09-01

    Telemedicine is often seen as the solution to the challenge of providing health care for an increasing number of people with chronic conditions. Projects are often organised locally and based on the involvement of stakeholders with a wide range of backgrounds. It can be challenging to ensure that projects are based on previous experience and that they do not repeat previous studies. To better understand these challenges and current practice, we examined telemedicine projects funded in the 2008-2010 period to explore where, how and to what extent results from the projects were documented and disseminated. Public and private funds were contacted for information about telemedicine studies focusing on people residing in their homes. After an initial screening of titles and abstracts, 19 projects were identified. The managers of the projects were contacted and information about project results and dissemination were obtained. More than half of all projects were disseminated to professionals as well as to the public and used two-way communication. However, it was generally difficult to obtain an overview of the projects due to dynamic changes in names and scopes. We propose that the funding authorities require designs comprising proper evaluation models that will subsequently allow the investigators to publish their findings. Furthermore, a dissemination plan comprising both peers and other professions should be made mandatory. The investigators should ensure proper documentation and dissemination of changes both during and after the projects in order to ensure transparency, and national or international organisations should establish a database with relevant data fields. not relevant. not relevant.

  16. Proteoglycans support proper granule formation in pancreatic acinar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aroso, Miguel; Agricola, Brigitte; Hacker, Christian; Schrader, Michael

    2015-10-01

    Zymogen granules (ZG) are specialized organelles in the exocrine pancreas which allow digestive enzyme storage and regulated secretion. The molecular mechanisms of their biogenesis and the sorting of zymogens are still incompletely understood. Here, we investigated the role of proteoglycans in granule formation and secretion of zymogens in pancreatic AR42J cells, an acinar model system. Cupromeronic Blue cytochemistry and biochemical studies revealed an association of proteoglycans primarily with the granule membrane. Removal of proteoglycans by carbonate treatment led to a loss of membrane curvature indicating a supportive role in the maintenance of membrane shape and stability. Chemical inhibition of proteoglycan synthesis impaired the formation of normal electron-dense granules in AR42J cells and resulted in the formation of unusually small granule structures. These structures still contained the zymogen carboxypeptidase, a cargo molecule of secretory granules, but migrated to lighter fractions after density gradient centrifugation. Furthermore, the basal secretion of amylase was increased in AR42J cells after inhibitor treatment. In addition, irregular-shaped granules appeared in pancreatic lobules. We conclude that the assembly of a proteoglycan scaffold at the ZG membrane is supporting efficient packaging of zymogens and the proper formation of stimulus-competent storage granules in acinar cells of the pancreas.

  17. Proper laboratory notebook practices: protecting your intellectual property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickla, Jason T; Boehm, Matthew B

    2011-03-01

    A laboratory notebook contains a wealth of knowledge that can be critical for establishing evidence in support of intellectual property rights and for refuting claims of research misconduct. The proper type, organization, use, maintenance, and storage of laboratory notebooks should be a priority for everyone at research institutions. Failure to properly document research activities can lead to serious problems, including the loss of valuable patent rights. Consequences of improper laboratory notebook practices can be harsh; numerous examples are described in court cases and journal articles, indicating a need for research institutions to develop strict policies on the proper use and storage of research documentation.

  18. AN EMPIRICAL INVESTIGATION OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN DEMOGRAPHICS AND THE USAGE AND PERCEIVED CREDIBILITY OF SOURCES OF INFORMATION ON ACCOMMODATION PROVIDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovidiu I. MOISESCU

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship between the usage and perceived credibility of several sources of information domestic travelers take into consideration when gathering information on potential accommodation providers, on one hand, and, respectively, travelers’ demographic characteristics, on the other hand. After analyzing data from an online questionnaire based study conducted among a sample of 346 young Romanian Facebook users (between 19 and 35 years old, the results showed that, considering types of information sources usually taken into consideration, personal sources and Facebook are more frequently found among travelers with a lower income, travel agencies are more frequently mentioned as usual sources of information among older travelers and among those with a higher level of education, while women are more inclined than men to use leaflets and booklets as sources of information on accommodation providers. Moreover, the research showed that the higher the income, the higher the level of perceived credibility of online portals is. Also, travel agencies and personal sources are more frequently mentioned among the most credible sources by women, than by men, while men are slightly more confident than women in online banners and blogs. The findings can be very useful and relevant from a practical perspective, especially for communication and promotion purposes in the hospitality industry.

  19. A properly adjusted forage harvester can save time and money

    Science.gov (United States)

    A properly adjusted forage harvester can save fuel and increase the realizable milk per ton of your silage. This article details the adjustments necessary to minimize energy while maximizing productivity and forage quality....

  20. KNOCK-KNOCK JOKES, PROPER NAMES, AND REFERENTIALITY

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bugheşiu, Alina

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a pragmatic and semantic study of the English knockknock jokes, paying particular attention to the dimension of reference, in general, and the use of proper names, in particular...

  1. The PMA Catalogue: 420 million positions and absolute proper motions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhmetov, V. S.; Fedorov, P. N.; Velichko, A. B.; Shulga, V. M.

    2017-07-01

    We present a catalogue that contains about 420 million absolute proper motions of stars. It was derived from the combination of positions from Gaia DR1 and 2MASS, with a mean difference of epochs of about 15 yr. Most of the systematic zonal errors inherent in the 2MASS Catalogue were eliminated before deriving the absolute proper motions. The absolute calibration procedure (zero-pointing of the proper motions) was carried out using about 1.6 million positions of extragalactic sources. The mean formal error of the absolute calibration is less than 0.35 mas yr-1. The derived proper motions cover the whole celestial sphere without gaps for a range of stellar magnitudes from 8 to 21 mag. In the sky areas where the extragalactic sources are invisible (the avoidance zone), a dedicated procedure was used that transforms the relative proper motions into absolute ones. The rms error of proper motions depends on stellar magnitude and ranges from 2-5 mas yr-1 for stars with 10 mag < G < 17 mag to 5-10 mas yr-1 for faint ones. The present catalogue contains the Gaia DR1 positions of stars for the J2015 epoch. The system of the PMA proper motions does not depend on the systematic errors of the 2MASS positions, and in the range from 14 to 21 mag represents an independent realization of a quasi-inertial reference frame in the optical and near-infrared wavelength range. The Catalogue also contains stellar magnitudes taken from the Gaia DR1 and 2MASS catalogues. A comparison of the PMA proper motions of stars with similar data from certain recent catalogues has been undertaken.

  2. Proper political participation in China as a developing country

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Zhao-gang

    2007-01-01

    Proper political participation is very important for China as a developing country. Proper political participation can help the government to meet the needs of the masses and divide the social interests more fairly. It also can increase the capacity of the government, promote the public morals; maintain social order and unity of our society. But unlimited political participation could also be blind and destructive. It could do great damage to the society. Political participation can be at a p...

  3. Investigating the job satisfaction of healthcare providers at primary healthcare centres in Lebanon: A national cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alameddine, Mohamad; Baroud, Maysa; Kharroubi, Samer; Hamadeh, Randa; Ammar, Walid; Shoaib, Hikma; Khodr, Hiba

    2017-11-01

    Low job satisfaction is linked to higher staff turnover and intensified shortages in healthcare providers (HCP). This study investigates the level of, and factors associated with, HCP job satisfaction in the national primary healthcare (PHC) network in Lebanon. The study adopts a cross-sectional design to survey HCP at 99 PHC centres distributed across the country between October 2013 and May 2014. The study questionnaire consisted of four sections: socio-demographics/professional background, employment characteristics, level of job satisfaction (Measure of Job Satisfaction scale) and level of professional burnout (Maslach Burnout Inventory-HSS scale). A total of 1,000 providers completed the questionnaire (75.8% response rate). Bivariate and multivariate regression analyses were used to identify factors significantly associated with job satisfaction. Findings of the study highlight an overall mean job satisfaction score of 3.59 (SD 0.54) indicating that HCP are partially satisfied. Upon further examination, HCP were least satisfied with pay, training and job prospects. Gender, age, career plans, salary, exposure to violence, and level of burnout were significantly associated with the overall level of job satisfaction which was also associated with increased likelihood to quit. Overall, the study highlights how compensation, development and protection of PHC HCP can influence their job satisfaction. Recommendations include the necessity of developing a nationally representative committee, led by the Ministry of Public Health, to examine the policies and remuneration scales within the PHC sector and suggest mechanisms to bridge the pay differential with other sectors. The effective engagement of key stakeholders with the development, organisation and evaluation of professional development programmes offered to HCP in the PHC sector remains crucial. Concerned stakeholders should assess and formulate initiatives and programmes that enrich the physical, psychological

  4. Combining noninvasive genetics and a new mammalian sex-linked marker provides new tools to investigate population size, structure and individual behaviour: an application to bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarzoso-Lacoste, D; Jan, P-L; Lehnen, L; Girard, T; Besnard, A-L; Puechmaille, S J; Petit, E J

    2017-10-23

    Monitoring wild populations is crucial for their effective management. Noninvasive genetic methods provide robust data from individual free-ranging animals, which can be used in capture-mark-recapture (CMR) models to estimate demographic parameters without capturing or disturbing them. However, sex- and status-specific behaviour, which may lead to differences in detection probabilities, is rarely considered in monitoring. Here, we investigated population size, sex ratio, sex- and status-related behaviour in 19 Rhinolophus hipposideros maternity colonies (Northern France) with a noninvasive genetic CMR approach (using faeces) combined with parentage assignments. The use of the DDX3X/Y-Mam sexual marker designed in this study, which shows inter- and intra-chromosomal length polymorphism across placental mammals, together with 8 polymorphic microsatellite markers, produced high quality genetic data with limited genotyping errors and allowed us to reliably distinguish different categories of individuals (males, reproductive and non-reproductive females) and to estimate population sizes. We showed that visual counts represent well adult female numbers and that population composition in maternity colonies changes dynamically during the summer. Before parturition, colonies mainly harbour pregnant and non-pregnant females with a few visiting males whereas after parturition, colonies are mainly composed of mothers and their offspring with a few visiting non-mothers and males. Our approach gives deeper insight into sex- and status-specific behaviour, a prerequisite for understanding population dynamics and developing effective monitoring and management strategies. Provided sufficient samples can be obtained, this approach can be readily applied to a wide range of species. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  5. Quantitative investigation of the edge enhancement in in-line phase contrast projections and tomosynthesis provided by distributing microbubbles on the interface between two tissues: a phantom study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Di; Donovan Wong, Molly; Li, Yuhua; Fajardo, Laurie; Zheng, Bin; Wu, Xizeng; Liu, Hong

    2017-12-01

    The objective of this study was to quantitatively investigate the ability to distribute microbubbles along the interface between two tissues, in an effort to improve the edge and/or boundary features in phase contrast imaging. The experiments were conducted by employing a custom designed tissue simulating phantom, which also simulated a clinical condition where the ligand-targeted microbubbles are self-aggregated on the endothelium of blood vessels surrounding malignant cells. Four different concentrations of microbubble suspensions were injected into the phantom: 0%, 0.1%, 0.2%, and 0.4%. A time delay of 5 min was implemented before image acquisition to allow the microbubbles to become distributed at the interface between the acrylic and the cavity simulating a blood vessel segment. For comparison purposes, images were acquired using three system configurations for both projection and tomosynthesis imaging with a fixed radiation dose delivery: conventional low-energy contact mode, low-energy in-line phase contrast and high-energy in-line phase contrast. The resultant images illustrate the edge feature enhancements in the in-line phase contrast imaging mode when the microbubble concentration is extremely low. The quantitative edge-enhancement-to-noise ratio calculations not only agree with the direct image observations, but also indicate that the edge feature enhancement can be improved by increasing the microbubble concentration. In addition, high-energy in-line phase contrast imaging provided better performance in detecting low-concentration microbubble distributions.

  6. Master functional and proper formalism for quantum gauge field theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anselmi, Damiano [Universita di Pisa, Dipartimento di Fisica ' ' Enrico Fermi' ' , Pisa (Italy)

    2013-03-15

    We develop a general field-covariant approach to quantum gauge theories. Extending the usual set of integrated fields and external sources to ''proper'' fields and sources, which include partners of the composite fields, we define the master functional {Omega}, which collects one-particle irreducible diagrams and upgrades the usual {Gamma}-functional in several respects. The functional {Omega} is determined from its classical limit applying the usual diagrammatic rules to the proper fields. Moreover, it behaves as a scalar under the most general perturbative field redefinitions, which can be expressed as linear transformations of the proper fields. We extend the Batalin-Vilkovisky formalism and the master equation. The master functional satisfies the extended master equation and behaves as a scalar under canonical transformations. The most general perturbative field redefinitions and changes of gauge-fixing can be encoded in proper canonical transformations, which are linear and do not mix integrated fields and external sources. Therefore, they can be applied as true changes of variables in the functional integral, instead of mere replacements of integrands. This property overcomes a major difficulty of the functional {Gamma}. Finally, the new approach allows us to prove the renormalizability of gauge theories in a general field-covariant setting. We generalize known cohomological theorems to the master functional and show that when there are no gauge anomalies all divergences can be subtracted by means of parameter redefinitions and proper canonical transformations. (orig.)

  7. 3D-2D image registration for target localization in spine surgery: investigation of similarity metrics providing robustness to content mismatch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Silva, T; Uneri, A; Ketcha, M D; Reaungamornrat, S; Kleinszig, G; Vogt, S; Aygun, N; Lo, S-F; Wolinsky, J-P; Siewerdsen, J H

    2016-04-21

    In image-guided spine surgery, robust three-dimensional to two-dimensional (3D-2D) registration of preoperative computed tomography (CT) and intraoperative radiographs can be challenged by the image content mismatch associated with the presence of surgical instrumentation and implants as well as soft-tissue resection or deformation. This work investigates image similarity metrics in 3D-2D registration offering improved robustness against mismatch, thereby improving performance and reducing or eliminating the need for manual masking. The performance of four gradient-based image similarity metrics (gradient information (GI), gradient correlation (GC), gradient information with linear scaling (GS), and gradient orientation (GO)) with a multi-start optimization strategy was evaluated in an institutional review board-approved retrospective clinical study using 51 preoperative CT images and 115 intraoperative mobile radiographs. Registrations were tested with and without polygonal masks as a function of the number of multistarts employed during optimization. Registration accuracy was evaluated in terms of the projection distance error (PDE) and assessment of failure modes (PDE  >  30 mm) that could impede reliable vertebral level localization. With manual polygonal masking and 200 multistarts, the GC and GO metrics exhibited robust performance with 0% gross failures and median PDE registration to fail at a rate of >14%; however, GO maintained robustness with a 0% gross failure rate. Overall, the GI, GC, and GS metrics were susceptible to registration errors associated with content mismatch, but GO provided robust registration (median PDE  =  5.5 mm, 2.6 mm IQR) without manual masking and with an improved runtime (29.3 s). The GO metric improved the registration accuracy and robustness in the presence of strong image content mismatch. This capability could offer valuable assistance and decision support in spine level localization in a manner consistent with

  8. 3D-2D image registration for target localization in spine surgery: investigation of similarity metrics providing robustness to content mismatch

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Silva, T.; Uneri, A.; Ketcha, M. D.; Reaungamornrat, S.; Kleinszig, G.; Vogt, S.; Aygun, N.; Lo, S.-F.; Wolinsky, J.-P.; Siewerdsen, J. H.

    2016-04-01

    In image-guided spine surgery, robust three-dimensional to two-dimensional (3D-2D) registration of preoperative computed tomography (CT) and intraoperative radiographs can be challenged by the image content mismatch associated with the presence of surgical instrumentation and implants as well as soft-tissue resection or deformation. This work investigates image similarity metrics in 3D-2D registration offering improved robustness against mismatch, thereby improving performance and reducing or eliminating the need for manual masking. The performance of four gradient-based image similarity metrics (gradient information (GI), gradient correlation (GC), gradient information with linear scaling (GS), and gradient orientation (GO)) with a multi-start optimization strategy was evaluated in an institutional review board-approved retrospective clinical study using 51 preoperative CT images and 115 intraoperative mobile radiographs. Registrations were tested with and without polygonal masks as a function of the number of multistarts employed during optimization. Registration accuracy was evaluated in terms of the projection distance error (PDE) and assessment of failure modes (PDE  >  30 mm) that could impede reliable vertebral level localization. With manual polygonal masking and 200 multistarts, the GC and GO metrics exhibited robust performance with 0% gross failures and median PDE  14% however, GO maintained robustness with a 0% gross failure rate. Overall, the GI, GC, and GS metrics were susceptible to registration errors associated with content mismatch, but GO provided robust registration (median PDE  =  5.5 mm, 2.6 mm IQR) without manual masking and with an improved runtime (29.3 s). The GO metric improved the registration accuracy and robustness in the presence of strong image content mismatch. This capability could offer valuable assistance and decision support in spine level localization in a manner consistent with clinical workflow.

  9. How Students Learn from Multiple Contexts and Definitions: Proper Time as a Coordination Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levrini, Olivia; diSessa, Andrea A.

    2008-01-01

    This article provides an empirical analysis of a single classroom episode in which students reveal difficulties with the concept of proper time in special relativity but slowly make progress in improving their understanding. The theoretical framework used is "coordination class theory," which is an evolving model of concepts and conceptual change.…

  10. Compliance of proper safety helmet usage in motorcyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulanthayan, S; Umar, R S; Hariza, H A; Nasir, M T; Harwant, S

    2000-03-01

    Motorcyclists make up the largest group of fatalities on Malaysian roads, majority succumbing to head injuries despite the compulsory safety helmet laws in the country. One possible reason for this high fatality is improper usage of safety helmets. This study examines the compliance of proper safety helmet use in motorcyclists in a typical Malaysian town. Five hundred motorcyclists were studied. Only 54.4% of motorcyclists used helmets properly, 21.4% used them improperly; and 24.2% did not wear helmets. Six variables were found to be significant in improper safety helmet use. They were age, gender, race, formal education level, prior accident experience and type of license held. Marital status and riding experience were not significant. Efforts promoting proper use of safety helmets should focus on the young, male, less formally educated, unlicensed rider, who has had a prior accident.

  11. Medicare Provider Data - Hospice Providers

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Hospice Utilization and Payment Public Use File provides information on services provided to Medicare beneficiaries by hospice providers. The Hospice PUF...

  12. The Semantics of Proper Names and Other Bare Nominals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izumi, Yu

    2012-01-01

    This research proposes a unified approach to the semantics of the so-called bare nominals, which include proper names (e.g., "Mary"), mass and plural terms (e.g., "water," "cats"), and articleless noun phrases in Japanese. I argue that bare nominals themselves are monadic predicates applicable to more than one…

  13. Observations of Proper Motions and Annual Parallaxes of Pulsars

    OpenAIRE

    FUJISHITA, Mitsumi

    1991-01-01

    Almost all published data of pulsar proper motions and annual parallaxes observed by optical method, pulse arrival-time method, connected radio interferometric method and VLBI method for 46 pulsars including binary and millisecond pulsars are listed in a table. Scintillation velocities of 71 pulsars also including binary and millisecond pulsars are listed in another table.

  14. [Maintaining the proper distance for nurses working in the home].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estève, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    Health professionals must be able to respond to many different situations which require technical knowledge and self-control. Particularly when working in the patient's home, nurses must know how to maintain a proper distance to protect themselves from burnout. In this respect, the practice analysis constitutes an adapted support tool. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Feature extraction using regular expression in detecting proper ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Feature extraction using regular expression in detecting proper noun for Malay news articles based on KNN algorithm. S Sulaiman, R.A. Wahid, F Morsidi. Abstract. No Abstract. Keywords: data mining; named entity recognition; regular expression; natural language processing. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL ...

  16. The continuous quest for proper modes of criminal responsibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wilt, H.G.

    2009-01-01

    The author discusses the recent decision of the ICC Pre-Trial Chamber to issue an arrest warrant against President Al Bashir from the viewpoint of the choice of the alleged mode of responsibility. In emphasizing the need and the difficulty of choosing the most proper concept of criminal

  17. Beyond categories, proper names, types and norms toward a fragile ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Derrida deconstructed Heidegger's interpretation and exposed Heidegger's disastrous method of capitalising cultural-political names, moving beyond such capitalisation of 'proper' names toward différance and a messianic expectation without Messiah. In this artricle, both Heidegger and Derrida's conceptions were brought ...

  18. Proper Living - Exploring Domestic Ideals in Medieval Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Mette Svart

    2014-01-01

    , and ornaments. This paper addresses ideas of proper living in affluent rural and urban milieus in medieval Denmark, particularly as they are expressed through houses, inventories, and murals, and it also addresses current challenges in understanding the materialized ideas based on excavations and analysis...

  19. The affine invariant of proper semitoric integrable systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelayo, Álvaro; Ratiu, Tudor S.; Ngọc, San Vu

    2017-11-01

    This paper initiates the study of semitoric integrable systems with two degrees of freedom and with proper momentum-energy map, but with possibly nonproper S 1-momentum map. This class of systems includes many standard examples, such as the spherical pendulum. To each such system we associate a subset of \

  20. Establishing a 1991 Veterans Research Network to Improve Characterization of Gulf War Illness and Provide a National Resource for Veterans and Investigators

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    data will be used to optimize a GWI case definition, based on current symptoms, and to provide insights concerning rates of other medical conditions... questionnaires by mail or online, and to participate in the 1991 Veterans Research and Information Network (91VetNet), a national research and information...be used to update and optimize a GWI case definition, based on veterans’ current health status, and to provide important insights concerning rates of

  1. Answerers' Motivations and Strategies for Providing Information and Social Support in Social Q&A an Investigation of Health Question Answering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Sanghee

    2010-01-01

    Social Q&A allows people to ask and answer questions for each other and to solve problems in everyday life collaboratively. The purpose of the current study is to understand the motivations and strategies of answerers in social Q&A. Thus, three research questions were investigated: (1) Why do answerers participate and contribute in social Q&A? (2)…

  2. Healthcare providers on the frontlines: a qualitative investigation of the social and emotional impact of delivering health services during Sierra Leone's Ebola epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Shannon A; Ho, Lara S; Brown, Hannah; Miller, Laura; Ansumana, Rashid; Kennedy, Caitlin E

    2016-11-01

    Although research on the epidemiology and ecology of Ebola has expanded since the 2014-15 outbreak in West Africa, less attention has been paid to the mental health implications and the psychosocial context of the disease for providers working in primary health facilities (rather than Ebola-specific treatment units). This study draws on 54 qualitative interviews with 35 providers working in eight peripheral health units of Sierra Leone's Bo and Kenema Districts. Data collection started near the height of the outbreak in December 2014 and lasted 1 month. Providers recounted changes in their professional, personal and social lives as they became de facto first responders in the outbreak. A theme articulated across interviews was Ebola's destruction of social connectedness and sense of trust within and across health facilities, communities and families. Providers described feeling lonely, ostracized, unloved, afraid, saddened and no longer respected. They also discussed restrictions on behaviors that enhance coping including attending burials and engaging in physical touch (hugging, handshaking, sitting near, or eating with colleagues, patients and family members). Providers described infection prevention measures as necessary but divisive because screening booths and protective equipment inhibited bonding or 'suffering with' patients. To mitigate psychiatric morbidities and maladaptive coping mechanisms-and to prevent the spread of Ebola-researchers and program planners must consider the psychosocial context of this disease and mechanisms to enhance psychological first aid to all health providers, including those in peripheral health settings. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine.

  3. Investigating the Practice of Providing Written Corrective Feedback Types by ESL Teachers at the Upper Secondary Level in High Performance Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmud, Norasyikin

    2016-01-01

    The past few decades has seen the rapid development of WCF (written corrective feedback) study. The present study examined the practice of providing WCF by teachers. The aim of this study was to determine the types of WCF used by English teachers. The study is an explanatory sequential mixed-methods design using open-ended and close-ended survey…

  4. Investigating the anatomy of the helping relationship in the context of psychiatric rehabilitation: the relation between working alliance, providers' recovery competencies and personal recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Galia; Mashiach-Eizenberg, Michal; Roe, David; Berman, Yael; Shalev, Anat; Kaplan, Zeev; Garber Epstein, Paula

    2014-12-15

    Professional helping relationships established with mental health consumers are vital in mental health recovery processes. However, little is known about how the constructs of alliance building and providers' recovery promoting strategies relate to each other and play a role in supporting recovery. To this end, we examined associations between consumer-reported working alliance, perceived providers' recovery competencies, and personal recovery. In a cross-sectional study design, 72 mental health consumers who established relationships with providers through a psycho-educational intervention over a period of 10 months in hourly weekly sessions were examined as part of a larger study conducted in mental health community settings in Israel. Participants filled in the Working Alliance Inventory (Tracey and Kokotovic, 1989), the Recovery Promoting Relationships Scale (Russinova et al., 2013), and Recovery Assessment Scale (Corrigan et al., 2004). Pearson correlations and linear regression analysis showed positive correlations between relational variables and recovery. A mediating model was identified whereby providers' recovery strategies positively impact the working alliance, which, in turn, positively impact consumers' recovery. Implications of the current study for future research and clinical practice are discussed, emphasizing the importance of examining recovery strategies and the working alliance with regard to the process of mental health recovery. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Proper Lens Care (A Minute of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-08-17

    Wearing contact lenses is a convenient way to improve vision without having to wear glasses. But unlike glasses, improper care and maintenance of lenses can result in severe eye problems, including blindness. In this podcast, Dr. Jennifer Cope discusses the importance of proper lens hygiene and maintenance.  Created: 8/17/2017 by MMWR.   Date Released: 8/17/2017.

  6. Proper Lens Care (A Cup of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-08-17

    Wearing contact lenses is a convenient way to improve vision without having to wear glasses. But unlike glasses, improper care and maintenance of lenses can result in severe eye problems, including blindness. In this podcast, Dr. Jennifer Cope discusses the importance of proper lens hygiene and maintenance.  Created: 8/17/2017 by MMWR.   Date Released: 8/17/2017.

  7. NATIONAL EXPERIENCES REGARDING CORPORATE GOVERNANCE PROPER PRACTICE CODES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durgheu Liliana

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is about the principles of proper governance codes, which even tough have blossomed in all parts of the world for more than a decade, the degree in which companies adopt the codes vary in different countries, and the decision to adopt a certain code does not automatically guarranty efficient corporate governance. The paper trys to identify the mechanisms needed for implementing the codes and that will lead to higher efficiency.

  8. Unwanted Medication Collection Events: The Importance of Proper Disposal

    OpenAIRE

    Henderson, William L

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this service-learning research project was to discover current practices and barriers related to proper medication disposal while protecting the safety of the public and the integrity of the environment. Collection and analysis of unused medications followed by environmentally friendly disposal is a current vision found in the Healthy People 2020 initiative and coincides with this objective. Since 2012, medication collection events have been conducted in multiple locations in...

  9. THE COMMON AND PROPER NOUNS BETWEEN ALBANIAN AND ENGLISH

    OpenAIRE

    Shkelqim Millaku

    2017-01-01

    The noun in Albanian language classified as common and proper. The common nouns in turn divide into countable and uncountable. Collective nouns and substance nouns are subclasses of the other classes. The structure of noun formation between Albanian and English on the general aspect of morphology and syntax still didn’t study in the way of comparative, contrast and generative. Those fields are our object of study. In Albanian and English we find some concepts of studies for noun for exam...

  10. Computation of Asteroid Proper Elements on the Grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novaković, B.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A procedure of gridification of the computation of asteroid proper orbital elements is described. The need to speed up the time consuming computations and make them more efficient is justified by the large increase of observational data expected from the next generation all sky surveys. We give the basic notion of proper elements and of the contemporary theories and methods used to compute them for different populations of objects. Proper elements for nearly 70,000 asteroids are derived since the beginning of use of the Grid infrastructure for the purpose. The average time for the catalogs update is significantly shortened with respect to the time needed with stand-alone workstations. We also present basics of the Grid computing, the concepts of Grid middleware and its Workload management system. The practical steps we undertook to efficiently gridify our application are described in full detail. We present the results of a comprehensive testing of the performance of different Grid sites, and offer some practical conclusions based on the benchmark results and on our experience. Finally, we propose some possibilities for the future work.

  11. Computation of asteroid proper elements on the Grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novaković B.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A procedure of gridification of the computation of asteroid proper orbital elements is described. The need to speed up the time consuming computations and make them more efficient is justified by the large increase of observational data expected from the next generation all sky surveys. We give the basic notion of proper elements and of the contemporary theories and methods used to compute them for different populations of objects. Proper elements for nearly 70,000 asteroids are derived since the beginning of use of the Grid infrastructure for the purpose. The average time for the catalogs update is significantly shortened with respect to the time needed with stand-alone workstations. We also present basics of the Grid computing, the concepts of Grid middleware and its Workload management system. The practical steps we undertook to efficiently gridify our application are described in full detail. We present the results of a comprehensive testing of the performance of different Grid sites, and offer some practical conclusions based on the benchmark results and on our experience. Finally, we propose some possibilities for the future work.

  12. Cresting the wave: proper motions of the Eastern Banded Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deason, Alis J.; Belokurov, Vasily; Koposov, Sergey E.

    2018-01-01

    We study the kinematic properties of the Eastern Banded Structure (EBS) and Hydra I overdensity using exquisite proper motions derived from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and Gaia source catalogue. Main sequence turn-off stars in the vicinity of the EBS are identified from SDSS photometry; we use the proper motions and, where applicable, spectroscopic measurements of these stars to probe the kinematics of this apparent stream. We find that the EBS and Hydra I share common kinematic and chemical properties with the nearby Monoceros Ring. In particular, the proper motions of the EBS, like Monoceros, are indicative of prograde rotation (Vϕ ∼ 180-220 km s-1), which is similar to the Galactic thick disc. The kinematic structure of stars in the vicinity of the EBS suggests that it is not a distinct stellar stream, but rather marks the 'edge' of the Monoceros Ring. The EBS and Hydra I are the latest substructures to be linked with Monoceros, leaving the Galactic anti-centre a mess of interlinked overdensities which likely share a unified, Galactic disc origin.

  13. Limited-memory adaptive snapshot selection for proper orthogonal decomposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oxberry, Geoffrey M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Kostova-Vassilevska, Tanya [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Arrighi, Bill [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Chand, Kyle [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-04-02

    Reduced order models are useful for accelerating simulations in many-query contexts, such as optimization, uncertainty quantification, and sensitivity analysis. However, offline training of reduced order models can have prohibitively expensive memory and floating-point operation costs in high-performance computing applications, where memory per core is limited. To overcome this limitation for proper orthogonal decomposition, we propose a novel adaptive selection method for snapshots in time that limits offline training costs by selecting snapshots according an error control mechanism similar to that found in adaptive time-stepping ordinary differential equation solvers. The error estimator used in this work is related to theory bounding the approximation error in time of proper orthogonal decomposition-based reduced order models, and memory usage is minimized by computing the singular value decomposition using a single-pass incremental algorithm. Results for a viscous Burgers’ test problem demonstrate convergence in the limit as the algorithm error tolerances go to zero; in this limit, the full order model is recovered to within discretization error. The resulting method can be used on supercomputers to generate proper orthogonal decomposition-based reduced order models, or as a subroutine within hyperreduction algorithms that require taking snapshots in time, or within greedy algorithms for sampling parameter space.

  14. Improved proper name recall in aging after electrical stimulation of the anterior temporal lobes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars A Ross

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Evidence from neuroimaging and neuropsychology suggests that portions of the anterior temporal lobes play a critical role in proper name retrieval. We previously found that anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS to the anterior temporal lobes improved retrieval of proper names in young adult. Here we extend that finding to older adults who tend to experience greater proper-naming deficits than young adults. The task was to look at pictures of famous faces or landmarks and verbally recall the associated proper name. Our results show a numerical improvement in face naming after left or right anterior temporal lobe stimulation, but a statistically significant effect only after left-lateralized stimulation. The magnitude of the enhancing effect was similar in older and younger adults but the lateralization of the effect differed depending on age. These results provide evidence that tDCS may be a useful tool for the neurorehabilitation of cognitive function in healthy and pathological cognitive decline.

  15. Proper Name as a Marker of a Cosmogonic Song

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana V. Toporova

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to show the internal integrity of the Eddic Grímnismál (Sayings of Grímnir, putting forward that the proper name is the key element for understanding the structure and meaning of this Eddic song. The name with transparent semantic motivation can both explicate the key features of denotata in thulas that represent comprehensive classification schemes, and implicate them (cf. the multiplicity of names of Odin, concealing his true name and nature. The author considers the end of the song, when Odin unveils his identity, rejects his false names and uses a true one (I, Odin, as a marker of Odin’s special ecstatic state revealing the knowledge about the origin and the structure of the universe, as well as the true essence of Odin. The opposition of the names explicating the properties of named objects (personalized elements of the universe in the concept of cosmogenesis: rivers, deers, etc. and subjects (i.e. actors, like Valkyries or Odin himself, on the one hand, and the names implicating them, on the other, is neutralized in the act of sacrifice when Odin comprehends the origin and the structure of the universe. Proper names are, thus, interpreted as a clip uniting the two parts of Grímnismál — the prose frame and the main poetic part of the song. The author argues that Grímnismál represents an ideal model of the universe embodied by the first and best proper name.

  16. THE TEACHERS ROLE IN FORMING PROPER BODY POSTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Bogdanović

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Being acquainted and well aware of the presence of physical deformation in school population, this study is based on the research of postural deformity of the pupils of the 5th grade of elementary school and determination of dependance of deformations appearance in relation to frequency of remonstration and indication to correct sitting position from proffesors’ perspective. The complete program content is conducted in the territory of the city of Kragujevac in several elementary schools comprising 299 students of the 5th grade. The object was to determine the number of students with kyphotic and lordotic deformity, to determine the presence of deformation in depandance of gender and to determine the presence of kyphotic and lordotic deformity in depandance of the frequency of proffesors indication to improper sitting. We can notice higher presence of kyphotic deformity at the probationers of male population that it is the case with female population while the higher presence of lordotic deformity is at female population.The highest number of probationers have reported that none of the proffesors warn them about proper sitting. The measures inside the groups sorted by gender qualifi cation, indicate on high percentage of both boys and girls who are not warned on proper sitting. Also, inside the groups of improper body holders, we can notice the most signifi cant kyphotic and lordotic deformity in the category of students who are never warned to sit properly. These indicators report us that is necessary to invest much more work on the education of parents and children as well as school stuff at the preschool and school institutions which would result in reducing the appearence and development of postural deformity at the population who is more liable to transformations of such kind.

  17. Experimental Investigations on Dopamine Transmission Can Provide Clues on the Mechanism of the Therapeutic Effect of Amphetamine and Methylphenidate in ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carboni, Ezio; Silvagni, Alessandra

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this review is to compare the experimental evidence obtained from in vitro studies on the effect of amphetamine and methylphenidate on dopamine transmission with the results obtained in animal models of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This comparison can extend the knowledge on the mechanism of action of the drugs used in the therapy of ADHD and provide insight into the etiology of ADHD. In particular, we considered the results obtained from in vitro methods, such as synaptosomes, cells in culture, and slices and from in vivo animal models of ADHD, such as spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHR) and the Naples high-excitability (NHE) rat lines. The different experimental approaches produce consonant results and suggest that in SHR rats, in contrast to Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY), amphetamine and depolarization by high K+ might release different pools of dopamine-containing vesicles. The pool depleted by amphetamine might represent dopamine that is stored in large dense core vesicles, whereas dopamine released by high K+ might be contained in small synaptic vesicles (SSV). The sustained dopamine transmission observed in the nucleus accumbens of SHR but not WKY rats can be supported by an elevated synthesis and release, which also might explain the stronger effect of methylphenidate on dopamine release in SHR but not in WKY rats. This hypothesis might enlighten the common therapeutic effect of these drugs, although their action takes place at different levels in catecholaminergic transmission. PMID:15303307

  18. Developing a gender-based approach to chronic conditions and women's health: a qualitative investigation of community-dwelling women and service provider perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiGiacomo, Michelle; Green, Anna; Rodrigues, Emma; Mulligan, Kathryn; Davidson, Patricia M

    2015-11-21

    Chronic conditions contribute to over 70 % of Australia's total disease burden, and this is set to increase to 80 % by 2020. Women's greater longevity means that they are more likely than men to live with disability and have unique health concerns related to their gender based roles in society. Cultural and social issues can impact on women's health and are important to consider in health services planning and research. In this study, we aimed to identify barriers and facilitators to providing a gender-based approach to chronic conditions and women's health in an eastern metropolitan region of Australia. Focus groups were used to engage both community-dwelling women who had chronic conditions and relevant professional stakeholders in the target area. Recorded proceedings underwent thematic analysis. Five focus groups were conducted with professional stakeholders and women community members in February and March 2014. Resultant themes included: women's disempowerment through interactions with health systems; social and economic constraints and caregiving roles act to exclude women from participating in self-care and society; and empowerment can be achieved through integrated models of care that facilitate voice and enable communication and engagement. This study underscores the importance of including perspectives of sex and gender in health care services planning. Tailoring services to socio-demographic and cultural groups is critical in promoting access to health care services. Unique epidemiological trends, particularly the ageing of women and new migrant groups, require particular attention.

  19. Can altering motions, postures, and loads provide immediate low back pain relief: a study of 4 cases investigating spine load, posture, and stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Dianne M; McGill, Stuart M

    2012-11-01

    A quantitative biomechanical analysis of mechanism of pain alteration in 4 cases of low back pain. To investigate the contributions of a number of biomechanical factors associated with pain alteration. Some clinicians use mechanically based manual interventions in attempt to reduce low back pain. However, the mechanism of pain alteration remains unknown. A sample was formed with 4 patients with low back pain seeking consults for pain relief. All could produce "catches" of pain with movement. Manual interventions involving coached changes in motion and muscle activation attempted to reduce pain. Electromyographic and kinematic data were collected before and after intervention. These data were input to an anatomically detailed spine model that calculated muscle force, joint compression and shear, and spine stability. Using a clinically significant criterion of pain reduction of 2 or more, 3 of 4 subjects reduced pain immediately upon the intervention. Using a change of 10% as a criterion for biological significance for kinematic and kinetic variables, each subject demonstrated a different reaction. For example, subject 1 demonstrated increased stability, subject 2 increased mediolateral shear, subject 3 increased mediolateral shear and decreased spine flexion, and subject 4 increased stability. The pain-reducing interventions required to obtain these results were also different for each individual. Immediate pain reduction can be achieved by altering muscle-activation and movement patterns. However, the combination for optimal success seems to be different for every individual. Pain provocation tests help to "tune" the intervention. This also suggests that patient-classification schemes may need more refinement to address this heterogeneity.

  20. A turbulent jet in crossflow analysed with proper orthogonal decomposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Knud Erik; Pedersen, Jakob Martin; Özcan, Oktay

    2007-01-01

    and that they interact strongly with the jet core. The analysis identifies jet shear-layer vortices and finds that these vortical structures are more local and thus less dominant. For R = 1.3, on the other hand, jet shear-layer vortices are the most dominant, while the wake vortices are much less important. For both...... and pipe diameter was 2400 and the jet to crossflow velocity ratios were R = 3.3 and R = 1.3. The experimental data have been analysed by proper orthogonal decomposition (POD). For R = 3.3, the results in several different planes indicate that the wake vortices are the dominant dynamic flow structures...

  1. Preventing medication errors with nimodipine by compounding proper dosage forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElhiney, Linda F

    2013-01-01

    Pharmacists can play an active role in preventing tragic medication errors by using United States Pharmacopeia standards, as well as other compounding guidelines, by using due diligence, and by following written standard operating procedures. Nimodipine is shown within this article as an example of the importance of proper dosing of a drug because, since the approval of nimodipine capsules in 1988, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration has identified 31 cases of medication errors associated with its use. Pharmacists can compound nimodipine oral suspension and prepare the doses in oral syringes for the nursing and medical staff.

  2. Towards proper sampling and statistical analysis of defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cetin Ali

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Advancements in applied statistics with great relevance to defect sampling and analysis are presented. Three main issues are considered; (i proper handling of multiple defect types, (ii relating sample data originating from polished inspection surfaces (2D to finite material volumes (3D, and (iii application of advanced extreme value theory in statistical analysis of block maximum data. Original and rigorous, but practical mathematical solutions are presented. Finally, these methods are applied to make prediction regarding defect sizes in a steel alloy containing multiple defect types.

  3. Investigation of bacterial communities within the digestive organs of the hydrothermal vent shrimp Rimicaris exoculata provide insights into holobiont geographic clustering.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique A Cowart

    Full Text Available Prokaryotic communities forming symbiotic relationships with the vent shrimp, Rimicaris exoculata, are well studied components of hydrothermal ecosystems at the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR. Despite the tight link between host and symbiont, the observed lack of spatial genetic structure seen in R. exoculata contrasts with the geographic differentiation detected in specific bacterial ectosymbionts. The geographic clustering of bacterial lineages within a seemingly panmictic host suggests either the presence of finer scale restriction to gene flow not yet detected in the host, horizontal transmission (environmental selection of its endosymbionts as a consequence of unique vent geochemistry, or vertically transmitted endosymbionts that exhibit genetic differentiation. To identify which hypothesis best fits, we tested whether bacterial assemblages exhibit differentiation across sites or host populations by performing a 16S rRNA metabarcoding survey on R. exoculata digestive prokaryote samples (n = 31 taken from three geochemically distinct vents across MAR: Rainbow, Trans-Atlantic Geotraverse (TAG and Logatchev. Analysis of communities across two organs (digestive tract, stomach, three molt colors (white, red, black and three life stages (eggs, juveniles, adults also provided insights into symbiont transmission mode. Examining both whole communities and operational taxonomic units (OTUs confirmed the presence of three main epibionts: Epsilonproteobacteria, Mollicutes and Deferribacteres. With these findings, we identified a clear pattern of geographic segregation by vent in OTUs assigned to Epsilonproteobacteria. Additionally, we detected evidence for differentiation among all communities associated to vents and life stages. Overall, results suggest a combination of environmental selection and vertical inheritance of some of the symbiotic lineages.

  4. Impact of quasar proper motions on the alignment between the International Celestial Reference Frame and the Gaia reference frame

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J.-C.; Malkin, Z.; Zhu, Z.

    2018-03-01

    The International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF) is currently realized by the very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) observations of extragalactic sources with the zero proper motion assumption, while Gaia will observe proper motions of these distant and faint objects to an accuracy of tens of microarcseconds per year. This paper investigates the difference between VLBI and Gaia quasar proper motions and it aims to understand the impact of quasar proper motions on the alignment of the ICRF and Gaia reference frame. We use the latest time series data of source coordinates from the International VLBI Service analysis centres operated at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSF2017) and Paris observatory (OPA2017), as well as the Gaia auxiliary quasar solution containing 2191 high-probability optical counterparts of the ICRF2 sources. The linear proper motions in right ascension and declination of VLBI sources are derived by least-squares fits while the proper motions for Gaia sources are simulated taking into account the acceleration of the Solar system barycentre and realistic uncertainties depending on the source brightness. The individual and global features of source proper motions in GSF2017 and OPA2017 VLBI data are found to be inconsistent, which may result from differences in VLBI observations, data reduction and analysis. A comparison of the VLBI and Gaia proper motions shows that the accuracies of the components of rotation and glide between the two systems are 2-4 μas yr- 1 based on about 600 common sources. For the future alignment of the ICRF and Gaia reference frames at different wavelengths, the proper motions of quasars must necessarily be considered.

  5. How to get properly rid of confidential data?

    CERN Multimedia

    Computer Security Team

    2012-01-01

    Have you ever bought a used laptop on ebay? Try it and you might not only get (hopefully) functional hardware, but also a bunch of personal files, intriguing photos, sensitive documents, etc. Not everybody worries enough to clean the local hard disks properly before selling their equipment or giving it away. So the next owner of the hard disk can comfortably crawl through the remaining data, and use it at his or her convenience...   In fact, properly cleaning a hard disk is difficult! Deleting local files or formatting the hard disk usually just purges the files from being listed in the folder, but the actual data remains intact on the hard disk. Freely available tools can easily reconstruct those files and, thus, expose it. It is better practice to get rid of your files by running tools like “shred” on the Linux platform (try “shred –fuvzn1 [FILENAME]” or check “man shred” for details), or “File Shredder&rdqu...

  6. The Absolute Proper Motion of NGC 6397 Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Richard; Cudworth, Kyle

    2018-01-01

    We compare several determinations of the absolute proper motion of the Galactic globular cluster NGC 6397: (1) our own determination relative to field stars derived from scans of 38 photographic plates spanning 97 years in epoch; (2) using our proper motion membership to identify cluster stars in various catalogs in the literature (UCAC4, UCAC5, PPMXL, HSOY, Tycho-2, Hipparcos, TGAS); (3) published results from the Yale SPM Program (both tied to Hipparcos and relative to galaxies) and two from HST observations relative to galaxies. The various determinations are not in good agreement. Curiously, the Yale SPM relative to galaxies does not agree with the HST determinations, and the individual HST error ellipses are close to each other but do not overlap. The Yale SPM relative to galaxies does agree with our determination, Tycho-2, and the Yale SPM tied to Hipparcos. It is not clear which of the current determinations is most reliable; we have found evidence of systematic errors in some of them (including one of the HST determinations). This research has been partially supported by the NSF.

  7. Effectiveness of Various Methods of Teaching Proper Inhaler Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axtell, Samantha; Haines, Seena; Fairclough, Jamie

    2017-04-01

    To compare the effectiveness of 4 different instructional interventions in training proper inhaler technique. Randomized, noncrossover trial. Health fair and indigent clinic. Inhaler-naive adult volunteers who spoke and read English. Subjects were assigned to complete the following: (1) read a metered dose inhaler (MDI) package insert pamphlet, (2) watch a Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) video demonstrating MDI technique, (3) watch a YouTube video demonstrating MDI technique, or (4) receive direct instruction of MDI technique from a pharmacist. Inhaler use competency (completion of all 7 prespecified critical steps). Of the 72 subjects, 21 (29.2%) demonstrated competent inhaler technique. A statistically significant difference between pharmacist direct instruction and the remaining interventions, both combined ( P < .0001) and individually ( P ≤ .03), was evident. No statistically significant difference was detected among the remaining 3 intervention groups. Critical steps most frequently omitted or improperly performed were exhaling before inhalation and holding of breath after inhalation. A 2-minute pharmacist counseling session is more effective than other interventions in successfully educating patients on proper inhaler technique. Pharmacists can play a pivotal role in reducing the implications of improper inhaler use.

  8. Proper motion separation of Be stars in the Milky Way and the Magellanic Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, K.; García, A.; Sabogal, B.

    2018-01-01

    We present a proper motion investigation of a sample of Be stars candidates towards the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), which has resulted in the identification of two separate populations, in the Galactic foreground and in the Magellanic background. OGLE BVI and 2MASS JHK photometry were used with the SPM4 proper motions to discriminate the different populations located towards the LMC. Two populations with distinctive infrared colours and noticeable different kinematics were found, the bluer sample is consistent with being in the LMC and the redder one with belonging to the Milky Way (MW) disk. This settles the nature of the redder sample which had been described in previous publications as a possible unknown subclass of stars among the Be candidates in the LMC.

  9. Proper Resonance Depiction of Acylium Cation: A High-Level and Student Computational Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esselman, Brian J.; Hill, Nicholas J.

    2015-01-01

    The electronic and molecular structure of the acylium cation ([CH[subscript 3]CO][superscript +], 1) receives varied treatment in undergraduate textbooks and online resources. The overall structure of 1 is typically represented as an equal combination of resonance structures containing C-O triple and double bonds, the latter structure occasionally…

  10. Case series in cognitive neuropsychology: promise, perils, and proper perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, Brenda

    2011-10-01

    Schwartz and Dell (2010) advocated for a major role for case series investigations in cognitive neuropsychology. They defined the key features of this approach and presented a number of arguments and examples illustrating the benefits of case series studies and their contribution to computational cognitive neuropsychology. In the Special Issue on "Case Series in Cognitive Neuropsychology" there are six commentaries on Schwartz and Dell as well as a response to the six commentaries by Dell and Schwartz (2011 this issue). In this paper, I provide a brief summary of the key points made in Schwartz and Dell, and I review the promise and perils of case series design as revealed by the six commentaries. I conclude by placing the set of papers within a broader perspective, providing some clarification of the historical record on case series and single-case approaches, raising some cautionary notes for case series studies and situating both case series and single-case approaches within the larger context of theory development in the cognitive sciences.

  11. HOSPITAL GENERATED WASTE: A PLAN FOR ITS PROPER MANAGEMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljabre, Salih H.M.

    2002-01-01

    Hospitals are important sites for the generation of hazardous waste. Each hospital has its own profile for the generation and transportion of waste according to its location. It is extremely important to manage hospital generated waste properly in order to avoid health and environmental risks. This article reports the plan designed and used by the hospital waste management committee in King Fahad Hospital of the University , Alhkobar, Saudi Arabia, for the safe management of hospital generated waste starting from the collection areas to the final disposal procedure. The plan was in four stages: background information, identification of problems, intervention and monitoring. The possible solutions for problems encountered are suggested. This plan which was efficient and cost effective can be used in other medical establishments. PMID:23008674

  12. Towards the Proper Integration of Extra-Functional Requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elke Hochmuller

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available In spite of the many achievements in software engineering, proper treatment of extra-functional requirements (also known as non-functional requirements within the software development process is still a challenge to our discipline. The application of functionality-biased software development methodologies can lead to major contradictions in the joint modelling of functional and extra-functional requirements. Based on a thorough discussion on the nature of extra-functional requirements as well as on open issues in coping with them, this paper emphasizes the role of extra-functional requirements in the software development process. Particularly, a framework supporting the explicit integration of extra functional requirements into a conventional phase-driven process model is proposed and outlined.

  13. Network community-detection enhancement by proper weighting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadivi, Alireza; Ajdari Rad, Ali; Hasler, Martin

    2011-04-01

    In this paper, we show how proper assignment of weights to the edges of a complex network can enhance the detection of communities and how it can circumvent the resolution limit and the extreme degeneracy problems associated with modularity. Our general weighting scheme takes advantage of graph theoretic measures and it introduces two heuristics for tuning its parameters. We use this weighting as a preprocessing step for the greedy modularity optimization algorithm of Newman to improve its performance. The result of the experiments of our approach on computer-generated and real-world data networks confirm that the proposed approach not only mitigates the problems of modularity but also improves the modularity optimization.

  14. The performance of proper orthogonal decomposition in discontinuous flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Li

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, flow reconstruction accuracy and flow prediction capability of discontinuous transonic flow field by means of proper orthogonal decomposition (POD method is studied. Although linear superposition of “high frequency waves” in different POD modes can achieve the reconstruction of the shock wave, the smoothness of the solution near the shock wave cannot be guaranteed. The modal coefficients are interpolated or extrapolated and different modal components are superposed to realize the prediction of the flow field beyond the snapshot sets. Results show that compared with the subsonic flow, the transonic flow with shock wave requires more POD modes to reach a comparative reconstruction accuracy. When a shock wave exists, the interpolation prediction ability is acceptable. However, large errors exist in extrapolation, and increasing the number of POD modes cannot effectively improve the prediction accuracy of the flow field.

  15. Principles of Proper Nutrition in Children with Celiac Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Khajavikia

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available   Introduction: Celiac disease (CD is a hereditary disorder of the immune system which damages the mucosa of the small intestine caused by gluten consumption(even very small amounts. Villous atrophy, leads to malabsorption, which is due to decreased absorption levels. The first bowel symptoms are seen during the first 2 years of life. Currently, the only treatment is to compliance with a gluten-free diet lifelong. The purpose of this study was to introduce the principles of proper nutrition in children with CD to prevent complications of malabsorption.   Results: The patients do not tolerate the proteins of cereals in bread such as wheat, barley, black barley and rye. Substituting wheat flour with rice flour, corn and potatoes and using olive oil, sunflower, corn oil and peanut oil for cooking is recommended. Until the disappearance of symptoms, consumption of milk, fat and high-fiber foods should be avoided. Deficiency of folic acid, iron, vitamin B12 and calcium are common. If necessary, iron, folic acid and multivitamin can be used. These children need proper energy according to their personal needs and should have a diet high in protein. Consumption of potatoes, corn, vegetables, fruits, meat, fish, poultry, eggs, dairy and nuts (non- roasted in any form is allowed. Identifying foods which contain gluten (prepared sauces, sausages, salami, herbal supplements, all canned meat products, crushed barbecue, prepared soups, espresso and coffee , white vinegar, curd, dried milk, pasta, pastries prepared by wheat flour, compote and food supplements is recommended.   Conclusions: The identification of substances containing gluten by parents and children, and removal of harmful substances from the diet causes the intestines to quickly begin to rebuild itself. Keywords: Nutrition, Child, Celiac, Diet.

  16. Morphometric characteristics of the neurons of the human subiculum proper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živanović-Mačužić Ivana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The human subiculum is a significant part of the hippocampal formation positioned between the hippocampus proper and the entorhinal and other cortices. It plays an important role in spatial navigation, memory processing and control of the response to stress. The aim of our study was identification of the morphometric characteristics of the neurons of the human subiculum proper: the maximum length and width of cell body and total dendritic length and volume of cell body. Comparing the measured parameters of different types of subicular neurons (bipolar, multipolar, pyramidal neurons with triangular-shaped soma and neurons with oval-shaped soma, we can conclude that bipolar neurons have the lowest values of the measured parameters: the maximum length of their cell body is 14.1 ± 0.2 µm, the maximum width is 13.9 ± 0.5 µm, and total dendritic length is 14597 ± 3.1 µm. The lowest volume value was observed in bipolar neurons; the polymorphic layer is 1152.99 ± 662.69 µm3. The pyramidal neurons of the pyramidal layer have the highest value for the maximal length of the cell body (44.43 ± 7.94 µm, maximum width (23.64 ± 1.89 µm, total dendritic length (1830 ± 466.3 µm and volume (11768.65±4004.9 µm3 These characteristics of the pyramidal neurons indicate their importance, because the axons of these neurons make up the greatest part of the fornix, along with the axons of neurons of the CA1 hippocampal field.

  17. Septins from the phytopathogenic fungus Ustilago maydis are required for proper morphogenesis but dispensable for virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Tabarés, Isabel; Pérez-Martín, José

    2010-09-27

    Septins are a highly conserved family of GTP-binding proteins involved in multiple cellular functions, including cell division and morphogenesis. Studies of septins in fungal cells underpin a clear correlation between septin-based structures and fungal morphology, providing clues to understand the molecular frame behind the varied morphologies found in fungal world. Ustilago maydis genome has the ability to encode four septins. Here, using loss-of-function as well as GFP-tagged alleles of these septin genes, we investigated the roles of septins in the morphogenesis of this basidiomycete fungus. We described that septins in U. maydis could assemble into at least three different structures coexisting in the same cell: bud neck collars, band-like structures at the growing tip, and long septin fibers that run from pole to pole near the cell cortex. We also found that in the absence of septins, U. maydis cells lost their elongated shape, became wider at the central region and ended up losing their polarity, pointing to an important role of septins in the morphogenesis of this fungus. These morphological defects were alleviated in the presence of an osmotic stabilizer suggesting that absence of septins affected the proper formation of the cell wall, which was coherent with a higher sensitivity of septin defective cells to drugs that affect cell wall construction as well as exocytosis. As U. maydis is a phytopathogen, we analyzed the role of septins in virulence and found that in spite of the described morphological defects, septin mutants were virulent in corn plants. Our results indicated a major role of septins in morphogenesis in U. maydis. However, in contrast to studies in other fungal pathogens, in which septins were reported to be necessary during the infection process, we found a minor role of septins during corn infection by U. maydis.

  18. Septins from the phytopathogenic fungus Ustilago maydis are required for proper morphogenesis but dispensable for virulence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Alvarez-Tabarés

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Septins are a highly conserved family of GTP-binding proteins involved in multiple cellular functions, including cell division and morphogenesis. Studies of septins in fungal cells underpin a clear correlation between septin-based structures and fungal morphology, providing clues to understand the molecular frame behind the varied morphologies found in fungal world. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Ustilago maydis genome has the ability to encode four septins. Here, using loss-of-function as well as GFP-tagged alleles of these septin genes, we investigated the roles of septins in the morphogenesis of this basidiomycete fungus. We described that septins in U. maydis could assemble into at least three different structures coexisting in the same cell: bud neck collars, band-like structures at the growing tip, and long septin fibers that run from pole to pole near the cell cortex. We also found that in the absence of septins, U. maydis cells lost their elongated shape, became wider at the central region and ended up losing their polarity, pointing to an important role of septins in the morphogenesis of this fungus. These morphological defects were alleviated in the presence of an osmotic stabilizer suggesting that absence of septins affected the proper formation of the cell wall, which was coherent with a higher sensitivity of septin defective cells to drugs that affect cell wall construction as well as exocytosis. As U. maydis is a phytopathogen, we analyzed the role of septins in virulence and found that in spite of the described morphological defects, septin mutants were virulent in corn plants. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results indicated a major role of septins in morphogenesis in U. maydis. However, in contrast to studies in other fungal pathogens, in which septins were reported to be necessary during the infection process, we found a minor role of septins during corn infection by U. maydis.

  19. On the properness condition for modal analysis of non-symmetric second-order systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouisse, Morvan; Foltête, Emmanuel

    2011-02-01

    Non-symmetric second-order systems can be found in several engineering contexts, including vibroacoustics, rotordynamics, or active control. In this paper, the notion of properness for complex modes is extended to the case of non-self-adjoint problems. The properness condition is related to the ability of a set of complex modes to represent in an exact way the behavior of a physical second-order system, meaning that the modes are the solutions of a quadratic eigenvalue problem whose matrices are those of a physical system. This property can be used to identify the damping matrices which may be difficult to obtain with mathematical modeling techniques. The first part of the paper demonstrates the properness condition for non symmetric systems in general. In the second part, the authors propose a methodology to enforce that condition in order to perform an optimal reconstruction of the "closest" physical system starting from a given basis complex modes. The last part is dedicated to numerical and experimental illustrations of the proposed methodology. A simulated academic test case is first used to investigate the numerical aspects of the method. A physical application is then considered in the context of rotordynamics. Finally, an experimental test case is presented using a structure with an active control feedback. An extension of the LSCF identification technique is also introduced to identify both left and right complex mode shapes from measured frequency response functions.

  20. Challenges in Translation of Proper Nouns: A Case Study in Persian Translation of George Orwell’s Animal Farm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Askari

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, one of the important problems in translation field will be Translation of Proper Nouns. This is an arduous task in Translation Studies to convey the main essence of the nouns amongst cultures. This is somehow due to the fact that every culture has its own system of rendering of proper nouns. Longman Dictionary of Language Teaching and Applied Linguistics (Richards & Schmidt, 2002, p.429 defines the proper name as "a name which is the name of a particular person, place, or thing. Proper nouns have disparate allusions such as age, sex, specific connotations, and geographical regions. This study scrutinized two major translations of Animal Farm of George Orwell. The first rendering is pertained to Amirshahi (2010 and the second one Firuzbakht (1988. Finally, this study seeks to investigate the translation procedures of proper nouns in accordance with Newmark and Vermeer’s (Skopos theories of translation. This study shows that Newmark mostly peruses proper noun artificially to saturate the taste of the reader. While, Vermeer sets up the mutual agreement between the reader as the client and the translator in this process.

  1. What can Gaia proper motions tell us about Milky Way dwarf galaxies?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jin, S.; Helmi, A.; Breddels, M.

    We present a proper-motion study on models of the dwarf spheroidal galaxy Sculptor, based on the predicted proper-motion accuracy of Gaia measurements. Gaia will measure proper motions of several hundreds of stars for a Sculptor-like system. Even with an uncertainty on the proper motion of order 1.5

  2. The SUPERBLINK catalog of stars with large proper motions, with enhancements from the first GAIA release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepine, Sebastien

    2018-01-01

    The SUPERBLINK survey of stars with proper motion larger than 40 mas/yr is now complete for the entire sky down to magnitude V=20. The SUPERBLINK catalog provides astrometric and photometric data for a little over 2.7 million individual stars, and identifies their counterparts in a variety of large catalogs including ROSAT in the X-ray, GALEX in the ultraviolet, GAIA and SDSS in the optical, and 2MASS and WISE in the infrared. The addition of GAIA data notably yields proper motions to an accuracy of ~2mas/yr for 94% of the entries. Parallaxes with accuracies better than 10% are also now available for about 155,000 of these stars. Besides from identifying local populations of low-mass stars and white dwarfs, the catalog nows begins to map out with some detail the distribution in velocity space of various local stellar populations, including young M dwarfs and old metal-poor M subdwarfs. The catalog also allows one to search for common proper motion pairs, and other kinematic groups like nearby cluster members, moving group members, and local streams. This demonstrates the potential for nearby star research as more complete data becomes available from the GAIA mission.

  3. Astrometry with MCAO: HST-GeMS proper motions in the globular cluster NGC 6681

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massari, D.; Fiorentino, G.; McConnachie, A.; Bellini, A.; Tolstoy, E.; Turri, P.; Andersen, D.; Bono, G.; Stetson, P. B.; Veran, J.-P.

    2016-10-01

    Aims: For the first time the astrometric capabilities of the Gemini Multi-Conjugate Adaptive Optics System (GeMS) facility at the Gemini South Adaptive Optics Imager (GSAOI) camera on Gemini-South are tested to quantify the accuracy in determining stellar proper motions in the Galactic globular cluster NGC 6681. Methods: Proper motions from the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) for a sample of its stars are already available, allowing us to construct a distortion-free reference at the epoch of GeMS observations that is used to measure and correct the temporally changing distortions for each GeMS exposure. In this way, we are able to compare the corrected GeMS images with a first-epoch of HST-Advanced Camera for Survey (ACS) images to recover the relative proper motion of the Sagittarius dwarf spheroidal galaxy with respect to NGC 6681. Results: We find this to be (μαcosδ,μδ) = (4.09,-3.41)mas yr-1, which matches previous HST/ACS measurements with a very good accuracy of 0.03 mas yr-1 and with a comparable precision (rms of 0.43 mas yr-1). Conclusions: This study successfully demonstrates that high-quality proper motions can be measured for relatively large fields of view (85''× 85'') with MCAO-assisted, ground-based cameras and provides a first, successful test of the performances of GeMS on multi-epoch data. The final reduced data (FITS files) are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/595/L2

  4. Proper ubiquitination effect on the fertilisation outcome post-ICSI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskandari-Shahraki, M; Tavalaee, M; Deemeh, M R; Jelodar, Gh A; Nasr-Esfahani, M H

    2013-06-01

    Ubiquitin is an 8.5-kDa protein that tags outlived proteins for degradation by the proteasome. It also marks defective spermatozoa during epididymal passage and has been proposed as a biomarker of sperm quality. This study evaluates the relationship between sperm ubiquitination, protamine deficiency, semen parameters and fertilisation rate in infertile individuals undergoing the intracytoplasmic sperm insemination (ICSI) procedure. Semen samples from 73 ICSI candidates were collected and analysed according to World Health Organization criteria. A portion of each sample was evaluated for sperm ubiquitination using the sperm ubiquitin tag immunoassay (SUTI) with flow cytometry, and protamine deficiency by chromomycin A3 (CMA3) staining. In addition, the relationship between the fertilisation rate and sperm ubiquitination was calculated in ICSI candidates. The intensity of ubiquitination showed a significant negative correlation with sperm concentration (r = -0.255, P = 0.032) and a positive correlation with fertilisation rate (r = 0.384, P = 0.013) post-ICSI. No correlation was observed between protamine deficiency and the percentage of ubiquitination or ubiquitination intensity. The results of this study suggest that sperm ubiquitination prior to capacitation may be considered as a marker of defective spermatozoon. Spermatozoa that undergo proper ubiquitination may have a higher chance for fertilisation, because they are made redundant by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway in the epididymis compared to hypo-ubiquitinated spermatozoa. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. Geometry and dynamics in Gromov hyperbolic metric spaces with an emphasis on non-proper settings

    CERN Document Server

    Das, Tushar; Urbański, Mariusz

    2016-01-01

    This book presents the foundations of the theory of groups and semigroups acting isometrically on Gromov hyperbolic metric spaces. Particular emphasis is paid to the geometry of their limit sets and on behavior not found in the proper setting. The authors provide a number of examples of groups which exhibit a wide range of phenomena not to be found in the finite-dimensional theory. The book contains both introductory material to help beginners as well as new research results, and closes with a list of attractive unsolved problems.

  6. Tailoring Stress Incontinence Surgery : “How to install proper diagnostic work-up and individualised treatment”

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houwert, R.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/292579632

    2009-01-01

    In this thesis a different principle to determine the value of diagnostic parameters and to install the proper, individualized, surgical treatment for stress urinary incontinence is presented. The aim of the first part of this thesis was to evaluate the value of urodynamic investigation (UDI) in the

  7. Improvement of Accuracy of Proper Motions of Hipparcos Catalogue Stars Using Optical Latitude Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damljanovic, G.

    2009-09-01

    Commission 19 (Earth Rotation) of the International Astronomical Union (IAU) established the Working Group on Earth Rotation in the Hipparcos Reference Frame (WG ERHRF) in 1995 to collect the optical observations of latitude and universal time variations, made during 1899.7 -- 1992.0 in line with the Earth orientation programmes (to derive Earth Orientation Parameters -- EOP), with Dr. Jan Vondrák (Astronomical Institute of Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Prague) as the head of WG ERHRF. We participated in this international project using Belgrade Visual Zenith -- Telescope (BLZ) latitude data for the period 1949.0 -- 1986.0, after a new reduction of BLZ data made in my MSc thesis, finished in 1997 at the Faculty of Mathematics of University of Belgrade. Dr. Vondrák collected 4.4 million optical observations of latitude/universal time variations made at 33 observatories. The data were used for the EOP investigations, Hipparcos satellite Catalogue -- radio sources connection, etc. Nowadays, it is customary to correct the positions and proper motions of stars of Hipparcos Catalogue (as an optical reference frame) using ground -- based observations of some Hipparcos stars. In this PhD thesis we use the latitude observations made with several types of classical astrometric instruments: visual (ZT) and floating zenith -- telescope (FZT), visual zenith tube (VZT) and photographic zenith tube (PZT); 26 different instruments located at many observatories all over the world (used in the programs of monitoring the Earth orientation during the 20th century). We received the data from Dr. Vondrák via private communication. The observatories and instruments are: International Latitude Service -- ILS (Carloforte -- CA ZT, Cincinnati -- CI ZT, Gaithersburg -- GT ZT, Kitab -- KZ ZT, Mizusawa -- MZZ ZT, Tschardjui -- TS ZT and Ukiah -- UK ZT), Belgrade (BLZ ZT), Blagoveschtschensk (BK ZT), Irkutsk (IRZ ZT), Poltava (POL ZT), Pulkovo (PU and PUZ ZT), Varsovie (VJZ ZT

  8. Proper motion survey and kinematic analysis of the ρ Ophiuchi embedded cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducourant, C.; Teixeira, R.; Krone-Martins, A.; Bontemps, S.; Despois, D.; Galli, P. A. B.; Bouy, H.; Le Campion, J. F.; Rapaport, M.; Cuillandre, J. C.

    2017-01-01

    Context. The ρ Ophiuchi molecular complex and in particular the Lynds L1688 dark cloud is unique in its proximity ( 130 pc), in its richness in young stars and protostars, and in its youth (0.5 Myr). It is certainly one of the best targets currently accessible from the ground to study the early phases of star-formation. Proper motion analysis is a very efficient tool for separating members of clusters from field stars, but very few proper motions are available in the ρ Ophiuchi region since most of the young sources are deeply embedded in dust and gas. Aims: We aim at performing a kinematic census of young stellar objects (YSOs) in the ρ Ophiuchi F core and partially in the E core of the L1688 dark cloud. Methods: We run a proper motion program at the ESO New Technology Telescope (NTT) with the Son of ISAAC (SOFI) instrument over nine years in the near-infrared. We complemented these observations with various public image databases to enlarge the time base of observations and the field of investigation to 0.5° × 0.5°. We derived positions and proper motions for 2213 objects. From these, 607 proper motions were derived from SOFI observations with a 1.8 mas/yr accuracy while the remaining objects were measured only from auxiliary data with a mean precision of about 3 mas/yr. Results: We performed a kinematic analysis of the most accurate proper motions derived in this work, which allowed us to separate cluster members from field stars and to derive the mean properties of the cluster. From the kinematic analysis we derived a list of 68 members and 14 candidate members, comprising 26 new objects with a high membership probability. These new members are generally fainter than the known ones. We measured a mean proper motion of (μαcosδ, μδ) = (-8.2,-24.3) ± 0.8 mas/yr for the L1688 dark cloud. A supervised classification was applied to photometric data of members to allocate a spectral energy distribution (SED) classification to the unclassified members

  9. Finite volume analysis of temperature effects induced by active MRI implants with cylindrical symmetry: 1. Properly working devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schnorr Jörg

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Active Magnetic Resonance Imaging implants are constructed as resonators tuned to the Larmor frequency of a magnetic resonance system with a specific field strength. The resonating circuit may be embedded into or added to the normal metallic implant structure. The resonators build inductively coupled wireless transmit and receive coils and can amplify the signal, normally decreased by eddy currents, inside metallic structures without affecting the rest of the spin ensemble. During magnetic resonance imaging the resonators generate heat, which is additional to the usual one described by the specific absorption rate. This induces temperature increases of the tissue around the circuit paths and inside the lumen of an active implant and may negatively influence patient safety. Methods This investigation provides an overview of the supplementary power absorbed by active implants with a cylindrical geometry, corresponding to vessel implants such as stents, stent grafts or vena cava filters. The knowledge of the overall absorbed power is used in a finite volume analysis to estimate temperature maps around different implant structures inside homogeneous tissue under worst-case assumptions. The "worst-case scenario" assumes thermal heat conduction without blood perfusion inside the tissue around the implant and mostly without any cooling due to blood flow inside vessels. Results The additional power loss of a resonator is proportional to the volume and the quality factor, as well as the field strength of the MRI system and the specific absorption rate of the applied sequence. For properly working devices the finite volume analysis showed only tolerable heating during MRI investigations in most cases. Only resonators transforming a few hundred mW into heat may reach temperature increases over 5 K. This requires resonators with volumes of several ten cubic centimeters, short inductor circuit paths with only a few 10 cm and a quality

  10. A Demonstration of Optimal Apodization Determination for Proper Lateral Modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumi, Chikayoshi; Komiya, Yuichi; Uga, Shinya

    2009-07-01

    We have realized effective ultrasound (US) beamformings by the steering of plural beams and apodizations for B-mode imaging with a high lateral resolution and accurate measurement of tissue or blood displacement vector and/or strain tensor using the multidimensional cross-spectrum phase gradient method (MCSPGM), or multidimensional autocorrelation or Doppler methods (MAM and MDM) using multidimensional analytic signals. For instance, the coherent superposition of the steered beams performed in the lateral cosine modulation method (LCM) has a higher potential for realizing a more accurate measurement of a displacement vector than the synthesis of the displacement vector using the accurately measured axial displacements obtained by the multidimensional synthetic aperture method (MDSAM), multidirectional transmission method (MTM) or the use of plural US transducers. Originally, the apodization function to be used for realizing a designed point spread function (PSF) was obtained by the Fraunhofer approximation (FA). However, to obtain the best approximated, designed PSF in the least-squares sense, we proposed a linear optimization (LO) method. Furthermore, on the basis of the knowledge about the losts of US energy during the propagation, we have recently developed a nonlinear optimization (NLO) method, in which the feet of the main lobes in apodization function are properly truncated. Thus, NLO also allows the decrease in the number of channels or the confinement of the effective aperture. In this study, to gain insight into the ideal shape of the PSF, the accuracies of the two-dimensional (2D) displacement vector measurements were compared for typical PSFs with distinct lateral envelope shapes, particularly, in terms of full width at half maximum (FWHM) and the length of the feet, i.e., the Gaussian function, Hanning window and parabolic function. It was confirmed that a PSF having a wide FWHM and short feet was ideal. Such a PSF yielded an echo with a high signal

  11. [The role of lactoferrin in the proper development of newborns].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artym, Jolanta; Zimecki, Michał

    2005-01-01

    Colostrum and milk contain, in addition to nutritional constituents, also proteins crucial for the normal development of the offspring. Lactoferrin (LF) belongs to the family of iron-binding proteins and exhibits a wide spectrum of antimicrobial and immunotropic properties. LF is particularly resistant to proteolytic degradation in alimentary tract, in contrast to other milk proteins, e.g. casein. In any case, LF-derived peptides also possess potent antibacterial activities. LF is absorbed from the intestine by means of specific receptors located on brush border cells. Administered orally, LF stimulates both local and systemic immune response. LF plays a role in the absorption of nutrients. The protein can deliver such metal ions as iron, manganese, and zinc and facilitate the absorption of sugars. LF stimulates the proliferation of gut endothelial cells and the growth of gut-associated lymphatic follicles. This property suggests the possibility of applying LF in premature infants and patients with damaged intestinal mucus. LF controls the proper composition of the gut microflora. It suppresses the growth of pathogenic bacteria while promoting the multiplication of nonpathogenic Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium. Newborns fed an artificial diet develop harmful microflora (Enterococcus, Enterobacter, Bacteroides, Escherichia). The non-pathogenic microflora ensures low pH, produces some vitamins, increases the activity of NK cells, T lymphocytes, and macrophages, promotes the production of protective immunoglobulins, and lowers the risk of allergies. In studies on mice, LF was found to be protective in bacteremia and endotoxemia. The protein stimulates the activity of reticulo-endothelial system cells and elicits myelopoiesis, thus increasing the killing and clearance of bacteria. In the model of experimental endotoxemia, LF inhibits the activity of pro-inflammatory cytokines, nitric oxide, and reactive forms of oxygen. LF can also promote the differentiation of T

  12. Activity and Kinematics of White Dwarf-M Dwarf Binaries from the SUPERBLINK Proper Motion Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skinner, Julie N. [Institute for Astrophysical Research, Boston University, 725 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Morgan, Dylan P.; West, Andrew A. [Department of Astronomy, Boston University, 725 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Lépine, Sébastien [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Georgia State University, 25 Park Place NE, Atlanta, GA, 30303 (United States); Thorstensen, John R., E-mail: jskinner@bu.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, 6127 Wilder Laboratory, Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH 03755 (United States)

    2017-09-01

    We present an activity and kinematic analysis of high proper motion white dwarf-M dwarf binaries (WD+dMs) found in the SUPERBLINK survey, 178 of which are new identifications. To identify WD+dMs, we developed a UV–optical–IR color criterion and conducted a spectroscopic survey to confirm each candidate binary. For the newly identified systems, we fit the two components using model white dwarf spectra and M dwarf template spectra to determine physical parameters. We use H α chromospheric emission to examine the magnetic activity of the M dwarf in each system, and investigate how its activity is affected by the presence of a white dwarf companion. We find that the fraction of WD+dM binaries with active M dwarfs is significantly higher than their single M dwarf counterparts at early and mid-spectral types. We corroborate previous studies that find high activity fractions at both close and intermediate separations. At more distant separations, the binary fraction appears to approach the activity fraction for single M dwarfs. Using derived radial velocities and the proper motions, we calculate 3D space velocities for the WD+dMs in SUPERBLINK. For the entire SUPERBLINK WD+dMs, we find a large vertical velocity dispersion, indicating a dynamically hotter population compared to high proper motion samples of single M dwarfs. We compare the kinematics for systems with active M dwarfs and those with inactive M dwarfs, and find signatures of asymmetric drift in the inactive sample, indicating that they are drawn from an older population.

  13. Activity and Kinematics of White Dwarf-M Dwarf Binaries from the SUPERBLINK Proper Motion Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Julie N.; Morgan, Dylan P.; West, Andrew A.; Lépine, Sébastien; Thorstensen, John R.

    2017-09-01

    We present an activity and kinematic analysis of high proper motion white dwarf-M dwarf binaries (WD+dMs) found in the SUPERBLINK survey, 178 of which are new identifications. To identify WD+dMs, we developed a UV-optical-IR color criterion and conducted a spectroscopic survey to confirm each candidate binary. For the newly identified systems, we fit the two components using model white dwarf spectra and M dwarf template spectra to determine physical parameters. We use Hα chromospheric emission to examine the magnetic activity of the M dwarf in each system, and investigate how its activity is affected by the presence of a white dwarf companion. We find that the fraction of WD+dM binaries with active M dwarfs is significantly higher than their single M dwarf counterparts at early and mid-spectral types. We corroborate previous studies that find high activity fractions at both close and intermediate separations. At more distant separations, the binary fraction appears to approach the activity fraction for single M dwarfs. Using derived radial velocities and the proper motions, we calculate 3D space velocities for the WD+dMs in SUPERBLINK. For the entire SUPERBLINK WD+dMs, we find a large vertical velocity dispersion, indicating a dynamically hotter population compared to high proper motion samples of single M dwarfs. We compare the kinematics for systems with active M dwarfs and those with inactive M dwarfs, and find signatures of asymmetric drift in the inactive sample, indicating that they are drawn from an older population. Based on observations obtained at the MDM Observatory operated by Dartmouth College, Columbia University, The Ohio State University, and the University of Michigan.

  14. Topographic Gromov-Hausdorff quantum Hypertopology for Quantum Proper Metric Spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Latremoliere, Frederic

    2014-01-01

    We construct a topology on the class of pointed proper quantum metric spaces which generalizes the topology of the Gromov-Hausdorff distance on proper metric spaces, and the topology of the dual propinquity on Leibniz quantum compact metric spaces. A pointed proper quantum metric space is a special type of quantum locally compact metric space whose topography is proper, and with properties modeled on Leibniz quantum compact metric spaces, though they are usually not compact and include all th...

  15. Discrete-time H(infinity) control problem with strictly proper measurement feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoorvogel, Anton A.; Saberi, Ali; Chen, Ben M.

    1993-01-01

    The paper is concerned with the discrete-time H(sub infinity) control problem with strictly proper measurement feedback. The authors derive necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of a strictly proper compensator which achieves a given H(sub infinity) norm bound. Note that contrary to the continuous time, in discrete time there might exist a suitable proper compensator but no suitable strictly proper compensator. Finally, they give an explicit formula for one controller which achieves this bound.

  16. 49 CFR 236.505 - Proper operative relation between parts along roadway and parts on locomotive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Proper operative relation between parts along... § 236.505 Proper operative relation between parts along roadway and parts on locomotive. Proper operative relation between the parts along the roadway and the parts on the locomotive shall obtain under...

  17. The Requirement of Being a "Fit and Proper" Person for the Legal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An important requirement for admission as an attorney or advocate is to be a "fit and proper" person. Lawyers are also struck from the respective rolls of advocates or attorneys if they cease to be "fit and proper". This requirement of being a "fit and proper" person is not defined or described in legislation. It is left to the ...

  18. Combined time-varying forecast based on the proper scoring approach for wind power generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Xingying; Jiang, Yu; Yu, Kun

    2017-01-01

    Compared with traditional point forecasts, combined forecast have been proposed as an effective method to provide more accurate forecasts than individual model. However, the literature and research focus on wind-power combined forecasts are relatively limited. Here, based on forecasting error dis...... demonstrate that the proposed method improves the accuracy of overall forecasts, even compared with a numerical weather prediction.......Compared with traditional point forecasts, combined forecast have been proposed as an effective method to provide more accurate forecasts than individual model. However, the literature and research focus on wind-power combined forecasts are relatively limited. Here, based on forecasting error...... distribution, a proper scoring approach is applied to combine plausible models to form an overall time-varying model for the next day forecasts, rather than weights-based combination. To validate the effectiveness of the proposed method, real data of 3 years were used for testing. Simulation results...

  19. Spontaneous Rectus Sheath Hematoma in the Elderly: An Unusual Case and Update on Proper Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Galyfos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous rectus sheath hematoma (SRSH is an uncommon medical emergency in the elderly. We present a case of SRSH with an atypical clinical presentation and discuss literature regarding diagnosis and proper management. A 75-year-old female patient was transferred to the emergency department due to acute dyspnoea and confusion. Her medical history revealed a viral infection of the upper respiratory tract, and no coughing or use of anticoagulants. The clinical examination showed tenderness of the left lower abdomen, although palpation was misleading due to patient’s obesity. Laboratory investigations showed light anaemia. Ultrasonography and computed tomography revealed a large rectus sheath hematoma of the left abdominal wall. Despite further deterioration of the patient, conservative management including bed rest, fluid replacement, blood products transfusion, and proper analgesia was successful. No surgical intervention was needed. Prompt diagnosis and management of SRSH plays significant role in the prognosis, especially in elder patients. Independently of size and severity, conservative management remains the first therapeutic choice. Only by failure of supportive management, progressive and large hematoma or uncontrollable hemodynamic patients, interventional management including surgery or less invasive newer techniques is indicated.

  20. Coordinate Time and Proper Time in the GPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matolcsi, T.; Matolcsi, M.

    2008-01-01

    The global positioning system (GPS) provides an excellent educational example of how the theory of general relativity is put into practice and becomes part of our everyday life. This paper gives a short and instructive derivation of an important formula used in the GPS, and is aimed at graduate students and general physicists. The authors…

  1. Social Policy in Japan and Sweden; A Proper Pattern for Iranian Elderlies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezzatollah Samaram

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: In developed countries, aging of population is not a new phenomenon. However, in under development countries, such as Iran, it is necessary to think about the welfare of elderlies from now on. Due to the degradation of physical and mental abilities of elderlies, they are threatening by crucial problems. Therefore, to be safe and secure, elderlies must be provided by special supports originating from certain social policies. In this paper, by explaining practical instances in Japan and Sweden, we try to present a proper pattern for elderlies in Iran. One of the significant similarities in Japan and Iran is preserving traditions when industrial development occurs. Methods & Materials: Japanese traditions have been regarded well already whereas in Iran. The industry is developing while traditional culture is considered. Using the new policies of Japan to target Iranian elderlies can utilize economic and cultural frameworks in society, family and other social organizations and thus present comprehensively .supportive programs to the most of elderlies.  Results: One of the basic politics of Sweden for elderlies is maintaing them in homes even when they require extensive health bcares. This paper proposes that expanding social and retirement insurances to all persons who are aging above sixty, either men or women, can provide elderlies with an appropriate support. By this policy, the family, as a huge resource, and other traditional organizations, which are often non-governmental, can provide valuable facilities. The most important reason to offer this policy in Iran is the limitations of possibilities to support elderlies. If our policies obey the old policies of the west world, it concludes with providing some reprehensive services to a limited number of elderlies in cities. Conclusion: Using the available, practical indicators in the developed countries with high rate of aging people helps Iranian researchers to continue their

  2. AN ANALYSIS ON CHOOSING A PROPER ECOMMERCE PLATFORM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu Lixandroiu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Choosing an electronic trading platform is a very important decision when opening an online store. A suitable platform must be able to meet many of the requirements as to not confuse the user. It should provide an online business operation providing tools for managing back-office of technically. There are dozens maybe hundreds of electronic ecommerce platforms available to create an online store, so the decision to choose a platform is difficult. In this article, we tried to compare 19 of the most popular open source ecommerce platforms using a mathematical model based on the platform functionalities. Each of these allows parameterization of an online store in a very short time, with some relatively low cost or close to 0.

  3. Who is Responsible for Advertising Ethics Proper Happen?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şuayıp ÖZDEMİR

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates who is the responsible from the lack of ethics of advertisings’ content. 5 stakeholders (advertisers, advertising agencies, media, governmental and non-governmental organizations and, consumers are responsible from the ethics of preparation and broadcasting of the advertisings. Quantitative and qualitative data are collected to determine lack of ethics of the advertising. In this study 1103 questionnaires analyzed that collected from throughout Turkey. According to the result of this study, advertising agencies and the media are perceived as more responsible than the other stakeholders.

  4. Cost efficient CFD simulations: Proper selection of domain partitioning strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddadi, Bahram; Jordan, Christian; Harasek, Michael

    2017-10-01

    Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is one of the most powerful simulation methods, which is used for temporally and spatially resolved solutions of fluid flow, heat transfer, mass transfer, etc. One of the challenges of Computational Fluid Dynamics is the extreme hardware demand. Nowadays super-computers (e.g. High Performance Computing, HPC) featuring multiple CPU cores are applied for solving-the simulation domain is split into partitions for each core. Some of the different methods for partitioning are investigated in this paper. As a practical example, a new open source based solver was utilized for simulating packed bed adsorption, a common separation method within the field of thermal process engineering. Adsorption can for example be applied for removal of trace gases from a gas stream or pure gases production like Hydrogen. For comparing the performance of the partitioning methods, a 60 million cell mesh for a packed bed of spherical adsorbents was created; one second of the adsorption process was simulated. Different partitioning methods available in OpenFOAM® (Scotch, Simple, and Hierarchical) have been used with different numbers of sub-domains. The effect of the different methods and number of processor cores on the simulation speedup and also energy consumption were investigated for two different hardware infrastructures (Vienna Scientific Clusters VSC 2 and VSC 3). As a general recommendation an optimum number of cells per processor core was calculated. Optimized simulation speed, lower energy consumption and consequently the cost effects are reported here.

  5. Proper use of medical language: Main problems and solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleixandre-Benavent, R; Valderrama Zurián, J C; Bueno-Cañigral, F J

    2015-10-01

    Medical language should be characterized by its precision, emotional neutrality and stability. The effective communication of results of scientific studies depends on compliance with current standards of drafting and style; texts with defects can hinder interest in the findings. In this study, we discuss some of the most common problems and errors in medical language, including the abuse of abbreviations and foreign words, the use of improper words, syntax errors and solecisms, the most common errors in titles and the abuse of capital letters and the gerund. Investigators have effective tools for dealing with these problems, such as quality texts, critical dictionaries of questions and difficulties with the Spanish language and various drafting and style manuals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Medicina Interna (SEMI). All rights reserved.

  6. Frege: The Theory of Meaning Concerning Proper Names

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sikander Jamil

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Gottlob Frege may be considered as the first intellectual giant in thePhilosophy of Language. He was the first to raise the issue ofmeaning by formulating an organized theory of meaning for a part ofnatural language as the theory of meaning is at the core of philosophy of language. He emphasizes that the meaning of a sentence directly depends on the meaning of its constituent parts. That is why he has to dissect the internal structure of a sentence or complex expressions provided by a logical syntax, while the truth value of such sentences may be revealed by logical semantics which can be put forward by treating these sentences as a whole.

  7. Evaluation of the Township Proper Carrying Capacity over Qinghai-Tibet plateau by CASA model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chengyong; Cao, Guangchao; Xue, Huaju; Jiang, Gang; Wang, Qi; Yuan, Jie; Chen, Kelong

    2018-01-01

    The existing study of proper carrying capacity (PCC) has mostly focused on province or county administrative units, which can only macroscopically master the quantitative characteristics of PCC, but could not effectively take some animal husbandry management measures that are pertinent and operational. At town-scale, this paper used CASA model to estimate the PCC in Mongolian Autonomous County of Henan, Qinghai province, China,with serious grassland degeneration that mainly caused by overgrazing. The results showed that the PCC throughout the County was 950,417 sheep unit. For the township, the PCC of Saierlong and Duosong were the largest (247,100 sheep unit) and the smallest (82,016 sheep unit) respectively. This study will provide reference data for developing sustainable development of town-scale pasture policies and also will help to evaluate the health status of the alpine grassland ecosystem on Qinghai-Tibet plateau.

  8. Restoration of proper trafficking to the cell surface for membrane proteins harboring cysteine mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Rodriguez, Angelica; Holmgren, Miguel

    2012-01-01

    A common phenotype for many genetic diseases is that the cell is unable to deliver full-length membrane proteins to the cell surface. For some forms of autism, hereditary spherocytosis and color blindness, the culprits are single point mutations to cysteine. We have studied two inheritable cysteine mutants of cyclic nucleotide-gated channels that produce achromatopsia, a common form of severe color blindness. By taking advantage of the reactivity of cysteine's sulfhydryl group, we modified these mutants with chemical reagents that attach moieties with similar chemistries to the wild-type amino acids' side chains. We show that these modifications restored proper delivery to the cell membrane. Once there, the channels exhibited normal functional properties. This strategy might provide a unique opportunity to assess the chemical nature of membrane protein traffic problems.

  9. Restoration of proper trafficking to the cell surface for membrane proteins harboring cysteine mutations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelica Lopez-Rodriguez

    Full Text Available A common phenotype for many genetic diseases is that the cell is unable to deliver full-length membrane proteins to the cell surface. For some forms of autism, hereditary spherocytosis and color blindness, the culprits are single point mutations to cysteine. We have studied two inheritable cysteine mutants of cyclic nucleotide-gated channels that produce achromatopsia, a common form of severe color blindness. By taking advantage of the reactivity of cysteine's sulfhydryl group, we modified these mutants with chemical reagents that attach moieties with similar chemistries to the wild-type amino acids' side chains. We show that these modifications restored proper delivery to the cell membrane. Once there, the channels exhibited normal functional properties. This strategy might provide a unique opportunity to assess the chemical nature of membrane protein traffic problems.

  10. Selenoproteins are essential for proper keratinocyte function and skin development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aniruddha Sengupta

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Dietary selenium is known to protect skin against UV-induced damage and cancer and its topical application improves skin surface parameters in humans, while selenium deficiency compromises protective antioxidant enzymes in skin. Furthermore, skin and hair abnormalities in humans and rodents may be caused by selenium deficiency, which are overcome by dietary selenium supplementation. Most important biological functions of selenium are attributed to selenoproteins, proteins containing selenium in the form of the amino acid, selenocysteine (Sec. Sec insertion into proteins depends on Sec tRNA; thus, knocking out the Sec tRNA gene (Trsp ablates selenoprotein expression. We generated mice with targeted removal of selenoproteins in keratin 14 (K14 expressing cells and their differentiated descendents. The knockout progeny had a runt phenotype, developed skin abnormalities and experienced premature death. Lack of selenoproteins in epidermal cells led to the development of hyperplastic epidermis and aberrant hair follicle morphogenesis, accompanied by progressive alopecia after birth. Further analyses revealed that selenoproteins are essential antioxidants in skin and unveiled their role in keratinocyte growth and viability. This study links severe selenoprotein deficiency to abnormalities in skin and hair and provides genetic evidence for the role of these proteins in keratinocyte function and cutaneous development.

  11. Hot Stuff for One Year (HSOY). A 583 million star proper motion catalogue derived from Gaia DR1 and PPMXL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altmann, M.; Roeser, S.; Demleitner, M.; Bastian, U.; Schilbach, E.

    2017-04-01

    Context. Recently, the first installment of data from the ESA Gaia astrometric satellite mission (Gaia DR1) was released, containing positions of more than 1 billion stars with unprecedented precision. This release contains the proper motions and parallaxes, however, for only a subset of 2 million objects. The second release will include those quantities for most objects. Aims: In order to provide a dataset that bridges the time gap between the Gaia DR1 and Gaia DR2 releases and partly remedies the lack of proper motions in the former, Hot Stuff for One Year (HSOY) was created as a hybrid catalogue between Gaia and ground-based astrometry. This catalogue features proper motions (but no parallaxes) for a large percentage of the DR1 objects. While not attempting to compete with future Gaia releases in terms of data quality or number of objects, the aim of HSOY is to provide improved proper motions partly based on Gaia data and to allow studies to be carried out now or as pilot studies for later projects requiring higher precision data. Methods: The HSOY catalogue was compiled using the positions taken from Gaia DR1 combined with the input data from the PPMXL catalogue, employing the same weighted least-squares technique that was used to assemble the PPMXL catalogue itself. Results: This effort resulted in a four-parameter astrometric catalogue containing 583 million stars with Gaia DR1 quality positions and proper motions with precisions from far less than 1 mas/yr to 5 mas/yr, depending on object brightness and location on the sky. The HSOY catalogue is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?I/339

  12. The importance of proper citation of references in biomedical articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masic, Izet

    2013-01-01

    In scientific circles, the reference is the information that is necessary to the reader in identifying and finding used sources. The basic rule when listing the sources used is that references must be accurate, complete and should be consistently applied. On the other hand, quoting implies verbatim written or verbal repetition of parts of the text or words written by others that can be checked in original. Authors of every new scientific article need to explain how their study or research fits with previous one in the same or similar fields. A typical article in the health sciences refers to approximately 20-30 other articles published in peer reviewed journals, cite once or hundreds times. Citations typically appear in two formats: a) as in-text citations where the sources of information are briefly identified in the text; or b) in the reference list at the end of the publication (book chapter, manuscript, article, etc.) that provides full bibliographic information for each source. Group of publishers met in Vancouver in 1978 and decided to prescribe uniform technical propositions for publication. Adopted in the 1979 by the National Library of Medicine in Bethesda, then the International Committee of Medical Journals Editors (ICMJE), whose review in 1982 entered the official application by 300 international biomedical journals. Authors writing articles for publication in biomedical publications used predominantly citation styles: Vancouver style, Harward style, PubMed style, ICMJE, APA, etc. The paper gives examples of all of these styles of citation to the authors in order to facilitate their applications. Also in this paper is given the review about the problem of plagiarism which becomes more common in the writing of scientific and technical articles in biomedicine.

  13. The Importance of Proper Citation of References in Biomedical Articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masic, Izet

    2013-01-01

    In scientific circles, the reference is the information that is necessary to the reader in identifying and finding used sources. The basic rule when listing the sources used is that references must be accurate, complete and should be consistently applied. On the other hand, quoting implies verbatim written or verbal repetition of parts of the text or words written by others that can be checked in original. Authors of every new scientific article need to explain how their study or research fits with previous one in the same or similar fields. A typical article in the health sciences refers to approximately 20-30 other articles published in peer reviewed journals, cite once or hundreds times. Citations typically appear in two formats: a) as in-text citations where the sources of information are briefly identified in the text; or b) in the reference list at the end of the publication (book chapter, manuscript, article, etc.) that provides full bibliographic information for each source. Group of publishers met in Vancouver in 1978 and decided to prescribe uniform technical propositions for publication. Adopted in the 1979 by the National Library of Medicine in Bethesda, then the International Committee of Medical Journals Editors (ICMJE), whose review in 1982 entered the official application by 300 international biomedical journals. Authors writing articles for publication in biomedical publications used predominantly citation styles: Vancouver style, Harward style, PubMed style, ICMJE, APA, etc. The paper gives examples of all of these styles of citation to the authors in order to facilitate their applications. Also in this paper is given the review about the problem of plagiarism which becomes more common in the writing of scientific and technical articles in biomedicine. PMID:24167381

  14. New proper motions of pre-main sequence stars in Taurus-Auriga

    OpenAIRE

    Frink, S.; Roeser, S.; Neuhaeuser, R.; Sterzik, M. F.

    1997-01-01

    We present proper motions of 72 T Tauri stars located in the central region of Taurus-Auriga. These proper motions are taken from a new proper motion catalogue called STARNET. Our sample comprises 17 classical T Tauri stars and 55 weak-line T Tauri stars, most of the latter discovered by ROSAT. 53 stars had no proper motion measurement before. Kinematically, 62 of these stars are members of the association. A velocity dispersion of less than 2-3 km/s is found which is dominated by the errors ...

  15. Proper motions of collimated jets from intermediate-mass protostars in the Carina Nebula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, Megan; Kiminki, Megan M.; Smith, Nathan; Bally, John

    2017-10-01

    We present proper motion measurements of 37 jets and HH objects in the Carina Nebula measured in two epochs of H α images obtained ˜10 yr apart with Hubble Space Telescope/Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS). Transverse velocities in all but one jet are faster than ≳ 25 km s-1, confirming that the jet-like H α features identified in the first epoch images trace outflowing gas. Proper motions constrain the location of the jet-driving source and provide kinematic confirmation of the intermediate-mass protostars that we identify for 20/37 jets. Jet velocities do not correlate with the estimated protostar mass and embedded driving sources do not have slower jets. Instead, transverse velocities (median ˜75 km s-1) are similar to those in jets from low-mass stars. Assuming a constant velocity since launch, we compute jet dynamical ages (median ˜104 yr). If continuous emission from inner jets traces the duration of the most recent accretion bursts, then these episodes are sustained longer (median ˜700 yr) than the typical decay time of an FU Orionis outburst. These jets can carry appreciable momentum that may be injected into the surrounding environment. The resulting outflow force, dP/dt, lies between that measured in low- and high-mass sources, despite the very different observational tracers used. Smooth scaling of the outflow force argues for a common physical process underlying outflows from protostars of all masses. This latest kinematic result adds to a growing body of evidence that intermediate-mass star formation proceeds like a scaled-up version of the formation of low-mass stars.

  16. Long-term observations of the pulsars in 47 Tucanae - II. Proper motions, accelerations and jerks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire, P. C. C.; Ridolfi, A.; Kramer, M.; Jordan, C.; Manchester, R. N.; Torne, P.; Sarkissian, J.; Heinke, C. O.; D'Amico, N.; Camilo, F.; Lorimer, D. R.; Lyne, A. G.

    2017-10-01

    This paper is the second in a series where we report the results of the long-term timing of the millisecond pulsars (MSPs) in 47 Tucanae with the Parkes 64-m radio telescope. We obtain improved timing parameters that provide additional information for studies of the cluster dynamics: (a) the pulsar proper motions yield an estimate of the proper motion of the cluster as a whole (μα = 5.00 ± 0.14 mas yr - 1, μδ = - 2.84 ± 0.12 mas yr - 1) and the motion of the pulsars relative to each other. (b) We measure the second spin-period derivatives caused by the change of the pulsar line-of-sight accelerations; 47 Tuc H, U and possibly J are being affected by nearby objects. (c) For 10 binary systems, we now measure changes in the orbital period caused by their acceleration in the gravitational field of the cluster. From all these measurements, we derive a cluster distance no smaller than ˜4.69 kpc and show that the characteristics of these MSPs are very similar to their counterparts in the Galactic disc. We find no evidence in favour of an intermediate mass black hole at the centre of the cluster. Finally, we describe the orbital behaviour of four 'black widow' systems. Two of them, 47 Tuc J and O, exhibit orbital variability similar to that observed in other such systems, while for 47 Tuc I and R the orbits seem to be remarkably stable. It appears therefore that not all 'black widows' have unpredictable orbital behaviour.

  17. Proper Brushing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... both the tooth surface and the gumline. Gently brush the outer tooth surfaces of 2-3 teeth using a vibrating ... along all of the inner tooth surfaces. Tilt brush vertically behind the front teeth. Make several up & down strokes using the front ...

  18. Proper bootstrapping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douven, Igor; Kelp, Christoph

    According to a much discussed argument, reliabilism is defective for making knowledge too easy to come by. In a recent paper, Weisberg aims to show that this argument relies on a type of reasoning that is rejectable on independent grounds. We argue that the blanket rejection that Weisberg recommends

  19. 40 CFR 53.54 - Test for proper sampler operation following power interruptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... are to be recorded with an analog recording device, the accuracy of the entire instrument-recorder... Equivalent Methods for PM2.5 or PM10â2.5 § 53.54 Test for proper sampler operation following power... performance parameters tested are: (i) Proper flow rate performance of the sampler. (ii) Accuracy of the...

  20. 26 CFR 1.1016-2 - Items properly chargeable to capital account.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Basis Rules of General Application § 1.1016-2 Items properly... any applicable provision of law or regulation, is treated as an item not properly chargeable to.... For example, in the case of oil and gas wells no adjustment may be made in respect of any intangible...

  1. The CPMDS catalogue of common proper motion double stars in the Bordeaux Carte du Ciel zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavras, P.; Sinachopoulos, D.; Le Campion, J. F.; Ducourant, C.

    2010-10-01

    Context. The present knowledge of common proper motion double stars is rather poor and almost entirely restricted to the Luyten LDS catalogue of 6210 pairs, to 439 pairs of Halbwachs catalogue of common proper motion stars in AGK3, and to Greaves new northern common proper motion pairs (975 pairs). Aims: We present a search for new double stars with common proper motion in the Bordeaux, PM2000, proper motion catalogue (+11degr ≤ δ ≤ +18degr). Methods: The selection of double stars, on the basis of common proper motion, was performed by testing the candidate pairs with a Student t-distribution hypothesis test. A classification was performed by the analysis of the photometric properties of the components. Results: We present a catalogue, which contains 2572 new common proper motion pairs with angular separations ρ ≤ 2 arcmin and PM2000 meridian magnitudes for both components. As a by-product, we present the remeasurement of the parameters of 926 visual pairs from the WDS Washington double star catalogue. Conclusions: The present catalogue, which is a list of candidate binaries, is an important step in the knowledge of double stars because it increases the number of known common proper motion pairs by 30%. Complete Tables 2-4 are only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/521/A4

  2. 77 FR 70484 - Preoperational Testing of Onsite Electric Power Systems To Verify Proper Load Group Assignments...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-26

    ... COMMISSION Preoperational Testing of Onsite Electric Power Systems To Verify Proper Load Group Assignments... Power Systems to Verify Proper Load Group Assignments, Electrical Separation, and Redundancy.'' DG-1294... encompass preoperational testing of electrical power systems used to meet current Station Blackout...

  3. A tulajdonnevek pszicho- és neurolingvisztikája. Vizsgálati szempontok és modellek a tulajdonnevek feldolgozásáról [The psycho- and neurolinguistics of proper names. Aspects and models of analysis on processing proper names

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reszegi, Katalin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an overview of the results of psycho- and neurolinguistic examinations into the mental processes involving proper names (i.e. storing, processing, retrieving proper names. We can denote entities of various types with the help of proper names, and although most of these types are universal, there are in fact some cultural differences. In the fields of science concerned, that is, in psycho- and neurolinguistics and in neuropsychology, attention is given almost exclusively to anthroponyms; mental and neurological features of toponyms and other name types are much less examined. Processing names is generally believed to display more difficulties than processing common nouns, and these difficulties present themselves more and more strongly with age. In connection with the special identifying function and semantic features of proper names, many researchers assume that we process the two groups of words in different ways. This paper, reflecting also on these assumptions, summarizes and explains the results of research into a selective anomia affecting monolingual speakers (word-finding disturbances; b localization; c reaction time measurement; and d speech disfluency concerning proper names (especially the “tip of the tongue phenomenon”. The author also presents the models of processing proper names, examining to what degree these models can be reconciled with our knowledge of the acquisition of proper names. Finally, the results and possible explanations of the small amount of research into the representation and processing of proper names by bilingual speakers are discussed.

  4. Selection of Korean Proper Translation Words Using Bi-Gram-Based Histograms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanmin Jung

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a proper translation-selecting and translation-clustering algorithm for Korean translation of words automatically extracted from newspapers. As about 80% of the English words in Korean newspapers appear in abbreviated form, it is necessary to make clusters of translation words to construct easily bilingual knowledge bases such as dictionaries and translation patterns. As a seed to acquiring a translation cluster, we selected a proper translation word from a given translation set using bi-gram-based histograms. Translation words that share bi-grams with the chosen proper translation word are assigned to the cluster for the proper word. The given translation set then picks out the translation words of the cluster. These processes continue until the translation set becomes empty. Experimental results show that our algorithms are superior to bi-gram-based binary vectors including Dice coefficient and Jaccard coefficient in selecting the proper translation word for each translation cluster.

  5. Trauma of War as a Paradigmatic Discourse in Doris Lessing’s Martha Quest and A Proper Marriage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepti Dharmani

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Doris Lessing’s novels reveal the way in which war affects humanity by capturing the traumatic state of the author herself and also of the characters in her works. As a result of the two world wars, in the twentieth century, trauma emerges as a paradigmatic discourse for defining its catastrophic, disastrous and injurious aftermaths. In the novels Martha Quest and A Proper Marriage, the author shows how the war is an extremely traumatic experience for those who are direct witness to its violence and how it wreaks havoc on the entire generation. In A Proper Marriage, there is no particular mention of any catastrophic effects of war. The novel vividly portrays the anxiety which people suffer before a war. The catastrophe of the World War-I aggravates the impact of the forth coming World War-II. Hasty marriages and pregnancies are manipulated as the ways to escape the trauma of the impending war. Such discourse of trauma of wars, with its vivid catastrophic and disastrous effects on the people, narrated in the Martha Quest and A Proper Marriage, forms the topics of investigation and discussion in the present paper. The paper also explores and discusses how scientific war accelerated the destruction of the youth without coming to their aid. Attempt has also been made to shed light upon various techniques of escapism used by the characters to survive in the chaotic world

  6. Proper aspiration level promotes generous behavior in the spatial prisoner's dilemma game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Zhi-Hai; Zhao, Qian; Wu, Zhi-Xi; Zhou, Tao; Kong Tse, Chi

    2016-07-01

    Zero-determinant strategies, which can unilaterally define a linear relationship between two individuals' long-term payoff, have drawn much attention to comprehend the emergence of cooperation among individuals with repeated interactions. A subset of zero-determinant strategies, extortion strategy, can let an extortioner's surplus exceed her opponent's by a fixed percentage. On the other hand, the dual generosity strategy can ensure that a complier's payoff is never larger than her opponent's. In the framework of the prisoner's dilemma game driven by payoff aspiration, we investigate in this paper the evolution of generosity strategy, in competition with extortion and unconditional defection strategies. We show that extortioners act as a catalyst to induce more defectors to change to compliers. Such influence will enhance when extortioners become more greedy. At a low aspiration level where individuals are easy to be satisfied with their current payoffs, different strategies can coexist. With the increase of aspiration level, unsatisfied individuals are likely to turn to compliers and build long-term reciprocity with their neighbors. However, at a high aspiration level, individuals are difficult to be satisfied with their payoffs and may randomly change their behaviors. Thus proper aspiration level promotes the emergence of generous behavior in the spatial prisoner's dilemma game.

  7. A Study of the SDSS White Dwarf Component in the LSPM Proper Motion Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darveau-Bernier, A.; Bergeron, P.; Lépine, S.

    2017-03-01

    We present a model atmosphere analysis of the white dwarfs identified in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey with proper motions measured in the LSPM proper motion survey of Lépine et al. We rely on reduced proper motion diagrams to build a sample of white dwarfs in the SDSS footprint, and cross correlate this sample with the SDSS spectroscopic database to understand the systematics related to completeness, contamination, WD+M dwarf binaries, reddening, etc. We then determine a white dwarf luminosity function for this sample using various methods.

  8. Model Reduction Using Proper Orthogonal Decomposition and Predictive Control of Distributed Reactor System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Marquez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the application of proper orthogonal decomposition (POD to reduce the order of distributed reactor models with axial and radial diffusion and the implementation of model predictive control (MPC based on discrete-time linear time invariant (LTI reduced-order models. In this paper, the control objective is to keep the operation of the reactor at a desired operating condition in spite of the disturbances in the feed flow. This operating condition is determined by means of an optimization algorithm that provides the optimal temperature and concentration profiles for the system. Around these optimal profiles, the nonlinear partial differential equations (PDEs, that model the reactor are linearized, and afterwards the linear PDEs are discretized in space giving as a result a high-order linear model. POD and Galerkin projection are used to derive the low-order linear model that captures the dominant dynamics of the PDEs, which are subsequently used for controller design. An MPC formulation is constructed on the basis of the low-order linear model. The proposed approach is tested through simulation, and it is shown that the results are good with regard to keep the operation of the reactor.

  9. Integration of Kinetic Analysis of Reaction Curve with a Proper Classical Approach for Enzymatic Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolan Yang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available For enzymatic analysis to quantify a substrate or enzyme, kinetic analysis of reaction curve can be integrated with a proper classical approach. For their integration, they should have consistent slopes and intercepts of linear response and an overlapped region of analyte quantities measurable under optimized conditions. To quantify a substrate after optimizations of tool enzyme activity and reaction duration, the equilibrium method works when the reaction is completed within the reaction duration; otherwise, kinetic analysis of reaction curve applies providing at least seven data with sufficient consumption of substrate. To quantify an enzyme after optimizations of initial substrate concentration and reaction duration, the classical initial rate method works when an estimated initial rate locates within the linear range; otherwise, kinetic analysis of reaction curve applies after the conversion of the quantification index with optimized parameters. This integration strategy has ideal linear ranges and practical efficiency for quantifying an enzyme at moderate substrate levels and for quantifying a substrate at moderate cost on tool enzyme; it has promise to simultaneous assays of multiple enzymes in one reaction vessel each time and ,thus, potential applications to concurrently quantify multiple serum enzymes, screen inhibitors against multiple enzyme targets, and detect multiple serum components by enzymeimmunoassay.

  10. Proper gibberellin localization in vascular tissue is required to regulate adventitious root development in tobacco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaoyang; Li, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Bioactive gibberellins (GAs) are involved in many developmental aspects of the life cycle of plants, acting either directly or through interaction with other hormones. Accumulating evidence suggests that GAs have an important effect on root growth; however, there is currently little information on the specific regulatory mechanism of GAs during adventitious root development. A study was conducted on tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants for altered rates of biosynthesis, catabolism, and GA signalling constitutively or in specific tissues using a transgenic approach. In the present study, PtGA20ox, PtGA2ox1, and PtGAI were overexpressed under the control of the 35S promoter, vascular cambium-specific promoter (LMX5), or root meristem-specific promoter (TobRB7), respectively. Evidence is provided that the precise localization of bioactive GA in the stem but not in the roots is required to regulate adventitious root development in tobacco. High levels of GA negatively regulate the early initiation step of root formation through interactions with auxin, while a proper and mobile GA signal is required for the emergence and subsequent long-term elongation of established primordia. The results demonstrated that GAs have an inhibitory effect on adventitious root formation but a stimulatory effect on root elongation. PMID:23918971

  11. Injuries in recreational curling include head injuries and may be prevented by using proper footwear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, D K; Brison, R J

    2015-04-01

    Our study examines a recreational curling population to describe patterns of injury occurrence, estimate risk of injury and to gauge attitudes towards equipment-based prevention strategies. In a retrospective case series, we queried the Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program (CHIRPP), a national injury surveillance database, for curling injuries entered between 1993 and 2011. Kingston General Hospital and Hotel Dieu Hospital provide the two Kingston, Ontario, sites for emergency department (ED) care and participate in CHIRPP. Each retrieved entry underwent a chart review. A secondary survey was mailed to select individuals who had experienced curling injuries to solicit details on their injury and attitudes towards equipment to prevent injury. We used descriptive statistics for rates and proportions. Over 90% of acute curling injuries resulted from a fall, and 31.7% were head impacts. We found that acute injuries requiring ED presentation occur at a rate of approximately 0.17 per 1000 athlete-exposures (95% CI: 0.12-0.22). The secondary survey was completed by 54% of potential respondents. Of survey respondents, 41.3% attributed their fall to a lack of proper footwear and 73.5% of respondents agreed with mandatory sport-specific footwear as a prevention strategy, but only 8% agreed with mandatory helmet wear. Although curling injuries requiring medical care are not common, head injuries make up a large proportion. Mandated use of appropriate footwear appears to be the most effective prevention strategy, as well as the measure deemed most acceptable by players.

  12. Models of Stellar Streams for Constraining Local Group Dynamics with HST Proper Motion Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fardal, Mark

    2017-08-01

    HST Proper Motion (PM) measurements over the past decade have revolutioned our understanding of Local Group Dynamics. This offers the opportunity to obtain crucial new constraints on the outer halo of the two main Local Group galaxies, the Milky Way and M31. These halos are crucial for understanding the growth of these galaxies, and the physics of the dwarf galaxy population around them. Yet their structures and gravitational potential are very poorly known. We propose to model recent HST PM data of the Sagittarius and Orphan stellar tidal streams with a new stream modeling framework, which uses a combination of particle spray models and N-body simulations in a Bayesian context. This work will measure the total masses of the MW and the LMC, and connect the orbits of the stream progenitors to their star formation and quenching. It will also provide a general software framework to the community for modeling other streams, and making detailed comparison to a range of observations with HST and other facilities.

  13. Dexterity test data contribute to proper glovebox over-glove use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cournoyer, Michael E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lawton, Cindy M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Castro, Amanda M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Costigan, Stephen A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Apel, D M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Neal, G E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Castro, J M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Michelotti, R A [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-21

    Programmatic operations at the Los Alamos National Laboratory Plutonium Facility (TA-55) involve working with various amounts of plutonium and other highly toxic, alpha-emitting materials. The spread of radiological contamination on surfaces, airborne contamination, and excursions of contaminants into the operator's breathing zone are prevented through the use of a variety of gloveboxes (the glovebox, coupled with an adequate negative pressure gradient, provides primary confinement). The glovebox gloves are the weakest part of this engineering control. The Glovebox Glove Integrity Program, which controls glovebox gloves from procurement to disposal at TA-55, manages this vulnerability. A key element of this program is to consider measures that lower the overall risk of glovebox operations. Proper selection of over-gloves is one of these measures. Line management owning glovebox processes have the responsibility to approve the appropriate personal protective equipment/glovebox glove/over-glove combination. As low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) considerations to prevent unplanned glovebox glove openings must be balanced with glove durability and worker dexterity, both of which affect the final overall risk to the worker. In this study, the causes of unplanned glovebox glove openings, the benefits of over-glove features, the effect of over-gloves on task performance using standard dexterity tests, the pollution prevention benefits, and the recommended over-gloves for a task are presented.

  14. B meson proper time measurements with the LHCb experiment impact on physics parameters and calibration methods

    CERN Document Server

    Balbi, G

    2007-01-01

    The LHCb (Large Hadron Collider beauty) experiment is one of the four experiments at the LHC, and is specifically dedicated to explore the B-meson dynamics. To this end, LHCb will exploit the large beauty production cross section, expected to be about 500 µb at 14 TeV p-p collisions. Differently from the B-factory case, the hadronization of the b-quarks at LHC will generate all the possible B-hadrons, remarkably the Bs and Bc mesons, where the present experimental knowledge is still rather poor. The number of b/b_bar pairs produced at the LHCb interaction point will be of the order of 10^12 per year, allowing for the search of extremely rare decays, with branching fractions at the level of 10^-9. In order to reduce the acquisition rate to a sustainable level (order of 2 kHz), maintaining at the same time a high efficiency on the signals of interest, LHCb is provided with an efficient and flexible trigger system. LHCb, by means of its vertex detector, will be able to reconstruct the proper time of decays wi...

  15. 'What is not written does not exist': the importance of proper documentation of medication use history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestre, Carina Carvalho; Santos, Lincoln Marques Cavalcante; de Oliveira-Filho, Alfredo Dias; de Lyra, Divaldo Pereira

    2017-10-01

    Medications are perceived as health risk factors, because they might cause damage if used improperly. In this context, an adequate assessment of medication use history should be encouraged, especially in transitions of care to avoid unintended medication discrepancies (UMDs). In a case-controlled study, we investigated potential risk factors for UMDs at hospital admission and found that 150 (42%) of the 358 patients evaluated had one or more UMDs. We were surprised to find that there was no record of a patient and/or relative interview on previous use of medication in 117 medical charts of adult patients (44.8%). Similarly, in the medical charts of 52 (53.6%) paediatric patients, there was no record of parents and/or relatives interviews about prior use of medications. One hundred thirty-seven medical charts of adult patients (52.4%) and seventy-two medical charts of paediatric patients (74.2%) had no record about medication allergies and intolerances. In other words, there was a lack of basic documentation regarding the patient's medication use history. As patients move between settings in care, there is insufficient tracking of verbal and written information related to medication changes, which results in a progressive and cumulative loss of information, as evidenced by problems associated with clinical transfers and medication orders. Proper documentation of medication information during transfer is a key step in the procedure; hence, it should be rightly performed. It remains unclear whether interviews, and other investigations about medication use history have been performed but have not been recorded as health-care data. Therefore, it is crucial to the improvement of medication use safety that documentation of all drug-related information-even if not directly related to the actual event-become routine practice in health-care organizations, since 'what is not written does not exist'.

  16. Proper-Motion Study of the Magellanic Clouds Using SPM Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    based data that are known to suffer from significant magnitude equation. G-M dwarfs in the Galaxy disk, located between 0.4 to 1.6 kpc from us...data are able to produce independent significant results on the proper motion of nearby dwarf galaxies . Thus, there is certainly room for...and galaxies to V = 17.5 over a 450 deg2 area that encloses both Magellanic Clouds. The proper motions are based on photographic and CCD observations

  17. The proper name of the neotropical tree boa often referred to as Corallus enhydris (Serpentes: Boidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDiarmid, Roy W.; Toure, T'Shaka; Savage, Jay M.

    1996-01-01

    Confusion regarding the application of the proper scientific name for the common Neotropical tree boa has existed since Linnaeus described Boa enydris and Boa hortulana in 1758. We review the nomenclatural history of the species and point out the misapplication of scientific names that have characterized this form. Our review indicates that the proper scientific name for this highly variable, wide-ranging arboreal boid is Corallus hortulanus, not Corallus enydris, as has been used so frequently in recent years.

  18. Impact of Training on Improving Proper Handwashing Practices among Elementary School Students

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    Theruna Huthamaputiran

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hand washing is among the most effective ways to prevent diseases. In Indonesia, only a quarter of the entire population practice proper handwashing techniques. Of these, children are the most vulnerable group for contracting diseases. Nevertheless, they also are crucial agent for behavior transformation as they are keen and open to new ideas. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine if training would have an improvement on a proper hand washing practices among elementary school students. Methods:An observational descriptive study design using random sampling was conducted from September to November 2013 in Jatinangor Subdistrict, West Java, Indonesia using primary data of one hundred elementary school students from four elementary schools. Questionnaires were given after informed consent. A demonstration on hand washing techniques and education on proper hand washing practices was then given. Two weeks later, the same questionnaire was given to measure the influence of the training. The collected data were presented using frequency tabulation. Results: Before the training on proper hand washing practices was conducted, only 86.9% students were practicing it properly. After the training was given, 90.7% of the students were doing it properly. For the hand washing technique, only 66.8% of students knew the correct steps before the intervention was given and 78.7% students did them correctly after the intervention. Conclusions:The training shows an overall improvement on the students’ hand washing practices.   DOI: 10.15850/amj.v4n2.1073

  19. Proper Image Subtraction—Optimal Transient Detection, Photometry, and Hypothesis Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zackay, Barak; Ofek, Eran O.; Gal-Yam, Avishay

    2016-10-01

    Transient detection and flux measurement via image subtraction stand at the base of time domain astronomy. Due to the varying seeing conditions, the image subtraction process is non-trivial, and existing solutions suffer from a variety of problems. Starting from basic statistical principles, we develop the optimal statistic for transient detection, flux measurement, and any image-difference hypothesis testing. We derive a closed-form statistic that: (1) is mathematically proven to be the optimal transient detection statistic in the limit of background-dominated noise, (2) is numerically stable, (3) for accurately registered, adequately sampled images, does not leave subtraction or deconvolution artifacts, (4) allows automatic transient detection to the theoretical sensitivity limit by providing credible detection significance, (5) has uncorrelated white noise, (6) is a sufficient statistic for any further statistical test on the difference image, and, in particular, allows us to distinguish particle hits and other image artifacts from real transients, (7) is symmetric to the exchange of the new and reference images, (8) is at least an order of magnitude faster to compute than some popular methods, and (9) is straightforward to implement. Furthermore, we present extensions of this method that make it resilient to registration errors, color-refraction errors, and any noise source that can be modeled. In addition, we show that the optimal way to prepare a reference image is the proper image coaddition presented in Zackay & Ofek. We demonstrate this method on simulated data and real observations from the PTF data release 2. We provide an implementation of this algorithm in MATLAB and Python.

  20. Ancient eruptions of η Carinae: a tale written in proper motions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiminki, Megan M.; Reiter, Megan; Smith, Nathan

    2016-11-01

    We analyse eight epochs of Hubble Space Telescope Hα+[N II] imaging of η Carinae's outer ejecta. Proper motions of nearly 800 knots reveal that the detected ejecta are divided into three apparent age groups, dating to around 1250 A.D., to around 1550 A.D., and to during or shortly before the Great Eruption of the 1840s. Ejecta from these groups reside in different locations and provide a firm constraint that η Car experienced multiple major eruptions prior to the nineteenth century. The 1250 and 1550 events did not share the same axisymmetry as the Homunculus; the 1250 event was particularly asymmetric, even one-sided. In addition, the ejecta in the S ridge, which have been associated with the Great Eruption, appear to predate the ejection of the Homunculus by several decades. We detect essentially ballistic expansion across multiple epochs. We find no evidence for large-scale deceleration of the observed knots that could power the soft X-ray shell by ploughing into surrounding material, suggesting that the observed X-rays arise instead from fast, rarefied ejecta from the 1840s overtaking the older dense knots. Early deceleration and subsequent coasting cannot explain the origin of the older outer ejecta - significant episodic mass loss prior to the nineteenth century is required. The time-scale and geometry of the past eruptions provide important constraints for any theoretical physical mechanisms driving η Car's behaviour. Non-repeating mechanisms such as the merger of a close binary in a triple system would require additional complexities to explain the observations.

  1. Ecdysis triggering hormone ensures proper timing of juvenile hormone biosynthesis in pharate adult mosquitoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Areiza, Maria; Nouzova, Marcela; Rivera-Perez, Crisalejandra; Noriega, Fernando G.

    2014-01-01

    Juvenile hormones (JHs) are synthesized by the corpora allata (CA) and play a key role in insect development. A decrease of JH titer in the last instar larvae allows pupation and metamorphosis to proceed. As the anti-metamorphic role of JH comes to an end, the CA of the late pupa (or pharate adult) becomes again “competent” to synthesize JH, which would play an essential role orchestrating reproductive maturation. In the present study, we provide evidence that ecdysis triggering hormone (ETH), a key endocrine factor involved in ecdysis control, acts as an allatotropic regulator of JH biosynthesis, controlling the exact timing of CA activation in the pharate adult mosquito. Analysis of the expression of Aedes aegypti ETH receptors (AeaETHRs) revealed that they are present in the CA and the corpora cardiaca (CC), and their expression peaks 4 h before eclosion. In vitro stimulation of the pupal CA glands with ETH resulted in an increase in JH synthesis. Consistent with this finding, silencing AeaETHRs by RNA interference (RNAi) in pupa resulted in reduced JH synthesis by the CA of one day-old adult females. Stimulation with ETH resulted in increases in the activity of juvenile hormone acid methyltransferase (JHAMT), a key JH biosynthetic enzyme. Furthermore, inhibition of IP3R-operated mobilization of endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ stores prevented the ETH-dependent increases of JH biosynthesis and JHAMT activity. All together these findings provide compelling evidence that ETH acts as a regulatory peptide that ensures proper developmental timing of JH synthesis in pharate adult mosquitoes. PMID:25257939

  2. Combining malaria control with house electrification: adherence to recommended behaviours for proper deployment of solar-powered mosquito trapping systems, Rusinga Island, western Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oria, Prisca A; Alaii, Jane; Ayugi, Margaret; Takken, Willem; Leeuwis, Cees

    2015-08-01

    To investigate community adherence to recommended behaviours for proper deployment of solar-powered mosquito trapping systems (SMoTS) after 3- to 10-week use. Solar-powered mosquito trapping system, which also provided power for room lighting and charging mobile phones, were installed in houses in Rusinga Island, western Kenya. We used a structured checklist for observations and a semi-structured questionnaire for interviews in 24 homesteads. We also analysed the subject of 224 community calls to the project team for technical maintenance of SMoTS. Most respondents cared for SMoTS by fencing, emptying and cleaning the trap. Our observations revealed that most traps were fenced, clean and in good working condition. A significantly higher proportion of community calls was lighting-related. Lighting was the main reason respondents liked SMoTS because it reduced or eliminated expenditure on kerosene. However, some respondents observed they no longer heard sounds of mosquitoes inside their houses. All respondents reportedly slept under insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) before receiving SMoTS. After receiving SMoTS, most respondents reportedly continued to use ITNs citing that the project advised them to do so. Some beach residents stopped using ITNs because they no longer heard mosquitoes or due to heat discomfort caused by lights. Electricity-related incentives played a greater role in encouraging adherence to recommended behaviours for proper deployment of SMoTS than the potential health benefits in the early stages of the intervention. Although energy-related financial incentives may play a role, they are insufficient to ensure adherence to health advice, even in the short term. Ongoing community engagement and research monitors and addresses adherence to recommended behaviours including continuation of current malaria control strategies. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Intermittent Hypoxia Influences Alveolar Bone Proper Microstructure via Hypoxia-Inducible Factor and VEGF Expression in Periodontal Ligaments of Growing Rats

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    Shuji Oishi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Intermittent hypoxia (IH recapitulates morphological changes in the maxillofacial bones in children with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA. Recently, we found that IH increased bone mineral density (BMD in the inter-radicular alveolar bone (reflecting enhanced osteogenesis in the mandibular first molar (M1 region in the growing rats, but the underlying mechanism remains unknown. In this study, we focused on the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF pathway to assess the effect of IH by testing the null hypothesis of no significant differences in the mRNA-expression levels of relevant factors associated with the HIF pathway, between control rats and growing rats with IH. To test the null hypothesis, we investigated how IH enhances mandibular osteogenesis in the alveolar bone proper with respect to HIF-1α and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF in periodontal ligament (PDL tissues. Seven-week-old male Sprague–Dawley rats were exposed to IH for 3 weeks. The microstructure and BMD in the alveolar bone proper of the distal root of the mandibular M1 were evaluated using micro-computed tomography (micro-CT. Expression of HIF-1α and VEGF mRNA in PDL tissues were measured, whereas osteogenesis was evaluated by measuring mRNA levels for alkaline phosphatase (ALP and bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2. The null hypothesis was rejected: we found an increase in the expression of all of these markers after IH exposure. The results provided the first indication that IH enhanced osteogenesis of the mandibular M1 region in association with PDL angiogenesis during growth via HIF-1α in an animal model.

  4. Are oral-maxillofacial surgery patients given proper postoperative instructions for disposal of blood-soaked gauze packs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Alyssa; Laskin, Daniel M

    2014-11-01

    Although there are Occupational Safety and Health Administration guidelines for the proper disposal of hazardous waste in the dental office, there are no guidelines for patients regarding the disposal of the gauze packs that are usually placed after tooth extraction or other dental surgery. Thus there is the possibility of cross contamination by patients with undiagnosed blood-transmitted viral diseases. The purpose of this study was to determine what, if any, instructions are given by oral and maxillofacial surgeons (OMSs) and if such instructions are adequate. A 5-question survey was sent electronically to 375 randomly selected OMSs, and there was a 17% response. They were asked whether they provided written and verbal postoperative instructions, whether these included instructions about gauze pack disposal, and whether they gave special instructions to patients with known viral diseases such as hepatitis or human immunodeficiency virus infection. All respondents indicated that they provided both written and verbal postoperative instructions. However, only 1 respondent's instructions indicated how to dispose of the gauze pack, and only 1 gave special instructions to patients with known viral infections. There is a need for OMSs to provide specific instructions to all patients about the proper disposal of blood-soaked sponges to avoid potential cross contamination. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Identification of coherent structures in the flow past a NACA0012 airfoil via proper orthogonal decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Jean Hélder Marques; Wolf, William Roberto

    2017-08-01

    Proper orthogonal decomposition, POD, is employed to identify coherent structures in the turbulent flow past a NACA0012 airfoil. An analysis of different POD techniques is presented including the standard snapshot method, the spectral POD (SPOD) method, and a Fourier-POD implementation combined with the SPOD. The latter technique is viable once the present turbulent flow has a homogeneous direction along the airfoil span. An assessment of different vector norms and filter functions employed in the POD reconstruction is presented. The evaluation of the several POD techniques allows the investigation of the physics of the current turbulent flow including the observation of coherent structures and their relation to the airfoil noise generation mechanisms. The SPOD technique is applied assuming periodic and non-periodic temporal signals in the construction of the covariance matrix. Although it slightly alters the spectrum of the POD singular values, the periodic SPOD considerably reduces the noise observed in the singular vectors. The application of the Gaussian filtering allows an enhanced control in the response of the SPOD when compared with a square-box filter. The present POD reconstructions employ norms based on kinetic energy and pressure. For both norms, two-dimensional coherent structures are observed along the turbulent boundary layer and wake regions for the first pair of modes. These structures have a spectral content at the same frequency of the tonal noise radiation by the airfoil. The POD analysis also allows the identification of further coherent structures in the present flow. The kinetic energy norm is able to reconstruct low-frequency structures in the flow field for higher POD modes, while the pressure norm reconstructs high-frequency structures. This behavior is related to the physics captured by each POD norm in the present turbulent flow.

  6. Photographic zenith tubes observations to improve HIPPARCOS proper motion in declination of some stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damljanović Goran M.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A procedure of calculation and results of an attempt to improve proper motions in declination for some HIPPARCOS stars are presented. A long series of optical observations of these stars observed with Photographic Zenith Tubes (PZT are used. The HIPPARCOS ESA mission (ESA 1997 was nearly 4 years long, but each of the different Earth rotation programmes (PZTs included covers a few decades in the interval 1899.7 1992.0 (Vondrák et al. 1998. The HIPPARCOS mission period of a few years only is not enough to determine the precise proper motions for some stars, with the standard error of proper motions of about 1 mas/year, but groundbased data covering a few decades with positional errors one or two orders higher than HIPPARCOS ones are nevertheless useful for checking or improving some HIPPARCOS proper motions (mostly of double and multiple stars. Here, the observations of two PZTs (with different longitudes and the same latitude are used to improve some HIPPARCOS proper motions in declination; the method is explained and some results are presented. .

  7. Analysis of inter-provider conflicts among healthcare providers

    OpenAIRE

    Stecker, Mona; Epstein, Nancy; Mark M Stecker; Ausman, James I.; Harrigan, Noyes

    2013-01-01

    Background: Patient safety is a top priority of healthcare organizations. The Joint Commission (TJC) is now requiring that healthcare organizations promulgate polices to investigate and resolve disruptive behavior among employees. Methods: Our aims in this investigation utilizing the Provider Conflict Questionnaire (PCQ: Appendix A) included; determining what conflicts exist among a large sample of healthcare providers, how to assess the extent and frequency of disruptive behaviors, and what ...

  8. Proper Motions of η Carinae's Outer Ejecta and Its Eruptive History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiminki, Megan M.; Reiter, Megan; Smith, Nathan

    2017-11-01

    η Carinae, the most extreme luminous blue variable in our Galaxy, underwent a Great Eruption in the 1800s and ejected significant mass into the well-known bipolar Homunculus. But η Car's outer ejecta, a spread of dense, nitrogen-rich knots outside the Homunculus, have led to suspicion that the Great Eruption was not this star's first major mass-loss event. We have measured proper motions for nearly 800 distinct features in the outer ejecta using 21 years of HST WFPC2 and ACS imaging. With motions measured across sixteen baselines, we find that the outer ejecta are expanding ballistically and belong to three age groups: one dating to the mid-1200s, another to the mid-1500s, and a third to the early 1800s, associated with but perhaps predating the peak of the Great Eruption. These three age groups are separated in space and radial velocity. There is no evidence for interaction between the dense ejecta that could be powering η Car's soft X-ray shell, which is instead likely driven by fast, rarefied ejecta from the Great Eruption striking the older dense ejecta. The thirteenth-century event was strikingly asymmetric, ejecting mass almost entirely to one side of the star. The sixteenth-century event displays bipolar symmetry, but along a different axis than the current Homunculus. These observations provide constraints on theoretical models of η Car's behavior, as viable models must explain the repetition, timescale, and asymmetry of these major mass-loss events. For more details, see Kiminki, Reiter, & Smith (2016, MNRAS, 463, 845).

  9. Injuries in recreational curling include head injuries and may be prevented by using proper footwear

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    D. K. Ting

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Our study examines a recreational curling population to describe patterns of injury occurrence, estimate risk of injury and to gauge attitudes towards equipment-based prevention strategies. Methods: In a retrospective case series, we queried the Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program (CHIRPP, a national injury surveillance database, for curling injuries entered between 1993 and 2011. Kingston General Hospital and Hotel Dieu Hospital provide the two Kingston, Ontario, sites for emergency department (ED care and participate in CHIRPP. Each retrieved entry underwent a chart review. A secondary survey was mailed to select individuals who had experienced curling injuries to solicit details on their injury and attitudes towards equipment to prevent injury. We used descriptive statistics for rates and proportions. Results: Over 90% of acute curling injuries resulted from a fall, and 31.7% were head impacts. We found that acute injuries requiring ED presentation occur at a rate of approximately 0.17 per 1000 athlete-exposures (95% CI: 0.12–0.22. The secondary survey was completed by 54% of potential respondents. Of survey respondents, 41.3% attributed their fall to a lack of proper footwear and 73.5% of respondents agreed with mandatory sport-specific footwear as a prevention strategy, but only 8% agreed with mandatory helmet wear. Conclusions: Although curling injuries requiring medical care are not common, head injuries make up a large proportion. Mandated use of appropriate footwear appears to be the most effective prevention strategy, as well as the measure deemed most acceptable by players.

  10. On-screen-display (OSD) menu detection for proper stereo content reproduction for 3D TV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolstaya, Ekaterina V.; Bucha, Victor V.; Rychagov, Michael N.

    2011-03-01

    Modern consumer 3D TV sets are able to show video content in two different modes: 2D and 3D. In 3D mode, stereo pair comes from external device such as Blue-ray player, satellite receivers etc. The stereo pair is split into left and right images that are shown one after another. The viewer sees different image for left and right eyes using shutter-glasses properly synchronized with a 3DTV. Besides, some devices that provide TV with a stereo content are able to display some additional information by imposing an overlay picture on video content, an On-Screen-Display (OSD) menu. Some OSDs are not always 3D compatible and lead to incorrect 3D reproduction. In this case, TV set must recognize the type of OSD, whether it is 3D compatible, and visualize it correctly by either switching off stereo mode, or continue demonstration of stereo content. We propose a new stable method for detection of 3D incompatible OSD menus on stereo content. Conventional OSD is a rectangular area with letters and pictograms. OSD menu can be of different transparency levels and colors. To be 3D compatible, an OSD is overlaid separately on both images of a stereo pair. The main problem in detecting OSD is to distinguish whether the color difference is due to OSD presence, or due to stereo parallax. We applied special techniques to find reliable image difference and additionally used a cue that usually OSD has very implicit geometrical features: straight parallel lines. The developed algorithm was tested on our video sequences database, with several types of OSD with different colors and transparency levels overlaid upon video content. Detection quality exceeded 99% of true answers.

  11. Global Education Review is a publication of The School of Education at Mercy College, New York. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial 3.0 Unported License, permitting all non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.Citation: Drajea, Alice J.& O’Sullivan, Carmel (2014. Influence of parental education and family income on children’s education in rural Uganda, 1 (3. 149-166. Influence of Parental Education and Family Income on Children’s Education in Rural Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice J. Drajea

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates the effect of parents’ literacy levels and family income in Uganda on the quality and nature of parents’ involvement in their children’s primary education. A mixed-methods study with an ethnographic element was employed to explore the views and opinions of 21 participants through a qualitative approach. Methods for data collection included observation of family routines and practices, semi-structured interviews with parents and children, and review of relevant documents. Vygotsky’s socio-cultural historical theory and the Feinsteinian concept of intergenerational transmission of educational success offer the basis for the investigation. Findings indicated a significant relationship between parents’ income and literacy levels and the quality of support to their children’s education. Household poverty emerged as a major obstacle to educational success for children across the three socio-economic categories of family studied. Compromised lack of time for parent-child interaction proved to be the main obstacle as parents spent significant hours in non-academic matters for the day-to-day survival of their families. Parental illiteracy showed negative associations with children’s literacy competence and subsequent success in primary school.

  12. A Case of Ruptured Aneurysm of the Proper Esophageal Artery with Symptomatic Mediastinal Hematoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jiajia; Sato, Yusuke, E-mail: yusuke@doc.med.akita-u.ac.jp [Akita University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Thoracic Surgery (Japan); Takahashi, Satoshi [Akita University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Radiology (Japan); Motoyama, Satoru; Yoshino, Kei; Sasaki, Tomohiko; Imai, Kazuhiro; Saito, Hajime; Minamiya, Yoshihiro [Akita University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Thoracic Surgery (Japan)

    2016-08-15

    Mediastinal aneurysms are rare but potentially life-threatening. Among these, bronchial artery aneurysms are most frequently reported, whereas up to now aneurysms of the proper esophageal artery had never been reported. A 69-year-old woman was referred to our hospital for treatment of a massive mediastinal hematoma. Enhanced computed tomography and selective proper esophageal arteriography revealed a 5-mm aneurysm in the proper esophageal artery that arises from the thoracic aorta at the Th8 level and has an anastomotic branch with the bronchial artery peripherally. Transcatheter arterial embolization was successfully performed using a mixture of N-butyl cyanoacrylate and lipiodol (1:3 ratio, 0.3 ml). Post-embolization angiography showed no filling into the aneurysm. The patient recovered with no complications and was discharged on the 25th post-procedure day.

  13. A focused educational intervention can promote the proper application of seat belts during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGwin, Gerald; Willey, Paula; Ware, Amy; Kohler, Connie; Kirby, Tyler; Rue, Loring W

    2004-05-01

    The failure to properly use automobile restraints during pregnancy is a significant contributor to both maternal and fetal injury and death. Misconceptions as to the effects of restraint use on the fetus and a lack of instruction as to proper restraint positioning contribute to this problem. Focus groups were used to develop an intervention consisting of educational material for prenatal care clinic patients and staff pertaining to seat belt use during pregnancy. The intervention was administered over a 2-month period. Two groups of women, one preintervention and one postintervention, were surveyed to determine demographics, pregnancy status, and current restraint use characteristics. Preintervention and postintervention surveys were administered to 450 and 285 women, respectively. The proportion of women reporting correct placement of seat belts increased from 70.8% to 83.0% (p pregnancy contributes to a lack of consistent and proper use of restraints. Educational tools that improve both knowledge and behavior have the potential to increase automotive safety during pregnancy.

  14. Effects of estrogen deficiency on microstructural changes in rat alveolar bone proper and periodontal ligament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhongshuang; Liu, Lisha; Kang, Chen; Xie, Qi; Zhang, Bin; Li, Ying

    2015-09-01

    The present study aimed to analyze the effects of estrogen deficiency on buccal alveolar bone proper and the periodontal ligament in ovariectomized (OVX) rats, compared with rats that had been subjected to sham treatment. Morphological and histological changes in the periodontium were analyzed using micro‑computed tomography and paraffin sectioning. Sections were stained using hematoxylin and eosin, and tartrate‑resistant acid phosphatase. Expression of receptor activator of nuclear factor‑κB ligand (RANKL), dentin matrix protein 1 C‑terminal (DMP1‑C) and osteopontin (OPN) were analyzed using immunohistochemistry. Histomorphometric analysis of buccal alveolar bone proper samples revealed porotic changes and disorganized bone structure in OVX rats. Furthermore, bone mineral density and pore spacing were significantly lower in OVX rats compared with sham rats. Porosity was significantly higher in OVX rats compared with sham rats (Pstructure of buccal alveolar bone proper and the periodontal ligament, which is likely to increase the risk of periodontal disease.

  15. A ground-based proper motion study of 12 nearby globular clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narloch, W.; Kaluzny, J.; Poleski, R.; Rozyczka, M.; Pych, W.; Thompson, I. B.

    2017-10-01

    We derive relative proper motions of stars in the fields of the globular clusters M12, NGC 6362, M4, M55, M22, NGC 6752, NGC 3201, M30, M10, NGC 362, M5 and 47 Tucanae based on data collected between 1997 and 2015 with the 1-m Swope telescope of Las Campanas Observatory. We determine membership class and membership probability for over 446 000 objects, and show that these are efficient methods for separating field stars from members of the cluster. In particular, membership probabilities of variable stars and blue/yellow/red stragglers are determined. Finally, we find absolute proper motions for six globular clusters from our sample: M55, NGC 3201, M10, NGC 362, M5 and 47 Tuc. An electronic catalogue of the derived proper motions is publicly available via the internet.

  16. Searching for High Proper Motion Sources Towards the Galactic Center using Convolution Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giongo Fernandes, Alexandre; Benjamin, Robert A.; Babler, Brian

    2018-01-01

    Two sets of infrared images of the Galactic Center region (|L| 100 mas/year). The two image sets come from GALCEN observations in 2005 and GLIMPSE proper observations in 2015 with matched observation modes. We use three different methods to search for these objects in extremely crowded fields: (1) comparing matched point source lists, (2) crowd sourcing by several college introductory astronomy classes in the state of Wisconsin (700 volunteers), and (3) convolutional neural networks trained using objects from the previous two methods. Before our search six high proper objects were known, four of which were found by the VVV near-infrared Galactic plane survey. We compare and describe our methods for this search, and present a preliminary catalog of high proper motions objects.

  17. Predicting Factors of Worker Behavior for Proper Working Posture Based on Planed Behavior Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Mohammadi Zeydi

    2008-12-01

    Introduction & Objective: Injuries resulting from ignoring proper working posture especially in employees who sitting at workplace for more than of working hours are costly, and create significant pain and discomfort. Decreasing of these injuries is most effectively accomplished through the application of ergonomic design principles. Sometimes, however, barriers (technical and economic preclude ergonomic improvement and, consequently, some organizations rely on the use of proper sitting techniques and maintaining proper working posture as a major control strategy during workday. The problem, however, is that these process performing is inconsistent and managers have a difficult time motivating use of these techniques. The main aim of this study was to understand the factors driving proper working posture among employees. Materials & Methods: This study used the theory of planned behavior to predict upright working posture maintenance among 222 of assembling, machinery and printing line’s employees at a Qazvin Alborz industrial town manufacturing organization. Structural equation modeling, explanatory and confirmatory factor analysis were employed to analyze relationships among constructs. Results: Results revealed that attitude (p< 0.05, β= 0.53 and intention (p< 0.05, β= 0.46 were the strongest predictors of proper working posture maintenance behavior. Perceived behavior control, to a lesser degree, were also important influences on intention (p< 0.05, β= 0.34 and behavior (p< 0.05, β= 0.28. Subjective norms did not surface as effective direct predictors of upright working posture maintenance, but did affect behavior and intent via mediating factors (attitudes subjective norms and perceived behavioral control. Finally, the TPB was supported as an effective model explaining upright working posture maintenance, and had potential application for many other safety-related behaviors. Conclusion: results of this study emphasis on considering factors such as

  18. Rheological evaluation of polymers for EOR. Proper procedures for a laboratory approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kouchaki, S.; Hincapie-Reina, R.; Ganzer, L. [Technische Univ. Clausthal, Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany). ITE

    2013-08-01

    Some discrepancies exist in the literature concerning polymer EOR (Enhanced Oil Recovery) evaluation. Laboratory investigations are essentials for every particular flooding project, with proper preliminary lab evaluation techniques in order to study the polymer behavior and rheological properties at different reservoir conditions. Different research has been shown variation in procedures during polymer preparation and filtration; affecting the result in the field. Experience from field observation indicates that even high molecular weight (MW) polymers have filtration ratio (F.R) less than 1,5; in that way polymer solutions that are still in range cannot show a good approximation to the field behavior. To deal with the discrepancies, specific procedures based in rheological polymer characterization were adapted. Two different polymers were used for rheology study using a rotational rheometer analyzing some solutions at different conditions. Additionally rheological measurements was used to characterize the apparent viscosity of polymer as a shear rate function, salinity, temperature and polymer concentration, defining additional useful values for simulation evaluations and additionally Newtonian, non-Newtonian, shear viscosity and MW impact were also investigated. Quality control of the solutions was not limited to the conventional indicator 'filtrations ratio', but it was showed how important it is to consider two qualities check indicators, filterability ratio and filterability plot, simultaneously. Results indicated how stable the N-vinyl Pyrrolidone (NVP) Superpusher SAV301 could be in comparison to the Hydrolyzed Polyacrylamide polymer (HPAM) Flopaam 3630S. Despite the high viscosity results from HPAM Flopaam 3630S due to its high MW, the polymer is overly sensitive to factors like temperature, salinity and concentration. Quite the contrary was for polymer solutions with Superpusher SAV301; constant viscosity over a wide shear rate range which is the

  19. THE PROBLEM OF PROPER CARGO SECURING IN ROAD TRANSPORT – CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria CIEŚLA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the problem of improper security of cargo in trucks as the cause of about 25% of the accidents that takes place in road transport. Attention was drawn to aspects of legal liability for errors resulting from incorrect load securing according to polish law. Article was enriched with practical examples illustrating the effects of improper cargo securing on transport unit and shows how it had to be prepared properly. When planning the proper transport protection of metal sheets rolled both calculation methods and computer applications were used.

  20. Brief communication: Characteristic properties of extreme wave events observed in the northern Baltic Proper, Baltic Sea

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    J.-V. Björkqvist

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A significant wave height of 7 m has been measured five times by the northern Baltic Proper wave buoy in the Baltic Sea, exceeding 8 m twice (2004 and 2017. We classified these storms into two groups by duration and wave steepness. Interestingly, the two highest events exhibited opposite properties, with the 2017 event being the longest storm on record. This storm is also the first where the harshest wave conditions were modelled to occur in the western part of the Baltic Proper. The metrics quantifying the storm's duration and steepness might aid in issuing warnings for extreme wave conditions.

  1. Brief communication: Characteristic properties of extreme wave events observed in the northern Baltic Proper, Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björkqvist, Jan-Victor; Tuomi, Laura; Tollman, Niko; Kangas, Antti; Pettersson, Heidi; Marjamaa, Riikka; Jokinen, Hannu; Fortelius, Carl

    2017-09-01

    A significant wave height of 7 m has been measured five times by the northern Baltic Proper wave buoy in the Baltic Sea, exceeding 8 m twice (2004 and 2017). We classified these storms into two groups by duration and wave steepness. Interestingly, the two highest events exhibited opposite properties, with the 2017 event being the longest storm on record. This storm is also the first where the harshest wave conditions were modelled to occur in the western part of the Baltic Proper. The metrics quantifying the storm's duration and steepness might aid in issuing warnings for extreme wave conditions.

  2. Investigation of variations in energy, macronutrients and sodium intake based on the places meals are provided: Using the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES, 1998-2009).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Yong-Seok; Park, Young-Hee; Choe, Jeong-Sook; Yang, Yoon-Kyoung

    2014-02-01

    This study was conducted to investigate nutrient consumption by Korean adults in various places. To accomplish this, we used the 1998-2009 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). Subjects of this investigation were over 19 years and the study included 37,160 people. The meals were categorized as breakfast, lunch, dinner, and snacks consumed at home, or while eating-out. Investigation of the rate of consumption at serving places based on daily meals and years showed that eating-out generally increased with time. The consumption of meals prepared at home was higher than that of meals consumed anyplace else in 1998, 2001, 2005, and 2007-2009. However, the rate of consumption of home meals decreased from 1998 to 2007-2009, while the rate of eating-out increased during this period. Annual nutrient intake according to serving places with respect to meals, energy, fat, and sodium were significantly lower in home meals than those consumed elsewhere in 2007-2009 relative to 1998. The sodium intake and energy distribution ratio of fat in meals consumed while eating-out increased significantly from 1998 to 2007-2009. The energy, fat and sodium intake and energy contribution ratio of fat consumed in meals at institutions was significantly higher in 2007-2009 than in 1998. Based on these results, additional research is required to develop guidelines for dietary life improvement at each serving place and to address education and policies for balanced nutrition intake.

  3. Therapy Provider Phase Information

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Therapy Provider Phase Information dataset is a tool for providers to search by their National Provider Identifier (NPI) number to determine their phase for...

  4. The proper use of artefacts : A philosophical theory of the social constitution of artefact functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheele, M.

    2005-01-01

    Artefacts are humanly designed objects with a function. Their proper function is what they are for. This book develops a theory of these functions on the basis of the idea that artefacts are used in a social context. Current theories of artefact functions are inadequate to deal with this special

  5. it is vital that proper care and attention is taken for success depends ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    it is vital that proper care and attention is taken for success depends on this. The saying that we judge a man by the company he keeps can be changed in this context to: 'You can judge a company by the men it keeps.' Wrn Calvin Smit. Warning and Response by Julian Critch. ley. Leo Cooper, 1978. 123p. R10,40.

  6. Young Children's Use of Contrast in Word Learning: The Case of Proper Names

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, D. Geoffrey; Rhemtulla, Mijke

    2014-01-01

    Recent research has established that contrast can exert a powerful effect on early word learning. This study examined the role of contrast in young children's ability to learn proper names. Preschoolers heard a novel word for an unfamiliar stuffed animal in the presence of a second stuffed animal of either the same or a different kind.…

  7. MTU America Inc., Agrees to Conduct Proper Testing to Ensure Engines Meet Air Pollution Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    WASHINGTON - MTU America Inc. (MTU), a subsidiary of Rolls-Royce Power Systems AG, will implement an auditing program to ensure proper emissions testing and compliance with federal emission standards for its heavy-duty diesel non-road engines as par

  8. Translating Proper Nouns: A Case Study on English Translation of Hafez's Lyrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirinzadeh, Seyed Alireza; Mahadi, Tengku Sepora Tengku

    2014-01-01

    Proper nouns are regarded so simple that they might be taken for granted in translation explorations. Some may believe that they should not be translated in transmitting source texts to target texts. But, it is not the case; if one looks at present translations, he will notice that different strategies might be applied for translating proper…

  9. Condom Use: Slippage, Breakage, and Steps for Proper Use among Adolescents in Alternative School Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyle, Karin K.; Franks, Heather M.; Glassman, Jill R.; Stanoff, Nicole M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: School-based human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/sexually transmitted infection (STI), and pregnancy prevention programs often focus on consistent and correct condom use. Research on adolescents' experience using condoms, including condom slippage/breakage, is limited. This exploratory study examines proper condom use and the…

  10. 76 FR 14543 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Proper Use and Management of Cost-Reimbursement Contracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-16

    ..., 42, and 50 RIN 9000-AL78 Federal Acquisition Regulation; Proper Use and Management of Cost... management of other than firm-fixed-price contracts (e.g., cost-reimbursement, time-and-material, and labor... Government Contracting. Section 864 requires the FAR to be revised to address the use and management of cost...

  11. 77 FR 12925 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Proper Use and Management of Cost-Reimbursement Contracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-02

    ..., 42, and 50 RIN 9000-AL78 Federal Acquisition Regulation; Proper Use and Management of Cost... addresses the use and management of cost- reimbursement contracts. DATES: Effective Date: April 2, 2012 FOR... Contracting. Section 864 of the law requires amending the FAR to address the use and management of cost...

  12. On finite groups whose every proper normal subgroup is a union of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    On finite groups whose every proper normal subgroup is a union of a given number of conjugacy classes. ALI REZA ASHRAFI and GEETHA VENKATARAMAN. ∗. Department of Mathematics, University of Kashan, Kashan, Iran. ∗. Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences Foundation, St. Stephen's. College ...

  13. Young children's use of contrast in word learning: the case of proper names

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hall, D.G.; Rhemtulla, M.

    2014-01-01

    Recent research has established that contrast can exert a powerful effect on early word learning. This study examined the role of contrast in young children's ability to learn proper names. Preschoolers heard a novel word for an unfamiliar stuffed animal in the presence of a second stuffed animal of

  14. Demands of proper administrative conduct A research project into the ombudsprudence of the Dutch National Ombudsman

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langbroek, P.M.; Rijpkema, P.

    2006-01-01

    In this article we explain and summarize a research project on the content and development of principles of proper administrative conduct as operated in complaints proceedings before the Dutch National Ombudsman and some local Ombudsman institutions. It shows how the project evolved into mainly a

  15. The Hipparcos, Tycho, TRC, and ACT catalogues - A whole sky comparison of the proper motions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogerwerf, R; Blaauw, A

    We present a whole sky comparison of the proper motions contained in the Hipparcos Catalogue, the Tycho Catalogue, the Tycho Reference Catalogue (TRC), and the Astro-graphic Catalogue plus Tycho Reference Catalogue (ACT). The catalogues are compared in the 20 declination zones defined by the

  16. Corrections to the Hipparcos proper motions in declination for 807 stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damljanović G.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We used the data on latitude variations obtained from observations with 10 classical photographic zenith tubes (PZT in order to improve the Hipparcos proper motions in declinations µδ for 807 stars. Part of observing programmes, carried out during the last century for the purpose of studying the Earth's rotation, were realized by using PZT instruments. These observations were performed within in the intervals (tens of years much longer than that of the Hipparcos mission (less than 4 years. In addition, the annual number of observations for every PZT programme star is several hundreds on the average. Though the accuracy of the star coordinates in the Hipparcos Catalogue is by two orders of magnitude better than that of the star coordinates from the PZT observations, the large number of observations performed a much longer time interval makes it possible to correct the Hipparcos proper motions and to improve their accuracy with respect to the accuracy given in the Hipparcos Catalogue. Long term examinations of latitude and time variations were used to form the Earth Orientation Catalogue (EOC-2, aimed at a more accurate determination of positions and proper motions for the stars included. Our method of calculating the corrections of the proper motions in declination from the latitude variations is different from the method used in obtaining the EOC-2 Catalogue. Comparing the results we have established a good agreement between our µδ and the EOC-2 ones for the star sample used in the present paper.

  17. Corrections to the Hipparcos Proper Motions in Declination for 807 Stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damljanović, G.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available We used the data on latitude variations obtained from observations with 10 classical photographic zenith tubes (PZT in order to improve the Hipparcos proper motions in declinations $mu_{delta} $ for 807 stars. Part of observing programmes, carried out during the last century for the purpose of studying the Earth's rotation, were realized by using PZT instruments. These observations were performed within in the intervals (tens of years much longer than that of the Hipparcos mission (less than 4 years. In addition, the annual number of observations for every PZT-programme star is several hundreds on the average. Though the accuracy of the star coordinates in the Hipparcos Catalogue is by two orders of magnitude better than that of the star coordinates from the PZT observations, the large number of observations performed a much longer time interval makes it possible to correct the Hipparcos proper motions and to improve their accuracy with respect to the accuracy given in the Hipparcos Catalogue. Long term examinations of latitude and time variations were used to form the Earth Orientation Catalogue (EOC-2, aimed at a more accurate determination of positions and proper motions for the stars included. Our method of calculating the corrections of the proper motions in declination from the latitude variations is different from the method used in obtaining the EOC-2 Catalogue. Comparing the results we have established a good agreement between our $mu_ {delta} $ and the EOC-2 ones for the star sample used in the present paper.

  18. Benthic conditions around a historic shipwreck: Vrouw Maria (1771) in the northern Baltic proper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruuskanen, A. T.; Kraufvelin, P.; Alvik, R.; Díaz, E. R.; Honkonen, J.; Kanerva, J.; Karell, K.; Kekäläinen, P.; Lappalainen, J.; Mikkola, R.; Mustasaari, T.; Nappu, N.; Nieminen, A.; Roininen, J.; Svahnbäck, K.

    2015-04-01

    Since her shipwreck in 1771, the wooden vessel Vrouw Maria has been lying on the seabed at 41 m depth on the border between the Archipelago Sea and the northern Baltic proper, off the southern coast of Finland. The wreck lies in an upward position in a right angle to the dominating bottom current, which is potentially affecting seabed topography, sediment characteristics and zoobenthic communities both upstream (NE) and downstream (SW) of the wreck. This multidisciplinary study attempts to clarify abiotic and biotic patterns and processes in the vicinity of the wreck by combining field investigations with physical simulation studies in the field and in the laboratory. Multibeam echo-sounder techniques were utilised to generate a map of the wreck area and sediment grab samples were taken to characterize the sediment type and its zoobenthic community. A medium-sized field experiment generated data on the accumulation of sediment organic matter in the presence and absence of a current and/or a barrier on the seafloor and a small-scaled laboratory study was conducted to simulate scour forming processes. The results showed that a deeper basin, scour area, with the dimensions 150×300 m, was present downstream of the wreck and there was also a smaller scour area upstream of the wreck. Similar traces on the bottom were simulated in the laboratory. The organic content (recent mud) and the proportion of finer sediment were more pronounced in areas closer to both sides of the wreck. These results were in turn imitated in a field experiment, where the accumulation of organic matter in the sediment increased significantly downstream, when a current was interrupted by a barrier. Regarding zoobenthos in the wreck area, 11 taxa and a mean total abundance of 773 individuals per m2 were registered. The dominant species were Macoma balthica and Marenzelleria sp., which together made up >80% of the total number of individuals. Multivariate data analyses showed significant differences

  19. Exhumation--Providing justice to victims of homicide: The Nigerian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faduyile, Francis Adedayo; Taiwo, Olufemi Joshua; Soyemi, Sunday Sokuunle; Akinde, Olakanmi Raphael

    2015-01-01

    Forensic investigations have been embraced in many developed countries to help investigate homicidal cases in their legal system amongst others. It is however still in infancy state in many developing countries, including Nigeria, making the use of this very vital tool very limited to prosecute cases. Some of the reasons include the low knowledge base of the investigating officers, to the dearth of Forensic personnel and the inability to use the findings to prosecute the offenders. The few cases where proper investigation is done, anatomic pathologists and sometimes medical officers are usually called to provide the forensic evidence. Often this involves exhumation of corpse. Exhumation of corpses for death investigation is not a common occurrence in Nigeria and we present the findings seen in these cases.

  20. Investigating the Quality and Maintenance Issues of Bibliographic Records Provided by the e-Book Supply Chain: Using the Operation of the Taiwan Academic E-Book &Database Consortium as an Example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-Chen Chen

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available It is an important trend to expand the use of bibliographic records from the supply chain for libraries. However, what are the sources of vendors’ bibliographic records? Their quality? How do libraries deal with these bibliographic records? Are they satisfied them? This study first drawn 1,080 bibliographic records from 29 e-book products, and MarcEdit was used to check their quality and 14% were found to contain errors. Secondly, this study interviewed 12 vendors and found out that bibliographic records of western books were mostly copied from the OCLC, and there were also bibliographic records from the original vendors who commissioned outsource companies to do the cataloging process. In addition, there were those cataloged by Taiwanese manufacturers themselves. Lastly, this study sent questionnaires to Taiwan Academic E-Book & Database Consortium members to survey their satisfaction on bibliographic records provided by vendors and their recommendations thereof. This study shows that most libraries have inputted the bibliographic records of the e-books into their OPAC system and are generally satisfied with the bibliographic records provided by the vendors, though opinions vary on the accuracy of these records.

  1. Proper Motions of Young Stellar Outflows in the Mid-infrared with Spitzer (IRAC). I. The NGC 1333 Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raga, A. C.; Noriega-Crespo, A.; Carey, S. J.; Arce, H. G.

    2013-02-01

    We use two 4.5 μm Spitzer (IRAC) maps of the NGC 1333 region taken over a ~7 yr interval to determine proper motions of its associated outflows. This is a first successful attempt at obtaining proper motions of stellars' outflow from Spitzer observations. For the outflow formed by the Herbig-Haro objects HH7, 8, and 10, we find proper motions of ~9-13 km s-1, which are consistent with previously determined optical proper motions of these objects. We determine proper motions for a total of eight outflows, ranging from ~10 to 100 km s-1. The derived proper motions show that out of these eight outflows, three have tangential velocities <=20 km s-1. This result shows that a large fraction of the observed outflows have low intrinsic velocities and that the low proper motions are not merely a projection effect.

  2. The RNA-binding protein, ZC3H14, is required for proper poly(A) tail length control, expression of synaptic proteins, and brain function in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rha, Jennifer; Jones, Stephanie K; Fidler, Jonathan; Banerjee, Ayan; Leung, Sara W; Morris, Kevin J; Wong, Jennifer C; Inglis, George Andrew S; Shapiro, Lindsey; Deng, Qiudong; Cutler, Alicia A; Hanif, Adam M; Pardue, Machelle T; Schaffer, Ashleigh; Seyfried, Nicholas T; Moberg, Kenneth H; Bassell, Gary J; Escayg, Andrew; García, Paul S; Corbett, Anita H

    2017-10-01

    A number of mutations in genes that encode ubiquitously expressed RNA-binding proteins cause tissue specific disease. Many of these diseases are neurological in nature revealing critical roles for this class of proteins in the brain. We recently identified mutations in a gene that encodes a ubiquitously expressed polyadenosine RNA-binding protein, ZC3H14 (Zinc finger CysCysCysHis domain-containing protein 14), that cause a nonsyndromic, autosomal recessive form of intellectual disability. This finding reveals the molecular basis for disease and provides evidence that ZC3H14 is essential for proper brain function. To investigate the role of ZC3H14 in the mammalian brain, we generated a mouse in which the first common exon of the ZC3H14 gene, exon 13 is removed (Zc3h14Δex13/Δex13) leading to a truncated ZC3H14 protein. We report here that, as in the patients, Zc3h14 is not essential in mice. Utilizing these Zc3h14Δex13/Δex13mice, we provide the first in vivo functional characterization of ZC3H14 as a regulator of RNA poly(A) tail length. The Zc3h14Δex13/Δex13 mice show enlarged lateral ventricles in the brain as well as impaired working memory. Proteomic analysis comparing the hippocampi of Zc3h14+/+ and Zc3h14Δex13/Δex13 mice reveals dysregulation of several pathways that are important for proper brain function and thus sheds light onto which pathways are most affected by the loss of ZC3H14. Among the proteins increased in the hippocampi of Zc3h14Δex13/Δex13 mice compared to control are key synaptic proteins including CaMK2a. This newly generated mouse serves as a tool to study the function of ZC3H14 in vivo. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Application of proper orthogonal decomposition and radial basis functions for crack size estimation using particle swarm optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benaissa, B.; Köppen, M.; Abdel Wahab, M.; Khatir, S.

    2017-05-01

    Complex engineering problems require simulations, which are computationally expensive in cases of inverse identification tasks since they commonly requires hundreds of thousands of simulations. This paper propose a method based on model reduction for crack size estimation, combining the proper orthogonal decomposition method with radial basis functions. The reduced model is validated by comparing the obtained boundary displacements with the corresponding results from a finite element model. This inverse procedure is formulated as the minimization of the difference between the measured and computed values of displacement at selected boundary nodes, called sensor points, using particle swarm optimization algorithm. Convex and a non-convex specimens have been considered for investigations of crack presence, and identification of its size, different crack sizes have been tested to demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed approach.

  4. Further examples of the failure of surrogates to properly model the structural and hydrothermal chemistry of transuranium elements: Insights provided by uranium and neptunium diphosphonates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, Anna-Gay D [ORNL; Bray, Travis H [ORNL; Zhang, Wei [ORNL; Haire, Richard G. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Sayler, Todd S. [Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama; Albrecht-Schmitt, Thomas E [ORNL

    2008-01-01

    In situ hydrothermal reduction of Np(VI) to Np(IV) in the presence of methylenediphosphonic acid (C1P2) results in the crystallization of Np[CH2(PO3)2](H2O)2 (NpC1P2-1). Similar reactions have been explored with U(VI) resulting in the isolation of the U(IV) diphosphonate U[CH2(PO3)2](H2O) (UC1P2-1), and the two U(VI) diphosphonates (UO2)2[CH2(PO3)2](H2O)3 H2O (UC1P2-2) and UO2[CH2(PO3H)2](H2O) (UC1P2-3). Single crystal diffraction studies of NpC1P2-1 reveal that it consists of eight-coordinate Np(IV) bound by diphosphonate anions and two coordinating water molecules to create a polar three-dimensional framework structure wherein the water molecules reside in channels. The structure of UC1P2-1 is similar to that of NpC1P2-1 in that it also adopts a three-dimensional structure. However, the U(IV) centers are seven-coordinate with only a single bound water molecule. UC1P2-2 and UC1P2-3 both contain U(VI). Nevertheless, their structures are quite distinct with UC1P2-2 being composed of corrugated layers containing UO6 and UO7 units bridged by C1P2; whereas, UC1P2-3 is found as a polar three-dimensional network structure containing only pentagonal bipyramidal U(VI). Fluorescence measurements on UC1P2-2 and UC1P2-3 exhibit emission from the uranyl moieties with classical vibronic fine-structure.

  5. Health literacy, cognitive function, proper use, and adherence to inhaled asthma controller medications among older adults with asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Conor, Rachel; Wolf, Michael S; Smith, Samuel G; Martynenko, Melissa; Vicencio, Daniel P; Sano, Mary; Wisnivesky, Juan P; Federman, Alex D

    2015-05-01

    We sought to investigate the degree to which cognitive skills explain associations between health literacy and asthma-related medication use among older adults with asthma. Patients aged ≥ 60 years receiving care at eight outpatient clinics (primary care, geriatrics, pulmonology, allergy, and immunology) in New York, New York, and Chicago, Illinois, were recruited to participate in structured, in-person interviews as part of the Asthma Beliefs and Literacy in the Elderly (ABLE) study (n = 425). Behaviors related to medication use were investigated, including adherence to prescribed regimens, metered-dose inhaler (MDI) technique, and dry powder inhaler (DPI) technique. Health literacy was measured using the Short Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults. Cognitive function was assessed in terms of fluid (working memory, processing speed, executive function) and crystallized (verbal) ability. The mean age of participants was 68 years; 40% were Hispanic and 30% non-Hispanic black. More than one-third (38%) were adherent to their controller medication, 53% demonstrated proper DPI technique, and 38% demonstrated correct MDI technique. In multivariable analyses, limited literacy was associated with poorer adherence to controller medication (OR, 2.3; 95% CI, 1.29-4.08) and incorrect DPI (OR, 3.51; 95% CI, 1.81-6.83) and MDI (OR, 1.64; 95% CI, 1.01-2.65) techniques. Fluid and crystallized abilities were independently associated with medication behaviors. However, when fluid abilities were added to the model, literacy associations were reduced. Among older patients with asthma, interventions to promote proper medication use should simplify tasks and patient roles to overcome cognitive load and suboptimal performance in self-care.

  6. Gravitational Scattering Amplitudes and Closed String Field Theory in the Proper-Time Gauge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Taejin

    2018-01-01

    We construct a covariant closed string field theory by extending recent works on the covariant open string field theory in the proper-time gauge. Rewriting the string scattering amplitudes generated by the closed string field theory in terms of the Polyakov string path integrals, we identify the Fock space representations of the closed string vertices. We show that the Fock space representations of the closed string field theory may be completely factorized into those of the open string field theory. It implies that the well known Kawai-Lewellen-Tye (KLT) relations of the first quantized string theory may be promoted to the second quantized closed string theory. We explicitly calculate the scattering amplitudes of three gravitons by using the closed string field theory in the proper-time gauge.

  7. Sororin pre-mRNA splicing is required for proper sister chromatid cohesion in human cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watrin, Erwan; Demidova, Maria; Watrin, Tanguy; Hu, Zheng; Prigent, Claude

    2014-09-01

    Sister chromatid cohesion, which depends on cohesin, is essential for the faithful segregation of replicated chromosomes. Here, we report that splicing complex Prp19 is essential for cohesion in both G2 and mitosis, and consequently for the proper progression of the cell through mitosis. Inactivation of splicing factors SF3a120 and U2AF65 induces similar cohesion defects to Prp19 complex inactivation. Our data indicate that these splicing factors are all required for the accumulation of cohesion factor Sororin, by facilitating the proper splicing of its pre-mRNA. Finally, we show that ectopic expression of Sororin corrects defective cohesion caused by Prp19 complex inactivation. We propose that the Prp19 complex and the splicing machinery contribute to the establishment of cohesion by promoting Sororin accumulation during S phase, and are, therefore, essential to the maintenance of genome stability. © 2014 The Authors.

  8. Proper motions of L1551 IRS 5 binary system using 7 mm VLA observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa, A. M.; Trinidad, M. A.; de la Fuente, E.; Rodríguez-Esnard, T.

    2017-10-01

    We analyzed high angular resolution observations of the Very Large Array archive at a wavelength of 7 mm made for the L1551 IRS 5 binary system. Six sets of observations, five with the A configuration and one with the B configuration, were used, covering a time span of about 15 years. With these multi-epoch data, we estimated the absolute and relative proper motions of the binary system, which are about 25.1 mas yr-1 (≈ 16.7 km s-1 considering a distance of 140 pc) and 4.2 mas yr-1, respectively. Finally, based on the relative proper motion, we estimated a total mass for the L1551 IRS 5 binary system of 1.7 M⊙ and an orbital period of 246 years.

  9. Locale-Specific Categorization of IT Projects for Proper Project Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Nasir

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we aim to show that not only are the project management techniques important for small-scale projects, but following proper project management techniques is one of the most important requirements. However, there come slight variations in implementing project management techniques in small projects as compared with larger projects. Therefore, proper categorization of projects holds the key to success in many situations. Our paper will show that categorization of a project as small-scale or large-scale should always be locale specific. In this regards, we develop a criteria and evaluate how the projects are categorized as small-scale and large-scale in different parts of the world with focus on IT projects. This research concludes that some methods cannot be used for projects of different scales.

  10. Utilizing improvement science methods to improve physician compliance with proper hand hygiene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Christine M; Statile, Angela M; Conway, Patrick H; Schoettker, Pamela J; Solan, Lauren G; Unaka, Ndidi I; Vidwan, Navjyot; Warrick, Stephen D; Yau, Connie; Connelly, Beverly L

    2012-04-01

    In 2009, The Joint Commission challenged hospitals to reduce the risk of health care-associated infections through hand hygiene compliance. At our hospital, physicians had lower compliance rates than other health care workers, just 68% on general pediatric units. We used improvement methods and reliability science to increase compliance with proper hand hygiene to >95% by inpatient general pediatric teams. Strategies to improve hand hygiene were tested through multiple plan-do-study-act cycles, first by 1 general inpatient medical team and then spread to 4 additional teams. At the start of each rotation, residents completed an educational module and posttest about proper hand hygiene. Team compliance data were displayed daily in the resident conference room. Real-time identification and mitigation of failures by a hand-washing champion encouraged shared accountability. Organizational support ensured access to adequate hand hygiene supplies. The main outcome measure was percent compliance with acceptable hand hygiene, defined as use of an alcohol-based product or hand-washing with soap and turning off the faucet without using fingers or palm. Compliance was defined as acceptable hand hygiene before and after contact with the patient or care environment. Covert bedside observers recorded at least 8 observations of physicians' compliance per day. Physician compliance with proper hand hygiene improved to >95% within 6 months and was sustained for 11 months. Instituting a hand-washing champion for immediate identification and mitigation of failures was key in sustaining results. Improving physician compliance with proper hand hygiene is achievable and a first step in decreasing health care-associated infections.

  11. Gravitational Scattering Amplitudes and Closed String Field Theory in the Proper-Time Gauge

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Taejin

    2017-01-01

    We construct a covariant closed string field theory by extending recent works on the covariant open string field theory in the proper-time gauge. Rewriting the string scattering amplitudes generated by the closed string field theory in terms of the Polyakov string path integrals, we identify the Fock space representations of the closed string vertices. We show that the Fock space representations of the closed string field theory may be completely factorized into those of the open string field...

  12. A proper understanding of the Davisson and Germer experiments for undergraduate modern physics course

    OpenAIRE

    Suzuki, Masatsugu; Suzuki, Itsuko S.

    2013-01-01

    The physical interpretation for the Davisson-Germer experiments on nickel (Ni) single crystals [(111), (100), and (110) surfaces] is presented in terms of two-dimensional (2D) Bragg scattering. The Ni surface acts as a reflective diffraction grating when the incident electron beams hits the surface. The 2D Bragg reflection occurs when the Ewald sphere intersects the Bragg rods arising from the two-dimension character of the system. Such a concept is essential to proper understanding of the Da...

  13. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Proper motions of field L and T dwarfs (Jameson+, 2008)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jameson, R. F.; Casewell, S. L.; Bannister, N. P.; Lodieu, N.; Keresztes, K.; Dobbie, P. D.; Hodgkin, S. T.

    2009-03-01

    In order to measure proper motions for known L and T dwarfs we observed 142 L and T dwarfs from the DwarfArchive (detailed in Table 1, see http://spider.ipac.caltech.edu/staff/davy/ARCHIVE/ for discovery references) with declinations between -30{deg} and 60{deg} and J-band magnitudes of less than 16.5. The images were taken using WFCAM on UKIRT over the period of 2006 February to 2006 August. (1 data file).

  14. X-ray Proper Motions and Shock Speeds along the Northwest Rim of SN1006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsuda, Satoru; Long, Knox S.; Petre, Robert; Reynolds, Stephen P.; Williams, Brian J.; Winkler, P. Frank

    2012-01-01

    We report the results of an X-ray proper motion measurement for the NW rim of SN 1006, carried out by comparing Chandra observations from 2001 and 2012. The NW limb has predominantly thermal X-ray emission, and it is the only location in SN 1006 with signi cant optical emission: a thin, Balmer-dominated lament. For most of the NW rim, the proper motion is approximately equal to 0.30"yr(exp -1), essentially the same as has been measured from the H alpha lament. Isolated regions of the NW limb are dominated by nonthermal emission, and here the proper motion is much higher, 0:49"yr(exp -1), close to the value measured in X-rays along the much brighter NE limb, where the X-rays are overwhelmingly nonthermal. At the 2.2 kpc distance to SN 1006, the proper motions imply shock velocities of approximately 3000 kms(exp -1) and approximately 5000 kms(exp -1) in the thermal and nonthermal regions, respectively. A lower velocity behind the H alpha filament is consistent with the picture that SN 1006 is encountering denser gas in the NW, as is also suggested by its overall morphology. In the thermally-dominated portion of the X-ray shell, we also see an o set in the radial profiles at different energies; the 0.5-0.6 keV peak dominated by O VII is closer to the shock front than that of the 0.8-3 keV emission|due to the longer times for heavier elements to reach ionization states where they produce strong X-ray emission.

  15. Want of Proper Spirit and Energy: The Penobscot Expedition of 1779

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-10

    her men. Shirley appealed to Admiral Peter Warren operating in the Carribean to support the operation, but he could not offer his support until...WANT OF PROPER SPIRIT AND ENERGY: THE PENOBSCOT EXPEDITION OF 1779 A thesis presented to the Faculty of the U.S. Army...Command and General Staff College in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree MASTER OF MILITARY ART AND SCIENCE Military History

  16. Forensic Investigation of mass disasters in Nigeria: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obafunwa, John Oladapo; Faduyile, Francis Adedayo; Soyemi, Sunday Sokunle; Eze, Uwom Okereke; Nwana, Edmund J C; Odesanmi, William Olufemi

    2015-01-01

    This paper is to establish the present state of things in the country in terms of legal framework and the availability of personnel with a view to presenting an overview of proper mass disaster investigations. This is a retrospective review of mass disasters in Nigeria that occurred within the last 20 years. The study therefore reviews the state of the forensic investigation of the mass disasters as well as the efforts made to identify the victims of the disaster. The process of proper forensic investigation from the stage of evaluation of the scene and recovery process to the final identification of victims are presented to serve as a protocol for the country. The assessment of the present state of preparedness in Nigeria is also examined with a view to improving the practice to international standards. Data were retrieved from official documents from the aviation industry as well as Nigeria news reports. The standard protocols for disaster victim identification were retrieved from the guide released by the INTERPOL. The state of preparedness of the country and recommendations for improvement are presented. The Federal government and the states of the federation should without further delay put in place the process of reviewing the law of Coroner's system and provide the enabling environment for the proper forensic investigation. The training curriculum of the first responders should incorporate mass disaster investigations in order to produce efficient officers and personnel. A functional disaster victim identification (DVI) team is strongly advocated to incorporate different professionals involved in mass disaster management.

  17. Proper muscle layer damage affects ulcer healing after gastric endoscopic submucosal dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horikawa, Yohei; Mimori, Nobuya; Mizutamari, Hiroya; Kato, Yuhei; Shimazu, Kazuhiro; Sawaguchi, Masayuki; Tawaraya, Shin; Igarashi, Kimihiro; Okubo, Syunji

    2015-11-01

    Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) is the established therapy for superficial gastrointestinal neoplasms. However, management of the artificial ulcers associated with ESD has become important and the relationship between ulcer healing factors and treatment is still unclear. We aimed to evaluate ESD-related artificial ulcer reduction ratio at 4 weeks to assess factors associating with ulcer healing after ESD that may lead to optimal treatment. Between January 2009 and December 2013, a total of 375 lesions fulfilled the expanded criteria for ESD. We defined ulcer reduction rate Ulcer reduction rate was significantly correlated with factors related to the ESD procedure (i.e. procedure time, submucosal fibrosis, and injury of the proper muscle layer, in univariate analysis. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that submucosal fibrosis (F2) (P = 0.03; OR, 16.46; 95% CI, 1.31-206.73) and injury of the proper muscle layer (P = 0.01; OR, 4.27; 95% CI, 2.04-8.92) were statistically significant predictors of delayed healing. This single-center retrospective study indicated that ESD-induced artificial ulcer healing was affected by submucosal fibrosis and injury of the proper muscle layer, which induced damage to the muscle layer. Therefore, the preferable pharmacotherapy can be determined on completion of the ESD procedure. © 2015 The Authors Digestive Endoscopy © 2015 Japan Gastroenterological Endoscopy Society.

  18. THE PROPER MOTIONS OF THE DOUBLE RADIO SOURCE n IN THE ORION BN/KL REGION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodríguez, Luis F.; Loinard, Laurent; Zapata, Luis; Lizano, Susana [Instituto de Radioastronomía y Astrofísica, UNAM, Apdo. Postal 3-72 (Xangari), 58089 Morelia, Michoacán, México (Mexico); Dzib, Sergio A.; Menten, Karl M. [Max Planck Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Gómez, Laura, E-mail: l.rodriguez@crya.unam.mx [Joint ALMA Observatory, Alonso de Córdoba 3107, Vitacura, Santiago (Chile)

    2017-01-10

    We have extended the time baseline for observations of the proper motions of radio sources in the Orion BN/KL region from 14.7 to 22.5 years. We present improved determinations for the sources BN and I. In addition, we address the proper motions of the double radio source n, that have been questioned in the literature. We confirm that all three sources are moving away at transverse velocities of tens of kilometers per second from a region in-between them, where they were located about 500 years ago. Source n exhibits a new component that we interpret as due to a one-sided ejection of free–free emitting plasma that took place after 2006.36. We used the highly accurate relative proper motions between sources BN and I to determine that their closest separation took place in the year 1475 ± 6, when they were within ∼100 au or less from each other in the plane of the sky.

  19. Proper Angle of Sono-guided Central Venous Line Insertion; a Brief Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Barzegari

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Determining the proper angle for inserting central venous catheter (CV line is of great importance for decreasing the complications and increasing success rate. The present study was designed to determine the proper angle of needle insertion for internal jugular vein catheterization. Methods: In the present case series study, candidate patients for catheterization of the right internal jugular vein under guidance of ultrasonography were studied. At the time of proper placing of the catheter, photograph was taken and Auto Cad 2014 software was used to measure the angles of the needle in the sagittal and axial planes, as well as patient’s head rotation. Result: 114 patients with the mean age of 56.96 ± 14.71 years were evaluated (68.4% male. The most common indications of catheterization were hemodialysis (55.3% and shock state (24.6%. The mean angles of needle insertion were 102.15 ± 6.80 for axial plane, 36.21 ± 3.12 for sagittal plane and the mean head rotation angle was 40.49 ± 5.09. Conclusion: Based on the results of the present study it seems that CV line insertion under the angles 102.15 ± 6.80 degrees in the axial plane, 36.21 ± 3.12 in the sagittal plane and 40.49 ± 5.09 head rotation yield satisfactory results. 

  20. Proper Motions of Jets on the Kiloparsec Scale: New Results with HST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eileen T. Meyer

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Hubble Space Telescope recently celebrated 25 years of operation. Some of the first images of extragalactic optical jets were taken by HST in the mid-1990s; with time baselines on the order of 20 years and state-of-the-art astrometry techniques, we are now able to reach accuracies in proper-motion measurements on the order of a tenth of a milliarcsecond per year. We present the results of a recent HST program to measure the kiloparsec-scale proper motions of eleven nearby optical jets with Hubble, the first sample of its kind. When paired with VLBI proper-motion measurements on the parsec scale, we are now able to map the full velocity profile of these jets from near the black hole to the final deceleration as they extend out into and beyond the host galaxy. We see convincing evidence that weak-flavor jets (i.e., FR Is have a slowly increasing jet speed up to 100 pc from the core, where superluminal components are first seen.

  1. Translating Proper Names in the Vietnamese Translation of Shakespeare’s Romeo and Juliet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nhan V. Luong,

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Cultural differences are always the great challenges for translators in the translation process. When dealing with cultural barrier, metaphor is a typical struggle, in which Proper names necessitate consideration because the translation might cause confused and misunderstood as well as negative feelings of the readers to the original text. A name can be popular used in a source culture (SC or a country but too strange or the taboo in a target culture (TC. This study, by applying both qualitative and quantitative research methods, has described and compared the translations of proper names in the Shakespeare’s Romeo and Juliet and its Vietnamese translation by Dang The Binh. The findings reveal that besides similarities, when using popular proper names, English and Vietnamese cultures have many different names that require careful analysis and understanding of the translator. It is concluded that foreignization and domestication should be applied flexibly in order to introduce a friendly translation that honors both the SC and the TC.

  2. Predicted space motions for hypervelocity and runaway stars: proper motions and radial velocities for the Gaia Era

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenyon, Scott J.; Brown, Warren R.; Geller, Margaret J. [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Bromley, Benjamin C., E-mail: skenyon@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: wbrown@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: mgeller@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: bromley@physics.utah.edu [Department of Physics, University of Utah, 115 S 1400 E, Rm 201, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States)

    2014-10-01

    We predict the distinctive three-dimensional space motions of hypervelocity stars (HVSs) and runaway stars moving in a realistic Galactic potential. For nearby stars with distances less than 10 kpc, unbound stars are rare; proper motions alone rarely isolate bound HVSs and runaways from indigenous halo stars. At large distances of 20-100 kpc, unbound HVSs are much more common than runaways; radial velocities easily distinguish both from indigenous halo stars. Comparisons of the predictions with existing observations are encouraging. Although the models fail to match observations of solar-type HVS candidates from SEGUE, they agree well with data for B-type HVS and runaways from other surveys. Complete samples of g ≲ 20 stars with Gaia should provide clear tests of formation models for HVSs and runaways and will enable accurate probes of the shape of the Galactic potential.

  3. Proper Technique for Administration of ATX-101 (Deoxycholic Acid Injection): Insights From an Injection Practicum and Roundtable Discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Derek H; Kenkel, Jeffrey M; Fagien, Steven; Glaser, Dee Anna; Monheit, Gary D; Stauffer, Karen; Sykes, Jonathan M

    2016-11-01

    ATX-101 (deoxycholic acid injection; Kybella in the United States and Belkyra in Canada; Kythera Biopharmaceuticals, Inc., Westlake Village, CA [an affiliate of Allergan plc, Dublin, Ireland]) is the first aesthetic injectable approved for reduction of submental fat. In February 2014, an injection practicum was conducted in the anatomy laboratory at the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center to explore the proper injection technique for ATX-101 and the importance of its appropriate, safe anatomical placement within the submental area. Subsequent to the injection practicum, a structured roundtable discussion was conducted in which potential implications of the various injection protocols evaluated during the practicum were reviewed. Furthermore, the faculty had the opportunity to provide additional perspectives based on their clinical experience with facial injectables and ATX-101 specifically. In this article, the findings from the injection practicum and roundtable discussion are reported.

  4. [Using Interdisciplinary Cooperation to Improve the Rate of Proper Performance of a Hand Exercise Among Hemodialysis Patients With Arteriovenous Fistula Construction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Ya-Hsin; Shin, Miao-Ling; Huang, Cyong-Pei; Chen, Siang-Jyun; Huang, Tsuey-Yuan

    2017-06-01

    Patients who undergo new arteriovenous fistula (AVF) construction as part of their hemodialysis treatment program are required to perform hand exercises properly in order to maintain AVF function. However, poor performance of these hand exercises currently results in the failure of many patients to preserve AVF function. To increase the rate of performing this hand exercise properly from 55% to 80%. A comprehensive investigation identified the following five main problems: (a) Insufficient muscular endurance; (b) Resistance was not labeled on the ball; (c) Difficulties with maintaining a grip on the ball during the exercise; (d) Lack of standardized education procedures; and (e) Nurses lack latest knowledge on the hand exercise. The strategies used to improve the situation included: (a) Interdisciplinary team cooperation with physiotherapists to design individualized resistance training regimens; (b) Exercise tool improvement; (c) Standardized AVF care; (d) Continuous education for nursing staffs; and (e) Seed teacher program for hand exercise. The rate of proper hand exercise performance increased from 55% to 93%. This nursing project involved an interdisciplinary team that included physiotherapists in order to successfully improve the rate at which the hand exercise was performed properly. This positive experience may be applied to other hemodialysis departments in the treatment of patients with AVF.

  5. Preferred provider organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davy, J D

    1984-05-01

    The 1980s has marked the beginning of a new alternative health care delivery system: the preferred provider organization ( PPO ). This system has developed from the health maintenance organization model and is predominant in California and Colorado. A PPO is a group of providers, usually hospitals and doctors, who agree to provide health care to subscribers for a negotiated fee that is usually discounted. Preferred provider organizations are subject to peer review and strict use controls in exchange for a consistent volume of patients and speedy turnaround on claims payments. This article describes the factors leading to the development of PPOs and the implications for occupational therapy.

  6. Building Service Provider Capabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandl, Kristin; Jaura, Manya; Ørberg Jensen, Peter D.

    In this paper we study whether and how the interaction between clients and the service providers contributes to the development of capabilities in service provider firms. In situations where such a contribution occurs, we analyze how different types of activities in the production process...

  7. Providing free autopoweroff plugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Carsten Lynge; Hansen, Lars Gårn; Fjordbak, Troels

    2012-01-01

    Experimental evidence of the effect of providing households with cheap energy saving technology is sparse. We present results from a field experiment in which autopoweroff plugs were provided free of charge to randomly selected households. We use propensity score matching to find treatment effects...

  8. When Things Don’t Look Right: What Appear to be Proper Motion Discrepancies in the WDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harshaw, Richard

    2017-10-01

    Proper motion data for double stars are included for most of the records in the Washington Double Star Catalog (WDS). In many cases, the proper motion data agree well with the observed changes in the system over time. But in other cases, the proper motion data do not align well with the observations. It is therefore incumbent on the double star researcher to treat any research based on proper motions with caution to be sure that wrong conclusions are not drawn. Possible reasons for such discrepancies are explored.

  9. Proper motion with HST: Searching for high-velocity stars in the core of the globular cluster 47 Tucanae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meylan, G. [European Southern Observatory, Garching b. Muenchen, (Germany); Minniti, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Pryor, C. [Rutgers, Univ., Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, New Jersey (United States); Tinney, C.G. [Anglo-Australian Observatory, Epping, NSW (Australia); Phinney, E.S. [Theoretical Astrophysics, Caltech, Pasadena, (United States); Sams, B. [Eagle-Picher Industries, Inc., Joplin, MO (United States). Electronics Div.

    1996-02-13

    Binary stars play an essential role during the late phases of the dynamical evolution of a globular cluster. They transfer energy to passing stars and so can strongly influence the cluster evolution, enough to delay, halt, and even reverse core collapse. Hard binaries are known to exist in cluster cores, e.g., in the form of millisecond pulsars (about half of the millisecond pulsars observed in 47 Tucanae are such hard binaries). The presence of hard binaries may also be revealed by searching for the by-products of close encounters: high- velocity stars, such as those discovered in the core of 47 Tuc by Meylan et al. (1991) and Gebhardt et al. (1995). These studies represent the limit of the radial velocity data which can be obtained from the ground. If more progress is to be made, it must come through obtaining proper motions--a task for which {ital only} the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) is suitable. We are using WFPC2 to obtain deep U (F300W) images of the core of 47 Tuc at three different epochs over two years, with which we will measure differential proper motions to a 1-{sigma} limit of 0.23 mas/yr. This--rather conservative--estimate corresponds to a 5-{sigma} detection of all stars with tangential velocities greater than 22 km s{sup -1}. By using the F300W filter we can measure stars over the whole color-magnitude diagram, from the red-giant branch to well down the main sequence. Such a complete census will provide unique constraints as a function of the stellar mass on relaxation processes, collision and ejection rates, and the velocity distribution. Here we report on the first-epoch (Cycle 5) observations of this project. Although no proper motions are available yet, some preliminary by-product results are presented. These include luminosity functions and color-magnitude diagrams for the core of 47 Tuc and the light curves of variable blue straggler stars and of a candidate X-ray source. 32 refs., 5 figs.

  10. PROPER MOTIONS OF THE OUTER KNOTS OF THE HH 80/81/80N RADIO-JET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masqué, Josep M.; Rodriguez, Luis F.; Carrasco-González, Carlos [Instituto de Radioastronomía y Astrofísica, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Morelia 58089, México (Mexico); Araudo, Anabella [University of Oxford, Astrophysics, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Estalella, Robert [Departament d’Astronomia i Meteorologia and Institut de Ciències del Cosmos (IEEC-UB), Universitat de Barcelona, Martí i Franquès 1, E-08028 Barcelona, Catalunya (Spain); Anglada, Guillem; Osorio, Mayra [Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (CSIC), Apartado 3004, E-18080 Granada (Spain); Girart, Josep M. [Institut de Ciències de l’Espai (CSIC-IEEC), Campus UAB, Carrer de Can Magrans, S/N, E-08193 Cerdanyola del Vallès, Catalunya (Spain)

    2015-11-20

    The radio-knots of the Herbig–Haro (HH) 80/81/80N jet extend from the HH 80 object to the recently discovered Source 34 and has a total projected jet size of 10.3 pc, constituting the largest collimated radio-jet system known so far. It is powered by the bright infrared source IRAS 18162−2048 associated with a massive young stellar object. We report 6 cm JVLA observations that, compared with previous 6 cm VLA observations carried out in 1989, allow us to derive proper motions of the HH 80, HH 81, and HH 80N radio knots located about 2.5 pc away in projection from the powering source. For the first time, we measure proper motions of the optically obscured HH 80N object providing evidence that this knot, along with HH 81 and HH 80 are associated with the same radio-jet. We also confirm the presence of Source 34, located further north of HH 80N, previously proposed to belong to the jet.We derived that the tangential velocity of HH 80N is 260 km s{sup −1} and has a direction in agreement with the expected direction of a ballistic precessing jet. The HH 80 and HH 81 objects have tangential velocities of 350 and 220 km s{sup −1}, respectively, but their directions are somewhat deviated from the expected jet path. The velocities of the HH objects studied in this work are significantly lower than those derived for the radio knots of the jet close to the powering source (600–1400 km s{sup −1}) suggesting that the jet is slowing down due to a strong interaction with the ambient medium. As a result, since HH 80 and HH 81 are located near the edge of the cloud, the inhomogeneous and low density medium may contribute to skew the direction of their determined proper motions. The HH 80 and HH 80N emission at 6 cm is, at least in part, probably synchrotron radiation produced by relativistic electrons in a magnetic field of 1 mG. If these electrons are accelerated in a reverse adiabatic shock, we estimate a jet total density of ≲1000 cm{sup −3}. All of these

  11. Investigating atrium in hot and humid climate and providing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The energy crisis at present time has made the importance of paying attention to sustainable architecture and reduction of renewable energy consumption inevitable. Given that architecture plays an important role in urban construction, it has a heavy responsibility because more than 50% of the world's energy is devoted to ...

  12. A method for determining the radius of an open cluster from stellar proper motions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Néstor; Alfaro, Emilio J.; López-Martínez, Fátima

    2018-01-01

    We propose a method for calculating the radius of an open cluster in an objective way from an astrometric catalogue containing, at least, positions and proper motions. It uses the minimum spanning tree (hereinafter MST) in the proper motion space to discriminate cluster stars from field stars and it quantifies the strength of the cluster-field separation by means of a statistical parameter defined for the first time in this paper. This is done for a range of different sampling radii from where the cluster radius is obtained as the size at which the best cluster-field separation is achieved. The novelty of this strategy is that the cluster radius is obtained independently of how its stars are spatially distributed. We test the reliability and robustness of the method with both simulated and real data from a well-studied open cluster (NGC 188), and apply it to UCAC4 data for five other open clusters with different catalogued radius values. NGC 188, NGC 1647, NGC 6603 and Ruprecht 155 yielded unambiguous radius values of 15.2 ± 1.8, 29.4 ± 3.4, 4.2 ± 1.7 and 7.0 ± 0.3 arcmin, respectively. ASCC 19 and Collinder 471 showed more than one possible solution but it is not possible to know whether this is due to the involved uncertainties or to the presence of complex patterns in their proper motion distributions, something that could be inherent to the physical object or due to the way in which the catalogue was sampled.

  13. The role of proper treatment of maxillary sinusitis in the healing of persistent oroantral fistula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David B. Kamadjaja

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oroantral communication (OAC is one of the possible complications after extraction of the upper teeth. If not identified and treated properly, a large OAC may develop into oroantral fistula (OAF which means that there is a permanent epithelium-lined communication between antrum and oral cavity. Such fistulas may cause ingress of microorganism from oral cavity into the antrum leading to maxillary sinusitis. Oroantral fistula usually persists if the infection in the maxillary antrum is not eliminated. Therefore, treatment of oroantral fistula should include management of maxillary sinusitis in which surgical closure of oroantral fistula should be done only when the sinusitis has been cured. Purpose: This case report emphasizes on the importance of proper management of maxillary sinusitis in the healing of oroantral fistula. Case: A case of an oroantral fistula following removal of upper left third molar is presented. As the maxillary sinusitis was not identified pre-operatively, two surgical procedures to close the fistula had ended up in dehiscence. Case management: The diagnosis of maxillary sinusitis was finally made and the sinusitis subsequently treated with combination of trans-alveolar sinus wash out, insertion of an acrylic splint, and two series of nasal and sinus physiotherapy procedures. The size of the defect decreased gradually during the treatment of the sinusitis and finally closed up without any further surgical intervention. Conclusion: This case report points out that it is important to detect intraoperatively an antral perforation after any surgery of the maxillary teeth and to close any oroantral communication as early as possible and that it is important to treat properly any pre-existing maxillary sinusitis before any surgical method is done to close the fistula.

  14. Correlating proper motion kinematics with stellar properties in a very young protocluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Rio, Nicola

    2016-10-01

    We recently obtained the first epoch of a multi-cycle HST program (GO13742) aimed at the study of massive star cluster formation through proper motion-based analysis of kinematics. This program targeted the young, gas-dominated, still-forming protocluster G286 with WFC3/IR J, H and narrow band F167N, reaching down to the H-burning limit at A_V=20, and well into the substellar regime for the less-embedded parts of the system. With the second epoch (cycle 24) we will derive proper motions, kinematic subclustering, runaway objects and determine the overall expansion/contraction of the system. Here we propose to complement these observations with additional photometric bands, which will allow us to derive the stellar parameters of the low-mass members. We plan to use the H2O Teff band at 1.4micron, with a continuum at 1.3micron, to disentangle Teff and A_V for all low-mass young stars down to the H-burning limit at A_V=20, matching our previous data. This will enable us to construct the HRD, assign ages, look for spatial age gradients, and compare kinematic properties with age. Specifically, the identification of systematic variations in the proper motions with age will enable us to trace the initial morphology of the system at its formation, and determine the kinematic association of older stars with younger. Last, we plan to obtain accurate fluxes in Paschen beta, whose excess is indicative of accretion (allowing us to measure Mdot) and is an independent indicator of membership. Accretion properties, with ages, masses, and dynamics will enable a comprehensive picture of this young, massive protocluster in formation, testing theories of massive star cluster formation.

  15. Ceci n’est pas un argument appropré (this is not a proper argument)

    OpenAIRE

    Harris, Geraldine Mary

    2016-01-01

    This provocation poses questions of various sizes ‘inspired’ by some of the written publications that have theorised the concept of Practice as Research and drawing on lessons learnt from supervising PhD’s (with and without PaR). It consists of ‘musing’ rather than a proper argument and makes reference to feminism. Some readers might find both of these things very irritating. Throughout the course of its musing, questions asked include: ‘Is it acceptable to start a sentence with ‘And’ in acad...

  16. Proper names in the satirical writing 'An ugly dream' by D. M. Forski

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilić Dragan V.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the satirical paper 'A Bad Dream', proper names form a significant lexical layer which contributes significantly to achieving a grotesque and satirical portrayal of the everyday reality of the milieu the writer describes in a humorous and sardonic way, condemning his negative and ugly sides. Transforming real names, the author builds very expressive units that become carriers of various meanings. The transformation is accomplished by the procedures of substitutional, permutational, restrictive and proscriptive metaplasm. The writer's creative approach - 'a game of names' - has a indubitable impact in modeling his artistic world.

  17. Preconditioned dynamic mode decomposition and mode selection algorithms for large datasets using incremental proper orthogonal decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohmichi, Yuya

    2017-07-01

    In this letter, we propose a simple and efficient framework of dynamic mode decomposition (DMD) and mode selection for large datasets. The proposed framework explicitly introduces a preconditioning step using an incremental proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) to DMD and mode selection algorithms. By performing the preconditioning step, the DMD and mode selection can be performed with low memory consumption and therefore can be applied to large datasets. Additionally, we propose a simple mode selection algorithm based on a greedy method. The proposed framework is applied to the analysis of three-dimensional flow around a circular cylinder.

  18. Maintaining customer loyalty through proper customer complaint management; Kundenbindung durch Beschwerdemanagement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niedergesaess, U.; Schoenheit, I. [imug Beratungsgesellschaft mbH, Hannover (Germany)

    2000-09-01

    The article discusses the connection between proper management of customer complaints and customer loyalty, as shown by the results of a questionnaire distributed to gas utilities. Respondents underlined the role of their call center personnel in customer complaint management. (orig./CB) [German] Welche Bedeutung wird dem Thema Beschwerdemanagement zugesprochen und welche Erfahrungen liegen bei Gasversorgern mit diesem Kundenbindungsinstrument vor? Eine aktuelle imug-Untersuchung wird diskutiert. Dem Beschwerdemanagement wird in GVU grosse Bedeutung beigemessen, in der Umsetzung sind verschiedene Verbesserungspotenziale zu nutzen. Wichtiger Faktor fuer eine erfolgreiche Umsetzung sind die Mitarbeiter, denen die Bedeutung dieses Werkzeugs zur Kundenbindung vermittelt werden muss. (orig./CB)

  19. Medieval Slavic-German Bilingualism in the Light of Austrian Hybrid Proper Names

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg Holzer

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Examining the medieval Slavic-German bilingualism on the territory of present-day Austria, one should differentiate bilingualism of a territory (i. e. coexistence, within an area, of speakers of two different languages, each speaking one language from individual bilingualism (capacity of an individual to speak two languages. The paper deals with the question whether it is possible to prove the Slavic-German individual bilingualism in the Middle Ages based on the study of hybrid proper names. The author argues that only calques (e. g., Tobropotoch German *Friesnik, modified by folk etymology into a compound name Friesenegg.

  20. Neurolinguistic findings on the language lexicon: the special role of proper names.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Horst M

    2010-12-31

    Cognitive linguistics proposes the existence of a human language lexicon as a necessary subsystem of language production and comprehension. While the inner structure of the lexicon remains speculative, measures of its function may distinguish separate processing paths for different types of lexical entries. Based upon the presented findings on nomina from reaction time measurements, event-related potentials (ERP) analysis, and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), the special role of proper names in language--in contrast to common nouns--appears to be grounded in a neurocognitive reality.

  1. Selecting Proper Plant Species for Mine Reclamation Using Fuzzy AHP Approach (Case Study: Chadormaloo Iron Mine of Iran)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimabadi, Arash

    2016-12-01

    This paper describes an effective approach to select suitable plant species for reclamation of mined lands in Chadormaloo iron mine which is located in central part of Iran, near the city of Bafgh in Yazd province. After mine's total reserves are excavated, the mine requires to be permanently closed and reclaimed. Mine reclamation and post-mining land-use are the main issues in the phase of mine closure. In general, among various scenarios for mine reclamation process, i.e. planting, agriculture, forestry, residency, tourist attraction, etc., planting is the oldest and commonly-used technology for the reclamation of lands damaged by mining activities. Planting and vegetation play a major role in restoring productivity, ecosystem stability and biological diversity to degraded areas, therefore the main goal of this research work is to choose proper and suitable plants compatible with the conditions of Chadormaloo mined area, providing consistent conditions for future use. To ensure the sustainability of the reclaimed landscape, the most suitable plant species adapted to the mine conditions are selected. Plant species selection is a Multi Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) problem. In this paper, a fuzzy MCDM technique, namely Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process (FAHP) is developed to assist chadormaloo iron mine managers and designers in the process of plant type selection for reclamation of the mine under fuzzy environment where the vagueness and uncertainty are taken into account with linguistic variables parameterized by triangular fuzzy numbers. The results achieved from using FAHP approach demonstrate that the most proper plant species are ranked as Artemisia sieberi, Salsola yazdiana, Halophytes types, and Zygophyllum, respectively for reclamation of Chadormaloo iron mine.

  2. Chiasmata promote monopolar attachment of sister chromatids and their co-segregation toward the proper pole during meiosis I.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukinobu Hirose

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The chiasma is a structure that forms between a pair of homologous chromosomes by crossover recombination and physically links the homologous chromosomes during meiosis. Chiasmata are essential for the attachment of the homologous chromosomes to opposite spindle poles (bipolar attachment and their subsequent segregation to the opposite poles during meiosis I. However, the overall function of chiasmata during meiosis is not fully understood. Here, we show that chiasmata also play a crucial role in the attachment of sister chromatids to the same spindle pole and in their co-segregation during meiosis I in fission yeast. Analysis of cells lacking chiasmata and the cohesin protector Sgo1 showed that loss of chiasmata causes frequent bipolar attachment of sister chromatids during anaphase. Furthermore, high time-resolution analysis of centromere dynamics in various types of chiasmate and achiasmate cells, including those lacking the DNA replication checkpoint factor Mrc1 or the meiotic centromere protein Moa1, showed the following three outcomes: (i during the pre-anaphase stage, the bipolar attachment of sister chromatids occurs irrespective of chiasma formation; (ii the chiasma contributes to the elimination of the pre-anaphase bipolar attachment; and (iii when the bipolar attachment remains during anaphase, the chiasmata generate a bias toward the proper pole during poleward chromosome pulling that results in appropriate chromosome segregation. Based on these results, we propose that chiasmata play a pivotal role in the selection of proper attachments and provide a backup mechanism that promotes correct chromosome segregation when improper attachments remain during anaphase I.

  3. A deep proper motion catalog within the Sloan digital sky survey footprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munn, Jeffrey A.; Harris, Hugh C.; Tilleman, Trudy M. [US Naval Observatory, Flagstaff Station, 10391 West Naval Observatory Road, Flagstaff, AZ 86005-8521 (United States); Hippel, Ted von [Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University, Physical Sciences, 600 South Clyde Morris Boulevard Daytona Beach, FL 32114-3900 (United States); Kilic, Mukremin [University of Oklahoma, Homer L. Dodge Department of Physics and Astronomy, 440 West Brooks Street, Norman, OK 73019 (United States); Liebert, James W. [University of Arizona, Steward Observatory, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Williams, Kurtis A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University-Commerce, P.O. Box 3011, Commerce, TX 75429 (United States); DeGenarro, Steven [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas at Austin, 1 University Station C1400, Austin, TX 78712-0259 (United States); Jeffery, Elizabeth, E-mail: jam@nofs.navy.mil, E-mail: hch@nofs.navy.mil, E-mail: trudy@nofs.navy.mil, E-mail: ted.vonhippel@erau.edu, E-mail: kilic@ou.edu, E-mail: jamesliebert@gmail.com, E-mail: kurtis.williams@tamuc.edu, E-mail: studiofortytwo@yahoo.com, E-mail: ejeffery@byu.edu [BYU Department of Physics and Astronomy, N283 ESC, Provo, UT 84602 (United States)

    2014-12-01

    A new proper motion catalog is presented, combining the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) with second epoch observations in the r band within a portion of the SDSS imaging footprint. The new observations were obtained with the 90prime camera on the Steward Observatory Bok 90 inch telescope, and the Array Camera on the U.S. Naval Observatory, Flagstaff Station, 1.3 m telescope. The catalog covers 1098 square degrees to r = 22.0, an additional 1521 square degrees to r = 20.9, plus a further 488 square degrees of lesser quality data. Statistical errors in the proper motions range from 5 mas year{sup −1} at the bright end to 15 mas year{sup −1} at the faint end, for a typical epoch difference of six years. Systematic errors are estimated to be roughly 1 mas year{sup −1} for the Array Camera data, and as much as 2–4 mas year{sup −1} for the 90prime data (though typically less). The catalog also includes a second epoch of r band photometry.

  4. Proper ciliary assembly is critical for restricting Hedgehog signaling during early eye development in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, Jacob B; Lupu, Floria I; Eggenschwiler, Jonathan T

    2017-10-01

    Patterning of the vertebrate eye into optic stalk, retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and neural retina (NR) territories relies on a number of signaling pathways, but how these signals are interpreted by optic progenitors is not well understood. The primary cilium is a microtubule-based organelle that is essential for Hedgehog (Hh) signaling, but it has also been implicated in the regulation of other signaling pathways. Here, we show that the optic primordium is ciliated during early eye development and that ciliogenesis is essential for proper patterning and morphogenesis of the mouse eye. Ift172 mutants fail to generate primary cilia and exhibit patterning defects that resemble those of Gli3 mutants, suggesting that cilia are required to restrict Hh activity during eye formation. Ift122 mutants, which produce cilia with abnormal morphology, generate optic vesicles that fail to invaginate to produce the optic cup. These mutants also lack formation of the lens, RPE and NR. Such phenotypic features are accompanied by strong, ectopic Hh pathway activity, evidenced by altered gene expression patterns. Removal of GLI2 from Ift122 mutants rescued several aspects of optic cup and lens morphogenesis as well as RPE and NR specification. Collectively, our data suggest that proper assembly of primary cilia is critical for restricting the Hedgehog pathway during eye formation in the mouse. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Kinematics of Local, High-Velocity K dwarfs in the SUPERBLINK Proper Motion Catalog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bokyoung; Lepine, Sebastien

    2018-01-01

    We present a study of the kinematics of 345,480 K stars within 2 kpc of the Sun, based on data from the SUPERBLINK catalog of stars with high proper motions (> 40 mas/yr), combined with data from the 2MASS survey and from the first GAIA release, which together yields proper motions accurate to ~2 mas/yr. All K dwarfs were selected based on their G-K colors, and photometric distances were estimated from a re-calibrated color-magnitude relationship for K dwarfs. We plot transverse velocities VT in various directions on the sky, to examine the local distribution of K dwarfs in velocity space. We have also obtained radial velocity information for a subsample of 10,128 stars, from RAVE and SDSS DR12, which we use to construct spatial velocity (U, V, W) plots. About a third (123,350) of the stars are high-velocity K dwarfs, with motions consistent with the local Galactic halo population. Our kinematic analysis suggests that their velocity-space distribution is very uniform, and we find no evidence of substructure that might arise, e.g., from local streams or moving groups.

  6. Proper temperature of the Schwarzschild AdS black hole revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eune, Myungseok; Kim, Wontae

    2017-10-01

    The Unruh temperature calculated by using the global embedding of the Schwarzschild AdS spacetime into the Minkowski spacetime was identified with the local proper temperature; however, it became imaginary in a certain region outside the event horizon. So, the temperature was assumed to be zero of non-thermal radiation for that region. In this work, we revisit this issue in an exactly soluble two-dimensional Schwarzschild AdS black hole and present an alternative resolution to this problem in terms of the Tolman's procedure. However, the process appears to be non-trivial in the sense that the original procedure assuming the traceless energy-momentum tensor should be extended in such a way that it should cover the non-vanishing case of the energy-momentum tensor in the presence of the trace anomaly. Consequently, we show that the proper temperature turns out to be real everywhere outside the event horizon without any imaginary value, in particular, it vanishes at both the horizon and the asymptotic infinity.

  7. The Importance of Properly Compensating for Head Movements During MEG Acquisition Across Different Age Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Eric; Taulu, Samu

    2017-03-01

    Unlike EEG sensors, which are attached to the head, MEG sensors are located outside the head surface on a fixed external device. Subject head movements during acquisition thus distort the magnetic field distributions measured by the sensors. Previous studies have looked at the effect of head movements, but no study has comprehensively looked at the effect of head movements across age groups, particularly in infants. Using MEG recordings from subjects ranging in age from 3 months through adults, here we first quantify the variability in head position as a function of age group. We then combine these measured head movements with brain activity simulations to determine how head movements bias source localization from sensor magnetic fields measured during movement. We find that large amounts of head movement, especially common in infant age groups, can result in large localization errors. We then show that proper application of head movement compensation techniques can restore localization accuracy to pre-movement levels. We also find that proper noise covariance estimation (e.g., during the baseline period) is important to minimize localization bias following head movement compensation. Our findings suggest that head position measurement during acquisition and compensation during analysis is recommended for researchers working with subject populations or age groups that could have substantial head movements. This is especially important in infant MEG studies.

  8. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Common proper motion stars in the Kepler field (Janes, 2017)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janes, K. A.

    2017-08-01

    In a search of proper motion catalogs for common proper motion stars in the field of the Kepler spacecraft I identified 93 likely binary systems. A comparison of their rotation periods is a test of the gyrochronology concept. To find their periods I calculated the autocorrelation function (ACF) of the Kepler mission photometry for each star. In most systems for which good periods can be found, the cooler star has a longer period than the hotter component, in general agreement with models. However, there is a wide range in the gradients of lines connecting binary pairs in a period-color diagram. Furthermore, near the solar color, only a few stars have longer periods than the Sun, suggesting that they, and their cooler companions, are not much older than the Sun. In addition, there is an apparent gap at intermediate periods in the period distribution of the late K and early M stars. Either star formation in this direction has been variable, or stars evolve in period at a non-uniform rate, or some stars evolve more rapidly than others at the same mass. Finally, using the ACF as a measure of the activity level, I found that while the F, G, and early K stars become less active as their periods increase, there is no correlation between period and activity for the mid K to early M stars. (1 data file).

  9. The effectiveness of an educational intervention on proper analgesic use for dysmenorrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Hyun-Suk; Lee, Jungkwon

    2013-10-01

    Primary dysmenorrhea is a common gynecologic disorder, but is often inappropriately managed due to ignorance and misunderstanding of its pharmacotherapy in many young women. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of an educational intervention on proper analgesic use for dysmenorrhea among Korean female university students. In March 2008, an educational intervention, a 10-min lecture using supplementary educational printed materials, was given to the intervention group (n=98). Two months later, changes and differences in knowledge, actual medication behavior, coping strategies, dysmenorrhea severity (VAS score), and Korean health-related quality of life (KQOLS) were assessed between the intervention and control (n=105) groups. The prevalence of dysmenorrhea in the intervention and control groups was 75.1% and 77.1%, respectively. After the educational intervention, the medication rate of the intervention group was significantly increased (from 36.1% to 51.0%, P=0.007), and the knowledge of and actual behavior relating to the proper analgesic use were also significantly improved in this group. The VAS scores were significantly decreased among participants with dysmenorrhea in the intervention group (from 48.6 ± 22.0 to 37.8 ± 22.5, Pintervention group. The findings of this prospective study suggest that a brief educational intervention can improve the severity of dysmenorrhea and the quality of life by enhancing medication knowledge and actual analgesic behavior in Korean female university students. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. How can teleostean inner ear hair cells maintain the proper association with the accreting otolith?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiao, Jen-Chieh; Lin, Li-Yih; Horng, Jiun-Lin; Hwang, Pung-Pung; Kaneko, Toyoji

    2005-08-01

    The perception of equilibrium and sound in fish depends on the deflection of hair bundles of hair cell by the otolith. However, the accreting nature of teleostean otoliths poses a problem for maintenance of proper contact between the hair bundle and the otolith surface. Immunocytochemical staining localizes abundant proton-secreting H(+)-ATPase in the apical membrane of the hair cells. The H(+)-ATPase-mediated proton secretion into the endolymph causes an approximately 0.4-unit pH decrease, which was quantified by an H(+)-selective microelectrode. Thus, the hair cells maintain the proper distance from the otolith by neutralizing the alkaline endolymph to retard CaCO(3) deposition on the otolith opposite the sensory macula. Carbonic anhydrase, which hydrolyses CO(2) and produces HCO(3) (-) and H(+), was also localized in the hair cells. Ionocytes showed prominent immunostaining of carbonic anhydrase and Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase, indicating its role in transepithelial transport of HCO(3) (-) across the membranous labyrinth into the endolymph. Ionocytes form a ring closely surrounding the sensory macula. HCO(3) (-) secreted from the ionocytes may serve as a barrier to neutralize H(+) diffused from the sensory macula while keeping the endolymph alkaline outside the sensory macula. The ingenious arrangement of ionocytes and hair cells results in a unique sculptured groove, which is a common feature on the proximal surface of all teleostean otoliths. (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Foliar treatment of esca-proper affected vines with nutrients and bioactivators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Calzarano

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Foliar treatment with nutrients and bioactivators was carried out in two vineyards affected with esca proper in 2004 and 2005. Changes in the foliar symptoms and in the quality of berries without lesions from treated symptomatic vines were assessed. Treated vines unexpectedly had a higher incidence and a greater severity of symptomatic leaves than untreated plants, most likely because physiological processes were stimulated by the treatments, possibly also because treatments facilitated the movement of toxins produced by the wood fungi of esca. However it cannot be excluded that the increase in foliar symptoms was due to the forced nutrition causing an imbalance between the various elements, and altering the mechanisms that vines use for the remission of foliar symptoms. This supposition seemed corroborated by the observation that treated vines diseased with esca proper had a weaker defense response than untreated diseased vines, and that treated diseased vines had lower levels of nitrogen and microelements, which are respectively involved in osmoregulation and as cofactors of enzymes involved in the defense response of the plant. The main quality parameters of berries without lesions from treated and untreated symptomatic vines were very similar.

  12. On the proper Mach number and ratio of specific heats for modeling the Venus bow shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatrallyay, M.; Russell, C. T.; Luhmann, J. G.; Barnes, A.; Mihalov, J. D.

    1984-01-01

    Observational data from the Pioneer Venus Orbiter are used to investigate the physical characteristics of the Venus bow shock, and to explore some general issues in the numerical simulation of collisionless shocks. It is found that since equations from gas-dynamic (GD) models of the Venus shock cannot in general replace MHD equations, it is not immediately obvious what the optimum way is to describe the desired MHD situation with a GD code. Test case analysis shows that for quasi-perpendicular shocks it is safest to use the magnetospheric Mach number as an input to the GD code. It is also shown that when comparing GD predicted temperatures with MHD predicted temperatures total energy should be compared since the magnetic energy density provides a significant fraction of the internal energy of the MHD fluid for typical solar wind parameters. Some conclusions are also offered on the properties of the terrestrial shock.

  13. Provider of Services File

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The POS file consists of two data files, one for CLIA labs and one for 18 other provider types. The file names are CLIA and OTHER. If downloading the file, note it...

  14. The Provident Principal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCall, John R.

    This monograph offers leadership approaches for school principals. Discussion applies the business leadership theory of Warren Bennis and Burt Nanus to the role of the principal. Each of the booklet's three parts concludes with discussion questions. Part 1, "Visions and Values for the Provident Principal," demonstrates the importance of…

  15. What HERA may provide?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Hannes [DESY, Hamburg (Germany); De Roeck, Albert [CERN, Genf (Switzerland); Bartles, Jochen [Univ. Hamburg (DE). Institut fuer Theoretische Physik II] (and others)

    2008-09-15

    More than 100 people participated in a discussion session at the DIS08 workshop on the topic What HERA may provide. A summary of the discussion with a structured outlook and list of desirable measurements and theory calculations is given. (orig.)

  16. care Providers in Ibadan

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three hundred and eighty six respondents (77.7%) were aware of intermittent preventive treatment (IPT). Awareness ... Key Words: malaria in pregnancy, intermittent preventive treatment, malaria control, health care providers. Department of Obstetrics .... Auxiliary nurses do not have formal training prior to employment.

  17. GC-MS analysis and antimicrobial activity determination of Citrus medica L. var proper leaf essential oil from South Sulawesi against skin pathogen microorganism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliyah; Himawan, A.; Rante, H.; Mufidah; Ningsih, D. R.

    2017-11-01

    A research about Citrus medica L. var sarcodactylis had been conducted and it showed a significant antimicrobial activity, thus drive our curiosity to investigate the other variety from the same species, Citrus medica L. var proper. This research focuses in chemical compound study and antimicrobial activity screening against Staphylococcus aureus, Propionibacterium acne, and Candida albicans of Citrus medica L. var Proper leaves’ essential oil. The essential oil is distillated from fresh leaves by hydrodestillation. The chemical compound was analysed using GC-MS instrument while the antimicrobial activity was tested using disk diffusion method. The results showed that the major component of the essential oil was Z-citral, citral and limonene compounds. The antimicrobial activity test results against the test microorganism are 9.15±0.15 mm, 11.15±1.3 mm and 8.02±0.48 mm, consecutively, for Staphylococcus aureus, Propionibacterium acne and Candida albicans.

  18. 129I in the Baltic Proper and Bothnian Sea: Application for estimation of water exchange and environmental impact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yi, P.; Possnert, G.; Aldahan, A.

    2013-01-01

    We report here new data and a mass balance model for 129I in the Baltic Proper and the Bothnian Sea covering the period from November-December 2009. The results showed that the general 129I concentrations in the Bothnian Sea were two-four folds lower than in the Baltic Proper for both surface and...

  19. Internet Medline providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vine, D L; Coady, T R

    1998-01-01

    Each database in this review has features that will appeal to some users. Each provides a credible interface to information available within the Medline database. The major differences are pricing and interface design. In this context, features that cost more and might seem trivial to the occasional searcher may actually save time and money when used by the professional. Internet Grateful Med is free, but Ms. Coady and I agree the availability of only three ANDable search fields is a major functional limitation. PubMed is also free but much more powerful. The command line interface that permits very sophisticated searches requires a commitment that casual users will find intimidating. Ms. Coady did not believe the feedback currently provided during a search was sufficient for sustained professional use. Paper Chase and Knowledge Finder are mature, modestly priced Medline search services. Paper Chase provides a menu-driven interface that is very easy to use, yet permits the user to search virtually all of Medline's data fields. Knowledge Finder emphasizes the use of natural language queries but fully supports more traditional search strategies. The impact of the tradeoff between fuzzy and Boolean strategies offered by Knowledge Finder is unclear and beyond the scope of this review. Additional software must be downloaded to use all of Knowledge Finders' features. Other providers required no software beyond the basic Internet browser, and this requirement prevented Ms. Coady from evaluating Knowledge Finder. Ovid and Silver Platter offer well-designed interfaces that simplify the construction of complex queries. These are clearly services designed for professional users. While pricing eliminates these for casual use, it should be emphasized that Medline citation access is only a portion of the service provided by these high-end vendors. Finally, we should comment that each of the vendors and government-sponsored services provided prompt and useful feedback to e

  20. Providing plastic zone extrusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manchiraju, Venkata Kiran; Feng, Zhili; David, Stan A.; Yu, Zhenzhen

    2017-04-11

    Plastic zone extrusion may be provided. First, a compressor may generate frictional heat in stock to place the stock in a plastic zone of the stock. Then, a conveyer may receive the stock in its plastic zone from the compressor and transport the stock in its plastic zone from the compressor. Next, a die may receive the stock in its plastic zone from the conveyer and extrude the stock to form a wire.

  1. 127I and 129I Species and Transformation in the Baltic Proper, Kattegat, and Skagerrak Basins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yi, P.; Aldahan, A.; Possnert, G.

    2012-01-01

    Occurrence of anthropogenic 129I in seawater has provided invaluable information about water circulation and exchange rates, but results on 129I species (iodide and iodate) are limited and only available for surface water. We here present the first extensive results on 129I and 127I species...... in samples of seawater depth profiles, which were collected in August 2006 and April 2007 in the Skagerrak, Kattegat, and Baltic Proper. The results expose ≤10% annual reduction of iodate as 129I is transported from the English Channel along the Dutch coast and German Bight into the Skagerrak and Kattegat....... The results also suggest strong variability between surface and bottom seawater with respect to the predominant iodine species. Distribution of iodide and iodate of both 127I and 129I in the Kattegat mainly reflects water mixing process rather than speciation transformation. In water of the Baltic Proper...

  2. Overcoming urban GPS navigation challenges through the use of MEMS inertial sensors and proper verification of navigation system performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinande, Eric T.

    This research proposes several means to overcome challenges in the urban environment to ground vehicle global positioning system (GPS) receiver navigation performance through the integration of external sensor information. The effects of narrowband radio frequency interference and signal attenuation, both common in the urban environment, are examined with respect to receiver signal tracking processes. Low-cost microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) inertial sensors, suitable for the consumer market, are the focus of receiver augmentation as they provide an independent measure of motion and are independent of vehicle systems. A method for estimating the mounting angles of an inertial sensor cluster utilizing typical urban driving maneuvers is developed and is able to provide angular measurements within two degrees of truth. The integration of GPS and MEMS inertial sensors is developed utilizing a full state navigation filter. Appropriate statistical methods are developed to evaluate the urban environment navigation improvement due to the addition of MEMS inertial sensors. A receiver evaluation metric that combines accuracy, availability, and maximum error measurements is presented and evaluated over several drive tests. Following a description of proper drive test techniques, record and playback systems are evaluated as the optimal way of testing multiple receivers and/or integrated navigation systems in the urban environment as they simplify vehicle testing requirements.

  3. Providing Compassion through Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydia Royeen

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Meg Kral, MS, OTR/L, CLT, is the cover artist for the Summer 2015 issue of The Open Journal of Occupational Therapy. Her untitled piece of art is an oil painting and is a re-creation of a photograph taken while on vacation. Meg is currently supervisor of outpatient services at Rush University Medical Center. She is lymphedema certified and has a specific interest in breast cancer lymphedema. Art and occupational therapy serve similar purposes for Meg: both provide a sense of flow. She values the outcomes, whether it is a piece of art or improved functional status

  4. Providing Contraception to Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raidoo, Shandhini; Kaneshiro, Bliss

    2015-12-01

    Adolescents have high rates of unintended pregnancy and face unique reproductive health challenges. Providing confidential contraceptive services to adolescents is important in reducing the rate of unintended pregnancy. Long-acting contraception such as the intrauterine device and contraceptive implant are recommended as first-line contraceptives for adolescents because they are highly effective with few side effects. The use of barrier methods to prevent sexually transmitted infections should be encouraged. Adolescents have limited knowledge of reproductive health and contraceptive options, and their sources of information are often unreliable. Access to contraception is available through a variety of resources that continue to expand. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Ysla S. Catalina & Providence

    OpenAIRE

    Diazgranados, Carlos Nicolás; Torres Carreño, Guillermo Andrés; Castell, Edmon; Moreno, Santiago; Ramirez, Natalia

    2010-01-01

    Esta Hoja de Mano pertenece a la exposición temporal "Ysla S. Catalina & Providence". Contiene un resumen histórico de las Islas de Santa Catalina y Providencia en los idiomas inglés y español y un mapa del siglo VI que lo hace más didáctico apoyado por figuras recortables. Esta muestra hace parte del proyecto IDA y VUELTA del Sistema de Patrimonio Cultural y Museos SPM que gestiona la descentralización del patrimonio cultural de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia a otras ciudades del pa...

  6. Two ligands signal through the Drosophila PDGF/VEGF receptor to ensure proper salivary gland positioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Katherine E; Schnittke, Nikolai; Beckendorf, Steven K

    2007-07-01

    The Drosophila embryonic salivary gland is a migrating tissue that undergoes a stereotypic pattern of migration into the embryo. We demonstrate that the migratory path of the salivary gland requires the PDGF/VEGF pathway. The PDGF/VEGF receptor, Pvr, is strongly expressed in the salivary glands, and Pvr mutations cause abnormal ventral curving of the glands, suggesting that Pvr is involved in gland migration. Although the Pvr ligands, Pvf1 and Pvf2, have distinct expression patterns in the Drosophila embryo, mutations for either one of the ligands result in salivary gland migration defects similar to those seen in embryos that lack Pvr. Rescue experiments indicate that the PDGF/VEGF pathway functions autonomously in the salivary gland. The results of this study demonstrate that the Drosophila PDGF/VEGF pathway is essential for proper positioning of the salivary glands.

  7. Reflections on the history and ethics of the proper attribution and misappropriation of merit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gans, Henry

    2011-01-01

    One would expect that the first to arrive at a new observation, discovery, or concept would be properly acknowledged as such. Unfortunately, it is not unusual that someone else receives the credit. This is not just unfair and unethical, but it also distorts the history of science. In addition, the victims of misattribution are deeply affected by losing not only the recognition of being first, but also the credit, kudos, and other benefits that derive from their contribution. This issue deserves far more attention than it currently receives. It continues to cause much mischief in the most unexpected places and under circumstances that should not be tolerated. This article looks at the consequences of some instances of misattribution in the history of science and argues that researchers should make a stronger effort to expose and rectify such cases. In most instances, all that is required is to double-check the data.

  8. The Mass of the Milky Way via HST Proper Motions of Satellite Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Sangmo Tony; van der Marel, Roeland

    2018-01-01

    The Universe evolves hierarchically with small structures merging and falling in to form bigger structures. Due to its proximity, the Milky Way (MW) is the best place to witness and study these hierarchical processes in action as evidenced by e.g., the many stellar streams found in MW halo. Stellar systems in the MW halo have therefore become the benchmark for testing many aspects of cosmological theories. Despite the advances in both observational and theoretical areas in the last decade or so, the total mass and mass profile of the MW still remain poorly constrained, mainly due to the limited information on the transverse motions of satellite objects in the MW halo. As part of our HSTPROMO collaboration, we have been measuring proper motions of stars, globular clusters, and satellite galaxies in the MW halo to remedy this situation. In this contribution, I will present results from our recent studies, and report our progress of ongoing projects.

  9. Maxwell–Lorentz Electrodynamics Revisited via the Lagrangian Formalism and Feynman Proper Time Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolai N. Bogolubov

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available We review new electrodynamics models of interacting charged point particles and related fundamental physical aspects, motivated by the classical A.M. Ampère magnetic and H. Lorentz force laws electromagnetic field expressions. Based on the Feynman proper time paradigm and a recently devised vacuum field theory approach to the Lagrangian and Hamiltonian, the formulations of alternative classical electrodynamics models are analyzed in detail and their Dirac type quantization is suggested. Problems closely related to the radiation reaction force and electron mass inertia are analyzed. The validity of the Abraham-Lorentz electromagnetic electron mass origin hypothesis is argued. The related electromagnetic Dirac–Fock–Podolsky problem and symplectic properties of the Maxwell and Yang–Mills type dynamical systems are analyzed. The crucial importance of the remaining reference systems, with respect to which the dynamics of charged point particles is framed, is explained and emphasized.

  10. The Proper Orthogonal Decomposition for Dimensionality Reduction in Mode-Locked Lasers and Optical Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eli Shlizerman

    2012-01-01

    energy delivered per pulse. Managing the nonlinear penalties in the cavity becomes crucial for increasing the energy and suppressing the multipulsing instability. A proper orthogonal decomposition (POD allows for the reduction of governing equations of a mode-locked laser onto a low-dimensional space. The resulting reduced system is able to capture correctly the experimentally observed pulse transitions. Analysis of these models is used to explain the sequence of bifurcations that are responsible for the multipulsing instability in the master mode-locking and the waveguide array mode-locking models. As a result, the POD reduction allows for a simple and efficient way to characterize and optimize the cavity parameters for achieving maximal energy output.

  11. Intelligent Decisional Assistant that Facilitate the Choice of a Proper Computer System Applied in Busines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae MARGINEAN

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The choice of a proper computer system is not an easy task for a decider. One reason could be the present market development of computer systems applied in business. The big number of the Romanian market players determines a big number of computerized products, with a multitude of various properties. Our proposal tries to optimize and facilitate this decisional process within an e-shop where are sold IT packets applied in business, building an online decisional assistant, a special component conceived to facilitate the decision making needed for the selection of the pertinent IT package that fits the requirements of one certain business, described by the decider. The user interacts with the system as an online buyer that visit an e-shop where are sold IT package applied in economy.

  12. Model Reduction Based on Proper Generalized Decomposition for the Stochastic Steady Incompressible Navier--Stokes Equations

    KAUST Repository

    Tamellini, L.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we consider a proper generalized decomposition method to solve the steady incompressible Navier-Stokes equations with random Reynolds number and forcing term. The aim of such a technique is to compute a low-cost reduced basis approximation of the full stochastic Galerkin solution of the problem at hand. A particular algorithm, inspired by the Arnoldi method for solving eigenproblems, is proposed for an efficient greedy construction of a deterministic reduced basis approximation. This algorithm decouples the computation of the deterministic and stochastic components of the solution, thus allowing reuse of preexisting deterministic Navier-Stokes solvers. It has the remarkable property of only requiring the solution of m uncoupled deterministic problems for the construction of an m-dimensional reduced basis rather than M coupled problems of the full stochastic Galerkin approximation space, with m l M (up to one order of magnitudefor the problem at hand in this work). © 2014 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.

  13. Online damage detection in structural systems applications of proper orthogonal decomposition, and Kalman and particle filters

    CERN Document Server

    Eftekhar Azam, Saeed

    2014-01-01

    This monograph assesses in depth the application of recursive Bayesian filters in structural health monitoring. Although the methods and algorithms used here are well established in the field of automatic control, their application in the realm of civil engineering has to date been limited. The monograph is therefore intended as a reference for structural and civil engineers who wish to conduct research in this field. To this end, the main notions underlying the families of Kalman and particle filters are scrutinized through explanations within the text and numerous numerical examples. The main limitations to their application in monitoring of high-rise buildings are discussed, and a remedy based on a synergy of reduced order modeling (based on proper orthogonal decomposition) and Bayesian estimation is proposed. The performance and effectiveness of the proposed algorithm is demonstrated via pseudo-experimental evaluations.

  14. CHRONIC FUNCTIONAL CONSTIPATION IN CHILDREN — FROM UNDERSTANDING THE PROBLEM TO THE PROPER TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.F. Privorotskiy

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Functional origin is known in 95% of children with constipation. According to ICD-10 there is traditional distinction between syndrome of irritated bowel and proper functional constipation which have wide spectrum of causes. Rome criteria III propose initial diagnostic criteria of these disorders but the use of the criteria in pediatrics is frequently complicated. Clinical practice of pediatrician demands differentiation of constipations into hypertonic and hypotonic ones. Treatment programs include necessary component — laxative drugs which are useful in cases of subcompensated and decompensated types of constipation. One of the laxative drugs is Forlax containing polyethyleneglycol 4.000; it can be given to children 6 months old and older. The literature data shows high efficiency and safety of the drug.Key words: children, constipation, laxative drugs.(Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. 2010;9(6:69-77

  15. The importance of early-school radioactivity education in cultivating proper reflexive judgement on radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishina, Kojiro [Aichi Shukutoku Univ., The College of Contemporary Social Studies, Nagakute, Aichi (Japan)

    1999-09-01

    An attempt is made to draw a preliminary conclusion on the effectiveness of early-school education on radioactivity, based on two cases of student responses. The first is the returns of questionnaires circulated at two colleges, which were typical of an engineering college and a liberal-arts college, respectively. The second is the reactions of liberal arts students to observed, unexpected levels of radiation in their environment. Their reaction was dominated by their preoccupation on radiation, rather than by the quantitative data they themselves collected on the spot. Thus classes in early schooldays are considered to play a vital role in cultivating proper judgement they are to rely on as general citizens. (author)

  16. Using a voice to put a name to a face: the psycholinguistics of proper name comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Dale J; Jackson, Laura; Phillips, Isobel

    2014-02-01

    We propose that hearing a proper name (e.g., Kevin) in a particular voice serves as a compound memory cue that directly activates representations of a mutually known target person, often permitting reference resolution without any complex computation of shared knowledge. In a referential communication study, pairs of friends played a communication game, in which we monitored the eyes of one friend (the addressee) while he or she sought to identify the target person, in a set of four photos, on the basis of a name spoken aloud. When the name was spoken by a friend, addressees rapidly identified the target person, and this facilitation was independent of whether the friend was articulating a message he or she had designed versus one from a third party with whom the target person was not shared. Our findings suggest that the comprehension system takes advantage of regularities in the environment to minimize effortful computation about who knows what.

  17. ORTHOSCOPY (THE PROPER LOOK: TOWARDS A CODE OF ETHICS OF THE EDUCATIONAL INSPECTORATE BASED ON RESPECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Giró París

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of the ethical dimension of the inspectorate as a result of a closer look, which I have called orthoscopy, or what is the same, a proper look. From the Latin word meaning inspectio we dive inside the phenomenology of sight, the distinction between seeing and looking, the two assumptions orthoscopy addressed: the admiration and collectively practiced habit of looking to end up with a reflection on the subjective moment of the act of looking. Finally we become aware of self-critical time of inspection taking into account that we look at people who watch us, and therefore it is a bidirectional ethical commitment. Inspectors do not carry out their functions just because of what they think their task should be, but mainly because of the expectations that the other members of the educational community have in relation to their functions.

  18. Proper packaging for food and no-food products to avoid injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passali, Desiderio; Gregori, Dario; Foltran, Francesca

    2012-05-14

    This paper aims to present data on proper packaging for food and no-food products to avoid injuries. Data collection was made from the Susy Safe data base and the results of the literature research. Fatal and near fatal foreign bodies injuries may occur at any age, however it is a particular problem for infants and young children due to a variety of predisposing factors. Safety packaging is therefore a landmark and a model for accident prevention. Taken the lack of researches and specificity on this subject, it is warmly suggested that a broader and deeper exploration, both at customer's and public health levels, has to be made, highlighting major risks and complications. Packaging classes are extremely composite, therefore accuracy in data registry must be achieved, since from a preventive point of view it is basilar not only knowing the nature of the foreign body but also having information on its origin. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Short communication: On recognizing the proper experimental unit in animal studies in the dairy sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bello, Nora M; Kramer, Matthew; Tempelman, Robert J; Stroup, Walter W; St-Pierre, Normand R; Craig, Bruce A; Young, Linda J; Gbur, Edward E

    2016-11-01

    Sound design of experiments combined with proper implementation of appropriate statistical methods for data analysis are critical for producing meaningful scientific results that are both replicable and reproducible. This communication addresses specific aspects of design and analysis of experiments relevant to the dairy sciences and, in so doing, responds to recent concerns raised in a letter to the editor of the Journal of Dairy Science regarding journal policy for research publications on pen-based animal studies. We further elaborate on points raised, rectify interpretation of important concepts, and show how aspects of statistical inference and elicitation of research conclusions are affected. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. A PROPER MOTION STUDY OF THE HARO 6-10 OUTFLOW: EVIDENCE FOR A SUBARCSECOND BINARY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilking, Bruce A.; Gerling, Bradley M.; Gibb, Erika [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Missouri-St. Louis, 1 University Boulevard, St. Louis, MO 63121 (United States); Marvel, Kevin B. [American Astronomical Society, 2000 Florida Avenue, NW, Suite 400, Washington, DC 20009 (United States); Claussen, Mark J. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO), Array Operations Center, P.O. Box 0, 1003 Lopezville Road, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Wootten, Alwyn, E-mail: bwilking@umsl.edu, E-mail: bmg5333@truman.edu, E-mail: gibbe@umsl.edu, E-mail: marvel@aas.org, E-mail: mclausse@nrao.edu, E-mail: awootten@nrao.edu [NRAO, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903-2475 (United States)

    2012-07-10

    We present single-dish and very long baseline interferometry observations of an outburst of water maser emission from the young binary system Haro 6-10. Haro 6-10 lies in the Taurus molecular cloud and contains a visible T Tauri star with an infrared companion 1.''3 north. Using the Very Long Baseline Array, we obtained five observations spanning three months and derived absolute positions for 20 distinct maser spots. Three of the masers can be traced over three or more epochs, enabling us to extract absolute proper motions and tangential velocities. We deduce that the masers represent one side of a bipolar outflow that lies nearly in the plane of the sky with an opening angle of {approx}45 Degree-Sign . They are located within 50 mas of the southern component of the binary, the visible T Tauri star Haro 6-10S. The mean position angle on the sky of the maser proper motions ({approx}220 Degree-Sign ) suggests they are related to the previously observed giant Herbig-Haro (HH) flow which includes HH 410, HH 411, HH 412, and HH 184A-E. A previously observed HH jet and extended radio continuum emission (mean position angle of {approx}190 Degree-Sign ) must also originate in the vicinity of Haro 6-10S and represent a second, distinct outflow in this region. We propose that a yet unobserved companion within 150 mas of Haro 6-10S is responsible for the giant HH/maser outflow while the visible star is associated with the HH jet. Despite the presence of H{sub 2} emission in the spectrum of the northern component of the binary, Haro 6-10N, none of outflows/jets can be tied directly to this young stellar object.

  1. PROPER: Development of an Early Pediatric Intensive Care Unit Readmission Risk Prediction Tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Harsheen; Naessens, James M; Hanson, Andrew C; Fryer, Karen; Nemergut, Michael E; Tripathi, Sandeep

    2018-01-01

    No risk prediction model is currently available to measure patient's probability for readmission to the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU). This retrospective case-control study was designed to assess the applicability of an adult risk prediction score (Stability and Workload Index for Transfer [SWIFT]) and to create a pediatric version (PRediction Of PICU Early Readmissions [PROPER]). Eighty-six unplanned early (<48 hours) PICU readmissions from January 07, 2007, to June 30, 2014, were compared with 170 random controls. Patient- and disease-specific data and PICU workload factors were compared across the 2 groups. Factors statistically significant on multivariate analysis were included in the creation of the risk prediction model. The SWIFT scores were calculated for cases and controls and compared for validation. Readmitted patients were younger, weighed less, and were more likely to be admitted from the emergency department. There were no differences in gender, race, or admission Pediatric Index of Mortality scores. A higher proportion of patients in the readmission group had a Pediatric Cerebral Performance Category in the moderate to severe disability category. Cases and controls did not differ with respect to staff workload at discharge or discharge day of the week; there was a much higher proportion of patients on supplemental oxygen in the readmission group. Only 2 of 5 categories in the SWIFT model were significantly different, and although the median SWIFT score was significantly higher in the readmissions group, the model discriminated poorly between cases and controls (area under the curve: 0.613). A 7-category PROPER score was created based on a multiple logistic regression model. Sensitivity of this model (score ≥12) for the detection of readmission was 81% with a positive predictive value of 0.50. We have created a preliminary model for predicting patients at risk of early readmissions to the PICU from the hospital floor. The SWIFT score is not

  2. AN HST PROPER-MOTION STUDY OF THE LARGE-SCALE JET OF 3C273

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Eileen T.; Georganopoulos, Markos [University of Maryland Baltimore County, Baltimore, MD 21250 (United States); Sparks, William B. [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Anderson, Jay; Marel, Roeland van der; Biretta, John; Chiaberge, Marco; Norman, Colin [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21210 (United States); Tony Sohn, Sangmo [Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21210 (United States); Perlman, Eric, E-mail: meyer@stsci.edu [Florida Institute of Technology, Melbourne, FL 32901 (United States)

    2016-02-20

    The radio galaxy 3C 273 hosts one of the nearest and best-studied powerful quasar jets. Having been imaged repeatedly by the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) over the past twenty years, it was chosen for an HST program to measure proper motions in the kiloparsec-scale resolved jets of nearby radio-loud active galaxies. The jet in 3C 273 is highly relativistic on sub-parsec scales, with apparent proper motions up to 15c observed by very long baseline interferometry. In contrast, we find that the kiloparsec-scale knots are compatible with being stationary, with a mean speed of −0.2 ± 0.5c over the whole jet. Assuming the knots are packets of moving plasma, an upper limit of 1c implies a bulk Lorentz factor Γ < 2.9. This suggests that the jet has either decelerated significantly by the time it reaches the kiloparsec scale, or that the knots in the jet are standing shock features. The second scenario is incompatible with the inverse Compton off the Cosmic Microwave Background (IC/CMB) model for the X-ray emission of these knots, which requires the knots to be in motion, but IC/CMB is also disfavored in the first scenario due to energetic considerations, in agreement with the recent finding of Meyer and Georganopoulos which ruled out the IC/CMB model for the X-ray emission of 3C 273 via gamma-ray upper limits.

  3. Proper Accounting for Surface Area to Solution Volume Ratios in Exaggerated Extractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenke, Dennis R; Rabinow, Barrett E

    2017-01-01

    When drug products contact plastic manufacturing components, packaging systems, and/or delivery devices, leachables from the plastics can accumulate in the drug product, potentially affecting its key quality attributes. Given practical issues associated with screening drug products for leachables, potential leachables are frequently surfaced as extractables revealed in extraction studies. To facilitate extractables discovery and identification and to shorten extraction times, extraction studies can be exaggerated and/or accelerated. One means of exaggerating an extraction is to increase the test article's extracted surface area to extraction solution volume ratio (SA/V), as it is generally accepted that an extractable's concentration in an extract is proportional to SA/V in a 1 to 1 manner. However, as the relationship between an extractable's concentration and SA/V depends on the extractable's plastic/solvent partition coefficient (kp/l), the effect of SA/V on the extractable's concentrations can be either under- or over-estimated if a 1 to 1 proportion is used. This article presents the theoretical relationship between SA/V, concentration, and kp/l; illustrates theory with a case study; and suggests proper exaggeration strategies.LAY ABSTRACT: When drug products are manufactured, stored, or delivered in systems that contain plastics, substances can be leached from the plastics and remain in the drug product, where they might affect the product's key quality attributes. To discover and identify these leached substances, the plastics are extracted under laboratory conditions and the extracts are appropriately tested. To facilitate this process, extracts may be generated under laboratory conditions that exaggerate or accelerate the drug product's clinical conditions of manufacturing or use. The proper use of the ratio of the extracted item's surface area to the volume of the extracting solution as an exaggeration parameter is discussed in this paper. © PDA, Inc

  4. Criminal investigator stress: symptoms, syndromes, and practical coping strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Laurence

    2009-01-01

    Without the skill and dedication of criminal investigators, there could literally be no criminal justice system. This group of law enforcement professionals has its own special needs and requires its own special kind of support. The present article describes the special stresses and challenges of homicide and sex crime investigators, and the range of responses shown by these officers. Recommendations are provided for the proper selection and training of investigators, and the personal and professional characteristics of successful investigators are outlined. A variety of stress-coping strategies are then described, some developed by the officers themselves, others with the aid of mental health consultants. The importance of professionalism as a key feature of high-quality investigative work is highlighted, and the ways in which criminal investigators can best access the services of mental health clinicians for their own psychological well-being are discussed.

  5. The vagaries of proper imaging in diagnosing single-system ectopic ureter in children with continuous incontinence and outcomes of simple nephrectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yong Seung; Im, Young Jae; Kim, Sang Woon; Kim, Myung-Joon; Lee, Mi-Jung; Lim, Neddy Lee; Han, Sang Won

    2016-03-01

    To investigate the proper diagnostic modalities and failure cases of treatment in patients with single-system ectopic ureter (SSEU) who underwent nephrectomy for incontinence. SSEU combined with dysplastic kidney is a rare cause of female incontinence. We retrospectively analyzed 45 pediatric SSEU patients that underwent simple nephrectomy at our institution during 1996-2013 for incontinence. We reviewed imaging studies to detect dysplastic kidney and ectopic ureter insertion, postoperative results, and urodynamic findings for remaining incontinence after nephrectomy. Median operative age was 59.3months. Both ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed 50.0% dysplastic kidney detection rates respectively. Dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) scanning and computerized tomography (CT) showed equal detection rates of 95.5%. Ectopic ureter insertion sites were determined by ultrasonography, CT, and MRI in 17.5%, 13.6%, and 33.3% of patients, respectively. Renal vascular structures were identified in 3/22 patients (13.6%) with CT. Post-nephrectomy, incontinence disappeared in 41 patients (91.1%), but remained in 4 patients (8.9%); urodynamics suggested bladder neck incompetence in these patients. DMSA is a highly sensitive diagnostic modality for detecting dysplastic kidney in SSEU patients with more than 95% detection rates. Once detected by DMSA, additional CT or MRI studies do not provide further information about ectopic ureter insertion or renal vascular structure. Although nephrectomy is successful in nearly 90% of SSEU patients with dysplastic kidneys, postoperative incontinence occasionally remains and requires additional treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Epistemology and Empirical Investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahlström, Kristoffer

    2008-01-01

    Recently, Hilary Kornblith has argued that epistemological investigation is substantially empirical. In the present paper, I will ¿rst show that his claim is not contingent upon the further and, admittedly, controversial assumption that all objects of epistemological investigation are natural kinds....... Then, I will argue that, contrary to what Kornblith seems to assume, this methodological contention does not imply that there is no need for attending to our epistemic concepts in epistemology. Understanding the make-up of our concepts and, in particular, the purposes they ¿ll, is necessary...... for a proper acknowledgment of epistemology’s role in conceptual improvement...

  7. Improving the performance of 241Am-Be for PGNAA applications using a proper shielding for neutron source and the NaI detector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panjeh Hamed

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The gamma ray spectrum resolution from a 241Am-Be source-based prompt gamma ray activation analysis set-up has been observed to increase in the energy region of interest with enclosing the NaI detector in a proper neutron and gamma ray shield. We have investigated the tact that the peak resolution of prompt gamma rays in the region of interest from the set-up depends on the source activity to the great extent, size and kind of the detector and the geometry of the detector shield. In order to see the role of a detector shield, five kinds of the detector shield were used and finally the proper kind was introduced. Since the detector shield has an important contribution in the reduction of the undesirable and high rate gamma rays coming to the gamma ray detector, a good design of a proper shield enables the elimination of the unwanted events, such as a pulse pile-up. By improving the shielding design, discrete and distinguishable photoelectric peaks in the energy region of interest have been observed in the spectrum of prompt gamma rays.

  8. Effect of biostimulant sprays on Phaeomoniella chlamydospora and esca proper infected vines under greenhouse and fi eld conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Di Marco

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Biostimulants are compounds that infl uence physiological processes in plants, producing better growth and enhancing stress tolerance. The effect of some biostimulants on vines was investigated over a number of years to assess their effect both on the incidence of esca leaf symptoms in the vineyard and on the growth of Phaeomoniella chlamydospora artifi cially inoculated into potted vines. Field trials were carried out for 4–7 years in fi ve 15-20-yearold vineyards infected with esca proper. Potted plants were sprayed with biostimulants, after which the vine trunks were inoculated with P. chlamydospora, and then the vines were sprayed again with biostimulants in the following 2 or 3 growing seasons. On the whole, biostimulants in the fi eld did not reduce foliar symptoms. The percentage of symptomatic vines that had shown symptoms in previous years was higher in the biostimulant-sprayed plots. In the greenhouse, a certain reduction of internal necrosis caused by P. chlamydospora was seen with three of the four biostimulants tested. Prospects for biostimulants as a means control esca are discussed.

  9. High-throughput analysis reveals novel maternal germline RNAs crucial for primordial germ cell preservation and proper migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Dawn A; Butler, Amanda M; Aguero, Tristan H; Newman, Karen M; Van Booven, Derek; King, Mary Lou

    2017-01-15

    During oogenesis, hundreds of maternal RNAs are selectively localized to the animal or vegetal pole, including determinants of somatic and germline fates. Although microarray analysis has identified localized determinants, it is not comprehensive and is limited to known transcripts. Here, we utilized high-throughput RNA-sequencing analysis to comprehensively interrogate animal and vegetal pole RNAs in the fully grown Xenopus laevis oocyte. We identified 411 (198 annotated) and 27 (15 annotated) enriched mRNAs at the vegetal and animal pole, respectively. Ninety were novel mRNAs over 4-fold enriched at the vegetal pole and six were over 10-fold enriched at the animal pole. Unlike mRNAs, microRNAs were not asymmetrically distributed. Whole-mount in situ hybridization confirmed that all 17 selected mRNAs were localized. Biological function and network analysis of vegetally enriched transcripts identified protein-modifying enzymes, receptors, ligands, RNA-binding proteins, transcription factors and co-factors with five defining hubs linking 47 genes in a network. Initial functional studies of maternal vegetally localized mRNAs show that sox7 plays a novel and important role in primordial germ cell (PGC) development and that ephrinB1 (efnb1) is required for proper PGC migration. We propose potential pathways operating at the vegetal pole that highlight where future investigations might be most fruitful. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  10. X-Ray Analysis of the Proper Motion and Pulsar Wind Nebula for PSR J1741-2054

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auchettl, Katie; Slane, Patrick; Romani, Roger W.; Posselt, Bettina; Pavlov, George G.; Kargaltsev, Oleg; Ng, C-Y.; Temim, Tea; Weisskopf, Martin C.; Bykov, Andrei; hide

    2015-01-01

    We obtained six observations of PSR J1741-2054 using the Chandra ACIS-S detector totaling approx.300 ks. By registering this new epoch of observations to an archival observation taken 3.2 yr earlier using X-ray point sources in the field of view, we have measured the pulsar proper motion at micron = 109 +/- 10 mas yr(exp. -1) in a direction consistent with the symmetry axis of the observed H(alpha) nebula. We investigated the inferred past trajectory of the pulsar but find no compelling association with OB associations in which the progenitor may have originated. We confirm previous measurements of the pulsar spectrum as an absorbed power law with photon index gamma = 2.68 +/- 0.04, plus a blackbody with an emission radius of (4.5(+3.2/-2.5))d(0.38) km, for a DM-estimated distance of 0.38d(0.38) kpc and a temperature of 61.7 +/- 3.0 eV. Emission from the compact nebula is well described by an absorbed power law model with a photon index of gamma = 1.67 +/- 0.06, while the diffuse emission seen as a trail extending northeast of the pulsar shows no evidence of synchrotron cooling. We also applied image deconvolution techniques to search for small-scale structures in the immediate vicinity of the pulsar, but found no conclusive evidence for such structures.

  11. What HERA May Provide?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Hannes; /DESY; De Roeck, Albert; /CERN; Bartels, Jochen; /Hamburg U., Inst. Theor. Phys. II; Behnke, Olaf; Blumlein, Johannes; /DESY; Brodsky, Stanley; /SLAC /Durham U., IPPP; Cooper-Sarkar, Amanda; /Oxford U.; Deak, Michal; /DESY; Devenish, Robin; /Oxford U.; Diehl, Markus; /DESY; Gehrmann, Thomas; /Zurich U.; Grindhammer, Guenter; /Munich, Max Planck Inst.; Gustafson, Gosta; /CERN /Lund U., Dept. Theor. Phys.; Khoze, Valery; /Durham U., IPPP; Knutsson, Albert; /DESY; Klein, Max; /Liverpool U.; Krauss, Frank; /Durham U., IPPP; Kutak, Krzysztof; /DESY; Laenen, Eric; /NIKHEF, Amsterdam; Lonnblad, Leif; /Lund U., Dept. Theor. Phys.; Motyka, Leszek; /Hamburg U., Inst. Theor. Phys. II /Birmingham U. /Southern Methodist U. /DESY /Piemonte Orientale U., Novara /CERN /Paris, LPTHE /Hamburg U. /Penn State U.

    2011-11-10

    More than 100 people participated in a discussion session at the DIS08 workshop on the topic What HERA may provide. A summary of the discussion with a structured outlook and list of desirable measurements and theory calculations is given. The HERA accelerator and the HERA experiments H1, HERMES and ZEUS stopped running in the end of June 2007. This was after 15 years of very successful operation since the first collisions in 1992. A total luminosity of {approx} 500 pb{sup -1} has been accumulated by each of the collider experiments H1 and ZEUS. During the years the increasingly better understood and upgraded detectors and HERA accelerator have contributed significantly to this success. The physics program remains in full swing and plenty of new results were presented at DIS08 which are approaching the anticipated final precision, fulfilling and exceeding the physics plans and the previsions of the upgrade program. Most of the analyses presented at DIS08 were still based on the so called HERA I data sample, i.e. data taken until 2000, before the shutdown for the luminosity upgrade. This sample has an integrated luminosity of {approx} 100 pb{sup -1}, and the four times larger statistics sample from HERA II is still in the process of being analyzed.

  12. Proteomics of CaCO3 biomineral-associated proteins: how to properly address their analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marie, Benjamin; Ramos-Silva, Paula; Marin, Frédéric; Marie, Arul

    2013-11-01

    In a recent editorial (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., 2013 110, E2144-E2146) and elsewhere, questions have been raised regarding the experimental practices in relation to the proteomic analysis of organic matrices associated to the biomineralized CaCO3 skeletons of metazoans such as molluscan shells and coral skeletons. Indeed, although the use of new high sensitivity MS technology potentially allows to identify a greater number of proteins, it is also equally (or even more) sensitive to contamination of residual proteins from soft tissues, which are in close contact with the biomineral. Based on our own past and present experimental know-how-observations that are reproducible and coherent with the current understanding of extracellular biomineralization processes-we are convinced that a careful and appropriate cleaning of biominerals prior to any analysis is crucial for accurate proteomic investigations and subsequent pertinent interpretation of the results. Our goal is to alert the scientific community about the associated bias that definitely should be avoided, and to provide critical recommendations on sample preparation and experimental design, in order to better take advantage of the aptness of proteomic approaches aiming at improving our understanding of the molecular mechanisms in biomineralization. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. On proper linearization, construction and analysis of the Boyle-van't Hoff plots and correct calculation of the osmotically inactive volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katkov, Igor I

    2011-06-01

    The Boyle-van't Hoff (BVH) law of physics has been widely used in cryobiology for calculation of the key osmotic parameters of cells and optimization of cryo-protocols. The proper use of linearization of the Boyle-vant'Hoff relationship for the osmotically inactive volume (v(b)) has been discussed in a rigorous way in (Katkov, Cryobiology, 2008, 57:142-149). Nevertheless, scientists in the field have been continuing to use inappropriate methods of linearization (and curve fitting) of the BVH data, plotting the BVH line and calculation of v(b). Here, we discuss the sources of incorrect linearization of the BVH relationship using concrete examples of recent publications, analyze the properties of the correct BVH line (which is unique for a given v(b)), provide appropriate statistical formulas for calculation of v(b) from the experimental data, and propose simplistic instructions (standard operation procedure, SOP) for proper normalization of the data, appropriate linearization and construction of the BVH plots, and correct calculation of v(b). The possible sources of non-linear behavior or poor fit of the data to the proper BVH line such as active water and/or solute transports, which can result in large discrepancy between the hyperosmotic and hypoosmotic parts of the BVH plot, are also discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Efficient preloading of the ventricles by a properly timed atrial contraction underlies stroke work improvement in the acute response to cardiac resynchronization therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yuxuan; Gurev, Viatcheslav; Constantino, Jason; Trayanova, Natalia

    2013-01-01

    Background The acute response to cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) has been shown to be due to three mechanisms: resynchronization of ventricular contraction, efficient preloading of the ventricles by a properly timed atrial contraction, and mitral regurgitation reduction. However, the contribution of each of the three mechanisms to the acute response of CRT, specifically stroke work improvement, has not been quantified. Objective The goal of this study was to use an MRI-based anatomically accurate 3D model of failing canine ventricular electromechanics to quantify the contribution of each of the three mechanisms to stroke work improvement and identify the predominant mechanisms. Methods An MRI-based electromechanical model of the failing canine ventricles assembled previously by our group was further developed and modified. Three different protocols were used to dissect the contribution of each of the three mechanisms to stroke work improvement. Results Resynchronization of ventricular contraction did not lead to significant stroke work improvement. Efficient preloading of the ventricles by a properly timed atrial contraction was the predominant mechanism underlying stroke work improvement. Stroke work improvement peaked at an intermediate AV delay, as it allowed ventricular filling by atrial contraction to occur at a low diastolic LV pressure but also provided adequate time for ventricular filling before ventricular contraction. Diminution of mitral regurgitation by CRT led to stroke work worsening instead of improvement. Conclusion Efficient preloading of the ventricles by a properly timed atrial contraction is responsible for significant stroke work improvement in the acute CRT response. PMID:23928177

  15. A knockout screen for protein kinases required for the proper meiotic segregation of chromosomes in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacikova, Ines; Polakova, Silvia; Benko, Zsigmond; Cipak, Lubos; Zhang, Lijuan; Rumpf, Cornelia; Miadokova, Eva; Gregan, Juraj

    2013-02-15

    The reduction of chromosome number during meiosis is achieved by two successive rounds of chromosome segregation after just single round of DNA replication. To identify novel proteins required for the proper segregation of chromosomes during meiosis, we analyzed the consequences of deleting Schizosaccharomyces pombe genes predicted to encode protein kinases that are not essential for cell viability. We show that Mph1, a member of the Mps1 family of spindle assembly checkpoint kinases, is required to prevent meiosis I homolog non-disjunction. We also provide evidence for a novel function of Spo4, the fission yeast ortholog of Dbf4-dependent Cdc7 kinase, in regulating the length of anaphase II spindles. In the absence of Spo4, abnormally elongated anaphase II spindles frequently overlap and thus destroy the linear order of nuclei in the ascus. Our observation that the spo4Δ mutant phenotype can be partially suppressed by inhibiting Cdc2-as suggests that dysregulation of the activity of this cyclin-dependent kinase may cause abnormal elongation of anaphase II spindles in spo4Δ mutant cells.

  16. Modelling Seasonal GWR of Daily PM2.5 with Proper Auxiliary Variables for the Yangtze River Delta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Man Jiang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decades, regional haze episodes have frequently occurred in eastern China, especially in the Yangtze River Delta (YRD. Satellite derived Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD has been used to retrieve the spatial coverage of PM2.5 concentrations. To improve the retrieval accuracy of the daily AOD-PM2.5 model, various auxiliary variables like meteorological or geographical factors have been adopted into the Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR model. However, these variables are always arbitrarily selected without deep consideration of their potentially varying temporal or spatial contributions in the model performance. In this manuscript, we put forward an automatic procedure to select proper auxiliary variables from meteorological and geographical factors and obtain their optimal combinations to construct four seasonal GWR models. We employ two different schemes to comprehensively test the performance of our proposed GWR models: (1 comparison with other regular GWR models by varying the number of auxiliary variables; and (2 comparison with observed ground-level PM2.5 concentrations. The result shows that our GWR models of “AOD + 3” with three common meteorological variables generally perform better than all the other GWR models involved. Our models also show powerful prediction capabilities in PM2.5 concentrations with only slight overfitting. The determination coefficients R2 of our seasonal models are 0.8259 in spring, 0.7818 in summer, 0.8407 in autumn, and 0.7689 in winter. Also, the seasonal models in summer and autumn behave better than those in spring and winter. The comparison between seasonal and yearly models further validates the specific seasonal pattern of auxiliary variables of the GWR model in the YRD. We also stress the importance of key variables and propose a selection process in the AOD-PM2.5 model. Our work validates the significance of proper auxiliary variables in modelling the AOD-PM2.5 relationships and

  17. Should I drink responsibly, safely or properly? Confusing messages about reducing alcohol-related harm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Sandra C; Hall, Sabine; Kypri, Kypros

    2017-01-01

    'Responsible drinking' campaigns emerged in the early 1970s as a means of addressing hazardous drinking and its related consequences. While these were initially the product of public health agencies and health-related NGOs, they are increasingly being developed and disseminated by the alcohol industry. There is considerable debate as to whether industry-generated campaigns are designed to reduce hazardous drinking and related problems (as argued by their developers) or are designed to avoid government regulation or even to increase sales. The aim of the present study was to explore the way that recent industry-developed responsible drinking campaigns are perceived and interpreted by the general public. That is, do they promote low-risk drinking, promote risky drinking, or just muddy the waters. Two sub-studies were conducted. The first, a mall intercept study with 180 adults in two Australian shopping districts, explored participants' understanding of slogans/taglines. The second, an online survey with 480 Australian adults, explored understandings and interpretations of television/online commercials. The results of the two studies revealed diversity in participants' interpretation of the 'responsible drinking' advertisements. Terminology utilised in industry-developed advertisements was found to be ambiguous; for example, what age group was being referred to in the tagline 'Kids and alcohol don't mix', and whether 'Drink Properly' meant not drinking to excess or drinking in a way that made you look more sophisticated. In Study Two, the government-developed campaign ('Know when to say when') was clearly interpreted as warning against risky consumption of alcohol; whereas the industry-developed campaigns ('How to drink properly', 'Kids absorb your drinking', 'Friends are waiting') were interpreted to have a range of different meanings, including some seemingly unrelated to alcohol. These findings are consistent with the literature evaluating anti-smoking campaigns

  18. Should I drink responsibly, safely or properly? Confusing messages about reducing alcohol-related harm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra C Jones

    Full Text Available 'Responsible drinking' campaigns emerged in the early 1970s as a means of addressing hazardous drinking and its related consequences. While these were initially the product of public health agencies and health-related NGOs, they are increasingly being developed and disseminated by the alcohol industry. There is considerable debate as to whether industry-generated campaigns are designed to reduce hazardous drinking and related problems (as argued by their developers or are designed to avoid government regulation or even to increase sales. The aim of the present study was to explore the way that recent industry-developed responsible drinking campaigns are perceived and interpreted by the general public. That is, do they promote low-risk drinking, promote risky drinking, or just muddy the waters. Two sub-studies were conducted. The first, a mall intercept study with 180 adults in two Australian shopping districts, explored participants' understanding of slogans/taglines. The second, an online survey with 480 Australian adults, explored understandings and interpretations of television/online commercials. The results of the two studies revealed diversity in participants' interpretation of the 'responsible drinking' advertisements. Terminology utilised in industry-developed advertisements was found to be ambiguous; for example, what age group was being referred to in the tagline 'Kids and alcohol don't mix', and whether 'Drink Properly' meant not drinking to excess or drinking in a way that made you look more sophisticated. In Study Two, the government-developed campaign ('Know when to say when' was clearly interpreted as warning against risky consumption of alcohol; whereas the industry-developed campaigns ('How to drink properly', 'Kids absorb your drinking', 'Friends are waiting' were interpreted to have a range of different meanings, including some seemingly unrelated to alcohol. These findings are consistent with the literature evaluating anti

  19. THE SPACE MOTION OF LEO I: HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE PROPER MOTION AND IMPLIED ORBIT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohn, Sangmo Tony; Van der Marel, Roeland P. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Besla, Gurtina [Department of Astronomy, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Boylan-Kolchin, Michael; Bullock, James S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Center for Cosmology, University of California, 4129 Reines Hall, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Majewski, Steven R., E-mail: tsohn@stsci.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904-4325 (United States)

    2013-05-10

    We present the first absolute proper motion measurement of Leo I, based on two epochs of Hubble Space Telescope ACS/WFC images separated by {approx}5 years in time. The average shift of Leo I stars with respect to {approx}100 background galaxies implies a proper motion of ({mu}{sub W}, {mu}{sub N}) = (0.1140 {+-} 0.0295, -0.1256 {+-} 0.0293) mas yr{sup -1}. The implied Galactocentric velocity vector, corrected for the reflex motion of the Sun, has radial and tangential components V{sub rad} = 167.9 {+-} 2.8 km s{sup -1} and V{sub tan} = 101.0 {+-} 34.4 km s{sup -1}, respectively. We study the detailed orbital history of Leo I by solving its equations of motion backward in time for a range of plausible mass models for the Milky Way (MW) and its surrounding galaxies. Leo I entered the MW virial radius 2.33 {+-} 0.21 Gyr ago, most likely on its first infall. It had a pericentric approach 1.05 {+-} 0.09 Gyr ago at a Galactocentric distance of 91 {+-} 36 kpc. We associate these timescales with characteristic timescales in Leo I's star formation history, which shows an enhanced star formation activity {approx}2 Gyr ago and quenching {approx}1 Gyr ago. There is no indication from our calculations that other galaxies have significantly influenced Leo I's orbit, although there is a small probability that it may have interacted with either Ursa Minor or Leo II within the last {approx}1 Gyr. For most plausible MW masses, the observed velocity implies that Leo I is bound to the MW. However, it may not be appropriate to include it in models of the MW satellite population that assume dynamical equilibrium, given its recent infall. Solution of the complete (non-radial) timing equations for the Leo I orbit implies an MW mass M{sub MW,vir} = 3.15{sub -1.36}{sup +1.58} x 10{sup 12} M{sub Sun }, with the large uncertainty dominated by cosmic scatter. In a companion paper, we compare the new observations to the properties of Leo I subhalo analogs extracted from cosmological

  20. Moments of the transmission eigenvalues, proper delay times and random matrix theory II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezzadri, F.; Simm, N. J.

    2012-05-01

    We systematically study the first three terms in the asymptotic expansions of the moments of the transmission eigenvalues and proper delay times as the number of quantum channels n in the leads goes to infinity. The computations are based on the assumption that the Landauer-Büttiker scattering matrix for chaotic ballistic cavities can be modelled by the circular ensembles of random matrix theory. The starting points are the finite-n formulae that we recently discovered [F. Mezzadri and N. J. Simm, "Moments of the transmission eigenvalues, proper delay times and random matrix theory," J. Math. Phys. 52, 103511 (2011)], 10.1063/1.3644378. Our analysis includes all the symmetry classes β ∈ {1, 2, 4}; in addition, it applies to the transmission eigenvalues of Andreev billiards, whose symmetry classes were classified by Zirnbauer ["Riemannian symmetric superspaces and their origin in random-matrix theory," J. Math. Phys. 37(10), 4986 (1996)], 10.1063/1.531675 and Altland and Zirnbauer ["Random matrix theory of a chaotic Andreev quantum dot," Phys. Rev. Lett. 76(18), 3420 (1996), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.76.3420; Altland and Zirnbauer "Nonstandard symmetry classes in mesoscopic normal-superconducting hybrid structures," Phys. Rev. B 55(2), 1142 (1997)], 10.1103/PhysRevB.55.1142. Where applicable, our results are in complete agreement with the semiclassical theory of mesoscopic systems developed by Berkolaiko et al. ["Full counting statistics of chaotic cavities from classical action correlations," J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 41(36), 365102 (2008)], 10.1088/1751-8113/41/36/365102 and Berkolaiko and Kuipers ["Moments of the Wigner delay times," J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 43(3), 035101 (2010), 10.1088/1751-8113/43/3/035101; Berkolaiko and Kuipers "Transport moments beyond the leading order," New J. Phys. 13(6), 063020 (2011)], 10.1088/1367-2630/13/6/063020. Our approach also applies to the Selberg-like integrals. We calculate the first two terms in their asymptotic expansion

  1. Report: Policies Needed for Proper Use and Management of Cost-Reimbursement Contracts Based on Duncan Hunter Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    Report #12-P-0320, March 6, 2012. EPA did not comply with several key revisions to the FAR as amended by the interim rule, Proper Use and Management of Cost Reimbursement Contracts (FAR Case 2008-030).

  2. Deconstructing "Just and Proper": Arguments in Favor of Adopting the "Remedial Purpose" Approach to Section 10(j) Labor Injunctions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    William K. Briggs

    2011-01-01

    Congress, through the 1947 addition of section 10(j) to the National Labor Relations Act, authorized district courts to grant preliminary injunctive relief for unfair labor practices if they deem such relief "just and proper...

  3. Deriving Proper Uniform Priors for Regression Coefficients, Parts I, II, and III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.R. Noel van Erp

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available It is a relatively well-known fact that in problems of Bayesian model selection, improper priors should, in general, be avoided. In this paper we will derive and discuss a collection of four proper uniform priors which lie on an ascending scale of informativeness. It will turn out that these priors lead us to evidences that are closely associated with the implied evidence of the Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC and the Akaike Information Criterion (AIC. All the discussed evidences are then used in two small Monte Carlo studies, wherein for different sample sizes and noise levels the evidences are used to select between competing C-spline regression models. Also, there is given, for illustrative purposes, an outline on how to construct simple trivariate C-spline regression models. In regards to the length of this paper, only one half of this paper consists of theory and derivations, the other half consists of graphs and outputs of the two Monte Carlo studies.

  4. The proper treatment of language acquisition and change in a population setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niyogi, Partha; Berwick, Robert C

    2009-06-23

    Language acquisition maps linguistic experience, primary linguistic data (PLD), onto linguistic knowledge, a grammar. Classically, computational models of language acquisition assume a single target grammar and one PLD source, the central question being whether the target grammar can be acquired from the PLD. However, real-world learners confront populations with variation, i.e., multiple target grammars and PLDs. Removing this idealization has inspired a new class of population-based language acquisition models. This paper contrasts 2 such models. In the first, iterated learning (IL), each learner receives PLD from one target grammar but different learners can have different targets. In the second, social learning (SL), each learner receives PLD from possibly multiple targets, e.g., from 2 parents. We demonstrate that these 2 models have radically different evolutionary consequences. The IL model is dynamically deficient in 2 key respects. First, the IL model admits only linear dynamics and so cannot describe phase transitions, attested rapid changes in languages over time. Second, the IL model cannot properly describe the stability of languages over time. In contrast, the SL model leads to nonlinear dynamics, bifurcations, and possibly multiple equilibria and so suffices to model both the case of stable language populations, mixtures of more than 1 language, as well as rapid language change. The 2 models also make distinct, empirically testable predictions about language change. Using historical data, we show that the SL model more faithfully replicates the dynamics of the evolution of Middle English.

  5. OB Stars and Cepheids From the Gaia TGAS Catalogue: Test of their Distances and Proper Motions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobylev, Vadim V.; Bajkova, Anisa T.

    2017-12-01

    We consider young distant stars from the Gaia TGAS catalog. These are 250 classical Cepheids and 244 OB stars located at distances up to 4 kpc from the Sun. These stars are used to determine the Galactic rotation parameters using both trigonometric parallaxes and proper motions of the TGAS stars. In this case the considered stars have relative parallax errors less than 200%. Following the well-known statistical approach, we assume that the kinematic parameters found from the line-of-sight velocities Vr are less dependent on errors of distances than the found from the velocity components Vl. From values of the first derivative of the Galactic rotation angular velocity '0, found from the analysis of velocities Vr and Vl separately, the scale factor of distances is determined.We found that from the sample of Cepheids the scale of distances of the TGAS should be reduced by 3%, and from the sample of OB stars, on the contrary, the scale should be increased by 9%.

  6. Tattoo-Associated Skin Reaction: The Importance of an Early Diagnosis and Proper Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassi, Andrea; Campolmi, Piero; Cannarozzo, Giovanni; Conti, Rossana; Bruscino, Nicola; Gola, Massimo; Ermini, Stefano; Massi, Daniela; Moretti, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    Tattoo is going to be a very common practice especially among young people and we are witnessing a gradual increase of numerous potential complications to tattoo placement which are often seen by physicians, but generally unknown to the public. The most common skin reactions to tattoo include a transient acute inflammatory reaction due to trauma of the skin with needles and medical complications such as superficial and deep local infections, systemic infections, allergic contact dermatitis, photodermatitis, granulomatous and lichenoid reactions, and skin diseases localized on tattooed area (eczema, psoriasis, lichen, and morphea). Next to these inflammatory skin reactions we have to consider also the possibility of the development of cutaneous conditions such as pseudolymphomatous reactions and pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia. The aim of this study is to underline the importance of an early diagnosis by performing a histological examination especially when we are in front of suspected papulonodular lesions arising from a tattoo, followed by a proper treatment, since cutaneous neoplastic evolution is known to be a rare but possible complication. PMID:25147796

  7. Automatic WSDL-guided Test Case Generation for PropEr Testing of Web Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos Sagonas

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available With web services already being key ingredients of modern web systems, automatic and easy-to-use but at the same time powerful and expressive testing frameworks for web services are increasingly important. Our work aims at fully automatic testing of web services: ideally the user only specifies properties that the web service is expected to satisfy, in the form of input-output relations, and the system handles all the rest. In this paper we present in detail the component which lies at the heart of this system: how the WSDL specification of a web service is used to automatically create test case generators that can be fed to PropEr, a property-based testing tool, to create structurally valid random test cases for its operations and check its responses. Although the process is fully automatic, our tool optionally allows the user to easily modify its output to either add semantic information to the generators or write properties that test for more involved functionality of the web services.

  8. Tattoo-associated skin reaction: the importance of an early diagnosis and proper treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassi, Andrea; Campolmi, Piero; Cannarozzo, Giovanni; Conti, Rossana; Bruscino, Nicola; Gola, Massimo; Ermini, Stefano; Massi, Daniela; Moretti, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    Tattoo is going to be a very common practice especially among young people and we are witnessing a gradual increase of numerous potential complications to tattoo placement which are often seen by physicians, but generally unknown to the public. The most common skin reactions to tattoo include a transient acute inflammatory reaction due to trauma of the skin with needles and medical complications such as superficial and deep local infections, systemic infections, allergic contact dermatitis, photodermatitis, granulomatous and lichenoid reactions, and skin diseases localized on tattooed area (eczema, psoriasis, lichen, and morphea). Next to these inflammatory skin reactions we have to consider also the possibility of the development of cutaneous conditions such as pseudolymphomatous reactions and pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia. The aim of this study is to underline the importance of an early diagnosis by performing a histological examination especially when we are in front of suspected papulonodular lesions arising from a tattoo, followed by a proper treatment, since cutaneous neoplastic evolution is known to be a rare but possible complication.

  9. Flame Shape and Spatially Resolved Rayleigh Criterion Using Proper Orthogonal Decomposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin M. Kopp-Vaughan

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Chemiluminescence imaging was performed for premixed flames with natural thermoacoustic instabilities in a Rijke tube. The images were phase locked to the natural pressure oscillations in the tube. The use of proper orthogonal decomposition (POD to identify phase-resolved flame fronts and flame surface area is reported. The flame front results compare favorably to an Abel transform for axisymmetric cases but also work well for cases with non-axisymmetric contributions. The flame area perturbations are compared to previous work using OH planar laser induced fluorescence. The relatively-simpler chemiluminescence approach finds the same flame surface area correlations versus pressure. Additionally, the modes from POD are used to compute local acoustic coupling via the space and time resolved Rayleigh index. It is found that one mode in the decomposition is spatially the same as the Rayleigh index and can be used to characterize the thermoacoustic coupling. This similarity is due to the mode's time constant replicating the phase of the tube's natural pressure oscillations.

  10. Proper orthogonal decomposition analysis of vortex shedding behind a rotating circular cylinder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dol Sharul Sham

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Turbulence studies were made in the wake of a rotating circular cylinder in a uniform free stream with the objective of describing the patterns of the vortex shedding up to suppression of the periodic vortex street at high velocity ratios, λ. The results obtained in the present study establish that shedding of Kármán vortices in a rotating circular cylinder-generated wake is modified by rotation of the cylinder. Alternate vortex shedding is highly visible when λ < 2.0 although the strength of the separated shear layers differ due to the rotation of the cylinder. The spectral density in the wakes indicate significant changes at λ = 2.0. The results indicate that the rotation of the cylinder causes significant disruption in the structure of the flow. Alternate vortex shedding is weak, distorted and close to being suppressed at λ = 2.0. It is clear that flow asymmetries will weaken vortex shedding, and when the asymmetries are significant enough, total suppression of a periodic street occurs. Particular attention was paid to the decomposition of the flow using Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD. By analyzing this decomposition with the help of Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV data, it was found that large scales contribute to the coherent motion. Vorticity structures in the modes become increasingly irregular with downstream distance, suggesting turbulent interactions are occurring at the more downstream locations, especially when the cylinder rotates.

  11. αE-catenin-dependent mechanotransduction is essential for proper convergent extension in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Mitchell K L; Hoijman, Esteban; Nöel, Emily; Garric, Laurence; Bakkers, Jeroen; de Rooij, Johan

    2016-10-15

    Cadherin complexes mediate cell-cell adhesion and are crucial for embryonic development. Besides their structural function, cadherin complexes also transduce tension across the junction-actomyosin axis into proportional biochemical responses. Central to this mechanotransduction is the stretching of the cadherin-F-actin-linker α-catenin, which opens its central domain for binding to effectors such as vinculin. Mechanical unfolding of α-catenin leads to force-dependent reinforcement of cadherin-based junctions as studied in cell culture. The importance of cadherin mechanotransduction for embryonic development has not been studied yet. Here we used TALEN-mediated gene disruption to perturb endogenous αE-catenin in zebrafish development. Zygotic α-catenin mutants fail to maintain their epithelial barrier, resulting in tissue rupturing. We then specifically disrupted mechanotransduction, while maintaining cadherin adhesion, by expressing an αE-catenin construct in which the mechanosensitive domain was perturbed. Expression of either wild-type or mechano-defective α-catenin fully rescues barrier function in α-catenin mutants; however, expression of mechano-defective α-catenin also induces convergence and extension defects. Specifically, the polarization of cadherin-dependent, lamellipodia-driven cell migration of the lateral mesoderm was lost. These results indicate that cadherin mechanotransduction is crucial for proper zebrafish morphogenesis, and uncover one of the essential processes affected by its perturbation. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  12. HDAC6 Deacetylates and Ubiquitinates MSH2 to Maintain Proper Levels of MutSα

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mu; Xiang, Shengyan; Joo, Heui-Yun; Wang, Lei; Williams, Kendra A.; Liu, Wei; Hu, Chen; Tong, Dan; Haakenson, Joshua; Wang, Chuangui; Zhang, Shengping; Pavlovicz, Ryan E.; Jones, Amanda; Schmidt, Kristina H.; Tang, Jinfu; Dong, Huiqin; Shan, Bin; Fang, Bin; Radhakrishnan, Rangasudhagar; Glazer, Peter M.; Matthias, Patrick; Koomen, John; Seto, Edward; Bepler, Gerold; Nicosia, Santo V.; Chen, Jiandong; Li, Chenglong; Gu, Liya; Li, Guo-Min; Bai, Wenlong; Wang, Hengbin; Zhang, Xiaohong

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY MutS protein homolog 2 (MSH2) is a key DNA mismatch repair protein. It forms the MSH2-MSH6 (MutSα) and MSH2-MSH3 (MutSβ) heterodimers, which help to ensure genomic integrity. MutSα not only recognizes and repairs mismatched nucleotides but also recognizes DNA adducts induced by DNA-damaging agents, and triggers cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis. Loss or depletion of MutSα from cells leads to microsatellite instability (MSI) and resistance to DNA damage. Although the level of MutSα can be reduced by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway, the detailed mechanisms of this regulation remain elusive. Here we report that histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) sequentially deacetylates and ubiquitinates MSH2, leading to MSH2 degradation. In addition, HDAC6 significantly reduces cellular sensitivity to DNA-damaging agents and decreases cellular DNA mismatch repair activities by downregulation of MSH2. Overall, these findings reveal a mechanism by which proper levels of MutSα are maintained. PMID:24882211

  13. Nuclear envelope expansion is crucial for proper chromosomal segregation during a closed mitosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takemoto, Ai; Kawashima, Shigehiro A; Li, Juan-Juan; Jeffery, Linda; Yamatsugu, Kenzo; Elemento, Olivier; Nurse, Paul

    2016-03-15

    Here, we screened a 10,371 library of diverse molecules using a drug-sensitive fission yeast strain to identify compounds which cause defects in chromosome segregation during mitosis. We identified a phosphorium-ylide-based compound Cutin-1 which inhibits nuclear envelope expansion and nuclear elongation during the closed mitosis of fission yeast, and showed that its target is the β-subunit of fatty acid synthase. A point mutation in the dehydratase domain of Fas1 conferred in vivo and in vitro resistance to Cutin-1. Time-lapse photomicrography showed that the bulk of the chromosomes were only transiently separated during mitosis, and nucleoli separation was defective. Subsequently sister chromatids re-associated leading to chromosomal mis-segregation. These segregation defects were reduced when the nuclear volume was increased and were increased when the nuclear volume was reduced. We propose that there needs to be sufficient nuclear volume to allow the nuclear elongation necessary during a closed mitosis to take place for proper chromosome segregation, and that inhibition of fatty acid synthase compromises nuclear elongation and leads to defects in chromosomal segregation. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  14. OPTICAL PROPER MOTION MEASUREMENTS OF THE M87 JET: NEW RESULTS FROM THE HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Eileen T.; Sparks, W. B.; Biretta, J. A.; Anderson, Jay; Sohn, Sangmo Tony; Van der Marel, Roeland P.; Norman, Colin [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Nakamura, Masanori, E-mail: meyer@stsci.edu [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China)

    2013-09-10

    We report new results from a Hubble Space Telescope archival program to study proper motions in the optical jet of the nearby radio galaxy M87. Using over 13 yr of archival imaging, we reach accuracies below 0.1c in measuring the apparent velocities of individual knots in the jet. We confirm previous findings of speeds up to 4.5c in the inner 6'' of the jet, and report new speeds for optical components in the outer part of the jet. We find evidence of significant motion transverse to the jet axis on the order of 0.6c in the inner jet features, and superluminal velocities parallel and transverse to the jet in the outer knot components, with an apparent ordering of velocity vectors possibly consistent with a helical jet pattern. Previous results suggested a global deceleration over the length of the jet in the form of decreasing maximum speeds of knot components from HST-1 outward, but our results suggest that superluminal speeds persist out to knot C, with large differentials in very nearby features all along the jet. We find significant apparent accelerations in directions parallel and transverse to the jet axis, along with evidence for stationary features in knots D, E, and I. These results are expected to place important constraints on detailed models of kiloparsec-scale relativistic jets.

  15. Solvatomagnetic Comparison Method: A Proper Quantification of Solvent Hydrogen-Bond Basicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurence, Christian; Legros, Julien; Nicolet, Pierre; Vuluga, Daniela; Chantzis, Agisilaos; Jacquemin, Denis

    2014-07-10

    The hydrogen-bond-acceptor basicity of an important class of solvents, the amphiprotic solvents (water, alcohols, primary and secondary amides, and carboxylic acids), has not yet been properly parametrized. In this work, the first scale of solvent hydrogen-bond basicity applicable to amphiprotic solvents is established by means of a new method that compares the 19 F NMR chemical shifts of 4-fluorophenol and 4-fluoroanisole in hydrogen-bond-acceptor solvents. This so-called solvatomagnetic comparison method is free of the shortcomings of the solvatochromic comparison method used so far and is easier to carry out than the pure base calorimetric method. The validity of the new scale is assessed by good linear correlations with spectroscopic, thermodynamic, and kinetic solute properties depending on the solvent hydrogen-bond basicity. In such correlation analysis of solvent effects on physicochemical properties, solvent and solute hydrogen-bond basicity scales must not be mixed, since it is shown here that solute and solvent scales are not equivalent. A comprehensive collection of parameters quantifying the hydrogen-bond basicity is presented for 168 solvents.

  16. Human condensin function is essential for centromeric chromatin assembly and proper sister kinetochore orientation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Samoshkin

    Full Text Available Condensins I and II in vertebrates are essential ATP-dependent complexes necessary for chromosome condensation in mitosis. Condensins depletion is known to perturb structure and function of centromeres, however the mechanism of this functional link remains elusive. Depletion of condensin activity is now shown to result in a significant loss of loading of CENP-A, the histone H3 variant found at active centromeres and the proposed epigenetic mark of centromere identity. Absence of condensins and/or CENP-A insufficiency produced a specific kinetochore defect, such that a functional mitotic checkpoint cannot prevent chromosome missegregation resulting from improper attachment of sister kinetochores to spindle microtubules. Spindle microtubule-dependent deformation of both inner kinetochores and the HEC1/Ndc80 microtubule-capturing module, then results in kinetochore separation from the Aurora B pool and ensuing reduced kinase activity at centromeres. Moreover, recovery from mitosis-inhibition by monastrol revealed a high incidence of merotelic attachment that was nearly identical with condensin depletion, Aurora B inactivation, or both, indicating that the Aurora B dysfunction is the key defect leading to chromosome missegregation in condensin-depleted cells. Thus, beyond a requirement for global chromosome condensation, condensins play a pivotal role in centromere assembly, proper spatial positioning of microtubule-capturing modules and positioning complexes of the inner centromere versus kinetochore plates.

  17. Rho1 regulates signaling events required for proper Drosophila embryonic development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magie, Craig R; Parkhurst, Susan M

    2005-02-01

    The Rho small GTPase has been implicated in many cellular processes, including actin cytoskeletal regulation and transcriptional activation. The molecular mechanisms underlying Rho function in many of these processes are not yet clear. Here we report that in Drosophila, reduction of maternal Rho1 compromises signaling pathways consistent with defects in membrane trafficking events. These mutants fail to maintain expression of the segment polarity genes engrailed (en), wingless (wg), and hedgehog (hh), contributing to a segmentation phenotype. Formation of the Wg protein gradient involves the internalization of Wg into vesicles. The number of these Wg-containing vesicles is reduced in maternal Rho1 mutants, suggesting a defect in endocytosis. Consistent with this, stripes of cytoplasmic beta-catenin that accumulate in response to Wg signaling are narrower in these mutants relative to wild type. Additionally, the amount of extracellular Wg protein is reduced in maternal Rho1 mutants, indicating a defect in secretion. Signaling pathways downregulated by endocytosis, such as the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and Torso pathways, are hyperactivated in maternal Rho1 mutants, consistent with a general role for Rho1 in regulating signaling events governing proper patterning during Drosophila development.

  18. On the need of multi-variables measurements for a proper assessment of hydrological models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baroni, G.; Graeff, T.; Oswald, S. E.

    2012-12-01

    The assessment of hydrological model is often limited by the number of data available. For this, in most of the cases, the hydrological models are often calibrated and validated considering just one single hydrological process. Depending on the case study and the model used examples mainly refer to the use of discharge data, soil moisture or groundwater level. However, several authors have underlined the limit and inconsistence of this approach with multi-input output models because a good simulation may be obtained on the basis of internal errors compensation. To further explore this issue, an uncertainty and global sensitivity analysis is conducted on SHETRAN, a fully distributed physical-based hydrological model. The model is applied in a small (~1.4 km2) mountainous catchment with agricultural land use located in central Germany (Schaefertal, Harz Mountains). Input and parameters are considered as major sources of uncertainty in the framework. A global sensitivity analysis based on the method of Sobol/Saltelli is used to find the most important sources of uncertainty. The results show the presence of compensating errors by the different processes considered i.e. evapotranspiration, percolation, soil moisture and discharge. Complementarily, the sources of uncertainty are founded to be specific for each process considered. In this way, it is showed how a coupled multi-objective sensitivity and calibration analysis should be used for a proper assessment of the model.

  19. Proper functioning of the GINS complex is important for the fidelity of DNA replication in yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabowska, Ewa; Wronska, Urszula; Denkiewicz, Milena; Jaszczur, Malgorzata; Respondek, Aleksandra; Alabrudzinska, Malgorzata; Suski, Catherine; Makiela-Dzbenska, Karolina; Jonczyk, Piotr; Fijalkowska, Iwona J

    2014-05-01

    The role of replicative DNA polymerases in ensuring genome stability is intensively studied, but the role of other components of the replisome is still not fully understood. One of such component is the GINS complex (comprising the Psf1, Psf2, Psf3 and Sld5 subunits), which participates in both initiation and elongation of DNA replication. Until now, the understanding of the physiological role of GINS mostly originated from biochemical studies. In this article, we present genetic evidence for an essential role of GINS in the maintenance of replication fidelity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In our studies we employed the psf1-1 allele (Takayama et al., 2003) and a novel psf1-100 allele isolated in our laboratory. Analysis of the levels and specificity of mutations in the psf1 strains indicates that the destabilization of the GINS complex or its impaired interaction with DNA polymerase epsilon increases the level of spontaneous mutagenesis and the participation of the error-prone DNA polymerase zeta. Additionally, a synergistic mutator effect was found for the defects in Psf1p and in the proofreading activity of Pol epsilon, suggesting that proper functioning of GINS is crucial for facilitating error-free processing of terminal mismatches created by Pol epsilon. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Autophagy is required for efficient meiosis progression and proper meiotic chromosome segregation in fission yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuhara, Hirotada; Yamamoto, Ayumu

    2016-01-01

    Autophagy is a conserved intracellular degradation system, which contributes to development and differentiation of various organisms. Yeast cells undergo meiosis under nitrogen-starved conditions and require autophagy for meiosis initiation. However, the precise roles of autophagy in meiosis remain unclear. Here, we show that autophagy is required for efficient meiosis progression and proper meiotic chromosome segregation in fission yeast. Autophagy-defective strains bearing a mutation in the autophagy core factor gene atg1, atg7, or atg14 exhibit deformed nuclear structures during meiosis. These mutant cells require an extracellular nitrogen supply for meiosis progression following their entry into meiosis and show delayed meiosis progression even with a nitrogen supply. In addition, they show frequent chromosome dissociation from the spindle together with spindle overextension, forming extra nuclei. Furthermore, Aurora kinase, which regulates chromosome segregation and spindle elongation, is significantly increased at the centromere and spindle in the mutant cells. Aurora kinase down-regulation eliminated delayed initiation of meiosis I and II, chromosome dissociation, and spindle overextension, indicating that increased Aurora kinase activity may cause these aberrances in the mutant cells. Our findings show a hitherto unrecognized relationship of autophagy with the nuclear structure, regulation of cell cycle progression, and chromosome segregation in meiosis. © 2015 The Molecular Biology Society of Japan and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  1. Invert emulsion: Method of preparation and application as proper formulation of entomopathogenic fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batta, Yacoub A

    2016-01-01

    The present article describes the technique used for preparing the invert emulsion (water-in-oil type) then, selecting the most proper formulation of invert emulsion for being used as a carrier formulation of entomopathogenic fungi. It also describes the method used for testing the efficacy of the formulated fungi as biocontrol agents of targeted insects. Detailed examples demonstrating the efficacy of formulated strains of entomopathogenic fungi against certain species of insect pests were included in the present article. The techniques and methods described in this article are reproducible and helpful in enhancing the effectiveness of formulated fungi against wide range of targeted insects in comparison with the unformulated form of these fungi. Also, these techniques and methods can be used effectively in crop protection and in the integrated pest management programs. Finally, it is important to indicate that the ingredients used for preparation of the invert emulsion have no environmental side-effects or health risks since these ingredients are safe to use and can be used in manufacturing of cosmetics or as food additives.•Description of method used for preparation of invert emulsion (water-in-oil type) and selecting the most stable and non-viscous emulsion.•Description of technique used for introducing the entomopathogenic fungi into the selected stable and non-viscous invert emulsion.•Description of method for testing the efficacy of introduced entomopathogenic fungus into the selected invert emulsion against targeted insects with detailed examples on the efficacy testing.

  2. Proper Motions of Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxies from Hubble Space Telescope Imaging. 3; Measurement for URSA Minor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piatek, Slawomir; Pryor, Carlton; Bristow, Paul; Olszewski, Edward W.; Harris, Hugh C.; Mateo, Mario; Minniti, Dante; Tinney, Christopher G.

    2005-01-01

    This article presents a measurement of the proper motion of the Ursa Minor dwarf spheroidal galaxy determined from images taken with the Hubble Space Telescope in two distinct fields. Each field contains a quasi-stellar object that serves as the "reference point". Integrating the motion of Ursa Minor in a realistic potential for the Milky Way produces orbital elements. The perigalacticon and apogalacticon are 40 (10, 76) and 89 (78, 160) kpc, respectively, where the values in the parentheses represent the 95% confidence intervals derived from Monte Carlo experiments. The eccentricity of the orbit is 0.39 (0.09, 0.79), and the orbital period is 1.5 (1.1, 2.7) Gyr. The orbit is retrograde and inclined by 124 degrees (94 deg, 36 deg ) to the Galactic plane. Ursa Minor is not a likely member of a proposed stream of galaxies on similar orbits around the Milky Way, nor is the plane of its orbit coincident with a recently proposed planar alignment of galaxies around the Milky Way. Comparing the orbits of Ursa Minor and Carina shows no reason for the different star formation histories of these two galaxies. Ursa Minor must contain dark matter to have a high probability of having survived disruption by the Galactic tidal force until the present.

  3. Proper Orthogonal Decomposition analysis of kinetic energy entrainment in large wind farms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhulst, Claire; Meneveau, Charles

    2012-11-01

    Vertical entrainment of kinetic energy is thought to play an important role in the dynamics of very large wind farms (Calaf et al., Phys Fluids 2010; and Cal et al. J. Ren. Sust. Energy 2010). To elucidate dominant mechanisms and flow physics of this vertical transfer of kinetic energy, we use Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD) to extract dominant flow structures from snapshots of velocity fields generated using Large Eddy Simulation of flow in an infinite turbine array in the atmospheric boundary layer. The POD analysis shows that the dominant modes are large streamwise counter-rotating vortices located above the turbines. The contribution of each POD mode to kinetic energy entrainment at the turbine level is then quantified and the modes are ordered by this contribution. Interestingly, the number of POD modes needed to represent dominant portions of the kinetic energy entrainment is less that the number needed to represent similar portions of the kinetic energy in the turbulent field. This suggests that understanding and controlling only a small number of flow structures may be relevant to the design of very large wind farms. In addition, to understand how the array layout affects the POD modes, several turbine orientations (aligned, staggered, etc) will be discussed. This research is supported by a NSF Graduate Fellowship and by NSF-CBET 1133800. Computer time by NCAR is also appreciated.

  4. Rank defect analysis and the realization of proper singularity in normal equations of geodetic networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotsakis, C.; Chatzinikos, M.

    2017-06-01

    The singularity of input normal equations (NEQ) is a crucial element for their optimal handling in the context of terrestrial reference frame (TRF) estimation under the minimal-constraint framework. However, this element is often missing in the recovered NEQ from SINEX files after the usual deconstraining based on the stated information for the stored solutions. The same setback also occurs with the original NEQ that are formed by the least-squares processing of space geodetic data due to the datum information which is carried by various modeling choices and/or software-dependent procedures. In the absence of this datum-related singularity, it is not possible to obtain genuine minimally constrained solutions because of the interference between the input NEQ's content and the external datum conditions, a fact that may alter the geometrical information of the original measurements and can cause unwanted distortions in the estimated solution. The main goal of this paper is the formulation of a filtering scheme to enforce the proper (or desired) singularity in the input NEQ with regard to datum parameters that will be handled by the minimal-constraint setting in TRF estimation problems. The importance of this task is extensively discussed and justified with the help of several numerical examples in different GNSS networks.

  5. The first allwise proper motion discovery: Wisea J070720.50+170532.7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, Edward L.; Mace, Gregory; McLean, Ian S. [UCLA Astronomy, P.O. Box 951547, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States); Kirkpatrick, J. Davy; Gelino, Christopher R.; Fajardo-Acosta, Sergio [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Eisenhardt, Peter R.; Stern, Daniel [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Skrutskie, M. F.; Oza, Apurva; Nelson, M. J. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Cushing, Michael C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Toledo, 2801 West Bancroft Street, Toledo, OH 43606-3328 (United States); Reid, I. Neill [STScI, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Fumagalli, Michele [Carnegie Observatories, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Burgasser, Adam J., E-mail: wright@astro.ucla.edu [University of California San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States)

    2014-03-01

    While quality checking a new motion-aware co-addition of all 12.5 months of Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) data, we found that the source WISE J070720.48+170533.0 moved 0.''9 in six months. Backtracking this motion allowed us to identify this source as 2MASS J07071961+1705464, with several entries in the USNO B catalog. An astrometric fit to these archival data gives a proper motion of μ = 1793 ± 2 mas yr{sup –1} and a parallax of piv = 35 ± 42 mas. Photometry from WISE, 2MASS, and the POSS can be fit reasonably well by a blackbody with T = 3658 K and an angular radius of 4.36 × 10{sup –11} radians. No clear evidence of H{sub 2} collision-induced absorption is seen in the near-infrared. An optical spectrum shows broad deep CaH bands at 638 and 690 nm, broad deep Na D at 598.2 nm, and weak or absent TiO, indicating that this source is an ultra-subdwarf M star with a radial velocity v {sub rad} ≈ –21 ± 18 km s{sup –1} relative to the Sun. Given its apparent magnitude, the distance is about 39 ± 9 pc and the tangential velocity is probably ≈330 km s{sup –1}, but a more precise parallax is needed to be certain.

  6. Proper meals in transition: young married couples on the nature of eating together.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, D W; Anderson, A S

    2002-12-01

    Most people get married or spend time living with a partner at some stage in their lives. But what effect does this change have, if any, on their eating habits? The transition from bachelor or spinster to young couple represents a major lifecourse change and this paper looks at the role that eating together plays in the lives of a group of young Scottish couples recently married or cohabiting with their partner. The key question here is what role do meals play in all of this and how are eating activities arranged in these households. In an attempt to move the debate on meals beyond the "traditional family unit" it considers what eating "properly" meant for these couples. The paper looks at the importance of the evening meal as a site for sociability in married and cohabiting couples and examines the process of social interaction, focusing on temporal and spatial aspects of eating together as a couple. It reports on what men and women said in individual interviews and recorded in personal food diaries, contrasting this with their behaviour when they were living separately from their partners. Copyright 2002 Published by Elsevier Science Ltd.

  7. Transportin-SR is required for proper splicing of resistance genes and plant immunity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaohua Xu

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Transportin-SR (TRN-SR is a member of the importin-β super-family that functions as the nuclear import receptor for serine-arginine rich (SR proteins, which play diverse roles in RNA metabolism. Here we report the identification and cloning of mos14 (modifier of snc1-1, 14, a mutation that suppresses the immune responses conditioned by the auto-activated Resistance (R protein snc1 (suppressor of npr1-1, constitutive 1. MOS14 encodes a nuclear protein with high similarity to previously characterized TRN-SR proteins in animals. Yeast two-hybrid assays showed that MOS14 interacts with AtRAN1 via its N-terminus and SR proteins via its C-terminus. In mos14-1, localization of several SR proteins to the nucleus was impaired, confirming that MOS14 functions as a TRN-SR. The mos14-1 mutation results in altered splicing patterns of SNC1 and another R gene RPS4 and compromised resistance mediated by snc1 and RPS4, suggesting that nuclear import of SR proteins by MOS14 is required for proper splicing of these two R genes and is important for their functions in plant immunity.

  8. Hubble Space Telescope Proper Motions along the Sagittarius Stream. I. Observations and Results for Stars in Four Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Sangmo Tony; van der Marel, Roeland P.; Carlin, Jeffrey L.; Majewski, Steven R.; Kallivayalil, Nitya; Law, David R.; Anderson, Jay; Siegel, Michael H.

    2015-04-01

    We present a multi-epoch Hubble Space Telescope (HST) study of stellar proper motions (PMs) for four fields spanning 200° along the Sagittarius (Sgr) stream: one trailing arm field, one field near the Sgr dwarf spheroidal tidal radius, and two leading arm fields. We determine absolute PMs of dozens of individual stars per field, using established techniques that use distant background galaxies as the stationary reference frame. Stream stars are identified based on combined color-magnitude diagram and PM information. The results are broadly consistent with the few existing PM measurements for the Sgr galaxy and the trailing arm. However, our new results provide the highest PM accuracy for the stream to date, the first PM measurements for the leading arm, and the first PM measurements for individual stream stars; we also serendipitously determine the PM of the globular cluster NGC 6652. In the trailing-arm field, the individual PMs allow us to kinematically separate trailing-arm stars from leading-arm stars that are 360° further ahead in their orbit. Also, in three of our fields we find indications that two distinct kinematical components may exist within the same arm and wrap of the stream. Qualitative comparison of the HST data to the predictions of the Law & Majewski and Peñarrubia et al. N-body models show that the PM measurements closely follow the predicted trend with Sgr longitude. This provides a successful consistency check on the PM measurements, as well as on these N-body approaches (which were not tailored to fit any PM data).

  9. Comparing and improving proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) to reduce the complexity of groundwater models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosses, Moritz; Nowak, Wolfgang; Wöhling, Thomas

    2017-04-01

    Physically-based modeling is a wide-spread tool in understanding and management of natural systems. With the high complexity of many such models and the huge amount of model runs necessary for parameter estimation and uncertainty analysis, overall run times can be prohibitively long even on modern computer systems. An encouraging strategy to tackle this problem are model reduction methods. In this contribution, we compare different proper orthogonal decomposition (POD, Siade et al. (2010)) methods and their potential applications to groundwater models. The POD method performs a singular value decomposition on system states as simulated by the complex (e.g., PDE-based) groundwater model taken at several time-steps, so-called snapshots. The singular vectors with the highest information content resulting from this decomposition are then used as a basis for projection of the system of model equations onto a subspace of much lower dimensionality than the original complex model, thereby greatly reducing complexity and accelerating run times. In its original form, this method is only applicable to linear problems. Many real-world groundwater models are non-linear, tough. These non-linearities are introduced either through model structure (unconfined aquifers) or boundary conditions (certain Cauchy boundaries, like rivers with variable connection to the groundwater table). To date, applications of POD focused on groundwater models simulating pumping tests in confined aquifers with constant head boundaries. In contrast, POD model reduction either greatly looses accuracy or does not significantly reduce model run time if the above-mentioned non-linearities are introduced. We have also found that variable Dirichlet boundaries are problematic for POD model reduction. An extension to the POD method, called POD-DEIM, has been developed for non-linear groundwater models by Stanko et al. (2016). This method uses spatial interpolation points to build the equation system in the

  10. SLoWPoKES-II: 100,000 WIDE BINARIES IDENTIFIED IN SDSS WITHOUT PROPER MOTIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhital, Saurav [Department of Physical Sciences, Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University, 600 South Clyde Morris Blvd., Daytona Beach, FL 32114 (United States); West, Andrew A.; Schluns, Kyle J.; Massey, Angela P. [Department of Astronomy, Boston University, 725 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Stassun, Keivan G., E-mail: dhitals@erau.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, 6301 Stevenson Center, Nashville, TN, 37235 (United States)

    2015-08-15

    We present the Sloan Low-mass Wide Pairs of Kinematically Equivalent Stars (SLoWPoKES)-II catalog of low-mass visual binaries identified from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) by matching photometric distances. The candidate pairs are vetted by comparing the stellar information. The candidate pairs are vetted by comparing the stellar density at their respective Galactic positions to Monte Carlo realizations of a simulated Milky Way. In this way, we are able to identify large numbers of bona fide wide binaries without the need for proper motions. Here, 105,537 visual binaries with angular separations of ∼1–20″ were identified, each with a probability of chance alignment of ≤5%. This is the largest catalog of bona fide wide binaries to date, and it contains a diversity of systems—in mass, mass ratios, binary separations, metallicity, and evolutionary states—that should facilitate follow-up studies to characterize the properties of M dwarfs and white dwarfs. There is a subtle but definitive suggestion of multiple populations in the physical separation distribution, supporting earlier findings. We suggest that wide binaries are composed of multiple populations, most likely representing different formation modes. There are 141 M7 or later wide binary candidates, representing a seven-fold increase over the number currently known. These binaries are too wide to have been formed via the ejection mechanism. Finally, we found that 6% of spectroscopically confirmed M dwarfs are not included in the SDSS STAR catalog; they are misclassified as extended sources due to the presence of a nearby or partially resolved companion. The SLoWPoKES-II catalog is publicly available to the entire community on the World Wide Web via the Filtergraph data visualization portal.

  11. Ethics and transparent risk communication start with proper risk assessment methodologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oboni, Franco; Oboni, Cesar

    2014-05-01

    We will use throught this paper a "dialogue" between two professionals. One is aware of the misleading character of many risk assessments and wants to foster better approaches. A discomforting set of statements sets the background of the "story": public reactions to risk assessments are generally negative, the developer find it difficult to understand the reasons for general public negative reactions, many projects get often rejected without valid reasons by the public, anywhere in the world. Common practice approaches in Risk Assessment are discussed from the angle of public rejection, taking into account various studies that explicitly expose common practices limitations and voids. The hiatus between rational and well-balanced risk assessments and common practices is explored. Finally solutions to overcome the limitations of common practices and deliver to the public more realistic risk assessment on which to build a widespread consensus are reviewed. The paper conclusions relate to the need of: properly communicating risk throughout the life of a project, from cradle to grave, avoiding conflict of interest, having estimates that are understandable to foster good understanding of what a risk assessment can bring to better Human existence, in an ethical and fair way. The paper delivers a list of possible remedies and shows that "Common Practices" do not equate to "Best Practices": common practices are not to be proposed/used any longer if we want to avoid public distrust and misrepresentations. Many of the "modern" issues ranging from public distrust to insurance denial could be relieved or mitigated ahead of time if misrepresentation was kept at bay using five simple rules. Common practice Risk Assessments, especially those developed under conflict of interest situations, generally misrepresent risks and fail to give the "big picture", hence do not help taking valid decision and are prone to generating/fostering public distrust.

  12. From dust to treasure: building a proper self-image through astronomy course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Xiaoying

    2015-08-01

    Self-image is how we perceive ourselves. It is the impression built up over time from how we see ourselves and how the others see ourselves. As a teacher in a small college in China since 2013, I have found that most of my undergraduate students’ self-image is not “so healthy”, even some of them “de-valuate” themselves. After I got my PhD degree in astronomy, I have taught the astronomy introduction course in my college for three semesters. Since last semester, I decide not only to aim to warm up my students’ enthusiasm for astronomy, but also to try to help them build a proper self-image through astronomical teaching. In the course, solar system, planet formation, habitable planet, life on the planet are first few lectures to make students understand what a low probability that a habitable planet supporting life is formed. In a following lecture: from dust to treasure, I illustrate how precious each of us on earth, which are results of several billion years of evolution. At the same time, psychological survey and discussion are carried out during the course, helping students better understand themselves. Students are divided into groups to finish assignments via discussion and team work. In the final exam, each group present what they have learnt in a 10-15 min show, such as drama, musical, debate, crosstalk, dance etc.. I will present the structure of my course, the technique I use to teach, the most recent results of a survey of students’ self-image, and the students’ thought of the course in this meeting.

  13. What is the proper role of oral antibiotics in the treatment of patients with chronic sinusitis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelson, Robert T; Adappa, Nithin D

    2013-02-01

    Chronic rhinosinusitis is a common illness for which systemic antibiotics are frequently prescribed, although high-level evidence for this practice is largely lacking. We review the available literature addressing the proper role of oral antibiotics in the treatment of chronic rhinosinusitis. Chronic rhinosinusitis is an incompletely understood disease process for which the role of antibiotics remains difficult to define despite its historical prominence. There is no high-level evidence to support the use of oral antibiotics in chronic rhinosinusitis. Placebo-controlled studies of macrolide antibiotics indicate either no effect or limited degrees of improvement. Recent literature has identified that sinusitis refractory to medical therapy may represent an odontogenic source, and this should be addressed by dental surgery rather than by additional antibiotics. Oral antibiotics can be prescribed most confidently for the management of chronic rhinosinusitis when purulent exacerbations of disease are detected endoscopically and antibiotic choices are directed by culture. Long-term macrolide antibiotic therapy, acting through immunomodulatory pathways, may be of benefit in chronic rhinosinusitis patients with low immmunoglobulin E levels. Odontogenic sources of sinusitis are best detected by a computed tomography scan and treated through dental surgery. There is no high-level experimental evidence to support the use of oral antibiotics in the management of chronic rhinosinusitis. The challenge continues to be the inability to perform double-blinded studies, as both patients and physicians are generally unwilling to participate in chronic sinusitis treatment studies with a placebo arm, given the deep-seated belief of oral antibiotic efficacy in treatment.

  14. Determination of priority among air pollution factors in preventing COPD in residents of Shanghai City proper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xuguang, Tao; Chuan-jie, Hong; Shun-zhang, Yu; Bing-heng, Chen; Hui-gang, Zhu; Ming-ding, Yang (Shanghai Medical Univ. (China))

    The purpose of our study is to determine the priority among ambient sulphur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), inhalable particulates (IP), and indoor use of coal for cooking or heating to prevent COPD in residents of Shanghai city proper. We describe spatial and temporal distribution of the concentration of ambient SO{sub 2}, IP, and the proportion of families who use coal (1980-1985) by the trend surface simulating method and other statistics. Stratified by two sets of extreme levels of ambient SO{sub 2}, IP, and the proportion of coal-using families, we selected eight groups with different combinations of exposure levels. We analyzed the relationship between air pollution factors and their health effects at levels of mortality (1978-1987, 232,459 person years), prevalence (1987, 12,037 persons), lung function and local immunologic function (1987, 514 women) with logistic and stepwise regression, and ridit analysis. After controlling for possible confounders, e.g., tobacco smoking and occupational exposure, we found that indoor use of coal is a more important risk factor than ambient SO{sub 2} and IP. We then used canonical correlation analysis to evaluate the overall exposure-effect relationship between one set of air pollution and confounding factors and the other set of health effect indices. High correlation is found between the two. The indoor use of coal is more important for the overall health effects than the ambient SO{sub 2} and IP, to change from coal to gas could reduce the environmental exposure canonical variable more readily, with an effect equivalent to a reduction of 0.1839 mg/m{sup 3} for ambient SO{sub 2}, or 0.2806 mg/m{sup 3} for ambient IP in concentration.

  15. Proper Consumption of Sugary Drinks and its Association with Adolescent Girls’ Knowledge and Skill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ramezankhani

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Changes in the nutritional behaviors from consumption of traditional nutriments to intakes of high energy, concerned in powering the increasing problem in adolescents and children's obesity. The current study intended to evaluate Proper consumption of sugary drinks and its association with adolescent girls’ knowledge and skill in Shahr-e-kord city, Iran.Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study carried out on girl's students in Shahr-e-kord city. Using random sampling method and based on sampling size formula, a total of 308 of the girls students were randomly selected from the schools and were registered into the study. Then they received a research-made questionnaire containing questions about the knowledge, skill and Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ. The collected data were analyzed using SPSS version 18.0 by ANOVA, and Pearson correlation coefficient.Results: The mean age of the participating adolescent girls was 13.86 ± 1.3 years old. The mean score for knowledge was 36.53 ± 21.87 and the mean score for the skill of preparing and consumption of sugar free drinks was 35.77 ± 24.67. The average amount of daily consumption of sugary drinks among studied adolescent girls was 2.95 glasses.There was a direct significant association between students’ knowledge and skill (P = 0.002, r = 0.182, There was also a significant reverse association between adolescents’ skill(P = 0. 006 r = -0.228 and knowledge (P = 0. 05 r = -0.322 with consumption of sugary drinks.Conclusion: According to the findings of this study, to increase the consumption of valuable foods and improving adolescents’ nutritional habits, more attention should be paid to the health education and promotion and by using effective relevant patterns and theories.

  16. Legionella pneumophila catalase-peroxidases are required for proper trafficking and growth in primary macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Purnima; Byrne, Brenda; Chan, Yolande; Swanson, Michele S; Steinman, Howard M

    2003-08-01

    Legionella pneumophila, a parasite of aquatic amoebae and pathogen of pulmonary macrophages, replicates intracellularly, utilizing a type IV secretion system to subvert the trafficking of Legionella-containing phagosomes. Defense against host-derived reactive oxygen species has been proposed as critical for intracellular replication. Virulence traits of null mutants in katA and katB, encoding the two Legionella catalase-peroxidases, were analyzed to evaluate the hypothesis that L. pneumophila must decompose hydrogen peroxide to establish a replication niche in macrophages. Phagosomes containing katA or katB mutant Legionella colocalize with LAMP-1, a late endosomal-lysosomal marker, at twice the frequency of those of wild-type strain JR32 and show a decreased frequency of bacterial replication, in similarity to phenotypes of mutants with mutations in dotA and dotB, encoding components of the Type IV secretion system. Quantitative similarity of the katA/B phenotypes indicates that each contributes to virulence traits largely independently of intracellular compartmentalization (KatA in the periplasm and KatB in the cytosol). These data support a model in which KatA and KatB maintain a critically low level of H(2)O(2) compatible with proper phagosome trafficking mediated by the type IV secretion apparatus. During these studies, we observed that dotA and dotB mutations in wild-type strain Lp02 had no effect on intracellular multiplication in the amoeba Acanthamoeba castellanii, indicating that certain dotA/B functions in Lp02 are dispensable in that experimental model. We also observed that wild-type JR32, unlike Lp02, shows minimal contact-dependent cytotoxicity, suggesting that cytotoxicity of JR32 is not a prerequisite for formation of replication-competent Legionella phagosomes in macrophages.

  17. [Significance of proper oral hygiene for health condition of mouth and teeth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ljaljević, Agima; Matijević, Snezana; Terzić, Natasa; Andjelić, Jasmina; Mugosa, Boban

    2012-01-01

    Proper mouth and teeth hygiene has influence on the prevention of a great number of diseases and very often some of them are not related only to oral cavity. Most frequent diseases of mouth and teeth such as caries and periodontal diseases are caused, among other factors, by poor oral hygiene. They are also more frequent in young population. The aim of this study was to estimate the influence of sociodemographic characteristics and hygienic habit on oral health in children aged 11-15 years. This cross-sectional study was conducted by the dental teams in dentist surgeries in Tivat Health Center between May and September 2009. The sample consisted of patients 11 to 15 years of age. A questionnaire and dental examination of mouth and teeth were used as research instruments. The examinations were conducted in accordance with the World Health Organization methodology and criteria. The data obtained from the interviews were correlated with those obtained from the clinical examinations. The results show that the majority of respondents brush their teeth twice a day and visit the dentist once in every six months. The research also shows that 57% respondents have caries of deciduous teeth and over 63% respondents of permanent teeth. Gingivitis was found in 14% and orthodontic anomalies in 44.7% respondents. A half of respondents who brush their teeth rarely have problems with gingivitis. There is a highly statistically significant difference between the occurrence of gingivitis and the frequency of teeth brushing. There is a significant difference between mouth and oral hygiene and sex as well as other sociodemographic characteristics of respondents. The study showed the correlation between occurrence of caries and the gingivitis and frequency of teeth brushing and dental visits.

  18. Significance of proper oral hygiene for health condition of mouth and teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljaljević Agima

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Proper mouth and teeth hygiene has influence on the prevention of a great number of diseases and very often some of them are not related only to oral cavity. Most frequent diseases of mouth and teeth such as caries and periodontal diseases are caused, among other factors, by poor oral hygiene. They are also more frequent in young population. The aim of this study was to estimate the influence of sociodemographic characteristics and hygienic habit on oral health in children aged 11-15 years. Methods. This crosssectional study was conducted by the dental teams in dentist surgeries in Tivat Health Center between May and September 2009. The sample consisted of patients 11 to 15 years of age. A questionnaire and dental examination of mouth and teeth were used as research instruments. The examinations were conducted in accordance with the World Health Organization methodology and criteria. The data obtained from the interviews were correlated with those obtained from the clinical examinations. Results. The results show that the majority of respondents brush their teeth twice a day and visit the dentist once in every six months. The research also shows that 57% respondents have caries of deciduous teeth and over 63% respondents of permanent teeth. Gingivitis was found in 14% and orthodontic anomalies in 44.7% respondents. A half of respondents who brush their teeth rarely have problems with gingivitis. There is a highly statistically significant difference between the occurrence of gingivitis and the frequency of teeth brushing. Conclusion. There is a significant difference between mouth and oral hygiene and sex as well as other sociodemographic characteristics of respondents. The study showed the correlation between occurrence of caries and the gingivitis and frequency of teeth brushing and dental visits.

  19. Sequential and combinatorial roles of maf family genes define proper lens development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reza, Hasan Mahmud; Urano, Atsuyo; Shimada, Naoko; Yasuda, Kunio

    2007-01-16

    Maf proteins have been shown to play pivotal roles in lens development in vertebrates. The developing chick lens expresses at least three large Maf proteins. However, the transcriptional relationship among the three large maf genes and their various roles in transactivating the downstream genes largely remain to be elucidated. Chick embryos were electroporated with wild-type L-maf, c-maf, and mafB by in ovo electroporation, and their effects on gene expression were determined by in situ hybridization using specific probes or by immunostaining. Endogenous gene expression was determined using nonelectroporated samples. A regulation mechanism exists among the members of maf family gene. An early-expressed member of this gene family typically stimulates the expression of later-expressed members. We also examined the regulation of various lens-expressing genes with a focus on the interaction between different Maf proteins. We found that the transcriptional ability of Maf proteins varies, even when the target is the same, in parallel with their discrete functions. L-Maf and c-Maf have no effect on E-cadherin expression, whereas MafB enhances its expression and thereby impedes lens vesicle formation. This study also revealed that Maf proteins can regulate the expression of gap junction genes, connexins, and their interacting partner, major intrinsic protein (MIP), during lens development. Misexpression of L-Maf and c-Maf induces ectopic expression of Cx43 and MIP; in contrast, MafB appears to have no effect on Cx43, but induces MIP significantly as evidenced from our gain-of-function experiments. Our results indicate that large Maf function is indispensable for chick lens initiation and development. In addition, L-Maf positively regulates most of the essential genes in this program and directs a series of molecular events leading to proper formation of the lens.

  20. Explanations, mechanisms, and developmental models: Why the nativist account of early perceptual learning is not a proper mechanistic model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radenović Ljiljana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last several decades a number of studies on perceptual learning in early infancy have suggested that even infants seem to be sensitive to the way objects move and interact in the world. In order to explain the early emergence of infants’ sensitivity to causal patterns in the world some psychologists have proposed that core knowledge of objects and causal relations is innate (Leslie & Keeble 1987, Carey & Spelke, 1994; Keil, 1995; Spelke et al., 1994. The goal of this paper is to examine the nativist developmental model by investigating the criteria that a mechanistic model needs to fulfill if it is to be explanatory. Craver (2006 put forth a number of such criteria and developed a few very useful distinctions between explanation sketches and proper mechanistic explanations. By applying these criteria to the nativist developmental model I aim to show, firstly, that nativists only partially characterize the phenomenon at stake without giving us the details of when and under which conditions perception and attention in early infancy take place. Secondly, nativist start off with a description of the phenomena to be explained (even if it is only a partial description but import into it a particular theory of perception that requires further empirical evidence and further defense on its own. Furthermore, I argue that innate knowledge is a good candidate for a filler term (a term that is used to name the still unknown processes and parts of the mechanism and is likely to become redundant. Recent extensive research on early intermodal perception indicates that the mechanism enabling the perception of regularities and causal patterns in early infancy is grounded in our neurophysiology. However, this mechanism is fairly basic and does not involve highly sophisticated cognitive structures or innate core knowledge. I conclude with a remark that a closer examination of the mechanisms involved in early perceptual learning indicates that the nativism

  1. Anemia after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. How feasible to eliminate the risk by proper supplementation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Villar Madrigal, Eduardo; Neme-Yunes, Yvette; Clavellina-Gaytan, Diana; Sanchez, Hugo A; Mosti, Maureen; Herrera, Miguel F

    2015-01-01

    Anemia after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) has been reported in 5 to 64 % of patients. Since absorption of specific elements is reduced, proper supplementation is mandatory. The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency of anemia, its causes, and the related deficiencies during the 1st postoperative year after RYGB. A retrospective review of our prospectively collected database was performed. A total of 486 patients who underwent RYGB in a 5-year period and completed at least 1-year follow-up were included. Daily supplements as suggested by the AACE/TOS/ASMBS guidelines were routinely prescribed. Blood count, iron profile, folic acid, and B12 measurements 1 year after surgery were reviewed. One hundred ninety-five males and 291 females were included, with a mean age of 39.9 ± 11.6 years and a mean body mass index (BMI) of 42.4 ± 6.3 kg/m(2). Anemia 1 year after surgery was found in 19 patients (4 %), 6 males and 13 females. In seven women, it was related to iron deficiency. Two additional women had iron deficiency combined with low vitamin B12. Anemia was secondary to inflammation in two and indeterminate in two. In the six males, the cause of anemia was inflammation in three and indeterminate in three. Abnormal bleeding was found in five of these patients. Frequency of anemia 1 year after RYGB in our population was low (4 %). Anemia non-attributable to malabsorption was frequently present (n = 9/19). Iron deficiency was found exclusively in women. The most common non-malabsorptive types of anemia were inflammation and dysfunctional uterine bleeding.

  2. On the graphic adaptation of proper names in the first Romanian translation of the Septuagint (Ms. 45

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana-Maria Gînsac

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Among the difficulties that have always challenged the translators of the Bible one can mention the adaptation of proper names in each idiom. Certain biblical proper names were adapted into Romanian when the first translations of fragments belonging to the Old and the New Testaments were performed. However, most biblical proper names were adapted into Romanian for the first time in the translation of the Septuagint performed by Nicolae Spătarul (Milescu in the second half of the 17th century and preserved in a manuscript copy (the Romanian manuscript no. 45 from the same century. The main source of this translation was an edition of the Septuagint issued in Frankfurt in 1597. In accordance with the spirit of literalism in Bible translation in that period, the main tendency of translators and reviewers was to preserve, as much as possible, the original form of proper names as they appeared in the source-text, attempting, at the same time, to integrate them in the formal system (graphy, declension of the Romanian language. Starting from the formal particularities of the names in the source-text, we aim at describing certain aspects related to the graphic principles that the transposition of proper names from the Greek source into Ms. 45 was based upon.

  3. Proper selection of 1 g controls in simulated microgravity research as illustrated with clinorotated plant cell suspension cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamal, Khaled Y.; Hemmersbach, Ruth; Medina, F. Javier; Herranz, Raúl

    2015-04-01

    Understanding the physical and biological effects of the absence of gravity is necessary to conduct operations on space environments. It has been previously shown that the microgravity environment induces the dissociation of cell proliferation from cell growth in young seedling root meristems, but this source material is limited to few cells in each row of meristematic layers. Plant cell cultures, composed by a large and homogeneous population of proliferating cells, are an ideal model to study the effects of altered gravity on cellular mechanisms regulating cell proliferation and associated cell growth. Cell suspension cultures of Arabidopsis thaliana cell line (MM2d) were exposed to 2D-clinorotation in a pipette clinostat for 3.5 or 14 h, respectively, and were then processed either by quick freezing, to be used in flow cytometry, or by chemical fixation, for microscopy techniques. After long-term clinorotation, the proportion of cells in G1 phase was increased and the nucleolus area, as revealed by immunofluorescence staining with anti-nucleolin, was decreased. Despite the compatibility of these results with those obtained in real microgravity on seedling meristems, we provide a technical discussion in the context of clinorotation and proper 1 g controls with respect to suspension cultures. Standard 1 g procedure of sustaining the cell suspension is achieved by continuously shaking. Thus, we compare the mechanical forces acting on cells in clinorotated samples, in a control static sample and in the standard 1 g conditions of suspension cultures in order to define the conditions of a complete and reliable experiment in simulated microgravity with corresponding 1 g controls.

  4. Proper Use and Care of Miscellaneous Equipment. Learning Activity Pack and Instructor's Guide 4.2. Commercial Foods and Culinary Arts Competency-Based Series. Section 4: Equipment Handling, Operation, and Maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florida State Univ., Tallahassee. Center for Studies in Vocational Education.

    This document consists of a learning activity packet (LAP) for the student and an instructor's guide for the teacher. The LAP is intended to acquaint occupational home economics students with the proper use and care of various pieces of commercial cooking equipment. Illustrated information sheets and learning activities are provided on each of the…

  5. Context and Linguistic Skills Factors Affecting the Pronunciation of Arabic Proper Names in Speakers of Bahdini Kurdish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilgash Mohammed Shareef

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to explore the pronunciation of Arabic proper names by Bahdini Kurds living in Duhok and the districts around. Thirty-two respondents were selected to say fifty Arabic proper names commonly used by Kurdish today’s society. The variables identified are linguistic skills in Kurdish and Arabic, and the extent of the formality of the context. The study concluded that being a fluent speaker of Arabic gives a Bahdini Kurdish speaker the ability to pronounce the Arabic proper names in a native-like accent. Yet, those speakers have revealed a tendency towards the use of a Kurdish pronunciation of such names when the context was informal. Dissimilarly, the Kurdish pronunciation was regularly used by speakers skilled or unskilled in Kurdish language and linguistics in both formal and informal situations.

  6. The power of teaming up HST and Gaia: the first proper motion measurement of the distant cluster NGC 2419

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massari, D.; Posti, L.; Helmi, A.; Fiorentino, G.; Tolstoy, E.

    2017-02-01

    Aims: We present the first measurement of the proper motion and orbit of the very distant and intriguing globular cluster NCG 2419. Methods: We have combined data from HST and Gaia DR1 to derive the relative proper motions of stars in the direction of the cluster. To tie these to an absolute reference frame, we have used a background galaxy located in the field. Results: We find the absolute proper motion of NGC 2419 to be (μαcos(δ), μδ) = (-0.17 ± 0.26,-0.49 ± 0.17) mas yr-1. We have integrated the orbit of the cluster in a Galactic potential and found it to oscillate between 53 kpc and 98 kpc on an almost polar orbit. This, and the fact that it shares the same sense of rotation around the Milky Way, make it very likely that NGC 2419 is a former cluster of the Sagittarius dwarf spheroidal galaxy.

  7. Proper Motion and Core Stability Constraints in the Virgo Cluster: Relative Astrometry of M87 and M84

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Craig; Davies, Fred; Wrobel, Joan; Junor, Bill; Ly, Chun; Hardee, Phil

    2009-07-01

    The relative positions of M87 and M84 were monitored at 43 GHz with the VLBA during a project whose primary goal was to make a properly sampled movie of the M87 jet collimation region. The RMS scatter of 12 observations constrains core wander to be less than about 3 by 10 times the Schwarzschild radius of M87. Comparison with reanalyzed 2001 phase referencing data suggests, barring long term systematic effects, a 5 sigma detection of a relative proper motion of about 800 km/s. This is consistent with the range of radial velocities seen in the Virgo Cluster.

  8. EROS 2 proper motion survey a field brown dwarf and an L dwarf companion to LHS 102

    CERN Document Server

    Goldman, B; Forveille, T; Afonso, C; Alard, C; Albert, J N; Andersen, J; Ansari, R; Aubourg, E; Bareyre, P; Bauer, F; Beaulieu, J P; Borsenberger, J; Bouquet, A; Char, S; Charlot, X; Couchot, F; Coutures, C; Derue, F; Ferlet, R; Fouqué, P; Glicenstein, J F; Gould, A; Graff, D S; Gros, M H; Haïssinski, J; Hamilton, J C; Hardin, D P; De Kat, J; Kim, A; Lasserre, T; Lesquoy, E; Loup, C; Magneville, C; Mansoux, B; Marquette, J B; Martín, E L; Maurice, E; Milshtein, A I; Moniez, M; Palanque-Delabrouille, Nathalie; Perdereau, O; Prévôt, L; Regnault, N; Rich, J; Spiro, Michel; Vidal-Madjar, A; Virgoux, L; Zylberajch, S

    1999-01-01

    We report the discovery of two L dwarfs (the new spectral class defined for dwarfs cooler than the M type) in a two-epoch CCD proper motion survey of 413 square degrees, complemented by infrared photometry from DENIS. One of them has a strong lithium line and is therefore a brown dwarf. The other is a common proper motion companion to the mid-M dwarf LHS 102 (GJ 1001), which has a well determined trigonometric parallax. LHS 102B is thus the coolest L dwarf of known distance and luminosity. Its infrared absolute photometry are very well reproduced by the Allard et al DUSTY models.

  9. The importance of quality fish feed and their proper management in ponds

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    The brochure explains the types of feeds needed by fish and how to detail with over feeding. Fish need to be provided enough nutritious food in order to attain big sizes in a short period of time under culture conditions.

  10. A simple three-dimensional stent for proper placement of mini-implant

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Felicita, A Sumathi

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with the fabrication of a three-dimensional stent which is simple in design but provides an accurate placement of a mini-implant in three planes of space, namely, sagittal (root proximity), vertical...

  11. Japanese study to organize proper lifestyle modifications for metabolic syndrome (J-STOP-MetS: Design and method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masanori Munakata

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Masanori Munakata1, Hiroki Honma2, Mitugu Akasi3, Takaharu Araki4, Takahiko Kawamura5, Masashi Kubota6, Tomoko Yokokawa7, Akira Maruhashi8, Toshihiro Toyonaga9  On behalf of the J-STOP-MetS Study GroupAll authors belong to Preventive Medical Centers of Rosai Hospital Groups in Japan; 1Tohoku Rosai Hospital, Sendai, Japan; 2Iwamizawa Rosai Hospital, Iwamizawa, Japan; 3Kantou Rosai Hospital, Kawasaki, Japan; 4Tokyo Rosai Hospital, Tokyo, Japan; 5Cyubu Rosai Hospital, Nagoya, Japan; 6Oosaka Rosai Hospital, Sakai, Japan; 7Kansai Rosai Hospital, Amagasaki, Japan; 8Chugoku Rosai Hospital, Kure, Japan; 9Kyusyu Rosai Hospital, Kokura, JapanAbstract: Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome is now a very serious health problem in Japan and a public preventive strategy is essential to reduce morbidity. A systematic interventional strategy for the metabolic syndrome remains to be established. In order to address this issue, a multi-center study; Japanese Study to Organize Proper lifestyle modification for the metabolic syndrome (J-STOP-MetS, has been established by nine preventive medical centers among Rosai hospital groups. This study comprises a cross-sectional study (J-STOP-MetS 1 and a prospective randomized control study (J-STOP-MetS 2. J-STOP-MetS 1 examines the causes of the metabolic syndrome by means of a questionnaire in a large cohort of patients with the metabolic syndrome and control subjects matched for age and sex. J-STOP-MetS 2 examines the hypothesis that guidance on lifestyle modifications will help at risk patients to reduce abdominal fat and cardiovascular risk factors. The metabolic syndrome patients are randomly assigned either to a single visit to a guidance group or multiple visits every two months. The individualized guidance is provided by the coordination of physician, trained nurse, dietician and exercise trainer. Several parameters are measured before and six months after the first guidance session, including, body weight, waist

  12. The Effect of Education by Pharmacists for Hyperlipidemic Patients Treated With Statins on Patient’s Beliefs About Proper Use of Medications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrpooya M

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hyperlipidemia is one of the most common chronic diseases found in millions of people. Studies have shown that the patient’s adherences to medication instructions provided by the pharmacist or doctor are important, yet unfortunately many patients do not adhere to proper usage of these drugs. The aim of this study was the evaluation of the effect of education by pharmacists for hyperlipidemic patients treated with statins on patient beliefs about the proper use of medications and compliance. Methods: In this interventional clinical trial study, the studied population was all hospitalized patients with heart disease treated with statins at Hamadan Farshchian hospital from January 2016 to June 2016. The sample size in this study was 50. Information was obtained in relation to each patient, using 2 questionnaires including demographic characteristics and beliefs questionnaire. Data were analyzed using the SPSS.19 software and t test, Mann-Whitney, and X2 tests. Significance level was considered less than 0.05 Results: Statistical test results showed that before the intervention, treatment belief was not significantly different between the 2 groups (P = 0.54, yet after the intervention the treatment belief increased in the intervention group (P = 0.007 and concern about using the drug declined. Conclusions: These findings suggest that education by pharmacists in patients with hyperlipidemia could have a positive and effective role on their belief about the proper use of drugs. In other words, it could have a role in the control of chronic diseases and could help promote public health.

  13. Wood evidence : proper collection, documentation, and storage of wood evidence from a crime scene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alex Wiedenhoeft

    2006-01-01

    Wood can be found at crime scenes in many forms: as a murder weapon, as material used to hide a body, or as trace evidence from forced entry or vandalism. In the course of my work at the Forest Products Laboratory, Center for Wood Anatomy Research, I have been part of several forensic investigations that were adversely affected by inappropriate procedures used to...

  14. Oregon's mobility needs : social service provider survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-06-01

    In 1998, the Oregon Department of Transportation undertook the Social Services Provider Survey as part of an investigation of the transportation needs of mobility impaired individuals in Oregon. This survey was designed to gain information about the ...

  15. Proper Motions in Terzan 5: Membership of the Multi-iron Subpopulations and First Constraint on the Orbit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Massari, D.; Dalessandro, E.; Ferraro, F. R.; Miocchi, P.; Bellini, A.; Origlia, L.; Lanzoni, B.; Rich, R. M.; Mucciarelli, A.

    By exploiting two sets of high-resolution images obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys/Wide Field Channel over a baseline of ∼10 years, we have measured relative proper motions (PMs) of ∼70,000 stars in the stellar system Terzan 5. The results confirm the membership of

  16. ON-LINE TOOLS FOR PROPER VERTICAL POSITIONING OF VERTICAL SAMPLING INTERVALS DURING SITE ASSESSMENT: MEETING IN MONTGOMERY, ALABAMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation, On-Line Tools for Proper Vertical Positioning of Sampling Intervals During Site Assessment, describes an approach to locating monitoring wells that is based on application of ground water models. The ideal use of both the model and site assessment funds is to ...

  17. 20 CFR 404.1519o - When a properly signed consultative examination report has not been received.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... examination report has not been received. 404.1519o Section 404.1519o Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY... examination report has not been received. If a consultative examination report is received unsigned or... examination report. After we have made the determination or decision, we will obtain a properly signed report...

  18. 20 CFR 416.919o - When a properly signed consultative examination report has not been received.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... examination report has not been received. 416.919o Section 416.919o Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY... consultative examination report has not been received. If a consultative examination report is received... examination report. After we have made the determination or decision, we will obtain a properly signed report...

  19. The Relations of Proper Character Introduction to Narrative Quality and Listening Comprehension for Young Children from High Poverty Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Adrienne E.; Kim, Young-Suk; Phillips, Beth M.

    2014-01-01

    The present study explored the types and frequency of literate language features in children's narratives, and the relation of literate language and proper character introduction to children's oral language skills in a sample of 184 prekindergarten, kindergarten, and first grade students from high-poverty schools. Using hierarchical regression,…

  20. Hubble-type outflows of the high-excitation, poly-polar planetary nebula NGC 6302 -- from expansion proper motions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meaburn, J.; Lloyd, M.; Vaytet, N. M. H.

    2007-01-01

    The ouflowing proper motions of fifteen knots in the dominant northwestern lobe of the high-excitation poly-polar planetary nebula NGC 6302 have been determined by comparing their positions relative to those of faint stars in an image taken at the San Pedro Martir Observatory in 2007 to those in ...

  1. Factor Analysis with EM Algorithm Never Gives Improper Solutions when Sample Covariance and Initial Parameter Matrices Are Proper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, Kohei

    2013-01-01

    Rubin and Thayer ("Psychometrika," 47:69-76, 1982) proposed the EM algorithm for exploratory and confirmatory maximum likelihood factor analysis. In this paper, we prove the following fact: the EM algorithm always gives a proper solution with positive unique variances and factor correlations with absolute values that do not exceed one,…

  2. Impact of the Educational Use of Facebook Group on the High School Students' Proper Usage of Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karal, Hasan; Kokoc, Mehmet; Cakir, Ozlem

    2017-01-01

    This study examines impact of the educational use of Facebook group on the high school students' proper usage of language. The study included thirty students who attend 11th grade in a high school in Trabzon, Turkey. Firstly, preliminary data about Facebook usage of students were obtained to understand the factors that motivate students to use…

  3. “Real-Time” Cosmology with Extragalactic Proper Motions: the Secular Aberration Drift and Evolution of Large-Scale Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truebenbach, Alexandra; Darling, Jeremy

    2018-01-01

    We present the VLBA Extragalactic Proper Motion Catalog, a catalog of extragalactic proper motions created using archival VLBI data and our own VLBA astrometry. The catalog contains 713 proper motions, with average uncertainties of ~ 24 microarcsec/yr, including 40 new or improved proper motion measurements using relative astrometry with the VLBA. We detect the secular aberration drift – the apparent motion of extragalactic objects caused by the solar system's acceleration around the Galactic Center – at 6.3 sigma significance with an amplitude of 1.69 +/- 0.27 microarcsec/yr and an apex consistent with the Galactic Center (275.2 +/- 10.0 deg, -29.4 +/- 8.8 deg). Our dipole model detects the aberration drift at a higher significance than some previous studies (e.g., Titov & Lambert 2013), but at a lower amplitude than expected or previously measured. We then use the correlated relative proper motions of extragalactic objects to place upper limits on the rate of large-scale structure collapse (e.g., Quercellini et al. 2009; Darling 2013). Pairs of small separation objects that are in gravitationally interacting structures such as filaments of large-scale structure will show a net decrease in angular separation (> - 15.5 microarcsec/yr) as they move towards each other, while pairs of large separation objects that are gravitationally unbound and move with the Hubble expansion will show no net change in angular separation. With our catalog, we place a 3 sigma limit on the rate of convergence of large-scale structure of -11.4 microarcsec/yr for extragalactic objects within 100 comoving Mpc of each other. We also confirm that large separation objects (> 800 comoving Mpc) move with the Hubble flow to within ~ 2.2 microarcsec/yr. In the future, we plan to incorporate the upcoming Gaia proper motions into our catalog to achieve a higher precision measurement of the average relative proper motion of gravitationally interacting extragalactic objects and to refine our

  4. Spreadsheet Application Showing the Proper Elevation Angle, Points of Shot and Impact of a Projectile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benacka, Jan

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides the formula for the elevation angle at which a projectile has to be fired in a vacuum from a general position to hit a target at a given distance. A spreadsheet application that models the trajectory is presented, and the problem of finding the points of shot and impact of a projectile moving in a vacuum if three points of the…

  5. Material Adverse Effect Clause – Proper Legal Work or Contribution to False Sense of Security?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fomcenco, Alex

    2014-01-01

    Regardless of whether you are a buyer or a seller, and regardless what the object of the contract is, it is essentially important that you seek to protect your rights through various clauses that must aim to provide clearness to contractual obligations, defini- tions of breach, and consequences t...

  6. Properly Interpreting the Epidemiologic Evidence about the Health Effects of Industrial Wind Turbines on Nearby Residents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Carl V.

    2011-01-01

    There is overwhelming evidence that wind turbines cause serious health problems in nearby residents, usually stress-disorder-type diseases, at a nontrivial rate. The bulk of the evidence takes the form of thousands of adverse event reports. There is also a small amount of systematically gathered data. The adverse event reports provide compelling…

  7. Talkin' proper: the challenges facing students from non-traditional pathways on Initial Teacher Training courses

    OpenAIRE

    Horner, Chris

    2001-01-01

    Against a background of government policy on raising standards and of broadening access to Higher Education and recruitment of teachers in the new millennium, this thesis explores the implications of government policy on promoting standard English for a group of student teachers from non-traditional backgrounds. Focusing on a sample of fourteen student teachers in Essex and London universities, I used semi-structured interviews and a sample of students’ written work to investigate their knowl...

  8. Aquarius is required for proper CtIP expression and homologous recombination repair

    OpenAIRE

    Sakasai, Ryo; Isono, Mayu; Wakasugi, Mitsuo; Hashimoto, Mitsumasa; Sunatani, Yumi; Matsui, Tadashi; Shibata, Atsushi; Matsunaga, Tsukasa; Iwabuchi, Kuniyoshi

    2017-01-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates that transcription is closely related to DNA damage formation and that the loss of RNA biogenesis factors causes genome instability. However, whether such factors are involved in DNA damage responses remains unclear. We focus here on the RNA helicase Aquarius (AQR), a known R-loop processing factor, and show that its depletion in human cells results in the accumulation of DNA damage during S phase, mediated by R-loop formation. We investigated the involvement o...

  9. A Gaia-PS1-SDSS (GPS1) Proper Motion Catalog Covering 3/4 of the Sky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Hai-Jun; Gupta, Prashansa; Sesar, Branimir; Rix, Hans-Walter; Martin, Nicolas F.; Liu, Chao; Goldman, Bertrand; Platais, Imants; Kudritzki, Rolf-Peter; Waters, Christopher Z.

    2017-09-01

    We combine Gaia DR1, PS1, Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), and 2MASS astrometry to measure proper motions for 350 million sources across three-fourths of the sky down to a magnitude of {m}r˜ 20. Using positions of galaxies from PS1, we build a common reference frame for the multi-epoch PS1, single-epoch SDSS and 2MASS data, and calibrate the data in small angular patches to this frame. As the Gaia DR1 excludes resolved galaxy images, we choose a different approach to calibrate its positions to this reference frame: we exploit the fact that the proper motions of stars in these patches are linear. By simultaneously fitting the positions of stars at different epochs of—Gaia DR1, PS1, SDSS, and 2MASS—we construct an extensive catalog of proper motions dubbed GPS1. GPS1 has a characteristic systematic error of less than 0.3 {mas} {{yr}}-1 and a typical precision of 1.5-2.0 {mas} {{yr}}-1. The proper motions have been validated using galaxies, open clusters, distant giant stars, and QSOs. In comparison with other published faint proper motion catalogs, GPS1's systematic error ( 2.0 {mas} {{yr}}-1). Similarly, its precision (˜1.5 {mas} {{yr}}-1) is a four-fold improvement relative to PPMXL and UCAC4 (˜6.0 {mas} {{yr}}-1). For QSOs, the precision of GPS1 is found to be worse (˜2.0-3.0 {mas} {{yr}}-1), possibly due to their particular differential chromatic refraction. The GPS1 catalog will be released online and be available via the VizieR Service and VO Service.

  10. Explicit parametric solutions of lattice structures with proper generalized decomposition (PGD) - Applications to the design of 3D-printed architectured materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibileau, Alberto; Auricchio, Ferdinando; Morganti, Simone; Díez, Pedro

    2018-01-01

    Architectured materials (or metamaterials) are constituted by a unit-cell with a complex structural design repeated periodically forming a bulk material with emergent mechanical properties. One may obtain specific macro-scale (or bulk) properties in the resulting architectured material by properly designing the unit-cell. Typically, this is stated as an optimal design problem in which the parameters describing the shape and mechanical properties of the unit-cell are selected in order to produce the desired bulk characteristics. This is especially pertinent due to the ease manufacturing of these complex structures with 3D printers. The proper generalized decomposition provides explicit parametic solutions of parametric PDEs. Here, the same ideas are used to obtain parametric solutions of the algebraic equations arising from lattice structural models. Once the explicit parametric solution is available, the optimal design problem is a simple post-process. The same strategy is applied in the numerical illustrations, first to a unit-cell (and then homogenized with periodicity conditions), and in a second phase to the complete structure of a lattice material specimen.

  11. Inhibition of a NF-κB/Diap1 Pathway by PGRP-LF Is Required for Proper Apoptosis during Drosophila Development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphael Tavignot

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available NF-κB pathways are key signaling cascades of the Drosophila innate immune response. One of them, the Immune Deficiency (IMD pathway, is under a very tight negative control. Although molecular brakes exist at each step of this signaling module from ligand availability to transcriptional regulation, it remains unknown whether repressors act in the same cells or tissues and if not, what is rationale behind this spatial specificity. We show here that the negative regulator of IMD pathway PGRP-LF is epressed in ectodermal derivatives. We provide evidence that, in the absence of any immune elicitor, PGRP-LF loss-of-function mutants, display a constitutive NF-κB/IMD activation specifically in ectodermal tissues leading to genitalia and tergite malformations. In agreement with previous data showing that proper development of these structures requires induction of apoptosis, we show that ectopic activation of NF-κB/IMD signaling leads to apoptosis inhibition in both genitalia and tergite primordia. We demonstrate that NF-κB/IMD signaling antagonizes apoptosis by up-regulating expression of the anti-apoptotic protein Diap1. Altogether these results show that, in the complete absence of infection, the negative regulation of NF-κB/IMD pathway by PGRP-LF is crucial to ensure proper induction of apoptosis and consequently normal fly development. These results highlight that IMD pathway regulation is controlled independently in different tissues, probably reflecting the different roles of this signaling cascade in both developmental and immune processes.

  12. The endo-1,4-β-glucanase Korrigan exhibits functional conservation between gymnosperms and angiosperms and is required for proper cell wall formation in gymnosperms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, Victoria J; Samuels, A Lacey; Mansfield, Shawn D

    2012-03-01

    The evolution of compositional polymers and their complex arrangement and deposition in the cell walls of terrestrial plants included the acquisition of key protein functions. A membrane-bound endoglucanase, termed Korrigan (KOR), has been shown to be required for proper cellulose synthesis. To date, no extensive characterization of the gymnosperm KOR has been undertaken. Characterization of the white spruce (Picea glauca) gene encoding KOR (PgKOR) shows conserved protein features such as polarized targeting signals and residues predicted to be essential for catalytic activity. The rescue of the Arabidopsis thaliana kor1-1 mutant by the expression of PgKOR suggests gene conservation, providing evidence for functional equivalence. Analyses of endogenous KOR expression in white spruce revealed the highest expression in young developing tissues, which corresponds with primary cell wall development. Additionally, RNA interference of the endogenous gymnosperm gene substantially reduced growth and structural glucose content, but had no effect on cellulose ultrastructure. Partial functional conservation of KOR in gymnosperms suggests that its role in cell wall synthesis dates back to 300 million yr ago (Mya), predating angiosperms, which arose 130 Mya, and shows that proteins contributing to proper cellulose deposition are important conserved features of vascular plants. © 2011 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2011 New Phytologist Trust.

  13. The clinical utility of precision medicine: properly assessing the value of emerging diagnostic tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, B; Hwang, J

    2010-12-01

    Assessments of the clinical utility of biomarkers and genomic tests often ignore individual utility and fail to account for downstream changes to the care delivery model. Tests that identify outliers are often undervalued in favor of those that help direct treatment for the "average" patient. By reducing uncertainty, these tests also enable lower-cost providers and even patients to assume increased responsibility for care in more convenient and affordable settings.

  14. A new book on Swiss guidelines to properly manage forest-ungulates interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brugnoli A

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This publication provides basic guidelines for the application of the Forest and Ungulates Enforcement Aid and collates current knowledge on the topic of forest and Ungulates in Switzerland. A first section contains scientific information on the interaction between forest and Ungulates, forest dynamics and wildlife biology. The second section presents and discusses methods for the surveying and assessment of the impact of Ungulates on forest regeneration, the surveying of Ungulate populations and for habitat improvement and the reduction of disturbance in wildlife habitats. The third and final section contains eight accounts of practical experience in the area of forest and wildlife.

  15. Definition of a proper institutional and legal framweork to promote energy efficiency in Uruguay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanco, Alfonso; Juarez, Maria

    2010-09-15

    There is no lower cost energy source than the avoided energy from unnecessary consumption either more expensive energy than scarce energy resources in a growing economy. Under this concept energy efficiency has been established as one of the main pillars of energy policy in Uruguay since 2005. A recently approved Law provides 4-axis of action to promote energy efficiency: building of institutional structure and long-term framework necessary for nationwide development, ensuring consumers access to adequate information, facilitating the access to finance and economic resources to encourage energy efficiency projects and, removing tax and administrative barriers to energy efficiency.

  16. Proper housing conditions in experimental stroke studies—special emphasis on environmental enrichment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mering, Satu; Jolkkonen, Jukka

    2015-01-01

    Environmental enrichment provides laboratory animals with novelty and extra space, allowing different forms of multisensory stimulation ranging from social grouping to enhanced motor activity. At the extreme end of the spectrum, one can have a super-enriched environment. Environmental enrichment is believed to result in improved cognitive and sensorimotor functions both in naïve rodents and in animals with brain lesions such as those occurring after a stroke. Robust behavioral effects in animals which have suffered a stroke are probably related not only to neuronal plasticity in the perilesional cortex but also in remote brain areas. There is emerging evidence to suggest that testing restorative therapies in an enriched environment can maximize treatment effects, e.g., the perilesional milieu seems to be more receptive to concomitant pharmacotherapy and/or cell therapy. This review provides an updated overview on the effect of an enriched environment in stroke animals from the practical points to be considered when planning experiments to the mechanisms explaining why combined therapies can contribute to behavioral improvement in a synergistic manner. PMID:25870536

  17. Proper housing conditions in experimental stroke studies – special emphasis on environmental enrichment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satu eMering

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Environmental enrichment provides laboratory animals with novelty and extra space, allowing different forms of multisensory stimulation ranging from social grouping to enhanced motor activity. At the extreme end of the spectrum, one can have a super-enriched environment. Environmental enrichment is believed to result in improved cognitive and sensorimotor functions both in naïve rodents and in animals with brain lesions such as those occurring after a stroke. Robust behavioral effects in animals which have suffered a stroke are probably related not only to neuronal plasticity in the perilesional cortex but also in remote brain areas. There is emerging evidence to suggest that testing restorative therapies in an enriched environment can maximize treatment effects, e.g., the perilesional milieu seems to be more receptive to concomitant pharmacotherapy and/or cell therapy. This review provides an updated overview on the effect of an enriched environment in stroke animals from the practical points to be considered when planning experiments to the mechanisms explaining why combined therapies can contribute to behavioral improvement in a synergistic manner.

  18. Increasing the rewriting speed of optical rewritable e-paper by selecting proper liquid crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Yu; Sun, Jiatong; Anatoli, Murauski; Vladimir, Chigrinov; Kwok Hoi, Sing

    2012-08-01

    The effect of interaction between liquid crystal (LC) and photoalignment material on the speed of optical rewriting process is investigated. The theoretical analysis shows that a smaller frank elastic constant K22 of liquid crystal corresponds to a larger twist angle, which gives rise to a larger rewriting speed. Six different LC cells with the same boundary conditions (one substrate is covered with rubbed polyimide (PI) and the other with photo sensitive rewritable sulfuric dye 1(SD1)) are tested experimentally under the same illumination intensity (450 nm, 80 mW/cm2). The results demonstrate that with a suitable liquid crystal, the LC optical rewriting speed for e-paper application can be obviously improved. For two well known LC materials E7 (K22 is larger) and 5CB (K22 is smaller), they require 11 s and 6 s corresponding to change alignment direction for generating image information.

  19. High Resolution Site Characterization as key element for proper design and cost estimation of groundwater remediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pieter Dijkshoorn

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Substantial amounts of money are spent each year on cleaning up ground water contaminations that were caused by historical industrial site activities. Too often, however, remedial objectives are not achieved within the anticipated time frame. Moreover, remedial budgets which were estimated prior to the start of remediation turn out to be largely insufficient to meet the remedial objectives. This situation, very common, creates significant troubles for all the stakeholders involved in the remediation project. The reason for not meeting remedial regulatory closure criteria or exceeding remedial budgets is often due to an incomplete conceptual site model. Having conducted high resolution site characterization programs at numerous sites where remediation was previously conducted, ERM has found several recurring themes: • Missed source areas and plumes; • Inadequate understanding of source area and plume architectures (i.e., three-dimensional contaminant distribution; • Inadequate understanding of the effects of site (hydrogeologic conditions on the ability to access contamination (i.e., via remedial additive injections of groundwater/soil gas extraction. This paper explains why remediations often fail and what the alternatives to prevent these failures (and exceeding remedial budgets are. More specifically, it focuses on alternative investigation methods and approaches that help to get to a more complete (high resolution conceptual site model. This more complete conceptual site model in return helps a more focused remedial design with a higher remedial efficiency. As a minimum, it will take away a lot of (financial uncertainty during the decision making when selecting a remedial alternative. Contaminants that have a greater density then water are known to have a greater complexity in terms of both investigation as well as remediation. Therefore, they will be the main focus of this paper.

  20. Querying Data Providing Web Services

    OpenAIRE

    Sabesan, Manivasakan

    2010-01-01

    Web services are often used for search computing where data is retrieved from servers providing information of different kinds. Such data providing web services return a set of objects for a given set of parameters without any side effects. There is need to enable general and scalable search capabilities of data from data providing web services, which is the topic of this Thesis. The Web Service MEDiator (WSMED) system automatically provides relational views of any data providing web service ...

  1. Collaborative efforts are needed to ensure proper knowledge dissemination of telemedicine projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Neel Kolthoff; Jensen, Lena Sundby; Kayser, Lars

    2014-01-01

    documented and disseminated. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Public and private funds were contacted for information about telemedicine studies focusing on people residing in their homes. After an initial screening of titles and abstracts, 19 projects were identified. The managers of the projects were contacted......INTRODUCTION: Telemedicine is often seen as the solution to the challenge of providing health care for an increasing number of people with chronic conditions. Projects are often organised locally and based on the involvement of stakeholders with a wide range of backgrounds. It can be challenging...... to ensure that projects are based on previous experience and that they do not repeat previous studies. To better understand these challenges and current practice, we examined telemedicine projects funded in the 2008-2010 period to explore where, how and to what extent results from the projects were...

  2. Selected principles of proper education of women with rheumatic diseases in respect of pregnancy planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariola Kosowicz

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the more important problems resulting from the specificity of a chronic disease, its treatment and associated adverse effects is a permanent inability or limited ability to initiate and realize the requirements relevant to a given developmental stage of the patient. For women at reproductive age this includes family planning and giving birth to babies. The problem of pregnancy in women with the diagnosis of rheumatic disease is associated not only with physical but also psychological factors. A significant percentage of women with rheumatic diseases make no attempts to conceive. It is caused among other things by lacking knowledge on the possibilities of realization of the motherhood plans and the influence of social stereotypes concerning limitations resulting from disability. Therefore, an important element of influencing the patients’ attitudes is solid education providing information and instrumental support including practical training in precise ways of management of a given situation.

  3. The Role of Inflation and Price Escalation Adjustments in Properly Estimating Program Costs: F-35 Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-30

    of price indexes presents a substantial challenge in estimating the costs of new defense systems . The problem is twofold. First, the analyst must...qÜáêíÉÉåíÜ=^ååì~ä= ^Åèìáëáíáçå=oÉëÉ~êÅÜ= póãéçëáìã= qÜìêëÇ~ó=pÉëëáçåë= sçäìãÉ=ff= = The Role of Inflation and Price Escalation Adjustments in Properly...The Role of Inflation and Price Escalation Adjustments in Properly Estimating Program Costs: F-35 Case Study Stanley Horowitz, Assistant Division

  4. Heating with wood. A guide to clean and proper heating; Heizen mit Holz. Ein Ratgeber zum richtigen und sauberen Heizen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behnke, Anja [Umweltbundesamt, Dessau (Germany); Kemper, Bernd-Michael [Landesanstalt fuer Umwelt, Messungen und Naturschutz Baden-Wuerttemberg (LUBW), Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2013-01-15

    When correctly used, wood is an eco-friendly fuel. By using well-processed wood from local sources in a properly handled modern fireplace, you can enjoy the cosy warmth from your wood-burning stove or boiler without causing significant environmental damage. The environment and your neighbours will be grateful for this. This brochure is intended to give you tips on how to properly operate a wood-based heating system - in technical terms referred to as a small combustion installation. Especially the burning of poor quality wood in old and insufficiently maintained stoves and unfavourable combustion conditions will result in the emission of unnecessarily high levels of greenhouse gases having adverse effects on the climate, and pollutants detrimental to your health. Particularly in urban agglomerations and valleys, the air quality is affected by wood heating systems due to low chimneys. Often, neighbours will feel annoyed.

  5. The use of proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) meshless RBF-FD technique to simulate the shallow water equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehghan, Mehdi; Abbaszadeh, Mostafa

    2017-12-01

    The main aim of this paper is to develop a fast and efficient local meshless method for solving shallow water equations in one- and two-dimensional cases. The mentioned equation has been classified in category of advection equations. The solutions of advection equations have some shock, thus, especial numerical methods should be employed for example discontinuous Galerkin and finite volume methods. Here, based on the proper orthogonal decomposition approach we want to construct a fast meshless method. To this end, we consider shallow water models and obtain a suitable time-discrete scheme based on the predictor-corrector technique. Then by applying the proper orthogonal decomposition technique a new set of basis functions can be built for the solution space in which the size of new solution space is less than the original problem. Thus, by employing the new bases the CPU time will be reduced. Some examples have been studied to show the efficiency of the present numerical technique.

  6. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Gaia-PS1-SDSS (GPS1) proper motion catalog (Tian+, 2017)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, H.-J.; Gupta, P.; Sesar, B.; Rix, H.-W.; Martin, N. F.; Liu, C.; Goldman, B.; Platais, I.; Kudritzki, R.-P.; Waters, C. Z.

    2018-02-01

    In order to construct proper motions, we analyze and model catalog positions from four different imaging surveys, as discussed below. Gaia DR1 is based on observations collected between 2014 July 25 and 2015 September 16. PS1 observations were collected between 2010 and 2014. The SDSS DR9 data used here were obtained in the years between 2000 and 2008. The images from 2MASS were taken between 1997 and 2001. (1 data file).

  7. Proper migration and axon outgrowth of zebrafish cranial motoneuron subpopulations require the cell adhesion molecule MDGA2A.

    OpenAIRE

    Esther Ingold; Vom Berg-Maurer, Colette M; Burckhardt, Christoph J.; André Lehnherr; Philip Rieder; Philip J. Keller; Stelzer, Ernst H; Greber, Urs F.; Neuhauss, Stephan C F; Matthias Gesemann

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The formation of functional neuronal circuits relies on accurate migration and proper axonal outgrowth of neuronal precursors. On the route to their targets migrating cells and growing axons depend on both, directional information from neurotropic cues and adhesive interactions mediated via extracellular matrix molecules or neighbouring cells. The inactivation of guidance cues or the interference with cell adhesion can cause severe defects in neuronal migration and axon guidance. In ...

  8. Chance Favors Only the Prepared Mind: The Proper Role for U.S. Department of Defense Science and Engineering Workforce

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    Serendipity : Accidental Discoveries in Science (NY: Wiley & Sons, July 1989). 12 From L. Pasteur, Lecture, University of Lille, December 7, 1854, in...34Chance favors only the prepared mind" The Proper Role for U.S. Department of Defense Science and Engineering Workforce Timothy Coffey Report...Department of Defense Science and Engineering Workforce 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT

  9. The Circadian Clock Protein BMAL1 Is Necessary for Fertility and Proper Testosterone Production in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, J. D.; Hansen, Amanda; Ord, Teri; Bebas, Piotr; Chappell, Patrick E.; Giebultowicz, Jadwiga M.; Williams, Carmen; Moss, Stuart; Sehgal, Amita

    2010-01-01

    Although it is well established that the circadian clock regulates mammalian reproductive physiology, the molecular mechanisms by which this regulation occurs are not clear. The authors investigated the reproductive capacity of mice lacking Bmal1 (Arntl, Mop3), one of the central circadian clock genes. They found that both male and female Bmal1 knockout (KO) mice are infertile. Gross and microscopic inspection of the reproductive anatomy of both sexes suggested deficiencies in steroidogenesis. Male Bmal1 KO mice had low testosterone and high luteinizing hormone serum concentrations, suggesting a defect in testicular Leydig cells. Importantly, Leydig cells rhythmically express BMAL1 protein, suggesting peripheral control of testosterone production by this clock protein. Expression of steroidogenic genes was reduced in testes and other steroidogenic tissues of Bmal1 KO mice. In particular, expression of the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) gene and protein, which regulates the rate-limiting step of steroidogenesis, was decreased in testes from Bmal1 KO mice. A direct effect of BMAL1 on StAR expression in Leydig cells was indicated by in vitro experiments showing enhancement of StAR transcription by BMAL1. Other hormonal defects in male Bmal1 KO mice suggest that BMAL1 also has functions in reproductive physiology outside of the testis. These results enhance understanding of how the circadian clock regulates reproduction. PMID:18258755

  10. Physical, Mineralogical, and Micromorphological Properities of Expansive Soil Treated at Different Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Different characterizations were carried out on unheated expansive soil and samples heated at different temperature. The samples are taken from the western outskirts of Nanning of Guangxi Province, China. In the present paper, the mineral and chemical composition and several essential physical parameters of unheated expansive soil are indicated by XRD and EDX analysis. Moreover, the structural transition and change of mechanical properties of samples heated in the range of room temperature to 140°C are proved by TG-DTA and SEM observation. The mean particle diameter, density, hydraulic behaviors, and bond strength also have been investigated. The results indicate that, along with the loss of free water, physical absorbed water, and chemically bound water, the microstructure experiences some obvious change. In addition, the particle size and density both will increase rapidly before 100°C and undertake a slow growth or decline when higher than 100°C. The hydraulic behaviors and strength performance of unheated samples and the one heated at 100°C are given out as well. All these researches play fundamental role in the pollution prevention, modification, and engineering application of expansive soil.

  11. Aquarius is required for proper CtIP expression and homologous recombination repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakasai, Ryo; Isono, Mayu; Wakasugi, Mitsuo; Hashimoto, Mitsumasa; Sunatani, Yumi; Matsui, Tadashi; Shibata, Atsushi; Matsunaga, Tsukasa; Iwabuchi, Kuniyoshi

    2017-10-23

    Accumulating evidence indicates that transcription is closely related to DNA damage formation and that the loss of RNA biogenesis factors causes genome instability. However, whether such factors are involved in DNA damage responses remains unclear. We focus here on the RNA helicase Aquarius (AQR), a known R-loop processing factor, and show that its depletion in human cells results in the accumulation of DNA damage during S phase, mediated by R-loop formation. We investigated the involvement of Aquarius in DNA damage responses and found that AQR knockdown decreased DNA damage-induced foci formation of Rad51 and replication protein A, suggesting that Aquarius contributes to homologous recombination (HR)-mediated repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). Interestingly, the protein level of CtIP, a DSB processing factor, was decreased in AQR-knockdown cells. Exogenous expression of Aquarius partially restored CtIP protein level; however, CtIP overproduction did not rescue defective HR in AQR-knockdown cells. In accordance with these data, Aquarius depletion sensitized cells to genotoxic agents. We propose that Aquarius contributes to the maintenance of genomic stability via regulation of HR by CtIP-dependent and -independent pathways.

  12. Proper Assessment of the JFK Assassination Bullet Lead Evidence from Metallurgical and Statistical Perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Randich, E; Grant, P M

    2006-08-29

    The bullet evidence in the JFK assassination investigation was reexamined from metallurgical and statistical standpoints. The questioned specimens are comprised of soft lead, possibly from full-metal-jacketed Mannlicher-Carcano, 6.5-mm ammunition. During lead refining, contaminant elements are removed to specified levels for a desired alloy or composition. Microsegregation of trace and minor elements during lead casting and processing can account for the experimental variabilities measured in various evidentiary and comparison samples by laboratory analysts. Thus, elevated concentrations of antimony and copper at crystallographic grain boundaries, the widely varying sizes of grains in Mannlicher-Carcano bullet lead, and the 5-60 mg bullet samples analyzed for assassination intelligence effectively resulted in operational sampling error for the analyses. This deficiency was not considered in the original data interpretation and resulted in an invalid conclusion in favor of the single-bullet theory of the assassination. Alternate statistical calculations, based on the historic analytical data, incorporating weighted averaging and propagation of experimental uncertainties also considerably weaken support for the single-bullet theory. In effect, this assessment of the material composition of the lead specimens from the assassination concludes that the extant evidence is consistent with any number between two and five rounds fired in Dealey Plaza during the shooting.

  13. Proper assessment of the JFK assassination bullet lead evidence from metallurgical and statistical perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randich, Erik; Grant, Patrick M

    2006-07-01

    The bullet evidence in the JFK assassination investigation was reexamined from metallurgical and statistical standpoints. The questioned specimens are comprised of soft lead, possibly from full-metal-jacketed Mannlicher-Carcano (MC), 6.5-mm ammunition. During lead refining, contaminant elements are removed to specified levels for a desired alloy or composition. Microsegregation of trace and minor elements during lead casting and processing can account for the experimental variabilities measured in various evidentiary and comparison samples by laboratory analysts. Thus, elevated concentrations of antimony and copper at crystallographic grain boundaries, the widely varying sizes of grains in MC bullet lead, and the 5-60 mg bullet samples analyzed for assassination intelligence effectively resulted in operational sampling error for the analyses. This deficiency was not considered in the original data interpretation and resulted in an invalid conclusion in favor of the single-bullet theory of the assassination. Alternate statistical calculations, based on the historic analytical data, incorporating weighted averaging and propagation of experimental uncertainties also considerably weaken support for the single-bullet theory. In effect, this assessment of the material composition of the lead specimens from the assassination concludes that the extant evidence is consistent with any number between two and five rounds fired in Dealey Plaza during the shooting.

  14. [Rehabilitation with proper physical activities--what happens with patients' quality of life?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaasvaer, S; Stanghelle, J K

    1999-04-10

    During their rehabilitation stay at Beitostølen Healthsports Centre patients daily participate in varied forms of adapted physical activities, physiotherapy, and leisure and social activities. Support for mental and social problems is offered. A total of 189 patients were invited for quality of life assessment; 132 consented to participate, and 107 completed the investigation. Nottingham Health Profile (NHP), Life Satisfaction Scale (LiSat) and three questions regarding self-rated physical and mental health and disability were used for assessment. For NHP total score, satisfaction with life as a whole (LiSat), and questions regarding self-rated physical/mental health and disability improvements from one month before until three months after the stay were statistically significant. Improvements were also significant for subscales regarding emotional reactions, energy, pain, sleep, sexual life, family life, hobbies/interests, leisure situation and social isolation. Although this study did not include controls, the results indicate that a rehabilitation stay with adapted physical activities improves the quality of life of the patients until at least three months after the stay. Effects are probably mediated through improvement of self-efficacy.

  15. KEBIJAKAN PENGELOLAAN LINGKUNGAN KAWASAN INDUSTRI SESUAI PROPER KLHK PERINGKAT HIJAU (STUDI KASUS DI KAWASAN INDUSTRI JABABEKA BEKASI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Temmy Wikaningrum

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Environmental management in industrial estate is the strategic policy model which is needed to be developed referring to the Indonesian Government Decree number 24 year 2009, that state almost all of the new industrial developments should be located in industrial estate. The complexity in this environmental management was approached by “green rating” of PROPER’s criteria regulated by Ministry of Environment & Forestry (KLHK. PROPER is the assessment program of company performance rating in environmental management. Green rating is classified by PROPER in terms of beyond compliance performance. The result of the case study in Jababeka Industrial Estate (KIJA Bekasi, based on its environmental situational analysis year 2014 by multidimensional scaling (MDS method, showed that only the management dimension had a sustainability performance. The results of prospective analysis on leverage factors of MDS showed that the key factors of the environmental management model were (1 DRKPL (summary document of environmental management performance, (2 implementation of water conservation and reducing water pollution program, (3funding for water conservation, (4 monitoring and evaluation of community development program, (5 implementation of 3R (reduce, reuse, recycle programs of hazardous waste, (6 technology of 3R, and (7 benchmarking. Based on the key parameters and referred to the possibilities conditions, three scenarios have been developed to approach the implementative policy. The moderate scenario was recommended to be the right policy in term of consideration of technology, funding availability, time of implementation and organization skills.Keywords: environmental management, industrial estate, jababeka, proper KLHK

  16. PoPe (Projection on Proper elements) for code control: verification, numerical convergence and reduced models. Application to plasma turbulence simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Cartier-Michaud, T; Sarazin, Y; Abiteboul, J; Bufferand, H; Dif-Pradalier, G; Garbet, X; Grandgirard, V; Latu, G; Norscini, C; Passeron, C; Tamain, P

    2015-01-01

    The Projection on Proper elements (PoPe) is a novel method of code control dedicated to 1) checking the correct implementation of models, 2) determining the convergence of numerical methods and 3) characterizing the residual errors of any given solution at very low cost. The basic idea is to establish a bijection between a simulation and a set of equations that generate it. Recovering equations is direct and relies on a statistical measure of the weight of the various operators. This method can be used in any dimensions and any regime, including chaotic ones. This method also provides a procedure to design reduced models and quantify the ratio costs to benefits. PoPe is applied to a kinetic and a fluid code of plasma turbulence.

  17. Clathrate Hydrates for Thermal Energy Storage in Buildings: Overview of Proper Hydrate-Forming Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrice Castellani

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Increasing energy costs are at the origin of the great progress in the field of phase change materials (PCMs. The present work aims at studying the application of clathrate hydrates as PCMs in buildings. Clathrate hydrates are crystalline structures in which guest molecules are enclosed in the crystal lattice of water molecules. Clathrate hydrates can form also at ambient pressure and present a high latent heat, and for this reason, they are good candidates for being used as PCMs. The parameter that makes a PCM suitable to be used in buildings is, first of all, a melting temperature at about 25 °C. The paper provides an overview of groups of clathrate hydrates, whose physical and chemical characteristics could meet the requirements needed for their application in buildings. Simulations with a dynamic building simulation tool are carried out to evaluate the performance of clathrate hydrates in enhancing thermal comfort through the moderation of summer temperature swings and, therefore, in reducing energy consumption. Simulations suggest that clathrate hydrates have a potential in terms of improvement of indoor thermal comfort and a reduction of energy consumption for cooling. Cooling effects of 0.5 °C and reduced overheating hours of up to 1.1% are predicted.

  18. Application of the Proper Orthogonal Decomposition to Turbulent Czochralski Convective Flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahal, S [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Batna, Rue Boukhlouf Mohamed el Hadi, 05000 Batna (Algeria); Cerisier, P [IUSTI - CNRS UMR 6595, Polytech' Marseille, Technopole de Chateau-Gombert, 5 rue Enrico Fermi, 13453, Marseille Cedex 13 (France); Azuma, H [Department of Aerospace Engineering, Osaka Prefecture University, Gakuen-cho 1-1, Sakai, Osaka 599-8531 (Japan)

    2007-04-15

    The aim of this work is to study the general aspects of the convective flow instabilities in a simulated Czochralski system. We considered the influence of the buoyancy and crystal rotation. Velocity fields, obtained by an ultrasonic technique, the corresponding 2D Fourier spectra and a correlation function, have been used. Steady, quasi-periodic and turbulent flows, are successively recognized, as the Reynolds number was increased, for a fixed Rayleigh number. The orthogonal decomposition method was applied and the numbers of modes, involved in the dynamics of turbulent flows, calculated. As far as we know, this method has been used for the first time to study the Czochralski convective flows. This method provides also information on the most important modes and allows simple theoretical models to be established. The large rotation rates of the crystal were found to stabilize the flow, and conversely the temperature gradients destabilize the flow. Indeed, the increase of the rotation effects reduces the number of involved modes and oscillations, and conversely, as expected, the increase of the buoyancy effects induces more modes to be involved in the dynamics. Thus, the flow oscillations can be reduced either by increasing the crystal rotation rate to the adequate value, as shown in this study or by imposing a magnetic field.

  19. The conserved PFT1 tandem repeat is crucial for proper flowering in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rival, Pauline; Press, Maximilian O; Bale, Jacob; Grancharova, Tanya; Undurraga, Soledad F; Queitsch, Christine

    2014-10-01

    It is widely appreciated that short tandem repeat (STR) variation underlies substantial phenotypic variation in organisms. Some propose that the high mutation rates of STRs in functional genomic regions facilitate evolutionary adaptation. Despite their high mutation rate, some STRs show little to no variation in populations. One such STR occurs in the Arabidopsis thaliana gene PFT1 (MED25), where it encodes an interrupted polyglutamine tract. Although the PFT1 STR is large (∼270 bp), and thus expected to be extremely variable, it shows only minuscule variation across A. thaliana strains. We hypothesized that the PFT1 STR is under selective constraint, due to previously undescribed roles in PFT1 function. We investigated this hypothesis using plants expressing transgenic PFT1 constructs with either an endogenous STR or synthetic STRs of varying length. Transgenic plants carrying the endogenous PFT1 STR generally performed best in complementing a pft1 null mutant across adult PFT1-dependent traits. In stark contrast, transgenic plants carrying a PFT1 transgene lacking the STR phenocopied a pft1 loss-of-function mutant for flowering time phenotypes and were generally hypomorphic for other traits, establishing the functional importance of this domain. Transgenic plants carrying various synthetic constructs occupied the phenotypic space between wild-type and pft1 loss-of-function mutants. By varying PFT1 STR length, we discovered that PFT1 can act as either an activator or repressor of flowering in a photoperiod-dependent manner. We conclude that the PFT1 STR is constrained to its approximate wild-type length by its various functional requirements. Our study implies that there is strong selection on STRs not only to generate allelic diversity, but also to maintain certain lengths pursuant to optimal molecular function. Copyright © 2014 by the Genetics Society of America.

  20. Dlk1 is necessary for proper skeletal muscle development and regeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolena N Waddell

    Full Text Available Delta-like 1homolog (Dlk1 is an imprinted gene encoding a transmembrane protein whose increased expression has been associated with muscle hypertrophy in animal models. However, the mechanisms by which Dlk1 regulates skeletal muscle plasticity remain unknown. Here we combine conditional gene knockout and over-expression analyses to investigate the role of Dlk1 in mouse muscle development, regeneration and myogenic stem cells (satellite cells. Genetic ablation of Dlk1 in the myogenic lineage resulted in reduced body weight and skeletal muscle mass due to reductions in myofiber numbers and myosin heavy chain IIB gene expression. In addition, muscle-specific Dlk1 ablation led to postnatal growth retardation and impaired muscle regeneration, associated with augmented myogenic inhibitory signaling mediated by NF-κB and inflammatory cytokines. To examine the role of Dlk1 in satellite cells, we analyzed the proliferation, self-renewal and differentiation of satellite cells cultured on their native host myofibers. We showed that ablation of Dlk1 inhibits the expression of the myogenic regulatory transcription factor MyoD, and facilitated the self-renewal of activated satellite cells. Conversely, Dlk1 over-expression inhibited the proliferation and enhanced differentiation of cultured myoblasts. As Dlk1 is expressed at low levels in satellite cells but its expression rapidly increases upon myogenic differentiation in vitro and in regenerating muscles in vivo, our results suggest a model in which Dlk1 expressed by nascent or regenerating myofibers non-cell autonomously promotes the differentiation of their neighbor satellite cells and therefore leads to muscle hypertrophy.

  1. Consideration of proper operative route for interlaminar approach for percutaneous endoscopic lumbar discectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonosu, Juichi; Oshima, Yasushi; Shiboi, Ryutaro; Hayashi, Akihiko; Takano, Yuichi; Inanami, Hirohiko

    2016-01-01

    Background Percutaneous endoscopic lumbar discectomy (PELD) is one of the less invasive treatments of lumbar disc herniation (LDH), and has three different operative approaches. This study focused on the interlaminar approach (ILA) and investigated the appropriate operative route for this approach. Methods ILA was performed in 41 patients with LDH. The width of the interlaminar space, LDH size, and positional relation between LDH and the corresponding nerve root were radiologically evaluated. Thirty-three LDHs were removed via the shoulder of the corresponding nerve root and eight were removed via the axilla of the corresponding nerve root and dural sac. Pre- and postoperative status were evaluated using the modified Japanese Orthopedic Association (mJOA) and numerical rating scale (NRS) scores. Results The mean age was 41.5 years; there was single-level involvement, mostly at L5/S1 (33 cases). The mean recovery rate of mJOA score was 59.8% and mean pre- and postoperative NRS scores were 5.8 and 0.98, respectively. Relatively severe complications developed in three patients treated by ILA via the shoulder. There was persistent numbness in the corresponding nerve area, transient muscular weakness, and transient bladder and rectal disturbance, may be due to excessive compression of the nerve root and/or dural sac by the endoscopic sheath. Conclusions ILA can be used to treat LDH revealing an interlaminar space of ≥20 mm. The procedure is minimally invasive and effective; however, appropriate selection of an operative route is important to avoid operative complications. Particularly for large LDH, the operative route via the axilla should be considered. PMID:28097245

  2. Can we properly assess water quality status in streams with low-frequency data?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minaudo, Camille; Moatar, Florentina; Abbott, Benjamin W.; Meybeck, Michel; Carré, Catherine; Lestel, Laurence

    2017-04-01

    The European Water Framework Directive uses the 90th percentile of concentration (C90) as a key metric to assess the water quality status in streams. The fact that most pollutant concentrations vary widely with changes in discharge on seasonal and event-scales throws doubt on the reliability of C90 estimates derived from low-frequency monitoring. To address this problem, we tested the effect of sampling frequency on C90 with a multi-decadal daily water quality dataset from 11 tributaries of Lake Erie in the United States. The dataset included common water-quality parameters including suspended solids, total and reactive phosphorus, inorganic nitrogen, silica, chloride, sulfate, and conductivity. We estimated C90 with subsets of these daily time series resampled at various frequencies from 1 sample every two days to a monthly sampling. Additionally, we generated a semi-synthetic time series based on concentration-discharge (C-Q) relationships and various statistical descriptors. These simulated time series allowed us to investigate the theoretical link between the C-Q slope and the error in C90 estimations for different sampling frequencies. The largest errors in estimating C90 were in highly chemodynamic parameters such as suspended solids and phosphorus. For these parameters, even relatively high-frequency sampling (i.e. 1 sample every 2 days) substantially underestimated C90 by 20 to 40%. Surprisingly and for all parameters, errors in C90 estimates did not increase as sampling frequency decreased. However, the variability in C90 estimates increased with steeper C-Q slopes and lower sampling frequencies. This type of sensitivity analysis could be used to calculate confidence intervals for C90 estimates and readjust water quality standards accordingly.

  3. Choosing a primary care provider

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools Español You Are Here: Home → Medical Encyclopedia → Choosing a primary care provider URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001939.htm Choosing a primary care provider To ...

  4. Types of health care providers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools Español You Are Here: Home → Medical Encyclopedia → Types of health care providers URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001933.htm Types of health care providers To ...

  5. Physical oceanographic investigation procedure for a sea - Outfall project

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DineshKumar, P.K.; Sarma, R.V.

    oceanographic investigations are inevitable at each location of interest for proper planning and design of an outfall. Indeed, besides physical oceanographic parameters the overall planning also requires, chemical, biological, geological and engineering...

  6. Hubble Space Telescope Proper Motion (HSTPROMO) Catalogs of Galactic Globular Clusters. V. The Rapid Rotation of 47 Tuc Traced and Modeled in Three Dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellini, A.; Bianchini, P.; Varri, A. L.; Anderson, J.; Piotto, G.; van der Marel, R. P.; Vesperini, E.; Watkins, L. L.

    2017-08-01

    High-precision proper motions of the globular cluster 47 Tuc have allowed us to measure for the first time the cluster rotation in the plane of the sky and the velocity anisotropy profile from the cluster core out to about 13‧. These profiles are coupled with prior measurements along the line of sight (LOS) and the surface brightness profile and fit all together with self-consistent models specifically constructed to describe quasi-relaxed stellar systems with realistic differential rotation, axisymmetry, and pressure anisotropy. The best-fit model provides an inclination angle i between the rotation axis and the LOS direction of 30° and is able to simultaneously reproduce the full three-dimensional kinematics and structure of the cluster, while preserving a good agreement with the projected morphology. Literature models based solely on LOS measurements imply a significantly different inclination angle (i = 45°), demonstrating that proper motions play a key role in constraining the intrinsic structure of 47 Tuc. Our best-fit global dynamical model implies an internal rotation higher than previous studies have shown and suggests a peak of the intrinsic V/σ ratio of ∼0.9 at around two half-light radii, with a nonmonotonic intrinsic ellipticity profile reaching values up to 0.45. Our study unveils a new degree of dynamical complexity in 47 Tuc, which may be leveraged to provide new insights into the formation and evolution of globular clusters. Based on archival observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by AURA, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555.

  7. Towards a proper assignment of systemic risk: the combined roles of network topology and shock characteristics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lasse Loepfe

    Full Text Available The 2007-2008 financial crisis solidified the consensus among policymakers that a macro-prudential approach to regulation and supervision should be adopted. The currently preferred policy option is the regulation of capital requirements, with the main focus on combating procyclicality and on identifying the banks that have a high systemic importance, those that are "too big to fail". Here we argue that the concept of systemic risk should include the analysis of the system as a whole and we explore systematically the most important properties for policy purposes of networks topology on resistance to shocks. In a thorough study going from analytical models to empirical data, we show two sharp transitions from safe to risky regimes: 1 diversification becomes harmful with just a small fraction (~2% of the shocks sampled from a fat tailed shock distributions and 2 when large shocks are present a critical link density exists where an effective giant cluster forms and most firms become vulnerable. This threshold depends on the network topology, especially on modularity. Firm size heterogeneity has important but diverse effects that are heavily dependent on shock characteristics. Similarly, degree heterogeneity increases vulnerability only when shocks are directed at the most connected firms. Furthermore, by studying the structure of the core of the transnational corporation network from real data, we show that its stability could be clearly increased by removing some of the links with highest centrality betweenness. Our results provide a novel insight and arguments for policy makers to focus surveillance on the connections between firms, in addition to capital requirements directed at the nodes.

  8. Towards a proper assignment of systemic risk: the combined roles of network topology and shock characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loepfe, Lasse; Cabrales, Antonio; Sánchez, Angel

    2013-01-01

    The 2007-2008 financial crisis solidified the consensus among policymakers that a macro-prudential approach to regulation and supervision should be adopted. The currently preferred policy option is the regulation of capital requirements, with the main focus on combating procyclicality and on identifying the banks that have a high systemic importance, those that are "too big to fail". Here we argue that the concept of systemic risk should include the analysis of the system as a whole and we explore systematically the most important properties for policy purposes of networks topology on resistance to shocks. In a thorough study going from analytical models to empirical data, we show two sharp transitions from safe to risky regimes: 1) diversification becomes harmful with just a small fraction (~2%) of the shocks sampled from a fat tailed shock distributions and 2) when large shocks are present a critical link density exists where an effective giant cluster forms and most firms become vulnerable. This threshold depends on the network topology, especially on modularity. Firm size heterogeneity has important but diverse effects that are heavily dependent on shock characteristics. Similarly, degree heterogeneity increases vulnerability only when shocks are directed at the most connected firms. Furthermore, by studying the structure of the core of the transnational corporation network from real data, we show that its stability could be clearly increased by removing some of the links with highest centrality betweenness. Our results provide a novel insight and arguments for policy makers to focus surveillance on the connections between firms, in addition to capital requirements directed at the nodes.

  9. On the importance of proper noise modelling for long-term precipitable water vapour trend estimations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Combrink, A.Z.A. [Hartebeesthoek Radio Astronomy Observatory, Krugersdorp (South Africa). Space Geodesy Programme]|[Univ. of Cape town, Rondebosch (South Africa). School of Architecture, Planning and Geomatics; Bos, M.S. [Univ. do Porto, do Campo Alegre (Portugal); Fernandes, R.M.S. [IDL, Covilha (Portugal)]|[Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands); Combrinck, W.L.; Combrinck, W.L. [Hartebeesthoek Radio Astronomy Observatory, Krugersdorp (South Africa). Space Geodesy Programme; Merry, C.L. [Univ. of Cape Town, Rondebosch (South Africa). School of Architecture, Planning and Geomatics

    2007-09-15

    Time-series of precipitable water vapour (PWV), derived from continuous Global Positioning System (GPS) observations, are analyzed for the two South African stations HRAO and SUTH. Since water vapour is a major greenhouse gas, observed changes in atmospheric PWV could be indicative of weather and climate change. The authors' main contribution is a realistic noise model of the PWV observations which enables one to draw correct conclusions about the significance of the derived PWV increase or decrease for given time spans longer than five years. It is demonstrated that the PWV residuals that are obtained after fitting a trend and yearly signal to the data are, due to the simple model's exclusion of short-term scatter, much larger than the PWV uncertainties provided by the GPS analysis software. Although a better solution for the associated uncertainties is obtained by using the variance of these PWV residuals for the uncertainty rescaling, it is shown that the ARMA(1,1) noise model better represents the associated statistical uncertainties than the simple white noise model. The ARMA(1,1)-derived PWV trend uncertainties are approximately 2 times greater than those for a rescaled white noise model. Finally, it is argued that the variability of the annual signal prevents any trend estimation using time series shorter than about five years. A quantitative measure is presented to determine the minimum period of continuous GPS observational data required to measure PWV trends to a specified accuracy. As a result of the study, the authors conclude that no statistically significant PWV trends are observed at the two GPS stations between 1998 and 2006.

  10. A laboratory study on mix design to properly resemble a jointed brittle rock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Asadizadeh

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper attempts have been done to create a mortar with relatively high uniaxial compressive strength (UCS, easy casting, high flexibility, instant hardening, low cost and easy availability. The main use of this material is to physically model the mechanical behavior of jointed rock-like blocks. The effect of four parameters such as joint roughness coefficient (JRC, bridge length (L, bridge angle (γ and joint inclination (θ on UCS of non-persistent jointed blocks were studied. For this purpose, 35 cylindrical specimens with a broad range of plaster content (P and cement content (C in different ages were tested. In order to increase the strength of blocky specimens, some retarder and lubricant were used. The results showed that using 3 wt. % (Weight percent lubricant MGAR106 and 0.05 wt. % Retarder decreases water content by 12.5% and increases plaster and cement content of 8.3% and 4.17 % respectively. Consequently, UCS of blocky specimens increased by 284.33%. In order to formulize the effect of P/C content and the age of cylindrical specimens (A on UCS, Multivariate Non-linear Regression (MNR and Bayesian Regularized Artificial Neural Network (BRANN models were deployed. The results showed that BRANN approach can provide more exact predictions of the specimen UCS than MNR model. Moreover, P/C content had more influence on UCS than the specimen age. Finally the UCS tests on blocky specimens indicated that increasing JRC, bridge length and bridge angle increases UCS and it takes its minimum ate joint inclination of 60°. Furthermore, the capability of produced material to model cracking behaviour of jointed blocks was approved.

  11. Assessing schoolchildren's ability to make proper use of a food and nutrition pyramid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Górnicka, Magdalena; Wiszniewska, Zuzanna; Wojtaś, Malwina; Wawrzyniak, Agata; Kanigowska, Aleksandra

    2013-01-01

    Being acquainted with nutritional recommendations does not necessarily imply that they are fully understood, nor on how they can be applied when correctly planning an adequate diet. To determine whether children can recognise single portion sizes of various foodstuffs and to test their ability for planning a daily menu in accordance to the guidelines from a Food and Nutrition Pyramid. Subjects under survey were n = 100 children aged 10-11 years, attending two elementary schools: in Warsaw and Piaseczno. The school in Warsaw participated in two national education programmes on food and nutrition (ie. 'Fruit at School' and 'A Glass of Milk') whilst the other did not participate in any such programmes. The study tool was a questionnaire consisting of closed questions together with practical exercises on planning a dietary balanced menu using the Food and Nutrition Pyramid recommendations. Children could easily recognise single portion sizes (73% correct replies), however they found it more difficult to plan a suitable menu, where 60% met the given specifications; ie. numbers of different food type portions, menu diversity, number of meals as well as taking physical activity into account. Girls were significantly better at planning menus. It was also found that, compared to the guidelines, wheat and dairy products, vegetables and fats were under-represented whereas meat and fruit were chosen in excess. Nearly 80% of menus were sufficiently diverse but only 48% were composed of a typical/normal selection of foodstuffs. Despite being provided with guidelines for preparing appropriate menus, most children failed this task. This was likely due to either not fully understanding the instructions or a lack of skills in adopting the Food and Nutrition Pyramid recommendations. Thus it is necessary to give more comprehensive explanations when teaching nutrition during school lessons as well as letting the children practice doing the practical aspects.

  12. Development of a multiplex-PCR probe system for the proper identification of Klebsiella variicola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garza-Ramos, Ulises; Silva-Sánchez, Jesús; Martínez-Romero, Esperanza; Tinoco, Perla; Pina-Gonzales, Marisol; Barrios, Humberto; Martínez-Barnetche, Jesús; Gómez-Barreto, Rosa Elena; Tellez-Sosa, Juan

    2015-03-13

    Klebsiella variicola was very recently described as a new bacterial species and is very closely related to Klebsiella pneumoniae; in fact, K. variicola isolates were first identified as K. pneumoniae. Therefore, it might be the case that some isolates, which were initially classified as K. pneumoniae, are actually K. variicola. The aim of this study was to devise a multiplex-PCR probe that can differentiate isolates from these sister species. This work describes the development of a multiplex-PCR method to identify K. variicola. This development was based on sequencing a K. variicola clinical isolate (801) and comparing it to other K. variicola and K. pneumoniae genomes. The phylogenetic analysis showed that K. variicola isolates form a monophyletic group that is well differentiated from K. pneumoniae. Notably, the isolate K. pneumoniae 342 and K. pneumoniae KP5-1 might have been misclassified because in our analysis, both clustered with K. variicola isolates rather than with K. pneumoniae. The multiplex-PCR (M-PCR-1 to 3) probe system could identify K. variicola with high accuracy using the shared unique genes of K. variicola and K. pneumoniae genomes, respectively. M-PCR-1 was used to assay a collection of multidrug-resistant (503) and antimicrobial-sensitive (557) K. pneumoniae clinical isolates. We found K. variicola with a prevalence of 2.1% (23/1,060), of them a 56.5% (13/23) of the isolates were multidrug resistant, and 43.5% (10/23) of the isolates were antimicrobial sensitive. The phylogenetic analysis of rpoB of K. variicola-positive isolates identified by multiplex-PCR support the correct identification and differentiation of K. variicola from K. pneumoniae clinical isolates. This multiplex-PCR provides the means to reliably identify and genotype K. variicola. This tool could be very helpful for clinical, epidemiological, and population genetics studies of this species. A low but significant prevalence of K. variicola isolates was found, implying that

  13. Providing for the Future: Providers' Views on Apprenticeship Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrone, Tami; Sims, David; Gladding, Cath

    2016-01-01

    Apprenticeships are currently undergoing reform in England. Funding mechanisms and the content of Apprenticeship programmes are being restructured. NFER and the Association of Employment and Learning Providers (AELP) have carried out a joint research project to inform future policy and practice with evidence on how providers of Apprenticeships are…

  14. The Limiting Sequence and Proper Ratio of Lysine, Methionine and Threonine for Calves Fed Milk Replacers Containing Soy Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhong Wang

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The limiting sequence and relative ratio of lysine (Lys, methionine (Met, and threonine (Thr for calves about 2 mo of age fed milk replacers (MR containing soy protein are not clearly defined. The objective of the study was to investigate the effect of supplementing MR containing 22% CP, half from soy protein concentrate (SPC, 40.56% CP, flour and half from whey proteins, with Lys, Met, and Thr to estimate amino acid (AA sequence and their relative ratio for calves about 2 mo of age. A method of partial deduction of AA was adopted. Twenty-four newborn calves (half males and half females, 40.7±0.9 kg of BW were fed 1 of 4 MR diets for 56 d (n = 6/diet. The diets were supplemented with all (positive control or with 2 of the 3 AAs: Lys, Met and Thr, (i.e., PC (22% CP, 2.34% Lys, 0.72% Met and 1.80% Thr, PC-Lys (22% CP, 1.64% Lys, 0.72% Met and 1.80% Thr, PC-Met (22% CP, 2.34% Lys, 0.50% Met and 1.80% Thr, and PC-Thr (22% CP, 2.34% Lys, 0.72% Met and 1.26% Thr. Calves were fed thrice daily; starter (20% CP, 1.03% Lys, 0.30% Met and 0.69% Thr, hay (3.23% CP, 0.29% Lys, 0.12% Met and 0.23% Thr and water were offered free choice. Starter and hay were only offered beginning on d 36 (after 5 wk and d 43 (after 6 wk, respectively. BW, body size and blood samples measures were taken every two weeks. Three-day total collection of feed refusals, feces, and urine were recorded starting at d 33 and d 54 of age, respectively. From the results, the limiting sequence and relative ratio between the 3 AAs in calves with different diet structures were calculated. The limiting sequence of the 3 AAs were ranked as Lys, Met and Thr; the proper ratio was 100:29:70 for MR-only diet and 100:30:60 for diets consisted of MR, starter and hay. Nitrogen digestion and utilization and nutrient digestibility were negatively affected by AA deletion treatments. From the evidence of this experiment, it did not appear that the AA limiting sequence was selectively altered by

  15. 'How to count sperm properly': checklist for acceptability of studies based on human semen analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björndahl, Lars; Barratt, Christopher L R; Mortimer, David; Jouannet, Pierre

    2016-02-01

    Can a tool be developed for authors, reviewers and editors of the ESHRE Journals to improve the quality of published studies which rely on semen analysis data? A basic checklist for authors, reviewers and editors has been developed and is presented. Laboratory work which includes semen analysis is burdened by a lack of standardization. This has significant negative effects on the quality of scientific and epidemiological studies, potential misclassification of patients and the potential to impair clinical treatments/diagnoses that rely on accurate semen quality information. Robust methods are available to reduce laboratory error in semen analysis, inducing adherence to World Health Organization techniques, participation in an external quality control scheme and appropriate training of laboratory personnel. However, journals have not had appropriate systems to assess if these methods have been used. After discussion at a series of Associate Editor Meetings of the ESHRE Journals the authors of the present text were asked to propose a tool for authors, reviewers and editors of the ESHRE Journals to ensure a high quality assessment of submitted manuscripts which rely on semen analysis data, including a detailed verification of the relevance and the quality of the methods used. N/A. A basic checklist for authors, reviewers and editors is presented. The checklist contains key points which should be considered by authors when designing studies and which provides essential information for when the submitted manuscript is evaluated. For published articles the answers in the checklist are suitable to be available as supplementary data, which will also reduce the space necessary for technical details in the printed article. Guidelines such as these should not be used uncritically. It is therefore important that submitting authors, in situations where their study does not comply with the basic requirements for semen analysis, not only explain all methodological deviations but

  16. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, an essential fatty acid for the proper functioning of neuronal cells: their role in mood disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The brain and the nervous system are tissues with high contents of two polyunsaturated fatty acids: arachidonic acid (20:4, omega-6, AA and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6, omega-3, DHA. Despite their abundance in these tissues, AA and DHA cannot be re-synthesized in mammals. However, the concentration of these fatty acids can be modulated by dietary intake. AA and DHA must be provided by the diet as such (preformed or through the respective omega-6 and omega-3 precursors from vegetable origin. Linoleic acid, the precursor of AA is very abundant in the western diet and therefore the formation of AA from linoleic acid is not restrictive. On the other hand, alpha linolenic acid, the precursor of DHA is less available in our diet and preformed DHA is highly restrictive in some populations. During the last period of gestation and during the early post natal period, neurodevelopment occurs exceptionally quickly, and significant amounts of omega-6 and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, especially DHA, are critical to allow neurite outgrowth and the proper brain and retina development and function. In this review various functions of DHA in the nervous system, its metabolism into phospholipids, and its involvement in different neurological and mood disorders, such as Alzheimer’s disease, depression, and others are revised.

    El cerebro y el sistema nervioso son tejidos con un alto contenido de dos ácidos grasos poliinsaturados: el ácido araquidónico (20:4, omega-6, AA y el ácido docosahexaenoico (22:6, omega-3, DHA. A pesar de la abundancia de estos ácidos grasos en dichos tejidos los mamíferos no los pueden sintetizar de novo. Sin embargo, la concentración de estos ácidos grasos puede ser modificada por la dieta. El AA y el DHA pueden ser aportados por la dieta como tales (preformados o a partir de los respectivos precursores de origen vegetal. El ácido linoleico, precursor del AA es muy abundante en la dieta occidental, por lo cual la

  17. Prehospital Providers' Perceptions on Providing Patient and Family Centered Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayub, Emily M; Sampayo, Esther M; Shah, Manish I; Doughty, Cara B

    2017-01-01

    A gap exists in understanding a provider's approach to delivering care that is mutually beneficial to patients, families, and other providers in the prehospital setting. The purpose of this study was to identify attitudes, beliefs, and perceived barriers to providing patient and family centered care (PFCC) in the prehospital setting and to describe potential solutions for improving PFCC during critical pediatric events. We conducted a qualitative, cross-sectional study of a purposive sample of Emergency Medical Technicians (EMTs) and paramedics from an urban, municipal, fire-based EMS system, who participated in the Pediatric Simulation Training for Emergency Prehospital Providers (PediSTEPPS) course. Two coders reviewed transcriptions of audio recordings from participants' first simulation scenario debriefings and performed constant comparison analysis to identify unifying themes. Themes were verified through member checking with two focus groups of prehospital providers. A total of 122 EMTs and paramedics participated in 16 audiotaped debriefing sessions and two focus groups. Four overarching themes emerged regarding the experience of PFCC by prehospital providers: (1) Perceived barriers included the prehospital environment, limited manpower, multi-tasking medical care, and concern for interference with patient care; (2) Providing emotional support comprised of empathetically comforting caregivers, maintaining a calm demeanor, and empowering families to feel involved; (3) Effective communication strategies consisted of designating a family point person, narration of actions, preempting the next steps, speaking in lay terms, summarizing during downtime, and conveying a positive first impression; (4) Tactics to overcome PFCC barriers were maintaining a line of sight, removing and returning a caregiver to and from the scene, and providing situational awareness. Based on debriefings from simulated scenarios, some prehospital providers identified the provision of

  18. Forensics Investigator

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Other Careers Career Profiles Forensics Investigator Overview Description Forensic science technicians investigate crimes by collecting and analyzing physical evidence. Often, they specialize in areas such as DNA analysis or firearm examination, performing tests on weapons ...

  19. Proper Layout of Whiteboard in Classrooms of Schools of Health, and Nutrition and Food Sciences at Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daneshmandi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background The mismatch between equipments and anthropometric dimensions of users is one of the issues that can be effective on development of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs. Objectives This study was conducted to determine the proper layout of whiteboard in classrooms of schools of health, and nutrition and food sciences at Shiraz University of Medical Sciences (SUMS. Patients and Methods In this cross-sectional study, 140 students in schools of health, and nutrition and food sciences at SUMS were investigated. Data were collected using a questionnaire consisted of demographic and anthropometric characteristics, the numerical rating scale and body map. Statistical analysis was performed by SPSS software version 16 using descriptive statistics and Mann-Whitney U test. Results Mean severity of discomfort in neck (2.38 ± 0.6 was higher than the other regions of body among the students. The results of this study revealed that the mean severity of discomfort in neck in female students (2.43 ± 1.01 was higher than in male ones (1.27 ± 1.04. Also, the results showed that the mean severity of discomfort in neck among students who were in the classrooms with window opposite of whiteboard was higher than the students in classrooms with beside window. Proper lower and upper heights of installation of whiteboard from the floor were calculated 105 and 195.2 cm, respectively. Conclusions The layout of whiteboard in classrooms can be effective in causing student’s neck pain. In this study, the suitable height of installation of whiteboard was determined and it is recommended to be used in classrooms.

  20. Investigative psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Canter, David V.

    2010-01-01

    The domain of Investigative Psychology covers all aspects of psychology that are relevant to the conduct of criminal or civil investigations. Its focus is on the ways in which criminal activities may be examined and understood in order for the detection of crime to be effective and legal proceedings to be appropriate. As such Investigative Psychology is concerned with psychological input to the full range of issues that relate to the management, investigation and prosecution of crime

  1. Babesiosis for Health Care Providers

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-04-25

    This podcast will educate health care providers on diagnosing babesiosis and providing patients at risk with tick bite prevention messages.  Created: 4/25/2012 by Center for Global Health, Division of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria.   Date Released: 4/25/2012.

  2. Introduction of a new laparoscopic trocar for insertion of peritoneal dialysis catheters and making a proper rectus sheath tunneling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshvari, Amir; Keramati, Mohammad Reza; Nassajian, Mohammad Reza; Mohsenipour, Mehrzad; Nouritaromlou, Mohammad Kazem

    2016-12-01

    Using a proper laparoscopic trocar for making a downward rectus sheet tunneling (RSHT) during the implementation of peritoneal dialysis (PD) catheters leads to a longer survival of catheter and less catheter dysfunction. As no specific laparoscopic trocar has been invented for insertion of PD catheters, we designed a new trocar. In this article, we describe specifications of our new invented trocar for the first time. We will describe our experience with it in our patients as well. The new stainless steel trocar includes a cannula and a mandarin. The cannula consists of a tube pipe and head. The tube pipe is so long that is proper for rectus sheet tunneling, and its internal diameter is fitted for easy passage of the catheter with its cuffs. The head consists of two steel parts holding a unidirectional plastic valve preventing backflow of the air. The mandarin section includes a sharp shaft and a metal cap. The distal end of the mandarin is an atraumatic conical tip which was designed to make a safe RSHT. A total of 30 PD catheters were successfully implanted through 30 laparoscopic procedures in 12 males and 18 females (mean age 48.16 ± 14.18 years). All catheters were successfully inserted without any intraoperative complication. Exit-site infection, peri-catheter leakage, and outflow failure were found in two, one, and one patient, respectively. We did not find any inflow failure, catheter malpositioning, migration, or kinking. No other complication was observed during the 1-year follow-up period. The new designed PD trocar is a proper port for laparoscopic implantation of the peritoneal dialysis catheter. It is a safe and easy handle trocar that helps surgeons to make an appropriate rectus sheath tunneling with minimal complications.

  3. Identifying Cool Brown Dwarfs and Subdwarfs in the Solar Neighborhood: Prospects for a Near-Infrared Proper Motion Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgasser, A. J.

    2003-12-01

    Low-temperature stars and brown dwarfs emit predominantly in the near-infrared, and recent wide-field surveys sampling these wavelengths (2MASS, DENIS, SDSS) have unveiled a vast repository of intrinsically faint objects, including large numbers of field brown dwarfs and members of two new spectral classes. On the other hand, proper motion surveys have been exceptionally efficient at uncovering both the nearest stars and stars with high intrinsic motions; i.e., halo/thick disk dwarfs and white dwarfs. Unfortunately, proper motion surveys are insensitive to faint stars and brown dwarfs as they have been conducted primarily at optical bands. I therefore make a case for a wide-field near-infrared proper motion survey that would detect the nearest cool stars and brown dwarfs in an efficient and photometrically unbiased manner. I demonstrate how the currently known population of field brown dwarfs are easily discernible in such a survey, and how substellar subdwarfs could potentially be found in substantial numbers. This survey could make use of existing catalog data as its first epoch. I also describe a straightforward NIR survey program using a 2Kx2K IR camera on a dedicated 1-2m class automated telescope. This somewhat more ambitious program could repeatedly scan the sky on a 6-month cycle, and would be useful for cool dwarf searches, general variability studies, searches for transits around late-type stars, and deep survey programs. This research is supported by NASA through Hubble Fellowship grant HST-HF-01137.01 awarded by the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555.

  4. Audit: Automated Disk Investigation Toolkit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umit Karabiyik

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Software tools designed for disk analysis play a critical role today in forensics investigations. However, these digital forensics tools are often difficult to use, usually task specific, and generally require professionally trained users with IT backgrounds. The relevant tools are also often open source requiring additional technical knowledge and proper configuration. This makes it difficult for investigators without some computer science background to easily conduct the needed disk analysis. In this paper, we present AUDIT, a novel automated disk investigation toolkit that supports investigations conducted by non-expert (in IT and disk technology and expert investigators. Our proof of concept design and implementation of AUDIT intelligently integrates open source tools and guides non-IT professionals while requiring minimal technical knowledge about the disk structures and file systems of the target disk image.

  5. Proper Plugin Protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-28

    Source code analyzer 60,062 sunflow Photo-realistic rendering system 21,970 tomcat Servlet container 161,131 xalan XML processing 172,300 Sum... cultivated their ecosystems and the surrounding technologies. For example, in ASP.NET, framework developers were very active on the forums, there was a

  6. Proper fitting shoes (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a shoe rubbing against the skin of their foot. Blisters and sores may then develop. In people with diabetes, feet ... a shoe rubbing against the skin of their foot. Blisters and sores may then develop. In people with diabetes, feet ...

  7. Coordination of primary care providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hettler, D L; McAlister, W H

    1988-02-01

    Surveys were sent to family physicians in Illinois to determine knowledge and attitude concerning optometry. The respondents were knowledgeable in certain aspects of optometry. However, many need to become more aware of the optometrist as a health care provider.

  8. Medicare Referring Provider DMEPOS PUF

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This dataset, which is part of CMSs Medicare Provider Utilization and Payment Data, details information on Durable Medical Equipment, Prosthetics, Orthotics and...

  9. Seeing Your Health Care Provider

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Reduce Font Size 100% Increase Font Size Positive Spin Basics Federal Response Digital Tools Events Blog Home ... that may assist you. Be on time. Most healthcare providers have full appointment schedules—if you are ...

  10. EAMJ Provider April 10.indd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-04-04

    Apr 4, 2010 ... with breast cancer is known to result in more adverse outcomes (1). ... Objective: To determine the extent and nature of provider delay in breast cancer management at .... and calls for a review of booking procedures. Also.

  11. TERRAIN, PROVIDENCE COUNTY, RHODE ISLAND

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Providence AOI consists of the costal portion of the county, and meshes up seamlessly with the Kent county AOI directly south. Ground Control is collected...

  12. Lodging Update: Providence, Rhode Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ragel Roginsky

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Each quarter, Pinnacle Advisory Group prepares an analysis of the New England lodging industry, which provides a regional summary and then focuses in depth on a particular market. These reviews look at recent and proposed supply changes, factors affecting demand and growth rates, and the effects of interactions between such supply and demand trends. In this issue, the authors spotlight the lodging market in Providence, Rhode Island.

  13. Nutrition in emergencies: Issues involved in ensuring proper nutrition in post-chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear disaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Som Nath

    2010-01-01

    Accidental or deliberate exposure to chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear (CBRN) agents poses considerable threat throughout the world. Under such conditions, ensuring proper nutrition is a difficult task due to contamination of food available in the affected area. Generally, food is not prepared or served in an environment contaminated by CBRN agents. Foods that are properly packed need to be decontaminated from outside before use. These agents get incorporated in to food chain. Therefore, especially the foliage vegetables, milk and meat products from affected area are not fit for consumption. Potassium iodide has protective role, as radioiodine uptake into the thyroid can be blocked by its pharmacological doses. This is most effective when taken before exposure, but still has significant effects up to five to six hours postexposure. The antioxidant vitamins and minerals may be included in therapeutic feeding programs, as they are known to protect against oxidative stress. Minimum requirement of calories and nutrients are similar to other disasters and are discussed in the present review. PMID:21829320

  14. Achieving Motor Development Milestones at the Age of Three Months May Determine, but Does Not Guarantee, Proper Further Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Gajewska

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Proper motor performance at 3rd month is necessary for further motor development. The paper aims to demonstrate the reliability, sensitivity, and predictive value of an original motor performance assessment tool in comparison with the neurological assessment at 3, 6, and 9 months. Children (n=123, born at term without pre- or perinatal complications, born at term with pre- or perinatal complications, or born preterm, were assessed at the age of 3, 6, and 9 months, by a neurologist and a physiotherapist. The physiotherapist evaluated 15 qualitative features typical for the age of 3 months in the prone and supine positions. The final neurological assessment determined the degree of developmental disorder. Neurological and global physiotherapeutic assessments showed a statistically significant correlation. Qualitative assessment results were very good in healthy children and decreased with worsening neurological diagnoses. Children diagnosed with cerebral palsy did not show proper qualitative features of 3 months when analyzed at 3, 6, and 9 months. Children with delayed motor development revealed minor qualitative performance impairments as early as 3 months but improved with age. Qualitative assessment at 3 months not only facilitates diagnosis of major developmental disorders but is also a good predictor of delayed motor development in children.

  15. The psychologist who is not a psychologist: a deconstructive reading of Wolfgang Giegerich's idea of psychology proper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlan, Stanton

    2016-04-01

    This paper represents an archetypal and deconstructive reading of the work of Wolfgang Giegerich. In an attempt to extend and philosophically develop Jung's late-life view of the objective psyche, Giegerich, via Hegel, defines psychology proper as fundamentally separate from the everyday person and the 'human, all-too-human' aspects of the soul. It is argued that, in so doing, Giegerich removes the human person from being the primary focus of his psychology and creates instead a hierarchy of ideas and values privileging syntax over semantics, the logical over the empirical, and thinking over imagination. This bypasses the emotionality of the everyday person/patient and also renders psychology proper unable to address the day-to-day practice of the analyst. Giegerich attempts to rectify this problem by re-incorporating what he had previously rejected, making his theory more complex than is apparent in his binary oppositions. In the end, however, it remains a question to what extent Giegerich is successful in avoiding a binary scission (Saban 2015) or a tendency to regularly de-emphasize the human aspect of the soul (Hoedl 2015) in his need to continue to heroically push off from the ego seeking total freedom from neurosis and from our humanity. © 2016, The Society of Analytical Psychology.

  16. A proper time dependent measurement of delta MD using jet charge and soft lepton flavor tagging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, Owen R. [Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    1998-01-01

    This thesis presents a proper time dependent measurement of the B$0\\atop{d}$ mixing frequency Δmd using jet charge and soft lepton flavor tagging in p-$\\bar{p}$ collisions at √s=1.8 TeV. The measurement uses the inclusive e and μ trigger data of the CDF detector from an integrated luminosity of 91 pb-1. The proper time at decay is measured from a partial reconstruction of the B associated with the trigger lepton. The measurement of Δmd yields Δmd=0.50±0.05±0.05 $\\bar{h}$ ps-12 of - Jet Charge: εD2 = (0.78 ± 0.12 ± 0.09) % - Soft Lepton: εD2 = (1.07 ± 0.09 ± 0.10) % where the first error is statistical and the second systematic.

  17. A proper time dependent measurement of Delta MD using jet charge and soft lepton flavor tagging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, Owen R. [Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    1998-08-01

    This thesis presents a proper time dependent measurement of the B$d\\atop{0}$ mixing frequency ΔMd using jet charge and soft lepton flavor tagging in p - $\\bar{p}$ collisions at √s = 1.8 TeV. The measurement uses the inclusive e and μ trigger data of the CDF detector from an integrated luminosity of 91 pb-1. The proper time at decay is measured from a partial reconstruction of the B associated with the trigger lepton. The measurement of ΔMd yields ΔMd = 0.50 ± 0.05 ± 0.05 $\\bar{h}$ ps-1 where the first error is statistical and the second systematic. The flavor tagging methods used give a measured effective efficiency ϵD2 of o Jet Charge: ϵD2 (0.78 + 0.12 + 0.09) % o Soft Lepton: ϵD2 (1.07 + 0.09 + 0.10) % where the first error is statistical and the second systematic.

  18. Stationary flow fields prediction of variable physical domain based on proper orthogonal decomposition and kriging surrogate model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasong Qiu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a new flow field prediction method which is independent of the governing equations, is developed to predict stationary flow fields of variable physical domain. Predicted flow fields come from linear superposition of selected basis modes generated by proper orthogonal decomposition (POD. Instead of traditional projection methods, kriging surrogate model is used to calculate the superposition coefficients through building approximate function relationships between profile geometry parameters of physical domain and these coefficients. In this context, the problem which troubles the traditional POD-projection method due to viscosity and compressibility has been avoided in the whole process. Moreover, there are no constraints for the inner product form, so two forms of simple ones are applied to improving computational efficiency and cope with variable physical domain problem. An iterative algorithm is developed to determine how many basis modes ranking front should be used in the prediction. Testing results prove the feasibility of this new method for subsonic flow field, but also prove that it is not proper for transonic flow field because of the poor predicted shock waves.

  19. Factor analysis with EM algorithm never gives improper solutions when sample covariance and initial parameter matrices are proper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, Kohei

    2013-04-01

    Rubin and Thayer (Psychometrika, 47:69-76, 1982) proposed the EM algorithm for exploratory and confirmatory maximum likelihood factor analysis. In this paper, we prove the following fact: the EM algorithm always gives a proper solution with positive unique variances and factor correlations with absolute values that do not exceed one, when the covariance matrix to be analyzed and the initial matrices including unique variances and inter-factor correlations are positive definite. We further numerically demonstrate that the EM algorithm yields proper solutions for the data which lead the prevailing gradient algorithms for factor analysis to produce improper solutions. The numerical studies also show that, in real computations with limited numerical precision, Rubin and Thayer's (Psychometrika, 47:69-76, 1982) original formulas for confirmatory factor analysis can make factor correlation matrices asymmetric, so that the EM algorithm fails to converge. However, this problem can be overcome by using an EM algorithm in which the original formulas are replaced by those guaranteeing the symmetry of factor correlation matrices, or by formulas used to prove the above fact.

  20. Starch-Branching Enzyme IIa Is Required for Proper Diurnal Cycling of Starch in Leaves of Maize1[OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yandeau-Nelson, Marna D.; Laurens, Lieve; Shi, Zi; Xia, Huan; Smith, Alison M.; Guiltinan, Mark J.

    2011-01-01

    Starch-branching enzyme (SBE), a glucosyl transferase, is required for the highly regular pattern of α-1,6 bonds in the amylopectin component of starch. In the absence of SBEIIa, as shown previously in the sbe2a mutant of maize (Zea mays), leaf starch has drastically reduced branching and the leaves exhibit a severe senescence-like phenotype. Detailed characterization of the maize sbe2a mutant revealed that SBEIIa is the primary active branching enzyme in the leaf and that in its absence plant growth is affected. Both seedling and mature sbe2a mutant leaves do not properly degrade starch during the night, resulting in hyperaccumulation. In mature sbe2a leaves, starch hyperaccumulation is greatest in visibly senescing regions but also observed in green tissue and is correlated to a drastic reduction in photosynthesis within the leaf. Starch granules from sbe2a leaves observed via scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy analyses are larger, irregular, and amorphous as compared with the highly regular, discoid starch granules observed in wild-type leaves. This appears to trigger premature senescence, as shown by an increased expression of genes encoding proteins known to be involved in senescence and programmed cell death processes. Together, these results indicate that SBEIIa is required for the proper diurnal cycling of transitory starch within the leaf and suggest that SBEIIa is necessary in producing an amylopectin structure amenable to degradation by starch metabolism enzymes. PMID:21508184